Skip to main content

Full text of "Untrodden fields of anthropology : observations on the esoteric manners and customs of semi-civilized peoples : being a record of thirty years' experience in Asia, Africa, America and Oceania"

See other formats

university or . 

BOOK 392.6.x 1U V. 1 -2 c. 1 













filature undersinntls no jesting; she is alicags Irue, aluiags 
serious, altoags seoere; she is alicags right, anil the errors aiut faults 
are aluiags those of man. jhim, mho is incapable of appre- 
tiating her, she despises, and onig to the apt, the pure and the 
true, does she resign herself and rcural her srtrets. 


||he meb of our life is of a mingled gnrn, good and ill together; 
our cirtues ujonld be proud if our faults shipped them not, and our 
crimes ujonld despair if thcg icere not cherished bu our cirtucs. 

Shakespeare, [All's Well, IV, 3.) 

3)r, iTacotu^S A ps^^d-' 

Documents on Medical Anthropology 


Manners and Customs of Semi-Civilized Peoples; 




By a French Army-Suroeon. 

Vol. I 




Privately Re-issued 


New York 




ndvTcc Ka^agcc roTg{jaQOig. 

Periculosuin est credere et non credere; 
Ergo exploranda est Veritas multum prius 
Quain stulta prave judicet sententia. 

PlIAKD. 3, 10. 


When the first edition of this little book appeared we 
had no idea that it would excite so many different com- 
ments and various conflicting criticisms. From all parts 
of the world, men whose opinion is worth caring for, 
wrote and thanked us for the step we had taken, saying 
that such a work supplied a distinct want. The " little 
cloud out of the sea no bigger than a man's hand " grew 
to a size beyond our hopes, and our edition strictly limited 
to 500 copies, rapidly ran out. The " note " however 
most generally harped upon by our kind correspondents 
was that concerning the absence of references to the 
authorities cited here and there in the two volumes. It 
was pointed out that while there could be no doubt as 
to the authenticity of the names quoted, yet many students 
and scholars preferred, when possible, to turn up and con- 
sult the original works and documents for themselves. We 
have therefore supplied this deficiency ; our only fear now, 
is that we may perchance have overstepped the mark, and 
gone to the other extreme. Our aim has been to be use- 
ful and experts alone can judge whether we have 
succeeded. It is not for us to sound our own praises. 

In announcing the first edition of this work we 
issued a little leaflet which later gave rise to more than 
one misunderstanding, many people supposing it to be a 


different work entirely apart from * Untrodden Fields of 

The leaflet in question was headed as under, the dif- 
ference of the title no doubt being the cause of the mischief: 




And its Strange and Curious Manifestations and Aberrations 

among Barbarous Races. New and original work in 

English, issued to Private Subscribers only." 

We then followed with an English translation of the 
Author's Preface to the French Edition and we think 
it will not be out of place to reproduce textually here 
the weighty words of the French Traveller. Some incon- 
siderate persons, on the principle of " giving a dog a bad 
name and hanging him at once," have, on the mere fact 
that the book issued from Paris, imagined, without exam- 
ination, that our work was of an improper character. We 
appeal to the judgment of sensible men whether the fol- 
lowing words are those of a writer of indecent literature ; 
and we have no fear of their verdict.- He says: — 

(1) We are far from beings the first to use this phrase. JacoUiot 
says * The most ancient traditions of India, the cradle of Humanity 
and of Eeligions, mention and admit a sixth sense. To man, 
Brahma gave five organs,— Touch, Sight, Smell, Taste, Hearing and 
a sixth, admitted by all Indian philosophers and called "Mamas", 
which is the agent of the union of the sexes.— The Sankhyan phi- 
losophy defines it as follows:— 'An organ by affinity, participating 
in the qualities of the others, and which serves at once for sensation 
and action." L. Jacolliot, * La Bible dans I'lndc, Vie de Jezeus 
Christna" (Paris, 1876). 

editor's foreword XI 

* I have passed twenty-eight years of my life amongst diverse 
races, in all the five great divisions of the World. By giving my 
professional services to the natives of each place I visited, and by 
studying their language, I wsls able to gain their confidence, and 
learn much about their customs, manner of living, habits, etc. 
Having made diseases of the genito-urinary organ my speciality, I 
was often consulted in these cases, and therefore collected much 
valuable information; 

I was not merely satisfied with observing the effect of the human 
passions, but it appeared to me indispensable to trace these passions 
back to their moral causes, and make a psychological study of those 

Whilst following in foreign countries the path of science which 
has been already traced by that eminent authority, Tardieu, I have 
avoided trenching on the ground covered by his remarkable Medico- 
Legal Study of Offences against Morals. I have chosen a wider 
field for my enquiries. Like Moreau (of Tours), I believe in a sixth 
sense, the Genital Sense, the existence of which he has psychologic- 
ally proved, by showing that its special functions were distinct 
from those of the other senses. It is the philosophical and medical 
study of this sixth sense that I had in view in compiling this work ; 
and also an examination of those changes and irregularities which 
this sense undergoes, not only under the influence of temperament 
and constitution in the various races, but from manners, customs, 
and religious superstitions. 

This is not an obscene work, but a psychological sketch of the 
history of the sexual passions of the human race;— a stone towards 
the building of a vast edifice which, as yet, is hardly commenced. 
And besides the medico-legal view of the question, I have made a 
thorough research into, and philosophical examination of, the original 

I have seen nearly all that I here relate, and have never hesitated 
to tell what I believed to be the truth. That which I have not seen 
I have derived from eye-witnesses who were worthy of credit. I 
have probed the depths of the human hearts of my patients, and 
too often found them cankered, and — conscious of my honest inten- 
tions—I have illuminated them with the torch of Philosophy. Wliat 
I say may be believed. 

I have written for a small number of studious, thinking people, 
seekers after the immutable truth, which is here presented to thena 


unveiled, — stripped of the rags of conventionality. I have thus been 
able to boldly reveal that which it would have been impossible to 
write in an ordinary book of travels, which might, and ought to be, 
put into the hands of anyone. 

Moreover, I have sought, and I believe I have succeeded (by a 
careful use of medical terms), in making my meaning clear without 
overstepping the bounds of decency." 

Our work as far as we are aware, is absolutely unique 
in its kind. Of course, many little pamphlets have been 
written, with imposing titles but which were undocu- 
mented, and lacking entirely in scientific value. To judge 
for example, from the following array of words one would 
be led to think that an important treatise was forth- 
coming'. We give the full title of this worthless produc- 
tion only as representative of many others of its class, 
equally misleading: 





E. I L E X 


Imprimerie particuliere de la Societe d' Anthropologic 
et d" Ethnologic comparees. 


It is needless to say this fumisterie was no more printed 
in London for any " Anthropological Society " than it was 
printed in the Moon for a Society of Escaped Lunatics. 
Apart from a few stupid illustrations, wretchedly done, 
and all very much alike, there was no reason to conceal 


its place of origin, unless it was supposed that in sur- 
rounding the farce with an air of mystery, the gudgeons 
would be better attracted. 

Our aim in " Untrodden Fields " has been precisely the 
same as that had in view by Sir Richard F. Burton, who 
was not afraid to illustrate his books on Travels and 
Voyages, with facts and observations of real anthropo- 
logical value. We cannot do better than allow Sir Richard 
to speak in his own words ; the extract is from his inter- 
esting " Foreword " to the original Benares edition of 
" The Thousand Nights and a Night " : 

* These volumes afford me a long-sought opportunity of noticing 
practices and customs which interest all mankind and which " Society " 
will not hear mentioned. 

" Grote, the historian, and Thackeray, the novelist, both lamented 
that the begueulerie of their countrymen condemned them to keep 
silence where publicity was required; and that they could not even 
claim the partial licence of a Fielding and a Sraollet. Hence a 
score of years ago I lent my best help to the late Dr. James Hunt 
in founding the Anthropological Society, whose presidential chair 1 
first occupied (pp. 2-4 Anthropologia. London, Bailliere vol. I., 
No. I, 1873). 

" My motive was to supply travellers with an organ which would 
rescue their observations from the outer darkness of manuscript, and 
yrint their curious information on social and sexual matters out of 
place in the popular book intended for the Nipptiscb, and indeed 
better kept from public view. 

'But hardly had we begun when 'Respectability', that whited 
sepulchre full of all uncleanness, rose up against us. 'Propriety' 
cried us down with her brazen blatant voice, and the weak-kneed 
brethren fell away. Yet the organ was much ^l•anted, and is wanted 
still.' Be.vares (original) Edition pp. xviii to xix. 

We printed these lines in a small leaflet and sent it 
to most of the subscribers to the book with the following 
remarks : 

" Mr. Charles Carrington's object is precisely the same in ' Un- 
trodden Fields of Anthropology', and all observations his Corre- 


spondents care, in the interests of Anthropology, to send him, will 
either be incorporated in a new and enlarged edition of the above- 
named work, or if of sufficient bulk and length, will be published 
separately under the title of " Anthropologia". 

To these lines we added the undermentioned notice : 


* Medical, scientific, and literary men, and Travellers, especially 
those who reside Abroad and in the Colonies, who have read 
' Untrodden Fields of Anthropology', are respectfully and earnestly 
invited to contribute their Criticisms, whether favourable or other- 
wise to Mr. Charles Carrington, 13, Faubourg Montmartre, Paris, 
with a view to an enlarged and revised Edition of this work. 

Of course, it is unnecessary to add that while the Editor will be 
pleased to publish such criticisms over the name of the contributor, 
he is also prepared to reproduce them, if of sufficient weight and 
importance, without disclosure of name, and the anonymity would 
where requested, be strictly and steadfastly guarded." 

We are pleased to say that many Doctors and scientific 
men responded to this appeal for co-operation in our in- 
tellectual enterprise, and generously sent in and left 
entirely at our disposal a collection of valuable and 
curious notes and observations which we hope one day to 
embody in a new work, to form a sequel to the present 
one, but we shall first have to arrange them in systematic 

Some of these notes however, have been incorporated 
in the present edition. 

The late Dr. Ploss the learned Author of Das Weib 
in der Natur und Volkerkunde was fully alive to the 
importance of the study of the organs of generation of 
both sexes as comparative points of radical differences, 
and agrees with us that this entrancing subject so vital 
in its results, is not sufficiently studied in its details, by 
the professional Anthropologist. We prefer to give his 
own words : — 

editor's foreword XV 

"5)ie 5(iitf)vopo(ogcn (jabcn [it^ mit grofjem Sifcr mit ben 
^i-aniologiidjcn unb ben 'i|3f)i)i'lognomi[cI)cn gigcntljumlicljfeitcn beu 
9)Jpnfd)cnvn[fcn bcfrfjciftigt. 9l((em bcr ^opf unb baS ©cfidjt bictcn 
mcUeit^t nid)t Oebcutenbevc (gtfjnogvapfjijdje 33ci-g(cic^ung§puntte bar, 
n(8 luiv fic bei ben iucib(id)cn ®efc^(ed)t8t()ei(en mit Qllem \va^ baju 
gcljovt ju fiuben tieumogen. Wan ()at iiber bie Sefonbcr^eitcn im 
53au bcr au^eren Se^-uatorganc nur bci einjetncn 33o(fcrft^aften 
genaucrc 9?ad)foi[d)ungcn angeftcllt; benn c8 ift cben fc^racr, einc 
genitgenbc 3af)( oon Obiettcn ju befommcn unb clner 33etrad)tung, 
ober gar einer gcnaucn SD^e^ung ju untcrracrfen. jDie ^Int^ropo* 
logifdje 23cbeutun9 ber ^ad]t tocrbient c8 aber, bafj mx ha9 
^Jlakmi, fo Jveit c« fdjon boi^anbcn ift, an bicfer ©telle jufammcn 
bringen." (1) 

C Das Weib \ Vol I, page 133.) 

What is Anthropology? What are its aims and objects? 
Has it any practical and beneficial bearing on daily life? 
These are undoubtedly tlie questions that will occur to 
a thinking man whose attention is directed to this matter. 
The field of Anthropology is very wide— one may say 
without exaggeration — as wide as the world of man is 
wide— for it concerns and embraces man in all the various 
branches and ramifications of his life. Its subject and 
object is at once Humanity. The reader will pardon us 

(1) We subjoin a translation of this passage: — 

" Anthropologists have very busily occupied themselves v?ith the 
craniological and physiognomical i)eculiarities of the human races. 
But the head and the face do not perhaps present more important 
ethnographic points of comparison than we can find in the female 
sexual organs, with all pertaining thereto. It is only among a few 
races that exact studies have been undertaken of the peculiarities in 
the structure of the exterior sexual organs, for it is indeed difficult 
to obtain a sufficient number of subjects willing to submit to be 
examined, and still less so, to be measured. Nevertheless the 
anthropological importance of the matter deserves that we should 
here bring together as much of the material as already exist?." 


for quoting a few lines here from the short * Preface " to 
the first edition: — 

" Hackneyed as the quotation is, that " there are more things jn 
Heaven and Earth than are dreamt of in our philosophy ", the 
appearance of this book will but give it fresh point and force. 

Anthropology is a name for all that relates to Man in general; 
his Vices and Virtues, Loves and Longings, Hates and Failings, 
Passions and Peculiarities. The subject, as yet, is only in its Infancy. 
Able and brilliant writers have, however, dealt with phases of it in 
a style that defies competition. Edward Tylor in "Primitive 
Culture " has analysed Man's Dream-life and traced the Evolution 
of the Gods from their birth in the agonies of Fear and Hope 
down to the present stage of what Cotter Morrison has cleverly 
termed the " deanthropomorphisation of the god-idea " ; Darwin in 
his famous ' Descent " has traced his Evolution from the proto- 
plasmic, formless mass of pre-historic periods; while Lubbock, 
Clodd, and a host of others have envisaged him from various inter- 
esting standpoints, but no writer save, perhaps the German, Ploss, 
has yet handled the esoteric phases of barbarous life as the Author 
of these fascinating pages. That " truth is stranger than fiction " 
is borne home upon the reader's mind with repeated impressiveness. 
The Crimes and Loves, Vices, Virtues and Indecencies of Savage 
and Barbarous Life, are painted by a master's hand on a strong 
canvas of facts drawn from personal observation and native chron- 
icles—those naive accounts which, without embarrassment, * call 
A spade a spade". 

Auguste Comte was not blind to the proper province of 
our study, he says: — 

" Perhaps Sociology may be easily looked on as absorbing 
into itself Biology as its introduction, Morals as its con- 
clusion. When the word Anthropology shall be in more 
common and sounder use, it will be a better name for 
the three sciences which collectively have man as their 
object, as its literal meaning is ' The Study of Man ! ' " 

The pursuit of this science in the past has been too much 
dwarfed and confined. The President of the Anthropo- 


logical Department of the British Association at Brighton, 
(1872), used these words:— 

" As to the myths^ religions^ superstitions and languages 
with which they (the material relics of our prehistoric 
ancestors) were associated^ ive may content ourselves hy 
devoutly thanhing Providence that they have not been 
preserved." (1) 

Needless to add that this is not the position taken by 
our author. It would be an insult to the intelligence of 
our readers to ask which of the two should most be 
valued — the moral and social ideas, palpitating with the 
life-blood of the past — or the flint weapons and skeleton 
outlines of the prehistoric man. Let there be no mis- 
understanding here. We recognise well enough the value 
of flint implements and other discoveries as proving man's 
age upon the earth, (2) but we contend that fuller justice 
should be shown to the social side of Anthropology. 
Mr. Luke 0. Pike in his valuable paper on the "Methods 
of Anthropological Research ", sets his face resolutely 
against all balderdash of this sort. His words are worth 

"It is impossible to lay too much stress on the fundamental 
doctrine, that all Anthropology has for its end the good of the 
human beings of the present and the human beings of the future. 

" Anthropology means the collection of facts, not for the sake of 
the facts themselves, but for the value of the laws to be discovered 
in them for the sake of future generations to be benefited by them. 
It means, if not peace on earth, at least goodwill towards men ; 

(1) We should be loth to believe that these foolish words were 
authentic, were they not quoted on the faith of Joseph Kaines 
(Vide " Anthropologia," page 33. London, 1873—5). 

(2) We bear particularly in mind the use this side of the subject 
has been in combating the pernicious doctrine of Man's theological 
Fall (Vide vol. 1, page 284, of Andrew White's * Warfare of Science 
with Theology' Lond. Macmillan, 1896). 


and it would mean peace on earth if its enemies would allow it to 
be at peace. It means the only kind of philanthropy which can he 
of service to manlcind philanthropy founded vpon science.'' (1) 

We claim no finality for the work now issued. Even 
in its present enlarged forms it is offered to scientific 
students with much "fear and trembling." We know it 
is incomplete, while conscious of our inability to fill up 
the lacunae. Let it be regarded as a pioneer effort rather 
than as a finished treatise, bearing in mind that all know- 
ledge is relative. Some day a greater man, with broader 
forehead and braver mind than his fellows will take up 
tlie work where our Author has left it and systematize 
his facts with useful results to mankind. In the mean- 
time, we are guilty of no blear-eyed egotism in declaring 
that our book is ynique in its kind, and occupies a place 
not filled by any other. We claim that it fully bears out 
its curious French title, (2) while in its English dress 

(1) Quoted in (page 35) " Anthropologia,^ (already cited). 

(2) L'AMOUR 


observdes durant trente anndes de S(5jour dans les Colonies fran^aiscs 

Cochin-Chine, Tonkin et CamhodQe — Guyane et Martinique — 

Senegal et Rivieres du Sud — Nouvelle Caledonie, 

Nouvelles- Hebrides et Tahiti. 



Paris, 1893. 

[This French edition beautifully printed by Unsinger, was issued 

at the price of 60 francs in one vol. of 396 pages on hand-made 

paper; only 380 copies were printed, and we believe it is now 

somewhat rare.] 

editor's foreword XIX 

it is supplemented by a choice variety of notes and facts 
which considerably enhance its value. Isidore Liseux, the 
Editor of the French edition, would not consent to add 
any notes, an omission the reason of which we have never 
been able to understand. A work of the present kind is 
valuable only in proportion to the documents and authorities 
cited as guarantee for its statements. We have given 
therefore not only a complete and unexpurgated version 
of the original text, but have added a number of notes 
and useful appendices that, we are sure, will not fail to 
be of the greatest use to searchers and students. We 
believe in fact, that our work will have to be counted 
with whenever a writer treats of these subjects in the 
future. At the end of the second volume we deal briefly 
with a couple of foul attacks — it would be a misuse of 
words to call them criticisms— evidently inspired by the 
lowest malice that penny-a-liners are capable of. Save 
these two beautiful Billingsgate effusions, penned without 
doubt, by what St. Paul would have termed " lewd (minded) 
fellows of the baser sort," our little work has been well 
and cordially received. The welcome accorded to it was 
due above all to the stamp of truth and genuineness to 
be found on every page. Those of our subscribers who 
may not have seen the prospectus first issued will be 
interested to read the following points, which we take 
leave to repeat as most clearly explanatory of our position. 

The Author's weight. 

* The Author was a French army surgeon, and in that 
capacity was sent by his Government to the different 
Colonies about whose people he treats. The book is 
consequently not based on hearsay, nor on learned researches 
by beslippered Dryasdusts in long-forgotten archives. 
As a French officer he had everywhere access to the best 


society, while his medical duties brought him into contact 
with the lower orders. He was thus enabled to study 
every class in each community that he visited, and his 
observations have therefore a triple value, being the work 
of an acute physician, an experienced traveller, and a 
broad-minded man-of-the-world. 

Depravity of Eflfete Civilizations. 

Greater interest still is attached to the book, from the 
fact that the places under consideration lie in out-of-the- 
way corners of the earth, which the ordinary " globe-trotter " 
would never dream of visiting. His experiences cover 
Thirty long years in Asia, Africa, America, and 
Oceania; and, with the frankness of a medical student, 
he carefully and without fear, examines the effete civiliza- 
tions of Annam, Tonquin and Cambodia; laying open as 
with a scalpel, and exposing, the vices of people who 
have brought depravity almost up to the level of a 
fine art. 

Qnestions and Difficulties. 

Apart from curious details concerning the manners 
and customs of almost unknown peoples and tribes, 
questions are raised and difficulties solved, which must 
have occurred to the mind of every thinking man and 
woman, but, which hitherto no writer, except in some 
purely medical work, has dared to treat as they should 
be treated, and the result is a book which is a distinctly 
valuable addition to the history of mankind. 

Esoteric Physical Peculiarities. 

In Guiana and Martinique his position as a French 
Medical Officer gave him an introduction to the best 
Creole Society, and his duties as a surgeon brought him 
into contact with the negroes and half-breeds. Esoteric 
physical peculiarities, that would escape the notice of an 

editor's foreword XXI 

ordinary traveller, who had not received a medical educa- 
tion, or which he would hardly dare to describe, find 
a record in the author's voluminous note-books, whilst 
the viveur side of his character displays itself in the 
account of the amorous nature of the warm-blooded 
Quadroon and Octoroon women. 

Refined Sensuality of Society Islanders. 

The differences between the Negro in the West Indies 
and in his native land, are exhibited in the author's 
description of Senegal; and in the last portion of the 
book, the reader follows with ever-increasing interest, the 
history of the degraded savages of New-Caledonia and 
the New Hebrides; or is entranced by the glowing 
picture — painted as only French writers seem to know 
how— of the voluptuous beauties of the Society Islands— 
the last remaining spot on the earth in which refined 
sensuality, akin to that of the old Greeks, still lingers. 
Of the esoteric portions of the book it would be impos- 
sible to speak in a prospectus which might fall into the 
hands of women and children. 

Weapons against Social Evils. 

The work is divided into Two Volumes, each of some 
300 pages, and we undertake to say that the most 
indifferent novel-reader will find enough to sustain his 
attention from the first page to the last, for the rest, 
suffice it to say that the title of " Untrodden Fields of 
Anthropology" seems the best that could be selected. 
The anthropology, as we have hinted, is never dull, for 
the author has had the happy inspiration to deal— not 
with dry bones or cranial conformations— but with those 
principles which ensure the continuity of the races he 
describes, and which are physically matters of moment 


to US who dwell in more civilized climes. Moreover, by 
showing us the causes of some of the vices which prevail 
amongst savage and semi-civilized peoples, he furnishes 
us with valuable weapons wherewith to combat those 
social evils, the existence of which amongst us is so 
deplored by every right-minded man and woman." 

Our " foreword " would extend considerably beyond 
reasonable limits were we to attempt any delineation of 
the Kise and Progress of Anthropological Methods. An 
account of these must be sought for in the fascinating 
pages of Tylor, (1) Hunt, (2) Lubbock, (3) and other equally 
remarkable, if less known, writers whose contributions 
have rendered imperishable service to the multifarious 
History of Man. But we should be wanting in fairness 
to ourselves if we omitted to say a word in conclusion 
on what may be termed the less happy side of " Untrodden 
Fields of Anthropology ' ; we refer of course to the 
sketches we have been obliged to give of subjects gener- 
ally " tabooed " except in medical circles. We may be 
allowed here to quote a few lines written by us with 
reference to a previous book (4) and which equally apply 
to the present work: — 

In reply to those of our detractors who have raised an outcry 
against the contents of this book, we say once and for all that it 
is not meant for the " general public " but for a select few of private 
students, amateurs, and medical men who are interested in the strange 
and fanciful vagaries of wayward Human Nature. 

A clever modern writer well says : (5) " We cannot be good by 
pretending not to know evil. When women go mad, the most 
innocent, the youngest, the most purely educated often utter the 

(1) In "Primitive Culture". 

(2) 'Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London, (vol. I). 

(3) The Origin of Civilization, London, 1889. 

(4) The Secret Cabinet of History (Paris, 1897). 

(5) Hain Friswell in his " Essays on English Writers ". 

editor's foreword XXIII 

most horriil and obscene language; a proof that to them such evil 
has been known; how acquired, how taught, it is in vain to ask. 
What the teacher ought to seek, is, not to blot out and veil iniquity, 
since that will always be visible, but to make the heart strong 
enough to cast out the evil." 

For the rest, we call to mind the larger freedom of discussion 
now allowed in England and America, when conducted from the 
right standpoint; and we have no fear as to the result. The smug- 
faced, hypocrite and canting hirelings of (impure?) "Purity Societies " 
may take to heart the wise and witty words of a modern French 
literator: (1) — "La pudibonderie, si amusante et si gracieuse chcz 
la femme, n'est jamais que ridicule chez un male; elle prend meme 
un autre nom quand elle atteintles orudits. J'en appelle aux casuistes." 

The sober-minded student will scarcely credit that so 
serious a writer as Lombroso has himself had to complain 
of this Mock-Modesty in the learned world. In the French 
edit, of his book on the " Female Criminal and the Pros- 
titute " (Paris, Alcan, 1896), the Italian scientist passes 
the following strictures on the expurgating mania. 

" We shall perhaps be reproached for having dealt in 
too great detail with certain sexual phenomena which 
conventional hypocrisy pretends entirely to conceal from 
peoples' eyes ; but far better not to publish this work at all 
than to suppress these facts relating to the sexual life, 
the female criminal would, in such case, no longer exist, 
and less still, the prostitute. But, in the English versions 
these facts have been omitted and suppressed, with the 
result that in its castrated form, the book is undoubtedly 
much less conclusive." 

Our book, as we have fully evidenced, is written in a 
temperate and scientific spirit. It is moreover, not intended 

(1) Octave XJzanne, Le Livre, Mars 1884, p. 138:— " Bashfulness, so 
entertaining and graceful in a woman, is never anything but ridicu- 
lous when found in a man; it calls even for anotlier name when it 
lays hold of the learned. I call the casuists to witness to the 
truth of this." 


for general circulation. An obscene work is one that is 
designed to stir up voluptuous passions where such pas- 
sions would not otherwise exist. But the present work 
couched as far as possible in technicis terminis can have 
no such effect, being the mere recital of certain customs 
of barbarous and savage peoples, not dealt with except in 
widely scattered works, very difficult of access even to 
the leisured and wealthy scholar. That the present treatise 
is far removed from a pornographic basis is proved by 
the fact that many persons who wrote us for the first 
edition, expressed afterwards their disappointment, as they 
found the terminology employed too recondite for their 
hydrocephalic intelligence, and had evidently expected to 
receive something of a very different stamp. Dr. Schrenck- 
Notzing (of Munich) points out: — "that the injury done 
by implanting knowledge of sexual pathology in unquali- 
fied persons is not to be compared with the good accom- 
plished. For the physician himself, sexual anomalies, 
treated as they are in a distinct manner in text books 
on psychiatry, are in greater part a terra incognita." (1) 
Many eminent men in the past, famous alike for their 
sturdy thinking and philosophical acumen, have not con- 
sidered such subjects as those discussed in this book, 
beneath their notice ; among such we may mention curious 
old Dr. Schurigius, EtmuUer, Flemming, Paullini, Beck- 
herius, Rosinus, Lentilius ; and lastly brave Levinus Lem- 
nius. (2) Of course, " there are people " as Adhle Esquiros 
cleverly says : (3) — 

" Who if it were given them to dissect a corpse, would 

(1) Die Suggestions-Therapie, etc., F. Enke, Stuttgart, 1892. 

(2) All of these are mentioned in Scatalogic Bites by Capt. John 
G. Bourke, (Washington, 1891), in itself a wonderful piece of 
contempt of public opinion. 

(3) " Les Marchandes d' Amour", (pag. 189). 

editor's foreword XXV 

only see one thing, that it was naked. Minds like these 
are so unclean that they thereby become stupid, or are 
they stupid because they are so unclean? From a book, 
however bad it may be (someone has said) there is 
always something good to be gained. Take any impure 
thing, say a body already in the stage of putrefaction, and 
give it to the anatomist, he will not start back in horror, 
for science becomes beautiful in proportion as she is useful. 

" I take this mass of impurity and subject it to observa- 
tion in the crucible of analysis, separating its different 
principles and using the knowledge won from the lifeless 
clay for the benefit of living man. 

" Cannot we create also an intellectual chemistry, seek 
how the originally pure elements have become corrupted, 
and thus find a way by which they may be transformed 
again to their first state ? The elements that we analyse 
are filled for weak brains with corrosive venom— let us then 
seek to neutralise these bad influences. 

* The decomposition of dead bodies we can well prevent, 
can we not also stay the decomposition of the human 
heart? If the weak know, if we know, that a given vice 
has a bad taste and 'turns but to dead ashes in the 
mouth', with what happiness should we fly from it. It 
is only necessary to see certain phases of degradation 
such as they really are, to hold them afterward in hatred." 

Anthropology, as considered in this book, really enters 
more into the psychopathology of sexual life than probably 
any other work yet written on the same subject. 

Such studies should be undertaken only by men — {i.e. 
Physicians and Magistrates)— whose duties compel them 
to make these matters the object of scientific investigation. 
Dr. R. von Krafft-Ebing has off'ered some weighty remarks 
on this head which are so very pertinent to our point 
that we tender no apology for repeating tliem : 


"It is the sad province of Medicine," he says, "and 
especially of Psychiatry, to constantly regard the reverse 
side of life— human weakness and misery. (1) 

Perhaps, in this difficult calling, some consolation may 
be gained and extended to the moralist, if it be possible 
to refer to morbid conditions much that offends ethical 
and aesthetic feeling. Thus Medicine undertakes to save 
the honor of mmikind before the Court of Morality, and 
individuals from judges and their fellow-men. The duty 
and right of medical science in these studies belong to 
it by reason of the high aim of all human inquiry after 

The author would take to himself the words of Tardieu, 
who had the courage to deal in his day, with an equally 
repulsive subject: "No physical or moral misery, no sore 
however corrupt it may he, should frighten him who has 
devoted himself to a knowledge of man and the sacred 
ministry of medicine; in that he is obliged to see all 
things, let him be permitted to say all things." (2) 

Burton, it will be remembered, was attacked in the 
Press for having printed his magnum opus, the Thousand 
Nights and a Night, which in our humble judgment is 
the most wonderful translation ever made from one tongue 
into another, and moreover in the truest sense, a deep 
" well of English undefiled ". But he held, and justly, that 
"A Controversy in the Press with the Press is the con- 
troversy of a fly with a spider". He therefore replied 

(1) Psychopathia Sexualis, with especial reference to Contrary 
Sexual Instinct: a Medico-legal study. Seventh edition (Philadelphia, 

(2) Aucune mis^re physique ou morale, aucune plaie, quelque cor- 
rompue qu'elle soit, ne doit efFrayer celui qui s'est vou^ a la science 
de Thomme; et le minist^re sacr^ du m^decin, en Tobligeant a tout 
voir, lui permet aussi de tout dire. {Des attentats aux vioeurs). 

editor's foreword XXVII 

to the critics in his caustic " Keviewers Reviewed". The 
crushing reply is typical of the man. The " Battle of the 
Books " says he, " has often been fought, the crude text 
versus the bowdlerised and the expurgated ; and our critic 
can contribute to the great fray only the merest plati- 
tudes. There is an old and trusty saying that 'evil com- 
munications corrupt good manners,' and it is a well-known 
fact that the discussion (?) and reading of depraved 
literature leads (sic) infallibly to the depravation of the 
reader's mind. (Page 179 Edinburgh Review, No. 335 
of July 1886). 1 should say that the childish indecencies 
and the unnatural vice of the original cannot deprave any 
mind save that which is perfectly prepared to be depraved ; 
the former would provoke only curiosity and amusement 
to see bearded men such mere babes, and the latter 
would breed infinitely more disgust than desire. The 
man must be prurient and lecherous as a dog-faced 
baboon in rut to have aught of passion excited by either. 
" I resolved that, in case of the spiteful philanthropy 
and the rabid pornophobic suggestion of certain ornaments 
of the Home-Press being acted upon, to appear in Court 
with my version of the Nights in one hand and bearing 
in the other the Bible (especially the Old Testament, a 
free translation from an ancient Oriental work) and 
Shakespeare, with Petronius Arbiter and Rabelais by way 
of support and reserve. The two former are printed by 
millions; they find their way into the hands of children, 
and they are the twin columns which support the scanty 
edifice of our universal home-reading. The Arbiter is 
sotadical as Abfi Now^s, and the Cure of Meudon is sur- 
passing in what appears uncleanness to the eye of outsight, 
not of insight. Yet both have been translated, textually 
and literally, by eminent Englishmen and gentlemen, and 
have been printed and published as an * extra series " by 


Mr. Bohn's most respectable firm and sold by Messrs. 
Bell and Daldy. And if the Nights are to be bowdlerised 
for students, why not, I again ask, mutilate Plato and 
Juvenal, the Romances of the Middle Ages, Boccaccio and 
Petrarch, and the Elizabethan dramatists one and all? 
What hyprocrisy to blaterate about the Nights in presence 
of such triumphs of the Natural ! How absurd to swallow 
such camels and to strain at my midge! 

" Having failed to free the Anthropological Society from 
the fetters of mauvaise honte, and the mock-modesty 
which compels travellers and ethnological students to keep 
silence concerning one side of human nature (and that 
side the most interesting to mankind), I proposed to 
supply the want in these pages. The England of our day 
would fain bring up both sexes, and keep all ages, in 
profound ignorance of sexual and intersexual relations ; and 
the consequences of that imbecility are peculiarly cruel and 
afflicting. How often do we hear women in Society lamenting 
that they have absolutely no knowledge of their own physi- 
ology ; and at what heavy price must this fruit of the know- 
ledge-tree be bought by the young first entering life. 
Shall we ever understand that ignorance is not innocence? 
What an absurdum is a veteran officer who has spent 
a quarter- century in the East without learning that all 
Moslem women are circumcised, and without a notion of 
how female circumcision is effected; without an idea of 
the difference between the Jewish and the Moslem rite as 
regards males ; without an inkling of the Armenian process 
whereby the cutting is concealed, and without the slight- 
est theoretical knowledge concerning the mental and spir- 
itual effect of the operation. Where then is the shame 
of teaching what it is shameful not to have learnt ? But 
the ultra-delicacy, the squeamishness of an age which is 
by no means purer or more virtuous than its ruder pre- 


decessors, has ended in trenching upon the ridiculous. 
Let us see what the Modern English Woman and her 
Anglo-American sister have become under the working of 
a mock-modesty which too often acts as a cloak to real 
dhergondage; and how Respectability unmakes what Nature 
made. She ' has feet but no " toes " ; ankles but no 
" calves "; knees but no " thighs "; a stomach but no " belly " 
nor * bowels "; a heart but no " bladder " nor " groin " ; a 
liver and no " kidneys " ; hips and no " haunches " ; a bust 
and no " backside " nor " buttocks " : in fact, she is a 
monstrum, a figure fit only to frighten the crows. 

" I have no apology to make for the details offered to 
the Students of Moslem usages and customs, who will 
find in them much to learn and more to suggest the 
necessity of learning. In no wise ashamed am I of lec- 
turing upon these esoteric matters, the most important 
to humanity, at a time when their absence from the novel 
of modern society veils with a double gloom the night- 
side of human nature. Nay, I take pride to myself for 
so doing in the face of silly prejudice and miserable 
hypocrisy, and I venture to hold myself in the light of 
a public benefactor. In fact, I consider my labours as a 
legacy bequeathed to my countrymen at a most critical 
time, when England the puissantest of Moslem powers is 
called upon, without adequate knowledge of the Moslem's 
inner life, to administer Egypt as well as to rule India. 
And while Pharisee and Philister may be or may pretend 
to be " shocked " and " horrified " by my pages, the 
sound common-sense of a public, which is slowly but 
surely emancipating itself from the prudish and prurient 
reticences, and the immodest and immoral modesties of the 
early sixth century, will in good time do me, I am con- 
vinced, full and ample justice." 

Burton's words in defence of his " Nights " so well- 


express our own opinions on these matter that anything 
we had written would have been but a far-off and feeble 
echo of the same sentiments. This must be our only 
apology for so lengthy an extract. 

The modern Bayard's lines more than justify the exist- 
ence of our book. Were more required, we would add 
that should the work even fall into the hands of young 
men, no more powerful deterrent to vice could be given 
than that which under the heading of prostitution in 
China, shows the terrible consequences of promiscuous 
intercourse. " God help " the man, young or old, who 
catches a dose of syphilis, or confirmed gonorrhoea with 
all their nameless and far-reaching results— sometimes 
involving the loss of the virile member, the nose, 
and eyesight. This is no place to sermonize, but we 
imagine that were sexual education less shirked in England, 
there would be vastly fewer men who, too late, learn the 
bitter truth of the Hebrew seer's words, about the * strange 
woman, which flattereth with her words, whose feet go 
down to death, whose steps take hold on hell, going 
down to the chambers of death." Let men learn about 
these things in an open and lawful way, and they will be 
less likely to search them out clandestinely. Proscribe 
anything— a book or other object — and you at once put 
a premium on it. Men, as Napoleon shrewdly observed, 
are but " grown-up children ", and after the manner of 
children we notice that they howl (in their way) for 
anything forbidden them until they get it. 

If the false male prudes who fight, with a fanaticism 
worthy of Sudanese negroes, against the regulation of vice 
in India and at Home, knew what it is to suffer from 
the hideous diseases which are bred and spread by their 
system, we feel sure they would use their efforts in a 
more intelligent direction. In our judgment they are 


responsible for the great multitude who go " as an ox 
goeth to the slaughter, or as a fool to the correction of 
the stocks till a dart strike through his liver; as a bird 
hasteth to the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his 

Parent-Duchatelet in his monumental work on Prostitu- 
tion has the following sentence : 

" What good, in fact, could be effected without the 
knowledge of these habits and customs ? It will later on 
avoid groping about, and may perhaps suggest to those 
who shall come after me, some salutary measures that 
our generation had not thought of." 

These words seem singularly applicable to our work, 
and we appropriate them because expressive, above all, of 
our own aim. 









The Editor's Foreword Yii— xxxi 

Table of Contents " xxxiii — xl 


CochinChina—Tonquin— Cambodia 

Chapter L 

Cochin-China thirty years ago.— A few words about Saigon 
as it was.— Other Asiatic races, besides the Annamites, inhabiting 
Cochin-China. — The Hindoos, otherwise known as Malabars. — 
Cambodians. — Malays. — Moys.— Anthropological characteristics 
of the Moys. — Chams.— The Tagals of Manilla.— The Chinese 
town of Cho-lon. -The Chinese race.— Trades and professions — 
Diversity of anthropological types amongst the Chinese.— The 
Minhuongs. — A few words on the manners and customs of the 
Chinese and Cochin-Chinese. — The Chinese theatre. [Page 1 

Chaptee IL 

The origin of the Annamites, otherwise called Giao-Chi. — 
Anthropological characteristics of the race.— Genital organs of 
the Annamites. — Their small size.— The child taken as a basis 
of comparison for the medical part of this subject.— The little 
Annamite girl, and her early loss of virginity. — Woman at the 
age of puberty.— The genital organs of the adult.— Franco- 
Annamite mongrels. [Page 16 


Chapter III. 

Woman's place in Annamite society. -Marriage.— The legal 
age.— Rights and duties of the Annamite woman. — Her charac- 
ter.— Adultery.— Its repression.— Left-handed marriages.— Bega- 
lations and prohibitions of marriage. — Seven causes for divorce.— 
Accouchements. [Page 25 

Chapter IV. 
Other passions besides love in the Annamite. — Gambling.— 
Chinese gambling dens.— Baquan, and the gaming houses at 
Saigon. — The opium passion.— How opium is smoked. — Good 
effects of the moderate use of opium.— Nature of the pleasure 
caused by opium. [Page 33 

Chapter V. 
Physical love amongst the Annamites.— The most usual methods 
of copulation. — Asiatic houses of prostitution. — The Annamite 
Bamboo.— Dangers of sexual intercourse in Annam. — Gonorrhoea 
and syphilis.— The Chinese brothel.— Life of the Flower-Boat 
girls.— The whore-houses of Cho-lon. — Habits of old Chinese 
debauchees.— The Japanese brothel.— Physical characteristics of 
the Japanese woman.— The Annamite mistress of the European. 

[Page 39 

Chapter VI. 
Perversions of sexual connection in Annam male prostitution. — 
The nay and the ioy.— Usual habits of Annamite sodomites.— 
The Chinese sodomite.— The shop of Ach . . . . the Chinese.— 
Chinese Erotic literature.— A house of ill-fame for men at 
Cho-lon. — Manners of the Chinese actors who play women's parts. 

[Page 91 


Chapter VII. 

Study of the buccal, vulvar, and anal deformities caused by 
male and female prostitution in the Annamite race.— The vulva 
of the young girl before puberty, and of the Annamite woman ; 
signs of the loss of Tirginity. — Sodomy and pederasty.— Anal 
Blennorrhoea. — Signs of inveterate passive sodomy. — The Anal 
Infundibulum.— Relaxation of the Sphincter.— Effacement of the 
Eadiating Folds.— Signs of active pederasty in the Annamite 
and the Chinese. — Signs of active and passive pederasty in the 
European in Cochin-China.— Signs of Passive Sodomy. 

[Page lis 

Chapter VIII. 

The European Colony thirty years ago.— The two first 
European prostitutes.— Rarity of the European woman.— Moral 
causes of the relative frequency of sodomy and pederasty in 
those days.— Saigon in the present day.— Increase of the 
feminine element.— Nocturnal amusements.— The European pros- 
titute. —Great Improvement in the Morality of the Europeans 
in Cochin-China.— The Diminution in the Male and Female 
Prostitution of the Natives more apparent than Real. — How 
the Business is now managed. — The hoy and the native collegian. 

[Page 133 

Chapter IX. 

My visit to Tonquin. —Anthropological characteristics of 
the Tonquinese.— The Muongs, and the Xas or Quans.— The 
Chinaman, and the Tonquin- Chinese half-breed. — Chinese 
Piracy.— Manners, habits, customs, and religion. — Moral charac- 
teristics, forms and perversions of sexual passion. — The European 
Colony in Tonquin. [Page 148 

Chapter X. 

My sojourn in Cambodia.— Anthropological characteristics 
of the Cambodians. — Organs of generation. — Foreign races 
inhabiting Cambodia.— The Malays and Chams.— The Chinese.— 


The Portuguese. — Social Condition of Cambodia. — Decadence of 
the Country and of the Kmcrs.— The Royal Prerogatives before the 
French Protectorate. -The Abbaioureach and the Abbarcach.— 
Tho Five Ministers.— The Mandarin Class.— The Oath of the 
Mandarins. — The Middle Class. — Free Men. — Slav€ry,— Habita- 
tions, customs, food. — Moral Characteristics of the Cambodians. — 
Strange custom at the castration of animals.— Bravery of the 
Cambodians.— Hunting the elephant and rhinoceros.— Religion. — 
Noro-dom's White Elephant. — Beliefs.— Religious festivals.— 
Feast of the dead. — Human sacrifices. — Cambodian Legislation 
and Justice.— Decay of the race and its causes. -The Kmer 
Vulgar Tongue.- -The common language and the sacred language. 

[Page 157 

Chapter XI. 

Sexual passion, its forms and perversions in the Cambodian 
race. — Betrothals.— Two Kmer Proverbs.— Marriage.— Poly- 
gamy.— Rank of the first wife.— Adultery and its repression.- 
Divorce.— Adoption.— Manners of the Kmer woman. — The life 
of the young girl.— King Noro-dom's harem.— The royal corps 
de ballet. — Singing and music— Modes of copulation.— Perversion 
of sexual passion. [Page 187 



Guiana — Mar Unique 

Chaptee I. 

A short stay at Martinique.— Arrival at Guiana. — Yellow- 
Fever and its Preventive treatment.— The white Creole of 
Cayenne. — Prejudice against colour.— The Fashionable world of 
Guiana.— Hospitality of the Creole.— The Creole patois.— 
Playfulness of the Creole ladies. — " Lou Tafanari " and her 
"potato". — The misadventures of a singer of smutty songs.— 
Fidelity and kindness of the ladies. [Pago 199 


Chapter II. 

The coloured races. — Influence of black blood on the cross 
breed with the white. — Octoroons. — Quadroons, Mulattoes, and 
Zambos. — Easy morals of the coloured woman.- The pure 
Negress.- Saturday night to Sunday. — Milady C "the Queen 
of the golden wrists ". — The musky odour of the Negress. — 
The genital organs of the Negro, the Zambo, and the Mulatto.— 
The odour of nudity.-- The influence of age on the odor faeminse.— 
The awakening of erotic ideas. — Males thrown off the scent as 
to the odour of their females during the act of copulation. 

[Page 211 
Chapter III. 

The Negress and her sexual lust.— Eroticism of the Negress.— 
Methods of copulation.— The Mulatta and the Quadroon.— 
Astringent injections.— The Aphrodisiacs used by the Coloured 
Women.— The Decoction of "Tightening Wood".— "The Hot 
aubergine".— Dislike of the Negress to Sodomy and other 
Vicious Habits.— The Octoroon.— Depraved Lust of the White 
man for the Negress. — The beauties of the Coloured woman.— 
Permanent Marks of Blood in the Genital Organs of the 
Male.— Perversions of Sexual Passions in the Negro and 
Colonred Races. [Page 238 

Chapter IV. 

The Hindoos at Guiana.— Laziness of the Black Man of 
Cayenne.— The hired coolie. —Anthropological characteristics.— 
Genital organs of the race. — Comparison of the Genital Organ 
of the Negro with that of the Hindoo.— The four temperaments 
of the Hindoo woman. — Perversion of sexual lust. [Page 260 

Chapter V. 
The Penitentiary and its occupants.— Transported Criminals, 
or Old Convicts. — The old convicts.— Their manners and 
customs.— Innate liking of the Arab for pederasty. — A crew 
under the " Caudine Forks". — Ferocious lust of the African 
Arab. —Active pederasty of the Arab.— Pederasty is principally 
a Question of Race.— The Arab's organ of generation. 

[Page 270 


Chapter VI. 

The convict under military law. — Capt. B***, President of 
the Council of War —Curious Cases tried before the Council.— 
Hindoo. — Pederasty amongst Arabs. — Arab Criminal Assaults 
and Kape. [Page 286 

Chapter VII. 

My Stay at Martinique.— The whites, called pure Creoles. — 
Prejudice against Colour. — The Black race. —Moral characteristics 
of the Negress.— The Coloured Race.— The Mulatto.— The 
Quadroon girl and her passionate nature. — " Fricatrices" and 
Lesbians.— Depilation. [Page 300 

XHntrobben jFielbs of 


Cochin-Chin A — Tonquin — Cambodia. 


Cochin- Chiva thirty years ago. — A few 7vords about Saigon as 
it was. — Other Asiatic Races, besides the Annamites, inhabiting 
Cochin- China. — The Hindoos, otherwise knoivn as Ma labors. — 
Cambodians. — Malays. - Moys. — Anthropological characteristics of 
the Moys. — Chams. — The Tagals of Manilla. — The Chinese 
toivn of Cho-lon. — The Chinese race. — Trades and professions. 
— Diuersily of anthropological types amongst the Chinese.— 
The Minhuovgs. — A feiv words on the manners and customs 
of the Chinese and Cochin- Chinese. — The Chinese theatre. 

Cochin-China thirty Years ago. Cochin-China was 
the first colony I visited, and the impressions I retain 
of it are like those of a beardless youth for his first 

I had hardly left the class-rooms of the College of 
Medicine, in i86 — , than I obtained a post as assistant- 
surgeon in the Navy, and was sent to Cochin-China. 
I will pass over the varied incidents of a voyage of 


more than two months (the Suez Canal was not then 
made), and enter at once upon the study of the manners 
and customs of the various races inhabiting Cochin- 
China at the period of which I speak. An uninter- 
rupted residence of five years in the colony, and a 
second visit twenty-five years later, are guarantees 
of the correctness of my observations. 

A Few Words about Saigon as it Originally 

-was. The impression produced by Saigon at this 
time has been very well described by Pallu de la 
Barriere, ^ only two years after the conquest in 1861, 
for, until the capture of the intrenched camp at Ki- 
hoa, the occupation of Saigon could only be regarded 
as temporary : 

" The traveller who arrives at Saigon perceives, on 
the right bank of the river, a kind of street, the sides 
of which are broken here and there by large empty 
spaces. The houses — which for the most part are of 
wood — are covered with leaves of the dwarf palm ; a 
few of the houses are of stone. Their roofs, of red 
tiles, brighten and improve the scene. Then comes 
the curved roof of a pagoda; then a shed, out of the 
perpendicular, which serves as a market, and the roof 
of which seems slipping down on the right side. In 
the middle distance are some arrack palms, which 
harmonize well with the soil of India ; the other vege- 
tation lacks character. Thousands of boats are huddled 
together along the bank of the river, and form a little 
floating town. Besides this there is not much to see 
at Saigon, unless it is the Chinese arroyo, with its fairly 
clean houses built of stone, some of them old, and 

' Pallu de la Barri^rc. Hhtoirc de I' Expedition de Cochinchine. 
Paris 1888. in 8vo. 


Standing- amidst copses of cabbage palms. Further off, 
on the heights, are the house of the French Comman- 
dant, that of the Spanish Colonel, the students' camp, 
and that is about all." 

I have given this description of Saigon such as it 

was at the time when the colony of Cochin-China was 

in its infancy. We shall find it much changed a quarter 

of a century later. 

Before studying the Annamite race, let us cast a 

rapid glance at the other Asiatic races inhabiting this 


The Asiatic Races, besides the Annamites 
inhabiting Cochin-China. These various races are 
all represented, more or less, at Saigon. Moreover, 
five years spent in continual journeys in the interior 
of the country, have given me opportunities of studying 
them all pretty closely. The Chinese race, which has 
the pre-eminence over all the other foreign races, 
both in number and importance, deserves a special 

The Hindoos, known as Malabars. There is to 
be found at Saigon, a certain number of natives of 
India, known under the generic title of Malabars, as 
they usually come from the Malabar Coast, Madras, 
Pondicherry, Bombay, etc. Some of them are Catholics, 
other Brahmins, but the greater part are Mahometans. 
They breed cattle, drive carts, transport goods, and 
keep little retail shops, or they change piasters and 
other money. 

The Mahometans have constructed a handsome 
mosque ; after the Ramadan they celebrate their Bairam, ^ 

* The ninth month of the Muhammadan year, which is observed as 
a strict fast from dawn to sunset of each day in the month. The word 


and have a grand procession by night, when, by the 
hght of thousands of torches, they drag about an im- 
mense car. 

The anthropological remarks that I shall have to 
make further on about the Indian coolies of Guiana, 
will apply to their congeners of Saigon, and I must 
refer the reader to that part of the book. But the 
Malabars of Cochin-China are taller and more robust, 
and of a much handsomer type. Some have brought 

Ramazd,n is derived from ramz, " to bum" The month Ls said to have 
been so called either because it used (before the change of the calendar) 
to occur in the hot season, or because the month's fast is supposed to 
bvun away the sins of men {Ghiyasu'^l-Lughah, in loco). 

The observance of this month is one of the five pillars of practice in 
the Muslim religion, and its excellence is much extolled by Muhammad, 
who said that dvuing Ramazan "the gates of Paradise are open, and the 
gates of h,eD are shut, and the devils are chained by the leg, and only 
thpse who observe it will be permitted to enter at the gate of heaven 
called Raiyftn." Those who keep the fast "will be pardoned all their 
past venial sins " {Mishk&t, book VII, ch. I. part I). 

See Hughes' "Diet, of Islam" p. 533; London, 1885, for more 
extensive details ; also the realistic account given by Burton in his 
Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah (Lond. 1^73). Sir Richard 
thinks that "like, the Italian, the Anglo-Catholic, and the Greek fasts, 
the chief effect of the " blessed month " upon True Believers is to darken 
their tempers into positive gloom. Their voices, never of the softest, 
acquire, especially after noon, a terribly harsh and crealdng tone. The 
men curse one another and beat the women. The women slap and 
abuse the children, and these in their turn cruelly entreat, and use bad 
language to the dogs and cats. You can scarcely spend ten minutes in 
any populous part of the city without hearing some violent dispute. It 
is only fair to Islam to add that of course all quarrelling, abuse, and 
evil words are stricdy forbidden to the Moslem during Ramazan. If 
one believer insults another, the latter should repeat I am fasting, "three 
times before venturing himself to reply. Such is the wise law. But 
human nature in Egypt, as elsewhere, is always ready to sacrifice the 
spirit to the letter, rigidly to obey the physical part of an ordinance, and 
to cast away the moral, as if it were the husk and not the kernel." 


their wives from India; others have married Annamite 
women, by whom chey have mongrel children of a 
villainously low type of humanity. 

Cambodians. The Cambodian race, being the sub- 
ject of a special study later on, I will not speak of it 

Malays. The Malays descended from Cambodia, 
whither they had emigrated from the isthmus of Ma- 
lacca. They are, in general, sober, patient, and avari- 
cious : they carry on the business of pawnbrokers, 
and charge a very high rate of interest. They inhabit 
separate villages, and rarely intermarry with the An- 
namite race. The Malays are Mahometans, and faithful 
to their religion. Many of them carry on trade by 
exchanging the products of Cambodia against those 
of Cochin-China, and they form amongst themselves 
associations analagous to those of the Chinese. As 
far as industries are concerned, they manufacture 
hardly anything but jewellery. 

Their costume consists of cotton drawers, a tight- 
fitting waistcoat, a linen jacket, and a turban. The 
men are close shaved ; the women who wear a lang- 
outi, and a long robe, have their hair dressed in the 
Annamite fashion. 

In form, colour, and conformation, the genital organs 
of both sexes of the Malays greatly resemble those 
of the Annamite, though they are unquestionably 
more virile. 

Moys. I have examined the Moys of the district 
of Baria, where they possess many villages. Their 
habitations may be found in groups of three or four, 


each house holding perhaps a score of persons. These 
houses stand on posts, and are raised four or five 
yards above the ground. They look like large rect- 
angular cages made of bamboo, with a thatched 
roof. The primitive furniture consits mainly of a slab 
of baked clay to make the fire on, and a few screens 
of bamboo to contain the provisions. 

The men wear a square of cloth over the genital 
parts, and the young women cover their breasts with 
a square of cloth hung round the neck. Both sexes 
have their ears pierced, and wear ear-rings. Their 
language completely differs from that of the Annamite. 

In this race, so different from the Annamite, family 
feelings, and extreme kindness to children are exhibited 
in a marked degree. Young people marry, after they 
have attained the age of puberty, without any cere- 
mony, or written contract. The Moy respects customs, 
however, and cannot repudiate his wife and take 
another, without being obliged to provide for the first 
wife and her children. 

The manners of the people are very pure. Adul- 
tery is very rare, and the vices we shall find amongst 
the Annamites almost unknown. The Moy copulates 
with his wife according to the law of nature, and 
without tricks of any sort. From this point of view 
it is the Annamites, not the Moys, who ought to be 
called savages, for they are one of the most corrupt 
people in the civilized world. 

The religion of the Moys is very elementary, and 
is confined generally to a worship of the dead. * 

' A very sigaificant fact representing already no small sute of culture. 
Spencer (in chap. XX. on '^ Ancestor- Worship in general", in his 
masterful work dealing with the "^ Principles of Sociology" ,1.0^^. 1885) 
— points out that "in the Far East, another vast society which had 


Anthropological Characteristics of the Moys. 
This race may be classed as amongst the smallest in 
the world — smaller than the Lapps, according to Dr. 

reached considerable heights of culture, while Europe was covered by 
barbarians, has practised, and still practices, ancestor-worship, . . . With 
the highly-developed religious systems of India, there co-exists a daily 
re-genesis of deities from dead men." (page 283). Further on he brings 
evidence to show that " the word for a god means literally a dead 
man ". The whole passage is so profoundly interesting that we may be 
pardoned for reproducing it: — "Ghost, spirit, demon — names at first 
applied to the other-self without distinctions of character — come to be 
differently applied as ascribed differences of character arise : the shade of 
an enemy becomes a devil, and a friendly shade becomes a divinity. 
Where the conceptions have not developed far, there are no differentiated 
titles, and the distinctions made by us cannot be e.xpressed. The early 
Spanish missionaries in America were incovenienced by finding that the 
only native word they could use for God also meant devil. In Greek, 
(fatfiwv &s6q are mterchangeable. By ^schylus, Agamemnon's 
children are represented as appealing to their father's ghost as to a god. 
So, too, with the Romans. Besides the unspecialized use of damon, 
which means an angel or genius, good or bad, we find the unspecialized 
use of deus for god and ghost. On tombs the manes were called gods ; 
and a law directs that " the rights of the manes — gods, are to be kept 

Similarly with the Hebrews. 

Isaiah, representing himself as commanded to reject it, quotes a current 
belief implying such identification : " And when they say unto you, 
' Consult the ghost-seers and the wizards, that chirp and that mutter ! 
Should not people consult their gods, even the dead on behalf of the 
living? " When Saul goes to question the ghost of Samuel, the e.\- 
pression of the enchantress is — "I saw gods [elohim] ascending out of 
the earth ; " god and ghost being thus used as equivalents. 

Even in our own day the kinship is traceable. The statement that 
God is a spirit, shows the application of a term which, otherwise 
applied, signifies a human soul. Only by its qualifying epithet is the 
meaning of Holy Ghost distinguished from the meaning of ghost in 
general. A divine being is still denoted by words that originally meant 
the breath which, deserting a man's body at death, was supposed to 
constitute the surviving part. 


Neis. ^ " The tint of their skin," says this author, 
" is darker than that of the Annamites. They have 
but Httle hair, though more than is usual with the 
yellow races. It is always black and wavy, or in 
some cases curly; the beard, which is sometimes thick 
on the lips and chin, is wanting on the cheeks. 

" The skull is dolicho-cephalous, slightly scaphocephal- 
ous, the face is prognathic, the forehead narrow, the 
cheek-bones slightly projecting; the eyelids which are 
large and well-formed, are horizontal and not oblique 
like those of the yellow races. The nose is very flat, 
the mouth wide, the teeth are large, well-set, and 
reddened with betel. 

" The muscles are but little developed, and do not 
project under the skin. The breasts of the woman, 
which are of average size, are conical ; they wither 
soon, but without lengthening like the breasts of the 
Negress. The ankles are small, the feet long, and 
the toes wide apart, as is the case with all people 
who walk bare-footed." 

I have given this description in exienso, but that 
of the genital organs is still wanting. I do not know 
why the anthropologists have, until now, almost entirely 
neglected to note in the various human races the 
variations in form and colour of the genital organ, 
for me the most important of all organs, since it in- 
sures the continuance of the race. I shall have more 
than once to refer to the results of these examinations, 
which I made very carefully. 

In the Moy, the colour of the skin of the genital 
organs, and particularly the scrotum, is darker than 
in the Annamite. It is the same with the colour of 

* N6is (Paul) sur le Laos. Bulletins de la Socie'te d' Anthropologie 
de Paris. Vol. viii, 3rd Series. Paris, 1885. 


the mucous membrane of the " great lips," the gland, 
and the vagina, which are not so light, but of a tint 
approaching more to dark red. The penis and testi- 
cles of the Moy are larger than those of the Annamite, 
although their average height is less. The vulva and 
vagina of the Moy woman are more developed than 
those of the Annamite woman. The pubis is shaded, 
in both sexes, by a fair quantity of curly hair, of a 
very black colour. 

None of the Moys I was able to examine showed 
any traces of masturbation or unnatural habits. There 
is a great difference in this respect between the Moy 
and Annamite races. 

There is no single point in common between the 
two races. The Annamite, being more civilized, looks 
down with contempt upon the savage Moy, and will 
not ally himself with them. The number of Moys 
was sensibly diminishing when I arrived in Cochin- 
China, and the race will soon die out, as every inferior 
race does in the presence of a more advanced people. 

Chams. It is asserted that the Chams are of Malay 
origin, and are descended from the remnant of the old 
Kingdom of Ciampa, which was formerly conquered 
by the Annamites. Some wandering tribes may still 
be met on the confines of the colony, towards Tay- 
Ninh and Chandoc. These people flee from civilization. 
What I have said about the Malays will apply to the 

The Tagals of Manilla. At the time of my first 
visit, there were still in Cochin-China some Tagals of 
Manilla, forming part of the Spanish Expeditionary 
Corps. They were generally hunters of wild beasts, 


or sometimes sais and coachmen. It is a hardy and 
sober race. They have adopted as their costume, white 
trousers, with over them, a shirt with long tails. By 
marriage with the Annamite woman, the Tagal has 
founded a mongrel race which is not half numerous 

The Town of Cho-lon. About three miles from 
Saigon is the Chinese town of Cho-lon, built a century 
ago by Chinese emigrants, and having the exact 
appearance of a town of the South of China. 

An old friend of mine, Luro, a Government inspector 
of the natives, whom I knew intimately, has written 
the following picturesque description of it : " In the 
interior of Cho-lon are many retail shops ; those which 
do a large trade, kept by Chinese, and the smaller 
shops kept by Annamite women. The goods are 
neatly and cleverly displayed. The seeds-man, grocer, 
restaurant-keeper, chemist, tailor, boot-maker, jeweller, 
iron-monger, trunk-maker, confectioner, etc., all have 
their name written in large Chinese characters over 
the door, artistically painted in black, red, blue, or 
gold, according to the taste of the proprietor. There 
is a continual movement of customers entering and 
leaving. The shops are open in the evening, the 
streets are lighted by the Municipality (with gas at 
present) and, besides that, are illuminated with Chinese 
lanterns of the most varied and pleasing forms and 
colours, on which are painted, in transparent characters, 
the name of the tradesman." 

The Chinese Race. There were, in i86— , in 
Saigon and Cho-lon, more than 30,000 Chinese, and 
as many more in the interior of the country. The 


Chinaman is the Jew of the Extreme East, he has in 
his hands nearly all the wholesale and retail trade. 
He is sharp, and thirsty after gain, but he is satisfied 
with a small profit. The European merchant is obliged 
to use him as an intermediate agent. An Englishman 
who lived many years of his life in Hongkong has 
sketched the following picture of this peculiar race: 

" Of the moral character of the people, who have 
multiplied until they are 'as the sand which is upon 
the sea-shore,' it is very difficult to speak justly. The 
moral character of the Chinese is a book written in 
strange letters, which are more complex and difficult 
for one of another race, religion and langfuage to 
decipher than their own singularly compounded word- 
symbols. In the same individual, virtues and vices, 
apparently incompatible, are placed side by side. 
Meekness, gentleness, docihty, industry, contentment, 
cheerfulness, obedience to superiors, dutifulness to 
parents, and reverence for the aged, are in one and 
the same person, the companions of insincerity, lying, 
flattery, treachery, cruelty, jealousy, ingratitude, avarice, 
and distrust of others. The Chinese are a weak and 
timid people, and in consequence, like all similarly 
constituted races, they seek a natural refuge in deceit 
and fraud." ^ 

Various Trades and Professions of the Chinese. 

Compared with the Annamite, the Chinaman looks 
like a stronger and more robust cousin -german. The 
family resemblance is evident, in spite of the radical 
difference between the Annamite chignon and the 
Chinese pig-tail. This family likeness between the two 

' J. H. Gray. — * China. — The Laws, Afanners, and Customs of the 
people" (London, 1878, page 15 of Vol i.) 


races is specially remarkable amongst the Chinese of 
the lowest order (called bambous) who for a few sapecks 
perform the duties of porters. He is scantily clad in 
a pair of ragged breeches, coming only to his knees, 
and his naked sun-burnt body has a tint as dark as 
that of the Annamite field-labourer. 

Above this lowest class come the peripatetic sellers 
of food, and those who act as cooks to Europeans, 
who enjoy what I must own to be a well-deserved 
reputation. There are also, amongst the Chinese, boys, 
who act as waiters in the European cafes and restau- 
rants. They are generally very cleanly in their habits. 

The Chinaman is also the proprietor of the gambling 
houses and brothels. He is also a gardener, and 
grows (using human excrements as manure) all sorts 
of European vegetables in the gardens round Saigon. 
It is not possible to take a walk in the outskirts of 
the town, before sunset, without being stifled by an 
abominable stench of night soil. On the other hand, 
during eight months of the year, you can eat salads 
and vegetables which are quite as cheap as in the 
markets of London or Paris. 

Diversity in the Anthropological Characteristics 
of the Chinese. The skin of the Chinaman of Canton 
(who is generally rich) is almost as white as the skin 
of a native of the South of France. The tint resembles 
that of weak tea. The mucous membranes are a 
rather bright carmine, toned down with a dash of ochre. 
This colour is more specially found in the mucous 
tissues of the gland and the vulva. It is impossible 
to confound it with that of coloured men, the result 
of a cross between the Negro and the White, for in 
them the brown tint of the mucous membranes of the 


Negro asserts itself, and forms a marked anthropological 

At the opposite end of the scale of the Chinese race 
is the Chinaman of the South (from Fokien or Hainam), 
whose skin is of the colour of dark yellow ginger- 
bread, and whose mucous membranes have a yellowish 
red tint, almost the colour of " raw Sienna," darkened 
with a little Sepia. 

As to the size and conformation of the genital organs, 
it appeared to me that the Chinaman of the North 
closely resembled the European. The prepuce is but 
small, and imperfectly covers the gland when in a 
state of repose. 

The Chinaman of the South appears to be less vigor- 
ous, as a male, than the Chinaman of the North, but 
he is still much superior in this respect to the average 
Annamite. He also presents the same characteristic 
of the imperfectly developed foreskin ; and the gland, 
which is only half covered when the organ is flaccid, 
slips out very easily and completely when it is in erec- 
tion. I have met very few cases of phimosis, * which, 
on the contrary, is so common in the European races. 

The pubes projects, and is furnished with black hair 
slightly curly, and fairly thick in the case of the Can- 
tonese. The testicles of the Chinese appeared to me 
to be a little smaller than those of the Europeans, but 
the difference is not very marked, 

Wherever he may come from, and whatever may be 
his social position, the Chinaman shows one common 

* Historical students will recollect that it was this infirmity which 
prevented Louis XVI from accomplishing his marital duties until eight 
years after his marriage, when he submitted to the necessary liberating 
operation. (For further interesting details on this subject, see " The 
Secret Cabinet of History", p. 77 and seq. Paris, 1896.) 


characteristic — his lubricity, and his great fecundity 
with those Asiatic races to whom he allies himself. 
On that account he is a famous colonizer in times of 
peace. * 

Minhuongs. This is the name given to children 
who are the offspring of a Chinaman and an Annamite 
woman; they are whiter and better formed than the 
indigenes. Amongst them, one may often meet very 
lovely children who have not attained puberty. The 
Minhuong is as active and intelligent as his father, and 
as stubborn as his mother. He inherits from his father 
the Chinese type, and he preserves the manners, the 
religion, and the costume of the Celestial. This is im- 
portant to note. His skin is lighter, and his muscular 
strength much superior to that of the pure Annamite. 

As a generator, the form, colour, and dimensions of 
his reproductive apparatus are almost like those of the 
Chinaman, with a slightly darker shade of the skin and 
the mucous membranes. 

* To form an idea of the Chinaman abroad one must have seen him 
thirty years ago in California and particularly in the Chinese quarter in 
San Francisco. There he and his progeny swarmed; but without bene- 
fit to the country, for he does not breed citizens, but only Chinamen, 
who, as soon as they have amassed sufficient money, will sooner or 
later return to the land of their ancestors ; even their dead bodies, are 
sent back ; the transport of which is effected by Chinese insurance com- 
panies. The Chinaman is industrious, economical, persevering, avaricious, 
sober and indefatigable but devoid of moral sense, and his soul is 
profoundly debauched — there is no nobility or even dignity about him. 
Wherever he comes, it is as a devouring locust and a blood-sucker. He 
is either keeper of an opium-smoking den, of a gaming hell or of a 
brothel, combining with any occupation he may exercise, that of usurer. 
Jews, with all their astuteness, cannot compete with him, and where he 
settles, they retire. 

The United States now actively oppose their immigration, and the 
Australian colonies have been obliged to do the same. 


At Cho-lon, the Minhuongs have preserved all the 
habits, manners, and customs of their fathers, and you 
cannot get a better idea of a real Chinese town than 
by seeing Cho-lon. 

The Chinese Theatre. The women's parts are played 
by young men, who are brought up to the profession 
from infancy. To such perfection do they imitate the 
manners, the walk, and the voice of a Chinese woman, 
that it is difficult to tell them from women. They even 
go further, and play the part of women in other ways. 
We shall mention this subject in discussing the perver- 
sions of manners in the Chinese race. 

At the Chinese theatre they play tragi-comedies, 
and heroic melodramas, and you see heroines, kings, 
ministers, generals and their armies, buffoons, dragons, 
tigers, protecting genii, etc. Terrible combats often 
take place, amidst the explosion of crackers. There 
are also farces, which, in the matter of licence, are as 
far beyond the Palais Royal, as those vaudevilles are 
beyond the " moralities" of Berquin. Freedom of de- 
scription and realism are carried to the extreme. 1 
confess to having passed some pleasant evenings, when 
an obliging Chinaman was kind enough to translate 
the plot and action of the piece to me. 

For their great family festivals, the rich Chinese (and 
the rich Annamites also) engage a theatrical troupe 
expressly, and build in front of their houses a bamboo 
shed, in which they give, during at least three days, 
a performance gratis to their friends. It is more es- 
pecially at these representations that the most risky 
pieces are played, — if the taste of the host should 
happen to lie that way. 


TTie origin of the Annamiles, otherwise tailed Giao-Cht. — 
Anthropological characteristics of the race.— Genital organs of the 
A nnamites. — T^eir small size. — The child taken as a basis of 
comparison for the medical part of this subject. — The little Annam- 
ite girl and her early loss of virginity. - Woman at the age of 
puberty. — Tlte genital organs of the adult. — Franco- Anuamite 

The Origin of the Annamites, otherwise called 
Giao-Chi. ' According to the learned father Le Grand 
de la Liraye, the Annamites date nearly as far back 
as the Chinese ^ themselves, " Two thousand two hun- 
dred and eighty years before Christ, that is to say 
less than a century after the deluge, mention is found 
of the Giao-Chi, an aboriginal race inhabiting the 

' Giao-Chi, literally " Big Toe " race — a still marked feature, for the toe 
is now used like a thumb. (See Forlong's Short Stridies in the Science 
of Comparative Religions. London, 1897, page 74.) This work is a 
mine of information and deserves the attention of every searcher into 
the origins of the historic Faiths of Humanity. 

' The primordia of alL countries are enveloped in much that is 
obscure and fabulous, and it is extremely difficult for the historian to 
fix the period when civil history had its beginnings. China is no 
exception, but there can, I think, be no doubt of the antiquity of the 
Chinese Empire. It is not, I believe, rash to say that it has survived 
a period of four thousand years, without having undergone any great 
change either in the laws by which .it is governed, or in the speech 
manners, and customs of its teeming population." (Gray's "China" 

vol 1, London, 1878.) 



southern confines of the Chinese Empire, and which 
became the parent stock of the Annamite race. It 
originally formed part of the Chinese Empire, and only 
gained its independence in 1428, by the general mas- 
sacre of the Chinese. Annam has borrowed everything 
from China; language, education, literature, religion, 
law, medicine, and arts. Thus it gives birthright and 
citizenship to all the Chinese who come to trade in 
Indo-China. " 

The Annamite, it will be seen, is not a savage, on 
the contrary his civilization dates further back than 
that of the European, but he also possesses a formid- 
able number of vices, which he conceals from the eyes 
of an inattentive observer, but which you discover 
when you come to study the race closely. 

Anthropological Attributes of the Race. The 

Annamite is thus a separate branch of the yellow Chinese 
race. He is under-sized, nervous, but of a weak ap- 
pearance, often thin, and not muscular. The lower 
limbs are often bent, on account of the mothers car- 
rying their children astraddle on their hips. Their 
walk is ungraceful, and the foot is often turned out; 
the great toe is far separated from the others and 
almost opposable. Thus an Annamite can, like a 
monkey, pick up a piece of money from the ground, or 
hold the rudder of his boat with his toes. The pelvis 
is not well developed, the bust long and thin, the 
chest thrown out, and well-formed. The hands are 
long and narrow, and the points of the fingers knotted. 
There is but little strength in the muscles,— a white 
man could thrash ten Annamites with his fists,— but they 
endure fatigue very well, and can withstand the heat 
of one of the most unwholesome climates in the world. 


The skull is round, and brachy-cephalous. The face 
is a very long oval, almost lozenge shaped. The fore- 
head is low, the eye oblique, and raised at the external 
extremity, the eyelids long, and covering black pupils. 
The Annamite has excellent sight. The cheeks rise 
towards the temples ; the nose is almost as flat as that 
of the Negro, very large at the root, but the lips, 
however, are not so thick. The mouth is of an average 
size, the chin short, and the ears large and projecting. 

The teeth would be magnificent if the practice of 
lacquering them with black varnish, and the red froth 
caused by betel chewing, did not render the mouth, 
of even the most beautiful Annamite woman, frightful. 
However, you get used to it in time. 

The facial angle, in both sexes, is 77°. The beard 
makes its appearance very late, — towards the thirtieth 
year, — is short, hard, and stiff like horsehair, and grows 
only on the lips and chin. The hair is black, long, 
and very thick, it closely resembles a horse's tail, and 
often falls below the hips. The men and women both 
wear it in a chignon, raised up behind the head. The 
skin is thick ; the colour varies according to the caste, 
from the mahogany or dead-leaf tint of the peasant 
who is burned by the sun, to the pale yellow wax 
hue of the mandarin, who never goes out without an 
enormous umbrella, the mark of his position, extended 
over his head. 

If the Annamite woman, or Congai, is displeasing 
on account of her flat face, and her black mouth 
with its red saliva, it must be confessed that her body 
is well-made and well-proportioned. When once you 
are used to the shape of the face, you may often find 
women with pretty features. The hands and feet are 
excessively small, and the ankles and wrists slender. 


Annamites of both sexes develop slowly, and a 
young man of twenty does not appear to be more 
than fifteen; if it were not that the ears are not 
pierced, you would often take a youth, of from fifteen 
to twenty years, for a girl not yet formed, and the 
sweetness of the voice increases the illusion. After 
the age of twenty, the features of the man grow larger 
and harder. 

In the pubescent girl, the breast is hemispherical, 
and very regularly formed ; it hardly begins to develop 
before the seventeenth year ; for a long time it remains 
small and hard, but during gestation and the period 
of suckling increases to a considerable size and be- 
comes soft, though still retaining its horizontal position. 
The nipple is usually brown. The first birth ordinarily 
takes place at twenty or twenty-one years of age. The 
women are very prolific, and you often find families 
of from six to ten, or even twelve, children,^ half a 
dozen being the average. There are, however, few 
twins. This fecundity is ver}^ remarkable considering 
the smallness of the genital organs of both sexes. 

About the fortieth year the " periods " cease. The 
Annamite race ages very quickly; at fifty years a 
man's beard is quite white, and he is broken down 
by age ; however, there are, as in Europe, octogenar- 
ians, and even — it is said — centenarians. I must con- 
fess that I never saw one. 

The Genital Organs of the Annamites. — Their 
Small Size. A fact which struck me as soon as I 

' Dr. Alexander Wilder was of opinion that : " Every woman has 
the capacity of producing twenty or more children. (The Countess of 
Winchester and Nottingham, Anne daughter of Christopher, 
Viscount Hatton, had thirty ! —See the Saturday Magazine, February 
8th, 1834). 


began to examine closely the genital organs of the 
Annamites, was their really remarkable smallness, 
which is quite in keeping, however, with the weakness 
of their bodies, and debility of their muscles. From 
this special point of view, the Annamites may be said 
to occupy the lowest place amongst all the races we 
shall study, and if we may call the Negroes of Africa 
men stallions, it would be just as logical to call the 
Annamites men monkeys. 

They deserve this appellation in two ways, the 
monkey being of all animals the one that has the 
smallest genital organs in proportion to the size of its 
body. The monkey is also the only animal which 
masturbates intentionally ; another point of resemblance 
to the human race. The Annamite, one of the oldest 
of civilized beings, is as lascivious as the monkey. 

Annamite Children. Let us commence with the 
examination of the genital organs in infancy, which 
can be done without any offence to morals, girls and 
boys going completely naked until the age of twelve 
years. Before that age, the penis of the little boy is 
hardly the size of his little finger, and the finger of 
an Annamite child is not large. They do not arrive 
at puberty before fourteen or fifteen, which is as late 
as in Europe. At that age the penis is as large as 
the forefinger of a European. The complete develop- 
ment of the genital organs is hardly effected before 
the twentieth year, and sometimes even later. The 
foreskin of the young Annamite is of the average 
length, and does not form a cushion in front of the 
gland, as is characteristic in the Negro races of Africa. 
But the preputial ring is generally narrow. As nearly 
all the boys practise masturbation from the age of 


fourteen or fifteen years, this ring enlarges, and permits 
the free egress of the gland. 

The little girl has the vulva placed very high, 
higher even than it is in the little French girl. When 
she is nubile, which is hardly before the fifteenth or 
sixteenth year (the average age is sixteen) there is no 
great change in the appearance of these parts. 

The Little Annamite girl, and Her Early Loss of 
Virginity. In all the little girls of less than ten years 
of age I found the hymen present. After ten years the 
complete hymen is often wanting, but the genito-urinary 
organs then present certain traces of defloration, though 
much less characteristic than those noted by Tardieu in 
the case of little girls, victims of indecent assaults without 
violence but repeated during a long period. In that 
case the hymen was not usually destroyed, but simply 
rendered thinner, and drawn back, and having the ap- 
pearance of a mere ring surrounding the entrance to the 
vagina, and which allowed the extremity of a greased 
forefinger to be inserted without causing pain. 

I attribute this simply to the fact that the little 
Annamite girls are deflowered, after ten years of age, 
by the little boys with whom they play, and repeat 
together the lessons which their parents have uncon- 
sciously taught them, on account of the forced promis- 
cuity of the family in a little thatched house, where 
all the family live in common, and where mere parti- 
tions in wicker-work, the height of a man, form the 
only divisions of the rooms. 

Besides, there is an Annamite proverb of brutal 
cynicism, which I heard at Tonquin : " For a girl to 
be still a virgin at ten years old, she must have neither 
brothers nor father." 


The Annamite Woman at the Age of Puberty. 

At the age of puberty the organs assume their full 
development, and a girl is nubile at sixteen years. 
The pubes is covered with some hair, which is carefully 
pulled out, and, taken on the whole, the genital organs 
are less developed than in the French woman. The 
vulva and the vagina are markedly narrower, and much 

In the woman, and the pubescent girl, the vulval 
and vaginal mucous membranes are generally the seat 
of that disagreeable affection known as the " whites " 
or "the flowers," and which contributes, by the relax- 
ation it causes in the tissues, to dilate the organ. 
Thus, in spite of the disproportion, copulation between 
a young Annamite and an adult European can gener- 
ally be effected without too much pain for the first 
named. It is to be noted that the Congai — already 
a fully developed woman — always has the clitoris but 
imperfectly formed, as well as the little lips, which 
seldom project beyond the large. 

The prostitutes of the public brothels, who have 
fi'equent connection with Europeans, have the entrance 
of the vulva and vagina greatly enlarged. Generally, 
however, that is placed very high and the average 
depth of the vaginal passage does not exceed 2>\ or 
4 inches. It often happens that a penis of more than 
average length will cause inflammation of the womb, 
by the repeated shock of the gland against the nose 
of the tench. 

I have treated many women for this complaint, who 
have confessed that it was owing to this cause. 

The Genital Organs of the Adult. It is but 

natural that we should find in the adult Annamite a 


slender penis, in proportion to the small dimensions 
of the feminine organs. The pubescent youth of from 
15 to 20 years of age has some hair growing on the 
pubes round his member. The testicles are exceedingly 
small until the fifteenth year, and increase in size 
little by little; but at twenty the Annamite is hardly 
more formed than a European of 15 or 16, and his 
development is not complete until he is 25 years old. 

At its full growth, the penis has an average length 
of from 4 to 4-^ inches (in full erection) and a diameter 
of an inch and a quarter. They may be found 5 
inches to 5-^ inches long, with a diameter of i^ to 
if inches, but few attain a length of 6 inches, and a 
diameter of 1^ inches. I once met with a penis of 
7-^ inches; but that was on a Franco- Annamite half- 

Usually the testicles of an Annamite of pure breed 
are the size of a pigeon's egg. The pubes bears some 
stiff and bushy hair, like that which grows on their 
chins after the thirtieth year. 

Franco- Annamite Half-breeds. There are very 
few persons of half-breed, for there is not much copu- 
lation between the two races, and still less production. 
Moreover, it is a remarkable fact that the white race 
which is very prolific with the black woman, is much 
less so with the yellow woman. I cannot explain the 
cause, but content myself with noting the fact. It is 
a matter for regret, for the Franco-Annamite half- 
breed physically resembles the European. The skin 
is almost white, the shoulders squarer, the muscles 
more developed, and above all the genital organs 
larger. The face, however, preserves the indelible stamp 
of the yellow race, in the flat nose, and the oblique eyes. 


From the moral point of view, the half-breed is a 
real Annamite, as much of a gambler, thief, and liar, 
as the native. The young man I have just mentioned 
as possessing the large penis, was, I was informed, 
the son of an officer of the Expeditionary Corps; he 
had received a certain amount of education, and on 
leaving the Colony, his father left him assured means 
of existence. Women, baquan, and opium, soon ruined 
him, and he ended his life miserably. 



Woman's place in Annamite society. — Marriage. — The legal age. 
— Rights and duties of the Annamite woman. — Her character. 
— Adultery. — Its repression.— Left-handed marriages. — Love of 

Woman in Annamite Society.— Marriage.— The 
Legal Age. Although the Annamite woman is not 
nubile till about the sixteenth or seventeenth year, as 
I have already said, she may, however, according to 
the Ly-Ky, or " Book of Rites, " marry after fourteen 
years, and the man at sixteen. Any marriage prior 
to those ages is null and void. 

Marriages are arranged through the mai-dongs, or 
matrimonial agents, who bring the two families together, 
and arrange the question of the wedding portion. But 
the woman does not bring her husband any marriage 
portion, and it is he, on the contrary who pays for 
the wedding presents, brings to the common lot his 
fortune of rice fields and cattle, and often, indeed, has 
to pay a sum of money to the wife's family. 

In return he is generously presented with a tobacco 
jar, a box for betel, and a cigarette case; — he has no 
other compensation. 

Weddings are distinguished by a pastoral simplicity ; 
the future husband and wife meet, mutually offer them- 
selves to each other, and chew betel nut together. 



Rights and Duties of the Annamite Woman. 

Custom has given the Annamite woman — although her 
husband has paid for her — certain rights which the 
Frenchwoman does not possess. In fact, as she is more 
intelligent, and more industrious than the man, she 
looks after almost everything. She works constantly, 
keeps the shop, goes to market, decorticates the rice, 
picks the cotton, attends to the poultry, weaves the 
cloth, works in the sun like a man transplanting the 
rice, does the cooking, and, in sea-faring families, 
steers the boat. 

Character of the Annamite Woman. She is 

the " grey mare " of the household, but she is as lying 
and deceitful as her husband, and a gambler and 
glutton. She is as lascivious as the man, and betrays 
her husband whenever she can, if she finds pleasure 
or amusement in it. I will presently show the picture 
of the Annamite woman married morganatically to a 
European ; — he always plays the part of George Dandin.^ 

Adultery.— Its Repression. ^ The Annamite 

1 George Dandin, one of the characters of Moli^re, an easy-going, good- 
natured, rather dull-minded model of a husband. 

Moli^re, George Dandin, i. 9, 

' The eminent criminal anthropologist M. Guillaume Ferrero, says : 
" To-day the penalties enacted against adultery in the different modem 
codes are very mild ; they do not exceed a few months imprisonment. 
But if the law is mild, customs are still brutal, at least partly so ; for 
in reality the adulteress often meets with her death at the hands of her 
husband, who kills the guilty woman, and is acquitted by the jury. In 
Italy, particularly of late, the acquitals of such uxoricides have been 
very frequent : which shows that public opinion still considers death as 
a deserved punishment for adultery. Judges, jurists, and criminalists 
all protest against this barbarous custom ; but jurors are none the less, 
in these absolutions, the interpreters of public feeling, which on this 


woman does not live shut up, like the Chinese woman, 
and does not have her feet tortured into uselessness. 
She has thus every facility for making a cuckold of 
the man to whom, on her wedding day, she promised 
fidelity. At Saigon, and in the neighbouring villages, 
morals are very lax, and a man, who appreciates yellow 
women with black teeth, can have his pick. In the 
interior, I have not found much reserve in regard to 
the foreigner, especially if he is generous and discreet. 
The law, however, punishes adultery with severe 
penalties. Like the French Penal Code (before the 
Divorce Law) it excuses a husband who kills his wife 
and her paramour, if taken in the act of adultery. I 
never heard of an instance of this during my five years' 
residence, although, it may be added, such punishment 
has been witnessed by others. Archdeacon Gray reports 
a case of severe flagellation that he saw in China (the 
Annamites took their code of law from the Celestials) ; 
we give his graphic narrative in his own words : 

"In 1870, I saw a young man, apparently not more 
than twenty-one years of age, and his paramour flog- 
ged through the streets of one of the suburbs of Can- 
point is very conservative, as it is in all that concerns sexual customs. 

The legislation on adultery has therefore, up to the present, been what 
may be called a passional legislation ; that is to say one that was actuated 
by the sexual passion and jealousy of the male, which took neither into 
account the individual gravity of the fault, nor its social importance. It 
struck blindly. What basis therefore could be given to a rational 
legislation on adultery. 

To solve this problem, it is first of all necessary to examine the 
different types of the adulteress. There are two, the characters of which 
are well defined and differentiated : adultery which may be called vicious, 
and adultery that might be styled casual. For these two types the 
penalty cannot be the same." 

Le Crime d'Adultere, son passe, son avenir, par Guillaume Ferrero. 


ton in a most unmerciful manner. His arms were 
bound behind his back, and the upper part of his 
body was naked. Immediately behind him came the 
woman, apparently about thirty years of age. Her 
arms were also bound behind her back, and she was 
receiving quite as severe a castigation. They had 
been seized by the woman's husband — a play-actor — 
and two of his friends, and handed over to the elders 
of the district. At a meeting of this body, which took 
place at noon on the following day, some were of 
opinion that the guilty pair ought to be bound hand 
and foot and cast into the Canton river. But the 
majority resolved that they should be flogged through 
the principal streets of the suburb. When the flog- 
ging was over, the youth, whose name was Laong-a- 
Ying, was permitted to return to the house of his 
widowed mother. The adulteress was sold by her 
husband for the sum of one hundred dollars to the 
proprietor of a public brothel. I visited the youth on 
the day following that on which he was flogged, and 
I was shocked when I saw how fearfully lacerated 
his back and shoulders were." 

It may be remarked here that the punishment of 
an adulterer by beating him severely with rods, 
which has always been practised by the Chinese, was, 
it would appear from Diod. Sic. I, 89, 90, also usual 
with Egyptians ; while, in Rome, under Justinian, 
adulteresses, as in some instances in the present day 
in China, were scourged. 

Before passing from the subject of this chapter, 
which I do with a sense of relief, I must not omit to 
add that the crime of adultery is looked upon by the 
Chinese as more heinous when it is committed between 
persons bearing the same surname ! 


In passing it is interesting to note with Dr. Jean- 
nel ^ that under the Roman law adulterous women 
were at first condemned to pay only a fine (TiT. Liv. 
X 31), to exile (TiT. LiV. XXV, 2); later they were 
obliged to get themselves inscribed at the town-hall 
(edile) as prostitutes (JAC. Ann., II, 85) ; or to follow 
the profession of procuress (SuET. Tib., 35). Finally, 
if Paulus Diaconus is to be credited, they were obliged 
to abandon their persons to the first comer to the 
ringing of a bell in a house of ill-fame, and this 
custom was abolished by Theodorius (Paul. Diac, 
Hi'si. niiscell. VIII, 2). 

Moreover, the Annamite Code contains the following 
article: '* An adulteress shall receive ninety bloivs of 
the rattan tcpon her buttocks, and her husband may 
afterwards marry her to another, or sell her if he 
pleases, or keep her in his house." If our European 
women could look forward to receiving ninety blows 
of the rattan upon their white posterior rotundities, 
perhaps fewer husbands would be wronged. ^ 

The Annamite Code also says : ''Shop?nen zvho 
commit adultery with the wife of their master, shall 
be treated as servitors or slaves, and punislied by 
strangulation.'''' This excellent Code does not do things 
by halves. Another article appertains to shrews. 
" Every legitimate wife ivho strikes or insults her hus- 

' De la Prostitution (Paris, 1868). 

* M. Mace, the well-known ex chef de la siirete', who lately pub- 
lished his highly . interesting memoirs, relates therein, that a lady be- 
longing to a most honourable family, but hysterical, and married to a 
wealthy gentleman, used now and then to quit her home, and hire a room 
in a lodging-house, where she received friends of her husband and 
sometimes even men unknown to her, without accepting anything from 
them and, on the contrary, would treat them with money she had 
abstracted from her husband. 


band, shall be punished with a hundred blows of the 
rattan, and may be repudiated.'" It will be noted that 
it is a little cheaper for the Annamite woman to 
cuckold her husband than to scratch him or tell him 
disagreeable truths. 

Left-handed Marriages. Besides the legal union 
consecrated by the marriage ceremony, an Annamite 
is entitled to take as many concubines as he wishes, 
without any formalities ; but the children born of these 
unions have the same rights as the children of the 
legitimate M'ife. There are no distinctions as to " natu- 
ral " or " adulterine " children in Cochin-China. 

While on this subject we take the opportunity of 
quoting from Gray's valuable book on China an ac- 
count of a most extraordinary case of marriage and 
divorce that came under his notice : 

"On the 3rd of December, 1871," he writes, "I was 
present at a similar wedding between a man named 
Pang Wing and a woman named He-asing, both in 
the humbler walks of life. The marriage was solem- 
nized at the house of the bridegroom's mother, in the 
Ma-choo-pow street of the western suburb of the city 
of Canton. The mother of the bridegroom, who was 
a very aged woman, was in articulo mortis. She lay 
upon a bed in the atrmm of the house, with her feet 
towards the door, in order that her soul upon leaving 
the body might have free exit on its way to Elysium. 
The ceremony was entered upon without delay, and 
duly and properly gone through. What a scene 
ensued! When the wedding garment, which with its 
wide folds enveloped the whole body and arms of the 
bride, was removed, it was discovered that she was 
a leper ! When the fact was disclosed, a number of 


the female relatives of the bridegroom, gave vent to 
their feelings of indignation and anger in howls which 
made the welkin ring. They then turned, as if actuated 
by a common impulse, towards the bride, whose ap- 
pearance was now ghastly, to pour upon the unfortunate 
woman a torrent of the keenest invectives and most 
sweeping vituperation. The poor woman at last looked 
towards me for pity; and evidently fearing that more 
serious evils might befall her, she earnestly begged 
that she might be extricated from the embarrassing 
situation. She was at once divorced, and returned to 
her mother, who positively refused, however, to refund 
to the bridegroom the dowry which had been paid by 
him for what he justly considered a very bad bargain. 
A part of the sum was eventually returned. During 
the scene, the bridegroom's aged mother, who " lay 
a-dying," never once moved. Indeed, so motionless 
was she, that it appeared as if she had passed away 
for ever. She lingered till the following morning, 
having witnessed on her death-bed, in one brief hour, 
the marriage of her only son, and its singular sequel, 
the immediate divorce of the bride whom he had un- 
wittingly espoused."^ 

The Love of Children. The Annamite women 
are very fond of their children, and lavish on them 
every mark of tenderness. They embrace them, and 
press them against their breasts, and kiss them — the 
kissing is a drawing in of the breath through the nos- 
trils, as we do when we inhale a pleasant odour. 

Abortion is very rare. Children are not wrapped 
in swaddling clothes, and suckle until they are three 
or four years old,— if boys; and even longer if girls. 

• China (Vol. I. pages 188—9) I-ond. 1878. 


When the Annamite child can walk alone, he is al- 
lowed to run free in the sun, almost or quite naked, 
or roll in the dust, or wallow in the mire. He has — 
until he is ten or twelve years old — a pot belly, which 
contrasts strangely with his weak limbs. After he is 
twelve he wears a ragged pair of trousers, and an old 
coat, the cast-off garments of his father, and then goes 
to work, minding the buffaloes, or helping his parents 
to cultivate the rice field, or steering the sampan or 
junk. Girls and boys mingle promiscuously, — with 
the result that might be expected. That is why it is 
rare to find an Annamite girl, of more than ten years 
of age, a virgin. 


Other passions besides love in the Annamite. — Gambling. — The 
Congai and the Europeaii. — The Chinese gambling dens. — The 
baqiian, and the gaming houses of Saigon. — The passioji for 
opium. — The usual allowance of an opium smoker. — Hozu opium 
is smoked. — The resistance of the human constitution to the con- 
tinued effects of opium.— The moderate use of opium and its 
good effects. — The nattire of the pleasure caused by opium. 

Other passions besides love in the Annamite. 

I have already said that the Annamite has, in common 
with the Chinaman, a passion for gambhng. The 
coolies, and the common people, will play for their 
daily wages, and their wretched rags of clothes. The 
Congai is even more addicted to the vice than the man 
is, when her social position does not compel her to 
spend all her time at work. In the brothels, the 
women, whilst they are waiting for "clients", smoke 
their cigarettes, and devote their energies to intermin- 
ably long games. 

The European who has a Congai for a mistress, will 
learn to his cost that she, like the others, has a passion 
for gambling. Often, on a holiday, the young lady, 
dressed in her finest silk robes (three or four one over 
the other) and wearing her ear-rings, necklaces, and 
bracelets of gold and amber, will start off to spend 
the afternoon with her lady friends and acquaintances. 



She will return towards the middle of the night, look- 
ing haggard, and with her head bare, her hair dishev- 
elled, and her face and hands scratched and torn. 
Her fine robes have been replaced b}'' wretched rags. 
Her jewels have disappeared. She will recount, amidst 
sobs, and a deluge of tears, how she was waylaid on 
her return by a band of robbers, who have not onb.- 
outraged her, but entirely stripped her. 

The European consoles the afflicted damsel, and lodges 
a complaint with the police. He learns, a few days 
later, that the supposed victim had been playing haqnan 
in some den where illicit gambling was carried on, and 
had lost everything down to her shift. Then the un- 
fortunate Pholan-za (the Annamite pronunciation of the 
word Franfais) makes a mental calculation that he is 
1 80 to 200 piasters out of pocket, and he looks for- 
ward, with no pleasurable feelings to having to buy 
fresh dresses and new jewellery. He returns home 
furious, and perhaps gives his mistress a good thrash- 
ing with a rattan, and turns her out of doors. More 
often, he pays for the sake of peace, and the comedy 
is played over again very soon. 

Baquan, which is of Chinese origin, is in Cochin- 
China what roulette is at Monaco. On a table, or even, 
in the low gaming-houses, on the ground, is spread 
a cloth ; on this cloth is placed a small square wooden 
table with the four fignres i, 2, 3, 4, written in Chinese 
and French, in separate compartments down each side 
of the table. The stakes are placed on the different 
numbers, and certain special stipulations are made by 
means of a small red or yellow card, marked with 
Chinese characters, which is placed on the stake. When 
the stakes are laid, the croupier, who has in front of 


him a little heap of Chinese sapecks in yellow copper, 
shovels a number of them into a tea-cup without a 
handle, and then empties this cupful in the middle of 
the table. Another croupier, or one of the principal 
players (it is his privilege if he chooses to claim it) is 
furnished with a long wand with which he counts the 
coins into fours, pushing each four back to the heap 
as he counts it out. This is the exciting moment, and 
while this counting is going on, the third croupier, the 
banker, keeps up a monotonous chant, — the song of 
victory or defeat. At the end of the counting there 
are one, two, three, or four sapecks over, and that 
determines the winning number. The winners gain 
three times their stakes, which gives the banker four 
chances of winning to three of losing. This continues 
for hours and hours; it is quite as much a passion as 
roulette. The Chinese croupier is so skilful, that if a 
large stake is put on a certain number before the coins 
are put in the cup, you may be pretty sure that that 
number will not turn up.^ 

I have known Europeans who spent entire evenings 
in the haquans of Saigon and Cho-lon, and who often 
lost hundreds of piasters. Sometimes a rich Annamite 

* " The proprietors of these gaming-houses realize large sums of 
money, and the gamblers are frequently ruined, and, driven into des- 
perate courses, often end their days in prison. Sometimes they lose not 
only all their money, but the clothes they are wearing. On one occasion, 
passing the door of a gambling-house near the temple of the Five 
Genii, at Canton, I heard a great noise. Entering the establishment 
to ascertain the cause, I found the conductors of the games actually 
engaged in stripping the clothes off a man who had staked and lost 
them. The unfortunate man was then dressed in gunny-bags (a) and 
turned into the street." (b\ 

[a) Gunny is a strong coarse kind of sacking. [Ed.] (*) Gray's " China " 
(vol. I. pp. 387—88). 


or Chinese gambler will take the bank on his own 
account, but he must divide his profits with the real 

You are elbowed by all sorts of people in these 
establishments, and are sure to meet the boy who is 
risking the money he has stolen from his master, the 
cook who is spending the household money, and certain 
persons of disgusting morals, in search of their prey. 

The Passion for Opium. But the most terrible 
vice, or passion, is opium smoking; from which even 
the European can hardly hope to escape, for I speak from 
personal experience. When the French came to Cochin- 
China, they found the use of opium had been already 
introduced by the Chinese. The first Governor of the 
Colony made the sale of opium a monopoly, and this 
monopoly remained for twenty years in the hands of 
the Chinese, w^ho derived a considerable profit from it; 
since then it has been in the hands of the Excise. 

It seems that the kilogramme of raw opium, which 
costs the Excise sixteen shillings when they buy it 
from the English Government, is resold to the con- 
sumer at about ten pounds. It is an expensive vice. 

The Usual Allowance of an Opium Smoker. 

A tael {\\ oz. avoirdupois) costs two piasters, and in 
skilful hands gives an average of about lOO pipes. 
This makes the price come to a trifle under or a trifle 
over the penny, according to the rate of exchange of 
the piaster, which varies from ss.yd. to 4S.5d. In 
order that the opium should produce the desired effect, 
the beginner should smoke ten pipes ; with less than 
that number he would not feel much effect, but above 
that number there would be risk of intoxication. 


I have, however, known an European (an inebriate 
it is true) who, after smoking five or six pipes, fell 
into a torpor which lasted forty-eight hours. 

At the end of a few weeks, the tyro in opium smok- 
ing will already be able to take his twenty pipes a 
day — ten, an hour after each of his two principal 
meals — which he will find will aid digestion quite as 
well as a first-rate cigar would. If the smoker would 
stop at that, there would be no harm done. Unfortu- 
nately, he increases his allowance by one or two 
pipes almost every day, and soon takes his thirty 
pipes a day. This already means an expense of ;640 
a year ; but confirmed smokers soon exceed that num- 
ber, and smoke their fifty or sixty pipes a day. 

Nature of the Pleasiire induced by Opium. 

With the first pipe you feel a sensation of gentle 
warmth in the stomach, and this pleasant " velvety " 
feeling lasts all the time you are smoking. This sensa- 
tion is renewed with each fresh pipe, and when you 
have smoked from ten to fifteen or twenty — according 
as you are habituated to the use of the drug— the 
heart feels happier and the spirits lighter. All mental 
cares and physical pains (especially neuralgia) vanish. 
The body feels buoyant. You might imagine that the 
air which surrounds you is purer, and you feel a pleas- 
ure in breathing it. This effect is, moreover, most 
marked when the lungs are oppressed by the heavy, 
moisture-sodden air of the rainy season, but which, 
after opium smoking feels like the soft warm air of a 
hot bath-room. 

After that you sink into a sort of pleasant idleness, 
and your physical condition is exactly analogous to 
that of a weak invahd enjoying the beams of a radi- 


ant spring sun. The ideas of each person follow their 
natural course ; the brain teems with thoughts which 
crowd upon it, and you can easily perform intellec- 
tual work which would otherwise be beyond your 




Physical love amongst the Annamites. — Methods of copmation 
generally used. — Asiatic houses of prostitution. — The Annamite 
" Bamboo" .^The dangers of Annamite love affairs. — Gonorrhcea 
and syphilis. — The Chinese brothel. — Chijiese prostitution. — T7ie 
whore-houses of Cho-lon. — The habits of old Chinese debauchees. 
— The Japanese brothel. — Physical characteristics of the Japanese 
woman. — T7ie Annamite mistress of the European. 

Physical love amongst the Annamites. Physical 
love amongst the Annamite race is, before all and 
above all, a contact of— generally very dirty — mucous 
surfaces. Amongst no people in the world is there 
such danger of physical contamination. 

Marriage is for the Annamite (and in that he re- 
sembles greatly our modern civilized peoples) a question 
of business and the procreation of descendants, rather 
than of sentimental love. On her side, the woman 
has not generally a very great affection for her hus- 
band, but concentrates all her love on her children. 
Her morals are also very lax, and the chief care of an 
Annamite woman is not to be caught, and as she is 
more intelligent than her husband, she may be relied 
on to cflfectually hoodwink her credulous spouse. 

The most Usual Methods of Copulation. The 
bed of the Annamite is a mere hurdle of bamboos, 



covered with a flimsy cloth. Such a bed is not very 
well suited for the classical position of sexual relations, 
— the man, on the top of the woman. The French 
soldier, when he visits a woman in one of the brothels, 
and rubs his knees against the knots and wattles of 
the hurdle, calls this " going to the bamboo." ^ By 
extension, the same term is applied to the Annamite 

China finds herself actually in the same situation. 
For upwards of fifteen years she was being mutilated 

* Anthropological students will be struck with the following stiange 
habit of Australian aborigines 


In the " antbCOpOlOfliC 5er ffiatUrslDdlfter ". by Waitz-Gerland 
(vol. VI p. 715) is to be found a curious description of the customs 
of the natives of Vincent Gulf, in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, related 
by von Koehler, which is to the following effect : "■ The women are 
thin, with pendent breasts and the genitals very far backward, so that 
the men usually accomplish the act of coition from behind." In answer 
to the question whether the writer had been able to see the act of 
copulation performed before him, he replied in the affirmative, supplying 
at the same time two schematic sketches which we regret being absol- 
utely unable to reproduce (Vide: — Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie,\o\.yA\ 
[1880] p. 87). 

With regard to the facility of obtaining the edifying spectacle of a 
native couple giving a specimen of their copulative energy in broad day- 
light the bribe of a glass of gin to both parties is amply sufficient, and 
is often done by European travellers in the interior " for fun ! " 

An intelligent and very trustworthy observer, Mr. A Morton, confirms 
the above, having been several times a witness of the same. He further 
states that as soon as the act has been accomplished, the female, standing 
erect with her legs stretched apart, by means of a sudden jerk, con- 
trives to violently expel the semina she has received. It seems that 
this custom is common among the women, in order to avoid the natural 
consequences which might probably result. 


by a fearful civil war, such as the world has seldom 
witnessed, whilst at the same time foreign enemies 
attacked the country and imposed upon this proud 
nation the most humiliating conditions, and it has 
only just now suffered the most signal and stinging 
defeat from a comparatively insignificant neighbouring 
power. The Flowery Kingdom continues to march with 
giant strides from downfall to downfall, and very 
powerful changes must take place before it can rise 
again out of the slough into which it is now plunged. 

The cause of this situation is the illimitable moral 
corruption which infects every grade of Chinese so- 
ciety. Immorality and venality have cast their poisoned 
breath over the people and their rulers, from the 
humblest constable to the Emperor on his throne, and 
have destroyed all energy, all force, all nobility and 
all manliness in this sunken nation. 

The task I have undertaken is to expose this situa- 
tion in all its phases, in the hope of filling up a great 
void in the history of prostitution. The author of the 
work entitled: Work and the Poor in London, says 
at the beginning of a note on prostitution in this vast 
Empire (page 129): "China presents to us a rich and 
interesting field for research; if our information were 
complete, there would not be a single country in the 
world about which so interesting a study could be 
made regarding the system of prostitution. Unfor- 
tunately the negligence or the prudery of travellers 
has been such that we possess but very superficial 
knowledge on the subject." 

The task is difficult, because the pen often refuses 
to trace the gross immoralities that the writer would 
like to expose, and modern languages are reluctant 
to describe practices which so deeply offend our notions 


of modesty ; we shall therefore endeavour, as mu ch as 
possible, in our expressions, to keep within the limits 
of morality and of propriety, and as for words which 
could with difficulty be accepted in our tongiie, we 
shall have recourse to Latin expressions. 

Pierre Dufour, in his Histoire de la Prostitution, 
divides it into three classes : 

Hospitable prostitution . 

Religious prostitution. 

Political or legal prostitution.^ 

Neither of these three divisions can be applied to 
Chinese prostitution. Hospitable prostitution, with the 
exception of one solitary example, is unknown in 
China, and religious prostitution has never existed. 
Williams in his Middle Kingdom says: 

"A remarkable thing in the Chinese idolatry is that 
it does not admit of the divinisation of sensualism, 
which, under the name of religion, has caused to be 
maintained for so long a time the existence of infamous 
ceremonies and disgusting orgies, and which in so 
many other idolatrous countries, weaken the intelligence 
and sully the heart of the devotees. There is neither 
a Ven7is nor a Lakshini in the list of the Chinese 
divinities; no lamentations in honour of Thamnus, no 

^ In certain countries, when a traveller arrived, it was customary to 
give him the largest hospitality, including not only board and bed, but 
also a bed-fellow, the wife, sister or daughter of the host, and the 
host would have felt much hurt had his offer been rejected. The 
custom still exist in some parts of India. This is hospitable prostitution. 

Religious prostitution e.xists to this day in India, in the shape of the 
Nautch girls, attached to the Hindoo temples, and was formerly known 
in ancient Egypt in the temples at Thebes and Memphis. 

Political, or legal prostitution is simply that known in most European 
countries as a licensed legal institution, subject to strict government 
supervision and control. 


parades in the temple of Mylitta, no indecent cere- 
monies in honor of Durga Puja. The Chinese priests 
have never made such things matter of religion, and 
even in their pagodas, they have never kept nautch 
girls as in the Indian temples, nor courtesans as at 

Their speculations on the dualism of the nature of 
Yin and Yang have never degenerated into an abject 
veneration of the li7iga or yoni of the Hindoos, or for 
Amurn-Kevi, of which coloured representations are still 
to be seen on the ruins of Thebes. Although in word 
and action it is a debauched people, the Chinese have 
however never attributed vices to their divinities, and 
the adorers of e?ijoyme7tt (by antiphrase) have never 
been led, from depravation to depravation, to be placed 
at last in the sacred paths beneath the protection of 
a goddess. 

Their mythology contains few accounts of the amorous 
adventures of their divinities, such as swarm in the 
histories of the Greek and Hindoo deities, and which 
render them so obscene. 

And yet legal prostitution exists in China where it 
is regulated by severe rules. 

The Book of Laws of the dynasty of Tsing, actually 
reigning, with its latest modifications, is however silent 
on this subject; nor do we any more find anything 
in the other books specially devoted to this subject, 
and the Chinese themselves assert that with them pros- 
titution is not subjected to any legal disposition wliat- 

Asiatic Houses of Prostitution. Here, as in 
every civilized country, women arc to be had at all 
prices, and to suit every taste, from the Annamite 


"bamboo" to the horizontale ^ who lives in her own 
rooms, and is the kept woman or mistress of some 
rich Asiatic, and who will condescend to bestow her 
favours upon you, — but never without being paid. 

Though the European courtesan was for a long time, 
a rarity in the Colony, there has never, even during 
the period of the conquest, been any scarcity of native 
women. Here, as elsewhere, the wife and daughter 
of the vanquished became the spoil of the victor. 

We may divide the Asiatic houses of prostitution 
into three very distinct categories. 

The Annamite "Bamboo." We will use the 
name "bamboo", which the soldiers have given it. 
Here there is no luxury; a hut open to all comers, 
the "hurdle," and upon it a cloth, some stools, and 
a few lamps giving out a fetid odour of cocoa-nut oil. 

In such a place, you would expect to meet with 
only old prostitutes, but it is quite the contrary. You 
often find girls hardly yet nubile, of only sixteen or 
seventeen years, who have been sold by their parents, 
or mistresses. The average age of the inmates is 
scarcely more than twenty years. The costume of these 
ladies is the Annamite costume of the lower classes; 
a cotton robe. But they always have a silver necklace 
and amber ear-rings, bought out of their first earnings. 

When she first comes to the house, the "bamboo " does 
not know a word of French, and is unversed in the 

* " Horizontale " is one of the many names in French appHed to 
ladies of easy virtue. It refers, of course, to the position assumed by 
them in the carnal act. As proof of the decadence of European morals 
— French being the tongue still spoken in all European Courts — we give 
a list of synonyms used to designate women who sell their love-favours, 
and believe it will considerably interest the student and philologist. 
(Vide page 87.) 


rites of Venus, but you may rest assured she will 
quickly learn to prattle amiable speeches, and make 
ultra-erotic proposals in her own sabir, for she is in 
a good school to learn. She does not, however, earn 
much money as long as she is in the establishment, 
for the proprietor of the brothel takes nearly all she 
receives. The tariff at the " bamboos " is not high ; it 
varies from tenpence to a half piastre. For a piaster 
you can have the right of sharing the bed of the young 
woman for the rest of the night. 

It must be confessed that, to those who have just 
come to the Colony, the Congai is not attractive. In 
the first place there are the blood-red froth caused by 
betel-chewing, and the horrible appearance of the teeth 
covered with black lacquer. This last, however, is 
with her a mark of beauty, as is also the hairless pubes, 
which also tends to disgust the European. The Congai 
scorns the European woman, who, she says, has teeth 
like a dog, and hair like a beast. I have often heard 
the natives make this remark. Another cause of 
disgust is the smell of the Congai, which is sut generis, 
— an awful mixture of the stenches of rancid cocoa-nut 
oil. sweat, and the filth of a dress w^hich is never 
washed for fear of wearing it out. This smell chokes 
you, and damps even the strongest venereal desires. 
You are a long time getting used to it, and some 
courage is needed, but at last you get habituated to 
it, especially if you have the luck to light upon a 
young girl with a well-formed body, and whose teeth 
are not yet lacquered. 

The Dangers of Annamite Love. — Gonorrhoea 
and Syphilis. It would be enough if the Congai were 
content with being merely repugnant. But, in spite 


of the most careful medical examinations, it is far from 
safe to have anything to do with her. In the first place, 
she is almost certain to have the " flowers, " and she 
gives her adorers a gonorrhoea very difficult to cure, 
especially if they are at all weakened by the climate. 
Syphilis is also very common amongst this race. It 
is not within the province of this work to give the 
etiology of this disease. I simply remark that it has 
taken deep root in the country, and the want of rational 
treatment has caused its ravages to spread. The fol- 
lowing remarks from Dr. Schlegel's small tract on " La 
Prostitution en Chine", will give an idea of the 
seriousness of this subject: 

" The curse attending debauchery, syphilitic disease 
with all its complications, prevails largely in China. 

The flower-boat girls, as a preservative against 
disease, pour out, in honour of tlie gods, one half of 
the first glass of wine they drink with a guest. How- 
ever, the eifects of these diseases are less serious than 
with other nations, which may perhaps be attributed 
to the generally lymphatic temperament of this people. 

Nevertheless, on the other hand they are far more 
injurious to the general health, by reason of the deplor- 
able medical treatment employed by the Chinese doctors. 

There are doctors in China who devote themselves 
specially to the treatment of these diseases. They are 
in the habit of placarding on the wall, near to their door, 
the remedies they have employed to cure their patients, 
the same as some dentists exhibit a quantity of the 
teeth they have drawn. They boast of their science 
and of their remedies in pompous and bombastic ad- 
vertisements pasted on the walls. 

The wording of these advertisements is embellished 
with expressions of the most inconceivable obscenity. 


We have seen some, among others, in Canton, in 
which were depicted in tints the difference in colour 
between the blood of the eel, of the ox, of man and 
that of a maiden after being- deflowered. Joined to 
this was the description, and clients were informed 
therein, of the artifices employed by prostitutes, bawds 
and brothel-keepers. 

Another placard advertised pills to preserve from 
syphilis and gonorrhoea ; a third gave a description of 
leprosy, together with the advice of doctor N. N. . . . 
who knew how to cure it perfectly. 

Besides Syphilis, there are other diseases to be met 
with in China which have long since entirely disappeared 
from Northern Europe, for instance, leprosy, in all its 
forms, and elephantiasis; the former, during the first 
stage of the malady is called via focng, and in the 
final period goes under the name of lai foeng (in the 
Emoi dialect tliai ko). The Chinese attribute the origin 
of this disease to a criminal assault contrary to nature, 
committed by a troop of soldiers on the dead body 
of a very beautiful woman who had been the partner 
of one of their emperors. The symptoms of this malady 
are horrible. A few days after the inoculation pricking 
begins to be felt on the face and hands, and the 
unfortunate sufferers are continually slapping their face 
and head, in the belief that they are covered with flies. 

The evil soon gets worse, the breath becomes fetid ; 
food is no longer digested, and the body is covered 
with pustules. The spaces between the pustules become 
wrinkled and like leather. The hair of the head and 
the beard fall ofi^, and the hair that may still remain 
turns white; the face is covered with hard and pointed 
tubercles, sometimes white at the top and greenish at 
their base. Pustules break out all over the hands, the 


articulations, the chin and the knees; abscesses are 
formed on the cheeks and on the chest ; the teeth turn 
black ; the skin becomes thick and cracks, whilst 
pustules by hundreds grow bigger along the borders 
of the crevasses. It is during this culminating period 
of the malady that the patient is at last released from 
his torments by death. 

This disease is supposed to be incurable, although 
it is asserted that certain Chinese physicians know how 
to limit the eruption it produces to certain parts, for 
instance, to the buttocks and the thighs. 

As soon as any one is affected with it, he is of 
course driven out of society, so that all that is left 
him to do is to take refuge like an unfortunate pariah 
among those who are similarly afflicted, and to earn 
his liveHhood by begging. 

This malady is very frequent at Canton, because 
there it is aggravated by the dampness of the dwellings 
and the bad ventilation of the city ; at every step these 
unhappy creatures are to be met covered with livid, 
brown, or blackish pustules, supporting themselves with 
difficulty by the aid of a stick, or else, to the disgust 
of the passer-by, squatting down in the midst of the 
markets and public squares. 

However, as a general rule, these unfortunates, by 
reason of the misery in which they exist, descend soon 
enough into their grave. 

The lazarettoes existing in Canton are unable to 
shelter or to feed these unhappy beings. There are 
two hospitals for lepers ; one is in a village at a few 
hours distance from the city, on the banks of a river, 
and where lepers only are permitted to reside. 

Notwithstanding their malady, they marry among 
themselves. The children, during the first eleven or 


twelve years of their existence are not attacked by 
the disease, which does not touch them until later. 
The attempts we made in isolating these children gave 
no satisfactory results ; as a matter of course the malady 
can only increase instead of diminishing. 

The leper hospital situated near to the town can 
contain three hundred patients, and this foundation has 
to subsist on an annual income of 300 taeh (1500 
florins), a sum naturally insufficient. 

The Chinese pretend that, by means of the following 
trial, it is possible to recognize the presence of the 
leper virus in the blood, even when the infection dates 
from one or two days only ; it is a known fact that 
on lighting a man's face by means of the flame of a 
bundle of tow steeped in alcohol, it assumes a cadaverous 
hue; the Chinese pretend that the leprous infection 
then makes it appear of a fiery red. 

We have had no occasion to verify this fact, but it 
deserves in any case to be tried. 

Elephantiasis is also very prevalent at Canton, and 
in the province of Chusan it is still more common. It 
appears that in China this affection does not always 
go under the same denomination, but that the name 
changes with the different symptoms which present 
themselves. For instance, at Emoi, the malady mostly 
affects the scrotum, hence it is there called toa laan pha 
(big scrotum); if it descends into the legs, it is called 
Kha-ta (dried-up legs). It appears that it is then more 
serious, for there is a proverb which says: Khaatii 
Kha-ta. boe Koa thsa (hast thou Elephantiasis, go buy 
thee a coffin); in Canton they call it tai scha thai ^\% 
foot of sand). 

Syphilis reigns particularly along the coa.sts, where 
it was imported by European sailors. 


The Chinese who know it well, are careful to isolate, 
for the exclusive use of Europeans the women with 
whom they will no longer have intercourse. This goes 
indeed so far, that when the British troops besieged 
Canton in 1857, the Chinese mandarins drove all the 
prostitutes of the environs who were tainted with venereal 
disease, towards the city; in order to infect the bar- 
barians as they called them, which plan succeeded 
only too well. 

Some idea as to the dangers of this disease may be 
obtained, for statistics^ show that, during the first 

* The question of staying the progress of this disease in our Indian 
Army has from time to time considerably stirred public opinion. LoRD 
DuNRAVEN deserves the credit of having recently braved the country 
with a clear statement of the position. In two powerful speeches in 
the House of Lords. See the ''Times" of May 15th and i8th, 1897. 

His lordship, in an able speech, quoted the following stubborn facts, 
from the official report drawn up by the military medical authorities for 
the Secretary of State : 

In 1887 there were 362 soldiers per 1000 admitted to hospital 
infected with syphilis, in 1895 the proportion had increased to 537 per 
1000; 5"/o of effective troops had been sent home invalided from tliis 
cause; 45 per 1000 were constantly in hospital, under treatment; i3*/o 
were rendered unfit for service; finally, out of a total eflfective British 
force of 70,000 men in Indian, 20,000 were known to be contaminated, 
at the same it is noted that the virulence of the disease has greatly 
increased. But the most appalling fact is that out of 13,000 expired 
service men returning every year to England nearly one half are more 
or less syphilitic, and liable, if they marry to transmit the taint to their 

Compared with other European armies the British troops hold the 
worst place in this connection : 

27 per 1000 are infected in Germany; 

44 „ 1000 „ „ „ France; 

43 „ 1000 „ „ „ Russia; 

65 „ 1000 ,, „ „ Austria; 

71 „ 1000 „ „ „ Italy; 


twenty years of the occupation of the country, it was 
the cause of half the cases in the hospitals, that is to 
say, as much as marsh-fever, cholera, dysentry, hepa- 
titis, and the special diarrhoea of Cochin-China, put 

But let us conclude the description of the Annamite, 
"bamboo." If she is pretty and intelligent, as soon 
as she has learned to make herself understood in her 
polyglot sabir, has acquired certain small talents of a 
special kind, and has put aside a few piasters, she 
leaves the brothel. She is pretty sure to find a hus- 
band, and the couple install themselves in one of the 
villages round Saigon, and the disreputable husband 
lives on the proceeds of her prostitution. They conceal 
their real character by pretending to do a small trade 
in fruit and various other productions. 

In the morning the woman goes to the market of 
Saigon, but instead of returning home early, as a 
honest tradeswoman should, she visits the Europeans 
during the hour of their siesta. We shall shortly 
notice how she works. 

The Chinese Brothel and "Flower Boats ". The 

first Chinese harlots came from Singapore, about i865 
or 1867. The Chinese brothel is cleaner than the 
Annamite "bamboo". 

The women attract their customers in this way. They 
sit before the door, under the shade of the veranda, 

and among the British home troops : 

204 PER thousand! 

We would advise English Non-conformist Respectability, which strenu- 
ously opposes all preventive measures, prayerfully to study these figures 
fraught with the terror of gloomy portent. 

Dr. Jeannel {De la Prostitution, page 158, Paris 1868) says that 
England dishonours Liberty and belies her common-sense through her 
misplaced tolerance of the scandals of prostitution. 


and gathered round their ma?na, the proprietress of 
the brothel. Inside the house, near the door, is a kind 
of pubHc saloon, where the "clients", seated on sofas 
of rattan or bamboo, select the girl they like best, 
and pay their court to her, in the presence of the 
coloured print of the female Chinese Buddha (the 
Goddess of Reproduction, represented as a huge female 
with enormous breasts) before which a lamp is always 
kept burning as an offering. 

Having made your choice, you ascend to the first 
floor, by means of a staircase like the ladder of a 
mill, fixed on the back wall of the house. On this 
floor there are a lot of Chinese beds, almost as wide 
as they are long, and modestly covered with dark- 
coloured mosquito curtains, which conceal the temporary 
loves of the occupants. 

The opium smoker will always find a pipe there, 
and someone to prepare it for him, many of the girls 
having been instructed in the art. Few of them smoke, 
however, though sometimes the mavia does. 

" No license is granted" says Schlegel "to the owners 
of Flozver-Boats or of houses of ill-fame, but they are 
permitted freely to carry on their trade. The Flower- 
Boat girls are of modest appearance when in public. 
In their dress it would be impossible to distinguish 
them from honest women, and the non-initiated would 
hardly be able to discern between a respectable woman 
and one of these " gay" girls. They show themselves 
in a proper and decent manner. So that it is only 
after a lengthened stay in China that the foreigner is 
able to recognize a certain unrestraint in their manner 
and dress. 

Their profession does not cast an indelible stain upon 


them, for they may be taken as concubine by a man 
of the world, and then rise again to an honoured po- 
sition. This rehabiUtation is called fsoeng-liang (follow- 
ing the good path). 

The houses of ill-fame are not relegated to any fixed 
place; they are to be found everywhere, in the gayest 
and finest quarters of the town, their blue Venetian 
blinds displayed, and on the rivers are the floating 
houses of prostitution, the Flower-Boats, which mask 
the houses built here and there on the banks. 

They have however to put up with the extortions 
of the Mandarins, and under the most trivial presump- 
tion of harbouring criminals their inhabitants may be 
mercilessly driven out. But these establishments are 
none the less a source of profit to the greedy function- 
aries who rule in China, for although they have to 
pay no regular taxes, the Mandarins take advantage 
of the first favourable occasion to extort large sums 
of money from their owners. 

The actual condition of prostitution in China is abom- 
inable. Although the criminal laws forbid to their 
functionaries the frequentation of these houses under 
pain of sixty strokes of the bamboo, it is quite common 
to see them in the evening wending their steps to- 
wards the Flower- Boats. 

The merchants and private individuals, in a word, 
all those who can afford to pay, follow this example. 
Decked out in their richest raiments, they may be seen 
going there, even in broad daylight. Immorality 
prevails to such an extent that fathers are not ashamed 
to hold the most obscene conversations in presence of 
their children. This has naturally the most detestable 
influence upon them. Young Chinese of fi-om 7 to 8 
years of age may be heard talking with consummate 


knowledge of things the most obscene, and the filthiest 
expressions are ever in their mouths. As they advance 
in years so grows their contempt for women, for as, 
according to Chinese custom, any intercourse between 
the sexes is almost impossible, the young Chinese lads 
hardly ever see any but the very lowest class of women. 
For them, woman is but a thing, a business article, a 
being necessary only for propagating the species and 
for the satisfaction of the passions. 

Compared with the conduct of the men, that of the 
women in China is far more reserved; we may how- 
ever, have occasion, during the course of this study, 
to show some facts which may cast a shade upon this 

The houses of ill-fame in China are of two kinds: 
those that are on land, and those on the water. The 
first are to be met with everywhere, the others exist 
only along the banks of the rivers. 

Those situated on land are called Tsing-lao (blue 

These establishments are sumptuous and in no way 
inferior in richness of decoration to the mansions of the 
most wealthy merchants and to the palaces of the gov- 
ernors. We find in a Chinese novel forming part of 
the " Collection of tales of the present Time and of 
For7ncr Days'" entitled: " Tke Business in Oil that had 
been done by the Pretty Girl." the description of the 
front of one of these houses: 

" Before him was a house which he examined atten- 
tively ; the door of this habitation was overlaid with a 
coating of gold-coloured lacker, and made of elegantly 
worked bamboo ; within it there was an enclosure painted 
Vermillion, flanked by a rampart of fine-leaved bamboos, 
so that it was impossible to see into the house." 


This building which here served as a Blue House 
does not seem however to have been erected for that 
destination, for we read further on : 

"While the attendant was pouring out wine, Tsin- 
tschoeng asked him : ' who resides within this bamboo 
door painted with golden lacker ? ' The servant replied : 
' It is the country-house of the signior Thsi, but it is at 
present occupied by Mrs. Wang-Kioe. ' Tsin-tschoeng 
continued: T have just seen a young lady enter a pal- 
anquin. Who is she?' 'It is a celebrated courtesan 
named Wang-ivei, she previously dwelt outside the 
Yoen-Kin gate, but as her lodging was cramped and 
small, a son of the signior Thsi, who is her lover, has 
let this house to her for six months.' " 

This shows us that in China, people feel no shame 
in letting out their country-houses to hire for purposes 
of prostitution, for the continuation of the novel shows 
us that several Flower Maidens lived in the house. 
These establishments in Canton and in Amoy are 
slightly different. Contrary to the other buildings, they 
are generally two stories high ; the interior arrangement 
is purposely very irregular. The upper story is par- 
titioned off into little rooms, each of which has its 
female occupant, and nearly in the centre is the saloon 
common to all, embellished with the richest furniture 
and paintings. Another thing to be remarked is that 
the ledges of the roofs of these houses, in Canton, are 
not horizontal like those of the other buildings, but 
are sloping. The reason of this particular architecture 
has not been sufficiently explained, although it has been 
attributed to the influence of local superstition {/oe^ig 
schoet) ; when the house stands alone, it is surrounded 
by a gallery closed by Venetian blinds ; if it is situated 
between other houses, the gallery only exist in front. 


These blinds are painted blue, whence the name of 
tsmg lao or blue houses which has been given them. 
At about seven o'clock in the evening the blinds are 
lifted, and the whole place is brilliantly lighted up, 
while music and song resound through the building. 
In the novels these establishments still go by the 
name of the Brilliant Field of Flowers, and the Club 
of the Mandarins'' Ducks. Other less choice names 
are given to them, too numerous to recapitulate. The 
streets in which these establishments are situated go 
by such flowery names as the following : Flower Street, 
the Willow Avenue ; each house has also its name ; for 
instance in Amoy we find the following : the Saddle 
of Straw, the Eighteen Chairs, the Horse's Pillar, the 
Church of Rome, so named because the house had 
formerly been used as a chapel for Roman Catholic 
missionaries. The second form of establishments of this 
kind is constituted by the Flower-Boats, or as they 
are called hoa shing. The biggest of these are called 
at Canton, Wang loa; there are besides the sha Kivoe, 
or Gauze Tents, and the fa-thao-moen. Gate of the 
flowery Frontage. They may be compared to gigantic 
Venetian gondolas. Their length ranges from 60 to 
80 feet, with about 1 5 feet in width ; the poop is ta- 
pering and carries a platform made in such a manner 
as to enable one to go from one boat to another, 
when, as is generally the case, they are anchored close 
together; in this case, each boat is solidly warped to a 
zinc cable by means of strong ropes which surround 
it entirely from stem to stern ; the cabin in the elevated 
poop aft is a sort of ante-chamber, preceding the main 
saloon, which occupies about one half of the entire 
length of the boat: they are separated by panels of 
trellis work or by wainscoting. To the right and to 


the left, near the entry, are two couches for the use of 
opium smokers. Finally there is a third saloon, or bed- 
chamber, which is completely hidden from the view of 
the guests by wooden panels ; the windows on either 
side may be closed by curtains and shutters. Above 
the entrance there is an ornamental three pointed front- 
age, artistically carved in wood and richly gilt all over ; 
the rest of the wood-work is also cut out with art and 
ornamented with the most brilliant colours ; the floor 
of the main saloon is covered with the richest carpets, 
and European lamps, with pendant crystal drops are 
suspended from the roof. The furniture consists of a 
large round table, some candelabras and chairs, the 
whole being of beautiful rosewood, or ebony inlaid with 
marble. These seductive boats produce at night a 
magical effect when they are brilliantly lighted up, and 
no one who has once visited Canton can forget the 
sight. The Flower girls do not usually live in the boats. 

The Chinese never go there alone, but from ten to 
twenty acquaintances agree together to hire one of these 
boats for the evening. For the larger ones they pay 
as much as from four to six pounds a head sterling. 

For this sum the owner of the boat supplies the 
lighting, the supper and as many girls as there are 
guests. He must also bring musicians and the girls 
have to entertain the guests with song and conversa- 

At about nine o'clock in the evening the supper is 
served up, and the guests all take their seats round 
the table, each one with a girl at his side. During 
the last service little games are played, among which 
the most frequently in usage, is that known to the 
Italians under the name of Morra. At the end of the 
entertainment, at about 1 1 o'clock each couple goes 


away separately to little boats, built on the same model 
as the big one, where they pass the night. 

The Chinese Prostitute. She generally comes 

from Southern China. She is short, and often plump, 

and her skin is almost yellow, the Colour of weak tea. 

Her breasts are rounder, and the muscles of her thighs 

and legs more developed than is the case with the 

Congai. All the hair of the pubes is carefully pulled 

out, ^ The vulva and vagina are rather larger than 

those of the Congai. 

' Dfpilation, This reminds us of what Maxtial says : — 
Pritnum igitiir pathicis studiose exstirpandi erant pili de toto cor- 
pore. (a) Depilahant Idbra, brachia, pectora, crura, virilia, ante omnia 
vero Icevigabant aram voluptatis pathiccs, podicem, 
Martialis, II, 62 : 

Quod pectus, quod crura tibi, quod bracchia vellis. 

Quod cincta est brevibus mensula tonsa pilis. 
Hoc proestas, Labtene, tuas, quis nescit? amicce. 
Cui proestas culum, quern Labtene, pilus. 
Idem ix, 28 : 

Cum depilatos Chreste, coleos portes 
Et vultzirino mentulatn parem colle 
Et prostituis Icevius capuc cults. 
Nee vivat ullus in tuo pilus crure. 
Purgentque crebrae cana labra volselloe. 

(a) Excepto quidem capillo. Hor. Ode X. 

(The translation of the above is given at page 91.) 

Again, Quintillian tells us : 

" Igutur ut vein et comam in gradus frangere et in balneis per- 
potare, quamlibet hoec invaserint civitatem, non erit consuetudo, 
quia nihil horum caret reprensione. 

(QuiNTiLL. Instit. Orat. I, 6.) 

(Vide page 92 for the transl. of this passage.) 

The student will find a most interesting chapter expressly devoted to Depi- 
lation in '^ Marriage-love and IVoman amongst the Arabs ; otherwise en- 
titled in Arabic the Book of Exposition, etc." PARIS, Carrington, 1896. 

Vide also the end of the present vol. 


But the greatest difference between them is, that 
the Chinese woman is very cleanly in her habits. She 
washes herself all over every day, and her clothes, 
which are white, or of a light hue, are clean and neat. 
The Chinese woman does not stink like the Annamite. 
When we add that she does not chew betel, and that 
she has pretty, white teeth, which are carefully kept, 
it will be seen that she is more like a European woman 
than the Annamite is. 

Unfortunately, for those who like voluptuous pleas- 
ures, she has one immense fault, — her frigidity. Copu- 
lation, with her, is accomplished mechanically; it is a 
commercial transaction which brings her in a piaster, 
and that is all. 

The chief care of the Chinese woman is, above all 
things, not to disarrange the elaborately constructed 
edifice of her hair, which is arranged for her once a 
month by the Chinese hair-dresser. Imagine an enorm- 
ous chignon, of the form of a conch-shell, decorated 
with bows and " corkscrews " of ribbon, and kept together 
by cosmetics and pomades, in a most extraordinary 
and absurd shape. It would not be considered an act 
of gallantry to take down the hair of a Chinese woman. 
When she lies down, she places her cJiignon on a little 
table, hollowed out in the middle. 

Never expect from a Chinese girl any refinement of 
voluptuousness ; — she is incapable of it. She only 
knows how to lie down and take you passively. If 
need be, she wiU consent to visit the European at his 
own house, if, in addition to the regfular price of three 
piasters, he will pay for a carriage there and back, 
for, to her little deformed feet, walking is painful. 
Regarding this peculiarity, it has been asserted, and 
I fancy I have read it in some book of travels, that 


the object of the compression of the Chinese woman's 
feet was to develop the constrictor muscles of the vulva 
and the vagina. I must confess that I have rarely- 
met with this vaginal peculiarity. In my opinion, it 
depends rather on the obesity of the woman, and there 
is no need to go to China to find this result. All 
European women who are rather stoutly built, and who 
have the pelvis and the thighs well developed — even 
old prostitutes— are generally tighter than small thin 
women. Brantome remarked this, long ago. ^ 

Life of the Flower-Boat girls. The education of 
the " Flower-Boat " girls is conducted on a systematic 
plan. In nearly all cases they are children that have 
been stolen, bought of poor parents, or furnished by 
houses of ill-fame ; during the first six years they are 
brought up with great care ; towards the age of seven 
or eight years, they are made to keep in order the 
rooms of the elder girls; they are richly dressed and 
taken to the Flower-Boats, where they hand the tea 
and narghilehs to the guests. 

Towards the age of eleven years they begin to 
learn to sing and to play the lute or the guitar. If 

* "y'ar oitv compter a A/adafne de Fontaine- Chanlandry dicte la 
belle Torcv, qite la reine Eleanor (a) sa maistresse, estant hahille'e 
et vestue paroissoit une tres-belle princesse, com?ne il y en a cncor 
plusieiirs qtii I'ont veue telle en nostre cour, ct de belle et riche 
faille; viais, estant deshabille'e, elle paroissoit dn corps une gc'ante, 
tant elle I'avoit long et grand: mais tirant en bas, elle paroissoit 
une naine, tant elle avoit les cuisses et les janibes courtes avec le 

Brantome, Vie des Dames galantes, (page 207 of the Edit. Biblit>- 
th^que Gauloise, Paris, 1857). 

(a). La reine Eiionore, soeur de Charles Quint, hit marine .1 Fran<^ois I, 
devenu veuf dcpuis quelques ann^es, lors de la si<jnature du traits de 
Cambrai. (Translation of the above at the end of the chapttr-page.) 


one of these children shows natural dispositions, she 
is also taught to write, to count and to paint. This 
goes on until the age of 13 or 15 ; then they must 
endeavour, by their artifices and coquetries, to turn 
the head of some rich gentleman. If they are lucky, 
their keeper sells them for a large sum in money, 
from £,']o to :C\2$. 

This happens at the earliest at the age of 1 3 ; this 
is called : trying the flower ; if she is 1 4 years old 
they say: regttlate the Jlower, and at 15, \\.\^'. gather- 
ing the flower. The same as with the Romans, 
that day is a festival with the Chinese. 

The entire population of the other lupanars come in 
the morning to express to her their good wishes ; these 
rejoicings last from a fortnight to three weeks. The 
novel previously quoted also gives a description of 
them. After an interval of a few days she is sold a 
second time ; the individual who devotes her in this 
manner to the lupanar is called the sKpercalctilator. 
If the girl is of more than ordinary beauty she is left 
at rest for another year, to have her honour sold 
again a second, and sometimes even a third time. 
She then bears the name of Ki hang liao ti niu 
niang, a virgin twice over. 

After that lapse of time she belongs to the staff of 
the establishment and goes by the name of tschang 
Ki. The prices she demands are sometimes incredibly 
high, and particularly in the central provinces of China 
large sums of m<^ney are expended to buy them. 
The novel above quoted mentions 10 ounces of silver 
(about ;^4 — 5 as the price for one night). However 
in Canton seldom more than ;j^2,io/- is ever paid for 
a beauty of the first order. The most profitable cus- 
tomers to the Canton girls, are travellers from the 


provinces, or as they are called in the energetic dia- 
lect of the district: '' schau toek kivai", the wicked 
devils of the vwuntaiji. Like provincials coming to 
(Paris, they come here to lose fortune, health and 
honour. Ignorant of all the tricks of the brothels, 
they are robbed in all possible ways. In the Flower- 
Boats, the stranger is attracted and seduced, sometimes 
by two or three girls together, which never occurs 
with the Roues, in whose presence in public these 
girls observe the strictest decorum. A girl, already 
sharp, is presented to him as a virgin ; after a rich 
supper, well qualified with strong wines, he is con- 
ducted to a small sleeping boat, where a little eel's 
blood completes the illusion : 

Flavcc aiiguillcr sanguinis ejacularis ejusquc brae- 
carum hiatum oblinc, says a procuress, in an erotic 
story, to a timid Flower-Boat girl. 

The next morning, the unfortunate and much aston- 
ished man has to pay an exorbitant sum. This goes 
on as long as the money he brought with him lasts. 
As soon as that is dissipated, should he venture to 
show himself again, he is received coldly and with 

Lucky indeed for him if, instead of an amorous 
girl, he has chanced upon a harpy greedy for money, 
and that, though impoverished in purse, he wisely 
returns to his home. But these men from the country 
are often so giddy, to employ the Chinese expression, 
that they get into debt, take to gambling or even 
resort to theft in order to spend the money thus so 
badly earned in the low pleasures of the lupanar. 

All the girls attached to an establishment of this 
kind are the absolute property of the owner, a lc7io or 
lena (male or female bawd) who are known respectively 


under the name of Woekoei and Paorl or Roeipo. 

The girls call the lena, mother, and address each 
other by the name of sister. The matrons of other 
establishments are their audits, and the latter call the 
them nieces. The most vulgar names given to the 
master and the matron are Piao thao and Ba thao, 
chief of the house. 

These matrons exercise an almost uncontrolled au- 
thority over their girls. They can beat them, and mal- 
treat them, and if they should by mischance kill one 
of them, the river is handy to receive her body. Or 
else she is buried in the sand without a coffin or 
funeral ceremony. There being no complainant. Jus- 
tice knows nothing about it, and makes no enquiries, 
even if the body is seen floating down stream. The 
fate of these unfortunate creatures is truly miserable; 
they must give all they earn to the matron, who has 
only to supply them with food and dress. It some- 
times happens that one of these girls retains something 
in secret, or that their gallants add something to the 
tariff price, which she puts by in order to be able 
later to purchase her emancipation. But should the 
matron suspect such a thing she may search the girl's 
room in her absence and take possession of all she 
can find. If the girls are refractory, the whip and the 
stick are at once brought into play, and they are 
flogged unmercifully. It several times happened that 
one of these matrons tied a cat inside the pantaloons 
of her victim and then beat the animal. 

It is not only by their owners that these unfortu- 
nate creatures are maltreated; the guests also, when 
they chance to be in a bad humour, or fancy them- 
selves offended by them, are not ashamed to raise 
their hands and strike them. 


When the bloom of their youth has departed, their 
lot becomes worse and worse. The big firms sell 
them to inferior establishments, where they go by the 
name of wall-fiowers. 

Falling still lower, they are called Piao and other 
similar names; at Amoy, they are then called little- 
girls, or brown holland, when they do not belong to 
a fixed establishment, circulators or walkers, thit the 
lang and loe lioe. Finally they take the name of 
thsan-hoce and pai-lioc, which corresponds to the Latin, 
word Blitida, contemptible women, ^ The contemptu- 
ous expressions used by the Romans : scrantia, dis- 
gusting; scrapta, vile, are to be met with in Amoy in 
the words tsap dzi lo thao e dzio k?ing {trivii scrantia). 
A very common nickname is also applied to them : 
tschoen-tao-ma (inoculatrix). 

Schlegel says: " Cases of girls going astray are, 
in fact almost unknown, and when they do occur it 
is only upon the promise of a secret marriage ; this, 
in the eyes of the Chinese, no longer constitutes a 
faux pas, a secret marriage being to them as valid 
as a public one. 

The man who, without very good reason, abandons 
a girl to whom he has been united in secret marriage, 
is in most cases condemned to death by the magistrates ; 
further the priests threaten him with terrible punish- 
ments in hell. 

* Blitea et lutca est inerctrix, nisi quoe sapit in vino ad rem suam. 
Plaut. True. 4, 4, i. 

At Canton, these vomen .^re generally called Lo queue or Jifan ugao. 

They more usually p;o by the name of hoa nut (the daughters of 
flowers), on account of the flowers with which they adorn themselves, 
and fao thao (painted faces), because they are addicted to that adorn- 


However, adultery is more frequent in our days, 
although the opportunities are very difficult to be met 
with on account of the strict separation of the sexes. 

Most women, under the pretext of pilgrimages 
to obtain posterity, seek for consolation from the 

In order to make good this assertion, we shall seek 
in the Chinese tales themselves a fact w^hich will 
clearly show us the existence of this depravity. 

In the ninth part of the Treasure of Wisdom, a 
collection of celebrated law-cases for the use of magis- 
trates, is to be found the following account: 

" In the canton of Yoeng Schun, district of Nau- 
Ning, province of Koeang-Si, there is a cloister called 
The magnificent Water-lily. It contains a hall, called 
The Hall of the Children and Gra7tdchildren, at the 
sides of which are a row of cells. The tradition says 
that when women came there to pray for children 
their prayers were always granted. 

" It was in every case necessary to bring rich offerings, 
and the women who came there to pray were required 
to be at their best time of Hfe and in excellent health. 
They had previously to fast and to abstain from carnal 
connection ; then, if the oracles were favourable they 
had to pass one night in the cloister. Most of these 
women related having dreamed that Buddha had 
fecundated them ; others said that an Arhan, one 
of the eighteen disciples of Buddha, had made them 
pregnant; others on the contrary related absolutely 

" Some of them never returned again to the cloister 
after having once passed a night there, whereas others 
returned there several times running. 

" As the cells were carefully closed, and that the 


husbands and the parents remained on guard at the 
door, all this was generally believed. 

" An inhabitant of Fo Kien, named Wang-ten, was 
appointed governor of Canton. On hearing of these 
miraculous events, he had some suspicions which he 
wished to clear up. He ordered two loose women of 
the town to go to this cloister, dressed in their finest 
clothes. Their instructions were the following: 'Should 
any one approach you during the night, do not repel 
him, but stain his tonsure, without his perceiving it, 
with red or black ink.' 

" The next morning, at day-break, he posted a detach- 
ment of soldiers around the temple, and went in him- 
self to make his inspection. All the priests, about 
one hundred in number, hastened to come forward to 
greet him. They all uncovered their heads in his 
presence, and Wang-ten then perceived among them 
two who bore red and black marks on the bald part of 
their heads. He ordered them to be immediately seized, 
and put into chains, and asked the two prostitutes to 
relate the facts with all the circumstances. They said : 
' After vespers had been rung, two priests approached 
us. They gave us a parcel of pills to regulate the 
menses, and to engender children. ' Wang thereupon 
ordered all the women who had gone there to pray 
for children, to be taken to prison. They all denied, 
but further enquiry showed that, like the two gay 
women, they had also been given pills to engender 
children. He then set them at liberty, but ordered the 
soldiers to enter the temple. The frightened priests 
did not dare to resist and were bound together two 
and two. He had the place searched to discover the 
means resorted to by the priests to approach the women. 
It was discovered that underground secret passages 


gave access to the cells behind the beds. It was im- 
possible ever to find out how many women they had 
thus dishonoured." 

The conduct in the women's convents is far from 
being as it should be. They are inhabited by girls 
who, betrothed in their youth to a man whom they 
have later refused to marry, have taken refuge in 
these convents to escape the authority of their parents, 
and by girls that have been abandoned by their lovers. 

They are seldom led there by religious convictions. 

In the cloisters they enjoy greater liberty than at 
home, for they owe obedience to one person only, the 
abbess. There is very great debauchery in these 
convents, and that to such an extent that there 
is a Chinese proverb which says: The nun is the 
wife of the monk, and the monk is the slave of the 

Chinese novels often contain examples of the mis- 
conduct which reigns in these convents: for instance, 
among others, in the erotic novel of the Tower of Jasper, 
in which is related the history of the life of a nun, 
the details of which are to such a degree indecent 
and immoral, that Boccaccio has never written anything 
like it. Notwithstanding the severe penalties meted 
out to debauched priests or nuns, the authorities generally 
content themselves with from time to time closing the 
convents, and obliging the priests, the monks and the 
nuns to resume the life of the laity. 

The severe laws against adultery, for both man and 
woman, are the cause of the rareness of cases of 
seduction and adultery. These impediments have even 
led women to the infamy of the vice against nature, 
a vice known to the Romans under the name of 
fascinum. The instrument used by them is made of 


soft leather, or of thin horn, and stuffed with cotton. 
In China it is called la siang Koeng (the great Lord) ; 
at Emoi and its neighbourhood, and in the entire 
province of Fokieii, it bears the name of Kak tshia 
(the chariot of horn). 

The Houses of Prostitution of Cho-lon. Though 
the Chinese houses of Saigon are used by Europeans, 
those of Cho-lon, on the other hand, are almost exclu- 
sively reserved for the Chinese. In some respects 
these latter resemble certain " society houses " in Europe. 
You must be ready to put your hand in your pocket, 
and you are not admitted unless accompanied by some 
Chinese habitue. 

As in France, there are luxurious saloons, with 
divans, sofas, mirrors, and pictures painted on glass. 
The girls, richly dressed, are sent into the saloon to 
receive the visitors. Even the stereotyped phrase 
" Toutes ces dames an salon,'' is employed, — in Chi- 
nese, of course. ^ If you choose to order it, you can 

• Travellers on the Continent will recollect that in the gay resorts of 
this kind a similar call is invariably used From the German's : 
"Die Dainen mogen herunter kominen" to the Spaniard's: — " AVnaj 
al salon que hay caballeros (or "■ scnores que se csperan", there 
is not much to choose. In certain swell Madrid and Barcelona 
" houses " however, the " salon" is generally qualified by " azul " 
or " verde " according to the pre-dominant colour by which it is dis- 
tinguished, several distinct parties being sometimes entertained in different 
rooms at the same time. In Spanish places of a lower class, polite- 
ness is thrown to the winds and the brutal call is then "• Pittas al 
salon (or macarelle) que hay cabrones que se agitardan." 

Parisian establishments of a superior character appear to manage these 
things better, — the visitor's step on the staircase setting in motion an 
artfully contrived, concealed electric bell which warns the demoiselles (?) 
of his approach and before he has had time to reach the landing the 
patronne of the place is waiting to wish Monsieur, bonsoir, and usher 


be served with a copious repast in the Chinese fashion, 
and of which birds'nest soup, tripang-, preserved ginger, 
and ginseng form the base, helped out by other strongly- 
spiced dishes. You hear the distant sounds of Chinese 
music, for the performers are placed in another room, 
in order that they should not disturb the loving couples. 
They play melancholy, languishing airs, which, it would 
appear, give the Chinese erotic thoughts. The girls 
are tender and cajoling ; they assume poses likely to 
stir up the senses of the old Chinese bankers, who 
are not easily excited. They are hardly more expert 
in the art of Venus, however, than their rivals of 

Fate of the Chinese Prostitute. These women 
end their lives most miserably. When their bodies 
have been ravaged by horrible diseases, so as to render 
them improper for the continuance of their trade, they 
seek to earn a livelihood as street needlewomen. 
Everywhere in Canton, these hideous creatures may 
be seen, often with an artificial nose made of paper 
and big spectacles, sitting at the street-corners, with 
a basket full of old clothes and rags at their side, ready 
for a few cents to mend the old garments of passing 
soldiers and coolies. 

Very seldom do any of them have a happier fate. 
Should a girl take the fancy of one of the habitues 
and if she purchase her freedom, she may then become 
his second wife. 

In this case, her life is a most happy one, and if 
it happens that the legitimate wife has no son, whereas 
she has one, her position becomes an honoured one 

him into a reception-room after a quick, businesslike glance that has 
measured her man, before he has uttered a word. 


for then the husband often promotes her to the 
rank of legitimate spouse, on the death of his first 

Others again, who, by means of large sums of money 
they have earned, and by their intelligence have raised 
themselves above their condition, purchase their free- 
dom at a heavy price, varying from ^^250 to ;iCiyoo, 
and choose for themselves a legitimate husband among 
their adorers. 

Such cases are however very rare, for these girls 
seldom possess money enough to redeem themselves, 
and to provide against a rainy day and to economise 
is not among their virtues. 

The only hope of most among them is to be able 
one day to keep a brothel themselves. One of these 
Flower-Boat girls, being asked what she most desired, 
replied that she would be the happiest of women if 
she were taken by somebody as wife or as concubine; 
but she added : " I shall never have such luck, and 
shall deem myself most fortunate if I can one day 
commence business on my own account." 

Female Infanticide. The dread of such a miser- 
able fate is the cause of another crime that prevails 
among the Chinese, and for which we have often 
blamed them : the drowning of new-born female infants. 
The misery which reigns in China in years of scarcity 
leaves no option to the Chinese but to sell their 
daughters or to drown them. 

We have seen what is the lot of the girl that is 
sold. What wonder then that a father with a sensible 
heart should prefer to make the little innocent babe 
die before it has suffered or breathed, rather than to 
abandon it to crime or to an abominable fate. In 


his ignorance he conforms to the maxim : " Better 
to kill the body than the souiy Better let this poor 
innocent perish than to allow it to gradually die 
slowly of cold and hunger, as it so often happens in 

Nor must it be forgotten that in Europe there are 
numerous institutions which receive these children, 
whereas in China the instability of capital makes it 
impossible to establish such institutions on a large 

The debauchery contrary to nature so prevalent in 
the North of China is also an obstacle to the multi- 
plication of the female population. At Canton, where 
this disgusting vice is more rare, so also are there 
fewer cases of infanticide. 

During a stay of eleven months in this part of China, 
during which we visited daily even to the narrowest 
arms of the river, we never encountered but one infant 
corpse floating on the water, whereas during the same 
period we. found the drowned bodies of six adults. 
The child might therefore have been drowned by ac- 

Vicious Habits of Old Chinese Debauchees. I 

have not seen what I am about to describe, but I 
heard it from a Chinese friend, B***, who farmed the 
opium monopoly, and who had often assisted me in 
obtaining admission to these houses. I do not think 
he wished to impose on my credulity, and this ia what 
he has many times told me. 

When the senses of an old Chinaman are so worn 
out that all natural means of excitement cannot arouse 
his enervated genital organs, he has recourse to the 
following expedient. 


The old Celadon ^ is accompanied by a servant or 
strong coolie, who copulates with a woman in his 
presence, and then retires. In France, the spectators 
of this kind of operation are generally invisible to the 
performers. At Cho-lon such delicacy is unknown, 
and the amateur ^ assists at the scene, all the phases 
of which he follows with interest. 

' Celadon, a character in the romance of Astre'e who, langourous and 
insipid, is always sighing after his shepherdess {Littre). 

To the ''Barbsr's Tale of his Sscond Brother" {'' Nights" ORIG. 
EDIT, vol, I. page 327) Burton makes a short note on the ''concealed 
spectator " trick resorted to in Paris, and adds that " it was put down 
when one of the lookers-on lost his Hfe by a pen-knife thrust into the 

This, was written in i?85. But the voyeur or spier is still the dread 
of those who frequent the Parisian '.' bordels", and a French army-officer 
has assured me that special pecuniary inducements are held out to young 
and vigorous soldiers to visit these places of " amusement " for an object 
that may be easily devined. We could say many startling things under 
this head, but this work not being a History of Prostitution we reserve 
our information for some future book. 

^ In the French, men of this stamp are called Gagas, a most significant 
word. Littre derives it from gdter (to spoil), hence gdtetix, " a spoiled, 
or ravagcr." The colloquial meaning, however, is one who has spoiled, 
or ruined, his health by excesses with woman-folk ; such persons generally 
suffer from that pitiable malady — loco-motor ataxis, although of course, 
this complaint is not alivays the consequence of licentious, and uxorious 
practices. — Dubut de La Forest in his work. La Pathologie Sociale 
(Paris, 1886), has drawn a jwwerful picture of a man reduced to this 
state. He traces the "gaga" through the following stages: — (*) infantile 
manias and motor disorders of phonation — (°) Illusions — (') Erotomania ; 
(*)Loss of the Moral sense — (*) Period of Calm — (') Exposition of one's 
private parts under irresistible impulse — (') Grave troubles of speech — (•) 
Idiocy; Outrages against modesty — OHallucinations—C") Desire to commit 
incest — (*') Fresh period of calm — ('*)Cure. 

M. De La Forest prophesies " that an apparatus will one day be 
invented in the form of a thermometer adapted to the skull, fixed and 
graduated, "not to the circumvolution, for there are thousands of them ", 
but to the five regions corresponding to the senses. We could thus 


When once the agent has retired, well and duly- 
paid, the old debauchee is left alone with the woman, 
who is still resting upon the field of battle. Then the 
man approaches, and eagerly receives in bitcca sua, 
the liquid which runs e vulva foemince. ^ 

This habit, it is said, is widely spread. I have no 
intention to discuss here this strange freak of eroticism, 
I simply note the custom. 

Chinese agents of prostitution. We have now 
to speak of three kinds of despicable agents of prosti- 
tution who, even in China are looked upon with much 
contempt. We mean the proxenets, the indicators and 
the traders. The first of these, called in the Amoy 
dialect hum lang po, are to be met with in the middle- 
class. In the Chinese novel : Tsiaiig hing ko (Finds 
his pearl-embroidered vestment), this profession is carried 
on by an old woman dealer in jewelry. In the novel : 
"The house of the singing phoenix", there are two 
maid-servants who bring about a meeting between the 

measure the degree of Touch, Taste, Smell, Hearing and Sight, and 
would perhaps, also discover the kingdom of the Sixth sense {Je 
royaume du stxceme sens), THE GENITAL — the only one which interests 
nature." (Introduction xvil). 

' This revolting habit of the libertine has not escaped the intellectual 
activity of the age, as may be seen by the following bibliography : 

Diderot, La Religieuse, roman d'line devote a l' amour leshique ; 
Theophile Gautier, Afademoiselle de Matipin ; Feydeau, La Comtesse de 
Chalis ; Flaubert, Salembo ; Kraflft-Ebing (op. cit. p. 76) adds: Belot, 
Mademoiselle Giraiid, ma femme. In German literature KrafTt-Ebing 
also quotes: Wilbrand : Fridolin's heimliche Ehc; Emcrich Count. 
Stadion, Brick und Brack odcr Licht in Schatten, and Sacher Maseeh, 
Venus in Pelz. Among other authors who allude to tribadism are : 
Zola, in Nana and in La Cure'e, and quite recently in Italy, Butti, in 
his novel " Vautomna" . 

Lombroso, "" La femme criminelle ; (Paris, 1896, p. 401), 


Student Ki and dame Sioee-ngo. The individuals 
belonging to the second category, called in the Amoy 
dialect Kiah ang ting, or Khaan Bee, Khaan Rao, 
Khaan moei soh, wait at the landing-stages and public 
places, lantern in hand, to show young men the way 
to the palaces of debauchery. 

These are the adductores, condtictores, admissarii 
of the Romans. The expression Khaan Dee answers 
precisely to what the Roman peasants understood by 
the word admis sarins : he who leads the stallion to 
the mare or the bull to the cow. 

To this last class belong also the traders, Gee po 
or Hoan sao po. Notwithstanding the heavy penalties 
attached to this traffic, they buy young children or 
steal them in order to sell them underhand to houses 
of prostitution. Entire bands of men and women are 
to be met with united together for the purpose of 
trading in children on a grand scale. 

There are also attached to the staif of the Blue 
Houses attendants, called at Amoy Phang Phoen tsoei, 
who bring water for foot- washing, and pang ho en e, 
pipe-bearers; the last and lowest are the toeng pha 
tschioe, or bullies, whose office is to appease quarrels 
among the customers, and if necessary, to turn them 
out, and the hia hoen tsoei e, or preparers of alum, 
who boil the alum-water which the Flower-Boat girls 
use for their secret toilet. 

The conventional signs employed by the Chinese 
are as numerous as the furtivce notos used by the 
Romans. The Chinese call them Secret marks and 
most of the courtesans are very expert in their inter- 
pretation. The forefinger rubbed beneath the nose 
signifies that a man finds a woman to his taste and 
that he would like to make her more intimate acquain- 


tance. The same finger gently rapping the tip of the 
ear means : No ! The right hand slapping the back 
of the left is also a refusal. 

Other signs consist again in closing the two fists, 
leaving the two forefingers free, which are rubbed one 
against the other, as if sharpening two knives; or else 
laying the two hands flat one upon the other, and 
shaking them like castagnettes. 

The most infamous of these signs and one which is 
only employed by the very lowest of coolies, is to shove 
the right forefinger in and out of the closed palm of 
the left hand. 

By means of signs also the price is settled and the 
hour of rendezvous indicated, or else the fan is em- 
ployed, certain movements of which are made to con- 
vey the desired information. 

Of course aphrodisiacs are not wanting in so depraved 
a country as China, and we shall give a detailed 
account of them later. 

The composition of these mixtures is even still un- 
known to Europeans; we only know that musk, opium. 
Ginseng (the root of Panax quinquefolia) and dried 
shrimps reduced to powder form the principal ingre- 
dients. Phosphorus and cantharides seem to be un- 
known to them. 

The Chinese " Flower-Boat " girls also believe that 
the addition of a small quantity of menstrual blood to 
the wine or tea presented by them to a client is a 
sure way of causing him to remain faithful. Whether 
this proves a greater attraction to European visitors 
we do not know; at any rate people who go to these 
places should be on their goiard. We now pass on to 
a third class of Asiatic rnaison dc passe, of which, 
however, there is not so much comparatively to be said. 


The Japanese Brothel. The Japanese brothels 
are situated in the same street as the Chinese ones, 
often even side by side. But the Japanese girl does 
not sit at the door touting for custom. The house is 
quiet, and there is no one watching from the balcony, 
over the veranda. There is not even a reception- 
room on the ground floor ; you must ascend to the first 
floor, were you find a room shaded by sun-blinds. ^ 

* Something analogous exists, or did exist some years ago in Holland. 
In Rotterdam, there exists a certain street, the " Sandstraat", leading 
down to the Boompjes, or port. All the brothels are obliged to be 
located in this street, on either side of which are none other than these 
hospitable establishments, which are besides conducted with the strictest 
decorum : the entry, with folding-doors, gives directly upon the street, 
and as soon as night has fallen, and the lamps are lit, these doors are 
lifted off their hinges, and replaced by heavy curtains which, while 
keeping out the cold, enable the police outside to take note of what is 
going on within and to be able to immediately interfere efficaciously in 
case of any disturbance. 

On entering, the visitor finds himself in a spacious hall, at the other 
end of which is stationed an orchestra. To the right and left are placed 
little round marble tables, with comfortable benches and chairs as in any 
cafe. The centre of the hall is kept free for dancing. 

The new-comer is invited to take a seat and a small glass of Schiedam 
is presented to him by a young girl, in graceful Dutch national costume, 
who, first touching it with her lips, hands it to him, with the amiable 
salutation of, " IVelkom, Mynheer" welcome. Sir. He is not charged 
for this, it is a present from the house. He then sits down, and usually 
calls for something on his own account; and observes what is going on. 
If he did not know where he was, he would simply imagine to be in 
some decently conducted dancing-saloon. A number of handsome girls 
walk two and two round the h.ill in the intervals between this music; 
but they scrupulously refrain from addressing themselves to any of the 
numerous clients, until one of them is beckoned to come. Acquaintance 
is then made and, after perhaps a waltz or two or a polka and some 
refreshment, may be brouglit to a satisfactory conclusion in the upper 
part of the building, to wliich access is obtained ihrougli a door at the 
back of the orchestra. 

From one end to the other of the Sandstraat the conditions are the 


On prostitution in Japan Selenka ^ writes: 
"The vile things that have become usual in some 
of the Tea-houses near the port, are in no way na- 
tional to the Japanese, and have their origin only in 
the avarice of certain greedy exploiters. On the other 
hand, the crowd of professional demi-mondaines in the 
towns constitute" an established caste, sanctioned by 
ancient habit and custom, for the reason that poor 
parents often sell their daughters to houses of ill-fame. 
The unfortunate girls submit without murmur to their 
fate, the deeply-rooted Confucian theory : " Pious 
respect towards parents ", makes their daughters laws. 
In the more important Japanese towns there are generally 
special streets devoted to this trade in which are 
luxuriously mounted establishments, called Yoshiwarc. 
on the ground-floor of which are congregated the 
ladies of the place, who, richly clad, guitar in hand, 
are exposed behind a sort of wooden grating to the 
male visitors. As these girls have received a certain 

same, the different establishments varying only in richness of decoration 
and comfort, from those near the port where go sailors, stokers and 
trimmers and others frequented by boatswains, ship-carpenters' and 
pursers' mates, to more respectable saloons, the resort of captains, first 
and second mates and sometimes a well-to-do stevedore. Higher up are 
the aristocratie establishments visited by ship-owners, shipping and 
insurance agents, some passing tourists, but more particularly by certain 
wealthy; ponderous and lecherous old Dutch burghers, who go there 
regularly to absorb good Hollands, smoke long pipes and practise bad morals. 

The writer of these lines remembers seeing, to his great astonishment, 
an entire marriage party ; bride and bridegroom, parents and family, gravely 
enter one of these dens, and proceed to enjoy themselves ; the bride 
seemed to be quite at home, and enquir)- elicited the astounding fact 

' "Einil und Leonore, Sonnige M'clten, Ostasiaslische Reiseskizzen, 
Wiesbaden, i8q6. 


amount of education, they as a rule, find a husband, 
even if he be of inferior rank, and after marriage are 
esteemed as honourable women. They are themselves 
rarely responsible for the life they lead. 

One day in Kioto I saw a young girl in the midst 
of a great crowd. She had just been " dressed up" ; 
she wore rich varied tinted silk dresses, had a perfect 
halo of golden pins in her head-dress, and was patrolled 
through the streets, in order to draw the attention of 
the men to her. This young lady novice in gallantry 
did not seem at all dissatisfied with her fate. 

Physical Characteristics of the Japanese Wo- 
man. She is stronger and more massively made than 
the Chinese, or Annamite woman and her extremities 
are not so fine ; the feet are never deformed ; and she 
always wears sandals or babooches, like the Turkish 
woman. The skin is whiter, the general appearance 
of the body is like that of the Chinese woman, but 
the pubes is not always deprived of its hair. In that 
case it is scantily furnished with a little black curly hair. 
The mucous surfaces of the vulva and vagina are 
lighter than in the Chinese woman, and much lighter 
than in the Annamite woman. The general hue, a 
yellow red, is nearly like that of a Spanish woman. 
The genital parts are also much better developed than 
in the Annamite woman. The breast is also more 

Ploss states that: — the exterior genitals of Japanese 
women present many particularities. Wernich found 
the following in his gynaecological department in 
Yeddo : 

" The larger lips show little stoutness of development and even among 
young people they lack firmness. The vulva stands out very prominently 


which may perhaps be attributed to the custom among the women of 
the lower classes of making water in a standing position. The vagina 
is short, Wernich never found it to exceed 2% inches in length. He was 
never able to perceive a hymen. The vagina did not in general 
appear to be particularly wide. Congestion and erection of the portia 
vaginalis took place during examination much more frequently than it does 
among European women." 

It is said indeed that the genital parts of Japanese 
women are actually so narrow that medical men are 
appointed to choose out of the prostitutes those which 
permit the coitus with the more powerful virile member 
of the European. Whether this information is founded 
on fact deserves further consideration. DOENITZ, who 
was for many years an employe of the Japanese 
government, and introduced police supervision of pros- 
titutes into Tokio declares the above assertion to be 
inappropriate. The vaginas also gave convenient ad- 
mission to the medium size of the speculum usually 
employed in Europe. Besides, the Europeans residing 
in Japan usually choose their concubines themselves 
and do not receive them from the hands of the 

In a collection of Japanese aquarelles in the Royal 
Avthropological Musezivi in Berlin, known under the 
name of Physiognomical Studies, which were painted 
by Maruyama, the most celebrated Japanese artist of 
the last century, there is one representing a naked 
woman squatting on the ground, with the motto — 
which Prof. Dr. Grube kindly translated for us. — " A 
woman who has sinned in lust." Her Schamspalte 
(shame-slit), is depicted wide agape; the clitoris, as 
well as the smaller lips, stand out prominently, the 
larger lips, on the contrary, appear small with but 
little stout development. 


MORACHE says that among Chinese women the larger 
lips are more largely developed. ^ 

The mode of dressing the hair is less complicated 
than that of the Chinese woman, and much resembles 
that of the Spanish ladies. The hair is always lifted 
off the forehead, and twisted at the back of the head 
into a chignon, through which is stuck a shell comb. 
But, as with her two Asiatic sisters, the hair is as 
stiff and hard as the hair of a horse's tail. The colour 
is a beautiful blueish black, which sets off admirably 
a red or white flower. 

The Japanese woman is very fond of European per- 
fumes, and drenches herself with ylang-ylang, eau de 
Cologne, etc. 

She takes a bath every day, and washes herself 
before and after copulation, as the European prostitute 
does. The Annamite woman disdains this wholesome 
practice, for she is as much afraid of water as a cat. 

In spite of her rather flat nose (though it is not so 
flat as that of the Annamite woman) the Japanese 
looks attractive by the side of the Congai, and even 
of the Chinese woman. It might be said of her, that 
she has a pleasant ugliness. She is more willing than 
the Chinese woman in performing the genital act, but 
is not so lascivious as the Congai who has been well 
trained by an experienced Pha-lan-za. 

Of all the women of the Extreme East, the Japanese ^ 
approaches the nearest, in all her physical and moral 

' Das Wei'b, vol. I, p. i6o. 

* To show the extreme difference between the ideas of sexual moral- 
ity of the Japanese and those of Europeans, it may be noted that it is 
frequently the custom in Japan for a woman to get married only after 
having passed a year in a tea-house (which corresponds witli Euro- 
pean houses of prostitution) and to whom the nakedness of women (or 
of men) has nothing shocking and promiscuous bathing, without any veil 


qualities, to the French woman ; she is very gay, and 
loves to chatter and laugh with those who can under- 
stand her funny mixed jargon. 

She has but one fault, and that is an abominable 
habit of thickly painting her face with white lead 
and Chinese vermilion, so that it is dangerous to kiss 
a Japanese girl on the cheeks in the European 

But Japanese, Chinese, and Annamite women, all 
branches of the same stock, have one common char- 
acteristic ; they do not kiss with the mouth, but sniff 
through the nose. 

If the reader is anxious to know what these priest- 
esses of Venus charge, we may inform him that they 
are the most expensive of all. They ask two piasters 
for an hour of private flirtation, and six piasters for 
an entire night, whereas, for this last price, you could 
have half a dozen of the poor girls of the x\nnamite 
"bamboo". These last, too, never dare to show them- 
selves in public in the daytime, outside the brothel, 
whilst the Japanese girl, accompanied by one of her 
comrades, often takes a zidore (an open carriage) and 
goes for a drive. 

She is often to be met in front of the tiger's cage, 
or the orang-utan's hut, at the Botanical Gardens. 

The Annamite " Daylight Whore" is a real plague 

whatever is freely indulged in. As a fact any Japanese woman may 
prostitute herself witliout at all lessening her value as future wife. 

In Japan pornography is unknown, beaiuse the people consider cerUiin 
things as simply natural, and call them by their names, without intending 
harm; indecency being more in the ihouglit than in the intention. A 
clever Japanese once said to a European tra\ellei : " how cvil-rninded 
you Europeans are, you come here and witness things ive hold as quite 
natural, and then go and describe what you term our immorality. 

/f474 7 


to the European bachelor. She introduces herself 
into your house between noon and one o'clock. The 
officers, and functionaries, who are returning from the 
mess, or the restaurant, meet on their road, in the 
streets a little removed from the centre of the town, 
groups of women gathered round the table of some 
itinerant restaurateur, or seated in the shadow of a 
tree. It is not necessary to enter into conversation 
with one of them ; a gesture, a sign, a glance will 
suffice, and even if you are passing rapidly in a car- 
riage, you will soon be followed home. 

The woman who prowls about the town has gener- 
ally been in the "bamboo", and like the maritiite of 
Belleville, she has her souteneur, who protects her 
from the police officers. These policemen are natives, 
for, in the hottest hours of the day, it would be dan- 
gerous for a Frenchman to be out in the streets; they 
can be easily bribed to shut their eyes. 

When once she is in your house, the daylight whore 
begins to boast of her knowledge of erotic matters. 
"Me good whore, ^7ie know much Phalan-za.'" She is 
not indignant if the European, disgusted by her hor- 
rible odour, proposes sodomy. She will even forestall 
him in making the proposal, and if that is not agreed 
to, will suggest the kneeling instead of the horizontal 
position; in fact there is no practice that she will not 
lend herself to. 

It is a simple question of price. She will usually 
begin by mentioning in advance, the price she asks 
for such a kind of pleasure. 

We sincerely pity the poor wretch, who, on the 
strength of the medical certificate she shows him (usu- 
ajly borrowed from some woman in the " bamboo") 
sacrifices to Venus in the natural manner. Syphilis, 


or gonorrhoea at the very least, will teach him that 
Annamite " flowers" have thorns. 

When once she has been in your house, the day- 
light whore will try to come again, and, though you 
may refuse her admittance, she will manage to elude 
the "boys", or the orderlies. Some day, when, after 
a good lunch, you are sleeping soundly during the 
siesta, she will enter, and you will not hear the stealthy 
foot-falls of her light feet. She has noticed on which 
nail you hang your watch, in which drawer you keep 
your purse. Everything portable of value will disap- 
pear, and you will never again see your gold watch, 
which she has sold the same day for a mere trifle to 
the Chinese goldsmith and jeweller, who will perhaps 
give her in exchange a pair of cheap ear-rings. 

The Annamite Mistress of the European. x\s 

may be imagined, the European, disgusted with the 
" bamboo", and the daylight whores, often prefers to 
have a woman for his special use. If he should pre- 
fer a virgin, he may purchase from her parents, for 
some twenty piasters, a young girl of fifteen or six- 
teen, selected from those whose fate it would ulti- 
mately be to be sent to the "bamboo." 

He will be under the disagreeable necessity of having 
to break in a young savage, who knows nothing. It 
is true that he may nurse the delusion that he possesses 
a virgin, but, as we have seen, there are not many of 
those to be found. Her brothers and cousins have 
already tried her. There are also various annoyances, 
especially in the interior of the country. Besides the 
"portion" to be paid to the parents, there is — which 
is much more serious — an entire outfit to be bought 
for the "bride", for she is handed over to you scantily 


clad in a ragged, dirty, cotton chemise, that once was 

If you are an officer, or official of any sort — an 
bng-quan — your mistress must wear a costume suited 
to your rank, and you must buy for her the complete 
outfit of a woman in a good position in life, which 
includes, white, blue, and black, silk chemises; blue, 
red, or green trousers ; a huge, round hat with silk 
ribbons to keep it on, and Chinese varnished shoes. 
Total cost: thirty piasters. But that is not all. She 
must have two bracelets, one in gold, and one in sil- 
ver; two gold buttons for ear-rings; a necklace in sil- 
ver, and one in amber; a silver leg bangle, and a 
gold finger ring. Cost: 120 to 130 piasters. In short, 
at the lowest estimate, you wil have spent 150 piasters 
in purchases, and that with the marriage portion, and 
the " wedding" expenses, will quickly mount up to 200 
piasters, that is to say ;440. All this expense is in- 
curred, and after all you only possess a demi vierge, 
who is a little fool, only fit to eat, drink, and sleep, 
until she learns the way to the baqua^i, and then she 
will let herself be robbed of everything. 

Men who know what they are about, prefer to take 
the mistress of some friend or colleague, who is leaving 
the colony, and thus get a woman who has had some 
training, requires no outfit, and understands a little 
French. But, whether you take a novice, or one who 
is broken in, )'^ou have, even at the best, a spouse 
whose fidelity is on a level with her morality. She 
will sham virtue before your European friends and 
acquaintances. She will boast to you how she refused 
to listen to those who tried to seduce her. But she 
takes her fill of pleasure with Annamite rascals, who 
are ready and willing to deceive a PJia-lan-za. Some 


day or other, the officer or official, who believes he 
possesses a pearl of virtue, and who is not acquainted 
with the real conduct of his mistress, will cull the bitter 
fruit of the kindness she has shown to others. 

The boy Body-guard. The only means for a 
European to prevent his Annamite mistress from going 
wrong with the first gallant she meets, is to set his 
own Annamite boy over her as a body-guard. He 
will play the part of the gardener's dog, and make an 
excellent sentinel ; but, being more knowing than the 
dog, he will take his own share, and become the third 
member of the household. 

I must confess that this method is wanting in moral- 
ity, but it is the only one which affijrds any security 
from venereal diseases, for it is easy to look after 
the boy's health, and as, moreover, he will jealously 
drive away all other rivals, he will at the same time 
be working for his master's advantage. The method 
may be called a useful precaution. 


Additional Note. On the Peculiar and 
Expressive Names for Prostitutes. 

ACCROCHEUSES (man-hookers)—ALlC AIRES (Hebes, 
so-called because in ancient Rome they used to offer 
wine to their clients) —Ambubayes (courtesans, from the 
latin ambubata, flute-girl) — Bagasser (drabs)— BALAN- 
VIANDES (butchers' scales which weigh all sorts of 
meat)— Barathres (sinks of perdition) — BasSARAS 
(prostitutes, from the Greek) — Bezoches (street- women) 



cleaners) — BONSOIRS (good-nights) — BoURBETEUSES 
(puddle-trotters)— Br AYDONES (ensnarers) — Caignar- 
DIJfcRES (good-for-nothings) — Cailles (quails) — Cam- 
BROUSES (filthy sluts)— Cantonnieres (street-corner- 
girls) — Champisses (strumpets) — Cloistrieres (cloister 
girls) — COQUATRIS (cockatrices) — CoiGNEES (women on 
the town) — Cqurieuses (inquisitive dames) — DEMOISEL- 
LES DU MARAIS (young ladies from the swamp) — Droui- 
NES (trollops) — Drues (smart lasses)— Ensaign antes 
(teachers)— EsQUOCERESSES (cooks for meat) — Femmes 
DE COURT talon (short-heeled women) — Femmes 
FOLLES DE LEUR corps (women mad with wantonness) 
— EOLLES d' AMOUR (love-stricken women) — FiLLES DE 
JOIE (glee maidens)— FiLLES DE Jubilation (joyful 
romps) — FiLLETTES DE PIS (well-breasted lasses) — 
FOLLES FEMMES (wantons) — FOLIEUSES (frolicsome 
wenches)— Galloises (gallic or merry maidens)— J AN- 
NETONS (back-gammon girls)— Gast (belly lasses)— 
Gaultieres (whores) — GaupeS (vicious sluts, derived 
from guepe, a wasp)— GONDINES (loose women) — 
Godinettes (diminutive of the preceding) — Gouges or 
GouiNES (prostitutes, derived from the old French 
verb goyr, to enjoy) — Gourgandines (low women, 
from gourganne, the commonest sort of bean, the food 
of convicts)— Grues (cranes, a nickname for street- 
whores)— Harrebanes (prostitutes)— Holliere (a loose 
woman, from the verb holler, to gad about)^HORES 
(whores) — Hourieuses (women to let by the hour) — 
HOURIERES (the same as the preceding) — Lesbines 
(Lesbians, or women addicted to vice)— Lescheresses 
(lecherous women)— Lev RIERS d' amour (love-harriers, 
procuresses) — Linottes C0lFF:feES (hnnets with caps 
on their heads) - Loudteres (s trumpets) — LOUVES 
(wolve-bitches) - Lyces (bitches)— MandroUNOS (pro- 


curesses) — Manefle (a Languedocian word signifying 
procuress) — Marane (vile woman, the female of 
maran, a miscreant) — Maraude (a roguish hedge- 
whore)— MARTINGALE (a lewd woman)— Maxim AS 
(bawds) — MOCHES (prostitutes, from the Latin mcecha, 
a fornicatrix) — MUSEQUINES (gay harlots, the name is 
in reality an allusion to the gadfly). — Pannanesses 
(dirty drabs, from the Greek ivxvoq, a rag) — Panton- 
NIERES (harlots) — Femmes de peche (sinful women) 
— Pelerines de Venus (Pilgrims of Venus)— Pel- 
LICES (courtesans, from the Latin pellex, a concubine 
or mistress of a married man) — Personnieres (female 
{>artners for enjoyment)— POSOER A (a woman who can 
put it in j-z'/m) — POSTIQUEUSES (vagrant whores) — 
Pr^SENTI^res (women who give themselves for pre- 
sents) — Pretresses de Venus (priestesses of Venus) 
— Rafaitiere (a bawd and procuress)— Femme de 
MAL RECapte (women of bad repute, from the Spanish 
recato, proper conduct) — Redresseuse (prostitute and 
thief) — Reveleuse (a clandestine whore) — RiBAULDES 
(low harlots) — RlCALDEX (a long-tongued and short- 
heeled whore [C<5'/?^raz'^])— RiGOBETTE (a merry loose 
woman, from the verbe rigober, to enjoy life) — ROUS- 
SECAIGNES (strumpets, literally red bitches, from rousse, 
red, and chienne, a bitch) — Sacs-de-NUIT (night-bags) 
— Saffrettes (merry wantons, from saffrett\ wanton 
dallying) — SOURDITES (prostitutes)— SCALDRINES (squa- 
lid drabs, from the Italian squallida) — TENDRlfeRES 
DE BOUCHE et DE REINS (women offering mouth and 
hips) — Tl REUSES DE ViNAlGRE (Vinegar drawers) — 
TOUPIES, (spinning tops, or loose wenches) — TOUSE 
(women on the town who fleece greenhorns, from the 
verb TOUSER, to pluck or shear, is also applied to 
woman in general) — TroTTIEre (one who trots about 


the streets) — Viageres (women who roam about) — 
Femmes de vie (fast women)— ViLLOTlERES (gadding 
bawds)— VoY AG ERES (travelling prostitutes) —Wauves 
(Drabs) — Usageres (women for general use). 

Besides the above expressions in use in the XVIth 
century there are several others invented since that 
period, such are the following: 

Gaures or GORRES (literally means, sows) — Fri- 
QUENELLES (base dirty trulls) — Images (pretty faced 
girls)— POUPINES (chubby-cheeked lasses) —POUPINET- 
TES (diminutive of the preceding) — Bringue (a common 
hussy) — Bagues (rings; the allusion requires no ex- 
planation) — SUCREES PAILLASSES (sweet mattresses) — 
Paillardes (lewd women) — Brimballeuses (women 
who tumble topsy-turvy) — Seranes (prostitutes who 
entice their customers from their windows; they do 
not walk the street) -Chouettes (night-birds) — Capres 
(capers) —Chevres (she-goats)— Ancelles (wilHng ser- 
vants, from the Latin Ancilla, a hand-maiden) — 
GuALLEFRETiERES (frisky whores)— Peaultre (a 
woman of questionable character) — Peau (the same as 
above) — Galliere (for galley, synonymous with the 
English "a tidy httle craft ")—CONSrEURS (coy 
sisters) — Bas-culz (low-gaps). 

The foregoing list, which will not fail to interest 
philologists, has been drawn in large part, from the 
important " Glossairc pour les Oeuvres dc Rabelais " 
(Paris, 1837); we have added an English translation 
of these queer epithets, and where possible, explained 
the derivation of the word. In its present form it will 
we hope, be found useful to linguistic students for 
whom alone it is intended. 

For the meaning of a number of the above expressions 


we consulted a book published under the following 
pompous title: — " Vocabida Amatoria : a French- 
English glossary of words, phrases and alhisions occur- 
ing in the works of Rabelais, Voltaire, Moliere, 
Rousseau, Beranger, Zola, and others, with English 
equivalents and syfionyms'' (London, 1896), and to our 
astonishment we found that words of vastly different 
import had been all baldly rendered — "prostituted" 
without any attempt at differentiation of the various 
and peculiar shades of meaning. " Vocabula Amatoria " 
appears to us suspiciously like a badly executed re- 
hash of Delvau's " Dictio?7?2aire Erotique " carelessly 
rushed through the press. 

For more modern epithets not given in the preceding 
list the reader is referred to the Dictionnaire Erotique 
Latin et Eranfais par Nicolas Blondeau. (Liseux, 
Paris, 1885.) 


Translation of Note I on p. 6o. 

The patients took care in the first place, to entirely 
remove the hair from all parts of the body {a) from the 
lips, arms, chest, legs, the virile parts, and in parti- 
cular, from the altar of passive lust, the anus. 

"Iplucft out tbe bafr from breast an& legs an& arms; 
Zb'Q rfglJ> member must be free from fur. 
"Me know sou to Do tbls, Xabienus, for gour laO^^love 
:l6ut wbg, Xabienus, J)o tbis to gour anus 1 " 

Martial, II, 62, 

limblle gou, Cbrestus, appear tbus wftb i^our parts all bairless, 
TKHitb a mentula like to tbe neck of a vulture, 
a beat) more sbinlng tban a prostitute's buttocks 

(a) Always excepting the hair of the head of which great care was taken. 
(Horace, Ode X book IV.) 


Mttb not a bair appearing on igouc leg, 

Bn& witb Bouc palU& lips all sborn an& bare .... 

Martial. IX, 28. 

Translation of Note i p. 6o. 
" To pluck out the hair, get the hair on the head 
curled, to drink in the baths to excess; still they can- 
not be said to be customary; for nothing of all this is 
exempt from blame. 

(QuiNTiixiAN, Oratorical Inst. i. 6.) 
Vide FORBERG'S famous edition of "" An ^o mi Panor- 
rnitae HERMAPHRODITUS, pornius in Germania 
edidit et APOPHORETA adjecit Coburgi Sumtibus 
Meuseliorum 1824. 

Translation of Note i p. 62. 
"I have heard it related by Madame de Fontaine- 
Chanlandry called the beautiful Torcy, that the queen 
Eleonora, {a) her mistress, being dressed and arrayed, 
appeared a very handsome princess, as there are still 
many who have seen her so at our Court; but being 
undressed, her body seemed that of a giant, so long 
and great was it: but lower down, she appeared a 
dwarf, so short had she thighs and legs and the rest. 

(a) Queen Eleonora, sister of Charles V. became, at the signing of the 
peace of Cambrai, the wife of Frauds I, who then had been for some 
years a widower. (See Brantome's Vie des Datms galantes, p. 207.) 


Peiverted passions amongst the Annamiies. — Male ptostitulioti. 
— The '■'nay" and the "boy". — Gamblers, thieves, and sodom- 
ites. — Usual methods of the Annamite pederasts.— The Chinese 
pederast.— The shop of Ach., the Chinaman. — The male house 
of prostitution at Cho-lon. — Horrible immorality of the Chinese 
actors who play women's parts. 

Perverted passions amongst the Annamites. 

At the head of this and the following chapter, I 
might say with Tardieu, quoting Fodere, " Why 
cannot I avoid sullying my pen with an account of the 
infamous wickedness of pederasts? Like Fodere, I 
hesitated as to whether I should insert in this work 
the repulsive picture of sodomy, but I was bound to 
confess that it was a necessary supplement, and also 
the part of the subject least known. 

What Tardieu and Martineau have done for Paris, 
that pandemonium of all the vices, I ought to do for 
foreign countries. It is necessary for me to include a 
study of the " aberrations of love passions in the Col- 
onies", or otherwise the work would be incomplete. 

Male Prostitution. ^ The Extreme East enjoys the 

' The prostitution of the male was not unknown amongst the 
Hebrews. (Cf. Jof.l, III, 3; Machab., II, IV, 12.) Bat the laws 
struck at the pederast with no gloved hand, and the punishment that 
followed was terrible. (Cf. Gen., XIX, 24 et seq ; Lev XVIII, 22, 29 ; 
Deut., XXVIII, 27; Romans I, 27.) In Rome this infamous usage 



wretched privilege of being the chief nucleus of peder- 
astic vice. 

With the exception of shopmen, and employes in 
small businesses, the Annamites reside in the villages 
round Saigon, and it is only the nays and the boys 
who come in direct and permanent contact with the 
Europeans. Nay signifies " basket ". The nays are 
children of from seven to fifteen years, who are pro- 
vided with round baskets. They are found on the 
quays, in the market, and in front of the shops, wait- 
ing for a customer to make a purchase of any kind. 
The nay, or " basket " , is thin and wretched ; he wears 
his hair long and hanging behind him. He abounds 
at Saigon, and it is from these baskets that the class 
of boys is recruited. 

These latter are from fifteen to twenty-five years of 
age ; they are essentially liars, debauchees, gamblers, 
and thieves. Woe betide the European who leaves, 
for an hour, the key in the lock of the drawer, or 
cupboard, in which he keeps his piasters ; he is sure 
to be robbed. The boy waits at table, or acts as 
valet, — both in the most imperfect manner. ^ It is 

was in full swing and moreover practised openly : — (See HoR., Sat. 

I, 2, ii6; Mart., XI 46; Mart., IX, 9; Juvenal, VI, 34.) The 
Vocabulary used to designate these auvergvats was very varied i.e. 
Cinaedi; Pathici; Pcedicator; Spado; Prater; Pusio; Concubinus; 
Catamitus. Juvenal held, that the malady was fatal and could be 
recognised both by the expression of the face and general bearing: — 
"Hunc ego fat is Imputo, qui vultu il/or3«;« incessuque fatetur." (Juv., 

II, 16.) — "I attribute to the fates his malady which he acknowledges, etc." 

' From the writer's experience of some years' residence in India, the 
native boy contrast very favourably with his Annamite confrere, with 
whom he only shares the pilfering propensities. He however never 
steals money, jewelry or portable objects, but will not hesitate to cheat 
his master in his marketings. A gentleman in Bangalore, having perceived 
this, upbraided his cansammah or butler for so doing, whereupon the 


nearly impossible to obtain any regular work from him, 
for he is absent great part of the day, and all the 
night. For costume, he wears a little jacket, buttoning 
down the front, and white cotton, wide pantaloons, 
with a belt of red silk, the end of it hanging down in 
front. To this belt hangs a small silk purse, lined 
with hide, and ornamented with designs in gilt copper 
filagree work. The boy's hair is rolled up, and encircled 
by a silk handkerchief; the hair is often kept in place 
by a shell comb. 

Annamite Gamblers, Thieves, and Sodomites. 

In short, the basket and the boy are gamblers, thieves, 
and sodomites. Are they sodomites simply that they 
may earn money to satisfy their other vices? That is 
the theory of certain Annamitophiles, who pretend that 
this vice was introduced by the European conquest. 
It was nothing of the kind. The Annamite is a sodom- 
ite because he is lascivious. He belongs to an old 
civilized race that is now rotten. Vice was innate, 
and the Europeans found it flourishing, and some 
(very few, let us hope) have taken advantage of it. 

The Frenchman who goes to the Antilles, Guiana, 
or Senegal, has not introduced sodomy and pederasty 
into those countries, because the natives of those 
countries abhor those vices. The same Frenchman, 
arrived in Cochin-China, has become a sodomite or a 
pederast, because he has found, without the trouble of 
seeking, women and children who have afforded him 
the opportunity. It is necessary to point out a mistake 

latter replied: " Yes sah / very true, me do little market robbery, but 
me no let anybody else rob master." When the gentleman related this 
to a lady friend of his, long a resident in India, she at once exclaimed : 
" Never get rid of that boy, if you can help it, he is a je-u-el.'* 


that has been thoughtlessly repeated by many travellers, 
that the soldiers of the Expeditionary Corps had acquired, 
in the Chinese campaign, certain depraved habits, which 
they afterwards carried into Cochin-China, where they 
have taken root. These travellers forget that the 
Chinese came to Cochin-China several centuries before 
we did, and have had plenty of time to vitiate the 
manners of the natives. 

We must not even accuse the Chinaman, for the 
Annamite is naturally quite as depraved as he is, if 
not more so, — which is saying a good deal. Nays and 
boys are a kind of living merchandise which offers 

The nay is like the little girl not yet arrived at 
puberty, who offers you flowers on the boulevards of 
Paris, and whose parents speculate on the debauchery 
of roues, broken-down in health, and of perverted 
morals. Instead of a little girl, it is a little boy. He 
has no flowers, and gains his living by means of a 
basket. For a tai-an (a penny), he will put your pur- 
chases into his basket, and docilely follow you home. 

When once he gets to your house, if he should 
suspect that you have depraved tastes, he will soon 
offer you his services : " Captain " (everybody was a 
captain in 186 — ) " me much know chewchew banana," 
and if the client appeared to hesitate, " me know 
ablic." That is sahir (patois). Chewchew means to 
eat. The banana is the well-known fruit of the tropics, 
which resembles in shape a penis afflicted with phi- 
mosis; ablic is the corrupt form of an Annamite word 
signifying the act of sodomy, and the word is as cynic- 
ally coarse and expressive as the vulgar French verb, 
which corresponds to it. It existed before our arrival, 
whilst the equivalent for the word " modesty " does 


not exist in the Annamite language. That is a double 
philological proof. 

By way of reply, the 77ay generally receives a good 
kick on the backside, in which case he slinks away, 
and says nothing. In the case of acceptance, he knows 
that the most suitable time is the hour of the siesta, 
after the midday cannon has been fired. 

About a quarter past twelve, a shadow will steal 
furtively into the chamber of the pederast. Like the 
daylight whore, the nay knows some means of pene- 
trating, without being seen, into a house in which, 
perhaps, several Europeans live together. 

If the nay, a child not arrived at puberty, and 
generally dirty and disgusting, displeases him, the 
depraved European has, in the evening, recourse to 
the boy. He is about i6 to 20 years old; he is a 
former nay raised to the dignity of a boy. The boy 
works in the evening, after nine o'clock and before 
midnight, after he has left his master's house. He is not 
averse to easily gaining a piaster, with which he can try 
his luck at baquan. "We may here note that, owing to 
the difference in the value of money thirty years ago, 
a piaster in Cochin-China was worth a louis in France. 

Though the boy often wears a handsome silk costume, 
a handkerchief round his head, and a red, or sky-blue, 
girdle round his waist, his body is quite as dirty as 
that of the nay. The most elementary notions of 
cleanliness are unknown to him. Unlike the Chinese, 
he never washes himself all over; not a bucket of 
water is ever emptied over his head; and this in a 
country where the lowest temperature, day or night, 
is 77°F. It is difficult, even to get him to wash his 
hands before waiting at table. The Annamite is as 
lewd as a monkey, and has the same dread of water. 


Methods used by the Pederasts. The nay and 

the boy are generally — to use Tardieu's expression — 
" suckers of the dart. " It must not be supposed that 
this depraved Asiatic feels any repugnance, or has 
any objection, to this disgusting habit. He has even 
less than the daylight whore, who is also willing to 
perform the same operation. Whilst the European lies 
at full length on a long chair, or on his bed, the boy, 
— kneeling or stooping, — i?iguma osculatur, sugit, emis- 
sumque semen t7i bucca recipit, usque ad iiltima77i g^itta^n . 

Although by preference a "sucker of the dart ", the 
nay, or the boy, will not refuse sodomy, but he is not 
enthusiastic about it. It is not any moral reason 
which slops him, for he is above prejudices of that 
sort. It is simply the disproportion which exists 
between the anus of a lad of ten or twelve years, 
and the penis of an adult European, for two nays 
have no objection to committing the actwith one another. 

When the nay attains the age of sixteen, and has 
little by little become used to the business, he will 
not raise any objection, for the vice has by that time 
become a morbid habit with him. He seeks oppor- 
tunities and occasions, with as much pleasure as a 
woman seeks copulation. This depraved taste becomes 
a pressing need with him. I can even say more: I 
have known Europeans in whom this " passive taste " 
was so developed, and who went so far as to give 
themselves up to the lewd caresses of their boys. I 
trust I shall be excused for not dilating on this sub- 
ject, and merely mentioning it in passing. 

The Chinese Pederast. * I have said that the 

' Ellis in Introduction to his book on ''Sexual Inversion" (') 

(') London, 1897 (pages 6 — 7). The render interested in this curious 
aberration should attentively read this valuable work in its entirety. 


Chinese are boys in tlie restaurants, and coolc-sliops. 
As a house-3^^', tlie Chinese costs much more than the 
Annamite, but he has the appreciable advantage of 
being" much cleaner. The Chinaman washes himself 
thoroughly morning and evening, emptying two or 
three buckets of water over his head. The clothes 
he wears are usually very clean, and instead of walk- 
ing barefoot, he wears shoes with thick soles, He has 
not, either, the characteristic stink of the Annamite hoy. 
He comes to Saigon at the age of ten or twelve, 
and first acts as a boy, then as a cook, and finally 

calls attention to the fact that " homosexual " practices exist and have long 
existed in most parts of the world outside Europe, even when subserving 
no obvious end. How far they are associated with congenital inversion 
is usually very doubtful. In China, for instince, it seems that there are 
special houses devoted to male prostitution, though less numerous than the 
houses devoted to females. When a rich man gives a feast he sends 
for women to cheer the repast by music and song and for boys to serve 
at table and to entertain the guests by their lively conversation. The 
young people have been carefully brought up for this occupation, receiving 
an excellent education, and their mental qualities are more highly valued 
than, their physical attractiveness. The women are less carefully brought 
up and less esteemed. After the meal the lads usually return home 
with a considerable fee. What further occurs the Chinese say little 
about. It seems that real and deep affection, is often born of these 
relations, at lirst platonic, but in the end becoming physical — not a 
matter for great concern in the eyes of the Chinese. In the Chinese 
novels, often of a very literary character, devoted to masculine love, it 
seems that all the preliminaries and transports of normal love are to be 
found, while physical union may terminate the scene. (*') In China, 
however, the law may be brought into action for attempts against nature 
even with mutual consent ; the penalty is one hundred strokes with the 
bamboo and a month's imprisonment; if there is violence the penalty is 
decapitation ; (^) I am not able to say how far the law is a dead letter. 

(') Morache, Art. "Chine", Diet. Ency. dcs Sci. Med. In Annan, 
also, according to Mondi^re [J/em. Soc. d' Anthrop. T. i. p. 465), 
pederasty has always existed, especially among young people. 

(') Pauthicr, Chine Modenie, p. 25 1. 


takes a wife. Before he arrives at that, he has taken 
his part in the male prostitution of Saigon, but in a 
most discreet and guarded manner. In the evening, 
you may see Chinese boys leave their master's house, 
and act as rivals to the Annamite boys. But, gener- 
ally speaking, the mouth sucking disgusts him as much 
as it pleases the other; he contents himself with anal 
copulation, active or passive. 

Not only the Chinese boy, but also the employes in 
houses of business, tailors, boot-makers, etc., also give 
themselves up to prostitution. It is rare for a China- 
man of that social position, when he finds himself 
alone with a depraved European, to refuse to yield to 
his wishes. He does it, not so much for the money 
he may get by it, as for the pleasure; but if the 
European has connection with an itinerant dealer in 
curiosities, he will be forced to make some purchases, 
and these purchases will often have to be renewed. 

A European friend of mine used to receive, at ten 
o'clock every morning, a number of young Chinese 
merchants, who used to besiege the door of his lodging, 
which was adjacent to mine. Two never entered to- 
gether; the one who arrived last would discreetly 
stand at the street door, or in the shadow of a tree, 
waiting his turn. At last I learned the secret of this 

One of these young Chinese merchants, whom I had 
occasion to attend medically, told me in return, and 
out of gratitude, some strange revelations concerning 
the unnatural customs of the great majority of his 
compatriots, who belonged to the same social category. 
Each patron disposes of his employe's and apprentices, 
according to his humour, and his taste. These youths 
also form love liaisons between themselves, and Orestes 


and Pylades are not uncommon amongst the people 
with pig-tails. They usually change parts alternately, 
each being in turn husband or wife. Later, — as the 
perverted passions increase with age, — when the genital 
powers decrease, and they become masters in their 
turn, the passive part is the only one that suits them. 
By "natural selection", the Chinaman seeks out the 
European who is addicted to the same vice. 

Dr. Schlegel, who resided as a medical practitioner 
in Canton, had uncommon opportunities of noting the 
Chinaman's proclivities and we quote the following 
remarks from his interesting little study on the subject : 

"In the neighbouring town of Tscha7ig tscheoe. the 
number of female prostitutes is relatively small, whereas 
on the contrary the town swarms with individuals 
addicted to passions contrary to nature, to such an 
extent that it is said : 

Tsiang tsioe kaan a thoen, Emoei tsa bo soe. [In 
urhe Tchang tcheoii cata?niti, in urbe Emoi meretrices.) 

Nearly all the people there practise this vice, not in 
secret, but openly. At Canton there exists one word 
only to designate Aviasii; it is the word Khai taai 
which is considered to be a grave and ignominious 
insult, whereas the dialect of Fokie is very rich in 
expressions to designate these children and their 

Like the Romans who had their Pathici, their 
Ephebi, Gemclli, Catamiti, Amasii, the Chinese have 
their sio kia a, little boys, sio kia tsia, pretty httle boys, 
tshat sia kia, young brigands, ka thang a, little 
basins for the feet, etc. For obscene manoeuvres they 
have numerous expressions, of which we may cite the 
following : Ke Kaam (ut galliis facer e coitum), ka ka 
tsiah (mordcrc dorsum), kia soa lo {in viarfi montis 


ire), ho laam hojig (puerorum voluptatis frtii), to saat 
thang (volutare in sterculinio). 

One only of their expressions would seem to indicate 
the shameful nature of the act : that is Gik thien so 
king (to act contrary to the course of nature). Besides, 
the following proverb shows how small is the number : 
it ta, dzie hong, sa i si pi (de omnibus vitiis viasturbatio 
vilissimum, turn polutio nocturna, pccderastia tandem 
necnon meretriciiim). Although they consider solitary 
pleasures to be the worst and the most immoral, yet 
children and grown up people are much addicted to 
them. It is to this unfortunate habit that may be attri- 
buted the laziness and cowardice of the greater part 
of the Chinese, particularly in the province of Fokie. 
They devote themselves only to tranquil occupations 
such as agriculture and commerce, and avoid all work 
at all violent, as also the profession of arms. The 
absence of this vice which weakens the body, kills 
moral energy, renders Canton Chinamen far more 
energetic. That is why all works requiring physical 
.strength in the Dutch colonies are done by Chinese 
coolies from Canton. That is why also the Canton 
districts supply such a large contingent of labourers 
to the colonial mines, and that its inhabitants are far 
more enterprising and less effeminate than the Chinese 
of the other provinces. It is doubtless for the same 
reason that the Canton Chinese who accompanied the 
Anglo-French expedition to Pekin, and who were known 
by the name of the Bamboo rifles, behaved so valiantly. 
In the midst of showers of bullets, they carried off the 
wounded and brought ammunition to the troops, while 
with the greatest coolness they greeted each murder- 
ous volley with shouts of joy. 

It is this shameful self-abuse that renders all China- 


men, excepting those of Canton, cowardly, effeminate, 
perfidious and false. We see the same effects pro- 
duced upon Europeans who give themselves up to these 
shameful practices, and we notice that among the Chi- 
nese the same causes produce similar effects. It is not 
rare to meet in the province of Fok'ie with young men 
of from 20 to 25 years old completely ruined in health 
and suffering from continual spermatorrhcea. Such is 
the condition of that province. Let us now glance at 
the northern provinces, as far as they are known to 
Europeans; let us hasten to quit as speedily as possible 
these details of debauchery, and finish our task. In 
these provinces the vice against nature prevails in the 
highest degree. The Anglo-French expedition found 
there a debauchery so immense and so abominable, 
that it is no wonder that a handful of Europeans could 
drive into flight the innumerable armies opposed to them 
by China. 

In Canton we find that this vice prevails mostly 
among the governing officials, who, during their fre- 
quent journeys, find it more convenient to be followed 
by young boys than by women, but it is there held 
in abomination. In the province of Fokie we find the 
Amasii, domestic slaves; but in Pekin the same indi- 
viduals seem to form a regular and quite natural class; 
the English and French troops found there real estab- 
lishments where young boys of from 11 to 12 years 
old are trained to the service of masculine prostitution. 
They are all dressed up as girls and they are taught 
all the coquetries of the opposite sex ; these precocious 
debauchees are incompletely castrated at the age of 
from 14 to 15 years, unhappy creatures neither men 
nor women. If later on they are received into these 
establishments the castration is completed. When not 


attached to regular establishments, they are to be found, 
as in ancient Rome, at the Barbers {tonsores). There, 
the client, while being shaved, is surrounded by a crowd 
of young boys of whom it may be said with Donza, 
one of the commentators of Petronius : Quorum fre- 
quenti opera no?i in tondenda barba, pilisque vellendts 
modo aut barba rasitanda, scd vero et pygiacis sacris 
sinedice, nc nefarie dicam, dc nocte administrandis 

The Chinamen of Pekin are not ashamed to be seen 
in public with their Gitons, and in the theatres one 
may see the richest Chinese with their amasii standing 
behind their chair. 

The bestial orgies to which they abandon themselves 
can find no analogies but in the history of the ancient 
Romans. Concerning Chinese debauchery it is inter- 
esting to quote Barrow, who, in his Travels says: 

" The practice of a vice so abominable and so con- 
trary to nature seems there (in China) to be so little 
accompanied by shame or even restraint, that the 
principal officers of State make no difficulty in ad- 
mitting their practice of it. One of these officers had 
always near to his person an individual called the 
pipe-bearer \ who was generally a well-built youth of 
from 14 to 18 years of age, very richly dressed. 
These youths were pointed out to us by gestures and 
signs which it was not difficult to understand. The 
two Muhammadans I have previously mentioned, and 
who lived in the IXth century had also made this 
remark. I also find in the relation of the voyage of 
Huttner, who was a member of the suite of the 
British embassy in Tartary, speaking of Gehol, he 
says: 'In one of the palaces I found, among other 

' The Indian Hookahbadar. 


works of art, two marble statues of young men, ad- 
mirably executed. Their hands and feet were tied and 
their attitude left no doubt that the vice special to the 
Greeks was also in honour among the Chinese. It was 
an old eunuch who laughing showed them to us.'" 

Immorality is still greater among the Tartar and 
Mongol races. Among these, as with all pastoral 
races, all kinds of debauchery against nature prevail, 
and their influence has spread all over China. That 
is why this vice is more prevalent in the Northern 
provinces and diminishes as one goes Southward. At 
Canton it disappears almost entirely, and is practised 
only by the Mandarins who are Mandchoos, or who, 
if they are Chinese, have been spoiled by a more or 
less prolonged stay in the North. But how long will 
this province resist the invasion of this abominable 
plague, and the example of the ruling officials will it 
not deprave the people, as it has already done in 
other provinces? 

We have nearly reached the end of our enterprise. 
We have lifted the veil that obscured part of the Chinese 
character, and we have endeavoured in a few sketches 
to point the immorality reigning in China. If these 
sketches may appear too strong to some of our readers, 
let them bear in mind that an enterprise of this nature 
is extremely difficult, and that here and there energetic 
terms must quite necessarily be employed to show 
things as they are. No one can complain if we cut 
to the quick into an unhealthy wound, however re- 
pugnant the spectacle may be. We ask for the same 
indulgence towards our work. 

May the above lines come beneath the eyes of the 
Tartar chiefs and show to the adversaries of the Tat 
phing rebellion how greatly reform is necessary in China. 


It is only by an immense immigration of foreign 
elements, and by the opening out of China to other 
nations, that it will be possible to cure the horrible 
canker that is eating up that country. 

Occidental civilization will come to the help of this 
nation, so remarkable in other points of view. But for 
that purpose, the work must not be confided to people, 
nearly as unpolished, ignorant, or fanatical as those 
whom they pretend to correct. It requires energetic 
and educated men, who know and can apply the 
remedy to the sore where it exists. 

The Mandchoo dynasty must be thrown down unmer- 
cifully, and with it will disappear the seeds of immorality 
which it sows around it. 

That is to what tends the revolt of the Ta'i phing 
however cruel or infamous the means they employ. 
Gentle means are of no avail. One must not apply 
palliatives to the sores of this great rotten body; the 
knife must cut down right to the quick, to remove 
the gangrened portions, in order that the rest may 
grow again and return to vigorous health. The Phoenix 
of the fable resuscitates only after having been con- 
sumed by fire; China also will never rise again until 
all that opposes her resurrection has been uprooted and 

The Shop of Ach., the Chinaman. In i86— , 
one of the richest dealers in curiosities, Ach., the 
Chinaman, who afterwards became one of the leading 
Chinese residents of Saigon, had a peculiar and wide- 
spread reputation. Crowds of people went to his house 
to drink his excellent tea ; but, of course, his customers 
never boasted of it, except privately and between 
themselves, for Ach. was too compromising. In spite 


of the tolerance of manners in those days, one had 
but to make a few purchases in his shop to be sus- 
pected of having enjoyed his lewd favours. Saigonese 
jokers defined this operation as " digging in the yellow 
clay". I give the expression for what it is worth. 
At Ach.'s shop could be found a complete assortment 
of Chinese and Japanese phalli, and the coloured albums 
of the Chinese Aretin. 

Twenty-five years later, I found Ach. rich, and 
much esteemed by his compatriots, and looking stout, 
strong, and well. His little business had proved lucky, 
and he had succeeded in life. 

Chinese Erotic Literature. It is agreeable to 
find that our observations are amply borne out by Dr. 
C. A. Schlegel who writes : ^ 

In China, erotic books and engravings are largely 
employed as sexual excitants. Innumerable quantities 
of these are to be met with; nearly all of these light 
works, novels, anecdotes, etc., are full of expressions 
of so cynical a nature that it is almost impossible to 
choose among them. 

The Roman poets in their viollcs libri still made 
use of metaphors and periphrases, whereas in the 
Tschocn koeng tse (erotic poems) history is brought 
forward for the sole purpose of describing the most 
scandalous affairs in the vilest language. 

The governing authorities allow these books to cir- 
culate without any restriction. They have, as well as 
the priests, fulminated against these immoral books in 
the public papers, and their authors have even some- 
times been severely punished; the priests do not fail 

* "La Prostitution en Chine", (Rouen, !{■ 80), an able booklet of some 
40 pages, written originally in Dutch. 


to preach that the authors of these obscene books will 
remain burning in hell as long as their works are 
still in existence on earth; and yet, notwithstanding, 
every day the most infamous plays are performed, at 
which women as well as men assist, and printers con- 
tinue to pubHsh novels daily more and more filthy. 

It has happened that Governor-Generals of provinces 
have caused entire editions together with their plates 
of impression, after having purchased them, to be 
burned ; but such cases are very rare, for the governors 
are generally themselves the very first to buy these 
impure works. The erotic plates and engravings sur- 
pass in richness, variety and in infamy, the most 
lubric imaginations, and meet with more sale than the 
books, for all the world can see, but it is not every 
one that can read. This trade must be verv lucrative, 
for there exist in Canton studios where nothing but 
these Tschoen koen hoa are painted. In this city it 
is not only men who paint these pictures, but the 
Chinese themselves admit that in the town of Soe-- 
Tscheo, in the province of Kiang-Han, young girls of 
from II to 14 years of age are employed at the 
same work, because they have a lighter hand, and 
know how to give these pictures a more agreeable 

Lastly, in certain parts of China, they manufacture 
little articulated and movable puppets, in porcelain or 
in ivory, extremely obscene, known under the name 
of Tschoen koeng siang, and at Emoi under that 
of Tschoen kiang ang a. 

In the face of such universal depravity, the moral 
tone of the women must necessarily be at a very low 
level. But nevertheless it is not nearly so bad as 
might be imagined, and the Chinese women are most 


of them far more modest than were the ancient 
Roman dames. ^ 

The Male House of Prostitution at Cho-lon. 

There remains to be mentioned an establishment at 
Cho-lon, which was known to very few Europeans, 
and of which the French police has always (most 
probably) ignored the existence. This was nothing 
else but a house of masculine prostitution. 

It was clandestine, for the authorities would never 
have authorized such a den of infamy to be opened, 

' Sir Rich. Burton, in the Vol. VI of his '' Supplementary Xights" 
makes some sensible remarks on the subject of the circulation of English 
" erotics", which we here reproduce : 

" It apppears to me that our measures, remedial and punitive, against 

'pornographic publications' result mainly in creating 'vested interest' 

(that English abomination) and thus in fostering the work. The French 

printer, who now must give name and address, stamps upon the cover 

Avis aux Libraires under Edition prive'e and adds : Ce volitme ne doit 

pas etre mis en vente ou expose' dans les lieux publics {Loi du 29 

Juillet, 1 881). He also prints upon the back the number of copies for 

sale. We treat 'pomology' as we handle prostitution, imwisely ignore 

it, well knowing the while that it is a natural and universal demand of 

civilized humanity ; and whereas continental people regulate it and limit 

its abuses, we pass it by, Pharisee-like, with nez en Voir. Our laws upon 

the subject are made only to be broken and the authorities are unwilling 

to prosecute, because by so doing they advertise what they condemn. Thus 

they offer a premium to the greedy and unscrupulous publisher and 

immensely enhance the value of productions {"Fanny Hill" by John 

Cleland for instance) which, if allowed free publication would fetch pence 

instead of pounds. With due diffidence, I suggest that the police be 

directed to remove from booksellers' windows and to confiscate ail 

indecent pictures, prints and photographs ; I would forbid them under 

penalty of heavy fines to expose immoral books for sale, and I would 

leave 'cheap and nasty' literature to the good taste of the publisher 

and the public. Thus we should also abate the scandal of providing the 

secretaries and officers of the various anti-vice societies with libraries of 

pomological works which supposed to be escheated or burned, find their 

way into the virtuous hands of those who are supposed to destroy them." 


and, for that reason, this Chinese temple of love was 
difficult of access. Every precaution was taken to 
throw the French police off the scent. The house, in 
fact, was situated in a suburb of Cho-lon. Nothing 
distinguished this illicit brothel from a honest house. 
It was situated at the end of a court-yard, and no one 
was admitted, unless introduced by one of the habitues; 
without my friend B., the opium contractor, it would 
have been impossible for me to enter. 

At first sight, the house showed nothing abnormal, 
and looked merely like a store of Chinese merchandise. 
The sole occupant was an old Chinaman, the keeper 
of the warehouse, and his worthy companion. Ordin- 
arily no one was to be found there. But the clients 
and pcnsionnaires knew the road and the right time, 
for it was a house for nocturnal meetings, and only 
filled towards midnight. After the Chinese theatre 
was over, the actors who played the w^omen's parts, 
used to come there to meet their protectors. ^ 

* Customs of this nature are strangely alike in different countries. Dr. 
Jeannel notes that the principal characters in the plays of Plautus and 
Terence are almost always procuresses and prostitutes. That the actres- 
ses belonged to this class is proved by the following: — "Mox Hercle ! 
vero post, transacta fabula, argenttim si guts dedertt, ut vulgo sus- 
picor, Ultra ihit niiptum, non manebit auspices." (Plaut., Casin., 82.) 

" But by Hercules ! after the play, if anyone gave her any money, 

I believe that she would willingly get married, without waiting for the 
nuptial ceremonies." 

The theatres were known as places of debauch (see TiT. Liv. II, 18); 
also IsoDOR. (XVIII, 42), the latter we quote : — Idem vero theatrum, 
idem et postibulum, eo quod post ludos exaclos, meretriccs ibi proter- 

("Theatre and brothel were synonyms; for after the plays were over, 
the prostitutes there gave themselves up to the public") The famous 
Folies Bergeres at Paris in our own time has been wittily styled. 
Les holies centrales de la Fornication, 


On the far side of the house, at the end of a 
garden enclosed with high walls, was a fine pavilion 
richly decorated, and provided with handsome Chinese 
furniture. A good supply of apparatus for smoking 
opium was to be found there, for, with the Chinese, 
opium is the basis and motor of all voluptuous de- 

Instead of young girls, there were youths of from 
twelve to twenty years, richly dressed in silk costumes 
of tender hues, who waited on the guests, and acted 
as Ganymedes. Compartments similar to horse boxes, 
and containing a bed instead of a manger, permitted 
the amorous couples to isolate themselves. I say 
"couples", but I may remark that the famous rule of 
the Jesuits, which forbade their pupils to ever be in 
pairs, was applied in a very singular manner. It 
would be impossible to give even a hint at the scenes 
of extraordinary lewdness which went on in these 
compartments, without entering into erotic details wor- 
thy of the Marquis de Sade, ^ therefore I forbear. 

I cannot, however, pass over in silence, one eccentric 
form of the Itisus amoris. The Chinese actors who 
play the women's parts, come in their costumes, and 
assume the character of a modest virgin, afraid of 
losing her virginity, a refinement of vice which is 
much appreciated. In the presence of a number of 
old men, not very particular, the scenes of the first 
night of wedded life are represented without any 
shame. But there is nothing new under the sun, as 
the proverb says. Petronius and, Suetonius have re- 

' No better idea can be given of the frightful state of Paris under 

the Empire in regard to the organised bands of pederasts which had 

for special object the corruption of the Dragons de V Impe'ratrice than 

the following systematic account given by a police official : — 


counted the same thing long ago. The Chinese of 
Cho-lon do but repeat the history of the Emperor 
Nero, and his marriage with the eunuch Sporus. 


The undermentioned facts vouched for by Dr. KrafFt- 
Ebing will surprise many readers. The old proverb 
concerning " people who live in glass houses" here 
acquires fresh force. The vices, practised with such 
revolting cynicism in Asia, are carried out with un- 
speakable audacity in the great cities of Europe. 

Of the houses of male prostitution in Berlin : 

" The following notice from a Berlin (national ?) news- 
paper, of February, 1884, which fell into my hands 
by accident, seems suited to show something of the 
life and customs of Urnings: — 

" The Woman-Haters' Ball. Almost every social 
element, — the fat, the bald-headed, the young, — and 
why not the woman-haters? This species of men, so 
interesting psychologically, and none too edifying, 
had a great ball to-day. The sale of tickets was very 
rigorous; they wish to be very exclusive. Their 
rendezvous was a well-known dance-hall. We enter 
the hall about midnight. The graceful dancing is to 
the strains of a fine orchestra. Thick tobacco-smoke, 

"Rapport d'un Officcer de la Police MUNICIPALS de PARIS. 
Attribution des Moeurs. Le 16 Juillet, 1864." 

It is signed by F. Carlier. And the words " Approuvi les con- 
clusions, et continuer les investigations vis-k-vis de toutcs les personncs 

sans distinction." 

(signed) Nauney. 

Follow Carlier's signature. 

This report is very rare, very few copies having been stiuck off. 


veiling the gas-lights, does not allow the details of 
the moving mass to become obvious; only during the 
pause between the dances can we obtain a closer 
view. The masks are by far in the majority; black 
dress-coats and ball-gowns are seen only now and 

"But what is that? The lady in rose-tarletan, that 
just now passed us, has a Hghted cigar in the corner 
of her mouth, and puffs likes a trooper; and she also 
wears a small, blonde beard, lightly pointed out. And 
yet she is talking with a very decollete ' angel' in 
tricots, who stands there, with bare arms folded behind 
her, likewise smoking. The two voices are masculine, 
and the conversation is likewise very masculine ; it is 
about the 'd— tobacco, that permits no air.' Two 
men in female attire. A conventional clown stands 
there, against a pillar, in soft conversation with a 
ballet-dancer, with his arm around her faultless waist. 
She has a blonde 'Titus-head,' sharp cut profile, and 
apparently a voluptuous form. The brilliant ear-rings, 
the necklace with a medallion, the full, round shoul- 
ders do not permit a doubt of her 'genuineness,' 
until, with a sudden movement, she disengages herself 
from the embracing arm, and, yawning, moves away, 
saying, in a deep bass, 'Emile, you are too tiresome 
to-day!' The ballet-dancer is also a male! 

" Suspicious now, we look about further. We almost 
expect that here the world is topsy-turvy; for here 
goes, or, rather, trips, a man — no, no man at all even 
though he wears a carefully trimmed moustache. The 
well-curled hair; the powdered and painted face with 
the blackened eyebrows ; the golden ear-rings ; the 
bouquet of flowers reaching from the left shoulder to 
the breast, ornamenting the elegant black gown ; the 


golden bracelets on the wrists; the elegant fan — all 
these things are anything but masculine. And how 
he toys with the fan! How he dances and turns, and 
trips, and lisps! And yet kindly nature made this doll 
a man. He is a salesman in a great millinery store, 
and the ballet-dancer mentioned is his 'colleague'. 

" At a little corner-table there seems to be a great 
social circle. Several elderly gentlemen press around 
a group of decollete ladies, who sit over a glass of 
wine and — in the spirit of fun — make jokes that are 
none too delicate. Who are these ladies? 'Ladies', 
laughs my knowing friend. ' Well, the one on the 
right, with the brown hair, and the short, fancy dress 
is called ' Butterrieke ' and he is a hair-dresser; 
the second one — the blonde, in a singer's costume, 
with the necklace of pearls — is known here by the 
name of 'Miss Ella of the tight-rope', and he is a 
ladies' tailor; and the third, — that is the celebrated 

" But that person cannot possibly be a man ? That 
waist, that bust, those classic arms, the whole air and 
person are marked feminine! 

" I am told that ' Lottie ' was once a book-keeper. 
To-day she, or rather, he, is exclusively 'Lottie', and 
takes pleasure in deceiving men about his sex as long 
as possible. ' Lottie ' is singing a song that would 
hardly do for a drawing-room, in a high voice, acquired 
by years of practice, which many a soprano might 
envy. ' Lottie' has also ' worked ' as a female comedian. 
Now the quondam book-keeper has so entered into 
the female role that he appears on the street in female 
attire almost exclusively, and, as the people with whom 
he lodges state, wears an embroidered night-dress. 

" On closer examination of the assembly, to my aston- 


ishment, I discover acquaintances on all hands: my 
shoemaker, whom I should have taken for anything 
but a woman-hater — he is a ' troubadour', with sword 
and plume; and his ' Leonora', in the costume of a 
bride, is accustomed to place my favourite brand of 
cigars before me in a certain cigar-store. ' Leonora', 
who, during an intermission, removes her gloves, I 
recognize with certainty, by her large blue hands. 
Right ! There is my haberdasher, also ; he moves 
about in a questionable costume as Bacchus, and is 
the swain of a repugnantly bedecked Diana, who works 
as a waiter in a beer- restaurant. The real 'ladies' of 
the ball cannot be described here. They associate only 
with one another, and avoid the woman-hating men ; 
and the latter are exclusive, and amuse themselves, 
absolutely ignoring the charms of women." 

Dr. R. von Krafft-Ebing Psycopathia Sexualis, Lon- 
don, 1895, (pp. 417—418). 

Dutch Experiences: 

In Amsterdam there exists perhaps the biggest and 
most luxurious brothel in the world. It is known as 
Dc Foiitein (the Fountain). This establishment occu- 
pies an entire building and comprises: restaurant, ball- 
room, private saloons, cafe, and at the top of the house 
a billiard-room where th2 players are chosen from 
amongst the handsomest sisters of this very irreligious 
community, and are ABSOLUTELY NAKED ! Around 
the room, seated at small tables, are a number of grave 
elderly gentlemen of serious and venerable aspect, 
smoking long clay-pipes or meerschaums, and drinking 
beer or grog. One of these worthies had a peculiar 
knack, whenever one of these nude beauties stooped 


to make a stroke at billiards and presented her buttocks 
in his direction, to gently touch them with the hot 
bowl of his pipe. This would make her start and the 
old fellow, his paunch shaking with laughter, would 
draw a florin from his pocket and hand it to the angry 
fair. It is probable that this honest old burgher used 
to distribute a goodly number of florins in this manner 
during the course of the evening. 


Study of the buccal, vulvar, and anal deformities caused by 
male and female prostitution in the Annamite race. — The theories 
of Tardieu and Martineau confirmed. — The vulva before puberty, 
and in the adult woman ; signs of the loss of virginity in the 
Annamite race. — Rarity of the vulvar infundibuliim in girls 
ivho have beeJi deflowered before puberty by young boys. — Peculiar 
signs of the habit of mouth suction. — Sodomy and pederasty. — 
Signs of recent passive sodomy. — A?ial blennorrhcea. — Signs of 
inveterate passive sodomy. — Si^ns of active pederasty in the An- 
namite and the Chinese. — Signs of active and passive pederasty 
in the European in Cochiri-China. 

Study of the buccal, vulvar, and anal deform- 
ities. The notes from which I have written this 
chapter, date back to my first visit, at a time when 
Tardieu, and Martineau, who continued his work, had 
not thoroughly studied this subject of medico-legal 
science. I have the private satisfaction of here noting, 
that on nearly every point, my observations confirm 
the theories of those two learned physicians. 

I am about to note in succession all the deformities 
— vulvar, buccal, and anal — caused in either sex, by 
deflowering, masturbation, Sapphism, or sodomy amongst 
the Annamites. 

The Vulva before the age of Puberty, and in 
the Annamite Woman. I have already remarked, 



in speaking- of the little Annamite girl, that the hymen 
was frequently worn away after the age of ten, and 
I remarked that the appearance of the organs of 
generation, after that age, does not differ greatly from 
that of the pubescent women, of more than sixteen or 
seventeen years. I will now return to the discussion of 
this subject, and for the better comprehension of the 
reader, I will begin by quoting from Martineau, the 
essential differences w^hich the organs of generation 
should show in the little girl, and the pubescent woman, 
of the French race : 

In the little girl, the direction of the vulva is to be 
noted: it is vertical, and the opening is concealed by 
the big and little lips. The vulva is straight in front ; 
it is half open at the upper portion. On putting aside 
the lips a little, you see immediately the clitoris, and 
the urinary meatus: the lower part of the vulva is 

In the pubescent girl, and especially in the woman 
who has often had copulation, the position is quite 
altered. The vulva then points downwards and back- 
wards. The separation, of the lips is slight at the 
upper part, but more pronounced at the lower, so that, 
in the pubescent woman, the clitoris and the urinary 
meatus are covered, and concealed, by the great lips. 
It is important to remember these positions when we 
come to study vulvar deformities. 

Marks of Defloration in the Annamite Girl, 
before and after Puberty. From the number of 
young girls who were submitted to me for medical 
examination, I am able to assert that the vulva in 
them is directly in front, and that it is also open at 
the lower end. 


In the girl or pubescent woman who has been 
deflowered at an early age, the vulva continues to point 
forward : the lower separation is much more marked, 
but the greater and lesser lips are much less accentu- 
ated than in the European woman, and rarely conceal 
the clitoris and the urinary meatus. The downward 
and backward direction of the vulva is also less marked. 
The lesser inclination of the vulva and vagina of the 
Annamite woman decreases, in a marked degree ; the 
total length of the apparatus, which is, no doubt, 
shorter than in any other branch of the human race 
(except perhaps the Lapps) and corresponds exactly to 
the small penis of the man. 

According to Martineau, the clitoris of the French- 
woman is ordinarily i^ inches long, and more in some 
cases. The clitoris in woman corresponds to the penis, 
and should be of a proportionate size, and therefore 
we shall not be surprised to find that in the Annamite 
woman its average length is barely three quarters of 
an inch. 

I have also said that the Annamites prefer the 
pubes bare, and that they compare the European 
woman, whose pubes is generally more or less fur- 
nished with tufts of hair, to wild beasts. ^ The hair 

' Our friend, Lombroso, has endeavoured to found a series of statis- 
tics concerning the amount of hair on the bodies of women who live 
by their shame. Of course his rem.irks apply only to Europeans, as 
dL-pilation prevails almost exclusively in the East. It may interest some 
of oar readers to see what Lombroso says : — 

I. — The NccvHS piloris, commonly called a "beauty mark" {grain 
de beaittc), is a new characteristic hitherto but little studied, and which 
must be added to the other characteristics of female degeneration. It is 
a kind of indirect beard supplement, which assimil ites the woman more 
to man. \Vc found it in 14% of normal women, in 6*/o of female 
criminals, and in 41% <'f prostitutes. Gurrierl however noted it in only 


is removed from the woman's pubes by rubbing it 
with an ointment containing Hme and orpiment (sul- 
phuret of arsenic). 

I have rarely (not to say hardly ever) remarked, 
in the Annamite woman, the symptoms indicated by 
Martineau as showing the signs of masturbation, or 
buccal Sapphism. This, no doubt, results from the 
ease with which the girl or woman can satisfy her 
natural desires; moreover, the great frequency of the 
" flowers " must help to limit this special form of vice. 
I never met but two cases, and both these were the 
mistresses of Europeans. 

The vulvar infundibulum does not exist in those 
young girls who have been touched by young boys. 
It is only found w^hen these girls have repeated copu- 
lation with a European. Although the rose he gathers 
is already withered, the disproportion in the size of the 
organs renders the first attacks difficult, and ultimately 
creates an infundibulum which is sometimes deep. 
The rule, as laid down by Martineau, is mathematically 
verified, so to speak. 

The production of vulvar deformities due to deflora- 

8'/o. Zola speaks of the beauty marks of Nana and of those of the 
lascivious Countess, her worthy rival. 

2. Hairs. — Professor Riccardi found in ai'/o of prostitutes an ex- 
aggerated pilose development on the sexual parts, and Gurrieri also found 
27°/o, at the same time that he noticed iS'/o where it was totally want- 
ing; 8°/o had a genuine ombilico-pubic tuft. i6°/o showed a virile dis- 
tribution of hair. 

We have also found with Ardu a virile distribution of hair on is'/o 
out of 234 prostitutes, whereas it was observed on only from 5 to 6'/o 
of normal women and on 5°/o of female criminals. 

On the contrary peluria which amounts to 6'/o among the Russian 
prostitutes and to 2''/o among homicides, is absent on honest women and 
on thieves. In Italy it was noted in the proportion of 8*/o on honest 
women, 36 "/o on homicides and i3'/o on thieves and child-killers. 


tion in copulation, is based on this principle; so long 
as there exists a proper proportion in the size of the 
sexual organs, the physiological act is easily accom- 
plished, and vulvar deformities do not supervene. 
But when the size or dimensions of the sexual organs 
differ in either sex; when there is a disproportion in 
the genital organs, copulation is accomplished with 
more or less difficulty, and vulvar deformities are 
caused. This disproportion may exist in either sex ; 
either on the part of the man, the penis being too 
huge, or on the part of the woman, the vulvo-vaginal 
orifice being shrunken, owing to normal resistance, by 
the physiological tonic condition of the constrictive 
muscle of the vulva, or by the undue resistance of the 

Professor Tardieu gives a typical description of the 
vulvar deformities produced by defloration. The de- 
scription only applies to Annamites who have not 
attained puberty, having habitual commerce with Euro- 
peans. I quote part of it. " In these circumstances 
the greater lips are thickened, and separated at the 
lower part, which is the exact contrary of what we 
ought to find. The lesser lips are besides elongated 
to such an extent that they pass the greater, as if 
they had been repeatedly pulled out. The clitoris is 
red, projecting, and half erect; it is partly uncovered. 
That is not all; the narrowness of the parts, and the 
resistance of the bony sub-pelvic arcade, hindering the 
complete introduction of the virile member, and con- 
sequent destruction of the membrane of the hymen, 
fresh deformities are caused. The membrane of the 
hymen is found to be driven backwards and slightly 
upwards ; at the same time all the parts which constitute 
the vulva are also forced back. The result is the 


formation — at the expense of the vulvar canal — of a 
kind of infundibulum, more or less large, and more 
or less deep, capable of receiving the extremity of 
the penis, and very similar to that which is formed 
in the anus in the case of anal copulation." 

Of these characteristics, I have rarely remarked 
those relating to the lesser lips and the clitoris, but 
the infundibulum was never wanting. 

Special Signs of the Habit of Suction. Tardieu 
notes a peculiar conformation shown in the mouth of 
certain persons addicted to the habit of sucking. " I 
have noticed in the most positive manner, in two 
amongst them," he says, "that the mouth was all 
awry, the teeth very short, the lips thick, turned back, 
deformed, and quite in keeping with the horrible vice 
they practised," I would add to this that in nearly 
all the women and nays who are addicted to such 
practices, the lips generally appeared to me thick and 
deformed, especially in the young nays. ^ 

I have often found eruptions, ulcerations, and the 
scars of chancres, on the lips and tongue of the un- 
happy victims of this form of debauchery. When once 
they are affected, they in turn help to spread the 

' This abominable and perfectly disgusting habit has come under our 
observation to a large extent in Paris, where it is practised by both 
sexes. Various names and expressions are used by its votaries to desig- 
nate this vice: — -faire minette, ga?naht(cher, faire soixante-nctif ; the 
latter term is used on acount of the peculiar position used in order to 
accomplish the filthy act. 

Several anecdotes are current with regard to this practice, but we 
prefer not to sully our pages by repeating them. I have however not 
been struck with any special malformation in the subjects such as Tardieu 
describes. We may mention that Martial has some very powerful Epi- 
gratns on this aberration. 


syphilitic virus, by a law of reciprocity which it would 
be very difficult to repress. 

Sodomy and Pederasty. According to jMartineau, 
sodomy is the term generally employed to designate 
unnatural acts, without distinction of sex as to the 
persons between whom these acts are effected. 

Pederasty signifies unnatural acts between men, and 
may be divided into active and passive pederasty. 

The anal deformities produced by unnatural copula- 
tion are the same in the woman as in the boy and 
the 7iay, except some trifling differences. I will con- 
fine myself here to studying them in the nay and the 
boy, where they are found more frequently than in the 

Signs of Recent Passive Sodomy. It has been 
already remarked, that the nay or basket is a youth 
of from eight to fifteen years. After that age, he is 
promoted to the rank of boy, but, whilst he is a nay, 
he has not usually reached the age of puberty. As 
may easily be imagined, these poor little wretches fall 
into the hands of " active " pederasts, who are not 
remarkable for gentleness and kindness, and who 
brutally assuage their lewd passions without caring 
what may be the result. 

I have often found, in these unfortunate nays, marks 
of attempts that have been committed almost by vi- 
olence, the fact being that a lad not yet arrived at 
puberty, and frail and weak, is incapable of making 
any serious resistance to brutal attempts at sodomy on 
the part of an adult European or Asiatic. 

In order not to unduly extend this work, I will not 
give here the results of my medical observations, for 


I should only be repeating what Tardieu and Martineau 
have already said. I will refer the reader to their 
works, and confine myself to discussing their opinions. 

Let us, in the first place, take that of Tardieu. ^ 

"A recent attempt leaves such well-marked signs 
that it is impossible to mistake them. The signs of 
recent attempt are more or less evident according to 
the degree of violence employed, the size of the parts, 
the youth of the victim, and the absence of previous 
vicious habits. They vary, according to circumstances, 
from redness, roughness, painful heat of the anus, and 
difficulty in walking, to the fissures, called rhagades, 
deep rents, extravasation of blood, and inflammation 
of the mucous membrane, and the underlying cellular 
tissue. This inflammation may be more or less ex- 
tensive, and more or less prolonged; but if the exam- 
ination does not take place till some days after the 
attempt, you will find usually, only itching, and a 
discoloration of the anus, due to the modifications, 
caused by the discharge of blood." 

The symptoms mentioned by Martineau are more 
explicit. He remarks — which Tardieu does not — that 
there may result "abscesses or fistulas". Sometimes 
a bloody and purulent serum is spread over the anal 
region, which is very painful. The pain is either 
continuous, or merely passing; and comes on more 
especially during defecation ; the woman (or man) then 
experiences a smarting pain, which is sometimes very 
violent. At other times, the pain comes on after 
defecation, and lasts several hours. 

On examination of the region, the following marks 

* Etude Medico-Legale siir les Attentats aiex Mceiirs par Ambroise 
Tardieu, professcur de Medecine 16gale a la Facult6 de M^decine de 
Paris. (Sept. edit., Paris, 1878.) 


will be found. On touching the anus, it will be 
noticed that the orifice is shghtly dilated. The anus 
is also driven "upwards. The sphincter, not having yet 
lost its power, resists, but is also nevertheless driven 
upwards, with the result that a slight depression of 
the anal region is formed, the beginning of an infun- 
dibulum bearing towards the anus 

Martineau's reasoning is complete. But I would 
remark that, in the majority of recent attempts, I have 
not found the infundibulum clearly defined ; — not because 
there was not a great disproportion between the anus 
of the child and the penis of the adult, but because 
the anal sphincter (and the vulvar also) possesses less 
tonicity than in the European. Consequently, the 
sphincter is more easily dilated. 

I have always found, in the medical examination, 
that the anus was dilated, and that the finger, when 
introduced, did not meet with that constriction which 
is found in the anus of a person who has not been 

In the woman, the anal infundibulum is more frequent 
and more pronounced than in the nay, and for a good 
reason. In the first place the muscles of the buttocks 
are more developed than in the nay, and the sphincter 
has also more tonicity. The nay is generally very 
young when he begins the practice, whereas the woman 
is old when she takes to sodomy, which she does 
rather from economic motives, on account of the 
money it brings, than from natural taste. The result 
in her case is that, the sphincter having greater tonic- 
ity, anal copulation is more difficult, which causes the 
production of an infundibulum. 

In the boy, who has usually been a pederast for some 
years, only the signs of inveterate sodomy are found. 


All the sodomites, both men and women, lubricate 
the anus, in order to make copulation easier, and use, 
for this purpose, some fatty substance, mixed with the 
thickened juice of a kind of mallow, which is boiled 
in a small quantity of water. This mallow possesses 
emollient properties. 

Anal Blennorrhoea. Cases of anal blennorrhcea, 
which are very rare in Europe, — for Tardieu and 
Martineau only met with one case each, — are much 
less rare in Cochin-China. They occur when the nay 
is the victim of a boy, who has contracted the disease 
from a woman, which is the case with the majority of 
adults. I met with one case, however, in a young 
German, who was employed in a large house of busi- 
ness, and who had probably been infected by a boy, 
but he would never confess how he caught it, and 
related all sorts of improbable lies. 

I cured him by employing cubebs internally, and 
injecting, by the rectum, his own urine collected in a 
glass, and used while tepid, with a syringe. 

Signs of Inveterate Passive Sodomy. Accord- 
ing to Tardieu these are the signs which it should 
present : " The characteristic signs of passive pederasty, 
which we will recapitulate in order, are, — excessive 
development of the buttocks, infundibular deformity 
of the anus, relaxation of the sphincter, the effacement 
of the folds or wrinkles, ridges and excrescences round 
the anus, extreme dilation of the anal orifice, inability 
to restrain the faeces, ulcerations, rhagadcs, piles, 
fistulas, rectal blennorrhoea, syphilis, and foreign bodies 
introduced into the anus. The mere enumeration of 
these different signs can give no idea of their import- 


ance : it is absolutely necessary to identify each separ- 
ately, in all its essential peculiarities. " 

Tardieu's summary having been thoroughly discussed 
by Martineau, it would be better to refer the reader 
to his book, and to note here the differences, which I 
think I have observed, as to the relative importance 
of these symptoms. 

In the first place, I will put aside the sign of exces- 
sive development of the buttocks, which is without im- 
portance in the Annamite race, and come at once to 
that of the anal infundibulum. 

The Anal Infundibulum. This deformity has always 
struck observers, but some of them have denied its 
importance, and others have exaggerated it. This 
difference of opinion is perhaps due to the fact that, 
in certain cases, this deformity exists, while in others 
it is absent. I have given the reasons for its existence, 
or its absence, by proving that the anal infundibulum 
resulted either from the resistance ofthe sphincter muscle, 
or from the disproportion in the size of the organs. I 
repeat, that in all cases in which these conditions exist, 
or have existed, you are certain to remark this deform- 
ity, both in the man, and in the woman. 

The infundibular deformity of the anus is, I repeat, 
real, only you must know how to look for it, and how 
to understand its pathogeny. As regards this, I cannot 
do better than quote the very exact description given 
by Tardieu. 

"The infundibular deformity of the anus," says that 
eminent professor, " results, on the one hand, from the 
gradual forcing back of the parts which are situated 
in front of the anus, and on the other hand, from the 
resistance shown by the higher end of the sphincter 


to the complete admission of the member into the rectum. 
The sphincter, in fact, forms above the anus a sort of 
contracted muscular canal, the depth of which is some- 
times an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half, so 
that the lower part of the ring may give way, and 
allow itself to be pushed towards the upper, which 
resists still more, and remains at the bottom in a sort 
of funnel, the widest portion of which is circumscribed 
by the sides of the buttocks, and the narrow part of 
which extends through the anal orifice to the compressed 
sphincter, which is reduced to a mere ring, which 
closes, more or less completely, the entrance to the 

If I have succeeded in making my meaning plain, 
it will be seen that the infundibulum will be more or 
less wide, and more or less deep, according to the 
state of fatness, or leanness, of the person, and the 
more or less pronounced projection of the buttocks." 

In all the Annamite prostitutes addicted to practices 
of sodomy, I met with the infundibulum so well described 
by Tardieu, and of the shape mentioned above. I 
attribute this to the advanced age of these women when 
they begin anal copulation. But, on the contrary, I 
have not often met with it in the hoy of from sixteen 
to twenty, or twenty-five years of age, who is a hard- 
ened pederast, and began the practice at an early age. 
The regular infundibulum had disappeared, to give 
place to another form quite as characteristic as the 
first, and which has not been noticed by Tardieu. 

We owe the clear description of this form to Mar- 
tineau, and I cannot do better than reproduce it. 
" When the anus is compressed upwards, if you do 
not find an infundibulum such as I have described, 
do not imagine that it does not exist. In many cases, 


in fact, by an attentive examination, and by feeling 
the anus, you will find an infundibulum formed, not at 
the expense of the buttocks, but of the anus and the 
softened sphincter, and flattened in such a manner, 
that the finger, directed from the back to the front, 
and from the bottom to the top, will meet with a 
small annular depression in the form of a cupola, in 
which the extremity of the exploring finger can lodge. 

" I call your earnest attention to this infundibulum, 
formed at the expense of the anus, and partly of that 
of the sphincter, because other authors appear to me 
to have ignored its existence." ^ 

It is generally in this special form that I have 
encountered the infundibulum in the nay of twelve or 
thirteen years of age, and especially in the boy. 

Relaxation of the Sphincter.— Effacement of 
the Radiating Folds. I again quote from Martineau. 
" Besides this infundibular deformity, the sphincter is 
relaxed, and the radiating folds are effaced. These 
two signs are very important. In fact, they are never 
wanting in the inveterate sodomite. Tardieu, very 
rightly, like Zachias Casper, attributes a great diag- 
nostic value to the existence of these two signs, 
which, he says, are met with even when the infundib- 
ulum is missing. For my own part, I have always 
found this relaxation of the sphincter, and the efface- 
ment of the radiating folds or wrinkles. It may easily 
be understood, in fact, that these signs are invariable 
in the inveterate sodomite. It is not necessary that 
anal copulation should be accomplished easily, or with 
difficulty ; to produce these signs it suffices if the act 

' Martineau, Legons stir les Deformations vulvaires et anales (Paris, 


of sodomy is often repeated. The friction, the passage 
of the member, suffices to dilate the anus, and to 
produce the relaxation of the sphincter, and the efFace- 
ment of the radiating folds. The tonicity of the 
constrictor muscle of the anus is lost little by little, 
the sphincter is insensibly relaxed, the folds and 
wrinkles are smoothed out, and anal copulation is 
then effected more easily. 

" Along with these two morbid phenomena, if the 
anal orifice is dilated with the fingers, it will be found 
that the rectal mucous membrane forms creases, and 
sometimes a bright red, thick swelling. As to carun- 
cula and excrescences, lesions which the Latin satirists 
called cresta, marisccp, I have never met with them. 

" Simultaneously with these deformities and anal lesions, 
will be noticed the weakening of the sphincter, the 
compression of the anus upwards, and the dilation of 
the anal orifice to such an extent that, with some 
patients, the faeces, and the intestinal gases, escape 

" Owing to this dilation of the anus, you can easily 
introduce into the rectum, one, two, or even three, 
fingers. On separating the buttocks, you will find a 
hole, more or less gaping, in which you will be able 
to perceive certain lesions with which the mucous 
membrane is affected, such as ulcerations, piles, and 
fistula, etc., etc. These lesions, which are considered 
by Dr. Venot (of Bordeaux) as a consequence of habit- 
ual sodomy, are, in my opinion, nothing of the kind. 
They may occur without inveterate sodomy. They 
may exist with it, but they are not a consequence 
of it." 

The marks of inveterate sodomy could not be described 
more faithfully than they have been by Martineau, 


but I have especially remarked in the elder boys, a 
considerable dilation of the anus, to such an extent 
indeed, that I introduced in some of them the thumb 
and the two first fingers, as far as the second joint, 
and that easily and without causing pain, by taking 
a little care. When relaxed to such an extent, the 
sphincter was incapable of keeping in the faecal mat- 
ter. Having once cured one of these unfortunate 
wretches, of excessive relaxation of the anus, by em- 
ploying an astringent of myrrh and acetate of lead, 
mixed with simple ointment, I created for myself 
(without seeking it) an extensive practice, for the boy, 
when nearly cured, made me a reputation I was far 
from desiring, amongst comrades of the same kidney. 
They came from all parts, to my surgery, which 
allowed me, at the cost of a few pots of ointment, to 
closely study the deformities mentioned above, and to 
gather some information as to the methods used by 
these perverted wretches. 

Signs of Active Pederasty in the Annamite 
and the Chinaman. Tardieu is the only author who 
has treated of this subject in detail, and he has done 
so in a remarkably complete manner. I will sum up 
the conclusions at which he has arrived. 

" In the active pederast, the virile member is very 
slender, or very huge ; slenderness is the very general 
rule, huge size the very rare exception, but, in either 
case, the dimensions are excessive, one way or the 
other. In the slim penis will be noticed a considerable 
reduction from the base to the extremity, which is 
very thin, like the finger of a glove, and resembles 
the canufn more ; this form is the most general. 

" In the very large penis, it is not the whole organ 


which undergoes a gradual thinning from the root to 
the extremity, but the gland, which being strangled 
at its base, is sometimes inordinately elongated, in 
such a manner as to give one the idea of the muzzle 
of certain animals. Moreover the member, throughout 
its whole length, is twisted in such a manner that the 
urinary meatus, instead of being straight up and down, 
is turned obliquely to the right or left. This twisting 
and change in the direction of the organ are some- 
times carried to excess, and appear the more marked 
because the dimensions are so considerable, so that I 
once saw the dorsal side of the penis turned completely 
to the left, and the meatus transversal. " 

I will content myself with making the following 
remarks. I have never noticed in an Annamite the 
signs of passive pederasty, without making an examina- 
tion of the genital organs, and without at once asking 
if he practised active pederasty, or masturbation. The 
reply generally confirmed the medical diagnosis result- 
ing from the examination. 

I have often found, in the young 7iays, signs of 
masturbation, characterized by a gland very easily 
skinned, the mucous surface red, and the member 
becoming erect at the least touch. In the hoy on the 
contrary masturbation was the exception, and, as a 
rule, signs of active pederasty — either by the boys 
amongst themselves, or perhaps with some European 
— were found. 

But though the boy, for a sum of money and the 
promise of secrecy, would reveal to me the vicious 
habits he had practised with his master, it may be 
imagined that, even the most depraved European 
would not willingly confess his abject vices. Messrs. 
Y. and Z. would smile affably when spoken to con- 


cerning their taste for good looking hoys, or the 
Chinese of Ach.'s shop, but the insinuation that they 
followed the Latin adage, par pari refertur, and that 
between them and the boys and Chinese, there existed 
an exchange of fav^ours, would not have been well 

From the Asiatics I examined, I deduced the fol- 
lowing observations. The genital organ of the male 
Annamite, being, as we have seen, remarkable for its 
slenderness, I generally found in the boy who was an 
active pederast, the member conical, and similar to 
that of a dog, as has been remarked by Tardieu. In 
some only — those more especially addicted to mastur- 
bation — the gland was in the shape of a club. 

The genital organ of the Chinaman, being more 
developed, and approaching nearer to the size of that 
of the European, did not so often assume this shape, 
but rather showed, on the contrary, the lateral twist of 
the penis, and the elongation of the gland from the crown. 

Signs of Active and Passive Pederasty in the 
European. The signs of active sodomy in the Euro- 
peans, who consented to allow me to examine them, 
were usually those which Tardieu describes as excep- 
tional. It is true, let me hasten to say, that the number 
of Europeans I examined was not considerable, and I 
cannot, therefore, deduce any general rule. In one of 
them, a M. B***, a man whose lasciviousness and 
misconduct were notorious, I found the member very 
much developed, and capable of satisfying the most 
exacting woman. It was not without some astonish- 
ment that I saw a man, provided with a genital 
apparatus of this size, in the habit of assuaging his 
lust upon unfortunate children not yet arrived at 


puberty. I remarked the same thing among the Arab 
sodomites of Guiana. I also remarked in the European 
active sodomite, the cork-screw form— often very pro- 
nounced — and the strangulation of the gland by the 
pressure of the anal sphincter. 

Signs of Passive Sodomy. For reasons which 
will be well understood, I was only able to note these 
in two Europeans. The first, was the young German 
I have mentioned as affected wnth anal blennorrhcea, 
and whom I cured by injections of a special kind. He 
promised to show me the state of his rectum after he 
was cured, but he took care to never come back, in 
order not to have to confess the more than probable 
cause of the disease, which was evidently occasioned 
by anal copulation with some affected person. 

The second was a young lad of seventeen, the son 
of a clerk in one of the Government offices. I made 
the voyage out in company with his father, and rumours 
were current on board the ship, about the morality of 
this young man. He came to me, one day, with a 
stinking chancre, which occupied the front part of the 
anus. This latter was much dilated, and admitted two 
fingers. On opening it, I found the anal mucous sur- 
face relaxed, red, and ulcerated. The radiating folds 
had partly disappeared, and the sphincter had sensibly 
lost its tonicity. This vicious youth pretended that he 
had acquired the disease from the mouth of a Congai, 
and I could not make him comfess the truth. I thought, 
on the contrary, after making a medical examination 
of his anus, that he acted (perhaps many times) as the 
"patient", and had caught his disease from some 
active sodomite infected with syphilis. 


The European Colony thirty years ago. — The European ivoman 
very rare. — Moral causes of the relative frequency of sodomy and 
pederasty in the early days of the occupation. — Saigon in the 
present day, thirty years after the conquest. — Increase of the femi- 
nine element in Cochin- China. — The life of the European in the 
present day. — Evening amusements. — The European prostitute. — 
Ittcreased morality of the Europeans. — The diminution in the 
masculine and feminine prostitution of the natives is only in ap- 
pearance.— Present manners. — The boy and the native collegian. 

The European Colony.. Thirty years ago the Euro- 
pean colony was not very numerous, and, except for 
some English and Germans, and a very few French 
merchants, was mainly composed of officers of the Navy 
and other corps connected with it, and a small minor- 
ity of civil service officials. 

There were not in all more than four of five hun- 
dred Europeans, besides the Expeditionary Corps. 
Daily existence was desperately monotonous, which, 
added to the unhealthiness of the climate made a sojourn 
in the place very unpleasant. In an atmosphere which 
is hot, damp, and frequently saturated with electricity, 
the climate very quickly enervates and weakens the 
physical strength, and this weakness of the body re-acts 
in its turn on the moral character. 

Few amusements brightened the life of the European 
bachelor, for, at first, few people brought their families 



to the Colony. Consequently, there were none of those 
social meetings which render civilized life nearly sup- 
portable. I cannot call to mind one agreeable reunion, 
for though everyone was obliged to appear now and 
then at the official soirees of the Governor, these were 
nothing short of torture to the officer, or official, who 
was forced to put on for the occasion, his regimentals, 
and epaulettes, or the regulation black suit. At the 
first official ball at which I assisted, i86 — , the female 
element was represented by four ladies, who danced 
a quadrille, with two hundred officers, and officials, 
standing round them. There were no evening amuse- 
ments at Saigon, but for those who liked the Club, 
and baccarat or ecarte. Lovers of music were reduced 
to visiting the Chinese theatre, the only one in existence 
at the time, for the French theatre did not open till 
twenty years after the conquest, and it must be con- 
fessed that the Chinese theatre was not very amusing. 
Confirmed gamblers had recourse to haquan. The 
admirers of the fair sex were the worst off, the female 
element was conspicuous by its absence. There were 
two or three married ladies, who were not very cir- 
cumspect, and were fi^eely talked about, but as to ladies 
of the demi-monde, or even of the " demi-demi-monde", 
there were absolutely none. 

The two filrst European Prostitutes. If my 

memory serves me faithfully, the two first European 
prostitutes came to Saigon in 1866, or 1867. They 
were two Moldo-Wallachians, nearly forty years of 
age, who had been in every brothel between Alexan- 
dria and Saigon. Installed as dames de comptoir in 
a common beer-house, they caused almost a riot amongst 
the male population ; and the night of their arrival all 


the bachelors of Saigon were collected in the establish- 
ment, though usually you did not find more than four 
Europeans there. Some funny person had the absurd 
idea of putting the ladies up in a raffle, — each at a 
hundred tickets at one piaster. In an hour all the 
tickets were sold, and the lottery drawn. I do not 
know whether the happy winners were enchanted with 
their good luck. 

Except the cafe and the Club — or, indeed, baquan, 
and the Chinese theatre — what amusements were there 
in the evening, for Europeans who did not want to 
drink, or gamble, or even listen to the senseless music 
of the Chinese? None whatever, but opium smoking 
and native prostitution. Unless a man possessed an 
exceptionally strong will, it was difficult to avoid 
gliding down the slippery paths of vice, in a country 
where vice was to be found everywhere. In the day- 
time, the European was attacked in his house by the 
" daylight whores ", and in the evening, if he had the 
strength to take a stroll, in order that he might sleep 
the better, quite a crowd of lewd boys came round 
him, to impudently offer their unclean favours. ^ 

It was not astonishing that persons of weak char- 
acter, who did not know how to preserve their moral 
dignity, fell into shameful vices. I cannot but repeat, 
that the European did not import the vice of Sodom 
into Cochin-China. The vice was a direct result of 
Chinese civilization, and became part of the manners 
of the Annamite people long before the conquest by the 

' Vices such as these are not confined alone to Asiatic cities. We 
recall an incident that occurred to ourselves in 1894 in Seville. While 
traversing a short street in the centre of the city we were accosted by 
a woman, who said "Si el seizor no quiere mvigeres hay niflos muy pe- 
queflos y el seHor pucde tomarlos por el culo." The utter depravity of 
other cities like BerUn, Marseilles and Naples is notorious. 


French. It was the vanquished people who corrupted 
the European, and he was aided in that by the almost 
complete want of the European feminine element, at 
the beginning of the colonization. 

Moral Causes ofthe Sodomy of the Europeans. ^ 

The real causes of the propagation of the vice of 
sodomy, in the European colony, are these. In the 
first place, the almost complete absence of the white 
woman. Obliged to take to the disgusting Congai, 
whose black mouth, with its red spittle, was enough 
to damp the warmest genital ardour, some preferred 
the mouth sucking used by these women ; others, more 
depraved, took the road to Sodom. Others again, 
more depraved still (or perhaps from hereditary char- 
acter) addressed themselves to the nays and boys, who 
offered themselves in shoals. This last category was 
much the smallest, I hasten to acknowledge. 

All gave, as the reason for their vicious habits, the 
absolute want of security, and the great danger of 
catching syphilis from the Congai. A great change 
has taken place since then, and before describing the 
life which the European now leads in Cochin-China, 
let us cast a rapid glance at Saigon in the present day. 

Saigon in the Present Day, more than thirty 
Years after the Conquest. Nearly a quarter of a 
century after my first stay in the Colony, I paid it a 
second visit, on my return from Tonquin. I can thus 
bear witness to the progress effected in thirty years. 

Important changes in the appearance of Saigon had 
taken place, to such a degree, indeed, that of all the 
old houses and huts existing at my departure, I recog- 
nized one only, that of the great merchant, Wang-tai, 

' See the Excursus at the end of this chapter. 


transformed into the office of the " Contributions indi- 
rectes." A magnificent Government House, a superb 
Cathedral, a brand new Post and Telegraph Office, 
Treasury, fine Law Courts, Government Offices, the resi- 
dence of the Commandant, enormous barracks provided 
with all necessary comforts, all had sprung out of the 
ground as though by enchantment, with the help of 
the Chinese labourer. The town had doubled in size, 
and instead of small low narrow houses with tile roofs 
and no ceilings, where the officers and officials for- 
merly lodged, there are now fine houses of several 
storeys, with verandas all round. 

Instead of a few rare Malabar cabmen, never to be 
found on the days when they were most needed, there 
were hundreds and hundreds of carriages of all sorts, 
from the regular old cab, formerly driven by a Ma- 
labar (whence its name) to the calash with two horses, 
or the zidore, an open carriage with one horse. These 
could be hired for fourpence a journey, or eightpence 
an hour, with no pour bo ire for the driver, — an improve- 
ment worth noting. For half a piaster (is. 8d.), you 
could make a tour of inspection at five or six o'clock 
in the evening, or at night after dinner, when the 
temperature is heavy and oppressive. In the middle 
of the Promenade is the Cafe Pre-Catalan, where you 
can take your bitters before dinner, or your beer after- 
wards. If you feel so inclined, there is an excellent 
restaurant, with private rooms on the first floor, where 
you can enjoy a good supper in good company. And 
the feminine element will not be wanting at the supper 
as it was in the old days. 

Increase of the Feminine Element in Cochin- 
China. The number of European women has in- 


creased enormously. Many of the officials who at the 
beginning of the occupation were bachelors, married 
during one of their visits to France, and brought out 
their wives and families. The officers of the various 
corps connected with the Navy, also obtained permis- 
sion to bring out their wives. 

Each family has its horses and carriages. The 
expense of purchasing these is from 300 to 400 piasters, 
with a cost of twelve to fifteen piasters a month for 
the keep of the horses, and the wages of the coachman. 

On leaving, you can sell the whole turn-out (except 
the coachman), at a loss of about forty to fifty per 
cent, after you ha^^e used it for three or four years. 
It will be seen that the cost is a mere trifle. 

The French shopkeeper, who used to keep a bazaar, 
has disappeared, and been replaced by a Chinaman, 
who sells the same articles much cheaper, for he imports 
them direct from France. But new shops of all sorts 
have arisen, florists, milliners, dressmakers, booksellers, 
jewellers, etc. ; there are some of all sorts, not forget- 
ting pork-butchers. Instead of the common eating-house, 
kept by a kind of cosmopolitan, whose cooking burned 
your palate, there are now many fine restaurants and 
hotels. It will be seen that the Colony is flourishing. 

The Present Life of the European. After his 
daily work is over, if the European wishes to amuse 
himself in the evening the means are not wanting. 

In the first place there are plenty of European 
families, who receive their friends, and offer them tea. 
When the Government ball takes place, there are some 
hundred of ladies in the immense ball-room, and danc- 
ing is carried on from ten at night till six in the 
morning in spite of the torrid heat. 


A small and pretty French theatre, in which the 
heat is less felt than it is in some of the large theatres 
of Paris, has been built in the middle of the Rue 
Catenat. During the season, which lasts six months 
(from October to March), there are four performances 
a week, and the prices of admission are very moderate. 

The Colony pays a subvention of ;640oo a year to 
the theatre, which enables the manager to engage 
good artistes for every sort of entertainment, from 
farce to grand opera. We have heard William Tell 
given. The female members of the company are 
numerous, and well-trained, and include, besides the 
leading actresses, chorus ladies, and even a corps de 
ballet. All these ladies like to pass an evening at the 
Pre-Catalan, and a few glasses of iced champagne will 
not frighten them. 

There are besides, numerous cafes and beer-houses, 
generally kept by women, or girls, who are not inclined 
to be too prudish. This is very different from the 
days when there was only one French Cafe, — la Rotonde, 
usually called the Trois Tetons, — kept by two women 
whose beauty was on the wane. 

During the six months of the year when the theatre 
is closed, an orchestra of female musicians from Austria, 
plays in an immense hall constructed of bamboo, and 
filled with plants and flowers, and through which the 
air circulates freely. These concerts are frequented 
by all the European society. 

The European Prostitute. In the daytime, you 
may see on the promenade of the Tour d'Inspection, 
many handsomely appointed victorias, with coachmen 
and sais dressed in showy liveries. On the cushions 
of each carriage recline one or two ladies, bepowdered 


and berouged, and dressed in the latest fashion. They 
are the " old guard " of Saigon, taking a drive. In 
the evening, these deini-mondaines have their box at 
the theatre, or their seats at the music-hall, and are 
surrounded by a circle of admirers. We are no longer 
in 1 86 — , when the two first European prostitutes were 
raffled for. A score or so of years has sufficed to 
radically alter the Colony, and, as we shall see, has 
caused an immense improvement in morals. 

Great Improvement in the Morality of the 
Europeans in Cochin-China. This fact struck me 
as soon as I returned. In former days, the European 
sodomite had been far from a rarity; many persons, 
some of them of high rank, had this unfortunate 
reputation. They were not despised, or thought the 
worse of on that account. They were merely " chaifed". 
In the cafes, the most smutty stories were told, and 
laughed at. 

Those who evinced a taste for male prostitution, 
used to meet together, and pass the evening with their 
associates ; opium was smoked, and there were always 
boys hanging round the doors, waiting for customers. 

Within less than a quarter of a century, a radical 
change has been effected, and this change is undeni- 
ably due to the introduction of the European woman, 
and a similar increase in the number of Chinese and 
Japanese prostitutes. 

The number of Europeans addicted to the habit of 
opium smoking has also greatly diminished. They 
may now be counted. They have Annamite mistresses 
skilled in preparing the opium pipe ; in the Army, the 
officer who was also an opium smoker — frequent enough 
thirty years ago — has completely disappeared. 


As to the European sodomite, hardly more than the 
memory of him may be said to exist. Those who still 
preserve this reputation are old merchants, and officials 
dating back to the old regime. They are regarded 
as curiosities by the new-comers. That amongst these 
last, there may be some who have a weakness for 
"Greek love", is possible, for the vice exist even in 
Europe, but they form an infinitesimally small minority, 
and so far from boasting of their vice, sedulously con- 
ceal it. They require secrecy, and in order not to arouse 
suspicion, dare not even introduce the nay or the boy 
into their houses by night. " Other times " have pro- 
duced "other manners". 

The Diminution in the Male and Female Pros- 
titution of the Natives more Apparent than Real. 

It must be owned, that the police of the Colony has 
made the most praiseworthy efforts to rid Saigon of 
the plague of sodomite nays and boys. Permission to 
reside in Saigon is only given to Annamites working 
for some European, and each person having such per- 
mission must possess a card, bearing his description 
and his photograph. Any native who is met with, 
who does not possess such a card, and who has no 
trade by which he gains his living, is arrested; if the 
medical examination shows that he is a sodomite, he 
is sent to the Penitentiary at Poulo Condore. 

Unfortunately, the police regulation obliging the Chi- 
naman or the Annamite to carry a lighted lantern 
after nightfall, and forbidding him to be found in the 
street after midnight, has been withdrawn. It was 
withdrawn at the request of the native members of the 
Municipal Council, who asserted it was an infringement 
of personal liberty. The nay also has no longer a 


basket. He sells flowers, which are now extensively 
cultivated in the neighbourhood of Saigon. The nay 
is now found, in small bands, at the doors of cafes, 
restaurants, etc. He is no longer alone, as he used 
to be, but is accompanied by a little girl, who passes 
for his sister. She generally carries a bundle of rose- 
buds, which she offers to you with a most engaging 
smile. You have only to accept them, give her a few 
halfpence, and at the same time show her one or two 
piasters. That is quite enough. 

How the Business is now managed. The follow- 
ing information I derived from one of my countrymen, 
whom I had known in i86 — , and whom I found on 
returning again. He had (for he is now dead) a great 
liking for virgins, — a propensity which was well-known 
throughout the town. This is how soliciting is now 
done, under the noses of the European policemen, the 
only ones who can be trusted to look after morals. 

" The boy slips away, and the little girl remains 
within a few paces of you, without losing sight of you. 
When you leave, she walks in front of you, and you 
follow her, for she will conduct you into a quiet side- 
street where you will find a closed cab, the driver of 
which is always an Annamite. The nay is near by, 
and on the look-out for the police. You enter the cab 
with the little girl. The little boy sits on the box, by 
the side of the driver. A drive of an hour will cost 
you a piaster for the little wretches, and half a piaster 
for the driver. Of course, you are driven outside Saigon, 
generally to the Botanical Gardens which are open night 
and day, and the cab will take you back to your house, 
if the drive has fatigued you. 

If you want a whole night with the damsel, the 


driver will conduct you, if you ask him, to a hut in 
one of the suberban villages. These villages are not 
"in the district" of the European police, and are only 
looked after by the rural police of the commune, so 
the proprietors of these hospitable hovels are never 
disturbed. You will find a table laid, and provisions 
at reasonable prices, and you can be served with 
coffee, tea, or opium, with all the required apparatus 
for smoking. But take care of your purse, for you 
will be lucky if you find it in your pocket when you 
wake up the next morning. 

The Boy of the Present Day. The boy's morals 
have not changed, but the fear of the police has led 
him to take some extra precautions. He no longer 
runs the risk of prowling about the streets of Saigon, 
but has retired to the villages, and established the 
centre of his operations in those hospitable cottages 
of which I have just spoken, and also in the clandes- 
tine gambling dens, which, having been hunted down 
by the European police, have now deserted Saigon. 
It is in these places that the few remaining admirers 
of depraved practices must seek him. They need only 
take the trouble to drive out to these villages, and 
they need be under no apprehensions that the villagers 
will pay any attention to the comings and goings of 
a few debauchees. The moment that you open your 
purse-strings, the Annamite will be ready to display 
unlimited indulgence to other people's vices. In this 
respect his notions of liberty are wide. 

The Native Collegian. I will conclude by noticing 
one more category of young "amateurs", who were 
almost unknown in old Cochin-China. These are the 


pupils of the large French College of Saigon, and the 
French schools of the interior. 

In the time of the mandarins, young men, who 
received an education above the average, might com- 
pete in the public examinations, and if they passed, 
obtain employment as "men of letters". Nowadays, 
when they have been taught the elements of primary 
instruction, — when they know hov/ to speak French 
passably, and can write, somehow or other, French 
and Annamite in coggnu (phonetic characters) — when 
they are acquainted with the four rules of arithmetic, 
and a smattering of history and geography, — they 
are turned out at seventeen or eighteen years of age, 
but not even the most unimportant place is offered 
them. The most intelligent become interpreters in the 
law-courts. The others, — like Jerome Paturot, — wander 
about the streets, looking for a place of some kind. 
They must live somehow. In the evening, like Dio- 
genes, but without his lantern, they seek for a man. 
The absence of the lantern, and the change in costume, 
are the only differences between them and the hoy of 
old days; — they are just as much wanting in moral 
sense, and capable of the same turpitude. 

They wander about the quarters in which the native 
houses of prostitution are situated, ready to serve as 
guides, interpreters, assistants, and, if need be, associ- 
ates. They extol the qualities of the merchandise, and, 
for a fair and moderate price, will acquaint the women 
with your habits and customs. 

Woe betide the European green-horn who is caught 
in their snares! He will be bombarded with letters 
demanding employment, and if they gain admittance 
into your house in any capacity — as secretary, clerk, 
amanuensis, or what not — you will soon be inevitably 


robbed. In whatever hiding-place you conceal the 
key of your cash-box, they will be sure to find it. 
If you carry it about you, take care not to forget and 
leave it in your clothes. Your boy, too, will act as 
accomplice to the thief. When he has robbed you, 
he will not run away, — he is not such a fool. But 
if you threaten to give him in charge, he will reply 
that he also will prefer a complaint against you, for 
you "abused his virtue". The most simple method of 
avoiding a scandal, — which would not bring back the 
stolen money, — is to say nothing, and turn the thief 
out of your house, for if you act otherwise, he will 
not fail to bring a shameful charge against you ; and 
when the case is heard, an Annamite lawyer (there 
are some who have taken their diploma in France) 
will be ready to abuse you in the heartiest manner. ^ 


Homosexuality among Tramps in America. 

There is much to be said on this subject. Every hobo 
(genuine tramp) in the United-States knows what 
" unnatural intercourse " means, and about every tenth 
man practises it, and defends his conduct. Boys are 

' Strangers arriving in Tangiers are assailed, before they have had 
time to disembark, by the importunities of hotel touts, who at the same 
time proffer their services as interpreters and " guides " to anywhere and 
anything. If the unwary accept these offers, they will be led in the 
evening to some unwholesome den to see the danse du ventre, vilely 
executed, and woe betide the unhappy man who is enticed to ascend to 
the upper regions, where he is almost sure to get a splendid dose of 
syphilis besides being mulcted of dollars right and left by guide & Co., 
all combined for the same nefarious purpose. 

The WTiter has seen the above-mentioned dance far better and more 
lasciviously performed for two sous in a booth on the Place de la R6pu- 
blique in Paris. 


the victims of this passion. The tramps gain possession 
of these boys in various ways. A common method 
is to stop for awhile in some town, and gain acquaint- 
ance with the slum children. They tell these children 
all sorts of stories of "life on the road ", how they can 
ride on the railways for nothing, shoot Indians, etc., 
and they choose some boy who specially pleases them. 
By smiles and flattering caresses they let him know 
that the stories are meant for him alone, and before 
long, if the boy is a suitable subject, he smiles back 
just as slily. In time he learns to think that he is 
the favourite of the tramp, who will take him on his 
travels, and he begins to plan secret meetings with 
the man. The tramp, of course, continues to excite 
his imagination with stories and caresses, and some 
fine night there is a boy less in the town. On the 
road the lad is called a " prushun " , and his protector 
a "jocker" The majority of "prushuns" are between 
ten and fifteen years of age, but I have known some 
under ten and a few over fifteen. Each is compelled by 
hobo-law to let his jocker do with him as he will, 
and many, I fear, learn to enjoy his treatment of them. 
They are also expected to beg in every town they 
come to, any laziness on their part receiving very 
severe punishment. 

How the act of unnatural intercourse takes place is 
not clear. From what I have personally observed I 
should say that it is usually what they call "leg 
work " (intercrural), but sometimes tmr>itssto penis in 
anum, the boy in either case lying on his stomach. 
I have heard terrible stories of the physical results to 
the boy of anal intercourse. 

One evening, near Cumberland, Pennsylvania, I was 
an unwilling witness of one of the worst scenes that 


can be imagined. In company with eight hoboes, I 
was in a freight-car attached to a slowly moving 
train. A coloured boy succeeded in scrambling into 
the car, and when the train was well under way, he 
was tripped up and " seduced " (to use the hobo 
euphemism) by each of the tramps. He made almost 
no resistance, and joked and laughed about the busi- 
ness as if he had expected it. This indeed appears to 
be the general feeling among the boys when they 
have been thoroughly initiated. At first they do not 
submit, and are inclined to run away or fight. Even 
little fellows under ten have told me this and I have 
known them to wilfully tempt their jockers to intercourse. 


My visit to Tonqtiin. — Anthropological characteristics of the 
Tonqiiinese race. — The Muofigs, and the Xas, or Quans. — TTie 
Chinese, aud the Tonquinese-Chinese half-breeds. — A feiv words 
concernii2g the importance of the Chinese element in Tonquin. — 
Chinese piracy. — Manners, habits, customs, religioji, etc., of the 
Tonqriinese. — Moral characteristics, and fortns and perversions of 
carnal lusts. — The European Colony, and its morality. 

My Visit to Tonquin. I lived a little less than two 
years in Tonquin, a good long time after my return 
from Cochin-China, I was able, however, owing to 
the experience acquired in the last mentioned Colony, 
to turn my short visit to good account. 

Anthropological Characteristics of the Tonquin- 
ese. The Tonquinese ascended from Central Annam 
towards the North, as the Cochin-Chinese descended 
from the same place to Cochin-China. They con- 
quered, and drove back into the mountains, the native 
races of the Muongs, Xas, or Quans, At the time 
when we came to Tonquin, the Chinese had also come 
down from the North to conquer the land in their turn. 

It would therefore be but natural that we should 
find almost the same anthropological characteristics in 
two peoples of the same race, who differ from one 
another as little as a Languedocean does from a native 
of Avignon, or a Provencal. 



The observations I made in Tonquin did but con- 
firm those I had previously made in Cochin-China, so 
that I shall note here only the differences, where they 
occurred. Moreover, I found at Tonquin, a number of 
old military Inspectors from Cochin-China, who declared 
that the Tonquinese showed the same moral qualities, 
and had the same customs, habits, etc., as the Cochin- 
Chinese. They are, besides, ruled by the same central 
Government of Hue, and use the same code of laws — 
the Gia-Long. 

The Tonquinese is bigger, more robust, and better 
proportioned than the Cochin-Chinese ; he is also much 

This is due to the influence of a climate in which 
the temperature descends below 68° F. in winter, and 
is only 75° F. in spring, whereas at Saigon the average 
temperature of those two seasons in 8o|° F., or only 
3^" below the average of the summer. The head of 
the Tonquinese is not so big, and the face less prog- 
nathous. The forehead is low, the limbs still slender, 
but the chest is more developed. The skin is a trifle 
whiter, but the mucous surfaces are absolutely of the 
same colour. The genital organs of both sexes are 
perhaps a little more developed, but their comforma- 
tion is the same. In short it may be said that the 
Tonquinese is the elder brother of the Southern Annam- 
ite, but simply a little more robust, The Tonquinese 
woman is prettier than the woman of Lower Cochin- 
China, and you do not meet with pot-bellied children, 
as you do at Saigon. The race is incontestably finer. 

The Muongs. The Muongs appear to represent the 
autochthonous race. Their anthropological characteris- 
tics are those of the Moys of Cochin-China, but they 


are stronger, and more intelligent, and although they 
have been driven back to the woods and the moun- 
tains, their number, which is nearly four hundred thou- 
sand, enables them to resist with more success the Giao- 
Chi. I have met some specimens of the race, in the 
neighbourhood of Ninh-binh; they are civiHzed, and 
divided into tribes under patriarchs, like the tribes of 
ancient Israel. On the upper waters of Red River, the 
Muong is more savage, and more resembles his degraded 
brother, the Moy of Cochin-China. The Muong lives 
by hunting, rearing cattle, and working in the forests. 

He is brave, and uses, both in the chase and war, 
small poisoned arrows, shot out of a short cross-bow, 
which, however, has a good range ; with this weapon 
they defended themselves against the matchlocks and 
flint guns of the Annamites, These last, finding they 
could not exterminate their enemies, brought them into 
subjection, and make them pay tribute. According to 
the traveller, Villeroi d'Auges, the Muongs have sin- 
gular funeral customs ; they enclose the body in a trunk 
of a tree, and place it in the hut of the nearest relative 
of the deceased, before confiding it to the earth. 

The Moys and Muongs, being branches of the same 
race, and closely related, I refer the reader to what 1 
have said regarding the characteristics, manners, etc., 
of the former. 

The Xas, or Quans. These are savages, whose 
ancestors descended from the high lands of Laos, and 
who inhabit the mountainous district to the north of 
Tonquin. They talk a peculiar language, and they wear 
cotton drawers, a shawl of bright colours, and a kind 
of cap on the head. I possess very little information 
about this race, and I have never seen a specimen. 


The Chinaman, and the Chinese Half-breed at 
Tonquin. The Chinese of Tonquin are identically the 
same as those who have emigrated to Cochin-China, 
but they are much more numerous, and in the regions 
of Cao-bang, Lang-son, and Lao-kay form the majority. 
The Chinaman often marries a native woman, and 
compels his companion to adopt his religion, his man- 
ners and customs, and even eat the same food, and 
wear the same clothes, as the children of the Celestial 
Empire. Half-breeds are met with in the coast-pro- 
vinces, and I saw a good many at Hanoi. They are 
quite as intelligent as the Minhuongs of Cho-lon, but 
taller and more vigorous. The children of the Chinese 
follow their father's example and despise their com- 
patriots, and even their mothers. 

Before the arrival of the French, the Celestials had 
already invaded the land, and were slowly but surely 
transforming it into a conquered country. They had, 
undeniably, all the trade, and their language was 
driving out the native tongue. The French arrested 
this progress, and thus came into rivalry with a nation 
of three or four hundred millions of inhabitants. Time 
alone will show whether France has not been im- 
prudent, in extending her conquests to the frontiers of 

Chinese Piracy. The Chinese have always con- 
sidered the Tonquinese as beings of an inferior race, 
only fit to be taxed and worked without mercy. The 
method of conquest of this old civilized nation —perhaps 
the oldst civilized nation in the world — has never 
changed, and still consists of the pillage, ruin, and 
devastation of the conquered country, — a method iden- 
tical with that of the Romans, in regard to the peoples 


of Western Asia (Persia, Assyria, etc.) before the 
Christian era, and of the Europeans before the mod- 
ern era. 

Chinese pirates infest the Gulf of Tonquin, the coast 
of Hainam, the mouths of the Delta, and the islands of 
the coast. The bars, placed by the natives at the 
mouths of the rivers, have never been able to stop the 
Chinese junks. These pirates act much the same as 
the old Normans, who used to disembark, attack the 
villages and unprotected towns, massacre all those who 
resisted, and re-embark, carrying away with them all 
the marriageable girls and the young men. The French 
occupation has put some restraint upon these depreda- 
tions, ^ but not stopped them altogether. 

' Those people who may imagine that piracy on the high seas is a 
thing of the past, will read the following cutting from the " Daily Tele- 
graph" of August lOth (1897) with some astonishment. 


Lloyd's agents at Benang, under date of 14th ult., report as follows: 

"The British steamer Pegu, owned in Penang, left this port on 7th, 
bound for Edie and the usual ports up to Olehleh. At Edie she took 
on board, as passengers, a party of some ten Achinese, and one woman. 
The men, as is customary on that coast, were searched for arms, but 
none were found, and it is supposed these were all concealed on the 
woman's person. At about seven p.m. on the 9th, when the master, 
Captain Henry Ross, and the chief engineer, Craigie, were at dinner in 
the saloon, they were set upon, without warning, by these men. The 
engineer, though wounded by stabs about the body and arms, managed 
to escape, and barricaded himself in the engine-room. Captain Ross also 
escaped from the saloon, but in trying to gain the bridge was overtaken, 
stabbed fatally, and disembowelled. 

"The Achinese then turned their attention to the rest of the crew, 
killed the mate and steersman on the bridge, and five of the passengers, 
all natives, while five other passengers jumped overboard, and were 
drowned. In addition to these, fourteen others of the crew and 


On land, the pirates infest the North and North 
West provinces, which they have rendered almost a 
desert. The Black Flags, under their old chief Luu- 
Vinh-Phuoc, have established themselves along the 
frontiers of China, and carry off the daughters of the 
luckless mountaineers, and sell them at Lao-Kay, to 
Chinese, who come specially from the North on purpose 
to buy them. The boys are either enrolled in the 
pirate bands, or held as hostages. 

Manners, Customs, and Religion of the Ton- 
quinese. There is very little difference between the 
Tonquinese, and the Annamites of Cochin-China. The 
Tonquinese are laborious, and you meet few poor 
wretches who spend their lives in begging. They are 
essentially labourers, though some exercise certain 
industrial professions, and are fishermen, brickmakers 
potters, etc. The women work a great deal, and, in 
the country, even cultivate the rice fields along with 
the men. In the towns they carry on business, and 
keep shops. 

The costume is almost the same as in Cochin-China, 
except the shoes and sandals of plaited straw, worn 
in the winter. The women's dress is a little longer, 
and they tie a kekoitan (a bright coloured scarf) round 
the waist, and round the neck. 

The huts of the Tonquinese are analogous to those 
of the Annamites, and their food is the same, and 
quite as much salted and spiced. Chinese tea is only 

passengers were more or less severely wounded. Having gained pos- 
session of the ship in this way, they proceeded to phifider the strong 
room, securing about ^15,000 in coin, with which they made good their 
escape in the ship's boats, landing on the Achin coast near Simpang 


drunk on feast days, on ordinary occasions a decoction 
of the native tea, called Hue tea, is used. 

The religions are the same in Tonquin as in Annam 
and Lower Cochin-China ; the religion of Confucius, 
for the educated classes; an altered form of Buddhism, 
superstitions, and belief in sorcery, for the people. 
The ceremonies of marriage and burial do not present 
any essential difference. 

Moral Characteristics of the Tonquinese. The 

moral characteristics of this race greatly resemble 
those of the Southern Annamite, but this last enjoys 
some tranquillity under the French rule which has 
relieved him of the despotism of the Mandarins, whilst 
the unfortunate Tonquinese has to serve three masters, 
the old Mandarin, who, being still all powerful, con- 
tinues his exactions; the French protectorate which 
defends him as well as it can from the Mandarin and 
Chinese pirate; and lastly the pirates, who rob him 
and hold him to ransom. France makes him pay a 
subsidy, the Mandarin keeps up the Ka-doui, which 
still flourishes in Tonquin, and the Chinese pirate puts 
the finishing touch, by burning down his house, and 
cutting off his head, if he shows the least resistance. 
The Tonquinese peasant therefore, is gentle, timid, 
and fearful. He only asks to be left in peace to till 
his rice field, and earn his daily bread thereby. Being 
almost without defensive arms, it is impossible for him 
to defend himself against the incursions of the pirates, 
and the Chinese regular troops disguised as pirates, 
and armed with breech-loading rifles. His fate is worthy 
of interest and pity. 

Forms and Perversions of Carnal Passions in 


Tonquin. I can but repeat here what I have already 
said concerning the Southern Annamite, the race 
being the same, and Chinese civihzation having pro- 
duced the same effects in Tonquin as in Lower Cochin- 

No appreciable difference is to be found in the 
forms, or perversions, of sexual intercourse. The nay 
and boy flourish at Hanoi and Hai-phong, as they do 
at Saigon, and are as impudent and depraved, and as 
great gamblers and thieves. The daylight whore, and 
the prostitute of the Tonquinese bamboo, practise the 
same methods, as in Cochin-China, 

The Tonquinese are as passionately fond of gambling 
and opium as their congeners of the South, and are 
addicted to all the forms of debauchery connected 
with those habits. 

Lasciviousness, gambling, pederasty, and sodomy, 
are innate in the race. Having definitely stated this 
fact, let us pass on to another subject. 

The European Colony in Tonquin. The number 
of vicious Europeans addicted to the vice of sodomy, 
and the passion for opium, was sensibly less than 
when Cochin-China was first colonized. This is due 
to the more rapid progress in colonization in Tonquin, 
which, in less than ten years, had made as much 
progress as the elder colony did in twenty-five. Many 
have come here from the other colony, to say nothing 
of the English and Americans, who have been at- 
tracted by the mines of coal and various metals which 
do not exist in Cochin-China. 

White women were implanted at Tonquin very 
quickly, the climate being decidedly superior to that 
of Cochin-China, the cool temperature of the winter 


correcting the anaemic effects of the intense heat of 
the summer. 

Owing to all these causes, sodomy and pederasty 
have not had time to take very deep root in the 
European colony, and the number of worshippers of 
the anal Venus has been greatly reduced, and will be 
more so in the future. 

What I wish chiefly to note here, is the radical 
difference between the pederasty of the x\nnamite of 
the North or the South, and also of the Chinese, and 
that of the European. It is a general characteristic 
of the Asiatics, who are lewd, and devoid of moral 
restraint, whilst on the contrary, in the European races 
it is of an esoteric character, peculiar to certain indi- 
viduals, mere erotic idiots, whom the bulk of their 
fellows have always scorned and loathed as they 


My sojourn in Cambodia. — Anthropological characteristics of the 
Cambodian. — The organs of generation of the Cambodians.— 
Foreign races inhabiting Cambodia. — Malays and Chatns. — 
Chinese. — Portugtcese. — Annamites. — Social condition of Catn- 
bodia. — Decline of the country a7id of the Kmer race. — Royal 
prerogatives before the French Protectorate. — The Abbaioureach, 
and the Abbareach. — The five Ministers. — The Mandarin class. — 
The oath of the Mandarins. — The middle-classes. — Free men. — 
Slaveiy. — Habitations. — Costume. — Food. — Moral characteristics 
of the Cambodian. — Curious customs attending the castration of 
animals. — Bravery of the Cambodian. — Hunting the elephajit 
and rhinoceros. — Religion. — The Bonze and the Kmer Pope. — 
The Somdach-Prea-Sam-Creach. — The idle life of the Bonzes. — 
The white elephant of Noro-dom. — Cambodian Creeds. — Religions 
festivals. — Family festivals. — Superstitions. — The Feast of the 
Dead. — Tke Festivals of Catsac and the Blessing of the Waters. 
— Human sacrifices. — Cambodian legislation and justice.— Causes 
of the decadence of the Kmer race. — The vulgar tongue and the 
sacred language. 

My Sojourn in Cambodia. I lived several months 
in Cambodia in 1866, during the civil war caused by 
the struggle between Noro-dom, the reigning king, 
supported by the French, and his brother Pra-Keo- 
Pha, his rival for the throne. In order not to exceed 
the scope of this work, and swell the book immoder- 
ately, I shall deal very briefly with all those manners, 



customs, and habits, which do not directly concern 
sexual intercourse. 

Ciampa, the ancient Kingdom of the Kmers, was 
formerly very powerful ; it comprised the whole of 
Cochin-China, a part of the Empire of Annam, the 
present Kingdom of Cambodia, and the provinces of 
Baltambang and Angkor belonging to Siam. These 
countries formerly possessed a high degree of civiliza- 
tion, which is still shown by the magnificent monuments 
and buildings, especially by the fine city of Angkor. 
The present race of Cambodians, degenerate descend- 
ants of the old Kmers, cannot decipher the characters 
in the ancient language engraved on the monuments 
of their ancestors. 

Anthropological Characteristics of the Cam- 
bodians. When one has daily been in the habit of 
seeing the Annamites, you are astonished to find the 
Cambodian so much bigger, for he is of the average 
height of the European of the South. He is better 
proportioned, and noticeably more robust than the 
Annamite. His body is square, his shoulders large, his 
muscular system is well developed, but, nevertheless, 
you never find the muscles at all salient. The skull 
is long and oval ; the forehead flat or round, the eyelids 
are not oblique, but the upper eyelid is always pulled 
down at the corner of the eye ; the nose is not so 
flat as that of the Annamite, and the nostrils l6ss 
gaping. The mouth is of an average size, the teeth 
are lacquered, and spoiled by betel chewing. The 
chin is round, and slopes back, the ears low, and 
sticking out from the cheeks, but the cheek-bones are 
not so high, and less projecting than in the Chinese 
and Annamite races. The hair is generally a dark 


chestnut, instead of being black as in the Annamite, 
and is not so stiff, but on the contrary sometimes flat, 
sometimes slightly wavy. The hair of the Cambodian 
is not luxuriant. 'J he shoulders are horizontal and 
large, the chest rounded, the pectoral muscles project- 
ing, the arms strong. The hand and foot are very 
big, with strong ankles and wrists, and the fingers 
bony and long, — which is not the case with the An- 
namites and Chinese. The calves of the legs are well 
placed, and well developed, and in this respect the 
Cambodians are the best endowed of all the Indo- 
Chinese peoples. 

The skin is of a very pronounced dark yellow; in 
those parts exposed to the sun, such as the face, back, 
hands, and legs, the skin is darker. The general 
colour of the skin very closely resembles that of the 
Mulatto, and to an inexperienced observer, there is a 
certain physical resemblance between a strong Cam- 
bodian, and the offspring of the black and white races, 
but an examination of the organs of generation would 
show an essential, and characteristic, difference. 

The two physicians from whom I have borrowed 
the greater part of this description, have not examined 
the genital organs; my special studies have enabled 
me to supply this deficiency. 

^ The Organs of Generation of the Cambodian. 

The organs of generation are much more developed 

' Maurel describes them as follows : 

" Their buttocks are largely developed ; the pubes but little prominent. 
The Labia majora, thin or medium, and not much garnished with hairs. 
The Labia minora are long or medium, and are recovered with a pigment 
layer, if not uniform, at all events pretty generally distributed. The 
Clitoris is of medium size, the vagina rosy, and the columns well 
marked. The distance from the anus to the fork varies from oin. "8 to 


in the Cambodian than in the Annamite. In shape 
generally, and dimensions, there is less difference be- 
tween a Frenchman and a Cambodian, than between 
the last mentioned and an Annamite. Though the 
skin of the body, the scrotum, and the yard, are 
nearly of the same tint as in the Mulatto, the colour 
of the mucous surfaces of the gland, and of the vulva 
in the woman, are nearly those of the European, but 
of a darker red, with a light tint approaching to 
yellow, but brighter than the colour of the same parts 
in the Annamite, which is more yellowish, and never 
of a dirty, reddish brown, as in the mulatto. In the 
child, the prepuce is normal, and in the man, few 
cases of phimosis occur. The pubes, in both sexes, 
is rather scantily covered with hair of a dark chestnut, 
and slightly curled. The Cambodian woman plucks 
the hair out of the pubes. Her genital organs are 
better developed than those of the Annamite woman. 
In their general appearance, and in the oblique position 
of the vagina, the Cambodian woman approaches nearer 
to the Frenchwoman than the Annamite. The Cam- 
bodian woman does not suffer, like the last named, 
from that distressing complaint, the flowers. The cli- 
toris I found, in some cases, fairly well developed, 
and also the lesser lips, but generally speaking the 
dimensions of these two parts are normal. 

Syphilis is tolerably rare in Cambodia, although 
there are some skin diseases. Longevity is not rare 

1 in. i8; and Uiat of the neck of the vulva from oin. 98 to I in. 96; 
that from the vaginal orifice to the anterior cul-de-sac from I in. 57 to 

2 in. 35, and to the posterior cul-de-sac from 2 in. 35 to 3 in. 144." 

Maurel. E. Alemoire sur l' Anthropologie des divers peiiplcs vivant 
actucllement an Cambodge . Ale'moires de la Societe d' Anthropologie 
de Paris. II se'rie, t. IV, Fascicule IV. Paris 1893, P- 528. 


amongst the Cambodians; you meet many persons of from 
sixty to eighty years of age, and some even older. 

In short, the Cambodian is physically superior to the 
Annamite, to whom the chignon gives a womanish 
appearance, whilst the closely cut brush of hair of the 
Cambodian gives him a more manly aspect. 

Foreign Races inhabiting Cambodia. — The Anna- 
mites. The Annamite, ^ small and weak as he is, 
is the conqueror, and the Cambodian, though big and 
strong, the conquered. He has been slowly driven 
back from the South to the North by the Annamites, 
of whom there are nearly a hundred thousand in Cam- 
bodia, and who continue gradually to effect the peace- 
ful conquest of the country. 

The Malays and Chams. The Malays occupy, 
principally, the right bank of the Mekong. They much 
resemble their congeners of Cochin-China. The Chams 
inhabit the old Ciampa. They are scattered to the 
North and North West of our colony, towards Tay- 
ninh. They are an agricultural and commercial people. 
I have no particular information concerning them. 

The Chinese. They come more especially from 

' According to Mondiere {a) the Annamite woman in Cambodia has 
her genital organs differently formed than the European woman. She 
has not the wide opening nor the large curving, which in our women 
results from the elongation of the perinaeum ; all the parts lying between 
the Os Pubis, the Os Ischii and the Os Coccygis take the form of a 
trapezoid. Neither the perinseum nor the exterior parts are arched ; 
there exists a flattening of the large and small labia, and the mutterschcide 
(vagina) appears to be very short so that the orifice of the uterus is 
quite close to the entry of the vagina. 

(a) Mondiere — Monographic de la femmc de Cochinchina — Mem. de 
Soc. d'Ahthrop, de Paris, 1 880, p. 250. 


Hainam and Fo Kien. They carry on all the chief 
trade of Cambodia. The half-breeds, which result from 
their marriages with native women, preserve a good 
deal of the physical appearance of the Celestials, but 
— inversely to what happens in Cochin-China and Ton- 
quin, where they are real Chinese — they have adopted, 
in Cambodia, the manners and creeds of the Kmers. 
They are, however, more laborious than these latter, 
and devote themselves to tilling the land, which they 
prefer to trade. 

The Portuguese. The Portuguese penetrated into 
Cambodia at about the same time as they did into 
Siam, where they established themselves in 15 16. They 
have left some descendants, bearers of a string of high 
sounding names, but none of these descendants can 
speak the Portuguese language. Physically and morally, 
they are true Cambodians. The favourite counsellor 
and factotum of King Noro-dom is a certain " Da 
Sonza Inigos, etc.", a descendant of a Portuguese. 

Social Condition of Cambodia. —Decadence of 
the Country and of the Kmers. When, in 1863, 
the French first took Cambodia under their protection, 
this unlucky country was being pressed by two power- 
ful neighbours, Annam and Siam, who for two hundred 
years had been disputing for portions of the land, and 
wresting in turn from it its most fertile provinces. 
The Cambodians of to-day are the last remnants of a 
great people, — the Kmers, with whom religion was all 
powerful, and whose government was an absolute 

The power of the Buddhist priests is equal to that 
of the King, and they are almost absolutely inde- 


pendent. Next to them come the Mandarins, who do 
no work and ruin the country by their exactions and 
plundering. Under all these come the poor wretched 
people, robbed, taxed, and over- worked. There is no 
intermediate middle-class. 

The Royal Prerogatives before the French Pro- 
tectorate. The King exercised the most absolute and 
unlimited power, he was sole governor and sole pro- 
prietor of the Kingdom. He appointed all officers, 
and his decrees were law; he fixed the amount of 
taxation, and had the power of life and death, the 
right to pardon, and to revise judgments. 

According to Aymonier, ^ a former resident in Cam- 
bodia, from whom I have taken many of these details, 
any Cambodian who thought that he had been denied 
justice or fair play, could use the rong deyka, by 
going to the palace at the time of the King's audience, 
and having some blows struck on the tam-tam by an 
official who was paid four ligatures (two-thirds of a 
piaster) for each stroke. The King then sent to hear 
the complaint. The sar tuhk cost nothing. It sufficed 
for the complainant to prostrate himself before the King 
as he was passing, and hold above his head a written 
statement of his case, which the King then took. 

The King is supposed to be of divine origin, and 
adds to his name such high-sounding qualifications as, 
" descendant of the Angels and of the God Vishnu ; 
full of virtues as the Sun, precious as crystal, etc., etc." 
No one may speak to him unless prostrate on hands 
and knees. No one may dare to wake him when he 
is asleep, except one of his wives, who is permitted to 

* AVMONiER — Cochinchine- Excursions et reconnaissances, (No. lb, 
Globus, 1885, vol. 48, No. 7). 


lightly touch his foot. It is high treason to put a 
hand on his sacred person: Moura, one of the resi- 
dents, relates concerning this, that in 1874 Noro-dom 
was thrown violently out of his carriage, and lay 
insensible on the ground. None of his Mandarins, or 
servants, who were present — for the accident happened 
in the court-yard of the palace, — dared to help him, 
and it was some European, who chanced to be there, 
who carried the wounded King into the palace. The 
Queen of Spain, when the country was an absolute 
monarchy, enjoyed the same privilege — if it be one. 

The Abbaioureach and the Abbareach. By 

these names are designated the king who has ab- 
dicated, and the first "Prince of the Blood ", or Second 
King, who will inherit the crown on the death of the 
King. Next to him comes the prea voreachini, or 
first "Princess of the Blood". Each of these members 
of the royal family bears rule, by virtue of peculiar 
laws and customs, over certain provinces, as appanages 
of his or her rank, and governs them absolutely. 

The Five Ministers. Five Ministers,— ///<? chaufea, 
or Prime Minister and President of the Council; the 
iotcmreach, or Minister of Justice ; the heaiig, or Min- 
ister of the Palace and of Finance ; the chakrey, or 
Minister of War, and the kralahom, or Minister of the 
Navy, rank next below the princes of the royal family. 

The Mandarin Class. Each minister has under 
his orders a certain number of mandarins, who are 
divided into separate corps. 

The mandarins are much more numerous than is 
needed for the administration of the country. They 


are insatiable, and ruin, or impoverish by their exac- 
tions, the people, who are unable to resist. 

The Oath of the Mandarins. Twice a year, the 
mandarins come to Pnom Penh to drink the " water 
of the oath " ; that is the form of the oath of fealty 
to the King. On these occasions they receive presents. 
Those who are absent get no gifts, and are, moreover, 

The Middle Class. The middle class is only re- 
presented by the Chinese and Malay merchants, who 
enjoy certain privileges. 

Free Men. This caste of the people has liberty, 
and nothing else, — when they are not obliged to sell 
themselves to pay their debts. The people have hardly 
any property, and have to support all the expenses 
of the King. They are governed by the mandarins, 
against whom there is no redress. Men of the lower 
class are thus obliged to choose a patron amongst the 
mandarins of Pnom Penh. This custom, which is named 
the Komlang, calls to mind the clans of Germany and 
France in old times. 

The more powerful the mandarin is, the more useful 
does the Komlang become, for nothing is to be feared 
from any mandarin less powerful than the one chosen 
for patron. It is true that the Komlang comes expen- 
sive, for a quarter of the taxes is claimed by the man- 
darin, who also requires from his clients a whole host 
of small services, and makes them escort him when- 
ever he appears in public. 

Slavery. Slavery exist in Cambodia. The supply 
is kept up by man-hunting, which is still carried on 


at Laos, and concerning which Dr. Harmand has given 
some curious details. The Cambodians buy their slaves 
from the Laotians. 

Twins, children born deformed, hunchbacks, herma- 
phrodites, etc., are by law slaves of the King. The 
children of slaves are themselves slaves, as in old Greece 
and Rome. Creditors who are not paid become the 
masters of their insolvent debtors. These latter may 
be seized, along with their wives and children. They 
can, it is true, repurchase their liberty, by paying the 
debt and interest, or they may change their master, if 
they can find a new master who will pay the debt to 
the old one. 

Also all criminals condemned for rebellion against 
the royal power, or against the authority of the man- 
darins, become slaves, as do also their families. The 
master has full power over his slave, even that of cor- 
poral punishment, and the law does not interfere, except 
in cases of serious injury or death, caused by excessive 
brutality. In the latter case the master may be con- 
demned to death. There is a curious custom; if a 
master abuses his female slave, she recovers her liberty 
and receives compensation, if she can prove her case. 
In some respects this custom resembles the Mosaic law. 

Habitations. The Cambodian huts, like those of the 
Annamites, are thatched, and built on piles by the banks 
of the rivers. On account of inundations, the basket- 
work floor is made movable, and raised whenever the 
river is in flood. The inhabitants of the same locaHty 
mutually assist each other in case of fire, or against 
thieves and pirates. 

Costume. The Cambodian wears on the upper part 
of his body a short strait vest with buttons, and covers 


the middle part of his body with a langouti, which 
leaves the legs naked from the knee. The woman 
wears a langouti like the man, but covers it with a 
long robe, fastened in at the waist, and open at the 
breast. She covers her breasts with a scarf of silk or 
cotton, according to her means. The mandarins wear 
silk robes, and their wives cover their busts by wrapping 
round them a long silk scarf of some bright colour. 
Instead of ear-rings, the Cambodian woman wears in 
her ears small cylinders of ivory, or even wood. Whilst 
she is a young girl, she wears her black, or dark 
chestnut, hair long, but when once she is married, she 
wears her hair like the man, cut short and stubby. 
This custom, which is exactly the reverse of that of 
the Annamites, with whom the chignon is common to 
both sexes, gives the Cambodian woman, a harsh, unfem- 
inine appearance. 

Food. The food of the Cambodian is similar to 
that of the Annamite. Rice, in place of bread, pork — 
fresh, dry, or salted — vegetables and fruit, form his 
chief nutriment; his food is also strongly spiced. 
Water, clarified with a little alum, forms the chief bever- 
age. Tea is not in such general use as amongst the 
people of the more southern country. A spirit made 
from rice, called sra, is drunk, but much more moder- 
ately in Cambodia than in Annam. 

Opium is smoked by the rich. A mixture of Indian 
hemp and tobacco, called Kanehka, which produces 
an effect analogous to that of opium, is also used. 

Moral Characteristics of the Cambodians. The 

people are mild-tempered, indolent, and very fond of 
amusement. They are passionately fond of boat races, 


which are often made the subject of heavy bets, games 
of ball, bowls, and kite-flying ; they also make crickets 
fight till they tear off each other's legs, or head ; they 
bet upon these insects like the English used to do on 
game cocks. 

Strange Custom used when Animals are gelded. 

"When a Cambodian has a buffalo, or domestic ox, 
gelded, he makes the operation, says Pavie, the occa- 
sion of a certain solemnity. The master informs the 
animal of his intention in phrases something like this. 
" It is not from any whim, or private pleasure of my 
own, that you have to suffer this disagreable operation. 
It was the custom of my ancestors, and you ought 
not therefore to bear me any ill-will, either in this 
life, or in any future life." 

Westmarck says: 

" A like respect is testified for other dangerous 
animals by the hunters who regularly trap and kill 
them. When Kafir hunters are in the act of shower- 
ing spears on an elephant, they call out, " Don't kill 
us, great captain ; don't strike or tread upon us, mighty 
chief." * When he is dead they make their excuses 
to him, pretending that his death was a pure accident. 
As a mark of respect they bury his trunk with much 
solemn ceremony ; for they says that : " The elephant 
is a great lord ; his trunk is his hand. " ^ 

Amongst some tribes of Eastern Africa, when a 
lion is killed, the carcass is brought before the king, 

' Stephen Kay, Travels and Researches in Caffraria (London, 
1833), p. 138. 

' Alberti, De Kaffers nan de Zuidkiist van A/rika (Amsterdam 
1 8 10, p. 95). Alberti's information is repeated by Lichtenstein {Reisen 
im sudluhen Afrika, i. 412), and by Rose [Four years in Southern 
Africa, p. 155). The burial of the trunk is also mentioned by Kay, 1. c. 


who does homage to it by prostrating himself on the 
ground and rubbing his face on the muzzle of the 
beast. ^ In some parts of Western Africa, if a negro 
kills a leopard he is bound fast and brought before the 
chiefs for having killed one of their peers. The man 
defends himself on the plea that the leopard is chief 
of the forest, and therefore a stranger. He is then set 
at liberty and rewarded. But the dead leopard, adorned 
with a chief's bonnet, is set up in the village, where 
nightly dances are held in its honour. ^ 

" Before leaving a temporary camp in the forest, 
where they have killed a tapir and dried the meat on 
a babracot, Indians (of Guiana) invariably destroy this 
babracot, saying that should a tapir passing that way 
find traces of the slaughter of one of his kind, he 
would come by night on the next occasion when 
Indians slept at that place, and, taking a man, would 
babracot him in revenge."^ 

Alaskan hunters preserve the bones of sables and 
beavers out of reach of the dogs for a year and then 
bury them carefully, " lest the spirits who look after 
the beavers and sables should consider that they are 
regarded with contempt, and hence no more should 
be killed or trapped.""* The Canadian Indians were 
equally particular not to let their dogs gnaw the bones, 
or at least certain of the bones, of beavers. They 
took the greatest pains to collect and preserve these 
bones and, when the beaver had been caught in a 
net, they threw them into the river. To a Jesuit who 

' Jerome Becker, La Vie en Afriqii,-. (Paris and Brussels, 1887), 
ii. 298 sq. 305. 

* Bastian, Die detitsche Expedition an der Loango-Kilste. ii, 243. 
' Im Thurn, Among the Indians of liiiiana, p. 352. 

* W. Dall, Alaska and its Resources. \). 89. 


argued that the beavers could not possibly know what 
became of their bones, the Indians repHed, " You know 
nothing about catching beavers and yet you will be 
talking about it. Before the beaver is stone dead, his 
soul takes a turn in the hut of the man, who is kill- 
ing him and makes a careful note of what is done 
with his bones. If the bones are given to the dogs, 
the other beavers would get w^ord of it and would not 
let themselves be caught. Whereas, if their bones 
are thrown into the fire or a river, they are quite 
satisfied; and it is particularly gratifying to the net 
which caught them." ^ Before hunting the beaver 
they offered a solemn prayer to the Great Beaver, and 
presented him with tobacco ; and when the chase was 
over, an orator pronounced a funeral oration over the 
dead beavers. He praised their spirit and wisdom. 
"You will hear no more," said he, "the voice of the 
chieftains who commanded you and whom you chose 
from among all the warrior beavers to give you laws. 
Your language, which the m.edicine men understand 
perfectly, will be heard no more at the bottom of the 
lake. You will fight no more battles with the otters, 
your cruel foes. No, beavers! But your skins shall 
serve to buy arms; we will carry your smoked hams 
to your children ; we will keep the dogs from eating 
your bones, which are so hard. ^ 

' Relatio7is des Je'suites, 1634, p. 24, ed. 1858. Nets are regarded 
by the Indians as living creatures who not only think and feel but also 
eat, speak, and marry wives. Lagard, Le Grand Voyage du Pays des 
Hurons. p. 256. (p. 178 sq. of the Paris reprint, Librairie Tross, 1865). 
S. Hearne, yb?<r«fv to the Northern Ocean, p. 329 sg.; Relation des 
Jesnites. 16, 36, p. 109; ib ; 1639, p. 95. 

Charlevoix, Histoire de la Notivelle France, p. 225 ; Chateaubriand, 
Voyage en Amc'rtqiie, p. 140, sq. 

' Chateaubriand, Voyaye en Amcriqne, pp. 175, 178. They will not 


Food is prepared, also a bottle of sra, a gourd, a 
fine fat cock, and some pieces of the trunk of a banana 
tree, to which are attached areca nuts and betel. 
After an invocation to the prah pisnoukar, or Genius, 
of Industry and Commerce, the gelder performs the 
operation, and receives as his reward the sra, the 
cock, and the gourd. 

Bravery of the Cambodians. The Cambodian is 
courageous, and uses with effect the few worthless 
guns, with no butts, which he possesses, and sticks 
of hard wood, of from eight to ten feet in length, 
which in his hands, become terrible weapons. He 
does not fear death. With nothing but these primitive 
arms he opposed, in 1866, our rifled guns, and in 
1885-86, the Gras rifle of the French and Annamite 
sharpshooters. If he has been conquered by the An- 
namite it is because, — though more vigorous and quite 
as brave as the latter, — the military organization is 
not so perfect. 

Hunting the Elephant and Rhinoceros. The 

Cambodian hunters, armed with wretched flintlock, or 
matchlock, guns, or even with nothing but sticks, hunt 
the elephants, rhinoceroses, wild boars, and wild bulls, 
which abound in the forests of Cambodia. Elephant 
hunting is very dangerous work: the animal is shot 
with a poisoned arrow fired out of a gun. 

"To hunt the rhinoceros requires great courage," 
says M. Moura, a former resident in Cambodia. " Four 
or five skilful hunters meet together, armed with long 

let the blood of beavers fall on the ground, or their Kick in hunting 
them would be gone. 

Relations des Je'suites, 1633 p. 21. Compare the rule about not 

allowing the blood of kings to fall on the ground, vol. i, p. 179 sq. 


bamboos hardened in the fire. They discover the trail 
of the rhinoceros, and when they perceive the animal, 
advance towards it. When the rhinoceros sees the 
hunters close to its lair, it charges open-mouthed, and 
the men push the long bamboos, with which they are 
armed, deep down its throat. Having done this the 
hunters bolt, and climb up trees, and the wounded 
animal soon falls exhausted from loss of blood. Then 
the hunters come down, and finish it" 

It must be acknowledged, that only men who are 
really brave would dare to attack a rhinoceros with 
no better weapons than bamboo sticks hardened in the 

Religion. The religion of the Cambodians is Bud- 
dhism, but disfigured by numerous superstitions foreign 
to the doctrine of the founder, Cakya Mouui, and more 
especially by the worship of ancestors a form common 
to all the people of China, and Indo-China. 

Mr. Edward Tylor, in his fascinating work devotes 
many pages to this interesting subject. ^ The follow- 
ing illustrates, in a special manner, the remarks we 
have made, and although the passage is somewhat 
long, we take leave to quote it, on account of its 
importauce : 

" It is quite usual for savage tribes to live in 
terror of the souls of the dead as harmful spirits. 
Thus Australians have been known to consider the 
ghosts of the unburied dead as becoming malignant 
demons. New Zealanders have supposed the souls of 
their dead to become so changed in nature as to be 

* Primitive Culture : Researches into the Development of Mytholog)', 
Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom, by Edward Tylor, 
D.C.L., etc. ; Reader in Anthropology in the University of Oxford 
(2 vols — 3rd edit. London, 1891). 


malignant to their nearest and dearest friends in lite ; 
the Caribs said that, of man's various souls, some go 
to the seashore and capsize boats, others to the forests 
to be evil spirits : among the Sioux Indians the fear 
of the ghost's vengeance has been found to act as a 
check on murder; of some tribes in Central Africa it 
may be said that their main religious doctrine is the 
belief in ghosts, and that the main characteristic of 
these ghosts is to do harm to the living. The Pata- 
gonians lived in terror of the souls of their wizards, 
which become evil demons after death ; Turanian tribes 
of North Asia fear their shamans even more when 
dead than when alive, for they become a special class 
of spirits who are the hurtfullest in all nature, and 
who among the Mongols plague the living on purpose 
to make them bring offerings. In China it is held 
that the multitudes of wretched destitute spirits in the 
world below, such as souls of lepers and beggars, can 
sorely annoy the living ; therefore at certain times they 
are to be appeased with offerings of food, scant and 
beggarly; and a man who feels unwell, or fears a 
mishap in business, will prudently have some mock- 
clothing and mock-money burnt for these 'gentlemen 
of the lower regions '. 

" Notions of this sort are widely prevalent in Indo- 
China and India; whole orders of demons there w'ere 
formerly human souls, especially of people left unburied 
or slain by plague or violence, of bachelors or of 
women who died in childbirth, and who henceforth 
wreak their vengeance on the living. They may, how- 
ever, be propitiated by temples and offerings, and thus 
have become in fact a regular class of local deities. 
Among them may be counted the diabolic soul of a 
certain wicked British officer, whom native worshippers 


in the Tinnevelly district still propitiate by offering at 
his grave the brandy and cheroots he loved in life. 

" India even carries theory into practice by an actual 
manufacture of demons, as witness the two following 
accounts. A certain brahman, on whose lands a 
kshatriya raja had built a house, ripped himself up in 
revenge, and became a demon of the kind called 
brahmadasyu, who has been ever since the terror of 
the whole country, and is the most common village 
deity in Kharakpur. Toward the close of the last 
century there were two brahmans, out of whose house 
a man had wrongfully, as they thought, taken forty 
rupees; whereupon one of the brahmans proceeded to 
cut off his own mother's head, with the professed view, 
entertained by both mother and son, that her spirit, 
excited by the beating of a large drum during forty 
days, might haunt, torment, and pursue to death the 
taker of their money and those concerned with him. 
Declaring with her last words that she would blast 
the thief, the spiteful hag deliberately gave up her 
life to take ghostly vengeance for those forty rupees. 
By instances like these it appears that we may trace 
up from the psychology of the lower races, the familiar 
ancient and modern European tales of baleful ghost- 
demons. The old fear even now continues to vouch 
for the old belief 

" Happily for man's anticipation of death, and for the 
treatment of the sick and aged, . thoughts of horror 
and hatred do not preponderate in ideas of deified 
ancestors, who are regarded on the whole as kindly 
patron spirits, at least to their own kinsfolk and 

Brahminism has also left many traces on the religion 
of Cambodia. 


Sir John Bowring who was governor of Hong Kong 
and personally visited Siam and the adjacent countries, 
has some pertinent observations regarding the princi- 
ples underlying the Religious practices of these peo 
pies: ^ 

" The Buddhist, whose contemplations lead their 
thoughts into calculations of infinite ages, as connected 
with the incarnations of the Divinity,* have sought to 
convey notions of eternity by images in which the 
fancy is made the handmaid to speculations the most 
adventurous. For example, they teach that, in order 
to estimate the ages needful for all the transmigra- 
tions which are preliminary to the creation of a Buddha, 
you are to fancy a granite rock of enormous extent, 
which is to be visited once in a hundred thousand years 
by a celestial spirit clad in light muslin robes, which 
should just touch the rock in flitting by; and that 
until by the touch of the garment, which must remove 
an infinitesimal and invisible fragment of the stone, 
the whole stone should be reduced in successive visit- 
ations to the size of a grain of sand, the period of 
transmigrations of a Buddha would not be completed. 
Again, the priests say, so many must have been those 
transmigrations, that there is no spot on earth or ocean 
which you can touch with the point of a needle where 
Buddha has not been buried in some form or other 
during the incalculable period of his transitions from one 
to another mode of existence. So, the descent into 
one of the lesser hells of Buddhism is said to occupy three 
thousand years, and the same period is required to 

' See ^ The Kingdovi and People of Siam; with a narrative of a 
mission to tliat country in 1855 (2 vols) London, 1857. Sir John was 
a clever linguist, and a man of wide and comprehensive study. It will 
be remembered that he occupied the post of pienipoleniiarj- in China. 


mount again from its abyss, — this being the penalty 
of a minor offence; the greater crimes demand a pro- 
portionate era for their purgation or punishment. 

As regard the ultimate disposal of man after he has 
passed through his various transmigrations, and reaches 
a state of Nirvani (Pali) or Nishvan, there seems no 
small variety of opinion as to what is to be understood 
by that state of anticipated blessedness, which some 
call annihilation or extinction, others repose, others 
complacency, and some infinite felicity, be that felicity 
what it may. But it is given to none to penetrate 
into the darkness beyond the grave ; " it doth not yet 
appear what we shall be;" "eye hath not seen nor ear 
heard" the pleasures in store for the virtuous: and if 
we, to whom so much has been revealed, but from 
whom so much more has been concealed, are but wan- 
derers in mists and clouds when we follow the dead 
into the regions unexplored, we ought not to wonder 
that others less enhghtened, less instructed, should be 
more at a loss than ourselves. 

To be entirely disconnected from the world is repre- 
sented to be the most exalted stage of mortal virtue: 
so, one of the highest acts of merit, and which more 
than any advances the devotee towards final absorp- 
tion (Nirvana), is the sale of all his property, and his 
own person, and the dedication of the proceeds to acts 
of charity. Several instances of such self-sacrifice are 
recorded in the Pali writings. 

In the teachings of ancient sages who have become 
the honoured among nations, there will be found much 
more of resemblance and affinity than would be anti- 
cipated, from the exercise of independent thought ema- 
nating from the minds of men placed in situations 
extremely remote from and unlike one another. The 


Book of Job contains much of Platonic wisdom, and 
the words of Confucius and Gaudama might well have 
fallen from many a Western philosopher. 

"Attach not yourself," says Gaudama, " to the pleas- 
ures of this world; they will fly from you in spite of 
yourself Nothing in the universe is really your own. 
You cannot preserve it unchanged, for even its form 
is perpetually varying." " Be not the slave of love or 
hatred, but learn insensibility to the vicissitudes of life ; 
be indifferent to praise and blame, to rewards and 
persecutions. Endure hunger and thirst, privations, 
diseases, and even death, with the tranquillity of an 
imperturbable spirit." 

The Bonze. ^ The bonze is called the lord priest 
{luc sang). Priesthood is rather a temporary function, 
than, — as in the Indian priest — an ineradicable qualifi- 
cation, for, in Cambodia, the bonze may quit the reli- 
gious order at any time. A slave may even become 
a bonze, and in that case he regains his liberty. The 
vows taken by the bonze not being necessarily for life, 
young mandarins who aspire to public offices, and even 
the princes of the royal blood, pass a year in holy 
orders. The somdach-Prf^a-sang-Creach, or head of the 
religious orders, is a very high personage, and is equal 
to the King, as the Pope is to European monarchs. 
The bonzes are independent of the mandarins, and are 

' It may interest readers to learn that "bonze" is given in the 1897 
edit, of OgiJvie's " Imperial Dictionary " as a corruption of the Japan- 
ese word busso, u a pious man." It is European for a priest of the 
religion of Fo or Buddha in Eastern Asia, particularly in China, Burmah, 
Tonquin, Cochin-China and Japan. The state monastic of celibacy in 
which they live approximates them to the monks of the Roman Catholic 
Church. There are also female bonzes, whose position is analogous lo 
that of nuns in Europe. 


only amenable to a Council of Discipline, consisting 
of the King, the King who has abdicated, the " second 
King", and the Queen Mother. The composition of 
this Council will suffice to show what a high position 
the bonze holds in Cambodian society. 

Notwithstanding all the precepts which are supposed 
to be protective of personal purity, the paintings seen 
in the Buddhist temples are often of a licentious and 
libidinous character. 

The persons and property of the priesthood are 
removed from the general action of the law. There 
is a sort of ecclesiastical court, presided over by a 
bonze of high rank, in which the sacred code, written 
in the Pali language, constitutes the rule of judgment, 
in precisely the same way as the text of the Koran 
becomes the paramount law in the Superior courts of 
the Mussulmans. Within certain limits, a priest may 
both inherit and bequeath property ; but its possession 
does not emancipate him from those privations to 
which he is condemned by his religious vows. In 
case of intestacy, the propeicy falls to the convent of 
which the bonze was an inmate. 

A priest is not allowed to take an oath. His affirm- 
ative answer to a question is received when he raises 
his fan ; his negative is conveyed by letting the fan drop. 

As the priesthood, as an institution, is more dove- 
tailed into the social system than in any part of the 
world, no jealousy seems created by its laziness, no 
resistance is exhibited to its claims. It is supported 
by the spontaneous offerings of the whole people, in 
whose minds merit and its recompenses are constantly 
associated with reverence for the functions of the 
servitors of Buddha, the depositaries cf his will and 
the expounders of his teachings. Among the priests 


will be found some subtle polemics, who are by no 
means unwilling to enter the fields of controversy. 
The Mohamedans aver that a few of the priesthood 
have recognized the authority of the Prophet, but the 
cases must be very rare. 

The police to which the Phra are subjected is 
superintended by one of the princes, who has a number 
of commissaries, who are authorized to bring them up 
for judgment. On the proof of their delinquencies, 
they are unfrocked, flogged with the rattan, or con- 
demned to prison, or other penalties, according to the 
gravity of their offences. 

The Life of the Bonze. He perfoms no manual 
labour, and, beyond attending the classes in Buddhist 
theology, for the instruction of aspirants to religious 
orders, does not do anything but collect alms. With 
his head completely shaved, and clad in a costume of 
yellow cotton ornamented with embroidery, this pious 
do-nothing wanders through the villages and towns, 
from daybreak till noon, begging rice, fish, fruit, to- 
bacco, and betel, all of which he jumbles together in 
a sanctified tin saucepan, which he carries under his 
arm. At eight o'clock, and at noon, he takes his 
meals in the convents, but, if he observe the rules, he 
ought to fast all the evening. They are but poorly 
instructed; they must mutually confess their sins to 
each other once a fortnight. 

The principal commandments they have to keep, 
are, according to M. Moura : ist, to kill nothing that 
has fife, not even lice or fleas; 2nd, not to steal; 3rd, 
not to marry, or commit fornication; 4th, not to tell 
lies; 5th, to fast after noon; 6th, not to get drunk; 
7th, not to sing or dance; 8th, to dress plainly; 9th, 


not to sit nor lie in any place that is high {stc); loth, 
not to possess gold or silver. 

Noro-dom*s White Elephant. The Cambodian, 
like the Siamese, holds the white elephant in great 
veneration. Former kings were obliged, as a mark 
of their vassalage, to send to Siam all animals of this 
description captured in Cambodia, but the French 
protectorate put a stop to this custom. In 1867, I 
saw at Pnom-Penh, a white elephant which belonged 
to Noro-dom. 

It will be remarked that the Kings of Cambodia, 
like the old Hebrew Kings, though the absolute heads 
of civil government, have no religious power, and are 
confronted by a powerful theocracy. 

Creeds and Beliefs in Cambodia. The Cambo- 
dians attach great importance to the alms which they 
give to the bonzes, and they also often undertake the 
construction of a pagoda at their own expense. Acts 
like these, they believe, receive their reward in a 
future life, and hasten "the eternal annihilation", or 
Nirvana. They admit the immortality of the soul, and 
metempsychosis is a belief sanctioned by their moral 
law. There is a great difference between the Cam- 
bodian, who is a pious believer, and the Annamite, 
who is a doubter and a materialist. Like the Anna- 
mite, however, the Cambodian beHeves in genii, devils 
or demons, and ghosts. These last can be driven 
away by the aiac (the spirit of some old dead friend), 
the protector of the family, who is worshipped as such, 
and to whose shade the flowers of the frangipanni are 
offered. He is invoked through the agency of old 
witches, who make incantations, and have prophetic 
inspirations like the sibyl of Cumea. 


Religious Festivals are very numerous amongst 
the Kmers. The principal is the Col Chnam, the first 
day of the year, similar to the Annamite Tet, which 
is celebrated, as in Annam, by sacrifices and public 
rejoicings. The religious and believing Cambodian 
also gives offerings to the bonzes. In famihes, the 
children offer their parents the water of purification, 
as the Romans did, and slaves wash the bodies of 
their master. There is a holiday, called the thfigay- 
sel, at each change of the moon ; those of the new 
and full moon are the most solemn. 

Fete days are celebrated by visits to the pagodas, 
and offerings to the bonzes. As may be imagined, 
these latter do not let themselves be forgotten. 

The bonzes celebrate with great pomp, in their 
pagodas, the full moon in the month of May, the 
anniversary of the death of Buddha. Families give 
feasts on this occasion, and at these the bonzes occupy 
the seats of honour. 

In February also, the bonzes walk in procession through 
the fields, — a ceremony samewhat akin to the CathoHc 
" rogations",— and call down the blessings of heaven 
on the fruits of the earth. The farmers and labourers 
then provide copious repasts for the worthy bonzes. 

The bonzes also keep, in the rainy season, a kind 
of Lent, called Prasa, in memory of the day of rest 
of Cakya Mouni, who devoted this season to giving 
religious instruction to his disciples. In each pagoda, 
a huge candle, called the Ticn-Prasa, is kept constantly 
burning, like the Easter candles in the Catholic churches. 

Family Festivals. At the beginning of the Prasa, 
every family offers a sacrifice to its ancestors, but in 
this ceremony the bonzes do not participate. Besides 


this worship of ancestors, the Kmers render homage 
to the Neac-ta, which, like the genii of the Annam- 
ites, are their household gods. These divinities are 
entrusted by the god Indra (Prea la) with the care 
of villages, houses, etc. Their aid is invoked in case 
of epidemic diseases, and great public calamities. 

Superstitions. I have already said that the Kmer 
is very superstitious. Their doctors are crassly 
ignorant of medical science, and, from that very fact, 
each doctor is a sorcerer, and practises the counterpart 
of those magical spells so well-known to our ancestors 
in the Middle Ages. The doctor {cru) makes a clay 
figure, and buries it in some distant spot. Then he 
orders the demon, who is the cause of the disease, 
to leave the body of the patient, and pass into the 
clay figure. The screech-owl, and other night-birds, 
are reputed to bring ill-luck. The credulous Kmer 
has faith in talismans that are to render him invulner- 
able to bullets, make an enemy's gun miss fire, or 
drive away ghosts. There are even some charms which 
were to make wings grow, and waft the happy pos- 
sessor up to heaven. I was gravely assured, however, 
that the art of weaving this particular spell had been 
unhappily lost. But, as there can be concocted from 
the tusks and whiskers of a tiger, a charm, which it 
is asserted, — for I have never tried it, — will act as a 
deadly poison, it seems a pity that such a beneficent 
invention as a talisman which would cause wings to 
sprout, should not have been also preserved. 

The Kmers also believe in auguries and dreams, 
and even go to the cemeteries to sleep upon the graves 
of dead friends, in the belief that their dreams will be 
inspired by the spirits of the departed. 


The Festival of the Dead takes place on the last 
day of the September moon, and is called the pchtim 
ben. Crowds of people assemble together in the pago- 
das, and bring with them quantities of food of all sorts, 
for the dead, who, on this day, have Buddha's permis- 
sion to leave hell. 

It may be remarked, that this belief in hell is com- 
mon to Buddhism, and to many other religions which 
have borrowed the same idea. According to M. Moura, 
from whom I have already quoted, the dead are, as 
may indeed be supposed, invisible, and the festival 
lasts three days. On the third day, the bonzes send 
away the spirits of the departed, with these words : 
" Depart to the land and to the fields where you reside ; 
to the mountains, and beneath the stones which serve 
you for houses. Go ! return ! In this month, in all 
future years, your sons and grandsons will remember 
you, and you will return to them." 

The Festivals of the Cat-sac, and the Blessing: 

of the Waters. The Kmers also keep two other 
festivals, which are probably remnants of Brahminism : 
first, the Cat-sac, when the top-knot of children of 
from eleven to thirteen years of age is cut, when 
family feasts are held, and the bonze is called upon 
to give his blessing, and, second, the Blessing of the 
Waters, the occasion of a long religious ceremony on 
the part of the bonzes. 

There is still in Cambodia a special caste, called 
Bakou, who pretend to be descendants of the old 
Brahmins, some of whose customs they still retain. 
They enjoy the prerogative of guarding the royal 
sword, wear their hair long, and are free from taxes, 
and compulsory labour. 


Human Sacrifices. The terrible custom of oifer- 
ing to the divinity, as an expiatory sacrifice, human 
beings, was continued almost until our own days. 
Only criminals condemned to death are now sacrificed ; 
they are executed under the protecting tree of the 
province, so that the punishment of a malefactor becomes 
a sacrifice to the tutelary genii. This custom is similar 
to that of the ancient Gauls and Britons, who used to 
put to death condemned criminals, when the Druids 
ordered human sacrifices to be made; but our ancestors 
used to offer themselves voluntarily, if no criminals 
were forthcoming. 

Cambodian Legislation and Justice. The Cam- 
bodian code is very severe on unfortunate culprits, 
who are divided into five classes, according to the 
importance of their crimes; the first class comprises 
treason against the State, or the King, or sacrilegious 
offences concerning the bonzes, or the religion. This 
calls to mind the edict of St. Louis, King of France, 
ordaining that blasphemers should have their tongue 
burned with a hot iron. 

For punishing criminals, there are twenty-one methods 
of execution, all of horrible cruelty. Amongst them, 
I may mention, burning alive (as in the ]\Iiddle Ages), 
the wheel, being cast to wild beasts, flogging, etc., 
which are exclusively reserved for criminals of the 
first category. 

For the four remaining classes, there are chains, 
imprisonment, fines, confiscation of property, and the 
punishment of slavery for the guilty person and all 
his family. 

This atrocious code was applied without any sort of 
impartiahty, for it included an article by which in the 


case of a fine being imposed, the King took one third 
of the sum, the judges who pronounced the sentence 
took another third, and the remaining third went to 
the complainant. 

Causes of the Decay of the Kmer ^ Race. We 

must search for the secret of the decadence of the 
once famous Kingdom of Ciampa, in the absolute 
power of the King, the religious despotism of the 
bonzes, and in bad legislation: this will explain why 
the Annamite though less civilized than the Kmer, 
has yet been able to conquer him, and drive him from 
his native soil. 

M. Jacolliot, in his remarkable essays on India, 
comes to the same conclusion ; it is the influence of a 
bigotry which, from birth to death, enfolds man in its 
inextricable bonds, which has made the Hindoo a man 
without patriotism, and rendered his country, ever 
since the days of Alexander the Great, a prey to every 

The Kmer Vulgar Tongue. The Kmer is a language 
with a monosyllabic tendency, and is spoken recto tono, 

* Otherwise known as ^yam-bods (no doubt Siam or Shan-bods). 
Forlong believes them to be the original Indian Colonisers who settled 
down at the head of the delta of the Mekong and around its gieat inland 
swampy sea, where flourished Indbn arts and religions for some 2000 
years. These people were known to other Indians as Kmirs, and were 
principally ophiolaters irom Ceylon and the Tamil and Telagu coasts. 
Arabian sailors called them Komirs or Kh'mars, thought to mean 
"Cunning craftsmen" or "Artisans," which their elaborate sculptures and 
architecture showed they were. But Kamirs or Chamirs seems to be a 
corruption of Tamils. See similar Dravidian etymologies given by Prof. 
Oppert in his Bharata-Varsa, here reading as usual r for /." (See 
Forlong's work on Comp. Religions, London, 1897). 


and, consequently, differs completely from the Chinese 
and the Annamite vario tono. 

Francis Garnier, ^ the explorer, asserts that in the 
savage tribes, which still exist upon the tops of the 
highest mountains, he has discovered the sources of 
the primitive language of the autochthones. They 
were conquered, at some very remote epoch, by the 
Aryans coming from India, who imposed on the con- 
quered people Brahmanism, and themselves formed the 
high caste of Brahmins. 

The Sacred Language. This theory would seem 
to be supported by the fact of the existence of a 
sacred language, which is not understood by the com- 
mon people, and is possessed by only a limited number 
of priests and high personages. Pali, which is an 
Aryan language, forms the basis of this sacred language, 
sentences of which are inscribed upon the facades of 
the temples of Angkor the Great, and the immense 
sculptures, which cover the walls of these temples, are 
reproductions of the legends of those sacred .books, 
the Hindoo Vedas. 

The civilization of Cambodia came, therefore, from 
India, and the conquest and ruin of the country are 
due to Annam, which was pushed on by China. This 
conquest of the ancient Kingdom of Ciampa by a less 
civilized nation, reminds us of the fall of Roman 
civilization, brought about by the Barbarians of the 
North, and the invasion of the South by the tribes of 
the North of France. 

> Francis Garnier, was murdered in Cochin-China some ten or 
twelve years ago, after rendering incalculable services, often in spite of 
his own interests, to France. He reaped the usual harvest — neglect and 
indiiference till it was too late. 


Sexual intercourse, its forms and perversions among the Cam- 
bodians. — The lover as a water-carrier. — Two Kmer proverbs. — 
Marriage. — Polygamy.— The rank of the first ivife. — Adultery 
and its repression. — Divorce. — Various reasons for divorce. — 
Reconciliation of divorced couples. — Adoption. — Mariners of the 
Kmer zvoman. — The life of a young girl. — King Noro-dom's 
harem. — The royal corps de ballet. — Singing and music. — Manner 
of copulating. — Perversions of the sexual passion amongst the 

Betrothals. A marriage is always preceded by a 
betrothal. Recourse is first had to a sort of female 
go-between (of a serious kind), who adroitly sounds 
the family of the young girl as to their intentions. 
If these are favourable, three matrimonial agents are 
sent, and are accompanied by some of the relatives of 
the aspirant for the hand of the young girl, who bring 
with them presents. The girl's hand is then supposed 
to be granted, and the young fiance must enter upon 
his love noviciate, which consists in carrying water 
and wood to the house. 

According to M. Aymonier's account, on a certain 
day, previously fixed, the young man repairs to the 
house of his lady-love's parents, which he first salutes, 
before ascending the ladder which leads to his future 
wife's abode. He again salutes as he enters the house, 
where he is in future to reside, and perform the double 



duty of servant and sweetheart to the lady of his 
choice, to whom, by the way, he has never yet spoken 
a single word. The customs of the country forbid 
young people of different sexes to meet together, and 
render necessary a proceeding of the kind described, 
in order that a young man may pay his court to his 
future wife. 

The amorous water-carrier is at the beck and call 
of the father and mother of the girl, and the girl 
herself, and they make him trot about on all sorts of 
errands, but, as a reward, his sweetheart prepares his 
food, and his " quids" of betel, and rolls his cigarettes 
for him. Whether she carries her condescension so 
far as to give him a light for them, M. Aymonier 
does not say. An intimacy is established, sooner or 
later, though, in the beginning, the modest young 
woman does not dare to leave the house, and sends 
her lover his quids and cigarettes by the hand of one 
of her little sisters ; when she offers them herself that 
is considered as an avowal of reciprocated affection. 

As a measure of precaution, the youth sleeps in 
the kitchen, and is thus separated from the chamber 
of the young woman by the bed-room of her parents. 

There are, however, means of circumventing these 
safeguards of morality and prudence, for, when a 
courtship lasts a very long time, one or more babies 
may assist at the wedding of their procreators. This 
often happens amongst the poorer classes, when the 
marriage ceremony is long deferred, perhaps for sever- 
al years. 

It should be said, however, that the law recognizes 
the ceremony of betrothal as a half marriage, and 
gives the engaged couple certain privileges, though 
it imposes upon them sundry duties. When a girl is 


once seduced (that is to say has lost her virginity) 
the young man cannot draw back out of his engagement. 
On the other hand the girl, when she has once 
accepted a young man, has no longer the right to 
flirt with, or be courted by, other young men, and, 
if her infidelity can be proved, she is punished exactly 
as though she were an adulterous wife. The children 
proceeding from a too warm courtship are regarded 
as legitimate. 

Two Kmer Proverbs. There are two Kmer prov- 
erbs, which are rather amusing, concerning this cere- 
mony of betrothal, and the results which generally 
spring therefrom. " To leave," says the first, " a young 
girl alone with a young man, is like entrusting an 
elephant with the care of a plantation of sugar-canes." ^ 

* This quaint saying calls to mind a ball-room incident recorded by 
Burton : — 

" To give a taste of ' Mother Damnable's ' quality. I had been 
waltzing with a girl, who, after too much exertion, declared herself 
fainting. I led her into what would at home be called the cloak-room, 
fetched her a glass of water, and was putting it to her lips, when the 
old lady stood at the door. ' Oh dear ! I never intended to interrupt 
you,' she said, made a low bow, and went out of the room, positively, 

We cannot miss the opportunity of contrasting the customs of court- 
ship in France and England. Our Gallic neighbours consider that a girl's 
reputation is lost if, before marriage, she allows herself to be alone with 
her fiance. In England, on the contrary, sweethearts frequently pass 
hours, and sometimes a whole day together without the presence of a 
third person. Climate and character have undoubtedly much to do with 
this. Your Frenchman wisely thinks it better to keep the " cup from 
getting broken " than to try and mend it afterwards by an action for 
"Breach of Promise." Frenchwomen are alive to this, and act on the 
principle of never trusting a man. Of course, in spite of all their pre- 
cautions, some do fall into the seducer's trap, (or is it the contrary ?) but 
as a rule, this is only because they wanted to. 


It is well-known that the elephant is as fond of sugar- 
canes as a school-boy is of sugar-sticks. " Never trust 
hens' eggs to a crow," is the second; — the crow has 
a reputation of being extremely partial to eggs. 

Marriage. — Polygamy. I shall not describe the 
marriage ceremonies, which are very long and com- 

Polygamy is practised in Cambodia, but only amongst 
the rich class of mandarins, for the poor man of the 
lower classes has enough to do to support only one 
wife. The Cambodian law allows three legitimate 
wives, of whom the first {thorn) is considered as the 
chief; she has been demanded in marriage, and espoused 
according to the traditional rites. The second, or 
"middle wife", is nothing but a legal mistress, for no 
demand is made to her parents for her hand, and the 
marriage ceremonies are not performed. Finally, the 
third wife is simply a concubine, and is generally a 
young slave, bought from her master by some rich 
man, who has been captivated by her beauty. 

The Position of the First Wife. By a peculiar 
fiction, the first wife is considered the mother of all 
the children of her husband, even when they are the 
offspring of the other wives. Only the mandarins can 
(on account of the great expense) afford the luxury 
of several wives. 

Adultery, and Its Repression. The penalty for 

We may mention that the note re Burton is tiken from the ist vol. 
of the " Life and Achievements of Sir R. F. Burton by his wife Isabel 
Burton." This "Life," except in its main outlines, is about as much 
like the downright Agnostic and spicy story-teller (to his club-friends) as 
it is to the "man in the moon". 


adultery is not very heavy, and varies according to 
the rank of the guilty person. It costs much more 
to seduce the wife of a mandarin, than the wife of 
a common person. The paramour has only to pay a 
fine. As to the woman, a singular custom prevails, 
which recalls, in some respects, the ways of our jovial 
ancestors. Her face is covered with a basket, and on 
her ears and round her neck are placed red roses, as 
a. derisive symbol of a modesty which can no longer 
blush, and then she is led through the streets and 
obliged to confess aloud the sin of which she has been 
guilty. With the exception of the rope and the che- 
mise, this is much the same as the confession before 
the church-doors in the Middle Ages. What is more 
serious, however, is that the law of Cambodia punishes 
with the same fine, the gallant who makes a rendez- 
vous with a married woman, or kisses her, and the 
procurer who favours these illicit meetings. ^ But 
though the Cambodian law esteems a mere fine as 
sufficient penalty for the offence of taking another 
man's wife, it permits the outraged husband to kill 
the guilty parties if they are caught in /lagra?ite 
delicto. ^ But, all the same, he is obliged to kill both, 
for if he should pardon his wife, and kill the para- 
mour, or allow him to escape, and wreak his vengeance 
on his wife only, he is liable to have to pay a fine, 

' Cambodian legislation, in punishing equally both the parties guilty 
of adultery, seems to us to be dictated by a stricter sense of justice than 
European law, according to which the burden of the penalty falls far 
more heavily on the woman than on the man. 

" It has been particularly remarked that French juries, In the Depart- 
ment of the Seine, are generally inclined to extreme indulgence in cases 
of passional crime, and when death is inflicted on one or both the cul- 
prits surprised in flagrante delicto, an acquittal is almost certain to be 
dealt out to the death-doer. 


in proportion to his social rank, to the Public Treasury. 
If a wife, who has been more or less ill-treated by 
her husband, runs away, and takes refuge with her 
parents, they must bring her back to her husband 
within a month at the latest, or they are liable to be 

Divorce exists among the Kmers; a divorce can be 
obtained if both parties mutually agree to ask for it, 
— which seems to me a very sensible rule. 

A woman who is plagued, ill-treated, or thrashed 
by her husband, can claim a divorce, especially, if 
during the time she is so treated, her husband should 
take a second wife. Such a case is forejudged. If 
the woman fails to prove her case, she must return to 
the conjugal domicile, and the husband has even the 
right to bring her back by force; but if she should 
stil resolutely refuse to live with him, a divorce is 
then pronounced. 

Various Reasons for Divorce. Another cause 
for divorce is the prolonged absence of a husband, 
who does not return at the date fixed. The wife has 
then the right to demand a divorce, provided that she 
restore to his family, in the presence of the magistrate, 
the presents and goods that her husband has given her. 

If the man absents himself without any reason, his 
wife may obtain a divorce after a delay of from nine 
to eleven months. The time will depend upon how 
far distant is the place where the fugitive husband is 
known to be living. But if he should return within 
the stipulated period, his wife is bound to receive him. 

The husband who is absent on legitimate business 
connected with his trade or profession, and has gone 


to some distant place, and who neglects to send any 
tidings of himself for a year or more, is liable to have 
his wife divorce him. 

A delay of three years is accorded if the husband 
has sent money to his wife, or if he has gone to China. 
The delay is extended to seven years if it is known that 
his boat has been taken by pirates, or been shipwrecked. 
We may compare this with the delay of five years granted 
by the French law, which in a similar case declares 
the husband to be dead after the expiration of that time. 

Yet another cause for a divorce is a very odd one, 
and does not, I think, figure in any other code of laws. 
It is this. When a Cambodian, in a moment of anger, 
demolishes with a hatchet or cutlass, the conjugal dom- 
icile — which, as it is generally made of wicker-work 
is not a difficult task, — and removes all his propsrty 
to his parents' house, and resides there himself, even 
for a period of only twenty-four hours, his marriage 
can be dissolved. In this case, the wife keeps the wed- 
ding presents. It is curious to contrast these various 
reasons with those regulating divorce in Annam, and 
it will be seen that there is a great difference in morals 
between the two nations. 

The Reconciliation of Divorced Couples. If a 

divorced couple become reconciled, and sleep together, 
the decree of divorce is annulled. 

We may mention in passing that the Kmer code 
recognizes community of property, and separation a 
7nensa ct thoro. The code also advocates the duty of 
gratitude on the part of children to their parents, and 
forbids a judge to receive any plaint from a son 
bringing an action against his father, for a bill which 
has been accepted and not paid. 


Adoption is also permitted, and encouraged by law, 
and is not uncommon amongst people of dissimilar 
ages. It is celebrated by a ceremony at which offerings 
are made to the spirits. Adopted children are regarded 
as though they were the real oifsprings of the persons 
adopting them, and are treated the same. When they 
leave the country, they take farewell of their adopted 
parents, who offer them betel and arrack at their 
departure. Generally, they do not forget their adoptive 
parents and write to them, and send presents. They 
are forbidden to marry with the daughters of their 
adopters, although they are not connected with them 
by blood. This is a very curious moral restriction. 

The Manners of the Kmer Woman are much 
more pure than those of the Annamite woman. With 
some rare exceptions, Europeans never have anything 
to do with any of them, except prostitutes who are 
slaves, and exercise the calling for the benefit of their 
unscrupulous masters. 

The Life of the Young Girl. It may be said that 
the young girl among the Kmers is watched as care- 
fully as a saucepan of milk on the fire. She is entirely 
hidden from Asiatic foreigners, and a fortiori from 
Europeans. Sometimes you may see afar a young 
Cambodian girl going to the well, and wearing a small 
piece of cloth or cotton on her chignon (girls wear, as 
we have already said, their hair long), but, as soon as 
she catches sight of you, she rushes into the hut, where 
she remains shut up till the stranger is gone. They 
never appear in public, except at festivals, or to go 
to the pagoda. On account of these austere customs, 
prostitution of children, so common in Cochin-China, 


is unknown in Cambodia, and the Kmers have the 
right to regard with contempt, the depravity of youth 
which exists amongst their conquerors. 

It may be said, that in Cambodia illegitimate children 
are almost unknown. The code, however, contains 
some stringent regulations concerning offences against 
morals, and a man is punished for seduction in pro- 
portion to the difficulty, or ease, he had in effecting 
his object. Rape is punished very severely, with chains 
and imprisonment. This Cambodian law resembles, in 
many points, the law of Moses. 

Noro-dom's Harem. King Noro-dom has eleven 
legitimate wives. The one who is wanting to make 
up the dozen, is the queen who should occupy the chief 
rank, and who, in accordance with custom, must always 
be a princess of the royal blood; her title would be 
Ac-Kha-Mohe Sey. 

He has also an unlimited number of concubines. In 
appearance, he is dried-up, and stunted, and looks as 
weak as his subjects look firm and vigorous. The 
best French brandy, opium, and women, have ruined 
his constitution. He evidently cannot satisfy all his 
wives, any more than Solomon could: as the song says 

" However ardent a man may be, 
Though he have the strength of a dozen men, 
If he has to sleep with six hundred wives. 
He will want a holiday now and then." ' 

* Our version is not exactly word for word. What translation in verse 

can be? We therefore think it proper to give the student the French 

text besides. 

[" Brulat-on des plus vives flammes, 

S'il faut contenter six cents femmes, 

Quelque soit le tempdrament, 

(^a doit g^ner sur Ic moment." ] 


This verse comes back to my memory some years 
after I first heard it sung, which was at a music-hall 
in .Saigon in 1889, during my second sojourn there, 
which was whilst Noro-dom, was on a visit to the 
Governor General. The European public applied these 
lines te Noro-dom, and encored them; it does not take 
much to amuse French people in the Colonies. The 
prospect of one day having the honour to be admitted 
to the royal bed must suffice for most of these ladies, 
for Noro-dom holds strong opinions concerning the 
privileges of a kingly husband. 

The royal harem is contained in a special part of 
the palace, and the ladies are well and closely watched ; 
no one can be admitted to their apartments without an 
order from His Majesty. In 1873, King Noro-dom 
had, it is said, two of his wives, whom he suspected 
of infidelity, publicly executed along with their sup- 
posed accomplices. 

The Royal Corps de Ballet. Besides his con- 
cubines the King has his theatrical singers and dancers. 
They all receive a salary of food and money, and have 
a suite of attendants, and the regulations concerning 
etiquette, etc., are minutely observed. Noro-dom gener- 
ally imports his dancing-girls and concubines from 
Siam ; they come to Cambodia when they are about 
thirteen or fourteen years old. The dance of the royal 
bayaderes is rather a representation than a dance prop- 
erly so called. The subjects of the ballets are always 
borrowed from the Hindoo epics, and Buddhic tradition, 
and represent episodes in the life of Cakya-Mouni. 

I assisted at one of these ballets, which was per- 
formed under a long rectangular shed, the sides of 
which being open, permitted the King's faithful subjects 


to sit on the ground and witness the royal performance, 
The throne is on a platform, in a small building at 
the end of the shed. At the King's feet, sits the royal 
band, and their music is not wanting in melody, even 
to European ears: it does not torture you, like the 
horrible Chinese music. One of the instruments is a 
sort of harmonica, with bells of silver, and silvered 
copper, which makes a very agreeable peal. 

Singers and Music. There are also singers who 
usually come from Siam, and whose rather tremulous 
voices are accompanied by the music of string instru- 
ments, a kind of clarionet, or oboe, and the bell-har- 
monica just mentioned. From time to time, the heavy 
thuds of the tam-tam, and the click of wooden castanets, 
punctuate the phrases of the music. 

Forms of Copulation used in Cambodia. I 

regret to have to confess to the reader that I can give 
no precise information on this point, the almost universal 
chastity of the women, and the modest reserve of the 
Cambodian man, having prevented me from learning 
any details of the secrets of the domestic life of this 

I may simply say that copulation is practised without 
any sort of "tricks", in the classical manner, the 
woman lying on her back, and the man on the top of 
her. More I could not learn, for the Cambodian is as 
silent in these matters as the Annamite is talkative. 

Perversions of Sexual Intercourse amongst 
the Cambodians. I ought also to say in praise of 
this people, that, in spite of their decadence, their 
manners have remained pure. Prostitutes are to be 


found in Cambodia, as everywhere else, but they only 
practise natural methods, and are not like their southern 
neighbours, addicted to mouth suction, and they abhor 

Pederasty has not, in Cambodia, the place of honour 
that it holds in Cochin-China. There are, it is true, 
pederasts, or rather passive agents, amongst the poor 
homeless children who wander about the streets of 
Pnom-Penh, but they only constitute exceptions to the 
general rule. When they do consent to commit sodomy, 
it is with repugnance, and not like the Annamite, 
who is ready and willing to take either the active or 
passive part, — whichever is required. 

The result of this is, that the Frenchman, who comes 
from Cochin-China to Cambodia, has to take a native 
mistress, for he finds neither the "daylight whore", 
the 7iay, or the boy. This is a fresh and evident 
proof that we did not import these disgusting practices 
into Cochin-China, since they do not exist in Cambodia, 
the boundary province of our Eastern colonies, and 
yet we meet with them again in Tonquin, which is 
also inhabited by the Cochin-Chinese race. 


Guiana — Martinique. 

A short stay at Martiniqne. — Arrival at Guiana, — Yellow Fever 
and its preDentive treatment.— The White Creole of Cayenne. — 
Prejudices against colour.— The fashionable ivorld of Guiana. — 
Hospitality of the Creoles of Cayenne. — The Creole dialect and 
its uncouthness. — Liveliness of the Creole ladies. — " Lou Tafanari 
and her potato". — The misadventures of a singer of indecent 
songs. — Good manners and kindheartedness of the ladies of 

A Short Stay at Martinique. After having taken 
part, as an ambulance surgeon, in the campaign of 
1870-71, I was sent, a year or two after that terrible 
war, to Guiana. 

On arriving at Martinique, I heard that yellow fever 
had broken out at Guiana, which place was then in 
quarantine. The military detachment, of which I 
formed part, received orders to disembark at Fort de 
France, I was thus able to spend three weeks at 
Martinique, and I also stopped there a fortnight three 
years later, on my return from Guiana. 

To Martinique I shall devote a separate chapter. 



Arrival at Guiana. The number of medical men 
at Guiana being barely sufficient, I was sent to rein- 
force the medical staff there. 

Yellow-Fever and its Preventive treatment. 

This was the first time I had come face to face with 
this dangerous disease, — concerning which I intend 
some day to publish my observations. For the pres- 
ent, I will content myself with saying that, thanks 
to preventive treatment commenced a week before my 
departure from Fort de France, I was able to escape 
five deadly epidemics of yellow-fever, — some at Guiana, 
and some, later on, at Senegal. 

The recipe is very simple, and I give it here for 
the benefit of any of my readers who may be obliged 
to stay in a country where yellow-fever prevails. 

You take, when you sit down to lunch or dinner, 
at first two, and increase the dose to three, and finally 
to five, "pills of Dioscorides" ; — that is to say take 
four pills a day the first week, six a day the second 
week, and ten a day the fourth week. 

At the end of the third week you take along with 
the arsenic, a gramme of iodide of potassium per day, 
which you drink either in your coffee, or your morning 

The action of these two powerful alteratives is as 
follows. Arsenic is a slow medicine but a powerful 
tonic, giving strength and muscle, and increasing lung 
power. It has but one fault, and that is that, in 
tropical countries, it settles in the liver. Then the 
iodide of potassium comes in, acts as a marvellously 
good purifier of the blood, and drives the arsenic out 
of the liver. Whether it was the effect of this pre- 
ventive treatment, or some idiosyncrasy in my consti- 


tution, I cannot say, but I have attended many cases, 
and even made post-mortem, examinations, without 
taking the disease. 

At the termination of the epidemic, as my service 
at the hospital, — where I was entrusted with the charge 
of the dissecting-room — left me some leisure in the 
afternoon, I accepted with pleasure the offer of Dr. 
B***, an ex-naval surgeon, to make over his practice 
to me during his absence. Dr. B***, was suffering 
from liver disease, and wished to pass the summer at 
Vichy and Paris. He was the only civilian physician 
in the Colony, and, as he was a mulatto, his patients 
were almost exclusively negroes, and coloured people. 
The proposal was so tempting that I did not hesitate 
a moment, for it was a splendid opportunity for me, 
to study the manners and customs of the coloured 

I was thus able to study the most minute details 
of their ways, for a doctor, when he knows what he 
is about, is like a confessor to his patients. 

The White Creole of Cayenne deserves the place 
of honour in my description. He is the descendant 
of the old French colonists, who settled in Guiana 
under Louis XIV, and Louis XV. Their number has 
diminished so much that, it may be said, that nothing 
but a remembrance of them remains. The depressing 
and anaemic action of the climate of Guiana on the 
pure white race is so great, that after three or four 
generations the stock is completely exhausted, and 
marriages between white Creoles become nearly sterile. 
It is not the same, however, when the rcvififying 
action (in the physiological sense) of black blood is 
introduced. The Negro is, in fact, the branch of the 


human race created expressly to inhabit the hot and 
unhealthy countries situated under the equator. By 
mixing- with the white race, he gives the latter the 
power to resist the climate. The offspring of the pure 
White with a Quadroon is the Alisti, who, consequently, 
has but an eighth part of black blood in his veins. 
This small proportion suffices, however, to preserve 
him from most of the diseases which assail the Whites. 
The White can never go out in the heat of the sun, 
without a sun helmet and an umbrella, whilst the Misti 
walks about, wearing nothing but a straw hat, without 
any danger. 

This immunity he derives from the Negro, who can 
with impunity, expose his woolly head to the fierce 
rays of the tropical sun. 

Most of the Creole families of Guiana have more 
or less black blood in their veins. In the entire 
colony there were not more than five families in 
187 — quite free, both by direct descent and by in- 
direct alliance, from all admixture with the Negro 

Prejudice against Colour. The real Whites being 
so few in number, you do not find at Guiana that 
prejudice against colour which is so strongly devel- 
oped in the Antilles. The Whites with a black taint, 
who form the great majority of the Creoles, or so- 
called Whites, have Quadroon or even Mulatto parents, 
and do not show the same contempt for the Blacks 
which is exhibited by the Whites of the Antilles. 
These latter are sufficiently numerous to stick together 
and form a sort of "Belgravia", and had, up to 187 — 
(the date of my visit) obstinately refused all intercourse 
with the coloured people. 


The Fashionable World of Guiana. In Guiana, 

on the contrary, the Whites and the people of colour, 
the officers and officials from France, live on the best 
possible terms, and, according to their position frequent 
fashionable society without paying the least attention 
to the colour of the skin. 

The salons of the Government House were open to 
all, and at the balls there you might see dancing the 
daughters of the millionaire W***, a white man from 
France, married to a Negress, and the Mdlles. C***, the 
representatives of one of the five real white families 
of the country. 

The common and dominant characteristic of all these 
young women, whether pseudo-white or coloured, was 
the desire to marry a man whiter than themselves. A 
naval officer, or Government official, who was also a 
man of fashion, was the rata avis they laid themselves 
out to catch. 

It should be remarked, that all the Creole families 
of Guiana who are at all well to do, make the greatest 
possible efforts to have their children instructed and 
educated. Many girls and boys of twelve years of 
age are sent to France, to be educated in the best 
establishments till they are eighteen. The girls are 
usually excellent musicians. Later they become ex- 
cellent wives and mothers, and the European who 
marries one has rarely cause to regret it. 

Hospitality of the Creoles of Cayenne. The 

Creole of Cayenne is thoroughly hospitable. Anyone 
who is admitted into a household, and is not an un- 
licked cub, becomes at once the friend of the family, 
in the strictest sense of the word. If he possesses any 
social accomplishment, and can sing a song, strum on 


the piano, or is a good dancer, he is considered a 
valuable acquisition. Good dancers are especially 
appreciated. In spite of an average temperature of 
85*^ F., the Creole ladies are indefatigable, and will 
dance all night and until sunrise, and hardly rest for 
a moment. Some French ladies once tried to support 
the honour of the flag of Paris, but the next day they 
had to take to their beds, and were laid up for two 
or three days. 

The Creole Patois and Its Uncouthness. The 

ladies of the Colony talk amongst themselves the soft 
sounding Creole patois, which is easy for a Frenchman 
to understand, for it is, like the dialect spoken in the 
Antilles, a corruption of the French language from 
which has been taken the r (so dear to the Marseillais) 
and certain nasal and guttural consonants, and to which 
are added some words from the Portuguese, and some 
from the language of the African Negroes. 

It possesses no more syntax than a telegram, and 
in two months, or three months at the latest, you can 
talk it and understand it, especially if you choose a 
coloured woman for your professor. Latin is said to 
be a plain-spoken language, and the Creole patois has 
the same attribute. The Creole ladies have not the 
hypocritical modesty of the daughters of Albion who 
always say the " leg " of a fowl and never the thigh, 
and would never dare to pronounce the word "rump". 
On the contrary, they like any word which has a good 
flavour about it. The coloured people of the lower 
class (like our ancestors in the time of Rabelais), see 
no harm in calling things by their real names. They call 
a spade a spade, and a rooK a " fish ". They use rather 
a picturesque expression for this, for when a Negro 


wants to urinate he says: " I am going to change the 
water of my fish." It is not a little fish either which 
these good Negroes possess, but a big eel with a black 
head, which they inherit fi-om their Afi-ican ancestors. 

The Sportiveness of the Creole Ladies. I will 
allow myself here to tell one or two funny stories, 
which will serve to show the playful humour of the 
Creole ladies. I obtained a round of laughter, one 
evening of the carnival, by relating, at a private party 
given by a lady of the best society, a Provengal story 
translated into the Creole patois. 

" Lou Nafanari" and " son Potato ". Here is the 
story put into English : 

Miss Rose, a rich town-lady went with her farmer 
to visit her estate. She was mounted on a she-ass, and 
the Spring, or something else, having made the animal 
lively, it threw up its heels, with the result that Miss 
Rose was thrown, and her petticoats flying up she 
displayed all those graceful contours which she always 
kept modestly covered. Having quickly regained her 
feet, she sprang lightly on the donkey's back, and 
gave it a well-deserved thrashing for throwing her. 
The incident had passed so quickly that the farmer 
did not appear to have noticed it at all. " Peasant, 
did you see my agility?" asked the lady; to which 
the farmer replied gravely: " Vofi may call that your 
agility y but I call it your a — <?." ^ 

* Little need to say that this story is just a trifle "older than the 
hills " ; it has appeared, more or less modified in form, in most European 
tongues and at least in one OrienUil, — (773 .- the Arabic, compare the 
story in the Thousand Nights and a Night — Burton's trans, of course), 
— of the ^^ Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad" where the jester 
gets a severe slapping for referring in irreverent terms to the women's 
" monosyllable " — It is moreover a " chestnut " of which most young, 


The Misadventures of a Singer of Indecent 
Songs. At these pleasant evening parties, where you 
generally meet the same persons, I made the acquaintance 
of an officer named B***, a big man possessed of a 
stentorian voice which he used for singing comic songs. 
He had. some specially adapted for ladies, — like the 
Gros Chat gris, Le Soulier de Ale lame, Le Chapcau 
de la Marguerite, etc., the best songs selected from 
the repertory of the provincial cafe concert. 

By a singular arrangement, every Thursday night, 
instead of the usual mixed party, the ladies and 
gentlemen each had a separate gathering. 

At that of the men, our musical militaire was ac- 
customed to sing another repertoire, suited to his hearers, 
and comprising all the worst productions from the 
" ordure box" of Gouffe, enlarged, and embellished. 
The house where the men met on these occasions, 
stood almost alone, in the upper part of the town, and 
the neighbours did not complain, — far otherwise indeed. 
Owing to the heat they were obliged to keep their 
windows open, and thus were enabled to enjoy the 
concert, besides which, a dozen young rascals, of both 
sexes, used to congregate in the street, and listen to 
the deep bass of the singer, and so complete, quite 
gratis, their musical and moral education. The curios- 
ity common to the daughters of Eve, also moved the 
ladies of the upper ten to wish to hear these songs, 
which they were not permitted to hear in their own 
drawing-rooms. To effect this, they used the following 
stratagem. They announced one evening, that they 

innocent fledglings hasten to relieve their consciences in the after-dinner 
chat and smoke. Despite its questionableness, we were unwilling to ex- 
omit it from a translation, of which the chief claim to merit we think, 
consists, in its not being castrated. Those persons whom these things 
"please not" must skip the page. 


intended, on the following Thursday, to pass the even- 
ing at the house of a lady who lived at the opposite 
end of the town to the place where the men met. 
But, on the night, they secretly repaired to a house 
which was almost opposite the gentlemen's meeting- 
place. They assembled together, and in a room with- 
out any light, which might have betrayed them, and 
with the windows open, they were excellently placed 
to hear the whole of the erotic repertory, without their 
presence being suspected. 

It chanced that on that evening the artiste felt 
himself very much in the vein, and selected the hottest 
songs in his collection, and all the smuttiest words were 
trolled out, and fell on the listeners' ears like strokes 
of the tam-tam. Not a syllable of this was lost. The 
next day, at a soiree at which both sexes met, one 
of the most amiable and most larky of the ladies, who 
being an excellent musician, had remembered the airs 
from once hearing them, ^ offered to accompany M. B***, 
on the piano. " I hope you will give us something 

' Let no one throw up their hands and exclaim against the shockingness 
of these free-and-easy manners. They are equalled, if not out-distanced, 
in certain rehgious circles, whose mysticism only makes them the more 
specious and dangerous. Take the following: — "The 'Salvation Army' 
is in itself a scandal, but let its disciples say and do as they please among 
themselves, ourselves abstaining from listening to or following them. It 
is impossible to push insanity to a greater extremity than do these people, 
when it is remembered that the female marshal of this army dared to 
assert, before an assembly of four thousand hallucinated fools : ' that one 
night, being stark naked, she saw Christ in person and that she conceived 
by his operation.' This is erotic love, or more surely pure mystical 
onanism. Not satisfied with fornicating with the images of her god, the 
marshal, like the Hebrews stigmatized by Ezekiel, invents a virile and 
lewd god to satisfy the lascivious desires of an army of hysterical 
maniacs . . . The Salvation Army is a proof that there are to be found 
everywhere simples de ccciir et d' esprit." (Dr. Bougl^, "Z« vices 
dii Peiiple," Paris, 1 888, iu-8vo pp. 44 — 46.) 


fresh, " she said. " We have heard on good authority 
that you received by the last mail a lot of new songs 
which you intend to give us. These ladies are all 
looking forward to a great treat." 

" Pardon me, Madame, you are mistaken, and I do 
not know who has " 

" Bah ! Bah ! do not be so modest. This, I know, 
is the air of one of your new songs," and Mme A*** 
began to play on the piano the tune of La Clef d' Agnes. 

The gentleman, however, remained silent. " Perhaps 
you have forgotten the words, I will assist your mem- 
ory," and the lady sang the first vers2. 

"Agnes 6tait une jeune innocente ; 
On I'a marine a grand Jeannot Nigaud ; 
La premier' nuit, la nuit la plus charmante, 
Jeannot ne put " 

" Well, go on ; tell us the rest ! " 

M. B***, was stupefied, but maintained a prudent 

" If that song does not please you, " continued the 
lady, "here is another," and she began to play the air 
of the 'Dispute entre le I.uc et le Noc' and sing: 

" Un jour un luc plein de nert6 
Tint au noc ce langage : 
$0VTpas-tu toujours a men nez ' 
Et dans mon voisinage?" 
' The above curious French verses remind us that in Spanish and 
other languages, there are many similar in style and idea, among others 
the following, which we heard given after dinner in Madrid by an 
eminent contemporary politician 

" Si el cofio tuviera dientes 
Como tiene fortaleza, 
Cuantos carajos valientes 
Quedarian sin cabeza." 
We believe this to be a genuine " Andalusian native ", if lacking in 
propriety, it can hardly be said to want either force or originality. 


M. B***, looked at the lady with his eyes starting 
out of his head, and then fled precipitately from the 
drawing-room, pursued by a general burst of laughter. 

Morality and Good-heartedness of the Ladies 
of Cayenne. Such freedom of manners does not lead 
(as might be supposed) to immorality. No doubt there 
are, here as elsewhere, husbands who wear horns, and 
ladies rather too ready to open their thighs, but they 
are the exception, and not the rule. Generally speak- 
ing, the Creole ladies do not betray their husbands. 
They are, moreover, excellent mothers, and extremely 
fond of their children. This love of progeny they even 
carry so far that if their husbands have bastards by 
coloured girls or negresses, instead of driving away the 
children as would be done in France, many of the 
ladies of Guiana support them, and provide for them. 
When they are of an age to take the first communion, 
they are sent to church, the girl with her white veil, 
handkerchief, and prayer-book, the boy with the orthodox 
wax candle, and white silk armlet. If the boy is 
intelligent, he is given some amount of education, and 
a place is procured for him as a clerk, or in some 
Government office. If the girl is pretty, she is often 
brought up in the house as a poor relation, or as a 
sort of lady's maid or companion. 

One day I was on a visit to one of the best white 
families of the country, and I saw the lady of the 
house enter, carrying in her arms a fine child, almost 
white, but with some signs of black blood. 

" Is that the child of one of your neighbours, Madame ? " 
I asked. 

"No, Mouch^, the child of MoucJU S. R." (her 


I looked at her with astonishment. She smiled, and 
pointed to her maid, a handsome mulatress with a 
splendid bust. 

" That is the mamma of the child, and Mouche S. R. 
is the father." 

The legitimate wife was carrying in her arms the 
adulterine child of her husband. I confine myself to 
this one instance, but I could cite many others. ^ 

* Primitive nations are not so squeamish about the husband getting 
children by other women than the legal wife. We can cite no better 
known illustration than that given in Genesis (chap. XXX verses i — lo); 
to which we recommend the reader to refer. 


The coloured races. — The influence of black blood on cross-breeds 
with the White 7nan. — Mistis, Quadroons, Mulattoes, and Zam- 
bros. — The proportion of illegitimate children. — The easy morality 
of the coloured woman. — The thorough Negress. — From Saturday 
night to Sunday motTiing. — "Milady (7***, the Queen of the 
Golden Wrists". — The musky smell of the Negress. — The genital 
organs of the Negro race. — Physiological peculiarity of the colour 
of the gland of the Negro'' s penis. — The genital organ of the 
Zambro. — The genital organ of the Mulatto.— Physical beauties 
cf women of colonr. — Permanent influence of black blood on the 
genital organs of the male. 

Influence of Black Blood on Crosses with the 
White Race. The cross between the White and the 
Negro produces, in the human race, a phenomenon 
analogous to that which is observed in horses. The 
pure blood stallion produces with mares of an inferior 
native race, foals which exhibit the qualities of its 
procreators. Though not so handsome as its father, 
the half-blood is much superior to its mother, from 
whom, however, it derives a certain " rusticity " and 
the power to resist the effects of the climate. This 
explains the almost complete dissappearance from 
Guiana of the pure white race, whilst on the contrary 
the coloured race has flourished. Guiana received, 
however, in the reigns of Louis XIV, and Louis XV. , 
quite as many Frenchmen as the Antilles. 



The climate soon got the better of them, as witness 
for instance the Kourou expedition, when fifteen thou- 
sand Alsatians were reduced to some hundreds only 
in a very few years. 

Mistis, Quadroons, Mulattos, and Zambros. The 

Mulatto is the direct offspring (nine hundred and ninety- 
nine times out of a thousand) of the White man and 
the Negress, Those who are born of Europeans settled 
in the country, or who have a white Creole parent, 
who can bring them up, and furnish them with the 
means of living prosperously, quickly become people 
of fashion. There are already many families of this 
kind. But the offspring of the connections of the 
Negress with less fortunate Europeans, temporarily 
residing in the Colony, (called Massogans), or even 
with common soldiers, fall into the category of unfor- 
tunate beings. 

It should be remarked, that the Mulatto is nearly 
always the offspring of the White man with the 
Negress, and only once in a thousand times, of the 
union of the White woman with the Negro. This is 
a clear instance of natural selection, in which the 
woman represents the inferior element, and the man 
the pure blood. We may note in passing, that, in the 
births, the girls are much more numerous than the 
boys. There are not — as is the case in Chili — four or 
five women to one man, but there are certainly more 
than two. 

The Negress who gives birth to a child whiter than 
herself, will make the greatest sacrifices to bring it up 
properly; she will do any kind of work, and put up 
with any hardship, to ensure the existence of her 


progeny, ^ and gain que que sous niaques (" marked " 
halfpence, or copper money). But a living is easily 
earned in a country where you need neither wood nor 
coal for fuel, and where all you require for food is 
cooked banana (bacove), fruit, flat fish, cassava, and 
bread fruit. 

To have a baby is no dishonour to a Negress or a 
Mulatta, especially if it is by a White man. She will 
select for its godfather, (who is considered as the 
putative father), whichever of her lovers has the best 

' In the "■ Prtncesse de Bagdad" of Dumas, the woman who is about 
to abandon the conjugal hearth with her lover, is met by her child, who 
endeavours to retain her with kisses; the lover seeks brutally to thrust 
the child aside; that suffices to awaken the maternal feehng, and she 

refuses to go, saying: "-Ah/ I was ?nad/.... I was mad.' but 

when that ynan raised his hand on my child.,,.! 

In fact the predominance of the maternal feeling, is such that it 
suffices sometimes to weaken, to dissipate and even to suppress the 
phenomena of love, which are far more vigorous in the male. 

That is why, in general, woman cares less for youth or beauty in her 
husband than for more solid qualities. 

Unfortunately, among certain civilized nations marriage has become 
a business transaction, in which sexual intercourse is an almost extraneous 

On the other hand, and more particularly in France, marriage means 
for the woman, emancipation; she is at once freed from the social, 
or absolutely anti-social thraldom of the rules of Society. 

According to Icard in his " La fetnme pendant la Pe'riode m,ens- 
truelle, (Paris 1883), sexual desire diminishes and in fact expires as 
soon as gestation has commenced, 

Nevertheless, the antagonism between the maternal feeling and the 
sexual instinct does not inhibit the sub-existence of a sensual basis; in 
fact women sometimes enjoy during the suckling period erotic feelings, 
and go so far as to seek to be again in a state of maternity, in order to be 
able to renew this enjoyment, greater to them perhaps than the act of 
copulation itself. This may perhaps be to some extent explained by the 
uterus and the great sympathetic nervous complexus. 

Lombroso, La fe7nm.e CriminelU (loc. cit. p. 115 et seq.). 


social position. I will not go so far as to say that she 
is not capable of fidelity to her " protector " for the 
time being, but her fidelity is but relative. She will 
betray her lover with a man who is in a better position, 
but never with an inferior. 

The Proportion of Illegitimate Births. Statistics 
showed that in 187 — , there were born at Cayenne 
sixty illegitimate children to every forty legitimate. 
I do not know whether this has changed. The con- 
sequence of this tolerance in the matter of morals is 
that abortion is very rare. As to infanticides after 
delivery, they are almost unknown in Guiana; a woman 
who killed her child would be lynched by the other 
women. Within the last half century, there has never 
been but one case, and then the woman was nearly 
an idiot. The public indignation against her was so 
strong that the sentence of death was obliged to be 
carried out, or the women of the lower classes would 
have caused serious riots. The physician who is a 
philosopher must be gratified at such a result, and 
deplore the opposite condition in France, ^ where, in 

* Christian England when a girl has tripped — due more often than 
not to the influence of a stronger will than her own — pitches her out- 
of-doors with the new-born offspring in her arms. Forsaken by her 
seducer as well as by her own kindred, without money or work she is 
driven to a life of shame, unredeemed by love, to support her child, 
while the man who has misled and betrayed her goes off scot-free to 
work his will elsewhere. When will the overchurched conscience of the 
British wake up to this terrible injustice ! The lost woman's so-called 
" unfallen" sisters (because they were never tempted ?) are the first to 
point the finger of scorn at her. Is it because they are jealous that she 
has eaten of the forbidden fruit which they have not been bold enough 
to taste ? 

The illiterate coloured people of French Guiana look upon illegitimate 
unions with indulgence, and the children resulting from them are as 
dearly cherished as those born in wedlock. 


the large cities, (and notably at Paris), infanticide is 
far from being a rarity. 

Easy Morals of the Coloured Women. The 

union of the Mulatta with the White man produces 
the Quadroon. It is amongst the Quadroon women 
(whose connection with the White man produces the 
Misti ^) that are found the most beautiful prostitutes. 
But, like the Greek courtesans, they do not bestow 
their favours on the first comer. Bonnes Jilles as 
they are, they expect a little courting, and you must 
take some pains to please them. That not very 
honourable institution, the brothel, does not exist in 
Guiana, -or in the Antilles either for that matter. 
Love is quite free, but I hasten to say that, in spite 
of that, syphilitic diseases are rather rare. 

The whoremonger has a varied choice of exotic 
flowers, ranging from the Negress to the Misti, who 
is almost white. We will say a few words about 

The Full-blood Negress. We will begin with her, 
as she forms the great part of the feminine population, 
together with the Zambra, the offspring of the Negress 
with the Mulatto. To please her, and become her 
lover, does not necessitate any long- or complicated 
proceedings. It suffices (or at least it did some twenty 
years ago) to walk on the Place des Palmistes after 
the evening meal. You met a girl, talked to her a 
bit, and after a few commonplace phrases, if her face, 
as seen by the light of a match, pleased you, you put 
the regular question, " Ch^ dondou, ou qua ouU coqu^ 
av^ moi? " (Darling, where can you sleep with me ?) 

' Sometimes called the Octoroon. 


The word coque is a corruption of the old French 
cocker, that is to say expresses the idea of a cock 
treading a hen. You had but to follow the girl to a 
room in some neighbouring house. If need be, one 
of the benches of the Place des Palmistes would afford 
you free hospitality. 

From Saturday Night to Sunday. The easy- 
g-oing morals of the Negress and the Zambra were 
often the cause of a trick being played upon new- 
comers, who were unacquainted with the manners of 
the people. And here we enter upon the question of 
the influence of religion en morals. I should here 
state, that at Guiana the influence of the priests is 
very great. The coloured people possess sentiments 
of real piety, even amongst the men. The children, 
who are educated by the monks, are ardent behevers, 
and quite the reverse of the young workmen of France. 
The Negress has simple and sincere faith, but her 
devotion is of a peculiar kind. She confesses, takes 
the communion nearly every Sunday, and, during the 
week, breaks in the most reckless manner, that part 
of the Decalogue which says, 

" Fleshly lust thou shalt desire 
In marriage only." 

The priest contents himself with merely damming 
the current, for to forbid physical love to these warm- 
blooded creatures, would be lost labour. 

On Saturday evening, absolution is given before 
attending the Sunday mass, and Saturday evening is 
therefore the time chosen to play a joke on any new- 
comer, who is sent to the Place des Palmistes to get 


a woman. To the regular question the first twenty- 
women or so will be sure to reply, " Mon chd, mo pas 
pouv^, mo gain asolutton mon pe guyodo, mats dimain 
fini la messe mo qu^ vini ton case." (My dear, I 
can't, I am going to get absolution from the cure, 
but to-morrow after the mass I will come to your 
house). ^ Dear creatures ! after having performed their 
duty to their Creator, they are ready to do their duty 
to their fellow-creatures. At last he will end by finding 
one who is ready to go with him, and he will naturally 
be inclined to ask her why she is not going to get 
absolution. " No, " she will reply sorrowfully " he 
won't give it me." 

"The Queen of the Golden Wrists— Milady." 

I have said that the fidelity of the coloured woman 
is only relative. If the person who wants her is in a 
position that flatters her vanity, or can serve her 
interests, she will not hesitate to break her previous 
engagement, if she believes that the secret will be 
well kept. 

The surest means of getting her is not to run after 

* This is of course pigeon-French but the same conditions still exist 
in the remote districts of Connaught (The wild West of Ireland) : 

" Two elderly Irish dames, residing in the highly respectable and 
intensely Catholic town of Ballinasloe, after having been for many years 
bosom-friends, were at daggers drawn. But, mindful of their Easter 
duties, they both went to confession, and the following morning, in 
due course, to communion. On leaving the church, after mass, the 
two old ladies unhappily chanced to knock against each other — whereat 
fierce passions seethed within their venerable bosoms, till at last the elder 
of the two matrons, shakmg her fist at the other, exclaimed : '' That's 
you, Mrs. O'Flaherty, is it? and bitter bad luck to you, by the same 
token ! You may be thankful this blessed day that I am now in a 
state of grace, but plase God, that'll not last long, and then I'll sarve 
ye out, ye old hag ! " 


her too ostensibly, or appear too anxious; you will 
attain your end more easily by employing a go-between. 
The most intelligent of these women, and the one 
who had the largest number of clients in all Cayenne, 
was the celebrated Mulatta C***, called Milady, and 
who was connected, by the left hand, with one of the 
best families in the country. She was the " Queen of 
the Golden Wrists ", as the coloured women were 
called, in distinction from the "Imperials". The 
struggles of these two factions reminded one, in a 
minor degree, of the party war that raged between 
the green and blue coachmen of old Byzantium, but 
this latter-day rivalry was more pacific, and had never 
caused blood to be shed. 

It was in their dances that these young women tried 
to outdo each other in grace and abandon. These 
dances much resembled certain dances used in Senegal, 
and I will not therefore describe them here. 

If you were one of the regular customers of Milady, 
and had not made any particular choice of a young 
woman, it was sufficient to ask her for a box of 
cigars, — light, dark, light-brown or dark-brown, as the 
case might be. 

She would understand, and at the hour fixed, would 
send you the box of cigars by the hands of a Quad- 
roon, Mulatta, Zambra. or Negress. Ah, there were 
some nice girls in Guiana, and, even now, I think of 
them with pleasure ! But it is time to study them 
more closely. 

The Musky Smell of the Negress. Let us begin 
with the Negress. In all the human races, there are, 
of course, individual differences in the desire for the 
carnal lusts. But it may safely be asserted that the 


Negress of Guiana is certain to have warm blood, and 
a strong- desire for intercourse with the male. She 
receives him with the most lively pleasure, and does 
all she can to satisfy him, — particularly if she has to 
do with a Massogan, or White man from Europe, — 
but she has no vicious or depraved habits. She per- 
forms a natural act naturally, and without any of the 
refinements of the prostitutes of our great cities, or of 
the Annamite Congai. She shows a horror of sodomy. 
She is clean, one might say, morally and physically. 
If she does not take baths, she at least washes herself 
frequently, and the poor girl has a very good reason 
for these ablutions. That reason is that all the black 
race, — I may say once for all, not to have to repeat 
it, — has a very fine skin which perspires abundantly, 
and gives forth an indefinable odour sui generis, which 
reminds one slightly of the musky smell of the croco- 
dile. ^ This influence is particularly noticeable when 
she is excited by sexual passions, and is annoying to 
beginners who are not accustomed to it, but you end 
by getting used to it. The Negress therefore anoints 
herself plentifully with all the strongest perfumes from 
Europe, in order to conceal her native smell, and she 

* In the animal kingdom various odours and sounds are closely 
connected with the reproduction of the species. During the season of 
love a musky odour is emitted by the submaxillary glands of the croc- 
odile, and pervades its haunts. At the same period the anal scent-glands 
of snakes are in active function, and so are the corresponding glands of 
the lizards. Many mammals are odoriferous. In some cases the odour 
appears to serve as a defence or a protection, but in other species the 
glands are confined to the males, and almost always become more active 
during the rutting season. 

Westermarck " The History of Human Marriage^(^. 246, London, 1 894). 

See the Excursus at end of this Chapter for fuller information on 
this head. 


always keeps herself very clean. But in any case her 
peculiar odour is not so repugnant as that of the 

The Genital Organs of the Negro Race. Her 

odour, however, is but the least fault of the Negress. 
Her greatest disadvantage is the immense size of her 
vulva and vagina. In all the human races there is a 
close connection or proportion between the male and 
female genital organs. I have already remarked this 
in reference to the Cochin-Chinese. Now, in no branch 
of the human race are the male organs more developed 
than in the African Negro. I am speaking of the 
penis only, and not of the testicules, which are often 
smaller than those of the majority of Europeans. The 
result of this conformation is, that a Negress, though 
suitably provided to receive the Negro, is far too wide 
for the White man, especially if he is but moderately 
furnished, or " half cooked " as Rabelais might say. 
The Negress therefore, — being very desirous of the 
favours of the White man, — uses astringent prepara- 
tions to strengthen the mucous surfaces and tighten 
the entrance of the vulva. The preparation which ap- 
peared to me to be the most used, was made of acajou 
nuts (an astringent) macerated in spirit, and mixed 
with tormentilla root, and vanilla beans (for perfume). 
A few spoonfuls of this liquid, mixed with water, form 
a lotion, which, when applied frequently, enables the 
desired result to be almost obtained. 

Physiological Peculiarity of the Colour of the 
Gland in the Negro. The penis of the Negro aflfords 
a physiological peculiarity, as do also the mucous 
surfaces of the lips and the vulva in the Negress. 


The colour is as black as that of the rest of the skin. 
It is not the same with the Negro of Oceania, as we 
shall see later. The peculiarity is absolutely special to 
the African Negro, and his descendants who have been 
brought as slaves to America. The mucous surface of 
the gland and the foreskin vary, in the European, from 
a pale pink to a bright red, and it is therefore not 
without a certain feeling of curiosity, that one examines 
for the first time the genital organ of the Negro, and 
remarks the uniform black colour of the skin and the 
mucous surfaces. The vulva of the Negress is black 
at the entrance, but becomes a bright red in the 
vagina. It is the same with the lips and the mouth 
in both sexes. The pubes is scantily furnished with 
hair, short and hard as the bristles of a brush. As to 
the head, everybody knows that that is covered with 
a woolly crop. The Negress of Cayenne always wears 
on her head a large handkerchief of striped silk, and 
the gallant who took it off, and passed his hand through 
her hair, would not find his caresses well received. 

The Genital Organ of the Zambro. The Zambro 
is the offspring of the Negress and the Mulatto. 
Although one quarter of their blood is white, the 
Zambro and the Zambra differ very little from their 
black ancestors. The Zambro especially is almost a 
Negro, so far as his genital organ is concerned. The 
skin of the member, and of the scrotum, is a dark 
sepia colour, and the skin of the body is sepia colour. 
The mucous surface of the gland is of a reddish sepia. 
The hair of the pubes is like that of the Negro. 

The Genital Organ of the Mulatto. The Mulatto 
commences to approach nearer to the White. The 


skin of the body varies from a light brownish yellow 
to a darker tint of the same hue. This tint is formed 
of sepia, gamboge, and vermihon. The skin of the 
scrotum and the member is darker than the rest of the 
body, but the mucous surface of the gland is of a 
dirty reddish-brown. The hair of the pubes is more 
plentiful, and more resembles the European, but is 
always stiff, and generally very black ; there are some 
exceptions of which I will mention one. I attended 
medically a young Mulatto and his sister, w^ho had 
been begotten by a father with carroty red hair. 
The girl had red and smooth hair, the skin fairly Hght, 
with here and there patches of red, and the hair of 
the pubes a dark russet, with the mucous tissues of 
the lips and the vulva, dark red. Her brother, on the 
contrary, had a skin not so light, the hair and the 
tufts of the pubes black, but the member, which was 
very much developed, had a gland of a deep brown 
colour, with the scrotum sepia colour. 

In size, the genital organs of the Mulatto are less 
developed, as concerns the penis at least, than in the 
Negro. The testicles on the other hand are a little 
larger. As a logical consequence, the vulva and vagina 
of the Mulatta are not so wide and gaping as those 
of the Negress, though larger than those of the Euro- 
pean woman. 

Often in the same family there are great differences 
between the children of the same White father and 
the Negress. The girls generally have a fairer skin 
than the boys, the mucous tissues are redder, and their 
hair is not so woolly. The white blood predominates. 
It is just the opposite with the boy. There are many 
exceptions to the rule ; sometimes, by a singular phe- 
nomenon of atavism, you may find Octoroons much 


darker than tlieir mother, and almost Mulattos. But 
unite the Zambro with the White man, or the Mulatto 
with the Quadroon woman, and there will result from 
these admixtures, irregnlar crossings whose physical 
characteristics will approach to, or recede from, those 
of the white race. In the first case, there are five 
parts white against three black; in the second the 
proportion is the same, and nevertheless the two types 
are quite dissimilar. 


Medical notes on the Sexual Value of Smell. 

This subject alluded to in several places in the text 
merits perhaps some confirmation, and we therefore 
add the following extracts from well-known scientific 
writers. We think it preferable to give these notes 
here to putting them in smaller types at the foot of 
various pages, as in the present form they are much 
easier to read and consult. 

Dislike of Urnings to the odor fcemina. The 

physical repugnance of true Urnings for women may 
be illustrated by passages from Krafft-Ebing's cases 
(pp. 117, 123, 163) which I will translate. 

(i). "I had observed that a girl was madly in love 
with me. and longed intensely to give herself up to 
me. I gave her an assignation in my house, hoping 
that I should better succeed with a girl who sought 
me out of love, than I had with public women. After 
her first fiery caresses, I did indeed feel a little less 
frigid ; but when it came to thinking about copulation, 
all was over — the same stark frost set in, and my part 


was played out. I sent her away, deeply excited, 
with some moral remarks; and I have never tried the 
experiments again. On all of these occasions the 
specific odour of the female added to my horror. 

(2) " The proximity of wenches aroused in me qualms 
and nausea ; in particular I could not bear the smell 
of them." 

(3) " It seems to me absurd to set up the female 
form as the prototype of human beauty, I regard a 
woman's person as displeasing, the formation of her 
hips as ugly and unsesthetic. Dancing is therefore an 
abomination to me. / loathe the odour which the so- 
called fair sex exhales when heated by the dance. 
The disgust inspired in these three Urnings by the 
smell of the female is highly significant ; since we 
know that the sense of smell acts powerfully upon the 
sexual appetite of normal individuals. It may be 
remarked in all the instances of pronounced Urnings, 
sexual congress with women seems to have been fol- 
lowed by disgust, nervous exhaustion, and the sense 
of an unnatural act performed without pleasure. This 
is true even of those who have brought themselves 
to marriage." 


London, 1896. 

(Since the death of John Addington Symonds, the 
talented author of the "-Renaissance in Italy'', this 
work has been formally attributed to him. ( Vide Have- 
lock-Ellis on '' Sexital Inversion""). 

Odor Fcemina and Sexuality: — Zippe {Wien. 
Med. Wochenschrift, 1879, Nr. ^4), in connection with 
a case of kleptomania in an onanist, likewise establishes 


such relations, and cites Hildebrand as authority, who 
in his popular physiology says : " It cannot be doubted 
that the olfactory sense stands in remote connection 
with the sexual apparatus. Odours of flowers often 
occasion pleasurable sensual feelings, and when one 
remembers the passage in the 'Song of Solomon', 
'And my hands dropped with myrrh and my fingers 
with sweet-smelling myrrh upon the handles of the 
lock ', one finds that it did not escape Solomon's 
observation. In the Orient, the pleasant perfumes are 
esteemed for their relation to the sexual organs, and 
the women's apartments of the Sultan are filled with 
the perfumes of flower sJ" 

Most, professor in Rostock (comp. Zippe), relates: 
" I learned from a sensual young peasant that he had 
excited many a chaste girl sexually, and easily gained 
his end, by carrying his handkerchief in his axilla for 
a time, while dancing, and then wiping his partner's 
perspiring face with it." 

The case of Henry III shows that contact with a 
person's perspiration may be the exciting cause of 
passionate love. At the betrothal feast of the King 
of Navarre and Margaret of Valois, he accidentally 
dried his face with a garment of Maria of Cleves, 
which was moist with her perspiration. Although she 
was the bride of the Prince of Conde, Henry conceived 
immediately such a passionate love for her that he 
could not resist it, and made her, as history shows, 
very unhappy. An analogous instance is related of 
Henry IV, whose passion for the beautiful Gabrielle is 
said to have originated at the instant when, at a ball, 
he wiped his brow with her handkerchief. 

Professor Jager, the "discoverer of the soul", refers 
to the same thing in his well-known book (2nd ed., 


1880, chap. XV, p. 173); for he regards the sweat as 
important in the production of sexual effects and as 
being especially seductive. 

One learns from reading the work of Ploss (" Das 
Weib "), that attempts to attract a person of the op- 
posite sex by means of the perspiration may be dis- 
cerned in many forms in popular psychology. In 
reference to this, a custom which holds among the 
natives of the Philippine Islands when they become 
engaged, as reported by Jager, is remarkable. When 
it becomes necessary for the engaged pair to separate, 
they exchange articles of wearing apparel, by means 
of which each becomes assured of faithfulness. These 
objects are carefully preserved, covered with kisses, 
and smelled. 

The love of certain libertines and sensual women for 
perfumes indicates a relation between the olfactory 
and sexual senses. 

The following case, reported by Binet, seems to be 
in opposition to this idea. Unfortunately nothing is 
said concerning the mental characteristics of the per- 
son. In any event, it is certainly confirmatory of the 
relations existing between the olfactory and sexual 
senses: — D., a medical student, w^as seated on a bench 
in a public park, reading a book (on pathology). 
Suddenly a violent erection disturbed him. He looked 
up and noticed that a lady, redolent with perfume, 
had taken a seat upon the other end of the bench. 
D., could attribute the erection to nothing but the un- 
conscious olfactory impression made upon him. 

( Vide, Kraft Ebbing's (pages 26 — 28)" PSYCHOPATHIA 
Sexualis " with especial reference to Contrary Sexual 
Instinct: A Medico-Legal STUDY. 


Authorized translation of the seventh enlarged and 
revised German edition, by Charles Gilbert Chad- 
dock, M.D. {Philadelphia and London, 1895.) 

The odour of nudity. Lombroso says : — "Civiliza- 
tion gave birth to false modesty when it suppressed 
nudity, and habits of cleanliness attenuated that peculiar 
smell of the body, which, exhaled by the female at- 
tracted the male. The attracting attributes depending 
on sight and especially on tact, now developed them- 
selves and transformed the feminine maternal organs 
(lips and breasts) into erotic organs." 

La Femyne Criminelle (page 112), Paris, 1896. 

[" It is also remarkable that many animals (musk- 
ox, civet-cat, beaver) possess glands near their sexual 
organs, which produce secretions having a very strong 

The influence of age on the odor foeminoe. ^ It 

is unnecessary for us to tell our readers, that it is 
more agreable to sniff the odour of a rose or that of 
a bunch of violets between two fresh Normandy 
pippins, than when enclosed between two dried figs 
of the desert of Sahara. 

Thence comes the unhealthy lubricity of certain old 
men who pay with gold, the freshest breasts in order 
to soil them Iccherously with their impure and dis- 
gusting slaver : here is a clear case of high-treason 
against humanity, particularly if these pretty Magde- 

' For this note and the following we are indebted to DR. Aug. 
Galopin's little book entitled : Le Parfum de la Fenime et le Sens 
Olfactif dans V Amour. Etude psycho-physiolog-iqtte [Paus, Dcnfn, 1889). 


burg hemispheres resemble those the glory and love 
of which were so aptly sung by Victor Hugo: 

"Jeanne est nee a Foiigere 
Vrai nid d'une berg^re, 
J'adore son jupon 

Amour, tu vis en elle, 
Car c'est dans sa prunelle 
Que tu caches ton carquois, 

Moi, je chante et j'aime, 
Plus que Diane meme, 
Jeanne et ses durs tetons 


The odor fcemince has like woman's Hfe, three great 
natural phases: 

(i) the period of puberty; 

{2) the period of marriage; 

(3) the period of the menopausis. 

Old age is seldom apparent, in women of the world 
before the age of sixty. 

After she has passed her fifteenth olympiad, woman 
has no longer any age and still remains beautiful, if 
she has the wit to know how to grow old. 

The odour emitted by old women is sometimes very 
pleasant, resembling that of dried rose-leaves, of iris 
and of the faded flowers of the lime-tree. 

As for young girls, they almost always smell agree- 
ably, their odour is pleasing and awakens no carnal 

However, the Song of So7igs teaches us that all 
meat was game to that old polisson Solomon. Listen 
to what Cloquet says : " At the moment of puberty, 
young virgins sometimes shed around them a perfume 


that the poets of all ages have not failed to celebrate, 
and that the author of the Song of Songs has exalted 
with an enthusiasm, which may be still, though rarely, 
understood in our days." 

The idea of the Odor Foeminog could naturally not 
escape the observant mind of Zola who said : " Every 
thing exhaled an odour of woman..." 

..."He smelt this woman's shoulders the fragrance 
of which intoxicated him." 

It is incontestable that it is during youth that these 
olfactive impressions are most vivid. But it cannot be 
denied that they give a calm and legitimate pleasure 
at every age, even to octogenarians, of whose long 
and active life there remain only memories. 

This reminds us of the words of an illustrious and 
estimable old man, Cremieux, who honoured us with 
his affection and who, on the day after the death of 
his dearly loved partner, said to us in his house at 
Passy : 

" My dear boy, this atmosphere, so full of her, will 
soon choke me, now that she will return no more to 
renew the life of it..." 

And a few days later, this noble old friend died of 
grief and of /iu?iger, because he would not live any 
longer without her. 

The awakening of erotic ideas. This is what 
one of the most eminent contemporary physiologists, 
Professor Longet, says on the subject: 

" The olfactory sense interv^enes with some people 
to awaken venereal desire. There are certain men 
who find, in the influence exercised by the odour of 
the vulva on the pituitary membrane, the principle of 
very erotic dispositions. The smell of man also, awakens 


in some ardent women, the wish for pleasure. Here, 
memory and imagination must largely contribute: is 
it not the same with regard to the ardent impression 
produced, particularly during youth, by the atmosphere 
exhaled by certain women, whose garments even retain 
the breath of voluptuousness after they have quitted 

" Among animals, the connection between the olfac- 
tory and the genital organs is as incontestable as it is 
intimate. When they are in heat, individuals of the 
same species are forced mutually to seek each other ; 
they therefore require a means of finding each other, 
a means of excitation, and nature is careful to make 
the sexual organs of most of them exhale, at this 
moment, a strong and special odour. Nothing in fact 
could more effectually serve this purpose than these ema- 
nations spread far around by the atmospheric currents. " 

Of course the odour of the vulva, alluded to by 
Longet, is the smell peculiar to the special liquid 
secreted by the glandular regions of that organ, and 
the more or less unpleasant odours engendered by the 
state of uncleanliness in which the said organ may 
have been kept, have no connection with the animal 
emanations with which we have to do. 

Animals, bitches for instance, are careful to clean 
themselves when they are in heat. Bitches that are 
unclean find few or no gallants, with the exception of 
some dogs whose olfactory sense has become vitiated, 
examples of which depravation are frequently to be 
met with in the human species. 

Certain ardent women, gifted with a warm imagina- 
tion, are usually highly perfumed. The temperature 
of their body generally increases almost instantaneously, 
to the extent of from i°.8 to 3°.6 degrees Fahrenheit, 


under the masculine attack. This increase of heat 
induces a considerable development of odorous vapours 
which envelop their lovers in a perfumed atmosphere 
which completes their intoxication, soldering their 
affections and their souls: such women are sure of 
being loved. 

There are others, often more beautiful to the eye, 
who may be looked at, admired even and, who, not- 
withstanding, are not smelt . . . are not loved. They 
tire and repel to the tedium of monotony. 

This explains those couplings, inexplicable to the 
ignorant vulgar public, between one of those whom 
it is agreed to call handsoinc lads (though nothing 
is uglier than a man who thinks himself handsome) ; 
and a woman whose face and whose body even have 
nothing of classical plasticity. 

Such a woman, vanquished to-day in a first meeting, 
by one more beautiful than herself, will triumph to-morrow, 
over the prettiest of her sex, thanks to the magical 
power she exercises by her odour. She magnetizes 
the atmosphere. ^ 

It often occurs, that the same handsome fellow who 
had neglected her in the morning will be madly in love 
with her in the evening. And all the other women, 
becoming jealous, exclaim : 

" But what particular charm has she about her, with 
her head one way, and her shoulders another? " 

* Wilkes, the last century agitator, and one of the ugliest men of his 
time was given to boast that he would, with an hour's start, compete with 
the handsomest man agoing for the favours of a beautiful woman — and 
win. His magnetism was attributed to his conversational powers. But 
may it not have been due to some such cause as above outlined? 

The case of the Princess de Chimay {Miss Clara IV'ard) and the 
uneducated, gypsy musician, the violinist of a Paris caf6 — Rigo, is too 
well known to need mention. 


She has this . . . that the odour she emanates is 
pleasant to the nostrils of men! That is what she 
has ! And tliis quality, together with wit, suffices to 
the woman who likes the society of men and is her- 
self fond of man. Talent, in a woman of good taste, 
does not alone consist in knowing how to choose the 
most delicate perfumes ; it consists, mainly, in knowing 
how to choose that which amplifies, without in any 
way perverting, the natural odour peculiar to herself: 
in this there is a secret difficult to divulge openly ; 
but it suffices to draw your attention to it to enable 
you to overcome all the difficulties connected therewith. 
If woman knows so many things, it is because she 
can guess at all that is hidden from her. 

Celine Montaland (the celebrated actress), so beautiful 
and so dangerously perfumed, was she not always one of 
the most seriously and legitimately beloved of women ? 

Animals can never converse together, and, yet, they 
well know how to mark their preferences : do they not 
fight each other to the death, as we do, to preserve 
to themselves their favourite? 

The nasal pituitary gland is the powerful laboratory 
in which are elaborated the living particles that detach 
themselves from the beloved being, and which, by the 
medium of the brain, are destined to be assimilated 
to the entire organism. 

The purest marriage that can be contracted between 
man and woman is that which is engendered by olfaction 
and finds its sanction by common assimilation, in the 
encephalon, of the living molecules proceeding from 
the evaporation of two bodies in contact and which 
sympathise together. 

The intoxication of confessors and of female peni- 
tents has no other cause. 


In all ages of the Church, it is the perfume of vir- 
gins that has always intoxicated priests and given rise 
to the immorality of the confessional, as well for 
youth filled with desire as for musing and sighing 
old age. 

Males throwTi off the scent as to the odour of 
their females during the act of copulation. In 

the stables of cattle-breeders, female animals are often 
met with that cannot be fecundated; among cows par- 
ticularly, to which the French then give the name of 
" Robinicrcs ". This results, among other causes, from 
the greater or less degree of antipathy which exists 
between the two individuals, and mostly on account 
of the antipathy of the male for the female. The bull 
commences a work that he is unable to finish: there 
is fraud. 

This antipathy can be overcome by dissimulating 
the particular smell of the female, aromatizing certain 
parts of her body, directly involved, in order to deceive 
the male; or at least, to momentarily attenuate the 
emanations from the female which were offensive to 
him, and repelled him. 

In the case of mares, very strong infusions of espar- 
cet (French honey-suckle), wild thyme (Thymus ser- 
pylum), sage and other aromatic herbs are employed. 

Weak injections, penetrating but slightly, and directed 
towards the sides of the canal of the female, are some- 
times used to dissimulate or to attenuate the peculiar 
scent proceeding from the secretions of the vaginal 

For cows, infusions of all sorts of green herbs suffice ; 
for rabbits, infusions of white nettle or of wild thyme. 

With certain females destined to the reproduction 


of hybrids, it is sometimes necessary to blindfold the 
male and to impregnate the female he is expected to 
cover, with the natural scent of a preferred female of 
his own species. 

The female stranger is made to inhabit for several 
days the same stable with the sultana, and next to her. 
Immediately before the moment of copulation the pro- 
ducts of the female secretions destined to throw the 
male off the scent are removed to the field of action, 
he being blindfolded so that it is impossible for him 
to see the concubine that is substituted for his legiti- 
mate partner. Very often, in this case, the illusion is 
sufficiently complete to deceive the animal. 

If however the male entertains a doubt of the fraud, 
the stranger must be removed and the preferred mare 
made to take her place ; he is then led to smell her, 
and the first one promptly substituted as soon as the 
illusion seems to be sufficiently complete, and the 
moment at hand. 

This is very difficult to accomplish and no detail 
must be neglected. 

Another method was to make the stallions breathe 
certain odours in the stable, before leading them to 
the mares that are distasteful to them, but it did not 
succeed, except after impregnating the female with 
the odours of the stable, by making her live several 
days in that of the stallion, before the final bringing 

When the sense of smell is perverted in a stallion, 
it makes him lose three fourths of his ardour. Some 
animals, indeed, then fall into a state of relative impo- 
tency, which becomes absolute if there is complete 
obliteration of the olfactory faculties, which to them 
are the most powerful excitants to sexual pleasure. 


With man, a momentary or chronic coryza provokes 
similar accidents but not in so striking a manner. 

Oliva recommends civet as useful to excite the 
sexual desire in some animals. The smell of it makes 
caged nightingales sing. "Fragrant odours," says he, 
" stimulate animals to sing, by increasing their amorous 
tendencies. " 

We have it on excellent authority ^ that there was 
a monk in Prague, who could not only recognize by 
their smell different persons, but also distinguish a 
chaste girl or woman from those that were not. What 
admirable precision, and in how vast afield of experi- 
ment must not the good monk have made his odorous 
and more or less savoury investigations! 

Doctor Monin, in his curious and useful study of the 
odours of the human body {Les odeurs du corps 
humain), adds: "the thing is not very difficult, we 
know a certain ladies' physician who can admirably 
detect by smell, and without ever making a mis- 
take, when any of his clients have their menstrual 

Baruel senior could perfectly distinguish by scent 
the blood of a man from that of a woman, attributing 
the difference in smell to certain volatile fatty acids. 

According to the accounts of travellers, the North 
American Indians can follow by scent the track of 
their prey or of their enemies {De la Honian, La 
Haye, 17 15). 

It would appear that the Mongol and the negro 
races, by reason of the amplitude of their nasal cavi- 
ties, are endowed with a finer and more extended 
sense of smell than European peoples. Among Asia- 

* The Journal des Savants, Paris, 1864, referiinj; to the LEuvres 
de Lecat, Paris, 1767, (vol. II, p. 257). 


tics, the Kalmucks are noted, for the extraordinary 
fineness of their olfactory powers. 

Remarkable examples of the delicacy of this sense 
among negroes are also recorded: some of them are 
said to be able to distinguish the track of a white 
man from that of a negro, and can also follow the 
scent of those of their unfortunate comrades who, to 
escape slavery, have fled to the forest. 

Lecat relates a very curious case : " A boy who got 
lost was brought up in the woods which he never 
quitted. His sense of smell was so finely developed 
that he knew of the approach of enemies, men or 
animals. Having later on returned to civilized life, all 
his olfactory power was retained intact by him. He 
married, and could always follow his wife by her scent. 

This is a husband who . . . very luckily has not one 
like him in Paris. 

Already, in 1789, Haller, in his Elementa physiolo- 
gicB, Lausanne, 4to, t. V, p. 162, had studied the sensa- 
tions that are produced by odours. He divided them 
into agreeable, disagreeable, and indifferent, or mixed. 

This classification being too arbitrary, does not deserv'e 
serious consideration. 

What are in fact the odours that are agreeable and 
those which are not? 

Those which please some people are displeasing to 
others; those which restore animation in some women, 
will provoke alarming syncopes, or intense nervous 
irritability, in others. 

We need go no further: a perfume that pleases at 
noon, may at midnight be displeasing to the same 

Therefore Haller's classification is totally wanting in 
scientific character. 


All our elegant lady readers know that the inof- 
fensive cigarette which they smoke from taste or for 
fashion, when they are well, is distasteful to them when 
a slight attack of sick head-ache seizes them after 
keeping too late hours, or on the occasion of a little 
fatigue, nervousness, offended pride or lovers quarrel, 
and so forth . . . 

The olfactory sense is very capricious, very change- 
able . . . particularly in those spoilt children, but our 
charmers still, who have learned how to conquer the 
right to command, while at the same time seeming to 
be obeying our will. 


Eroticism of the Negress and the colotcred rvoviaji. — The sexual 
passions of the Negress.— Methods of copulation. — The Midatta 
and the Quadroon. — Their ivarm passions. —Astringent i7ijections. 
— Aphrodisiac drinks. — The aubergine enragee. — The Octoroon 
girl. — Perversions of sexual passions in the Negro and coloured 
races. — Dislike of the Negress for sodomy and other filthy acts,— 
Depraved passion of the White man for the Negress. 

Eroticism of the Negress.— Methods of Copula- 
tion. The Negress is usually of a passionate nature 
and does not care to waste time in trifles. I shall 
speak later on of the aubergine, and the aphrodisiac 
drinks that she gives her lovers to excite their ardour, 
but she knows of no "refinements", and accomplishes 
the carnal act with brutal simplicity, and generally in 
regulation position. This is known at Cayenne by 
the name of "counting the shingle pegs", because, in 
tliis position, the woman has her eyes fixed on the 
ceiling, and can thus count the pegs in the shingles, 
or wooden tiles, which form the roof. 

The Negress requires a " stallion-man " to make her 
feel the proper physiological sensation, and she seldom 
finds him except in the male of her own race. Added 
to this, her nervous system is not so delicately organ- 
ized as in the White woman. Her mucous membranes 



are drier, especially as regards the genital organs. 
The " flowers " are as rare in Guiana as they are 
common in Cochin-China. I shall study this 

question more in detail in speaking of the Negroes of 
Senegal. The love of the Negress for the White 
man, though it is flattering to her pride, is rather an 
affection of the head than the physical senses. 

Astringent Injections. The teeth are the chief 
beauty of the Negress, and the coloured woman. If 
the former takes little care of them, that is not the 
case with the latter. Morning and evening, you may 
see her chewing a tooth-pick made from a piece of 
lemon wood ; half a green lemon, with the seeds picked 
out, makes the best possible tooth-brush for her. 
With the juice of this fruit also, mixed with a decoction 
of the husks of the mahogany nut, they also make a 
preparation used in the private toilet. Is it to this 
daily washing, which contracts and strengthens the 
mucous surfaces, that must be ascribed the rarity of 
vaginal discharges amongst the women? It seems 
very probable. 

The Quadroon and Mulatta, of Guiana, have one 
special characteristic. Though not naturally jealous, 
the White man who gets into the clutches of one of 
these coloured women, may be pretty sure that she 
will never let him go. She will * use every species 

' The Burmese women exercise an extraordinar}- and almost irresistible 
fascination on Europeans. A distinguished English officer, on the high 
road to promotion and dignity, who had been for some time stationed 
at Rangoon, being obliged to return with the detachment he commanded 
to the headquarters of his regiment at Madras, was so inconsolable at 
tJiis forced absence from his pretty Burmese mistress, who refused to 
quit her country, that he threw up his commission, and sacrificed his 


of pleasure to enchain him. Old Negresses will manu- 
facture for her love philtres, called piaies, intended to 
secure to her her lover's affections. These are gener- 
ally aphrodisiac beverages, of which cantharides, bois 
hande, (and sometimes a little phosphorus) form the 
active ingredients, and which are often dangerous to 
use. As to the Misli or Octoroon, who has only an 
eighth part of black blood in her veins, she is rare 
at Guiana, except in the families of pseudo-whites. 
The difference in the colour of the eyes, between her 
and a White woman, is scarcely perceptible, and the 
hair is soft and long. The shape of the face, the lips, 
which are a little more prominent, and the breasts 
which are slightly pear-shaped, are the only marks of 
black blood. 

The Aphrodisiacs used by the Coloured Women, 

In the Mulattas and Zambras, the black blood is in 
the ascendant, and they both preserve the special 
odour of the Negro, and the large size of the genital 
organ. If astringents do not produce the desired effect, 
and the Massogan is willing to undergo the process, 
they will propose to him a secret remedy, which will 
cause his member to swell, and increase his voluptuous 

The Decoction of "Tightening Wood ". To make 
him perform often, they will give him to drink, before 
going to bed, a decoction of bois bande\ or " tightening 
wood". The name well indicate its properties. It is 
the bark of a kind of nux vomica tree, related to the 

family lies, friends, and social position to return to tlie arms of his 
beloved at Rangoon. 

Such cases are far from rare, and are well known to those who have 
served in the Madras Presidency. 


"false Angostura", which contains brucine, and a little 
strychnine. According to Rabuteau, ^ it has a special 
action in exciting the erective muscles of the penis, 
and produces priapism. 

This decoction taken in proper doses, will cause 
erections ; but too strong a dose will produce symptoms 
of poisoning. 

The Hot Aubergine. This last, however, is less 
dangerous than another method of enlarging the member 
(// qua gam go posson). For this an aubergine (the 
fruit of the &^% plant), of an appropriate size, is taken, 
and split lengthways. In each half is hollowed out 
a deep groove capable of containing the member when 
erect. Then a paste is made with flour, and water, 
in which has been boiled some " tightening wood ". 
some phosphorus matches (six to twelve), two or three 
small pimentos [zozos), a dozen peppercorns, and as 
many cloves, with one or two vanilla beans to give it 
perfume. The foreskin is drawn back, and the penis 
and gland covered with this paste, and then enclosed 
in the aubergine. The plaster is left on for some 
minutes, and at once produces intense phlogosis. To 
allay this, the penis is bathed with a luke warm de- 
coction of mallow, and then is rubbed with soap suds, 
which are allowed to dry. If these various operations 
are performed in the morning, eight or ten hours 
before copulating, it will be found that the penis has 
really increased in size. It is hot and inflamed, springs 
into an almost permanent erection at the least touch, 
and copulation produces a sharp feeling, almost painful. 
If the aubergine is kept on too long, priapism, or 
cystitis, will ensue. 

* Rabuteau, De la Prostitution en Europe depiiis I'Antiqitite' 
Jiisqu'a la Jin dn XVle Siccle, Paris 185 1. 


Depraved Lust of the White for the Negress. 

The "White man to whom the strong smell of the 
Negress is rather attractive than repellent, is already 
physiologically depraved. ^ I have known many such, 
— officers and officials — who have returned to France 
and married charming young women, but who long 
for the black skin and the woolly hair of the daughter 
of Ham. It must be confessed, that (to use a familiar 
expression) the goods are always up to sample. The 
custom of never wearing stays, and the high waisted 
dress, fastened under the breasts, like the fashion of 
the Directory, gives the body great suppleness, and 
leaves the waist in its natural form, for woman was 
not constructed on the same pattern as the wasp. If 
her lips are black, her teeth are as white as those 
of a puppy, and the mucous surfaces of her mouth are 
of a coral red, which makes an agreeable contrast to 
her black skin. Her breath is pure. If the breast of 
the young Negress is pear-shaped, the nipples are nice 
and firm. The Negress is, above all, remarkable for 
her large pelvis, and has posteriors as ample as those 
of the Venus Callipyge. You feel that Nature intended 
her to be " a good bearer". The thigh is of a fairly 
good size, but the leg is thin, the calves are small. 

' Pruner Bey defines: — 

"The penetrating odour given out by the skin of the negro is ammo- 
niacal and rancid; one might say the smell of the he-goat. There is 
nothing in it of the aqueous perspiration, for that is not increased. It 
is probably due to a volatile oil thrown out by the sebaceous follicles. 
Measures of cleanliness greatly diminish it, without however causing it 
entirely to disappear. Wc do not know if this characteristic of the race 
can change by means of a unifomi diet, as is the case with fishermen 
and with opossum hunters in Australia." Mem. sur LES NEGRES. — 
Mem. de la Soc. d' Anthropologie (i860 — 63, p. 325). 

For further details, see the Excursus to the last chapter. 


and the foot flat and long. In conclusion, we may 
mention that the skin of the Negress is always fresh, 
— a charm that is not without its attractiveness in the 
heat of the day. 

The Beauties of the Coloured Woman. The 

Zambra is almost a Negress, and her dark brown tint 
is not so agreeable — according to the opinion of many 
amateurs — as that of the full Negress. In the Mulatta 
both races have a partial predominance. Her hair is 
crisp and curly, though longer. The skin is often of 
a pretty golden brown colour. Sometimes her genital 
organs more resemble those of the white race, but the 
breast is always pear-shaped, and the nipple always 
black. In the Quadroon, on the contrary, the black 
type becomes much weaker; the eyes are sensual and 
languorous, the hair long and almost smooth, the skin 
often not darker than that of a brunette of the South 
of Europe; the lips, though, which are of a deep car- 
mine red, remain rather thick. The breast is still 
markedly pear-shaped, and the nipples black ; the 
pelvis, and buttocks well developed, as in her grand- 
mother, the Negress. The hair of the pubes is almost 
like that of a European woman, brown, deep chestnut, 
or red, if the latter was the predominant colour in the 
males. The clitoris is of a normal size, the mucous 
surface of the vulva, carmine red, darkened with a 
dash of sepia. The leg and foot closely resemble those 
of the European women. 

Permanent Marks of Black Blood in the Genital 
Organs of the Male. In the Quadroon woman the 
skin is often lighter than that of a dark European 
woman of the South of Europe; and the Quadroon 


man is of the same tint. I have known some quite 
fair, with blue eyes. But, it suffices to cast a glance 
at the genital organs, to find the indelible marks of 
black blood. The skin of the penis, and the scrotum, 
is always darker than that of the rest of the body. 
The mucous surface of the gland is of a deep red, 
darker than the clitoris and vulva of the Quadroon 
woman. By this colour, and by the blue circle at the 
root of the nails, the Quadroon can be always 
recognized, even when he is fair. This double mark 
still exists, though less strongly, in the Octoroon, who 
has but one eighth part of black blood in his veins. 

Perversions of Sexual Passions in the Negro 
and Coloured Races. There only remains for me 
to give some details concerning the perversions of 
sexual passions. On this point, I shall be very brief, 
having very little to say. The Negresses, and Creole 
women of colour, are pure, as are also their brothers, 
in this sense, that pederasty and sodomy — those two 
vices so common in the Extreme East — are almost 
unknown to them. 

Women are so easily obtained in this pleasant 
country, that this result is not astonishing. I have, 
however, attended medically a young Mulatto, who had 
contracted a gonorrhoea in unnatural copulation with 
an individual whose social position he refused to reveal. 

Another case of unnatural offence, I found in a 
Negro boy of fifteen, who had accepted the immodest 
offers of a freed Arab. This latter kept a little liquor 
store, for the sale of tafia and other spirits. He first 
made the boy drunk, by offering him a lot of spirits, 
and, the money not being forthcoming, paid himself 
on the lad's body. As a natural consequence of the 


great disproportion in the size of the two parts, there 
was occasioned a rectal fissure, with acute inflammation 
of the anus. The mother of the boy, a washerwoman, 
came to me, and related the story which the young 
scoundrel had devised. He stated that a young goat 
had run after him, and had pushed its horn up his 
rectum ! The young blackguard was, no doubt, ac- 
customed to commit the act, for there was a well- 
marked infundibulum in his anus, and on my threatening 
not to cure him unless he told me the truth, he con- 
fessed everything. The case was cured by appropriate 
treatment, which cicatrised the rectal fissure, but the 
boy's anus remained sufficiently dilated to admit the 
finger easily. 

These two cases are the only ones that I met with 
amongst the coloured races, during a stay of three 
years: but on the other hand, amongst the Hindoos 
engaged as coolies, and the Arabs released from the 
hulks, I found plenty of others. 

The question of the deflowering of little Negresses, 
I shall treat of when I come to study the Negro race 
in Senegal. 


The following astonishing, and hitherto unrecorded 
facts connected with this abominable propensity in Paris 
have been communicated by the erudite author of 
Histoire de la Prostitution chez tons les Peuples du 
Alonde. I give them in his own words : 

" Greece and ancient Rome, where sotadic habits 
enjoyed absolute liberty, had not thought of organising 
male prostitution, by consecrating to it special lupanars. 


The Greek and Latin historians have not left us any- 
thing, which could indicate the existence of brothels 
of youths and young men addicted to the exercise of 
Socratic love. It would be necessary to go to Persia 
in order to discover traces of such tolerated establish- 
ments devoted to the vice against nature, called by 
euphemism in the eighteenth century, the philosophical 
sin (see on that subject the Voyage en Perse of the 
Chevalier Chardin, in the 17th century). It was never 
suspected that an establishment of the kind could exist 
in the very heart of Paris, in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. The fact is however incontestable, as 
the rare survivors of the period of the Restoration 
may testify. At that time the police was so closely 
occupied watching political conspiracies, that it could 
find no leisure to take much interest in moral disorders. 
This only can explain the sort of impunity that, from 
1820 to 1826, was accorded to an establishment, un- 
doubtedly not authorised, but to whose existence the 
authorities closed their eyes. 

This establishment had been founded m the Rue 
du Doyenne, which formed part of the ancient quarter 
of Saint Thomas du Louvre, enclosed within the quadri- 
lateral formed by the junction of the Louvre with 
the Tuileries. This Rue du Doyenne was lower than 
the level of the Place du Carrousel ; it gave on one 
side, on to the large avenue that the Revolution had 
opened on the site of the houses which had been 
demolished to enable the Place du Carrousel to com- 
municate with the court of the old Louvre. On the 
other side, the Rue du Doyenne had no issue, and 
led only to blind alleys looking on to abandoned 
gardens and waste grounds. This house of male pros- 
titution was located in a mansion of thQ 17th century 


appropriated to its new destination. The grand entrance 
was suppressed, and in its place were two small 
side-doors, which remained shut during the day and 
were only, opened at night. A lantern suspended to 
a post opposite the building shed a dubious light upon 
its approaches, and it might have been supposed to 
be uninhabited, and indeed had probably during the 
day for only inhabitants the master of the house and 
his servants. We were however assured that the 
employes resided there and that they were subjected 
to a very severe discipline ; when they went out they 
were kept within sight and had nothing to do with 
women outside of the house; for this establishment, 
we were informed, served for two distinct purposes: 
the door to the right was for men, that on the left 
was for women. The latter, who were no doubt but 
rare exceptions, came there in quest of men ready 
for any kind of work, docile and indefatigable servi- 
tors, whom nothing should disgust or fatigue. The 
men on the contrary (and in the outset the establish- 
ment was created solely for their use) on going to 
spend the evening or the night in the male Gynaeceum, 
would have avoided it with horror, if they had been 
exposed to meet with women there. I have also heard, 
that the health of the active pensioners was closely 
looked after by special doctors, whose mission was to 
preserve them from an ugly malady called the crystal- 
line. As soon as the shades of evening began to 
fall, at 4 o'clock in winter, and at 8 o'clock in sum- 
mer, the palace of male prostitution seemed to revive ; 
the blinds were seen to half open, the windows to be 
illumined, and preparations made to receive visitors. 
At each door of the establishment there could be seen 
a young man, of effeminate appearance, his hair care- 


fully curled, elegantly dressed, his neck bare, walking 
to and fro, in the street, beneath the glare of the 
lamp, awaiting custo?ners. I remember having seen, 
more than once, such goods, and I was struck as 
much by their decent and candid features as by the 
provocation of their dress and appearance: they had 
exaggerated the strange fashions of the day: frock- 
coats with leg-of-mutton sleeves, very tight at the waist, 
showing off the hips and posterior development. It 
must also be borne in mind that they wore rose-coloured 
or blue neck-ties, and that they usually had on light 
coloured gay suits, hazel, grey, or greenish. These 
details might be called the bagatelles of the door- way. 
This pretty institution suddenly disappeared in 1826, 
after the publication of a malicious article, in which 
the police was called over the coals by a theatrical 
journal, wherein the author expressed his astonishment 
that such a public or semi-public establishment could 
have so long have been able to peaceably exist next 
door to the office of the Gazette de France ! ^ As 
the writer maliciously said: "Are we to presume 
neighbourly good fellowship between the two establish- 
ments", at the same time permitting himself an injur- 
ious allusion to the supposed tastes of Louis XVIII. 

In the middle ages, the principal domain of prosti- 
tution in Paris was called the Champ Flory, perhaps 
by analogy with the Field of Flowers the privileged 
rendezvous of the courtesans in ancient Rome. In 
the 1 8th century and the first forty years of the 1 9th, 
it was in the Champs Elysees that sodomy held its 
nocturnal sessions. There are still living many wit- 

* The oldest political newspaper in France (1660), the orjjan of legit- 
imate monarchy and of stricdy orthodox catholicity. 


nesses of the facts we are about to relate, enabling 
them to be recorded in a history of ways and habits. 
The entire planted square extending from the Place 
Louis XV (now Place de la Concorde) to the Allee 
des Veuves, between the main Avenue of the Champs 
ElySees and the Cours-la-Reine, was the reserved fief 
of Ebugors : these did not show themselves" during 
the day, at all events ostensibly, but at even-tide they 
took possession of it, as masters absolute, until dawn. 
The Allee des Veuves, since become the superb 
Avenue Montaig7ie, bordered by handsome buildings 
and mansions, was at that time nearly uninhabited, 
and the low wine-shops, which invaded it at the time 
of the Directory, were all enfeoffed to the dominating 
sect of the Ebugors. LA TYNNA, in his Dictionnaire 
topographique, historique et c'tymologiqiie des Rues de 
Paris (5® ed. 181 2), did not know, or did not dare to 
divulge the truth, concerning the Alice des Veuves: 
" This alley " says he, " at the bottom of the Champs 
Elysees, but little frequented before the establishment 
of the drink-shops, is really most appropriate for 
Veuves (widows). Veuve, in the figured language of 
the sodomites, was synonymous of the passive actors 
or patients, in the sense of the latin word patiefis. 
From all corners of Paris, those interested repaired 
every evening to the square of the Alle'e des Veuves, 
and as soon as these occupants had taken possession 
of it, they allowed no indifferent stroller to intrude 
within the friendly shade of the venerable trees beneath 
which the sodomites were wont to sport. It would 
indeed have been dangerous to venture in the dark 
beneath these trees, guarded by their usual frequenters, 
as the forests of antiquity were by sylvans, satyrs and 
fauns. But the people of the Allee des Veuves would 


not have tolerated the approach of any nymph of 
the woods. There was no doubt some pass-word, 
some sign of recognition, to enable late-comers to be 
admitted without opposition to the free exercise of 
their habitual pastimes. At any rate the police and 
night patrols never ventured into these quarters, where 
they would have found an offensive army to oppose 
their imprudent curiosity. There, during seven or 
eight hours of the night, at all seasons, was a pro- 
digious concourse of sectaries, who abandoned them- 
selves to their secret cult, without fear of being dis- 
turbed or troubled. It is asserted that at certain times 
the mysterious love-feasts of these neophytes degenerated 
into a sort of nocturnal sahbat, in which the horrible 
familiars of this infernal pell-mell seize hold of each 
other hap-hazard and indiscriminately. Then were 
heard cries, groans, complaints, confused sighs. In 
these sorts of occult and tenebrous solemnities, the 
entire sanctuary was enclosed by ropes stretched from 
tree to tree, and there were armed men charged to 
keep out all the profane, by threats or by force, Victor 
Hugo, who resided, in 1831, in the Rue Jean Goujon, in 
the then new and almost desert quarter of Francis I, 
when he had retained friends of his till a late hour at 
his home, would often accompany them, as walking 
in groups, they conversed on art and literature, as far 
as the Place de la Concorde, whence, after bidding his 
friends good-night, he would return home alone com- 
posing verses as he went. He had several times 
noticed certain men who, when he passed, arranged 
themselves in echelons along the border of the square 
of the Allee des Veuves, and who seemed to observe 
him from afar, but without attempting to approach 
him. He could not suppose these men to be robbers 


and he was curious to know what was the motive 
of their habitual presence in this soHtary place; 
but poetry soon lifted him above the things of the 
earth, and he continued his walk, reciting his verses 
in a low voice, as if he had been in his study. On 
one occasion, he stopped, seeking for a rhyme, or 
staring at the moon, which was shining in all its 
brilliancy : a man detached himself suddenly from the 
shade of the trees, and advanced towards him, bowing: 
"Sir," said the stranger, with extreme politeness, "we 
must entreat you not remain here any longer. We 
know who you are, and we should be sorry that one 
of ours, not knowing you, should be disagreeable or 
hostile in addressing you." — "But what then are you 
doing here?" asked Victor Hugo, "Every evening 
I notice people glide along in the shade, and disappear 
beneath the trees." "Pray pay no attention to that. 
Sir," quickly answered the person, whom Victor Hugo 
had before him ; " we do not disturb or get in the way 
of anybody, but we do not suifer anyone to disturb 
or interfere with us ; we are here at home ! " Victor 
Hugo understood, bowed and went his way. Another 
evening, that he had taken along with his friends the 
counter-alley which bordered the Avenue des Veuves, 
he found this counter-alley obstructed by a line of 
chairs bound together with cords. At the same time 
a menacing voice cried out, " no thoroughfare here. " 
Another voice, less formidable and almost friendly, 
continued immediately: " Mr. Victor Hugo is requested, 
for this time only, to pass on the other side of the 
Avenue des Champs Elysees." 

About this time, Guilbert de Pixerecourt, who was 
manager of the Theatre Royal of the Opera-Comique, 
had the annoyance of being informed by the com- 


missary of police of his quarter, that the previous 
evening, behind a heap of paving-stones in the Rue 
Saint Fiacre, the Secretary-General of the Opera-Co- 
mique had been arrested, being discovered in intimate 
liaiso7i with a Limousin stone-mason. Guilbert de 
Pixerecourt had the greatest difficulty in saving the 
Secretary-General of his theatre from being prosecuted 
in the Correctional Police Court; he sent for him 
and overwhelmed him with his just indignation. " It 
is true, Monsieur le Directeur,'" replied the guilty 
man, shedding tears, "I was wrong not to know how 
to contain myself until I should have arrived at the 
Champs-Elysees, with the worthy fellow I met on the 
Boulevard du Temple. I am grieved at a scandal 
which would not have occurred, if we had gone 
directly as usual to the Allee des Veuves."" 

When the municipal authorities at last decided to 
morally cleanse the Champs-Elysees, and to hunt out 
of it for ever the Ebugors of the Allee des Veuves 
and neighbourhood, these gentry whom the police 
forced to quit, used during some time to come back 
again : it was necessary to drive them away at night, 
and to make numerous arrests, which were often re- 
sisted with arms in hand and led to sanguinary reprisals. 
Finally the law got the upper hand, and the sect of 
the Ebugors was finally dispersed and subjected to the 
police regulations." 

One of the most abominable pederastic scandals of mod- 
ern times, and which created an immense sensation 
at the period, occurred during the reign of Napoleon III. 
There are many persons now living, contemporaries 
of the events, who perfectly remember the circum- 
stances, the details of which oozed out notwithstanding 


the Strenuous eflforts that were made to stifle the report 
of them. 

The following are the facts as related by Pisanus 
Fraxi : — 

The anonymous authors of I' Histoire amoureuse des 
Gaules have revealed to us one of the most singular 
episodes of the reign of Louis XIV, in writing the 
annals of France become Italian. It is known how 
indignant and humiliated the " Grand Alonarque" felt 
to find his own son, the Count of Vermandois, was 
compromised in the ugly doings of the society of 
Franco-Italian Ebugors. The Emperor Napoleon III 
experienced a similar mortification when he learned 
that some of the most eminent men of his reign were 
compromised in a great Sodomy Company limited 
business. The originator, or at least the director of 
this affair, in which very important sums of money 
were invested on mutual account, was, it was said, 
Mr. C — n, the syndic (president) of the Parisian Asso- 
ciation of Stockbrokers. This gentleman, one of the 
richest riiembers of this association, was perhaps no 
more than the not over scrupulous and obliging friend 
of tl 8se personages of the Court, of the Senate and 
of Financial circles, with whom banking operations 
had brought him into intimate contact. However that 
might be, an association, or rather club, of sodomists 
had already been four or five years in existence with- 
out the fact being noted, when mere chance made 
it known. 

The Colonel of the Dragons dc .V Impc'ratrice was 
advised that the soldiers of this crack regiment were 
making extravagant expenses of all kinds and that 
they had most of them gold in their pockets-. It was 
not easy to explain how these men could possibly 


have so suddenly become rich, it being known that 
neither they nor their famihes possessed the least 
amount of income. They were chosen among the 
most handsome and pretty-faced men in the army, and 
their coquettish uniform appeared to be their sole 
appanage. Several of them were searched; they were 
found possessed of well-lined purses; one had 25 louis 
{£20) on him. They pretended that this money was 
gained at play, but they did not or would not say at 
what game they had made it. They were temporarily 
put for a few days under arrest. At the same time 
it transpired that the Cent-Gardes of the Emperor had 
made their fortune, at all events a great number of 
them, and particularly those who were specially re- 
markable for effeminate beauty of face, bodily beauty, 
or elegant appearance. These latter possessed, besides 
splendid jewels, watches, chains, rings, and a little 
stock of ready cash, which could not be the result of 
avowable economies. There were new questionings, 
new researches, but always with the same uncertain- 
ties. At last a witness declared that one of the dra- 
goons, still under arrest, had told him, after a copious 
dinner largely moistened with wine, that he would one 
day become a millionnaire, because no one could do 
the Empress better than he. The question suggested 
itself what was the meaning of: to do the Empress. 
This was soon made clear, when the police, which had 
been put on the scent, discovered the headquarters of 
the Ebugors, in a mansion in the Allee des Veuves, 
the property of the Society and which served for the 
cult of Sodom. This mansion, purchased at the expense 
of the members, had been furnished and arranged spe- 
cially for its purpose; there were to be seen there 
splendid apartments, that were never but transitorily 


occupied, by unknown persons who were received only 
on presentation of a medal or sort of abraxas showing 
mysterious signs and monograms. The door-keeper 
and the servants of this house were taken into custody, 
after a visit to the premises had left no doubt of their 
usual destination. In the interior two wardrobes were 
discovered filled with all kinds of costumes, feminine 
of course, and among them, the costumes worn by the 
Empress Eugenie in ceremonies and official receptions. 
This strange discovery led to another still more signif- 
icant. A quantity of correspondence was seized, let- 
ters in all sorts of hand-writings, anonymous or pseu- 
donymous, interchanged between the associates and 
their adherents, who were none other than Cent-gardes 
and Dragons de V Impe'ratrice. A judicial enquiry 
was instituted, and the porter-manager of the estab- 
lishment was forced to speak. The recognized head 

of the affair, Mr. C n, was summoned before the Pro- 

cureur-General who, after a simply confidential exami- 
nation, thought it necessary to refer the matter to the 
Emperor in person, communicating to him at the same 
time the reports of the police, in which were men- 
tioned the names of several eminent personages, who 
were on the point of being involved in the most scan- 
dalous prosecution. The Emperor had no sooner lis- 
tened to the Procureur-General and perused the docu- 
ments he had brought, than he judged it prudent to 
suspend proceedings and to hush up the affair, keeping 
at the same time in his possession all the documents 
connected with it, and among them the famous corre- 
spondences, in \vhich the acts and doings of the interested 
parties were exposed without any veil and in the most 
figurative and burning language. As he said to the 
Procureur-General : " It is advisable to spare one's 


people and one's conntry such shameful things ; scandal 
corrects nobody and does harm to every one. The 
punishment of such turpitude must be altogether arbi- 
trary and secret; I undertake to reach the guilty of 
all ranks, without having recourse to the laws, which 
I consider to be impotent against such acts of human 
degradation." The subordinate culprits who were in 
preventive arrest, were set at liberty. No one else 
was troubled openly ; but Mr. C . . . .n resigned his 
position as a stockbroker and retired to his coun- 
try residence, where he continued to remain: two or 
three senators no longer showed themselves at Court, 
five or six other incriminated persons, more or less 
compromised, exercised justice on themselves by disap- 
pearmg from Parisian society, where their unexplained 
absence was remarked and much commented on. The 
Cent-gardes and the Dragons de V Imperatrtce were 
not subjected to any disciplinary measures, but a great 
number of them were passed into other regiments, 
where they remained under the supervision of their 
new chiefs. For ten or fifteen days law murmurs circu- 
lated about this affair and its consequences, but the 
matter was stifled by superior order. No doubt the 
correspondence and documents in the hands of the 
Emperor, were completely destroyed, for not a single 
one was ever found again, as the authors of the Fourth 
of September hoped they would be when they made 
a most minute examination of the private papers in 
the Tuileries. Nevertheless the liberty was taken to 
publish the love-letters of a senator to a dragoon who, 
under different costumes, had played the part of the 
Empress in the mysteries of the mansion in the AlUe 
des Veuves. 

The house in the Allee des Veuves, although undoubt- 


edly one of the most important, was by no means 
the only establishment devoted to the practice of 
sodomy, nor were its frequenters the only individuals 
addicted to that vice. Paris was indeed at that time 
infested Vv'ith clubs of pederasts, and sodomy was very 
generally practised by men of all classes. Although 
the papers relating to the scandal in the Alice des 
Veuves have no doubt disappeared, as my informant 
surmises, yet other official documents, amply sufficient 
to bear out my assertion, are still in existence. I 
have had the opportunity of perusing one of these, a 
police report, duly signed and approved, dated " i6 
Juillet 1864", some time before the breaking up of 
the band already mentioned. The chief of that society 
was already known to the police, and is described in 
the report before me as: "A very good-looking old 
gentleman, and exceedingly rich, known at the Barriere 
de I'Ecole {sic, intended probably for Etoile) under the 
name of Father C — n, surnamed Vhomme a la Hingue.'' 
The report continues: 

" He comes to the cafe Truffaut, notices some young 
soldier who takes his fancy, makes the waiter convey 
a message to him and leaves the cafe without wait- 
ing for an answer. If the soldier accepts, he goes to 
the rendezvous, and as Father C — n is well known, 
he never goes alone. Hardly has the meeting com- 
menced, than immediately a lot of troopers appear, 
fall upon Father C — n, beat him, and force him to 
give them all the money he has about him, which he 
does with good grace enough; then«, when he has not 
a sou left and that often he has even given up his 
watch, he escapes with tears in his eyes, repeating as 
he runs : ' What an unfortunate situation for such a 
man as I,'" 


The attention of the police was directed to these 
illicit practices by one of the sect, A. R . . . . m, from 
whom the Vicomte de M . . y had abducted his fa- 
vourite youth and " maitresse en titre", and who, in 
a fit of jealousy, gave information against the band. 
In the report in question the names and addresses of 
the persons implicated are given in full, together with 
numerous specimens of their love-letters to each 
other. On one occasion there were actually eye-wit- 
nesses of their practices; these are minutely described, 
and it appears that a bitch figured in these orgies. 
Again I transcribe from the report : 

" When these assemblies were complete, they closed 
the curtains, and abandoned themselves to scenes of 
orgie and of scandal that disturbed the repose of the 
other dwellers in the house during a great part of the 
night. They were distinctly heard giving each other 
feminine names, and they could even be seen between 
the curtains masturbating and sucking each other. 
One of the specialities of these soirees was an act of 
beastliness which they called; V Omelette d. la Gre- 
nouille, ^ wherein there figured a bitch, which must 
have been put to great pain, to judge by the howls 
of the animal that these gentry tried to smother by 
songs with accompaniment on the piano. These facts 
were attested by most respectable persons, lodgers in 
the house." 

I have elsewhere " mentioned, under reserve, balls 
of sodomites, and I am now able to confirm that 
assertion. In the report under consideration two balls 
are spoken of: the one given at no. 8. Place de la 

' The frog omelette. 



Madeleine, January 2, 1864, by an " homme d'affaires", 
E. D . . . . d ; the other, a return entertainment by the 
Vicomte de M . . y, at the Pavilion de Rohan, 172, 
Rue de Rivoli, on the i6th of the same month. At 
this assembly, there were at least 150 men, and some 
of them so well disguised as women that the landlord 
of the house was unable to detect their sex." 

We consider it but justice to say that most of the 
above extracts have been taken from that valuable 
work by Pisanus Fraxi, the Centuria Librorum Abs- 
cofidiiorum. London (privately printed) 1879. 


The Hindoo race in Guiana. — Laziness of Ihe Black of Cayenne. 
— The hired Hindoo. — A7ithropological characteristics of the 
Hindoo. — The genital organ of the race. Comparison of the 
genital organ of the Negro with that of the Hindoo. — 'The four 
kinds of temperament of the Hindoo ivoman. — Want of morality 
in the Hindoo race. — Perversions of the sexual passion. 

Laziness of the Black Man of Cayenne. The Black, 
at Cayenne, generally dislikes the painful labour of 
agriculture. If he is the possessor of a patch of ground, 
he plants some bananas, a little manioc, and a few 
roots of tobacco, and pimento. Mudfish form his chief 
food; tafia costs sixpence a quart, retail. The Black 
has few wants he cannot supply, and if he does work 
at all, it is usually at the gold diggings, where he 
can earn large wages, which are paid in nuggets, and, 
perhaps, he manages to conceal a few other nuggets. 
It is no rarity to see a Black arrive at Cayenne with 
several thousand francs; the first thing he does is to 
buy a complete suit of black, with a tall hat, and a 
white tie, like a respectable lawyer. He spends all 
his money on women, and when his cash is gone, he 
returns to his work at the mines. 

The Hired Hindoo. To cultivate the large estates 
recourse is had to Hindoos, hired with the consent of 



the English Government. For a small daily pay, his 
food, clothes, and lodging, the Hindoo must give five 
years' work. Practically, he is worse off than if he 
were a slave for life, for his master gets the greatest 
possible amount of work out of him, without caring 
if the poor wretch's strength is worn out at the end 
of the time. But we must pass over this subject. I 
will only state here, that this system of hiring Hindoos 
is a deplorably bad one. They are picked up from 
the dregs of the great cities of Calcutta, and Benares, 
which is as much as to say that they are totally unfit 
for the hard work of cultivating the fields. As I had 
found, in Cochin-China, the IVIalabar healthy, and robust, 
so did I find the hired coolie, puny, and unhealthy, 
for syphilitic diseases are soon communicated amongst 
these voluntary exiles. 

I was able to study this race closely, having ob- 
tained from the Colonial Government, one of these 
hired coolies, to employ as my boy. I was lucky 
enough to meet with a lad of eighteen, almost a Cau- 
casian in form and features, who was active, and intel- 
ligent ; he spoke a little English, and quickly learned 
French, and served as an interpreter between me and 
my Hindoo patients. They were non-paying patients, 
and for a very good reason. I was thus able to 
gather some curious information about these unfortu- 
nate waifs, who generally belong to the class of pariahs, 
for they are almost the only persons who would consent 
to expatriate themselves, and quit the soil where their 
ancestors rest. 

Anthropological Characteristics of the Hindoo. 

Anatomically, the Hindoo appeared to me to resemble 
the European, but the ni^re refined European of the 


great cities. His features are regular, the nose straight, 
the eyes horizontal, and widely open, the lips thin, the 
feet and hands small, and well-made. The long and 
smooth hair often falls to the hips. The skin, however, 
is almost as dark as that of the Negro, but has not 
the same earthy tint, but often has the colour of old 
bronze. The breast of the woman is far from being 
pear-shaped like that of the Negress, but is not hemi- 
spherical, like that of the White women : it is rather 
arched, but, in the young girl, is small and firm. In 
the adult woman it is greatly enlarged, but does not 
hang like the breast of the Negress. 

The Genital Organ of the Race. The Kama 
Sutra 1 divides men into three classes, according to 

* The Kama Sutra of Vatsayayana, a book of Hindoo Erotology 
written in Sanscrit about the fifth century of the Christian era. 

This boolc was done from the Sanscrit into English and privately 
printed in London, in 1883, and is one of those important anthropolo- 
gical treatises for which India is famous. It appears that the collation 
of original MSS. obtained from Calcutti, Benares and Jeypur was only 
effected after immense trouble and with tlie help of several distinguished 
scholars. The wealth of erotic Indian literature existing in Hindi and 
Sanscrit may be gauged from the following : — 

(i) Ratira has ya = The Secrets of Love. 

(2) Pancha sayka = The Five Arrows. 

(3) Smara Pradipa = The Light of Love. 

(4) Ratimanjari = The garland of Love. 

(5) Rasmanjari = The Push of Love. 

(6) Kamaledhiplava = The Boat on Love's Ocean. 

This last is also known as Ananga Ranga, or the stage of the Bodiless one. 

Further information may be found in the learned introduction to the book 
itself: in the nvant-propos to the charming French edition translated 
from the English version and published by Liseux (Paris, 1885) — not to 
be confounded with a cheap, nasty and incorrect French text issued by 
Carre' and translated by Lamairesse — and in Catena Librorum Tacen- 
DORUM (all about privately printed books) by PiSANU.s Fraxi, (London, 


the length of their lingam, — the hares, the bulls, and 
the stallions. In comparison with the Negro — the type 
of the stallion in the human race — the Hindoo is a 
hare, but a little bigger, however, than the Annamite, 
who appears to me to occupy the lowest place in the 
scale of the comparative sizes of the genital organs. 
The penis of the Hindoo is generally covered by the 
foreskin, when in its normal condition, and when in 
erection, in the boy not yet arrived at puberty. It 
does not become bared in erection until the lad has 
arrived at puberty, and is of an average age pf sixteen 
to eighteen, and then that is probably due to mastur- 

The skin of the penis, and the scrotum, is of a fine 
black, or deep chocolate, as in the Zambro, but, it 
should be remarked, the mucous surface of the gland 
of the Hindoo is never black. It is of a more or less 
darkened red ; almost bright in the waifs of the higher 
castes, whose skin is lighter ttian that of the pariahs. 

In its usual condition, the yard is extremely flaccid, 
but increases greatly when erect, being then almost 
treble the size, and as hard as that of the European. 
The average size appeared to me to be about 5 inches 
long, by i^ in diameter. Many are from 3^ to 4 
inches, by one inch. Few are from 5I to 6 inches, 
which is nearly the European average, and which here 
appears to be the maximum. The testicles are oval, 
and the size of a pigeon's ^%%. 

Comparison of the Genital Organ of the Negro 
with that of the Hindoo. By the side of the Ne- 
gro of Guiana, the Hindoo cuts but a sorry figure. 
The yard of the former, when limp, measures from 
five to six inches long by i^ to i^ inches in diameter. 


When erect, it does not swell proportionally, but rises 
only to 6:^ to 8 inches by 2^ or 2^ inches in diameter. 
But the erection is never hard like that of the Euro- 
pean, the Chinese and the Hindoo. It is always rather 
soft, and feels to the hand like a strong elastic hollow 
tube of black india-rubber. The testicle of the Black 
is rounder than that of the Hindoo. 

Another characteristic difference is that of the secre- 
tion of the mucous surfaces. Either from cleanliness, 
or from some other cause, a very small quantity of 
sebaceous smegma is found under the foreskin of the 
Negro. If the Negress very rarely suffers from dis- 
charges from the vulva, the Hindoo woman is, in 
this respect, almost a match for the Congai. This is 
evidently a difference of race, for the food of the hired 
coolies is the same as that of the low class Blacks, 
except that rice takes the place of manioc, or cassava. 

The Kama Sutra does not give the dimensions of 
the lingam, but this omission is repaired by the Ananga 
Ranga, ^ written in the 1 6th century of our era, whilst 
the previous work dates from the 5th century. The 
Anaiiga Ranga gives, for the dimensions of the penis 
of the "hare-man", a length of six fingers broad; for 
the " bull-man", nine, and for the " man stallion", 

' Ananga Ranga, a Hindoo treatise on conjugal love, written in 
Sanscrit by the great poet, Kalyana Malla (i6th Century). 

This work, far from being obscene, is an intelligent study of the 
sexual functions of the married relations, and in the East is studied by 
people of high rank and low. Burton, with Arbuthnot's coadjutorship, 
made an English version (Cosmopoli, 1885), of it direct from the orig- 
inal Sanskrit te.xts, and it was privately issued in London in a limited 
number. In the Arabic it is known as Lizzat al-Xisa (Pleasures of 
Women), and the common folk of India style it Koka Pandit, the 
name of its supposed author. Isidore Liseux, the ex-Catholic priest, 
printed a translation of it in French (Paris, 1886). 


twelve. It should be remarked that the finger of the 
Hindoo, being thin and delicate, is not more than 0.6 
of an inch in breadth, and these measures would there- 
fore correspond to 3.6 inches, 5.4 inches, and 7.2 inches. 
The result of my personal observations is, that the 
great bulk of the Hindoo coolies may be classed as 
"men-hares", only a small number are "men-bulls", 
and a smaller number still " men-stallions". 

The dimensions of the depth of the yoni (vagina) 
correspond to those of the men of their class. Neither 
of the works mentioned gives the size ; that depends, 
mainly, upon the more or less frequent usage that the 
woman makes of her yoni. ' But, as a general prin- 
ciple, the vulva and the vagina of the Hindoo woman 
are much less widely open than those of the Negress, 
though they are in excess of those of the Congai. 

The four Kinds of Temperament of the Hindoo 
Woman. ^ The Ananga Ranga classifies women in 
four orders, according to their temperament. It may 
be interesting to remark, that this excellent work (to 
which we refer the reader), was far in advance, at that 
time, of the medical science of Europe, which was 
then in its infancy. Not until the 17th century, did 
we get a classification analogous to that of the Hindoos, 

' See the Excursus to this chapter. 

• The Hindoo woman, according to Mantegazza (a) is pretty and has 
a gentle, passionate nature. She generally possesses certain beauties, eyes 
of raven black, glowing with the heat of the tropics, large, and shad- 
owed beneath heavy eyebrows and lids; her shoulders, arms and breast 
are worthy of a Greek statue. Her pretty little feet, free from any 
tyrannical imprisonment of shoe or boot, are adorned with ankle brace- 
lets and rings on the toes, which have retained intact their pristine 
beauty and freshness." Pl.oss. — Das IVeib (vol I. p. 68). 

o Mantegazza — " /ndicn," (Jena, 1885). 


for the four orders of women correspond almost exactly 
to the four temperaments of the European doctors, — 
the nervous, the sanguine, the bilious, and the lym- 
phatic. I only met at Guiana with the two last orders, 
the Shankhmi (the woman conch) and the Hasti7ii 
(woman elephant). The anatomical details of the 
Hindoo author are very exact. Whether the moral 
details were equally correct, it is impossible for me 
to say. 

The Want of Morality, and Sexual Perversions 
amongst the Hindoos. The coolie, it should be 
remarked, is a pariah, and the pariah in India, as 
Jacolliot has well pointed out, has no morality. Badly 
fed and badly paid, the hired coolies try to make 
money by any means they can, — the men that they 
may procure tafia, and the women that they may buy 
suitable clothes and jewels. Hence there is a complete 
want of morality amongst these poor people. 

The youth, of from fifteen to twenty years of age, 
gives himself up to pederasty, and finds customers 
amongst the Arabs and Europeans released from the 
hulks. The woman also is ready to practise any 
method, like the prostitute of Europe, and has not, 
as the Negress has, a horror of sodomy. The admirers 
of this sort of pleasure, moreover, claim in justification 
(exactly as they did in Cochin-China at the beginning 
of the occupation) the dangers of ordinary copulation. 
Gonorrhoea and syphilis are the lot of those who 
indulge in natural coition with the Hindoo woman; — 
she shares this miserable distinction with the Congai. 

A depraved man can therefore easily satisfy his 
passions in Guiana. If natural copulation with the 


Negress, or the coloured woman, have no attractions 
for him, he has the Hindoo woman or boy to fall 
back on. But I should remark here, that there is one 
remarkable difference between this last and the Annamite 
boy. The latter takes delight in unnatural acts, and 
will become an active agent if required ; the Hindoo, 
on the contrary, is passive, and nothing but passive. 
In no case does he try to reverse the roles. Besides 
which, the Arab (or the White man) who is an active 
pederast, would not permit this; he obliges the boy 
to suffer his attacks without giving him any compen- 
sation of the same nature. 

As to the deformities of the vulva, or the anus, 
produced in the Hindoo race by coition, they much 
resemble those which I have described in the Annamite 
race. To enumerate them here would be a repetition , 
so I refer the reader to what I have already written. 

I should also remark, that the Hindoo women are 
well acquainted with means for procuring abortion, 
analogous to those described in the Ananga Ranga, 
and that they do not hesitate to use them, if they find 
themselves pregnant by a foreigner. 


Lombroso takes upon this matter a somewhat op- 
posite position. We quote a most important series of 
statistics (given in his "'La Femme Criminelle'\ 
pp. 320—21, Paris 1896): — 

" With regard to the genital organs, I have been 
able to find among prostitutes, hypertrophy of the 
labia minora in 16 *^/o, and monstruous in 2 cases; in 
6 cases it was accompanied by hypertrophy of the 
clitoris and of the labia majora. 


Gurrieri noticed an exaggerated development of the 
clitoris in 1 3 °/o ^^^ ^ 3 °/o also in the development of 
the labia minora ; there was excessive development of 
the labia majora in 6,5 % of the cases observed, 

Riccardi noted on 30 prostitutes observed by him: 
5 \vith hypertrophy of the labia minora; 
2 „ „ „ „ clitoris; 

I „ hypospadia „ „ 

Gurrieri found among 60 prostitutes: 
8 cases of hypertrophy of the cHtoris; 
8 „ excessive development of the labia minora. 

A woman who had gained celebrity as an adulteress 
as well as a murderess from lascivious motives, had 
an enormous development of the clitoris and of the 
labias minora: almost all the pseudo hermaphrodites 
noted by De Crecchio and Hoffmann had exaggerated 
sexual tendencies, either towards the one or towards 
the other sex. 

However, I am of opinion that excepting the richer 
pilose development, the anomalous condition of the 
organ does not correspond with the extent of vice, at 
all events not in the proportion that has been asserted. 

Among 3000 prostitutes, Parent-Duchatelet found 
only three with an exaggerated development of the 
clitoris, which in one case reached to the size of a 
child's penis (3,14 inches) but unaccompanied with any 
special tendencies nor with a masculine aspect, and 
notwithstanding the absence of uterus, of menstruation 
and of breasts: she declared that misery had driven 
her to this unhappy trade, which she would gladly 
renounce. The other two showed no trace of herma- 
phrodism and were quite indifferent. Among the 
numerous hairy ones {barbues) there was no anomaly 
of the clitoris, nor any special tendencies. 


The profession does neither widen nor deform the 
vagina, as it is supposed; there are neo-prostitutes, 
with enlarged vagina and vice versa." 


The Penitentiary and its occupants. — Transported critniuals, or 
old comncts. — Horrible customs of the convicts. — The innate 
liking of the Arab for pederasty.— A crew under the ^' Caudine 
forks." — Ferocious lust of the African Arabs. — The Arab as an 
active pederast.- — Pederasty is primarily a question of race. — 
The organ of generation in the Arab.- 

Transported Criminals, or Old Convicts. Form- 
erly there were sent to the hulks, under the name 
of convicts, those condemned to hard labour. In the 
present day, they are sent to the penal colonies, and 
are said to be "transported". The hulks is called "a 
penitentiary", — a mere change of name, for the in- 
stitution is exactly the same. 

When transportation first commenced, in 1854, it 
was intended to renew at Guiana, on a large scale, 
the attempts at forming an agricultural colony which 
began in the time of Louis XIV, and Louis XV, and 
reform the criminal by giving him the moral stimulus 
of labour. This attempt failed, on the whole. Ac- 
cording to the medical statistics, the average life of 
the convict was hardly more than twenty months, in 
the Colony, and, ten years later, Guiana was aban- 
doned for New Caledonia. 

Foreign criminals continued to be sent there (from 
the Antilles, Reunion, India, and even some Annam- 



ites) for crimes against civil law, and especially the 
Arabs, who alone formed a great part of the popu- 
lation of the Penitentiary. The only convicts now 
sent to Guiana are a few white criminals, art work- 
men, and clerks. At present, these form but a small 
minority, but in reahty they are the leaders of the 

Fearful Immorality of the Convicts. ^ The con- 
vict, though disguised under the name of the trans- 
ported prisoner, has retained all the horrible immorality 
special to the hulks. These habits, in the opinion of 
certain moralists, arise from the men being deprived 
of the feminine element. I believe, however, that this 
is but a secondary cause; and that the real source of 
unnatural vice is hereditary depravity. It is a law of 
atavism, and a real mental disease, as medical science 
has now pointed out. In all assemblies of human 
beings, "like will to like", and private associations 
are formed between people having the same tastes, 
and the same habits. 

When transportation first began, a good many of 
the convicts married, and set to work to cultivate the 
land which was granted them by the Government. 
Of all the establishments so founded, one only has 

' The following note is by J. A Symonds : " Balzac in Une der- 
niere incarnation de Vaiitrin, describes the morals of the P'rench 
bagnes. Dostoieffsky in " Prison life in Siberia ", touches on the same 
subject. See his portrait of Sirotkin, pp. 52 et seq., p. 120 (Edition 
J. & R. Maxwell, London). We may compare Carlier, Les Deux 
Prostitutions (pp. 300 — i), for an account of the violence of homosexual 
passions in French prisons. The initiated are familiar with the fact in 
English prisons. Bouchard, in his "Confessions" (Paris, Liseux, 1881)-, 
describes the convict station at Marseilles in 1630. 

H. Ellis, Sexual Inversion, p. 13. London, 1897, in 8vo. 


survived, the Penitentiary of St, Lawrence at Maroni, 
which still lingers on, thanks to a subsidy from the 
mother country. 

In order that the white race may prosper in a climate 
so unhealthy, it must have the support of black blood. 
The Negro, though shallow-witted, is honest at bottom, 
and has a considerable contempt for the transported 
prisoner; no Negress, however low she might be, 
would consent to ally herself with a convict, — a Govern- 
ment slave as she calls him. The despatch of the 
white criminals to New Caledonia consequently caused 
the Arab element to predominate at Guiana, and in- 
creased the vice of sodomy, instead of diminishing it. 
I shall devote a chapter specially to the white convicts 
of New Caledonia, but, for the present, I shall only 
occupy myself with the foreign convicts. 

We know already the Negro of Guiana, and his 
brother of the Antilles diifers but little from him. As 
to the Negro of Senegal, he is very rarely found in 
the Penitentiary. We have studied also the Hindoo 
and the Annamite. There remains to speak about the 
Arab convict. 

The Innate Liking of the Arab for Sodomy. The 

Arab is an inveterate pederast, even in his own 
country, where there is no lack of women. He willingly 
puts into practice the parable which is attributed to 
the Koran .■ ^ "A man finding one day that the 
principal door of his house was blocked up with filth, 
determined to enter by the back door." 

' Our author is here undoubtedly in error. Islam, large and generous 
in all that relates to normal sexual intercourse, stamps unnatural practices 
with peculiar abhoiTence. We quote from Charles Hamilton's "•Hedaya 
or Guide, a Commentary of Mvsiihnan Law,^ — " translated by order of 


I do not know whether this parable is really to be 
found in the Koran, but the Arab acts as though it 
were. The fact has been observed by all travellers 
and moralists who have been in Arabia and Tunis. 

A Crew under the " Caudine Forks ". The Arab 
tribes of the coasts of Algeria and Morocco, it is well- 
known, take by force the unfortunate wretches who 
are wrecked on their shores. A little time before the 
Algerian expedition, a French ship of war, a brig 
called the Silenus, was thrown on the African coast, 
and all the crew had to pass under the " Caudine 

the Governor General and Council of Bengal." — 4 vols 410. London, 

In chap. IV (of vol. I, page 167) "of the Marriage of Slaves" the 
following remarkable paragraph is given. 

If a man marry the female slave of another, and be desirous of com- 
mitting the act of Azil with her (i.e. emissro Setntm's in Ano, vel 
inter Mamillas), this shall depend upon her master's permission, ac- 
cording to Hancefa ; and such also is the Zdhir Rawdyet. — According 
to the two disciples, the permission for this act rests with the slave, 
because [as being the man's wife] carnal connexion is her right, but by 
Azil that carnal connexion which is her right is frustrated ; her consent, 
therefore, is a requisite condition to the legality of the act, the same as 
that of a free woman, contrary to the case of a female slave, who is 
the property of the person having such connexion with her, because 
carnal connexion is not her right (whence it is that she is not entitled 
to claim the carnal act of her master or owner), and consequently her 
consent is not a condition. — The principle upon which the Zdhir Rawdyet 
proceeds in this case is, that the act of Azil defeats the intention of 
marriage, which is the production of children, and this is a right of the 
master ; whence it is thas his consent is a condition, and not that of the 
slave. — And herein appears a distinction between the state of a free 
woman and that of a slave [in marriage]. 

In vol. IV, of Hamilton's " Guide " further information is found under 
the significant heading of "Abominations" and we have given an 
extract of same, bearing upon our subject, at the end of the present 


forks " , whether they liked it or not. Amongst them 
was a young naval officer, ^ who suffered the same 
fate as the others. One day — some years after the 
taking of Algiers — in a drawing-room in Paris, a lady 
who was known to be rather "fast", and very free- 
spoken, asked him, with an air half serious half jesting, 

if he had really been "forked". 

"Madame," he replied coolly, "imagine yourself for 
the moment in my place. If there was before you a 
sabre ready to cut your head off, and behind you a 
big Tooh, what would you do?. I went backwards, 
and I think you would have done the same." 

Ferocious Lust of the African Arabs. Less 
fortunate than these sailors, is the unfortunate wretch 
who falls into the hands of these infuriated beasts. 
They will commence by robbing him of all he has, 
not leaving him even a shirt. What follows need not 
be described, suffice it to say, that however numerous 
the Arabs may be, they will all satisfy their brutal 
and ignoble passions. Fortunate will it be for their 
victim if he has not fallen into the hands of fanatics, 
for horrible mutilations will follow his first torment, 
and after having thus tortured him, they will leave 
him naked, but still living, to the hot sun, which will 
end his sufferings eventually. * 

' Burton relates a similar experience (in the loth vol. of his 
" N>ghts^\ page 235). The original, Benares edition of course; in the 
reprints all the real, anthropological notes have been carefully omitted 
for fear of Mother Grundy's wrath and . . . the Purity Society's man ! 

Those students unable to procure the original edition will find the 
famous essay of the lOth vol. containing the anecdote in question, 
reproduced in exteriso in Marriage-love and Women amongst the Arabs." 
(Paris, 1896.) 

' Dix-huit mille licues a t ravers Ic Monde, par Jules Desfontaines. 


It is unnecessary to quote other authorities ;■ this 
will suffice. That horrible instrument of torture, the 
pal, was invented by the Arabs,— it may be added. 

Active Pederasty of the Arab. The Arab is, 
almost exclusively, an active pederast. The youths 
and boys, who, in Arabia and all Mussulman coun- 
tries, prostitute themselves for money, are, in the 
beginning, passive agents. I do not know whether, 
when they have become men, they change their part 
and become active agents, but at Guiana, amongst 
the Arab convicts, who are all addicted to this vice, 
I never met any but active agents. For " patients" 
they take, — if they cannot find women who will lend 
themselves to these disgusting practices, — Hindoo 
coolies, or white criminals either undergoing their 
sentence, or released, but very rarely Negroes, except 
a few depraved lads. I have mentioned an instance of 
this a few pages earlier. Some Arabs have demanded, 
and legally married before the Mayor, a female 
prisoner from the Penitentiary, but they have never 
tried to get any children by her, and only use anal 
copulation with her. These Arabs also leave their 
wives free to gain their living as they think best, on 
condition that they bring the money to their Mussul- 
man husbands. The Governors of the Penitentiaries 
at last discovered these goings on, and ended by 
refusing permission to these worthy followers of Ma- 
homet to take a lawful wife, and so the Arab in Guiana, 
both by taste and necessity, remains a pederast. 

Pederasty is principally a Question of Race. ' 

' The reader will recollect, that the author is in direct conflict with 
the view held by Sir Richard Burton, regarding the origin and preva- 


A Strange fact is, that the Arab, an active pederast, 
is provided with a genital organ, which, for size and 
length, rivals that of the Negro. It is even larger 
than that of the Negro of Guiana, but is surpassed 
in turn by that of the Negro of Senegal. But, whilst 
this last is rarely addicted to unnatural acts, with the 
Semitic Arab it is almost a general rule. A physical 
cause might be understood, as for instance a very 
small penis, as in the Annamite, who is almost as 
great a pederast as the Arab. It is certain, that the 
friction of the penis against the sphincter, which pos- 
sesses, as we know, great contractile power, is greater 
than it would be in a vagina, dilated and relaxed by the 
heat of the climate, especially if affected by the " flowers" 

lence of homosexual passion. But on the other hand it is proper to 
point out that J. A. Symonds, in his Proble?n in Modern Ethics, 
contests Burton's position, and maintains that Burton's knowledge of the 
subject was incomplete. We quote from page JJ : "Though he (Bur- 
ton) possesses a copious store of anthropological details, he is not at the 
proper point of view for discussing the topic philosophically. For ex- 
ample, he takes for granted that 'Pederasty' as he calls it, is every- 
where and always what the vulgar think it. He seems to have no 
notion of the complicated psychology df Timings, revealed to us by their 
recently published confessions in French and German medical and legal 

In a foot-note, Symonds further adds : " Burton's acquaintance with 
what he called ' Le Vice ' was principally confined to Oriental nations. 
He started on his enquiries imbued with vulgar errors ; and he never 
weighed the psychical theories examined by me in the foregoing section 
of this essay. Nevertheless, he was led to surmise a crasis of the two 
sexes in persons subject to sexual inversion. Thus he came to speak of 
the 'third sex'. During a conversation I had with him less than three 
months before his death, he told me that he had begun a general his- 
tory of "Le Vice"; and at my suggestion he studied Ulrichs and Krafft- 
Ebing, It is to be lamented that life failed before he could supply his 
virile and candid criticism to those theories, and compare them with the 
facts Kod conversation he had independently collected." 


The Organ of Generation of the Arab. If the 

Annamite can plead such an excuse, the Arab can- 
not. We are, therefore, compelled to acknowledge, 
that it is a question of the peculiar moral sense of 
each race. The Arabs I examined, and who for the 
most part had been sentenced for rapes, or sodomy, 
committed upon children of either sex, in the propor- 
tions of their genital members considerably surpassed 
the fair average of the Negroes. In the bodies of 
many Arabs I dissected, the penis, instead of being 
drawn up and reduced to a small volume, like that 
of the European, still showed a considerable develop- 

In its usual condition, their yard, instead of being 
quite limp, still maintains a certain consistency, and 
feels to the hand like hollow india-rubber, or like the 
penis of the Negro, of which I have spoken. The 
gland is of a normal form, well-developed, and of a 
dirty red brown, Hghter, however, than that of the 
Mulatto, but not so red as that of the Quadroon. It 
is, in proportion, smaller than the shaft of the penis, 
which is swollen a little underneath; the maximum 
diameter is found where the foreskin is cut in circum- 
cising. This part of the penis sometimes swells out. 
like a sort of external pad. According to the measure- 
ments I made, the penis of the Arab has an average 
length, when in erection, of 7.2 to 7.6 inches by 1,6 
or 2.0 inches in diameter; but I have found often a 
penis measuring 8 to 10 inches in length, by 2.0 or 
2.4 in diameter. The organ then becomes a sort of 
pole which only a Negress could accommodate whilst 
a Hindoo woman of the class called " woman hare " 
would shrink from it in terror, and it would produce 
serious mischief in the rectum of any poor wretch who 


consented to suifer its terrible attacks. ^ With such 
a weapon does the Arab seek for anal copulation. He 
is not particular in his choice, and age or sex makes 
no difference to him. At the hulks, he finds amongst 
the other convicts, Blacks or Hindoos, or even Whites, 
the scum of the great cities, upon whom he can satisfy 
his miserable lust. When once he is liberated, he 
lives soberly, and tries to gain a few pence by keep- 
ing a store, or a small retail shop. He easily gets 
also a place as foreman in the diggings, or where 
Hindoos are employed. His abstinence from alcohol 
makes him a capital man to keep a grog shop, and 
his physical strength inspires a salutary dread. Those 
who employ him are acquainted with his vice, and 
this vice necessarily brings him before the tribunals, 
when he has tried to use violence to some hired coolie, 
who has objected to his advances, not from modesty, 
but from a fear of being impaled. 


Small size of Penis. Over against the inordinate 
dimensions of the member here described, we may 
place the following: — taken from the "ZCttSCbttft 
tur EtbnolOai?/' (Berlin, 1871, 8vo pp. 113, 14, 15). 

" It is a known 2 fact, Avhich I can confirm that the 
Taui islanders are in the habit of adopting for sole gar- 
ment a mussel shell {Bulla ovum) within which they 
hide their penis. Having purchased and examined a 
great number of these "garments", I was convinced 
that the opening of the shells had been but slightly 
enlarged; I therefore thought it not unimportant to 

* See Excursus IV. 

* Waitz-Gerland, Anthropologie Jer Nattirvulker, Part. VI, p. 556. 


ascertain whether the prepuce only or also the gland 
had been enclosed in the opening of the mussel. The 
close examination of the penis of a native (obtained 
thanks to a rich present) ^ showed that the gland of the 
penis was really inserted into the mussel. But, as the 
artificially enlarged orifice of the mussel could barely 
accommodate the entrance of the little finger, this sin- 
gular custom can only be explained by the extreme 
smallness of the virile member. To prove that this 
" costume" does not at all compress the penis, it may 
be added that without detaching the shell, the natives 
are able to make water, another opening being made 
at the other end to let it escape. 

The small size of the penis is the same here (Ago- 
mes Islands) as among the Taui islanders. The little- 
ness of the virile member among these people was so 
evident that it was a source of astonishment to the crew 
of our schooner, and gave rise to many remarks. My 
attention was drawn to it by my servant and I man- 
aged by chance to be able to take a rapid sketch from 
nature of an example. The penis of a strong, grown- 
up man looked exactly as if it was withdrawn into 
the skin, leaving the gland alone exposed, which was 
entirely free, the skin behind the prepuce being gath- 
ered up in circular folds. When the man was erect 
the position of his member was horizontal. This size 
of the penis seems to be general, although individual 
exceptions may occur. Notwithstanding all my efforts 
I could never succeed in inducing any of the natives 

* During this examination the above native was extremely afraid of 
my withdrawing his mussel; this prudery, combined with the very 
primitive nature of the '' costume " reminded me much of the "■ mogull " 
or disgrace of exposing the naked gland in Pelau and of the shame the 
Polynesians in general have at the sight of it. 

Waitz-Gerland, loc. cit. Part VI, p. 28. 


to allow me to examine them, and it was therefore 
impossible for me to take any exact measures or draw- 
ings. But a chance observation of three men showed 
me that the member of the youngest (about 20 years 
old) was longer than that of the two others. In youth 
the smallness of the penis is not observable. 

The fact of the littleness of the virile member among 
these Melanesian peoples is the more remarkable that 
the negroes who, among all human races, after the 
Hottentots and the Kaffirs, come nearest to the Poly- 
nesians, are, on the contrary, distinguished by the large 
dimensions of their member. 





" A man, when he purchases a female slave, is not 
permitted either to enjoy her, or to touch, or kiss her, 
of look at her pudenda, in lust, until after her Istibra, 
or purification from her next ensuing courses ; for 
when the captives taken in the battle of Autiiss were 
brought thence, the prophet ordained that no man 
should have carnal connexion with pregnant women 

' A phrazeology runs throughout this section which renders the 
transhition of it into English jwrticularly difficult, as the precise meaning 
of the term Istibra cannot be expressed by any single word in our 
language. — The best Arabic lexicons design Istibra to signify : " the 
purification of the 7vofnb". The term, however, must here be received 
in a more involved sense; for Istibra d(x>s not, in fact, mean simply 
purification, but a desire of, or (as rendered in the text) a waiting for 
purification ; for which reason the translator renders it purification, or 
abstinence, as best suits the content. 


until after their delivery or with others until after one 
menstruation ; which evinces that the abstinence so 
enjoined is incumbent on a proprietor; and further, 
that the occurrence of right of property and of posses- 
sion is the occasion of its being incumbent. The end 
proposed in this regulation is, that it may be ascer- 
tained whether conception has not already taken place 
in the womb, in order that the issue may not be 

Abstinence until after purification is incumbent on 
the buyer, but not on the seller; for the true reason 
of its necessity is the desire of copulation ; and as the 
buyer is presumed to possess this desire, and not the 
seller, the observance of it is therefore enjoined him, 
and not the other. If, moreover, desire be an internal 
operation of the mind, the obligation of the law, in 
this particular, rests upon the argument of such desire. 
Now the mere power of committing the carnal act is 
an argument of the desire for such act; and as this 
power is established only by property and possession, 
it follows that property and possession are the occasions 
of this obligation of abstinence. This law, therefore, 
extends to a right of property, in all its different modes 
of being acquired, such as by purchase, donation, 
legacy, inheritance, covenants, etc., whence it is that 
this abstinence is enjoined upon a person, who buys a 
female slave, either from an infant, or a woman, or 
from a slave licenced to trade, ' or from a person who 
is by law prohibited from having any carnal connexion 

' The slave licenced to trade is, in this case, supposed to have been 
prohibited from cohabiting with the slave, as the goods he sells or 
purcha&es are presumed to be the property of another, namely, his 


with her. In the same manner, also, this abstinence 
is incumbent where a person buys a female slave who 
is a virgin ; for the law proceeds according to the 
proof of the cause which prompted it, and not according 
to the proof of the propriety or expediency, as these 
relate to what is internal and unknown. 

If a person purchase a female slave during her 
menstruation no regard is paid to this menstruation 
with respect to determining the abstinence. ^ In 
the same manner, also, no regard is paid to a 
menstruation which occurs between the time of taking 
possession and the time of the right of property being 
established, by purchase, or the like ; — and so likewise, 
regard is not paid to the delivery of a female slave 
between the establishment of a right of property in 
her, and the act of taking possession (contrary, how- 
ever, to the opinion of Aboo Yoosaf). — The reason of 
this , is, that the occurrence of right of property and 
possession is the cause of purification being required ; 
and the obligation of observing the purification is an 
effect of property and possession ; and the effect can- 
not take place before the occurrence of the cause. 
The same rule holds with regard to such menstruous 
purgations as may happen previous to the procuring 
of sanction, in the case of an unauthorized sale of a 
female slave, notwithstanding the purchaser may be 
seized of her; — and so likewise, where the courses 
happen after the seizing in the case of an illegal contract 
of sale, and before the slave is purchased by a vali4 
contract : for in none of all these cases do the present 
courses determine the abstinence. 

' Arab. Fee babal If libra ; (literally) " /« point of purification", 
meaning that purification requisite to determine the abstinence imposed 
on the purchaser of a female slave. 


Abstinence is requisite in the case of a partnership 
female slave, where one of two partners purchases the 
other's share ; for here the cause is complete, and upon 
the completion of the cause the effect takes place. 

If a person purchase a Magian female slave, or 
receive her in donation, and she, after his taking pos- 
session of her, have her courses, and then become a 
Musiimd, — or, if a person purchase a female slave, 
and make her a Mokatibd, and she, after his taking 
possession of her, having voided her courses, prove 
unable to discharge her ransom, — such courses are 
sufficient to establish the requisite purification, in either 
of these cases, as having happened after the occurrence 
of the cause for waiting, namely, right of property and 

In cases where a female slave, having eloped, returns 
to her master, — or, having been taken away, or hired 
out, is restored, — or, having been pawned, is redeemed 
— abstinence is not requisite, for the cause of it 
(namely, the acquisition of property and possession) 
does not exist in either instance. In every case where 
abstinence is enjoined, and carnal connexion prohibited, 
all sorts of allurements and dalliance, such as kissing 
and hugging are likewise prohibited, as these lead to 
the commission of -unlawful acts. Add to this, the 
possibility of their being committed on the property 
of another, as may happen if the slave prove with 
child and the seller lay claim to her. (It is reported 
from Afohain/ned that dalliance with a captive slave- 
girl is lawful.) 

The purification of a pregnant female slave is estab- 
lished by her delivery, and that of a girl in whom 


the menses have not yet appeared, by the lapse of a 
month; that space being, with respect to such a one, 
a substitute for the courses, in the same manner as 
holds in the case of a woman under Edit. ^ If, however, 
the menstrual blood, should discharge itself before the 
expiration of the month, the purification by lapse of 
time is annulled, because of the ability with respect 
to the original circumstance, prior to accomplishing 
the object of the substitute. 

It is not lawful for a person who has given abusive 
language to his wife, ^ either to look at her pudenda 
in lust, or to cohabit with her, or to kiss or touch 
her, until, such time as he have performed expiation, 
because, as it is unlawful for him to copulate with her 
until after expiation, it is consequently, unlawful that 
he enter into dalliances with her, since the cause of 
an illegal act is likewise illegal ;— in the same manner 
as holds in cases of Ytticaf^ and Ihrarn ; * or where a 
person, by mistake, cohabits with the wife of another, 
— in which case she must observe an Edit; during 
which, as it is unlawful for the husband to have con- 
nexion with his wife, so it is likewise unlawful for 

' See Edit., Vol. I. p. 360. — There seems here to be a small 
mistake in the text, as the Edit, of a female slave not subject to the 
courses is determined by the lapse of a month and a half. 

' Literally, "it is not lawful for a Mozahir" meaning a person who 
has pronounced a sentence of zihdr upon his wife. (This whole passage 
will be better understood by a reference to zihdr. Vol. I. p. 326.) 

* Yticaf is a religious austerity practised by the most pious of the 
Mtissuhnans in the last ten days of the month of Ramzan ; they 
remain during that period in a mosque, without ever departing from it 
but when the calls of nature absolutely force them, abstracting themselves 
at the same time from all enjoyments. 

* Ihrdm is the period during which the pilgrims remain, at Mecca. — 
They are then subject to a number of strict regulations, and are 
particularly enjoined to refrain from all worldly pleasures. 


him to use any of its incentives with her. It is 
otherwise during the courses or tasting, for, although 
copulation be at such time prohibited, yet dalliance is 
lawful, because the courses are frequent and of long 
continuance, engrossing a great part of life, as they 
happen once every month, and continue ten days every 
time; — and, in the same manner, the days of fasting 
are protracted to one month by the divine ordinances, 
and (among pious persons) voluntarily occupy a con- 
siderable part of life; — whence if dalliances were for- 
bidden during those terms, it would tend to restrain 
men too much in their enjoyments. 


The convict before the Court Martial. — Military law applied to 
the convicts. — Captain B***, President of the Council of War. — 
Amusing cases tried before the Council. 

Military Law applied to the Convicts. The law 

which authorised transportation to Guiana, was fol- 
lowed by a second law, which made the convicts 
amenable to the military tribunals for all crimes and 
offences against the ordinary penal laws. Besides the 
Government Commissioners and Deputies, appointed 
in France by the Minister, there were two Councils of 
War, of which the President and Judges were chosen 
amongst the officers of the garrison of Cayenne. The 
Council of Revision was composed of the Colonel com- 
manding, the Captain of the principal war vessel, and 
the Major of Marines. The two senior captains of the 
garrison of the Colony were, ex officio. Presidents of 
the two Councils of War. It might be imagined, that 
an officer who by chance found himself the senior on 
the station, and who was suddenly called upon to apply 
the Penal Code, without any previous study or ex- 
perience, might feel embarrassed. But, bah! a trans- 
ported ex-criminal was not worth much regard. A fresh 
sentence of a few years, more or less, was of no great 



The unfortunate convicts had a terrible sword of 
Damocles, suspended over their heads. This was the 
Draconian article of the Code relating to old offenders, 
— which of course all the transported prisoners and ticket- 
of-leave men were. Offences punishable only by im- 
prisonment, for criminals condemned by the common 
law, involved, for the convicts, a return to the Peniten- 
tiary for a minimum period of five years, or the maxi- 
mum penalty of twenty years at the hulks, might be 
doubled. I saw a coiner condemned to death for 
having made a Papal coin of half a franc, or five 
pence, out of lead. It should be mentioned, that this 
convict had already been sentenced to hard labour for 
life for coining. Being an old offender, it was neces- 
sary to inflict a heavier sentence than hard labour for 
life, that is to say, the penalty of death. It is needless 
to say the convict was not executed ; his sentence was 
commuted to five years in the chain gang, but, strictly 
speaking, and according to the letter of the law, he 
ought to have been executed. 

Captain B***, President of the Council of War. 

My friend, Captain B***, the singer of smutty songs, 
was President of one of the two Councils. The post 
was not a sinecure for him, for the Council met twice 
a week, and had, at each sitting, three or four cases 
to decide. But with friend B***, the business did not 
drag; twenty to thirty minutes sufficed to hear, and 
settle, a case. The advocate of the accused, a subaltern 
officer of the garrison, specially designated for the 
post, knew perfectly well that no attempt at defence 
would be any good, so he confined himself to recom- 
mending his client to the mercy of the Court — this 
mercy generally consisted of a sentence for double the 


maximum penalty, that is to say, forty years. That 
is the regular tariff. For those already sentenced to 
penal servitude for life, who reappear before the Council, 
the sentence, which also is always the same, is five 
years in the chain gang. The worthy Captain B***, 
had always a broad grin on his face when he was 
pronouncing sentence, and no doubt was thinking about 
the smutty songs he was going to sing in the evening. 
But it was especially in attempted rapes, or other 
offences of the like kind, which were common enough 
amongst the convicts, that the jovial obscenity of the 
President showed to the best advantage. ' He evinced 
the greatest interest in these cases, tried to bring out, 

* The following sensible remarks on cant are of some interest. We 
take them from Blondeau's Diet. Erot. Latin — Frangais. Paris, Lisieux, 

"Why do writers, and the people also, have recourse to so many 
metaphors, periphrases, and circmnlocutions, whenever the sexual organs 
or sexual connection are in question? If we are not ashamed of being 
men, why should we only dare to speak in covered words of that which 
in us is the manifestation of our manhood? Natiu-e has made the 
union of the sexes the condition of our existence and of the propagation 
of our species, and has attached to it, in view of this perpetuity, the 
most powerful attraction, the most voluptuous pleasure : why should we 
dissimulate it as if it were an offence or a crime? Why stigmatize as 
shameful the sexual parts upon which Nature has expended all her 
skill, and be ashamed to show that of which we ought to be proud. 
Even to consider the naked fact, it is again the wish of Nature, since 
she has made it a necessity, and the satisfying of a necessity can have 
in it nothing shameful. Moralists have seen in this singular prudery, 
an unjustifiable hypocrisy. 

Listen to Montaigne. " What has the genital act done to men, an 
act so natural, necessary and just, that they dare not speak of it openly, 
and exclude serious and regular expressions ? We bravely say KILL, 
UNROBE, BETRAY, and THAT only between the teeth. Does that mean 
that the less we say in words the more there is in our thoughts? For 
it is good that the words which arc the least used, the least written 
and the best hidden, should lie the best learnt and known." 


in the course of the trial, the most indecent side of 
the affair, and uttered jokes that would have made a 
dead man grin. The public, the gendarme who kept 
order, and often the prisoner himself, would roar with 
laughter; but the verdict was always the forty years, 
or the five years, as the case might be. 

Curious Cases tried before the Council. The 
worthy Captain B***, informed his friends and acquaint- 
ances, whenever any case of at all a "risky" nature 
was coming before the Court. Needless to say the 
public was never excluded on these occasions, in order 
that his lady friends the young Mulattas and Quad- 
roons might enjoy the entertainment. The President 
was of average height, rather fat, with a red face 
framed in a thick, black beard, an^ lighted up by 
two small lascivious eyes, so that he had very much 
the appearance of a satyr. Anything might be said 
before him, and he was never so happy as when he 
had made a witness, or the prisoner, utter some gross 

Moinaux's Comic Tribunal ^ was surpassed by a long 
way. I confess that, for my part, I listened to the 
extraordinary proceedings before this tribunal with a 
great deal of interest, for they threw a strange light 
on the worst side of human nature. 

* A small illustrated publication that used to chronicle all the queer 
and ludicrous cases appearing before the French law-courts. 

In Regies pour former un avocat (Chap. 13) it is stated that "it 
was formerly the custom in ' most of the tribunals of the kingdom, to 
plead on Shrove-Tuesday any cause of a specially gay and spicy 
character.' These cases were called " warm cases", and celebrated 
advocates, it is said, did not disdain to take them up." 

This extract is given on the authority of Bibliotheca Scatalogica, 
Scatapolis 5850 (read Paris 1849?); a singularly well informed little book 
on books of a scatalogical nature, mostly in French. 





The references made to this subject in the preceding 
and other chapters are supported by the following evi- 
dence of medical specialists. 

On Pederasty, Sodomy, Bestiality and Tribadism 


Like all other Orientals the Arab is z. -pederast. It 
may be remarked that this vice is observed principally 
among nations where polygamy is permitted: in certain 
cases, a man cloyed with enjoyment, enervated by 
excess, seeks in sodomy a means of re-awakening his 
desire, in other cases we have to do with moral herma- 

Sodomy was denounced in Leviticus and by Hip- 
pocrates ; on this point the Koran is also explicit, and 
the Mussulman jurisconsults have edicted the most severe 
penalties against it ; we read in fact in Sidi-Khalil the 
following passages : 

" Any Mussulman of either sex, free, of age and 
responsible for his or her acts who shall have com- 
mitted the act of sodomy, being united to another by 
the bonds of a legitimate and valid marriage materially 
consummated, shall be stoned to death." 

•' The execution will take place with stones of medium 
size until death follows." 

' '^ De la Criminalite chez les Arabes an point de vue de la 
pratique medicate jndiciaire en Alge'rie" par Ic Dr. A. Kocker, Paris 
Bailliere et fils, 1884, (pages 169 et seq. 


" Any individual Mussulman or non Mussulman, free 
or a slave, who shall be found gnilty of sodomy shall 
be stoned to death together with his accomplice, even 
if both are slaves or non Mussulman subjects." ' 

For those who are unmarried or who have not yet 
consummated marriage the penalty was reduced to one 
hundred strokes of the bastinado. 

Notwithstanding this severe legislation, there exists 
among the Arabs, as among ancient Greeks and Romans, 
and among the Chinese of the present day, a disgust- 
ing race, whom laziness and the love of lucre impel to 
exploit the perverted passions of those around them. 

We have here to examine two actors, the passive 
and the active sodomite. 

The Arab passive agent is generally young, but not 
effeminate like the one described by Tardieu. He is, 
on the contrary, robust and well set up. He wears 
no ornaments likely to lead to suppose that another 
sex was hidden beneath his burnous. 

If this is the case, it is not that he despises jewelry, 
there is a deeper motive underlying his apparent dis- 
dain. If he wore ornaments he would come nearer in 
appearance to woman, who would then become his 
equal, he would therefore be outraging himself: a vestige 
of pride is still hidden beneath his ignominy. He might 
perhaps also lose his clients who would no longer find 
in him the acrid pleasures they seek for, for he would 
then in too many ways remind them of their wives. 

The places where they are to be met with are 
generally the public squares and the Moorish cafe's. 
There they pass all their time, smoking Kif, and 
drinking coffee; the last term of their existence is 
simply moral and physical degradation. 

* Sidi Khelit. Transl. by Seignette, art. 1948 and following. 


The costume of the passive pederast presents a 
peculiarity worthy of being noted and which was 
observed by Dr. Bertherand. Their Turkish pantaloons 
frequently have a7i orifice behind on a level with the 
anus and perfectly dissimulated by the folds of the 
garment. This enables them commodiously and 
without undressing, to abandon themselves to their 
shameful trade. This orifice must always be looked 
after, and it is easy to understand the importance that 
may have the examination of the stains which must 
almost fatally surround it. 

The expert, who is charged to examine these indi- 
viduals is often struck by the slight amount of anal 
deformation existing. He is far from finding among 
these Arabs the characteristic lesions described by 
Tardieu, but which more recent observers unanimously 
say are not at all general. 

The folds of the anus are slightly obliterated, the 
infundibulum is usually wanting ; those triangular basic 
erosions situated around the anus, and given as char- 
acteristic of sodomy, are seldom met with. Hardly 
is there to be found sufficient laxness of the sphincters 
to be felt with the finger. It is evident that the 
examination is far from furnishing such precise indica- 
tions as might reasonably be expected. 

So far for the passive sodomite who gives himself 
up to this shameful trade, but when the act happens 
to be accomplished with violence by an Arab on 
young children, the lesions produced are absolutely 
characteristic and can leave no doubt whatever as to 
what has taken place, on condition however that the 
medico-legal examination be not too long deferred 
after the criminal act has been committed. 

The active pederast is seldom an interesting subject 


of study unless he is examined a few moments after 
the accomplishment of the act. There are then usually 
to be found all the signs of recent coition, sometimes 
there are on the member traces of blood, of sperm 
and of fecal matter. 

But, the question arises, does not the penis assume 
any particular form among sodomites who have been 
for a long time addicted to this disgustiug practice? 

This important point we now pass to consider. 
Among the Arabs the gland is often big and club- 
shaped, the penis slim. In short, their virile member 
presents all the signs mentioned by Tardieu as special 
to pederasts. The consequence of this generality of 
conformation is that these signs lose all their value. 

The examination of the clothes of sodomites may 
also lead to interesting discoveries. Very often a hole 
is found in the trowsers at about the level of the 
g-enito-crural fold. 

Pederasty amongst Arabs : — {Trxi^vog spxrxTui;), the 
love of young people, consisting mostly in finger 
touches, is also observed among the Arabs, but less 
frequently than sodomy ; their brutal passions being 
unable to find therein a suflScient aliment. 

Lesbian love, or tribadism, is rare among the Arab 
women. It would seem as if a certain degree of 
civilization were necessary to give birth to this vice. 
The cause which it appears most natural to invoke 
in explanation of this fact, is the absolute absence of 
erethism in the Arab woman. She is simply a female. 
If it were otherwise, and if passion came to animate 
these sometimes so beautiful statues, would not these 
Arab women seek to emancipate themselves from the 
servitude in which their husbands keep them? 


One thing is worthy of remark : the friend of the 
Arab woman is generally an Europdenne. When 
fulfilling the duties of assistant-surgeon at the Dis- 
pensary at Algiers, we frequently heard the female 
attendants complain of the scandalous scenes they had 
been obHged to witness in the evening in the courts, and 
in which the guilty parties were always of different race. 

In Egypt, sapphism, it would appear, is almost the 
fashion, all the ladies of the harem have each of them 
an amie. 

Bestiality is sometimes observed among the Arabs, 
They have connection with goats, sheep, and even 
with mares. * 

This custom seems to have existed at all periods of 
their history. The following curious extract from the 
Paris Medical, of 1883, is a confirmation of the above: 

" In the tenth century, Jahya-ben-Ishaq, physician to 
the Emir El-nacer Lidinillah, being consulted by a 
peasant who could no longer support the pain caused 
to him by swelling and inflammation of the penis, 
placed the member on a stone and compressed it so 
as to cause a mass of pus to flow out of it, in the 
midst of which there was a grain of barley. The 
Arab doctor at once guessed that the patient had 
taken liberties with his mare and had thus introduced 
the grain into the urethral canal which the culprit 
was obliged fully to admit was true. 

Arab Criminal Assaults and Rape. During four 
years time we only noted 8 1 cases of rape committed 
by Arabs. This figure is evidently far inferior to the 

* A curious and lengthy case is given of carnal connection with a 
bear in the " Old Man young again " (MS.) (now in preparation for 
the press). 


real facts. We therefore must here insist upon the 
large number of cases the prosecution of which was 
abandoned for lack of proof, and the still greater num- 
ber of those which remained unknown to justice. 

The study of this crime is one of the most interesting 
that Arab criminality presents to us. This question, — 
far from being a simple one as in France, i.e. relating 
solely to criminal assaults committed on women or on 
children, — becomes more complex when we pass to 
the Arabs, and presents a point which it is important 
to put clearly in the light, we mean violation in 
T?iarriage, fatal consequences of the Mussulman and 
French laws, of which the first authorise and the latter 
tolerate the most dissimilar unions. It is on account 
of this culpable toleration by our laws, no article of 
which comes to regulate marriage among Mussulmans, 
so that there are frequent cases of quite young children 
being married to grown-up men and dying from the 
effects of conjugal approach. 

The author of the assault is, it is true, prosecuted, 
and generally condemned. Is that sufficient? Evi- 
dently not. We have even already, in commencing 
this stvidy, made it clear that often in such cases, the 
Arab is to be held irresponsible; but then who bears 
that responsibility? We will not go further into the 
study of these questions, which pertain to the domain 
of humanitarian philosophy and of jurisprudence, leaving 
to the ruling powers the care of solving them. 

We may note at once that simple criminal assaults 
are rare among the Arabs, and that consequently it 
is only his bestiality that impels the Arab, notwith- 
standing all impediments, to accomplish the act he has 


Criminal Assaults. The following by Dr. Rique, * 
confirms our observations anent the ferocity of the 
Arab's lustful attacks: — "This series of offences seldom 
come to the knowledge of the French authorities. 
For this there are two reasons: the rarity of these 
crimes and the difficulty of discovering them. 

The rarity of such offences among the tribes should 
not lead us to conclude in favour of the continence of 
the Arabs. Nothing can give any idea of the immor- 
ality reigning in the douars. The Arab woman is 
sequestrated as among the Turks and the Moors 
She goes about with face uncovered, works in the 
fields tilling the soil, goes into the woods to pick 
up sticks, poor beast of burden that she is, looked 
upon by lord and master as something intermediate 
between his horse and his donkey, having received 
neither principles nor education, not esteeming herself 
more than she is esteemed, what scruple therefore 
could restrain her? Consequently it appears perfectly 
proved to us that there is not a single one who has not 
got at least one lover, whom she calls in her cynically 
naive language her Khouiah or brother. This much 
established, and as pretty nearly every Arab has 
either a mistress or a legitimate spouse, and his gen- 
esic instinct, which to him is above everything else, 
being thereby satisfied, very few of them would care to 
expose themselves, for the sake of change, to a ter- 
rible and above all legitimate punishment. The innate 
modesty and jealous repugnance of the Arab in all 
questions having reference to women, have passed 
into the language. In order to express the idea of 
violation, they employ a euphemistic form of expression 

« Etude sur Med. legale in the Gazette Me'dicale de Paris, vol. 63 
(pages J 56— 161). 


sufficiently distant from its real signification: serrac 
en nfa, rob women. 

It is particularly in cases of criminal assault that 
one must be on one's guard against every sort of 
evidence and trust only to one's eyes. I remember a 
case of this kind which seems to me to be interesting 
enough to be recorded. 

A Caid, considered to be one of the most loyal 
and honourable in the country, one day came to me 
at the Arab Bureau, bringing with him a young girl 
of from 7 to 8 years old, the daughter of one of his 
servants. I was told by the Caid that she had been 
ravished by a shepherd whom he had caused to be 
arrested by his mounted guard. I examined the young 
girl, and could discover no trace whatever of violence, 
no oedema or ecchymosis. And yet the hymen mem- 
brane had been broken through, and defloration had 
taken place, but as it appeared to me, not very re- 
cently. I next proceeded to examine the accused. This 
man. El Ambli ben bel Kassem, although only fifteen 
years old, presented an excessive development of the 
genital organs, even for an Arab, and quite out of 
proportion with the size of the girl's pudenda. I was 
much perplexed, and I was about to draw up a report 
with negative conclusions, when, with a view to 
further information, I wished once more to carefully 
examine the girl. I then discovered at the fork, a 
little to the right, a syphilitic excoriation, very slight, 
it is true, but well characterised, which had escaped 
me at my first observation. On making this discovery 
a certain suspicion passed through my mind. I re- 
membered that this Caid had a son, a good-for-nothing 
fellow, a frequenter of low haunts, and even suspected 
of going about at night for nefarious purposes, and 


that a few days previously this son had come to consult 
me about a chancre he had at the basis of the bridle. 
I at once sent one of the horsemen of the Arab 
Bureau to fetch him, his whereabouts being known, 
and he was brought without being told what for. As 
soon as the Caid's son had entered the ante-chamber, I 
suddenly pushed open the door of the consulting-room, 
and pointing to the young girl: "There," said I, "is 
she whom thou hast contaminated (fuss'd) ! " Taken thus 
without warning and confounded by this sort of thea- 
trical effect, he did not dare attempt a denial; I had 
guessed rightly. I sent him to the disposal of the 
chief of the Bureau, who had him arrested, and liberated 
El Ambi. As for the Caid, he was shortly afterwards 

But when the Arab thinks himself sure of a certain 
immunity, his brutal instincts, seconded by a hot 
temperament will lead to excesses of frenetic lechery. 

Two Arabs of the Djendel tribe met, one evening at 
about eight o'clock on a by-path leading from Ain-as- 
Solthan to Milianah, the unfortunate wife of a colonist, 
who was obstinate in not taking the high road. They 
seized hold of her, threatening to kill her if she resisted, 
laid her down under a tree, and while she was held down 
by one of the two, the other violated her. His companion 
then took his place, and so they continued alternately 
relieving each other during two hours. The unfor- 
tunate woman calculated that she had been outraged 
about fifteen times. Subjected the next day to medico- 
legal examination, a real echymosis of the vaginal 
tunic was perceptible, and the mucous surface was in 
some places lifted up and eroded. 

With regard to criminal attempts on those of the 
same sex, they are far from being rare ; but facts of 


this nature being seldom revealed, naturally escape 
verification. Generally there is mutual consent: the 
infamous vice is so deeply rooted amongst the Arabs, 
that it is almost hopeless to find any efficacious 
means of repression. 


My stay at Martinique. — The ivhite race, called pure Creoles. 
— Prejudice against colo7tr. — The Blacks of Martinique.— Moral 
characteristics of the Negress of Martinique. — The coloured race. 
— The Mulatta. — The Quadroon and her passionate nature. — 
" Fricatrices " and Lesbians. 

My Stay at Martinique. I have already explained 
the reasons which detained me three weeks at Martin- 
ique, before going to Guiana, where I was able to 
remain nearly three years. On the return journey to 
France, I again stayed a fortnight at Martinique. 

I have no intention of writing a long description, 
analogous to that I have done for Guiana, of the white, 
black, and coloured races of Martinique. I should 
only have to repeat myself, and uselessly lengthen out 
the book. I will content myself therefore, with briefly 
noticing some of the differences between the people 
of the two countries. I shall treat Martinique as I 
have already treated Tonquin. 

The White Race, called Pure Creoles. The 

first fact which strikes one, is the very large number 
of white Creoles, who can here form a stock part of 
the population without the support of black blood. 
This is due to the chains of high mountains at Mar- 
tinique, where we find, at altitudes of fi'om 2700 to 



3300 feet above the sea, a really temperate climate, 
which is almost cold in the winter, and where the white 
Creoles have built sanatoria, for cases of fever, anaemia, 
hepatitis, etc. When the affairs of the island were 
very prosperous, all the rich Creoles had country houses 
on these heights, where they passed the hot season, 
and recovered their strength. The white race was 
thus able to contend against the climate, — which, by 
the way, is never so injurious as that of Guiana, 

Prejudice against Colour. It is not astonishing 
that we should find here, — at least it was so in 187 — 
a prejudice against colour which does not exist at 
Guiana. The real white Creoles constitute a kind of 
Faubourg St. Germain, ' from which the coloured ele- 
ment is rigorously excluded. The latter has become, 
owing to the franchise, which gives every Black a 
vote, the dominant poHtical power, but the old Creole 
society still looks upon him with disdain, and refuses 
to open its salons to him. The white Creole has as 
much contempt for the " mixed bloods", as a nobleman 
of the old school had for his valet, but the latter could 
not brag, as the former can, that his ancestors bought 
and sold on the market, the grandparents of the coloured 

The Black Race at Martinique. The Negro and 
Negress of Martinique are taller, more lithesome, and 
slenderer, than their congeners of Guiana. I remarked 
this during my first visit, and an old white Creole of 
Cayenne gave me the explanation of it. It appears 
that, when the slave trade existed, the slaving vessels 

' The home of the old French nobility in Paris, exclusively closed 
to the parvenu and rastaqojiere class, which generally goes West. 


first brought their human merchandise to the Antilles, 
where, naturally, those with the best physical qualities 
were picked out, and the remainder then taken on to 
Guiana. If this is correct — and I see no reason to 
doubt it, — the explanation of the corporal inferiority 
of the Guiana Black, is very easy. It should be added, 
that the climate of Guiana is also more weakening. 
The Black of Martinique is more robust, and wider in 
the shoulders, but he has a restless, uneasy look in 
his face. And while the Guyanais is peaceable, sub- 
missive, quiet, and avoids quarrels, the Martiniquer, 
though quite as lazy when manual labour is concerned, 
is noisy, insolent, and overbearing. In the street he 
will never give up the pavement to you, unless he 
knows you, and has need of your services. Scuffles 
between the soldiers and the Blacks, which are very 
rare at Guiana, are, on the contrary, very common at 
Martinique, and blood is often shed. I do not believe 
that, within the memory of man, a Black of Cayenne 
has ever deliberately set fire to a house. The torch, 
on the contrary, is the favourite weapon of the Mar- 
tinique Black ; it is to him what the marmite of dyna- 
mite is to the anarchist. During the war of 1870-71, 
there were several insurrections, and incendiary fires, 
at Martinique, and the incendiary Blacks cried " Long 
live Prussia". The terrible fire, which quite recently 
destroyed Fort de France, is believed to have been 
the work of an incendiary. 

Moral Characteristic of the Woman of Marti- 
nique. The character of the Negress of Martinique is 
similar to that of the male. She is more lively, and 
more laborious, than the woman of Guiana, who is a 
weak, stupid gnan-gnan, a good mother of a family, 


but not very wide-awake. The Martinique woman has 
a great aptitude for business, and makes money in 
every way. She works like a man. which the woman 
of Guiana will not do. The coal for the great Trans- 
atlantic steamers is loaded by hundreds of women, who, 
singing at the top of their voices to the sound of a 
wild tam-tam, come and empty their baskets into the 
hold of the vessel. 

The woman of Martinique has not the strong and 
simple religious faith of the Guyanaise. Martinique is 
so much visited, that its black population has not been 
able to withstand the contaminating influence of a not 
very devout civiHzation. The woman of Martinique 
is, moreover, a dangerous character, and you had better 
look out for yourself if you happen to have offended 
a Negress. 

In fact, on the whole, she is not a very nice kind 
of woman. She does not like the Whites ; but the 
Blacks detest all the White race, and would turn 
them out of the island if they had the power. 

So far as concerns physical passions, their forms 
and their perversions amongst the black race, I have 
nothing to add to what I have written about Guiana. 
I may mention, however, that if the " Massogan " goes 
after the Negress at Cayenne, at Martinique the BecquS 
blanc can find plenty of coloured women, and can 
afford to leave the Negjess on one side. 

The Coloured Race. This race has greatly increased, 
during the last half century, and has become so strong 
that it is able to contend against the old Creole race, 
and has wrested from the latter the predominance in 
political matters. It is the succession of fresh strata, 
foretold by Gambetta. The rich coloured people bring 


up their sons as notaries, doctors, lawyers, and jour- 
nalists, who occupy all the highest political situations 
in the country. But not all are rich. The poorer 
members of the race. Quadroons or Mulattoes, become 
clerks, or enter some Government department. Many 
of them go and try their fortune elsewhere. It seems 
that, for some years past, Guiana has been invaded 
by Martiniquers, who are not looked on very favour- 
ably by the people of Guiana, who are aware that the 
new-comers have long teeth, and an appetite not 
easily appeased. 

The Mulatta. As to the poor coloured girl, she 
sells herself for money without any scruple. All pro- 
portions being duly considered, there are more Mulat- 
tas, and many more Quadroons, at Martinique, than 
at Cayenne, and the amateur has a greater choice. I 
did not discover any very remarkable differences between 
the Mulattas of the two countries. Both are very fond 
of the White man, but the Martinique girl is bolder, 
and more intriguing, and more certain to assert her 
sway over the Becque hlanc who may fall into her 
hands. She is unscrupulous, and will procure elsewhere 
the presents which her lover may refuse to give her. 
She is also more lascivious than the girl of Guiana. 

The Quadroon, and her Passionate Nature. 

The Quadroon of Martinique can certainly give odds 
to any of the courtesans of Europe, and it is only at 
Tahiti that I have found her equal. It must be con- 
fessed, that the mixture of one fourth of black blood 
produces an almost perfect woman. The general form 
of the body is that of a woman of the South of Europe. 
The skin is a dull brown, and the face is lighted up 


by a pair of magnificent gazelle-like eyes. The legs 
are well-made, and the thighs and buttocks lasciviously 
well-rounded. The hair is perhaps still rather curly, 
but often of a dark chestnut, or red gold colour. The 
lips are large. The breast still remains a trifle pear- 
shaped. The hair of the pubes is curly, and rather 
soft, sometimes very plentiful, and often of a tint not 
so dark as that of the head. But the dimensions of 
the vulva and vagina are not at all like those of the 
Negress, and do not sensibly differ from those of the 
European woman. 

The passions of the Quadroon girl are strong, like 
those of her white ancestors. She has not the same 
dislikes as the Negress, and is less particular than the 
Mulatta, — in fact she is ready for any sort of pleasure 
that comes in her way. She is a real Circe, and will 
lend herself willingly to all your amorous fancies, 
however lewd they may be. If a Quadroon girl of 
Martinique has a hon Becque for a lover, and she likes 
him, she will never desert him, and will leave her 
country rather than lose him. The people of Martinique 
are naturally fond of travelling, whilst those of Guiana 
are of sedentary habits. 

It is asserted that Fricatrices and Lesbians ' are not 

« In Bali, according to Jacobs (>), homosexuality is almost as common 
among women as among men, though it is more secretly exercised ; the 
methods of gratification adopted are either digital or lingual, or else by 
bringing the parts together (tribadism). 

Among Arab women, according to Kocher, homosexual practices are 
rare, though very common among Arab men. In Egypt, according to 
Godard, Kocher and others, it is almost fashionable, and every woman 
in the harem has a " friend". Among the negroes and mulattoes of 
French creole countries, says Corre, homosexuality is very common. " I 
know a lady of great beauty," he remarks, "a stranger in Guadalupe 

(>) As quoted by Ploss-Bartels, Das Heib, 1895, (^o'- I' P- 39°)- 


uncommon amongst the coloured women of Martinique, 
but, though I met with some women who were reported 
to possess this taste, I should be sorry to deduce 
therefrom that the general habit prevailed. " In case 
of doubt, abstain from an opinion," as the proverb 

Depilation. The best known and most extensively 
distributed custom connected with the MONS VENERIS, 
is certainly depilation, by which is to be understood the 
artificial removal of a growth of hair. Among the 
Muhammadans this operation is prescribed by their ritual, 
but we meet with it in many other parts of the globe, 
in Africa, Asia and America. 

The substance mostly employed for that purpose in 
Turkey is known to be Orpiment (yellow sulphide of 
Arsenic) and calcined chalk, equal quantities of which 
are worked up into a paste with rose-water : after this 
paste has been applied and left for a few minutes on 
the spot in question and then carefully washed off, the 
hair is found to be completely removed. This method 
is in quite general use throughout the East and is 
called in Turkey Rusma and according to Polak, ^ 
Nurch in Persia, for in Persia also the Muhammadan 
women are obliged to regularly depilate the private 
parts and the arm-pits in a warm bath. The Muham- 

and the mother of a family, who is obliged to stay away from the 
markets and certain shops because of the excessive admiration of the 
mulatto women and negresses, and the impudent invitations they dared 
to address to her". (*) He refers to several cases of more or less 
violent sexual attempts by women on young girls of I2 or 14, and 
observes that such attempts by men on children of their own sex are 
much rarer. 

' Polak — Versien, das Land und seine Bewohner. I, Leipzig, 1865. 

(') Corre, Crime en Pays Creoles, (Paris, 1889). 


madan meiidens and the Christian Armenian women in 
Persia do not do this, as it was asserted in Hdntsche. ^ 
Polak says : " The private parts are depilated in 
obedience to ritual law by means of a preparation of 
orpiment and chalk ; this is called hadschehi keschidrx, 
which means submitting to the law : but elegant ladies 
themselves pluck out the hairs, until they no longer 
grow any more.' 

Petrns Bellonius relates, that the quantity- of orpi- 
ment used in the East is so enormous on account of 
its use in depilation. that the farmers of the metal tax pay 
to the Sultan of Turkey a yearly tribute of 1800 ducats. 

On the Coast of Guinea according to Mcnirad, * the 
young and unmarried negresses also depilate the private 
parts, but after marriage they let the hair grow aguin. 

In the Dutch East Indies, as Epp ^ asserts, the 
women of Malay race depilate their mons veneris 
until it appears qmte bald. This is confirmed bv one 
of the photographs in the collection of the Berlin 
Anthropological Society*, but the others in the same 
collection prove that this cannot be considered as a 
general custom, and also that the Chinese women 
li\-ing there have not adopted it- But among the 
Battas of Sumatra, according to Hagen * the women 
pluck out the hairs from the mons veneris and shave 
it, as soon as the hair begins to grow. 

Maurel * says, speaking of the Khmers in Cambodia, 

» Hdntsche, Phj-sikalisch-Medidnische Skizze von Rescht in Porsien; 
in Vircbow's Arduv. 1862, 5 n. 6, Heft S. 570. 

* iionrad^ H. C. G«malde der Koste von Guinea. Weimar, 1824, p. 47. 

* Epp, Schildenmgen von Holfindiscfa-Indien. Heiddberg, 1852. p. 392. 
*' Hagen, Die kunsdichen venmstaltoi^en des Koqiers bei den Balta. 

Zeitsch. nir Ethncdogie. Bd. X^^. 218, Berlin, 1884. 

* Maurel, Memoire sor KAnthropcdogie da Cambodge; memoires de 
U See. d'Anthrop. de Paris. Paris, 1893. p. 529. 


that the woman's mons veneris is generally shaved ; but 
" the women who seek the company of Europeans 
easily abandon the practice." 

In several parts of India this custom also prevails 
generally ; only for that purpose they employ, scs,/agor ' 
informs us, very peculiar rings of which the Royal 
Ethnological Museum in Berlin possesses a few examples 
contributed by known travellers. They are used solely 
for that purpose and, when they are required to operate, 
they are carried on the tumb. At first sight they 
have the appearance of a very large signet-ring, as 
on the upper side they present to view a large round 
flat shield, which bears in the centre, surrounded by 
tastefully carved borders, a little mirror, destined in 
reality firstly in the manipulation to reflect the private 
parts and secondly to throw light by reflection on to 
these rather hidden regions. It is with the rather sharp 
edge of the ring that the hairs are removed. The 
Indian name of these rings is drsi. 

The well-known Nestor of the German savants in 
South America, Rudolph A. Phillipiva Santiago, made 
some enquiries concerning the Chilian women who, 
he discovered were given to depilation, but not at all 
generally, and only among certain very low classes 
of the population. 

Karl von den Steinen ^ found in Brazil that among 
the Indian women in the district near the sources of 
the Schingu, of the Trumai and other tribes, it was a 
general custom to remove the hair entirely from the 
■mons veneris. 

' yajfo^, See Verhandl. der Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft, 
1882, and Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, 1880. 

* Karl von den Steinen, Die Philosophic der Tracht, und Enstehuiig 
des Schamgefiihls. Ausland 1891, No. i6. 


Hyades and Deniker ^ mention also a woman of Terra 
del Fuego who had submitted herself to depilation. 

In the East, depilation is not an invention of the 
Muhammadans; their forefathers practised it, and in far 
ancient times this popular custom travelled from Asia 
into Egypt, and from there to Greece and Italy. 
According to Aristophanes the hetaires and gay women 
particularly of his time, alone practised it in Greece; 
but it would appear on the same authority that the 
honourable Greek women had also adopted the custom. 
Martial ^ relates that the Roman women resorted to 
depilation of the private parts as they grew older, in 
order to dissimulate their age. Many authors assert 
that the custom was still prevalent in Italy until 
modern times; and it would appear to be as much 
for sake of cleanliness as for protection against vermin 
(Rosenbaum). ^ 

It would seem altogether that in general those 
peoples like to practise depilation whose pilose system 
is the least developed, as those also are most addicted 
to shaving who have the scantiest beards. The ap- 
parent exceptions are no doubt due to this depilation 
of female private parts being elevated to the rank of 
a religious rite, and forcedly therefore adopted by all 
the nations converted to Islamism. 

' Hyades b' Deniker, Mission scientifique du Cap Horn (1882, 
1883) vol. Vin, Paris, 1891. 

" Martial. Lib, XH, epigr. 32. 

* Rosenbattm, Geschichte der Lustseiichc, etc. Halle, 1882, p. 372. 

(This latter work, we hope, shortly to offer to English readers in 
their own language. It is a mine of anthropological knowledge as 
regards the Ancients.) 






" No physical or moral misery, no sore however corrupt it 
may be, should frighten him who has devoted himself to the 
Knowledge of Man; and the sacred Ministry of the Medical Man by 
forcing him to witness everything, also permits him to say every- 

Tardieu, iJes Attentats aux Moeurs. 

Th yxp xTTorryjvxi xx'keTth 
(pv7£0i;, '/iv l%f/ rig xei. 

Aristophanes (Vesp. 1457): — 

"The decomposition of dead bodies we can well prevent, can 
we not also stay the decomposition of the human heart? If the 
weak know, if we know, that a given vice has a bad taste, and 
'turns but to dead ashes in the Mouth', with what happiness should 
we fly from It. It is only necessary to see certain phases of 
degradation such as they really are, to hold them afterwards in 
hatred " 

AofeLE EsQuiROS, Les Marchandes d' Amour. 

TLaes uns, flcliebter JBruDcr, nicbt vcxQceecw, 

Da08 von sicb eclbst Dec /Bbcnscb nicbt ecbcibcn hann. 

Goethe (Torq. Tasso, I, 2, 85). 

Documents on Medical Anthkopology 

i ^iiii 




MaoDers and Customs of Semi-Civilized Peoples; 




By a French Army-Surgeon. 

Vol. II 

Privately Re-issued 


New York 



"Dont ne ma retards I'opinion de ceux qui disent que c'est 
une chose vergogneuse at sale de traicter de cette matiSre, et que 
la lecture d'un tel livre peut induire quelque libidineux d^sir en la 
pens^e de ceux qui le liront. Mais nul ne le lise qui n'en aura 
a faire. Nous desirons empescher le mal; si, ce faisant, nous ne 
pouvons fuir le scandale volontairement pris, cela ne nous doit pas 
etre impute, ains a la pernicieuse volonte de ceux qui d'eux-memes 
cherchent a se scandaliser sans sujet." 


Traite des Hermaphrodites. 
(RocEN, 1612, p. 58.) 


Scire est nesclre, nisi 16 me scire alius sciret.'* 



The following letter, received from a valued correspondent, 
is so just, and defines our Author's effort with such 
precision, that we think it of sufficient interest to reproduce. 
Others were sent to us, many of them couched in very 
appreciative and laudatory terms. We hope to include 
them all in a third supplementary volume to appear later. 


In reply to your request to contribute any criticisms 
one wishes upon " Untrodden Fields of Anthropology " 
by " A French Army-Surgeon " (published 1896), although 
I have not resided abroad, nor can claim any special 
knowledge of the subject, as a medical man, and having 
read the work very carefully, I should like to make the 
following general remarks. The title at once arrests the 
scientific attention and the book leads one straight into 
fields " untrodden " as far as I am aware — at all events 
little more than a note here and there appears — in the 
standard anatomical, physiological, or anthropological 
works ; in its purely psychological aspects I believe it is 
wholly untreated. The author's numerous observations 
on the various races and species of mankind, with which 
his position brought him into contact; the careful 


differentiations he details in the several species and races, 
and the rough classification he sketches therefrom, are 
very interesting; while his description of relevant and 
characteristic customs, of the different races, and the 
incidents of travel in passing from place to place are 
equally attractive. The scientific aspects of the work are 
very interesting, but the details of the examples, brief, 
and in general scientific terms. From the purely scientific 
side it would be probably too much to look for the 
scientific minutiae of Darwin, or numerous and exact 
measurements, under the circumstances of the compilation 
of the work and the newness of the subject as a speciality. 
Lastly I think it is to be regretted that as a work treating 
of a scientific subject, and further as being a speciality, 
it is not announced to and procurable by the scientific 
world through the ordinary channels. Apologising for 
these brief criticisms and congratulating the author on 
what he has achieved. 

Yours faithfully, 



Our friend's name is withheld, as desired. 







Prefatory Note to the Second Volume vii 

Table of Contents xi-xvm 

Senegal and the South Rivers 

Chapter L 

Sent to Senegal. — Arrival at Saint Louis.— General impression 
of the Senegal coast.— A few words about the town of Saint 
Louis. — The Black Town.— Anthropological characteristics of 
the Wolof race.— The beauty of the young Negress.— Operation 
performed on the breasts of women lying-in.— The genital 
organs of Negroes.— Kapes and other offences against modesty 
amongst Creoles and Negroes. [Page 1 

Chapteb IL 

Various races besides the Wolofs. — Mussulmans and Fetishists. 
The Toucouleur.— The Peulh.— The Sarrakholais. — The civilisa- 
tion of the White man has no effect on the character of the 
Black. — The Kassonke. — The young Kassonke girl.- The Malinkes 
and Bambaras. — The Senegalese sharpshooter. [Page 19 



Chapter III. 

Social condition, and moral characteristics of the Negro race in 
general.— The Chiefs and Marabouts.— Free men, griots, and 
blacksmitlis. — The Griot village of Krina. — Slaves.— The slavery 
question. — Moral characteristics of the Black. — The Black's opinion 
of the civilised Toubab.— Karamoko's carbine.— Various customs 
and superstitions common to the people of Senegal. —Mussulman 
amulets and the fetish man's "grigris". [Page 31 

Chapter IV. 

The Negro woman.— Her social condition.— Marriage.— The 
wife purchased by the husband. — Vanity of the women who fetch 
high prices.— Marriage ceremonies. — Constancy of the Negress. 
— The wives of the Sharpshooters.— Their inconstancy.— Their 
virtues. — Polygamy amongst the Blacks. — The chief mistress of 
the house.— Jealousy unknown to the Negress.— Divorce. 

[Page 41 

Chapter V. 

The hymen.— Large and small lips.— Clitoris. —The fork and 
the navel. - A study of the genital organs of the Negro races of 
Africa.— Marks of virginity in the young girl. — Circumcision of 
young girls. — The festival of same.- The nubile Negress.— 
The genital organ of the Negro. — The perforated Kabylc 
woman.— Circumcision the probable cause of the size of the 
Negro's penis. — The effect of circumcision on the size of the 
penis of the pubescent boy. — Mantegazza on the genital organs 
of the Negroes. — His opinion on circumcision. — The incontestable 
advantages of this operation. — The suppression of masturbation 
in the circumcised. — The festival of circumcision amongst Fetish 
worshippers. —Excursus by Dr. Godard on the defloration of 
virgins in Egypt.— Sir R. F. Burton on Dahomeyan customs.— 
Female infanticide.— Thibetan nuptial customs.— The Hottentot 
" Apron ". — The perforation of the penis amongst Australian 
tribes. [Page 57 


Chapter VI. 
Erotic dances of the Senegal Negroes. — The " Anamalis fobil " 
and the " bamboula " of the Wolofs.— The "belly dance" of the 
Landoumans of Kio Nunez. — Obscene dance of the massacre of 
the wounded, and mutilation of the dead, on the field of battle. — 
The Gourou or Kola nut, the aphrodisiac of the Negroes. 

[Page 99 

Chapter VII. 

The unimportance of the signs of virginity in the Negress. — 
Negro girls deflowered by Toubabs.— Amorous subterfuges used 
in Europe. — Artifices used by Asiatic peoples. — Former American 
customs. — Report of Carletti, the Traveller.— Savage habits 
regarding perfumes. — Tumefaction of the gland. — Influence of 
chastity on health. —Elements of social science.— Dr. Verga 
on celibacy. [Page 107 

Chapter VIII. 

Perversions of the sexual passion amongst the Negroes.— The 
Negress is neither a Sodomite nor a Lesbian.— Parent-Duchatelet 
on "Lesbian Love". — Tribads despised by other prostitutes.— 
How the vice is contracted.— The strange affection of Tribads.— 
Lawful love thought shocking. — Pregnancy frequent among 
them.— ^Masturbation and pederasty very rare amongst the 
Negroes.— A White Messalina.— A White woman violated 

by a Negro. — Taylor on raping adult women.— Evidence of 
signs of violence.— Trick of a Negro to get a White woman.— 
A little White girl deflowered by a Negro, [Page 12S 

Chapter IX. 

Differences between the organs of generation of the various 
races of Senegal. [Page 157 



New Caledonia— The New Hebrides— Tahiti 

Chapter L 

My stay in New Caledonia. — Anthropological characteristics 
of the Kanaka of New Caledonia. — The Kanaka " Popinee".— 
Degraded condition of the Popinee.— The genital organs of the 
Kanaka race.— Circumcision at the age of puberty. — Seclusion 
of girls at puberty. — " Hunting the Snake ".—Beating as a 
means of purification.— Woman during the menstrual period. — 
The Kanaka virgin.— Division of the Kanaka race into independent 
and hostile tribes. — The man's " manou". — Strange modesty of 
the Kanaka. —The girdle of the Popinee. — A few words about 
manners and customs.— The position of the Chief in the social 
state. — Habitations.— Food.— The Kanaka stove. — Beliefs and 
superstitions.— The wizard-doctor (Takata). —Prof. Frazer on 
-Killing the God'. [Page 1S9 

Chapter II, 

Moral characteristics of the Kanaka. — Causes of the insurrection 
of 1878.— The Kanaka's courage.— His weapons.— The attack on 
the post at Foa.— Heroic death of sixteen warriors. —Ferocity of 
the Kanaka.— The philosophy of man-eating.— Devourers of 
their own offspring.— Men eaten to win glory. — Anthropophagy 
a motive for war. — Dogs v. women at Terra del Fuego.— 
Flagrante delicto of animality.— Cannibalism.— Its causes. — 
The "pilou-pilou".— The erotic "pilou-pilou ".— Scenes_ of 
cannibalism. -The massacres of the " Alcmena ", and la Poya. — 
The Chiefs part in the feast of human flesh.— The reward of 
the French Government. [Page 196 


Chaptkr III. 

Forms of sexual intercourse amongst the Kanakas.— The Popine'e 
the property of the Chief.— The Kanaka marriage.— Polyandry.— 
The condition of the Popinee. — The Kanaka "break wood", the 
usual method of copulation. — Accouchement.— Vulvar deformities 
produced by the repeated coition of the Kanaka Popinees. — An 
original form of punishment for adultery.— Not confined to the 
Kanakas. — Mrs. Potiphar and Joseph.— Lust of the Kanaka for 
the White woman.— The head chief Atai and Mme F***. 

[Page 218 

Chapter IV. 

Perversions of the sexual passions amongst the Kanakas.— The 
perversions of the Popinees.— Pederasty after the age of puberty.— 
A curious theory of sexual aberration.— The symptomatic 
characteristics of the pederasty of the Kanaka. — Cruelties and 
erotic mutilations committed by the Kanakas during the 
insurrection.— White women beheaded and violated. — Bechir, the 
Arab. — Louis, the Kanaka interpreter. — Acts of Sadism. — The 
mutilation and outraging of corpses. [Page 232 


The convict in New Caledonia. — The motives for this chapter.— 
The Penitentiary of Nou Island. — The convict as a family 
servant. — The ticket-of-leave man. — The convent of Bourail.— 
Lesbians and " fellatrices".- Tribadism in Europe.— Tribads are 
not Sapphics. — The Courtesans of Greece.— Lombroso on the 
causes of this vice. — Natural wantonness.— Environment as a 
factor.— Secret clubs of vice. —Advanced age, another cause.— 
Disgust born of excess. — Congenital tendency. — The criminality 
of husbands. . The military post at Bourail.— The General's cap.— 
"Jo m'emmerde, and I want a man" —Marriage of liberated 
convicts. — Sodomy and pederasty amongst the convicts.— Prisons 
as breeder of vice.— The universality of the vice.— Infamous 
passions. [Page 2S9 


Chapter VI. 

A note by the Author. — Anthropological characteristics of the 
natives of the New Hebrides. Their admixture with the Maori- 
Polynesian race.- Characteristics of the pure Melanesian race.— 
It is autochthonous in Australia. — Anthropological importance of 
the genital organs in determining the origin of a race. — The 
genital organ of the African Negro, and of his various crossings 
with the White.— The genital organ of the Melanesian, compared 
to that of the African Negro. -The genital organ of the 
woman of the New Hebrides. [Pagf*' 290 

Chapter VII. 

A few words on the manners, customs, etc., of the New Hebri- 
deans.— Costume.— The manou. — The woman's girdle.— Tattoo- 
ing. —Habitations.— Food. — Arms and utensils. —The tam-tam; 
the pilou-pilou.— The erotic dance.— The Kawa. [Page 298 

Chapter VIII. 

Forms anii perversions of the sexual habit amongst the New 
Hebrideans. — Social condition of woman.— Marriage. —Sacrifice 
of widows in the islands of Tanna and Anatom. — Adultery 
and its punishment. — 

[Page 304 

Chapter IX. 

Six weeks at Tahiti. — Panoramic view of Tahiti at sun-rise. — 
Anthropological characteristics of the Tahitian Maori race.— 
Beauty of the Maori race. — The portrait of Rarahu. 

[Page 319 


Chapter X. 

Manners and customs of the Tahitians. — Social condition of the 
ancient Tahitians.- The Manahune. — Religion and the priests. — 
Origin of the Tahitian race.— The language. —The Tahitian Aril 
is an Aryan like the old Greek.— The priest's part in Tahitian 
civilisation,— The Marae.— Human sacrifices.— The end of 
Tahitian civilisation. —Habitations.- Baths. — Food.— Amuraa.— 
Public festivals.— Costumes. [Page 325 

Chapter XI. 

Moral characteristics of the Tahitians.— Marriages. — Woman's 
place amongst the Maoris.— Births.— The taboo.— Adopted 
children. — Songs.— The hymeneal chant. — The upa-upa, or 
lascivious dance of the Tahitian women.— A upa-upa in the 
interior of the island.— Diseases.— Eapid extinction of the pure 
Maori race. [Page 336 

Chapter XII. 

Importance of sexual intercourse to the Maoris.— Love the prin- 
cipal occupation of the race. — Manners of the former inhabitants 
of New Cytherea. — Public offerings to Venus.— Opinions of Cook 
and de Bougainville on the debauchery of the Tahitians.— Good 
Friday in Lancashire.— Timorodee, the lascivious dance. — Sacred 
orgies and erotic festivals. — Ancient rites. -The ancient 
Peruvians.— The sect of the Nicolites.— The aborigines of 
Australia.— The Hawaian Hula-Hula.— The West African 
Negroes. — The South American Puri.— Christian festivals. — 
New Britain Islands.— Esthonia.— Marriage amongst the 
Tahitians.— Circumcision and tattooing. — Tattooing on women.— 
The sect of the Arrioys, amongst whom woman is in common. — 
The happy life of the Tahitians. — The day's life of a Vahine' 
at Papeete.— Jealousy of the present race of Tahitians. — Tahitian 
hospitality. — The true character of the Vahine. —Marriage after 
trial. -"If thee tak, I tak thee". -The "Come Nights".— The 
Philippine Islands. [Pago 347 



Chapter XIII. 

Perversions of the sexual passion amongst the Tahitians.— The 
Tane. — Corruption of the Vahine in contact with the European. — 
Sexual perversions of the Vahine.— Masturbation and Sapphism. — 
The influence of race in genital perversions. [Page 378 

XDlntrobben jFielbs of 


Senegal and the South Rivers. 

Sent to Senegal. — All ival at Saint Louis. — General ifnptession 
of the Senegal coast. — A few ivords about the town of Saint 
Louis. — The Black Town. — Anthropological characteristics of the 

Wolof race. — The beauty of the young Negress. — Operation per- 
formed on the breasts of women lying-in. — The genital organs 
of Negroes. — Rapes and other offences against modesty amongst 

Creoles and Negroes. 

Sent to Senegal. A short time after my return from 
Guiana, I was sent to Senegal, where a terrible epi- 
demic of yellow fever had disorganised the medical 
service, and necessitated the despatch of more doctors, 
hospital attendants, etc. 

Arrival at Saint Louis. The Government transport, 
which I was on board, arrived at Saint Louis one 
Sunday, coasted along the shore, and anchored before 
the bar at the entrance to the river. 

The General Impression produced by the Senegal 


Coast. M. Loti, of the Academy, has admirably 
described the aspect of the coast of Senegal, and the 
impression it produces upon the traveller who has just 
come from France. " In descending the coast of Africa, 
when you have passed the southern border of Morocco, 
you coast along, for days and nights, an interminable, 
desolate shore. This is the Sahara, the great sea 
without water, which the Moors also call Balad-ul- 
atish, 1 or 'the land of thirst.' Solitude succeeds 
solitude, with mournful monotony of moving sand-hills 
and indefinite horizon ; and the heat increases in in- 
tensity day by day. And then appears above the sand, 
an old and white city, planted with a few yellow 
palms; this is Saint Louis of Senegal, the capital of 
Senegambia. A church, a mosque, a tower, and some 
Moorish looking houses. These all seem to doze in 
the hot sunlight, like those Portuguese towns which 
formerly flourished on the Congo coast. Saint Paul, 
and Saint Philippe de Benguela. You approach, and 
you are astonished to find that the town is not built 
on the coast, that it has not even a port, nor any 
communication with the exterior ; the coast, which is low 
and straight, is as inhospitable as that of the Sahara, 
and an vmending line of breakers prevents the approach 
of ships. You then notice, what you had not perceived 
from a distance ; immense human ant-hills, on the shores 
thousands and thousands of thatched cottages, liliputian 
huts with pointed roofs, beneath which huddles an odd 
Negro population." 

* This word is shortened in the "dog-like," Arabic patois of the Moors 
to Bled-al-atish. Senegal is the oldest colony of France, and dates as 
far back roughly speaking as 1368, when the hardy sailors of Dieppe 
first came across, and disputed its possession with the adventurous Por- 
tuguese. The narrative of its gradual conquest is one of the most ex- 
citing in the history of European colonisation. 


A Few Words about the Town of Saint Louis. 

Saint Louis is about eighteen miles from the mouth of 
the Senegal. The town is entirely built upon an island 
of a very long lozenge shape, a mile and a quarter 
long, and 500 yards broad. In the centre are massed 
the Government House, the Church, and the huge 
Rogniat Barracks; a little to the south is the Hospital, 
and in the north, the Mosque. All around, in the 
central part, are screets in the direction of the axes of 
the lozenge, and bordered with houses in masonry of 
a cubical form, and generally of only one store}/', and 
with flat roofs forming terraces, called, in the language 
of the country, argarnasses. These argamasses serve 
to receive the rain water. Saint Louis having no 
springs or wells of really drinkable water. There is 
no verdure, unless it be a few palm trees in occasional 
corners, and the rudiments of a garden round the 
Government House, kept up at a great expense during 
the dry season, when a barrel of water costs a dollar. 

A sojourn at Saint Louis is not enchanting, for the 
place is the very opposite of that verdant spot, Cayenne, 
where the vegetation is extraordinarily exuberant. 
Here there is nothing but yellow grey sand, and walls 
painted white, the reflection from which blinds you. 
According to my custom, I took up my residence at 
the north point of the town, at the extreme limit of 
the European quarter, in order to be as much as 
possible in contact with the Black population, whose 
huts and low houses (in brick for the rich people) arc 
relegated to the two extremities of the town. 

The Black Town. In that part of the island which 
forms the Black Town, are crowded together the huts 
and hovels of the Negroes, which are in the form of 


our bee-hives. On visiting them you will find some 
gntted, overturned, or burnt. From the conical roofs 
of those which appear to be inhabited, hang dirty rags, 
and scraps of meat and fish. Negro boys, quite naked, 
run about here and there on the sand of the river 
banks, — banks that have fallen in, and are covered 
with filth. Some old Negresses, hardly covered with 
miserable rags of cotton drawers, and their hanging 
breasts all bare, —crouch down before the doors of the 
huts, smoking their pipes, and watching any stray 
European who is passing. In front of the door, is the 
mortar for grinding meal, hollowed out of an immense 
tree trunk, and you may often see a woman, carrying 
her child astride on her buttocks, and handling the 
heavy pestle. Young Negroes, quite bare, girls and 
boys, with just a string of glass beads round their 
waists, surround you and pursue you with the mono- 
tonous refrain, " Toubab, give me ha'penny." 

If you pass from the extremity of the island to the 
narrow sand-bank which extends between the sea and 
the right bank of the river, you will come across the 
suburban village of Guet ' N ' Dar, which is connected 
with the town by a little bridge, built on beams. In 
this suburb is held the native market, so picturesquely 
described by Loti. ^ If you leave the town by the East, 
to go to the large island of Sohr, you must pass over 
a bridge of boats half a mile long. 

Anthropological Characteristics of the Wolof 

Race. The town of Saint Louis is almost entirely 
populated by the Yolof, or Wolof, race, but you may 
also find there examples of all the Negro races of 
Senegal. It would take too long to describe all these 

' Le Roman tVun Spahi, by Pierre Loti, Paris, 1896. 


different races, and by choosing the Wolofs as a type. 
I shall be able to point out the principal differences 
between this race and the others. 

The first few steps that a traveller takes in Saint 
Louis and its Negro suburbs, will reveal to him a 
striking difference between the inhabitants of the 
American colonies, and the African Negro. The 
Blacks of the Antilles, and Guiana, are descended 
from slaves, imported from all corners of Africa, since 
the time of Louis XIIL, and whose descendants were 
set free in 1848. The admixture of all these different 
tribes has produced a race without any original 
characteristics, more or less bastardized, and corrupted, 
by contact with the White man, and the stain of the 
slavery of their ancestors. In Senegal it is not the 
same. Although slavery exists, the various races have 
preserved their peculiar characteristics, and there is a 
great difference, for example, between a Wolof and a 

The Wolofs originally came from Walo, and little 
by little have established themselves in the capital of 
Senegal. But they have preserved the manners and 
customs of their forefathers, though they have allowed 
themselves to be converted to Islam. It is for 
their use, that a fine mosque has been erected at 
North Point. Their huts line the streets of the town, 
and are divided into groups, separated by tapades, or 
screens of woven reeds, five or six feet high. There 
is always a court in front of these huts. Whilst the 
woman works in the house, the man fishes, hunts, or 
does a little work of some sort. 

The Wolofs are a fine race ; their average stature 
is greater than that of the European. The arms 
and legs are long, but though the thigh is tolerably 


fleshy, the calf is very thin. The foot is large and 
flat, and the head small. Loti, in the Roman d'un 
Spahi, exactly depicts the Wolof in a few Hnes : " If 
a vessel anchors before Saint Louis, you will soon see 
it surrounded by long pirogues, pointed at the prow 
like a fish's head, and manned by Blacks who stand 
and paddle. The boatmen are tall, thin, and of hercu- 
lean strength, well-made and muscular, with faces like 
gorillas, and possessed of true Negro obstinacy, and 
the agiHty and strength of acrobats; ten times have 
they been driven back by the breakers, and ten 
times have they recommenced their task; their black 
skins, wet with sweat and sea water, gleam like polished 
ebony. " 

The children go about quite naked, until they attain 
the age of puberty, and have no hair but one woolly 
lock left on their otherwise clean-shaved heads. When 
the boys attain puberty, which is generally at about 
twelve or thirteen years of age, they don a blue or 
white boubou, a sort of long full shirt in cotton, with 
no sleeves, and no seam down the sides, and which 
falls almost to the feet. When the girls become nubile, 
that is to say at ten or twelve years at the latest, 
they wear cotton drawers, and have the bust naked, 
but they often replace this garment, when they grow 
to be women, by a boubou, rather shorter than that 
of the men. 

The Beauty of the Young Negress. In the 

children, we can therefore watch the progressive devel- 
opment of the race. The Wolofs do not, Uke some 
races of the interior of Africa, tattoo themselves. If 
it were not that the breasts are disfigured when the 
first child is born, and the head with its flat nose and 


thick lips, the Negresses would be perfect specimens 
of humanity. This may easily be imagined, for they 
live in the open air, the full development of their body 
and limbs is not interfered with, and they may be 
said to grow like plants out of doors; the bust is 
never deformed by the use of the corset, that instrument 
of torture of civilised woman. ^ 

The Negress (girl or woman) having to handle for 
several hours a day, a pestle that weighs eighteen or 
twenty pounds, acquires by means of that repeated 
gymnastic exercise, a fine development of the muscles 
of the arm and shoulder. They are strong and vigorous, 
and the Toubab (White) who tried to offer violence to 
one of these Negresses, would soon find out his 
mistake. The breast of the young girl, who is of 
nubile age and has not had any children, is pear-shaped, 
but compact, hard, and resisting, and the nipples are 
very hard, and point out horizontally under the boubou. 
The walk is light and graceful, and the pagne or 

* The ancients were strangers to this modern horror, unless we class 
the belt or ceinttire worn by the Roman girls and matrons in this 
category. Various names were given to them, according to whether 
they were placed across the breasts or the hips, next to the body or 
over the clothes. The Latins called them : Cestus, Capittum, Fascia, 
Taenia, Mamillare; while among the Greeks they were known as: 
Strophion, Zotie,. Apodesmos. From such simple beginnings gradually 
evolved the complicated bit of machinery that European dames and 
virgins love to imprison themselves in to-day. In 1727, the Chevalier de 
Nisard became so enthusiastic on the subject, that he broke out into 
the following rhapsody: — 

"Est-il rien de plus beau (ju'un corset. 
Qui naturellement figure, 
Et qui montre comme on est fait, 
Dans le moule de la Nature." 

Those who feel interested in the subject may refer to Ernest Leoty's 
charming little work " Le Corset a. travers Us Ages" (Paris, iSg'i). 


drawers, which cover the lower part of the body, if 
draped gracefully, does not detract from the grace of 
her movements. After she has borne her first child, 
all is changed. ^ The beauty of the breasts, and of 
the body in general, quickly fades. The breast becomes 
elongated, and hangs down like the udder of a she- 
goat, to which indeed it bears a certain resemblance. 
The cause of this is very simple, though I believe it 
is but little known, for I have not found it mentioned 
in any book of travels in Senegal, or Africa, with 
which I am acquainted. 

Operation on the Breasts of Women lying-in. 

The Negress must have both hands free, when she 
works the heavy meal-pestle. That is why she carries 
her child astride on her buttocks, and supported there 
by a large piece of linen, which passes under the 
child's arms, and is fastened under the woman's breasts. 
When the child wants to suck, the mother pulls it to 
either side, then pushes her breast under her arm, 
and goes on with her work whilst the child is suckling. 
The mere weight of the milk would be insufficient to 
pull down the breast of a young woman, and make 
it sufficiently long. This curious deformity is caused 
by a surgical operation, which the old matrons perform 
upon the young women, when they are lying-in. This 
operation consists in cutting the subcutaneous muscles 
which support the breasts, by an oblique incision, which 

' This peculiarity of a rapid change and loss of form and firmness in 
the breasts of the Black woman, on her attainment of motherhood, has 
also been noted in the Viennese ladies. Burton, with his usual 'cuteness, 
has already noted the fact (see "Terminal Essay" of the tenth volume 
of the UNBOWDLERlSED edition of his "Nights;" also page 248 of the 
** Book of Exposition," Paris, 1896). 


is done very skilfully, but is so painful that it makes 
the patient cry out. The young woman does not, 
however, utter a cry or groan during the act of 
parturition, and gets up two hours afterwards in order 
to bathe her infant. The large size of the womb 
renders the delivery very easy, — much more so than 
is the case with the Annamite Congai, who remains 
in bed forty days, and has to take the greatest pre- 
cautions to prevent a deadly attack of peritonitis. The 
method of carrying the infant on the back is very 
convenient for the child, for the Negress has generally 
very well-developed buttocks, and on this rounded 
double cushion the child is as comfortable as though 
it were on a seat. But this plan has the disadvantage 
of bowing the legs, and the child very often acquires 
much the same sort of walk as a dismounted horseman. 

The Genital Organs of Negroes. It is only among 
a few of the Negro races that the exterior genitals of 
women have been as carefully examined and described 
as in DE Rochebrune'S work on the Wolof Negroes, 

These genitals he describes as being slightly developed. 
A slit of only a few millimeters long represented the 
big labia, the nymphcp are so to say rudimentary, 
measuring 0.004 "i- across, and 0.021 m. in length; the 
entire vulva is thus characterised by a depression, the 
surface being exteriorly bounded by two ellipsoid 
wrinkles, which from the lower part and the middle 
of the Mons Veneris spread out until they reach the 
neighbourhood of the front region of the perinaeum; 
at the same the inner borders of these wrinkles join 
together, forming merely a light wavy line, to be 
observed even on women of a certain age. These 
parts differ also from the others in colour, which is 


paler than the rest of the skin which is black, in adults 
the nymphcB are of a slaty-blue, whereas in young 
girls they are dark red. 

The clitoris continually stands out; in all the 
cases where it was measured, its dimensions were 
0.013 in- ill the middle of the exposed part. 

This formation differs considerably from that of 
European women. On the other hand, however, the 
usual lengthening out of the nymphcB, which other 
observers have described as being a characteristic of 
Negro women, is not found among the Wolof Negroes ; 
on the contrary, with them the nymphcB seem to be 
to a certain extent atrophied ; one might, as de Roche- 
BRUNE, speak of a genuine arrest of development. ^ In 
fact, the outspringing of the clitoris excepted, the 
further development of the outer surface of the vulva 
cannot be better compared with other parts than with 
those of an European maiden of from 8 to 10 years 
of age. 

Very remarkable also is the position which this 
organ occupies. If a perpendicular line is supposed 
through the body of the woman from head to foot, 
and if a perpendicular surface is supposed through this 
line at the level of the anus, it will be found that the 
fossa navicularis ^ is situated in this plane, and there- 
fore the base of the vulva is situated in a point relatively 
high as regards the vertical line. This is also further 
observable in the length of the perinaeum, which is 
very remarkable. Whilst its average length in Euro- 
pean woman is 0.012 m., in the Wolof Negress it 

' Rochebrune (A. Fremeau de) in the " Revue d' Anthropologie" 
1881, IV. 2. 

' i.e. pudendum. 


attains to 0.025 "^- > this difference of 0.013 m. shows, 
that the vulva lies back by that quantity. 

Rapes and other Offences against Modesty 
amongst Creoles and Negroes. ^ Among the races 
inhabiting warm climates, there are several conditions 
which awaken and over-excite the genetic sense at an 
early age. The climate in this plays only an indirect 
part; for if at first it determines a more or less active 
sexual stimulus, it soon tempers and enervates, and 
renders continence easy to those who do not seek to 
violate it. But a warm temperature engenders habits 
only too likely to provoke licentiousness. There is in 
this opposition between the cosmical influence and the 
social influences derived from it, a contrast, the effects 
of which have long been the object of observation. 
The East, which in the early ages of Christianity 
produced such a number of illustrious virgins and pious 
hermits, and which at the present day shows us the 
high honour in which chastity is held in Buddhist 
countries, has also given to the world traditions of 
the vilest debauchery. Sexuality, where it is not 
sufficiently restrained by conventual or religious obliga- 
tion, but where, on the contrary, its instinct meets with 
innumerable solicitations, must have many slips in 
consequence, and such is the case in Creole countries. In 
the French colonies the dominant race is that of the Negro, 
the most salacious of all, and there the White Man 
shows a sort of taste for the coloured woman, the 
origin of which may perhaps be traced to a mysterious 

' We give this extract from Dr. Corre's book, Le Crime en Pays 
Creoles, as supplementing our observations on the manners and customs, 
prevalent in the French Guiana, dealt with in the first volume, 


law of renovation by crossing of races ; however, the 
prejudice of colour prevents legitimate unions, which 
would be so profitable to the regular development of 
the population and to the improvement of morals, 
instead of which it contributes to maintain them in a 
deplorable state of dissoluteness. The state of nudity, 
or that thin light costume which partly reveals the 
form of the body and presents it more seductively to 
the imagination, provokes desire. The facility of inter- 
course increases the danger of the contact between 
the sexes, the more so that the numerical disproportion 
that has been observed between them obliges all the 
women to vie with each other in coquetry, advances, 
so to say, in order to attract the gaze and the choice 
of men. Further, in the inevitably idle life woman is 
obliged to lead in the tropics, her natural aspirations 
are subjected to a compression which often transforms 
them into a particular vice. Among Muslims, the 
concentration of a greater or lesser number of women 
into the possession of one male develops, in the men, 
by reason of satiety of the opposite sex, erotic habits, 
\ which lead them to hoy love; in the French colonies, 
cottntries of Christian civilisation, official monogamy 
thrusts outside of the pale of married life many young 
girls, who interiorly rebel against their situation, at 
the same time that concubinage, permitted to the 
husband, deprives the wife, to the profit of the mistress, 
of a considerable share of the marital property ; the 
man remains faithful to the cult of woman; for the 
lively and graceful beings to whom he addresses it 
have nothing of the inertia and passiveness of the sad 
sequestered women of the harem ; but the wife seeks 
the satisfaction of her unsatiated longings . . . without 
compromising herself, among her friends or companions, 


already initiated into the Lesbian mysteries. Pederastic 
habits are hardly ever heard of among the Creoles, 
but, on the contrary, the celebrated dialognae between 
Megilla and Liena is often repeated among them. ^ 
The necessity of residing in a torrid climate in very 
open houses, if it diminishes the chances of adultery, 
while leaving a sufficient liberty to the women in a 
sort of intercourse which seems beneath suspicion, has 
the grave objection of furnishing to the curiosity of 
children, much too soon, unwholesome occasions for 
its exercise : so that a youth enters very early on his 
first campaign in the amorous career, and it is frequently 
the same with the young girl, under one form or 
another, if she is not protected by sufficient education. 
In the upper classes, there is always a proper varnish 
of good morals, often indeed based upon a foundation 
of real virtue. But in the others, they too ordinarily 
express by blamable, if not criminal, acts the perversions 
or the brutality of the sexual sense. 

In January 1866, at Pointe-a-Pitre, three coloured 
girls were accused of a criminal assault on a Negress 
of 14 years of age, who repulsed their proposals. 

In February 1888, in consequence of a complaint 
lodged by the parents of the victims, Dr. Blane was 
commissioned to go and examine, at Capesterre, the 
state of two twin Negro sisters, aged 12 years, whom 
a Mulatto woman had deflowered with her finger. 

In matters of this nature the case is almost always 
dismissed or else the accused acquitted, not because the 
presumptions of a culpable action are entirely set aside, 

* Lucian, Hetaer. dial. V. In the East, for similar reasons, the same 
tastes are developed among the women of the harems ; the insufficiency 
of genetic satisfaction on the one side, and the excess of the same on 
the otlier, bring about naturally a seeking for anti-natural love. 


but because they disappear behind the established fact 
of flagrant habits of precocious lasciviousness in 
young girls suddenly become so rigidly virtuous. 

Men, here, very seldom commit criminal assaults on 
children of their own sex. The only case I have met 
with in the registers examined by me at Guadeloupe ^ 
was that of a White Man, of excellent family, admitted 
at too young an age to direct pupils, who but the 
day before had been his comrades : this vicious young 
fellow continued to practise, with others equally vicious, 
habits they had contracted together when sitting on 
the same benches at school, without understanding 
that the change in his position gave additional gravity 
to his acts! 

Characteristics of Creole Criminality. The 

criminal assaults committed by men are generally on 
children or adults of the female sex, and are committed 
by young and vigorous Negroes, but not always of 
violent or brutal instincts; in Creole countries violation 
in this respect presents some particular characteristics. 
It is exceptional for it to be committed with violence 
on children ; it is sometimes done by surprise or by 
moral constraint, under circumstances analogous or 
similar to those which generally distinguish this crime 
with us; more often, it seemed to me, when the 
attempt is made, it is with the complicity more or less 
proved or at least with the consciousness of the little 
girl already initiated in the sexual act, obeying 
willingly, or even herself provoking it; the child 

' I restrict myself to the study of Creole criminality, and therefore 
shall not mention a criminal assault committed on young boys by a 
schoolmaster of European origin, belonging to the " Christian Brothers 


dissimulates, or else admits the fact only when it has 
been discovered and that it has brought upon her the 
threats of her parents. * 

Blackmail a Ground of Accusation. It may be 
understood that, in a population which presents such 
looseness of manners, the magistrates and doctors 
are obliged to use the utmost circumspection. More 
than one accusation hides beneath it either revenge 
or an attempt to blackmail. Sometimes the criminal 
attempt has been got up, with infernal immodesty, 
between the victim and her parents, or else any initial 
scene at all is dispensed with, and father, mother 
and child agree marvellously together to concoct a 
calumny against the man they wish to ruin. It is 
now 25 years ago, at Martinique, I was in the con- 
sulting-room of a physician, when a couple of Negroes 
brought in a little girl of from 5 to 6 years old, with 
a very wide-awake look and decided gestures; they 
wanted her to be visited, asserting that she had been 
violated the previous day, or the day before that, by 
a bad man, their next-door neighbour! The child was 
laid upon a table ; before there had been time to say 
a single word to her, she quickly lifted up her clothes 
and, without hesitation, placed herself in the posture of 
a woman, who is holding herself ready for . . . whatever 
may be desired : she presented no traces at all of 
lesions . . . and the accusation was a false one. One of 
my colleagues related to me that he was one day 
called in, to a respectable family, to examine a little 
girl of from 8 to 10 years old, who, her parents 
pretended, had been violated by a personage ... of 

' I may observe incidentally that in many of these little girls preco- 
city manifests itself, by the abnormal development of the external genital 
organs and the premature appearance of the menses. 


quasi-official rank ; the matter was grave ! The child 
of her own accord lay down on her back, exposing 
her person with the utmost effrontery, but presenting 
nothing more than an abnormal development of the 
external genital organs and of the clitoris; my col- 
league, guessing with what sort of creature he had to 
do, asked her under his breath if she was not in the 
habit of doing z'amie ^ and she replied by a smile 
and a cynical glance, as if there could be the least 
doubt of so natural a thing ! The child had built up, 
piece by piece, an accusation against a man who had 
doubtless taken her fancy, but whose reputation was 
far above suspicion, and the parents had believed in 
this odious falsehood ! * 

The Psychology of Negro Brutality. In criminal 
assaults on adults, the Negro will sometimes resort 
to brutal means, for instance, if he is drunk. But 
usually, when he uses violence, it is with the con- 
viction that he is merely carrying to the extreme his 
part as lover, to the unavowed satisfaction of the resist- 
ing woman. He does not attack women of notorious 
virtue, but those whom he has seen to easily grant to 
others the favours he envies ; he had supposed, in per- 
fect good faith, that he might dare to take what was 
only pretended to be denied him ... for form's sake, 
and he is astounded when he hears a sentence pro- 
nounced against him. 

Narcotization not a Factor. The way in which 

' This is the current expression used to designate those enjoyments 
which girls and women procure to each other. 

' As I am writing for those persons who are interested in questions 
of criminality, for serious reasons or professionally, I do not feel called 
upon to sacrifice the instructive realism- of my observations to a silly 


these outrages are committed excludes all idea of 
the previous preparing of the victim by narcotization. 
I would not maintain that criminal outrages or 
attempts may not at times have been perpetrated 
without their knowledge on persons rendered uncon- 
scious by opium, thrown into their food or drink. 
At all events, I know of no case of the kind. The 
crime, in ordinary cases, has been thoroughly 
premeditated, in the sense that the aggressor has for a 
more or less long time coveted the woman, that he has 
sought for a propitious moment to get possession of 
her : nevertheless, as he has prepared nothing to bring 
about the circumstances which have favoured his 
design, the assault remains accidental, and, for that 
reason, is to some degree attenuated in the eyes of 
the judges and of the jury; it seems even as if there 
was a tendency to nearly always exclude the idea of 
violence, for the penalties applied rarely exceed from 
I to 2 years' imprisonment. ^ But the frequency of 
criminal assault by surprise, the audacity and off-hand 
manner with which it is often accomplished, point to 
a certainty of impunity, among the accused, the cause 
of which may perhaps be referred to a new Creole 
superstition. They believe over there that there are 
sorcerers who possess secrets for making people 

' The Court of Bourges and the Criminal Chamber of the Court of 
Cassation had, not long ago, to decide in a case of criminal Jissault, of 
quite colonial character. The accused party rejected the crimination of 
assault with violence : " He had introduced himself, favoured by the 
night, into the bed of his victim, who had let him have his will, 
mistaking him for her husband." The woman did not discover her 
error until the act had been consummated. The High Court decided 
that the circumstance of violence could not be set aside, the crime 
having been committed without the reflected consent of her who had 
been the sufferer. 


invisible, * and when a theft is spoken of, the author 
of which has not been discovered, they never fail to 
repeat that he surely had the means not to he seen. 
The man who dares to risk himself, panting with lust, 
but not besides much troubled with any great danger of 
immediate correction and of legal punishment, near to a 
woman lying next to her husband, has more than once 
drawn his bold confidence from his reliance in some piai 
or quimhois (amulet), capable of hiding him from view. ^ 

' That is to be found again in the " Grand Albert" (a book of magic) 
between a receipt to make a person dance stark naked and another to 
enable one to travel ten leagues in an hour! 

"To become invisible. You have a black cat and you must buy a 
new pot, a looking-glass, a flint and tinder-box, an agate, some char- 
coal and tinder, taking care to draw water from a fountain at the 
stroke of midnight; after which you light your fire. Put the cat into 
the pot and hold the lid down with the left hand without ever moving 
or looking behind you, whatever noise you may hear; then let the 
cat boil for 24 hovu-s, and serve it on a new dish; take the meat and 
throw it over your left shoulder, saying these words: " Accipe quod 
tibi do, et nihil amplitis" (Take what I give thee, and nothing more). 
Take the bones, and put them one after another between the teeth of your 
left jaw, looking at the same time at your reflection in the mirror; and if it 
is not the good one, you must throw it away, repeating the same words, 
until you have found it ; and as soon as you no longer perceive your reflection 
in the glass, withdraw backwards, saying : " Pater, in manus tuas com- 
mendo spiritum meum (Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit). 

' The intrigue of a very free Creole novel, printed in 1697 (Z^ Zombi 
du Grand Pe'rou ou la Comtesse de Cocagne, by Blessebois, a naval 
officer), is based upon this belief in talismans which render a person in- 
visible. The Countess of Cocagne, a beauty more exalted by amorous 
ardour than adorned by the qualities of decency and modesty, goes to 
a M. de C. . . . , an expert in the magical art, to ask him for a means 
to bring back to her the Marquis du Grand Perou. M. de C. per- 
suades her that he has rendered her invisible, and, thus transformed 
into a Zombi (spirit, ghost), she causes trouble in the house of the Marquis. 
The magician contrives to obtain a substantial reward for his assistance . . . 
on the occasion of a private supper with the Countess. 


Various races besides the JVolo/s. — Musstdmans and Fetishists. — 
The Toucouletir. — Tlie Peiilli. — The Sarrakliolais. —The civilisa- 
tio7i of the White man has no effect on the character of the 
Black. — The Kassonke. — The voung Kassonkc girl. — The Malinke's 
and Bambaras. — The Senegalese sharpshooter. 

Various Races besides the Wolofs. — Mussulmans 
and Fetishists. I cannot thoroughly describe in 
detail all the moral characteristics, manners, customs, 
etc., of all the tribes and races to be found in Senegal, 
I must confine myself to a few general remarks, and 
only treat hi cxtcnso such points as more specially 
refer to the sexual passions. I shall, however, note 
the anthropological characteristics which distinguish 
the principal races. 

These may first be roughly classed into two great 
divisions, the ^lussulmans and the fetish worshippers. 
The Wolofs, Sereres, Toucouleurs, Peulhs, and Soninkes 
or Sarrakholais, are Mussulmans; on the other hand 
the Bambaras, Malinkes, Mandingos, and Kassonkes 
arc fetish worshippers. Other races of the South of 
Senegambia, as the Diobas for example, were originally 
fetish worshippers, and have gradually become Mussul- 
mans, y Before the French came to Senegal, the 
Mussulmans were conquering with the sword the fetish 
worshippers, and French civilisation has greatly interfered 
with the extension of Mahomctanism, which is the great 



reason why the French axe so hated by those who 
profess that rehgion. 

The Toucouleur. Above Walo, on the left bank 
of the Senegal, in Fouta-Toro and the neighbouring 
districts, are found the Toucouleurs, a very warlike 
and thievish race, and soldiers of Islam. They were 
always in the front rank of the enemies of the French. 
To their love of war, they add a considerable degree 
of intelligence, and often enroll themselves in the 
regiment of native sharpshooters. It was from amongst 
this race that El Hadj 'Umar recruited his best soldiers, 
and by their help was able to conquer a large Empire 
in the Soudan, but the best provinces were wrested 
from him by the French some ten years ago. 

The anthropological characteristics of the Toucouleur 
differ but little from those of the Wolof. The Toucouleur 
is more slender and less robust, than the Wolof. He 
comes to Saint Louis, with only a simple strip of rag 
to cover his nakedness. He lives on the charity of 
his co-religionists, and sleeps in any shelter he can 
find, for he has neither hearth nor home. Every 
halfpenny he can earn he puts away, until he has 
amassed the twenty francs he needs for the purchase 
of an old flint musket, a little barrel (about iilbs) of 
" treaty powder", and a dozen spare gun flints. Any 
scraps of metal which fall in his way, — door knobs, 
bits of wire fencing, saucepan handles, etc. — are 
carefully stored away, and with these the Negro 
blacksmith will manufacture projectiles, which will 
not carry far, or with any precision, but which, when 
fired at short range, will make terriole wounds. Many 
French soldiers have felt their effects. 


The Peulh forms a large race, scattered about over 
the country between the Senegal and the Upper Niger. 
In the opinion of General Faidherbe, ^ the Peulhs came 
originally from Lower Egypt, and are descended from 
the Hyksos, a pastoral people driven out by the Pha- 
raohs. They are fanatical Mussulmans, and were of 
great service to El Hadj 'Umar. Like their ancestors, 
they are nomadic, and live on the produce of their 
flocks. The Peulli, in fact, is evidently of Semitic 
origin; if his hair is not smooth, at least it falls in 
cork-screw curls on his shoulders. The general tint 
of his body is of a reddish brown, and the external 
mucous surface of the gland, and the vulva in the 
woman, are almost as light as those of the Mulatto. 
The features are regular, and he has not the thick 
nose of the other Negroes. The Peulh rarely visits 
Saint Louis, and is hardly ever found in the ranks of the 
Native Sharpshooters, of whom I shall presently speak. 

The Sarrakholais. This people is certainly of Semitic 
origin, and its name is synonymous with White man. 
We will borrow from Colonel Frey, who in 1885-86 
commanded an expedition against the Sarrakholais, 
who had been stirred up to revolt by the Marabout ^ 
Mahmaduz-Zamine, a description of the anthropological 
characteristics of this race. 

'From 1854 to 1865 Faidherbe was the Governor-general of Senegal, 
which he administrated with great energy' and ability. He has left 
several important works on the races and countries he had to deal with. 

' Marabout, derived through the Portuguese Marabuto from the Arabic 
muf'aribi, is a Mohammedan "Saint" supposed to work miraculous cures. 
These religious "medicine" men wield immense influence over credulous 
and fanatical peoples who regard them as supernatural beings ; they 
correspond to the Mollahs of the Indian frontier tribes and the fetish 
men of "Rhodesia". 


" The face is oval, the eyes large, and well-shaped, 
the nose straight, and the lips thin. A Semitic descent 
is also shown in the carriage of the head, which is 
proudly held high, and in the harmonious proportion 
of the limbs, which are well made, and of a proper 
length. If a young girl of pure race is examined, 
the observer is still more struck by the resemblance 
of her features to those of the white race. Her nose 
is small, and often aquiline, with quivering nostrils; 
the eyes — almond-shaped, and surmounted by long 
lashes — are large, and have a strange expression, like 
those of a frightened gazelle ; the mouth, nicely and 
sometimes prettily shaped, discloses a set of small, 
very even, and extremely white teeth; her throat and 
bust are admirably formed; her limbs well-proportioned, 
though perhaps a trifle frail; her legs finely shaped ; — 
in fact the young Sarrakholais girl is ' a pretty little 
thing,' not devoid of a seductive charm. Owing, how- 
ever, to numerous crossings with black races, in a 
great many of the Sarrakholais these marks of race 
have become degenerate and degraded, and have 
acquired from these other races a coarser, heavier form. 

But there still remains, as a characteristic trait of the 
Sarrakholais people, an intelligence superior to that of 
the tribes amongst whom they live, a more advanced 
civilisation, a greediness of gain which is peculiar to 
them, and a really extraordinary aptitude for trade, 
which has caused the Sarrakliolais to be called 'the 
pedlars of Western Africa.' 

" These Sarrakholais pedlars constitute the whole body 
of the Dioulas, or caravan men. Their stock consists 
of a little salt, a few pieces of cotton, some powder, 
and a few trading muskets. They travel from one 
country to another, and barter and exchange their 


goods, and when they have acquired some capital, 
they become slave traders, — that is the dream of their 
life. To provide for this event, the Dioula takes care 
to furnish himself, before his departure, with some very 
neatly made handcuffs and irons, which he uses for 
securing those captives, who, having been taken in 
war, cannot resign themselves to their wretched fate, 
and become violent and difficult to guard. Captives 
of this sort are sometimes sold to the Dioula for a 
handful of salt. Other Sarrakholais, who have no taste 
for travel and adventure, attain the coveted position of 
householder by other means. They come to Saint 
Louis, or to the outposts, or landing stages, at the age 
of fifteen, and secure the most lucrative and best paid 
positions which can be obtained by native employes, 
and choose, as much as possible, those places which 
require the least amount of hard work. 

" Almost all the native sailors (lap tots) who, at Senegal, 
compose the crews of the despatch boats and the trad- 
ing lighters, are Sarrakholais. All the best posts as 
servants, waiters, and clerks, which can be held by 
natives, are, at Saint Louis, occupied by Sarrakholais. 
Of the sixteen 'river captains', — a kind of pilot, whose 
position is much envied by the natives, on account of 
the privileges of various sorts they possess, — fourteen 
are Sarrakholais. On the other hand, not a man of 
this race is to be found in the ranks of the Spahis, or 
the Senegalese Sharpshooters, for the very good reason 
that the work is very hard, and the pay very small." 

According to Colonel Frey, the Sarrakholais people 
formed, some centuries ago, a vast empire in the centre 
of the Soudan, ^an empire, the remains of which are 
still scattered over the African Continent, under the 
names of Soninkes, Markankes, and Sarrakholais. They 


are found on both the right and left banks of the 
Senegal. We have given this quotation in extenso, 
as being the most complete refutation of the popular 
error that the Black of Senegal owes what civiUsation 
he has to the White man. 

The Civilisation of the White Man has no 
Effect upon the Character of the Black. In 1 885-86, 
the most intelligent native race, the Sarrakholais, though 
then enjoying a high degree of material prosperity, —a 
prosperity which they owed in great part to contact 
with European civilisation, — rose like one man, and 
attacked the rear of the small French column which 
was fighting in the Upper Soudan against Samory. * 
Foremost, amongst those who thus revolted, were the 
old lapiois, and the clerks of the merchants of Saint 
Louis. Perhaps one reason was, that this race knows 
what an aversion the Toubab has for slavery, that 
great curse of Africa; and the Sarrakholais, though 

* This Negro has been styled "The Black Napoleon of the 
French Soudan." He is the bitter enemy of Colonial France. For 
relentless energy and great ability he may be fitly compared to the 
Algerian Arab, 'Abd-ul-Kader. Like most of the native chiefs who 
have played an important role in Africa, Samory's begitmings were 
very humble. Son of a caravan-leader, during his absence on a journey, 
his mother was kidnapped and carried away into slavery. Samory on 
hearing of this, did not hesitate to seek out the powerful chief who 
had abducted her and demand her freedom. This chanced to be the 
turning-point in his destiny, for the chief pleased with his handsome 
aspect, engaged him for his service. The rest of his career nurtured 
by ambition and fostered by blood and fire, forms one of the most 
extraordinary pages in the history of the Soudan. His army is said to 
number 60,000 men, of which 5,000 are mounted. Many times has 
his death been reported, and as many times the report proved false by 
his sudden resurrection. Like his famous Corsican prototype, the 
treaties made with his adversaries have been ruthlessly broken in 
subservience to a tireless ambition. 


they had lived amongst the Whites, are great slave 
dealers. The fanaticism of the Mussulman had also a 
great deal to do with the hate they felt for the Christian 
White man. 

The anatomical description of the Sarrakholais I 
shall give in the chapter relating to the organs of 
generation of the black races. 

The Kassonkes are another race of Semitic origin, 
but greatly bastardised by crossing with the native 
Blacks. The Kassonkes, or Kassonkais, are tall fine 
men, as strong and robust as the Wolofs, but that is 
the only trait they have in common, for they are very 
lazy. They inhabit Natiogo, Kosso, and Soyo, on the 
left bank of the Upper Senegal. The costume of the 
men is rather original, and deserves a special mention. 
For head-dress, they have a sort of small cap with 
two pointed peaks, which they wear on the side of the 
head, like a French soldier's kepi. They w^ear wide 
trousers, like a Zouave, but shorter and fuller. Their 
costume is completed by a small bonbou, which comes 
half way down the leg. This dress is made of native 
stuff, dyed yellow or brown. The women are very 
pretty, whilst they are young, but they tattoo their lips 
and gums a violet colour, with tincture of indigo. 

The Kassonke is far from being as brave as the 
Sarrakholais. He is generally a thief, an idler, and a 
drunkard. In this latter capacity he does not admire 
a religion of which one of the leading precepts enjoins 
abstention from fermented liquors. In this also he 
differs from the Sarrakholais, who is a strict observer 
of the law. Though he is not brave, he is very fond 
of war, or rather pillage, which is the natural attendant 
of war amongst all these people, but .should he encounter 


any serious resistance he will fly without feeling any 
shame. He is especially fond of stealing women and 
children, who may be heedlessly wandering round the 
villages, and selling them as slaves. Even an adult 
native man, travelling alone and unarmed, is by no 
means safe, and runs a great risK of being set on by 
two or three scoundrels, bound, and carried to the 
next village to be sold as a slave. But the Kassonke 
has a great respect for the White man, of whom he 
has a most salutary dread. He has not, as the Wolof 
and Toucouleur have, the bitter and vindictive hate of 
the Mussulman for the Christian dog, — a feeling which 
caused the Sarrakholais to revolt during a time of 
peace and prosperity. Round Medina, in the heart of 
the Kassonke country, Islamism has made some few 
converts, but they are not very fervent, and the religion 
rather tends to decline than increase. The marabouts' 
school is hardly attended by any but the children of 
the Wolof traders, who are established in considerable 
numbers at this post, on account of the commerce with 
the upper part of the river. 

The Young Kassonke Girl. A very pretty de- 
scription of the young Kassonke girl is given in Loti's 
charming romance, which has already been quoted. * 

" Fatou-Gaye had on her feet pretty little leather 
sandals, kept on by straps, which passed between the 
big and second toes, like the ancient rothumae. She 
wore the scanty and clinging drawers, — a fashion 
which the Egyptian women of the time of Pharaoh 
had bequeathed to the Nubian women. Over that was 
a boiibou, a large square of muslin with a hole through 
which to pass the head, and which fell, like a peplum, 

* Roman d'un Spahi. 


a little lower than the knees. Her ornaments were 
composed of heavy rings of silver, rivetted round the 
wrists and ankles, and necklaces of the fragrant 

" She looked very pretty, did Fatou-Gaye, with her 
high barbaric head-dress, which gave her the aspect 
of a Hindoo goddess dressed up for a religious festival. 
She had not the flat nose and thick lips of some of 
the African tribes, and which, in France, we are in 
the habit of considering as the type of the black race. 
She was of the pure type of the Kassonke race; a 
small nose, fine and straight, with thin nostrils, slightly 
pinched in and quivering, a well-formed, pretty mouth 
with splendid teeth; and, above all, large wide eyes 
like blue enamel, which sparkled, according to her 
mood, sometimes with a strange gravity, sometimes 
with a mysterious mischief" 

The Malinkds and Bambaras are Negroes who 
are fetish worshippers, descendants, — according to Dr. 
Colomb * — of the Mandingo race, which came originally 
from the banks of the Niger. It has not been mixed 
by crossings, and is characterised by thick lips, a very 
flat nose, woolly hair, and a narrow facial angle. The 
Malinkes are found on the banks of the Niger, and 
the higher branches of the Upper Senegal, where they 
form the major part of the population. 

The Bambaras are principally established upon the 
right bank of the Niger. They have the same anthro- 
pological characteristics as the Malinkes, but are more 
thick-set and not so tall ; the calves of their legs are 

' Notice sur les Oasis dii Sahara et les grandes routes qui y 
conduisent. (Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, Juillet, i860) par Lieut. - 
Colonel de Colomb. 


more muscular than those of the other Blacks. They 
are intelligent, strong, and brave, and are hated, and 
incessantly attacked, by the Mussulman people who 
surround them. 

The Malinke is thinner, less robust, and much less 
brave than the Bambara. According to Colonel Frey, 
the Malinke, either owing to superstitious terror or to 
cowardice, will not travel at night, or, at least, unless 
he is compelled to by force of circumstances; for 
though in the daytime he can rely on his weapons, 
and his agility, to bring him safely through perils, in 
the dark he is exposed to a thousand dangers he 
cannot always avoid. After sunset his sight becomes 
considerably weaker ; it might almost be said that he 
is struck with blindness. This peculiarity of the Malinke 
is attributed to the immoderate use of alio, the dried 
leaf of the boabab tree, and to the very small quantity 
of salt which he consumes. 

The Senegalese Sharpshooter is a volunteer, 
recruited, for a certain wage, from amongst all the 
races of Senegal. The Government is not particular 
as to how the men are obtained, provided that they 
are strong and healthy. I was surgeon to a battalion 
of Sharpshooters at Saint Louis, and the captain of 
the battalion assured me that three-fourths of the 
Negroes, who were engaged to serve for three years 
at the various posts on the river, from whence they 
had been sent to head-quarters, were slaves, bought 
from their masters at a fixed rate of ;^i2 ahead. By 
the very fact of his engagement, the Sharpshooter 
becomes a free man, as soon as he is released from 
military service. 

By giving medical attendance to the families of tlie 


Sharpshooters, I was able to learn many details con- 
cerning their manners and customs. Colonel Frey has 
devoted several pages to a description of the modest 
Senegalese Sharpshooter, without whose aid it would 
have been impossible to conquer the Upper Senegal 
and the Soudan. 

" The corps is formed, " he says, " of divers elements, 
borrowed from all the different races of Senegambia, 
and a practised eye can tell each at a glance. The 
Toucouleur can be recognised by his warlike temper, 
and his noisy, boastful character; the Bambara, who 
most usually has been captured on the Niger, by his 
robust limbs and his quiet temper; the Peulh by his 
regular features, his thin, nervous legs, and his extreme 
agility; the Wolof, who is more civilised than the other 
Blacks, by his mild temper and more polished manners. 

" In spite of the fact that they are recruited from 
such diverse elements, the Sharpshooters show a 
remarkable esprit de corps. They are most useful 
auxiliaries, of great intrepidity, and most of them really 
brave. The Sharpshooter is the right soldier for 
conquest. No one is fitter than he to make a forced 
march, and execute the sudden attacks that a young 
and bold commander may conceive and execute. 
When once he has put on \\\% grigris (leather amulets), 
in which, by the way, he has no great confidence, 
from having seen fall under his bullets many of his 
enemies who were covered with them, but which, 
nevertheless, he likes to wear as ornaments; when once 
he is furnished with his goat-skin, holding five or six 
quarts of water, and his wallet, containing a handful 
of couscous, and a hundred and twenty cartridges, his 
officers may ask him to march twenty hours at a stretch, 
and he will regard it as mere child's play." 


The Sharpshooter is not always distinguished for 
discipline, especially if he is commanded by officers 
who have only just arrived in the country, and are 
ignorant of the language, and the manners of the 
natives, and do not know what to give, and what to 
refuse, to their men. Moreover, as he passes nine 
months out of each year in the bush, he needs a firm 
hand, tempered with parental authority, or he will, 
without any scruples, desert, and take his arms and 
baggage with him. Besides, he is a natural pillager. 
If the men are not carefully watched, they will despoil 
any caravan they come across. The Sharpshooter is 
viewed with scorn and loathing by the traders, the 
well-to-do people, and, generally speaking, by every 
Mussulman. For is he not a mercenary in the pay of 
the Whites, — a turncoat, and almost a renegade? 

When it was proposed to introduce into Senegal 
a law which should make military service obligatory 
on the natives, numerous protests were raised amongst 
the Blacks of Saint Louis. " We would resist such a 
law," they cried, " even if we should have to revolt 
against the French authority." 


Social condition and moral characteristics of the Negro race in 
general. — The Chiefs and Marabouts. — Free men, griots, and 
blacksmiths.— 7Vie Griot village of Krina. — Slaves. — The slaiiery 
question. — Moral characteristics of the Black. — The Black's opinion 
of the civilised Touhab. — Karamoko's carbine. — Various customs 
and superstitions common to the people of Senegal. — Mussulman 
amulets and the fetish man's "grigris". 

Social Condition. All the Negroes — except the chiefs 
and marabouts — may be divided into three well-marked 
castes ; the free men, the griots, and the slaves. All 
thes3 peoples have chiefs, Httle "Kinglets" of a village, 
who oppress their subjects like the tyrants of antique 
Greece. Amongst the Mussulman people, the head- 
chief possesses both the civil and religious power, and 
is a great marabout, like El Hadj Omar Mahmadou 
Lamine, who stirred up the Sarrakholais to rebel, 
Abdoul-Bou-Ba-Kur in the Fouta-Toro, and many others. 
Beneath them they have ordinary marabouts, priests 
of the Mussulman religion, who fight for their faith. 
Some of them give their soldiers grigris, and amulets 
against bullets, steel, fire, etc. 

The Free Men may be divided into many cate- 
gories. At the head of them comes the warrior, who 
is a cultivator of the soil in his leisure hours. Below 
these come the industrial classes, the various trades of 
which form corporations analogous to those which 
existed in France before 1789. By a singular custom. 


which reminds one of the castes of India, a man may 
only marry amongst famiUes of the same trade, and 
this trade is hereditary; the son of a blacksmith is a 
blacksmith all his life, even though he may never 
touch a hammer. I should remark in passing, that one 
profession often includes a good number of others. 
Thus the blacksmith is also a locksmith, armourer, 
potter, and carpenter, in his spare moments. He is 
even a goldsmith and jeweller, and his trinkets are 
not wanting in a certain barbaric elegance. He even 
adds to these vocations that of surgeon-sorcerer, and 
he it is who circumcises the little boys. The trade of 
weaver is generally exercised by the captives. 

The Griot. On the same social level as the black- 
smith-surgeon-sorcerer is the griot (Dieli-Ke). He is 
the musician, the singer of praises of whoever will pay 
him, the minstrel of the Middle Ages. The instrument 
he usually plays on, bears a striking resemblance to 
the hurdy-gurdy of the Savoyard, and from it he ex- 
tracts some excruciating sounds. The accordion is 
also in favour with him. 

The free man has a great contempt for the griot, but 
is afraid of him. He is more intelligent than the common 
run of the natives, and " exploits " everybody, either by 
singing the praises of the generous, or by making 
insulting songs about those with whom he has a quarrel. 

The griot goes to war without any musket, — like 
the blacksmith-armourer,— but with a sword, which, 
however, he does not use. He contents himself, during 
the battle, with singing, and exciting the warriors to 
kill each other. If his side should happen to be van- 
quished, he will, without the least sense of shame, 
change his opinion and servilely exalt the victor, 


whom, before the battle, he had been cursing. Some 
of the griots often become the counsellors of the most 
powerful chiefs. 

I knew, both at Saint Louis and in the interior, 
some griots of the Mussulman tribes. None of them 
could resist the temptation of a glass of good absinthe, 
or safigara (trade brandy), if it was offered on the 

If the griot sings during the battle, the blacksmith 
has to repair the arms, manufacture the heavy bullets 
of wrought iron, and after the battle, as an improvised 
surgeon, cut off limbs, slash the flesh of the wounded, 
and extract the bullets. No European would be able 
to survive the often terrible mutilations which result 
from this not very conservative style of surgery. I 
should mention in passing, that the wife of the black- 
smith circumcises the young girls, amongst the tribes 
who practise that operation, and amongst the Kas- 
sonkes, dresses the hair of the women, and even of 
the men. But to return to the griots. They only marry 
amongst themselves generally : and at their death, are 
not deemed worthy of a funeral ceremony. They are 
usually buried, with their instrument, in the trunk of 
a hollow tree, which is then closed up. 

Slaves. There are three categories of captives or 
slaves. The first includes the house slaves, who have 
formed part, for many generations, of the slaves of 
the family, and are born in that position. They are 
rather servants for life than slaves properly so called. 
They are very rarely sold, and then only for very 
grave reasons. In fact, they are considered by custom, 
as an integral part of the family, like the freed-men 
of old Rome. The second category is composed of 


the slaves of the lougan, so named because they 
undertake the farming and other works. Usually 
he has been bought young, and has grown up 
in the house. He is almost as much esteemed as 
the house slave, and his lot is not very hard. Then 
comes the trade slave. He is mere human merchan- 
dise ; hardly nourished, ill-treated, often beaten, and 
hawked about from one caravan to another. When he 
falls on the road, ill, or worn out, he is allowed to die 
on the ground like a dog, and his body becomes the 
prey of the jackals and hyaenas. 

Every effort has been made by the French Govern- 
ment to put an end to this horrible traffic, but has 
proved unavailing, owing to the conservative routine, 
and the ill will, of the Negroes themselves. I have 
mentioned that the Sarralkholais, the most intelligent 
race in all Senegal, furnish the greater part of the 
Dioulas, or conductors of caravans. The French out- 
posts have orders to stop these caravans, but the 
caravans escape surveillance by making long detours. 
When the inhabitants of a village are captured, the 
captors begin by murdering all the males above fifteen 
years old, and the old women. The rest are led away 
into slavery, and often are sold at an absurdly low 

The Slavery Question is the stumbling block 
which will always prevent European civilisation from 
extending. We shall never make the Black under- 
stand that he has not the right to buy or sell his 
fellow man in the market, like cattle. But between 
the fetish worshipper of the interior of Africa, or of the 
Dahomey coast, who cuts his captive's throat, and the 
Mohammedan, who makes him work hard it is true, but 


takes as much care of him as he would of a beast of 
burden, the dtetance is immense. 

Our efforts to suppress slavery have only alienated 
from us the good will of the people, and though the 
public sale of slaves is forbidden, an almost open traffic 
in flesh is, all the same, carried on amongst the tribes 
of the interior. At Saint Louis even, where all the 
complicated machinery of French law exists, there are 
found, in spite of it, slaves who have been brought 
from the interior by the traders. They are disguised 
under the name of domestics, and are, in reality, 
servants for life. There are young girls of this cate- 
gory, who are made over, before they attain puberty, 
to " amateurs " who want virgins. Of course, the 
Black traders who bring back these slaves, do not 
openly boast of it, but the fact is nevertheless certain, 
and I have good proofs of it. For instance, in my 
house, I often used to see a Negro boy, the colour of 
old bronze, a half-breed between a Moor and a Negress, 
whom a rich Black merchant, — my landlord, if you 
please, — -had brought with him from the station of 
Podor, when he went to attend the gum market. 
This lad, who was completely naked, despite his thir- 
teen years, used to come and help my cook to wash 
up the dishes, and his wages consisted of a bit of sea 
biscuit, which he used to devour with teeth as white 
as those of a puppy, with sometimes a lump of sugar. 
Although his skin was lighter than that of a Zambo, 
but not so light as that of a IMulatto, the mucous sur- 
faces of the lips and the gland were a very dark red- 
brown. Seeing that I appeared interested a little in 
the creature, my landlord asked me one day if I wanted 
to buy him. I appeared to entertain the proposal. He 
asked me twelve pounds, saying that that was the 


value of the cloth he had gfiven for him, and that he 
would only sell him under the express condition that 
the lad was to be circumcised, and never made a 

The motives which caused me to refuse this proposal 
will be easily understood. Thinking that I wanted to 
beat him down, he lowered the price, and finally my 
landlord's son, a big booby twenty years old, proposed 
to trade the Negro boy for my central fire gun with 
spare rifled barrels, my faithful companion during 
fifteen years. I kept my gun, and resolutely refused 
the nigger boy. 

Moral Characteristics of the Black. I shall only 
say a very few words about those moral characteristics 
common to all the Black races of Senegal. 

The Black certainly differs more from the White, 
morally, than he does in the colour of his skin. 
Superficial observers often reproach him with his 
idleness, his apathy, his carelessness, his want of 
forethought. The Negro is only a great child, who 
takes no care for the future. When the harvest is 
good, he eats and drinks, and never troubles to put 
any by for the morrow, or even to reserve the grain 
needed for sowing the lougans (cultivated lands). If 
the harvest should fail, he dies of hunger. But he is 
honest and upright; he is grateful, and remembers 
benefits received. He often forgets ill-treatment even. 
During an illness, which kept me in bed a fortnight, 
my young Sarrakholais boy helped himself, from a 
sack of dollars, to all the money needed for the house- 
hold expenses. He was my factotum : cook, groom, 
and valet. He gave an account of all the money 
spent every day, and took whatever money he required. 


I wrote down, when he was not present, all the items 
in a small account book, and when I was well again, 
verified the balance, which was perfectly correct. 
Only, the rascal had eaten nine pounds of sugar in a 
very few days. In Cochin-China, my sack would have 
been emptied by an Annamite boy, the first day of 
my illness, and, perhaps, if I had been alone, as I 
was in Senegal, and had a large sum of money in 
the house, the thief would have poisoned me, to prevent 
unpleasant disclosures. 

Opinions of the Black concerning the Civilised 
Toubab. The Black, — and I mean by this not the 
ignorant Negro, but the trader, or the Sarrakholais, 
who has come into contact with civilisation at Saint 
Louis, — does not understand our system of government 
a little bit. For him, the French Government is the 
husband of the Republic, who is a very rich woman, 
who rules France, which is her property. As to the 
soldiers, they are the slaves of the Government. What 
is the use of explaining the parliamentary system to 
such fellows? The right side of compulsory military 
service they do not understand, but the wrong side 
of it they can comprehend when, — on the very 
problematical chance of civilising a Negro, — they see 
the son of a Normandy peasant, or a Burgundian 
vine-dresser, sent to die in an unhealthy country, or 
be killed by one of the subjects of Behanzin, in 
Dahomey. The Senegalese Sharpshooter, however, 
knows something about discipline in his own way, 
and can obey orders, if they are given by a capable 

The Black gazes open-eyed at all the wonders of 
civilisation. At first they are astonished, but that soon 


wears off, and, strange to say, they never try to under- 
stand or explain anything they see. All that they 
say — when they say anything at all — is, " That's 
another invention of the Toubab." The railway at 
Senegal, the telegraph, telephone, rifled cannon, the 
dynamite with which the walls of their tatas (fortified 
redoubts) are blown down, etc., do not cause a single 
idea to penetrate their thick skulls. The son of my 
landlord, the big booby I have mentioned, who read 
and spoke French, said to me one day, when I wanted 
to lend him a handbook on Elementary Physics, to 
improve his mind, " The White men are rich, and they 
know, and can do, a lot of things; but everyone has 
his turn, and the day will come when the Black man 
will know as much as the Toubab." 

Whatever amount of education you may give a 
Black, you can no more change his character than you 
can the colour of his skin, and, as the proverb says, 
" The barber wastes his soap, when he tries to wash 
a blackamoor white." From a moral point of view, 
we are committing a great error, when we try to 
instil European ideas of civilisation into the brain of 
the Negro. 

Karamoko*s Carbine. As we know, some of the 
sons of the principal chiefs were brought up at Saint 
Louis, at the "School for hostages", founded by 
Faidherbe. A^s soon as they returned home again, 
they invariably proved to be the bitterest enemies of 
the Whites. The example of Karamoko, the son of 
Samory, who came to Paris, where he was received 
like the son of a king— a strange manner of showing 
our superiority!— is an unanswerable proof of the 
failure of this method. 


It appears that, on his return, his father sent an 
escort, to welcome him on re-entering the Kingdom. 
Karamoko was laden with gifts from- the French 
Government, and amongst these was a fine repeating 
rifle, richly ornamented. The chief who commanded 
the escort, having left the ranks, and presented himself 
alone before the King's son, Karamoko ordered him 
to return to his place at once. The chief did not 
obey quite quickly enough, so he had a bullet through 
his head from Karamoko's rifle. In the recent combats 
between Achinard's column and the natives of the 
Soudan, Karamoko always showed himself to be our 
most intractable enemy, and yet he had not, as the 
other chiefs had, the excuse of being ignorant of the 
French military power. He had heard hundreds of 
field -guns fired, at the camp of Chalons, and had seen 
a division of cavalry reviewed. My opinion, respecting 
the character of the Blacks is entirely corroborated by 
that of Dr. Lota. ^ 

Various Customs and Superstitions common 
to the Different Tribes of Senegal. I do not pro- 
pose to describe here the various customs of the 
numerous tribes which inhabit Senegal. I shall content 
myself by noticing, in a few lines, those manners and 
superstitions which are common to all, as the circum- 
cision of boys, the manner of burying the dead with 
the face turned towards the East, the form of saluta- 
tion with the hand over the heart, and the Mussulman 
chaplet, which is as common as the fan is in Spain. 

It is evident that Islamism, having been imposed by 
force, has taken no real root amongst the tribes of 
Semitic origin. As to the real fetish worshipper, be- 

' Dr. Lota, Deux arts entre le Senegal et le Niger. 


longing to the Mandingo race, the religion of Mahomet 
has hardly been able to penetrate his thick skull, and 
even, when he is converted, he nevertheless retains 
his old superstitions. 

When a Negro is ill, prayers are offered up to his deities, 
but that does not prevent his friends and relatives from 
having faith in the prayers and amulets of the marabouts ; 
and, at the same time, recourse is had to a fetish wizard, 
who cuts open an unfortunate fowl, and examines its 
liver, exactly as the augurs used to do in old Rome. 

Mussulman Amulets and Fetish "Grigris". 

When a Mussulman is ill, verses of the Koran are 
written on specially prepared slips of wood, which are 
then washed in water, and the water given to the 
invalid to drink, or little bags containing scraps of 
paper, on which are inscribed verses of the Koran, are 
placed on the seat of the disease. That is a kind of 
remedy that is within the reach of everybody. As to 
the fetish worshippers, they have a bhnd faith in the 
grigris, which are sold to them by sorcerers, to pre- 
serve them from illness, poverty, the terrible bullets 
of the Toubab, the knives of their enemies, etc., or 
charms to render the possessor happy in his, or her, 
domestic life. A severe wound will hardly serve to 
undeceive them, and if, by chance, they escape from 
a battle with a few bruises or a slight wound, they 
continue to believe in their charm with blind credulity. 
The sorcerers who sell grigris are generally of the 
blacksmith class, and in order to astonish and impress 
the people, they dress themselves in a strange garb 
made of strips of bark, wear a large calabash on the 
head, and wander about the villages at night, uttering 
horrible howls. 


The Negro woman. — Her social coiidilion. — Marriage. — The rvife 
purchased by the husband. — Vanity of the women who fetch high 
prices. — Marriage ceremonies. — Constancy of the Negress. — The 
wives of the Sharpshooters. — Their inconstancy. — Their virtues. — 
Polygamy atnongst the Blacks. — The chief mistress of the house. 
— -Jealousy unknown to the Negress. — Divorce. 

The Social Condition of Woman. Travellers who 
dash helter-skelter through the country, represent the 
Negro woman as a kind of domestic animal, obedient 
and hard-working, and the property of her husband, 
who has purchased her, and may purchase several 
other wives besides. To an impartial observer, however, 
who studies matters closely, this custom of the husband 
purchasing his wife, or wives, does not involve social 
inferiority to the latter. When we understand the 
manners and customs of the Blacks, we see that woman 
is not in such a miserable condition as is said, and 
that, relatively at all events, she enjoys some measure 
of liberty. Let us select as an example the household 
of the Negro of Saint Louis. The husband brings in 
the wood, cultivates a patch of land, fishes, or hunts. 
The native traders, who serve the European merchants, 
ascend the river to trade. These last form a rather 
high caste, and quickly obtain a good position. In 
the interior of Senegal, the man goes where he likes, 
but very often squats on the door sill and tells his 
beads, if he is a good Mussulman ; sometimes he 
makes his own clothes, — a task which not being very 



fatiguing he reserves to himself. Meanwhile his wife 
slaves at all the heavy work ; she cultivates the field, 
gets in the harvest, looks after the animals, grinds at 
the mill, and prepares the couscous. The operation 
of grinding is very hard work, and often the woman 
is obliged to rise in the middle of the night, for she 
has to pound for many hours at the coarse millet, 
which is as large and heavy as maize. In the afternoon, 
the work recommences. Vain attempts have been 
made to introduce waterpower mills to grind the millet, 
but the Negroes have always refused them, saying that 
their wives would have nothing to do if they did not 
grind at the mill. 

In short, the social condition of the Negress is no 
worse than that of women in many civilised countries, 
even including France, where, in certain districts, the 
peasant women work in the fields like men. When 
the Negro returns from war, or from hunting, or from 
pillage, and does not find everything in order at home, 
he complains, scolds, or perhaps even thrashes his wife 
a little— but is not that also the case in many civilised 
countries? Read the Assommoir, or La Terre, ^ of 
Zola, and tell me if our boasted civilisation is so 
superior to that of the " poor Negro" ! The Negroes, 
both men and women, are very fond of their children, 
seldom scold them, and hardly ever beat them. Of 
how many parents in civilised Europe can the same 
be said? 

' These books were translated mto English by Vizetelly, who got 
1 8 months " hard " for it. He was 70 years of age ! A book was published 
with the title '' Extracts principally from English Classics: shouing 
that the Legal Suppression of M. Zola's novels would Logically 
involve the Bowdlerising of some of the Greatest Works in English 
Literature (Lond., 1888). For more particulars about this crapulous 
business see Curious Bypaths of History (Paris, 1897). 


Marriage amongst the Blacks. — Purchase of the 
Wife by the Husband. Amongst all the Blacks, 
Mussulman as well as fetish worshippers, the husband 
buys his wife; that is an incontestable fact — but are 
the Annamites, or many nations more civilised still, 
any better? ' In any case the girl herself is not 
allowed to have a voice in the matter. It is simply 
a matter of business between her future husband and 
her parents. The marriage portion is haggled over; 
— it varies according to the position of the two parties, 
and at Saint Louis consists of rolls of cloth, cattle, and 

' Westermarck, in his History of Human Marriage (p. 143), Lond. 
1894. writes: "There are, however, even in savage life, circumstances 
which compel certain persons to live unmarried for a longer or shorter 
time. When a wife has to be bought, a man must of course have 
some fortune before he is able to marry. Thus, as regards the Zulus, 
Mr. Eyles writes to me that ' young men who are without cattle have 
often to wait many years before getting married ' {see Weber, Z-wei 
Jahre in Africa, vol. II, p. 216 [Kafirs]). When Major-General Campbell 
asked some of the Kandhs why they remained single, they replied that 
they did so because wives were too exp'ensive (Campbell, The Wild 
Tribes of Khondistan). Among the Munda Kols and Hos, in conse- 
quence of the high prices of brides, are to be found 'what are probably 
not known to exist in other parts of India, respectable elderly maidens' 
(Watson and Kaye, vol. I, no. 18). In the New Britain Group, too, 
according to- Mr. Romilly, the purchase sum is never fixed at too low 
a price, hence ' it constantly happens that the intended husband is 
middle-aged before he can marry. ' (Romilly, Proceed. Royal Geog. 
Sac. N.S., vol. IX, p. 8). Similar statements are made in a good many 
books of travels. " 

The customs of these savage tribes are the opposite of those of 
modern f^rance, where wives buy their husbands, and where beautiful 
women, often neglected by the dowry hv.nter, bcCause their purse is not 
of sufficient bulk, fall to a workman or waiter. Benj. Disraeli was of 
opinion that the mariage de convenance more often turned out well than 
the marriage for Love, the latter article having the habit of " flying out ", 
according to the old English proverb, " at the window, when Poverty comes 
in at the door ". 


sometimes money ; in the interior, it is one or two 
slaves. An instalment is all that is necessary; a 
promise to pay the balance after the marriage ceremony 
is generally accepted by the parents of the bride. In 
the interior, amongst the Kassonkes, a young girl may 
be even "booked in advance", and a "retaining fee" 
paid; this is faithfully returned, if, when she is of 
nubile age, her parents do not wish to complete the 
marriage, but if it is the young man who refuses, he 
loses the money he has paid. There is one really 
valid cause for breaking the contract, and that is 
immoral conduct on the part of the girl ; otherwise, 
as soon as she is nubile, or at about the age of twelve 
years, she is sent to her future husband. This custom 
of marriage, or rather of betrothal by mutual consent 
of the interested parties, also exists in the Negro villages 
of the Wolofs round Saint Louis. 

Conceit of those Negro Women for w^hom 
Large Prices are paid. The Negress does not con- 
sider it a dishonour, that she has been purchased from 
her father. On the contrary, she boasts of the high 
price that has been paid for her. I heard of a very 
neat reply made by one of them on this subject. A 
European family made the voyage out with me. The 
husband was a Government official, and, from motives 
of economy, lodged in a little brick house in the North 
part of the town near the Mosque. His wife, a good- 
natured inquisitive little Frenchwoman, became acquaint- 
ed with many of the Blacks in the neighbourhood, and 
had for a servant a little Negro girl twelve years old. 
One day the sister of this Negress, a fine strapping 
girl of sixteen, came to inform her sister's mistress that 
she was about to be married. She was going to marry 


a trader in rather a good position, and she was recount- 
ing what handsome presents he had made to her father. 
The Frenchwoman said, in a tone of reproach, "What! 
are you not ashamed to boast that you have been 
bought and paid for, as though you were a beast of 
burden?" The Negress was nettled at this remark, 
and replied, " If my lover gave all that for me, it 
proves that he loves me, and will pay a high price to 
possess me, whilst you, and the other wives of the 
Toubabs, seem so ugly to your men, that you are 
obliged to buy your husbands, and, unless you gave 
them a large sum of money, they would never have 
you." The allusion to the dot usually given with 
European women was decidedly neat, and the retort 
was well deserved. ^ 

Marriage Ceremonies vary a little amongst the 
various tribes, but in general they have rather the 
character of a festival than of a religious ceremony, 
even amongst the Mussulmans. The husband first 
prepares the house, which is empty. On the wedding 
day, the modest bride, covered with a long thick veil, 
but without a single spray of orange blossom — very 

' Max Nordau holds that money matters should not enter into the 
sexual relations at all : — 

'' When material considerations enter no longer into the contracting 
of a marriage, when woman is free to choose and is not compelled to 
sell herself, when man is obliged to compete for woman's favour with 
his personality and not with his social position and property, then the 
institution of matrimony will become a truth instead of the He it is 
now, the sacred and sublime spirit of Nature will bless every embrace, 
every child will be born surrounded by the love of its parents as with 
a halo, and will receive, as its first birthday present, the strength and 
VITALITY with which ever)' cou})le which has been united by the attraction 
of affinity endows its oflspring. " Convent tonal Lus of our Civilisation^ 
Lond. 1895 (page 307). 


different from the European bride — is taken by a matron 
to the conjugul domicile. All the female friends of 
the family make a procession, carrying on their heads 
the wedding presents, which consist of household uten- 
sils, such as screens, baskets, a mortar and pestle, 
calabashes for couscous, millet, earth-nuts, earthenware 
jars, etc. 

The bride enters the house, accompanied by the 
matron, whose duty it is to initiate her into the sweet 
delights of love, and meanwhile the tam-tams outside 
beat with redoubled vigour. Men are strictly forbidden 
to enter the house, but the women of the village come 
in turn to visit the bride, give her advice, and felici- 
tations. She stands, covered with her veil, and listens 
to all her friends have to say. Outside the tam-cams 
beat wildly, and the griots sing the future exploits of 
the husband, and how great he is to be. At last the 
husband enters the house, turns out the women, locks 

the door, tears off the bride's veil, and then but 

the reader must guess the rest. 

As soon as he enters the house, the noise increases, 
the tam-tams nearly split, the old flintlock muskets, 
charged with whole handfuls of powder, go off like 
field guns, the women clap their hands in frenzy, sing 
wedding odes, and dance round the house like bac- 
chantes. The cries and groans of the bride are 
drowned in this infernal hubbub, but it does not, I 
have been assured, prevent the husband from doing his 
duty. 1 

Faithfulness of the Negress. The Negress is 
usually faithful to her husband, especially in regard 

* See Excursus to chapter XII for curious Marriage Ceremonies in 


to the Toubab, for she is afraid of having a Mulatto 
child, which would be a living proof of her fault. 
This is particularly the case at Saint Louis, where it 
is easier to obtain the favours of a young girl than 
of a married woman. I have often, for a joke, asked 
some of the women who lived near me, and with 
whom I was in the habit of talking freely, to sleep 
with me. ''Allah terref" (God would slay me) they 
always cried, and rushed precipitately into their houses. 
The Europeans who will not, or cannot, get a 
woman or " maid of all work ", have no resource but 
the low class prostitutes, — regular old "jacks", who 
are scorned and despised by all the rest of the 

The Wives of the Sharpshooters. The first thing 
a Sharpshooter does, is to try to get together a few 
pence, and buy a wife, but he has some difficulty in 
effecting this at Saint Louis, where he is not in the 
odour of sanctity, and is looked down upon with disgust 
by the Wolof trader, who is a fanatical Mussulman. 
Sometimes he marries the widow of a deceased com- 
rade, but generally procures a wife in the Roman 
method, in the course of one of his expeditions into 
the interior. Captives — the wives, or daughters, of the 
vanquished,^ — furnish the greater part of the Sharp- 
shooters' wives. Colonel Frey's book, — to which I 
refer the reader,— gives some interesting information 
on this subject. At Saint Louis. I saw women who 
came from all parts of Senegambia and the Upper 
Soudan. They all lived comfortably together. 

Their Unfaithfulness. The wives of the Sharp- 
shooters seemed to me to be less faithful than the other 


Negresses, but that was evidently due to their social 
surroundings. The Sharpshooters at Saint Louis receive 
a fixed pay, and are not fed. The bachelors board 
with the married men, for a consideration, and often 
even sleep in the house. This promiscuity favours 
easy morals, and the wife of a Sharpshooter is regarded 
with as much scorn by a Wolof Negress of Saint Louis, 
as a sutler woman would be by the wife of a banker, 
in Europe. ^ 

' Free and easy as undoubtedly is the virtue of these native ladies, 
there is many a high-born dame in Europe who could give them points 
in what honest old Daniel Defoe would call, "Conjugal Lewdness, or 
Matrimonal Whoredom " (Lond. 1727), as the two following works more 
than sufficiently show : — 

The Case of Impotency as debated in England in that Remarkable 
trial, Anno 16 13, between Robert, Earl of Essex, and Lady Frances 
Howard, who after eight years marriage commenced a suit against him 
for Impotency. — The Trial of Mervjn, Lord Audlev, Earl of 
Castlehaven, for Sodomy and a Rapk. Anno 163 1.— The Proceedings 
upon the Bill of Divorce between the Duke of Noxfolk and Lady Mary 
Mordant. London, 17 15, 2 vols. — The Case of Impotency debated 
on the late- Famous Trial at Paris between the Marquis of Gesores and 
Mademoiselle de Mascranny. London, 17 14, 2 vols, i2mo. 

The Trial of the Hon. Mks. Catharine Neavton, wife of John 
Newton, Esq., and daughter of the Rt. Hon. and Rev. Lord Francis 
Seymour, at the Consistory Court of Doctor's Commons, upon a Libel 
and Allegations charging her with the Crime of Adultery with Mr. 
Isham Baggs, a young Oxonian ; Mr. Brett, a Player at Bath ; 
Thomas Cope, her Coachman ; Isaac Hatheway, her Footman ; John 
Ackland, of Fairfield, Somerset, and other persons, WITH all the 
interesting scenes, full, minutely, and circumstantially dis- 
played concerning the whole of the evidence in that very remarkable 
Trial. London, 1782. Frontispiece^ ''Mrs. A^cwton bathing in the 
River Trent, assisted by Mr, Baggs," 8vo. 

Bear in mind that these are not erotic books produced in Belgium, 
or Holland, but sober English, home-made narratives where if nothing 
be "extenuated", naught has been "put down in malice". 


The Good Qualities of the Sharpshooter's Wife. 

Nevertheless she possesses some remarkably good 
qualities, and, without her aid, the expeditions into the 
interior would be unable to operate. In fact, the 
Sharpshooter will never carry any baggage, and the 
military authorities have never been able to compel 
him to bear the "ace of diamonds", or knapsack, 
carried by the French footsoldier. When he is on an 
expedition, his load consists of a huckaback bag, con- 
taining food, and a strip of tent canvas, worn across 
the body from left to right, and in which are placed 
some packets of spare cartridges. He fills the two 
cartridge pouches he carries in front, and puts the 
rest of his ammunition into a cartridge bag behind 
him. At his side is a goat skin filled with water. 
His wife and children follow him in his expeditions. 
The linen, food, kitchen utensils, etc., are all packed 
in enormous round baskets, which the Negresses carry 
on their heads ; they often carry more than a hundred 
weight, and with that burden the unlucky wretches 
follow the march. The children go on foot ; the very 
little ones are carried astride their mothers' buttocks. 
When a halt is made, the women build huts of boughs, 
wash the linen, and cook couscous. When the hus- 
band is on guard, the gallants take advantage of their 

If the wife of the Sharpshooter is too apt to open 
her thighs, at all events she is good-hearted. Ask 
anything of a Negress, and she will give it if she 
has it, even if she has to deprive herself But as soon 
as she has any claim on your gratitude, she will often 
ask for her "Sunday".' Happily she is satisfied with 
very little, and a very small piece of money will satisfy 

' Soldiers' slang; to ask for a Sunday is to ask for a "tip." 


her. The Negro has an innate weakness for presents, 
and, whether he is rich or poor, a small gift will always 
afford him pleasure. 

Polygamy exists amongst all the Blacks, but the 
poorer classes generally content themselves with one 
wife. The rich traders of Saint Louis have as many 
as six, one for each day of the week, except the 
Sunday, when they rest. ^ Only the marabouts and 
the great chiefs may have an almost unlimited number 
of wives, but I am bound in duty to say that they 
never abuse the privilege. 

Man's right to possess a number of women has often 

' In David's time people held far freer ideas about women than we do to- 
day, e.g. it was thought right for them to possess numerous wives and to 
have carnal connections with other women besides. According to Samuel 
(book II, 3rd chap., 2 — 3) six sons were bom in Hebron by six differ- 
ent mothers to the Israelite king. Again in chap. V, verse 13 it is 
said: "And David took him fnore concubines and wives out of Jeru- 
salem, after he was come from Hebron;" and yet it is said (in I Kings 
XV, 5) that "David did that which 7eias right in the eyes of the Lord, 
and turned not aside from anything that he commanded him all the 
days of his life, save only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite." 
Probably it was this which caused Dryden to write : 

" When nature prompted, and no law deny'd 
Promiscuous use of concubine and bride ; 
Then Israel's monarch, after Heaven's own heart, 
His vigorous warmth did variously impart 
To wives and slaves ; and wide as his command, 
Scattered his Maker's image through the land." 

Absalom and Ackitophel. 

Few people will dissent from the shrewd observations of Max 
Nordau : — " Man lives in a state of polygamy in the civilised countries 
in spite of the monogamy enforced by the laws ; out of 100,000 men 
there would barely be one who could affirm that he had never had 
fleshly commerce with but one single woman during his whole life; and 
if the principles of monogamy are more strictly observed by women, 
it is not because thev have never had any inclination to dis- 


been called in question; yet such right after all is 
merely a question of latitude and longitude, of age 
and country. Bigamy is severely punished in Europe, 
but Oriental countries regard sexual weaknesses with 
great leniency, providing, of course, it is not a case of 

Westermarck in his History of Human Marriage 
has the following masterly summing up of this fasci- 
nating study: — "Polygyny was permitted by most of 
the ancient peoples within the historic period, and is 
at present permitted by several civilised nations and 
by the majority of savage tribes. Yet, among not a 
few savage and barbarous races it is almost unknown, 
or even prohibited ; and almost everywhere it is confined 
to the smaller part of the people, the vast majority 
being monogamous. Moreover, where polygyny occurs, 
it is modified, as a rule, in two ways that tend towards 
monogamy: through the higher position granted to 
one of the wives, generally the first married, and 
through the favour constantly shown by the husband 
to the wife he likes best. Among certain peoples 
polyandry occurs, and, like polygyny, is modified in 
a monogamous direction, the first husband usually being 
the chief husband. Among the causes by which the 
forms of marriage are influenced, the numerical pro- 
portion between the sexes plays an important part, 

regard them, but because Conventional Morality keeps a sharper look-out 
upon woman's conduct and punishes her lapses more severely than man's." 
Conventional Lies, etc., page 30. 

See much more on this subject in the Book of Exposition on the 
"Sensualism of the Koranic Paradise" (XXI to XLI). 

For comparison with Polyandry see the Excursus (p. 84) at end of this 
chapter; and also refer to Ch. Letourneau'S L' Evolution du Maria^e 
et de la Famille (Paris, 1888). 


In some countries there are more men than women, 
in others more women than men. This disproportion 
is due to various causes, such as female infanticide, 
war, and disparity in the number of the sexes at birth. 
There are facts which seem to show that in rough 
mountainous countries more boys are born than girls, 
and that consanguineous marriages produce a con- 
siderable excess of male births. If this be so, it can 
hardly be a mere coincidence that polyandry occurs 
chiefly among mountaineers and peoples who are 
endogamous in a very high degree. As for polygyny, 
there are several reasons why a man may desire to 
possess more than one wife. Among many peoples 
the husband has to live apart from his wife during 
her pregnancy, and as long as she suckles her child. 
Female youth and beauty have for men a powerful 
attraction, and among peoples at the lower stages of 
civilisation women generally become old much sooner 
than in more advanced communities. The liking of 
men for variety is also a potent factor ; and to have 
many wives is to have many labourers. The barren- 
ness of a wife is another very common reason for 
the choice of a new partner, as desire for offspring, 
for various reasons, is universal in mankind. 

" In a savage and barbarous state a man's power and 
wealth are proportionate to the number of his offspring. 
Nevertheless, however desirable polygyny may be from 
the man's point of view, it is prohibited among many 
peoples, and among most of the others it is exceptional. 
Where the amount of female labour is limited, and no 
accumulated property exists, it may be very difficult 
for a man to keep a plurality of wives. Again, where 
female labour is of considerable value, the necessity of 
paying the purchase-sum for a wife is a hindrance 


to polygyny, which can be overcome only by the 
wealthier men. Polygyny implies a violation of the 
feelings of women ; hence, where due respect is paid 
to these, monogamy is considered the only proper form 
of marriage. The refined passion of love, which depends 
not only on external attractions, but on sympathy arising 
from mental qualities, forms a lie between husband 
and wife which lasts for life ; and the true monogamous 
instincts, the absorbing passion for one, is a powerful 
obstacle to polygynous habits. It is certain that poly- 
gyny has been less prevalent at the lowest stages of 
civilisation — where wars do not seriously disturb the 
proportion of the sexes ; where life is chiefly supported 
by hunting, and female labour is consequently of slight 
value ; where there is no accumulation of wealth and 
no distinction of class — than it is at somewhat higher 
states; and it seems probable that monogamy prevailed 
almost exclusively among our earliest human ancestors. 
But, though civilisation up to a certain point is favour- 
able to polygyny, its higher forms invariably and 
necessarily lead to monogamy." 

Burton comes to the following conclusions based on 
the reasoning that the relations of the sexes are all a 
question of climate. 

"The world shows that while women have more 
philoprogenitiveness, men have more amativeness; 
otherwise the latter would not propose and would 
nurse the doll and baby. Fact, however, in low-lying 
lands, like Persian Mazanderan versus the Plateau ; 
Indian Malabar compared with Maratha-land; California 
as opposed to ITtah and especially Egypt contrasted 
with Arabia. In these hot-damp climates the venereal 
requirements and reproductive powers of the female 
greatly exceed those of the male; and hence the disso- 


luteness of morals would be phenomenal, were it not 
obviated by seclusion, the sabre and the revolver. In 
cold-dry or hot-dry mountainous lands the reverse is 
the case; hence polygamy there prevails, whilst the 
low countries require polyandry in either form, legal 
or illegal {i.e. prostitution), I have discussed this 
curious point of ' geographical morality ' (for all morality 
is, like conscience, both geographical and chronological), 
a subject so interesting to the lawgiver, the student of 
ethics and the anthropologist, in ' The City of the Saints.' 
But strange and unpleasant truths progress slowly, 
especially in England." * 

The Head Mistress of the House is always the 
first wife married ; the others are considered as servants, 
which reminds one ot tne history of Sarah and Hagar, 
the two wives of Abraham. But if there are any quarrels 
or discord in the house, amongst the women, the husband 
will restore harmony by thrashing them all round, with 
strict impartiality. Any man may take a captive to wife, 
and as long as she is sterile, he may sell, or get rid 
of her. If she has any children, she acquires legitimate 
rights, and becomes an integral part of the family. 

Jealousy is unknown to the Negress. All 

Negresses, to whatever race they may belong, have 
one characteristic in common, and that is the almost 
entire absence of jealousy in regard to their lord and 
master. This is evidently the result of the right of 
the husband to possess several wives. The same 
Negress, who was boasting to Mme D . . . of the high 
price her husband had paid to obtain her hand, came 
some months afterwards to pay a visit, and announce 

^Arabian Nights (vol. HI, page 241) (BENARES?), 1885. 


that she was in an interesting condition. She had 
also a favour to ask. Her husband was about to leave 
for the Upper River, and needed some money to 
purchase a second wife; she had therefore come to 
borrow two hundred francs for this purpose. The 
money was needed for a payment on account, and 
the marriage was to take place before the departure 
of the trader, who on his return would be sure to 
repay the loan, and complete the payment due to the 
parents of his second wife. On hearing this very 
naive request, little Mme D . . . burst into a passion 
and cried, " What ! unhappy woman, you want to 
borrow money for your husband to buy another wife? 
Are you not jealous?" "Jealous, what is that?" asked 
the Negress. "Why," replied the White woman, "to 
be the only wife, the only mistress in your own house, 
the only one to share your husband's bed." 

"Oh, I don't care about that," answered the other 
" My husband is always on me now, and that is very 
fatigTaing. ' When there are two of us, we shall each 
have half of the work. When there are three, there 
will always be one resting, and when there are four, 
we shall have almost nothing to do except take care 
of the children, and we can talk, and amuse ourselves. 
Besides, if our husband beats us, we can defend our- 
selves all the better." 

If a Negress is beaten undeservedly, by her hus- 
band, the other wives wiU take her part. He had 
better not go too far, if he is in the wrong, for, in 
her hands, the heavy pestle for grinding millet becomes 

* A very curious storj' is that given in No. XXXVIII Les Cent 
NoHvelles Noiivelles, where the question of "marital fatigue" plays an 
important part. Fide also on "Flagellation in France " in "The Curious 
Bypaths joj History" (Paris, 1898) 


a formidable weapon. In this case, the husband has 
but one alternative; he must either knuckle under, or 
clear out of the house as quickly as he can. 

Divorce. When a woman is ill-treated too much, 
she is free to leave her husband, and even take 
another, provided she returns the sum paid for her. 
This summary method of divorce, though it does not 
agree with the ethics of civilised nations, has the great 
advantage of rendering the relations between husband 
and wife more affectionate than might at first be 
believed. Children do not interfere with this amicable 
arrangement, for they follow the mother, and the new 
husband takes both hen and chickens. 

As to the slave who is a temporary mistress, so 
long as she has no children by her master, she has 
no rights. To be kept as long as she is yoimg and 
pretty, and sold as soon as she has ceased to please, 
is her usual fate. 




The hymen. — Large and small lips. — Clitoris. — 77/1? Jork and 
the navel. — A study of the genital organs of the Negro races of 
Africa. — Marks of virginity in the yoimg girl. — Circumcision of 
young girls. — The festival of same. — The nubile Negress. — 
The genital organ of the Negro. — The Perforated Kabyle 
womayi. — Circiancision the probable cause of the size of the 
Negro's penis. — The effect of circumcision on the size of the penis 
of the pubescent boy. — Mantegazza on the genital organs of the 
Negroes. — His opiniofi o?i circunicisioii. — The incotitestable 
advantages of this operation. — TJie suppression of masturbation 
in the circumcised. — The festival of circujncision amongst 
Fetish worshippers. — Kvcursus by Dr. Godard oti the de/loratioti 
of virgi?is in Egypt. — Sir R. F. Burton oti Dahomeyan customs. 
— Female Infanticide. — Thibetan nuptial customs. — The Hottentot 
"Apron". — The perforation of the penis amongst Australian 

I INSERT here some of the medical observations and 
notes I made at Guiana, concerning the young Negresses, 
as these observations agree perfectly, or with very 
slight differences, with those made at Senegal. 

The Hymen exists in the Black race, as it does 
in the White. But it is much less developed, and 
constitutes a much less efficacious barrier 
copulation, especially when it is effected with a penis 
like that of the White man, which is not so huge as 
that of the adult Black. I am speaking now of the 
pure Black race. Amongst races of Semitic origin, 
like the Sarrakholais, the hymen is more resisting. 



According to Tardieu, in the French virgin, the hymen 
will not admit the end of the first finger. In the 
case of the young Negress, however, you can generally 
put in the first finger without destroying the hymen. 
With her the vulva is not so open at the upper part, 
but hardly closed, if at all, in the lower part. The 
opening rarely points forward, it is rather obliquely 

Large and Small Lips. In the Negress, the small 
lips assume, at an early age, an immense development, 
and considerably exceed the great. Is this caused by 
repeated pulling, or is it a peculiarity of the race? I 
cannot say, but this lengthening coincides with nubility, 
and amongst the fetish worshippers, excision is the 
general rule. 

Clitoris. The clitoris of the young Negress is very 
much developed. After the nubile age it increases 

The Fork and the Navel. The projection of the 
fork is not so great as in the European woman. 

Operations on Female Sexual Organs. Before 
proceeding to study the customs relating to the 
circumcision of girls, we think it will be of interest 
to quote a few remarks by our late, indefatigable 
friend, Dr. Ploss (of Leipzig), on the operative treatment 
of female sexual organs among different peoples. 

"Certain savage tribes," he writes, " are accustomed 
to lengthen and widen the female pudenda. In the 
South-East of Africa, in the Wahia tribe, near the 
lake Nyassa, it is usual to artificially lengthen the 
clitoris until it attains the dhnension of a finger. An 
artificial elongation of the labia has also been observed 


in Dahomey " ( Vide, Adams, Remarks on the country 
East from Cafe Palmas to the Congo river, 1823, p. 
15 — 75). Prince Max of Neuwied noticed a similar 
artificial deformity among the women of the Mandan 
Indians in North America, and mentions also the same 
custom of elongation of the labia pudendi among the 
Menitary and Crow Indians, both externally and 
internally. Similarly th« Tribadie or Amor lesbicus, 
among the Arabs, leads also to an artificial extension 
of the clitoris. 

But what is far more important from the anthropo- 
logical point of view is the study of more sanguinary 
operations : the circumcision and infibulation of maidens. 
Among some nations both operations are simultaneously 
performed, in others either of the two. We will now 
examine the modus operandi, the importance, the object 
and the results of the operation, and the countries 
where it is most practised. 

The Excision of the Clitoris. This operation 
consists in a bloody extirpation and uprooting of the 
clitoris, together with the prceputium clitoridis and a 
part of the small labia, and even sometimes a part of 
the entry to the vagina. 

This strange and cruel custom prevails in a great 
number of countries, not only in Africa, but in many 
other lands. It is found among the Arabs, in Egypt, 
in Nubia, in Abyssinia, in Kordofan and the neigh- 
bouring districts and among numerous tribes on the 
East coast of Africa, as well as among those of the 
West coast. It has also been noticed in the Malay 
Archipelago, particularly in Java, and among the 
Chuncho and Campas Indians in Peru. 

It is very difficult to trace the cause of this custom. 


Some are of opinion that it is for the purpose of 
diminishing sexual lust in the female. There are others, 
however, who pretend that in those tropical climates 
the clitoris and labia often take such undue develop- 
ment as to become objects of repulsion to the male, 
and consequently an obstacle to marriage. According 
to Mungo Park, the Mandingo Negroes, in West Africa, 
do not attach any religious signification to the operation, 
but consider it useful and favourable to the fecundity 
of the woman. This is also the case in the Malay 
Archipelago, where the development of the pudenda 
is often excessive. The operation is generally performed 
as early as possible, but seldom later than the eighth 
or ninth year. The operators are women, who go 
about crying : " Any girls to be cut ; " the instrument 
employed is simply a sharp knife. 

It is usual in all parts of Africa, where this custom 
is practised for a number of girls to be circumcised 
together, and when they are healed, which requires 
about eight days, a festival is held in their honour. 
A girl uncircumcised would be repudiated by her 
husband, as he could also be by his wife if he had 
not undergone the operation. 

Infibulation.— The Sewing up of Maids. This 
operation consisted principally in sewing up the labia, 
or in removing them by excision and causing the 
wounded surfaces to heal together by adherence, leaving 
only a small orifice free. It is common among the 
Gallas, Somalis and Bedschas above the Nile cataracts 
and from there extends among the inhabitants of 
Harrar to Massowa on the Red Sea. The custom 
seems to be of very great antiquity and is mentioned 
by the celebrated ancient Arab doctor Rhazes, in his 


work of len volumes dedicated to King Al Mansur, 
Lib. V, c. 69. 

The object of the operation is evidently to insure 
the chastity of the maiden until her marriage, previous 
to which she has to undergo the counter-operation. 
When the husband starts upon a journey, he often 
submits his wife to a new infibulation to make sure 
that no one shall trespass on his premises during his 
absence. Slave-dealers also employ that method to 
insure the value of their merchandise. According to 
Brehm {Reiscskizzen in Nord-Ost Africa, Jena, 1885, 
Th. I, S. 1 69) : the Mohammedan law requires circumci- 
sion only, but the inhabitants of the Sudan are not 
satisfied with this, " sed etiajii labiis minoribus {Nymphis) 
ahscissis labia majora inde a Veneris fiionte usque ad 
vaginam sanando ita copitlant, ut fistula sola ad 
urinam fimdendam pateaf' (but also, the lesser lips 
or nymphae being cut away, the greater lips, right 
from the mons Veneris to the vagina, unite in process 
of healing, so that only a narrow pipe is left open for the 
discharge of the urine). When marriage is decided 
upon, the future bridegroom sends a wooden model of 
his priapus to the parents of the young lady, and 
according to its dimension a corresponding opening is 
made. Cailliaud, in his Travels on the White Nile to 
Mero^ and Senaar, Paris, 1826, II, alluding to this 
barbarous custom, expresses himself as follows: "Apres 
avoir elague ces deux membranes, les plaies de I'une 
et de I'autre sont rapprochees, et la patiente est tenue 
dans un etat d'immobilite presque entiere jusqu'a ce 
qu'elles se soient reunics ensemble par agglutination ; 
au moyen d'une canule tres mince on menage une 
ouverture, a peine suffisante pour les ecoulements 
naturels. Quelque temps avant le mariage, il faut 


detmire par incision cette adherence contraire a la 
nature." It is usually not less than twenty days before 
marriage that the young girl is submitted to this cruel 
operation of opening out. When the wife is about to 
give birth to a child the opening has to be enlarged, 
and after her confinement is often sewn up again 
(Riippel's Travels in Nubia and Kordo/an, etc., 
Frankfort, 1829, p. 42). * 

Circumcision of Young Girls. This form of 
circumcision is peculiar to those tribes that are fetish 
worshippers, and consists of the excision of the lesser 
lips. It is not a religious ceremony at all, but simply 
a matter of hygiene. It should be remarked, that 
amongst these races, it is the blacksmith-surgeon who 
circumcises the boys, and it is his wife who circum- 
cises the girls. The instrument employed in both cases 
is an iron knife, very badly sharpened, and more like 
a saw than a surgical instrument. But though the 
operation is not a religious ceremony, it is celebrated 
by a curious festival, which is a kind of holiday for the 
whole population of the village. On that day, everyone 
puts on his best clothes, and all the people meet on 
the public place, to the sound of the griots' tam-tam. 

The Festival of the Circumcision of Girls. 

Accompanied by horrible music, consisting of tam- 
tams and other instruments, and the songs of the 
griots, the young girls who are to be operated upon, 
— superbly dressed, and wearing all the family jewels, 
— make the circuit of the village, and return to the 
public place, when a ball immediately commences, and 

* Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic for 1871. 

See Dr. Godard's article, in connection with this subject, on the 
defloration of virgins, in the Excursus to present chapter. 


lasts twenty-four hours. When they are worn out 
with fatigue, they are carried by the old matrons 
into the hut where the circumcision is to take place. 
The operation is performed at daybreak, when all the 
women of the village go alone to the hut of the 
blacksmith and his wife, who has to perform the 
operation. She sets to work in this manner. The 
patient is seated on a block of wood about eighteen 
inches high, placed at a little distance from the wall 
of the hut. When she sits she opens her thighs as 
widely as possible ; the body is bent back, and the 
head, which is held nearly horizontal, touches the wall. 
The arms, which are thrown back, lean on a little 
bench, which runs along the side of the wall. In this 
position, the vulva is open, and the "little lips" project. 
The woman squats down in front of the girl, lays hold 
of the right lip with the left hand and cuts if off with 
a sharp stroke ; then she performs the same operation 
on the left side. To stop the bleeding, she applies a 
plaster, the base of which is ferruginous mud from the 
smithy, mixed with water containing a little alum. This 
plaster is not only a styptic, but cicatrises the wound. 
The patient must remain in the house a week. During 
the three or four following weeks, a troop of girls may 
be seen every morning, limping, with sticks in their 
hands, to the river, to perform their ablutions. At 
last the bandage is taken off, and they can play about 
as much as they please. ^ 

The Nubile Negress. The epithet vast may be 
applied even more fitly to the Negresses of Senegal, 
than to those of Guiana. On account of the size of 

' Refer to notes by Sir Rich. F. Burton on certain Customs of the 
Dahomeyans in the Excursus to this chapter ; nl>o to the Hottentot 


the vulva, and the vagina, and the want of nervous 
susceptibility in the Negress, delivery is effected almost 
without pain. In the adult Negress, the vulva is placed 
very low, and descends almost vertically, as does also 
the vagina, which is much longer than in the European 
woman. There is a very pronounced clitoris, which is 
often the size of the little finger of an adult. The 
pubes is prominent, and is covered with some stiff and 
hard hair. The Negresses shave themselves with the 
neck of a broken bottle. 

The Genital Organ of the Negro. According to 
the usual law, to which this is no exception, the geni- 
tal organ of the male is in proper proportion, as regards 
size, to the dimensions of the female organ. In fact, 
with the exception of the Arab, who runs him very 
close in this respect, the Negro of Senegal possesses 
the largest genital organ of all the races of mankind. 
It is even more developed than that of the Negro of 
Guiana. While dealing with this subject, we may be 
permitted to cite the following case, reported by a 
brother officer, of perforation of the vagina of a young 
Kabyle woman non-nubile, caused by the sexual approach 
of her husband. 

The Perforated Kabyle Woman. ' On the 25th 
of September, 1869, in the village of El-Mesloub, the 
young Aini-Ntamrant, of the Beni-Raten tribe, aged 
twelve and married since about thirty days to El 
Haoussin or Ali, a youth of from 15 to 16 years old, 
died suddenly. 

Public rumour, from the very next morning, accused 

' This note was cotnmuDicated by M. Prosp. Albert, medecin aide- 
major de Z''* classe, at the military hospital of Tizi-Ozou (Algeria) 


the husband of having killed his wife by premature 
and forced conjugal approach. The Amyn or judge 
of the tribe thought it his duty to have the body sent 
to the Bureau Arabe, and we were charged to pro- 
ceed to a post vwrtein examination of it. The follow- 
ing was the result. 

The body is that of a quite young girl not yet 
developed. She is thin, and the mamvice are not yet 
elevated above the surface of the breast, nor is there 
yet any hair on the pubis, which is merely covered 
with down. The vulva is but imperfectly developed, 
and the girl had never been nubile. Her conforma- 
tion and her exterior genital organs were those of a 
child. A close examination showed that the fork was 
torn vertically downwards for a distance of three 
tenths of an inch ; the rent extends through the navi- 
cular fossa into the vagina. There is no trace of the 
hymen left, but in its place red excoriations. On 
further examination the vagina was found to be ex- 
tremely short, measuring not more than i^ inch in depth, 
and at its inner extremity there was an opening 
through which the finger could penetrate right into 
the abdomen. 

The uterus is that of a child and weighs only three 
grammes. All these facts show positively that Aini- 
Ntamrant was quite unfit for marriage, and her hus- 
band must have used the utmost violence to have 
caused the lesions we noticed. The examination of the 
brain showed that death was owing to intense cerebral 

We caused the young husband of the victim to 
appear before us. Ho is a lad of 15 or 16 years old: 
of middle height, well constituted, but thin. He has 
no beard, and but little hair on the pubis, which 


besides is shaved. His genital organs are greatly 
developed for his age. His testicles are voluminous. 
From the tip of the gland to its insertion in the 
pubis the penis measures three inches and one sixth 
in length; its average circumference is 4^ inches. 

Is it necessary to draw attention to the enormous 
disproportion between the volume and length of the 
penis of this young man, when in a state of erection, 
and the opening of the vulva and length of the vagina 
of his wife. 

From his own admissions we gleaned the following: 
the marriage took place a month ago, but the first 
conjugal approaches were so painful to her that the 
girl wanted to go back to her mother. But he refused 
to let her do so, promising however, to have patience 
Unfortunately he could not contain himself and the 
extreme violence he used, notwithstanding the suppli- 
cations of his wife, ruptured the vagina, the walls of 
which we had besides noticed to be very thin. 

This unfortunately is one of the examples of the 
disadvantages of the Koran, which omits to assign an 
inferior limit of age to marriage between young people. ' 

Circumcision the Probable Cause of the Size of 
the Negro's Penis. Without any hesitation I attribute 
the size of the penis to the operation of circumcision. 
It is certain that the removal of that portion of the 
skin, and the mucous surface of the foreskin, which 
compresses and caps the gland, and often prevents it 
coming out even when in erection, interferes with the 
free development of the young boy's organ. We know 
that at the time of puberty, in the European, consid- 

' Mcmoires de medecine et de chirurgie militaires. Paris, 8vo., 
p. 142 — 146. 


erable changes in the genital- organ are produced in 
a few months. The testicles grow very quickly and 
the member develops rapidly. But in many young 
people there is complete phimosis, owing to the small- 
ness of the free extremity of the foreskin, more especi- 
ally in those who at the age of puberty are not addicted 
to masturbation. It has often occurred to me, in the 
course of my medical visits to the barracks, to notice 
that many of the young French soldiers had the mem- 
ber of a completely conical form, diminishing gradually 
from the root of the gland. The foreskin covered it 
entirely, and the member was skinned with difficulty, 
when it was limp, and with more difficulty still when 
it was erect. In other cases, if an incomplete phimosis 
allowed the gland to partly come out, the shortness 
of the " bridle " of the foreskin curved the gland, and 
prevented it from assuming its normal form and posi- 
tion. This is phimosis, which is common enough in 
all the European races, and which can only be got 
rid of by a more or less complete circumcision, which, 
however, many persons refuse to have done, unless it 
is an absolute necessity. Now let us look at the young 
Negro of thirteen or fourteen, who is circumcised at the 
age of puberty. ' 

The Effect of Circumcision on the Size of the 
Penis of the Pubescent Boy. A fairly large cush- 
ion of flesh and skin is removed, and the retraction 
draws the skin of the penis behind the crown of the 
gland, to the extent of two-fifth to four-fifths of an 
inch at least ; when the penis afterwards develops, the 
gland, having nothing to check it, will assume its 

* See also The Perforation of the Penis in Australia^ at end of 


normal size. Cicatrisation, assisted by the healing 
growth which repairs the loss of the skin and mucous 
surface taken away, causes the largest part of the 
member to correspond with the circular scar caused 
by the operation. Although the gland may be much 
developed, its diameter still remains slightly inferior 
to this part of the penis, which on the whole greatly 
resembles a large fish, with a round head and a short 
tail. We can then understand why the Negroes of 
Guiana call their member, a fish. 

The Negro is a real " man-stallion " , and nothing 
can give a better idea (both as to colour and size) of 
the organ of the Negro, when erect, than the tool of 
a little African donkey. The absence of hair on the 
pubes — which the Negroes remove, — makes the resem- 
blance more complete. Nor is it confined merely to 
colour and size, for the yard of the Negro, even when 
in complete erection, is still soft like that of the 
donkey, and when pressed by the hand feels (as I 
have already said) like a thick india-rubber tube full 
of liquid. Even when flabby, the Negro's yard still 
retains a size and consistence that are greater than 
that of the European, whose organ shrivels up and 
becomes soft and limp. The average size of the penis 
generally appeared to me to be about yf to 8 inches 
in length, by two inches in diameter. Except with 
young lads, just arrived at the age of puberty, the 
penis is rarely less than 6^ inches in length by if 
inches in diameter. I took these measurements from 
the Sharpshooters, amongst whom I met specimens of 
most of the races of Senegal and the Upper Niger. 
I often came across a penis of Qf to lo inches, by 
2^ inches, and once, in a young Bambara, barely 
twenty years of age, found a monstrous organ ii| 


inches long by 2.6 inches in diameter at the circular 
circumcision mark. 

Mantegazza's Opinion as to the Size of the 
Genital Organs of the Negroes. I find in Man- 
tegazza ' an exact confirmation of what I have just 
said. " Observations as to the shape and dimensions 
of the genital organs, in the various races, are not as 
yet very numerous; it is proved, however, that the 
Negroes generally have the virile member more vo- 
luminous than other people, and I myself verified this 
statement, during the years in which I practised 
medicine in South America. The size of the genital 
parts in the male corresponds to the huge dimensions 
of the vagina in the Negresses. Falkenstein remarked 
that the Negroes of Loango had huge members, and 
that their wives reproached our men with having such 
small yards. He rejects the singular idea of Topinard, 
who states that it is only when flabby that this 
enormous size is noticed, and that, on the contrary, 
the penis is reduced in size when erect. Falkenstein ^ 
also observed amongst the Negresses of Loango, as 
amongst us, a great difference as to the beginning of 
menstruation in different individuals." 

But I do not agree with Mantegazza when he 
discusses the advantages, and disadvantages, of circum- 

Mantegazza's Opinion of Circumcision. " The 

historians of the Jews have exaggerated the hygienic 

' Gli Amort defrW -Uomini' 6\ P.iolo Mantegazza, Senatore del Regno 
(Milan, 1892). 

* Die Loango- Kits te in 72 Original-Photographien (35 Blatt) nebst 
erlauterndrm Text, Berlin, 1876. 


value of circumcision. It is true, that circumcised 
persons are rather less disposed to masturbation, and 
to venereal diseases, but circumcision is above all a 
distinctive mark, and a cruel mutilation of the protecting 
organ of the gland, and destroys the pleasure of 
copulation. It is a bloody protest against universal 
brotherhood, and though Christ was circumcised, he 
protested on the Cross against all those marks and 
symbols which divide and separate men. Dimerbroek 
says, that the foreskin increases a woman's pleasure 
in the ace of copulation, and that is why, in the East, 
women prefer uncircumcised men. I should not like 
to affirm that this is so, because, when the member is 
in erection, the circumcised and uncircumcised yard are 
exactly alike. In any case it would need a woman 
to resolve this difficult problem, and no one has ever 
given her opinion on the subject. I only know that, 
amongst civilised people, circumcision is an absurdity, 
and though I am by no means an antisemite, and have 
a great esteem for the Israelites, I say, and shall always 
say, to the Jews : Do not mutilate yourselves, and im- 
print on your bodies this hateful mark, which distin- 
guishes you from other men. As long as you do so, 
you can never pretend to be our equals. For, from 
the first days of your life, you yourselves proclaim, by 
means of the knife, that you belong to a distinct race, 
that will not and cannot mingle with ours." 

For my part, my opinion is radically opposed 
to that of Mantegazza, for reasons which I will explain 
in detail. 

The Incontestable Advantages of Circumcision. 

The fact is, that circumcision offers great advantages, 
without any serious inconveniences. The painful ope- 


ration is the principal objection, but when the operation 
is once done, the gland remains always uncovered, 
and, by rubbing against the clothes, the mucous sur- 
face dries, hardens, and becomes tanned. The seba- 
ceous glands of the crown dry up, and their disagreeable 
secretion disappears almost entirely. The general 
sensibility of the organ is also blunted, and copulation 
requires a long time before emission takes place. But 
if it is longer, the result is the same in the end for 
the man, and the woman gets the advantage. I do 
not think there are many women who will contradict 
this statement. 

The immense advantage which I find in circumci- 
sion is the almost complete suppression of all the 
maladies which are brought on by completely developed 
phimosis, either directly or indirectly ; —balanitis, prosta- 
titis, phlegmons of the penis, etc. A penis with a 
dry gland, the skin of which is slightly tanned, is 
infinitely less likely to contract syphilis than a gland 
that is capped by a phimosis, and has a fine and delicate 
skin, and a " bridle " that curbs it in. The least scratch 
or roughness, in the mucous covering of the vagina, 
will prove infectious to such a member. 

I hope that the reader will be of my opinion, and 
conclude that Mantegazza is wrong. 

The Suppression of Masturbation in the Cir- 
cumcised. An indisputable, and not less valuable 
advantage of circumcision is, that it almost completely 
suppresses, in the pubescent youth, the vice of mastur- 
bation. In fact, I have remarked that the Negro boy, 
who practises masturbation before he is circumcised, 
does not practise it afterwards. He never experiences 
that continual tickling, which the European, provided 


(unfortunately for him) with a perfect phimosis, feels 
to such a degree, that, if he does not take daily pre- 
cautions as to cleanliness, the gland, surrounded as it 
is by a filthy layer of sebaceous smegma, remains, — 
as does also the urinary meatus, — in a state of morbid 

The Arab and the Negro are guarded from all that. 
Circumcision is of the greatest necessity to them, and 
that is why the fetish worshipper, who hates the 
Mussulman, is, like him, circumcised. In the Negro 
boy before puberty, the yard, which is nearly as large 
as that of the Hindoo ("man-hare") is provided with 
a foreskin, which is very long and prominent. More- 
over, the child learns at an early age the habit of 
pulling his member by the foreskin, and this little 
amusement being often repeated, the skin becomes still 
longer. This habit is a kind of tradition with them, 
and these young rascals glory in possessingan abnormally 
long foreskin, when the day arrives for being circum- 
cised. Well may it be said that the spirit of emula- 
tion will take strange forms. 

The Festival of Circumcision amongst the Fetish 
Worshippers. With the Mussulman, circumcision is 
almost a religious ceremony, whilst, as we have seen, 
marriage is not. On the other hand, amongst the 
fetish worshippers, it is a festival celebrated with great 
rejoicings, but devoid of any religious character. I 
quote from the author of a very interesting book ' 
a description of the festival of circumcision in a Malinke 

"We must assist to-day at a great festival. To- 
morrow the young lads of the village of Makadiam- 

' Bechet, Cinq Annc'es dans le Haut Soudan. 


bougou are to be circumcised, and the most renowned 
musicians have come to give their assistance at this 
solemnity. The orchestra is composed of eight bala- 
fours, five koras, a score of guitars, flutes, tambourines, 
and tam-tams, and, in short, all the musicians and 
instruments that can be got together; there are also 
choruses of women and young girls. 

" Frequent libations of dolo (millet-beer) consumed 
during the day, have much to do with the musical and 
Terpsichorean excitement, which everyone evinces whilst 
awaiting the beginning of the festival. The price of 
gouro has doubled, and this valuable aphrodisiac is 
hardly to be found on the market, such stores of it 
have been laid in by the villagers. About three o'clock 
in the afternoon, we see a large crowd making for the 
Fort. These are the young heroes of the day, who, 
accompanied by the Griots, come in great pomp, to 
salute the Commandant, and try to obtain presents from 
him. The candidates for circumcision are about thirty 
in number, and from twelve to fourteen years of age. 
They wear their best boubous, and are covered with 
the jewels and amulets of their respective families. 
Their faces are radiant; and everyone crowds round 
them to excite them, and encourage them to support 
bravely the brutal operation. 

" The chief Griot, in a hoarse, wild voice, sings : ' To- 
morrow you will be pure, to-morrow you will be men. 
You can go to war. The horsemen of Samory will 
fly before you.' The women and young girls repeat 
in chorus almost exactly the same words; then the 
Griots sing all together: 'A Malinke does not fear to 
shed his blood.' The young girls reply: 'The sons 
of the Malinke do not fear the knife.' The Griots : 
' To-morrow all the women will be satisfied with you.' 


And during all the festival, similar litanies are chanted 
in every variety of tone. 

" I will be silent as to the details sung concerning 
the operation itself. The heroes of the day, each 
armed with a sabre, come one after the other, stamp- 
ing, and performing a war dance, which consists in 
imitating cuts and thrusts, and making menacing 
gestures at an imaginary foe; whilst, with a yet 
unskilful hand, they try to turn the shining blade 
above their head; the movements of their legs give 
to their supple young bodies a motion from left to 
right, which is exceedingly graceful. Then, in their 
turn come the women and young girls, dancing and 
rolling their heads round on their shoulders with such 
vigour that the back of the head often touches the 
spine, which, to the spectators, has a most disagree- 
able effect. 

" The songs and dances continue thus all the night, 
but being desirous of assisting at the ceremony, which 
takes place at daybreak, we only put in an appearance 
for about half an hour, at the evening festivities. The 
interpreter told us that the circumcision is performed 
publicly, and that, except the women, anyone can assist 
at it, that usually the Blacks did not like the Whites 
to be present, but an exception would be made in the 
case of the Commandant, and the officers ft-om the 
Fort. Though I had been three years in the country, 
this was the first time that I had assisted at a cere- 
mony which is very interesting in many respects. I 
will not speak here of the really astonishing courage 
shown by the children. The instrument used by the 
blacksmith-surgeon was a common iron knife of the 
country, sharpened with a file, and whetted on a flint 
stone : the patients sang, waved their arms, and smiled 


at the excited spectators, who fired off their guns and 
uttered wild cries. When the operation was finished, 
the boy was seated on the hot sand which was heaped 
up round him to his waist. He is then shut up for a 
month, in a hut, which he must not leave until he is 
completely cured." 

I will complete this recital by giving some details 
of the operation itself. 

These particulars I had from one of my colleagues, 
who witnessed the operation. The blacksmith-surgeon 
is provided with a small plate of yellow copper, about 
the tenth of an inch thick, with a hole of about half 
an inch in diameter in it. He draws through this 
hole the lad's foreskin, and with the left hand pulls it 
forward, till he gets the right quantity (which varies 
according to the length of the foreskin and the thick- 
ness of the boy's yard), whilst, with his right hand, he 
stops the point of the gland from coming through. 
He takes care to pull, with the finger and thumb of 
the right hand, the skin of the gland a little towards 
the base of the penis, whilst the foreskin is held in 
its place. That being done, he takes his knife, which 
he had held between his teeth, and with a single 
stroke cuts clean off that portion of the foreskin which 
is on the plate. Having removed the plate, the 
blacksmith-surgeon sucks with his lips the blood which 
comes out of the wound, gently draws back the skin 
of the penis to uncover the gland, and washes the 
wound with water containing a resinous essence 
(probably an extract from some kind of fir-tree), which 
hias the property of stopping the flow of blood. The 
foreskin which has been cut off is wrapped in a bit 
of rag, and used as a wad for an old gun, which is 
charged like a small cannon, and fired in the air, 


amidst loud cries of joy. The operation ends, as I 
have ah-eady said in the case of the girls, by daily 
bandaging the wound with ferruginous mud, which is 
sedative and healing. 


Polyandry. Polyandry is met with in many 
different countries. It should not, however, be con- 
founded with the customs of certain warlike castes, 
devoted to celibacy, whose wives are in common. 
Such are the Nair on the Malabar Coast, ^ in Southern 
India, and the same custom formerly prevailed among 
the Toporague Cossacks, 

Genuine polyandry exists among the Esquimaux, 
the Aleutians, the Koriaks and the Kolouches. Sir 
John Lubbock notices the same custom among the 
Iroquois and among several tribes on the banks of the 
Orinoco. In the South Seas it exists among the Masris 
of New Zealand and in some other of the smaller is- 
lands. ^ In Southern India, in the Neilgherry Hills, 
polyandry is an institution among the Todas, where 
all the brothers of the same family become successively 
the husband of the wife of the elder brother, and, vice 
versa, the younger sisters of the wife becoming the 
wives of this matrimonial association. ^ A somewhat 
similar institution existed among the ancient Britons 
in the time of Caesar, '^ as also, according to Mr. La- 
gneau, among the Agathyrses and the Liburnea. Mr. 
Rousselet relates, that on the Malabar Coast, among 

* Vide note p. 59 ante. 

' Oscar Peschel, Voelkerkunde, 1875. ' Graul, Osttndien, vol. 3. 
' G. V. Kessel, Ausland, 1872, No. 37. * Waitz, Anthropologies vol. 3. 

* Oscar Peschel, ibidem. * Baierlein, Nack und Aus Indien. 
' De Bella gallico, lib. V, cap. XIV. 


the Nair tribe, a young girl takes legally a husband, 
that is to say a protector, for he never becomes a 
husband de facto: this advantage is reserved to a 
number of younger men whom the lady later on attaches 
to her household. 

In South Africa polyandry exists in the Herero 
tribe. 1 Samuel Turner, in his travels, in Thibet, ^ 
saw that it existed in certain parts of that country, 
and Vigne ^ also notices it as prevailing in the Himalaya 
Mountains, East of Simla, near Mossouri, and even in 
the Chitral district there are traces of this strange 
custom. •* 

In another locality of the Himalayas, Kooloo, poly- 
andry exists, but sporadically only, so that in the same 
village polyandry and polygamy may exist together. 
Mr. Lyall, British political agent in the Himalayan 
districts of Kooloo, Lahool and Spiti, ® relates that he 
saw in one Kooloo house four men with one wife; 
next door, three men with three wives and, a little 
further on, one husband with four wives. These arrange- 
ments always depend upon the relative wealth of the 
respective households. This opinion is indeed that of 
most of the travellers who have visited these regions. 
" I have myself, " says Mr. Ujfalvy, " seen in the village 
of Manglaoor matrimonial associations in which four 
or six men, all brothers, lived with one wife. Colonel 
Jenkins, for many years chief of the Kooloo district, 
informed me that it was not indispensable that these 
men should be brothers." 

* G. Fritsche, Die Eingeborenen Siidafrika's. 
' Samuel Turner, Embassy to Thibet. 

* Vigne. Travels in Kashmir, Ladak and Iskardo, 1842. 

* Biddulph, The Tribes of the Hindoo-Kush, Calcutta, 1 880. 

* Harcourt, The Himalayan Districts of Kooloo, Lahool and Spiti, 1871. 


In the Kooloo district there is not much land fit for 
cultivation ; property is therefore very limited and would 
finally tend to disappear by continuous portioning- out : 
the proprietor would no longer be able to live on the 
produce of his land. In order to obviate this incon- 
venience, female infanticide is common in these valleys, 
and consequently the increase of the female population 
becomes impossible. It was this barbarous custom, 
according to Rousselet, which, prevailing in Rajputana, 
obliged the haughty Rajpoots to seek for wives outside 
of their own territory. The matrimonial associations 
in Kooloo live on the best terms one with the other; 
the children issued from these strange unions speak of 
an elder and of a younger father; and when one of 
the husbands perceives on the threshold of the marital 
chamber the shoes of one of his colleag^ies, he knows 
that he must not enter. This custom is called the 
djoutika tabou. * 

Female Infanticide. With regard to the dilemma 
in which an otherwise friendly critic wished to enclose 
me, saying : " If really three fourths of the women 
become nuns, we do not see why female infanticide, 
which Mr. Ujfalvy thinks is so general, should be 
practised at all. Either this infanticide is without an 
object, and is but little practised, or the number of 
women is not sufiicient to people the convents, the 
existence of which is well established.^ My only 
answer is that there is not even one woman's convent 
tn the whole country. All the travellers who have 
visited these districts wiU confirm me on this point 

In Ladak polyandry also exists, but not in quite 
the same manner as in Kooloo. Here the women 

' The prohibition of the shoe. 


enjoy a particular privilege, they have the faculty of 
choosing, outside of the association of brothers of whom 
they are the spouse, a fifth or sixth supplementary 
husband, according to their taste. 

But in Ladak polygamy is also to be met with; 
and it even sometimes happens that a rich heiress will 
choose one husband only and remain satisfied with him. 

I have not visited the Lahool district itself, but I 
have been able to obtain accurate information concern- 
ing the manners and customs of the country. The 
inhabitants are Buddhists, but their religion is far less 
pure than in Thibet. There are lamas and nuns; the 
latter, few in number, reside but two months of winter 
yearly in their convent. The rest of the time they 
live with their family, and as they have taken no vo^w 
of chastity, they can marry. They also often marry 
lamas. It would appear that the life they lead during 
their brief sojourn in the convent is very far fi-om being 

Polyandry undoubtedly exists in the Lahool country, 
and perhaps also in the Spiti districts, but documents 
are wanting on the subject : however, one of the Pandits, 
Nain Singh, sent by colonel Montgomery to explore 
the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya, noted its 
existence to the North of Spiti. Besides the manners 
and customs of Lahool and of Spiti are very similar 
to those of Thibet proper, where polyandry was already 
noted by Samuel Turner at the end of the last century. 
The reflections added by Turner to the relation of his 
travels are, besides, most instructive. We have our- 
selves been able to notice, particularly in Lahool, a 
great degeneracy of Buddhism, intermixed with Hindoo- 

' Samuel Turner, An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo 
Lama in Thibet, 1800. 


ism ; in proof of which the almost absolute liberty 
enjoyed by the nuns in this country. 

In Ladak polyandry seems to have taken root for 
the same reasons as in the Kooloo district; in Ladak 
the amount of available arable land is still less than 
in Kooloo, and the conditions of the climate are such 
that it would be impossible to extend it. Schlagintweit * 
and Drew ^ seem to be right when they ascribe to 
economic reasons the prevalence of polyandry in Ladak ; 
for in Ladak, more than elsewhere, the population 
would die of hunger if, by reason of regular succession, 
the landed property should become infinitely subdivided, 
and all the more so on account of the geographical 
isolation of the country. Drew, who was for a long 
time governor of Ladak, was never able to obtain 
any information concerning female infanticide in that 

Drew seemed to think that the small number of 
female births in Ladak was one of the consequences 
of polyandry. It appears, however, that in this country, 
to prevent a too great diminution of the population 
polygamic and monogamic marriages are now and 
then contracted which re-establish the equilibrium. It 
is certain that polyandry has an injurious effect on the 
morals of the women ; for neither in Kooloo nor in 
Ladak can the women pass for models of conjugal 
fidelity. In Kooloo particularly they have tlie reputation 
of being coquettish and fickle. 

At Leh, the capital of Ladak, there is a whole 
quarter of the town inhabited by half-breeds resulting 
from the union of Ladak women with foreign fathers. 
As for Kooloo, travellers relate strange stories. In 

* Vide Schlagintweit, Indien, vol. IT. 
' Drew, ibidem. 


fact we were assured that the assistant commissioner 
of the country had taken the most stringent measures 
to protect the Kooloo husbands. When an EngHsh 
officer passing through the country succumbs to the 
charms of a Calypso of this country, the husbands 
are required to refuse him all means of subsistence, 
so as to force him to quit the country as soon as 
possible. I had myself occasion during my journey 
to meet with a young officer, the victim of an adventure 
of the kind, and to whom, for reasons of humanity, I 
ceded some boxes of tinned provisions. 

However, at Kooloo, these strange families live 
together on the very best terms, without the least signs 
of jealousy. It must also be remembered that the 
numerous temples in this country are ministered by 
young girls devoted to the worship of Mahaderi, the 
wife of Siva, and these maidens are far from being 
averse to gallant adventure. 

The men work in the fields or become coolies to 
carry travellers' baggage; the wife manages the 
household and looks after the children ; she receives 
and takes care of the money earned by her husbands. 
She is therefore the real guardian of the property 
earned by the matrimonial association. 

In the discussion which followed the communication 
of Mr. Ujfalvy, Mr. Rousselet made the following 
remarks : " It is evident that polyandry is a social 
form much spread about in ancient times among the 
wild peoples of Asia. But it is in India that the 
custom has been best preserved up to our days, and 
traces of it are to be met with throughout the whole 
of the peninsula, from the Himalaya to Cape Comorin. 

" The Nair or Nagar tribe on the Malabar Coast have 
best preserved the practice of polyandry, of which 


traces are also to be found among some other tribes 
of the Deccan, such us the Ramoosis, and the Metars, 
and also under form of a prostitution consecrated by 
usage, as among the Ouled Nail in Algeria. 

" The Nair are evidently of Turanian origin ; they 
settled in Southern India long before the Aryans and 
imposed their domination on the aborigines. Their 
name which signifies master conqueror, is sufficient to 
show that origin. After the introduction of the Aryan 
influence, they refused to accept the Brahmanic organi- 
sation, and were relegated among the Sudras, without 
however losing all their importance. 

" Although adopting the worship of Vishnoo, they 
have preserved their veneration for the sanguinary 
Marima, to whom they sacrifice various animals, cocks, 
goats and even oxen, of which they afterwards eat the 
flesh, contrary to the Brahmanical precepts. 

" Their organisation is based upon the principle of 
what may be called the matriarcat, that is to say that 
the woman holds the first rank. 

" At the age of ten years, the young girl is legally 
joined to a man of her caste ; but as soon as the union 
is consummated, the husband is dismissed with a slight 
present to remunerate him for his service, and hence- 
forward he is forbidden all connection with the woman 
whom he has so to speak enfranchised. From this 
moment the Nair woman may go with whomsoever 
she pleases, but in reality she does not contract any 
durable union, she can only have more or less passing 
lovers, and she may choose them where she likes, 
even among strangers. Nevertheless custom imposes 
upon her a sort of selection and, under pain of losing 
in consideration, she must choose her lovers among 
men of the highest castes or else of particularly 


vigorous constitution, so as to add to the credit and 
to the beauty of her tribe. But the lover possesses 
no rights whatever in the house; the authority always 
belongs to the woman. The head of the family is 
always the mother, and in her absence the eldest 
daughter ; it is she who administers the property of her 
brothers or of her sons; inheritance goes by collateral 
line, that is to say the nephew inherits from his uncle ; 
the supposed father can leave nothing to his children ; 
in the family he has not even any recognised title 
and is considered merely as a friend and protector. 

" The soil itself always belongs to the wife, head of 
the community ; the mother leaves it to her eldest 
daughter and all the brothers cultivate it for the 
benefit of the entire community; men having no living 
sister or nephews, and therefore having no heirs, get 
themselves adopted as brothers by some woman outside 
of their family. This organisation was extended even 
to royalty, for during a long period the crown of 
Travancore was transmitted in female descent only, 
to the exclusion of the males. 

" Among the tribes of Southern India who still practise 
polyandry it is necessary to note the Tir and the 
Poliyar, on the Malabar Coast, and in the Mysore 
country. Here, marriage exists ; only the brothers or 
members of the same family combine to have one 
wife in common, and the estate passes undivided to 
the children of the community, who, on their side, 
continue this indivision by common unions. 

" In the North-East of India, at the foot of the Hi- 
malaya, among the mountaineers of the Garros tribe, 
there still exist traces of this ancient custom, although 
polyandry has practically disappeared. Among the 
Garros the woman is still the head of the family ; she 


administers the property and transmits it directly to 
her children. However, marriage mostly affects there 
the form of monogamy or of polygamy, but it is always 
the daughter who seeks and chooses for herself her 
husband, and it is she who, on the eve of her marriage, 
has her favoured one carried off by her friends and 
brought to her house, 

" As in all other polyandric tribes, among the Garros 
the son never inherits the paternal property, which 
always goes to the son of his sister, but this nephew 
inherits at the same time from the widow and is 
obliged to take her to wife, even should she be the 
mother of his own wife. 

" The polyandric system seems to be practised only 
according to the real wants of the population. So 
that, when the number of the population diminishes, a 
woman contents herself with one husband only. 

"Another peculiar custom in Ladak is worthy of 
notice, that is the retirement from social life of the 
parents after they have attained a certain age. When 
the daughter is married and has children, the father 
and mother abandon their property to her benefit, 
reserving to themselves only what is strictly necessary 
for their keep. In most cases each community has a 
little house and field reserved for this purpose. When 
two or several fathers attain together the age of 
retirement, they continue to Uve together." 

N.B. It is but fair to add that we are indebted for 
the preceding notes on Polyandry to an article on the 
subject in the Bulletin de la Soct^t^ d' Anthropologie 
for the year 1883. 


Dr. Godard on the Deflovirering Virgins in Egypt. ^ 

The Turks do not care to marry a woman still in 
possession of her virginity, but such is not the case 
with the Arabs, the schismatic Copts and the Catholics. 
To them, as I have already said, virginity is the first 
quality of woman. 

In Nubia, girls are married at the age of from eight 
to ten years, but the husband does not lie with them. 
In order to verify that the girl is still a virgin, the 
Nubian makes her sit upon a chair, one woman holds 
the right arm, another holds the left, two other women 
hold the thighs stretched apart. The future husband 
then introduces the leading finger into the vagina to 
assure himself that the girl is a virgin. He then 
keeps her for one or two years in his house, until 
she is about ten years old. Then, instead of having 
her incised, as in the Soudan, he himself dilates the 
vagina in the following manner: he introduces first 
one finger, and then two, and repeats this mancEuvre 
during several days. 

The rich husband is carried into the nuptial chamber 
by his eunuchs. There he finds his bride enveloped in a 
great veil which hides her from his eyes. He says a 
prayer ; that terminated, he says to her : " Thou art 
my love, I will give thee slaves, jewels, and what 
thou mayest desire." He then lifts her veil and must 
exclaim — "How beautiful she is?" Then the first 
handmaiden of the household enters and makes the 
bed, and then leaves the married couple alone. The 
next morning she re-enters the chamber to find beneath 
the pillow the usual present from the husband, which 
corresponds to the beauty he has found. 

* Dr. Godard, Observations medicates 6t'c. en Palestine et en Egypte, 
8vo. Paris, 1867 (p. 85—88). 


Customs of the Dahomeyans. I now proceed to 
notice certain peculiarities in the Dahomeyan race, 
which in the usual phrase, are " unfit for the drawing- 
room table." 

The Dahomeyan is essentially a polygynist ; and Dal- 
ziel's History is correct in asserting " The Dahomeyan 
women do not admit the embraces of their husbands 
during pregnancy, nor at the time of suckHng, which 
continues two or three years, nor while under the 
catainenia, during which they retire to a part of the 
town allotted to their reception. The prostitutes, who 
in this country are licensed by royal autority, are also 
obliged to confine themselves to a particular district, 
and are subject to an annual tax." The latter class, 
called kdsi (twenty-wife), because the honorarium was 
twenty cowries, is supplied from the palace; and the 
peculiar male and female system which pervades the 
court rendering eunuchesses necessary as well as 
eunuchs, demands HetcercB for the women as well as 
for the male fighters. I was hardly prepared for this 
amount of cynicism amongst mere barbarians ; although 
in that wonderful book, the "Arabian Nights," which 
has been degraded by Europe into mere Fairy Tales, 
the lover is always jealous, not of his own, but of the 
opposite sex. 

Another great peculiarity in Dahomey is as follows : 
— Almost all the world over, where man is circumcised, 
the woman is subjected either, as in Egypt, to mutila- 
tion of the clitoris, performed in early infancy, when 
that part is prominent, or as in the Somal and the 
upper Nilotic tribes, described by M. Werner (Reise 
zur Entdeckimg der Quellen des Weiss en Nil), to 
mutilation combined with excision of the nymphcB 
and fibulation, the wounded surfaces being roughly 


Stitched together. The reason of such mutilation is 
evident. Removal of the prepuce blunts the sensitive- 
ness of the glans penis, and protracts the act of Venus, 
which Africans and Asiatics ever strive, even by charms 
and medicines, to lengthen. The clitoris, called by 
old authors fons et scaturigo Veneris, must be reduced 
to a similar condition, or the too frequent recurrence 
of the venereal orgasm would injure the health of the 
woman. This is the case in the old Calabar River of 
the Biafran Bight; in Dahomey it is reversed. 

Adagbwiba, or circumcision, which in parts of West 
Africa, — the Gold Coast for instance, — appears sporadic, 
is universally practised in Dahomey. During the days 
of the History (Introd., p. XVIII) the time of submitting 
to the rite was left to the boys themselves, and their 
caresses were not admitted by the women as long as 
they remained in the natural state. At present, circum- 
cision is undergone in Whydah and about the seaboard 
at the age of twelve to sixteen; in the interior it is 
often delayed till the youth is twenty years old, when 
it becomes cruel and sometimes dangerous. It is ap- 
parently not a religious ceremony : a lay practitioner, 
and not the fetishman, being the performer. The 
patient sits over a small hole dug in the ground. The 
operator draws out the prepuce, which, as amongst 
Africans generally, is long and fleshy, and removes 
the blood from it by manipulation. He then inserts 
under the prepuce the forefinger of the left hand, and 
wetting with saliva a splint or a bit of straw, marks 
the circle which is to be removed. Two cuts with a 
sharp razor, one above, the other below, conclude the 
operation. This would argue an origin unconnected 
with the Jewish and with the Moslem forms, which 
also vary; amongst circumcising peoples, however, the 


rite is everywhere differently performed. The favourite 
styptic is heated sand thrown on the wound, which is 
washed every third day with simples boiled in water. 
The drink is ginger and warm water; the food preferred 
is ginger soup, but anything may be eaten except pork. 
•'A certain operation peculiar to this country," says 
the History [loc. cit.), " is likewise performed upon the 
women," and this the foot-note thus explains — /^rc"- 
longatio, videlicet, artijicialts labiorum pitdendi, capellcc 
mamillis siniilliiua (That is to say the artificial lengthen- 
ing of the lips of the pudendum, so as closely to resemble 
a she-goat's dugs). . The parts in question, locally 
called " Tu" must, from the earliest years, be ma- 
nipulated by professional old women, as is the bosom 
amongst the embryo prostitutes of China. If this be 
neglected, lady friends will deride and denigrate the 
mother, declaring that she has neglected her child's 
education, and the juniors will laugh at the daughter 
as a coward, who would not prepare herself for mar- 
riage. The sole possible advantage to be derived from 
the strange practice is the prevention of rape, but the 
men are said to enjoy handling the long projections, 
whose livid slaty hue suggests the idea of the turkey- 
cock's carbuncle. It is popularly said, " There can 
be no pleasurable Venus without 'Tu'." I find the 
custom amongst the cognate tribes of Grand Popo, but 
not in any other part of the West African Coast. 

As a rule the Dahomeyan eunuch still marries, and I 
have heard of cases similar to that quoted in Dalziel's 
History, when relating the end of the rebel eunuch 
"Tanga:" — "To his wives he appeared not the rigid 
jailer, nor the tyrannic usurper of their affections, but 
the generous arbiter of their liveliest pleasures. Hence 
they could not but be charmed with a freedom which 


no other seraglio enjoyed, and " (all devoted themselves 
to death) "they would not survive that feHcity and 
protection which was to terminate with the existence 
of their master and their lover, whose ruin seemed 
inevitable." It is difficult to obtain information in 
Dahomey concerning eunuchs, who are special slaves of 
the king, and bear the dignified title of royal wives. 
The operation is performed in the palaces, by evulsion 
of the testicles, and is often fatal, especially when 
deferred till the age of twenty. Throughout Yoruba 
these neutrals are found at the different courts, and 
the practice may have migrated from the East. 

Amongst all barbarians whose primal want is progeny, 
we observe a greater or a less development of the 
Phallic worship. In Dahomey it is uncomfortably pro- 
minent; every street from Whydah to the capital is 
adorned with the symbol, and the old ones are not 
removed.. The Dahomeyan Priapus is a clay figure of 
any size between a giant and a pigmy, crouched 
upon the ground as if contemplating its own Attributes. 
The head is sometimes a wooden block rudely carved, 
more often dried mud, and the eyes and teeth are 
supplied by cowries. A huge penis, like the section 
of a broom-stick, rudely carv^ed, like the Japanese articles 
which I have lately been permitted to inspect, projects 
horizontally from the middle. I could have carried off 
a donkey's load had I been aware of the rapidly 
rising value of Phallic specimens amongst the collectors 
of Europe. The Tree of Life is anointed with palm- 
oil, which drips into a pot or a shard placed below it, 
and the would-be mother of children prays that the 
great god Legba will make her fertile. Female Legbas 
are rare, about one to a dozen males. They are, if 
possible, more hideous and gorilla-like than those of 


the Other sex; their breasts resemble the halves of 
German sausages, and the external labia, which are 
adored by being anointed with oil, are painfuUy de- 
veloped. There is another Phallic god named " Bo " , the 
guardian of warriors and the protector of markets. * 

The Apron of the Hottentot Women. 2 A 

peculiarity belonging to the Hottentot or Bosjesman 
women is the enormous elongation of the nymphae. 
Their labia minora, of extravagant length, presenting 
a reddish blue livid coloration, remain joined together 
in their entire length, and descend vertically between the 
thighs. According to certain travellers these nymphae, 
thus in juxta position, might at first sight be mistaken 
for a male member, for a narrow flabby penis. 

This deformity has been called by all travellers the 
Apron ; some, who had been unfortunately too discreet 
to examine the thing closely, took it for an article of 
dress placed in front of the genital organs, either 
from modesty, or else from simple coquetry ; others 
have considered this appendage to be a special organ ; 
very few, indeed, among those who have examined 
more closely, have been able to exactly understand 
the disposition of this anomaly. But the apron is not 
a distinctive characteristic of the Bosjesman race. 
Cuvier relates that in Abyssinia it was usual to perform 
excision of the deformed labia minora and that one 
of the first reforms sought to be introduced by the 
Catholic missionaries, in the sixteenth century, when 
they introduced their religion into the country, was 
the suppression of this operation. But the young girl 

' From Sir R. F. Burton's article in Memoirs of Anthropological 
Society of London (Lond., 1863, pages 317 — 320). 

* Bulletin de la Socie'te d'Anthropologie, 1 88 I (pages 385 — 388). 


converts, who had not been operated upon, being no 
longer able to find any husbands, the Pope, who was then 
not yet infallible, authorised the shortening of the labia. 

This elongation of the labia minora is also observable 
among Negresses : Mr. L. Vincent saw s 3me measuring 
from 2 to 3 inches. This deformation is also some- 
times observable on White women, but in a far less 
exaggerated degree. 

But if this anatomical peculiarity is not exclusively 
the privilege of the Bosjesman race, in no other does 
this deformation attain such prodigious proportions ; in 
fact, some of these women have been found wearing 
aprons of from 6 to 7 inches in length. 

Many opinions have been expressed concerning this 
apron : some have simply denied its existence ; others 
have considered it to be the result of certain practices, 
as an artificial deformation ; and lastly, among the 
authors who reasonably believed that this peculiarity 
was to be attributed to nature, not only have the most 
various ideas and hypotheses been expressed, but the 
most fantastical descriptions have been traced. 

Perron, who seems to have adopted the opinion of 
General Jansens, thinks that the apron is a special 
organ placed in front of the genitals and not the devel- 
opment of one of their parts. 

Levaillant's error is less serious, but he also has not 
looked close enough, and if he has seen that the apron 
is a part of the organs of generation considerably 
developed, he has not sufficiently noted the starting- 
point nor the cause of this deformation ; he thinks 
that it is an artificially promoted elongation of the 
labia majora: "The apron," he says, "may attain to 
the length of 3^ inches, more or less, according to 
the age of the individual, or to the trouble she has 


taken to cultivate this strange ornament; I saw a 
young girl of fifteen whose nymphae were already 4 
inches long. Until then it is friction and traction which 
have begun to distend, suspended weights complete 
the work." 

Barrow, with much reason, protests against this 
opinion. In fact, the apron is so little of an ornament, 
that a great many women, not only among the Hot- 
tentots, but also among the Bosjesmans, hide it. Some 
of the latter who go about naked, when before strangers, 
keep their nymphae squeezed between their thighs so 
as to dissim.ulate them from view. This it was that 
caused certain travellers to imagine that the deformation 
did not exist. And this dissimulation may be com- 
plete, for this is what Cuvier says of the Hottentot 
Venus : " While she was being examined she kept 
her apron hidden between her thighs ; it was only 
after her death that she was found to have pos- 
sessed one." 

Besides all the Bosjesmans questioned by Barrow 
affirmed to him that this deformation was natural and 
that the means employed to obtain it, mentioned by 
Levaillant, were never resorted to. Many Bosjesman 
women transported into Cape Colony in early age, 
never having revisited the country of their birth, and 
consequently ignorant of such practices, had deformed 
genitals like the Bosjesman women of the Bush. 

Of all travellers, Barrow is he who has most care- 
fully examined this anomaly. He relates as follows: 
•* Everybody knows the history of the appendage which 
the Hottentot women possess at a place not usually 
exposed to view ; a conformation not belonging to the 
fair sex in general. This fact is absolutely true. As 
for th6 Bosjesman women, all of them were the same 


in the tribe we met, and we were able to satisfy our 
curiosity on that point, without in the least offending 
their modesty. After examining them carefully, it 
seemed to me to be an elongation of the labia minora, 
more or less extended according to the age of the 
subject. The longest we measured were a little over 
5 inches; the woman carrying them was of middle 
age. Some are said to have them longer. These 
elongated nymphae, joined together and pendent, seem 
at first sight as if belonging to the opposite sex. Their 
colour is a livid blue with a reddish tint, very much 
like the comb of a Turkey-cock, an excrescence which 
can give a pretty good idea of it, with regard to 
appearance, size and form. The interior parts of the 
nymphae, wrinkled and creased in the White woman, 
lose this character among the Hottentots and become 
perfectly smooth ; but then they no longer possess that 
stimulating nature for which certain anatomists pre- 
tended that they had been created; these appendages 
have at least the advantage of protecting the women 
from all violence on the part of the other sex; for it 
seems almost impossible that a man should have con- 
nection with such a woman without her consent or 
even without her aid." 

The best description of the apron is that given by 
Cuvier, after the Hottentot Venus, whose body he 
had: " According to necroscopic examination," he says, 
"it was apparent that the apron was not, as Perron 
had supposed, a particular organ, but the development 
of the nymphae ; the labia majora were not salient, 
they intercepted an oval of about 4 inches in length. 
From the superior angle between them there depended 
a semi-cylindrical protuberance of about 18 lines in 
length with 6 lines in width, the lower extremity of 


which widens out, divides and prolongs in the shape 
of two fleshy petals, creased, of about 2^ inches in 
length, with i inch in width; each of these is rounded 
at the end; their basis spreads out and falls down 
along the interior border of the labia majora and 
terminates in a fleshy crest at the lower angle of the 
labia. If these two appendages are lifted up, they 
form together the figure of a heart, the lobes of which 
would be narrow and long, the middle being occupied 
by the opening of the vulva. Each of these lobes 
bears, on its outer surface, close to the inner margin, 
a furrow deeper than the other creases, and which 
continues deepening until the two bifurcations join 
together; so that where they have thus united there 
is a double border encircling a dimple in the form of 
a wedge ; in the middle of this dimple there is a slender 
prominence terminating in a little point at the place 
where the two borders join again together. 

" Consequently the two fleshy lobes are formed above 
by the prepuce and the summit of the nympJia', the 
rest of them consisting only in the extra-development 
of these sanie nyniphcF. The vulva and the matrix 
show nothing particular." 

The above can be verified by a visit to the Museum 
of Natural History at the Jar din drs Plant cs (Paris), 
where there is a life-size exact model of the Hottentot 
Venus, in nahiralibus. 

Thibetan Nuptial Customs. In Thibet the young 
girls about to marry are previously relieved of their 
virginity by the priests, either Buddhist or Tao-See, 
according to their religion. In either case, the priest 
of one or the other faith has mission to prepare the 
bride for the nuptial rite. 


In the Chinese text this ceremony is called fchin- 
than. ' Each year, at the fourth moon, the officer of 
the Province announces the day fixed for the fchin- 
than. On that day each priest has his female client 
and can have but one. 

On the marriage day, the procession of friends, with 
music and drums, goes in grand parade to meet the 
priest and accompanies him to the residence of the 

There, two canopies have been prepared covered 
with brilliant coloured stuffs. The priest occupies one 
seat, the bride the other. 

As soon as night has fallen, the principal persons 
of the escort disappear, but the gongs and trumpets 
continue more than ever to make as much noise as 
possible before the house of the bride. 

During this night full license is granted to the priest, 
and this is, as modestly expressed as possible, what 
takes place: 

^ Atidivi illujii cm/i virgine sinnil m proximum 
cubiculum ingrcdi, ibiquc earn, 7}ianu adhibita, con- 
stuprare. MamiDi deinde in vinum immisit, quo, si 
quihisdam crcdideris, pater, mater, proximi tandem 
atquc vicini frontem signa^it ; si aliis, vimun ore ipsi 
degustant. Sunt et qui sacerdotem puellcp pleno coitu 
miscere asseriint, alii contra contendunt.'" 

(I have heard tell that the priest going into a neigh- 
bouring chamber with the maid, there deflowers her, 
making use of his hand for the purpose. Then he 
plunged his hand in wine, with which, if you believe 
some authorities, the father, mother, relations generally 
and neighbours, put a mark on their forehead; if others 

* In Latin : strati dispositio. (Abel Rd-niusat, Melanges Asiatiques, 
t. I, p. 7 1 & seq.) 


are to be credited, they actually swallow the wine. 
Some moreover declare the priest enjoys full coition 
with the girl, but others deny this). 

The Perforatio Penis in Australia. * " Before 
leaving Australia I made the acquaintance of a Mr. 
B. . . . , an experienced squatter, who gave me, some 
interesting information concerning the Mica operation 
in Central Australia. 

" This operation consists in a slitting up of the lower 
side of the urethra, in consequence of which the penis 
is no longer a tube but more exactly a gutter. The 
operation is performed by means of a sharp flint and 
a piece of bark is placed in the wound to prevent 
primary healing of the severed surfaces by agglutina- 
tion. After the operation the young men may go 
about perfectly naked, which they are forbidden to do 
previously. They are now permitted to marry. In 
micturition they stand erect, the legs apart and urinate 
like women. In the moment of erection the penis is 
broad and flat and the sperm is ejaculated extra vagina 
(outside the vagina). This fact was also noticed by 
other European travellers who had paid natives to 
perform coition in their presence. It was also parti- 
cularly remarked that among about 300 natives there 
were only three or four who had not been operated, 
and it appeared that upon these devolved the duty 
of insuring the propagation of the tribe. One of these, 
who had been no doubt specially selected for the 
purpose, was a splendid specimen of humanity, fully 
six feet two inches in stature." 

Edward J. Eyre, mjourn. 0/ Expedition 0/ Discovery 

' Extracts from Travellers' Note-Books. 


into Central Atistralia, etc., Lond. 1840 — 41, Vol. T, 
p. 212, says: "In the Port Lincoln Peninsula and 
along the adjacent coast the natives not only are cir- 
cumcised, but have in addition another most extraor- 
dinary ceremonial : Findititr usque ad urethram a 
parte infer a penis, p. 213. (The penis is cleft right 
to the urethra from underneath). Among the party at 
the camp I examined many and all had been operated 
upon. The ceremony with them seemed to have taken 
place between the age of twelve and fourteen years, 
for several of the boys of that age had recently under- 
gone the operation, the wounds being still fresh and 
inflamed. This custom must contribute to prevent a 
too rapid increase of the population ..." 

In another work by several authors: The Native 
Tribes of South Australia, Adelaide, 1879, the Rev. G. 
Taplin, in a note at page 14, gives a description of 
the operation: "■ Operationein hoc modo perficiu7it : 
OS Walabii attenuatuni per urethram immittunt illud- 
que ad scrotum protrudunt ita ut permeet carnem. 
Scindunt dein lapide acuto usque ad glandeni penis . . ." 
(They perform the operation in the following way: 
they insert the slender bone of a Walaby down the 
urethra, and push it home to the scrotum, so as to 
pierce the flesh. Then with a sharp stone they slit 
up the penis right to the glans). In the same work 
(p. 231), the missionary C. W. Schiirmann writes as 
follows : " Another operation is also performed at 
this period. It consists of a cut, with a chip of 
quartz from the orifice of the penis, along its lower 
side down to the scrotum, opening the passage out 
in its whole length. I have not been able to 
ascertain the motives of this strange mutilation." 
— S. Gason says in Manners and Customs of the 


Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 273 : "So soon as 
the hair on the face of the young man is sufficiently 
grown to allow the end of the beard to be tied, the 
ceremony of the Koolpie is decided on . . . The operation 
is then commenced by first laying his penis on a piece 
of bark, when one of the party, provided with a sharp 
splinter of flint, makes an incision underneath the 
penis, into its passage, from the foreskin to its base; 
this done, a piece of bark is inserted in the wound 
so as to prevent its healing by first intention. . ." 


Erotic dances of the Scficgai Natives . — The " A/iainnlis fohiF 
and the " hamboiila" of the Jfo/o/s. — The " he//v dance" of the 
Landoumans of Rio Nunez. — Obscene dance of the massacre of 
the wonnded, and tnntt/ation of the dead, on the f eld of battle. — 
IVie Gonrou or Kola nut, the aphrodisiac of the Negroes. 

All the tribes of Senegal have dances which are 
peculiar to them. Amongst the Bambaras of the Upper 
Niger, it is a character dance, a sort of war dance 
performed by armed men. But, amongst the greater 
number of the other tribes, the dance has an erotic 
character. The most striking of these is the famous 
dance of the Wolofs of Walou, generally called by the 
generic name of bamboula. 

The Anamalis Fobil, or Bamboula of the Wolofs, 

is frequently danccKl* in the streets of Saint Louis and 
the Negro suburbs of the town, by the light of the 
chaste Diana (which is then full moon), by the brilliant 

' Compare the dances of the Greeks and Romans. Scaliger (J. C), 
in his Poetica (hook T, p. 64). "Among the infamous dances were 
the (fiKViOfia, (fixvovdO-ai, that is to say the shaking of the hips 
and thighs, called by the Latins crissare. Among the Spaniards this 
abominable dance is still in honour. The meaning of this dance is 
very significant: waving their buttocks, these young dancing girls stooped 
to the ground, and finally threw themselves down on their back, as 
if to receive the amorous assault. The Lacedemonian ^i^aOig differed 
from this dance, in that the girls jumped so as make their heels strike 
their buttocks." Aristophanes in Lysistrata (v. 82) says: " I dance 
naked and with my heel smite my buttock." Pollux {IV, ch. 14): — 
" With regard to the ^i^aOiq, it was a kind of Laconian dance. 



light of which not a single detail is lost to the spectators. 
As soon as night falls, you hear the sound of the tam- 
tam, caUing the Negro population to the Place. The 
beginning is quiet enough, the tam-tams beat without 
any entrain, the dancers, male and female, timidly 
essay a few steps, and then regain the ranks of the 
spectators. Little by little, they become warmer, the 
dance becomes bolder and more risky, the tam-tam 
marks the time faster and faster, the spectators clap 
their hands and utter obscene cries, particularly the 
famous anamalis fobil, and the paroxysm of lust reaches 
its apogee. Loti, in the Roma?i d'un Spakt, gives a 

Prizes were offered for competition, not only between young men 
but also between young girls. It was required to jump and strike 
the buttocks with the heels; the jumps of each of the competitors 
were counted and marked; and the score of jumps went up to 
ONE THOUSAND ! " Another and more difficult dance was known under 
the name of sxXdxTKffia, in which the foot was required to touch 
the shoulder. Pollux {ibid.). "The exkaxxiOfiaxa were danced by 
women; it was required to kick higher than the shoulder." For an 
interesting choreographical theory see John O'Neill's erudite work, The 
Night of the Gods, an Enquiry into Cosmic and Cosmogonic Alythology 
and Symbolism (London, David Nutt, 1897), Vol. II. He traces the origin 
of certain forms of Dancing to a primitive religious practice ; and connects 
the same with the circular perambulation of Eastern shrines and with 
the use of the Prayer-wheel, and then explains all three — round dancing, 
circular worship by perambulation, and the twirling of the prayer-wheel 
— from the extremely ancient worship of the (apparently) revolving 
Heavens. Schopenhauer's philosophy of dancing is curious. Irritability, 
he says, objectified in the muscular tissue, constitutes the chief characteristic 
of animals, and of the animal element in man. Where it predominates 
to excess, dexterity, strength, bravery — that is fitness for bodily exertion 
and for War — is usually to be found. Nearly all warm-blooded animals, 
and even insects, far surpass Man in irritabihty. It is by irritability that 
animals are most vividly conscious of their existence; wherefore they 
exult in manifesting it. There is even still a trace of that exultation 
perceptible in Man, in dancing. The Will in Nature, Bell and Son, 
1889, p. 250. 


description of this dance, which I may be permitted 
to borrow, 

^ Anamalis fohil ! shrieked the Griots, striking on 
their tam-tams, their eyes glaring, their muscles strung, 
their bodies glistening with sweat. And everyone 
repeated, clapping their hands in frenzy — anavialis 
fobil — anamalis fobil — the translation of which would 
burn this page. Anamalis fobil ! the first words, the 
dominant note, and the refrain of a maniac song, mad 
with fervour and licence, the song of the bamboula of 
Spring ! Anamalis fobil ! the cry of wild unrestrained 
desire, of the vigour of the Negro o\erwarmcd by the 
sun into a terrible hysteria, the alleluia of Negro love, 
the hymn of seduction. 

" To the bamboulas of Spring come the young lads, 
mingling with the girls who have just assumed, with 
great pride, their costume of nubility, and to a wild 
rhythm of unearthly melody, they all sing, dancing on 
the sand, Anamalis fobil ! — Bamboula I A Griot, who 
is passing, strikes a few blows on his tam-tam. It is 
the call to arms, and all gather round him. The women 
run up, and range themselves in a closely packed ring, 
chanting one of those obscene songs of which they 
are so fond. One of them leaves the crowd, and rushes 
into the middle, into the empty circle where the tam- 
tam is beating : she dances to the sound of grigris and 
glass beads ; her steps, which are slow at first, are 
accompanied by gestures which are terribly licentious. 
Her movements become quicker until she is in a perfect 
frenzy ; they seem like the frisking of a mad monkey, 
the contortions of a maniac. 

" Her strength is at last exhausted, she retires, breath- 
less, and worn out, with the sweat glistening on her 
black skin ; her companions welcome her with applause 


or yells, then another takes her place, and so on until 
all have taken part." 

In a literary work, that everybody may read, the author 
could not say everything, and was obliged to be very 
particular, as to what he wrote. Not having, in this 
book, the same reasons for reticence, I may explain 
that anainalis fobil means, " the dance of the treading 
drake " . The dancer in his movements imitates the copu- 
lation of the great Indian duck. This drake has a mem- 
ber of a cork-screw shape, and a peculiar movement. 
The woman, for her part, tucks up her clothes, and 
convulsively agitates the lower part of her body, by 
an indescribable movement of the haunches; she alter- 
nately shows her partner her vulva, and hides it from 
him, by a regular movement, backwards and forwards, 
of all the body. The presence of a Toubab does not 
interfere at all with the erotic passion of the dancer, 
who, on the contrary frisks about more than ever, and 
addresses him with obscene phrases, more especially 
if she is an old woman. They are always the most 
excited, as Loti has remarked. " The old women are 
distinguished by the wildest and most cynical indecency. 
The child, which she often carries fastened on her 
back, and packed up in the most uncomfortable manner, 
utters piercing shrieks, but in their excitement the 
Negresses are deaf to everything, even the maternal 
instinct, and nothing stops them." 

I have already said that the anaynalis fohilxs danced 
in Saint Louis, under the paternal eye of the authorities, 
and without any interference from them. At least it 
was so, barely more than ten years ago. 

The "Belly Dance" of the Landoumans of Rio 


Nunez. The Kassonkes and Sarrakholais have also a 
lascivious dance, but not of such a pronounced character 
as the Wolof dance. At Rio Nunez, the Landoumans 
have a dance, which resembles the danse du ventre 
of the Arabs. The dance is performed by a woman. 
She executes a series of steps, sometimes forward, 
sometimes backwards, sometimes sideways, accompanied 
by a wagging of the pelvis, meant to imitate the 
movements of a woman copulating in the regular 
classical method. The Arab dances at the Paris Ex- 
hibition of i88g, gave a tolerably exact, though not 
very forcible, idea of this dance. ' 

Obscene Dance of the Massacre of the Whites, 
and Mutilation of the Dead. Not one of the authors 
who has written about Senegal, has described the 
horrible doings of some of the races of the interior, 
especially the Toucouleurs and the Malinkes, after a 
battle in which the Europeans have been defeated or 
repulsed, and have left their dead and wounded on 
the field of battle. These last are most horribly 
mutilated by the old women, who come to despoil the 
dead. For the dead the inconvenience is not great, 
but the unfortunate wounded suffer horribly before 
they die. The subject has been touched upon very 

' This dance is highly indecent. We shall not soon forget the first 
time we saw it executed by two Jewesses absolnment nues, in some 
house to which our courier led us in a back street in Tangier. Most 
"greenhorns" freshly come from Europe are caught in this way. We 
were "bled" of about ten "pesetas" each, of which the "courier" mentioned 
no doubt received halves. The same dance, much more skilfully done, 
we have since witnessed at the Casino de Pan's for one franc and in 
a travelling booth at ft'tc time on the Place de la Republiqiie for two 
sous. The danseuse was this time clothed in gauze and thus executed, 
the display is vastly more graceful and suggestive. 


delicately in the "Roman d'un Spahi," the best book 
that we have about Senegal. Fatou-Gaye, the mistress 
of Jean, the Spahi, — who, with the advance gnard of 
his squadron, has been killed by an ambuscade of the 
enemy, — comes to search for the corpse of her lover, 
which she at last finds. The description of the scene 
is very powerful. " Fatou-Gaye stopped, trembling and 
terrified. She had recognised him, lying there with 
his arms thrown out, and his mouth open to the sun, 
and she recited some unknown prayer to a pagan 
deity, touching meanwhile the grigris hung round her 
black neck. She remained a long time, muttering to 
herself, and gazing with haggard eyes, the whites of 
which were suffused with blood. Afar off, she saw 
approaching the old women of the enemy's tribe, 
wending their way towards the dead, and she suspected 
that something horrible was about to happen. Hideous 
old Negresses, their wrinkled skins shining under the 
torrid sun, approached the young man, their grigris 
and glass beads clinking as they moved ; they touched 
the body with their feet, laughed, performed obscene 
rites, and uttered strange words which seemed like the 
cries of monkeys; they violated the dead with ghastly 

We will complete this quotation by an exact recital 
of what takes place, — the details were furnished to me 
by persons in whom I have implicit confidence. The 
old Negresses cut off the organs of generation of the 
wretched Toubabs, with a common knife, ^ badly 

' This terrible form of mutilation was practised by the Abyssinians 
in the late war with Italy. After the battle of Adoua (in 1896) a 
sergeant who had been temporarily stunned, came to himself and followed 
the line of retreat, when, near a pile of slain soldiers, overcome with 
fatigue, he again fainted. On recovering his senses he felt a sharp. 


sharpened, whilst the young women dance round in a 
characteristic dance of the same nature as the a?tamalts 
fobil, and showing their vulva, and insulting in his 
distress the unhappy wretch, who is sometimes con- 
scious, and saying to him, " Toubab, look at this kwt: 
you shall never more enjoy it." The mutilation being 
effected, the old women stuff the poor man's yard into 
his mouth, and leave him to perish miserably. The 
dead are treated the same, but of course it makes no 
difference to them. It is usual, amongst the officers 
engaged on expeditions in Senegal, to always reserve 
for themselves the sixth shot of the revolver, so that 
they may not fall alive into the hands of these devilish 
hags. The young white soldiers are also recommended 
to fight to the last drop of their blood, and never under 
any circumstances leave the field of battle without 
orders. The removal of the wounded is rigorously 
insisted upon. The native Sharpshooters know well 
what fate to expect if they are defeated, and fight 
with the utmost energy, for they are not spared any 
more than the Whites. The Romans fought pro arts et 
/ocis, and if the subject were not so serious, one 
might say that in Senegal they fight pro nientula 
et coleis. 

The "Gourou" or Kola Nut, the Aphrodisiac of 
the Negroes. The Blacks only know of one aphro- 
disiac, the gourou or Kola nut, which, strictly speaking, 
is not a nut at all, but a large chestnut, very much 

burning pain at the junction of the thighs, and then, to his horror, 
found he had been deprived of the attributes of manhood. Endowed 
with uncommon strength and courage this man was able to crawl into 
the Italian camp, more dead than alive, and a record of his experiences 
appeared in La Stampd. (See Eunuchs and Eunuchism ; Paris, 1898, 
for similar cases). 


like a horse chestnut. This fruit comes from the South 
rivers. The Negroes of Senegal and the Soudan chew 
the gourou with delight, although it has a sharp and 
astringent taste. It produces on the Black a sort of 
general nervous excitement, which sensibly increases 
all the physical faculties, including of course the 
generative powers. A Negro who chews a few gourou 
nuts, can go twenty-four hours without eating, and 
march or dance, almost without interruption, the whole 
time : at the great bamboulas and fetes, the gourou is 
therefore much used. It is a most valuable fruit when 
exceptionally hard work (amorous or otherwise) has to 
be done, but its use should not be abused. Kola is 
now admitted into European therapeutics, and is used 
for restoring lost strength, and stimulating the forces 
of the body. It contains a greatar quantity of cafteine 
and theobromine than the best teas and coffees ; and 
it has a direct, immediate, and certain effect upon the 
heart and the circulation, which it regulates and 
strengthens. Kola is a most useful medicine, active^ 
and energetic, and a restorative of the best kind. I 
found it of great service when I accompanied the 
expedition to Fouta-Toro, and I chewed it from time 
to time, in order to restore my strength. ^ 

' A most interesting account is given by Edouard Heckel under the 
title of " Des Kolas Africains " in the Bull, de la Soct. de Geographic 
de Marseille, Avril-juin, 1883. 

For a detailed account of certain Aphrodisiacs see The Old Man 
Young Again (1898) and Aphrodisiacs and Ant i- Aphrodisiacs, hy^dhn 
Davenport, Lond. 1869. 


The iiniinportance of the signs of virotnttv in the Negress. — 
Negro girls defloivered bv Toubabs. — Amorous snbierfuges used 
in Europe. — Artifices used by Asiatic peoples. — Former Ameiicati 
customs. — Report of Carletti, the Traveller. — Savage habits 
regarding perfumes. — Tujnef action of the gland. — hifluence of 
chastity on health. — Elements of social science. — Dr. Verga on 

Forms of Sexual Intercourse amongst the Negro 
Races. I must, in the first place, do my best to 
destroy the common impression that prevails, that the 
Negress is " a hot woman, " passionately fond of the 
pleasures of love. She is nothing of the kind, and only 
cares for the normal form of sexual passion. I have already 
remarked, concerning Guiana, that the pure Negress 
had only an " affection of the head " for the White, and 
that the woman of real lively passions was the Mulatta, 
and, more especially, the Quadroon. The observations 
I made at Senegal, coincided exactly with those made 
at Guiana. 

Unimportance of the Signs of Virginity in the 
Negroes. The Negroes of Senegal do not attach, as 
the Arabs do, considerable importance to the presence 
of the real signs of virginitv in the young girls. I 
have already mentioned that the husband purchases 



his wife, and that marriage is a festival, and not a 
religious ceremony. The non-existence of the material 
proofs of virginity seldom give rise to any complaint 
on the part of the husband. Cases in which a young 
woman is sent back to her parents are not common, 
for half the marriage portion would be retained by 
the girl's father, as damages. Moreover, the size of 
the virile member of the Negro renders it difficult for 
him to detect any trick. The Black bride, on the 
wedding night, shows herself expert in the art of 
simulating the struggles of an expiring virginity, and 
it is considered good taste for the girls to require to 
be almost raped. The least innocent young women 
are often the most clever at this game. Thus through- 
out nearly all Senegal, the European, who has a taste 
for maidenheads, can easily be satisfied, provided he 
is willing to pay the price. ^ At Saint Louis certain 
women of ill-fame procure young girls, who bear the 
significant name of the "unpierced", and vary from 
eight or nine years to the nubile age. It is even 
easier to obtain a young girl before she is nubile than 
afterwards, on account of the certainty of her not 
bearing any children. The price is within the range 
of all purses, according to quality, and you can have 
a Negro girl, warranted " unpierced" (belonging to 
the category of domestic slaves), for the modest sum 
of from eight to sixteen shillings. Of course, the 
respectable matron pockets half this sum, for her 

' A celebrated Parisian courtesan used to boast, according to Man- 
TEGAZZA, that she had "sold" her "virginity" on 82 different occa- 
sions!! See "^ Curious Bypaths of History" (Paris, 1898, pages 275 
to 300) for further uncommon dctoils on this subject. 


The Medico- Juridical Importance of Signs of 
Virginity. Taylor has treated this subject at great 
length in his valuable work on Medical Jurisprudence, 
and inasmuch as " Untrodden Fields " will be read by 
Doctors and Anthropologists living abroad and who 
may not have Taylor's book within reach, we trust to 
be excused for quoting so long a passage. We have 
fully detailed our own views and experience on this 
subject in another part of the present work. 

"The question," says Taylor, " may become of impor- 
tance not only as it affects the reputation of a female, but 
the credibility and character of the person who makes the 
imputation of a want of chastity. In 1845, a gentleman 
was brought to a court-martial on a charge of having 
deliberately and falsely asserted that on several occasions 
he had connection with a native woman. This was 
denied by the woman, and evidence was adduced to 
show that she had still what is commonly regarded 
as the main sign of virginity, namely, an unruptured 
hymen. In consequence of this, the gentleman was 
found guilty and cashiered. The woman was at the 
time about to be married, and this rendered the in- 
vestigation all the more important to her. A surgeon, 
who examined the girl, deposed that he found the 
membrane of a semilunar form, and tensely drawn 
across the vagina ; and his evidence was corroborated 
by that of a midwife. The inculpated person took up 
a double line of defence — ist, that the examination of 
the woman was incomplete ; and 2nd, that the hymen, 
if present, would not justify the witness in saying that 
intercourse could not possibly have taken place. On 
the first point, it is unnecessary here to make a 
remark ; but it appeared, from their own admissions, 
that the witnesses had never before examined women 


with this particular object. Assuming that there was 
no mistake, it became a question whether non-inter- 
course could in such a case be inferred from the 
presence of the membrane. Fruitful intercourse, it is 
well known, may take place without rupture of the 
hymen. Some instances of this kind were referred to 
at the court-martial ; but such cases are usually regarded 
as of an exceptional nature. The real question is, 
whether, unless the hymen be in an abnormal state, 
intercourse can possibly occur between young and 
active persons without a rupture of this membrane. 
Intercourse is not likely to be confined, under these 
circumstances, to a mere penetration of the vulva. The 
membrane in this woman is stated to have been tensely 
drawn across the canal, and it was not tough; it was 
therefore in a condition to render it most easy for 
rupture. In the case of an old man, or of one of 
weak virile power, vulvar intercourse might be had 
without destroying the membrane; but such a case 
could only be decided by the special circumstances 
which accompanied it. The presence of the unruptured 
hymen affords a presumptive but not an absolute proof 
that the woman is a virgin ; and if the membrane is 
of ordinary size and shape, and in the ordinary situation, 
it shows clearly that, although attempts at intercourse 
may have been made, there can have been no vaginal 
penetration. Admitting the statements of the examiners 
to be correct, it is improbable that this woman had 
had sexual intercourse several times, or even on one 

" In the case of Delafosse v. Fortescue, ^ which 
involved an action for defamation of character, the 
plaintiff, a married man, aet, 64, had been charged 

* Exeter Lent Ass., 1893. 


with committing adultery with a certain woman. Several 
witnesses for the defendant positively swore that they 
had seen these persons in carnal intercourse. This 
was denied by the plaintiff; and, as an answer to the 
case, medical evidence was tendered to the effect that 
the woman with whom the adulterous intercourse was 
alleged to have taken place had been examined, and 
the hymen was found intact. In cross-examination, 
however, this was admitted not to be a conclusive 
criterion of virginity, and a verdict was returned for 
the defendant. The form and situation of the hymen 
in this case were not described ; but it is to be 
presumed that these were not such as to constitute 
a physical bar to intercourse, or this would have been 
stated by the medical witness. Hence the existence 
of the membrane was not considered to disprove the 
allegations of eye-witnesses. In Scotland this kind of 
medical evidence is not admissible. A wife sued the 
husband for divorce, on the ground, inter alia, that 
he had committed adultery with C. In defence the 
defendant denied the adultery, and adduced C. as a 
witness, who swore that such connection had never taken 
place. She also swore that she had submitted to an 
inspectio corporis by Simpson. The defendant then 
proposed to examine Simpson, that he might speak 
to the result of his examination. He argued that this 
was the best evidence that he could adduce in support 
of his innocence, as if the girl was still a virgin the 
adultery alleged could not have been committed. The 
court refused to tidmit the evidence, on the ground 
that the evidence proposed was merely that of an 
opinion from the professor; that other medical men 
might differ from him in opinion, even from the same 
observations, and that, as the court could not compel 


C. to submit to another examination, the proposed 
evidence must be considered exparte and inadmissible. ^ 
In Hunt v. Hunt a verdict was obtained at common- 
law against the alleged paramour in a case of adultery. 
It was subsequently proved that the lady was virgo 
intacta. So long as there are facts which show that 
women have actually conceived with the hymen still 
in its normal state, it is inconsistent to apply the term 
'virgo intacta' to women merely because this mem- 
brane is found entire. A woman may assuredly have 
an unruptured hymen, and yet not be a ' virgo intacta '. 
This can only be decided by the special circumstances 
proved in each case. Such virgines intactce have 
frequently required the assistance of accoucheurs, and 
in due time have been delivered of children. ^ A 
similar question arose in Reg. v, Harmer. ^ The pris- 
oner was indicted for perjury. He was a waiter at 
a tavern, and being called as a witness in a divorce 
suit, swore that he had seen one of the parties in 
adulterous intercourse on more than one occasion. The 
lady with whom the adultery was alleged to have 
been committed, denied this on oath, and Lee and 
another medical expert gave evidence that they had 
examined this lady, and found her to be a virgo 
intacta. He was found guilty." 

Negro Girls deflowered by Toubabs. The " un- 

pierced" soon lose their right to the title, when they 
have to do with a Toubab, but, on account of the 
size of their genital parts, the loss of their maidenhead 

' Sessions Cases (Edin., Feb. ii, i860). 

• "Amer. Journ. Med. Soc." Ap., 1873, p. 560. 

'C.C.C, June, 1872. 


is not such a serious affair for them as it would be 
for a little French girl who was not yet nubile. I 
have never remarked in a little Negress, who had been 
deflowered by a White, the vulvar inflammation, which, 
with us, is noticed as the result of premature copulation. 

Amorous Subterfuges used in Europe. Mantegazza 
makes some very interesting remarks on this subject. 

In opposition to those who exact the virginity of 
the bride, there are others who attach no importance 
whatever to it. 

According to Hureau de Villeneuve, ^ the hymen is 
not described in the Chinese works on medicine and 
surgery, and he explained the fact by saying that the 
mothers and nurses succeeded in obliterating it by 
continual washings of the genital parts. It is said to 
be the same in India. 

Epp enthusiastically applauds these customs. They 
contrast with the want of cleanliness among us Euro- 
peans who, out of modesty or through neglect, transform 
this nest of love into a putrid sink. 

" Much fuss is made by men over this matter, but we think that if 
they were purer in their own Hves they would be less likely to suspect 
their wives' chastity. Women have as much right morally to expect 
purity in the men they marry as the conlriuy ; although, we know that 
of course, the old cry will be raised about the inequality of the sexes 
and the husband having to pay for children not his own, yet the fact 
remains that healthy offspring are given to those who have learnt 
" self-governance". Too often, the libertine, so jealous and exacting as 
regards his partner, brings a syphilitic body to the marriage bed, and in the 
scrofulous faces of his children reads for the first time the meaning 
about the " sins of the fathers descending upon the children until the 
third and fourth generations." 

See " Excursus" to the present chapter on the Influence of Chastity 
on the Health. 

* De I'Accouchemetit Jans la Race Jaune, these de Paris, Ploss, 
op. cit., t. I, p. 219. 


The ancient Egyptians used to make an incision in 
the hymen previous to marriage, and Saint Athanasius 
relates that among the Phoenicians a slave of the 
bridegroom was charged by him to deflower the bride. 

The Caraib Indians attached no value to virginity, 
and only the daughters of the higher classes were 
shut up during two years previous to marriage. 

It appears that among the Chibcha Indians in Central 
America virginity is not at all esteemed. It was con- 
sidered to be a proof that the maiden had never been 
able to inspire love. 

In ancient Peru the old maids were the object of 
high esteem. There were sacred virgins called Wives 
of the Sun * somewhat similar to the Roman vestals. 
They made a vow of perpetual chastity and passed their 
lives in weaving and in preparing chicha ^ and cakes 
of Indian corn for the King {Inca). ^ 

It is also said that they were buried alive when they 
happened to break their vow of chastity, unless indeed 
they could prove having conceived, not from a man, 
but from the sun. The seducer was put to death and 
his race dispersed. 

Several authors worthy of credence assure us that 
these vestals were guarded by eunuchs. The temple at 
Cuzco had one thousand virgins, that of Caranqua two 
hundred. It would appear, however, that the virginity 
of these vestals was not so very sacred after all, for 
the Inca Kings used to choose from among them con- 
cubines for themselves or for their principal vassals and 
favourite friends. According to Torquemada, these 

' The nuns of the present day, do they not style themselves the 
" Spotiscs of Christ?" 

' A fermented intoxicating beverage. 

' Read the priests of the Temple. (Trnsl.). 


vestals remained only three years in the temple, and 
were then replaced by others. The Inca used to choose 
three whom he consecrated priestesses of the sun, then 
three for himself and the others he married to his 
subjects or else gave them their liberty. 

Marco Polo narrates how young girls were exposed 
by their mothers on the public highway in order that 
travellers might freely make use of them. A young 
girl was expected to have at least twenty presents 
earned by such prostitutions before she could hope to 
find a husband. This did not prevent them from being 
very virtuous after marriage, nor their virtue from 
being much appreciated. 

Waitz assures us that in several countries of Africa a 
young girl is preferred for wife when she has made herself 
remarked by several amours and by much fecundity. 

It was impossible ever to find the signs of virginity 
among the Machacura women in Brazil, and Feldner ^ 
explains the reason in latin : " Nulla inter illas invcni- 
tur virgo, quia ?nater inde in tenera cetate filicB maxi- 
ma cum cura omnem vagincB constrictio7ie7n ingredi- 
menhunque amovere studet, hoc quidem modo vianui 
dextrcB imponitiir folium arhoris in infudibuli formam 
rcdaclu?n, et dum index in partes genitales ivimissus 
hue et illud movetur, per i7tfu7idib2ilum aqua tepida 
immittitur.'" (Among them a virgin is never to be 
found, for this reason that the mother from her daughter's 
tenderest years endeavours with the utmost care to 
remove all tightness of the vagina and obstacle therein. 
With this end in view, the leaf of a tree folded into 
the shape of a funnel is held in the right hand, then 
while the index finger is introduced into the genital 

' I'oyage a travers le Brcsil, Licgnitz, 1828, vol. II, p. 148. 


parts and worked to and fro, warm water is admitted 
by means of the funnel). 

Among the Sakalaves in Madagascar the young girls 
deflower themselves, when the parents have not pre- 
viously seen to this necessary preparation for marriage. 

Among the Balanti of Senegambia, one of the most 
degraded races in Africa, the girls cannot find a hus- 
band until they have been deflowered by their King, 
who often exacts costly presents from his female sub- 
jects for putting them in condition to be able to marry. 

Barth (1856), in describing Adamad, says that the 
chief of the Bagoli used to lie the first night with 
the daughters of the Fulba, a people under his sway. 
Similar facts are related of the aborigines of Brazil 
and of the Kinipeto Esquimaux. In many of these 
cases it is not easy to determine if we have to do 
with the right of the strongest or with a strange taste 
on the part of voluntary victims. 

Demosthenes informs us that there was a celebrated 
Greek hetaera, named Neaera, who had seven slaves 
whom she called her daughters, so that being supposed 
to be free a higher price was paid for their favours. 
She sold their virginity five or six times over and 
ended by selling the whole lot together. 

The god Mutinus, Mutunus or Tutunus of ancient 
Rome, used to have the new brides come and sit 
upon his knees, as if to offer him their virginity. 
Saint Augustine says : " In cclehratione nuptiarum 
super Priapi scapiim fiova luipta seder e jubebatur.'" 
(In the celebration of nuptials the newly wed bride 
used to be bidden sit on the shaft of Priapus). 
Lactantius gives more precise details : " ef Mutunns 
in cujus sinu ptidendo niibentes prersident, tit illarnm 
pudicitiam prius deits dclibasse videatur^ (and 


Mutunus, in whose shameful lap brides sit, in order 
that the god may appear to have gathered the first- 
fruits of their virginity). It appears, however, that 
this offering was not merely symbolical, for when they 
had become wives, they used to return to the favourite 
deity to pray for fecundity, 

Arnobius also relates: " etiam 7ie Tuhmus, cujus 
immanibus pudendis, horrentiqiic /ascino, vestras 
inequitare viatronas et auspicabile ducitis ct optatis f" 
(is it Tutunus, on whose huge organs and BpurXiv/ 
TooX you think it an auspicious and desirable thing 
that your matrons should be (jlovvts^}) 

Pertunda was another hermaphrodite divinity that 
Saint Augustine maliciously proposed rather to name 
the Deus Pretmidus (who strikes first) ; it was carried 
on to the nuptial bed to aid the bridegroom. " Pcrtu7tda 
in cubiculis pra^sto est virgmalcm scrobem cffodicntibus 
maritis." (Pertunda stands there ready in the bed- 
chamber for the aid of husbands excavating the 
(pipy IV ttit) (Arnobius). 

The Kondadgis (Ceylon), the Cambodgians and other 
peoples charged their priests with the defloration of 
their brides. 

Jager communicated to the Berlin Anthropological 
Society a passage from Gemelli Cancri, which mentions 
a shipratio offi,cialis practised at a certain period among 
the Bisayos of the Philippine Islands : " There is no 
known example of a custom so barbarous as that which 
had been there established, of having public officials, 
and even paid very dearly, to take the virginity of 
young girls, the same being considered to be an 
obstacle to the pleasures of the husband. As a fact 
there no longer exists any trace of this infamous 
practice since the establishment of the Spanish rule . . . 


but even to-day a Bisayo feels vexed to find his wife 
safe from suspicion, because he conckides, that not 
having excited the desire of anyone, she must have 
some bad quality which will prevent him from being 
happy with her." 

Influence of Chastity on Health. ^ A man may 

kill himself by excess of venereal pleasure ; as he may 
also impose upon himself an absolute continence. But 
in this case it is not so complete as might be supposed, 
the nocturnal pollutions amounting to positive copu- 
lations with loss of semen and voluptuous spasm. A 
virgin perfectly pure in herself may even experience 
in dream the spasms of pleasure. 

Nevertheless, voluntary chastity reduces to a minimum 
the secretion of sperm and of venereal desire ; it may 
even cause the gradual dying out of these wants, which 
constitute the greatest delights and also the greatest 
tyranny of humanity. 

It must be recognised to what a degree chastity 
favours health, longevity, energy of intellect and of 
sentiment, and the limits beyond which it ought not 
to extend so as not to disturb the harmony of life 
dependant on the regular action of all the organs. 

It seems at first that by being sparing of so precious 
a product as the sperm and economising the strength 
expended in every sexual intercourse, the individual 
should be able to accumulate an important reserve 
force; but this is only partly true, and it is difficult 
to precise the amount of chastity necessary for the 
maintenance of health. 

With regard to man, statistics supply us with no 
elements for solving the problem; they prove on the 
contrary that marriage is conducive to health and 

' From Mantegazza, Igiene deW Amore (Milan, 1892). 


longevity, but here we have only a comparison between 
married life and celibacy, and celibacy is not always 
synonymous with chastity. Bachelors are, very often, 
the worst of libertines. But if we could meet around 
us a dozen of men really chaste, we should find 
them superior to others in vigour, in longevity and in 
intellectual energy. I think also that priests owe the 
old age to which they often attain to their chastity, 
admitting at the same time that their minor responsa- 
bility and the ease and comfort of their hves are also 
advantageous to their health, conceding at the same 
time to malicious persons that the servants of God are 
not all of them chaste. 

All men, particularly the young, may experience 
the immediate benefits of continence. Blumenbach 
has said that the reabsorption of sperm at the time of 
their loves renders animals ferocious ; but, many cen- 
turies before him, Aretaeus said that the sperm made 
us lively, ardent and vigorous. Martin of Lyons relates 
the case of a man, in whom the spermatic secretion 
having become suppressed, he used to have sweatings 
having the smell of sperm, accompanied by the volup- 
tuous sensation of ejaculation. We leave aside this 
latter question of the voluptuous sensation, but accept 
the idea of the sperm-smelling sweat, because we have 
ourselves recognised a strong odour of sperm among 
very chaste but very ardent young men. It is certain 
that a certain part of the semen is reabsorbed and strongly 
excites the muscles, the brain and the nerves, and in 
the second part of my book will be seen the importance 
I give to this reabsorption in the production of the se- 
cundary sexual characters. The semen accumulated 
for a long time in the spermatic vesicles constitutes a 
real reservoir of force, which may reveal itself under 


the most varied forms. Memory becomes prompt and 
tenacious, thought is rapid and fecund, the will is 
energetic and the whole character shows a vigour 
quite unknown to libertines. 

Some sublime egotists had soon observed that their 
life was being exhausted in the pleasures of love, and 
by condemning themselves to absolute chastity were 
able to preserve unto the extremest old age their 
ardent enthusiasms, their juvenile energies and a life 
always enjoyable. No magnifying glass enables us to 
see the celestial blue so well as the prism of chastity. 

It is perhaps fortunate for the future of humanity, 
that we cannot put into balance, on the one hand all 
the voluptuous spasms of a life spent in the cult of 
Venus, and on the other all the harmonies, all the joys 
and all the poesy of a chaste life. Everybody would 
then perhaps be chaste and the world would perish. 

In aU books of history and of morality, thousands 
of facts are met with which show that in all times and 
in all places, man has sought in chastity the means 
to double his forces in order to devote them to higher 
purposes. We see athletes condemn themselves to 
continence, warriors preparing for the fight by abstaining 
from sexual pleasure and many religions commanding 
their priests to observe celibacy and chastity. A fact 
less known, is that in the University of Paris, during 
nearly six centuries, no married men could be admitted 
to profess in any of the faculties. Before granting 
the licentiate of arts the chancellor of the University 
required the oath: Jurate quod non estis matrimona- 
liter conjuncti (Swear that ye are not conjoined 
matrimonially), and, on the 29th April, 1566, some 
married men having contrived to introduce themselves 
into the University thanks to the civil wars, the 


chancellor had them expelled and the rector concluded 
his sentence of exclusion in these terms: Unanimi 
omnium consensu ct ore commutii vultis puniejidos 
mulcta cert^ primarios, qui in eorum collegio admi- 
serunt viros uxoratos. (By the unanimous consent of 
all and the common voice ye hereby declare those 
governors should be punished at any rate with a fine, 
who have admitted married men in their college). 

Considering the great economy of force resulting 
from chastity, many persons imagine that it must give 
an unusual energy to the genital organs. This is true 
only for short periods of chastity. When it is pro- 
longed, the organs, on the contrary, are weakened. 

Absolute chastity is a rare exception and is possible 
only to a chosen few; but a temporary chastity is to 
be recommended to those who, at certain periods of 
their life, have to spend a great amount of intellectual 

Elements of Social Science. Chastity has also 
its evils ; but they have been exaggerated by several 
writers and specially by the anonymous author of the 
Elements of Social Science. He who reads the terrible 
case of the cure Blanchet, who wrote such harrowing 
letters to Buffon, must turn pale with horror at the 
effects of absolute chastity: but this worthy priest 
is a rare exception. At the utmost there are a 
few weeks or some months of wrestling, but the 
victory then becomes easy and certain. First of 
all desire becomes excessive, there is extreme dis- 
quietude, sleepless nights, continuous and violent 
erections ; then all calms down and beneficial nocturnal 
pollutions supply a safety valve. It is true that in 
some cases there is headache, vertigo, but this is 


almost always when chastity comes after venereal 
abuse. I have seen many individuals without force, 
stupified or paralysed after venereal excesses, I could 
count twenty diseases resulting from this cause: I never 
saw one produced solely by chastity. 

Women support it much better than men, and many 
cases of hysteria said to have been produced by 
unsatisfied love must be ascribed to another cause. 

I speak of virgins; young widows may prove 
an exception, particularly when they have other 
habits and are voluptuous by nature. They may 
have congestions of the brain, vertigos and divers 
forms of neuroses. Habit is the element which exercises 
the greatest influence on all the acts commanded by 
the cerebro-spinal axis, and this truth should be deeply 
meditated by those not over vigorous husbands, who 
during the honeymoon, from self-conceit or by the 
aid of momentary excitation, have accustomed their 
wives to a regimen they are unable to continue to 
provide them later. Putting aside " women of ice " and 
" women of fire ", who are exceptions, the others become 
lascivious, chaste or moderate, according to what their 
partners design them to be. 

Dr. Verga on Celibacy. Doctor Verga, a remark- 
able author and philosopher, has well studied the 
influence of celibacy and of marriage on insanity. May 
I be permitted to briefly give the substance of his 
interesting researches : * 

" It is generally accepted that for mental as well 
as for bodily maladies, the efficient and determinant 

* Prof. Andrea Verga, Sj le Ce'libat predispose a la folie. Milan, 
1869. — Si le Mariage contribue a la Folie, Milan, 187 1. 


causes obtain all their value from the hereditary or 
acquired individual predisposition. 

" This predisposition, which manifests itself usually 
in infancy, may later on engender an aversion or 
exterior obstacles to marriage. Som^ young people, 
born of parents cerebrally affected, having themselves 
such a morbid sensitiveness that they feel irritated at 
the least contradiction, I might almost say at all 
opposition to their will, and who have a horror of any 
restriction to their liberty, understand that they are 
not made for marriage, and condemn themselves 
voluntarily to celibacy ; the malady which threatens 
them finds them naturally inclined to a single life. 
For it must be remarked, marriage is a dignity that 
requires a vocation and special aptitudes; it is the 
crowning glory of the individual. Others again, even 
more inclined to insanity, but less persuaded of the 
danger, or having fewer scruples, either stimulated by 
instinct or constrained by special circumstances, seek 
to marry ; but certain peculiarities, certain excentricities 
cause families and young girls to receive them very 
coldly. Time passes and at last insanity manifests 

" It is evident that in such cases the effect of celibacy 
is merely apparent. All those bachelors of either sex 
did not go mad because they were unmarried, but 
because they were already on the highroad to madness. 

" You may tell me that young girls are in far 
different conditions from those of young men ; that 
they do not choose, but are chosen ; that their parents 
more easily dispose of their hand and willingly allow 
them to go away, knowing how capricious they are 
and how difficult to govern; all that is very true. 

" But that is precisely what must render the proportion 


of insanity less among young girls and also less 
pronounced among married women : two facts entirely 
corroborated by statistics. We have also determined 
by our calculations that the adult female insane 
unmarried are in the proportion of 35.17 per cent, 
whereas the bachelor insane amounted to 64.83 per cent, 
and on the contrary the married women insane were 
in the proportion of 48.93 per cent, while the married 
men insane amounted to 51.07 per cent. 

" It is with insanity as with epilepsy, with idiocy 
and cretinism : all these maladies might be styled the 
maladies of celibacy, so much do they preponderate 
among bachelors of both sexes. But, if we except 
epilepsy, which sometimes manifests itself late in life, 
idiotism and cretinism are essentially peculiar to early 
youth. Idiots and cretins remain children all their 
lives and never acquire the matrimonial capacity. 

" From which it follows that with them celibacy is 
the consequence and not the cause of their infirmity." 


Pen>ersions of the sexual passion amongst the Negroes. — The 
Negress is neither a Sodomite nor a lesbian. — Parent- Duchdtelet 
on '^Lesbian Love". — Tribads despised by other prostitutes. — 
Hoiv the vice is contracted. — The strange affection of Tribads. 
— Lawful love thought shocking.— Pregnancy frequent among 
them. — A White Messalina. — A White woman violated by a 
Negro. — Taylor on taping adult women. — Evidence of signs 
of violence. — Trick of a Negro to get a White women. — A little 
White girl deflowered' bv a Negro. 

The Negress is neither a Sodomite nor a Les- 
bian. After the explanations just given, as to the 
want of genital sensitiveness in the Negress, it would 
not appear strange that we should discover few cases 
of erotic perversion, which are so common amongst 
Asiatic people. The Negress is not a Lesbian, although 
her clitoris is well-developed. Neither is she a sodom- 
ite, but, on the contrary, has a profound aversion 
for that depraved habit. ^ The reason perhaps is, 
that when practised with the Negro's yard, anal copula- 
tion would be a real torture, — a kind of impalement. 
The only traces of sodomy I found, were amongst the 
lowest class of Black women of Saint Louis, — cheap 
prostitutes of the worst sort. I may mention par- 
ticularly one of these women, who was still young, 

' See Krafft-Ebing on tribadic practices among European " fast women " 
— Psychopathia Sexualis (page 429). 


and who presented a notable development of the 
buttocks, with a deep infundibulum, a sphincter com- 
pletely relaxed, and an orifice so considerably dilated 
that it admitted three fingers without pain. This 
woman confessed that it was the Whites (Is this quite 
certain?) who practised sodomy upon her, and that 
before she allowed them to do it, she demanded in ad- 
vance a bottle of sangara, which she drank till she 
was dead drunk, and in this way she felt nothing, or 
next to nothing. 

Parent-Duchatelet on " Lesbian Love." While 
dealing with this subject we think it not inopportune to 
contrast the careful and conscientious study of this 
great man in regard to the prevalence of unnatural 
vice amongst Parisian prostitutes ^ and the causes that 
originate it. " I cannot refrain here, " he says, " from 
treating of a very important item in the history of the 
habits of prostitutes, but I am forced to do it with the 
utmost reserve. I am about to speak of those loves 
which a depraved taste contrary to nature impels some 
prostitutes to seek to satisfy among members of their 
own sex. 

" These disgusting and monstrous marriages^ so com- 
mon in houses of correction, that but very few female 
prisoners can escape from them, are they as frequent 
among prostitutes as some people seem to think? The 
following are the details on that subject that I have 
been able to collect from all those who by their situa- 
tion were able to make observations. 

" Regarding the number of prostitutes addicted to 

' La Prostitution dans la Ville de Paris consider^e sous le Rapport 
de I'Hygiene Publique, de la Morale et de 1' Administration par A. J. B. 
Parent Duchatelet, 3eme edit. (Bailli^re et Fils, Paris, 1857). 


this vice, I have found an extreme difference of opin- 
ion : there are some who pretend that all or nearly 
all of them abandon themselves passionately to it ; others 
on the contrary have assured me that very few are 
given to it. This contradictory opinion was based with 
the former, not with the latter, solely upon a vague sup- 
position, on some flying reports, gathered by chance 
here and there, and not upon a careful study of the 
question, destined to elucidate it, and having for basis 
a certain number of observations. 

" This contradiction can be in great part explained by 
the fact that none of these women will ever admit of 
being addicted to this vice, for when they are ques- 
tioned, they reply quickly and with impatience : / am 
for men only, and I never was for women. AU the 
persons who have been enabled to study them at all 
moments of their life, and particularly in hospitals and 
prisons, have assured me that they are absolutely silent 
on that subject ; that they are as ashamed of this vice 
for themselves as they are ashamed for their comrades 
who are given to it ; those only in prison, who are really 
guilty, do not hesitate to shew themselves in their 
true light, 

Tribads despised by other Prostitutes. Generally 
speaking, tribads, for that is the name given to these 
women addicted to unnatural practices, are despised 
and looked down upon by the other prostitutes ; indeed 
to some of these they inspire a sort of iiorror which 
impels them to fly from and avoid them. During the 
moments of coming together and of conversation in 
prison they are not spared reproaches and jeers, but 
always in covered words; and even in their disputes, 
when they abuse each other in the coarsest language, 


they still preserve a certain restraint on that point. 
Jealousy alone or the wish for revenge can induce 
them sometimes to denounce each other, but that is 
rarely observed. 

A woman who kept a house of prostitution, and 
who was addicted to this vice, had received into her 
establishment a very pretty girl whom she wished to 
attach to herself; but the girl quitted the place solely 
for that reason, regretting at the same time, she said, 
the well-being and comforts of all kinds with which 
her mistress surrounded her. 

A girl of low degree, while in a state bordering 
upon intoxication, wishing to do violence to one of 
her comrades who refused to comply with her desires, 
caused such a disturbance in the house that the police 
had to interfere. All the women attached to the brothel 
denounced her to the commissary of police as guilty 
of a criminal assault. 

How^ the Vice is contracted. Some persons who 
have given me infonnation on the subject, are of 
opinion that it is mostly with women keeping brothels 
that prostitutes contract the vice here in question, which 
may be attributed to the abundant food supplied to 
them, the idle life they lead and the conversations they 
hold with each other; but a crowd of other details 
tend to convince me that, if such conditions are not 
without influence, they act only upon a very small 
number, and the origin of these depraved tastes must 
be sought for elsewhere. 

An observation made and repeated in the interior 
of a prison, the only place where it is possible to 
properly study certain tastes and inclinations which 
dominate among prostitutes, has proved that nearly all 


the tribads belonged to the class of independent prosti- 
tutes (not attached to licensed brothels), and also that 
those who made themselves remarked by their tendency 
to pervert the others, had invariably passed some years 
inside of prisons. ^ 

Who does not know, in fact, that it is in the 
prisons, and more especially in the prisons for women, 
that these shameful vices most generally prevail, and 
there are but few female prisoners who can resist, 
particularly if their detention extends over more than 
eighteen months or two years. It is towards the age 
of from twenty-five to thirty years that prostitutes 
usually take to this sort of libertinism, and after having 
already plied their trade during six, eight or ten years, 
unless they have passed some time in prison. If at 
times there are found young women novices in the 
business of prostitution who show similar inclinations, it 
is not that they were naturally impelled to it, but that 
they are more properly to be considered as the victims 
of others who have led them astray. There are but 
few old prostitutes who may not be ranked among 
the tribads; they at last come to have a horror of 
men, and to become the associates of thieves and of 
all that is most abject and most crapulous. 

* It is in fact in prison, that women most often contract this shameful vice. 
Nearly all youn^j girls, who remain some time in prison, are contaminated with 
it ; this and other considerations, show the necessity of the cellular system. 

The terms of the Regulations of 1824 mentioned by Parent-Duchatelet 
are strictly observed, and the licensed houses are visited at night by 
the police to see that they are executed. But notwithsUinding these 
precautions, corruption has progressed, and there are now but few 
prostitutes that are not tainted with it. How can it be otherwise, seeing 
that these unfortunate creatures meet only with contumely, humiliation 
and insult from men, who are often the very first to excite them to 
practise a vice which ought rather be to them a subject of horror. 


It is worthy of remark that there is often a con- 
siderable disproportion of age and of charm between 
two women who conjoin in this manner; and what is 
likely to surprise, is, that, once the intimacy established, 
it is usually the younger and prettier who shows the 
greater attachment and more passionate love to the other. 

The Strange Affection of Tribads. Whence comes 
this attachment, and how are these liaisons formed? 
I was able to procure in a prison communication of 
the correspondence between these tribads ; I invariably 
found it romantic, full of the usual expressions employed 
by lovers, and evidencing throughout a much exalted 
imagination. The most curious specimen of the kind 
that I saw, was a series of letters addressed by one 
prisoner to another; the first of these was a declaration 
of love, but the style of which was veiled, covered, 
and extremely reserved ; the second was more ex- 
pansive ; the last ones expressed in burning terms the 
most violent and unbridled passion. 

In most cases the want of education excludes the 
manner of communication peculiar to cultivated minds ; 
it is by caresses, care, attentions, kindnesses of all 
sorts, that the superannuated and sometimes even old 
prostitutes manage to seduce quite young girls, and 
succeed in attaching them to themselves in a really 
most astonishing manner. These old dames are then 
seen to work with extreme ardour in order to augment 
their gains and be able to make presents to those whom 
they want to seduce ; they offer to do work for shops, 
and use all the powers that the art of seduction can 
suggest to them, to compensate by peculiar and artificial 
qualities, what in them is deficient, and which might 
tend to inspire aversion. 


When such liaisons are established they present 
certain curious pecuHarities which we will now en- 
deavour to unveil. 

With prostitutes the loss of a lover of the same sex 
is far diiferent from the abandonment by a lover of 
the opposite sex. In the latter case, consolation is 
quickly found, another is soon met with who will 
cause the unfaithful one to be forgotten. But what a 
difference with the others! In fact their attachment 
approaches more to frenzy than to love : they are 
tormented by jealousy, and the dread of being sup- 
planted and of thereby losing the object of their affec- 
tions, makes them never quit each other, but watch 
each other's footsteps; they get run in for the same 
offences, and manage to quit the house of correction 
at the same time. 

When they are taken to prison, supposing they are 
purposely placed in separate dormitories, there is no end 
to their observations, child-like complaints, cries and 
howls ; they play all sorts of tricks so as to rejoin those 
from whom they would not be separated ; they simulate 
illness so as to be sent to the infirmary, some indeed 
have been known, in that intention, to inflict very 
serious wounds upon themselves. Some of them, more 
cunning than all the others, and consummate mistresses 
of all the tricks of their trade, have applied to 
certain parts of their genital organs little pieces of 
caustic potash, by means of which were produced 
slight ulcerations so closely resembling venereal chancres 
that the most experienced surgeon might be misled. 
They have most of them a wonderful talent to simu- 
late the itch, which they accomplish by pricking the 
parts, where that eruption usually shows itself, with a 
needle made red hot. 


The abandonment of a tribad by the object of her 
affection becomes in a prison a circumstance requiring 
the closest vigilance on the part of the warders ; 
the woman who has been abandoned is decided 
to take a striking revenge on the unfaithful one, as 
also on the other who has supplanted her; hence 
real duels in which the combatants employ as weap- 
ons the basins in which the food is served, and 
sometimes even with knives ; but the instrument most 
frequently made use of in these single combats is the 
hair-comb. This often causes very serious wounds, 
mortal results have even been several times observed. 
Formerly such duels were of frequent occurrence in 
the prison of La Force, ^ and the governor, M. Chef- 
deville, whenever he became cognizant of any infidelities 
of that kind, used to write to the Prefect of Police, for 
the authorisation to put into a separate place the woman 
who had thus become an object of hatred to another. 

This hatred and rage among such excitable beings 
as prostitutes cannot last very long; her vengeance 
once sated, the abandoned woman seeks to bring back 
to her the unfaithful one, in which she sometimes 
succeeds; or if her efforts are useless, she attempts 
new conquests, and plies again her pernicious talents. 

Lawful Love thought Shocking. There is, however, 
one case, which in itself is absolutely unpardonable, 
and demands perpetual revenge ; that is when a woman 
quits another to attach herself to a man whom she 
makes her lover. This crime, we repeat, is one that is 
never to be forgiven. Nothing can cause it to be 

* This prison was demolished a great many years ago. All female 
delinquents are now sent to the prison of Saint-Lazare, specially destined 
for women. (Trans.). 


forgotten. Woe to her who has thus sinned ! for, 
if she is not the stronger of the two, she is sure to 
get a beating every time she meets the other who 
thinks she has the right to reproach against her the 
most outrageous affront that a prostitute can receive. 
This vengeance of a tribad who has been abandoned, 
under the circumstances above alluded to, presents a 
remarkable particularity, which is, that in such a case 
the other prostitutes never interfere, by offering their 
friendly offices to endeavour to separate the cotnbatants, 
which they never fail to do in cases of ordinary dis- 
putes. But in the cases in point, they look on with 
indifference, and allow the quarrel to be settled as it 
may. Does this manner of acting result from any 
agreement or rule among themselves? or is it motived 
by the contempt they entertain for creatures who, by 
the excess of their infamy, have plunged themselves 
even below their own level ? We are inclined to adopt 
the latter explanation, but without maintaining that it 
is the more exact. 

Pregnancy frequent among them. Several in- 
spectors and some former warders of prisons, have 
informed us that pregnancy is more frequently met 
with in tribads than among other prostitutes who have 
not yet contracted this foul taste. This may be under- 
stood and to a certain extent explained. The same 
witnesses have also remarked that in these cases the 
pregnancy became the subject of jokes and of inuendoes 
throughout the prison, and that she w^ho presented 
those symptoms was not the object of the particular 
care and attention which the imprisoned prostitutes are 
ready to show to their comrades who may happen to 
be in that situation. 


It may therefore be taken for granted that tribads have 
come to the lowest stage of vice to which a human 
creature can descend, and that, for that very reason, 
they require to be more specially looked after by those 
who are charged with the supervision of prostitutes, 
but more particularly by those to whom is confided 
the direction of the prisons destined to receive these 

The attention of the authorities has at various times 
been drawn to these unfortunates. For instance, in the 
police regulations of 1824, the keepers of brothels are 
expressly forbidden to allow any of their women to 
sleep two in the same bed, ^ and when on inspection 
at night any infraction of this regulation was noticed, 
the two delinquents were punished with several days 
imprisonment; the same severity is meted out to fi'ee 
prostitutes who are found in the same condition ; lastly 
the license was withdrawn from a woman keeper of a 
brothel, because she was found in bed with one of her 

In summing up these details, in considering the 
circumstances which, among prostitutes, contribute to 
develop these infamous proclivities, in studying at what 
age this vice generally begins to develop itself among 
them, taking also into consideration the limited number 
of prostitutes who continue their trade more than two 
or three years; finally, seeing how the tribads are 
treated, and despised by those who have not yet 
followed their example, it may be concluded that the 
number of those who have descended to the lowest 
stage of vice is far more limited than certain persons 
have asserted, and that it is impossible to say what 
is the exact proportion in which they stand to the 

' These regulations are still in force. 


Others, but with some approximation to the truth it may 
be said that they do not constitute one fourth of the 
prostitutes actually plying their trade in the city of Paris. 
The above details show how important it is that 
those who are charged to maintain order and good 
morals should know in their least particularities the 
customs and habits of prostitutes. 

Masturbation and Pederasty very rare amongst 
the Blacks. The free Negro is neither a sodomite 
nor a pederast. He even masturbates very little. 
Besides, the rubbing of the hand on the slightly sen- 
sitive mucous surface of the circumcised gland would 
require a much longer time than in copulation before 
it produced emission. The uncircumcised Negro boy 
masturbates, by pulling the foreskin which he elongates 
considerably. But, when once he is circumcised, he 
considers it almost a disgrace to masturbate, for there 
are plenty of women with whom to satisfy his sexual 
needs. It is not the same with the slave, who, whether 
circumcised or not, has fewer facilities for copulation 
than the free Negro, and amongst the slaves we 
find, what we always find in collections of human 
beings when the female element is wanting. There 
is an exchange of reciprocal pederasty, and each is 
active and passive in turn. At least, that was the 
result of a medical examination I made, of two young 
Bambara Sharpshooters, who came fi'om the station at 
Kita, where they had been set at liberty after the 
capture of a batch of slaves belonging to the Sarrak- 
holais caravan men. They enlisted at an early age, 
before they were twenty years of age. They con- 
fessed to me that, amongst the captives and slaves, 
pederastic practices were carried on. 


Dr. Paul Moreau (of Tours), cites a remarkable 
case which has some bearing on the lascivious woman 
alluded to, showing that these erotic proclivities are 
strictly speaking congenital. A little girl not yet three 
years old, lying down on the floor or leaning with 
force against a piece of furniture, used to agitate her 
body with singular violence. Her parents at first saw 
in this only play; but recognising with pain that it 
proceeded from a sort of libertinism, they endeavoured 
carefully to correct so unfortunate a habit, employing 
alternately caresses and prayers, or threats and shame, 
and lastly punishment: they seemed, however, in no 
wise to succeed. 

The child grew up and the evil increased to such 
a degree that at table, in company, in church, at sight 
of an agreeable object, she gave herself up in all pos- 
sible ways to these manoeuvres, which were followed 
by copious ejaculation. On being questioned as to the 
moment when her paroxym was about to take place, 
she remained silent or else admitted she experienced 
great pleasure. At the moment of her crises she seemed 
to have almost entirely lost all sense of sight and of 
hearing. The threats and reprimands of her parents 
had the effect of making her abstain from giving way 
in their presence at least to her unhappy propensity ; 
but, nevertheless, she sought for solitude in order 
to satisfy it: and often was she found exhausted and 

Nothing could stop this excess of lasciviousness ; a 
physician was called in whose advice was without 
effect. Her parents then decided to marry her, and 
fixed their choice upon a very vigorous man. She 
became enceinte, and from that moment was exempt 
from her infirmity ; but she always came out of the 


most frequently repeated amorous assaults, fatigued but 
not satiated. 

At last, her accouchement having been very labori- 
ous, she died under it. Her clitoris was of the size 
of a penis. The period of her greatest salacity lasted 
from the beginning to the end of spring, and during 
the whole of that time the patient exhaled the smell 
of a male-goat. 

This lubricity was it seems heriditary. * 

A White Messalina. This unfortunate woman made 
her husband ill by excessive copulation. I was obliged 
to send him to the hospital, to give him a little rest. 

Being left alone in a small lodging, not far from 
the Negro quarter, in the North part of the town, she 
soon began to misconduct herself in a most scandalous 
manner. In the middle of the day, in the hottest 
hours, when you are sure not to find either a White 
man or a Creole in the street, she would sit, half 
naked, at her window, and make signs to any Negro 
who was passing. They came, at first singly, then by 
twos, by threes, and finally in parties, and all in turn 
assuaged their brutal passions upon her. They had 
never had such a good time. The scandal became so 
great that it reached the ears of her husband, and he 
obtained from the authorities permission to shut up 
his wife in the hospital. Ill she really was, for her 
erotic excesses had produced a severe aifection of the 
womb, ^ 

Moreau, says KrafFt-Ebing, considers these cases 
peculiar to themselves, but he is certainly in error. 

* Ephe'mirides des curieux de la nature. 

' Refer, for the imaginative side, to Burton's "Nights" (Vol. I, Benares 
edit.) "The tale of the Ensorcelled Prince." 


The sexual complex us of symptoms is always but the 
partial manifestation of a general psychosis (mania, 
hallucinatory insanity?). 

The essential element of the state of sexual excite- 
ment is a condition of psychical hypersesthesia with 
involvement of the sexual sphere. The imagination 
calls up only sexual images, which may lead to 
hallucinations, illusions, and true hallucinatory delirium. 

The most indifferent ideas excite sensual association, 
and the lustful colouring of the ideas and apperceptions 
is very much intensified. 

The abnormal state of consciousness implicates the 
whole course of feeling and desire, and is accompanied 
by general physical excitement like that which accom- 
panies coitus. 

Giraud (Annal. m^d. psychoid has reported a case 
of rape of a little girl by a religious paranoiac, aged 
43, who was temporarily erotic. Here, also, belongs 
a case of incest (Liman, Vierteljahrsschr. f. ger. Med) 

M. impregnated his daughter. His wife, mother of eighteen children, 
and herself pregnant by her husband, lodged the complaint. M. had 
had religious paranoia for two years. "It was revealed to me that I 
should beget the Eternal Son with my daughter. Then a man of flesh 
and blood would arise by my faith, who would be eighteen hundred 
years old. He would be a bridge between the Old and New Testa- 
ments." This command, which he deemed divine, was the cause of 
his insane act. 

Sexual acts that have a pathological motive some- 
times occur in persecutory paranoia. 

A married woman of thirty had, by means of money and sweet- 
meats, enticed a boy of five, who played near her, handled his genitals, 
and then attempted coitus. She was a teacher, who had been betrayed 
and then cast off. Previously moral, for some time she had given 
herself to prostitution. The explanation of her immoral change was 
given, when it was found that she had various delusions of persecution, 
and thought she was under the secret influence of her seducer, who 


impelled her to sexual acts. She also believed that the boy had been 
put in her way by her seducer. Coarse sensuality as a motive for her 
crime came less into consideration, as it would have been easy for her 
to satisfy sexUal desire in a natural way. 

(Kussner, Berl. Klin. Woe hens chri/t.) 

Cullere ("Perversions sexuelles chez les persecutes, " 
in A?inal. me'dico-psychol., March, 1886) has reported 
similar cases, the case of a patient who, suffering with 
paranoia sexualis persecutoria, tried to violate his 
sister, giving as a reason that the impulse was given 
him by Bonapartists. 

In hysteria the sexual life is very frequently ab- 
normal; indeed, always in predisposed individuals. 
All the possible anomalies of the sexual function may 
occur here, with sudden changes and peculiar activity ; 
and, on an hereditary degenerate basis and in moral 
imbecility, they may appear in the most perverse 
forms. The abnormal change and inversion of the 
sexual feeling are never without effect upon . the 
patient's disposition. 

The following case, reported by Giraud, is one of 
this nature worthy of repetition : — 

Marian L., of Bordeaux. At night, while the house- 
hold was asleep under the influence of narcotics vshe 
had administered, she had given the children of the 
house to her lover for sexual enjoyment, and had 
looked on at the immoral acts. It was found that L. 
was hysterical (hemianaesthesia and convulsive attacks), 
but before her illness she had been a moral, trustworthy 
person. Since her illness she had become a shameless 
prostitute, and lost all moral sense. 

In the hysterical the sexual sphere is often abnor- 
mally excited. This excitement may be intermittent 
(menstrual?). Shameless prostitution, even in married 


women, may result. In a milder form the sexual 
impulse expresses itself in onanism, going about in a 
room naked, smearing the person with urine and other 
things, or wearing male attire, etc, 

Schiile {Klin. Psychiatric, 1886, p. 237) finds very 
frequently an abnormally intense sexual impulse " which 
disposes girls, and even women living in happy mar- 
riage, to become Messalinas." 

The author cited knows cases in which, on the 
wedding-journey, attempts at flight with men, who 
had been accidentally met, were made ; and respected 
wives who entered into liaisons, and sacrificed every- 
thing to their insatiable impulse. 

In hysterical insanity the abnormally intense sexual 
impulse may express itself in delusions of jealousy, 
unfounded accusations against men for immoral acts, * 
hallucinations of coitus, ^ etc. 

Occasionally frigidity may occur, with absence of 
lustful feeling, — due, for the most part, to genital 

A White Woman violated by a Negro. A 

Frenchwoman, of whom I have previously spoken, 
Mme D***, was the victim of a horrible outrage. 
During the epidemic of yellow fever, she had lost 
both her husband and her son. I attended them, but 
I could not, in spite of all my efforts, persuade her, 
when she fell ill in her turn, to enter the hospital, 

' Vide Fall Merlac, in the author's Lehrb. d. ger. Psychopathol., 2. 
Aiifl., p. 222. — Morel, Traite's dcs maladies mentales, p. 6Sy. — Legrand, 
La folic, p. 337- Process La Ronciere, in Annal. d'hyg., ieS6rie, IV; 
3e Serie, XXII. 

* The incubus in the witch-trials of the Middle Ages depended on 


which was already crowded. Her house and mine 
were both in the Negro quarter. She had no one to 
assist her but Negresses, whose attentions are well 
meant but not very useful. I had no hope of saving 
her, and one day diagnosed that she would die in the 
course of the night. I told a Negress, her neighbour 
and servant, to attend to her as usual, but to leave 
her quiet if she did not ask for anything. 

Being on duty, and obliged to pass the night at 
the hospital, I could not return until the following 
morning. Mme D*** was dead. The Negress thought 
she was dead at about three o'clock in the morning, 
and had then left the house, after having covered the 
body with a sheet; when she came again in the 
morning at seven o'clock, a little before I did, she 
had found the sheet on the ground, and the body of 
Mme D*** lying across the bed, unth the chemise 
removed. The Negress declared that she had shut the 
door, to prevent any animals entering, but one of the 
windows was open ; the house was of only one floor. 
I saw at the first glance, that the face of the dead 
woman presented a peculiar appearance of suffering 
and horror. The body bore on the breasts marks of 
bites, and large bruises. The nipple of the left breast 
was almost completely torn off. Serious injuries had 
been done to the genital organs. These were well 
formed, the clitoris of a normal size, but the vulva was 
widely open. The great lips were parted, showing the 
vagina gaping. You could not distinguish any trace 
of the myrtiform caroncula, the fork, the navel pit, or 
the vestibule. The entrance to the womb, distended 
to such an extent as to admit a child's hand, was in 
place, but the mucous surface of the passage was 
hanging down, as it is in the case of women who have 


had a great number of children, or who frequently 
indulge in copulation. The finger met with clots of 
blood, which obstructed the bottom of the wound, and 
I could feel that the " tench's nose " had lost its usual 
power of resistance, and could be pushed back. The 
whole genital apparatus had the appearance of having 
been pounded, with a hard wooden pestle. There was 
not the slightest doubt in my mind, but that Mme 
D*** had been violated before her death. The Negress 
servant had left early, in order not to be present at 
her death, and a Toucouleur burglar (perhaps even 
several — unless it was the neighbours) had entered the 
chamber of the unfortunate woman, and outraged her. 
It is very probable that the poor woman, so martyred, 
had recovered consciousness before dying; from the 
expression of the face this might be guessed at all 
events. Mme D***'s house was rather removed from 
the others, and near the bank of the river. The 
neighbours had heard nothing, and their dogs had not 
barked, or at least not more than usual. An enquiry 
discovered nothing, and in the midst of the general 
confusion, which the yellow fever had created throughout 
the entire colony of Saint Louis, the tragical end of 
Mme D*** passed unnoticed. ^ 

Taylor on Raping Adult Women. In this case 
we have, of course, a woman in a weak or rather 

' For a similar case that occurred to the Cantiniere of a French 
regiment during the occupation under the Second Empire, see the 
realistic story of my friend M. Hector France, La Vache enrage'e, which 
appeared, together with other tales, some years ago in Le Rcveil, under, 
the general title of Muse, Haschish et Sang. The present editor has 
in hand, we understand, an English edition of these stories. Sir Rich. 
F. Burton refers to this work in very high terms in one of his notes 
to the ''Nights." 


helpless condition. Mention has often been made of 
the possibility of committing rape on adult women in 
a good state of health and possessing normal strength. 
Napoleon, in an anecdote recounting the story of the 
woman who came in tears to him with a complaint 
of having been violated by one of his soldiers, is said 
to have drawn his sword and wriggled the empty 
scabbard before her face in demonstration of the 
absurdity of her tale unless she had been a consenting 
party. This incident is also related as having taken 
place between Queen Elizabeth (of England) and one 
of her waiting-women who complained of a courtier; 
and we are more inclined to believe it emanated from 
a woman's wit than from a man's. But it is not 
advisable to give too much account to " old wives' 
fables". It is a question which properly belongs to 
Medical Jurisprudence, and it is to one of the great 
English exponents of this science that we now turn. 
Saith our author: ^ 

" Some medical jurists have argued that a rape cannot 
be perpetrated on an adult woman of good health and 
vigour; and they have treated all accusations made 
under these circumstances as false. Whether, on any 
criminal charge, a rape has been committed or not, 
is of course a question of fact for a jury and not for 
a medical witness. The fact of the crime having been 
actually perpetrated, can be determined only from the 
evidence of the prosecutrix and of other witnesses ; 
still a medical man may be able to point out to the 
court circumstances which might otherwise escape 
notice. Setting aside the cases of infants, idiots, 

' l^ide Taylor's Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, 
4th edit, by Thomas Stevenson, M.D., Lond. Vol. II, Lond. Churchill, 


lunatics, and weak and delicate or aged women, it does 
not appear probable that intercourse could be accom- 
plished ag-ainst the consent of a healthy adult, except 
under the following conditions : — 

I . When narcotics or intoxicating liquids have been 
administered to her, either by the prisoner or through 
his collusion. It matters not, in a case of this kind, 
whether the narcotics have been given merely for the 
purpose of exciting the female, or with the deliberate 
intention of having intercourse with her while she was 
intoxicated, — the prisoner is equally guilty. ^ The 
nature of the substance whereby insensibihty is produced 
is of course unimportant. Thus the vapours of ether 
and chloroform have been criminally used in attempts 
at rape. In a case which occurred in France, a dentist 
was convicted of a rape upon a woman, to whom he 
had administered the vapour of ether. The prosecutrix 
was not perfectly unconscious, but she was rendered 
wholly unable to offer any resistance. ^ A dentist 
was convicted of rape under somewhat similar circum- 
stances in the United States, but it was thought that 
the woman had inade the charge under some delusion. 
In Reg. v. Snarey (Winchester Lent Ass., 1859), 
there was a clear attempt at fraud. The prosecutrix 
asserted that she was INSTANTLY rendered insensible 
by the prisoner forcibly applying a handkerchief to 
her face, and she accused him of having committed a 
rape upon her. The charge was disproved by a 
distinct alibi, as well as by the improbability of all 
the circumstances. 

Casper met with a solitary case in which a girl, aet. 

'See Reg. v. Camplin, Law Ziw^j, June 28th, 1845; also Med. 
Gaz., vol. 36, p. 433. 

' Med. Gaz., vol. 40, p. 865. 


1 6, accused a man of having had intercourse wath her 
while she was sleeping in her bed, of which she was 
not conscious until he was in the act of withdrawing 
from her. On her own statement she was VIRGO 
INTACTA up to the date of this occurrence. Upon the 
facts of the case, Casper came to the conclusion that, 
if her statement was true, the man could not have 
had intercourse with her without causing pain and 
rousing her to a consciousness of her position. The 
hymen was not destroyed, but presented lacerations 
in two places. This and other facts showed that there 
had been intercourse, but did not prove that this had 
taken place without the consciousness of the woman. ' 
In White v. Howarth, ^ it was alleged that the 
defendant's daughter, having gone to consult the plain- 
tiff, who was a dentist, he took an opportunity of 
rendering her suddenly insensible by chloroform, and 
then had intercourse with her. In cross-examination, 
however, it transpired that the girl was not rendered 
insensible at all, but was conscious of all that was 
going on, and she might have given an alarm but did 
not. Most of these stories, when properly examined, 
will be found inconsistent and untrue. It is not the 
property of chloroform or of any narcotic substance, 
in a non-fatal dose, to render a person instantaneously 
insensible and powerless. In Bromwich v. Waters ^ 
it was alleged on the part of the plaintiff, that the 
defendant had given to a woman some liquid, which 
she had only tasted, and then suddenly became incon- 
scious. It was suggested that while in this state the 
defendant had had intercourse with her, which he 

'Klin. Novellen, 1863, p. 31. 

" Liverpool Wint. Ass., 1861. 

' Chester Lent Ass., 1863, p. 253, ante. 


denied; the woman herself alleged that she was not 
conscious of her pregnancy until some months after 
this visit. But such symptoms could not be reasonably 
ascribed to any of the known narcotic substances. If 
given in a non-fatal dose their effects are slowly and 
gradually produced; if they come on in a few minutes, 
the dose must have been large, and then it is probable 
the person would die. There is no doubt that many 
of the charges made against medical men and dentists 
by women who allege that they have been violated 
whilst under the influence of anaesthetics are false charges. 
Anaesthetics stimulate the sexual functions, and the 
anogenital region is the last to give up its sensitive- 
ness. ^ These charges are sometimes made in all good 
faith by modest females. A woman under the partial 
influence of an anaesthetic may mistake the forcible 
attempts to restrain her movements, whilst she is pass- 
ing through the preliminary stage of excitement induced 
by the anaesthetic, for an attempt upon her person. 
In one instance, a lady engaged to be married was 
accompanied to a dentist by her affianced husband. 
Chloroform was given, and a tooth extracted in the 
presence of this gentleman. She could hardly be con- 
vinced that the dentist had not made an attempt upon 
her chastity. 

Evidence of Signs of Violence. We have seen 
from the preceding section that the English law is 
very severe in the punishment dealt out to those who 
dare to trifle with woman's honour. But sometimes 
the cleverest jurist alive is non-plussed by the absence 
of any external marks which would indicate that force 
had been used. The charges of prostitutes, for instance, 

* Bull, of the Medico-Legal Soc. of New York, May and Dec, 1881. 


are received with suspicion and closely scrutinised. Some- 
thing more than medical evidence would be required to 
establish a charg-e underthese circumstances. The question 
turns here, as all cases of rape upon adult women, on 
the fact of consent having been previously given or not. 
This is the point at which the greater number of these 
cases of alleged rape break down; and it need hardly 
be observed, that this question has no relation to the 
duties of a medical witness; all that he can do is to 
establish, occasionally, whether or not sexual inter- 
course has been had with or without some violence. 
It is obvious that there may be marks of violence 
about the pudendum or on the person, and yet the 
conduct of the woman may have been such as to 
imply consent on her part : we must not suppose 
that medical proof of intercourse is tantamount 
to legal proof of rape. When a woman has already 
been in habits of sexual intercourse, there is commonly 
much less injury done to the genital organs. The 
hymen will, in these cases, be found destroyed and 
the vulva dilated. Still, as the intercourse is presumed 
to be against the consent of the women, it is most 
likely that when there has been a proper resistance, 
some injury will be apparent on the pudendum ; and 
there will be also, probably, extensive marks of violence 
on the body and limbs. These cases are generally 
determined without medical evidence by the deposition 
of the woman, corroborated, as it should always be, 
by circumstances. This statement regarding the presence 
of marks of violence on the pudendum of a married 
woman, on whom a rape is alleged to have been committed, 
requires some qualification. In two cases of rape on 
married women, in which the crime was completed in 
spite of the resistance of the women, there were no 


marks of violence on the genital organs in either case. 
In one, ^ it appears, that while an accomplice held the 
head of the woman with her face downwards between 
his thighs, the prisoner had forcible intercourse with 
her from behind, — her thighs having been first widely- 
separated. In the second case an accomplice held the 
woman down on a bed by her neck, while the prisoner 
separated her thighs, and thus had intercourse with her. 
She was examined nine hours afterwards by an expe- 
rienced surgeon, and he found no mark or trace of 
violence on or anywhere near her pudendum. There 
were bruises on her arms, neck, and legs, where she 
had been forcibly held down. In each of these cases, 
it will be seen that the woman had not to struggle 
with a single assailant; and there can be no doubt 
that, if a married woman is rendered powerless by many 
persons being combined against her, or if rendered 
insensible by intoxicating drinks or narcotic vapours, 
a rape may be perpetrated, without any injury whatever 
to the genital organs. A separation of the thighs in 
a married woman will cause such a dilatation of the 
parts, as to render it easy for the male organ to penetrate 
the vagina without leaving any traces of violence on 
the labia or the female organs generally. 

On the other hand, the vagina may be the seat 
of violence, and no marks to indicate a struggle or 
the application of force be found on the body. A 
woman was knocked down, her clothes were pulled 
over her face, and a rape was perpetrated by the 
assailant. In the position in which she was held, with 
her arms and hands covered over, she was half 
suffocated, and unable to offer any effectual resistance. 
She was examined on the evening of the day of the 
* Reg. v. Owen and others (Oxford Circ, 1839). 


assault. No marks of violence were found on her 
body, but the mucous membrane of the vagina at its 
commencement was contused, and in some portions 
lacerated; and blood was oozing from these parts. It 
was considered that, under these circumstances, the 
statement of the woman was consistent with the fact 
that there were no marks of violence on her body. 
There was no reason to suppose that the injury to 
the vagina had been caused in any other way than 
by a criminal assault. 

Trick of a Negro to get a White Woman. I 

had, as boy, in my service, a young Sarrakholais 
named Demba, sixteen years old, and therefore, of 
course, past the age of puberty, and none the worse 
for being one of the finest specimens of his race. He 
was the son of a laptot, who had brought him to Saint 
Louis when quite young, — in his tenth year. At twelve 
years old, he had been servant to an officer of Spahis. 
This officer had resided a long time in Algiers, and 
was the intimate friend of an official, who had also 
come from Algiers, and had married an Algerian woman 
of Spanish descent. 

The intimacy between the two friends was carried 
to such an extent, that the officer, who lived next 
door to the official (there was a terrace connecting the 
two houses), was constantly in the house of the latter. 
The wife of the official, a woman of ardent tempera- 
ment and warm passions, was, as may be guessed, the 
mistress of the officer, and when her husband had 
gone to his bureau, used to go along the terrace to 
her lover's room. Demba, the Negro boy, served as 
the messenger of love, and during the absence of the 
husband, watched at the door in case of his sudden 


and unexpected return. One day it happened that the 
husband had already left, and the lady had just entered 
her lover's room, when the officer was called away, 
on some military duty requiring his immediate attend- 
ance. The Negro boy, who was a very handsome 
lad, with eyes like a gazelle, and a form like an antique 
aun, but already a man, so far as the size of his 
genital apparatus was concerned, though he had not 
yet arrived at the age of puberty, ventured to enter 
the chamber where the lady was still fretting over the 
absence of her lover. I cannot describe here, in full 
and realistically, the scene in which Demba showed 
the lady, proofs in hand, that he was in love with her, 
and that he was of a size to satisfy her desires. I 
will content myself with saying that the pleasure of 
the lady was all the greater, since the Xegro boy, 
though capable of taking his master's place, in respect 
to the dimensions of his penis, being still under the 
age of puberty, did not secrete any seed, and the 
copulation could go on for an indefinite time, without 
any danger of producing fruit— a double advantage of 
pleasure and security. 

I had this story from the Negro boy himself. The 
young rascal, who was as intelligent as he was un- 
scrupulous, also related to me the following anecdote. * 

A Little White Girl deflowered by a Negro. 

He related to me, that when he was hardly more than 

' This inordinate salaciousness in the Negro (man) is an established 
fact, and has given rise to more lynchings in the Southern States of 
America than anything else, cases of robbery and brigandage not excepted. 
The Scented Garden of the Sheikh Nafziwi records two or more 
notable cases of Negro lust and brutality, and Burton's note (on page 6 
Benares edit, of Vol. I of his Nights) respecting the genital organs 
of the Zanzibar Negroes, will recur to ail students of Antliropology. 


ten years old, and came to Saint Louis, his father, a 
laptot in the employ of a European merchant of Saint 
Louis, procured him a place in the merchant's house, 
as boy. This merchant had married a Signare (a 
coloured Creole) from Gorea, and had a little daughter 
almost of the same age as the young Negro, but who 
was nubile, for, according to the Negro boy, she made 
blood {sic). Anyhow, her parents did not distrust him, 
and did not look very well after their daughter, and 
she, with the lasciviousness natural to coloured girls, 
took the Negro boy for her lover. She used to rise 
in the night, and go into the warehouse where he 
slept. Their amorous delights were carried on, quietly 
and mysteriously, for a year, but were at last discov- 
ered by traces of menstrual blood, which were found 
one day on some flour sacks, which had served for 
their improvised bed of love. The Negro boy was 
turned out of doors with a good kicking, and the girl 
was sent to a boarding school at Bordeaux, to complete 
an education that had commenced so well. ^ 



Although often referred to, the real character of this 
" lady of lust and death " is little known. She would 
probably be regarded by the medical profession to-day 
as a "case" of uterine fever: — 

' See Burton's Nights (Vol. II, page 49 of the Benares edition) for a 
note by the chevalier on the criminal connection of Negro boys with 
White girls. The confiding parents who entrust their children to the 
care of these enterprising Blacks too often suffer a rude awakening. We 
shall probably revert to this subject later. 

' From Dr. Paul Moreau, Aberrations du Sens Ge'ne'siquc. 


There are vices, said Serviez (in 1728), as well as 
virtues, which seem to be hereditary in families. The 
bad examples of fathers sometimes spread a sort of 
contagion which contaminates their descendants, and a 
witty lady once said in elegant language " that a 
coquettish mother would rarely engender strict daugh- 

Valeria Messalina is an unhappy example which 
confirms this maxim. Born of a mother not over 
virtuous, she imitated and even surpassed her in her 
debauches. Her life was filled with crime, she stained 
her reputation with the most shameful and crying 
licentiousness. Her prostitutions were altogether infa- 
mous, her lewdness was beyond measure, and her 
dissolution public and unlimited. The most brutal 
pleasures were those which had the liveliest attraction 
for her, and the most horrible licentiousness revealed 
itself to her in seductive garb. The only thing she 
looked upon with eyes of horror was virtue, and what 
gave her the least trouble wes her reputation. She 
forgot her dignity, her birth, the natural modesty of 
her sex, the fidelity she owed to her husband and to 
her emperor, to give herself up brutally to her pas- 
sions, without any care for decency, and without fear 
of the fate of those whom she resembled. Never was 
such dissolution seen before. 

She was the daughter of Valerius Messala Barbatus 
and of Lepida who was accused of prostitution and of 
sorcery, and of having had incestuous intercourse with 
her brother Domitius Ahenobarbus. It was this impure 
spring that gave birth to a stream still more impure. 
She was married to her cousin, the emperor Claudius. 

Messalina had been gifted by nature with so violent a 
tendency for lechery, that it was very difficult for her 


to contain herself within the legitimate bounds of 
marriage, too limited for a heart burning with a thou- 
sand desires. 

She had beauty and credit enough to attract lovers 
and too little virtue to let them long languish. The 
corruption of her temperament awakened her lubricity ; 
the love of riches and of great inheritances excited 
her cruelty against those who were rich, so that de- 
bauchery and avarice were the two baneful things 
which underlay all the desires and all the actions of 
this infamous princess. 

Messalina thought only of satisfying her passions ; 
she made those who were virtuous enough to resist 
her shameful advances suffer from her cruelty. She 
accused those who would not consent to be her ac- 
complices of crimes against the State, and the penalty 
of their resistance was death. In this way she caused 
her brother-in-law Silanus, who had repelled with 
horror all her offers, to be put to death .... and how 
many others! 

Such extravagant lubricity would allow no limit 
to the crimes of this princess. Always athirst for 
pleasure, she was not satisfied with plunging bru- 
tally into the grossest and most infamous debauchery, 
but gave herself up to the first-comer, and sacrificed 
everything to her burning desires, without being 
ever able to gratify them to satiety. She wanted still 
to have companions and imitators of her prostitutions ; 
and authority having great influence, she thought to 
diminish the horror of her infamies in associating in 
her crimes ladies belonging to the highest families in 
Rome, whom she forced to live with her in shameful 

Further, in order to carry her brutality to the last 


point, she forced them to prostitute themselves to people 
abandoned to debauchery in presence of their husbands, 
whom she made the witnesses of their infamies and 
often the accomplices and approvers of their crimes. 

Juvenal sketched a fearful but sublime picture of the 
libertinism of Messalina. 

We beg permission to quote: — 

Extract from Juvenal's 
Sixth Satire. 

Respice rivales Divorum: Claudius audi 

Quae tulerit. Dormire virum quum senserat uxor. 

Ansa Palatino tegetem praeferre cubili, 

Sum ere nocturnos meretrix augusta cucullos, 

Linquebat, comite ancilla non amplius una ; 

Et nigrum flavo crinem abscondente galero, 

Intravit calidum veteri centone lupanar, 

Et cellam vacuam atque suam : tunc nuda papillis, 

Prostitit auratis, titulum mentita Lyciscae, 

Ostenditque tuum, generose Britannice, ventrem. 

Excepit blanda intrantes, atque aera poposcit, 

Et resupina jacens multorum absorbuit ictus. 

Mox, lenone suas jam dimittente puellas, 

Tristis abit: sed quod potuit, tamen ultima cellam 

Clausit, adhuc ardens rigidae tentigine vulvae, 

Et lassata viris, sed non satiata recessit. 

Obscurisque genis turpis, fumoque lucernae 

Foeda, lupanaris tulit ad pulvinar odorem. 

Juvenal, Sat. vi. 115 — 132. 

It is no easy task to render into English the vigour 
of the original ; for those unacquainted with Latin we 
offer the following translation. 


" Look at the rivals of the Gods : hear the treatment 
Claudius had to bear. Soon as ever his consort saw 
her husband was asleep, recklessly preferring a pallet 
to the Palace bed and donning the hood of night- 
walkers, the Imperial harlot would leave his side, 
accompanied by a single maid ; ^ and hiding her dark 
hair under a yellow wimple, entered the reeking brothel 
with its patchwork quilts, and made for the chamber 
that stood vacant, her own. Then naked and with 
gilded hippies she took her stand for hire, under the 
feigned name of Lycisca, ^ and exposed the BfAA/ that 
bore you, noble Germanicus, to all. She welcomed 
her visitors with a fawning smile, and asked for the 
fee, and throwing herself on her B«% drank in the BA«^ 
of many lovers. Presently, when the whore-master 
dismissed his girls, reluctantly she left ; but doing all 
she could to delay, was the last to close her chamber, 
still raging with the lust of a turgid womb ; and 
retired, wearied with men, but unsatisfied. Then, with 
soiled face and darkling cheeks, and rank with the 
lamp's smoke, she carried the stench of the brothel to 
the Emperor's couch." 

We append also Gifford's well-known metrical trans- 
lation of the passage. 

Turn to the rivals of the Immortal Powers, 
And mark how like their fortunes are to ours. 
Claudius had scarce begun his eyes to close, 

' This confidante, according to Pliny (lib. VII), was one of the most 
famous prostitutes known in Rome ; he adds that she even at times 
surpassed her mistress: eamqtte die ac node superavit quinto et vices- 
simo concubitu. 

* The haunts of vice in Rome were divided into little cells, on the 
doors of which could be read the names of each of the courtesans who 
occupied them. 


Ere from his side his Messalina rose ; 
(Accustom'd long the bed of state to shght, 
For the rank mattress, and the hood of night ;) 
And with one maid, and her dark hair conceal'd 
Beneath a yellow tire, a strumpet veil'd ! 
She slipt into the stews, unseen, unknown, 
And hir'd a cell, yet reeking, for her own. 
There flinging off her dress, the imperial whore 
Stood with bare breasts, and gilded, at the door, 
And shew'd, Britannicus, to all that came. 
The womb that bore thee, in Lycisca's name : 
Allur'd the passers by with many a wile, 
And ask'd her price, and took it, with a smile. 
And when the hour of business was expir'd. 
And all the girls dismiss'd, with sighs retir'd ; 
Yet what she could, she did ; slowly she past. 
And saw her man, and shut her cell the last. 
Still raging with the fever of desire. 
Her veins all turgid, and her blood all fire, 
Exhausted, but unsatisfied, she sought 
Her home, and to the Emperor's pillow brought. 
Cheeks rank with sweat, limbs drench'd with poison- 
ous dews, 
The steam of lamps, and odour of the stews ! 

It is useless to insist further upon this woman who 
carried impudicity to such a point that it would be 
impossible, without shame, to write the entire history 
of her obscenities. The few extracts that we have 
given amply suffice to demonstrate the really morbid 
character of her debaucheries. 

Des Aberrations du Sens Ge'ne'sique, Dr. Paul Mo- 
reau, Paris, 1880, 8vo., p. 30 — 33. 


Differences between the organs of generation of the various races 
of Senegal. 

Races of Senegal, their Genital Organs. So far 

as I was able to judge from a certain number of ob- 
servations, although all the races of Senegal present 
common characteristics as to their genital organs, 
nevertheless certain differences may be found between 

Amongst those people who have a Semitic origin, 
the yard is less developed when in a flaccid condition, 
and the difference when in a state of erection is more 
considerable, than in the Black of pure race, as the 
Wolof for instance. I have already said that there is 
an infiltration of Semitic blood amongst the Peulhs 
and Sarrakholais. 

In the Peulh, the penis is relatively smaller than in 
the pure Black, but the testicles are more developed. 
In its shape, the yard much resembles that of the 
Mulatto. Moreover, there are Peulhs who differ little, 
as to general colour, from certain Mulattos. However, 
the ordinary hue of the body is a reddish brown, whilst 
that of the Mulatto is rather a yellow brown. The 
mucous surfaces of the lips, the gland, and the vulva, 
in the Peulh, are a little darker than in the half-breed 
between the White and the Black. 

With the Sarrakholais, who, according to Dr. Lota, 



are a cross between the Peulhs and the pure Black 
race, the male organ of generation is not sensibly- 
smaller than that of the Wolof, and presents the same 
characteristic of being very large when it is flaccid. 
But as the Sarrakholais have a general tint of skin a 
reddish brown, similar to that of cooked chocolate, we 
find in them the mucous surface of the lips, the gland, 
and the vulva, to be a little lighter than that of the 
skin of the penis, and of a hue much resembling that 
of the Zambo of Guiana. 

The other races, — the Wolofs, Kassonkes, Malinkes, 
Toucouleurs, Bambaras, etc. — present the common char- 
acteristic which is a type of the race, — that is to say 
that the penis is almost as large when flabby as it is 
in a state of erection, and the external mucous surfaces 
are of the same black colour as the skin. It was 
amongst the Malinkes of Kita, that I found the most 
developed penis, and notably the one of the maximum 
dimensions, being nearly twelve inches in length, by 
a diameter exceeding 2f inches. This was a terrific 
machine, and except for a slight diff"erence in length, 
was more like the yard of a donkey than that of a 


New Caledonia. 
The New Hebrides — Tahiti. 


Mv stay in Neiv Caledonia. — Anthropological characteristics of 
the Kanaka of Neiv Caledonia. — The Kanaka " Popine'e" . — 
Degraded condition of the Popine'e. — The genital organs of the 
Kanaka race. — Circumcision at the age of puberty. — Seclusion of 
girls at puberty. — "Hunting the Snake". — Beating as a means 
of purification. — Division of the Kanaka race into independent 
and hostile tribes. — The man's " manou" . — Strattge modesty of 
the Kanaka. — The girdle of the Popine'e. — A few words about 
manners and customs.— The position of the Chief in the social 
state. — Habitations, — Food. — The Kanaka stove. — Beliefs and 
superstitions. — The wizard-doctor (Takata). — Prof. Frazer on 
"Killing the God". 

My Stay in New Caledonia. I arrived in New Ca- 
ledonia at the moment when the fierce insurrection of 
the natives, which commenced in 1878, had just finished. 
It had cost the Colony two years of war. Everyone 
remembered incidents of the struggle, and I collected 
a good deal of information from eye-witnesses whose 
evidence could be trusted. 

In order, however, not to unduly lengthen this book, 
I will say nothing about the Europeans in New Ca- 



ledonia, except the transported convicts, who have 
special and peculiar manners and customs. 

Anthropological Characteristics of the Ne"w 
Caledonian Kanaka. New Caledonia was colonised 
by the Melanesian Negro in the first place, and 
afterwards received the accession of a superior race, — 
the Maoris. According to the greater or less infusion 
of Maori blood, which is different in the various tribes, 
the tint varies considerably, from a smoky black to 
chocolate, and to a dark Florentine bronze with cop- 
pery gleams. On the east coast, you more especially 
find tribes of a lighter colour. The Kanaka, therefore, 
is rather a Negro half-breed than a real Negro, and 
even when the colour of his skin is darkest, it is im- 
possible to confound him with the Negro of Africa. 
In fact, his head differs notably from that of the 
African. It is asymmetric, the facial angle is wider, 
the forehead is open, high, narrow, and convex. The 
skull is flattened across, especially in the temporal 
region. It is covered with woolly hair, stiffer and 
less curly than that of the Negro, and which is often 
stubbly, which is never the case with the hair of the 
Negro. The eyes are widely open, but the conjunctiva 
is often injected with streaks of blood, which gives 
them a fierce expression. The cheek-bones are slightly 
projecting, the jaw prognathous. The lips are fairly 
thick, and are turned back, the mouth wide, the teeth 
very fine, and regular. The Kanaka has nearly always 
a moustache, and often a good sized beard, which is 
rarely the case with the African. The colour of the 
hair and beard is a dark black, but you often find 
men who have the hair and beard a fine coppery red 
as clear and bright as that of the European. 


But, more especially, it is in the exactness of his 
proportions, and the regularity of form of his body, 
that the New Caledonian excels. The race is generally 
thin and supple; the obesity of the European never 
vulgarises and disfigures his shape. The arms and 
legs are not of a disproportionate length, as in the 
Negro. The muscles, which are hidden in the flesh 
during youth, assume a vigorous projection in virility; 
those of the arms are often as well developed as in a 
robust European ; those of the thighs and legs are less 
so, but they are firm and nervous. The Kanaka is 
indefatigable on the march, especially if animated by 
pleasure, or passion. 

The Kanaka Popin^e. This is the name given in 
New Caledonia, to the fairest half of the human race, 
which in this country is incontestably the ugliest. In 
fact, there exists such a striking difference between 
the two sexes in respect to beauty, that one is almost 
inclined to wonder whether the male Kanaka has not 
the right to consider such a companion as much below 
him, or whether, on the other hand, it is the state of 
degradation in with the woman lives that has made 
her so ugly. The hair of the woman is short and 
frizzled, and is worn in a ball-shaped knob like the 
helmet of a Bavarian soldier. Whilst she is a young 
girl, the Popinee is worth looking at. The breasts, 
which are arch-shaped, are firm, and though she is 
generally slender, her form is fairly well rounded, and 
her skin soft. But this fleeting beauty lasts but for a 
flash, and the Popinee soon withers under the hard 
existence that savage life compels her to lead. The 
skin dries, the scars, with which she covers herself as 
a sign of mourning, render her repulsive, and mater- 


nity completes the work Suckling greatly develops 
the breast, which lengthens and falls naturally, although 
the practice of sub-cutaneous incision is unknown to 
her. The nipple of the breast is large and black. 
When she no longer gives suck, the breast remains 
flabby and wrinkled, and falls down like a she-goat's 
udder. The belly shows several parallel wrinkles, and 
'tiie skin hangs down over the pubes, like an old 
kitchen apron. An old Kanaka Popinee is an object 
of disgust, whereas the maid, even when aged, always 
retains a certain carriage. A young Kanaka of twenty, 
on the contrary, is a magnificent specimen of the race, 
and resembles an antique bronze. 

Degradation of the Popinee. Every day, the 
unfortunate Popinee works like a beast of burden. 
She does all the work for the squad (I use this word 
purposely) both in cultivation and war. On the march 
she carries the provisions, the culinary utensils, the 
tools. She marches on and on indefinitely, weighed 
down by her burden; if she gets weak, a good blow with 
the handle of a war club will restore her strength. 
At night the she-donkey with four legs can sleep on 
its litter, but the Popinee cannot. She must satisfy the 
passions of the squad, and, even when she is pregnant, 
this double work is hardly interrupted by child-birth. 

The average height of the women is much inferior 
to that of the men, and in this respect there is nearly 
the proportion between the two sexes as in our own 
race. The women suckle their children for a very long 
time — from three to five years. The oppression under 
which they groan, the hard work put upon them, and 
the privations which are too often their lot, rapidly 
wear out the strength of their constitution. 


The Genital Organs of the Kanaka Race. The 

genital organs of the man are well-proportioned, but 
much less developed than those of the Negro. They 
resemble rather those of the South European, both as 
to shape and dimensions, whether flaccid or erect, 
though a little superior in size. The penis, when in 
erection, is from 5-| to 7^ inches in length by i^to 2 
inches in diameter — rarely more. Once only did I 
find a penis of 7I inches. This size, on the contrary, 
is very frequent amongst the African Negroes. The 
average appeared to be 6^ inches by if inches. The 
testicles are as well developed in length as those of 
the European, but appeared to me to be a little flatter. 
In the colour of the mucous surface of the lips, the 
gland, and the vulva, the Kanaka also resembles the 
European. With those natives who have the skin of 
a smoky black colour, the mucous surfaces are never 
black, as they are in the Negro. It is of a fairly 
bright red, darkened by a touch of sepia. With those 
who have the skin the colour of Florentine bronze 
(they are almost pure Maoris) the mucous surface is 
of a bright red, toned down by light sienna, — almost 
the colour of red brick. 

The reader must bear in mind that we must go 
back to the Quadroon (three quarters white), and should 
still find the mucous surfaces not so light and bright 
as in the Kanaka. I shall revert to this subject, when 
I compare the organ of the African Negro with that 
of the Melanesian Black of Australia. It may be said, 
that in the coloured man, a cross-breed between the 
White and the Black, the mucous surface of the gland 
is darker than the skin of the penis. With the Ka- 
naka it is absolutely quite the contrary', who in this 
anthropological peculiarity resembles the South Itahan, 



the Sicilian for instance, who often has the skin of 
the penis and the scrotum very brown, and the g-land 
bright red. The pubes is covered with a black and 
curly fleece, — red, in individuals of that colour — and 
fairly abundant. 

Circumcision at Puberty. Usually, in the boy 
before the age of puberty the foreskin is fairly long. 
At the age of puberty, in certain tribes, — generally 
speaking, those who have the darkest skin and who 
live on the western coast (such as the Kone tribe) — 
they make those boys who have phimosis, and whose 
gland does not skin easily, undergo a sort of demi- 
circumcision. The surgeon-sorcerer of the tribe splits 
the upper part of the foreskin, with a piece of quartz, 
sharpened and polished, down to the crown of the 
gland, a length of about an inch. 

This operation, which is much less painful than the 
complete circumcision of the Negro, produces almost 
the same effect, and the gland, even when in a flaccid 
state, is completely freed. The foreskin thus divided 
is tied up with bourao leaves, steeped in the juice of 
certain herbs which the surgeon-sorcerer chews, and 
which make it quickly heal, and draw it back behind 
the gland. But when in erection, the foreskin that 
has been operated upon in this way, sticks up in the 
form of a comb, very much like the cut ears of a 
terrier, forming an unpleasant looking projection above 
the penis. This would be rather uncomfortable in 
copulation, if the Kanakas were particular in their 
pleasures. This pseudo-circumcision is simply a hygienic 
measure, and nowise a religious custom. * 

' Watermarck (see his work on Marriage), it is only right of me to 
point out, thinks differently and quotes authorities on the tribes he 


Seclusion of Girls at Puberty. While dealing 
with the customs pertaining to males prevalent amongst 
savage peoples on the arrival of the age of puberty, 
it may not be uninteresting to quote the curious remarks 
of Frazer regarding girls in whom also the signs of 
womanhood begin to appear. "Amongst the Zulus," 
this author says, " and kindred tribes of South Africa, 
when the first signs of puberty show themselves, while 
a girl is walking, gathering wood, or working in the 
field, she runs to the river and hides herself among 
the reeds for the day so as not to be seen by men. 
She covers her head carefully with her blanket that 
the sun may not shine on it and shrivel her up into 
a withered skeleton, assured result fi-om exposure to 
the sun's beams. After dark she returns to her home 
and is secluded in a hut for some time." * 

In New Ireland girls are confined for four or five 
years in small cages, being kept in the dark and not 
allowed to set foot on the ground. The custom has 
been thus described by an eye-witness. " I heard from a 
teacher about some strange custom connected with some 
of the young girls here, so I asked the chief to take me 
to the house where they were. The house was about 
twenty-five feet in length, and stood in a reed and 
bamboo enclosure, across the entrance to which a 
bundle of dried grass was suspended to show that 
it was strictly ' tabu '. Inside the house were three 

names. Of course, I do not deny that in the cases he cites hygiene 
is not the object of the operation; but notwithstanding, my observa- 
tions hold good with regard to the Kanakas, amongst whom I have 
personally moved and have known perhaps with too dangerous intimacy 
not to be sure of my facts about them. 

' Rev. James Macdonald (Reay Free Manse, Caithness), Manners, 
Customs, Sttperstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes (in 


conical structures about seven or eight feet in height, 
and about ten or twelve feet in circumference at the 
bottom, and for about four feet from the ground, at 
which point they tapered off to a point at the top. These 
cages were made of the broad leaves of the pandanus- 
tree, sewn quite close together so that no light, and 
little or no air, could enter. On one side of each is 
an opening which is closed by a double door of plaited 
cocoa-nut tree and pandanus-tree leaves. About three 
feet from the ground there is a stage of bamboos 
which forms the floor. In each of these cages we 
were told there was a young woman confined, each 
of whom had to remain for at least four or five years, 
without ever being allowed to go outside the house. 
I could scarcely credit the story when I heard it; the 
w^hole thing seemed too horrible to be true. I spoke 
to the chief, and told him that I wished to see the 
inside of the cages, and also to see the girls that I 
might make them a present of a few beads. He told 
me that it was ' tabu, ' forbidden tor any men but 
their own relations to look at them ; but I suppose the 
promised beads acted as an inducement, and so he 
sent away for some old lady who had charge, and who 
alone is allowed to open the doors .... She had to undo 
the door when the chief told her to do so, and then the 
girls peeped out at us, and, when told to do so, they 
held out their hands for the beads, I, however, purposely 
sat at some distance away and merely held out the 
beads to them, as I wished to draw them quite outside, 
that I might inspect the inside of the cages. This 
desire of mine gave rise to another difficulty, as these 
girls were not allowed to put their feet to the ground all 
the time they were confined in these places. However 
they wished to get the beads, and so the old lady had 


to go outside and collect a lot of pieces of wood and 
bamboo, which she placed on the ground, and then 
going to one of the girls, she helped her down and 
held her hand as she stepped from one piece of wood 
to another until she came near enough to get the 
beads I held out to her. I then went to inspect the 
inside of the cage out of which she had come, but 
could scarcely put my head inside of it, the atmosphere 
was so hot and stifling. It was clean and contained 
but a few short lengths of bamboo for holding water. 
There was only room for the girl to sit or lie down 
in a crouched position on the bamboo platform, and 
when the doors are shut it must be nearly or quite 
dark inside. The girls are never allowed to come out 
except once a day to bathe in a dish or wooden bowl 
placed close to each cage. They say that they perspire 
profusely. They are placed in these stifling cages when 
quite young, and must remain there until they are 
young women, when they are taken out and have each 
a great marriage feast provided for them." ^ 

' The Rev. G. Brown, quoted by the Rev. B. Danks, " Marriage 
Customs of the New Britain Group," Jotirn. Anthrop. Institute, XVIII, 
284 sq. ; cp. Rev. G. Brown, "Notes on the Duke of York Group, 
New Britain and New Ireland," Journ. Royal Geogr. Soc, XLVII 
(1877), p. 142 sq. Powell's description of the New Ireland aistom is 
similar ( Wanderings in n Wild Country, p. 249). According to him 
the girls wear wreaths of scented herbs round the waist and neck ; an 
old woman or a litde child occupies the lower floor of the cage: and 
the confinement lasts only a month. Probably the long period mentioned 
by Mr. Brown is that prescribed for chiefs' daughters. Poor people 
could not afford to keep their children so long idle. This distinction 
is sometimes expressly stated; for example, among the Goajiras of 
Colombia rich people keep their daughters shut up in separate huts of 
puberty for periods varying from one to four years, but poor people 
cannot afford to do so for more than a fortnight or a month. F. A. 
Simons, "An exploration of the Goajira Peninsula," Proceed Royal 


In some parts of New Guinea " daughters of chiefs, 
when they are about twelve or thirteen years of age, 
are kept indoors for two or three years, never being 
allowed, under any pretence, to descend from the house, 
and the house is so shaded that the sun cannot shine 
on them." ^ Among the Ot Danoms of Borneo girls 
at the age of eight or ten years are shut up in a 
little room or cell of the house and cut off from all 
intercourse with the world for a long time. The cell, 
like the rest of the house, is raised on piles above 
the ground, and is lit by a single small window 
opening on a lonely place, so that the girl is in almost 
total darkness. They may not leave the room on any 
pretext whatever, not even for the most necessary 
purposes. None of her family may see her all the 
time she is shut up, but a single slave woman is 
appointed to wait on her. During her lonely confine- 
ment, which often lasts seven years, the girl occupies 
herself in weaving mats, or with other handiwork. 
Her bodily growth is stunted by the long want of 
exercise, and when, on attaining womanhood, she is 
brought out, her complexion is pale and wax-like. 
She is now shown the sun, the earth, the water, the 
trees, and the flowers, as if she were newly born. 
Then a great feast is made, a slave is killed, and the 
girl is smeared with his blood. '^ In Ceram girls at 

Geogr. Soc. N. S. VII (1885), p. 791. In Fiji, brides who were being 
tattooed were kept from the sun. Williams, F^i and the Fgians, 
I, 170. This was perhaps a modification of the Melanesian custom of 
secluding girls at puberty. The reason mentioned by Mr. Williams, 
"to improve her complexion," can hardly have been the original one. 

' Chalmers and Gill, Work and Adventure in New Guinea, p. 159. 

* Schwaner, Borneo, Beschrt/ving van het stroomgebied van den Barito, 
etc., II, 77 sq.; Zimmerman, Die Inseln des Indischen und StilUn 
Meeres, II, 632 sq. ; Otto Finsch, Neu Guinea und seine Beu'ohner, p. 116. 


puberty were formerly shut up by themselves in a 
hut which was kept dark. ^ Amongst the Aht Indians 
of Vancouver Island, when girls reach puberty they 
are placed in a sort of gallery in the house " and are 
there surrounded completely with mats, so that neither 
the sun nor any fire can be seen. In this cage they 
remain for several days. Water is given them, but 
no food. The longer a girl remains in this retirement 
the greater honour is it to the parents; but she is 
disgraced for life if. it is known that she has seen fire 
or the sun during this initiatory ordeal." ^ Amongst 
the Thlinkeet or Kolosh Indians of Alaska, when a 
girl shows signs of womanhood she is shut up in a 
little hut or cage, which is completely blocked up with 
the exception of a small air-hole. In this dark and 
filthy abode she had formerly to remain a year, without 
fire, exercise, or associates. Her food was put in at 
the small window; she had to drink out of the wing- 
bone of a white-headed eagle. The time has now been 
reduced, at least in some places, to six months. The 
girl has to wear a sort of hat with long flaps, that 
her gaze may not pollute the sky; for she is thought 
unfit for the sun to shine upon. ^ Amongst the 

' Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, 

p. 138. 

° Sproat, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, p. 93 sq. 

* Erman, " Etnographische Wahrnehmungen u. Erfahrungen an den 
Kiisten des Behrings-Meeres," Zcitschrift f. Ethnologie, II, 318 sq.; 
LangsdoriF, " Reise um die Welt," II, 114 sq.; Holmberg, "Ethnogr. 
Skizzen iiber die Volker d. russischen Amerika," Acta Societatis Scien- 
tiarum Fennicac, IV (1856), p. 320^^./ Bancroft, Native Races of the 
Pacific States, I, no sq.; Krause, Die Tlinkit-Indianer, p. 217 sq. ; 
Rev. Sheldon Jackson, "Alaska and its Inhabitants," American Anti- 
quarian, II, III sq. W. M. Grant, \n Journal of American Folk-Lore., 
I, 169. For caps, hoods, and veils, worn by girb at such seasons, 


Koniags, an Esquimaux people of Alaska, girls at 
puberty were placed in small huts in which they had 
to remain on their hands and knees for six months ; 
then the hut was enlarged enough to let them kneel 
upright, and they had to remain in this posture for six 
months more. ^ When symptoms of puberty appeared on 
a girl for the first time, the Indians of the Rio de la Plata 
used to sew her up in her hammock as if she were 
dead, leaving only a small hole for her mouth to allow 
her to breathe. In this state she continued so long as 
the symptoms lasted. ^ 

Hunting the Snake. In similar circumstances the 
Chiriguanos of Bolivia hoisted the girl in her hammock 
to the roof, where she stayed for a month ; the second 
month the hammock was let half way down from the 
roof; and in the third month old women, armed with 
sticks, entered the hut and ran about striking everj-thing 
they met, saying they were hunting the snake that 
had wounded the girl. This they did till one of the 
women gave out that she had killed the snake. ^ 
Amongst some of the Brazilian Indians, when a girl 
attained to puberty, her hair was burned or shaved off 
close to the head. Then she was placed on a flat stone 
and cut with the tooth of an animal from the shoulders 

compare G. H. Loskiel, History of the Mission of the United Brethren 
among the Indians, I, 56; Journal Anthrop. Institute, VII, 206; G. 
M. Dawson, Report of the Queen Charlotte Islands, 1878 (Geological 
Survey of Canada), p. 130B; Petitot, Monographie des Dine-Dindjie\ 
pp. 72, 75 ; id.. Traditions indiennes du Canada Nord-Otust, p. 258. 

* Holmberg; Bancroft, I, 82; Petroff, Report on the Population, etc. 
of Alaska, p. 143. 

* Lafiteau, Maeurs des Sauvages Ame'ricains, I, 262 .f^. 

* Lettres e'dif antes et curieuses, VIII, 333. On the Chiriguanos 
see Von Martins, Zur Ethnographie Amerika^s zumal Brasiliens, p. 
212 sq. 


all down the back, till she ran with blood. Then the 
ashes of a wild gourd were rubbed into the wounds ; the 
girl was bound hand and foot, and hung in a hammock, 
being enveloped in it so closely that no one could see 
her. Here she had to stay for three days without 
eating or drinking. When the three days were over, 
she stepped out of the hammock upon the flat stone, 
for her feet might not touch the ground. If she had 
a call of nature, a female relation took the girl on her 
back and carried her out, taking with her a live coal 
to prevent evil influences from entering the girl's body. 
Being replaced in her hammock she was now allowed 
to get some flour, boiled roots, and water, but might 
not taste salt or flesh. Thus she continued to the end 
of the first monthly period, at the expiry of which she 
was gashed on the breast and belly as well as all down 
the back. During the second month she still stayed 
in her hammock, but her rule of abstinence was less 
rigid, and she was allowed to spin. The third month 
she was blackened with a certain pigment and began 
to go about as usual. ^ Amongst the Macusis of British 
Guiana, when a girl shows the first signs of puberty, 
she is hung in a hammock at the highest point of the 
hut. For the first few days she may not leave the 
hammock by day, but at night she must come down, 
light a fire, and spend the night beside it, else she 
would break out in sores on her neck, throat, etc. So 
long as the symptoms are at their height, she must 
fast rigorously. When they have abated, she may come 
down and take up her abode in a little compartment 
that is made for her in the darkest corner of the hut. 
In the morning she may cook her food, but it must 
be at a separate fire and in a vessel of her own. In 

* Thevet, Cosmographie universelle (Paris,' 1575), H, 946B sq. ; Lafiteau. 


about ten days the magician comes and undoes the spell 
by muttering charms and breathing on her and on the 
more valuable of the things with which she has come 
in contact. The pots and drinking vessels which she 
used are broken and the fragments buried. After her 
first bath, the girl must submit to be beaten by her 
mother with thin rods without uttering a cry. At the 
end of the second period she is again beaten, but not 
afterwards. She is now " clean," and can mix again 
with people. ^ Other Indians of Guiana, after keeping 
the girl in her hammock at the top of the hut for a 
month, expose her to certain large ants, whose bite is 
very painful. ^ 

Beating as a Means of Purification. The custom 
of stinging the girl with ants or beating her with 
rods is intended, we may be sure, not as a punish- 
ment or a test of endurance, but as a purification, the 
object being to drive away the malignant influences 
with which a girl at such times is believed to be beset 
and enveloped. Examples of purification, both by 
beating and by stinging with ants, have already come 
before us. ^ Probably, beating or scourging as a 
religious or ceremonial rite always originated with a 
similar intention. It was meant to wipe off and drive 
away a dangerous contagion (whether personified as 
demoniacal or not) which was supposed to be adhering 
physically, though invisibly, to the body of the sufferer. * 

' Schomburgk, Reisen in British Guiana, II, 315 i^./ Martius, Zur 
Ethnographie Amerika's, p. 644. 

' Labat, Voyage du Chevalier des Marchais en Guine'e, lies voisines 
et a Cayenne; IV, 365 sq. (Paris ed.), p. 17 sq. (Amsterdam ed.) 

'Above, p. 213 sq. vol. I, p. 153 sq. 

* This interpretation of the custom is supported by the fact that 
beating or scourging is inflicted on inanimate objects expressly for the 


The pain inflicted on the person beaten was no more 
the object of the beating than it is of a surgical 

purpose indicated in the text. Thus the Indians of Costa Rica hold 
that there are two kinds of ceremonial uncleanness, nya and bu-ku-ru. 
Anything that has been connected with a death is nya. But hti-kii-rt\ 
is much more virulent. It can not only make one sick but kill. " The 
worst bu-ku-ru of all is that of a young woman in her first pregnancy- 
She infects the whole neighbourhood. Persons going from the house 
where she lives carry the infection with them to a distance, and all 
the deaths or other serious misfortunes in the vicinity are laid to her 
charge. In the old times, when the savage laws and customs were in 
full force, it was not an uncommon thing for the husband of such a 
woman to pay damages for casualities thus caused by his unfortunate 
wife. Bu-ku-ru emanates in a variety of ways; arms, utensils, even 
houses become affected by it after long disuse, and before they can be 
used again must be purified. In the case of portable objects left un- 
disturbed for a long time, the custom is to beat them with a stick 
before touching them. I have seen a woman take a long walking, 
stick and beat a basket hanging from the roof of a house by a cord. 
On asking what that was for, I was told that the basket contained 
her treasures, that she would probably want to take something out the 
next day, and that she was driving off the bu-ku-ru. A house long 
unused must be swept, and then the person who is purifying it must 
take a stick and beat not only the movable objects, but the beds, posts, 
and in short every accescible part of the interior. The next day it is 
fit for occupation. A place not visited for a long time, or reached for 
the first time, is bu-ku-rii. On our return from the ascent of Pico 
Blanco, nearly all the party suffered from little calenturas, the result of 
extraordinary exposure to wet and cold and want of food. The Indians 
said that the peak was especially bu-ku-rit, since nobody had ever been 
on it before." One day Mr. Gabb took down some dusty blow-guns 
amid cries of bu-ku-rii from the Indians. Some weeks afterwards a body 
died, and the Indians firmly believed that the bu-ku-rii. of the blow- 
guns had killed him. " From all the foregoing, it would seem that 
bu-ku-rii is a sort of evil spirit that takes possession of the object, and 
resents being disturbed ; but I have never been able to learn from the 
Indians that they considered it so. They seem to think of it as a 
property the objects acquire." W. M. Gabb, Indian Tribes and 
Languages of Costa Rica (read before the American Philosophical 
Society, 20th August, 1875), p. 504 sq. 


operation with us; it was a necessary accident, that 
was all. In later times such customs were interpreted 
otherwise, and the pain, from being an accident, 
became the prime object of the ceremony, which was 
now regarded either as a test of endurance imposed 
upon persons at critical epochs of life, or as a morti- 
fication of the flesh well pleasing to the god. But 
asceticism, under any shape or form, is never primitive. 
Amongst the Haupes of Brazil a girl at puberty is 
secluded in the house for a month, and allowed only 
a small quantity of bread and water. Then she is 
taken out into the midst of her relations and friends, 
each of whom gives her four or five blows with pieces 
of sipo (an elastic climber), till she falls senseless or 
dead. If she recovers, the operation is repeated four 
times at intervals of six hours, and it is considered an 
offence to the parents not to strike hard. Meantime, 
pots of meats and fish have been made ready; the 
sipos are dipped into them and then given to the girl 
to lick, who is now considered a marriageable woman. ^ 
When a Hindoo maiden reaches maturity she is kept 
in a dark room for four days, and is forbidden to see 
the sun. She is regarded as unclean ; no one is allowed 
to touch her. Her diet is restricted to boiled rice, 
milk, sugar, curd, and tamarind without salt. ^ In 

* A. R. Wallace, Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio 
Negro, p. 496. 

* Bose, The Hindoos as they are, p. 86. Similarly, after a Brahman 
boy has been invested with the sacred thread, he is for three days 
strictly forbidden to see the sun. He may not eat salt, and he is 
enjoined to sleep either on a carpet or a deer's skin, without a mattress, 
or mosquito curtain. lb. p. 186. In Bali, boys who have had their 
teeth filed, as a preliminary to marriage, are kept up in a dark room 
for three days. Van Eck, "Schetsen van het eiland Bali," Tijdschrift 
voor Nederlandsch Indie, N. S. IX (1880), 428 sq. 


Cambodia a girl at puberty is put to bed under a 
mosquito curtain, where she should stay a hundred 
days. Usually, however, four, five, ten, or twenty 
days are thought enough; and even this, in a hot 
climate and under the close meshes of the curtain, is 
sufficiently trying. ^ According to another account, a 
Cambodian maiden at puberty is said to " enter into 
the shade." During her retirement, which, according 
to the rank and position of her family, may last any 
time from a few days to several years, she has to 
observe a number of rules, such as not to be seen by 
a strange man, not to eat flesh or fish, and so on. 
She goes nowhere, not even to the pagoda. But this 
state of retirement is discontinued during eclipses; at 
such times she goes forth and pays her devotions 
to the monster who is supposed to cause eclipses by 
catching the heavenly bodies between his teeth. ^ The 
fact that her retirement is discontinued during an eclipse 
seems to show how literally the injunction is interpreted 
which forbids maidens entering on womanhood to look 
upon the sun. 

Woman during the Menstrual Period. Mr. Frazer 
has gone deeply into this subject and quotes a mass 
of authorities to prove that the ground of this seclusion 
of girls at puberty lies in the deeply engrained dread 
which primitive man universally entertains of men- 
struous blood. Evidence of this has already been 
adduced, but a few more facts may here be added. 
Amongst the Australian blacks "the boys are told 
from their infancy that, if they see the blood, they 

' Moura, Royaume dii Cambodge, I, 377. 

* Aymonier, " Notes sur les coutumes et croyances superstitieuses des 
Cambodgiens," Cochinchine Frartfaise, Excursions et Reconnaissances, 
No. 16 (Saigon, 1883), p. 193 sq. Cp. id. Notice sur le Cambodge, y>- 50. 


will early become gray-headed, and their strength 
will fail prematurely." Hence a woman lives apart 
at these times ; and if a young- man or boy approaches 
her she calls out, and he immediately makes a circuit 
to avoid her. The men go out of their way to avoid 
even crossing the tracks made by women at such 
times. Similarly the woman may not walk on any 
path frequented by men, nor touch anything used by 
men ; she may not eat fish, or go near water at all, 
much less cross it; for if she did, the fish would be 
frightened, and the fishers would have no luck; she 
may not even fetch water for the camp ; it is sufficient 
for her to say Thania to ensure her husband fetching 
the water himself. A severe beating, or even death, 
is the punishment inflicted on an Australian woman 
who breaks these rules. ^ The Bushmen think that, by 
a glance of a girl's eye at the time when she ought 
to be kept in strict retirement, men become fixed in 
whatever position they happen to occupy, with what- 
ever they were holding in their hands, and are changed 
into trees which talk. ^ 

" The Guayquiries of the Orinoco think that, when a 
woman has her courses, everything upon which she 
steps will die, and that if a man treads on the place 
where she has passed, his legs will immediately swell 
up. ' The Creek and kindred Indians of the United 
States compelled women at menstruation to live in 
separate huts at some distance from the village. There 

' Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 1 86; E.J. Eyre, Journals, 
II, 295, 304; W. Ridley, Kamilaroi, p. Xiy"] ; Journ. Anthrop. Inst. 
II, 268, IX, 459 sq.; Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, I, 65, 
236. Cp. Sir George Grty, Journals, II, 344; J. Dawson, Australian 
Aborigines, i o i sq. 

' Bleek, Brief Account of Bushman Folk-lore, p. 14; cp. ib. p. 10. 

* Gumilla, Htstoire de I' Ore'noque, I, 249. 


the women had to stay, at the risk of being surprised 
and cut off by enemies. It was thought 'a most 
horrid and dangerous pollution ' to go near the women 
at such times ; and the danger extended to enemies 
who, if they slew the women, had to cleanse themselves 
from the pollution by means of certain sacred herbs 
and roots. ^ Similarly, among the Chippeways and 
other Indians of the Hudson Bay Territory, women at 
such seasons are excluded from the camp, and take 
up their abode in huts of branches. They wear long 
hoods, which effectually conceal the head and breast. 
They may not touch the household furniture nor any 
objects used by men; for their touch 'is supposed to 
defile them, so that their subsequent use would be 
followed by certain mischief or misfortune,' such as 
disease or death. They may not walk on the common 
paths nor cross the tracks of animals. They ' are never 
permitted to walk on the ice of rivers or lakes, or 
near the part where the men are hunting beaver, or 
where a fishing-net is set, for fear of averting their 
success. They are also prohibited at those times from 
partaking of the head of any animal, and even from 
walking in or crossing the track where the head of a 
deer, moose, beaver, and many other animals have 
lately been carried, either on a sledge or on the back. 
To be guilty of a violation of this custom is considered 
as of the greatest importance; because they firmly 
believe that it would be a means of preventing the 
hunter from having an equal success in his future 
excursions." ■^ So the Lapps forbid women at men- 

* James Adair, History of the American Indiana, p. 123 sq. 

' S. Hearne, Journey to the Northern Ocean, p. 314 sq. ; Alex. 
Mackenzie, Voyages through the Continent of North America, CXXIII; 
Petitot, Monographie des Dene-Dindjie, p. 75 sq. 


struation to walk on that part of the shore where the 
fishers are in the habit of setting out their fish. ^ 

" Amongst the civilised nations of Europe the super- 
stitions which have prevailed on this subject are not 
less extravagant. In the oldest existing cyclopaedia — 
the Natural History of Pliny — the list of dangers 
apprehended from menstruation is longer than any 
furnished by savages. According to Pliny, the touch 
of a menstruous woman turned wine to vinegar, blighted 
crops, killed seedlings, blasted gardens, brought down 
the fruit from trees, dimmed mirrors, blunted razors, 
rusted iron and brass (especially at the waning of the 
moon), killed bees, or at least drove them from their 
hives, caused mares to miscarry, and so forth. ^ 
Similarly, in various parts of Europe, it is still believed 
that if a woman in her courses enters a brewery the 
beer will turn sour ; if she touches beer, wine, vinegar, 
or milk, it will go bad; if she makes jam, it will not 
keep; if she mounts a mare, it will miscarry; if she 
touches buds, they will wither; if she climbs a cherry- 
tree, it will die. ^ 

* C. Lemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae eoruynque lingua vita et 
religione pristina (Copenhagen, 1767), p. 494. 

•Pliny, Nat. Hist. VII, § 64 sg.; XXVIII, S^ JJ sqq. Cp. Geo- 
ponica, XII, C. 20, 5 and 25, 2 ; Columella, XI, 3, 50. 

'A. Schleicher, Volkstiimliches aus Sonnenberg, p. 134; B. Souch^, 
Croyances, Presages et Traditions diverses, p. 1 1 ; V. Fossel, Volk- 
medicin und medicinischer Aberglaube in Steiermark (Graz, 1886), 
p. 124. The Greeks and Romans thought that a field was completely 
protected against insects if a menstruous woman walked round it with 
bare feet and streaming hair. Pliny, Nat. Hist. XVII, 266 ; XXVIII, 
78; Columella, X, 358 sq. ; XI, 3, 64; Palladius, De re rustica.i, i^ 
3; Geoponica, XII, 8, 5 sq. ; Aelian, Nat. Anim. VI, 36. A similar 
remedy is employed for the same purpose by North American Indians 
and European peasants. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, v. 70; Wiedemann. 
Alls dent inneren und iitissern Leben der Ehoten, p. 484. Cp. Hal- 


Division of the Kanaka Race into Independent 
and Hostile Tribes. The peopling of the island by 
successive immigrations of the Black, coming from the 
West, and the Maori, from the East; the elongated 
shape of the island, which resembles a chain of moun- 
tains emerged from the sea, and separating completely 
the East and West coasts ; the division of the basins 
of the rivers by numerous lesser chains of mountains, 
very difficult of access, all concur to separate the New 
Caledonian race into a number of tribes, which are 
often enemies to each other. Nevertheless, the root 
of the language is common, and so are the manners 
and customs. A tribe consists of villages, the chiefs 
of which depend on the chief of the tribe; — an organised 
feudalism, like the clans of old Scotland. 

The Man's "Manou." The costume of the Ka- 
nakas is of primitive simplicity. The man wears on 
his head a handkerchief, tied into a turban by means 
of his sling, and often ornamented with feathers, or 
plants. He ornaments his body with necklaces of shark 
skin, and bracelets of shells on his arms and legs. 
The lobe of the ear is often pearced with a hole, in 
which is inserted a round piece of wood, as big as an 
ordinary cork. The belly is tied round with a girdle 
of leather and cord, and the acme of " high life " is 
to have the chest smeared with a mixture of lard and 
cocoa-nut oil. But the real costume of the Kanaka is 
the manou, an article of clothing of a bright colour, 
generally red. This is what the manou is. Some 
Parisian play-wright has made a naval officer, supposed 
to have returned from New Caledonia, say, that with 
a pair of gloves you can clothe ten Kanakas. The 
fingers of the gloves would have to be of extra size 


if SO. Another witty " boulevardier " says, that a Kanaka 
much resembles a gentleman in evening dress, for 
both wear a tail coat. I ask the reader's pardon for 
inserting this joke. 

This solitary article of dress is called the manou 
which the Frenchman has translated by the word 
moineau. To manufacture his manou the Kanaka 
takes a cotton handkerchief of some bright colour, rolls 
it, twists it round his yard, so that it makes a comic 
looking hood the point of which falls to the knee, 
then he passes the two opposite ends under his tes- 
ticles and fastens them on the pubes, at the root of 
his penis. The singular effect that this strange cos- 
tume gives, when it is seen for the first time, may be 
easily imagined. One soon gets used to it however, 
even European ladies. In the jumps and bounds, 
which the Kanaka makes in dancing the pilou-pilou, 
his national dance, the manou waggles about like the 
clapper of a bell, which has an irresistibly comic effect. 
When two chiefs meet, it is considered a mark of 
courtesy and good taste to exchange manous with 
each other. It would be a serious insult to a Kanaka 
to lay hold of the end of his manou and unroll it; 
you would stand a good chance of getting a rap on 
the head from his club. I found it very difficult to 
persuade a Kanaka to take off his manou, and show 
me his genital organs. He would never do so in 
public, but only in a hut, and when free from obser- 
vation. He even carries his scruples to such an extent 
that he is shocked at seeing a European bathe stark 
naked. I experienced this myself One fine morning, 
I wanted to take a bath in the Thio, and as I was 
alone, and there was no policeman to summon me for 
indecent exposure, I jumped into the water in the 


costume of Father Adam When I came out, I found 
that some Kanakas had assembled on the shore whilst 
I was taking my bath. They were extremely shocked 
at my nakedness, and pointed at me, and made fun 
of me. 

One of the Missionary Fathers told me the following, 
which he declared to be true. Some sailors were 
bathing, quite naked, near a village, without suspect- 
ing that they were scandalising the villagers. Sud- 
denly they all began to cry out, for each man felt 
himself caught hold of by the genital parts. Some 
Kanaka divers were trying to put caps, made of leaves 
rolled up, over the members of the men. 

Strange Modesty of the Kanaka. The Kanaka 
carries his prudery even further. The civilised Euro- 
pean makes water against a wall, and often hardly 
hides himself, when there is no urinal at hand, but I 
have never seen a Kanaka make water in public. He 
hides himself, and crouches down behind a bush or a 
hut, before he takes off his manoti, which of course 
would interfere with the operation. In this respect 
the Kanaka can give the Englishman points. 

Our distinguished friend Letourneau, the professional 
anthropologist, has made a careful study of the strangely 
different ideas prevalent amongst various races on the 
subject of modesty, and his remarks are so apposite 
that we take leave to quote them : " Throughout 
Polynesia, " he says, " nudity was formerly the fashion. 
Tasmanians and Polynesians would, if necessary, cast 
a mantle of Kanguru skins over their shoulders, but 
it was solely on account of the cold, or as a protec- 
tion against thorny briars. The women did not even 
dream of modesty, and one must be affected with the 


monomania of the human race to find any intention 
of decency in the custom of the Tasmanian women, 
when squatting down, to bring up one or both their 
feet so as to cover their nudity. ^ 

" It often happens that European travellers, particu- 
larly missionaries, who are prone to attribute to inferior 
races all or a part of their own ideas on decency, 
have seen an intention of modesty in mere rudiments 
of clothing, used only for purposes of protection. The 
strings and bit of bark of the Neo-Caledonians and 
of the Mallicollo islanders, the shells worn by the latter 
do not in any way reveal a moral intention; ^ the 
part they play is that of a special armour destined to 
protect delicate organs. 

" In New Caledonia (the Isle of Pines), the missionaries 
provoked violent protests, when they raised the preten- 
sion to make the girls wear the girdles of married 
women, and these latter energetically claimed their 
rights. ^ 

" The Polynesian women, always very lightly clad, 
would undress, without thought of evil, on the slightest 
motive and invariably when they went to bathe. In 
the Sandwich Islands, the native ladies, already some- 
what touched by European civilisation, used to swim 
stark naked towards the ships, bearing on their heads 
their silk dresses, their shoes and stockings and their 
parasols, wherewith to deck themselves out when they 
got on board. * 

" The perfect absence of scruples, with which the 

' Labillardi^re, quoted by Bonwick {Daily Life, etc., p. 58). 

* Cook's Voyage round the world. — De Rochas, Nouvelle Cale'donie, 
p. 153. — D'Entrecasteaux, Hist. Univ. des Voyages, t. XV, p. 56. 

■'' De Rochas, loc. cit. p. 153. 

* Beochey, Hist. Univ. des Voyages, t. XIX, p. 374. 


Polynesians considered what we call far excellence 
' morals ', gave rise to incidents most singular to Euro- 
peans. During a passage of one of Cook's boats be- 
tween the islands, a Tahitian lady of high rank wanted 
to convince herself de visu, that Englishmen were, in 
every way, made like the men of her own country, 
and that, out of pure curiosity. ^ On another occasion, 
a missionary was forced to hurry back to the ship 
that had brought him : the islanders, being quite unable 
to understand his continence, had imagined that he 
had some sort of malformation and had endeavoured 
to assure themselves of the fact. With slight varia- 
tions, similar customs may also be observed elsewhere 
than in the Pacific Ocean. In general, primitive men 
are strangers to any trouble about decency. For 
instance, the most savage of the American Indians, 
the Fuegians, ^ the Californians, ^ satisfied their neces- 
sities at the very place where they happened to be at 
the moment, and without taking heed of their neigh- 

"In 1498, at Trinity Island, Christopher Columbus 
found the women entirely naked, whereas the men 
wore a light girdle called guayaco. At the same 
epoch, on the Para Coast, the girls were distinguished 
from the married women by their absolute nudity. 
The same absence of costume was observed among 
the Chaymas, * and Du Chaillu noticed the same 
among the Achiras on the West coast of Africa. ^ It 
is besides well known how very primitive is the female 

' Cook, Second Voyage round the world. 

' L'Hermitte, Hist. Univ. des Voyages, t. VII, p. 435. 

* La Perouse, Hist. Univ. des Voyages, t. XII, p. 194. 

* Humboldt, Hist. Univ. d. Voy., t. XXXVIII, p. 362. 

* Du Chaillu, Journey in equatorial Africa, p. 466. 


costume throughout Black Africa. That of the men 
is often still more so. Sometimes it is entirely absent, 
as Schweinfurth relates in the notes of his travels, 
that the Dinkas glorified in their complete nudity, and 
contemptuously called the traveller ' the Turkish lady ' 
on account of his attire. ^ 

" I will here cease this enumeration, which might be 
much longer. In making it my object was in no wise 
to group strange facts shocking to our European ideas 
of modesty. My object was only to shed a light upon 
these primitive customs, which surely were those of 
our former ancestors. 

" But from these facts some general ideas may be 
deduced, very important for the study of the origin 
of morals. 

"The animal kingdom altogether ignores modesty, 
and yet love, considered as an exclusive sentiment, 
does not seem to be foreign to all animals. The 
delicacy with which the males of certain species of 
birds court and love their females, is such as to bring 
shame not only to savage humanity but to many 
so-called civilised peoples. To the Illinois parrakeet 
[Psittacus pertinax), widowhood and death are synony- 
mous; but even, when these monogamists are constant, 
these animals ignore modesty. Why therefore, and 
how is it, that this sentiment plays so considerable a 
part in the morality of the superior races ? Montaigne 
put the same question to himself when he wrote 
as follows : ' What has the genital act, so natural, so 
necessary and so just, done to men, that it may not 
be mentioned without shame and is to be excluded from 
serious and regulated language? We boldly say kill, 

' Schweinfurth, The Heart of Africa, p. 152. 


rob and betray, and dare speak of the other only 
between our teeth.' (Livre III, chap. V). 

"This is one of those questions of psychological 
evolution, which comparative ethnography alone can 
clear up. 

" First of all the primitive man makes no moral dis- 
tinction between the different wants which solicit him, 
between hunger and love; he does not discuss either 
of them, and modesty is quite as unknown to him as 
it is to beasts. But, among these latter, even an ex- 
clusive choice does not engender the sentiment of mo- 
desty. It is that this sentiment is the result of two 
combined causes: selection and life in society. It is 
not delicacy of sentiment, it is the brutal egotism of 
the primitive man that has, quite involuntarily, deter- 
mined the genesis of decency and of sexual morality. 
The first seeds of these high sentiments were sown when 
men, liberating themselves from the primitive promis- 
cuity, began to consider women as private property. 
The chief began by reserving this property to himself, 
protecting it as well as he could from the enterprises 
of other men, and more particularly severely punishing 
the least slip of his wife or wives, of course without 
subjecting himself to any restriction whatever. Little 
by little, thanks to these brutal prohibitions, there began 
to germ in the female mind a certain sentiment of con- 
jugal duty, of sexual reserve, a care to veil her person 
more or less, and this sentiment ended in being trans- 
mitted hereditarily. 

" In this connection, Polynesia is still a precious field 
for observation. In the islands, where, as at Tahiti, 
the sexual liberty was pretty nearly unlimited, the mar- 
ried women even being themselves let out or lent by 
their husbands with the greatest facility, all modesty 


was unknown. In New Zealand, on the contrary, where 
the owners of women were more jealous of their rights, 
they almost invariably punished with death the woman 
guilty of unauthorised adultery, which they authorised 
but with difficulty, the women were relatively decent. 
Even when swimming, or during their sleep, they used to 
keep on them their girdles of phormium tenax which 
encircled their waists. ^ 

" Before giving themselves to Europeans, they usually 
required the consent of their family or of their husband 
and, after having obtained this consent, in consideration 
of a proper present, it was still necessary to negotiate 
with them. ^ 

" Some of them also became attached to their European 
lovers and remained faithful to them. ^ The men did 

* DupeiTey, Hist. Univ. des Voy., t. XVIII, p. 152. 

■Cook's "First Voyage round the World." 

' Editor's note. — One of our contributors, Mr. Costello, communicates 
the following: — "In 1843 a cousin of mine was acting as surgeon on 
board one of H.M. ships which anchored off New Zealand to overhaul 
and repair. The islands were then almost entirely possessed by the 
Maoris, and one of the chiefs, who had met with an accident, sent on 
board to ask for a surgeon. My cousin, a handsome young Irishman, 
was sent ashore, where he remained several weeks, saying that he had 
many other patients, and only occasionally visited the ship. The fact 
was that our inflammable Hibernian had been captivated by the charms 
of the chief's lovely daughter ; a sort of marriage ceremony was performed, 
the enamoured doctor promising to remain with the Maoris and be their 
'Medicine-man.' The ship was, however, now ready to sail, and the 
Captain sent an order to the surgeon to come on board at once. In- 
stead of obeying he ran away to the woods with his Maori wife. This, 
however, was of little avail; an armed party of seamen discovered his 
retreat and brought him forcibly to the ship, the girl following and 
lamenting behind. As the ship began to move, she could be seen 
from the deck, as standing on the shore, with a sharp shell she cruelly 
cut and lacerated her face, so that no other man should ever afterwards 
take a fancy to her. — Later, a whaler which came to the same place. 


not consider it at all immoral to lend or to let out 
their wives; it was the right of the proprietor of the 
thing possessed, but already a certain jealousy held 
them back. In order to test how far their scruples 
went with regard to conjugal faith, as we read in the 
relation of Dumont d'Urville, Mr. Gaimard made all 
sorts of offers to a chief in order to obtain the favours 
of his wife, but this rangatira was deaf to all these 
seductions, even to the offer of an ordinary gun, 
simply replying each time: /rt^^c* (sacred or forbidden). 
But when the doctor came to offer him in, in joke, a 
double-barrelled gun, the savage chief, incapable of 
resisting so seductive an offer, merely answered by 
pushing his wife into the arms of the stranger, at the 
same time extending his other hand for the gun." ^ 

The Woman's Girdle. The costume of the women 
is as rudimentary as that of the men. It consists 
merely of a girdle, which encircles the hips, and hardly 
hides the buttocks. 

A Few^ Words concerning Manners and Customs. 

I shall deal very briefly with all that does not concern 
sexual passion. 

The Chief's Place in the Social State. The 

Chief of the tribe is an omnipotent ruler, — a monarch 
by divine right and by heredity. Salic law prevails 
throughout the entire island. The Chief is a kind of 
god, — a fetish. Men bow down at his approach. 
Women are even still more unworthy to gaze upon 

ascertained that the poor thing did not long survive, but had died of 
a broken heart." 

' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, p. 171. 


his venerated face. To present themselves before him. 
they commence, when they are quite a hundred yards 
distant, to go on all fours, and to complete the resem- 
blance to an animal, they fasten to their girdle a 
bundle of tow, which hangs down behind like a horse's 

The Chief has a kind of supreme council, composed 
of the most renowned warriors, and the most prudent 
and experienced old men. Peace and war are decided 
by this council; cultivation and the harvests are in 
common. The Great Chief by divine right has a sort 
of Mayor of the Palace, who is called the War Chief; 
he trains the warriors to military tactics, and leads 
them to combat, whilst the Great Chief prudently 
remains within his tent, far remote from blows. On 
the death of the Great Chief, everyone in the tribe 
assumes mourning, which, for the women, consists in 
whitening the upper part of the body with chalk, and 
painting the face black, with a white streak at the 
corner of the nose, and the eyebrows painted white. 
As may be imagined, this funeral masquerade makes 
the young women ugly, and renders the old Popinees 
horrible. Before the French occupation, the fattest 
wives of the deceased Chief were knocked on the head 
with a club, and eaten at a funereal piloii-pilou per- 
formed in his honour. 

Habitations. The Kanaka hut is of the shape of 
a bee-hive, with a low and narrow door for the only 
opening. In the centre of this hive, a fire burns 
incessantly, and on it is thrown the refuse of the cocoa- 
nut tree, to drive out the mosquitoes, which are the 
curse of the country. No European can remain in 
one of these huts, on account of the vermin and the 


stench. The Chiefs hut is higher than the others, as 
is also the hut of the Council of the Old Men. On 
the top is placed a fetish, a man or a woman, roughly 
carved, and with the genital parts out of all proportion. 
The whole is crowned by an immense weathercock, 
with an arrow fifteen or twenty feet long, and a star, 
the symbol of the Chief's power. 

Food. The food of the New Caledonian is almost 
exclusively vegetable (taro, yams, patatas, and fruits). 
The coast tribes also eat fish, which is an important 
addition to their diet. Before the arrival of the Euro- 
peans, — with the exception of some birds, a large bat, 
the rat, and the dog, — there were no animals. The 
introduction of pigs and poultry has been a great 
benefit to the Kanakas, for these animals require hardly 
any care. 

The Kanaka Stove. To roast a fish or a pig, the 
Kanaka requires neither spit, meat screen, nor stove. 
The savage cook lights a large fire, and makes red 
hot therein some large stones ; then digs an oval hole 
in the ground, the size of the joint, and puts in the 
bottom the hot stones. On these hot stones he places 
the fish or pig, well wrapped up, with spices inserted, 
in banana leaves. Above this he puts some leaves of 
the miaouli, previously damped ; then covers the whole 
with earth, and lets the meat cook in this concentrated 
heat. The steam mingles with the acrid aroma of the 
miaouli, — which is much like the laurel tree, — and the 
joint has a delicious flavour. That is how the cannibal 
cooks his dinner. 

Beliefs and Superstitions. The Kanaka has a 


vague idea of the immortality of the soul, which will 
survive the body, and depart into another world, — a 
veritable Mohammedan paradise, where it will dance in- 
terminable pilou-pilous , stuff itself with yams, and 
everyone will have as many women as he wants. 

He believes also in the ghosts or manes of his an- 
cestors and others, — strange beings who interfere for 
good or evil in this world, and are the cause of favour- 
able or unfavourable events. Amongst these spirits 
of the dead, those of the chiefs have the greatest power, 
and public prayers are addressed to them, to cause a 
good crop of yams, or a good haul of fish. As may 
be guessed, the authority of a Chief is therefore never 
questioned by his subjects. 

The Wizard-doctor (Takata). The Takata is at 
once wizard, physician, and the buffoon of the Chief, 
whom he amuses. He is the interpreter of the spirits, 
to whom he is reputed to talk, is doctor to the whole 
tribe, and also casts spells and enchantments, like the 
sorcerer of the Middle Ages. To cause an enemy to 
die, the Kanaka applies to the Takata, who makes a 
statuette, carries it to the grave-yard, and buries it 
with various invocations to the spirits of the dead. 
Does he wish the canoe of an enemy to founder? — he 
buries a small canoe. Does he wish to " put a spoke 
in the wheel" of a favoured rival? — the Takata makes 
an enormous Priapus, upon which the person requiring 
the spell makes water, uttering, at the same time, some 
mysterious words which the sorcerer has taught him. 
The charm will work if he can slip the figure of the 
Priapus between the legs of his rival, whilst he is sleeping. 
To spoil the fishing of a neighbouring tribe, a young 
girl takes off her girdle on the beach. If only one 


of the crew has erotic desires, no fish will be caught. 
This superstition especially prevails upon the East coast. 

Killing the God. This curious belief in regard to 
fishes is not confined to the Kanaka alone. Mr J. C. 
Frazer, with whom I have had the pleasure to converse 
on these matters at Cambridge University in years 
gone by, and who has frequently rendered me valuable 
help, has consecrated a few lines to this interesting 
subject of piscine folk-lore in his carefully documented 
work, " The Golden Bough, a study in Comparative 
Religion" (London, Macmillan, 1890). He says, in 
the chapter entitled " Killing the God " : "A tribe which 
depends for its subsistence, chiefly or in part, upon 
fishing is careful to treat the fish with every mark of 
honour and respect. The Indians of Peru adored the 
fish that they caught in greatest abundance"; for 
they said that the first fish that was made in the world 
above (for so they named Heaven) gave birth to all 
other fish of that species, and took care to send them 
plenty of its children to sustain their tribe. For this 
reason they worshipped sardines in one region, where 
they killed more of them than of any other fish ; in others, 
the skate ; in others, the dogfish ; in others, the golden 
fish for its beauty ; in others, the crawfish ; in others, 
for want of larger gods, the crabs, where they had 
no other fish, or where they knew not how to catch 
and kill them. In short, they had whatever fish was 
most serviceable to them as their gods. • The Otawa 
Indians of Canada, believing that the souls of dead 
fish passed into other bodies of fish, never burned fish 

' Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal Commentaries of the Yncas, First 
Part, bk. i. ch. 10, vol. I, p. 49 sq., Hakluyt Society. Cp. id., II, 
p. 148. 


bones, for fear of displeasing the souls of the fish, who 
would come no more to the nets. ' The Hurons also 
refrained from throwing fish bones into the fire, lest 
the souls of the fish should go and warn the other 
fish not to let themselves be caught, since the Hurons 
would burn their bones. Moreover, they had men who 
preached to the fish and persuaded them to come and 
be caught. A good preacher was much sought after, 
for they thought that the exhortations of a clever man 
had a great effect in drawing the fish to the nets. 
In the Huron fishing village, where the French missionary 
Sagard stayed, the preacher to the fish prided himself 
very much on his eloquence, which was of a florid order. 
Every evening after supper, having seen that all the 
people were in their places, and that a strict silence 
was observed, he preached to the fish. His text was 
that the Hurons did not burn fish bones. ' Then en- 
larging on his theme with extraordinary unction, he 
exhorted and conjured and invited and implored the 
fish to come and be caught, and to be of good courage, 
and to fear nothing, for it was all to serve their ftiends 
who honoured them and did not burn their bones.' ^ 
The disappearance of herring from the sea about He- 
ligoland, in 1530, was attributed by the fishermen to 
the fact that two lads had whipped a freshly-caught 
herring and then flung it back into the sea. ^ The 
natives ot the Duke of York Island annually decorate 
a canoe with flowers and ferns, lade it, or are supposed 
to lade it, with shell -money, and set it adrift to pay 

' Relations des Jisuites, 1667, p. 12. 

* Sagard, Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, p. 255 sqq. 
(p. 178 sqq. of the Paris reprint). 

' Scheiden, Das Salz, p. 47. For this reference I am indebted to 
my friend Prof. W. Robertson Smith. 


the fish for those they lose by being caught, i It is 
especially necessary to treat the first fish caught with 
consideration, in order to conciliate the rest of the fish, 
for their conduct may be supposed to be influenced 
by the reception given to the first of their kind which 
is taken. Accordingly, the Maoris always put back 
into the sea the first fish caught, 'with a prayer that 
it may tempt other fish to come and be caught.' ^ 

" Still more stringent are the precautions taken when 
the fish are the first of the season. On salmon rivers, 
when the fish begin to run up the stream in spring, 
they are received with much deference by tribes who, 
like the Indians of the Pacific Coast of North America, 
subsist largely upon a fish diet. In British Columbia 
the Indians used to go out to meet the first fish as 
they came up the river. 'They paid court to them, 
and would address them thus : " You fish, you fish ; 
you are all chiefs, you are; you are all chiefs."'* 
Amongst the Thlinket of Alaska the first halibut of 
the season is carefully handled, addressed as a chief, 
and a festival is given in his honour, afler which the 
fishing goes on. * In spring, when the winds blow 
soft fi-om the South, and the salmon begin to run up 
the Klamath river, the Karoks of California dance for 
salmon, to ensure a good catch. One of the Indians, 
called the Kareya or God-man, retires to the mountains 
and fasts for ten days. On his return the people flee, 
while he goes to the river, takes the first salmon of 

' W. Powell, IVanderings in a Hild Country, p. 66 sq. 

* R. Taylor, Te Ika a Mauri ; or. New Zealand and its Inhabitants, 
p. 200 ; A. S. Thomson, The Story 0/ New Zealand, I, ,'?02 ; E. 
Treger, " The Maoris of New Z^al^nd," Journal Ant hr op. Inst. XIX, 109. 

' Lubbock, Origin of Civilisation, p. 277, quoting Metlahkadah, p. 96. 

* W. Dall, Alaska and its Resources, p. 413. 


the catch, eats some of it, and with the rest kindles 
the sacred fire in the sweating-house. 'No Indian 
may take a salmon before this dance is held, nor for 
ten days after it, even if his family are starving. 
The Karoks also believe that a fisherman will take no 
salmon if the poles of which his spearing-booth is made 
were gathered on the river-side, where the salmon 
might have seen them. The poles must be brought 
from the top of the highest mountain. The fisherman 
will also labour in vain if he uses the same poles a 
second year in booths or weir, 'because the old 
salmon will have told the young ones about them.' * 

" Among the Indians of the Columbia River, ' when 
the salmon make their first appearance in the river, 
they are never allowed to be cut crosswise, nor boiled, 
but roasted; nor are they allowed to be sold without 
the heart being first taken out, nor to be kept over 
night, but must be all consumed or eaten the day 
they are taken out of the water. All these rules are 
observed for about ten days.' ^ They think that, if 
the heart of a fish were eaten by a stranger at the 
beginning of the season, they would catch no more 
fish. Hence, they roast and eat the hearts themselves. ^ 
There is a favourite fish of the Ainos which appears 
in their rivers about May and June. They prepare 
for the fishing by observing rules of ceremonial purity, 
and when they have gone out to fish, the women at 
home must keep strict silence, or the fish would hear 

' Stephen Powers, Tribes of California, p. 31 sq. 

' Alex. Ross, Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or 
Columbia River, p. 97. 

* Ch. Wilkes, Narratives of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, IV, 
324, V. 119, where it is said, "a dog must never be permitted to eat 
the heart of a salmon ; and in order to prevent this, they cut the heart 
of the fish out before they sell it." 


them and disappear. When the first fish is caught he 
is brought home and passed through a small opening 
at the end of the hut, but not through the door; for 
if he were passed through the door, ' the other fish 
would certainly see him and disappear.' ^ This explains 
the custom observed by other savages of bringing 
game into their huts, not by the door, but by the 
window, the smoke-hole, or by a special opening at 
the back of the hut." ^ 

* H. C. St. John, "The Ainos" m Journ. Anthrop. Inst. II, 253; 
id. Notes and Sketches from the Wild Coasts of Nipon, p. 27 sq. 

* Scheft'er, Lapponia, p. 242 sq.; Journ. Anthrop. Instit. VII, 207; 
Revue d' Ethnographie, II, 308 sq. 


Moral characteristics of the Kanaka. — Causes of the insurrection 
of [3y8. — The Kanaka's courage. — His iveapons. — The attack on 
the post at Foa. — Heroic death of sixteen warriors. — Fe.ocity of 
the Kanaka. — The philosophy of man-eating. — De7)ourers of their 
own offspring. — Men eaten to win glory. — Anthropophagy a 
motive for war. — Dogs v. women at Terra dd Fuego. — Flagrante^ 
delicto of animalitv. — Cannibalism. — Its causes. — The "pilou- 
pilou" . — The erotic " pilou-pilou" . — Scenes of cannibalism. — The 
massacres of the " Alcmena" , and la Poya. — The Chief's part 
in the feast of human flesh. — The reward of the French Government. 

Moral Characteristics of the Kanaka. The 

Kanaka is nothing but a big boy; he has all the worst 
instincts of the child, — he is ferocious, cruel, and pitiless, 
but he is a man endowed, as we are, with moral sense. 
He is distinguished by a blind obedience to his Chief. 
The Chief has but to command him, and he will obey. 
He does not think himself a whit inferior to civilised 
man, and does not fear him. Moreover, the colonist, 
with whom alone he has the opportunity of comparing 
himself, is not remarkable for morality. The Kanaka 
thinks our civilisation is too complicated, and he sin- 
cerely pities the White man who cannot exist without 
aU the apparatus of Government. There are only two 
things he envies us, — alcohol, and weapons of precision. 
At bottom he is honest and in that respect differs radically 
from the Annamite, who is as thievish as a magpie. 
You may leave A\'ithin his reach the things he most 



likes, food, meat, wine, and spirits even, and he will 
touch nothing. You may leave upon the wharf all 
the provisions destined for some European post, and the 
Kanaka will even help you to load them, but he will 
steal nothing. He is generous. Give a Kanaka a 
bottle of brandy, or something good to eat, and he will 
share it with his companions. He is very proud, and 
feels an insult deeply. In spite of the injury done by 
the cattle of the colonists, which deA^oured his fields of 
taro and yams, the Kanaka would never have revolted, 
if the gendarmes of la Poya had not been so imprudent 
as to arrest the chiefs of thirteen tribes, and handcuff 
them. The next day the whole of the thirteen tribes 
had revolted. 

Causes of the Insurrection of 1878. The insur- 
rection of the Kanakas commenced with the murder 
of the gendarmes of la Poya, and the pillage and 
burning of the colonists' houses followed. It became a 
war of races. The attack on, and destruction of, the 
gendarmerie was led by a young Kanaka, who had 
been broug'ht up amongst the gendarmes. A little 
later, I shall have a few^ remarks to make on the part 
played by certain other Kanakas, who had been educated 
amongst Europeans. 

The Courage of the Kanaka. — His Weapons. 

The insurrection showed fully the courage of the 
Kanaka, who with nothing but the primitive weapons 
of barbarism, dared to attack civilised men, armed 
with the most perfect engines of modem warfare. 

The principal weapon of the Kanaka is the tamio, 
a small axe with a long handle, or the club with a 


head like a bird's beak. This is the weapon for close 
combat. For fighting at a distance, he has a sling, 
which throws polished oval stones, then three or four 
darts of thin flexible wood, which he hurls from a 
distance of fifteen or twenty paces, like the Roman 
legionary who threw his pilum, and, at close quarters, 
he uses the tamio, or the club. With these pre-historic 
weapons, he did not hesitate to attack brave soldiers 
armed with Chassepots, or colonists provided with 
Lefaucheux rifles, or English breech-loading Sniders. 
The Chassepots and Sniders which the Kanakas 
captured at the outbreak of the insurrection, became, 
in their hands, terrible weapons. If the tribes of the 
North and East, instead of declaring for us, had also 
revolted, all the Europeans in the interior would have 
been massacred, and Noumea blockaded. It would 
have required a formidable expedition, sent from France, 
to relieve the remaining Europeans. 

In spite of the help given by those tribes which 
remained faithful, it took two years to put down the 
insurrection. A good description of the fighting can 
be found in Commandant Riviere's book. 

The Attack on the Post of La Foa. I have 
stated that the very fact of these badly armed Kanakas 
revolting, was a proof of their courage. An instance 
of this courage is given by Commandant Riviere, who 
relates that an attack was made, by daylight, on the 
post of la Foa, which was protected by palisades, and a 
" blockhouse " furnished with quick-firing guns. These 
so-called savages must have had an astonishing courage 
to undertake such an enterprise. The attack, however, 
failed, though it was led with considerable skill. For 
two hours the Kanakas hurled stones fi-om their slings 


at the palisade and blockhouse, in spite of a well- 
directed fire from the breech-loading guns. 

Heroic Death of sixteen Warriors. I will quote 
here another instance, which I heard from an officer 
employed in one of the flying colum.ns sent against 
the Kanakas. The insurrection had been put down, 
and the remnants of the tribes were being pursued, in 
order that they might be captured and transported to 
Pine Island. A tribe (that of the great Farinos) was 
surrounded by the column, aided by the warriors of 
the friendly tribe of the Kondis. The rebel Chief 
assembled all his warriors, and explained to them the 
impossibility of continuing the struggle, and that, to 
save the lives of the children and old men, it would 
be better to surrender, and give up their arms. Sixteen 
warriors replied that they preferred death to slavery. 
These sixteen fought to the last gasp, against more than 
a hundred Kanakas, who struck them down with darts, 
and stones from their slings. To my mind, their action 
was quite as noble as that of Leonidas at Thermopylae. 

Ferocity of the Kanaka. But it cannot be denied 
that, in spite of his bravery, the Kanaka is ferocious, 
and his ferocity is mingled with cunnmg. All the 
colonists who were killed, were murdered by Kanakas 
they believed to be friends, and struck from behind 
at the moment when they least expected it. A Kanaka 
entered the house of a colonist in a friendly way, and 
asked for a bit of biscuit, a leaf of tobacco, or a glass 
of tafia ; when his victim turned or stooped, to get 
the article demanded, he was struck on the back of 
the head with a tamio. Many of the colonists, hearing 
of the massacre of their neighbours, assembled together, 


armed with their guns, but the Kanakas they deemed 
their friends, and who had been charged by their chief 
to murder them, told them to fear nothing, and they 
would be guarded and protected. The unhappy wretches, 
men, women, and children, fell under the clubs of their 
pretended defenders. The general massacre of the 
Whites was systematically arranged. If the insurrection 
had been universal amongst all the tribes, not a colonist 
would have remained alive. 

Only two instances are known in which a Kanaka 
took pity on a White, and warned him that if he did 
not fly he would be murdered. But in extenuation of 
the conduct of the Kanaka, it should be said that he 
was crushed and ill-treated by the colonists, his planta- 
tions were ravaged by their cattle, he was mercilessly 
overworked, insulted, and often beaten. I am not ex- 
cusing the Kanaka; I am simply stating facts. The 
greatest massacres took place in that part of the island 
where the Whites were most mixed with the natives, 
and they were struck down by these natives who used 
to come most frequently to their houses. 

The Philosophy of Man-eating. Professor Letour- 
neau ^ has made an extensive study of this subject 
based on reports of travellers. His observations are 
so pertinent that we may be excused for quoting 
them. " In a curious chapter of his ' Essays,' that 
incarnation of common sense, by name Montaigne, 
wrote as follows : ' I think that there is more barbarity 
in eating a live man than to eat him when he is 
dead; to tear to pieces by torments and by gehennas 
a body full of feeling, to roast it little by little, to 

* In his profound work, L' Evolution de la Morale, Paris 1894, of 
which an edition bowdlerised — as usual, has appeared in English. 


deliver it to be bitten and torn by dogs and swine 
(as we have not only read of, but ourselves have seen 
in recent times, not between old enemies, but between 
neighbours and fellow-citizens, and what is worse, 
under pretence of piety and of religion) tnan to roast 
and eat him after he is dead.' 

" From the strictly utilitarian point of view, Montaigne 
seems to be in the right. It is evident that the real 
crime consists in killing a man and, when the crime 
is committed, as it happens in civil and religious 
wars, with the approval of a perverted moral sense, 
the crime is then still more lamentable. Nevertheless, 
cannibalism is a moral aggravation of homicide. It 
amounts to pushing to the utmost extremes the con- 
tempt of one's neighbour; it means rigorously to 
assimilate man to game or to a domestic animal. 

" Besides, ethnography throughout attests the reality 
of this assimilation. Only the human races that have 
remained at the lowest degree of savagery, practise 
cannibalism in its primitive and absolutely bestial 
form. As the moral sense begins to form and the 
intelligence becomes more developed, man is more 
and more ashamed of cannibalism. He limits its 
practice, dissimulates it and finally succeeds in reducing 
it to a pure symbol. In this embryonic stage, and as a 
survival, anthropophagy persisted for a long time, even 
into the very heart of the latest phases of morality. 
It is only in its altog-ether primitive form, when it is 
practised openly, and simply, that it is the characteristic 
of bestial morals. This evolution of cannibalism is 
curious. I will briefly review its principal stages. At 
the outset man is to another man as one animal is to 
another, not only is the enemy devoured, that is to 
say a competitor on the other side of such and such 


a brook or mountain, but often even, in case of 
necessity, the women, the children and old men of 
their own tribe. Afterwards, cannibalism becomes 
restricted, except in case of famine, to enemies. 

" Restriction now follows restriction ; for conscience 
becomes more sensitive, and on the other hand, with 
the progress of civilisation, the food supplies become 
less precarious. As a rule religion is also mixed up 
with it, and it regulates and consecrates anthropo- 
phagy. Little by little, it finishes by limiting the 
practice to rare and exceptional cases, and even brings 
it down to be no longer anything but a religious cere- 
mony, and to make it symbolical. Under this last 
form, cannibalism may continue to exist even among 
the most advanced civilisations. In 1874, at the An- 
thropological Congress at Bologna, Carl Vogt not a 
little scandalised certain of his auditory when he said 
that he could trace and note in the Catholic mass a 
last vestige of the anthropophagy of our ancient an- 
cestors; and yet Carl Vogt was right. 

" But religious anthropophagy is not its only atten- 
uated form derived from ancient cannibalism. Juristic 
anthropophagy also competes with it, and can also 
co-exist with a relatively advanced stage of civilisation. 
We shall have to speak of the judicial anthropophagy 
of the Battaks of Sumatra, who till quite recently con- 
demned adulterers, night-robbers and others to be eaten. 

" But it is with the lower forms of cannibalism that 
we have to do at present. The lowest of all is bestial 
anthropophagy, having for sole motive the desire and 
the want to eat meat Cannibalism out of greediness 
follows very closely, and cannibalism out of vengeance, 
or from warlike fury, is often but a hypocritical form 
of the same " 


Devourers of their Own Offspring. " After 
having laid down these preliminaries, we can now enter 
upon the exposition of the facts and will begin with 
Australia. 'In this country,' says Oldfield, ^ 'there 
exists a very decided taste for human flesh. The flesh 
of women is particularly esteemed; therefore they but 
rarely attain to old age. The men look upon them 
as beasts of burden, domestic animals, which may be 
not only beaten, w^ounded and killed at will, but also 
eaten without scruple. As Father Salvado * says, in 
times of dearth they are sacrificed without hesitation.' 

" Oldfield goes even further: 'They are generally 
despatched, says he, 'without the least scruple, before 
they become old and thin, lest so much good food 
should be lost .... In fact, so little importance is 
attached to them, either before or after death, that it 
may reasonably be questioned whether the man does 
not put his dog, when it is alive, on absolutely the 
same level as his wife, and whether he thinks more 
frequently and more tenderly of the one than of the 
other, after having eaten them both.' 

" Cunningham also relates that, in the bag of one of 
the Australians of his suite, he found a woman's neck 
put by as food reserve. The same traveller makes a 
general observation proving evidently that the brutal 
practice of cannibalism is the sign of an altogether 
inferior mental condition. According to him, anthro- 
pophagy exists in Australia particularly among the 
tribes living in a state of anarchy, without organisa- 
tion, where the brutal force of the individual reigns 
uncontrolled, that is to say among the least intelli- 
gent of the tribes. 

Oldfield, Historical Memoirs on Australia. 
* Trans. Ethnol. Soc. (New Series, vol. Ill, p. 220). 


"If the Australian woman is frequently devoured, 
by reason of her relative weakness, it is of course 
still more often so with regard to the child, who is 
still weaker. 

"'It is a common practice in Australia,' says Oldfield, 
'to eat children in times of famine. Then,' he adds, 
' the mother must not lament too loudly, under penalty 
of being beaten. She is only permitted to utter some 
smothered moans. But, however great may be the 
grief of the mother, it is appeased when she is offered 
her legal share, the child's head, which she begins to 
eat, although she continues her sobbing.' ^ At first 
sight this assertion of Oldfield seems incredible. But 
it surprises less, when we consider the psychology of 
the Australian, who is a very curious type with regard 
to the origin and formation of his moral sense. The 
Australian is in fact, as we shall see, susceptive of 
retaining tenacious mental impressions, barely more 
reasoned than those of our domestic animals, and 
which, like them, he obeys instinctively. 

" In any case it is certain that the Australian is quite 
willing to devour his own children. Sturt ^ also con- 
firms the information furnished by Oldfield. He relates 
in fact, that an Australian smashed on a stone the 
head of his sick child, which he then roasted and 

Men eaten to "win Glory. " Similar customs, but 
stamped with greater brutahty, used to reign or still 
reign in many parts of the Polynesian archipelagos. 
At Viti, murder and cannibalism were not only abso- 
lutely simple things, but even perfectly honourable. 

' Journal of two Expeditions of Discovery in Australia, etc., p. 286. 
' Hist. Univ. des Voyages (vol. XLIII, p. 362). 


A man was more esteemed the more often he had been 
covered with blood and gorged himself with human 
flesh. A chief of Raki-Raki, the great Ra-Undre- 
Undre, used to glory in having eaten nine hundred 
persons, all to himself, and without having allowed 
anyone else to have a share. 

" A VitHslander, of the name of Loti, who, it appears, 
afterwards became an excellent Christian, roasted his 
wife on a fire that he had made her prepare and light 
herself; he then cut her up and devoured her: all that 
without animosity or anger, solely to acquire notoriety, 
to be some one out of the common. The love of glory, 
so habitually and so emphatically vaunted in Europe 
by the panegyrists of heroes is, says Pritchard, ^ much 
developed among the Viti islanders, and there, it is 
to great murderers and great cannibals that fame is 
attached. In no other part of the world is the deviation 
so striking from what we call the 'moral sense', or 
rather the complete absence of moral ideas, innate and 
necessary according to our metaphysicians. 

" But it is necessary to point out at once that we have 
not here before us a stupid, sleepy race. The Viti 
islanders are in no wise inferior to the other Polynesians, 
with whom, besides, they are largely crossed by inter- 
marriage. But among them, extreme discredit attaches 
itself to whoever has never killed and eaten an enemy. 
In that case, indeed, the culprit was subjected to a 
degrading punishment ; he was sentenced to turn up 
the mud with his dishonoured club, which he had not 
known how to wield. ^ But with that, all was not 
finished here below. After human justice came that 
of the gods. In the future life of the Vitians, the 

' W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, p. 371. 
' Wake, Evolution of Morality, vol. I, p. 323. 


jealous gods, great amateurs of human blood, lay in 
waiting for the shades of mortals and called them 
severely to give an account of the number of enemies 
they had massacred and eaten during their passage on 
the earth. 

" But, at the Viti Islands as at New Zealand, which 
we shall soon have occasion to study, and where the 
Melanesians seem to have preceded the Polynesians, 
cannibalism was absolutely animal. It was on the 
field of battle itself that, in the manner of wild beasts, 
the enemy, wounded or prisoner, was torn to pieces 
and devoured. 

" Those of the vanquished, who were not immediately 
sacrificed, were simply put by in reserve for future 
banquets. They were therefore fattened : they were 
then slaughtered and eaten, according to necessity. 
At Viti, human flesh was much prized. Certain 
gourmets allowed it to become 'gamey.' In the 
language of the country it was called 'long pork' 
meat, and it was the rule that a dish of human meat 
should be served at all gala banquets. It was the 
ideal food, and to vaunt the excellence of a dish, they 
would say: 'It is as tender as dead man.'" 

Anthropophagy a Motive for War. " Similar cus- 
toms, though less refined, for the race is not so intelligent, 
prevailed in New Caledonia. The desire to eat human 
flesh was the most usual motive for war between the 
tribes. 'It is now a long time, the chiefs would 
sometimes say, since we have had any meat to eat: 
let us go and fetch some.' Sometimes, as M, de Rochas * 
tells us, before starting on the war-path, a sort of 
anthropophagic poem, an alternate dialogue between 

' De Rochas, Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop. v. I, p. 414. 


the chief and the warriors was sung : ' Shall we attack 
the enemies ? — Yes. — Are they strong ? — No. — Are they 
brave? — No.— We will kill them? — Yes. — We will eat 
them ? — Yes.' The fight ceased as soon as a few men 
had been killed. The cutting up of the dead bodies 
was a joyful and glorious ceremony. It was preluded 
by a dance, during which one of the dancers bore a 
spear in one hand, and in the other a special instrument, 
destined to cut up the bodies. * After the battle the 
chiefs picked out for themselves the lion's share and 
put apart also certain choice morsels, destined to be 
sent as presents, to dubious allies. ^ But it was not 
alone war cannibalism that existed in New Caledonia, 
domestic cannibalism was also practised. For instance, 
a provident chief would now and then slaughter and 
salt one of his subjects, so as to be able to have 
every day a dish of meat. ^ Another chief, whose 
name is legendary, Bouarate the great, used often 
with his family to enjoy a good meal off one of his 
inferior subjects. Public opinion in New Caledonia 
was far from condemning such princely modes of 
action, and in fact Bouarate has left behind him a 
brilliant reputation : ' Great chief, Bouarate ! Hand- 
some lord, Bouarate!' used to say with enthusiasm 
those of his subjects whom he had not yet devoured. * 
Paternal love itself was silent before so much glory. 
A Neo-Caledonian father placidly related how his 
child had been eaten by his prince, who, said he, was 
a great chief. ^ 

' D'Entrecasteaux, Voyage au Pacifique. 
' De Rochas, A'ouvelle Caledonie, p. 206. 

' Bourgarel, Race de VOceanie, in Mem. de la Soc. d\4nthrop. 
vol. II. 

* De Rochas, Nouv. CaUdonie, p. 246. 
^ Ch. Braine, Nouvelle Cale'donie. 


" To sum up, at the Fiji Islands as at New Caledonia, 
the stranger, member of another tribe, was considered 
as game, while the women, the children and inferiors 
often served for butchers' meat." 

Dogs V. Women at Terra del Fuego. " At this 
place, woman is, as in Australial and in many other 
places, an object of food provision. Fitzroy ^ saw an 
old woman sacrificed, at a moment of scarcity of food. 
She was suffocated by having her head kept for a 
certain time in the smoke of a fire made of green 
sticks. The answer given to the remonstrance of the 
English traveller on this occasion, is quite typical; it 
puts beyond doubt the perfect innocence, the absence 
of scruple with which these to us so horrible acts are 
committed in primitive countries. ' Why,' said Fitzroy, 
'do you not rather sacrifice your dogs? — The dog 
catches the iappo'' (otter), quietly answered the natives. 

" These manners are not special to such and such a 
race, to such and such a country ; they are to be met with, 
almost identically, wherever man has but little become 
disengaged from animality, wherever also his food is 
scant and precarious. Everywhere, in Melanesia, in 
Africa, in America, there are certain tribes who have 
less humanity than wolves. 

" I will now briefly mention a few more of these in- 
structive cases before speaking with detail of Polynesian 
cannibalism, more specially interesting for the study 
of the evolution of morals. 

" 'The Guarayos" (South America), say the authors of 
the Lettres edifiantes, ^ 'pursue men just as they would 
pursue beasts : they take them alive if they can, and 

' Fitzroy, Voyage of the Adventure and of the Beagle. 
* Lettres e'difiantes, t. X, p. 231. 


carry them away to be slaughtered one after another 
according as the necessity of hunger becomes felt.' 
Not only were they preserved as food provision, but 
they were fattened, and they were even supplied with 
wives; then, at a given moment, they were slaughtered 
with great ceremony, care being taken to besmear the 
male children with their blood, in order that they 
should become courageous. The victims, quite as 
ferocious as their tormentors, died like the Red Indians, 
striking up their death-song, during which they defied 
their tormentors, reminding them of how many of their 
friends and relations they had themselves devoured. " * 

Flagrante Delicto of Animality. " As to bestial 
ferocity, certain Red Indian tribes of the extreme 
North are, even at the present day, quite equal to 
the Guaranos mentioned by the ancient missionaries. 
Let us give ear to what is told us by a Brittany 
missionary, Monsignor Faraud, Bishop of Mackensie, 
who lived for many years amongst tribes that had 
preserved their old custom : 'These savages ^,the Dueel- 
deli-Ottine, or inhabitants who eat men) carry their 
passion for anthropophagy to such an extreme that the 
mother is not in safety with her child, nor the children 
with their father. Relations eat their relations, and 
friends devour each other. The least dearth re-awakens 
in their heart this horrible passion and then the strongest 
devours the weakest.' ^ Other Red Skins, neighbours 
of the above, the Cris, practise only war anthropophagy 
but in an absolutely bestial manner. On the battle- 
field itself, the victor, having scalped his vanquished 
enemy, cuts open his breast, and extracts from it the 

' Thevet, Singularitc's de la France antarctique, p. 187. 
' Dix-huit Arts chez Us Sauvages, p. 374. 


Still palpitating heart, into which he greedily bites. * 
" These atrocious customs exhibit man to us injlagrante 
delicto of animality. They alone would suffice to 
set at naught the time honoured theory of innate, 
necessary moral ideas. I need not further insist ; there 
are many other facts which will come to confirm these 
latter and constitute a superabundant demonstration." * 
We will now return to our Kanakas, and I shall 
give my reasons in the next section for differing with 
my master, Letourneau, on the causes that give rise, at 
any rate amongst these people, to the lust after human flesh. 

Cannibalism. — Its Causes. The food of the Ka- 
naka, being almost entirely vegetable, — especially 
amongst the tribes of the interior who cannot add sea 
fish to their diet, —is not sufficient to give strength, 
and sustained resistance to fatigue. The Kanaka eats 
enormously. He consumes at a single meal quantities 
of food which would be extraordinary for a European, 
but they are sugary and starchy foods, rich in carbon, 
but poor in nitrogen. He lacks convertible, blood- 
making food. He is like a steam-engine which has 
the furnace loaded with coke, and no water in the 
boiler. In the expeditions, the auxiliaries, although less 
heavily laden than our soldiers, were worn-out by fatigue, 
whilst the Europeans could still keep on marching. 
They were obliged to be fed on biscuit and bacon. 

With all due respect to the vegetarians, a vegetable 
diet is nonsense. No vegetarian could undergo the 
hard work and fatigue, which a meat-eater could. 

" Nothing can come of nothing," as Shakespeare 

* Dix-huit Arts chez Us Sauvages, p. 374. 

* Letourneau, opus cit. 


says; ^ to have muscle you must have meat. The 
Kanaka having in New Caledonia neither poultry, nor 
pork, and nothing but notous (pigeons as large as a 
fowl), ate his vanquished enemy, and, by atavism, this 
depraved taste continued to exist amongst the race 
after the introduction of the pig and cattle. The most 
handsome gift you can make a Kanaka is, — next to a 
gun, — a quarter of salt beef Toussenel ^ has well 
described cannibalism. 

" Cannibahsm is one of the diseases of the childhood 
of primitive man, that poverty explains, though it does 
not justify. Let us pity the cannibal, and not abuse 
him too much, we civilised beings, who slay millions 
of men. The evil is not so much in roasting your 
enemy, as in killing him before he wanted to die." 

The Pilou-pilou is an important factor in the life 
of the Kanaka. Nothing can be done without a pilou- 
pilou, which is danced in war, after victory, in love, 
and as an enjoyment. Each tribe has its own pilou- 
pilou, differing somewhat from that of other tribes. 
It would take too long to describe them here, but I 
will give a general idea of the principal varieties of 
the dance. 

The Pilou-pilou of War. Only the warriors take 
part in this. They are in war paint, that is, painted 
black, with white marks here and there on the body, 
which gives them a most diabolical appearance, and 
with their darts and tamios in their hands. A large 

* Our author has slipped here, or is he purposely facetious ? " Ex 
nthilo, nihil fit" can hardly be fathered f)n Shakespeare; it must be 
considerably older, we fancy, than William's time. 

' In his Zoologie passionnelle. 


fire is lighted, round which the warriors stand in a 
circle. After repeated groans, and a sharp whistle, 
which has a horrible effect, they brandish their arms, 
leap, grind their teeth, and make awful grimaces. 
Then the band of warriors separates into two circles, 
which turn round, the men meanwhile uttering hoarse, 
guttural cries like wild beasts. At last the two bands 
rush at each other with savage cries, and imitate a 
deadly combat. I was present at Kone at a pilou- 
pilou of this kind, and I could not prevent giving a 
shudder, though I was under the protection of the 
chief, who was seated beside me. 

The Pilou-pilou of Love. The women take part 
in this pilou-piloti, which is intended to celebrate the 
sports of love, but they do not mingle with the men. 
They form a small circle within that of the men, and 
dance without moving from their place, moving their 
haunches backwards and forwards in very supple 
movements, with now and then a lascivious kind of 
leap. This is an imitation of the movements of a 
woman in copulation. The men dance round and round 
them, leaping, bounding, squatting, and, as they rise, 
pushing their bellies forward to imitate the movement 
of copulation. 

The Pilou-pilou of the Cannibals. Although the 
Kanaka has now poultry and pork, he has nevertheless 
retained his hereditary taste for human flesh. I was 
informed, during my stay in New Caledonia, that the 
tribe of Kanala ate from time to time, at an enormous 
piloii-pilo2i, captives of some of t-he insurgent tribes 
captured in 1878. Not having seen it, I cannot say 
how true this was, but I can give extracts from trust- 


worthy writers to prove the existence of this horrible 

In the first place, there was the massacre of the 
boat's crew of the Alcmena. The ship's long boat 
was sent to land, to get water. As a matter of form, 
three rifles were put in the bottom of the boat. 
Fourteen Whites, of whom two were officers, landed, 
and a quarter-master and two sailors remained in the 
boat. These last heard the cries of their comrades, 
and guessing that they were being massacred, tried 
to escape by swimming to the vessel, but they were 
overtaken by the Kanakas, brought back to land, and 
bound. They saw their unfortunate comrades cut up, 
cooked, and eaten, at an enormous pilou-pilou. 

The first insurrection, that of 1868, began by the 
massacre of a sergeant and eight men, who had been 
sent to a tribe to requisition by force a body of men 
to construct the road to Noumea. The soldiers were 
received in a friendly manner, so they stacked their 
arms, and separated. They were immediately struck 
down, and their bodies cut to pieces. Some of their 
limbs were sent to all the neighbouring tribes who were 
on good terms with the murderers. Those which ac- 
cepted this new kind of ^z^.?/,— there were three other 
tribes, — declared against the French. It took eighteen 
months to subdue these four tribes. 

An eye-witness of the insurrection of 1878, Paul 
Branda, ^ gives some very interesting and previously 
unpublished details concerning this insurrection, and 
relates several instances of cannibalism. " During the 
preparations for the massacre," he says, "the Kanakas 
surrounded a captain, the commander of the district, 
an enormously fat giant, named Chausson. They 

* In his book, Les Lettres d'ltn Marin, 


danced a pilou-pilou, singing in chorus 'We will eat 
Chausson ! ' Then each warrior advanced in turn, 
brandishing his arms. One said, 'Chausson, I will eat 
your hands ; ' another, ' Chausson, I will eat your feet,' 
and they all gazed longingly at the fine juicy captain. 
The worthy man, who understood the language of the 
country, laughed heartily, and said, ' What funny devils 
these Kanakas are.' Twenty-four hours later, the 
entire tribe was up in arms, crying, 'Let us go and 
eat Chausson. ' By a lucky chance, the over-confiding 
commander of the district had that day been called to 
Noumea, and so escaped the teeth of his admiring 
subjects. " 

I will also quote, from the same author, an account 
of the massacre of la Poya. " The insurgents captured 
a vessel, laden with supplies and cartridges, and having 
a crew of eleven men. The unaccountable delay in 
the arrival of this ammunition caused great uneasiness 
as to the fate of the vessel and its crew, and a steam 
launch, fully armed, was ordered to go and look for 
it. Our sailors soon disturbed the horrible feast at 
which the Kanakas were celebrating their triumph. 
Near the feasting place were the trunks of men, hor- 
ribly decomposed, and hidden in the rushes by the 
river. The heads had been cut off as spoils of triumph, 
and the limbs had been eaten. 

" In an open space overshadowed by tall trees, near 
the limpid river of la Poya, were chairs and sofas, taken 
from the houses of the colonists, which had been sacked, 
and forming a circle. In the middle, as the centre 
piece of the table, was a putrefying human head. Here 
and there lay human bones, carefully cleaned, especi- 
ally the shin bones. The captain of the boat said, 
'They are to make flutes.' In baskets hung on the 


branches, were slices of grilled flesh, neatly packed, 
and of an appetising odour ; one of the crew, formerly 
a pork-butcher, said they were pork ; a butcher declared 
they were beef; one of the friendly Kanakas in the 
crew, said, 'That? white tayo!' A silence of terror 
and horror fell upon all the men. The grilled flesh, 
and the few bones, were piously collected, and buried 
with funeral honours. Of course this was very proper, 
but it seemed odd, nevertheless, to accord military 
honours to kitchen scraps." 

A little further on the same author adds, " Our allies 
did not put themselves out of the way on our account ; 
they ate their enemies in sight of our soldiers. The 
absolute need of their services obliged us to shut our 
eyes. The chief of the Kones came, and presented to 
the colonel four left ears. 'Why,' said the colonel, 
'you have had them cooked!' — ^' Yes,' replied the chief, 
' so that they might keep good.' After having received 
his reward, he went off munchmg the ears. 

" The Government paid ten francs each for the head 
of every rebel Kanaka. The Arab convicts, who were 
the best sharpshooters, used to bring in the ears of 
those they killed, in order to claim the reward. They 
were accused of sometimes bringing women's ears, and 
after that they used to bring the penis and testicles 
of the dead Kanakas, finding the head rather awkward 
to carry on horseback." 

The Chiefs Share in the Feast of Human Flesh. 

I will terminate these few remarks relating to anthro- 
pophagy, by an account of the chiefs part in the feast. 
Formerly, long before the advent of the French — 
when the struggle for life between the tribes was at 
its height, the conquering chiefs used, by the aid of 


an instrument which I have never seen, and of the 
shape of which I am ignorant, to tear out the genital 
parts, the heart, and the eyes of the conquered chief. 
These ferocious warriors did not content themselves 
with cooking their enemies in the Kanaka stove, but 
preferred to devour on the field of battle the parts thus 
torn off, all raw and bleeding. They thought that they 
should thus acquire the piercing sight, the courage, 
and the virility, of their adversaries. This custom now 
is nothing more than a tradition. According to some 
travellers, it also used to exist among the Maoris of 
New Zealand. 

The Reward of the French Government. Of 

course, these customs are horrible, but it must be 
remembered that the Kanaka is uncivilised. What 
shall we say though to the action of the French Gov- 
ernment during the insurrection ? I am not inventing 
statements, but again quoting from Branda. 

" We found allies on the following conditions ; all 
the spoil, the women, and ten francs for every head 
brought in. 

" The Kanaka mutilates dead bodies, but he does not, 
as the Indian does, wish to inflict pain on his enemy. 
On the other hand, I have heard Europeans seriously 
complain of the incapacity of certain officers, who would 
not wring information from prisoners by means of 
torture." • 

'The "soft-hearted party" who are fearful of shedding blood, and 
whose timorousness is too often the cause of its being shed, will not 
accept the Jesuitical doctrine that "the end justifies the means." Yet 
in primitive societies none but iron measures can prevail, and the man, 
or tribe, not prepared to strike hard blows runs a risk of being wiped 
out by the "other side". There are men in the United States who 


maintain that the perpetuation of criminal families can be prevented 
ORGANS, and we hope to deal with this subject in a future work on 
Eunuchs and Eunuchism. 

We quote the following from THE MEDICAL WORLD:— 
" The matter of the castration of those who persist in crime is receiving 
more and more attention. In the Legislature of Michigan a Bill was 
introduced which provides for ASEXUALISATION. Feeble-minded 
and epileptics who become inmates of the feeble-minded institution of 
the State, 'before he or she is discharged, shall be caused to submit 
to an operation that causes asexualisation, that such person shall cease 
to be able to reproduce their kind.' All persons convicted the third 
time for felony, and those convicted of having ravished a child or 
woman, after the first year's incarceration, must submit to the operation 
which causes asexualisation." 


Forms of sexual intercourse amongst the Kanakas. — Jlie Popine'e 
the property of the Chief. — The Kanaka marriagi. — Polyandry. — 
The condition of the Popine'e. — The Kanaka '^'^ break wood" the 
usual method of copulation. — Accouchement. — Vulvar deformities 
produced by the repeated coition of the Kanaka Popine'es. — An 
original form of punishment for adultery. — Not confined to the 
Kanakas. — Mrs. Potiphar and Joseph. — Lust of the Kanaka for 
the White ivoman. — The head chief Atai and Mme P*** 

The Popinde the Property of the Chief. Every 
g^rl of the tribe is born the property of the Chief, and 
his rights over her do not cease until the time vi^hen 
he gives her to his warriors. Until then he can sell 
her, hire her, or even eat her, if that is his pleasure. 
The Chief of Kone would not sell his women to the 
Europeans, but he let them out on hire. Kake, the 
Chief of the Kanalas, was not so particular, and is said 
to have sold women to some of the colonists. I was 
assured that, hardly more than ten years before my 
visit, many of the tribes of the interior ate the women 
captured from hostile tribes. I have already remarked, 
that the unfortunate Kanaka Popinee has not only to 
do all the cooking and household work, but to satisfy 
the sexual needs of her squad of husbands — a term 
which I will hasten to explain. 

The Kanaka Marriage. — Polyandry. As a matter 
of fact, marriage does not exist in New Caledonia. 



The Chief gives the women to those of his warriors 
with whom he is most satisfied, and in that consists 
all the ceremony of marriage. But, as the number 
of women is much inferior to that of the men, the 
result is that every woman is the property of several 
husbands. It is this collection of husbands, having 
one wife in common, that I have designated under 
the name of the " squad. " They live together in a hut, 
with their common wife. ^ 

The Condition of the Popin^e. Every day the 
Popinee has to work like a beast of burden, and at 
night she has to satisfy the desires of aU the males. 
How does each of the husbands manage to get his 
share of the conjugal cake ? That is a subject on which 
I could gather no precise information. Does each 
gentleman have a proper day for visiting Madame, 
like some of the Parisian fast men, who keep a woman 
between four, or even eight, of them? Or do the 
stronger and more vigorous husbands take the lion's 
share, and only leave their associates the scraps of the 
feast, after they themselves are completely satisfied? 
I could gather no trustworthy information on the point. 
It is probable, however, that love, that noble sentiment 
that sways the human breast, finds no place in a 
Kanaka household. The wretched Popinee has to 
permit the embraces of the males whenever they are 
" in rut. " Pregnancy does not cause any remission in 
their attacks, nor does the period of suckling either, — 
which by the way extends over three or four years. 

* Herb. Spencer in The Principles of Sociology, Lond., Williams 
and Norgate, 1885 ; and Gh. Letourneau, in L' Evolution du Mariage 
et de la Famille, Paris, 1888, both treat the subject of Polyandry 
in a very full and competent manner, although from standpoints, of 
course, rather different. 


The Kanaka " Break Wood." As might be expected, 
the Kanaka does not show much consideration, or affec- 
tion, for his common wife, — the more so, perhaps, because 
she' is ugly enough to frighten a man. Sexual connec- 
tion is performed without any preliminary preparation. 
After a hard day's work it often happens to the unfor- 
tunate Popinee, that she is obliged to support the amorous 
assaults of her squad of husbands all night. 

Accouchement takes place without any sort of 
ceremony. The female neighbours help the women in 
labour as they best can. After a day or two's rest, 
she goes to work again. As to the labour of love, the 
genital organs are hardly given time to recover from 
the disorders caused by the accouchement. There is 
always one husband, more impatient than the others, 
who cannot wait, and very often, though at the risk of 
crippling his wife, he recommences copulation with her. 
Owing to this little amusement, the woman is worn 
out, and rarely brings forth more than two children, 
and although married at twenty, or twenty-five at the 
latest, she is soon used up ; at thirty, she is a wretched 
decrepit creature horrible to behold. 

An Original Form of Punishment for Adultery. 

It might be imagined that with the incessant amount 
of prostitution— as it may be called —that the Popinee 
undergoes almost every night, that she had quite 
enough of copulation, and never committed the sin of 
adultery. That, however, would be to fail to take 
into account the fancies and failings of a woman's 
brain. Adultery exists, and is punished in an original 
manner, which is not, I believe, practised anywhere 
else in the world. 


When a woman is convicted of adultery, the Chief 
condemns her to die in the manner in which she has 
committed her offence. I will explain what I mean. 
The woman is fastened down in a hut in such a 
manner that she cannot move. Her hands are tied 
behind her back, her legs are bent to the thighs and 
fastened to them by means of a rope which passes 
round the thigh and the shin, and is then fastened to 
that which secures the arms and the hands ; the woman 
is thrown on her back with her thighs open, and the 
opening of the vulva widely gaping. The description 
may not be very clear ; it would need a photograph 
to show the position plainly. But I do not know of 
any photographer who has ever been able to take 
such a picture, for what I am relating was told me 
in confidence by Kake, the Chief of the Kanalas. 
When she is powerless to move, the woman is given 
over to the young warriors of the tribe, each of whom 
enters the hut in his turn. The men dance the pilou- 
pilou whilst awaiting their turn. The operation, or 
rather the execution, continues without cessation until 
the victim dies, — as may be imagined — in horrible 
sufferings. According to Kake, it takes about a hundred 
of these assaults to kill the woman. ^ 

Not Confined to the Kanakas. The ingenuity of 
man has found out "many curious inventions", but 
surely nothing more revolting than this barbarous 
practice. Unfortunately this custom is not confined to 

' De Rochas, in his book, Nouvelle Cale'dotiie (page 262), confirms 
my account. L. Moncelon, R6ponse au Questionnaire de Sociologie, 
in Bull. Soc. d'Anthrpp., 1886, states that he has seen a man sen- 
tenced to death for having looked at the wife of a chief when she 
stooped down to pick up some shells; crime of lise-majeUe. 


Melanesia alone. It is to be found in all countries and 
in all times. The adulterous man, it should be noticed, 
is never punished for having forsworn his conjugal 
vows, but wholly and solely for having injured another 
husband. I have no space here to go into the laws 
of adultery prevalent among various nations and tribes. 
The philosophy relating to this has been clearly sketched 
out by able teachers like Letoumeau and other pro- 
fessional experts. Still I would call attention to the 
fact that this savage doctrine of lex talionis is carried 
out with the same brutal and lascivious ferocity amongst 
the Omahas. These people tie the wretched female 
to a stake in the prairie, and abandon her to the ob- 
scene embraces of twenty or thirty men. Bancroft ^ 
affirms that the Modocs of California publicly slit open 
the guilty woman's belly; while the Hoopsa, another 
tribe of Red Skins, tore out one of the adulterer's eyes 
or, were he married, took away his wife. If, quitting 
modern times and savage countries, we travel back to 
classical antiquity, we find that hardly any better state 
of things existed in the more polished lands of Greece 
and Rome. Here marriage was crudely considered as 
nothing more than a civic duty and thought of only 
from the standpoint of population. Strange as it may 
sound to us, Lycurgus and Solon encouraged the im- 
potent husband to favour the adultery of his young 
wife. "It was not reproachable," says Plutarch, speak- 
ing of the laws of Lycurgus, " for a man already fairly 
stricken in years and who owned a young spouse, to 
allow a fine young man who had the talent to please 
him and was of kindly nature to take his place in the 
conjugal bed with his wife, ' pour la /aire emplir de 
bonne sentence,^ and afterwards recognise the fruit which 

' Native Races, I vol., p. 350. 


was born of the relations, as though it had been en- 
gendered by himself. Therefore, was it allowable in 
an honest man who loved the wife of another through 
seeing that she was virtuous, modest and bore fine 
offspring, to beg her husband to permit him to have 
connection with her so as to sow there, as in rich and 
fertile earth, beautiful and good children, which by this 
means should come to have a community of blood and 
relationship with people of wealth and honour. " ^ This, 
of course, is marriage considered without the least pre- 
judice, and from the strict point of view of social utility, 
and I doubt much that the world has yet attained to 
so philosophical and, as it seems to me, elastic an 
interpretation of the wedded state as to sanction this 
practice to-day, except, perhaps, as a private arrange- 

" Solon," says Letourneau, "imitated Lycurgus on this 
point with the following restriction, recalling the code 
of Manou, that the wife of an impotent husband ought, 
with the authorisation of course of her conjoint, to select 
a lover from among the nearest relatives of the said 
husband." ^ Manners went sometimes beyond the laws, 
and Plutarch mentions that Cimon of Athens, example 
of soul-greatness and of goodness, lent his wife to the 
rich Callias. ^ But that did not at all prevent the laws 
of Solon from authorising the husband to kill the 
adulterer whom he might catch in flagrante delicto. 
Further still, the law struck with civil degradation the 
too indulgent husband and authorised family tribunals 
to sentence to death the guilty woman, whom the 
outraged husband himself executed, before witnesses. * 
Finally, a law of Draco, which was never repealed, 

•Plutarch, Lycurgus, XXIX. 'Plutarch, Solon, XXXVI. 

• Plutarch, Life of Cimon. * Legouv^, Hist, morale desfemmes (p. 182). 


handed over the adulterous lover to the tender mer- 
cies of the husband. ^ In sum, save for the care of 
the good of the State, before which all gave way, this 
Grecian legislation did no more than consecrate the 
old primitive right, which made the woman the hus- 
band's chattel. 

Rome's Code of Adultery. Rome followed strangely 
hard on Greece in all that concerned the marriage bond. " 
For the wife, her manners and legislation were at first 
of savage atrocity. The term " adulterer " was at the 
outset applied only to the wife, and the law of the Twelve 
Tables conferred the right to drag up the guilty woman 
before a domestic tribunal ; she was condemned, and 
executed by the relatives themselves: Cognati necanto 
uti voleiit (Let the kinsmen kill her as they shall 
please). These family tribunals lasted all through the 
Republican regime, and even later, concurrently with 
the Lfx Jtilia; but manners became less harsh, and death 
as a penalty of adultery was replaced with banishment 
of at least 200 miles from Rome and the obligation to 
wear the courtesan's toga. Of course, if the husband 
surprised the adulterous wife in the very act he still 
possessed authority to kill her on the spot; ^ and the 
lover he could keep to torture or mutilate, as the 
warmth of his lost love, or the cold-blooded calculation 
of revenge, might dictate. The character of the mu- 
tilation was of the savagest kind. A picturesque word 
for it exists in French, raffaniscr, and its meaning 
may be better imagined than explained. The outraged 
husband could also deliver the hapless lover to the 

' M6nard, Morale avant les philosopher, p. 303. 

• Lecky, History of European Morals, vol. tl, p. 312. 

■ Wake, Evolution of Morality, vol. II, p. 85. 


ferocious lubricity of his slaves. One would think in 
these days that it were enough to render the poor 
wretch an eunuch and expose him to unnatural passive 
treatment. But law and opinion further authorised the 
husband to demand a sum of money for the ransom 
of his wife's lover and this consequently opened the 
door for torture as a means of blackmailing. 

It was reserved for the philosophical Emperor, An- 
toninus, more clement and equitiible' than his fore- 
runners, to amend this terrible state of things. He 
forbade by law the husband, himself presumed guilty 
of adultery, to kill or judicially prosecute his wife 
surprised in her lover's arms. In time, the reaction 
that was to be expected took place, and manners 
aifecting the conjugal couch became daily more licenti- 
ous. Tolerance gave birth to license, and Septimus 
Severus laid down new laws against breaches of the 
marriage vow. That such laws were needed and ap 
predated is proved by the fact that Dion Cassius found 
on the public registers at Rome three thousand cases 
of adultery. * Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, 
informs us that Theodosius not only softened the 
penalties waiting upon adultery, but did very much 
more. He swept away the old Roman custom, born 
of cruelty and lubricity, which sanctioned the locking 
up of the guilty woman in a sniidl lodgment where 
she was delivered to the sensuality of all-comers, the 
latter even being obliged to carry small bells to 
attract attention. ^ The same ignoble practice, I have 
pointed out already, was in vogue amongst certain 
red-skinned tribes of North America, and if the com- 
munity of the custom does not prove that the Romans 

' Friedlander, Maeurs romaincs, etc., vol. I, p. 367. 
* Socrates, Hist. Eccles. lib. V., cap. XV'IH. 


were less civilised than the Red Skins, it at any rate 
demonstrates, combined with other facts, " the original 
equality of the most diverse races in the state of 
primitive savagery." ' In the name of Religion many 
crimes have been wrought, and the pious Constantine, 
to whom the imperial purple next fell, once more showed 
that the newest converts are the worst fanatics. This 
Christian neophyte, with a fury that knew no bounds, 
waged pitiless war against all infractions of the public 
peace. On the assumption that cruelty was the only 
cure for viciousness, he launched forth a law making 
adultery in both sexes punishable with death. 

"Justinian reacted against this and moderated the 
rigours of the law. His code condemns the adulteress 
to be whipped, to have her hair shaved off and to be 
shut up in a convent for the rest of her days, unless 
her husband should take her back again before the 
expiration of two years. Compared with the excessive 
zeal of Constantine, this appears almost merciful. — It 
is also too well-known how previously, under the much 
wiser pagan emperors, the Roman morals had become 
so relaxed; an almost free marriage procured to the 
young women of the aristocracy an almost unlimited 
independence, or, at all events and despite the laws, 
adultery had ceased to be an abominable crime, as it 
had begnn to be considered among the ancestors. ** ^ 

In the realistic stories of Algerian experience written 
by my old friend and brother officer, Hector France 
(ex-Captain of the " Chasseurs d'Aftique "), there is a 
powerful narrative of an old man's revenge on his 
young wife's lover, whom he had succeeded in trapping. 
I shall give no account of this here, although Hector 

* Letourneau, L' Evolution du Mariage et de la Famille i^dn'is, 1888), 
page 279. 


France assures me it is tlioroughly true in fact, as I 
understand that the editor of the present work intends 
bringing out an EngHsh version of these extraordinary 
stories, which have already been done into the Anglo- 
Saxon tongue by a master-hand, 

A Kanaka ' ' Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. ' ' Branda 
relates, in a very graphic manner, the story of a Kanaka 
"Potiphar's wife". 

" The son of the terrible Bouarate came to complain 
to the commander of the district of the rape of one 
of his wives by six of his subjects. What a sign of 
the times! respect for sovereigns is on the wane, even 
in New Caledonia. Who had dared to molest the wife 
of the noble lord, Bouarate? In former times the 
noble lord, instead of coming whining to the French 
authorities, would have knocked the delinquent on the 
head with his war club, and afterward