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Full text of "Upper lakes of North America; being a guide from Niagara Falls and Toronto, to Mackinac, Chicago, Saut Ste Marie, etc., passing through lakes Michigan and Superior; returning through lakes Huron and St. Clair, to Detroit and Buffalo .."






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The Admiral Franklin Hanford 

Collection in 

The New York Public Library 

• 1929 ' 



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UPPER LAKES 



OF 



NOETH AMERICA; 

^ BEING 

E dKuiire 

FROM 

I^IAGAKA FALLS Al^TD TOEOXTO 

TO MACKI}fAC, CHICAGO, SAUT STE MAEIE, ETC., 



PASSrSQ THEOTTGH 



EETUENING THEOITSH 

LAKES HURON AND ST. CLAIR, 

TO 

DETROIT AND BUFFALO 



NEW YORK: 

^ PUBLISHED BY J. DISTURNELL, 
. No. 16 BEEKMAN ^STREET. 

•""] 1857. 



i 



THE l.'S'*?f TORK 
PUBLIC LianAI^Y 

■475197 A 

AiT©R, LEMUf: • 



EXTEEED, according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1857, by 
JOHN DISTUENELL, 
the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Southern District of New York. 



• aa,4 31 Beeksian St., N. 



TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC. 



The volume entitled the " Upper Lakes of North Amer- 
ica" Tvill be found to contain all the information necessary to 
be obtained before visiting the Inland Seas of America, now 
opened to Commerce and Pleasure Excursions — affording, dur- 
ing the Summer months, a Trip of the most interesting char- 
acter. 

Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, together with 
the numerous Bays, Lilets, and Islands, afford a variety of in- 
structive scenery unequaled in grandeur, both on land and 
water. The Georgian Bay and North Channel, within the con- 
fines of Canada, together with the Straits of ^Mackinac and 
Green Bay, lying wholly within the United States, are of them- 
selves large and attractive bodies of water, alike interesting to 
the seeker of health or pleasure. 

The most convenient approach to Lake Superior, the present 
season, for Eastern travelers, is to take a steamer at Cleveland 
or Detroit, passing through Lake St. Clair and River into 
Lake Huron, thence through the beautiful St. INIary's Pdver to— 
Lake Superior. The Western traveler can approach the sar^j^^ 
point by starting from Chicago, or jNIilwaukee, and pa ^^^ 



TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC. 

through the Straits of Mackinac, affording an aUke grand 
and instructive excursion. 

The Collingwood Route, passing through Georgian Bay, 
although for the present time discontinued, is no doubt des- 
tined to form the great thoroughfare from the Eastern and 
Northern States and Canada into the Upper Lakes, and from 
thence to the head sources of the Mississippi and Red River 
country, by railroad, passing westward to the Upper ^lissouri, 
and thence to the confines of the Pacific Ocean— thus forming, 
altogether, an International Route extending from ocean to 
ocean. ^ j^ 

New Tobk, June, 185T. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
Table of Distances, etc. 

Koute from New York to Montreal, Canada 13 

Route from New York to Niagara Falls, Toronto, e^^ 14 

Route from Toronto to Collingwood and Saut Ste Marie. . 15 

Route from Saut Ste Marie to Superior City, Wis 16 

Route from New York to Falls of St. Anthony, via Lake 

Superior : 16 

Railroad Route from Toronto to Collin^gwood, axd Trip 
aroujvd Lake Simcoe. — Toronto — Thornhill — Aurora — 
New Market — Holland Landing — Bradford — Bell Ewart — 
Lake Simcoe — Beaver ton — Atherly — Orillia — Rama — 
Hawkstone — Barrie — Collikgwood — Nottawassaga Bay — 
Toronto and Georgian Bay Canal Page 17-26 

Trip from Orillia to Georgian Bay. — SeTern River — Rap- 
ids and Falls — Penetanguishene — Christian Island — Georgian 
Bay — Innumerable Islands — French River 27-32 

Trip from Collingwood to the Saut Ste Marie. — Owen's 
Sound — Lonely Island — Squaw Island — Smyth's Bay — La 
Cloche Mountains — She-ba- wa-nah-ning — Man-i-tou- wah- 
ning — Little Current — Clapperton Island — Cockburn Island — 
Drummond Island — Bruce Mines— Campement D'Ours — Sugar 
Island, etc 33-37 

Trip through Georgian Bat and North Channel.- — Great 
Manitoulin — Indians — Wequamekong — St. Joseph's Island — 
Saut Ste Marie — Ship Canal — Upper Lake Country . . . 38-49 

Trip from Collingwood to Mackinac, Green Bat, Chi- 
cago, ETC. — Yeo Island and Fitzwilliam Island — Lake Hu- 
ron — Straits of Mackinac — Mackinac — Potawatomee Island — 
Green Bay — Astor — Appleton — Neenah — Oshkosh — Fond du 
Lac — Lake Winnebago — Lake Superior Region 50-56 

Trip from Saut Ste Marie to the Different Ports on 
Lake Superior. — Iroquois Point — Tequamenon Bay — White 
Fish Point — Pictured Rocks — Grand Island — Marquette — 
Iron Region — Stanard's Rock — L'Ance — Portage Entry — 
Portage Lake — Keweenaw Point — Copper Harbor — Agate 
Harbor — Eagle Harbor — Ontonagon — Copper Region — La 
Pointe — Bayfield — Ashland — Superior City — Fond du Lac — 



VIU CONTENTS. 

St. Louis River — Encampment — Grand Portage — Pigeon Bay 
and River — =Islo Royale — Pie Island — Fort William — Kamin- 
istequoi River — Neepigon Bay and River Page 57-82 

RsD River of the North. — Pembina, etc 83, 84: 

HiTDsojv Bay Company. — Charter and Territory — Hudson 
Bay 85-91 

North Shore, Lake Superior. — Ste Ignace Island — Slate 
Islands — Pic Island and River— Michipicoten Island, Harbor, 
and River — Caxnbou Island — Grand Pleasure Excursion 92, 93 

Geology of La.ke Superior Country 94 

Fisheries of Lake Superior 95, 96 

Chicago. — Railroads — Progress of Chicago, etc 97-100 

Ports of Lake Michigan, East and South Shores. — Mich- 
igan City — New Buffalo — St. Joseph — St. Joseph River — 
Niles, etc 101-102 

Trip from Chicago to Mackinac and Saut Ste Marie. — 
Lake Michigan — AVaukegan — Kenosha — Racine — IMilwaukee 
— Port "Washington— Sheboygan — Manitouwoc — Two Rivers 
— Kewaunee — Little and Great Manitou Islands — Fox Isl- 
ands — Great and Little Beaver Islands — Garden and Hog 
Islands — Mackinac, Town, Fortress, and Island — Bois Blanc 
Island — Point De Tour — Drummond Island — St. Joseph Isl- 
and — Lime Island — jNIud Lake — Sugar Island — Nebish Rap- 
ids — Lake George — Church's Landing — Garden River Settle- 
ment—St. Mary's River 103-117 

Sunday on Lake Huron 118, 119 

Table of Distances. 
Route from Chicago to Mackinac and Saut Ste Marie . , . 120 
Route from Saut Ste Marie to Detroit 121 

Trip from Detroit to Mackinac and Saut Ste Marie. — 
Lake St. Clair — Mt. Clemens — Chatham — Algonac — New- 
port— St. Clair — Port Sarnia— Port Huron — Fort Gratiot — 
Point Edward — Goderich— Saugeen — Lake Huron — Forrest- 
ville— Saginaw Bay — Saginaw City— Thunder Bay— Presque 
Isle — Mackinac, etc 122-127 

Bays and Rivers, etc., of Lower Peninsula of Michigan. 
— Lumber — Climate — Soil— Cheboygan River — Grand Trav- 
erse Bay — River Aux Bees Sceis — Beaver Islands — Manistee 
River — Pere Marquette River — White River — Muskegon River 
— Newaygo— Grand Haven— Grand Rapids — Grand River 
Pineries 128-133 

Detroit. — Railroads — Detroit River — Islands — Fisheries — 
Steamboat Routes, etc 134-140 



CONTENTS. IX 

Steamboat Routes from Detroit to Toledo, etc. — ^Wy- 
andotte — Trenton — Monroe — Sandusky — Toledo— Perrysburg 
— Maumee City Page 141-144 

Trip from Buffalo to Detroit, direct. — Long Point — 
Port Dover— Port Burwell — Port Stanley — Point aux Pins 
— Point Pelee — Point Pelee Island — Detroit River — Am- 
herstburg — Fort Maiden — Brownstown — Sandwich — Wind- 
sor — Detroit 145-146 

Steamers Running from Buffalo to Different Ports. 
149 

Railroad Route from Buffalo and Niagara Falls to 
Detroit, via Great Western Railway of Canada. — Suspen- 
sion Bridge — Thorold — St. Catherine's — Hamilton — Dundas 
— ^Paris — Woodstock — London — Chatham — Windsor. 150-152 

Buffalo to Goderich, via BuflFalo and Lake Huron Railway. 
— Black Rock — Fort Erie — Dunnville — Brantford — Paris — 
Stratford— Goderich 153-155 

Table of Distances — from Buffalo to Toledo, etc 156 

Trip from Buffalo to Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, 
etc. — Sturgeon Point — Dunkirk — Barcelona — Erie — Conne- 
aut — Ashtabula — Fairport — Painesville — Cleveland — • 
Black River — Vermilion — Huron — Kelley's Island — Bass Isl- 
ands — Put-in Bay — Naval Battle on Lake Erie .... 157-162 

Railroad Route around Lake Erie. — Ohio River and Lake 
Erie Canals 163 

Opening of Navigation on Lake Erie, etc 164 

Buffalo. — Trade and Commerce 165-170 

Trip from Buffalo to Mackinac, Chicago, etc. — Lake 
Erie — Huron, etc 171, 172 

First Vessel which Navigated the Upper Lakes. — 
Navigation of the Lakes 173-179 

Magnitude of the Lakes 180, 181 

Coast Line of the Great Lakes 182 

Tributaries of the Lakes and St. Lawrence River 

183 

Extent of Lake and River Navigation, etc 184 

List of Steamers Built on Lake Erie, etc. . . . 185-188 
Proposed Ship Canal. — Lake Erie to Lake Michigan. 189, 190 

Lake and Ocean Navigation 191, 192 

Commerce of the Lakes 193-200 



ADVERTISElSENTS. 



IMEcKSriGHT'S 



LAKE SUPERIOR LINE. 




The Splendid Low Pressure Steamer ILLINOIS, (Japt. John 
WilsojV, "will run the ensuing season between Cleveland, De- 
troit, Saut Ste Marie, Superior City, and intermediate 
ports on Lake Superior, as follows : 



Leaves Cleveland at 7 o'clock p.m. 

Tuesday May 5 

Friday* "15 

Tuesday " 26 

Friday* June 5 

Tuesday -'16 

Friday* "26 

Tuesday July 7 

Friday* "17 

Tuesday "28 

Friday* August 7 

Tuesday " 18 

Friday* " 28 

Tuesday Sept. 8 

Friday* " 18 

Tuesday " 29 



Leaves Detroit 10 o'clock a m. 

Wednesday May G 

Saturday* ,. "*16 

Wednesday "27 

Saturday* June 6 

Wednesday " 17 

Saturday* "27 

Wednesday July 8 

Saturday* " 18 

Wednesday " 29 

Saturday* Aug. 8 

Wednesday "19 

Saturday* " 29 

Wednesday Sept. 9 

Saturday* " 19 

Wednesday " 30 



The days of leaving Cleveland and Detroit after Oct. 1st 
will be irregular, but will be as near the above schedule as 
weather will permit. 

The ILLINOIS is a first-class upper-cabin Steamer, 1,000 
tons burthen, fitted and furnished with spacious, airy state- 
rooms, and all the modern improvements for safety and comfort. 

Pleasure-seekers will find this route unrivaled for salubrity 
of climate, beauty and variety of scenery ; while an opportunity 
is afforded to visit the rich Iron Mines at Marquette, and the 
unrivaled Copper Mines at Eagle River and Ontonagon. 

E^^ Parties at a distance wishing to secure State-Kooms, can 
do so by addressing the Subscriber, 

S. Mcknight, Detroit. 



In addition to Steamer Illinois, two first-class Propel- 
lers are run in this line, carrying heavy freight, etc. 



* Goes to ScPEEioR Cut. All othw trips terminate at Oxtonagon. 



ADYERTISEMENTS. 



THE STEADIER 



IN'ORTEE ST^R 



B. G. SWEET, Master, 



Leaves Cieveland, as follows, 
AT 8 o'clock p^. 

Thursday April 30th 

Monday May 11th 

Thursday " 21st 

Monday June 1st 

Thursday " 11th 

Monday " 22d 

Thursday July 2d 

Monday " 13th 

Thursday " 23d 

Monday Aug. 3d 

Thursday " 13th 

Monday " 24th 

Thursday Sept. 3d 

Monday '^ 14th 

Thursday " 24th 

Monday' Oct. 5th 

Thursday "15th 

Monday " 26th 

Thursday Nov. 5th 

Monday " 16th 



Leaves Detboit, as follows, 

AT 10 o'clock A.M. 

Friday Mav 1st 

Tuesday " 'l2th 

Friday " 22d 

Tuesd'ay June 2d 

Friday " 12th 

Tuesday " 23d 

Friday July 3d 

Tuesday " 14th 

Friday " 24th 

Tuesday Aug. 4th 

Friday " 14th 

Tuesday " 25th 

Friday Sept. 4th 

Tuesday " 15th 

Friday " 25th 

Tuesday Oct, 6th 

Friday " 16th 

Tuesday " 27th 

Friday Nov. 6th 

Tuesday " 17th 

The XOETH STAE is not suepassed, in point of speed and accommo- 
dations, by any boat on the Lakes. She is built for this particular trade, 
is over 1,100 tons burthen, is fast, staunch, and new. She performs her 
trips with surprising regularity, and is so well appointed and furnished as 
to make her a PALAC£ HOME to the pleasure traveler. 

The LAKE SUPERIOE EOUTE, in the Summer Season, is altogether 
the most picturesque, healthful, and delightful to be found on the Ameri- 
can Continent. It contains the grand, the beautiful, and the useful ; and 
bids fair to be one of the most fashionable resorts in the Fnited States. It 
includes in its circuit the Detroit, St. Clair, and St. Mary's Eivers ; Lakes 
St. Clair, Huron, and Superior ; the beautiful Islands on the Eoute, the 
Pictured Eocks, Marquette, Copper Harbor, Eagle Harbor, Eagle Eiver, 
Ontonagon, La Pointe, and Superior City, besides many other localities of 
great interest and attractive scenery. 

To the invalid, the cool and bracing climate will be highly salubrious, 
while sportsmen find the facilities for fishing and hunting oif the most invit- 
ing character. The Copper and Iron Mines, the leading business interest of 
this region, will always continue to attract the enterprising and scientific 
to their vicinity, and the new and easj' communication by the Saut Ste 
Marie Canal, have made the voyage one of uninterrupted comfort and 
pleasure. 

5^°^ Eooins secured for the round trip (time 8 davs, distance 2.000 
miles), by addressing S. & A. TUEXEPv, Cleveland, O. 

S. P. BEADY, and CEAGG & BEOTHEE. ) 
Agents, Detroit, Michigan. f 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



7ZZ»arB ZiAZO'DS 1ST l^ICHiaAIT. 

THE SAINT MAEY'S FALLS 

I]i|} Canal Cnmpng 

orr:BR for saziB 



THEIR ENTIRE SELECTION OF 



550,000 Acres of Pine and Farming Land 

IN MICHiaAN. 



These comprise some of tlie choicest and most desirable lands 
in the West, either for settlement, as an investment, or for 
lumbering purposes. 

Unlike a considerable portion of the Pine Lands of the 
country, these lands are valuable for farmijig purposes after 
the timber is cut off. They Tvere selected with great care, with 
particular reference to the quality and quantity of the Pine, 
and their locality on the large streams of the State. 

These lands are more favorably situated in reference to the 
Chicago Market, than any other Western timber lands. Some 
of the finest Pine timber is located within 16 miles of Lake 
Michigan, with good water communication to the Lake, and 
with but 150 miles of Lake navigation to Chicago. 

Particular information given, and description of land fuf- 
nished, on application to 

GEO. S. FROST, Land Agent 

Land Office St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal Co., V 
Detroit, Mich ^.g an. S 



RAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES. 



STEAMBOAT AND EAILEOAD EOUTE FEOM NEW YOEK TO 
MONTEEAL, ma LAKE CHAMPLAIN. 

Stations, etc. 

NEW YORK 

Albany, (Steamer) 

Troy, (Steamer) 

Saratoga Springs, (Railroad) 

Whitehall, (Railroad) 

Ticonderoga, ( Steamer) . . 

BURLI-VGTON, Vt. " . , . 

Plattsburgh, N. Y. " 

Rouse's Point, N. Y. " 

St. John's, Can. (Railroad). 
MONTREAL, (Railroad)... 

Note. — This line of travel affords one of the most delightful 
excursions during warm weather — passing through Lake Cham- 
plain, a most lovely and picturesque sheet of water, surrounded 
by romantic and mountainous scenery. 



Miles. 




Usual Time. 

H. M. 


145 


10 00 


151 


10 30 


182 


223 


14 00 


247 


300 

325 


20 00 


350 


24 00 


374 


395 


26 00 



EAILEOAJ) EOUTE FEOM NEW YOEK TO MONTEEAL, via 
EUTLAND AND BUELINGTON, VT. 

Stations, etc. Miles. ^T^m""^' 

NEW YORK 

Poughkeepsie 75 2 40 

Albany 144 5 00 

Trwy 150 5 15 

North Bennington 182 6 30 

Rutland 234 8 80 

Middlebury 266 10 30 

Burlington (S.toPlattsVh) 301 11 00 

Rouse's Point 356 14 00 

St. John's, C. E 379 15 00 

MONTREAL 400 16 00 

Usual Fare from New York to Montreal, $9 to $10 50. 

9. 



14 RAILROAD AND STEAMBt AT ROUTES. 

EAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT EOTTTE FEOM NEW TOEK TO 

NIAGAEA FALLS AND TOEONTO, C. W., LEAVING 

NEW YOEK AT 6 P.M. BY STEAMEE. 

oi *• * n/T-i^ Usual Time. 

Stations, etc. Miles. ^ ^ 

NEW YORK 

Albany, ( Steamer) 145 12 00 

Schenectady, {Railroad) ... 162 13 00 

Utica, " 240 16 00 

Rome, « 254 16 30 

Syracuse, " 293 18 00 

'B.oc-a^sT^-R, {St. to Toronto) 374 22 45 

Lockport, {Railroad)... 430 25 00 

Suspension Bridge, " ... 448 26 00 

Lewiston, " ... 452 

TORONTO, {Steamer) 494 30 00 



EAILEOAD AND STEAIMBOAT EOUTE FEOM NEW YOEK TO 

OSWEGO, TOEONTO, ETC., LEAVING NEW YOEK 

AT 6 A.M. BY HUDSON EIVEE EAILEOAD. 



Stations, etc. 
NEW YORK. 






Miles. 




usual xiu 
H. M. 


Poughkeepsie, 
Hudson, 


{Railroad) . . . 

cc 

(C 

^i 
<( 
(( 

C( 

cc 

mmer 140 i7i.) . 
'teatner 150 m.) 


75 


2 40 


116 


4 00 


Albany, 

Schenectady, 
Utica, 


144 

162 


5 00 

6 00 


240 


8 30 


Rome, 


254 


9 00 


Syracuse, 
Oswego, 


293 


10 30 


328 


13 00 


Lewiston, {Sti 
TORONTO, (5 


468 




478 


27 00 



Note. — Passengers by continuing on by Railroad from Syra- 
cuse, via Rochester and Lockport, will arrive at Suspension 
Bridge, 448 miles, in sixteen hours after leaving New York, 
stop at Niagara Falls if desired, and reach Toronto by Rail- 
road, via Hamilton, C. W., 81 miles farther; making the total 
distance from New York to Toronto by Railroad, via Suspen- 
sion Bridge, 529 miles. 

\ 



RAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES. 



15 



EAELEOAD AND STEAMBOAT ROUTE FPwOM TORONTO TO 
COLLINGWOOD AND SAUT STE MAEIE, MICH. 

ToRoifTO TO CoLLiNGwooD {Railroad Route), 94 miles. 

Steamboat Route. 

(Collingwood to Saut Ste Marie, Mich., passing through Geor- 
gian Bay and North Channel. ) 



Ports, etc. Miles. 

COLLIJVGWOOD 

Cape Rich 30 

Cabot's Head 80 

Lonely Island 100 

Cape Smyth 125 

She-ba-wa-nah-Jiing . . . . 145 
Man-i-tou-"R^ah-ning (25 m.) 
Little Current, ^ 

Great Manitoulin Is. 5 

Clapperton Island 190 

Barrie Island 220 

Cockburn Island 255 

Drummond's Island, iNIich. 270 

Bruce Mines, C. TV. 290 

St. Joseph Island 296 

Campement D'Ours Is. . . . 302 

The Narrows 305 

Sugar Island, Mich 315 

Nebish Rapids 316 

Lake George 320 

Churches Landing 326 

Garden Rirer Set 330 

Saitt Ste Marie 340 

Steamboat Fare, $8 50. 
Including meals. 



Ports, etc. Miles. 

Saut Ste Marie 

Sugar Island 4 

Garden River Set 10 

Churches Landing 14 

Lake George 20 

Nebish Rapids 24 

St. Joseph Island 25 

The Narrows 35 

Campement D'Ours Is ... . 38 

Bruce Mines 50 

Drummond's Island, Mich. 70 
Cockburn Island, C. W. . . 85 

Barrie Island 120 

Clapperton Island 150 

Little Current, ^ 

Great Manitoulin Is. 5 
Man-i-tou--w"ah-ning;25 m.) 
She-ba-wa-nah-ning . . . . 195 

Cape Smyth 215 

Lonely Island 240 

Cabot's Head 260 

Cape Rich 310 

COLLIXGWOOD 340 

Usual Time, 36 hours. 



170 



lei, 



Note. — Landings in Italic. 



ec 



16 RAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES. 



STEAMBOAT ROUTE FROM SAUT STE MARIE TO SUPERIOR 
CITY, WIS., PAS3IXG ALONG THE SOUTH SHORE OF 
LAKE SUPERIOR. 

Ports, etc. Miles. Ports, etc. Miles. 

SAtTT Ste Marie Superior City 

Point Iroquois 15 Point de Tour 70 

White Fish Point 40 Bayfield 80 

Point au Sable 90 La Pointe 83 

Pictured Rocks 110 Ontonagon 158 

Grand Island 125 Eagle River 218 

Marquette, (Fare, S6.) . . 170 Eagle Harbor 228 

Manitou Island 235 Copper Harbor 244 

Copper Harbor 250 Manitou Island 259 

Eagle Harbor 266 Marquette 824 

Eagle River 276 Grand Island 369 

Ontonagon, (Fare, $9.) . 336 Pictured Rocks 384 

La Pointe, (Fare, $11) . . 410 Point au Sable 404 

Bayfield 414 White Fish Point 454 

Point de Tour 424 Point Iroquois 479 

Superior CiTY(Fare S13) 494 Saut Ste Marie 494 

Usual Time from Saut Ste Marie to Superior City, 54 hours, 
including landings. 



ROUTE FROM NEW YORK TO THE FALLS OF ST. ANTHONY, 
via LAKE SUPERIOR. 

Stopping Places. Total Miles. Usual Time. 

New York to Albany, by ( Steainboat) . . 145 12 hours. 

Albany to Niagara Falls, (Railroad) .... 303 448 1 day. 

Niagara Falls to Toronto, {R.R. and St.) 46-494 li " 

Toronto to Collingwood. (Railroad) 94-588 li- " 

Collingwood to Saut Ste Marie, (.Sfeo?.>26oaO 340-928 3" " 

Saut Ste Marie to La Pointe, ( Steamboat) 350-1,278 4^ " 

La Pointe to Superior City, (Steamboat) . 84-1,362 5' " 

Superior City to Falls St. Croix, (Portage) 120-1,482 8 " 
Falls St Croix to StiUwater, ( S^eamftoaO 30-1,512 

Stniwater to St. Paul, ( Stage) 18-1,530 

St. Paul to Falls of St. Anthony, (Stage) 8-1,538 9 " 

From the Falls of St. A7ithony to Dubuque 326 miles. 

" Dubuque to iS^. Louis, (Steamboat) 474 " 



Total 800 mil 



A TRIP 



THEOITGH THE 



LAKES OF ^^ORTH AMERICA. 



RAILROAD ROUTE FROM TOROXTO TO COLLIXG- 
WOOD, AND TRIP AROUND LAKE SIMCO'-. 




After passing over the 
delightful and usually- 
smooth waters of Lake On- 
tario, the Tourist, on ap- 
proaching Toronto, either 
from Cape Vincent, Os- 
wego, Rochester, Buffalo, 
or the Falls of Xiagara, usually experiences sensations 
which incite him to further travel and enjoyment. From this 
place the tourist can proceed direct to Montreal and Quebec, by 
railroad or steamer, or to Hamilton and Detroit on the west — 
while the Collingwood route extends north through a beautiful 
section of country. 

2* 



\j TORONTO TO COLLINGWOOD, ETC. 

On landing at Toronto from American ports, it is usual for 
the custom-house officers to question passengers in regard to the 
contents of their baggage, which if it consists of nothing but 
common "wearing apparel, is passed without further delay, and 
the porters take charge of the same, delivering the articles as 
directed. All persons, however, taking into Canada manufac- 
tured goods, whether subject to pay duty or otherwise, are ex- 
pected to enter the same at the custom-house. 

The hotels are principally situated on Front Street, facing 
the bay, Church Street, or King Street, the latter being the 
principal promenade, or Broadway, of Toronto. Yonge Street 
is another principal thoroughfare, extending from the Espla- 
nade, or water's edge, for many miles into the interior, affording 
a delightful drive in pleasant weather. The attractions of this 
thriving city, in connection with the beautiful bay and harbor, 
are well worthy the attention of the tourist. For a further de- 
scription of Toronto, see page 240. 

The railroads diverging from Toronto are the Ontario, Sim- 
coe and Huron Railroad, extending north to Collingwood, 94 
miles ; the Grand Trunk Railnay, extending northeast to 
Montreal and Quebec, and west through Guelph to Port Sarnia, 
situated at the foot of Lake Huron, and the Hamilton and 
Toronto Branch of the Great Western Railway of Canada, run- 
ning from Clifton at the Suspension Bridge, to Hamilton, and 
thence through to Windsor, on the Detroit River. These rail- 
roads, in connection with the steamers, render Toronto a great 
thoroughfare and mart of commerce. It now takes about 
thirty hours to reach Toronto from New York ; five hours from 
Buffalo, and only twelve hours from Montreal, since the com- 
pletion of the Grand Trunk Railway : the favorite steamboat 
route down the St. Lawrence River consumes about twice as 
much time. In four hours more the traveler can be landed at 
Collingwood, at the head of Georgian Bay, from whence steam- 
ers leave almost daily, during the season of navigation, for 
Mackinac, Green Bay, Chicago, Saut Ste Marie, and other ports 
on the Upper Lakes. 



TORONTO TO COLLINGWOOD, ETC. 19 

Passenger trains leave Toronto morning and afternoon for 
Collingwood, etc., starting from the depot near the corner of 
Front and Bay Streets. The first objects of interest passed are 
the Parliament House, University Building, Lunatic Asylum, 
the Barraoks, and Old Fort,* the latter being situated near the 
water's edge, for the protection of the bay and harbor. 

The Grand Trunk Ptailway also runs for two or three miles 
parallel with the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad. The 
farming land through which the latter road runs is very pro- 
ductive, being in part heavily timbered with maple, birch, 
beech, oak, elm, pine, and hemlock. For many miles there 
seems to have been a studied eflfort to avoid the villages and 
thriving settlements lying west of Toronto on Yonge Street road. 

Thorxhill Station", 14 miles from Toronto, is located four 
miles west from the village, which is situated on Yonge Street. 
Here are extensive flouring-mills, propelled by water-power de- 
rived from the river Don, flowing into Toronto Bay. 

The highest summit of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Kail- 
road, being 700 feet above Lake Ontario, and 226 feet above the 
level of Lake Simcoe, is passed about 25 miles north of Toronto. 
The highest grade ascending is sixty feet to the mile. 

Attrora, 29 miles from Toronto, is a small village situated 
on Yonge Street, where the morning trains usually meet on their 
way to and from Collingwood. 

New Market, 34 miles from Toronto, is an old and thriving 
town, surrounded by a fine section of country. Here are sev- 
eral mills and other manufacturing establishments, situated on 
a stream which passes through the village, flowing into Lake 
Simcoe on the north. Fruit of different kinds, of fine quality, 
as well as grain, is raised in large quantities in this vicinity. 

H0L1.AXD Landing, 38 miles north of Toronto by railroad, is 

* The Old Garrison, as it is now called, is situated on the lake shore, 
commanding the entrance to the harbor. On the capture of Toronto, 
formerly called Little York, by the American army in 1S13, the magazine 
cf the fort was fired by the British on their retreat, causing the death of 
General Pike, the American commander, and many other valuable men. 
Long may it be before the scourge of war again desolates the frontier bor- 
dering the waters of the lakes or the St. Lawrence Eiver. 



20 TORONTO TO COLLINGWOLD, ETC. 

advantageoiisly situated on Holland River, "which empties into 
Lake Simcoe. It contains an Episcopal, Presbyterian, and 
Methodist church ; steam and water power, grist and saw mills, 
an extensive tannery, a foundry, and about 1,500 inhabit- 
ants. The railway here again intersects Yonge Street, studded 
with fine dwellings, orchards, and farms, all the way through 
from Toronto, 36 miles, bearing evidence of wealth, intelligence, 
and comfort, not surpassed by any other section of Canada. 

Bradford, 42 miles from Toronto, is a small village situated 
near Lake Simcoe. The afternoon train of cars meets at this 
station on its way to and from Toronto. Large quantities of 
wheat and other farming products are annually sent from this 
place to Toronto, and other markets. 

Bell Ewart, 53 miles from Toronto, is situated on Cook's 
Bay, lying at the south end of Lake Simcoe. Here are a con- 
venient steamboat landing, several stores and lumber yards, and 
a population of some 300 or 400 inhabitants. The stumps and 
decayed trees by which it is surrounded indicate that it is of 
recent origin, yet still the town-lots are held at a high price, 
showing that speculation is not entirely confined to the Yankees, 
as the Americans are here usually called. 

During the summer of 1856 the author accepted an invita- 
tion to visit Lake Simcoe, and take a trip over its lovely waters, 
now plowed by one of the most comfortable steamers, named 
the J. C. Morrison, in honor of the President of the Ontario, 
Simcoe and Huron Railroad. This pioneer work of Upper 
Canada was first advocated and commenced through the untir- 
ing zeal of an enterprising citizen of Toronto, now entirely dis- 
connected with its present management. 

The running of the trains on the above road, and the steamer 
on the lake, is so arranged that pleasure travelers can leave 
Toronto in the morning, enjoy a most delightful sail around 
Lake Simcoe, and return to Toronto in the evening, or proceed 
onward toward Collingwood, reaching the latter place in ample 
time for the steamer for the Saut Ste Marie, which usually 
leaves soon after the arrival of the evening train. 



LAKE SIMCOE. 



21 





The beautiful steamer J. C. MoRRiiox dally 
leaves Bell Ewart, on the arrival of the morning 
train from Toronto, making a trip around Lake 
SiMCOE, a most lovely and pure sheet of Tvater, 
elevated 474 feet above Lake Ontario and 134 
feet above Lake Huron. It is about 40 miles 
long from north to south, and 25 miles wide, embosoming several 
picturesque islands, the beauties of which are very much height- 
ened by the effects of light and shade during the summer and 
autumn months. This romantic lake is elevated above Lake 
Superior about 100 feet; its surplus waters running through 
the Severn River into Georgian Bay or Lake Huron. 

On leaving the landing in Cook's Bay, the steamer usually 
runs between Bird and Snake Islands, both being owned and 
inhabited by Indians of the Mohawk tribe, who here lead an 
idle life, neglecting the noble pursuit of agriculture for the less 
certain employment of fishing and hunting. 

Jackson's Point, twelve miles from Bell Ewart, is the first 
landing usually made on the upward trip. This is a pictu- 
resque spot, as yet unimproved, although affording a con- 
venient steamboat landing. 

Georgiana Island, eight miles farther, is next passed, lying 
on the east, near the main shore. This is a large and fertile 
island, at present unimproved. 

Beaverton, 29 miles from Bell Ewart and 21 miles distant 
from Orillia, is a flourishing village, containing about 1.000 in- 
habitants. Here is a long pier and good steamboat landing. 
A railroad, to be built, extending from Port Hope, lying on the 
north shore of Lake Ontario, to Lake Simcoe, will terminate at 



22 LAKE SIMCOE 

Beaverton, which is surrounded Tby a fine section of agi'icultural 
lands, producing wheat and other kinds of grain of good quality. 

Thora Island is next passed on the west, and Point Mora 
on the right, running in a N. W. direction toward the foot of the 
lake, which here increases in beauty. 

Grape Island, lying near the foot of the lake, is a beautiful 
small uninhabited island ; and near by on the west lies Chief 
Island, occupied by Indians. Here the islands and headlands 
appear to great advantage, being clothed with rich foliage, 
varied in tint by every passing cloud. 

Atherly, 18 miles from Beaverton, is a steamboat landing 
and small settlement at the foot of Lake Simcoe. Half a mile 
below Atherly the steamer passes through a narrow channel 
and draw- bridge into Lake Couchiching, or Severn River, here 
some three or four miles wide, containing several beautiful 
small islands, where may usually be seen the Indians in bark 
canoes gliding from island to island, seeming in the distance to 
resemble fairies of by-gone days. The islands may be thus 
described : 

" All the fairy crowds 
Of islands, which together lie, 
As quietly as the spots of sky, 
Among the evening clouds." 

Orillia, Simcoe Co., C. W., is pleasantly situated three 
miles beyond Atherly by steamboat route. This is a summer 
resort for invalids and seekers of pleasure. The village con- 
tains two churches, three hotels, and several boarding-houses 
for the accommodation of visitors. Population about 800. 
This place is destined no doubt to become a favorite and fashion- 
able resort, being easily reached from Toronto or Collingwood. 

Rama is the name of an Indian village situated across the 
lake from Orillia, about four miles distant. The Indians may 
here be seen engaged in fishing, or paddling from place to place, 
many of them leading a roving and idle life, no doubt being 
destined soon to fade away as the falling leaf of autumn. 

The Rapids or Falls commence in the Severn River some 
seven or eight miles below; Orillia, which stream empties into 



TORONTO TO COLLINGWOOD, ETC. 23 

the Georgian Bay near Penetanguishene, after a succession of 
rapids and falls of 134 feet descent. In the lake and river are 
to be found good fishing, and game of different kinds, affording 
ample amusement to the angler and sportsman. 

On returning from Orillia, the steamer runs in a southerly 
direction along the west shore of the lake, presenting a succes- 
sion of picturesque headlands, and most beautiful water scenery. 

Hawkstone, 15 miles south of Orillia, is a new settlement, 
where buildings are being erected for the accommodation of 
summer visitors. On leaving Hawkstone the steamer runs 
direct for Bell Ewart, passing the mouth of Kempenfeldt Bay, 
at the head of which lies the town of Barrie. Big Bay Point, 
eight miles from Hawkstone, is next passed, and the steamer 
soon enters Cook's Bay, on which is situated Bell Ewart, 33 
miles south of Orillia. The steamer usually arrives at 5 J p.m., 
in time to take the afternoon cars for Collingwood or Toronto, 
thus affording the pleasure traveler an opportunity to visit one 
of the most beautiful lakes of Canada. 



At Lefroy, one mile from Bell Ewart by branch road, and 
52 miles from Toronto, the journey by railroad is resumed. 

Barrik Station, 63 miles from Toronto and 31 miles from 
Collingwood, is situated on Kempenfeldt Bay, directly opposite 
the town of Barrie, about one mile distant, which is reached by 
a road running round the head of the bay, affording a fine view 
of the town and surrounding country. 

Barrie, the capital of Simcoe Co., is delightfully situated 
on the northwest shore of Kempenfeldt Bay of Lake Simcoe. 
Besides the county buildings there is a handsome market-house, 
an Episcopal, Presbyterian, INIethodist, and Roman Catholic 
church ; also, two or three well-kept hotels. The village con- 
tains about 1,500 inhabitants, being surrounded by a fine agri- 
cultural country. A stage road runs from Barrie to Penetan- 
guishene, 32 miles ; also, to Orillia, at the foot of the lake. 

After leaving Barrie Station, the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 
Railroad runs in a northwest direction to Collingwood, passing 



24 TORONTO TO l ^LLINGWOOD, ETC. 

through a level section of country, abounding in lumber of dif- 
ferent kinds ; thare being several large lumber establishments 
on the line of thf road. 

CoLLi-VGwooD, 94 miles north from Toronto, is most advanta- 
geously situated near the head of Nottawassaga Bay, an inden- 
tation of Georgian Bay. The town, although commenced in 

1854, at the time of the completion of the Ontario, Simcoe and 
Huron Railroad, now contains (1857) about 2.000 inhabitants, 
and is rapidly increasing. The surprising growth is mainly 
owing to its being the northern terminiis of the railway which 
connects the Georgian Bay with Lake Ontario at Toronto. 
Great numbers of travelers and emigrants are at this point 
transferred to magnificent steamers, bound for Mackinac, Green 
Bay, Chicago, and the Great West, as well as to the Saut Ste 
Marie and Lake Superior, Here are a long pier, 800 feet in 
length ; a breakwater, and light-house ; several large stores and 
storehouses ; four hotels, and two or three churches in the 
course of erection. 

The steamers leaving Collingwood for ^Mackinac and Chicago, 
running along the west shore of Lake Michigan, are of a large 
class, affording good accommodations for pleasure travelers. A 
steamer leaves weekly for Green Bay, sometimes proceeding to 
the Saut Ste IMarie and into Lake Superior. The steamer 
Canadian runs every day to Owen's Sound, 50 miles distant ; 
and the steamer Collingwood runs weekly to Bruce Mines and 
the Saut Ste Marie, affording a delightful steamboat excursion. 

Immense quantities of fish are taken in the waters of Notta- 
wassaga Bay, being principally carried to the Toronto market. 
The whole north shore of the Georgian Bay abounds in white 
fish, salmon, trout, maskalonge, and other fish of fine quality, 
affording profitable employment to the Canadians and Indians. 

" Some idea of the value and extent of the fishing operations 
promiscuously pursued in Nottawassaga Bay may be formed 
from the knowledge that the average daily take exceeds one 
thousand fish, weighing from forty pounds down to one pound 
At this rate, that of the season would not fall short of £40,000. 
At the mouth of the Nottawassaga River the white fish are 
netted in perfect shoals throughout the spawning season. Most 
of the larger kinds of trout spawn about the islands, upon beds 
of calcareous rock, over which a shifting drift of sand or gravel 
passes by the action of the waves, where the water is shallow ; 
and from being exposed to the sun, the temperature of the lake 
is warmer at these localities than elsewhere. Thither the 
fishermen resort, and net the fish, vapid and placid as they are, 
in fabulous amounts." 



GEORGIAN BAY CANAL. 25 

THE TOEONTO AOT) GEOEGIAN BAT CANAL. 

This is a new and noble project, whicli is now interesting the 
citizens of Upper Canada, as well as of the United States : 
Toronto and Oswego being alike interested in connection with 
the far North and West. The proposed canal will be 80 miles 
long, extending from Nottawassaga Bay through the valley of 
the Nottawassaga and Hnmber rivers to Toronto, advantage- 
ously situated on the north shore of Lake Ontario. The sum- 
mit is 650 feet above the waters of Lake Ontario, requiring a 
succession of locks in the ascent and descent to Georgian Bay, 
the latter descent being only 310 feet — Lake Ontario lying 340 
feet below Lake Huron, or Georgian Bay. 

{Extract from the Toeonto Globe, of Septemfjer, 1S56.) 

" The geographical position of the projected canal, as it re- 
gards the Atlantic sea-board and those cities of the United States, 
each now striving to grasp the trade and traflfic of the great 
West (and as it regards the great West; itself, the northwest and 
the north), would give to the city of Toronto the power to m-ake 
all those vast countries, in a measure, tributary to her. Their 
productions would seek the sea-board through your canal, and 
their importations would likewise pay their tribute in return." 

The writer adds : " He wished only to indulge in a few re- 
marks, and to call attention, not to the United States alone, but 
to the British Possessions in America, which ere long would 
also be pouring its flood of trade and traf&c through the pro- 
posed canal. Westward, we possess vast and fertile countries, 
adapted to all the pursuits of agricultural life — countries sus- 
ceptible of the highest cultivation and improvement. Between 
Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods (above the 49th de- 
gree of N. lat.) we possess a country of this description, in soil 
and character inferior to no part of Minnesota, and bordering 
upon tliis territory lies the valley of the Assiniboine, or the Red 
River country, as it is sometimes called. As a wheat-growing 
country it will rival Canada. It does so now in soil and climate. 
Li order to give you some idea of the extent of that country, or, 
perhaps I should say, portion of Western Canada, I will call 
your attention to a few facts. All Canada, as now usually 
designated, not in connection with what is termed Hudson Bay 
Territories, contains about 350,000 square miles. The valley 
of the Assiniboine contains about as many square miles, and is 
intersected in every direction by navigable rivers. Beyond 
this, again, lies the magnificent valley of the Saskatchawan- 

3 



26 GEORGIAN BAY CA:s-^ 

It contains about 400,000 square miles, larger again . 

"Over the richest prairie lands, loaded carts now pass m any 
direction for hundreds of miles, to the foot of the Rocky Moun- 
tains In its present wild and unciiltivated state it affords 
sustenance to immense herds of wild cattle. What would it do 
if cultivated bv the hand of man ? The future products of these 
immense countries must seek the sea-board, and all the canals 
and railroads which can be constructed will scarce sufcce to 
afford facilities for the products of the West. He wished to call 
their attention also to another source, whence a trade wouid 
arise, and contribute to swell the traffic along the canal Hud- 
son Bay would give to Canada a sea-coast of 3,000 miles. iNo 
maritime power has ever possessed so great a nur.-^ery for a mer- 
cantile navy as this. It abounds with whales, and every kind 
of fish : and, strange as it may appear, that great sea lies, as it 
were, in the center of Canada. From the proposed terminus of 
the canal it is about 650 miles, 350 miles of which is a naviga- 
tion capable of bearing ships of any burden ; from Lake feupe- 
rior to Hudson Bay is 300 miles. If the route between Lake 
Superior and Hudson Bay was open and improved they would 
speedily establish fisheries along the coasts of that bay. ine 
oil and fish now consumed in those states is immense, and they 
Tvill be furnished them from Hudson Bay cheaper and more 
speedily than from the source they now receive them A trade 
like this Avill sooner or later spring up, and create along Hud- 
son Bay an immense demand for all those manufactures and 
productions which the United States can supply, and these 
must find their way through their canal. A large trade at this 
moment is had along that bay.* The Hudson Bay Company, 
who have seven forts there, and o^e above^ lork Factory , re- 
ceive annual supplies to the amount of from £ / 0,000 to £90,000 
Many of these goods, perhaps, are of that description which 
Toronto merchants could supply with advantage. To the trattic 
which must exist all along the shores of Lakes Huron and fcu- 
Derior I make no allusion. It is evident to all that it must be 
tributary to the canal. It may be said that all that I liave 
alluded to as regards the traffic to arise from our country is tar 
in prospective, but there is no reason why we should not pro- 
gress and advance westward as do the United States. 

* « The Hudson Bay Company have long endeavored Iby rewards ami 
ar<^umonts to excite an exportation of tallow, hides, wool, etc., to Jbnj- 
lanrbut the bulky nature of the exports, the long and da°|er«"«^7^: 
Imtion to Hudson Bay, and the habits of the half-breed race, who form the 
ifaTo the people and gencrallyprefer chasing the buffalo to agnculmr^ 
or regular industry, have rendered their efforts meffectual."-K. Mont- 

GOMEKV MaETIN. 



TPJP FRO)I OPJLLIA TO GEUPGIAN ,AL 



Extract from the Caxapiak Toueist. 

From Orillia, situated near the foot of Lake Simcoe, the 
author with his companions, four in number, passed in two 
birch canoes down the Severn, a distance of about 60 miles, to 
Georgian Bay, and thence to Collingwood by steamer. The 
river is navigable only for canoes, and, except by sportsmen, is 
as yet rarely visited. 

" In our eyes, its solitary character and the romantic scenery 
on its banks were its principal attractions. Having reduced 
our lug-o-afife to the smallest possible dimensions, and put our 
fishing-tackle into good order, it only remained tor us to make 
ourselves comfortable by spreading a quantity of plucked fern 
and juniper branches at the bottom of our canoes. We re- 
reclined sumptuously in one, with about as much accommoda- 
tion as a ship's hammock would aiford two moderately stout 
individuals. However, as we were less likely to be upset by 
being so closely jammed together that we could scarcely move, 
we became reconciled to our position between Bonaquum 
(' Thunderbolt'), who knelt at the bows and paddled, and his 
brother Kabeshquum (' Triumphant'), who steered. The other 
canoe contained Captain A — — , whose experience in such expe- 
ditions, and knowledge of Indian character and language, were 
most valuable — and Babehwum (' Snow-Storm'), whose son, as 
an exemplification of the effect of civilization over the elements, 
called himself simply John Storm. As the wind was fair, we 
rigged our blankets upon sticks cut for the purpose; and, with 
all sail set, we glided rapidly on (through the lovely waters of 
Lake Couchiching), sometimes threading our way through nar- 
row channels, past low- wooded islands, \mtil in about two hours 
we found ourselves upon the green waters of the Severn. 

" The scenery at the point of debouchure was vei-y beautiful. 
jNIasses of rich variegated foliage clothed the banks, and bent 
over until the river rippled among the leaves. Often dark 
shadows reached across it, or were checkered by sunbeams 
glancing through the branches upon the clear and singularly 
light-colored water. As we proceeded, we exchanged for the 
cabn surface of the lake, and the islands which seemed to rest 
on its bosom, rock and rapid, until at last the torrent became 
too tumultuous for our frail canoes. Meantime, we had not 
been engaged only in enjoying the beauties of nature, we had 



28 ORILLIA TO GEORGIAN BAY. 

adopted the usual mode of trolling in tkis part of the world, 
"with copper spoons, which, twisting rapidly through the water, 
formed a bright and attractive bait ; so that, upon arriving at 
the first portage, we congratulated ourselves upon the prospect 
of lunching off half-a-dozen black bass weighing from two to 
five pounds each ; while the Indians were engaged in culinary 
preparations. 

" We were up before daylight on the following morning, and, 
after a good fish breakfast, were again on our way. I had 
scarcely thrown my trolling-line, when it was nearly jerked 
out of my hand by a most unexpected and violent tug. A bark 
canoe is not the most convenient place from which to play a 
large fish ; and, in my inexperienced eagerness, I hauled away 
pretty steadily, bringing to the surface with some diificulty a 
fine maskalonge, weighing at least twenty-five pounds. He 
came splashing and plunging up to the side of the canoe, and I 
had lifted him out of water, when the hook gave way, and I 
lost as fine a fish as I ever had at the end of a line. However, 
I was consoled soon after by taking some fine pickerel, weigh- 
ing from five to eight pounds each; and, before luncheon, 
hooked another maskalonge, when my companion, profiting by 
experience, was ready with his gaff-hook, and jerked him most 
scientifically into the canoe, much to the delight of the Indians. 
Though not so lai'ge as the first, he was a respectable fish, 
weighing about eighteen pounds. The scenery in the place 
was bold and rocky, the banks often lofty and precipitous, and 
the current always strong, vrith. an occasional rapid. We 
lunched at a portage, which we were obliged to make in order 
to avoid the falls of the Severn, which are here about twenty- 
five feet in height, and surrounded by fine scenery. There are 
rapids above and below the falls, so that the difference of level 
between the upper and lower banks of the portage is not less 
than fifty feet." 

We regret that we can not make room for more extracts from 
these iuteresting " Notes on Canada and the Northwest States," 
but we do the next best thing by recommending the articles 
themselves to the perusal of our readers. 

The above trip affords a favorable opportunity to visit Pene- 
tanguishene and the " Million Islands" of Georgian Bay. 

Penetanguishene, C. W., 50 miles north of Collingwood 
by steamboat route, situated on a lovely and secure bay, is an 
old and very important settlement, comprising an Episcopal 
and Roman Catholic church, two hotels, a custom-house, seve- 



ORILLIA TO GEORGIAN BAY. 29 

ral stores and storehouses, and has about 500 inhabitants. In 
the immediate vicinity is a nayal and military depot and bar- 
racks, established by the British government. The natural 
beauties of the bay and harbor, combined with the picturesque 
scenery of the shores, make up a picture of rare beauty. Here 
may be seen the native Indian, the half-breed, and the Canadian 
voyageur, with the full-blooded Englishman or Scotchman, 
forming one community. This place, being near the mouth of 
the river Severn, and contiguous to the numberless islands of 
Georgian Bay, is no doubt destined to become a favorite resort 
for the angler and sportsman, as well as the invalid and seeker 
of pleasure. 

Christian- Island, lying about 25 miles from Penetangui- 
shene, and 25 miles N. E. of Cape Rich, is a large and fertile 
island, which was early settled by the Jesuits. There are sev- 
eral others passed north of Christian Island, of great beauty, 
while still farther northwest are encountered innumerable 
islands and islets, forming labyrinths, and secluded passages 
and coves as yet almost unknown to the white man, extending 
westward for upward of one hundred roiles. 



ISLANDS OX NOETH SHORE, GEORGIAN BAT. 
Extract from Letters from the North wad Lake Huron. 

She-ba-wa-nah-ioxg, Georgian Bat, C. TV., ) 

August 16, 1856. j 

" Among the regions of the continent interesting to the 
traveler, and which are not frequently visited, is the north 
shore of Georgian Bay. Leaving Penetanguishene we crossed 
to the mouth of the river JMushkoss, a distance of about eighteen 
miles. From this place we proceeded up the shore in a small 
boat, making daily such journeys as suited, and lingering when- 
ever we found an interest to repay. 

" The Mushkoss is one of the lumber points on the bay. It 
is approached through a strip of numerous islands seven miles 
in width, and it is the first inhabited place on the shore above 
the mouth of the Severn. Here, as at the Severn, the only 
thing to attract a habitation is the lumber, which only receives 
attention. But one almost wonders, when he sees the country. 



30 ORILLIA TO GEORGIAN BAY. 

■where the lumber comes from., for the rock here again appears, 
and holds a dominion forever beyond the hopes of man to see 
subdued. The rock is throughout the country. It stands boldly 
along the shore, and forms the islands, sustains the water, and 
its bare surface appears everywhere. Yet the country has a 
vegetation which covers it with verdure. Bushes, wild flowers, 
and pine spring up everywhere, where a little earth has drifted 
and found a lodgment. Pine is almost the only timber, and we 
daily saw it growing in places so barren, that it seemed as if no 
vegetation could be sustained either in nuti-ition or uprightness 
of position. Some dwarfed oaks may be seen, and, perhaps, 
occasionally some birch. The pine which is sawed into lumber 
is cut a distance back, along the banks of the river, and is then 
drifted down. It is inferior in size to that of more southern 
regions, and, we believe, by no means has so good an average 
soundness of quality. 

" The Mushkoss is a stream of moderate size, but sends a 
large division to the bay, to the westward, which diverges many 
miles above. The river, in the interior country, expands into 
lakes or pools, some of which are large and filled with numer- 
ous islands. This, with a dark-colored water, is characteristic 
of many of the streams which come down from the north. 
Even small streams sometimes form a small chain of numerous 
lakes, extending a great distance back. It is up these streams 
and around these lakes that many of the Indians find their 
hunting-grounds for the winter ; sometimes going almost to the 
divide, beyond which the waters flow into Hudson Bay. They 
go in the fall, and return in the spring with furs, which fall 
into the hands of the Hudson Bay Company, or those of the 
various traders along the coast, and are paid for in goods at a 
large profit. 

" Proceeding westward the traveler encounters a maze of 
innumerable islands, which commences at the eastern extremity 
of the bay, and continues in an almost unbroken stretch for one 
hundred miles and upward. There are myriads of them, and 
we have counted over fifty from a single stand-point. They are 
mostly small, although some of them are of large size. One 
may wander industriously amid them for months, and find new 
scenes to gladden his eyes every day, for the chain has a breadth 
of many miles. Countless channels run between them, many 
of which are sufficiently deep and clear for- the largest vessels 
of the lakes. There are numerous small bays, and the chan- 
nels sometimes have a considerable width ; and, now and then, 
one runs a distance of ten and twenty miles with scarcely an 
interruption. It is almost impossible to tell when you approach 
the mainland. One may think himself upon it when he is miles 
away, or may pursue some lagoon projecting deep into it, when 



ORILLIA TO GEORGIAN BAY. 31 

he supposes himself treading on an island channel, and at last 
be obliged to return. 

" One is earnestly told before he starts, by those who have 
been on this shore, that if he w jiild take his course through 
the islands, he must have a guide ; and certainly without, the 
stranger can not be sure of great expedition. We were for- 
tunaie enough to have Bayfield's chart along, which we found 
a great help, although no attempt is, or could successfully be, 
made to chart in detail the interminable labyrinth of islands. 

" The better way for one coasting thus is to take a course 
through the outer edge of the islands, keeping the broad waters 
in view. A certain guide and a cool, bracing atmosphere are 
thus obtained, while the splendor of its scenery is almost un- 
rivaled. Along the islands and next to the bay are numerous 
anl wide shoals. The rock floor, sometimes level and again 
broken, can often be seen through the clear water for a long 
distance. To the west the islands grow less numerous and the 
water between them wider, until you approach She-ba-wa-nah- 
ning, when the chain draws to a close. Islands after this are 
numerous, but may mostly be traced upon the chart. The 
islands have the same vegetation and the same physical con- 
formation as the mainland. 

" The course of the shore seems much nearer north and west, 
until you arrive at the French River, when it runs nearly west. 
The rock is continuous the whole distance. It is chiefly gran- 
ite, but sandstone appears in considerable quantity this side of 
the French River. The rock attains at times considerable height 
and boldness, and as you near She-ba-wa-nah-ning, it sometimes 
rises into grandeur. Here a mountain chain hangs along the 
coast, standing up against the sky like a large blue cloud. 
Between this and the water are a few acres of tillable land, 
yet none is under cultivation save a very little which is mowed. 
Indeed, farming is a business which is not thought of on the 
north side Georgian Bay, even by the few white inhabitants scat- 
tered there. There may be a patch of a few acres now and 
then along the shore which might be cultivated, but we saw 
scarcely any. But there are probably some sections where a 
little may be found, for the Indians find somewhere here the 
maple for the manufacture of sugar. They told us that it is 
near the mouth of French River, on the east side, and that they 
there raise some potatoes and corn. But we believe that the 
shore can never be even sparingly settled. At some points 
there may be tillable lands a considerable distance back. Yet 
there are no indications of it along the shore. A large grant 
of land, we are informed, has been obtained to construct a rail- 
road from the Ottawa to some point near the mouth of the 
French River on the bay 



32 



COLLTSGWOOD TO THE SAUT STE MARIE. 



" The timber observed as far as She-ba-wa-nali-ning is almost 
entirely pine. One is almost surprised at the constancy of it. 
Some spruce, tamarac, birch, and poplar are seen, however, 
and probably cedar may be found also. The juniper shi-ub is 
abundant, and often very productive. There are exhaustless 
quantities of whortleberries, and as fine as the world anywhere 
pi'oduces. We hardly landed at a place where they were not 
plenty. Wild, red cherries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, 
blackberries, and cranberries are frequently met with in con- 
siderable quantities. Such is the general character of the 
north shore, and the islands of Georgian Bay and their pro- 
ductions, up to She-ba-wa-nah-ning, which is situated nearly 
mid-way on the northern shore of the waters of Lake Huron." 




TRIP FROM COLLIXGWOOD TO THE S. UT STE MARIE, 

THKOUGH GEORGIAN BAT AND NOETH CHANNEL. 



This is a new and liiglily interesting steamboat excursion, 
brought into notice by the completion of the Ontario, Simcoe 
and Huron Railroad, extending from Toronto to Collingwood, 
at the southern extremity of Georgian Bay. 

NoTTAWAssAGA Bay, the southem termination of Georgian 
Bay, is a large expanse of water bounded by Cape Rich on the 
west and Christian Island on the east, each being distant 
about 30 miles from Collingwood. At the south end of the bay 
lies a small group of islands called the Hen and Chickens. 

On leaving Collingwood for Bruce INIines and the Saut Ste 
Marie, the steamer usually runs direct across Georgian Bay to 
Lonely Island, passing Cabot's Head to the right, and the pas- 
sage leading into the broad waters of Lake Huron, which is the 
route pursued by the steamers in the voyage to Mackinac, 
Green Bay, and Chicago. During the summer months the 
trip from Collingwood to Mackinac and Chicago affords a de- 
lightful excursion. 

Owen's Sound, or Sydenham, 50 miles west of Collingwood, 
although off the direct route to the Saut Ste Marie, is well 
worthy of a passing notice. Here is a thriving settlement, 
surrounded by a fertile section of country, and containing about 
2,500 inhabitants. A steamer runs daily from Collingwood to 
this place, which will, no doubt, soon be reached by railroad. 

Lonely Island, situated about 100 miles west of Collincr- 
wood and 20 miles east of the Great Manitoulin Islands, is a 
large body of land mostly covered with a dense forest, anr' 
inhabited, except by a few fishermen, who resort here ^j lies 
tain seasons of the year for the purpose of takir ;parated 
different kinds. The steamer usually passes thi°iat elevated, 
north side, steering for Cape Smyth, a bold 



34 COLLIN<x tVOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 

out from the Great Manitoulin, and distant from Lonely Island 
about 25 miles. 

Squaw Island and Papoose Island are seen on the north- 
east, "^vhile farther inland are the Fox Islands, being the com- 
mencement on the west of the innumerable islands which 
abound along the north shore of Georgian Bay. 

La Cloche Mountains, rising about 2,000 feet above the 
sea, are next seen in the distance, toward the north ; these, 
combined with the wild scenery of the islands and headlands, 
form a grand panoramic view, enjoyed fi-om the deck of the 
passing steamer. 

Smyth's Bay is passed on the west, some eight or ten miles 
distant. At the head of this bay, on the Great Manitoulin Is- 
land, is situated a village of Indians, and a Jesuit's mission, 
called We-qua-me-kong. These aborigines are noted for their 
industry, raising wheat, corn, oats, and potatoes in large quan- 
tities. This part of the island is very fertile, and the climate 
is healthy. 

She-ba-wa-nah-ning, signifying, in the Indian dialect, 
" Here is a channel," is a most charming spot, 40 miles dis- 
tant from Lonely Island, hemmed in by mountains on the north, 
and a high rocky island on the south. It is situated on the 
north side of a narrow channel, about half a mile in length, 
which has a great depth of water. Here is a convenient steam- 
boat landing, a church, a store, and some ten or twelve dwel- 
lings, inhabited by Canadians and half-breeds. Indians as- 
semble here often in considerable numbers, to sell their fish 
and furs, presenting with their canoes and dogs a very gro- 
tesque appearance. One resident at this landing usually 
attracts much attention — a noble dog, of the color of cream. No 
sooner does the steamer's bell ring, than this animal rushes to 
+.he wharf, sometimes assisting to secure the rope that is thrown 
•e; the next move he makes is to board the vessel, as though 
a custom-house officer ; but on one occasion, in his eager- 
•*-• into the kitchen, he fell overboard; nothing daunted, 
shore, and thon again boarding the vessel, sue- 



C0LLING\YO0D TO SAUT STE MARIE. 35 

ceeded in his desire to fill his stomach, showing the instinct 
■which prompts many a biped office-seeker. 

On leaving She-ba-wa-nah-ning and proceeding westward, 
a most beautiful bay is passed, studded with islands — and 
mountains upward of 1,000 feet in height, presenting a rocky 
and sterile appearance, forming an appropriate background to 
the view — thence is passed Badgley and Heywood islands, the 
latter lying oif Heywood Sound, situated on the north side of 
the Great Manitoulin. 

Max-i-tou-wah-ning, 25 miles northwest of She-ba-wa- 
nah-ning, is handsomely situated at the head of Heywood 
Sound. It is an Indian settlement, and also a government 
agency, being the place annually selected to distribute the 
Indian annuities. 

Little Current, 25 miles west of She-ba-wa-nah-ning, is 
another interesting landing on the north shore of the Great Man- 
itoulin, opposite La Cloche Island. Here the main channel is 
narrow, with a current usually running at the rate of five or six 
knots an hour, being much affected by the winds. The steamer 
stops at this landing for an hour or upward, receiving a supply 
of wood, it being furnished by an intelligent Indian or half- 
breed, who resides at this place with his family. Indians are 
often seen here in considerable numbers. They are reported to 
be indolent and harmless, too often neglecting the cultivation 
of the soil for the more uncertain pursuits of fishing and hunt- 
ing, although a considerable large clearing is to be seen indif- 
ferently cultivated. 

Clappertox Island and other islands of less magnitude 
are passed in the JVorth Channel, which is a large body of water 
about 120 miles long and 25 miles wide. On the north shore is 
situated a post of the Hudson Bay Company, which may be 
seen from the deck of the passing steamer. 

CocKBURN Island, 85 miles west of Little Current, lies 
directly west of the Great INIanitoulin, from which it is separated 
by a narrow channel. It is a large island, somewhat elevated, 
but uninhabited, except by Indians. 



36 COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 

Drummond Island, 15 miles farther -westward, belongs to 
the United States, being attached to the State of Michigan 
This is another large body of land, being low, and as yet mostly 
uninhabited. 

The next island approached before landing at Bruce iMines is 
St. Joseph Island, being a large and fertile body of land, 
with some few settlers. 

Bruce Mines Village, C W., is situated on the north 
shore of Lake Huron, or the " North Channel," as it is here 
called, distant 290 miles from Collingwood, and 50 from the 
Saut Ste Marie. Here are a Methodist chapel, a public-house, 
and a store and storehouse belonging to the Montreal Copper 
Mining Company, besides extensive buildings used for crushing 
ore and preparing it for the market ; about 75 dwellings and 
500 inhabitants. The copper ore, after being crushed by power- 
ful machinery propelled by steam, is put into puddling troughs 
and washed by water, so as to obtain about 20 per cent, pure 
copper. In this state it is shipped to the United States and 
England, bringing about $80 per ton. It then has to go through 
an extensive smelting process, in order to obtain the pure metal. 
The mines are situated in the immediate %dcinity of the village, 
there being ten openings or shafts from which the ore is ob- 
tained in its crude state. Horse-power is mostly used to ele- 
vate the ore ; the whims are above ground, attached to which 
are ropes and buckets. This mine gives employment to about 
300 workmen. The capital stock of the company amounts to 
$600,000. 

The Wellington Mine, about one mile distant, is also owned 
by the Montreal ^Mining Company, but is leased and worked by 
an English company. This mine, at the present time, is more 
productive than the Bruce Mines. 

The Lake Superior Journal gives the following description 
of the Bruce Mine, from which is produced a copper ore differ- 
ing from that which is yielded by other mines of that peninsula. 

" Ten years ago this mine was opened, and large sums ex- 
pended for machinery, which proved useless, but it is now un- 



COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 37 

der new management, and promises to yield profitably. Twelve 
shafts have been opened, one of which has been carried down 
some 330 feet. Some 200 or 300 men are employed, all from 
the European mines. Some of the ores are very beautiful to 
the eye, resembling fine gold. After being taken out of the 
shaft, they are taken upon a rail-track to the crushing-house, 
where they are passed between large iron rollers, and sifted till 
only a fine powder remains ; from thence to the ' jigger works,' 
where they are shaken in water till much of the earthy matter 
is washed away, after which it is piled in the yard ready for 
shipment, having more the appearance of mud than of copper. 
It is now mostly shipped to Swansea, in Wales, for smelting. 
Two years since 1,500 tons were shipped to Baltimore and Buf- 
falo to be smelted." 

On resuming the voyage after leaving Bruce Mines, the 
steamer runs along St. Joseph Island through a beautiful 
sheet of water, in which are embosomed some few islands near 
the main shore. 

Campement D'Otjrs is an island passed on the left, lying 
contiguous to St. Joseph Island. Here are encountered several 
small rocky islands, forming an intricate channel called the 
" JVarrows." On some of the islands in this group are found 
copper ore, and beautiful specimens of moss. The forest trees, 
however, are of a dwarfish growth, owing, no doubt, to the 
scantiness of soil on these rocky islands. 

About 10 miles west of the " Narrows," the main channel of 
the St. INIary's Eiver is reached, forming the boundary between 
the United States and Canada. A rocky island lies on the Ca- 
nadian side, which is reserved for government purposes, as it 
commands the main or ship channel. 

Sugar Island is now reached, which belongs to the United 
States, and the steamers run a further distance of 25 miles, 
when the landing at the Saut Ste Marie is reached, there being 
settlements on both sides of the river. The British boats usu- 
ally land on the north side, while the American boats make a 
landing on the south side of the river, near the mouth of the 
ship canal. 

4 



,j8 COLLIKGWOOD to 8AUT STE MARIE. 

TEIP THPwOUGH GEOEGIAN BAY AND THE NOETH CHANNEL 

OF LA-KE HUEON TO MANITOULIN AND SAUT 

STE MAEIE. 

{Copied from a Toronto paper.) 

Dated on board the Steamer CoLLrNG-wooD, ) 
Lake Htjeon, August 17, 1856. i 

" A LONG, dark tongue of land stretches out into the lake on 
our larboard quarter, and the opposite view is backed by a 
rugged coast, with mountains tall and grim. We are just off 
Cabot's Head, near where the Georgian Bay attains its greatest 
width (58 miles). The east coast of the Georgian Bay, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Murray, consists almost exclusively of a sterile 
rocky border. There are numerous harbors, many of which 
are, however, so hemmed in by reefs and sunken islets as to 
render them almost inaccessible to boats of any considerable 
draught. As we advance toward the north mainland past 
Lonely Island, the eastern extremity of the Great Manitoulin 
comes clearly within view. An abrupt escarpment here forms 
Cape Smyth, and inside a deep sheltered bend, called Smyths 
Bay, is located the Jesuit Missionary village of Wequame- 
kong. This neat little settlement being situated on a slope sur- 
rounded by extensive clearances, and covered with regularly- 
built frame houses, shows out favorably to the passer-by. 
Due north lies our first stopping-place. The distance from 
Collingwood to the head of the Georgian Bay is about 140 miles, 
and the point of measurement is a small trading port named 
She-ba-wa-nah-ning, which was reached early on the forenoon 
of Thursday. The entrance to it is by a strait so narrow as to 
be quite imperceptible at any considerable distance from bhore, 
bounded on the east side by the mainland, and on the west by 
a high island. It forms a secure harbor at all times, and owing 
to the great depth of water and the steepness of both sides, it is 
not so difficult to pass, even in stormy weather, as one would 
suppose. This village, now for some unaccountable reason 
styled ' Killarney,' with the exception of a store, post-office, 
and diminutive Roman Catholic church, is a mere collection of 
fishing huts and Indian camps. It derives its original name, 
as indeed do most of these Indian localities — from a natiiral 
characteristic. That name signifies ' Here's a channel ' and it 
amounts to a piece of great impertinence on the part of any 
one to destroy its adaptability by substituting Kilhirney, or 
any other, for it. The population numbers somewhere about 40 
whites and half-breeds, with an occasional accession to the 
Indian residents, bringing it to an average between 60 and 70. 
They employ themselves almost entirely in the pursuits of trad- 
ing, hunting, and fishing, but make no attempt at cultivation, 



COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 39 

not even so mucli as a cabbage-garden, although there is some 
tolerably good land in the vicinity. Now and again they have 
an odd visit from the Jesuit priests at the Wequamekong, and 
the Church of England Missionary at Manitou-wahning ; on 
whicli occasions the parishioners are called together by a tin 
horn instead of a bell. Just inside She-ba-wa-nah-ning is one 
of those lovely bayous so common along the rocky and indented 
northern coast, with countless small islets, very much resem- 
bling the famous ' Thoin^and Islands' in the river St. Lawrence ; 
and closing it in on three sides are the La Cloche Mountains, 
which here rise abruptly to a considerable altitude. The 
steamer does not return by the same channel, but passes around 
the island, forming its boiindary on the lake side. Lookin»' 
back through the narrow strip of water by which we have 
entered from the main lake, it seems a fairy-like performance 
to have threaded so small a gorge with this huge steamboat, and 
the enchanting wildness of tb.e scenery that bounds us on every 
side adds delight to such surprise. On rounding the west point 
of this island, the lake opens out again before us, and our 
steamer heads toward Manitouwahning, distant about 27 
miles. At the head of Hey wood Sound, on the north side of the 
Grand Manitoulin, is situated the village, where we expect 
to find a host of " aborigines'' awaiting the receipt of a cargo 
of trumpery by means of which the commissariat manages to 
annually amuse their uncultivated fancies and illustrate the 
marvelous solicitude entertained for them by their " Great 
Father," who, in the present instance, is a Mother. There is 
no wharf, but the water is so deep close in shore, that the 
steamboat sidles up to a low, gravelly beach, and our gangway 
is laid from her side to land with perfect ease. As it seems not 
altogether improbable that the chain of islands constituting an 
Indian Reserve in this locality must ere long be brought into 
the market for sale, it may prove serviceable to publish a few 
descriptive particulars relating to their position and quality. 
For such purpose, then, I shall here briefly relate them while 
the ' small-boy' in treasury uniform is superintending the em- 
barkation of government presents to be distributed among that 
heterogeneous and expectant multitude before us. 

" The belt of islands known as the Manitoulins embraces 
Fitzwilliam, an unimportant island southeast of the principal 
of this group, the Grand Manitoulin, and others, of which 
Barrie and Cockburn islands are the only ones worthy of note. 
The La Cloche and St. Joseph Island are sometimes erroneously 
included in the general denomination; but tliey are distin- 
guished by being crown properties, while the Manitoulins form 
a portion of the Indian Reserves. With the exception of Great 
Manitoulin, none of these islands are of much "onsequence in 



40 COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 

point of value. The timber thereupon would indicate soil of a 
workable description, but their rocky elevation seems to deny 
the existence of fertile tracts of any appreciable extent. The 
Grand Manitoulin is eighty-one miles in length, and averages 
about twenty miles in width, and has an area of at least sixteen 
hundred square miles. Its geological features present nothing 
remarkable. The soil, over a Kmestone structure, with a lower 
fossiliferous bed of extraordinary depth, is rich ; and there is 
an abundance of soft and hard lumber covering it throughout. 
I am unaware whether or not any portions of it have been sur- 
veyed. Certainly the sooner something practical is done in the 
way of cultivating it the better. It may be rather an easy ad- 
ministration of that heirloom of titled boobies and aristocratic 
sprigs, the Indian Department, to keep these reserved lands 
locked up in the chimerical pretense of benefiting the Indians. 
The majority of Indians derive no real advantage from them — 
will certainly never cultivate them — and, therefore, their con- 
tinuous reservation operates but as a bar to the settlement 
of adjacent territories. The villages of Wequamekong and 
Manitouwahning are the only extensive settlements of pre- 
tension upon the Manitoulin Islands. The latter being the 
place where we had just landed at the above digression, is the 
locale of the government agency, and the appointed residence 
of Captain Ironsides, the local superintendent. In other words, 
it is the head-quarters of the Indian Department. As a culti- 
vated spot it has a very enticing appearance. The site is favor- 
able, in some respects, for a village, but building frame houses 
for savages, and neither clearing off the stones at similar cost, 
nor teaching the natives themselves to do so, and afterward to 
plant gardens, potatoes, corn and maize fields, is not a model 
plan of carrying out the objects of such selections. The present 
condition of this place is the best proof. The white inhabitants 
residing here number about thirty ; the Indian population fluc- 
tuates between six or seven hundred and two thousand. These, 
however, seem never to have appreciated the wooden domiciles 
erected for them, as upward of sixteen frame houses in the 
village are forsaken, and the remainder may be said to merely 
serve as a shelter for the families living in them, as they have 
no signs of improvement near or far. There is a neat little 
church in the village, and a resident minister of the Church of 
England. There also is a ' medicine man.' The residences of 
these gentlemen and that of Captain Ironsides are very com- 
fortable dwellings. About £600 worth of goods were landed 
as presents. They consist principally of blankets, trinkets, 
calicoes, pork, flour, and a small quantity of ammunition. It 
was the custom formerly to give them articles adapted to their 
habitual pursuits, such as shot, guns, rifles, knives, ammuni- 



COLLIN'GWOOD TO SA.UT STE MAKIK 41 

tion, kettles, hatchets, etc. ; but the most serviceable of these 
things have been discontinued, in accordance with the wisdom 
of authority. It occupies the officers in charge sometimes two 
or three weeks dispensing these articles. The scraps of tribes 
now present to receive these gifts belong mostly to the Ottawas, 
Chippewas, and Pottawatamies. Some few Munsees and Del- 
awares used at one time to frequent the station, but now there 
is no great variety of tribes about any part of the lake. In- 
deed, at this annual distribution but a very few Indians 
attended, in comparison with the multitudinous attendance of 
former years. The ' forest children' are annually fading away, 
and before many more winters and summers have elapsed it 
will most probably be as rare a thing to find a handful of th ^m 
about these lakes, as it was in earlier dnys to discover the foot- 
steps of the pale-face away up in these northern wilds. 

" The next day we accompanied Captain Ironsides, and a party 
of friends, to the Indian village of Wequamekong, (This is the 
Jesuit mission mentioned in the preceding part of my letter. ) 
It was reached by a portage of about seven miles across th 
neck of the peninsular promontory which forms the east side oi 
Heywood Sound. The land through which we passed is said to 
be much more fertile than that in any other section of the 
island. The village of Wequamekong is quite romantically 
situated, and is altogether a very pretty little place. The 
Indians here are remnants of the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes, 
and they appear cleaner, more industrious, and civilized than I 
had seen elsewhere. They have fine fields of Indian corn, 
patches of beans, potatoes, etc., and quite a respectable show of 
garden vegetables. We witnessed an interesting sight in the 
' numbering of the tribes' by Captain Ironsides. It gave us an 
opportunity to see some fine-looking old chiefs, several of whom 
were astonished at the idea of having their likenesses taken. 
The villagers also turned out in holiday attire. We could have 
scarce believed it possible they were so well to do in worldly 
goods as their ' fashionable' habiliments denoted. Certainly the 
Jesuits have carried out their mission at this village in the most 
praiseworthy manner. What with good spirits, ravenous appe- 
tites, an agreeable host, and the weather that an Italian might 
almost envy, our time glid swiftly away until the return of the 
steamboat on Sunday morning. And contented as we had been, 
the sight of Captain Butterworth's jovial countenance, and a re- 
newal of our acquaintance with the ' quite at home' comforts of 
the Collingwood, were abundantly relished. 

"After leaving Manitouwahning (on Friday), we have the 
Great Manitoulin on our left; and up to Little Current, the 
next stopping-place, 30 miles farther on, the course lies througb 
picturesque clusters of low islands, scantily wooded, and covered 



42 COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 

m tlie open parts with a rank growth of dry -looking wild grass, 
and diversified by clumps of dwarfish pines and firs. There is 
here a small settlement of Indians and half-breeds. They 
furnish wood for the steamer, and likewise supply meat, fish, 
vegetables, etc. At dark we cast off from Little Current. 
Thence our passage was among woody islands, and through 
narrow but deep channels, the main shore of Manitoulin always 
within sight, and now and then opening out into a wider sheet 
of water, so that the whole course seems to be alternate narrow 
straits and small lakes. From Little Current to the Bruce 
Mines the distance is nearly 120 miles, and between the west 
end of Manitoulin and the north shore, for some distance, the 
channel is very broad. We passed this during the night-time. 
It was a clear moonlight night ; and we could see by the drift- 
ing clouds that hovered above the Great Manitoulin, how rude 
Boreas was indulging himself with a jolly blow outside, in the 
lake, while not a gust moved the surface of this inside lake, 
through which our steamboat smoothly plowed her way. After 
a short stay at the mines, we proceeded onward to Saut Ste 
Marie, landing once more, en voyage, at Sugar Island. The 
village of St. iNIary, or Saut Ste Marie, is so well known to most 
people, I shall not bore the reader with any description of it. 
Suffice to say, the canal on the American side has helped to build 
up that part at the expense of its opposite settlement. The in- 
habitants, however, seem to have nothing else to do besides 
smoking, drinking gin-slings and mint-juleps, and catching fish. 

" Dr. Jackson states that the healthiness of the climate in 
these parts during summer months is unsurpassable, and, above 
all other places, is calculated to restore the health of invalids 
suffering from the depressive miasms of the fever-breeding 
Southwestern States, or the pent-up enervating atmosphere of 
Eastern cities. 

" This route along the North Channel, for the safe conveyance 
of merchandise and all perishable goods, is infinitely preferable 
to that usually traveled across the lakes, filling up as it does a 
distance of not less than 400 miles of rough lake navigation by 
a pleasant course sheltered from storms and affording a diversity 
of scenery calculated to relieve the tedium of so long a voyage." 



ST. JOSEPH ISLAND, C. W. 
This important island, lying in St. Mary's River, near its 
outlet into Lake Huron, is thus described by T. N, Moles- 
worth, provincial land surveyor, and may answer in part 



COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT ST:E MAJIIE. 43 

for a description of Drummond and Sugar islands, lying con- 
tiguous and belonging to the United States. 

"The surface along the southern and southwestern shores 
of St. Joseph Island is generally flat, low, and swampy, being 
in many places wet, and very thickly timbered. The northern, 
northeastern, and eastern shores, in general, rise with a gentle 
inclination from the shore, being swampy only for a short dis- 
tance inward; and along the northerly shore of Point- au-Gra- 
vier there is a precipitous rise of about 30 feet in height. The 
highest hill, near the center of the island, has an elevation of 
about 400 feet. -;. 

" The island is generally well watered, a considerable num- 
ber of streams rising in the swamps in the interior, and enter- 
ing the lake. The principal one is that having its source in 
Lake Hilton, which enters Milford Haven with a rapid current, 
and having a very good mill-site near its mouth, and a con- 
stant supply of water, and also entering a safe and capacious 
harbor, is the best adapted for the use of the island. The 
other streams are of small size, but appear to have a constant 
supply of water. 

" The surface soil is almost generally a red sandy loam, or 
clay and sand mixed with mold ; but in some places a white 
sand appears ; in others a brown or red clay ; under this there 
is a stiif clay, in some places of a reddish color, in others nearly 
white, which crumbles when exposed to the surface. 

"Very little rock appears anywhere on St. Joseph Island, 
and only on the shore ; small particles of quartz rock rising 
about ten feet above the surface, appear atPayme-day-giundeg. 
In the channel opposite Campement D'Ours Island a mass of 
syenitic granite puts out in irregular points, some parts 
rising about 20 feet above the water. In Lot 10, Concession V., 
white sandstone appears just at the edge of the water, and at 
the level of its surface ; and in the Point-au-Gravier Conces- 
sion, blue limestone appears rising abruptly from the water to 
the height of 30 feet — in the horizontal strata, of from six 
inches to a foot in thickness. It is used for making lime and 
building at the Bruce Mines, and by the inhabitants. 

" The island is closely wooded ; the timber on the hills and 
dry surface being maple, beech, birch — often mixed with hem- 
lock --cedar, spruce, basswood, and elm. In some parts the 
timber is all maple, and a great deal of it is bird's-eye and 
curly maple — the latter mostly where the surface is stony. In 
the swamps the timber is cedar, spruce, balsam, hemlock, pine, 
and tamarack — generally growing very densely in most of the 
swamps — the cedar predominating — in some, the tamarack or 
spruce. 



44 COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE M \RTE. 

" With regard to the capabilities of the island for settlement, 
about two thirds of its surface will probably be available — the 
remaining third being swamps of little use except as meadows 
at a future period. 

" Its soil is of good quality for agricultural purposes , raising 
wheat, oats, potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, beans, Indian corn, 
and melons equally well with lands in other parts of the prov- 
ince. The mining regions will ajfford a favorable market for 
the surplus agricultural produce raised upon the island, which 
lies in the course of, and possesses stopping -places for, the Amer- 
ican and Canadian steamers proceeding to the Saut Ste 
Marie and Lake Superior. 

" The snow disappearing off the clearings about the middle 
of April, the farmers commence farming operations a few days 
later : there are very few frosts after that time to injure any 
crops. The harvest commences about the middle of August, 
There is an abundance of fine fish in the Avaters around the 
island, and small fisheries are carried on in the following 
places. Tenby Bay. (White fish are caught extensively after 
the middle of October.) Campement des Matelots, or St. 
Joseph. (Black bass, pike, and white-fish very abundant.) 
Opposite Sugar Island there is a herring fishery ; and in Mud 
Lake, opposite the Campement des Matelots, on the American 
shore, there is a considerable pickerel fishery. Besides these 
there are abundance of pike, trout, and maskalonge in all the 
waters round the island, which are very serviceable to the in- 
habitants. There are a few moose and red deer, and a num- 
ber of black bears on the island, besides foxes, hares, etc. 

" The lake freezes over generally before the middle of De- 
cember, the ice clearing off in the spring about the 1st May ; 
and the snow lies permanently on the ground from the middle 
of December to the middle of April ; its average depth is from 
two to three feet, its greatest about four feet. The lowest 
range of the thermometer is in February, when it reaches 23° 
below zero (Fahr.), for perhaps a fortnight, the average cold 
being from 10° above to 10° below zero. In June, July, and 
August the highest range is sometimes 100° above zero ; aver- 
age range 70° to 80°." 

This island has been recently surveyed, and the lands sold 
under the direction of the Crown Land Department of Canada, 
thus offering inducements for settlement and cultivation. 



COLLINGWOOD TO SAUT STE MARIE. 45 

Saut Ste Marie, capital of Cluppewa Co., Mich., is advan- 
tageously situated on St. Mary's River, or Strait, 350 miles 
N.N.W. of Detroit, and 15 miles from the foot of Lake Supe- 
rior, in N. lat. 46° 31'. The rapids at this place, giving 
the name to the settlements on both sides of the river, have 
a descent of 20 feet, within the distance of a mile, and form 
the natural limit of navigation. The Ship Canal, however, 
which has recently been constructed on the American side, 
obviatf,^ this difi&culty. Steamers of a large class now pass 
throug;h the locks into Lake Superior, greatly facilitating trade 
and commerce. The village on the American side is pleasantly 
situated near the foot of the rapids, and contains a court-house 
and jail ; a Baptist, a Methodist, and a Roman Catholic church ; 
15 or 20 stores and storehouses, besides a few manufacturing 
establishments, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Many of the in- 
habitants and Lidians in the vicinity are engaged in the fur 
trade and fisheries, the latter being an important and profit- 
able occupation. Summer visitors flock to this place and the 
Lake Superior country for health and pleasure. There are two 
hotels on the American side, and one on the Canadian side of 
the river, affording good accommodations. 

Fort Brady is an old and important United States military 
post contiguous to this frontier village, where is stationed a 
regular garrison of troops. It commands the St. Mary's River 
and the approach to the mouth of the canal. 

Saut Ste Marie, C. W., is a scattered settlement, where is 
located a part of the Hudson Bay Company. Here is a steam- 
boat landing, an hotel, and two or three stores, including the 
Hudson Bay Company's ; and it has from 200 to 300 inhabit- 
ants. Indians of the Chippewa tribe reside in the vicinity in 
considerable numbers, they having the exclusive right to take 
fish in the waters contiguous to the rapids. They also employ 
themselves in running the rapids in their frail canoes, when 
desired by citizens or strangers — this being one of the most 
exhilarating enjoyments for those fond of aquatic sports. (See 
Engraving.) 



ST. mart's falls shii canal. 47 



THE SAINT MAEY'3 FALLS &HIP CANAL. 

This Canal, which connects the navigation of Lake Superior 
with the Lower Lakes, is a little more than one mile in length, 
and cost about one million dollars. 

It was built in the years 1853, '54, '55 by the Saint Mary's! 
Falls Ship Canal Company, under a contract with commission- 
ers appointed by the authorities of the State of Michigan to 
secure the building of the canal. 

A grant of 750,000 acres of the public land had previously 
been made by Congress to the State of Michigan to aid in the 
construction of this important work. 

This grant of 750,000 acres was given to the parties contract- 
ing for the building of the canal, provided the work should be 
completed within two years from the date of the contract. 

The work was commenced in the spring of 1853, and completed 
within the time specified in the contract {two years !). 

This result was accomplished under Tnany disadvantages, 
during a very sickly season, and when great difi&culty was ex- 
perienced in obtaining laborers ; but the unremitting vigor of 
those who had the charge of the work secured its completion in 
the most substantial, permanent, and acceptable manner. 

During a great portion of the time there were from 1,200 to 
1 .GOO men employed upon the work, exclusive of the force at the 
difterent quarries where the stone Avas cut and prepared for the 
locks, besides a large force employed in necessary agencies, 
getting timber, etc. 

The stones for the locks were cut at Anlerden, Canada (near 
Maiden), and at Marblehead, near Sandusky, in Ohio. These 
were sent in vessels to the work, some twenty-five difi"erent sail- 
ing vessels being employed in this business. 

On the completion of t]ie canal in June, 1855, the Governor 
of the State, the State officers, and the Canal Commissioners 
proceeded to Saut Ste Marie for the purpose of inspecting the 
work. It was accepted, and thereupon, in accordance with the 
terms of the contract, the State authorities released to the Canal 



48 ST. Mary's falls ship canal. 

Compcany and issued patents for the 750,000 acres of land. This 
was all the remuneration the company received for the work. 

The lands were selected during the building of the canal by 
agents appointed by the Governor of IMichigan. 

Of the 750,000 acres, 39,000 acres were selected in the iron 
region of Lake Superior, 147,000 acres in the copper region, 
and the balance, 564,000 acres, in the Lower Peninsula. 

The following figures will give some idea of the magnitude of 
this work : 

Length of canal 5,584 feet, --= 1 mile 304 feet. 

Width at top 115 feet— at water-line 100 feet— at bottom 64 
feet. 

The depth of the canal is 1 2 feet. 

A slope wall on the sides of the canal is 4,000 feet in length. 

There are two locks, each 350 feet in length. 

Width of locks 70 feet at top— 61 J feet at bottom. 

The walls are 25 feet high— 10 feet thick at bottom. 

Lift of upper lock 8 feet — lower do., 10 feet; total lockage 
18 feet. 

Lower wharf 180 feet long, 20 feet wide. 

Upper wharf 830 feet long, from 16 to 30 feet wide. 

There are three pairs of folding gates, each 40 feet wide. 

Upper gate 17 feet high— lower gate 24 feet 6 inches high. 

There are also upper and lower caisson gates, used^or shutting 
off the water from the canal. 

The amount of lumber, timber, and iron used in the building 
of the piers and gates is enormous. 

There were 103, 437 lbs of wrought iron used in the gates, and 
38,000 lbs cast iron. 

About 8,000 feet of oak timber, etc. 

The tolls on the canal are collected by the State— are merely 
nominal— and only intended to defray the necessary expenses 
of repairs. 



THE UPPER LAKE COUNTRY. 49 



THE UPPER LAKE COU]JITEY. 
We copy the following extract from an address published in 
the Lansing (Mich.) Republican, as containing interesting in- 
formation regarding the Commerce of the Upper Lakes : 

C. T. Harvey, Esq., of Lake Superior, agreeably to appoint- 
ment, made an address in the Hall of the House of Represent- 
atives on the subject of the '"present state and future prospects 
of the Commerce of Lake Superior." 

" As to the past, he observed that in 1839 the first steamer 
visited the Saut Ste Marie, to the great astonishment of the 
Indians "who lived on St. Mary's River. That in 1844 Capt. 
Ward first established a regular steamboat line from Detroit to 
the entrance of Lake Superior via Mackinac. That in 1849 
Mr. S. McKnight (a member of the house) did all the trans- 
portation of merchandise around the Falls of St. Mary's with 
one or two horses, and it was not till 1851 that the first steamer 
floated on the waters of Lake Superior only six years ago. 

" After some further reminiscences showing at how very re- 
cent a date business in that quarter had commenced, the speaker 
proceeded to the present. 

" He referred to the report of the Superintendent of the Saut 
Canal, to show that in the season of 1856 just closed there was 
over 11,000 tons of iron ore shipped through it to Detroit and 
eastward. An increase of 800 per cent, over 1855, when only 
1,400 tons were sent down. That 1,040 tons of bloom iron were 
sent, an increase of 25 per cent. ; but the most remarkable fact 
was that ten millions four hundred and fifty-two thousand 
pounds of copper were sent through the canal in the raw state 
-—over two and a quarter millions of dollars — an increase of 
some 67 per cent. Mr. H. remarked that this noticeable in- 
crease did not look like a failure of the mining interests, al- 
though public excitement respecting them had subsided. 

" The business eastward through the canal of mineral and 
fish exported from the lake, amounted to, as estimated by the 
Superintendent, $2,875,000 ; while the imports of merchandise 
and supplies were, in round numbers, $2,500,000 ; making a 
total of $5,375,000, of which he calculated full $5,000,000 was 
commerce of the Upper Peninsula. Remarking that a trade 
of this magnitude, which had sprung up out of nothing within 
fifteen years, must in the next fifteen years increase in almost 
the same ratio, till the results would be almost incredible, he 
hazarded the conjecture, that within 25 years as many vessels 
of all kinds would pass and re-pass in the St. Mary's River, as 
now frequent the waters of the St. Clair." 

5 



TRIP FROM COLLIXGWOOD TO MACKIXAC, GREEN 
BAY, CHICAGO, ETC. 



This excursion is an interesting one for the pleasure traveler, 
as well as the man of business. The steamer on leaving Col- 
lingwood runs direct for Cabofs Head, 80 miles, skirting the 
main shore of Canada to Cape Hurd, about 20 miles farther,, 
passing the Bear's Rump, Flower Pot, Echo and Cove islands. 

Yeo Island and Fitz William Island (a large island) are 
seen on the north ; several smaller islands are also passed, when 
the broad waters of Lake Huron are entered, the steamers 
usually running direct for Mackinac. 

The Great Maxitoulin may be seen in the distance, 
toward the north, in pleasant weather, and the Outer Duck 
and Great Duck islands are passed about 80 miles westward 
of Cape Hurd. 

The steamer then pursues a westerly course toward Mackinac, 
about 100 miles farther, sighting Presque Isle on the main 
Michigan shore, and passing Bois Blanc and Round islands. 
The Straits of Mackinac are now entered, being here about 
twenty miles across, but soon diminishes in width; opposite 
old Fort Mackinac it is four or five miles in width. 

The Straits of Mackinac, with the approaches thereto 
from Lakes Huron and ^Michigan, will always command atten- 
tion from the passing traveler. Through this channel will pass, 
for ages to come, a great current of commerce, and its shores 
will be enlivened with civilized life, where at present the Indian 
now lingers, but, alas ! is fast fading away. 

It is proposed to construct a railroad running from Detroit 

or Saginaw to Old Fort Mackinac, which, when completed, will 

^nd to open the whole northern portion of this part of the 

State of Michigan, one of the most favorably situated States of 



COLLINGWOOD TO MACKINAC, ETC. 51 

the whole Union ; having two peninsulas, rich in soil and mine- 
ral pi'oductions, and from which are now exported immense 
quantities of lumber, copper, and iron ore. 

In this great commercial route Lake Huron is traversed for 
about 180 miles, often affording the traveler a taste of sea-sick- 
ness and its consequent evils. Yet there often are times when 
Lake Huron is hardly ruffled, and the timid passenger enjoys 
the voyage vrith. as much zest as the more experienced mariner. 

]\L^.CKiivAc, the gem of the Upper Lake islands, may vie with 
any other locality for the salubrity of its climate, for its pic- 
turesque beauties, and for its vicinity to fine fishing-grounds. 
Here the invalid, the seeker of pleasure, as well as the sports- 
man and angler, can find enjoyment to their heart's content 
during warm weather. For further description see page 110. 

On leaving Mackinac for Green Bay the steamer generally 
runs a west course for the mouth of the bay, passing several 
islands in Lake ^Michigan before entering the waters of Green 
Bay, about 150 miles distant. 

Summer Island lies on the north side and Rock Island 
lies on the south side of the entrance to Green Bay, forming a 
charming view from the deck of the steamer. 

Potawatomee Island, Chambers' Island, and other 
small islands, are next passed on the upward trip toward the 
head of the bay. 

Green Bay, about 100 miles long and from 20 to 30 miles 
wide, is a splendid sheet of water, destined no doubt to be 
enlivened with commerce and pleasure excursions. Here are 
to be seen a number of picturesque islands and headlands. 
Several important streams enter into Green Bay, the largest 
of which is Neenah or Fox River, at its head, and is the outlet 
of Winnebago Lake. Menomonee River forms the boundary 
between the States of Wisconsin and Michigan, and empties 
into the bay opposite Green Island. 

The town of Green Bay, the capital of Brown Co., Wis., is 
finely situated near the mouth of Fox or Neenah River, at ita 
entrance into Green Bay, where is a good and secure harbor. 



52 COLLINGWOOD TO MACKINAC, ETC. 

It lies 25 miles due west of Kewaunee, on the west shore of 
Lake Michigan, and 115 miles north from Milwaukee. The 
town is handsomely situated, and contains many large ware- 
houses and elegant residences, together with several churches, 
hotels, and stores of different kinds, and about 3.000 inhab- 
itants. The improvement of Fox River by dams and locks, in 
connection with the improvements on the Wisconsin River, 
afford an uninterrupted steam navigation from Green Bay to 
Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi River — thus making Green 
Bay a great point for the trans-shipment of goods and produce 
of every variety ; the largest class steamers running to Chicago 
on the south, Saut Ste Marie on the north, as well as to Colling- 
wood, to Detroit, and to Buffalo on the east. The lumber trade 
of Green Bay is immense, this whole section of country abound- 
ing in timber of different kinds the most useful for building 
purposes. 

AsTOR is the name of a suburb of Green Bay, lying at the 
mouth of Fox River, while on the opposite side of the stream 
stands Fort Howard, surrounded by a village of the same 
name. 

Nenomonee City, Oconto Co., Wis., is a new settlement, 
situated on the west side of Green Bay, near the mouth of Ne- 
nomonee River. The country to the west and north of this 
place is as yet a wilderness, inhabited only by a feW roving 
Indians. 

In regard to the route from Green Bay to Lake Superior, the 
Advocate says : 

" A road from Green Bay to the most southerly point of Kee- 
wenaw would be less than 200 miles in length, and while it 
would shorten the travel over the present route (by water) at 
least 100 miles, would open one of the most beautiful and fer- 
tile sections in the Union— a section which will remain unknown 
and unoccupied until such a road is opened by the government. 
The Lake Superior people need it most especially for procuring 
supplies, driving cattle, etc. 

" The traveler finds the whole distance, to within a few miles 
of Lake Superior, abounding in every resource which will make 
a country wealthy and prosperous. Clear, beautiful lakes are 



COLLINGWOOD TO MACKINAC, ETC. 53 

interspersed, and these have plenty of large trout and other 
fish. Water and water -powers are everywhere to be found, and 
the timber is of the best kind — maple groves, beech, oak, pine, 
etc. Nothing is now wanted but a few roads to open this 
rich country to the settler, and it will soon teem with vil- 
lages, schools, mills, farming operations, and every industrial 
pursuit which the more southern portion of our State now ex- 
hibits." 

Fox or JVeenah River rises in Marquette Co., Wis., and 
passing through Lake Winnebago, forms its outlet. This im- 
portant stream is rendered navigable for steUmers of a small 
class by means of dams and locks, forming in connection with a 
short canal to the Wisconsin Eiver a direct water communica- 
tion from Green Bay to the Mississippi River, a distance of 
about 200 miles. The rapids in the lower part of Fox River 
afford an immense water-power, while the upper section of 
country through which it flows, produces lumber and grain in 
great abundance. 

Appletopj-, Outaganie Co., Wis., is situated on Fox or Nee- 
nah River, 30 miles from its entrance into Green Bay, and five 
miles from Lake Winnebago, where are rapids called the 
Gi^and Chute. Here the river descends about 30 feet in one 
mile and a half, affording an inexhaustible amount of water- 
power. Here are located two flouring mills, four saw mills, a 
paper mill, and sash factory. This is the capital of the county, 
and is no doubt destined to become a large manufacturing and 
commercial place, from the facilities which it possesses, by 
means of navigation and hydraulic power. Steamers rim south 
into Lake Winnebago, and north into Green Bay. 

Neenah, situated at the foot of Lake Winnebago, where 
commences the river improvement, is a growing place. Here 
is a fine water-power, which gives motion to several mills. 

The City of Oshkosh, situated on the west side of Lake Win- 
nebago, is a flourishing place, and the capital of Winnebago 
County, Wis. It contains the county buildings, 7 churches, a 
land-office, several public houses, 40 or 50 stores of different 
kinds, 2 steam grist-mills, 12 steam saw-mills, 2 iron foundries, 

5* 



54 COLLINGWOOD TO MACKINAC, ETC. 

and a number of other manufacturing establishments, and about 
7,500 inhabitants. 

The Fox and Wo//" rivers uniting, form a large and important 
stream, flowing into the lake at Oshkosh, which, together with 
plank-roads and a railroad to extend south to Fond du Lac, 
and another road to Ripon, give great facilities for trade and 
commerce, in connection with lake and river navigation. The 
Fox River Improvement here leaves Lake Winnebago, and ex- 
tends in a southwest direction toward the junction with the 
Wisconsin River at Portage City. 

Fond du Lac, capital of Fond du Lac County, is a flourish- 
ing city favorably situated at the head of Lake Winnebago, 
87 miles N.N.W. from Milwaukee by railroad route, and 42 
miles west of Sheboygan, lying on Lake Michigan. Here are 
located the county buildings, a city hall, several churches and 
public houses, 60 stores of diff"erent kinds, two banking houses, 
a car factory, an iron foundry, and several other manufacturing 
establishments, and 7,000 inhabitants. Steamers run daily to 
Oshkosh, Appleton, Green Bay, and other ports. 

The Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad, when 
finished, will form a direct and speedy communication with al- 
most every part of Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota. 

Lake Winnebago, which is a most beautiful sheet of water, 
about 30 miles long and 10 broad, forms a link in the chain of 
navigable waters, connecting Green Bay and Lake Michigan 
vrith the Wisconsin and Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien. 
Railroads will soon reach the waters of this lake from several 
points. 

The Trip from Chicago to Mackinac, etc., connecting 
at the latter place with the Green Bay route, is fully described 
in another part of this work 



LAKE SUPERIOR REGION. 55 

MmEEAL WEALTH OF THE LAKE SUPEEIOE REGION. 

Native Copper ^— " This useful metal is in every respect the 
most interesting substance found in connectioa with the trap- 
pean rocks of the Lake Superior region, is widely distributed, 
and possesses great mineralogical interest. In addition to the 
enormous masses which occur in the veins of this region, some- 
times attaining at the Cliff Mine the weight of several hundred 
tons, a great variety of crystalline forms are occasionally found. 
The most interesting localities of the crystallized copper are at 
the Copper Falls, the Cliff, the Phoenix, and the Eagle Harbor 
mines. Many of these beautiful specimens are highly valued 
by those interested in the mines, and, of course, difficult to be 
obtained, except by those residing at the localities where they 
occur." 

Native Silver. — " This valuable metal occurs, diffused 
through the trap, at various localities on Keweenaw Point and 
Isle Royal. In fact, its distribution is coextensive with that of 
native copper ; but the principal portion of that which has been 
obtained thus far was from the old Lake Superior (now Phoe- 
nix), the Cliff, the Copper Falls, and the Minnesota mines. 
The silver occurs in connection with the metallic copper, both 
metals being united together at their edges, and yet each being 
almost entirely pure and free from alloy with the other. The 
silver is almost invariably accompanied by a greenish, hydrous 
silicate of alumina and iron. The largest mass of silver ob- 
tained, up to this time, weighed more than six pounds. This 
was found at the Phoenix Mine. Beautiful specimens of native 
silver, in Prehnite, have also been picked up on the beaches of 
Washington Harbor, Isle Royal." 

A Diamond Found. — We had been well aware that this 
country was very rich in minerals and some kinds of precious 
stones, but we had not expected to see a Lake Superior dia- 
mond, yet such is the case. We were shown one yesterday 
that would measure three fourths of an inch in length, and at 
least one fourth of an inch in thickness. It is a regular formed 



56 LAKE SUPERIOR REGION\ 

octagon, and all who have seen it pronounce it a diamond, but 
of what exact value is yet uncertain, it being in the rough 
state. It cuts glass and shows all the brilliancy of a diamond 
of the first water, which, if it should prove to be, will make its 
value not less than two thousand dollars. The diamond was found 
by the wife of Mr. Alfred HauflFman. while walking on the shore 
of the Lake. The waves washed it up, and on receding left it 
exposed to the rays of the sun, when i<s brightness attracted 
her attention, and she picked it up. Mr. H. is a poor laboring 
man, and should it prove as valuable as is supposed, it will be 
quite a handsome windfall (we might say water-fnW) for him. 
This is a great country. — Lake Superior Journal — 1856. 
For a description of Lake Superior Iron Region, see page 66. 



LAKE COMMERCE— IMPOETANT IMPEOYEMENTS. 

Deepening or the St. Clair Flats. — We understand, 
says the Detroit Daili/ Advertiser (June, 1855), that the con- 
tract for deepening the channel of the St. Clair Flats has been 
let to Mr. Barton, of Buffalo. The contract is subject to the 
approval of the War Department, and should it be approved by 
the first of next month, it will be prosecuted with vigor. Mr. 
Barton is also connected with Mr. Osgood in the contract for 
deepening the channel of the St. Mary River, which has been 
approved by the War Department. The machinery to be used 
in the work will be taken up in a few days, and every prepara- 
tion is being made to commence the work about the 1st of July, 
and to drive it successfully forward. We hear that both the 
above-named gentlemen have had much experience in this kind 
of business, and being men of energy and perseverance, ■\^'ill 
push the work forward with all possible dispatch. The deepen- 
ing of both these channels is all- important to the commercial 
community, and it is earnestly hoped that nothing may occur 
to hinder or retard its progress and speedy completion. 



TRIP FROM SAUT STE MARIE TO THE DIFFERENT 
PORTS OX LAKE SUPERIOR. 



Since the completion of the St. Mary's Ship Canal in the 
tspring of 1855, steamers and propellers of a large class traverse 
the waters of Lake Superior, affording safe and excellent accom- 
dations for travelers and emigrants. During the year 1856 
three large steamers formed the Lake Superior Line running 
from Cleveland and Detroit through the canal to Superior City, 
at the head of Fond du Lac, and two large steamers, besides 
several propellers, ran from Chicago for the same destination, 
stopping at Mackinac, forming an almost daily communication 
with the different Lake Superior ports. 

The steamer Collingwood also runs direct from Collingwood, 
C. "W., to the Saut Ste Marie, enabling passengers taking the 
Toronto and Collingwood route to proceed direct into Lake 
Superior. 

On leaving the Upper Landing at the Saut Ste Marie, above 
the rapids, the steamer soon enters Tequamenon Bay, passing 
Iroquois Point, 15 miles distant on the south shore, while Gros 
Cap, on the north or Canada side, lies opposite, being about four 
miles asunder. This headland consists of hills of porphyry esti- 
mated to rise 6 or 700 feet above the waters of the lake. " Gros 
Cap is a name given by the voyageurs to almost innumerable 
projecting headlands ; but in this case appropriate — since it is 
the conspicuous feature at the entrance of the lake." 

North of Gros Cap lies Goidais Bay, and Goulais Point, an- 
other bold headland, is seen in the distance. The whole north 
shore, as seen from the deck of the steamer, presents a bold and 
grand appearance. 

Tequamenon Bay is about 25 miles long and as many broad, 
terminating at White Fish Point, 40 miles above Saut Ste Marie. 
Parisien Island is passed, lying near the middle of the above 



58 LAKE SUPERH. R. 

bay, being attached to Canada. Opposite this island, to the 
north, is seen Coulee Point, and besides this, several small 
islands stud the north shore. Tequameyion River enters the 
bay from the east, dischai'ging a large quantity of water. 

Mamainse Point (Little Sturgeon), opposite White Fish 
Point, is another bold headland, near where is situated the 
Quebec Copper Mining Co.'s Works, at present abandoned, owing 
to their being found unproductive. Some 15 or 20 miles north 
are located the Montreal Company's Copper Mine, which is being 
successfully woi'ked. While still farther north, skirting Lake 
Superior, is to be found a vast mineral region, as yet only par- 
tially explored. 

The scenery of Lake Superior, and the productions of its 
shores, which are so little known to even our professional tour- 
ists, are thus vividly described by an intelligent writer : 

" Situated between latitudes forty -six and forty-nine — with 
an altitude of over two hundred yards above the level of the 
ocean, and a depth reaching far below that level — a coast of 
surpassing beavity and grandeur, more than twelve hundred 
miles in extent, and abounding in geological phenomena, varied 
mineral wealth, agates, cornelian, jasper, opal, and other precious 
stones — with its rivers, bays, estuaries, islands, presque isles, 
peninsulas, capes, pictured rocks, transparent lakes, leaping cas- 
cades, and bold highlands, limned with pure veins of quartz, 
spar, and amethystine crystals, full to repletion with mineral 
riches ; reflecting in gorgeous majesty the sun's bright rays and 
the moon's mellow blush ; o'ertopped with ever- verdant groves 
of fir, cedar, and the mountain ash ; while the background is 
filled up with mountain upon mountain, until rising in majesty 
to the clouds, distance loses their inequality resting against the 
clear vault of heaven." 

On passing White Fish Point, where may be seen a number 
of " sand-dunes," or hills, and a light-house 75 feet in height, 
the broad waters of Lake Superior are reached. The steamers 
usually pursue a westerly course toward Grand Island or Mar- 
quette, passing Point au Sable, 50 miles farther. During clear 
weather, the steep sandy hills on the south shore, ranging from 
400 to 1,000 feet in height, may be seen from the deck of the 
steamer. 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 59 

The Pictured Rocks, of which almost fabulous accounts are 
given by travelers, are about 110 miles west of Saut Ste Marie. 
Here also are to be seen the Cascade Falls and the Arched 
Rock, both objects of great interest. The Amphitheatre, Miners' 
Castle, Chapel, Grand Portal, and Sail Rock, are also points of 
great picturesque beauty, which require to be seen to be justly 
appreciated. 

Extract from Foster and Whitney's Report of the Geology 
of the Lake Superior Land District : 

PICTUEED EOCKS. 

" The range of cliffs to which the name of the Pictured Rocks 
has been given, may be regarded as among the most striking 
and beautiful features of the scenery of the Northwest, and are 
well worthy the attention of the artist, the lover of the grand 
and beautiful, and the observer of geological phenomena. 

" Although occasionally visited by travelers, a full and ac- 
curate description of this extraordinary locality has not as yet 
been communicated to the public* 

" The Pictured Rocks may be described, in general terms, 
as a series of sandstone bluffs extending along the shore of 
Lake Superior for about five miles, and rising, in most places, 
vertically from the water, without any beach at the base, to a 
height varying from fifty to nearly two hundred feet. Were 
they simply a line of cliffs, they might not, so far as relates to 
height or extent, be worthy of a rank among great natural 
curiosities, although such an assemblage of rocky strata, 
washed by the waves of the great lake, would not, under any 
circumstances, be destitute of grandeur. To the 'voyager 
coasting along their base in his frail canoe they would, at all 
times, be an object of dread ; the recoil of the surf, the rock- 
bound coast, affording for miles no place of refuge ; the low- 
ering sky, the rising wind ; all these would excite his appre- 

* Schoolcraft has undertaken to describe this range of cliffs, and iUus- 
Irate the scenery. The sketches do not appear to have been made on the 
spot, or finished by one who was acquainted with t'.ie scenery, as they 
bear no resemblance, so far as we observed, to any of the prominent fea- 
tures of the Pictured Eocks. 

" It is a matter of surprise that, so far as we know, none of our artists 
have visited this region and given to the world representations of scenery 
so striking, and so different from any which can be found elsewhere. 
"We can hardly conceive of any thing more worthy of the artist's pencU ; 
and if the tide of pleasure-travel should once be turned in this direction, 
it seems not unreasonable to suppose that a fashionable hotel may yet be 
built under the shade of the pine groves near the Chapel, and a trip 
thither become as common as one to Niagara now is." 



60 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

hension, and induce him to ply a vigorous oar until tlie dreaded 
wall was passed. But in the Pictured Kocks there are two 
features which communicate to the scenery a wonderful and 
almost unique character. These are, first, the curious manner 
in which the cliffs have been excavated and worn away by the 
action of the lake, which for centuries has dashed an ocean- 
like surf against their base ; and, second, the equally curious 
manner in which large portions of the surface have been 
coloi-ed by bands of brilliant hues. 

" It is from the latter circumstance that the name by which 
these cliffs are known to the American traveler is derived; 
while that applied to them by the French voyageurs (' Les 
Port ails'*) is derived from the former, and by far the most 
striking peculiarity. 

" The term Pictured Rocks has been in use for a great 
length of time, but when it was first applied we have been 
unable to discover. 

" The Indian name applied to these cliffs, according to our 
voyageurs, is Schkuee-archibi-kiing or " The end of the 
rocks," which seems to refer to the fact that, in descending the 
lake, after having passed them, no more rocks are seen along 
the shore. Our voyageurs had many legends to relate of the 
pranks of the Menni-boujou in these caverns, and in answer to 
our inquiries seemed disposed to fabricate stories without end 
of the achievements of this Indian deity. 

" We will describe the most interesting points in the series, 
proceeding from west to east. On leaving Grand Island harbor,t 



* Le Portail is a French term, signifying the principal entrance of a 
church or a portal, and this name was given to the Pictured Eocks by 
the voyageurs evidently in allusion to the arched entrances which con- 
stitute the most characteristic feature. Le Grand Portail is the great 
archway, or grand portal. , , , . 

t The traveler desirous of visiting this scene should take advantage 
of one of the steamers or propellers which navigate the lake and land at 
Grand Island, from which he can proceed to make the tour of the inter- 
esting' points in a small boat. The large vessels on the lake do not ap- 
proach sutficientlv near the clififs to allow the traveler to gather more than 
a general idea of their position and outlines. To be able to p.ppreciate 
ami understand their extraordinary character, it is indispensable to coast 
alono- in close proximity to the cliffs and pass beneath the Grand Portal, 
which is only accessible from the lake, and to land and enter within the 
precincts of the Chapel. At Grand Island, boats, men, and provisions 
may be procured. The traveler should lay in a good supply, if it is in- 
tended to be absent long enough to make a thorough examination of the 
whole series. In fact, an old vovager will not readily trust himself to the 
mercv of the winds and waves of the lake without them, as he may not 
unfrequentlv, however auspicious the weather when starting, find himself 
weather-bound for days together. It is possible, however, m one day, to 
start from Grand Island, see the most interesting points and return. The 
distance from WiUiam's to the Chapel— the farthest point of interest— is 
about fifteen miles. 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 61 

high clilfs are seen to the east, which form the commence- 
ment of the series of rocky promontories, which rise vertically 
from the water to the height of from one hundred to one hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet, covered with a dense canopy of foli- 
age. Occasionally a small cascade may be seen falling from 
the verge to the base in an unbroken curve, or gliding down 
the inclined face of the cliff in a sheet of white foam. The 
rocks at this point begin to assume fantastic shapes ; but it 
is not until having reached Miners' Eiver that their striking 
peculiarities are observed. Here the coast makes an abrupt 
turn to the eastward, and just at the point where the rocks 
break off and the friendly sand-beach begins, is seen one of the 
grandest works of nature in her rock-built architecture. We 
gave it the name of " Miners' Castle," from its singular resem- 
blance to the turreted entrance and arched portal of some old 
castle — for instance, that of Dumbarton. The height of the ad- 
vancing mass, in which the form of the Gothic gateway may be 
recognized, is about seventy feet, while that of the main wall 
forming the background is about one hundred and forty. The 
appearance of the openings at the base changes rapidly with 
each change in the position of the spectator. On taking a posi- 
tion a little farther to tlie right of that occupied by the 
sketcher, the central opening appears more distinctly flanked 
on either side by two lateral passages, making the resemblance 
to an artificial work still more striking. 

" A little farther east. Miners' River enters the lake close 
under the brow of the cliif, which here sinks down and gives 
place to a sand-bank nearly a third of a mile in extent. The 
river is so narrow that it requires no little skill on the part of 
the voyager to enter its mouth when a heavy sea is rolling in 
from the north. On the right bank, a sandy drift plain, cov- 
ered with Norway and Banksian pine, spreads out, affording 
good camping-ground— the only place of refuge to the voyager 
until lie reaches Chapel River, five miles distant, if we excep* 
a small sand beach about midway between the two points, 
where, in case of necessity, a boat may be beached. 

" Beyond the sand beach at Miners' River the cliffs attain 
an altitude of one hundred and seventy-three feet, and main- 
tain a nearly uniform height for a considerable distance. Here 
one of those cascades of which we have before spoken is seen 
foaming down the rock. 

" The cliffs do not form straight lines, but rather arcs of 
circles, the space between the projecting points having been 
worn out in symmetrical curves, some of which are of large di- 
mensions. To one of the grandest and most regularly formed 
we gave the name of ' The Amphitheatre.' Looking to the 
west, another projecting point — its base worn into cave-lik;- 

6 



62 LAKE SUPi- :i. 

forms— and a portion of the concave surface of the intervening] 
space are seen. 

" It is in this portion of the series that the phenomena of 
colors are most beautifully and conspicuously displayed. These 
can not be illustrated by a mere crayon sketch, but -^ould re- 
quire, to reproduce the natural eifect, an elaborate drawing on 
a large scale, in which the various combinations of color should 
be carefully represented. These colors do not by any means 
cover the whole surface of the cliff even where they are mobi 
(conspicuously displayed, but are confined to certain portions of 
ihe cliffs in the vicinity of the Amphitheatre ; the great mass 
if the surface presenting the natural, light-yellow, or raw- 
denna color of the rock The colors are also limited in their 
vertical range, rarely extending more than thirty or forty feet 
above the water, or a quarter or a third of the vertical height 
of the cliff. The prevailing tints consist of deep-brown, yellow. 
and gray — burnt-sienna and French-gray predominating. 

'■There are also bright blues and greens, though less fre- 
quent. All of the tints are fresh, brilliant, and distinct, and 
harmonize admirably with one another, which, taken in con- 
nection with the grandeur of the arched and caverned surfaces 
on which they are laid, and the deep and pure green of the 
water which lieaves and swells at the base, and the rich foliage 
which waves above, produce an effect truly wonderful. 

" They are not scattered indiscriminately over the surface 
of the rock, but are arranged in vertical and parallel bands, 
extending to the water's edge. The mode of their production 
is undoubtedly as follows : Between the bands or strata of 
thick-bedded sandstone there are thin seams of shaly mate- 
rials, which are more or less charged with the metallic oxides, 
iron largely predominating, with here and there a trace of 
copper. As the surface-water permeates through the porous 
strata it comes in contact with these shaly bands, and, oozing 
out from the exposed edges, trickles down the face of the cliffs. 
and leaves behind a sediment, colored according to the oxide 
which is contained in the band in which it originated. It can 
not, however, be denied that there are some peculiarities which 
it is difficult to explain by any hypothesis. 

" On first examining the Pictured Eocks, we were forcibly 
struck with the brilliancy and beauty of the colors, and won- 
dered why some of our predecessors, in their descriptions, had 
hardly adverted to what we regarded as their most character- 
istic feature. At a subsequent visit we were surprised to find 
that the effect of the colors was much less striking than before : 
they seemed faded out, leaving only traces of their former bril- 
liancy, so that the traveler might regard this as an unimport- 
ant feature in the scenery. It is difficult to account for this 



LAKE SUFKRIOR. 63 

change, but it may be due to the drynesss or humidity of the 
season. If the colors are produced by the percolation of the 
water through the strata, taking up and depositing the colored 
sediments, as before suggested, it is evident that a long period 
of drouth would cut off the supply of moisture, and the colors, 
being no longer renewed, would fade, and finally disappear. 
This explanation seems reasonable, for at the time of our second 
visit the beds of the streams on the summit of the table-land 
were dry. 

" It is a curious fact, that the colors are so firmly attached 
to file surface that they are very little affected by rains or the 
dashing of the surf, since they were, in numerous instances, 
observed extending in all their freshness to the very water's 
edge. 

" Proceeding to the eastward of the Amphitheatre, we find 
the cliffs scooped out into caverns and grotesque openings, of 
the most striking and beautiful variety of forms. In some 
places huge blocks of sandstone have become dislodged and 
accumulated at the base of the cliff, where they are ground up 
and the fragments borne away by the ceaseless action of the 
surge. 

" To a striking group of detached blocks the name of ' Sail 
Rock' has been given, from its striking resemblance to the jib 
and mainsail of a sloop when spread — so much so, that when 
\iewed from a distance, with a full glare of light upon it, while 
the cliff in the rear is left in the shade, the illusion is perfect. 
The height of the block is about forty feet. 

" Masses of rock are frequently disloged from the cliff, if we 
may judge from the freshness of the fracture and the appear- 
ance of the trees involved in the descent. The rapidity with 
which this undermining process is carried on, at many points, 
will be readily appreciated when we consider that the cliffs do not 
iorm a single unbroken line of wall ; but, on the contrary, they 
present numerous salient angles to the full force of the Avaves. 
A projecting corner is undermined until the superincumbent 
weight becomes too great, the overhanging mass cracks, and 
aided perhaps by the power of frost, gradually becomes loosened, 
and finally topples with a crash into the lake. 

•' The same general arched and broken line of cliffs borders the 
coast for a mile to the eastward of Sail Rock, where the most im- 
posing feature in the series is reached. This is the Grand Portal 
— Lt Grand Portail of the voya^eurs. The general disposition 
of the arched openings which traverse this great quadrilateral 
mass may, perhaps, be made intelligible without the aid of a 
gro\ind-plan. The main body of the structure consists of a vast 
mass of a rectilinear shape, p^ ejecting out into the lake about six 
hundred feet, and presenting a front of three hundrcl or four 



64 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

hundred feet, and rising to a height of about two hundred feet. 
An entrance has been excavated from one side to the other, open- 
ing out into large vaulted passages which communicate "with the 
great dome, some three hundred feet from the front of the cliif. 
The Grand Portal, which opens out on the lake, is of magnificent 
dimensions, being about one hundred feet in height, ond ono 
hundred and sixty-eight feet broad at the water-level. The dis- 
tance from the verge of the cliif over the arch to the water is 
one hundred and thiity-three feet, leaving thirty-three feet fcr 
the thickness of the rock above the arch itself. The extreme 
height of the cliif is about fifty feet more, making in all one 
hundred and eighty-three feet. 

"It is impossible, by any arrangement of words, or by any 
combination of colors, to convey an adequate idea of this won- 
derful scene. The vast dimensions of the cavern, the vaulted 
passages, the varied effects of the light as it streams through 
the great arch and falls on the different objects, the deep 
emerald green of the water, the xmvarying swell of the lake 
keeping up a succession of musical echoes, the reverberations 
of one's own voice coming back with startling effect, all these 
must be seen, and heard, and felt, to be fully appreciated. 

," Beyond the Grand Portal the cliffs gradually diminish in 
height, and the general trend of the coast is more to the south- 
east; hence the rock being less exposed to the force of the 
waves, bears fewer marks of their destructive action. The 
entrance to Chap?l River is at the most easterly extremity of a 
sandy beach which extends f jr a quarter of a mile, and affords 
a convenient landiug-place, while the drift-terrace, elevated 
about thirty feet above the lake-level, being an open pine plain, 
affords excellent camping-ground, and is the most central and 
convenient spot for the traveler to pitch his tent, while he ex- 
amines the most interesting localities in the series which occur 
in this vicinity — to wit, the Grand Portal and the Chapel. — 
(See Engraving.) 

The Chapel — La Chapelle of the voyageurs — if not the grand- 
est, is among the most grotesque, of ISTature's architecture here 
displayed. Unlike the excavations before described, which occur 
at the water's edge, this las been made in the rock at a height 
of thirty or forty feet above the lake. The interior consists of 
a vaulted apartment, which has not inaptly received the name 
it bears. An arched roof of sandstone, from ten to twenty feet 
in thickness, rests on four gigantic columns of rock, so as to 
leave a vaulted apartment of irregular shape, about forty feet 
in diameter, and about the sime in height. The columns con- 
sist of finely stratified rock, and have been worn into curious 
shapes. At the base of one of them an arched cavi'y or niche 
has been cut, to which access is had by a flight of steps formed 



LAKE SUPERIOR. ~ 65 

by the projecting strata. The disposition cf the Tvhole is such 
us to resemble rery much the |mlpit of a church ; since there 
is overhead an arched canopy, and in front an opening out 
toward the vaulted interior of the chapel, with a flat tabular 
mass in front, rising to a convenient height for a desk, while on 
the right is an isolated block, which not inaptly represents an 
altar ; so that if the whole had been adapted expressly for a place 
of worship, and fashioned by the hand of man, it could hardly 
have been arranged more appropriately. It is hardly possible 
to describe the singular and unique effect of this extraordinary 
structure ; it is truly a temple of nature — " a house not made 
with hands." 

" On the west side, and in close proximity. Chapel River enters 
the lake, precipitating itself over a rocky ledge ten or fifteen 
feet in height. '^ 

" It is surprising to see how little the action of the stream 
has worn away the rocks which form its bed. There appears to 
have been hardly any recession of the cascade, and the rocky 
bed has been excavated only a foot or two since the stream 
assumed its present direction. 

" It seems therefore impossible that the river could have had 
any influence in excavating the Chapel itself, but its excavation 
must be referred to a period when the waters of the lake stood 
at a higher level. 

" Near the Grand Portal the cliffs are covered, in places, with 
an efilorescence of sulphate of lime, in delicate crystallizations ; 
this substance not only incrusts the walls, but is found deposited 
on the moss which lines them, forming singular and interesting 
specimens, which however can not be transported without losing 
their beauty. 

" At the same place we found numerous traces of organic life 
in the form of obscure fucoidal markings, which seem to be the 
impressions of plants, similar to those described by Prof. Hall 
as occui'ring in the Potsdam sandstone of New York. These 
were fii'st noticed at this place by Dr. Locke, in 1847." 

Grand Islaivd, 125 miles distant from the Saut, is about ten 

miles long and five wide, lying close in to the south shore. This 

is a wild and romantic island ; the cliffs of sandstone, irregular 

and broken into by the waves, form picturesque caverns, pillars, 

and arches of immense dimensions. The main shore, also in 



* '• At this fall, according to immemorial usage among the voyagenrs in 
ascending the lake, the mangeurs de lard, who make their first trip, re- 
ceive baptism ; which consists in giving them a severe ducking — a cere- 
mony somewhat similar to that practiced on green-horns, when crossing 
the line. 

6* 



66 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

sight, presents a magnificent appearance. Here are several 
other small islands, and a good harhor. It is proposed to con- 
struct a railroad from this harbor to the head of Big Bay de 
Noc, the most northern arm of Green Bay, only 30 miles dis- 
tant, thus forming an almost direct north and south route to 
Chicago, etc. 

Marquette, Mich., 170 miles from the Saut, is one of the 
most flourishing places on the borders of Lake Superior, being 
the shipping port of the rich iron mines, which are from four to 
twelve miles distant from the village. These mines yield from 
GO to 80 per cent, pure iron, which is exported in large quan- 
tities to Detroit, to Cleveland, and to Pittsburgh. A railroad 
extends some twelve or fourteen miles to the mines, affording 
the mines facilities for transporting the ore to jMarquette, where 
is a good harbor. The village contains two churches, a large 
hotel, besides several taverns and stores, and about 1,000 in- 
habitants. A railroad will soon be constructed from this point 
to Little Bay de Noc, about 30 miles southeast, which, when 
completed, will greatly facilitate the trafl&c in iron and copper 
ores, in which this whole section of country abounds, as well as 
with other valuable metals, precious stones, etc. 



LAKE SUPEEIOE IRON EEGION. 

" The discovery of the iron mountains and mines of Lake 
Superior was made in 1846, but o-^ving to the cost of trans-ship- 
ment and transportation across the Portage at the Falls of St. 
Mary's River, but little was done to develop them until the com- 
pletion of the Saut Ste Marie ship canal, two years ago, which 
gave a new and lively impetus to the business ; audit now forms 
an important feature of the Lake iSuperior trade. 

" The mines are situated from three to sixteen miles from 
Marquette, a pleasant and thriving village of 1,000 inhabitants, 
overlooking Lake Superior, located near the mouth of Carp 
River, 140 miles above Saut Ste Marie. 

" The mine nearest to the lake is the Eureka, about two and 
a half miles from Marquette. The ore here is not so easily or 
cheaply obtained as at the Sharon or Cleveland mountains, but 
it is of surpassing richness, and yields an iron of the finest and 



LAKE SUPERIOR 67 

best, quality for cutlery, etc. It has not been worked so ex- 
tensively as the others, but it is being prosecuted with vigor. 

" The Jackson Iron Mountain, owned by the Sharon Company, 
is situated li miles from ^Marquette ; and the Cleveland Moxmt- 
ain, owned* by Wm. H. Gordon and others, of Cleveland, is two 
miles beyond. A plank road, laid with flat iron rails, is in 
operation from Marquette to both of these mines, and the ore 
is transported in cars dr:iwn by horses and mubs. One span 
of horses or mules will draw a car convainng five tons of ore, 
and make one tr:p a day. The operative f orc'S at each of them 
the present season are about equal, and thjy send to ^larquette 
an aggregate of from 800 to l.CUO tons per week These mount- 
nius ris^e gradually to a height of six or seven hundred feet, and 
are a solid mass of iron ore, yielding from CO to 60 per cent, of 
the best iron in the world. 

" Two and a half miles beyond the Cleveland is the New 
England Iron ?.Iountain, which is said to abound with ore of 
equal richness and quality with the others, but as tlio railroad 
is not yet completed to it, nothing has been done to develop it. 
A mile or two farther on we reach the Burt Iron Mountain ; 
but as they all bear so strong a resemblance to each other in 
quantity, quality, and richness of ores, a description of one 
answers for them all. That the iron of this region is inex- 
haustible admits of no doubt, and that it is the richest and best 
in the world has been clearly proved by analysis and practical 
demonstration. 

"The associates of the late Heman B. Ely, Esq., are con- 
structing a substantial railroad from iMarquette to the Burt 
Mountain, and a company has been formed to continue it on 
to Wisconsin State-line. Six or eight miles of this road is com- 
pleted, laid with heavy T rail, and a locomotive is running upon 
it. The grading is nearly completed to the Jackson Mountain, 
14 miles, and the iron will be laid this fall, or early in the 
spring. The completion of this road will have a tendency to 
reduce materially the price of ore at Marquette. It is now 
held at $5 per ton, delivered en the wharf; it can then be sold 
ac ^3 50, and yield as fair a profit as it now does at '^5. 

'* The Sharon Iron Company have expended some $300,000 
in the construction of a substantial breakwater and wharf, 
cweive liundred feet long, at Marquette. The harbor is well 
protected, except against an east wind, which blows directly 
in : l)ut an expenditure of fifty thousand dollars, in extending 
the breakAvater already constructed, would make it safe at all 
times. 

" In. 1818, two years after the discovery of iron, the first 
bloom forge on Lake Superior was built by the .Jackson Iron 
Company. It is situated aboat ten miles from Marquette, in 



68 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

the vicinity of the Jackson Mountain. It is a small affair, 
haying only two fires, and as the machinery proved imperfect, 
but little has been done with it. 

" The second forge was built by the Marquette Iron Company 
in 1850. located at the village of Marquette. This had four 
fires, and was worked by steam. It was in successful operation 
about eighteen months, when it was destroyed by fire, in 1852 

" The third bloomery was built, in 1853, by Mr. M'Connell 
It is situated on the Dead River, six miles from Marquette, has 
two fires, and is worked by water-power. 

" The fourth and most extensive and successful bloom forge, 
on Lake Superior is that of the Collins Iron Company, situated 
on Dead Kiver, three miles from Marquette. This was com- 
pleted in 1855. It is worked by water-power, has eight fires, 
and is capable of manufacturing 2,000 tons blooms per annum. 

" Burt Mount uin is situated seventeen miles west from the 
lake, and forms the present terminus of the I. M. R. R. The 
surface indications of the iron ore at this point are of the first 
class, of which we procured some fine specimens. It has not 
yet been opened, yet those who understand such matters think 
it will pay richly to work it. We did not find all the surface- 
indications, yet what we did find contained but little jasper, 
being mostly diamond, granulated, and slate ore. The weiglit 
of it quite surprised us — we took hold of a piece about eight 
inches square and three in thickness, thinking to lift it with 
one hand, but our fingers slipped off as though it had been 
oiled, and no attempt was made afterward to lift any but small 
pieces. The bed of ore ^'hich we found lay within a few feet 
of the railroad track, and could be loaded on to cars at a very 
small expense. It will probably be opened as soon as the cars 
are running to this point ; from this point we strike off nearly 
south to Lake Angelina. 

" Cleveland Mountain is sixteen miles from the lake, and 
one mile east of the Burt jNlountain. This mine is now actively 
worked, and sends down daily to the lake from forty to fifty 
tons of good ore. Mr. D. P. Moore, the foreman of the mining 
work, informed us they had some two hundred tons of ore ready 
for transportation, and were constantly gaining upon the teams 
that take it away. There are now about thirty men employed 
at this mine constantly, and additions are expected soon. It 
would be utterly impossible to give an adequate idea of the im- 
mense amount of ore at this point — it lies piled up in huge 
masses above the surface, and the depth of it can not be deter- 
mined, but probably extends farther down than ever will be 
dug to get it. Indeed, there is now enough upon the surface to 
last for ages, to say nothing of other localities, to which this is 
but a commencement. The miners have struck a bed of jasper, 



LAKR SUPERIOR. 69 

where tliey are no^ at work, on a I'JvjI Tvith the roa^l, which 
will not be very profitable Avor king; yet this is no drawback 
at all, for it is thought that below it is as good ore as any ob- 
tainod. and even if there was none, there is enough above 
ground, which can be got out cheaper than that. This the 
company will probably do now, as when the work of mining 
shall become thoroughly systematized, the cheaper ore can be 
worked as profitably as the best can now. Yet this is not neces- 
sary, as there is an unlimited amount of ore that yields from, 
eighty to ninety per cent, of pure iron. There seems to be no 
obstacle now in the way of the successful and profitable work- 
ing of this mine. 

" Jackson Aluun'ain, from the lake, is fourteen miles distant, 
and east from the Cleveland ^Mountain to the place where the 
miners are working, two miles. It will be seen at once, that 
thousands of tons can be prepared with but little labor, wlien a 
good face is cleaned oft" and ready for blasting. From Mr. 
Zimmerman, the foreman of the mining operations, we learned 
that the company have eleven men now at work excavating the 
ore and preparing it for removal. It may not be amiss to re- 
mark here, that the ore is broken up into a convenient size for 
handling and shipping, at all the mines, before it is taken away. 
They have now at the mines about five hundred tons ready for 
transportation. The quantity carried to the lake as yet, this 
season, is small, comparatively ; but Ave understand the com- 
pany have just received a stock of mules, and will probably 
commence the transportation of it on a large scale very soon. 
Where the miners are now excavating, the surface exhibits a 
thin layer of slaty rock, which, being removed, shows ore of the 
best quality, except in a few small veins which contain some 
jasper. The surface-indications upon the top of the mountain 
exhibit a rather large proportion of jasper ; yet Avhere the side 
has been faced doAvn it shows that it is only at the surface ; 
what it may be on penetrating to the heart of the mountain it 
is impossible to conjecture. 

" The Eureka Mine is distant from the lake but tAVo and a 
half miles, and but a short distance from the raihvay, AVxth 
which it connects by a side track. Some difficulty has been 
experienced here in getting out the ore, in consequence of the 
veins being imbedded in the rock, but the work of excavating 
has been persevered in, until it now promises well. The ore 
improTes as it progresses doAvnward, and the veins grow Avider. 
The close proximity of this mine to the lake gives it an ad- 
vantage over those more distant, as the cost of transportation 
will be materially lessened. There are many locations within 
the district Avhich we passed over, that Ave did not visit. They 
are not yet opened, and we did not think it proper to describe 



70 LAKR SUPERIOR 

them vintil they should be, and theii* value ascertained. Thid 
will probably be done at no distant day." — Rtj)ort o/1856. 

Carp and Dead rivers both flow into Lake Superior, near 
Marquette, on each side of which there are rapids and falls of 
great beauty, aifording good water-power. Chocolate River 
also flows into the lake some two or three miles east of Marquette, 
hut through a different geological formation. 

On leaving Marquette, the steamer usually runs in a N.W. 
direction, passing Presqu? Ih, Granite Point, and Granite 
Island, the latter having two vertical walls of trap 20 feet 
high and 12 feet apart, forming a good boat-harbor. 

Stanahd's Rock, discovered by Captain Stanard in 18-35, 
while in the employ of the American Fur Company, sailing 
the schooner John Jacob Astor, is a solitary and dangerous 
bare rocky projection, rising out of the lake, off the mouth of 
Keweenaw Bay, in the route of the steamers on their way from 
Marquette to Copper Harbor, 65 miles. 

L'Anck is an excellent harbor, where is a small settlement, 
situated at the head of Keweenaw Bay. A short distance north 
are located a Roman Catholic and Methodist mission house and 
church. The Catholic being on the west shore of the bay, and 
the Methodist on the cast, both are surrounded by Indian 
tribes and seitlv-mcn-S. This locality, at no distant day, must 
become an important point, being favorably situated between 
the iron and copper regions of Lake Superior. 

Portage Extry, situated on the west shore of Keweenaw 
Bay, about fifteen miles north of L'Ance, at the outlet of Port- 
- age Lake, is a new and important place, from whence some of 
the rich copper ore of this region is exported. 

Portage Lake is an extensive and beautiful sheet of water, 
(Extending to within half a mile of the entire breadth of tht 
peninsula of Keweenaw Point, in the county of Houghton. It 
receives a number of small streams, draining the rich copper 
region of Lake Superior. No portion of the south shore of Lake 
.'Superior exceeds this lake and its vicinity as a resort for hcaltL 
and pleasure. 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 71 

Kewekxaw Poixt* is a large extent of land jutting out 
into Lake Superior, from ten to twenty-five miles wide, and 
about sixty miles in length. This section of country for up- 
ward of 100 miles, running from southwest to northeast, 
abounds in silver and copper ores, yielding immense quantities 
of the latter ; much of it being pure native copper, but often in 
such large masses as to render it almost impossible to be sepa- 
rated for the purpose of transportation. Masses weighing from 
] ,000 to 5,000 pounds are often sent forward to the Eastern 
markets. The geological formation is very interesting, produ- 
cing specimens of rare beauty and much value. 

Maxitou Island lies off Keweenaw Point, on which is a 
light-house to guide the mariner to and from Copper Harbor. 
The island is about seven miles in length and four wide. 

Copper Harbor, Houghton Co., Mich., situated on the north 
shore of Keweenaw Point, 250 miles from the Saut, is one of 
the best harbors on Lake Superior. The village contains about 
600 inhabitants, a church, and two hotels, besides several stores 
and storehouses. Fort Wilkins, formerly a U. S. military post, 
has been converted into a hotel and water-cure establishment 
for the accommodation of visitors and invalids. 

The copper mines are from four to six miles back of the land- 
ing, are very productive, and well worthy a visit. 

Agate Harbor, ten miles west of Copper Harbor, is the 
name of a small settlement. This port is not much frequented 
as yet by steamers. 

Eagle Harbor, 16 miles west of Copper Harbor, is a good 
steamboat landing. Here is a good public-house, together with 
several stores and storehouses. The mines are situated three 
miles and upward from the landing. 



* " On many maps spelled Keiceetcaiwona, and otherwise. Pronounced 
by our Indians, ' Ki-wi-wai-non-ing,' now written and pronounced as 
above; meaning a portage, or place where a portage is made — the 
whole distance of some eighty or ninety miles around the Point being 
saved by entering Portage Lake and following up a small stream, leaving 
a portage of only about a half mile to Lake Superior on the other side." — 
Foster and Whitney^s Report. 



72 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

Eagle River Harbor and village are favorably situated at 
the mouth of a stream of the same name. Here is a thriving 
settlement, it being the outlet of the celebrated Cliff and North 
American Copper mines, two of the most successful copper min- 
ing companies probably in this or any other country. Hera 
the lamented Dr. Houghton was drowned, October, 1845, while 
engaged in exploring this section of country — Keweenaw Point 
and adjacent country being very appropriately named Hough- 
ton County in honor of his memory. 

The following is an account of the melancholy death of Pv 
Houghton : 

" By a friend direct from Lake Superior, we have the painful 
intelligence of the death of Dr. Douglas Houghton, State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan, who, with two voyageurs or half-breeds, was 
drowned by the swamping of their boat on Lake Superior 
during a storm on the 13th of October, 1845, as they were com- 
ing down from a portage to Copper Harbor. They were 
swamped about a mile and a half from Eagle River. Dv. 
Houghton had been for some time engaged in a geological au^l 
linear survey of the Copper Region for the Federal Government, 
and was engaged in the discharge of this duty when he met 
with his lamented end. He was about 50 years old, univer- 
sally beloved by those who knew him, and had by years of pa- 
tient toil and study acquired a knowledge of the ]Mineral Re- 
gion which no living man possesses or can for years acquire. 
His death is not only a sore blow to his family and numerous 
» friends, but a public calamity. His body had not been recov- 
ered on the 22d, when our informant left, though search had 
been made for it. The body of one of his voyageurs (Pequette) 
had been found, with a few pieces of the boat. There were fnir 
with him at the time of the disaster, two of whom were hurled 
by the waves upon the rocks, ten feet above the usual level of 
the waters." 

Ontonagon, Ontonagon Co., Mich., 336 miles from the Saut 
Ste Marie, is advantageously situated at the mouth of the river 
of the same name. The river is about 200 feet wide at its 
mouth, with a sufficient depth of water over the bar for large 
steamers. Here is being erected an extensive pier and break- 
water. The village contains an Episcopal, a Presbyterian, and 
a Roman Catholic church; three good hotels, the Bigelow 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 73 

House being tlie largest ; 2 steam saw- mills, and 10 or 12 stores 
and storebouses, §nd about 1,500 inhabitants. 

In this vicinity are located the Minnesota, the Norwich, the 
National, the Rockland, and several other very productive cop- 
per mines. The ore is found from 12 to 15 miles from the land- 
ing, being imbedded in a range of high hills traversing Kewee- 
naw Point from N.E. to S.W. for about 100 miles. Silver is 
here found in small quantities, beautifully intermixed with the 
copper ore, which abounds in great masses. 

" During the month of July, 1856, the Minnesota Mine raised 
152 tons 1,272 pounds of copper. One mass from this mine 
weighed 7,122 pounds — the largest, we believe, yet sent from 
that district. 

" The Rockland raised in the same month 30 tons 848 pounds. 
Some of the masses raised were the most beautiful and pure 
which have ever been seen upon the lake." 



LAKE SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE. 

"We have received a late copy of the Lake Superior Miner, 
and condense from its columns some interesting intelligence 
concerning Lake Superior matters. 

" Ontonagon is said to be improving very rapidly, and the 
Miner thinks it destined to become the most important point 
on the lake shore. During 1856, some forty new buildings 
were erected, various streets graded and planked, and a large 
amount of real estate sold to actual settlers. 

" The Minnesota Mine, fifteen miles from Ontonagon, shipped 
iuring the year ending January 1, 1857, 3,718,403 pounds of 
copper. Of this amount only 255,854 pounds was stamp work. 
The copper will probably be found of a high purity. There are 
now employed on the location, above and below ground, some 
537 persons. 

" The Rockland, National, Nebraska, and other mines, are 
also reported as raising large quantities of copper. 

" Great improvements have been made on the Ontonagon 
harbor, and several new docks and piers erected. 

'• All the mines are making preparations to ship copper 
largely during the coming season, when ' lively times' are ex- 
pected. 

" It would be well for our Eastern merchants to open a larger 
trade with Lake Superior, in which there is a good chance, if 
we mistake not, for investments of a most profitable nature." 



74 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 



COPPPEE MIXING MATTEES. 

" The Minnesota has raised during the year ending Jan. 1st, 
1857, 3,718,403 pounds of copper. They have built during the 
year one very fins -warehouse and office, 25 by 60, an excellent 
agent's house, a minister's house, and a new engine-house. 

" The following is the product of the year 1856, by months 
In that time the iSIinnesota leads the Cliff, in mine production, 
by more than 200 tons, and we think the difference in ingot 
copper will be still greater in favor of the former mine. 



JaruiarT 31 8,1 77 

Eebniarv 806,532 

March 380,43S 

April 818,311 

Mav 305,117 

June 303,123 



July 305.272 

August 80i',731 

September 800.201 

October 307,135 

November S13.372 

Becember 800,994 



Total pounds, nett 3,718,403 

Or 1,S59 tons 403 pounds. 

" The Clijf raised, during the year preceding December 1, 
1856, at which their fiscal year terminates, 3,291,229 pounds 
of copper, or 1,654 tons and 1,239 pounds. They raised diiring 
the preceding year a little less than 1.489 tons, which shows an 
increase of about 149 tons in favor of the year just past. 

" The following additional shipments were made by the 
various mines on the Point during the last season. We can 
only regret that we are not able to make the list complete a ; 
present. 



North America 645,498 

Rockland 89«,1 SS 

Connecticut 44,080 



Central ] 05,487 

Northwestern 30,683 

Copper Falls, about 306,000 



"This last-named mine shipped some pounds more than the 
^ mount in the table. 

" The following is the amount in round tons shipped from the 
Portage Lake District. 



Quincy 20 

Pewabic 103 



Isle Eoyale 293 

Portage 101 

Huron -2 i 

La Pointe, La Pointe Co., Wis., situated on Madeline Island, 

one of the group of the Twelve Apostles, 410 miles from the 

Saut, and 83 miles from Superior City, is a highly important 

place. It was early settled by the Jesuits and American Fur 

Traders. The population consists of a mixture of Indians, 

French Canadians, and Americans. In addition to its fur trade. 

La Pointe J as long been the favorite resort of the " red man" 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 75 

and the " pale face;" the former will no doubt soon disappear, 
as the spirit of speculation has entered this whole region of 
country. Here, among the islands, are to be found some of the 
best fishing-grounds for which Lake Superior is so justly famed. 

The Twelve Apostles' Isles consist of the Madeline, Cap, 
Line, Sugar, Oak, Otter, Bear, Eock, Cat, Ironwood, Outer, 
and Presque Isle, besides a few smaller islands, being grouped 
together a short distance off the mainland, presenting during 
the summer months a most pictiu'esque and lovely appearance. 
Hera are to be seen clay and sandstone cliffs rising from 100 to 
200 feet above the waters, while most of the islands are clothed 
with a rich foliage of forest trees. 

Bayfield, La Pointe Co., Wis., three miles west of La Pointe, 
has a good harbor. The village is situated on the mainland, 
from whence it is proposed to build a railroad for a distance of 
120 miles to the St. Croix Ptiver, terminating at a point where 
the above river becomes navigable. 

Ashland, 12 miles south of La Pointe, at the head of Chag- 
wamegon Bay, is another new settlement no doubt destined to 
rise to some importance, it having a very spacious and secure 
harbor. 

Maskeg River, a considerable stream, the outlet of several 
small lakes, enters Lake Superior about 15 miles east of Ashland , 
some ten miles farther eastward enters Montreal River, form- 
ing the boundary, in part, between the States of jVlichigan and 
Wisconsin. 

On proceeding from La Pointe westward, the steamer usually 
passes around Point de Tour, ten miles north, and enters Fond 
du Lac, a noble bay situated at the head of Lake Superior. It 
may be said to be 50 miles long and 20 miles wide, abounding 
in good fishing-grounds. 

Superior, or Superior City, Douglass Co., Wis., is most 
advantageously situated on a bay of Superior, at the west end 
of the lake, near the mouth of St. Louis River. Here is a church, 
two hotels, and ten or fifteen stores and storehouses, and about 
1,500 inhabitants A small river called the Nemadji runs 



76 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

througli Superior, and enters into the bay. Perhaps no plac^j 
on Lake Superior has commercial advantages equal to this town ; 
its future is magnified almost beyond conception. The St. Croix 
ind Superior Railroad is proposed to terminate at this place, 
sxt^nding southward to Hudson on the St. Croix River, about 
140 miles. Another railroad is proposed to extend westward 
b the Sauk Rapids, on the Upper Mississippi, either from thii- 
)lace or Portland, Min. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 

From a Correspondent of the Buffalo Courier. 

Ontonagon — La Pointe — Superior City. 

Dated, St. Paul, Minn., August, 1856. 

*' On Sunday we attended church in Ontonagon, situated on 
the south shore of Lake Superior. There are, I believe, four 
congregations, viz., Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Methodist, and 
Catholic. Their houses of worship bear the characteristics 
of the place ; they are hasty but comfortable edifices, which, as 
the place advances, must give way to more substantial and taste- 
ful structures. 

On ^londay the steamer " Lady Elgin" arrived, bound for 
Superior City. AVe got on board about half-past three o'clock, 
and left, without any poignant regret, the young, but ambitious 
Ontonagon. 

■ '• We arrived at La Pointe at ten o'clock in the evening, situ- 
ated on the southern extremity of Madeline Island, the largest 
of the group denominated the Apostles' Mands. La Pointe 
has been a place of considerable importance as a fur-trading 
post, and is still a common resort of the Indians desiring to sell 
furs or obtain supplies. Speculators have seized upon it. ami 
to believe their representations, it is about the only place of any 
consequence upon the lake. How much of a village it is, or 
how it is situated, the shades of night prevented me from observ- 
ing. I watched, however, when a passenger came on board, and 
observed his feet clogged with clay ; so I concluded that the 
island had a clay soil. 

"In the morning of the following day we found ourselvef 
maneuvering to get into the harbor of Superior. This plact- 
h:TS one of most beautiful natural harbors that I ever witnessed 
The town is situated on the extreme end of Lake Superior, on a 
gentle declivity overlooking the water. Immediately in front a 
long, narrow strip of land shoots across, cutting off a commo 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 77 

dious and perfectly secure harbor. This natural breakwater 
seems almost to have been placed there artificially, so exactly is 
it adapted to its purpose. The harbor has but one fault, and 
that is a serious one, yet which may be remedied by sufficient 
outlay. Boats of a sufficient capacity to undergo the weather 
of these lakes can not find sufficient depth of water, except in 
narrow and confined channels of the bay. A dr edging-machine 
kept at work here for a few months would, I believe, entirely 
relieve it from these difficulties." 

Vf AHBAGON is the name of a new town that has been laid out 
on the Wisconsin side of the St. Louis Kiver, opposite to the 
Indian village of Fond du Lac, and at the end of navigation on 
the northern lakes and rivers. It is the farthest inland point 
accessible by vessels from the ocean — being fourteen miles west 
of Superior. It is said to })e the only point on the St. Louis 
River that can be reached by roads from the south or west 
without crossing the river. 

Gordojm-, the name of a new town located on the line of the 
St. Croix and Lake Superior Eailroad, and about midway be- 
tween Superior and Hudson, is now attracting the attention of 
capitalists. 

Distances from Fond du L.a.c to St. Paul, Min. 

Fo?j-d-du-Lac, (St. Louis River) Miles. 

Pokagema, {Portage) 75 

Falls St. Croix, {Canoe) 40 115 

Marine Mills, {Steamboat) 19 134 

Stillwater, " 11 145 

St. Paul, {Stage) .- 18 163 

Distance from Superior City to St. Cloud (Sauk Rapids), 
by proposed railroad route, 120 miles. St. Cloud to St. Paul, 
76 miles. Total, 196 miles. 

Distances from Superior City to Pembina, Min. 

Superior Miles. 

Crow Wing 80 

Otter Tail Lake 70 150 

Rice River 74 224 

Sand Hills River 70 294 

Grand Fork, (Red River) 40 334 

Pembina 80 414 

FrQm St. Paul to Pembina, via Crow Wing 464 miles. 

7* 



78 LAKE SUPERIOR. 



SUPEEIOPw CITY 

The Superior Chronicle of the 20th of Jan., 1857, arrived by 
mail a day or two since, and is pretty much taken up with a 
' semi-annual reyiew of the town of Superior, Wisconsin.' 
The statement is highly flattering to the enterprise of the cit- 
izens, as well as to the natural advantages of the location — the 
extreme western and northern point of lake navigation. The 
number of inhabitants is about 1,500, being an increase in one 
year of 900. The number of houses in June, 1866, 196, and in 
January, 1857, 340. 

There are in and round the town five saw-mills in operation. 
Eight hundred thousand feet of lumber were imported, and one 
million feet of lumber made by the mills. The Chronicle says : 

" The lands granted to build a road from Hudson to Superior, 
and from Superior to Bayfield, have passed into the hands of 
the St. Croix and Lake Superior Railroad Company, and that 
company have contracted with Messrs. Dillon, Jackson, Jarrett 
& Co. for the construction and entire equipment of that portion 
of the road between Superior and Hudson within two years from 
the 4th of July next. These contractors are also obligated to 
build a good wagon road from this place to the St. Croix River 
this winter ; and also to complete, early next spring, an ex- 
tensive pier and warehouse on the grounds of the company at 
the mouth of the Nemadji River. About sixty men are em- 
ployed in constructing the wagon road, and parties are pre- 
paring the piles and timbers for the docks and warehouses 
The contractors have about $10,000 worth of provisions and 
supplies for next summer's operations distributed along this end 
of the line. Next season the work on the road is to be com- 
menced at three difierent points — Superior, Gordon, and Hud- 
son ; and on this division one thousand men will be employed. 

" The St. Croix and Lake Superior Railroad Company in- 
tend erecting next spring a substantial dock and warehouse on 
their depot grounds at the mouth of the Nemadji River. The 
dock will be three hundred feet long by fifty wide, and the 
warehouse one hundred and ten feet front by forty deep, tlie 
timbers for which are now being got out, and the first install- 
ment is to be delivered on the ground the present week. 

" The proprietors of Superior are constructing a very ex- 
tensive dock on the river bank opposite to the depot grounds of 
the .railroad company. It commences on the bay front, about 
seven hundred feet from the mouth of the river, and runs from 
thence a distance of two thousand feet. It is to be fifty feet 
"Wide, and connected with the mainland by a causeway over the 
marsh at the foot of Robinson Avenue 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 79 

" A company to erect a Masonic Hall was organized last 
summer, with a capital stock of S7,000. It was placed under 
contract, and the work begun, but owing to the difficulty in 
collecting assessments in consequence of the absence of many 
of the stockholders, it was suspended until next spring. It is 
proposed to erect a very large hotel in the vicinity of this Hall 
next summer, at a cost of 880,000, but as the organization is 
not perfected, we can make but a brief allusion to it. 

'• Several years ago Congress made an appropriation of 
$15,000 to build a light-house at this place ; but, like all other 
matters intrusted to government officials, its commencement has 
been unnecessarily delayed. It is under contract, and as the 
limitation allowed for its completion will expire next fall, we 
feel pretty sure that its construction will be commenced on the 
opening of navigation. 

" The arrivals at this port for the past three years bear the 
following comparison : 



Yea s. 

1S54 


Steaml)oats. 
2 .... 


Sailing Vessels. 
5 


T0t:ll. 

.. 7 


1S55 


23 .... 


10 ,.'.... 


.. m 


1S56 


40 .... 


16 


.. 56 



" This table shows an increase in 1855 over 1854 of 2G ves- 
sels, and an increase in 1856 over 1855 of 23 vessels." 

Portland, St. Louis Co., i\Iin., advantageously situated at 
fhe extreme west end of Lake Superior, seven miles N.W. from 
Supei ior City, is a place of growing importance, where is a 
good steamboat landing, with bold shore. This is the capital 
of the county, and bids fair to be a successful competitor with 
Superior City for the carrying trade of the Great West and 
Pacific coa-st. Along the shore of the lake northward are to be 
seen bold sandy bluffs and highlands, supposed to be rich in 
mineral wealth. 

Fond du Lac, St. Louis Co., Min., is situated on St. Louis 
Ptiver, 20 miles above its entrance into Lake Superior. Vessels 
of a large class ascend to this place, being within four miles of 
■yie St. Louis Falls, having a descent of about 60 feet, affording 
an immense water-power. Here are sandstone and slate quar- 
ries, from which stone and slate are quarried, and extensively 
used for building purposes. Iron and copper ore abound in the 
vicinity. These advantages bid fair to make this point a mart 
of commerce and manufacture. 



80 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

St. Louis Kiver, flowing into tlie S.TV. end of Lake Supe- 
rior, is a large and important stream, and is navigable for 
steamers and lake craft for upward of 20 miles from its mouth. 
Above the falls (where the water has a descent of 60 feet, pre- 
senting a beautiful appearance) , the river is navigable for canoes 
and small craft for about 80 miles farther. This river is the 
recipient of the waters of several small lakes lying almost due 
north of its outlet, its head waters flowing south from near 
Rainy Lake. 

Clifton, St. Louis Co., I\Iin., situated 11 miles N,E. of the 
head of Lake Superior, is a new settlement. In the vicinity 
are rich copper mines and good farming lands. 

BuRLiivGTOn" is another new settlement, situated northeast 
of Clifton, possessing similar advantages. 

ENCAMPMENT is the name of a river, island, and village, 
where is a good harbor, the mouth of the river being protected 
by the island. On the river, near its entrance into the lake, 
are falls aifording fine water-power. Cliffs of greenstone are to 
be seen, rising from 200 to 300 feet above the water's edge, pre- 
senting a handsome appearance. To the north of Encampment, 
along the lake shore, abound porphyry and greenstone. This 
locality is noted for a great agitation of the magnetic needle ; 
the depth of water in the vicinity is too great for vessels to 
anchor, the shores being remarkably bold, and in some places 
rise from 800 to 1,000 feet above the water. 

Hiawatha is another new settlement, situated on the west 
shore of Lake Superior, where is found copper ore and other 
valuable minerals, precious stones, etc. 

Grand Portage, Min., advantageously situated on a secure 
bay, near the mouth of Pigeon River, is an old station of the 
Amea-ican Fur Company. Here is a Roman Catholic Mission, a 
block-house, and some 12 or 15 dwellings. Mountains from 800 
to 1,000 feet Jire here seen rising abruptly from the water's 
edge, presenting a bold and sublime appearance. 

Pigeon Bay and River forms the northwest boundary 
between the United States and Canada, or the Hudson Bay 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 81 

Company's territory. Pigeon River is but a second-class stream, 
and by its junction with Arrow River continues the boundary 
through Rainy Lake and River to the Lake of the Woods, 
where the 40th degree of north latitude is reached. The mouth 
of Pigeon River is about 48 degrees north latitude, and 89 de- 
grees 30 minutes west from Greenwich. 

Along the whole west shore of Lake Superior, from St. Louis 
River to Pigeon River, are alternations of metamorphosed 
schists and sandstone, with volcanic grits and other imbedded 
traps and porphyry, with elevations rising from 800 to 1,200 
feet above the lake, often presenting a grand appearance. 

Pie Island, lying northeast of Grand Portage, is a large 
island belonging to the British. Hills some 700 feet in height 
are here to be seen, presenting a wild and romantic appearance, 
being formed in part of green rock. 

Thunder Cape is a bold promontory on the north, rising 
1,350 feet above the waters of the lake; inside of this point 
lies Thunder Bay, a large and picturesque sheet of water. 

Isle Roy ale, Houghton Co., Mich., being about 45 miles in 
length from N.E. to S.W., and from 8 to 12 miles in width, is 
a rich and important island, abounding in copper ore and other 
minerals, and also precious stones. The principal harbor and 
only settlement is on Siskowlt ^iz^y,. being on the east shore of 
the island, about 50 miles distant from Eagle Harbor, on the' 
main shore of Michigan. 

The other harbors are — Washington Harbor on the south- 
west, Todd's harbor on the west, and Rock Harbor and Chip- 
pewa Harbor on the northeast part of the island. In some 
places on the west are perpendicular clifis of greenstone, very 
bold, rising from the water's edge, while on the eastern shore 
conglomerate rock or coarse sandstone abounds, vnth. occasional 
stony beach. On this coast are many islets and rocks of sand- 
stone., rendering navigation somewhat dangerous. Good fish- 
ing grounds abound all around this island, which will, no 
doubt, before many years, become a favorit-e summer resort for 
the invalid and sportsman, as well as the scientific tourist. 



82 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

SisKowiT Lake is a considerable body of water lying near 
tlie center of the island, "wMch apparently has no outlet. Other 
small lakes and picturesque inlets and bays abound in all parta 
'if the island. Hills, rising from 800 to 400 feet above the 
Avaters of the lake, exist in many localities throughout the 
island. 

Fort William, an Hudson Bay Company's post, situated at 
the mouth of Kaministequoi River, is a very important locality. 
Besides the fort and Company's buildings, here is a Roman 
Catholic Mission and some 200 resident inhabitants of a mixed 
character, mostly in the employ of the gigantic Company, which 
here holds undisputed sway. Here commences the Portage road 
to Pembina and the Red River Settlement. 

The Kaministequoi River is a large and rapid stream, with 
a fall of about 200 feet perpendicular descent some SO miles 
above its mouth. Canoes descended from this point in about 
four hours ; but the ascent is long and tedious. The river is 
represented as containing many beautiful rapids and islands, 
also as abounding in fish of various kinds. It empties its pure 
waters into Thunder Bay. The scenery around Thunder Bay 
is very grand, the mountains, rising 1,000 feet and upward above 
the surface of the water, have a very imposing effect. 

Black Bay and River is another important locality, being 
in part surrounded by high elevations, presenting a romantic 
and picturesque appearance. 

Neepigon Bay and River, situated at the north extremity 
of Lake Superior, is a wild and almost unknown region of 
country. The bay contains several islands, and the river is 
represented as being a large and rapid stream rising far toward 
the north, and from thence flowing through a wilderness of great 
picturesque beauty. 



RED RIVER OF THE NORTH. 83 

EED EIVEE OF THE XOETH. 
This interesting section of country being closely connected 
mth tlie trade of the Upper Lakes, and attracting much atten- 
tion at the present time, "we subjoin the foUomng extract from 
"Minnesota and Dacotah," by C. C. Andrews — 1857 : 

"It is common to say that settlements have not been extended 
beyond Crow Wing, Min, This is only technically true. A few 
facts in regard to the people who live four or five hundred miles 
to the north will best illustrate the nature of the climate and 
its adaptedness to agriculture. 

'■There is a settlement at Pembina, where the dividing line 
between British America and the United States crosses the 
Red RiV'ir of the North. It didn't extend there from our fron- 
tier, sure enough. If it extended from anywhere, it must have 
been from the north, or along the confines of that mystic region 
called ilainy Lake. Pembina is said to have about 609 inhab- 
itants. It is situated on the Pembina River. It is an Indian- 
French word meaning ' Cranberry.' Men live there who were 
born there, and it is in fact an old settlement. It was founded 
by British subjects, who thought they had located on British 
soil. The greater part of its inhabitants are half-breeds, who 
earn a comfortable livelihood in fur-hunting and farming. It 
is 460 miles northwest of St. Paul, and 330 miles distant from 
Crow Vving. Notwithstanding the distance, there is consider- 
able communication between the places. West of Pembina, 
about thirty miles, is a settlement called St. .Joseph, situated 
near a large mythological body of water called Muiiwakin, or 
Devil's Lake. 

" Now let me say something about this Red River of the 
North, for it is beginning to be a great feature in this upper 
country. It runs north and empties into Lake Winnipeg, which 
connects with Hudson Bay by Nelson River. It is a muddy and 
sluggish stream, navigable to the mouth of the Sioux Wood 
River for vessels of three feet draught for four months in the 
year, so that the extent of its navigation mthin Minnesota 
alone (between Pembina and the mouth of Sioux Wood River) 
is 400 miles. Buffaloes still feed on its western banks. Its 
tributaries are numerous and copious, abounding with the 
choicest kind of game, and skirted with a various and beauti- 
ful foliage. It can not be many years before this magnificent 
valley (together with the Saskatchawan) shall pour its pro- 
ducts into our markets, and be the theater of a busy and 
genial life. 

"Red River Settlement is seventy miles north of Pembina, 
and lie? on both sides of the river. Its population is estimated 



84 HUDSON BAY COMPANY. 

at 10,000 souls. It owes its origin and growth to the enterprise 
and success of the Hudson Bay Company. Many of the settlers 
came from Scotland, hut the most were from Canada. They 
speak EngHsh and Canadian French. The English style of 
society is well kept up, whether we regard the church with its 
bishop, the trader with his wine-cellar, the scholar with his 
library, the ofi&cer with his sinecure, or their paper currency. 
The great business of the settlement, of course, is the fur 
traffic. 

" An immense amount of buffalo skins is taken in summer 
and autumn, while in the winter smaller but more valuable 
furs are procured. The Indians also enlist in the hunts ; and 
it is estimated that upward of $200,000 worth of furs are an- 
nually taken from our territory and sold to the Hudson Bay 
Company. It is high time indeed that a military post should 
be established somewhere on Red River by our government. 

" The 'Hudson Bay Company is now a powerful monopoly. 
Not so magnificent and potent as the East India Company, it is 
still a powerful combination, showering opulence on its members, 
and reflecting a pecuhar feature in the strength and grandeur 
of the British empire — a power^ which, to use the eloquent 
language of Daniel Webster, ' has dotted over the whole surface 
of the globe with her possessions and military posts, whose 
morning drum-beat following the sun, and keeping company 
with the hours, circles the earth daily with one continuous and 
unbroken strain of martial music' The company is growing 
richer every year, and its jurisdiction and its lands will soon 
find an availability never dreamed of by its founders, unless, as 
may possibly happen, popular sovereignty steps in to grasp 
the fruits of its long apprenticeship." 

The charter of the Hudson Bay Company expires, by its own 
limitation, in 1860, and the question of annexing this vast 
domain to Canada, or forming a separate province, is now 
deepl}^ agitating the British public, both in Canada and in the 
mother country. 



THE HUDSON BAY COMPAITY'S CHAETEE. 

From a Correspondent of the Toronto Globe, dated, July, 1856. 

Sir — In the year 1670 Charles the Second created nine in- 
dividuals a corporate body, and granted them a charter under 
the style and title of the '• Hudson Bay Company." 

" The preamble of 'Jie charter sets forth, ' that whereas cer- 



HUDSON BAY COMPANY. 85 

tain parties had at their own cost and charges undertaken an 
expedition for Hudson Bay, for the discovery of a new passage 
into the South Sea, and for finding some trade for furs, miaerals, 
and other considerable commodities, etc. ; now know ye that we, 
being desirous to promote all endeavors tending to the public 
good and encourage the said design, have granted.' 

" The words of the grant are these following : 

*' ' We do give, grant, and confirm unto the said governor and 
company, and their successors, the sole trade and commerce of 
all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and sounds, in 
whatsoever latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance 
of the strait commonly called Hudson Strait, together with 
all the lands and territories upon the countries, coasts and con- 
fines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, 
that are not already actually possessed by the subjects of any 
other Christian prince or state ; with the fishery of all sorts of 
fish, whales, sturgeon, and all royal fishes in the seas, bays, 
inlets and rivers within the premises, and the fish therein taken, 
together with the royalty of the sea upon the coasts within the 
limits aforesaid, and all mines royal as well discovered as not 
discovered, of gold, silver, gems and precious stones, to be found 
or discovered within the territories, limits and places aforesaid ; 
and that the said land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed 
as one of our plantations or colonies in America called Ruperfs 
Land. And furthermore we do grant unto the said governor 
and company, and their successors, that they and their success- 
ors, and their factors, servants, and agents for them, and on 
their behalf, and not otherwise, shall forever hereafter have, 
use and enjoy, not only the whole, entire and only trade and 
traffic, and the whole, entire and only liberty, use and privilege, 
of trading and trafficing to and from the territory, limits, and 
places aforesaid, but also the whole and entire trade and traffic 
to and from all havens, bays, creeks, rivers, lakes, and seas, 
into which they shall find entrance or passage by water or land, 
out of the territories, limits and places aforesaid, and to and 
with all nations and people inhabiting or which shall inhabit 
within the territories, limits and places aforesaid, and to and 
with all other nations inhabiting any of the coasts adjacent to 
the said territories, limits and places, which are not already 
possessed as aforesaid, or whereof the sole liberty or priyilege of 
trade or traffic is not yet granted to any other of our subjects.' 
' Who can say what constituted Rupert's Land ; or where it 
was supposed to be situated ? And who can undertake to ex- 
plain or give a true construction of the meaning of the absurdly 
vague and indefinite language in which the grant in question is 
supposed to be made ? 

" K this grant of land is worth any thing at all, or if it con- 

8 



86 HUDSON BAT COMPANY. 

veys any estate -whatever to tlie Hudson Bay Company, it must 
be confined to those islands lying loithin the entrance of the 
strait, and can not be made to convey any other portion. 

'• The entrance of the strait is from the Atlantic, and the 
southern boundary of the strait is Labrador ; its coas^t can not 
be said to be within the entrance of the strait, nor can Hudson 
Bay, distant some 800 miles from that entrance, in the common 
acceptation of the term, be said to be within the entrance of the 
strait ; much less can the lands and shores of Hudson Bay be 
said to lie loithin the entrance of the strait. 

" If ever the claims of the Hudson Bay Company are brought 
before a judicial tribunal for investigation, the interpretation 
which shall be given this charter (if charter it is) will be in tlie 
strictest and most limited sense, and not in the enlarged and 
extended one which that Company have given to it. 

" At all events, ' within the straif must mean such a prox- 
imity to the strait as would give the lands spoken of an affinity 
or relation to Hudson Strait, and not such lands as from their 
immense distance have no such geographical affinity or relation 
to that strait. In this case the nearest point to Hudson Bay 
is 700 miles, nevertheless the Hudson Bay Company set up a 
claim to 1,500 miles beyond this point — 2,200 miles from ivithin 
the entrance of Hudson Strait. 

" The immense extent of country claimed is not warranted 
by any possible construction of the charter, and is wholl}'' in- 
consistent with the objects of a trading company, who evidently 
are not calculated to found kingdoms or establish states and 
empires. 

" Although Henry Hudson is supposed to be the discoverer 
of Hudson Bay. for he sailed into the strait that now bears 
his name in 1610, and perished there that year, nevertheless 
France laid claim to all that territory as early as 1 598. In 
that year letters patent were granted by Henry the 4th of 
France to Sieur de la Roche, creating him Governor-General of 
Canada, Hochelaga, Terres Nueves, Labrador, and the river of 
the great Bay of Norrembegue. 

•' On the 29th April, 1627, Louis the 13th granted a charter to 
a company called ' Le Compagnie de la Nouvelle France,' to 
which company was also -ranted the exclusive trade and pos- 
session of the country called La JVouvcUe France, for a per.\>d 
of fifteen years. Now the boundaries of ' La Nouvell.; France,' 
as described at that time, include the whole of Hudson Strait 
and Hudson Bay, and in fact all that country extending to the 
Pa,cific Ocean which the Hudson Bay Company now claim. 

"By the treity of Saint Gerinain-en-Laye in March, 1632, 
Charles the 1st of England resigned to Louis the 13 th of France 
*he sovereignty of Acadia, La JVouvelle France, and Canada. 



HUDSON BAY COMPANY. 87 

" Some time about 1663, according to Charlevoix, a party of 
Englisii adventurers, guided by two French deserters, built a 
trading establishment on Hudson Bay, and subsequently 
erected two or three others. This act was regarded by France 
as one of usurpation, and accordingly in 1686 an expedition was 
sent from Canada under the command of Chevalier de Troyes, 
who destroyed the establishments and drove away the possess- 
ors, alleging that the country thus occupied by them was in the 
dom.nions of ihe king of France. During the war that subse- 
quently ensued between France and England, these places were 
taken by the English, and retained until the treaty of Kyswick 
in 16^6. ' By that treaty they were again restored to France, 
and they remained in her possession until 1714, when by the 
treaty of Utrecht the whole of the Hudson Bay countries were 
ceded to England; since which period the whole country has 
continued in her possession. 

'■ Thus it is clear that at the time when Charles made the 
grant to the Hudson Bay Company, it was not his to grant, 
even if there had been no doubt as to his power. The treaty of 
Kyswick actually destroyed the charter, by surrendering the 
country to France ; and when by the treaty of Utrecht it was 
ceded to England in 1714, that country came to the crown of 
England clearly freed from any stipulations as to the reserva- 
tion of any vested or other right whatever. 



THE HUDSON BAY CO'SlFA^sY. 
To tJie Editor of the Toronto Glole : 

Sir — In a city paper, of the 29th ultimo, I have read -with 
much pleasure some observations relative to the Hudson Bay 
Company, and the charter under which that Company assume 
an exclusive control over half a continent. 

" The period has now arrived when Canada should assert her 
right in relation to a matter of so important a nature, and in 
which her vital interests are most deeply involved. And it is 
time that her mercantile community should inquire by what 
authority it is that a company, consisting of some two hundred 
shareholders, in the city of London, claim the exclusive right to 
trade oves' a country extending from the coast of Labrador on 
the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west, and bounded on the 
north only by the Arctic seas ? • 

" When we know that this community of commercial adven- 
turers draw their wealth and influence and power solely from 
the traffic carried on within this immense circuit of country, 
we are induced to ask, how does it happen that the mercantile 



88 HUDSON BAY COMPANY. 

community of Canada, liying, as it ■n'cre, "within the very sphere 
of their action, are dead to all those commercial enterprises 
which, for nearly a century past, has annually poured into the 
coffers of this monopoly a copious shower of wealth ? 

" The reply probably will be, 'It is not that our merchants 
are unenterprising or unpatriotic — but as the Hudson Bay 
Company posssss an exclusive right to trade throughout that 
country, all others are by law prohibited.' 

" While I admit that this is the general impression, I contend 
that it is an impression designedly created and artfully main- 
tained by the Hudson Bay Company, in order that they may 
more securely profit by the monstrous imposture. 

" There was a time when a company of Canadian merchants 
successfully disputed the assumed claims of the Hudson Bay 
Company. 

" That which then was accomplished may now be done again. 

" The Northwest Company of Montreal pushed their enter- 
prises to an extent which this chartered one of Charles the 
Second had never then attempted. And the Northwest Com- 
pany carried these enterprises into effect at a time when the 
means of transport were in its very infancy. The bark canoe 
was the only conveyance by which merchandise was conveyed 
from JMontreal, or by which the rich productions of even in 
those times the mighty West were brought in return to that city. 

"If we draw a comparison between the manner in which 
that trade was carried on, and the mode in which it could now 
be conducted, while we can not but admire the energy and the 
enterprise of the merchants of that day, we must admit that 
those of the present time are enabled to enjoy advantages which 
the Northwest Company could not have dreamed of. 

" Where the light canoe of former times could scarcely float, 
or where these were obliged to discharge their cargoes and em- 
bark them at the extremity of some portage, ships of one thou- 
sand tons burden now float, and a ship navigation is now opened 
from Montreal to half way across the continent ; instead of the 
canoe timidly hugging the shores of the great lakes, the steamer 
and propeller are now seen mid-lake pursuing their courses, 
undeterred by wind or wave. 

" The course of trade, as conducted in those days, required 
two years' time to complete an order for goods sent by the trader 
in the West. The usual time for dispatching such orders was 
in the autumn, when the canoes were about to return for Mon- 
treal. Sometimes these orders did not arrive in time to be for- 
warded by the fall ships to England, in which case they had to 
lay over for the spring ships, or rather summer. When the 
goods arrived in the spring at Montreal, they were then em- 
baiked in canoes, and reached Lake Nippising via the Ottawa 



HUDSON BAT COMPANY. 89 

Kiver ; from Lake Nippising they readied Lake Huron by tlie 
French River, thence along Lake Huron to the Ste Marie Kiver 
to Lake Superior ; and coasting Lake Superior they reached the 
Kaministequoi., up the Kaministequoi to Lac la Pluie, down Lac 
la Pluie and the La Pluie Pdver to the Lake of the Woods, 
^long the Lake of the Woods to the Winnipeg, thence to Lake 
Winnipeg, around Lake Winnipeg to the Saskatchawan River, 
by it to Great Slave Lake, thence to the plains of Athabasca, 
and across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, making 
the distance thus traveled over 4,000 miles, and having to un- 
load and reload their canoes at innumerable portages between 
Montreal and the place of their destination. In conducting 
this traffic 500 French voyageurs were employed, and in ad- 
dition to these were the numerous hunters and traders engaged 
in the service of this Company, in all, perhaps, to the number 
of 2,C'00 or more. And these men were all inhabitants of Can- 
ada who were thus early engaged in developing the rich pro- 
ductions of their country, and Canada at large was benefited 
by the trade, for the wealth it brought was freely fluug back 
to circulate through those various industrial pursuits of life 
which a trade like this had called into action. 

" Had the Northwest Company continued in existence, there 
is no doubt but the country along the great Lakes Huron and 
Superior would not now be the ' terra incognita' that it is ; 
the portals leading to the West, such as the Kaministequoi and 
Pigeon rivers, would not have been closed, as it were, under 
lock and key, but the voyageurs making these the thoroughfare 
of their traffic would have speedily opened out the country to 
population and production, other traders or merchants would 
have followed in their wake, and settlements would have sprung 
up along the channel down which this vast and important trade 
was conducted, by Canadian enterprise alone. The waters and 
the woods that were then enlivened by the stir and bustle of 
these active and enterprising merchants, and cheered by the 
lively songs of the happy voyageur, are now silent and desert- 
ed ; for the whole of the trade of that western country is now 
directed to the shores of Hudson Bay, there to be stowed in 
Hudson Bay Company's ships for the city of London. 

" Some idea may be formed of the magnitude of the trade of 
the Northwest Company by these facts. In four years from the 
time of the formation of that Company, the net return of the 
profits of that year was £50,000, a sum of money which ex- 
ceeded the original capital invested. In three years afterward, 
the annual net profits had amounted to £150,000; and each 
ensuing year these profits were annually increasing, until the 
contests of the two companies led to open warfare, and this 
resulted in a union of interests. 

8* 



90 HUDSON BAT COMPANY. 

" The Hudson Bay Company, ho-wever, had in fact "been driven 
from all commercial rivalry, and it was only when they found 
that neither fraud nor force in Canada, nor courtly favor, nor 
parliamentary influence in England, could succeed in driving 
the Northwest Company from their pretended teniture, they 
offered to compromise their disputes, and proposed to share 
with the Northwest Company of Montreal their imaginary 
privileges, in order that all other adventurers to that country 
should be excluded a participation in the spoils. 

" Ifc was thus that the Hudson Bay Company bribed the rivals 
whom they could not defeat, and the Northwest Company sub- 
scribed to the existence of claims or rights which they had 
heretofore defied and disputed, fortified by the opinions of such 
men as Lord Brougham, Sir Vickery Gibbs, Sir Arthur Pigot, 
Mr. Sponkie, jMr. Braidoft, and others. 

" Had the Hudson Bay Company dared to test the validity of 
their charter in a court of law, it would have been proclaimed 
to the world that every British subject had a right to trade 
and traffic, unfettered and uncontrolled, throughout that coun- 
try, for that the Koyal Charter under which the Hudson Bay 
Company claimed exclusive privileges there was illegal, was 
null and void. 

" By changing the route of transport to and from the West, 
the shorter and better one, via the Lakes, became unfrequented, 
and its very existence almost forgotten, and the now limited 
companies traded without the apprehension of exciting the 
rivalry of others. 

" Their trade was kept a secret — no one witnessed the pass- 
age of imports upward, nor the productions downward from 
hunting-grounds, claimed by a company irresponsible to any 
law, or to any country. So secret even now are all the opera- 
tions of that Company, that the fiu-s taken within ninety miles 
of Penetanguishene are transported to Lake Superior, thence 
to Hudson Bay for shipment to London. 

" The very productions of our own country are sold here in 
Toronto, after having been purchased at the Hudson Bay House 
in London by our merchants. 

'f The very employes of the Hudson Bay Company, who are 
engaged in the Orkney Islands at low wages, are taken to Lake 
Superior via Hudson Bay, lest these men should learn that they 
could engage elsewhere at higher wages, which they would do 
if taken to Lake Superior via the St. Lawrence route. Within 
these few years past, since the mining interests have awakened 
attention to Lake Superior, these men frequently leave the em- 
ployment of the Hudson Bay Company, and such acts are de- 
nominated by the Company's agents ' desertion,' and they are 
often arbitrarily imprisoned. 



HUDSON BAT COMPANY. 91 

'* With tliis introduction, which, is very far from being such 
as the merits of the subject require, let me now ask your read- 
ers to take the map of North America, trace the lines of that 
section of British Xorth America styled Canada, containing 
about 350,000 square miles, then compare it mth that which is 
denominated the Territories of the Hudson Bay Company, this 
portion will be found to comprise ahont four millions of square 
miles, and to this must be added very large portions of Canada 
which for years past have been subjected to the despotic control 
and blighting influences of this monstrous monopoly. 

" Two hundred stockliolders hi London, without a single 
bond or tie of any nature to the true interests of Canada, claim 
to hold four millions of square miles in British Amei'ica as 
their hunting-grounds. Of these four millions of square miles, 
one million four hundred thousand abound in all those mate- 
rials which can contribute to agricultural and to natural 
wealth. Before, however, entering upon the subject of the 
capabilities and advantages which those sections of our coun- 
try for agricultural, mechanical, and mercantile pursuits pos- 
sess, I propose to show what, in fact, is this supposed charter 
of the Hudson Bay Company Huron." 



" HuDsox Bay, or Sea, was discovered by Henry Hudson 
in 1610. It is about 900 miles in length, by 600 at its greatest 
breadth, with a surrounding coast of 3,000 miles. It lies be- 
tween the parallels of 51° and 65° north latitude, and in ex- 
tent is about six times as large as Lake Superior. The coasts 
are generally high, rocky, rugged, and sometimes precipitous. 
The bay is navigable for a few months in summer, but for the 
greater part of the remainder of the year is filled up with 
fields of ice. The transitions of the thermometer in summer are 
from 100° to 40^^ in two days, and the torrents of rain are sur- 
prising ; the range of the thermometer throughout the year is 
140°. The sea is entered by Hudson Strait, on the northeast, 
which is about 500 miles long, with a varying breadth, and 
with an intricate navigation obstructed by several islands. The 
principal bays and inlets in this great inland sea are, James' 
Bay, on the southeast, which is 24(1- miles long by 140 wide ; 
Button's Bay and Port Nelson on the western coast, and Ches- 
terfield Inlet on the northwest, which, after stretching far into 
the interior, terminates in a fresh-water lake." — Hudson Bay 
Territories, by R. M. Martin. Esq. 



92 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

Ste IjsNACE Island is a large and bold extent of land lying 
on the north shore of Lake Superior, forming, ynth. other islands, 
the outward barrier to Neepigon Bay. Here may be seen 
mountains rising from 1,000 to 1,300 feet above the lake. Cop- 
per and other minerals abound in this region. 

The Slate Islat^ds, lying east of Ste Ignace, are also largo 
bodies of land, lying some 10 or 12 miles south of the main 
shore, Tvhich is bold and precipitous, and supposed to abound 
with copper ore and other minerals. 

Pic Island and River lie still farther east. At the mouth 
of the river is situated a post of the Hudson Bay Company. 
This is a large stream, affording six feet of water over the bar 
at its mouth. 

MiCHipicoTEiv IsLAKTD is a large and bold body of land; in 
some places the surface rises 800 feet above the waters of the 
lake. The shores abound with greenstone and amygdaloid, 
while in the interior is found copper and silver ores. Here was 
located the Lake Superior Silver Mining Company of Canada. 

]\IiCHiPicoTEw Harbor and River is another favorable 
and important locality. The river is navigable to the falls, 15 
miles. It rises near the source of Moose River, which empties 
into James' Bay. 

In this vicinity are found iron and copper ore of good quality. 
At the mouth of the river is situated a post of the Hudson Bay 
Company, from whence the Portage road extends northward 
about 300 miles to James' Bay, on the south end of Hudson 
Bay. 

This road has been traveled in six days from Lake Superior 
to Moose Fort, situated on James' Bay, although the usual time 
is from eight to ten days. A chain of forts or trading-houses 
is passed along this line, situated for the most part on Moose 
River, emptying into the head of James' Bay, near 52° N. lat. 
The time, no doubt, will soon arrive, when the Canadian public 
■wiU claim this route for the purpose of trade and commerce, it 
forming a most direct comniunication between the Arctio 
Ocean, Hudson Bay, Lake Superior, and the lower lakes. 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 93 

Montreal Island and Eiver is another locality south of 
Rlichipicoten, "which abounds in minerals of different kinds. 

Caribou i%a small island lying about 30 miles south of 
Michipicoten, near the middle of the lake. It is usually passed 
in sight when the steamers return along the north shore on 
pleasure excursions 



In order to give an idea of these magnificent excursions, we 
copy the following advertisement which appeared in a Cleveland 
paper in August, 1856 : 

Two Grand Pleasure Excursions around Lake Superior. 

The new, staunch, upper-cabin and low-pressure steamer 
Planet, Capt. Joseph Nicholson, will make two pleasure excur- 
sions to Lake Superior, as follows : 

First. — Leave Cleveland on Monday, August 18th, and De- 
troit on Tuesday, August 19th. Second. — Leave Cleveland on 
Thursday, August 28th, and Detroit on Friday, August 29th ; 
touching at Mackinac, passing through the Saut Ste Marie 
Canal, and also pass in view the Pictured Rocks and Grand 
Island by daylight; visit Marquette (the iron region), Cop- 
per Harbor, Eagle Harbor, Eagle River, Ontonagon (the 
copper region). La Pointe (the fairy region) — thence passing 
over to Pigeon Bay, Prince's Bay, Pie Island, and Isle Royale, 
on the north- shore, and returning by the south shore. A fine 
view of the Michipicoten and Caribou islands is also obtained. 

The Planet is new, 1,200 tons burden, low-pressure engine 
of 1,000 horse-power; has an upper cabin 210 feet long, and 
splendid accommodations for 300 passengers, but on these trips, 
that they may be in fact, as well as in name. Pleasure Excur- 
sions, the number will be limited to 175. 

A good band of music will be in attefidance to enliven the 
scene, and no expense will be spared to make these excursions 
the most agreeable that have been made to Lake Superior. 

The price of tickets for the excursion round will be Forty 
Dollars from Cleveland, and Thirty-six Dollars from Detroit. 
Those wishing to remain over one trip can do so, and return 
the second trip ot the Planet, without extra charge. 

E. B. Ward, Detroit. 



94 LAKE SUPERIOR,. 

NORTHEEJ^ SHORE OF LAKE SUPEEIOR. 

Extract from Report on the Geology of the Lake Su'perior 
Counti-y, by Foster and Whitivey : • 

NoRTHT^.RN Shor^. — " Beginning at Pigeon Bay, the bound- 
ary between the United States and the British Pcssessiona 
(north latitude 48°), we find the eastern portion of <he penin- 
sula abounds with bold, rocky cliifs, consisting of trap and red 
granite. 

'•The Falls of Pigeon Pviver, eighty or ninety feet in ho'ght, 
are occasioned by a trap dyke which cuts through a series of 
slate rocks highly indurated, and very similar in mineralogical 
characters to the old graywacke group. Trap dykes and in- 
terlaminated masses of traps "were observed in the plate near 
the f=ills. 

" The base of neaidy all the ridges and cliffs between Pigeon 
River and Fort William (situated at the mouth of Kaministequoi 
River, the western boundary of Upper Canada) is made up of 
these slates, and the overlaying trap. Some of the low islands 
exhibit only the gray grits and slates. Welcome Islands, in 
Thunder. Bay, display no traps, although, in the distance, they 
resemble igneous products, the joints being more obvious than 
the planes of stratification, thus giving a rude semi-columnar 
aspect to the cliffs. 

" At Prince's Bay, and also along the chain of islands which 
lines the coast, including Spar, Victoria, and Pie islands, the 
slates with the crowning traps are admirably displayed. At 
the British and North American Company's works the slates 
are traversed by a heavy vein of calc-spar and amethystine 
quartz, yielding gray sulphuret and pyritous copper and 
galena. From the vein where it cuts the overlaying trap on 
the main shore, considerable silver has been extracted. 

" At Thunder Cape, the slates form one of the most pictur- 
esque headlands on the whole coast of Lake Superior. They 
arc made up of variously colored beds, such as compose the up- 
per group of Mr. Logan, and repose in a nearly horizontal po- 
sition. These detrital rocks attain a thickness of nearly a 
thousand feet, and are crowned with a sheet of trappean rocks, 
three hundred feet in thiclaiess. 

'• At L'Anse a la Bouteille (opposite the Slate Islands, on the 
north shore of Lake Superior) the slates re-appear, with the 
granite protruding through them, and occupy the coast for fif- 
teen miles; numerous dykes of greenstone, bearing east and 
west, are seen cutting the rocks vertically. The Slate Islands 
form a part of this group, and derive their name from their 
geological structure 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 95 

" Tliey are next seen, according to Mr. Logan, for about 
seven miles on each side of the Old Pic River. Near Ottei'liead 
a gne'ssoidal rock forms the coast, which presents a remarkable 
regular set of strata, in vrhich the constituents of syenite are 
arranged in thin sheets and in a highly crystalline condition. 
From this point to the Michipicoten River the slates and gran- 
ite occupy alternate reaches, along the coast, for the distance 
of fifty miles. ' With the exception of a few square miles of 
the upper trap of gargantua, these two rocks appear to hold 
the coast all the way to the vicinity of Pointe aux Mine, at the 
extremity of which they separate from the shore, maintaining 
a nearly straight southeasterly line across the Batchewanung 
Bay, leaving the trap of Mamainse between them and the lake. 
Thsnce they reach the northern part of Goulais Bay, and 
finally attain the promontory of Gros Cap, where they consti- 
tute a moderately bold range of hills, running eastwardly 
toward Lake Huron.' "* 



FISHEEIE3 OF LAKE SUPEEIOE. 

Good fishing-grounds occur all along the north shore of Lake 
Superior, afibrding a bountiful supply of white fish, Mackinac 
trout, and many other species of the finny tribe. On the south 
Bhore there are fisheries at White Fish Point, Grand Island, near 
the Pictured Rocks, Keweenaw Point, La Pointe, and Apostles' 
Islands, and at different stations on Isle Royale, where large 
quantities are taken and exported ; but there are no reliable 
statistics as to the number of men employed or the niimber of 
barrels exported. Between the head of Keweenaw Point and 
tlie mouth of the Ontonagon River, considerable quantities of 
fish are taken, for which there is a ready market at the mining 
stations. In addition to the white fish and Mackinac trout, the 
siskawit is occasionally taken. Its favorite resort, however, is 
the deep water in the vicinity of Isle Royale. 

Lake Superior Trout-Fishing in Winter. — The Lake 
Superior Journal says : 

" x\ngling through the ice to a depth of thirty fathoms of 
* Canadian Eepart, 1846-T. 



96 LAKE SUPERIOR. 

water is a novel mode of fishing somewliat peculiar to this 
peculiar region of the vrorld. It is carrying the war into fish- 
dom with a vengeance, and is denounced, no doubt, in the com- 
munities on the bottom of these northern lakes as a scaly piece 
of warfare. The large and splendid salmon-trout of these 
waters have no peace ; in the summer they are enticed into the 
deceitful meshes of the gill-net, and in the winter, when they 
hide themselves in the deep caverns of the lakes, with fifty 
fathoms of water above their heads, and a defense of ice two 
or three feet in thickness on the top of that, they are tempted 
to destruction by the fatal hook. 

" Large numbers of these trout are caught every winter in 
this way on Lake Superior ; the Indian, always skilled in the 
fishing business, knows exactly where to find them and how to 
kill them. The whites make excursions out on the lake in 
pleasant weather to enjoy this sport. There is a favorite resort 
for both fish and fishermen near Gros Cap, at the entrance of 
Lake Superior, through the rocky gateway between Gros Cap 
and Point Iroquois, about 18 miles above the Saut, and many a 
large trout, at this pomt, is pulled up from its warm bed at the 
bottom of the lake, in winter, and made to bite the cold ice in 
this upper world. To see one of these fine fish, four or five feet 
in length, and weighing half as much as a man, floimdering on 
the snow and ice, weltering and freezing to death in its own 
blood, oftentimes moves the heart of the fisherman to expres- 
sions of pity. 

" The modus operandi in this kind of great trout-fishing is 
novel in the extreme, and could a stranger to the business over- 
look at a distance a party engaged in the sport, he would cer- 
tainly think they were mad, or each one making foot-races 
against time. A hole is made through the ice, smooth and 
round, and the fisherman drops down his large hook, baited 
with a small herring, pork, or other meat, and when he ascer- 
tains the right depth, he waits — with fisherman's luck — some 
time for a bite, which in this case is a pull altogether, for the 
fisherman throws the line over his shoulder, and walks from the 
hole at the top of his speed till the fish bounds out on the ice. 
We have known of as many as fifty of these splendid trout 
caught in tliis way by a single fisherman in a single day ; it is 
thus a great source of pleasm'e and a valuable resource of food, 
especially in Lent, and the most scrupulous anti-pork believers 
might here ' iown pork and up fish' «nithout any offense to con- 
science." 



CHICAGO. 

The City of Chicago is advantageously situated on the west 
s'de of Late Michigan, at the mouth of Chicago River, in N. 
lat. 41° 52', and W. long, from Greenwich 87° 35'. It is ele- 
vated six to eight feet above the lake, which secures it from 
ordiaary floods, and extends westward on both sides of the 
river, about two miles distant from its entrance into Lake 
Michigan, the front on the lake being three or four miles from 
north to south. The tarbor has a depth of from twelve to four- 
teen feet of water, which makes it a commodious and safe 
haven ; and it has been much improved artificially by the con- 
struction of piers, which extend on each side of the entrance of 
the river for some distance into the lake, to prevent the accu- 
mu tation of sand upon the bar. The light-house is on the south 
side of the harbor, and shows a fixed light on a tower forty feet 
above the surface of the lake ; there is also a beacon-light on 
the end of the pier. In a naval and military point of view, 
this is one of the most important ports on the upper lakes, and 
should be strongly defended, it being the " Odessa" of these 
inland seas. 

The city contains a court-house, the county buildings, Rush 
INIedical College, a commercial college, a marine hospital, a 
United States land-ofl&ce, market houses, sixty churches, eight 
banks, several fire and marine insurance companies, and a 
number of large hotels ; gas-works, and water-works. The 
manufacturrag establishments of Chicago are numerous and 
extensive, consisting of iron-foundries and machine shops, rail- 
road car manufactory, steam saw, planing, and flouring mills, 
manufactories of agricultural implements, etc. Numerous 
steamers and propellers ply between this place and Satit Ste 
Marie, Lake Superior ports, CoUingwood, Detroit, Buffalo, and 
the various intermediate ports. Estimated population in. 1856, 
100,000. 

9 



98 CHICAGO. 

The inhiois and Michigan Canal, connecting Lake Michiga.h 
with Illinois River, which is 60 feet wide at the top, 6 feet deep 
and 107 miles in length, including five miles of river navigation, 
terminates here, through which is brought a large amount of 
produce from the south and southwest; and the numerous rail- 
roads radiating from Chicago add to the vast accumulation 
which is here shipped for the Atlantic sea-board. Chicagc 
being within a short distance of the most extensive coal-fields 
to be found in Illinois, and the pineries of ]\Iichigan and ^Yis 
consin, as well as surrounded by the finest grain region on the 
face of the globe, makes it the natural outkt for the varied and 
rich produce of an immense section of fertile country. 

EAILEOADS DIVEEGING FEOM CHICAGO. 

Miles. 

1. Chicago and Milwaukee 55 

2. Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac* o'lO 

3. Fox iliver Yalley and Wisconsin Central* 75 

4. Galena and Chicago Union, (to Dunleith) Ibb 

Beloit Branch, and Beloit and ^ladison. 

5. Chicago, Fulton and Iowa Air Line 1S6 

6. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 210 

7. Chicago and Rock Island 182 

8. Chicago, Alton and St. Louis 290 

9. Illinois Central — Chicago Branchf Sito 

10. Pittsburgh, Foi't Wayne and Chicago* 470 

11. Cincinnati, Peru and Chicago* 87 

12. Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana 247 

13. Michigan Central (and New Albany and Salem). . . . 282 

Total 2.'J97 



* Unflnished railroads. 

T At this time the Illinois Central Eailroad is the means of connecting 
Chicago with Cairo and St. Louis on the south, and with Galena and 
Dunleith on the west, forming a total line of road of 722 miles, as follows' 

ILLIXOIS CEKTEAL EAILKOAD — AXD ITS BEAXCHES. 

Cairo to Lasalle — Main Line 80S mllei . 

Lasalle to Dunleith— Galena Branch 147 " 

Chicago to Centralia— Chicago Branch 2G7 " 

Total 722 miles. 



CHICAGO. 99 



PKOGEESS OF CHICAGO AXD THE GEEAT WEST. 

" Twenty years ago the city of Chicago, Illinois, was an in- 
significant town at the southern end of Lake Michigan ; now, 
her granaries, her storehouses, her railroad depots, and her 
private dwellings are scarcely surpassed hy those of any city 
in the Union for their solidity, enormous dimensions, and their 
unexampled cost, giving evidence of rapid wealth, caused by 
her lake commerce and her railroad concentrations. 

" The ' Democratic Press' of that city has just made up its 
annual statistical statement of the progress of Chicago, and from 
it we copy the annexed statistics, which the editor says may be 
relied on. It is headed ' Fifth annual review of the prospects, 
condition, traffic, etc., of the railroads centering in Chicago, 
with a general sumfhary of the business of the city for 1856.' 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

Total number of miles of railway in the State of 

Illinois now in operation 2,761 

Increase in 1856 351 

Increase in the State in five years (over 500 miles 

per year) 2,666 

Total earnings of all the railways centering in Chi- 
cago for the year 1856 $17,84.3,242 

Increase of 1856 over 1855 84,045,041 

Population of Chicago in 1850 29,963 

in 1852 38,783 

'' in 1854 74,500 

in 1855 82,750 

" « January 1, 1857 (estimated) 110,000 

Total receipts of grain in Chicago for the year 1855, 

bushels 20,487,953 

Total receipts of grain, being the largest primai-y 
grain port in the world, for the year 1856 (in- 
crease in 1856 over 20 per cent.), bushels 24,674,824 

Total shipments of grain from the port of Chicago 

for the year 1856, bushels 21,583,221 

Total amount of corn received in 1856, bushels. . . . 11,888,&98 
Total amount of wheat received in 1856, bushels . . 9,392,365 
Total number of hogs, alive and dressed, received 

in Chicago for 1855-56 ' 308,539 

Total number of shipments, alive and dressed 170,831 

Averaging the weight at only 200 pounds, and the 
price at §5 per hundred, the value of the hogs 

received would be $3,585,880 

Number of barrels o* beef packed in 1856 33,038 



100 CHICAGO. 

Receipts of lumber at the port of Chicago for the 
year 1850, being the largest lumber market in 
the world, feet 456,673,169 

Receipts of lead for the year 1856, pounds 9,527,506 

Now laid up in the port of Chicago, steamers and 

sail vessels 245 

Total number of vessels arriving in Chicago for the 
year 1856 7,328 

Total tonnage of vessels arriving in this port for the 
year 1856 1,545,379 

Amount of imposts received at the Chicago custom- 
house on foreign goods for the past year $102,994 

Total amount of capital invested in manufactures 
during the year 1856, showing an increase of 
$1,464,400 over 1855 $7,759,400 

Total number of hands employed, showing an in- 
crease over 1855 of 1,838 10,573 

Total value of manufactured articles, showing an 
increase of $4,483,572 $15,515,003 

Total amount invested during the year 1856 in im- 
provements, stores, dwellings, hotels, etc., show- 
ing an increase over 1855 of 81,973,370 $5,708,624 

Total number of passengers carried west by four 
principal railways leading out of Chicago 639,666 

Total number remaining west above those who re- 
turned on these four lines 107,653 

Total number of passengers moved on all the roads 

centering in Chicago 3,850,000 

" The editor remarks, in conclusion : ' The total movement 
on the principal railway lines centering at Chicago waald be 
about 3,350,000 passengers. 

" The above facts and figures will be regarded with special 
satisfaction by all our citizens, and by the people of the North- 
west generally. They show a healthy, but rapid and most 
astonishing progress. It may be doubted whether the whole 
history of the civilized world can furnish a parallel to the vig- 
orous growth and rapid development of the country which has 
Chicago for its commercial metropolis. When it is remembered 
that twenty years ago she was not an incorporated city, and 
less than a quarter of a century since the Indians still had 
possession of the largest portion of this magnificent country, 
these facts, stubborn and incontestable though they be, seem 
more like the dreams of some vagrant imagination than sober 
matters of reality, which scores of men still among us have 
themselves seen and realized." 



PORTS OF LAKE MICHIGAN. 101 



POETS OF LAKE MICHIGAN LYING- ON THE EAST AND 
SOUTH SHOEES. 

Michigan City, Ind., situated at the extreme south end of 
Lake Michigan, is distant 45 miles from Chicago by water, and 
228 miles from Detroit by railroad route. The JS^cw Albany 
and Salem Railroad, 228 miles in length, terminates at this 
place, connecting with the Michigan Central Railroad. Sev- 
eral plank roads also terminate here, affording facilities for 
crossing the extefesive prairies lying in the rear. Here a.ro 
several large storehouses situated at the mouth of Trail Creek, 
intended for the storage and shipment of wheat and other pro- 
duce; 15 or 20 stores of diiferent kinds, several hotels, and 
a branch of the State Bank of Indiana. It was first settled in 
1831, with the expectation that it would become a great em- 
porium of trade ; but owing to the want of a good harbor, and 
the rapid increase of Chicago, the expectation of its founders 
have not been realized. It now contains about 3,000' inhab- 
itants, and is steadily increasing in wealth and numbers. 

New Buffalo, Mich., lying 50 miles east Chicago by steam- 
boat route, is situated on the line of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, 218 miles west of Detroit. Here has been erected a light- 
house and pier, the latter affording a good landing for steamers 
and lake craft. The settlement contains two or three hundred 
inhabitants, and several stores and storehouses. It is sur- 
rounded by a light, sandy soil, which abounds all along the 
east and south shores of Lake Michigan, 

St. Joseph, Berrien Co., Mich., is advantageously situated 
on the east shore of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of St. Joseph 
River, 194 miles west of Detroit. Here is a good harbor, afford- 
ing about 10 feet of water. The village contains about 1,000 
inhabitants, and a number of stores and storehouses. An 
active trade in lumber, grain, and fruit is carried on at this 
place, mostly with the Chicago market, it being distant about 
70 miles by water. Steamers of a small class run from St. 

9* 



102 PORTS OF LAKE MICHIGAN. 

Joseph to Niles and Constantine, a distance of 120 miles, to 
wliicli place the St. Joseph River is navigable. Stages also run 
to Niles and Dowagiac, connecting with trains on the Michigan 
Central E,ailroad. 

St. Joseph River rises in the southern portion of Michigan 
and Northern Indiana, and is about 250 miles long. Its general 
coui-^e is nearly westward ; is very sei'pentine, with an equable 
current, and flowing through a fertile section of country. There 
are to be found several flourishing villages on its banks. Tho 
principal are Constantine, Elkhart, South Bend, Niles, and 
Berrien. 

Niles, situated on St. Joseph River, is 26 miles above its 
mouth by land, and 191 miles from Detroit by railroad route. 
This is a flourishing village, containing about 3,000 inhab- 
itants, five churches, three hotels, several large stores and flour- 
ing mills ; the country around producing large quantities of 
wheat and other kinds of grain. A small class of steamers run 
to St. Joseph below and other places above, on the rivea% afibrd- 
ing great facilities to trade in this section of country. 

The Ports extending from Grand Haven to Saginaw Bay are 
fully described in another portion of this work, as well as the 
bays and rivers falling into Lakes Michisran and Huvoti 



TRIP FROM CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE 

MARIE. 



Ojy starting from the steamboat wharf near the mouth of the 
Chicago River, the Marine Hospital and depot of the Illinois 
Central Railroad are passed on the right, while the Lake House 
and lumber-yards are seen on the left or north side of the 
stream. The government piers, long wooden structures, afford 
a good entrance to the harbor; a light-house has been con- 
structed on the outer end of the north pier, to guide vessels to 
the port. 

The basin completed by the Hlinois Central Railroad to facili- 
tate commerce is a substantial work, extending southward for 
near half a mile. It affords ample accommodation for loading 
and unloading vessels, and transferring the freight to and from 
the railroad cars. 

The number of steamers, propellers, and sailing vessels 
annually arriving and departing from the harbor of Chicago 
is very great ; the carrying trade being destined to increase in 
proportionate ratio with the population and wealth pouring 
into this favored section of the Union. 

On reaching the green waters of Lake Michigan, the city of 
Chicago is seen stretching along the shore for four or five miles, 
presenting a fine appearance from the deck of the steamer. 
The entrance to the harbor at the bar is about 200 feet wide. 
The bar has from ten to twelve feet water, the lake being sub- 
ject to about two feet rise and fall. The steamers bound for 
Milwaukee and the northern ports usually run along the west 
shore of the lake within sight of land, the banks rising from 
thirty to fifty feet above the water.* 

* The thermometer stood at 70° Fahrenheit, Sept. 26, 1854, the day 
being thick and foggy with little or no wind. 



104 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 

Lake Michigan is about seventy miles average widtli, and 
S40 miles in extent from Michigan City, Ind., on the south, to the 
Strait of Mackinac on the north ; it presents a great expanse 
of water, now traversed by steamers and other vessels of a large 
class running to the Saut Ste Marie and Lake Superior ; to 
Collingwood, Can. ; to Detroit, Mich. ; to Cleveland Ohio ; and 
to Buffalo, N. Y. From Chicago to Buffalo the distance is 
about 1,000 miles by water; while from Chicago to Superior 
City, at the head of Lake Superior, or Fond du Lac, the dis- 
tance is a]30ut the same, thus affording two excursions of 1,000 
miles each over four of the great lakes or inland seas of America, 
in steamers of from 1,000 to 2,000 tons burden. During the 
summer and early autumn months the waters of this lake are 
comparatively calm, affording safe navigation. But late in the 
year, and during the winter and early spring months, the 
navigation of this and the other great lakes is very dan- 
gerous. 

Waukegast, Lake Co., 111., 36 miles north of Chicago, is hand- 
somely situated on elevated ground, gradually rising to 50 or 60 
feet above the water. Here are two piers, alight-houso, several 
large storehouses, and a neat and thriving town containing about 
6,000 inhabitants, six churches, a bank, several well-kept hotels, 
thirty stores, and two steam-flouring mills. 

Kenosha, Wis., 52 miles from Chicapco, is elevated 30 or 40 
feet above the lake. Here is a small harbor, a light-house, 
storehouses, mills, etc. The town has a population of about 
5,000 inhabitants, surrounded by a fine back country. Here is 
a good hotel, a bank, several churches, and a number of stores 
and manufacturing establishments doing a large amount of 
business. The Kenosha and Beloit Railroad, when finished, 
will connect at the latter place with a railroad running to Madi- 
son, and thence to the Mississippi River. 

The City of Racine, Wis., 02 miles from Chicago and 25 
miles south of Milwaukee, is built on an elevation some forty 
or fifty feet above the surface of the lake. It is a handsome 
and flourishing place. Here is a light-house, piers, storehouses. 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 105 

etc. , situated near the water, while the city contains some fine 
public buildings and private residences. The population is 
about 9,000, and is rapidly increasing. Racine is the second 
city in the State in commerce and population, and possesses a 
fine harbor. Here are located the county buildings, fourteen 
churches, several hotels, and numerous stores of different kinds. 

The Racine and Mississippi Railroad, extending from this 
place to Beloit, 68 miles, will be continued to the Mississippi 
River at Savanna. The Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad also 
runs through the town. 

The City of Milwaukee, Wis., 86 miles from Chicago, by 
railroad and steamboat route, is handsomely situated on rising 
ground on both sides of the Milwaukee River, at its entrance into 
Lake Michigan. In front of the city is a bay or indentation 
of the lake, afibrding a good harbor, except in strong easterly 
gales. The harbor is now being improved, and will doubtless 
be rendered secure at all times of the season. The river affords 
an extensive water-power, capable of giving motion to ma- 
chinery of almost any required amount. The city is built upon 
beautiful slopes, descending toward the river and lake. It has 
a court-house, city hall, a United States land-office, the Uni- 
versity Institute, a college for females, three academies, three 
orphan asylums, thirty churches, several well-kept hotels, ex- 
tensive ranges of stores, and several large manufacturing estab- 
lishments. The city is lighted with gas, and well supplied with 
good water. Its exports of lumber, agricultural produce, etc., 
are immense, giving profitable employment t© a large number 
of steamers and other lake craft, running to different ports caa 
the upper lakes, Detroit, Buffalo, etc. The growth of this city 
has been astonishing ; twenty years since its site was a wilder- 
ness; now it contains over 30,000 inhabitants, and of a class in- 
ferior to no section of the Union for intelligence, sobriety, and 
industry. 

The future of Milwaoikee it is hard to predict ; here are cen- 
tering numerous railroads finished and in course of construc- 
tion, extending sou ^h. to Chicago, west to the Mississippi River, 



100 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 

and nortli to Lake Superior, \yliich in connection witli the De- 
troit and Milwaukee Railroad, terminating at Grand Haveu, 
80 miles distant by water, and tlie lines of steamers running to 
this port, will altogether give an impetus to this favored city, 
blessed with a good climate and soil, which the future alone 
can reveal. 

During the past year an unusual number of fine buildings 
have been erected, and the commerce of the port has amounted 
to $00,000,000. The bay of :\Iilwaukee offers the best advant- 
ages for the construction of a harbor of refuge of any point on 
Lake Michigan. The city has expended over $100,000 in the 
construction of a harbor ; this needs extension and completion, 
which will no doubt be effected. 

Port Washington, Ozaukee Co., "Wis., 25 miles north of 
Milwaukee, is a flourishing place, and capital of the county. 
The village contains besides the public buildings, several 
churches and hotels, twelve stores, three mills, an iron foundry, 
two breweries and oldier manufactories. The population is about 
2,500. Here is a good steamboat landing, from which large 
quantities of produce are annually shipped to Chicago and other 
lake ports. ^ 

The unfortunate steamer Niagara, while on her passage from 
Collingwood to Chicago, was destroyed by fire off Port Wash- 
ington in September, 185G, whereby sixty lives were lost 

Sheboygan, Wis., 50 miles north of Milwaukee and 180 
miles from Chicago, is a thriving place, containing about 5,000 
inhabitants. Here are seven churches, several public houses and 
stores, together with a light-house and piers ; the harbor being 
improved by government works. Large quantities of lumber 
and agricultural products are shipped from this port. The 
country in the interior is fast settling with agriculturists, the 
soil and climate being good.* A railroad is about being con- 
etructed from this place to Foxd du Lac, 42 miles west, lying 



* September !>T, 1S54, the thermometer stood at 60^ Fahr., with a light 
wind, from the north. 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND S^UT STE MARIE. 107 

at the head of Lake Winnebago ; also, another railroad to 
extend to Milwaukee on the south and G reen Bay on the north- 
west. 

Maivitouwoc, "Wis., 70 miles north of Milwaukee and 33 
miles east from Green Bay, is an important shipping port. It 
contains ahout 2,500 inhabitants ; five churches, several public 
houses, twelve stores, besides several storehotvses ; three steam 
saw-mills, two ship-yards, light-house, and pier. Large quan- 
tities of lumber are annually shipped from this port. The har- 
bor is being improved so as to afford a refuge for vessels during 
stormy weather. 

The west bank of Lake Michigan is here elevated about 60 or 

80 feet, presenting a rough appearance in many places, with 

sundry bluffs rising from the water's edge to the level of the 

country, above which it is clothed with heavy timber of different 

kinds. 

" Manitouwoc is the most northern of the harbors of Lake 
Michigan improved by the United States government. It de- 
rives additional importance from the fact tliat, when completed, 
it will afford the first point of refuge from storms for shipping 
bound from any of the other great lakes to this or to the most 
soiithern ports of Lake Michigan." 

Two Rivers, Wis., eight miles north from Manitouwoc, is a 
new and thriving place at the entrance of the conjoined streams 
(from which the place takes its name) into Lake Michigan. 
Two piers are here erected, one on each side of the river ; also 
a ship-yard and three steam saw-mills. The village contains 
about 2,000 inhabitants. This section of country, extending 
back to Green Bay, abounds in good timber, which is prepared 
and shipped to Chicago and other ports. Fish are taken in 
large quantities, and sent to different markets. 

Kewaunee, Wis., 25 miles north of Two Pdvers and 102 
miles from Milwaukee, is a small shipping town, where are 
situated several saw-mills and lumber establishments. Green 
Bay is situated about 25 miles due west from this place. 

From Manitouwoc and Two Rivers, in a northerly direction, 
the country is still, for the most part, a wild wilderness, in- 



108 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT 6TE MARIE. 

habited sparsely by Indians of different tribes. The following 
is an extract from the Manitouwoc Tribune of March, 1857 : 

EOMAifCE OF THE FOEEST. 

" Some months since we gave the particulars of a horrible 
occurrence which happened in our immediate neighborhood, 
rivaling in interest the thrilling story of the eagle's victim, on 
the mountain of Switzerland No traces of the child which the 
bear carried off in such a daring manner have as yet been 
found ; but the excitement which such an incident awakens is 
gradually dying away, and is now replaced by that of one of 
more recent date, scarcely less thrilling in its <ietail. 

" Last week a Mr Woodward, living near Sandy Bay, had 
some difficulty with an Indian, The next day his little girl, 
three years of age, was standing near the house, when an In- 
dian sprang out of the thickets, and clasped her in his arms, 
and bounded away through the underbrush. Pursuit was com- 
menced immediately, but up to Saturday without success, though 
information had been received which, it was hoped, would lead 
to the recovery of the child — an Indian and a squaw having 
been seen the day after the abduction carrying a child which 
was closely wrapped in a blanket, and was crying bitterly." 

On leaving Two Rivers, the steamers usually run for the 
Manitou Islands, Mich., a distance of about 100 mi'es. Soon 
after the last vestige of land sinks below the horizon on the 
west shore, the vision catches the dim outline of coast on the 
east or Michigan shore at Point aux Betsie, which is about GO 
miles south of the Great Manitou Island. From this point, 
passing northward by Slecjnng Bear Point, a singular shaped 
headland looms up to the view. It is said to resemble a sleep- 
ing bear. The east shore of Lake Michigan presents a suc- 
cession of high sand-banks for many miles, while inland are 
nmnerous small bays and lakes. 

Little, or South Manitou Island, 250 miles from Chicago 
and 100 miles from Mackinac, lies on the Michigan side of the 
lake, and is the first island encountered on proceeding north- 
ward from Chicago. It rises abruptly on the west shore 2 or 
300 feet from the -water's edge, sloping toward the east shore, 
on which is a light-house and a fine harbor. Here steamers 
BtoD for wood. The Great or North Manitou is nearly twice 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND BAUT STE MARIE. l09 

as large as the former island, and contains about 14,000 acres 
of land. Both islands are settled by a few families, "whose 
principal occupation is fishing and cutting wood for the use of 
steamers and sailing vessels. 

Fox Islands, 60 miles north from South Manitou, consist of 
three small islands lying near the middle of Lake Michigan, 
which is here about 60 miles wide. On the west is the entrance 
to Green Bay, and on the east is the entrance to Grand Trav- 
erse Bay, and immediately to the north is the entrance to Lit- 
tle Traverse Bay. 

Great and Little Beaver islands, lying about midway 
between the Manitou Islands and Mackinac, are large and fer- 
tile bodies of land, and are at present occupied by Mormons, 
who have here their most eastern settlement. 

Garden and Hog islands are next passed before reaching 
the Strait of jNIackinac, which, opposite Old Fort Mackinac, is 
about six miles in width. The site of Old Fort Mackinac is on 
the south main or Michigan shore, directly opposite Point Ste 
Ignace, on the north main shore. St. Helena Island lies at the 
entrance of the strait from the south, distant about fifteen 
miles from Mackinac. 

Old Fort Mackinac is an important and interesting loca- 
tion ; it was formerly fortified and garrisoned for the protection 
of the strait and this section of country when inhabited almost 
exclusively by various tribes of Indians. This place can be 
easily reached by sail-boat from the island of Mackinac. 

Pte la Gros Cap, lying to the west of Old Fort Mackinac, is 
a picturesque headland well worthy of a visit. 

The Strait or Mackinac is from five to twenty miles in 
width, and extends east and west about thirty miles, embosoming 
several important islands besides ^Mackinac Island, the largest 
being Bois Blanc Island, lying near the head of Lake Huron. 
Between this island and the main north shore the steamer 
Garden City was wrecked. May 16, 1854 ; her upper works 
were still visible from the deck of the passing steamer in the 
fall of the same year 

10 



110 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE 

Grosse Ile St. Martin and He St. Martin lie mthin the 
waters of the strait, eight or ten miles north of the island of 
Mackinac. In the neig;hborhood of these different islands are 
the favorite fishing-grounds both of the Indian and the " pale 
face." 

The town and fortress of Mackinac is most beautifully situ- 
ated on the east shore of the island, and extends for a distance 
of about one mile along the water's edge, and has a fine harbor 
protected by a water battery. This important island and 
fortress is situated in N. lat. 45° 54', W. Ion. 84° 30' from 
Greenwich, being seven degrees thirty minutes west from 
Washington. It is 350 miles north from Chicago, 100 miles south 
of Saut Ste Marie by the steamboat route, and about 300 miles 
northwest from Detroit. Fort Mackinac stands on elevated 
ground, about 200 feet above the water, overlooking the pictur- 
esque town and harbor below. In the rear, about half a mile 
distant, stands the ruins of old Fort Holmes, situated on the 
highest point of land, at an elevation of about 350 feet above the 
water, affording an extensive view. 

The town contains two churches, two hotels, ten or twelve 
stores, 100 dwelling-houses, and about 600 inhabitants. The 
climate is remarkably healthy and delightful during the summer 
months, when this favored retreat is usually thronged with 
visitors from different parts of the Union, while the Indian 
warriors, their squaws and their children, are seen lingering 
around this their favorite island and fishing-ground.* 

The island of Mackinac, lying in the Strait of Mackinac, is 
about three miles long and two miles wide. It contains many 
deeply interesting points of attraction in addition to the village 
and fortress ; the principal natural curiosities are known as the 
Arch Rock, Sugar Loaf, Lover's Leap, Devil's Kitchen, Robin- 
son's Folly, and other objects of interest weU worthy the atten- 
tion of the tourist. The Mission House and Grove House are 
the principal hotels. 

* Sept. 28, 1854, the thermometer stood at 50° Fahr. Very pleasant 
■weather with light wind, not having seen a wave break for two days. 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. Ill 

ISLA^T) OF MACKINAC. 

The view given represents the Island, approacliing from the 
eastward. " A cliff of limestone, white and weather-beaten, 
with a narrow alluvial plain skirting its base, is the first thing 
which commands attention;" but, on nearing the harbor, the 
village (2), with its many picturesque dwellings, and the fort- 
ress (3), perched near the summit of the Island, are gazed at 
with wonder and delight. The promontory on the left is called 
the " Lover's Leap" (1), skirted by a pebbly beach, extending 
to the village. On the right is seen a bold rocky precipice, 
called " Robinson's Folly" (5), while in the same direction is 
a singular peak of nature called the " Sugar Loaf." Still far- 
ther onward, the " Arched Rock" and other interesting sights, 
meet the eye of the explorer, affording pleasure and delight, 
particularly to the scientific traveler and lover of nature. On 
the highest ground, elevated about 350 feet above the waters 
of the Strait, is the signal station (4), situated near the ruins 
of old Fort Holmes. 

The settlement of this Isl^d was commenced in 1764. In 
1793 it was surrendered to the American government ; taken 
by the British in 1812 ; but restored by the treaty of Ghent, 
signed in November, 1814. 







^t). 






.^ iillWiw 



-"^*»; 













s^yj^, \ \i 




M 



-LQSSINC-^BAdRlTT.- 

Abched Roce:. — Mackinac. 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 113 

The whole island of Mackinac is deeply interesting to the 
scientific explorer, as •well as to the seeker of health and pleas- 
ure. The following extract, illustrated by an engraving, is 
copied from " Foster arid Whitney's Geological Reporf of 
that region : 

" As particular examples of denuding action on the island, 
we would mention the ' Arched Rock' and the ' Sugar Loaf.' 
The former, situated on the eastern shore, is a feature of great 
interest. The cliffs here attain a height of nearly one hundred 
feet, Avhile at the base ai'e strewn numerous fragments which 
have fallen from above. The Arched Rock has been excavated 
in a projecting angle of the limestone cliff, and the top of the 
span is about ninety feet above the lake-level, surmounted by 
aboiit ten feet of rock. At the base of a projecting angle, 
which rises up like a buttress, there is a small opening, through 
which an explorer may pass to the main arch, where, after 
clambering over the steep slope of debris and the projecting 
edges of the strata, he reaches the brow of the cliff. 

" The beds forming the summit of the arch are cut off from 
direct connection with the main rock by a narrow gorge of no 
great depth. The portion supporting the arch on the north 
side, and the curve of the arch itself, are comparatively fragile, 
and can not, for a long period, resist the action of rains and 
frosts, which, in this latitude, and on a rock thus constituted, 
produce great ravages every season. The arch, which on one 
side now connects this abutment with the main cliff, will soon 
be destroyed, as well as the abutment itself, and the whole be 
precijiitated into the lake. 

" It is evident that the denuding action, producing such an 
opening, wirh other attendant phenomena, could only have 
operated while near the level of a large body of water, like the 
great lake itself ; and we find a striking similarity between the 
denuding action of the water here in time past, and the same 
action as now manifested in the range of the Pictured Rocks 
on the shores of Lake Superior. As an interesting point in the 
scenery of this island, the Arched Rock attracts much atten- 
tion, and in every respect is worthy of examination." (See 
Engraving.) 

Other picturesque objects of great interest, besides those 
enumerated above, occur at every turn on roving about this 
enchanting island, where the pure, bracing air and clear waters 
afford a pleasurable sensation, difficult to be described, unless 
visited and enjoyed. 



114 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 

EouND Island is a small body of land lying a short distance 
southeast of Mackinac, while Bois Blanc Island is a large 
body of land lying still farther in the distance, at the head of 
Lake Huron, here about 30 miles wide, which width it aver- 
ages for about 50 miles, when it widens to 100 miles and up- 
ward. 

Point de Tour, 40 miles east from Mackinac, is the site of a 
light-house and settlement, at the entrance of St. Mary's River, 
which is here about half a mile in width ; this passage is also 
called the West Channel. At a distance of about two miles 
above the Point is a new settlement, where has been erected a 
steamboat pier, a hotel, and several dwellings. 

Drummond Island, a large and important body of land 
belonging to the United States, is passed on the right, where is 
to be seen the ruins of an old fort erected by the British. On 
the left is the mainland of Northern Michigan. Ascending St. 
Mary's River next is passed Roxjnd or Pipe Island, and other 
smaller islands on the right, most of them belonging to the 
United States. 

On Drummond Island is said to exist a fine and valuable 
quality of stone, as will be seen by the following extract : 

" A correspondent of the New Haven Journal denies the ac- 
curacy of the assertion that the deposit of lithographic stone 
lately found in Kentucky is the first discovery of that species 
of stone in the United States. The writer says that he obtained 
a specimen of the same kind of stone in 1825 at Drummond 
Island, at the entrance of th^ strait between Lakes Huron and 
Superior, where the supply was apparently inexhaustible. The 
stone was carried to Boston and tested by a lithographer, who 
said it was equal, if not superior, to the German stone. At 
that time, however, Drummond Island was far less accessible 
than Germany, and the discovery was, therefore, of no prac- 
tical value." 

St. Joseph Island, 10 miles above Point de Tour, is a 
large and fertile island belonging to Canada, which is more 
fully described on page 43. It is about 20 miles long from east 
to west, and about 15 miles broad, covered in part with a heavy 
growth of forest trees. Here is seen the ruins of an old fort 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 115 

erected by the British on a point of land commandijig the chan- 
nel of the riyer. 

Carltonville is a small settlement on the Michigan side of 
the river, 12 miles above the De Totit. Here is a steam saw- 
mill and a few dwelling-houses. 

Lime Island is a small body of land belonging to the United 
States, lying in the main channel of the river, about 12 miles 
from its mouth. The channel here forms the boundary between 
the United States and Canada. 

Mud Lake,, as it is called, owing to its waters being easily 
riled, is an expansion of the river about five miles wide and 
ten miles long, but not accurately delineated on any of the 
modern maps, which appear to be very deficient in regard to 
St. Mary's River and its many islands — presenting at several 
points most beautiful river scenery In the St. Mary's River 
there are about 50 islands belonging to the United States, be- 
sides several attached to Canada. 

Nebish Island and Sailor's Encampment, situated about 
half way from the Point to the Saut, are passed on the left 
while sailing through the main channel. 

Sugar Island, a large body of fertile land belonging to the 
United States, is reached about 30 miles above Point de Tour, 
situated near the head of St. Joseph Island. On the right is 
passed the British or JS'^orth Channel, connecting on the east 
with Georgian Bay. Here are seen two small rocky islands 
belonging to the British Government, which command both 
channels of the river. 

The JVebish Rapids are next passed by the ascending vessel, 
the stream here running about five knots per hour. The main 
land of Canada is reached immediately above the rapids, being 
clothed with a dense growth of forest trees of small size. To 
the north is a dreary wilderness, extending through to Hudson 
Bay, as yet almost wholly unexplored and unknown, except to 
the Indian or Canadian hunter. 

Lake George, twenty miles below the Saut is another ex- 
pansion of the river, being about five miles wide and eight miles 



116 CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 

long. Here the channel is only from eight to ten feet in depth 
for about one mile, forming a great impediment to navigation. 

Church's Landing, on Sugar Island, twelve miles below the 
Saut, is a steamboat landing ; opposite it is Squirrel Island, 
belonging to the Canadians. This is a convenient landing, where 
is situated a store and dwelling. The industrious occupants are 
noted for the making of raspberry jam, which is sold in large 
quantities, and shipped to Eastern and Southern markets. 

Garden River Settlement is an Indian village ten miles be- 
low the Saut, on the Canadian shore. Here is a missionary 
church and several dwellings, surrounded by grounds poorly 
cultivated, fishing and hunting being the main employment of 
the Chippewa Indians who inhabit this section of country. 
Both sides of the river abound in wild berries of good flavor, 
which are gathered in large quantities by the Indians, during 
the summer months.* 

Extract from a letter dated Saut Ste Marie, Sept., 1854 : 
" The scenery of the St. Mary's River seems to grow more 
attractive every year. There is a delicious freshness in the 
countless evergreen islands that dot the river in every direction 
from the Falls to Lake Huron, and I can imagine of no more 
tempting retreats from the dusty streets of towns, in summer, 
than these islands; I believe the time will soon come when 
neat summer cottages will be scattered along the steamboat 
route on these charming islands. A summer could be delight- 
fully spent in exploring for new scenery and in fishing and sail- 
ing in these waters. 

" And Mackinac, what an attractive little piece of terra firma 
is that island — half ancient, half modern ! The view from the 
fort is one of the finest in the world. Perched on the brink of 
a precipice some two hundred feet above the bay — one takes in 
at a glance from its walls the harbor, with its numerous boats 
and the pretty village ; and the whole rests on one's vision more 
like a picture than a reality. Every thing on the island is a 
curiosity ; the roads or streets that wind f.round the harbor or 
among the grove -like forests of the island are naturally pebbled 
and macadamized ; the buildings are of every style, from an 
Indian lodge to a fine English house. The island is covered with 
charming natural scenery, from the pretty to the grand, and 

* Sept. 30, 1S54, the thermometer stood at 42^ Fahr., at the Saut Ste 
Marie, in the n:?:>rmng, a fine day for the season, with little or no wind. 



CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 117 

one may spend weeks constantly finding new objects of interest 
and new scenes of beauty. It is unnecessary to particularize — 
every visitor will find them, and enjoy the sight more than any 
description. 

" The steamers all call there, on their way to and from Chicago, 
and hundreds of small sail vessels, in the fishing trade, have 
here their head-quarters. Drawn upon the pebbled beach or 
gliding about the little bay are bark canoes and the far-famed 
" Mackinac boats," without number. These last are the perfeo* 
tion of light sail-boats, and I have often been astonished at see- 
ing them far out in the lake beating up against winds that were 
next to gales. Yesterday the harbor was thronged with sail- 
boats and vessels of every description, among the rest were the 
only two iron steamers that the United States have upon all the 
lakes, the " Michigan" and the " Surveyor," formerly called 
the " Abert," employed in the coast survey. 

" For a wonder, Lake Huron was calm and at rest for its en- 
tire length, and the steamer Northerner made a beautiful and 
quick passage from Mackinac to this place. The weather con- 
tinues warm and dry, and hundreds are regretting they have 
so early left the Saut and Mackinac, and we believe you will 
see crowds of visitors yet. Jay." 




118 LAKE HURON. 



A SUNDAY ON LAKE HUEON. 

During the autumn of 1856 the steamer Illinois arrived 
at Saut Ste Marie on Saturday evening, on her return from a 
trip through Lake Superior, having proceeded to La Pointe, 
situated on one of the " Twelve Apostles," and thence crossed 
over to the extreme western shore of the lake, near the mouth 
of Pigeon Eiver, returning along the north or Canada shore to 
the Saut, with a pleasure party on board. 

While the steamer was detained at the wharf, below the 
mouth of the ship canal, most of the passengers, and many of 
the citizens of this ancient and romantic village, together with 
a few Canadians from the opposite shore, amused themselves by 
music and dancing ; while not a few drank deep from the in- 
toxicating bowl. This scene of pleasure was kept up until near 
midnight, when, one by one, the passengers retired to their rest, 
and the villagers bade adieu to their new-made and old ac- 
quaintances. 

The next morning the steamer was coursing her way through 
the pure and lovely waters of the St. Mary's Piiver, with every 
appearance of a fine day. After passing Sugar Island, the 
Nebish Piapids, and the island of St. Joseph, and entering the 
broad waters of Lake Huron, a most beautiful view was pre- 
sented to our gaze. In the rear was seen the entrance to the 
De Tour passage, just passed, and the British island of St. 
Joseph — on the north lay Drummond Island, attached to the 
stars and stripes, although bearing a foreign name — while in 
the far distance southward were seen the romantic island of 
Mackinac and the main shore of IMichigan. 

At this time, the hour of breakfast having passed, the Kev. 

Mr. , an Episcopal minister from Ontonagon, Mich., was 

invited to read the church service and preach a sermon, for the 
benefit of the passengers on board, among whom were persons 
of different creeds and nations. Never was a discourse more 
appropriately selected, or received with more devout attention, 



LAKE HURON. 119 

considering tlie mixed, and mostly strange, persons assembled 
in the after-cabin. 

The lake, when seen, presented a serene and quiet calmness, 
alone disturbed by the powerful machinery propelling us 
through the waters at a most rapid rate ; while the sentiments 
and rich melody of the speaker's voice lent a charm to the scene 
never to be forgot by many then present. Thus should it al- 
ways be on a Sabbath, while journeying over these magnificent 
waters, if the weather will permit — blending serious thoughts 
with the most grand and lovely objects of nature — that pro- 
duced by the view of land and water, as seen at times on the 
great lakes of North America. 

A bounteous dinner was next served up, affording delight to 
those blessed with good appetites ; while every passenger, male 
and female, seemed to enjoy the scenery that during the entire 
day was visible from the deck of the steamer. 

Thunder Bay, Saginaw Bay, and Point au Barque were passed 
in succession — the mainland on the Canada or Michigan shore 
being, for most of the time, seen in the far distance ; while 
occasionally the smoke of a passing steamer or a sail vessel 
caught the eye, silently gliding over the broad waters of Lake 
Huron. 

Were it not for the almost criminal carelessness or reckless- 
ness of many of the owners and masters of steamers navigating 
these lakes, whereby hundreds of valuable lives have been lost 
and millions of property destroyed, no more safe, instructive, 
or grand excursion could be found on the face of the globe. 



120 



STEAMBOAT ROUTE. 



STEAMBOAT EOUTE FEOM CHICAGO TO MACKINAC AND 
SATJT STE MAEIE. 

PASSING THROUGH LAKES MICHIGAN AND HURON. 



Ports, etc. 


Miles. 


Ports, etc. 


Miles. 


Chicago, 111 





Saut Ste Marie 





Waukegan 


36 


Garden River Set 


10 


Kenosha, Wis 


52 


ChurcKs Landing, ) 
Sugar Island, 5 


14 


Racine 


62 


Milwaukee 


86 


Nebish Rapids 


25 


Port JVashington 


111 


St. Joseph Is., C. W. ... 


26 


Sheboygan 


136 


Point De Tour 


50 


Manitouwoc 


156 


Mackinac, Is. and town 


95 


Two Rivers 


173 


Old Fort Mackinac 


105 


Kewaunee, (25 miles) . . . 




Hog and Garden Islands 


120 


South Manitou Is. IVIich. 


250 


Great Beaver Is 


130 


North Manitou Is 


260 
300 
315 


Fox Islands 


145 


Fox Islands 


North Manitou Is 

South Manitou Is 


185 


Great Beaver Is 


195 


Hog and Garden Islands 


325 


Kewaunee, Wis 




Old Fort Mackinac 


340 


Two Rivers 


272 


Mackinac* Is. and town 


350 


Manitouwoc 


289 


Point Be Tour 


395 


Sheboygan 


309 


St. Joseph Is., C. W. . . . 


400 


Port Washington 


334 


Nehish Rapids, ^ 
Sugar Island, JNIich. 5 


420 


Milwaukee 


359 




Racine 


383 


OhwrcKs Landing 


431 


Kenosha 


393 


Garden River Set., C. W. 


435 


Waukegan, HI 


409 


Saut Ste Makie, Mich. 


445 


Chicago 


445 



Usual Fare, $8, including 
meals. 



Usual Time, 48 hours. 



* The steamers running from Detroit and Collingwood to Green Bay 
and Chicago aU stop at this port. 



STEAMBOAT ROUTE. 



121 



STEAMBOAT KOUTE FKOM SAUT STE MAEIE TO DETEOIT.. 



PASSING THUOITGH LAKES HURON AND ST. CLA.R. 



Ports, etc. 

Satjt Ste Marie 

Garden River Set., C.W, 
Churches Landins 



Lake George 

Nebish Rapids 

St. Joseph Is., C.W.-.. 

Mud Lake 

Lime Island, Mich. . . . 
Drummond Island. . . . 
Point Be Tour, ^ 
Lake Huron, 5 ' ' 
Mackinac, (40 miles) . 

Presque Isle 

Thunder Bay Is 

Saginaw Bay 

Point au Barque , 

St. Clair River, ^ 
Fort Gratoit, 5 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Port Sarn-ia, C. W. 

St. Clair, Mich 

Newport 

Algonac , 

St. Clair Lake 

Detroit River 

Detroit 



Miles. 

10 
14 
20 
24 
25 
30 
43 
48 

50 



105 
135 
190 
210 

275 

277 

294 
304 
310 
313 
343 
350 



]■■ 



Ports, etc. 

Detroit 

Lake St. Clair 

St. Clair Flats .... 

Algonac 

Newport 

St. Clair 

Port Sarnia, C. W. 
Port Huron, ISIich. 
Fort Gratiot, 'i 
Lake Huron, 5 

Point au Barque 

Saginaw Bay 

Thunder Bay Is 

Presque Isle, 

Mackinac, (70 miles) 

Point De Tour, 'i 

St. Mary's River, ) ' ' ' ' 

Drummond Island 

St. Joseph Island, C. W. 

Lime Island 

Mud Lake 

Sugar Island 

Lake George 

ChiercJi's Landing 

Garden River Set., C.W. 
Saitt Ste Marie 



Miles- 



7 

30 

40 

46 



75 

140 
150 
215 

245 



30O 

302- 
310' 
312 
820 
32& 
330 
336 
340 
350 



Fare, $7, including meals. 



11 



Usual Time, 30 hours. 



TRIP FROM DETROIT TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE 
MARIE, PASSING THROUGH LAKE HURON. 



During the season of navigation, steamers of a large class, 
mth good accommodations for passengers, leave Detroit almost 
daily for Mackinac, for Green Bay, for Chicago, situated on 
Lake Michigan, or for the Saut Ste Marie ; from thence passing 
through the ship canal into Lake Superior, forming delightful 
excursions during the summer and the early autumn months. 

On leaving Detroit the steamers run in a northerly direction, 
passing Belle, or Hog Island, two miles distant, which is about 
three miles long and one mile broad, presenting a handsome ap- 
pearance. The Canadian shore on the right is studded with 
dwellings and well-cultivated farms. 

Peche Island is a small body of land attached to Canada, 
lying at the mouth of Detroit River, opposite which, on the 
Michigan shore, is Wind Mill Point and light-house. 

Lake St. Clair commences seven miles above Detroit ; it 
may be said to be 20 miles long and 25 miles wide, measuring 
its length from the outlet of St. Clair River to the head of De- 
troit River. Compared with the other lakes it is very shallow, 
having a depth of only from 8 to 24 feet, as indicated by Bay- 
field's chart. It receives the waters of the Upper Lakes from 
the St. Clair Strait by several channels forming islands, and 
discharges them into the Detroit River or Strait. In the upper 
portion of the lake are several extensive islands, the largest of 
which is Walpole Island; it belongs to Canada, and is inhab- 
ited mostly by Indians. All the islands to the west of Walpole 
Island belong to Michigan. The Walpole, or " Old Ship Chan- 
nel," forms the boundary between the United States and Can- 
ada. The main channel, now used by the larger class of ves- 
sels, is called the " North Channel." Here are passed the " St. 
Clair Flats," a great impediment to navigation, for the rwnoval 



DETROIT TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 12S 

of whicli Congress will no doubt make ample appropriation 
sooner or later. The northeastern channel, separating Walpole 
Island from the main Canada shore, is called " Chenail Ecarte" 
Besides the waters passing through the Strait of St. Clair, Lake 
St. Clair receives the river Thames from the Canada side, which 
is navigable to Chatham, some 24 miles ; also the waters of Clin- 
ton River from the west or American side, the latter being 
navigable to Mt. Clemens, Michigan. Several other streams 
flow into the lake from Canada, the principal of which is the 
River Sydenham. Much of the land bordering on the lake is 
low and marshy, as well as the islands ; and in places there are 
large plains which are used for grazing cattle. 

Ashley, or New Baltimore, situated on the N.W. side of 

Lake St. Clair, 30 miles from Detroit, is a new and flourishing 

place, and has a fine section of country in the rear. It contains 

three steam saw-mills, several other manufactories, and about 

' 1,000 inhabitants. A steamboat runs from this place to Detroit. 

Mt. Clemens, Macomb Co., Mich., is situated on Clinton 
River, six miles above its entrance into Lake St. Clair, and 
about 30 miles from Detroit by lake and river. A steamer plies 
daily to and from Detroit during the season of navigation. Mt. 
Clemens contains the county buildings, several churches, three 
hotels, and a number of stores and manufacturing establish- 
ments, and about 2,500 inhabitants. Detroit is distant by 
plank-road only 20 miles. 

Chatham, C. W., 46 miles from Detroit by railroad route, 
and about 24 miles above the mouth of the river Thames, which 
enters into Lake St. Clair, is a port of entry and thriving place 
of business, where have been built a large number of steamers 
and sail- vessels. 

Algonac, Mich., situated near the foot of St. Clair River, 
40 miles from Detroit, contains a church, two or three saw- 
mills, and about 600 inhabitants 

Newport, Mich., seven miles farther north, is noted for 
steamboat building, there being extensive ship-yards, where arc 
annually employed a large number of workmen. Here are fotu^ 



124 DETROIT TO MACKINAC A^D SAUT STE MARIE. 

steam saw-mills, machine shops, etc. Population about 800. 
Belle River here enters the St. Clair from the west. 

St. Clair Strait connects Lake Huron with Lake St. Clair, 
and discharges the surplus waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, 
and Huron. It flows in a southerly direction, and enters Lake 
St. Clair by six channels, the north one of which, on the Mich- 
igan side, is the only one at present navigated by large vessels 
in ascending and descending the river. It receives several 
tributaries from the west, or ^Michigan ; the principal of which 
are Black River, Pine River, and Belle River, and several rivers 
flow into it from the east, or Canadian side. It has several 
flourishing villages on its banks. It is 48 miles long, from a 
"half to a mile wide, and has an average depth of from 40 to 60 
feet, with a current of three miles an hour, and an entire de- 
scent of about 15 feet. Its waters are clear and transparent, 
the navigation easy, and the scenery varied and beautiful — 
forming, for its entire length, the boundary between the United 
States and Canada. The banks of the upper portion are high ; 
those of the lower portion are low, and in parts inclined to be 
marshy. Both banks of the river are generally well settled, 
and many of the farms are beautifully situated. There are 
several wharves constructed on the Canada side, for the con- 
venience of supplying the numerous steamboats passing and re- 
passing with wood. There is also a settlement of the Chippewa 
Indians in the township of Sarnia, Canada ; the Indians reside 
in small log or bark houses of their own erection. 

St. Clair, Mich., is pleasantly situated on the west side of 
St. Clair Strait, 56 miles from Detroit and 14 miles from Lake 
Huron. This is a thriving place, with many fine buildings, 
and is a great lumber depot. It contains the county buildings 
for St. Clair Co., several churches and hotels, one flouring 
mill, and five steam saw-mills, besides other manufacturing 
establishments, and about 3,000 inhabitants. St. Clair has an 
active business in the construction of steamers and other lake 
craft. The site of old Fort St. Clair y now in ruins, is on the 
border of the village 



DETROIT TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE. 125 

SouTHERLAND, C. W., is a Small village on the Canada shore, 
opposite St. Clair. It was laid out in 1833 by a Scotch gentle* 
man of the same name, who here erected an Episcopal church, 
and made other valuable improvements. 

Moore, C. W., is a small village ten miles below Port Sarnia 

FROMEriELD, or Talfourd's, C. W., is another small village, 
handsomely situated four and a half miles below Port Sarnia 
Here is an Episcopal church, a wind-mill, and a cluster of 
iwellings. 

Port Sarnia, C. W., 68 miles from Detroit, is an important 
place and port of entry, handsomely situated on the east bank 
of the river St. Clair, opposite Port Huron on the American 
shore, and near the foot of Lake Huron. It now contains about 
2,500 inhabitants, and is the proposed terminus of the Grand 
Trunk Railway of Canada, which will afford a speedy com- 
munication with Hamilton, Toronto, Kingston, Montreal, and 
Quebec. Steamers run from Port Sarnia to Goderich, and 
different places on the Upper Lakes, and to Detroit, etc. 

Port Huron, St. Clair Co., Mich., is very advantageously 
situated on the west bank of the civer St. Clair, at the mouth 
of Black River, two miles below Lake Huron and 68 miles from 
Detroit by water. It contains several churches, two or three 
public houses, fifteen stores, one steam flouring-mill, four steam 
saw-mills, and several other manufacturing establishments. 
Population about 3,000. It is an important depot for lumber, 
fish, etc. A railroad is to be constructed from Port Huron to 
Corunna and Grand Rapids, connecting with the Detroit and 
Milwaukee Railroad ; another railroad will extend to Detroit, 
thus forming a direct route from Lake Huron to Lake Michigan, 
and to Toledo, Cincinnati, etc. During the season of navigation 
there is daily intercourse by steamboat with Detroit. 

Fort Gratoit, two miles above Port Huron, is situated at 
the foot of Lake Huron, at the commencement of the St. Clair 
Strait. It was built in 1814, at the close of the war with Great 
Britain, and consists of a stockade, including a magazine, bar- 
racks, and other accommodations for a garrison of one bat- 

11* 



126 DETROIT TO MACKINAC AND-SAUT STE MARIE. 

talion. It fully commands the entrance to Lake Huron, from the 
American shore, and is an interesting landmark to the mariner. 

PoiXT Edward, on the opposite Canadian shore, is a military- 
reserve, where is usually stationed a small British force. It 
also commands the entrance to Lake Huron. In the vicinity is 
an excellent fishery, where upward of 1,000 barrels of fish are 
annually taken and exported. 

During the season of navigatiwi, steamers run daily from 
Detroit to Port Sarnia, Goderich, Saugeen, and other ports in 
Canada West. 

Bayfield, 108 miles from Detroit, is a new and flourishing 
place, situated at the mouth of a river of the same name. 
•Goderich, 120 miles north of Detroit, is situated on-elevated 
ground at the mouth of Maitland River, where is a good har- 
bor. This is a very important and growing place, where will 
terminate the Buffalo and Huron Railroad, 160 miles in 
length. ( See page 000. ) 

Kincardine, thirty miles from Goderich, is another port on 
the Canadian side of Lake Huron, where the British steamers 
land and receive passengers oh their trips to Saugeen. 

Saugeen, C. W., is situated at the mouth of a river of the 
same name, where is a good harbor for steamers and lake craft. 
This is the most northern port to which steamers now run on 
the Canada side of Lake Huron, and will no doubt, ere long, be 
reached by railroad. 

Lake Huron, off the mouth of Saginaw Bay, presents a wide 
expanse of waters, attaining its greatest width after passing 
Point au Barque ; the steamer usually takes a northerly direc- 
tion for many miles, when running toward the Strait of Mack- 
inac. On the east lies the Canada shore and Georgian Bay. 

FoRREs^TviLLE, Mich. , 120 miles north of Detroit, situated 
on the west side of Lake Huron, is a new settlement, where is 
erected an extensivfe steam saw-mill. It has some three or four 
hundred inhabitants, mostly engaged in the lumber trade. A 
steamer runs from Detroit to this landing, which is distant 47 
miles from Port Huron. 



DETROIT TO MACKINAC AND SAUT STE MARIE, 127 

Saginaw Bay is a very large body of water, it being 
about 30 miles wide and 60 miles long, penetrating far into the 
lower peninsula of Michigan, There are several islands near 
the center of the bay and along its eastern shore ; while dif- 
ferent kinds of fish are taken from its waters in large quanti- 
ties. Saginaw River, flowing into the head of the bay, is a 
large and navigable stream, draining a rich section of country. 

Lower Sagiistaw, near the mouth of the river, is a flourish- 
ing settlement, from whence a large amount of lumber is an- 
nually exported. 

Saginaw City, Saginaw Co. , INIich. , is handsomely situated 
on the left bank of the river, 23 miles above its mouth. It 
contains a court-house and jail, several churches, two hotels, 
15 stores, two warehouses, and sis steam saw-mills. Population 
about 4,000. There is a fine section of country in the rear of 
Saginaw, much of which is heavily timbered ; the soil produces 
grain in abundance, while the streams afford means of ea^ 
transportation to market. Steamers run daily from Saginaw 
City to Detroit, during the season of navigation. 

East Sagiitaw, situated on the right bank of the river, 
about one mile below Saginaw City, is a new and flourishing 
place, also largely engaged in the lumber trade, where are 
located several extensive steam saw-miUs and other manufac- 
turing establishments. 

The other important points passed on a trip from Detroit to 
Mackinac or the Saut Ste Marie are Thunder Bay Island and 
light, and Presque Isle, on the Michigan shore; while the 
Great Manitoulin Island, Great Duck Island, and Cockburn 
Island are on the Canada side. 

If the steamer is bound for IMackinac, a westerly course is 
pursued after passing Presque Isle light until Bois Blanc 
Island is reached and passed, the steamer then gliding through 
the Strait of Mackinac, where the water-surface narrows to 
the width of about 20 miles. 



BAYS AND RIVERS-SOIL, CLIMATE, ETC., OF 
THE LOWER PEffi'SULA OF MICHIGAN. 



The Lower Peninsula of Michigan is nearly surrounded by 
the waters of the Great Lakes, and, in this respect, its situa- 
tion is naturally more favorable for all the purposes of trade 
and commerce than any other of the Western States. 

The numerous streams ■which penetrate eyery portion of the 
peninsula, some of which are navigable for steamboats a con- 
siderable distance from the lake, being natural outlets for the 
products of the interior, render this whole region desirable for 
purposes of settlement and cultivation. Even as far north as 
the Strait of Mackinac, the soil and climate, together with the 
valuable timber, offer great inducements to settlers ; and if the 
proposed railroads, under the recent grant of large portions of 
these lands by Congress, are constructed from and to the differ- 
ent points indicated, this extensive and heavily timbered region 
will speedily be reclaimed, and become one of the most sub- 
stantial and prosperous agricultural portions of the West. 

It is well that in the system of compensation, which seems to 
be a great law of the universe, the vast prairies which comprise 
BO large a portion of this great Western domain are provided 
so well with corresponding regions of timber, affording the 
necessary supply of lumber for the demand of the increasing 
population which is so rapidly pouring into these Western 
States. 

The State of Michigan — all the waters of which flow into the 
basin of the St. Lawrence — Northern Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
are the sources from which the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Iowa, and a large portion of the prairie country west of 
the INIississippi, must derive their supply of this important 
article (lumber). 

The quantity of pine lumber manufactured in Michigan alone 



BAYS, RIVERS, KTC. OF MICHIGAN. 1'29 

is estimated for the past year to amount to nearly one thousand 
millions of feet. The amount sold in Chicago in 1856 was up- 
ward of 450 millions, at an average price of, say $14 per 
thousand. 

This great commodity is to a considerable degree undervalued. 
The supply in the West is now equal to the demand, but the 
consumption is so great, and the demand so constantly increas- 
ing \dih. the development and settlement of the country, that 
of necessity, within comparatively a very few years, these vast 
forests will be exhausted. It is estimated that in ten years a 
very large proportion of the pine timber, accessible to navigable 
streams, will be consumed. But as the timber is exhausted the 
soil is prepared for cultivation, and a large portion of the north- 
ern part of the southern peninsula of Michigan will be settled 
and cultivated, as it is the most reliable wheat-growing portion 
of the Union- 
Natural points for harbors are found at the mouths of nearly 
all the large streams in the State. Besides the ports and towns 
already described, there are on Lake Huron, after leaving Sag- 
inaw Bay going north, several settlements and lumber estab- 
lishments, fisheries, etc. These are at Sauble Eiver, Black 
River, and Devil River. At Thunder Bay a very flourishing 
town is being built up, with a superior water-power on the 
river. This is the county seat of Alpena County. The next 
important point on the coast is Cheboygan River. The U. S. 
Land Office for this district is located here, at a small town on 
the bay called Duncan. This point is nearly opposite the isl- 
and of Mackinac. 

Passing around the western extremity of the peninsula, at 
the Waugoshance Light and Island, the next point is Little 
Traverse Bay. This is the terminus of the Amboy and Trav- 
erse Bay Railroad. 

About fifteen miles southwesterly from Little Traverse we 
enter Grand Traverse Bay, a large and beautiful arm of the 
lake, extending about thirty miles inland. This bay is divided 
into two parts by a point of land from two to four miles wide 



130 BAYS, RIVERS, ETC., OF MICHIGAN. 

extending from the head of the bay about eighteen miles toward 
the lake. The country around this bay is exceedingly pictur- 
esque, and embraces one of the finest agricultural portions of 
the State 

The climate is mild, and fruit and grain of all kinds suitable 
to a northern latitude are produced, with less liability to in- 
jury from frost than in some of the southern portions of the 
State. 

Large quantities of these lands have been located, and sev- 
eral settlements and towns are rapidly growing up. Grand 
Traverse City is located at the head of the west arm of the bay, 
and is the terminus of the proposed railroad from Grand Rap- 
ids, a distance of about 140 miles. 

Passing out of the bay and around the point dividing the 
west arm from the lake, we first arrive at the river Aux Bees 
Sceis. There is here a natural harbor, capable of accommoda- 
ting the larger class of vessels and steamboats. A small settle- 
ment has been commenced at this place, but with its natural 
advantages, and the capital and enterprise of parties who now 
contemplate making further improvements, it will soon become 
a very desirable and convenient point for the accommodation 
of navigators. 

The islands comprising the Beavers, the Manitous, and Fox 
isles should here be noticed. The Beavers lie a little south of 
west from the entrance to the Strait of Mackinac, the Mani- 
tous a little south of these, and the Fox's still farther down 
the lake. These are all valuable for fishing purposes, and for 
wood and lumber. Lying in the route of all the steamboat 
lines from Chicago to Buffalo and the Upper Lakes, the harbors 
on these islands are stopping-points for the boats, and a profit- 
able trade is conducted in furnishing the necessary supplies of 
wood, etc. 

The settlement of Mormons on the Big Beavei* Island has 
recently been abandoned, and the people have mostly dispersed. 

We next arrive at Manistee, a small but important settlement 
at the mouth of the Manistee River. The harbor is a natural 



BAYS, RIVERS, ETC., OF MICHIGAN. 131 

one, but requires some improvement. A large trade is carried 
on with Chicago in lumber. The river passes through a fine 
pine district, and is one of the largest in the State. 

The next point of importance is the mouth of the Pere Mar- 
quette River. Here is the terminus of the proposed railroad 
from Flint, in Genesee County, connecting with Detroit by the 
Detroit and Milwaukee Railway, a distance of about 180 miles. 
The harbor is very superior, and the country in the vicinity 
is well adapted for settlement. About 16 miles in the interior 
is situated one of the most compact and extensive tracts of pine 
timber on the western coast. 

About forty miles south of this, in the county of Oceana, a 
small village is located at the mouth of White River. The 
harbor here is also a natural one, and the region is settled to 
considerable extent by farmers. Lumber is, however, the prin- 
cipal commodity, and the trade is principally with the Chicago 
market. 

The next point is Muskegon, at the mouth of the Muskegon 
River. It is supported principally by the large lumber region 
of the interior. Niunerous steam saw-mills are now in active 
operation here, giving the place an air of life and activity. 

The harbor is one of the best on the lake, and is at present 
accessible for all the vessels trading between INIuskegon and 
Chicago. A small steamboat runs up the Muskegon River about 
forty miles to jXeivaygo, the capital of Newaygo County. This 
village is in a beautiful region of farming country, and also in 
close proximity to the extensive pineries stretching along the 
valley of the river. One of the largest lumber mills in the 
State, running 114 saws, is in operation at this place. About 
seventy millions of feet of lumber are manufactured annually 
on this river. 

Grand Haven, Ottawa Co., Mich , is situated on both side? 
of Grand River, at its entrance into Lake Michigan, here ei 
miles wide ; on the opposite side lies Milwaukee, Wis. T' 
ferent settlements comprising Grand Haven contain ab*" 
inhabitants. Here is a court-house and jail, two ch 



132 BAYS, RIVERS, ETC, OF MICHIGAN. 

hotels and taverns, a number of stores; eight large steam saw- 
mills, pail and tub factories, a foundry and machine shop, and 
other manufacturing establishments. 

Steamers run from Grand Haven to Chicago, to INIilwaukee, 
and also to other ports on Lake ^Michigan. Steamers also run 
from Grand Haven to Grand Eapids, about forty miles up the 
river, bringing down immense quantities of lumber and produce. 
Above Grand Rapids, where is a fall of twenty-two feet, steam- 
ers run to Lyons, about sixty miles distant, where steamboat 
navigation ceases. 

The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, when finished, will 
extend from Detroit to Grand Haven, 185 miles, running foi 
most of the distance through a rich section of country. It wili 
form a through line of travel, by means of steamers across the 
lake to J^Iilwaukee, and through Wisconsin to the Mississippi 
River and the Far West. 

Grand Rapids, situated forty miles above Grand Haven, 
although in her teens, can truly assume the title of a city. 
With a busy, enterprising population of more than 8,000, and 
rapidly increasing, possessing a water-power unequaled by any 
in the State, affording to manufacturers and others tempting 
inducements ; surrounded by a new, fertile, and rapidly improv- 
ing country, it can not fail shortly to become one of the most 
prominent cities ia the Northwest. 

" Extensive and inexhaustible beds of gypsum, a valuable and 
almost indispensable soil-fertilizer in any country, are found 
near this place. Building stone of good quality, easily attama- 
ble as well as other desirable building materials, are abundant, 
and much in requisition, of which fact there is sufi&cient satis- 
factory evidence in the noble structures to be seen here, both 
of stores and dwellings, many of which eMuce good taste and 
correct architectural judgment. I was credibly informed that 
there were mercantile houses, in this remote city, doing business 
. to the extent of one to two hundred thousand dollars each, year- 
Tfe It is confidently expected that the Detroit and Milwaukee 
,, Iroad will be completed and in operation from Detroit to this 
recently ^^^-^^ ^^^ summer of 1857. This road extends through 
We next^edingly rich agricultural section; that portion ,ying be- 
at the mout^jie eastern bound of Shiawassa County and Grand 



BAYS, RIVERS, ETC., OF MICHIGAN. 133 

Rapids may safely be classed as the very best in the whole 
State, and I "will venture the assertion that a very few years 
only will be required to demonstrate the truth of this, in the 
large amount of its surplus products seeking a market eastward, 
through the agency of this railroad." 

The Grand Kiver Pineriks. — " Up in the northern part of 
the Grand Ptiver valley, and along and beyond the Muskegon 
River, an immense amount of pine timber is to be found. The 
mills upon the Muskegon River are, most of them, of later date 
than those of Grand River, and some of them are the finest in 
the world. One of the mills upon Grand River is so complete an 
automatic machine that it draws up and arranges its own logs, 
feeds them to any required thickness of boards, gigs back and 
eats itself, carries off and piles up the lumber, registers the 
r.umber of boards cut — all by the aid of the most simple and 
beautiful machinery. 

" At a low estimate," says the Grand Rapids Enquirer, from 
which we gather these facts, "the value of this trade foots up 
between five and seven millions of dollars. There is every pros- 
pect that these figures will be largely increased in ensuing 
years, there being thousands of acres of better pine lands than 
have yet been cut, yet lying untouched, north of these two 
rivers." 

The following table shows, to some extent, the amount of 
lumber business now done on the Grand and Muskegon rivers 
and their tributaries : 

Number of saw-mills on Grand and !Muskegon rivers and their 

tributaries 115 

(These mills run from 1 to 180 saws each.) 

Amount of lumber cut per vear — feet '. 173,000,000 

« lath '• "" " 48,000,000 

staves " " " 3.000,000 

shingles " " " 200,000,000 

Number of hands constantly employed in mills . . . 1,150 

Number of hands employed in pineries in winter . . . 3,460 

Number of hands employed in rafting and loading 

vessels '. 660 

Average load of vessels, feet 80,000 

Annual number of arrivals of vessels carrying lum- 
ber from Grand and Muskegon rivers 1,920 

12 



DETROIT. 



The City of Detroit, a port of entry, and the great com- 
i^ercial mart of the State, is favorably situated in N. lat. 42*^ 
20', W. long. 82° 58', on a river or strait of the same name, 
elevated some 30 or 40 feet ahove its surface, heing seven miles 
below the outlet of Lake St. Clair and twenty above the 
mouth of the river, where it enters into Lake Erie. It extends 
for the distance of upward of a mile upon the southwest bank 
of the river, where the stream is three fourths of a mile in 
width. The principal public and private offices and wholesale 
stores are located on Jefferson and Woodward avenues, which 
cross each other at right angles, the latter running to the 
water's edge. There may usually be seen a great number of 
steamboats, propellers, and sail vessels of a large class, loading 
or unloading their rich cargoes, destined for Eastern mar- 
kets or for the Great West, giving an animated appearance to 
this place, which is aptly called the City of the Straits. It was 
incorporated in 1815, being now divided into nine wards, and 
governed by a mayor, recorder, and board of aldermen. Detroit 
contains the old State-house, from the dome of which a fine 
view is obtained of the city and vicinity ; the City Hall, Ma- 
sonic Hall, Firemen's Hall, Mechanics Hall, Odd Fellows Hall, 
the Young jNIen's Society Building, two Market Buildings, 
twenty churches, ten hotels, besides a number of taverns ; a 
United States custom-house and post-office, a theater, a mu- 
seum, two orphan asylums, four banks, and a savings' fund 
institute, besides a great number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments. There are also several extensive ship-yards and 
machine shops, where are built and repaired vessels of almost 
every description. The population in 1850 was 21,891 ; in 
1856, 48,000. 



DETROIT. 135 

Detroit may be regarded as one of the most favored of all 
the Western cities of the Union. It was first settled by the 
French explorers as early as 1701, as a military and fur trad- 
ing port. It changed its garrison and military government in 
1760 for a British military commander and troops, enduring 
under the latter regime a series of Indian sieges, assaults, and 
petty but vigilant and harassing warfare, conducted against 
the Englisli garrison by the celebrated Indian warrior Pontiac. 
Detroit subsequently passed into the possession of the American 
revolutionists; but on the 16th August, 1812, it was sui-ren- 
dered by Gen. Hull, of the United States army, to Gen. Broeii;, 
commander of the British forces. In 1813 it was again sur- 
rendered to the Americans. 

The railroads finished and in progress of construction in 
Michigan afford facilities of an immense importance to Detroit, 
and the State at large. The following lines diverge from 
Detroit : 

1. The Detroit, Monroe and Toledo Railroad, 62 miles in 
length, connecting with the Michigan Southern Railroad at 
Monroe, and with other roads at Toledo. 

2. The Michigan Central Railroad, 282 miles in length, 
extends to Chicago, 111, This important road, running across 
the State from east to west, connects at Michigan City, Ind., 
with the New Albany and Salem Railroad — thus forming a di- 
rect line of travel to Louisville, St. Louis, etc., as well as Chi- 
cago and the Far West. 

3. The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad runs through a 
rich section of country to Grand Haven, on Lake Michigan, 
opposite Milwaukee, Wis , and will soon be completed. 

4. The Detroit and Port Huron Railroad is also under con- 
struction, which, when completed, will connect Lake Huron by 
rail with the valley of the Ohio River. 

5. The Great Western Railway of Canada has its terminus 
at Windsor, opposite Detroit, the two places being connected by 
three steam ferries — ^thus affording a speedy line of travel 
'^rough Canada, and thence to Eastern cities of the United States. 



136 DETROIT RIVER. 

The Detroit River, or Strait, is a noble stream, through 
which flow the surplus waters of the Upper Lakes into LaJ^e 
Erie. It is 27 miles in length, and from half a mile to two 
miles in width, forming the boundary between the United 
States and Canada. It has a perceptible current, and is naviga- 
ble for vessels of the largest class. Large quantities of fish are 
annually taken in the river, and the sportsman usually finds 
an abundance of wild ducks, which breed in great numbers in 
the marshes bordering some of the islands and harbors of the 
coast. 

There are altogether seventeen islands in the river. The 
names of these are. Clay, Celeron, Hickory, Sugar, Bois 
Blanc, Ella, Fox, Rock, Grosse Isle, Stofiey, Fighting, Tur- 
key, Maminy Judy, Grassy, Mud, Belle or Hog, and lie la 
Peche. The two latter are situated a few miles above Detroit, 
near the entrance to Lake St. Clair, where large quantities of 
white-fish are annually taken. 

Ile la Peche, attached to Canada, was the home of the 
celebrated Indian chief Poniiac. Parkman, in his "History 
of the Conspiracy of Pontiac," says : " Pontiac, the Satan of this 
forest-paradise, was accustomed to spend the early part of the 
summer upon a small island at the opening of Lake St. Clair." 
Another author says : " The king and lord of all this country 
lived in no royal state. His cabin was a small, oven-shaped 
structure of bark and rushes. Here he dwelt with his squaws 
and children ; and here, doubtless, he might often have been 
seen carelessly reclining his naked form on a rush-mat or a 
bear-skin, like an ordinary Indian warrior." 

The other fifteen islands, most of them small, are situated 
below Detroit, within the first twelve miles of the river after 
entering it from Lake Erie, the largest of which is Gross£ 
Isle, attached to Michigan, on which are a number of exten- 
sive and well -cultivated farms. This island has become a very 
popular retreat for citizens of Detroit during the heat of sum- 
mer, there being here located good public houses for the ac- 
commodation of visitors. 



\ 



DETROIT RIVER. 137 

Father Hennepin, who was passenger on the " Griffin," the 
first vessel that crossed Lake Erie, in 1679, in his description 
of the scenery along the route, says: "The islands are the 
finest in the world ; the strait is finer than Niagara ; the banks 
are vast meadows, and the prospect is terminated with some 
hills covered with vineyards, trees bearing good fruit, groves 
and forests so well disposed that one would think that Nature 
alone could not have made, without the help of art, so charming 
a prospect." 



COMPAEATIVE PUEITY OF DETEOIT EIYER WATER. 

The following Table shows the solid matter in a gallon of 
.water, taken from Lakes and Rivers in different cities : 

Grs. solid matter. Grs. solid matter. 

Albany, Hudson River 6.320 C Hemlock L. 1.330 

Troy, Mohawk River 7.880 Rochester, N. Y. < Lake Ont . . 4.160 

Boston, Cochituate Lake 1.850 ' Genesee E.11.210 

New York, Croton River 6.993 Detroit, Detroit River 5.722 

Brooklyn, L. I. Ponds 2.367 Cleveland, Lake Erie 5.000 

Philadelphia, Schuylkill R. . . 4.260 Montreal, St. Lawrence E. . . . 5.000 

Cincinnati, Ohio River 6.736 

Of the Detroit River water, Prof. Douglass, in his report of 
the analysis, says : " In estimating the value of your city water, 
as compared with other cities, due allowance must be made for 
the fact, that the total solid matter is materially increased by 
the presence of silica, alumina, and iron, elements that can 
produce little or no injury ; while the chlorides, much the most 
injurious compounds, are entirely absent. The presence of 
such large quantities of silica and iron is accounted for by the 
fact, that Lakes Superior and Huron are formed, for the most 
part, in a basin of ferruginous sandstone and igneous rock." 
V 12« 



138 FISHERIES. 

LAKE AKD EIYEE FISHEEIES. 

" The early French explorers of the Upper Lakes, in 1615, 
make mention of the white fish and trout as being luxurious, 
and much used for the sustenance of life by the sons of the 
forest. From the time ciyilization daTvned upon the shores of 
the lakes, the French settlers supplied themselves with them ; 
and during the war of 1812, they were found of substantial 
benefit to the soldiers in appeasing their hunger, for the want 
of other supplies. 

" Previous to the completion of the Erie Canal, salt was 
mostly transported by the St. Lawrence, and thence up ahe 
lakes, and obtained only at enormous prices. After the canal 
was completed, in 1827, it became comparatively cheap, and 
the fisheries were made profitable. In 1830, emigration to 
Michigan rapidly commenced, and increased to such a degree 
in 1834:, that the new-comers found it difficult to purchase pro- 
duce, on account of the scarcity, as nearly every thing con- 
sumed was imported from sister States. This caused a great 
consumption of fish, and gave birth to the extension of river 
and lake fisheries. 

" From this time the business increased, and several grounds 
were cleared on the St. Clair River, and as the market increased 
they were extended to the shores of Lake Huron. Several 
houses in Detroit became extensively engaged in the business, 
employing vessels -exclusively in the trade. The American Fur 
Company also engaged in it ; and, in 1841, two schooners were 
taken over the falls at the Saut Ste Marie into Lake Superior, 
for the purpose of fishing on that lake. 

" There are a great variety of fish in the lakes besides white 
fish and trout. Lake Superior abounds with the siskowit, ^ 
delicious fish, weighing from three to ten pounds. They <i.ke 
exceedingly fat, and when tryed will yield 25 per cent, of oil 
Sturgeon weighing upward of 100 pounds have been taken; 
trout, 60 pounds ; maskalonge, 40 pounds ; pickerel, 15 pounds; 
mullet, 10 pounds; bill-fish, six pounds; also cat-fish, her- 
rings, eels, etc. In the vicinity of the Saut Ste Marie, a.id aV 
the streams emptying into Lake Superior, large quantities ot 
small speckled, or brook-trout, are taken. 

" In 1840 there were 35.000 barrels of fish of various kinds 
packed, and it is estimated that the quantity now annually 
taken in American waters can not be less than 100,000 bar- 
rels, besides what find their way to the Canadian markets 
Detroit is the most extensive mart, where large quantities are 
sold for home consumption ; and market is found for them in 
New York, Pennsvlvania, Ohio, Indiana, and other Western 
States."— See " Sketches of the City of Detroit," pub. in 1855. 



STEAMBOAT ROUTE. ISf 

The WMte Fish is regarded as the prince of fresh-water fish 
Hem-y R. Schoolcraft, in his poem, " The White Fish," says: 

" All friends to £rood living by tureen and dish. 
Concur in exalting this prince of a fish ; 
So fine in a platter, so tempting a fry. 
5o rich on a gridiron, so sweetln a pie ; 
That even before it the salmon must fail, 
And that mighty honne-hmiche, of the land-beaver's tail 
* * * * * 

'Tis a morsel alike for the gourmand nr faster 
"While, white as a tablet of pure alabaster \ ' 
lis beauty or flavor no person can doubt. 
When seen in the water or tasted without- 
And all the dispute that opinion ere makes 
Of this king of lake fishes, this ' dee.r of the lakes '* 
Regard not its choiceness to ponder or sup, ' 
But the best mode of dressing and serving it up. 

* * * * 

Here too, might a fancv to descant inclined 
Contemplate the love that pertains to the kind 
And brmg up the red man, in fanciful strains,' 
To prove its creation from feminine brains "f 



STEAMBOAT EOUTE FEOM CLEVELAND TO DETROIT. 

Ports' etc. Miles- Ports, etc. Miles. 

Clkveland, Ohio Detroit, Mich 

Point Pelee Is., and Light 60 Windsor, C. W 1 

BarPoint, C. W 97 Fighting Island 8 

Bois Blanc Is. Light, ) Fish Island 9 

Detroit Ptiyer, 5 ' ' Wyandotte, Mich 11 

Maiden, C. W 101 Mama Juba Is. and Light 12 

Gibraltar, Mich Grosse Isle 1,3 

Grosse Isle, " 102 Gibraltar, Mich 

Mama Juba Is. and Light 108 Maiden, C. W 19 

Wyandotte, Mich 109 Bois Blanc Is. Light, •) 

Fish Island Light Ill Lake Erie, j . . 20 

Fighting Island 112 Bar Point, C. W 23 

Vi^indsor, C. W 119 Point Pel6e Island GO 

^^-^^oiT 120 Clevela^vd 120 

Fare, $3 00. Usual Time, 7 hours. 



* nS "' S^^S^SS^^' *"^ '"'^^^ '^^-^ ^^ ^^- ^^^' 



140 STEAMBOAT ROUTES. 

CLEVELAIVD AND DETROIT STEAMERS DaCLY. 

May Queew, 688 tons Capt. E. Vesie 

Ocean, 900 ''■ " C. C. Blodgett. 



STEAMEES EUNNING FEOM CLEVELA]SI"D AND DETEOIT TO 
DIFFEEENT POETS ON THE UPPEE LAKES. 

lake superior line, stopping at iviackiivac and saut 
ste marie. 

steamer Illinois, 926 tons Capt. Vuls^on. 

" North Star, 1,106 tons '• B. G. Sweet. 

" Planet, 1,154 tons " Nicholson. 

Propeller Manhattan, 320 tons " John Spalding. 

' Mineral Pvock, 560 '= " John Fraser. 

Gen. Taylor, 462 " " R. Rider. 



GEEEN BAY LINE, STOPPING AT MACKINAC, EUNS BETWEEN 
BTJFFAXO, CLEVELAND, DETEOIT, AND GEEEN BAY. 

Steamer Michigan, 642 tons Capt. A. Stewart. 

Sultana, 650 " " Mead 

DETROIT TO SAGINAW CITY. 

Steamer Sam Ward, 433 tons Capt. H. Fish 

RUNNING FROM DETROIT. 

Steamer Ploughboy, 300 tons, Capt. D. Rowan, runs to Port 

Sarnia and Goderich, C W. 
Steamer Mazeppa, 250 tons, runs to Goderich and Saugeen 

DETROIT TO PORT HURON AND FORRESTVILLE. 

Steamer Forrester Capt. J. Robertson. 

" Forest Queen " S. D. Woodworth, 

Steamer Ariel, 165 tons, runs to New Baltimore, Mich. 

" Albion, 132 tons, runs to Mt. Clemens. 



STEAMBOAT ROUTES FROM DETROIT TO TOLEDO, 
SAXDUSKY, ETC. 



DETROIT AIVD TOLEDO STEAMBOAT LIN"E. 

Arrow, 373 tons Capt. J. W. Keith. 

Dart, 297 « " S. Dustin. 

One of the above steamers runs daily to and from Toledo, 
stopping at Wyandotte, Trenton, Monroe, and other ports on 
the Michigan shore. Distance from Detroit to Toledo, by steam- 
boat route, 70 miles. 

DETROIT to SAXDtrSKY. 

The steamer Bay Cif y, 479 tons, Capt. J. M. Lundy, runs 
from Detroit to Sandusky, Ohio, connecting with railroad lines 
running to Newark, Columbus, Cincinnati, etc. 

Wyandotte, ten miles below Detroit, is a new and flourish- 
ing manufacturing village, where are located the most extensive 
iron works in Michigan. 

Tre NTox, six miles farther, is the next steamboat landing. 

The City of Monro e, capital of Monroe Co., Mich., is situated 
on both sides of the river Raisin, three miles above its entrance 
into Lake Erie, and about 40 miles from Detroit. It is con- 
nected with the lake by a ship canal, and is the terminus of the 
Michio;an Southern Railroad, which extends west, in connec- 
tion with the Northern Indiana Railroad, to Chicago, 111. The 
town contains about 5,000 inhabitants, a court-house and jail, 
a United States land-oflfice, eight churches, several public- 
houses, and a number of large stores of .diiferent kinds. Here 
are two extensive piers, forming an outport at the mouth of the 
river, where the steamers land and receive passengers ; the 
railroad track running to the landing. A plank-road also runs 
from the outport to the city, which is an old and interesting 
locality, being formerly called Frenchtown, where a sanguin- 
ary battle was fought during the war of 1812. The Detroit, 
Monroe and Toledo Railroad, just completed, passes through 



142 



TOLL DO. 



tliis city ; it being about 40 miles to Detroit and 22 miles to 
Toledo by railroad route. This line of travel -svill be extended 
south to Cincinnati. Steamers run from Detroit to Toledo, 
stopping at Monroe daily during the season of navigation. 

The City of Sandusky, capital of Erie Co., Ohio, is a port 
of entry and flourishing place of trade. It is advantageously 
situated on Sandusky Bay. three miles from Lake Erie, in N. 
lat. 41° 27', W. long. 82° 45'. The bay is about 20 miles long, 
and five or six miles in "width, forming a capacious and excel- 
lent harbor, into "which steamers and vessels of all sizes can 
enter "with safety. The average depth of "water is from ten to 
twelve feet. The -city is built on a bed of limestone, producing 
a good building material. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, 
a court-house and jail, eight churches* two banks, several well- 
kept hotels, and a number of large stores and manufacturing 
establishments of different kinds. This is the terminus of the 
Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, running to Dayton, 153 
miles, and the Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark Railroad, 116 
miles in length. The Cleveland and Toledo Eaili-oad, northern 
di"vision, also runs through Sandusky, affording altogether great 
facilities to travelers, in connection "with a line of steamers 
running to Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo 

The City of Toledo is situated on the Maumee River, four 
miles from its mouth, and ten miles from the Turtle Island 
Light, at the outlet of the Maumee Bay into Lake Erie. The 
harbor is good, and the na"7igable channel from Toledo to the 
lake is of sufficient depth for all steamers or sail vessels navi- 
gating the lakes, "with the exception of a short distance through 
the bay, which requires deepening from one to two feet. Toledo 
is the eastern terminus of the Wabash and Erie Canal, run- 
ning through the Maumee and Wabash valleys, and communi- 
cating "with the Ohio River ^t Evansville, a distance of 474 
miles; also of the Miami and Erie Canal, which branches 
from the above canal 68 miles west of Toledo, and runs 
southwardly through the Miami Valley in AYestern Ohio, and 
communicates "with the Ohio River at Cincinnati. 



TOLEDO. 143 

" The railroads diverging from Toledo are the Michigan Sou- 
thern and JVorthern Indiana Railroad, running through the 
southern counties of Michigan and the northern counties of 
Indiana, and making its western terminus at Chicago, Illinois, 
at a distance of 243 miles ; also, the Air Line Railroad, run- 
ning due west from Toledo, through J'orthwestern Ohio and the 
northern counties of Indiana to Goshen, a distance of 110 miles, 
where it connects with the Northern Indiana Railroad, runnino- 
to Chicago; also the terminus of the Jackson Branch of the 
Michigan Southern Road, and the Detroit, Monroe and Toledo 
Railroad. 

" It is also the eastern terminus of the Tohdo, Wabash 
and Westrrn Railroad, running in a southwesterly direction 
through the Maumee and Wabash valleys, crossing the eastern 
line of the State of Illinois, about 125 miles south of Chicago, 
and continuing in a southwesterly course through Danville, 
Springfield, Jacksonville, Naples, etc., in Central Illinois, to the 
^lississippi River, and connecting with the Hannibal and St, 
Joseph Road, which stretches nearly due west through the State 
of Missouri to St. Joseph, on the Missouri River. It also, in 
connection ^th other roads, affords a through line of travel to 
St. Louis. The Dayton and Michigan Railroad (to be com- 
pleted the present year), which connects Toledo with Cincin- 
nati, is much the shortest railroad line connecting Lake Erie 
with the Ohio River. Besides the above important roads, the 
Cleveland and Toledo Railroad terminates here. 

" Toledo is the nearest point for the immense country trav- 
ersed by these canals and railroads, where a transfer can be 
made of freight to the more cheap transportation by the lakes, 
and thence through the Erie Canal, "Welland Canal, or Oswego 
Canal, to the sea-board. It is not merely the country traversed 
by these canals and railroads that send their products, and re- 
ceive their merchandise, through Toledo, but many portions of 
the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and Iowa find 
Toledo the cheapest and most expeditious lake-port for the in- 
terchange and transfer of their products and merchandise." 

This city is the capital of Lucas County, Ohio, where is situ- 
ated a court-house and jail, several fine churches and school 
edifices, six hotels, and a great number of stores and store- 
houses, also several extensive manufacturing establishments. 

The population of Toledo in 1850 was about 4,000, and now 
it is supposed to contain 12,000 inhabitants, and is rapidly in- 
creasing in wealth and numbers. The shipping interest is in- 
creasing, here being transhipped annually an enormous amount 



144 MAUMEE KIVER. 

of grain, and other kinds of agricultural product of the great 
West ; it being, no doubt, destined, like Chicago, to export direct 
to European ports, lying as it does on the direct railroad and 
steamboat route from St. Louis to Montreal. 

At this time there are in process of erection in Toledo 
many handsome dwellings, numerous handsome blocks of stores, 
a post-office and custom-house by the general government, and 
a first-class hotel ; these two latter buildings, from the plans 
we have seen, would do credit to any city, and when completed 
can be classed among the most elegant structiu'es. No city in 
the State can boast of finer private residences than Toledo ; and 
the general character of the buildings erected in the past three 
years is substantial and elegant. 

PerrysburGj capital of Wood Co., Ohio, is situated on the 
right bank of the Maumee River, 18 miles above its entrance 
into Maumee Bay, the southern termination of Lake Erie. It 
contains a court-house and jail, four churches, 20 stores of dif- 
ferent kinds, three steam saw-mills, a tannery, and several 
other manufacturing establishments. Population about 1,500. 
Here is the head of steamboat navigation on the Maumee Piiver, 
affording thus far a sufficient depth of water for steamers of a 
large class. 

Matjmee City, capital of Lucas Co., Ohio, and a port of 
entry, is situated on the Maumee River, opposite Perrysburg, 
at the foot of the rapids and at the head of navigation, nine 
miles above Toledo. A side cut here connects the Wabash and 
Erie Canal with the river The Toledo and Illinois Railroad 
also passes through this place. It contains a court-house, five 
churches, 80 stores, four flouring-mills, three saw-mills, one 
oil-mill, and other manufacturing establishments propelled by 
water-power, the supply being here almost inexhaustible. 

Maumee River rises in the northeast part of Indiana, and 
flowing northeast enters Lake Erie, through Maumee Bay. It 
is about 100 miles long, navigable 18 miles, and furnishing an 
extensive water-power throughout its course. 



TRIP FROM BUFFALO TO DETROIT-DIRECT. 



Commodious steamers of about two thousand tons turden 
leave Buffalo direct for Detroit, daily, Sundays excepted, at ten 
o'clock P.M., or on the arrival of the Eastern express train of 
cars, leaving Albany the same morning; also, connects with 
cars from Niagara Falls, etc. 

On leaving the wharf at Buffalo, the steamers usually run 
direct for Long Point on the Canada, or north shore of Lake 
Erie, proceeding for most of the distance in British waters, to 
the mouth of Detroit River. 

LoxG Point, 65 miles from Buffalo, is a long strip of land, 
nearly 20 miles long and from one to three miles in width, 
covered for the most part with a stunted growth of forest trees. 
It was formerly a peninsula, running out from the land in an 
easterly direction, nearly half way across the lake ; but the 
waters having made a wide breach across its western extremity, 
has converted it into an island. There is an important light- 
house on the east end to guide the mariner on his passage 
through Lake Erie, here about 40 miles wide, and where is 
found the greatest depth of water. To this Point both shores 
of the lake can be seen in a clear morning from the deck of the 
steamer, affording a most grand sight when the sun rises on a 
cloudless day. Then may usually been seen a fleet of vessels 
wending their way toward Buffalo or the mouth of the Welland 
Canal, through which channel annually passes a great number 
of steam propellers and sail vessels on their way to Lake Onta- 
rio and the St. Lawrence Eiver. 

Port Colbqrxe, C. "W., situated about 20 miles west of 
Buffalo, lie? at the mouth of the Welland Canal, while Port 
Maitland, some 20 miles farther, is situated at the mouth of 
Grand River, where is a navigable feeder communicating with 
the canal, thus affording two entrances to the above canal. 

13 



146 BUFFALO TO DETROIT. 

Port Dover, about 70 miles west of Buffalo and 40 miles 
distant from Hamilton by proposed railroad route, is situated 
on the north shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of the river Lynn. 
Here is a good harbor, and the village is a place of growing 
importance, containing about 1,000 inhabitants. 

Port Ryerse and Port Rowan are small villages on the 
Canada shore, situated on the bay formed by Long Point. 
Inland there is to be found a rich and fine farming district, 
consisting of some of the best lands in Canada West. 

The Sand Hills, immediately west of Long Point, are seen 
for some distance as the steamer pursues her onward course 
toward Point aux Pins, passing through the widest part of the 
lake, where both shores are lost sight of for a number of miles. 
The water usually presents a clear green color in the middle, 
but near the shore is more or less tinged with muddy water, 
proceeding from the streams emptying into the lake. 

Port Bur well, C. W., about 35 miles west of Long Point, 
is handsomely situated at the mouth of Otter Creek. Here is a 
light-house and good harbor. A large amount of lumber and 
other products are annually exported from this place to Eastern 
markets. 

Port Stastley, about 25 miles farther west, is handsomely 
situated at the mouth of Kettle Creek, being in part surrounded 
by high and picturesque hills in the immediate vicinity. The 
harbor is well protected, and much frequented by British and 
American vessels running on Lake Erie. It is nine miles south 
of St. Thomas and twenty-four from London, the chief town 
of the county of Middlesex, for which place it may be consid- 
ered the ont-port. A plank-road runs between the two places ; 
also, the London and Port Stanley Railroad, connecting with 
the Great Western Railway of Canada. Steamers run from 
Port Stanley to Buffalo, Cleveland, and other ports on Lake 
Erie. 

Point atjx Pins, or Rond' Eau (usually called by the 
American navigators Rouiid 0), about 100 miles west of Long 
Point, is a cape which projects from the Canada shore, inclosing 



BUFFALO TO DETROIT. 147 

a natural basin of about 6,000 acres in extent, 'witli a deptL 
of from ten to twelve feet, thus forming an excellent and secure 
harbor, the entrance to which has been improved by the Cana- 
dian government by running out piers, etc. It is proposed to 
construct a ship canal from this port to the St. Clair River, a 
distance of about 35 miles, thus avoiding the St. Clair F/ats. 
Another Canadian project is to construct a canal from Goderich 
to Hamilton, C. W., about 120 miles in length. 

PonvT Pel.ee, lying about 40 miles east of the mouth of De- 
troit River, projects a number of miles into Lake Erie, and 
forms, in connection with the island of Point Pelee and other 
islands in the vicinity, the most picturesque portion of lake 
scenery to be met with on this inland sea. 

PorvT Pelee Islaxd, belonging to Canada, is about seven 
miles long and two or three miles in width. It is inhabited by 
a few settlers. The island is said to abound with red cedar, 
and possesses a fine limestone quarry. A light-house is situ- 
ated on the east side. 

The steamers bound for Detroit River usually pass to the 
north side of Point Pelee Island, and run across Pigeon Bay 
toward Bar Point, situated at the jnouth of Detroit River. 
Several small islands are passed on the south, called East Sis- 
ter, Middle Sister, and West Sister; also, in the distance, 
may be seen the Bass Islands, known as the " North Bass," 
" Middle Bass," and " South Bass." On the west side of the 
latter lies the secure harbor of Put-iiv-Bay, celebrated as the 
rendezvous of Com. Perry's fleet, before and after the glorious 
naval victory which he achieved over the British fleet, Septem- 
ber 10th, 1813. 

Detroit River, forming one of the links between the Upper 
and Lower Lakes, is next approached, near the mouth of which 
may be seen a light on the Michigan shore called Gibraltar 
Light, and another light on an island attached to Canada, the 
steamers usually entering the river through the east or Brit- 
ish Channel of the river, although vessels often pass through 
the west or American Channel 

13* 



148 



BUFFALO TO DEIROIT. 



Amherstburg, C. W., 18 miles below Detroit, is an old and 
important town. The situation is good ; the banks of the river, 
both above and below the village, but particularly the latter' 
where the river emerges into Lake Erie, are very beautiful ; 
several handsome residences may here be seen, surrounded by 
highly cultivated grounds. About a mile below the town is a 
chalybeate spring, which is said to resemble the waters of 
Cheltenham, in England. British and American vessels fre- 
quently land at Amherstburg, on their trips to and from the 
Upper Lakes. 

Fort Malden", capable of accommodating a regiment of 
troops, is situated about half a mile above Amherstburg. on 
the east bank of the river, the channel of which it here com- 
mands. 

At Brownstowk-, situated on the opposite side of the river, 
in Michigan, is the battle-ground where the Americans, under 
disadvantageous circumstances, and with a slight loss, routed 
the British forces, which lay in ambush, as the former were on 
their way to relieve the fort at Frenchtown, which event occur- 
red August 5, 1812. 

Sandwich, C. W., is beautifully situated on the river, two 
miles below Detroit, and nine miles below Lake St. Clair. It 
stands on a gently sloping bank a short distance from the river, 
which is here about a mile wide. This is one of the oldest 
settlements in Canada West. 

WmnsoR, C. W., situated in the township of Sandwich, is a 
village directly opposite Detroit, with which it is connected by 
three steam ferries. It was laid out in 1834, and is now a place 
of considerable business, having a population of about 2,000 
inhabitants. Here terminates the Great Western Railway 
of Canada, which extends from Niagara Falls or Suspension 
Bridge, via Hamilton and London, to opposite Detroit— thus 
forming an important link in the great line of railroads, now 
finished, running from the sea-board at different points to ihQ 
Mississippi River 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, DETROIT, ETC. 149 



STEAMEES EUNNIXG FEOM BUFFALO TO DIFFEEENT POETS 
ON LAKE EEIE, ETC.— 1357. 

MICHIGAIV CENTRAL RAILROAD LINE 

Steamer Plymouth Rock, 2,000 tons. . . .Capt. P. J. Pialph. 

Mississippi, 1,880 " " S. G. Langley. 

Western World, 2,000 " " J. S. Richards. 

One of the above splendid steamers leaves the foot of Erie 
Street, Buffalo, every evening (Sundays excepted) at 9 p.m., 
direct for Detroit, connecting with trains on the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad, running to Chicago, etc. 

C. E. Noble, Gen. Agent, Buffalo 

MICHIGAN southern RAILROAD LINE 

Southern Michigan, 1,470 tons .... Capt. L. B. Goldsmith. 

Western Metropolis, 1,830 " " I. T. Pheatt. 

City of Buffalo, 2,200 " " A. D. Perkins. 

One of the above new and popular steamers usually leaves the 

foot of Main Street, Buffalo, daily (Sundays excepted), direct 

for Toledo, connecting with trains on the Michigan Southern 

and Northern Indiana railroads, running to Chicago, etc. This 

line also connects with trains of cars running from Toledo tc 

Lafayette, Ind., St. Louis, etc. 

C. Forbes, Geii. Agent, Buffalo. 

CLEVELAND, COLUMBUS AND CINCINNATI RAILROAD LIN'E. 

Sieamer Cre?^cent City 1,740 tons, Capt. Wm. T. Pease. 

" Queen OF the West, 1,850 " " D. H.McBride. 

One of the above steamers usually leaves Buffalo at 8 o'clock 
p.m., direct for Cleveland, 0., connecting with trains on the 
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad. 

J. C. Harrison, GeJi. Agent, Buffalo. 

Steamer Clifton, Capt. H. Van Allen, runs from Buffalo to 
Chippewa, C. W., daily, connecting with the Erie and Ontario 
Railroad, forming a through line of travel to Niagara Falls, 
Toronto, etc. 

Steamer Mohawk runs from Buffalo to Port Stanley, etc., 
connecting with the London ana Port Stanley Railroad. 

13* 



150 BUFFALO AND NIAGARA FALLS TO DETROIT. 



EAILROAD EOUTE FEOM NIAGAEA FALLS TO HAMILTCN 

AND DETEOIT, via GEEAT WESTEEN EAILWAY OF 

CANADA. 

This great International Line, extending from Niagara River 
to Detroit River, opposite the city of Detroit, a distance of 229 
miles, passes through a fine and interesting section of country, 
equal in many respects to Western New York. It connects 
with the New York Central and Buffalo and Niagara Falls 
Railroad, forming a great through route of travel. 

Starting from the Suspension Bridge at Clifton, two miles 
below the Falls of Niagara, the passenger train soon reaches the 
verge of the mountain ridge overlooking the plain below, while 
in the distance may be seen the broad waters of Lake Ontario, 
usually studded with sail vessels and propellers on their way to 
or from the mouth of the Welland Canal. 

" Traced like a map, the landscape lies 
In cultured beauty stretching wide." 

Thorold, nine miles, is situated on the line of the Welland 
Canal, where is abundant water-power propelling five or six flour- 
ing-mills. A railroad extends to Port Dalhousie, some five or six 
miles distant, connecting with a steamer running to Toronto. 
This road will be extended to Port Colbourne, on Lake Erie, about 
twenty miles distant. 

St. CATHERmEs, 12 miles from the Suspension Bridge, is a 
flourishing town, also situated on the line of the Welland Canal, 
which connects Erie and Ontario. This has become of late a 
fashionable place of resort during the summer months, caused 
by the mineral waters of the " Artesian Wells" obtaining great 
celebrity, owing to their curative properties. Here are two or 
three weU-kept hotels for the accommodation of visitors. For 
further description of this place, see page 238. 

Beamsville, twenty-two miles from the Suspension Bridge, 
is a thriving village, about one mile from the station. 

Grimsby, five miles farther, is situated on Forty-mile Creek, 
the scene of some hard figliting during the war of 1812. It is a 



BUFFALO AND NIAGARA FALLS TO DETROIT. 151 

small village of 350 inhalDitaiits ; there are two churches, a 
hotel, and several stores ; also, a grist and saw- mills propelled 
by water-power, 

Ha:mtx.ton, 43 miles from Suspension Bridge, is the principal 
station on the line of the Great Western Railway, where are 
located the principal of&ces and workshops connected with the 
company. Here is a commodious depot and steamboat landing. 
Carriages and omnibuses are always in readiness to convey 
passengers to the hotels in the city, which is more fully de- 
scribed on page — 

The Toronto Branch of the Great "Western Railway com- 
mences at Hamilton, and extends a distance of thirty-eight 
miles to the city of Toronto, running near the shore of Lake 
Ontario. 

On leaving Hamilton for Windsor or Detroit, the road passes 
near the mansion of Sir Allan M'Nab, and over the Des Jardines 
Canal, entering the head of Burlington Bay.* Here is also a 
Suspension Bridge in sight, thrown over the stream as it cuts its 
way through the high bank which encircles the bay or lake. 
This point presents a beautiful view, both on leaving or arriving 
at the head- waters of Lake Ontario. 

Du^'DAs, five miles from Hamilton, is situated on rising 
ground on the side of the mountain, and is a thriving manu- 
facturing place, having the advantage of a stream which flows, 
or rather rushes, with great impetuosity through its center, 
working on its way numerous mills. The Des Jardines Canal 
runs from hence to Burlington Bay, enabling the manufacturers 
to ship their goods at their own doors. Among the manufac- 
tories are flouring-mills, a paper-mill, a foundry, which is an 
extensive establishment, where machinery of every kind and 
steam-engines are made to a large extent ; an axe factory, a 
woolen factory ; two newspapers, and several places of wor- 
ship. Population 3,500. 

* On Thursday, March 12th, 185T, the most fearful accident on record 
occurred at this bridge, killing about seventy passengers, men, women, and 
children, being on their way from Toronto to Hamilton. 



152 BUFFALO AND NIAGARA FALLS TO DETROIT. 

Harrisburg, nineteen miles from Hamilton, is the station of 
the Gait Branch of the Great Western Railway. 

Paris, with the Upper and Lower Town, contains about 3,500 
inhabitants ; so called from its contiguity to beds of gypsum or 
plaster of Paris. It possesses a considerable amount of water- 
power, which works numerous mills. There are two foundries, 
a tannery, machine-shop, distillery, saw-mill, etc. The Buf- 
falo and Lake Huron Railway intersects the Great Western 
at this point, running to Goderich, on Lake Huron. 

Woodstock, 48 miles from Hamilton and 138 from Wind- 
sor, is a county town, well situated on rolling ground, and 
contains about 4,500 inhabitants. It may be called a town of 
magnificent distances ; East and West Woodstock forming a street 
upward of a mile in length. The vacant spaces, however, are 
fast being tilled up with stately edifices, and it will thus in a 
short time become one of the handsomest thoroughfares in 
Canada. In this locality, noted for its handsome country seats 
— and indeed all the way from Hamilton — the land as seen from 
the road (the railroad for the most part passes through a new 
country) is rolling and well cleared of trees and stumps, pre- 
senting more the appearance of " merrie England" than any 
other section of the Province. 

IxGERSoLL, nine miles farther, formerly an Indian village, 
now contains about 2,000 inhabitants. A small arm of the 
Thames runs through it, and furnishes some water-power, by 
which several mills are worked. Since the opening of the rail- 
way it has risen in a surprising manner; and the town, which 
before then had a very dingy appearance, the houses being of 
wood and wanting paint, is now gay with white brick, and the 
streets resound with the hum of an enterprising population. 

LoNDox, 119 miles from Suspension Bridge and 110 from 
Windsor, if not, like her English namesake, 

The great resort 



Of all the earth — checkered with all 
Complexions of mankind — 

is nevertheless a very stirring business place, and presents an- 
other instance of the energy and enterprise of the Canadian. 
Ten years ago, this then ver}'- small village of wooden houses 
was entirely buimed down, and now on its ashes is raised a most 
flourishing city, containing four banks, several wholesale houses, 
fifteen churches, many of them handsome structures, and the 
English Church having a fine peal of bells ; life and fire in- 
surance offices, breweries and distilleries. It has three news- 
papers and several good hotels. Population nearly 18,000. It 
is well watered by the river Thames, which, however, is only 
navigable up to Chatham, sixty miles distant. 



BUFFALO TO uoDERICH. 153 

The London and Port Stanley Railroad here joins the Great 
Western Railway ; length twenty-four miles, running south to 
Lake Erie. 

Chatham, forty-six miles from Windsor, situated on the 
river Thames, possesses the great advantage of a navigation, 
and is therefore a place of considerable business. It contains 
eight churches ; and being the county town of Kent, it has a 
court-house, a very handsome building, several grist and saw- 
mills, woolen factory, two foundries, machine shop, etc. Nu- 
merous steamers and sail vessels have been built at this place. 
Steamers ply between Chatham, Detroit, and Amherstburg. 
Population about 5,000. 

WiisrDsoR, 229 miles from Suspension Bridge, opposite Detroit, 
prettily situated on the banks of the river, is a place of con- 
siderable business, and is rapidly increasing in wealth and 
population, owing to the advantage it has of being the western 
terminus of the Great Western Kailway. Of course Windsor 
must have a " Castle," and the hotel of that name will be found 
excellent. Population, 2,000. 

Three steam-ferries ply between Windsor and Detroit, making 
close connections for the benefit of railroad passengers. 

For further information in regard to this route — See Canada 
Railway and Steam Navigation Guide. 



BUFFALO TO GODERICH, C. W., via BUFFALO AND LAKE 
HUEON EAILWAT. 

Office, 37 Exchange Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

This important line of travel extends from Buffalo, N. Y., 
crossing Niagara River by means of a steam ferry at Black 
Rock to Fort Erie, on the Canada side. It is proposed to con- 
struct a permanent railroad bridge of about one mile in length, 
a short distance above the present ferry. From Fort Erie the 
line of the railway extends westward within a short distance of 
Lake Erie for forty miles, to Dunnville, situated at the mouth 
of Grand River, crossing the Welland Canal. 

From Dunnville the road runs along the valley of the river on 
the north side to Brantford, thirty-eight miles farther, and from 
thence extends westward to Paris, where it connects with the 
Great Western Railway of Canada. The line thence runs to 
Stratford, C. W., where it connects with the Grand Trunk 



154 BUFFALO TO GODERICH. 

Railway, a total distance from Buffalo of 116 mJes. To tMs 
point the road is now completed and in running order, and will 
be finished through to Goderich, situated on Lake Huron, during 
the year 1857. 

DupfviLLE is advantageously situated on the Grand River, at 
a point where it is intersected by the feeder of the Welland 
Canal. It is a place of considerable business, and contains 
several grist, saw, and plaster mills, and a tannery. Popula- 
tion, about 1,500. 

The Welland Canal is one of the many works of the same 
kind of which Canadians may be proud. This Canal affords a 
passage for propellers, sloops and schooners of 125 tons burden, 
around the Falls of Niagara, and connects Lake Erie with Lake 
Ontario. It is 42 miles long, including feeder, 56 feet wide, and 
from 8J to 16 feet deep. The whole descent from one lake to the 
other is 334 feet, which is accomplished by 37 locks. 

Brantford, 78 miles from Buffalo and 82 miles from God- 
erich, is beautifully situated on Grand River, and named after 
Brant, the renowned chief of the Six Nations Indians, who, 
with his tribe, steadily supported the British Crown during the 
American War. " In ' Gertrude of Wyoming^ he is alluded to 
in disparaging terms : 

' The mammoth comes— the fiend, the monster Brant.' 
But some years afterward Campbell was obliged to apologize to 
Brant's son, who happened to visit London ; as it appeared, on 
satisfa<;tory evidence, his father was not even present at the 
horrible desolation of Wyoming. This much is due to the mem- 
ory of Brant, who was a brave warrior and a steadfast ally of 
the British, and always exerted himself to mitigate the horrors 
of war." 

Brantford, until the opening of the Great Western Railway, 
was a great wheat market, the streets being crowded with hun- 
dreds of wagons daily ; but that road created other markets, 
and to this extent the town has suffered. It has, however, other 
sources of prosperity. There is no place in the Province which 
commands such extensive water-power, and which is mada 



BUFFALO TU GODERICH. 155 

available for the working of numerous mills. The iron foun- 
dries, machine shops, and potteries are on a large scale, and 
have caused the place to be regarded as the Birmingham of 
Canada. It has a goodly number of churches of various denomi- 
nations, and one of the largest and handsomest hotels in the 
Province — " The Kirby House." Population about 6,000. 

Stratford, is a new and thriving town, favorably situated 
on the line of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. This 
section of Canada enjoys a good climate and fertile soil, produc- 
ing cereal grains in great abundance. 

The distance from Stratford to Goderich, by railroad route, is 
44 miles, which, when completed, will afford a direct and speedy 
route from Buffalo to Lake Huron, a total distance of 160 miles. 

GoDK.RicH, C. W., is advantageously situated at the mouth of 
Maitland River, here affording a safe and good harbor for ves- 
sels of a large size. The village is beautifully situated on ele- 
vated ground, rising about 150 feet above the waters of Lake 
Huron. The population now amounts to about 4,000, and is 
rapidly increasing in numbers and wealth. Steamers run from 
this port to Port Sarnia, Detroit, and Saginaw, and other har- 
bors on the Upper Lakes. 

The Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway Company is pushing 
with energy the completion of this road, and the improvement 
of its passenger and freight capacity. We learn that the board 
of directors, at a late meeting in London, England, appropriated 
$1,300,000 for the construction of a steam ferry to run be- 
tween Fort Erie and Black Rock, which shall be able to trans- 
fer sis cars at a time from one side of the river to the other ; 
for the construction of slips and docks on both sides to accomo- 
date the steamer ; for the construction of a track from Black 
Rock into the city of Buffalo, and to improve the harbor at 
Goderich, the terminus of the road on Lake Huron. 



TABLE OF DISTAXCES 



FEOM BUFFALO TO TOLEDO.— LAKE EEIE EOUTE. 

Ports, etc. Miles. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Silver Creek, " 84 

Dunkirk, " 42 

Portland, " 62 

Erie, Pa 90 

Conneaut, Ohio 117 

Ashtabula, " 131 

Painesville, " 156 

Cleveland, " 185 

Kelley's Island 240 

Sandusky " 245 

South Bass Island 245 

West Sister Island 263 

Turtle Island 275 

Maumee Bay 278 

Toledo, Ohio 285 

Note. — The direct through 
from Buffalo to Toledo is about 
Erie being about 560 miles. 



Ports, etc. 


Miles. 


Toledo, Ohio 


.... 


IMaumee Bay 


. . . . 1 


Turtle Island 


.... 10 


West Sister Island . . 


. . . . 22 


South Bass Island . . . , 


. . . . 40 


Kelley's Island 


. . . . 45 


Sandusky, Ohio.... 


... 50 


Cleveland, " . . . , 


.... 100 


Painesville, '' . . . . 


, ... 129 


Ashtabula, " . . . , 


, ... 154 


Conneaut, " . . . , 


, ... 168 


Erie, Pa 


, . . . 195 


Portland, N. Y 


. ... 233 


Dunkirk, " 


, ... 243 


Silver Creek, " 


. ... 251 


Buffalo, " 


... 285 



route as run by the steamers 
250 miles ; the circuit of Lake 



OOMPAEATIYE INCEEASE OF LAKE CITIES. 

1840. 1850. 1853. 1856. 

Buffalo, N.Y 18,213 42,261 60,000* 85,000 

Chicago, 111 4,470 28,269 60,000 100,000 

Cleveland, 6,071 17,034 40,000t 50.000 

Detroit, Mich 9,102 21,019 34,436 48,000 

Milwaukee, Wis. .. . 1,700 20,061 25,000 42,000 

Oswego, N. Y 12,205 16,000 

Sandusky, 1,434 6,008 8,000 10,000 

Toledo, 1,222 3,829 6,412 12,000 

* Black Book annexed. t Ohio City annexed. 



TRIP FROM BUFFALO TO CLEYELAXD SAXDUSKT, 
TOLEDO, ETC. 



Steamers of a large class leave Buffalo, daL y, Sundays ex- 
cepted, for the different ports on the American or south shore 
of Lake Erie, connecting with railroad cars at Clevela'nd, San- 
dusky, and Toledo. 

On leaving Buffalo harhor, -which is formed by the mouth of 
Buffalo Creek, where is erected a breakwater by the United 
States government, a fine view is afforded of the city of Buffalo, 
the Canada shore, and Lake Erie stretching off in the distance, 
with here and there a steamer or sail vessel in sight. As the 
steamer proceeds westward through the middle of the lake, the 
landscape fades in the distance, until nothing is visible but a 
broad expanse of green waters. 

Sturgeon- Point, 20 miles from Buffalo, is passed on the 
south shore, when the lake immediately -widens by the land 
receding on both shores. During the prevalence of storms, 
when the full blast of the wind sweeps through this lake, its 
force is now felt in its full power, driving the angry waves for- 
ward -with the velocity of the race-horse, often causing the 
waters to rise at the lower end of the lake to a great height 
so as to overflow its banks, and forcing its surplus waters into 
the Niagara River, which causes the only perceptible rise and 
increase of the rush of waters at the Falls. 

Dunkirk, N. Y., 42 miles from B'affalo, is advantageously 
situated on the shore of Lake Erie where terminates the A^eiv 
York and Erie Railroad, 4G0 miles in length. Here is a good 
and secure harbor, affording about twelve feet of water over 
the bar. A light-house, a beacon light and breakwater, the 
latter in a dilapidated state, have here been erected by the 
United States government. As an anchorage and port of 
refuge this harbor is extremely valuable, and is much resorted 

14 



158 BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, TOLEDO, ETC. 

to for that purpose by steamers and sail vessels during the 
prevalence of storms ; there is twelve feet of water over the 
bar. 

The village was incorporated in 1837, and now contains 
about 4,000 inhabitants, 500 dwelling-houses, five churches, a 
bank, three hotels, and 20 stores of different kinds, besides 
several extensive storehouses and manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

The Buffalo and State Line Railroad, extending to Erie, 
Pa., runs through Dunkirk, forming in part the Lake Shore 
line of railroad, which in connection with the railroad leading 
direct to the city of New York, affords great advantages to this 
locality, which is no doubt destined to increase with the grow- 
ing trade of the lake country. 

Fredon^ia, three miles from Dunkirk, with which it is con- 
nected by a plank-road, is handsomely situated, being elevated 
about 100 feet above Lake Erie. It contains about 2,300 
-inhabitants, 300 dwelling-houses, five churches, one bank, an 
incorporated academy, four taverns, twenty stores, besides 
some mills and manufacturing establishments situated on Cana- 
doway Creek, which here affords good water-power. In the 
village, near the bed of the creek, is an inflammable spring, 
from which escapes a sufficient quantity of gas to light the 
village. A gasometer is constructed which forces the gas 
through tubes to different parts of the village, the consumer 
paying $4 per year for each burner used. It is also used for 
lighting the streets of the village. The flame is large, but not 
so strong or brilliant as that obtained from gas in our cities ; 
t is, however, in high favor with the inhabitants. 

Barcelona, N. Y., 58 miles from Buffalo, is the westernmost 
village in the State. It is a port of entry, and is much resorted 
to by steamers and large vessels navigating the lake, affording 
a tolerable good harbor, where is situated a light-house which 
is lighted by inflammable gas ; it escapes from the bed of a 
creeK about half a mile distant, and is carried in pipes to the 
liglit-house. 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, TOLEDO, ETC 159 

The City of E{iie, Pa., 90 miles from Buffalo and 95 miles 
from Cleveland, is beautifully situated on a bluff, affording a 
prospect of Presque Isle Bay and the lake beyond. It has one 
of the largest and best harbors on Lake Erie, from whence 
sailed Perry's fleet during the "war of 1812. The most of the 
vessels were here built, being finished in seventy days from the 
time the trees were felled ; and here the gallant victor returned 
with his prizes after the battle of Lake Erie, which took place 
September 10th, 1813. The remains of his flag-ship, the Law- 
rence, lie in the harbor, from which visitors are allowed to cut 
pieces as relics. On the high bank, a little distance from the 
town, are the ruins of the old French fort, Presque Isle. The 
city contains a court-house, nine churches, a bank, three hotels, 
a ship-yard, several extensive manufacturing establishments, 
and about 7.000 inhabitants. In addition to the Lake Shoi-e 
Railroad, the Sunbury and Erie Railroad will terminate at 
this place, affording a direct communication with New York and 
Philadelphia. 

Presque Isle Bay is a lovely sheet of water, protected by 
an island projecting into Lake Erie. There is a light-house 
on the west side of the entrance to the bay, in lat. 42° 8' N. ; 
it shows a fixed light, elevated 93 feet above the surface of the 
lake, and visible for a distance of 15 miles. The beacon shows 
a fixed light, elevated 28 feet, and is visible for nine miles. 

Coivjveaut, Ohio, 117 miles from Buffalo and 68 from Cleve- 
land, situated in the northeast corner of the State, stands on a 
creek of the same name near its entrance into Lake Erie. It 
exports large quantities of lumber, grain, pork, beef, butter, 
cheese, etc., being surrounded by a rich agricultural section 
of country. The village contains about 3.000 inhabitants. 
The harbor of Conneaut lies two miles from the village, where 
is a light-house, a pier, and several warehouses. 

Ashtabula, Ohio, 14 miles farther west, stands on a stream 
of the same name, near its entrance into the lake. This is a 
thriving place, inhabited by an intelligent population estimated 
at 2,500. The harbor of Ashtabula is two and a half milp= 



160 BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, TOLEDO, ETC. 

from the village,, at the mouth of the river, where is a light- 
house. 

F AIRPORT stands on the east side of Grand River, 15-5 miles 
from Buffalo. It has a good harbor for lake vessels, and is a 
port of considerable trade. This harbor is so well defended 
from winds and easy of access, that vessels run in when they 
can not easily make other ports. Here is a light-house and a 
beacon to guide the mariner. 

PAijfEsviLLE, 0., three miles from Fairport and 30 miles 
from Cleveland, is a beautiful and flourishing town, being sur- 
rounded by a fine section of country. It is the county seat for 
Lake County, and contains a court-house, five churches, a bank, 
20 stores, a number of beautiful residences, and about 3,000 
inhabitants. 

The City of Cleveland is situated on an elevated plain at 
the entrance of Cuyahoga River into Lake Erie, in N. lat. 41° 30', 
W. Ion. 81° 47'. It is distant 185 miles from Buffalo, and 107 
miles from Toledo by railroad route ; 120 miles from Detroit by 
steamboat route. Its harbor is spacious and safe when once 
entered, being formed by the mouth of the river. The city is 
regularly and beautifully laid out, ornamented with numerous 
shade-trees, from which it takes the name of " Forest City ;" 
near its center is a large public square. It is the mart of one 
of the greatest grain-growing States in the Union, and has a 
ready communication by railroad with Albany, New York, and 
Philadelphia. The bluff on which it is built is 80 feet above 
the level of the lake, where stands a light-house, from which an 
extensive and magnificent view is obtained, overlooking the 
meandering of the Cuyahoga, the line of railroads, the shipping 
in the harbor, and the vessels passing on Lake Erie. 

The city contains a court-house, city hall, custom-house, 
college buildings, a lyceum, a public reading-room, a literary 
institution, which sustains a course of lectures during the 
winter season; 2-5 churches of different denominations, six 
banks, an insurance company, and several large and well-kept 
hotels, among which may be named the "Weddell House, the 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, TOLEDO, ETC. 161 

Angier House, the American Hotel, and the Johnson House. 
It now boasts of 50,000 inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing 
in numbers and wealth. The Ohio Canal terminates here, 
forming a water communication with the Ohio River at different 
points. 

The railroads diverging from Cleveland are the Cleveland 
and Erie, 95 miles; Cleveland and Pittsburgh, 100 miles, with 
several branches ; Cleveland and Mahoning, 67 miles finished ; 
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, 135 miles; and Cleveland 
and Toledo, Northern Division, 107 miles. These roads all run 
into one general depot, situated near the water s edge, afford- 
ing great facilities to the trans-shipment of freight of different 
kinds. The trade with the Upper Lakes is one of great and 
growing importance ; steamers leave daily for Detroit, Macki- 
nac, Green Bay, Chicago, the Saut Ste Marie, and Lake Superior. 

For list of steamers sailing from Cleveland and Detroit to 
the Upper Lakes, see page 140. 

Black River, 28 miles from Cleveland, is a small village 
with a good harbor, where is a ship-yard and other manufac- 
turing establishments. 

Vermiliox, 10 miles farther on the line of the Cleveland 
and Toledo Railroad, is a place of considerable trade, situated 
at the mouth of a river of the same name. 

HuRox, Ohio, 50 miles from Cleveland and 10 miles from 
Sandusky, is situated at the mouth of Huron River, which 
affords a good harbor. It contains several churches, 15 or 20 
stores, several warehouses, and about 2,000 inhabitants 

The islands lying near the head of Lake Erie, off Sandusky, 
are Kelley's Island, North Bass, Middle Bass, and South 
Bass islands, besides several smaller islands, forming altogether 
a handsome group. Kelley's Island is the largest and most 
important, but on the north side of South Bass Island lies the 
secure harlwr of Put-in Bay, made celebrated by being the 
rendezvous of Com. Perry's flotilla before and after the decisive 
battle of Lake Erie, which resulted in the capture of the entire 
British fleet. 



162 BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND, TOLEDO, ETC. 

NAVAL BATTLE ON LAKE ERIE. 
September 10th, 1813, the hostile fleets of England and the 
United States on Lake Erie met near the head of the lake, and 
a sanguinary battle ensued. The fleet hearing the " red cross" 
of England consisted of six vessels, carrying 64 guns, under 
command of the veteran Com Barclay ; and the fleet bearing 
the " broad stripes and bright stars" of the United States, con- 
sisted of nine vessels, carrying 54 guns, under command of the 
young and inexperienced, but brave, Com. Oliver H. Perry. 
The result of this important conflict was made known to the 
world in the following laconic dispatch, wrilteoi at 4 p.m. of 
that day : 

" Dear General : We have met the enemy, and they are 
ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop. 

" With esteem, etc., 0. H. Perry. 

" Gen. William Jones." 

Mr. Powell, the artist, who painted the De Soto picture for 
Congress, has been appointed by the Ohio Legislature to paint 
a representation of Perry's Victory on Lake Erie — the price 
not to exceed $5,000. It will be placed in one of the panels of 
the rotunda of the new State House in Columbus, the capital 
of the State. 



OHIO RIVER iND LAKE ERIE CAXALS. 1G3 



EAILEOAD KOUTE AEOUND LAKE EEIE. 

This important body of water being encompassed by a band 
of iron, ■we subjoin the following Table of Distances : 

Miles. 
Buffalo to Paris, C. W., via Buffalo and Lake Huron 

Railroad 84 

Paris to Windsor or Detroit, via Great Western Railway. 158 

Detroit to Toledo, Ohio, via Detroit and Toledo R.R 68 

Toledo to Cleveland, via Cleveland and Toledo R.R. ..... 107 

Cleveland to Erie, Pa., via Cleveland and Erie R.R 95 

Erie to Buffalo, via Lake Shore Road 88 

Total miles 595 

The extreme length of Lake Erie is 250 miles, from the 
mouth of Niagara River to Maumee Bay ; the circuit of the 
lake about 560 miles, being about 100 miles less distance than 
has been stated by some writers on the great lakes. 



OHIO EIVER AND LAKE EEIE CANALb 

The completion of the Miami Canal makes four distinct 
channels of communication from the Ohio River through the 
State of Ohio to Lake Erie, namely : 

1. The Erie Extension Canal, from Beaver, twenty or 
thirty miles below Pittsburgh, to Erie, 136 miles. 2. The Cross- 
CiU Beaver Canal, which is an extension or branch from 
Newcastle, Pa., on the Beaver Canal, to Akron, Ohio, where it 
nnites with the Portsmouth and Cleveland Canal — making a 
canal route from Beaver to Cleveland of 143 miles. 3. The 
Ohio Canal, from Cleveland to Portsmouth, through the center 
of the State, 309 miles. 4. The Miami Extension, which is a 
union of the Miami Canal with the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
through Dayton, terminating at Toledo, at the mouth of the 
IVIaumee River on Lake Erie, 247 miles. The vast and increas- 
ing business of the Ohio Valley may furnish business for all 
these canals. They embrace rich portions of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Indiana ; but are not so located as to be free from 
competition with one another. At no distant time, they would 
unquestionably command a sufScient independent business, 
were it not probable that they may be superseded by railways. 
The capacity of railways — both for rapid and cheap transporta- 
tion — as it is developed by circumstances and the progress of 
science, is destined to affect very materially the value and im- 
portance of canals. 



164 DISCOVERY OF A NEW HARBOR. 



OPENmG OF NAVIGATION IN LAKE ERIE. 

The following,,table, prepared Iby the Detroit Advertiser, from 
back files, shows the time Avhen navigation has opened at this 
port for the past seventeen years : 

1840. .March 8 Steamer Star arrived from Cleveland. 

1841 . . April 18 " Gen. Wayne arrived from Buffalo 

1842 . . March 3 . . . . " Gen. Scott cl'd for Buffalo. 

1843 . . April 18 " Fairport cl'd for Cleveland 

1844 . . March 11.... « Red Jacket cl'd for Fort Gratiot. 

1845 . . Jan'y 4 " United States arrived from Buffalo. 

1846 . . March 14 " John Owen arrived from Cleveland. 

. " United States " 

.Prop. Manhattan cl'd for Buffalo. 

. Steamer John Owen cl'd for Cleveland. 
" Southerner arrived from Buffalo. 

. " Hollister '' « Toledo. 

. " Arrow cl'd for Toledo. 

" Bay City arrived from Sandusky. 
,„^^ , ., ^ • " May Queen " " Cleveland. 
1855.. April 2.... " Arrow cl'd for Toledo. 
1856.. " 15.... " May Queen cl'd for Cleveland. 
1857 . . March 24 " Ocean cleared for Cleveland. 



1847.. 




30. . 


1848.. 




22.. 


1849.. 




21.. 


1850.. 




25.. 


1851.. 




19.. 


1852.. 




22.. 


1853 . . 




14.. 


1854.. 




24.. 



DISCOVEET OF A NEW HAEBOE IN LAKE HUEON. 

We learn from a Michigan paper that Capt. W. Gilmore, of 
the brig Sultan, having come into collision with a vessel off the 
Middle Island, on the night of October 27th, 1856, was driven 
by stress of the accident into Bail du I)erd, on the north side 
of Lake Huron, about eighty miles above Goderich. Captain 
Gilmore, in a letter to the editor of the Port Bruce Pioneer, 
states that there is plenty of water in the harbor for the largest 
vessel on the lakes, and a safe anchorage. A pier inside the 
harbor is alone wanted to render the accommodations perfect. 
The captain expresses the opinion, that a light-house and a pier 
would render this bay one of the finest harbors on the lakes. 
Since this letter was written, we are informed that a small 
town has been planted in that locality. 



BUFFALO 

Buffalo City, Erie Co., N. Y., possessing commanding ad- 
vantages, is distant from Albany 298 miles by railroad, and 
about 350 miles by the line of the Erie Canal; in N. lat. 
42° 53', W. long. 78° 55' from Greenwich. It is favorably 
situated for commerce at the head of Niagara River, the outlet 
of Lake Erie, and at the foot of the great chain of Western 
lakes, and is the point where the vast trade of these inland 
seas is concentrated. The harbor, formed of Buffalo Creek, lies 
nearly east and west across the southern part of tne city, and 
is separated from the waters of Lake Erie by a peninsula be- 
tween the creek and lake. This harbor is a very secure one, 
and is of such capacity, that although steamboats, ships, and 
other lake craft, and canal boats, to the number, in all, of from 
three to four hundred, have sometimes been assembled there for 
the transaction of the business of the lakes, yet not one half 
part of the water accommodations has ever yet been occupied 
by the vast business of the great and growing West. The har- 
bor of Buffalo is the most capacious, and really the easiest and 
safest of access on our inland waters. Lnprovements are an- 
nually made by dredging, by the construction of new piers, 
wharves, warehouses, and elevators, which extend its facilities, 
and render the discharge and trans-shipment of cargoes more 
rapid and convenient ; and in this latter respect is without an 
equal. 

Buffalo was first settled by the whites in 1801. In 1832 it was 
chartered as a city, being now governed by a mayor, recorder, 
and board of aldermen. Its population in 1830, according to 
the United States Census, was 8,668 ; in 1840, 18,213 ; and in 
1850, 42,261. Since the latter period the limits of the city have 
been enlarged by taking in the town of Black Rock ; it is now 
divided into thirteen wards, and, according to the State Census 
of 1855, contained 74,214 inhabitants, being now the third city 



166 BUFFALO. 

in point of size in the State of New York llie public build- 
ings are numerous, and many of them fine specimens of archi- 
tecture ; while the private buildings, particularly those for busi- 
ness purposes, are of the most durable construction and modern 
style. The manufacturing establishments are also numerous, 
and conducted on a large scale, producing manufactured articles 
for the American and Canadian markets. 

The lines of steamers and railroads diverging from Buffalo 
tend to make it one of the greatest thoroughfares in the Union. 
Steamers and propellers run to Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, 
Mackinac, Saut Ste Marie, Green Bay, Milwaukee, Chicago, etc. 

The railroads diverging from Buffalo are the New York Cen- 
tral, extending to Albany 298 miles by direct route ; Buffalo 
Division of the New York and Erie Railroad ; Lake Shore Rail- 
road ; Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and Lewiston Railroad ; and the 
Buffalo and Huron Railroad, the latter running through Can- 
ada to Goderich on Lake Huron, and connecting with the Great 
Western Railway, terminating at Windsor, opposite Detroit. 

The principal hotels are the American, Clarendon, Commer- 
cial, and Mansion House, on Main Street, and the Wcetern 
Hotel, facing the Terrace. 

" The climate of Buffalo is, without doubt, of a more even 
temperature than any other city in the same parallel of lati- 
tude from the Mississippi to the Atlantic coast. Observations 
have shown that the thermometer never ranges as low in win- 
ter, nor as high in summer, as at points in Massachusetts, the 
eastern and central portions of this State, the northern and 
southern shores of Lake Erie, in Michigan, Northern Illinois, 
and Wisconsin. The winters are not as keen, nor the summers, 
cooled by the breezes from the lake, as sultry ; and in a sani- 
tary point of view, it is probably the healthiest city in the 
world. 

" London, usually considered the healthiest of cities, has a 
ratio of one death in forty inhabitants The ratio of Buffalo 
is one in fifty-six. The favorable situation of the city for 
drainage, and for a supply of pure water ; its broad, well-paved 
streets, lined with shrubbery and shade-trees ; its comparatively 
mild winters ; its cool summers ; its pleasant drives and pictur- 
esque suburbs, and its proximity to the ' Falls,' combine to 
render it one of the most desirable residences on the continent." 



BUFFALO. 



167 



In regard to the commerce of the " Fai West," mucli of which 
centers in Buffalo, a writer justly remarks : 

" Few men have duly estimated the value of our 1,500 miles 
of uninterrupted lake navigation. A coast of upward of 3 000 
miles connecting with numerous canals and railroads, whose 
ao-o-reo-ate length, when they shall be completed, will greatly 
elceed the leno-th of all our inland seas and coasts, must create 
an amount of°commerce far greater than has ever yet been 
witnessed on the waters of che Mediterranean. The completion 
of the ship canal at the Saut Ste Marie alone opens an inland 
sea of vast and growing importance." 



TRADE AND COMMERCE OF BUFFALO— 1856. 

IMPORTS BY LAKE. 

The annual tables of the Lake Trade during the year, with 
some additional comparative statements showing the course ot 
trade, the increase and decrease in the general average value 
of most articles, and other matters of interest concerning this 
trade during the year 1856, are copied from tne Buffalo Couner. 
The value of Imports by Lake for the past six years is as follows : 

1851 . .$31,889,951 1854 $45,030,931 

itsi 34 943 855 1855 50,346,819 

1853: '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. 36,881,230 1856 45,684,079 

This table exhibits a steady increase in the yearly valuation 
of the Lake Imports until last year, when there is a decrease as 
compared with 1855 of $4,662,740. This large decrease has 
been occasioned, not by a falling off in the receipts of the more 
valuable articles of import, but by the dechne m the average 
value of nearly every description of produce. 

The followino- table will show the different States through 
who^e ports have been shipped the following produce received 
at this port. Through Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, and a few 
smaller ports, we have received the products of Ohio, Indiana, 
Southern Illinois, and Kentucky, and through Chicago, the pro- 
ducts of Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, and Missouri. 

Flour. Wheat. Com. Oats. 
Ohio ports... 641.155 826,016 1J17,130 1.094,015 
Michi-an.... 203,125 495,289 164,49. 42,314 
niinofs .122472 5,127,947 7,922,461 548,326 
^Snsin:... 115,427 1,707,798 52,702 39,146 
Canada 60,906 386,067 

Total . . . 1,143,085 8,543,117 9,846,790 1,723,801 



168 BUFFALO. 

The folio-wing Table will show the entrances and clearances 

of foreign and American Tessels, together ■with their tonnage and 

crews during the year 1856, and the total for the past 7 years : 

Arrived. No. Tons. Crews. 

American vessels from foreign 

ports ; 112 17,745 598 

Foreign do., do 718 71,039 5,314 

Total 830 88,784 5,912 

Cleared. 

Amer. vessels to foreign ports 181 30,607 1,193 

Foreign do., do 632 62,833 5,580 



i-i-O 



Total 813 93,440 6,77 

Coasting trade. 

Inward 3,292 1,441,663 49,556 

Outwartl 3,193 1,424,702 49,210 

Total 6,485 2,866,305 98,766 

Grand Total for 1856 8,128 3,048,589 111.451 

" "1855 9.231 3,360,233 111,515 

" " 1854 8,972 3,995,284 120.838 

" " 1853 8,298 3,252,978 128,112 

" " 1852 9,441 3,092,247 127,491 

" " 1851 9,050 3,087,533 120,542 

" « 1850 8,444 2,743,700 125,562 

The amount of new tonnage now on the stocks both at this 
and other Western ports, and destined for the trade of this city 
and the West, will, we believe, increase the tonnage entering 
and departing from this district very materially during the 
coming season (1857), and that it must exceed any former year. 

Losses on the Lakes. — If the losses on the great Lakes 
during the past year are any indication of the amount of com- 
merce on our inland seas, it must have grown enormously since 
1848. In that year the losses amounted to but a little over 
8400,000; in 1853 they had increased to nearly a million; in 
1854 they were a little over two millions; in 1855 over two and 
a half millions ; but the present year, 1856, they have reached 
the fearful sum of over three millions. But, large as tliis 
amount is, it does not seem so great when it is viewed in con- 
nection with the statement that the commerce of the Lakes 
passing the St. Clair Flats amounted in 1856 to more than three 
hundred millions of dollars, while the coasting trade not in- 
cluded in that estimate amounts to at least a hundred millions 
more. This looks very much like the course of empire taking 
a westerly direction. 



BUFFALO. 169 



RECAPITULATION OF LOSSES ON THE LAKES — 1856. 

Losses in May, steam and sail $142,600 

June, " " 118,550 

July, '' " 266,130 

August, " " 67,750 

September," " 342,860 

October, « « 882,039 

November, " " 1,059,395 

December, " " 159,550 

Total loss, steam and sail, in 1856 S3, 038, 8 < 4 

" in 1855 2,797,839 



Increased loss 241,035 

Total loss of life in 1856 407 

" in 1855 118 

Increase 289 

Loss on steam huUs $732,800 

Loss on cargoes by steam 645,300 

Total loss by steam in 1856 1,378,100 

« in 1855 1,692,700 



Decrease in 1856 $314,600 

Loss on sail huUs 863.675 

Loss on cargoes by sail 797,099 

Total loss by sail in 1856 1,660,714 

" « in 1855 1,105,139 



Increase in 1856 $555,63o 

Synopsis of the Marine Register of the Board of Lake Un- 
derwriters of vessels in commission on tlie lakes in the fall of 

1856. 

Number. 

Steamers 107 

Propellers 135 

Barques 56 

Brigs 108 

Schooners 850 



Total 1,256 



Tonnage. 


Cash Value. 


62,863 


$3,320,400 


54.675 


2,741,200 


21,773 


673,800 


27,045 


701,850 


173,380 


5,487,100 


339,736 


$12,944,350 



D. P. DOBBINS, Sec'y 
Board of Lake Underwriter: 



170 BUFFALO. 



EXPORTS FROM UP-LAKE PORTS TO BUFFALO. 

STATEMENT, showing the several amounts of Flour and Grain eat' 
ported l>y Lake frorro various ports to Buffalo, during the season of 
1856: 

P'onr, Wheat, Coin, Oafs. Kvo, 
bb'.s. bush. bush. bush. busli. 
Ashtabula 2,500 



AUensburgh 1,200 

Bavfield. C. W 50,115 

Black River 1,600 

Brantford, C. W 16,231 32,008 

Port Burwell, C. W 18,161 

Caledonia, G. W 2 726 

Oavuira 7,628 41,127 

Cleveland 245,512 72,577 117,239 172,087 

Chicaiio 119,772 5,100,293 7,831,615 537,936 

Conneaut l,2i)0 

Detroit 189,309 333,398 64,997 43,411 

Port Dover, C. W 13,036 89.718 

DunnvUle, C. W 2,223 19,502 

Erie 6,995 

Fremont 9,675 84,292 85,000 

FortErie.C.W 7,077 

Grand Haven 8,955 37,891 

Green Bav 1,864 15') 

Goderich,' C. W 600 26,164 

Huron 327 20,889 281,423 252,916 

Indiana 1,671 

Kenosha 6o5 106,843 

Maitland, C. W 3,7S0 

Milwaukee 106,366 1,440.337 34,000 43,241 

Michigan City 26,829 31,269 

Milan 40 6,700 38,792 

Monroe 995 73.909 

Morpeth,C.W 5,000 

Port Washington 1,463 3,210 

Perrvsburg 2,875 

Racine 1,622 53,768 

Port Robinson, C. W 4,636 

Port Rowan. C. W 367 465 

Ryer9e,C. W 2,977 5,400 

Saginaw 766 

Sandusky 178,664 69,218 210,587 421,147 

Sheboygan 893 37.0S2 

Port Stanley, C. W 2,295 99,716 

Toledo 208,417 621,164 937,579 81,157 

Venice 100 8,000 20,000 

Yermilion 2,810 20,033 30,650 

Waukegan 124 51,870 138 

York..- 2,624 1,997 



Totals 1,126,048 8,465,671 9,632,477 1,733,382 245,810 



TRIP FROM BUFFALO TO MACKIXAC, CHICAGO, ETC. 



This is a deeply interesting excursion, calculated to give 
the traveler a just conception of the great inland sias of North 
America, inasmuch as the route traverses Lakes Erie, St. Clair, 
Huron, and Michigan, a total distance of more than a thousand 
miles. 

If to this is added a trip to the Falls of St. Mary (Saut de 
Ste Marie), in the outlet of Lake Superior, and connecting it 
•with Lake Huron— to the Manitoulm Islands in the northern 
quarter of Lake Huron, their very name implying scenery fitted 
to excite sublime emotions, and suggesting the strong sentiment 
of religious awe which characterized the primitive red man — if 
these he added to the tour, no excursion of equal extent can be 
found that presents a greater variety of picturesque and mag- 
nificent scenery. Besides the above grand excursion, Lake Su- 
perior alone afi"ords ample inducements for the tourist to extend 
his visit to this greatest of all the inland seas of America. 

As this excursion begins on Lake Erie, we begin our guid- 
ance with a brief description of thai noble and most useful 
body of water. 

Lake Erie, washing the shores of four of these United 
States— New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan— and 
spreading between them and a large segment of the British 
province of Canada AVest, with the line of division as settled 
by treaty, running through the middle of the lake, is 250 miles 
long by 40 to 60 miles wide. Its surface, as ascertained by the 
engineers of the Erie Canal, is 565 feet above the Hudson River 
at Albany, and 330 feet above Lake Ontario. The greatest 
depth of the lake yet observed is 204 feet. This is compara- 
tively shallow ; and the relative depths of the greipseries of 
lakes may be illustrated by saying, that the surplus waters 



172 BUFFALO TO MACKINAC, CHICAGO, ETC. 

poured from the vast basins of Superior, Huron, and Michigan 
flow acro6S the plate of Erie into the deep bowl of Ontario. 

Lake Erie is reputed to be the only one of the series ia 
■which any current is perceptible. The fact, if it is one, is 
usually ascribed to its shallowness ; but the vast volume of its 
outlet — the Niagara River — with its strong current, is a much 
more favorable cause than the small depth of its water, which 
may be far more appropriately adduced as the reason why the 
navigation is obstructed by ice much more than either of the 
other great lakes. The New York shore of Lake Erie extends 
about 60 miles, in the course of which the lake receives a num- 
ber of streams, the most considerable of which are the Buffalo 
and Cattaraugus creeks ; and presents several harbors, the 
most important of which at present are Buffalo Creek and 
Dunkirk. 

As connected with trade and navigation, this lake is far the 
most important of all the great chain, not only because it is 
bordered by older settlements than any of them, except Ontario, 
but still more because, from its position, it concentrates the 
trade of the vast West. 

When we consider the extent, not only of this lake, but of 
Huron, 260 miles long ; of Michigan, 330 miles long ; of Su- 
perior, 420 miles long, the largest body of fresh water on the 
globe, we may quote with emphasis the words of an English 
writer : '' How little are they aware, in Europe, of the extent of 
commerce upon these inland seas, whose coasts are now lined 
with flourishing towns and cities; whose waters are plowed 
with magnificent steamers, and hundreds of vessels crowded 
with merchandise ! Even the Americans themselves are not 
fully aware of the rising importance of these lakes, as connected 
with the West." 




THE PmST YESSEL WHICH MYIGATED THE 
UPPEPt LAKES. ^ 



The following accotmt is translated from an old French 
work, printed in 1688, entitled, " An Account of the Discovery 
of a very great Country situated in Ainerica" by Father 
Hennepin. It will be read with interest. 

" It now became necessary for La Salle, in furtherance of his 
object, to construct a vessel above the Falls of Niagara, suf- 
ficiently large to transport the men and goods necessary to 
carry on a profitable trade with the savages residing on the 
western lakes. On the 22d of January, 1679, they went six 
miles above the falls to the mouth of a small creek, and there 
built a dock convenient for the construction of their vessel.* 

" On the 26th of January, the keel and other pieces being 
ready. La Salle requested Father Hennepin to drive the first 
bolt," but the modesty of the good father's profession prevented. 

" During the rigorous winter. La Salle determined to return 
to Fort Frontenac ;t and leaving the dock in charge of an 
Italian named Chevalier Tuti, he started, accompanied by 
Father Hennepin as far as Lake Ontario ; from thence he trav- 
ersed the dreary forests to Frontenac on foot, with only two 
companions and a dog, which drew his baggage on a sled, sub- 
sisting on nothing but parched corn, and even that failed him 
two days' journey from the fort. In the mean time the^build^ 
ing of the vessel went on under the suspicious eyes of the neigh- 
boring savages, although the most part of them had gone to war 
beyond Lake Erie. One of them, feigning intoxication, at- 
tempted the life of the blacksmith, who defended himself suc- 
cessfully with a red-hot bar of iron. The timely warning of a 
friendly squaw averted the burning of their vessel on the stocks, 
which was designed by the savages. The workmen were almost 
disheartened by frequent alarms, and would have abandonedl 
the work had they not been cheered by the good father, who 

* There can be but little doubt that the place they s lected for building 
their bark was the mouth of the Cayuga Credc,^^put -ix miles above the 
falls. Governor Cass says " the vessel waMi|||ked at Erie ;" School- 
craft, in his journal, says, "near Buffalo;" an^i^Ptiistorian Bancroft lo- 
cates the site at the mouth of Tonawanda Creek. Hennepin says the 
mouth of the creek was two leagues above the great falls ; the mouth of 
the Tonawanda is more than twice that distance, and the Cayuga is tha 
only stream that answers to the description. 

t Now Kingston, Canada. 

^/' 15* ai^A kfm 




174 UPPER LAKES 

represented tne great advantage their perseverance "n'ould affoid, 
and liow much their success would redound to the glory of God. 
These and other inducements accelerated the 'work, and the 
vessel was soon ready to be launched, though not entirely 
finished. Chanting Te Denm, and firing three guns, they com- 
mitted her to the river amid cries of joy, and swung their ham- 
mocks in security from the wild beasts, and still more dreaded 
Indians. 

"' When the Senecas returned from their expedition, they 
were greatly astonished at the floating fort, ' which struck 
terror among all the savages who lived on the great lakes and 
rivers within fifteen hundred miles.' Hennepin ascended the 
river in a bai'k canoe with one of his companions as far as Lake 
Erie. They twice pulled the canoe up the rapids, and sounded 
the lake for the purpose of ascertaining the depth. He re- 
ported that with a favorable north or northwest wind the vessel 
could ascend to the lake, and then sail without difficulty over 
its whole extent. Soon after the vessel was launched in the cur- 
rent of V^iagara, about four and a half miles from the lake. 
Ilenucpm left it for Fort Frontenac, and retirrning with La 
Salle and two other fathers, Gabriel and Zenobe Mambre, 
anchored in the Niagara the oOth July, 1G79. On the 4th of 
August they reached the dock where the ship was built, which 
he calls distant eighteen miles from Lake Ontario, and pro- 
c jeded from thence in a bark canoe to their vessel, which they 
found at anchor three miles from the ' beautiful Lake Erie.' 

" The vessel was of 60 tons burden, completely rigged, and 

found with all the necessaries, arms, provisions, and merchan- 

ise ; it had seven small pieces of cannon on board, two of which 

ere of brass. There was a griffin flyingat the jib-boom, and 

ea^e above. There were also the ordinary ornaments and 
other fixtures which usually grace a ship of war. " 

' They endeavored many times to ascend the current of the 
iagara into Lake Erie without success, the wind not being 
strong enough. While they were thus detained, La Salle em- 
ployed a few of his men in clearing some land on the Canadian 
-liure, opposite the vessel, and in sowing some vegetable seeds 
f »r the benefit of those who might inhabit the place. 

" At length the wind being favorable, they lightened the 
"\ ssel by sending most of the crew on shore, and with the aid 
of their sails an'l en or a dozen men at the tow-lines, ascended 
the current into Late^^rte. Thus on the 7th of August, 1679, 
the first vessel ^^K^fron the untried waters of Lake Erie. 
They steered southwest, after having chanted their never-fail- 
ing Te Dtum, and discharged their artillery in the presence 
of a vast niiraber of Seneca warriors. It had been reported to 
<mr voyagers that Lake Erie was full of breakers and sand- 



UPPER LAKES. 175 

B, which rtc iered a safe navigation impossible ; they 
therefore kept the lead going, sounding from time to time, to 
avoid danger. 

" After sailing, without difficulty, through Lake Erie, they 
arrived on the 11th of August at the mouth of the Detroit 
River, sailing up which they arrived at St. Clair, to which they 
gave the name it bears. After being detained several days by 
contrary winds at the bottom of the St. Clair River, they at 
length succeeded in entering Lake Huron on the 23d of Aug-ust, 
chanting Te Deum through gratitude for a safe navigation 
thus far. Passing along the eastern shore of the lake, they 
sailed with a fresh and favorable wind until evening, when the 
wind suddenly veered, driving them across Saginaw Bay 
(S-acinaw). The storm raged until the 24th, and was succeeded 
by a calm, which continued until next day noon (25th), when 
they pursued their course until midnight. As they doubled a 
point which advanced into the lake, they were suddenly struck 
by a furious wind, which forced them to rim behind the cape 
for safety. On the 26th, the violence of the storm compelled 
them to send down their topmasts and yards, and to stand in, 
for they could find neither anchorage nor shelter. ^ 

"It was then the stout heart of La Salle failed himftlie 
whole crew fell upon their knees to say their prayers and pre- 
pare for death, except the pilot, whom they could not coiifi|[ to 
follow their example, and who, on- the contrary, 'did nOTning 
all that time but curse and swear against M. La Salle, who had 
brought him thither to make him perish in a nasty lake, and 
lose the glory he had acquired by his long and happy naviga- 
tion on the ocean.' On the 27th, favored with less adverse 
winds, they arrived during the night at iNIichilimackinac, 
anchored in the bay, where they report six fathoms ofw£ 
and a clay bottom. This bay they state is protected on th^ 
southwest, west, and northwest, but open to the south. ^ "* 
savages were struck dumb with astonishment at the size of thi 
vessel and the noise of their guns. 

" Here they regaled themselves on the delicious trout, wl 
they described as being from 50 to 50 pounds in weight, an( 
affording the savages their -principal subsistence. On the' 
of September, 1679, they left Mackinac, entered Lake MiclH^ 
(Illinois), and sailed 40 leagues to an island at the mouth of 
the Bay of Puara (Giaen Bay). From t^ place La Salle de- 
tertiined to send baaPthe ship laden -yWi furs to Niagara. 
The pilot and five men embarked in herflnid on the lOth^she 
fired a gun and set sail (gi her return with a fav.orable -wjjid. 
Nothing; more was heard frofii her, and she undmiWedly foun- 
dered in Lake Huron, with all on board. Hei^^fr^WkS ri»h, 
and valued at 60, Qi 



% 



176 NAVIGATIOX OF THE LAKKS 



" Thus ended the first voyage of the first ship that sailed <yVer 
the Western Lakes. "What a contrast is presented between the 
silent waves and unbroken forests which Avitnessed the course 
of that adventurous bark, and the busy hum of commerce which 
now rises from the fertile bottoms, and the thousand ships and 
smoking palaces which now furrovr the surface of those inland 
seas ! 



NAVIGATION OF THE LAKES. 
Ft'om the Buffalo Commereial Advertiser — 1846. 

" I HAVE noticed several communications in your paper re- 
cently, in relation to the early Navigation of the Lnkes by 
American vessels, and as you solicit further communications on 
the subject, I give you such facts as I am acquainted with, and 
will add, that in regard to many of them I have vouchers to 
establish their correctness. 

" I first visited Lake Erie and the Niagara River in August, 
1795 ; and from an early period, until within the last twenty 
l^ears, have been more or less interested in the navigation of 
the lakes. 

" It is well known that the military posts of Oswego, Niagara, 
Detroli, and Mackinac were not surrendered to the United States 
untit the fore part of the ye^r 1796, under Jay's treaty. Boats 
had not been permitted to pass Oswego into Lake Ontario, and 
as no settlements of importance had been made previous to that 
time on the American shores of the lakes (excepting the old 
French settlements in the neighborhood of these ports, and they 
were under the jurisdiction and influence of the British govern- 
ment),- no vessels were required, and, of course, none had been 
bmlt. 

*' In August, 1795, 1 left Canandaigua on a journey to Presque 

l^le — now Erie, Pennsylvania. The country west of Genesee 

■'"Ifeiver, excepting a tract twelve miles in width extending from 

opposite Avon along the river to its mouth, had not then been 

purchased of the Indians, and no roads opened. We, of course, 

followed the Indian trail to BufifalQ. 

" At that time the only residents at that place, as far as I 
r.culloct, were William Johnson, the British Indian interpreter, 
whose house stood on the site of the pr^nt Mansion House, an 
Indian trader namecl^'innee, a negro i^fced Joe, also a trader, 
1)0 th of whom residted on the flat^JMBp the mouth of Little 
Buffalo, and a Dutchman by the^|^re of Middough, with a 
family, wh o resi ded some forty or*firty rods east of Johnson's. 
A lari^pM^fl^'f tlie ground no^ occupied by your beautiful 
city wdsiJi® a^knbroken wilderness 



NAVIGATION OF THE LAKES. 177 

" At that time I am not aware that a single vessel was owned 
on the United States side of the lakes, and remember that Ca.pt. 
Lee, who would have known, informed me that there were none 

" In 1796 I was employed by the Connecticut Land Company 
to survey the Western Reserve, and I prepared to go on early 
in the season, with several other surveyors, and a party of men 
to perform the work. At Schenectady we fitted out three bat- 
teaux, manned by four hands each, with the necessary articles 
for the expedition, such as tents, blankets, cooking utensils, 
groceries, etc., with a quantity of dry goods, designed as pres- 
ents to the Ladians. 

" These boats were put under the care of Mr. Joshua Stow, 
uncle of Judge Stow, of Buffalo. Understanding that the mil- 
itary posts at Oswego and Niagara were to be given up to the 
United States early this spring, under a stipulation in Jay's 
treaty, Mr. Stow took the route by Oswego and Niagara to 
Queenston. On his arrival at Oswego, that port had not been 
surrendered, and the boats were not permitted to pass. Deter- 
mined not to be delayed, Mr. Stow took the boats a mile or two 
up the river, and the night following ran them past the fort 
into the lake and pursued his voyage, and before arriving at 
Niag ra that post had passed into the possession of our troops. 
He landed at Queenston, had his boats and loading taken to 
Chippewa, where he took in provisions to complete his cargoes, 
which had been purchased at Canandaigua, and forwarded by 
the way of Irondequoit and the lake in open boats, and arrived 
a day or two before. 

" At Buffalo he was met by others of the party, who had 
come on by land, among these. Gen. Moses Cleveland, one of 
the directors of the Connecticut Land Company (from whom 
the city of Cleveland took its name), who, by way of securing 
the good- will of the Indians to the expedition, held a council 
and distributed presents among them. The expedition went on 
from here, a part by the boats, and a part by land with pack- 
horses, and arrived at the mouth of Conneaut Creek on the 4th 
of July, 1796, and celebrated the day. The party then con- 
sisted of fifty -two persons. 

At this time, as we ascertained, there was not a white person 
residing on the Reserve, excepting a French family just within 
the mouth of Sandusky Bay. 

" One of our boats was employed during the season in bring- 
ing up supplies of provisions from Chippewa, and in October, 
on her up trip, was wrecked in a gale off the mouth of Chati- 
tauque Creek, and Tinker, the master, drowned. 

" No American vessels had yet been built, and some of the 
baggage and stores for the troops at Detroit had Bfeen trans- 
ported from Western Pennsylvania by the yontiwctor, ^i^en. 



178 NAVIGATION OF THfc ,AKES. 

O'Hara, up the valley of the Big Beavei , and through the "wil- 
derness to Detroit, ou pack-horses. 

" Between the years of 1796 and 1800 (I am unable to par- 
ticularize the year), the schooner Gen. Tracy was built at De- 
troit, and in iVugust, 1808, purchased by Porter, Barton & Co. 
and thoroughly repaired, and on her second or third trip was 
wrecked on the Fort Erie reef in 1809. 

" The brig Adams, a government vessel, was built about the 
same time as the Gen. Tracy, and was sailed by Capt. Brevoort 
for a number of years. She was built at Detroit. 

" A small vessel called the Good Intent was built at Presque 
Isle by Capt. Wm. Lee, and I believe was partly, and perhaps 
wholly, ov.-ned by Rufus S. Reed. She, I think, was built about 
1800, and wrecked near Point Abino in 1805. 

" In 1802 the schooner Gen. Wilkinson, of 70 tons, was built at 
Detroit, and in 1811 thoroughly repaired, and her name changed 
to Amelia. She was sold to the United States during the war. 

" In the winter of 1802 and '3 the sloop Contractor, of 64 
tons, was built at Black Rock by the company having the gov- 
ernment contract for the supply of the military posts, under 
the superintendence of Captain William Lee, by whom she was 
sailed until 1809, and afterward by Capt. James Beard. In 
1803 or '•! a small sloop called the Niagara, of 30 tons, was 
bmlt at Cayuga Creek, on the Niagara River, by the U. S. 
government, but not put in commission. She was purchased 
by Porter, Barton «& Co. in 1806, and her name changed to the 
Nanc}', and sailed by Captain Richard ONeil. 

" In 1806 the schooner Mary, of 105 tons, was built at Erie 
by Thomas Wilson, and purchased the one half by James Rough 
and George Bueshler, and the other half by Porter, Barton & 
Co. in 1808, and sailed by Captain Rough until the war, and 
then sold to the United States. 

" In 1808 Porter, Barton & Co. purchased the schooner Ran- 
ger of Georo-e Wilber, then several years old— she was repaired 
•and sailed oy Capt. Hathaway. In 1810 the sloop Erie was 
built at Black Rock by Porter, Barton & Co., and sold to the 
United States in time of the war. The schooner Salina, sailed 
by Capt. Dobbins, and the schooner Eleanor, and probably 
O' iiers that I do not recolh^ct, were built and sailed before the 
V. ;u% but I am unable to .say where and when they were built, 
or by whom owned. 

•' On Lake Ontario I find that previous to 1809, and during 
that year, the following vc-^sels had been built, and were on- 
gaged in the commerce of the lake : Schooner Pair American, 
•wned by Matthew M'Nair, of Oswego. Theophilus Pease, mas- 
ter ; also^chooners Lark, Island Packet, Eagle, Mary, Farmer, 
Two Brotlftrs, Experimenc, >,nd Dcniocrat 



NAVIGATIO^: OF THE LAKES. 179 

" Some time previous to the "war the United States bng Oneida 
was built, and commanded by Captain AVoolsey. 

" In 1809 the schooner Ontario, of 70 tons, was built by Porter, 
Barton & Co. at Lewiston, and sold to the United States during 
the war. 

" In 1809 the schooner Cambria was built on an island at the 
lower end of Lake Ontario, and brought in an unfinished state 
to Lewiston, where she was purchased and fitted out by Porter, 
Barton & Co., and her name changed to Niagara. 

" In addition to the foregoing vessels, the following were in 
commission in 1810 : Schooner Diana, sloop Marion, schooners 
Charles and Ann, Gold Hunter, and Genesee Packet. 

" A number of vessels on both lakes, owned and armed dur- 
ing the war by the United States, were afterward sold and em- 
ployed in the commerce of the lakes. 

" The foregoing is a very imperfect history of the American 
vessels owned and employed on the lakes previous to the war, 
and it is not probable that any individual can furnish a com- 
plete one. As far as it goes, I believe it to be tolerably correct. 

" Aug's Porter." 

NoiK. — In 1818 the first steamboat, " Walk-in-the-Water," 
was built at Black Ptock ; at which time there were, in aU, 
about thirty sail of vessels on the Upper Lakes. 

In 1822 the Superior (1st.) was built ; in 1824 the Chippewa 
was built; and in 1825 three more were added; from this 
period to 1830 four more steamers were added to the list. 
Since 1830 about two hundred steamers have been built on 
Lake Erie and the Upper Lakes, a list of which is hereafter 
added. 



MAGMTUDE OF THE LAKES. 



Lake Superior, at a height of 600 feet aboTe the sea, is 42u 
miles long, 160 miles broad, and 1,000 feet deep. It discharges 
its waters by the strait, or river St. Mary, 50 miles long, into 
Lake Huron, which lies 27 feet below. 

Lake Michigaji, 676 feet above the sea, is 320 miles long, 82 
miles broad, and 900 feet deep. It discharges its surplus 
waters through the Strait of Mackinac, 50 miles in length, into 
Lake Huron, nearly on a level. 

Grten Bay, at about th« same elevation as Lake Michigan, 
is 100 miles long, 20 miles broad, and 60 feet deep. 

Lake Huron, at a height of 574 feet above the sea, is 260 
miles long, 1 10 miles broad, and 900 feet deep. 

Georgian Bay, lying northeast of Lake Huron and of the 
same altitude, is 130 miles long and 55 miles broad. All the 
above bodies of water, into which are discharged a great number 
of streams, find an outlet by the river and Lake St. Clair, and 
Detroit River or Strait, in all about 90 miles long, with a 
fall of 14 feet into 

Lake Erie, the fourth great lake of this immense chain. 
This latter lake again, at an elevation above the sea of 564 feet, 
250 miles long, 60 miles broad, and 204 feet at its greatest 
depth, but, on an average, considerably less than 100 feet deep, 
discharges its surplus waters by the Niagara River and Falls 
into Lake Ontario, 330 feet below ; 51 feet of this descent being 
in the rapids immediately above the Falls, 160 feet at the Falls 
themselves, and the rest chiefly in the rapids between the Falls 
and the mouth of the river, 35 miles below Lake Erie. 

Lake Ontario, the fifth and last of the Great Lakes of Amer- 
ica, is elevated 234 feet above tide- water at Three Rivers on the 
St. Lawrence; it is 180 miles long, 60 miles broad, 600 feet 
deep. Thus basin succeeds basin, like the locks of a great 

\ 



MAGNITUDE OF THE LAKES. 181 

cana ■ the "whole length of waters from Lake Superior to the 
Gulf »f St. Lawrence being rendered navigable for vessels of a 
large class by means of the VYelland and other canals— thus 
enabling a loaded vessel to ascend or descend 600 feet above 
the level of the ocean, or tide-water. Of these lakes. Lake Su- 
perior has by far the largest area, being nearly equal in super- 
ficial extent to Lakes Huron and Michigan together, and Lake 
Ontario has the least, having a surface only about one fifth of 
that of Lake Superior, and being somewhat less in area than 
Lake Erie, although not much less, if any, in the circuit of it^ 
shores. Lake Ontario is the safest body of water for naviga- 
tion, and Lake Erie the most dangerous. The ascertained tern 
perature in the midde of Lake Erie, August, 1845, was temper 
ature of air 76° Fahrenheit, at noon — water at surface 73° — at 
bottom 53°. The lakes of greatest interest to the tourist or 
scientific traveler are Ontario, Huron, together with Georgian 
Bay and North Channel, and Lake Superior. The many pic- 
turesque islands and headlands, together with the pure waters 
of the Upper Lakes, form a most lovely contrast during the 
summer and autumn months. 

The altitude of the land which forms the water-shed of the 
Upper Lakes does not exceed from 600 to 2,500 feet above the 
level of the ocean, while the altitude of the land which forms 
the water-shed of Lake Champlain and the lower tributaries 
of the St. Lawrence River rises from 4,000 to 5,000 above the 
level of the sea or tide-water, in the States of Vermont and 
New York. 

The divide which separates the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, 
from those flowing northeast into the St. Lawrence, do not in 
some places exceed ten or twenty feet above the level of Lakes 
Michigan and Superior; in fact, it is said that Lake Michigan, 
when under the influence of high water and a strong northerly 
wind, discharges some of its surplus waters into the Illinois 
PtivcF, and thence into the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico — so 
low is the divide at its southern terminus. 

16 



182 



MAGNITUDE OF THE LAKES. 



COAST LINE OF THE GEEAT LAKES AND SH0EE3 OF THE 
ST. LAWEENGE EIVEE, ETG. 



AMERICAN SIDE. 



States, etc. Coast Line. 

Minnesota^yL. Superior , 150 ms. 



Wisconsin, 
Michigan, 



120 
430 



" St. Mary's River 60 " 

" Huron and Strait 100 " 

" L. Michigan, 60 " 

Wisconsin, " ... 200 " 

Illinois, " ... 60 " 



Indiana, 



40 



Michigan, " ... 300 " 

" Strait of Mackinac 50 " 

L. Huron, 260 " 

" St. Clair River. . . 38 " 

" St. Clair Lake ... 30 " 

" Detroit River ... 27 " 

Michigan, Erie, 30 " 

Ohio, " ... 180 " 

Pennsylvania, " ... 40 " 
New York, " ... 70 " 

" Niagara River. . . 35 " 
l^omYov^, L. Ontario, 180 " 

'* St. Lawrence R. 100 " 

Lower Canada, "... 666 " 

Total miles . . . 3,206 



Boundaries. 



Pigeon River to mouth St. Louis 

River. 
St. Louis River to mouth Mon- 
treal River. 
Montreal River to mouth St. 

Mary's River. 
Saut Ste Marie to Pt. de Tour. 
Pt. de Tour to Pt. Seuil Choix. 
Pt. Seuil Choix to Green, Bay. 
Green Bay to 111. State line 
Illinois State line to Indiana 

State line. 
Indiana State line to Michigan 

State line. 
State line to Strait of Mackinac. 
Fox Point to Lake Huron. 
Strait of Mackinac to mouth 

St. Clair River. 
Fort Gratiot to Lake St. Clair 
West shore. 

Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie. 
Detroit River to Maumee Bay. 
Maumee Bay to Penn. State 

line. 
State line to N. York State line. 
State line to mouth Niagara 

River. 
Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. 
Mouth Niagara River to St. 

Lawrence River. 
Lake Ontario to 45th degree 

N. lat. 
St. Regis to Gulf of St. Law 

rence. 



COAST LINE CANADIAN SIDE. 



Lake Superior 450 ms. 

St. Mary's River 60 " 



Pigeon River to St. Mary's R. 
Saut Ste INIarie to foot St 
Joseph Island. 



MAGNITUDE OF THE LAKES. 183 

L. Huron, (»/V. Chan.) 145 ms. St. Joseph Islana to Georgian 

Bay. 
" (^Georgian Bay) 230 " Shebawanahning to Colling- 

wood and Cabot's Head. 
Lake Huron, {proper) 200 " Cabot's Head to mouth St. 

Clair River. 

St. Clair River 38 " Port Sarnia to Lake St. Clair. 

St. Clair Lake 30 " East shore 

Detroit River 27 " Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie. 

Lake Erie 250" Mouth d Detroit River to 

Niagara River. 

Niagara River 35 " Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. 

Lake Ontario 230 " Mouth Niagara River to Ham- 
ilton and foot of Lake. 
St. Lawrence River .. . 766 " Lake Ontario to Gulf of St. 

Lawrence. 

Total miles 2,451 

Grand Total, Lake and River Coast, 5,657 miles. 



TEIBUTAEIES OF THE ST. LA WEEN CE EIYEE. 

UxLiKE the tributaries of the Mississippi, the streams falling 
into the Great Lo.kes or the St. Lawrence River are mostly rapid, 
and navigable only for a short distance from their mouths 

The following are the principal rivers that are navigable for 
any considerable length : 

AMERICAN SIDE. MileS. 

St. Louis River, Min Superior to Fond du Lac. 20 

Fox, or Neenah, Wis Green Bay to L. Winnebago 36 

St. Joseph, Mich St, Joseph to Niles .26 

Grand River, " Grand Haven to Gd. Rapids 4 ' 

Muskegon, " Muskegon to Newaygo .... 40 

Saginaw, " Saginaw Bay to Upper Sag. 28 

Maumee, Ohio Maumee Bay to Perrysbh. J 8 

Genesee, N. Y Charlotte to Rochester .... 6 

CANADIANS' SIDE. Miles. 

Thames.. Lake St. Clivir to Chatham 24 

Ottawa La Chine to Carillon 40 

" {By means of lod;s to Ot- 
tawa City) 70 

Richelieu or Sorel Sorel to Lake Champlain 

{by means of locks) . . 75 

Saguenay Tadusac to Chicoutimi .... 70 

(thence to Lake St. John, 50 m. ) 



184 MAGNITUDE OF THii LIKES. 



ST. LAWRENCE EIVER AND LAKE NAVIGATION, FROM 

FOND DU LAC, LAKE SUPERIOR, TO ANTICOSTL 

I • CFS RivvR^ VTC Length in Greatest Av. Depth El. ahovf 

i..^.>>,s,. it.vtKs, ETC. jDiles. breadtii. br.aflUi. in feet. sen. 

Superior 420 160 80 1,000 GOO 

St. Mary's River 50 4 1 

Michigan , 330 82 58 900 576 

Green Bay 100 25 18 100, 576 

Strait of Mackinac 30 20 10 40 to 200 

Huron 260 110 70 900 574 

North Channel 160 20 10 200 574 

Georgian Bay 140 55 40 500 574 

St. Clair River 38 1 

St. Clair Lake* 20 25 15 8 to 20 568 

Detroit River 27 3 1 

Lake Erie 250 60 38 204 56^5 

Niagara River 35 3 1 

Lake Ontario 180 58 40 600 235 

St. Lawrence River 766 60 2 

Lake St. Francis 3 142 

Lake St. Louis, ^ • • • 

Mouth Ottawa River, } ... 5 58 

Elevation at Montreal 13 

Tide-water at Three Rivers. 



Total miles 2,806 



* The Sf. Clair Flats, whicli have to be passed by all large steamers 
and sail vessels running from Lake Erie to tne Upper Lakes, now affords 
only eight or ten feet of water, the channel being very narrow and 
intricate. An appropriation, however, has recently been made by the 
government of the United States for improving the channel through tlie 
fet. Clair Flats, which, no doubt, will effectually remove the obstruction to 
navigation. 

Note. — Lake Baikal, the most extensive body of fresh water on the 

Eastern Continent, situated in Southern Siberia, between lat. 51° and 55° 

north, is about 370 miles in length, 45 miles average width, and about 

900 miles in circuit ; being somewhat larger than Lake Erie in area. 

Its depth in some places is very great, being in part surrounded by high 

mountains. The Yenisei, its outlet, flows north into the Arctic Ocean 



LIST OF STEAMERS BUILT ON LAKE ERIE, ETC., 
SINCE THEIR FIRST INTRODUCTION IN 181B. 



1818. .'Wa!k-in-the-Water. 342. .Black Eock, X. Y.— wrecke<l Nov., 1321. 

1S22.. Superior (1st! 800. .Buflfalo, N. Y.— changed to a ship. 

1324 . . Chippewa 100 . . BufiFalo, X. Y.— broken up. 

1325. .Henry Clay 348. .Lake Michigan— broken up. 

" . . Pioneer 230 . . Black Rook, N. Y.— broken up. 

" . . Niagara (1st) ISO .. Black Eock, N. Y.— burnt in 1342. 

1^26. .William Penn 275. .Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

" ..Enterprise 250.. Cleveland, O.- broken up. 

1329. .Wm. Peacock 120. .Barcelona, N. Y. - exploded boiler 1:?:vk 

" . .Newburyport 75. .Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

1830 . . Sheldon Thompson. 242 . . Huron, Mich.— broken up. 

" ..Ohio(lst) 187.. Sanduskv, O.— sunk 1337. 

" . .Adelaide (British). . 230 . . Chippewa, C. W.— wrecked 1340. 

1831.. Gratiot 63. .Charleston— broken up. 

1832 . . Pennsylvania 395 . . Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

" ..Gen. Brady 100.. Detroit, Mich.— broken up. 

" . . Uncle Sam 280 . . Grosse Isle, Mich. — broken up. 

" . . Perseverance 50 . . Erie, Penn.— broken up. 

1833 . . "Washington (1st) ... 600 . . Huron, Mich.— wrecked 1833. 

" . . New York 325 . . Black Eock, N. Y.— broken up. 

" ..Michigan (1st) 472. .Detroit, Mich.— broken up. 

" . . Daniel Webster .... 358 . . Black Eock, N. Y.— burnt 1335. 

" . . Detroit (1st) 240 . . Toledo, O.— wrecked 1336. 

" . .Lady of the Lake. . 60. .Mt. Clemens, Mich. — broken up. 

" . . Gov. Marcy 161 . . Black Eock, N. Y.— broken up. 

'' ..North America 362.. Conneaut, 0.— broken up. 

" ..Newberry 170.. Palmer, Mich. — broken up. 

" . .Delaware 170 . . Huron, Mich. — wrecked 1834. 

1834. .Victory 77. .Buffalo, N. Y.— broken up. 

" ..Gen. Porter 342. .Black Eock, N.Y.— name ch. to Toronto. 

" ..Jefferson 428. .Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

" . . Com. Perry 352 . . Perrysburg, 0. — boiler exploded 1835. 

" ..Monroe 341.. Monroe, Mich.— broken up. 

" ..Mazeppa 130. .Buffalo, N. Y. — changed to schooner. 

" . . Sandusky 377 . . Sandusky, 0.— burnt 1343. 

" . .Minnessetunk (Br.) 250. .Goderich, C. W. — broken up. 

" ..Jackson 50. .Mt. Clemens, Mich. — broken up. 

" . . Jack Downing 80 . . Sandusky, 0. — changed to schooner. 

" . .Little Western (Br.) 60. .Chatham, C. W.— burnt 1342. 

1835 . . Eobert Fulton 308 . . Cleveland, O.— wrecked in 1842. 

" . . Columbus 391 . . Huron, Mich. — broken up. 

" . . Charles Townsend. 312 . . Buffalo, N. Y. — broken up. 

" ..United States 366.. Huron, Mich. — broken wp. 

" ..Chicago 166.. St. Joseph, Mich.— wrecked in 13^42. 

" . . W. F. P. Taylor. . . 95. .Silver Creek, N. Y.— wrecked 1-33. 

" . Thames (British). . . 160 . . Chatham. C. W.— burnt 1833. 

1836. .De Witt Clinton. . . . 493. .Huron, Mich, -broken up. 

" . .Julia Palmer* 300. .Buffalo. N. Y.— broken up. 

" ..Don Quixote SO. .Toledo, 0.— wrecked 1336. 

" ..Crockett 13 . Brunersburg— wrecked 1344. 

* Taken over the portage at the Saut Ste Marie in 18-16. 
16* 



186 LIST OF STEAMERS. 



Birlt. Name. Tons. Wheie biiilr. Kemark?. 

1 836 . . Little Erie 149 . . Detroit, Mich.— lost in 1842. 

" ..Barcelona (British). 102. .Dunnville, G. "W.— changed to schooner. 

" . .United (British) ... 40. .Detroit, Mich.— blown up. 

" ..St. (Plair 250.. Sandusky, 0. 

" . . Cincinnati 116 . . Sandusky, 0.— changed to schooner. 

1837. .Illinois (1st) 755. .Detroit, Mich.— broken up. 

"• . .Eochester 472. .Eichmond — changed to sail ressel. 

" . . Madison 630 . . Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

" . . Cleveland 580 . . Huron, Mich. — burnt in 1854. 

" . . Wisconsin 700 . . Conneaut, 0. — broken up. 

" ..Erie 497. .Erie, Penn.— burnt Aug., 1841. 

" . . Constellation 4S3 . . Charleston— broken up. 

" ..Bunker Hill 457. .Charleston- broken up. 

" . .Constitution 44^3. .Conneaut, O.— broken up. 

" ..New England 416. .Black Eock, N. T.-broken up. 

" ..Milwaukee 400. .Grand Island -wrecked 1842. 

" . . Anthony Wayne . . . 390 . . Perrysburg, 0. — blown up 1850. 

" ..Macomb 100. .Mt. Clemens, Mich. — tow boat. 

" . . Ehode Island 164. . Sandusky, O. — wrecked. 

" . . Star 128 . . Belvidere, Mich, —broken up. 

" ..Goderich (British). 200.. 

" ..Commerce 80. .Sandusky, 0. 

" ..Mason 83 .. Grand Eapids, Mich. 

'838.. Great Western 780. .Huron, Mich.— broken up. 

" . . Buffalo G13 . . Buffalo, N. Y.— changed to sail vessel. 

" ..Chesapeake 412.. Maimaee, O.— sunk 1846. 

. .Vermilion 885. .Vermilion, O. — burnt 1842. 

" . .Lexington 863. . Charleston, 0.— broken up. 

" ..Fairport 259. .Fairport, 0. — name changed. 

" ..Eed Jacket 143. .Grand Island, N. T. 

" . . Gen. Vance 75 . . Perrysburg, O. 

" ..James AJlen 253. .Chicago, 111. 

" . .Washington (2d). . . 880. .Ashtabula, O.— burnt 1S3S. 

" ..G.W.Dale 162. .Chicago, 111. 

" ..C.C.Trowbridge.. 52. .Kalamazoo, Mich. 

" . . Marshall 51 . . Perrysburg, O. 

" ..Wabash 84 . 

" . . Owashenonk 45 . . Grand Haven, Mich 

" . . Patronage 56 . . St. Joseph, Mich. 

1839.. Gen. Scott 240.. Huron, Mich.— sunk 1847. 

" ..Chautauque 200 .. Buffalo, N. Y. 

" . .Brothers (British) . . 150. . Chatham, C. W.— broken up. 

" ..Kent (British) ISO.. Chatham, C. W. 

" . . Huron 140 . . Newport, Mich. — broken up. 

" . . Harrison (1st) 63 . . Erie, Penn. — broken up. 

1840. .Detroit (2d) 350. .Newport, Mich. — sunk in Lake Huron 

" . . Missouri 612 . . Vermilion — broken up. 

" . . Waterloo 100 . . Black Eock, N. Y.— broken up. 

" . .Harrison (2d) 862. .Maumee, 0.— broken up. 

1841. .Indiana 4:34. .Toledo, O.— burnt 1348. 

1842.. Benj. Franklin 231..Algonac, Mich. — wrecked. 

" ..John Owen 230. .Detroit, Mich.— tow boat. 

1843 .. Nile 600 . . Detroit. Mich.— wrecked 1849. 

" ..Union 64. .Black Eock, N. Y. 

" . . Champion 270 . . Newport, Mich. — broken up. 

1844. .Emerald (British) . . 250 . . Chippewa, C. W. 

" . .Empire 1,136. .Cleveland. O. — running on Lake Erie. 

" . .Tecumseh 259. .(Old Fairport)— wrecked in 18rH). 

" ..J. Wolcott SO.. Maumee, 0.— burnt in 1851. 



LIST OF STEAMERS. 187 



Bui'it. Nnme. Tons. 'WliPre Imilt. Eemaiks. 

1S44. .Indian Queen 112. .Buffalo, N. Y.— wrecked in 1S46. 

" . .New Orleans 610. .Detroit, Mich. — wrecked 1S49. 

" . . St. Louis 618 . . Perrysburg, O. — wrecked in 1852. 

" ..U. S. St. Michigan. 538. .Erie, Penn. — in commission. 

" . . " Abert 133 . . Buffalo, N. Y.— in commission. 

1&45. .Niagara (2d) 1,0S4 .. Buffalo, N. Y.— burnt Sept., 1856. 

" . . Boston 775 . . Detroit, Mich. — wrecked 1816. 

" . . Oregon 7S1 . . Newport, Mich. — burnt 1819. 

" ..Troy 547..Maumee, O. — laid up. 

" . . Superior (2d) 567 . . Perrvsburg, O.— wrecked Oct., 1S56. 

" . . Lexington 8C3 . . Black River. O. 

" ..Astor 200.. Green Bay, Wis. — wrecked. 

" ..Enterprise 100.. Green Bay, Wis. 

" . .London (British). . . 456. .Chippewa, C.W.— changed to sail vessel. 

" . . Helen Strong 253 . . Monroe, Mich. — wrecked in 1846. 

" . . Eomeo 180 . . Detroit, Mich.— tow boat. 

1846 . . Albany 669 . . Detroit, Mich.— wrecked in 1854. 

" . . Hendrick Hudson. . 750 . . Black River, 0. — runs on Lake Erie. 

" ..Louisiana 900.. Buffalo, N. Y. — runs on Upper Lakes. 

" . . Saratoga 800 . . Cleveland, 0.— wrecked in 1854. 

" ..Canada (British)... 800.. Chippewa, C. W.— changed to barque. 

1847. .Baltic 825. .Buffalo, N. Y.— changed^ to propeller. 

" . . Sultana 800 . . Trenton, Mich. — runs on Upper Lakes. 

" . . A. D. Patchin 870 . . Trenton, Mich.— wrecked in 1850. 

" . .Baltimore 500. .Monroe, Mich. — wrecked in 1S55. 

" ..Diamond 836. .Buffalo, N. Y.— tow boat. 

" . . Pacific. 500 . . New}5ort, Mich. — changed to sail vesseL 

" . . Ohio (2d) 600 . . Cleveland, 0.— tow boat. 

" . . Samuel Ward 450 . . Newport, Mich. — runs on Lake Huron. 

" ..Southerner 500. .Trenton, Mich. — wrecked in lS5o. 

1848 . . Arrow 350 . . Cleveland, 0. — runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Alabama 600. .Detroit, Mich.— sunk in 1854. 

" ..Franklin Moore.... 300.. Newport, Mich.— tow boat. 

" ..J.D.Morton 400.. Toledo, O.— tow boat. 

" . .Empire State 1,700. .St, Clair, Mich.— laid up. 

" . . Queen City 1,000 . . Bufltilo, N. Y.— runs on Upper Lakes. 

*' . . Globe 1,200 . . Detroit, Mich.— changed to propeller. 

" ..Columbia 167. .Fairport, O. 

" . .Charter 350. .Detroit, Mich. — changed to propeller. 

" . . John HoUister 300. .Perrysburg, O. — burnt on Lake Erie. 

1&49. .Atlantic 1,100. .Newport, Mich.— sunk in Lake Erie 1853. 

" . .May Flower 1,300. .Detroit, Mich. — wrecked in 1854. 

" . Keystone State 1,500. .Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Upper Lakes. 

" ..Telegraph 181. .Truargo, Mich.— runs on Lake Erie. 

1850. .Dart 297. .Trenton, Mich.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Dover (British). . . . 81. .Port Dover, C. W. 

" . . Ocean 900 . . Newjiort, Mich.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" ..MayQueen 6SS runs on Lake Erie. 

1351 . .Arctic 867. .Newport,^Iich. — runs on Lake Michigan. 

" ..Bay City 479.. Trenton. Mich.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Buckeye State 1,274. . Cleveland, O.— runs on Upper Lakes. 

" ..Northerner 514. .Cleveland, 0.— sunk in 1856. 

" . Pearl 251. .Newport, Mich.— runs on Lake St. Clair. 

" . .Ploughboy (British) 450. .Chatham, C. W.— runs on Lake Huron. 

" . .Mazeppa (British) . 250 runs on Lake Huron. 

" ..Queen (British) 64 .Dunnville. C.W.— runs on Lake St. Clair 

" ..Minnesota 749. .Maumoe, O. 

" ..Caspi.an 1,050 .. Ne^-port, Mich.— wrecked in 1S52, 

" . .Lady Elgin 1,037. .Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Upper Lakes. 



188 LIST OF STEAMERS. 

Built. Nime. Tons. Wliere Imilr. Ke'iiarks. 

1852. .Cleve and 574. .Newport. Mich.— runs on Upper Lakes 

" .. Golden Gate 771. .Buffalo, X. Y.— wrecked in 1856. 

" ..Huron 348. .Newport, Mich. 

" . .Traveller 603. .Newport, Mich.— runs on Upper Lakes. 

" . .Michigan (Zd) — . .Detroit, Mich. — runs on Upper Lakes. 

1853. .Crescent City 1.740. .Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Queen of the West. 1,851. Buffalo, N. Y. — runs on Lake Erie. 

" . . Mississippi 1,829. .Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .St. Lawrence 1.S44. .Buffalo, N. Y.— laid up. 

" . .E. K. CoUins 950. .Newport, Mich.— burnt Oct., 1854. 

" . . Ariel 1 65 . . Sandusk v, O. — runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Garden City —. .Buffalo, is\ Y.— wrecked May, 1S54. 

" . . Canadian (British) . 389. . Chatham, C. "W".— runs on Georgian Bay. 

" . .Collingwood (Br.). . — runs on Georgian Bay 

" ..T.Whitney 238. . Saginaw. Mich. 

" . .Northern Indiana .1,470. .Buffalo, N. Y.— burnt Aug., 1856. 

" . .Southern Michigan.1,470. .Buffalo, N. Y. — runs on Lake Erie. 

" . .Forrester 504. .Newport, Mich. — runs on Lake Huron. 

1854.. Ply mouth Kock 1,991.. Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . . Western World 2,000 . . Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 

" . . North Star 1,106 . . Cleveland, O. — runs on Upper Lakes. 

" . .Illinois 926. .Detroit, Mich, —runs on Upper Lakes. 

" . . K. R. Elliott 321 . . Newport, Mich.— tow boat. 

" ..Clifton (British).... 247. Chippewa.C.W.— lake and river St. Clair. 
1855.. Forest Queen 462.. Newport, Mich. — runs on Lake Huron. 

" ..Planet 1,1.^4.. Newport, Mich.— runs on L'pper Lakes 

" . .Island Queen 173. .Kelley's Island— runs on Lake Erie. 

1856. .Amity (British) .... 217.. Chatham, C. W. 

" ..Magnet 256.. Saginaw, Mich. — runs on Lake Huron 

" . . Western Metropolis 1,800 . . Buffalo, N. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 
" . . Uncle Ben 155 .. Buffalo N. Y.— to w boat. 

1857. .City of Buffalo 2,200. .Buffalo, 2^. Y.— runs on Lake Erie. 

Note. — Besides the above list, there are a few small steamers 
of -which nothing is known other than their names, among these 
are the Penetanguishene, Cynthia, Pontiac, Phenomenon, etc. 

The Steamer Caroline, whose destruction filled so large a 
portion of public notice, was originally known as the Carolina, 
and is believed to have been built in New York, at an early 
date, then sent to Charleston, S. C, where she ran for several 
years. Before passing into Lake Erie she ran a couple of 
seasons on the Hudson Ptiver, between Albany and Troy, when 
her guards were shipped so as to admit her through the Erie 
and Oswego Canals. She was re-built at Ogdensburgh, N. Y., 
in 1834, and passed'through the Welland Canal into Lake Erie. 
The date of her destruction by the British at Schlosser, near 
Niagara Falls, was Dec. 29, 1837, when five lives were SAipposed 
to be lost. 



PROPOSED SHIP CANAL. 189 



T.A-R-F. ERIE AND MICHIGAN SHIP CANAL. 
From the Buffalo {N. F.) Commercial, March, 1857. 

" This project is attracting the attention of Western and 
Eastern papers. No doubt is expressed as to the practi- 
cability of the construction of the Canal. In fact, it is con- 
ceded that one can be built across the base of the peninsula 
Ttithout deep cutting, and the probability is that it Avould not 
exceed fifty feet at any particular point But while they grant 
the feasibility of the plan, they occasionally express the opinion 
that it will be a long time before it will be built, if ever. Xow, 
why not, pray ? Because, we suppose, it would cost a pretty 
round figure to build it. Is this an insurmountable objection, 
if the construction of the work be entirely feasible ? if all the 
shipping to and from Lake Michigan, present and to come, will 
pass through it r if the margin in the original cost and the 
time of a trip, via the straits and Lake Huron, and via the 
canal, be, as it would be, largely in favor of the latter, thus 
making it capable of producing a good per centage of tolls ? — 
the accomplishment of which would yield a remunerative 
revenue." 

The Toledo (Ohio) Comm'-rcial has the following: 

" The harbor of Toledo affords the only suitable terminus for 
the proposed Ship Canal on Lake Erie, and there can scarcely 
be a doubt that it will be adopted by any company which may be 
organized for constructing the work. But in view of the im- 
mense importance of the canal to the interests of Toledo, would 
it not be well for our board of trade to look into the matter, 
and keep an eye open for any possible speculative movement 
which may be set on foot to select some other starting point ? 
There should, indeed, be enterprise enough among our own 
citizens to take the initiative in this most important project. 
Under our general law, a company might be organized here 
for the portion of the line lying within the State of Ohio : and 
a similar organization could very readily be eflected in Indiana, 
for the extension through that State. A large local interest in 
the stock would effectually secure to Toledo the advantages to 
which she is entitled by natural position ; supposing, always, 
that the canal is to be opened — of which there really ought to 
be no doubt. 

" A route for the canal, eminently practicable, and without 
deep cutting or heavy lockage, can be found, we are confident, 
thi'ougii Ohio and Indiana." 

17 



190 PROPOSED SHIP CANAL. 

The following is from the Monroe (Mich.) Commercial : 
" For many years past the public attention has, at times, 
been directed to the importance of a ship canal from iMonroe, 
on Lake Erie, to the waters of Lake Michigan. The project is 
perfectly feasible, but railroad enterprises have of late been so 
numerous, as to divert public attention from the benefits and 
objects of such a canal. The absolute necessities of commerce, 
however, are such as to bring the subject forcibly and favor- 
ably before the community, and the grea-t commercial interests 
of certain locations are intimately connected with the comple- 
tion of such a work. For instance, the project now on foot in 
Canada West, and portions of New York, of which Oswego is the 
commercial center, for constructing a ship canal, to connect 
Lakes Ontario and Huron, if carried forward to completion, 
would be a more fatal blow to the prosperity of Buffalo than 
any great work of improvement that could be made on the 
American continent. The immense trade between the great 
agricultural States in the West, and the Atlantic States in the 
East, now tributary to Buffalo, would seek the new route, and 
make Oswego, at the expense, and to the destruction of Buffalo, 
the great commercial metropolis of the lakes. The citizens of 
Western Xew York see this, and the necessity of availing them- 
selves of a rival, and more ready and feasible route for a ship 
canal, to retain the ascendency they already possess, and se- 
cure forever, and beyond doubt, the trade, business, and profits 
of the business of the great Vv'est. 

'•' A ship canal from Monroe to the navigable waters of Lake 
Michigan will accomplish this. The canal would be easily 
made, and would always be abundantly supplied with water 
from the lake, in the county of Hillsdale, which is now the 
source of four of the principal rivers of this State. The canal 
would make a direct line, and of course the shortest one that 
could be made, between Chicago and Buffalo and the Atlantic 
cities, and be certain of securing the transportation of the 
grain and provision trade of the West, and all the heavy freight 
business that now moves tediously by the protracted route of 
the lakes. The distance would be shortened more than half, 
or some five to six hundred miles, and that the expenses now 
incurred for insurance on produce, vessels, and goods, by the 
lakes, and the loss of property on Lakes Huron and Michigan, 
would pay the construction of the canal in a very few years. 

" Why, then, should this great and important work be longer 
delayed } A discerning public can see its absolute necessity, 
and security and permanency of great commercial interests 
urge its construction, by every consideration of self-preserva- 
tion and future greatness. 

" We do say that Monroe and Michigan are also deeply in- 



LAKE AXD OCKAN NAVIGAIION'. 191 

terestel in this great ship canal, and that they can do much tc 
encourage its construction at an early day. Buffalo is moving, 
and let Monroe and Southern Michigan second tiie move. The 
object can not fail to enlist the hearty co-operation of Southern 
Michigan, and we call upon our citizens to wake up to tlie great 
work. It is not only a feasible improvement, but will prove an 
eminently successful one, and will work a revolution in the 
commerce of the Northwest that will make Monroe one of the 
greatest cities of the lakes." 



DIEECT TRANSPOETATION FEOM LAEIE SUPEEIOE TO 
LIYEEPOOL. 

From Vie St. Paul (Minnesota) Adtertiser, 

" An article from the European Times recites the arrival at 
Liverpool, direct from Chicago, of the schr. ' D^:A]v Richmonp,' 
whose departure we announced some three months ago. In this 
simple announcement is contained the initial fact of a new era 
in commercial history, and issues of startling and overwhelm- 
ing significance crowd upon the calmest view of its relations 
with the future West. It seems to us — we know not if we ap- 
prehend its bearings correctly — that the results of this experi- 
ment must be an eventual revolution of the internal traffic of 
the Western States. It virtually makes our inland lakes the 
Mediterranean Sea of North America, and Chicago becomes the 
Alexandria of modern times. It peels off the littoral rind of the 
New World at a stroke — and splits the ripe apple of the conti- 
nent to its core. Ocean commerce will follow that entering 
wedge. Direct transportation will inevitably supersede the ex- 
pensive and complicated machinery employed in conveying 
Western grain through its present channels — which, besides in- 
volving several expensive trans-shipments, is attended with an 
important diminution of bulk. The Atlantic, ttie far Bos- 
phorus, the Baltic, and the seas of the old hemisphere, Avill flow 
in through the rent tora by the keel of the ' Dean Richmond,' 
and the majestic *commerce of the ocean overleaping the huge 
complications of human ingenuity — passing in triumph past the 
monuments of Clinton's genius, past canals and railroads, rail- 
roads and canals — through rivers and lakes, 2,000 miles into 
the interior — will plant its sea-worn flags upon the shores of 
Lake Michigan, and sit in royal state like another queen of 
Sheba, on the throne that Western industry shall build for her 
in the chief city of the interior plain of North America. No- 
body can doubt that the demonstrated practicability of direct 
shipment from Chicago to Europe will eventually transfer the 



192 LAKE AND OCEAN NAVIGATION'. 

business of transportation to this channel. An inevitable con- 
sequence of this will be the enlargement of the Weliand Ship 
Canal,* the ring-bolt in the chain of communication from the 
ocean to the lakes, to a capacity sufficient for a ship of any re- 
quired size. The application of steam will overcome the delays 
of navigation, and the path opened by the ' Dean Eichmond' 
will be thronged with the flags of every nation. But this is not 
all. What is true of Lake Michigan is true of Lake Superior. 
What is possible by the Weliand Canal is equally possible with 
the Saut Ste Marie. The splendid chain of inland navigation 
does not end with Chicago. It is complete to the extreme west- 
ern end of Lake Superior. Here, at the uttermost limit of 
ship-navigation, the town of Superior, some two years old, and 
containing not more than 1,000 inhabitants, is slowly rising on 
the shores of the queen lake, from the somber woods that sur- 
round it, to meet the majestic destiny that is creeping with 
slow pace up the St. Lawrence and through the lakes toward 
her, to cast the commerce of the ocean at her feet, and crown 
her with a diadem of ocean pearls. Nor is this all. The ocean 
highway, extending from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the 
extremity of Lake Superior, will be the basis of the whole sys- 
tem of Western railroads. A J\'^orthern Pacific Railroad, with 
a terminus at Superior, is the necessary supplement of the 
navigable highway we have described. The arguments in its 
favor are irresistible, unanswerable. It is a logical deduction 
from the whole law of railroads. The paramount purpose of 
the Pacific Railroad, we take to be, to facilitate the commercial 
intercoiu'se between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in other 
words, to facilitate transportation. Now transportation is im- 
pelled by an irresistible impulse in the cheapest route. Hence 
gravitation itself is scarcely more a law than the tendency of 
railroads to the nearest water-course in the dii-ection of their 
destination. They break off at once by a sort of physical ne- 
cessity, as transporting agencies, at the nearest navigable water 
communication. One always ends where the other begins. The 
commercial apparatus of the country is full of instances per- 
tinent to this. By this long chain of inland lakes, covering 
nearly half of the distance between the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts, nature seems to point with the force of a divine decree 
to a supplementary railroad route to the Pacific, to connect at 
its nearest span the ocean navigation of the opposite sides of the 
continent, and there can be no doubt that, other things being 
equal in feasibility of a route west of the Mississippi, the first 
road to the Pacific will abut on the shore of Lake Superior." 

* Also .the construction of a ship canal around the Falls of Niagara, on 
the Am erican or New York side of the river. 



THE COMMERCE OF THE LAKES. 



Extract^ from the Report of the Congressional Committee 
on the subject of the Commerce of the Lakes. 

The following (from the Cleveland Herald) is the total Ton- 
nage of the Lakes for 1854 and 1855, including the steam ton- 
nage for the same years : 

Districts. Tonnage. Steam Tonnage. 

18.D4. 1855. 1S65. 

Sackett's Harbor 7 ,570 6,227 1 ,944 

Oswego 24,365 42.460 5,199 

Genesee 233 128 

Niagara 868 468 128 

Oswegatchie 3,744 4,485 3,042 

Buffalo Creek S2,678 76,952 38.262 

Cape Vincent 4,866 6,609 1,143 

Presquelsle 8,210 9.269 4,720 

Cuyahoga 45,483 51,078 15,012 

Sandusky 6,084 8,051 300 

Miami 6,479 3,763 115 

Detroit 52,363 65.058 32.180 

Mackinac 4,393 4,431 2,397 

Milwaukee 14,117 15,673 288 

Chicago 31,041 50,972 3,207 

Total tonnage 291,231 345,729 108,243 

" Increase of lake tonnage (steam and sail) from June oOth, 
1854, to June 30th, 1855, a fraction over 18 8-.0 per cent. 

" Ratio of steam to sail tonnage for 1855, a small fraction 
less than 1-3. 

TOTAL TONNAGE OF THE UIsriTED STATES FOR 1854 AND 1855. 

Eegistered. Enrolled. Total Tonnage. 

1854 2,333,819 2.469,083 4,802,902 

1855 2,535,136 2,676,864 5,212,000 

" Ratio of increase of lake tonnage over the aggregate total 
tonnage of the United States, a fraction over 2 3-10 per cent, 
per annum more than double; or as 18 8-10 to 8-12 in favor of 
lake tonnage, which thus constitutes 1 1-15 of the entire ton- 
nage of the U. States. 

" The clearances of vessels from ports in the U, S. to Canada, 
and the entries of vessels from Canada to ports in the U. S., 



194 COMMERCE OF THE LAKES. 

during the year 1855, show a greater amount of tonnage en- 
tered and cleared than between the U. States a id any other for- 
eign cQuntry. 

" From the U. S. to Canada there were 2,369 clearances of 
American vessels, and 6,638 of Canadian, making a total of 
9,007. The total tonnage was 1,793,519. The clearances from 
Canada to the U. S. for the same time were 2,454 American 
vessels and 4,194 Canadian, making a total of ^.648, with a 
total tonnage of 1,767,730. and a total tonnage back and forth 
of 3,561,249. 

"The value of lake tonnage for 1854, $10,185,000; at an 
average of $43 per ton, this would make the value of the in- 
creased tonnage for 1855 (viz., 345,000 tons) reach $14,835,000. 

" The following table shows the value of the lake commerce 
for 1855, excluding the districts of Presque Isle and Mackinac, 
and not includins; the freight and passenger trade : 

Districts. Tonnage Ent'd & Cleared. Val. of Imp'ts. & Exp'ts. 

Cuyahoga 1,782,493 $162,185,640 

Buffalo Creek 3,330,232 333,023,000 

Sandusky 59,966,000 

Maumee 1,034,644 94,107,000 

Chicago 2,632,000 233.878.000 

Detroit 1,538,000 140,000.000 

Milwaukee 35,000,000 

Oswego 1,607,000 145,235,000 

Sackett's Harbor, 
Cape Vincent, 

Oswegatchie, )■ 42,226,000 

Genesee, 
Niagara, 



Exports and Imports $1,216,620,640 

Total value of lake commerce, excluding Presque 

Isle and Mackinac $608,310,390 

" This sum may seem incredible to those unacquainted with 
the immense carrying trade of these lakes. But the figures 
will show that the trade between the U. S. and Canada, car- 
ried on over the lakes, is in value next to that between France 
and the U. S. The amount of American goods sent to Canada 
is $9,950,764, and the amount of foreign goods, but passing 
through American hands, is $8,769,280 ; while the amount of 
goods sent from Canada to the States is $12,182,314, making a 
total trade between the two countries of $30,902,658.* 

* These figures are very convincing of the fact that the interests of the 
Canadas with the United States are oi e and identical -and the commer- 
cial and social good understanding happily existing between the two 



COMMERCE OF TR il LAKES. 195 

" The actual value of property exposed to the perils of lake 
navigation is considerably greater than the total value of the 
merchandise of every description exported from the U. S to all 
foreign countries, added to the total value of merchandise im- 
ported //ow all foreign countries into the United States. 

" The dangers to which our lake commerce is exposed are 
three, viz., shipwreck, collisioc, and stranding. These are 
shown to be in a great measure attributable °o the narrow- 
area over which this commerce is carried on, the stormy char- 
acter of the lakes, the exposed condition of the lake coasts, and 
the want of natural or artificial harbors of commerce or of 
refuge for the lake shipping. 

" The following are the dimensions of the lakes and their 
connecting rivers : 

Lakes. Length. Greatest breadth. Av. breadth. Areas 

Ontario.... ISO 52 . . . 40 6 400 

g^^^ 240 67 38 ..:::: 7,800 

H^^Z-.^ 2/0 105 70 20,400 

Michigan.. 340 83 58 20,000 

St. Clair... 20 25 25 300 



^, ^, .,^''^1? 461 53,900 

Str. Detroit. 2/ 

St. Clair 38 _ 



1,115 total length. 

"Thus a vessel sailing from Cape Vincent, Lake Ontario, to 
Chicago, Lake Michigan, by keeping the center lines of the 
lakes will sail 1,115 miles; and yet will average not more 
than 2o miles from shore throughout the whole distance 

"But the coast Hue of the lakes on the American side is much 
longer and excluding Green Bay and the northwest coast of 
Lake Michigan, is for Lake Ontario 200 miles; Erie, 350 • Hu- 
ron, 440 ; Michigan, 850 ; or a total of 1,940 miles ' 

"A very large proportion of the extensive commerce above 
set forth is conducted by sail and steam vessels, at but a few 
miles' distance from the American coasts of these lakes and 
over a surface not exceeding an area of 7,000 square m'iles • 
more than 1,400 miles of this coast constitutes to the numerous 
vessels by which this commerce is carried on, a le- shore to the 
fear of which vessels navigating those lakes are constantly ex- 

" No reference has been made to the commerce and navigation 
countries leaves no room for hope on the part of the OUgarchal Mother 
dfsttn^m^^nkX^To'^ ^'" ""^^° ^^"^ ^'^ ^-^'"« sub'ordinati^it'a^ 



IOC) CoJ.rMKHCE (<F THE LAKES. 

of Lake Suj)3rlor from tlie want cf satisfactory data. In 1855, 
however, the exports of iron and coT'per alone from Lake Supe- 
rior ports amounted to $2,700,000. 

'• The national importance of the lake commerce and navi- 
gation is clearly set forth — first with reference to the population 
of the seven States bordering on these lakes, and consequently 
interested in their navigation and commerce. Secondly, the 
position of those States relatively to the great valley of the 
MississijDpi Kiver; and the extent and cost of their railroads 
and lands, designed to open and facilitate commei'cial inter- 
course between the Atlantic Ocean, the lakes, and navigable 
waters and tributaries of the Mississippi Eiver. Thirdly, the 
position of these seven lake States relatively to the British pos- 
sessions and the valley of the St. Lawrence Eiver. fourthly, 
the importance of the commerce and navigation of the lakes as 
a nursery of seamen from which the navy of the United States 
may be supplied with the first class of seamen in the time of 
war, in which the tonnage of the lakes is compared with the 
tonnage engaged in the whale, cod, and mackerel fisheries. 

" The white population of the United States, according to the 
census of 1850, was 19,553,038. There are seven States bounded 
in part with great lakes, with a population as follows : 

New York 3,048,325 

Pennsylvania 2,258,100 

Ohio 1,955,050 

Michigan • 395,071 

Indiana 977,154 

Illinois 846,034 

Wisconsin 804,756 



White population cf the 7 lake States. . 9,784,550 
" 24 other States. 9,768,488 



Balance in favor of the lake States. . . 16,0G2 

" Showing that the white population of the seven lake States 
is greater by 16,062* than the total white population of the re- 
maining twenty-four States ; and the difference has probably 
been still more increased since 18j0. 

" The total value of foreign im}X)rts for 1855 in this region 
is $^274,403, 935. If the seamen engaged in the lake navigation 
or in the fisheries are propoi'tionate in number to the tonnage 
engaged in each, then those engaged in the navigation of the 
lakes must very considerably exceed those engaged in the whale, 
cod, and mackerel fisheries. 

* The population of Minnesota (say 100,000) should be added to the 
above excess- of white population. 



COMMERCE OF THE LAKjvS. 197 

** The amount of losses sustained by vessels and cargoes for 
want of suitable river and harbor improvements— number and 
kind of vessels sustaining losses on the lakes by " shipwreck, 
stranding, and collision," from 1848 to 1855 inclusive, with the 
amount of damage sustained : 

STEAMBOATS. 

Shipwre^ck. Stranding. Collision. 

No. Loss. No. Loss. No. Loss. 

1848 3 $25,000 9 $47,000 S 

1849 1 25,000 6 21,000 3 1.400 

1850 5 98,000 8 13,400 8 28,800 

1851 2 27,000 5 36,700 9 8,000 

1852 3 125,000 5 14.700 16 158,350 

1853 3 126,000 7 51.000 11 31,650 

1854 4 110,000 2 110,000 8 31,200 

1855 4 378,000 11 11,350 12 36,600 



1848 23 $128,500 

1849 10 56,900 

1850 20 89,600 

1851 34 132,700 

1852 30 183,100 

1853 27 175,400 

1854 52 407,626 

1855 40 418,300 



25 914,000 52 305,150 67 286,000 

PROPELLERS, 

1848 $ 1 $12,000 1 $400 

1849 1 5,000 

1850 4 2,500 3 2,400 

1851 2 55,000 6 32.800 10 40,400 

1852 4 85,000 5 6.900 9 73,000 

1853 1 42.000 7 28,000 4 39,000 

1854 5 370,000 8 69,500 

1855 7 351,000 11 9,950 19 557,750 



19 903,000 35 99,050 54 667,800 

SATL VESSELS. 



65 


$73,020 


3 


S36,000 


30 


42,900 


10 


17,000 


64 


82,150 


11 


44,600 


86 


83,950 


22 


50,700 


62 


96,000 


85 


28,500 


62 


84,000 


15 


23,700 








16 


90,650 


109 


184,650 


52 


121.800 



Sail 236 1,591 ,626 479 646,770 164 414,250 

Propellers ... 19 903,000 35 99,050 54 667,800 

Steamboats . . 25 914,500 52 305,150 67 286,000 



Total . . .380 3,409,126 566 1,051,170 285 1,368,050 
17* 



198 COMMERCE OF THE LAKES. 



TOTAL LOSS IN" EIGHT YEARS. 

Numbei Damasres. 

By Shipwreck 380 $o.4<.>9j26 

By Stranding 566 1,051.170 

By Collision 285 1,368,050 

Total 1,231 5,828,346 

" Whole number of disasters to vessels and cargoes, or either 
of them, during these eight years, 2.117, of "which 1.231 con- 
sist of siiipwreck, stranding, and collision, a little over 4-6 of 
the whole, while the damage from these causes during the same 
period was nearly 5-7 of the whole, and amounted to $5,828.346 ; 
the total damage from disasters of all kinds being $8,852,649. 

" The amount of damages to the commerce of the lakes dur- 
ing 1854, from the difficulty of crossing the St. Clair Flats with 
loaded vessels, was as follows : 

VESSELS E]VGAGED IJV 1854 II\' TRADE TO THE UPPER LAKES. 

Steamboats 8 Tonnage, 6,880 

Propellers 44 " 21,796 

Sail Vessels (Barques) 32 " 12,234 

Brigs 84 '« 24.757 

Schooners 198 " 48,323 

Total Tons 110,990 

SAIL VESSELS. 

Paid towing and lighterage on Flats $163,686 56 

Time detained— days, 5,566 220,640 00 

Damages by collision, paid for repairs 62,800 00 

$452,146 56 
Steam vessels paid for like damages 208,000 00 

Total damage on St. Clair Flats (for the season) . . $660,146 56 

" We call especial attention to the last item. 

" The amount of duties collected in the fifteen collection dis- 
tricts of the Great Lakes from 1837 to 1855 was $5,511,129 90, 
and the whole amount of appropriations that have been made 
to these lakes from the beginning of the government till now is 
$2,884,125, showing that the United States have received from 
the lake revenue $2,267,004 98 more than it has given back to 
it in any shape. This balance will cover the amount expended 
on the light-houses on the lakes, with repairs, attendance of 
keepers, and the cost of the ship canal around the St. Mary's 
Falls, and stiU leave $1,000,000 for the U. States Ti-easury." 



POPULATIOSr, COMMERCE, ETC. 199 



WESTWAED MOVEMENT OF THE CENTEE OF POPULATION, 

COMMEECE, AND OF INDUSTEIAL POWER IN NOETH 

AMEEICA. 

Extract from HunPs MerchanVs Magazine. 

•' In the rapidly developing greatness of Nortli America, it is interesting 
to look to the future, and speculate on the most probable points of central- 
ization of its commercial and social power. 

" Including with our nation, as forming an important part of its com- 
mercial community, the Canadas, and contiguous Provinces, the center 
of population, white and black, is a little west of Pittsburgh, situated at 
the head of navigation on the Ohio Eiver. The movement of this center 
is north of west, about in the direction of Chicago. The center of pro- 
ductive power can not be ascertained with any degree of precision. We 
know it must be a considerable distance east, and north of the center of 
population. That center, too, is on its grand march westward. Both, in 
their regular progress, will reach Lake Michigan. The center of indus- 
trial power will touch Lake Erie, and possibly, but not probably, the cen- 
ter of population now move so far northward as to reach Lake Erie alsp. 
Their tendency will be to come together ; but a considerable time will be 
required to bring them into near proximity. Will the movement of these 
centers be arrested before they reach Lake Michigan ? I think no one 
expects it to stop eastward of that lake ; few will claim that it will go far 
beyond it. Is it not, then, as certain as any thing in the future can be, 
that the central power of the continent will move to, and become perma- 
nent on, the border of the Great Lakes ? Around these pure waters will 
gather the densest population, and on their borders will grow up the best 
towns and cities.* As the centers of population and wealth approach, and 
pass Cleveland, that city should swell to large size. Toledo will be stUI 
nearer the lines of their movement, and should be more favorably afifected 
by them, as the aggregate power of the continent will, by that time, be 
greatly increased. As these lines move westward toward Chicago, the 
influence of their position will be divided between that city and Toledo, 
distributing benefits according to the degree of proximity. 

" If we had no foreign commerce, and all other circumstances were 
equal, the greatest cities would grow up along the line of the central in- 
dustrial power, in its western progress, each new city becoming greater 
than its predecessor, by the amount of power accumulated on tlie conti- 
nent for concentration from point to point of its progress. But as there 
are points from one resting-place to another possessing greatly superior 
advantages for commerce over all others, and near enough the center line 
of industrial power to appropriate the commerce which it offers, to these 
points we must look for our future great cities. To become chief of these, 
there must be united in them the best facilities for transport, by water and 
by land. It is too plain to need proof, that these positions are occupied by 
Cleveland, Toledo, and Chicago. 

" But we have a foreign commerce beyond the continent of North Amer- 
ica, by means of the Atlantic Ocean, bearing the proportion, we will allow, 
of one to twenty of the domestic commerce within the continent. Thia 
proportion will seem small to persons who have not directed particular 
attention to the subject. It is, nevertheless, within the truth. The proof 
of this is diflacult, only because we can not get the figures that represent 
the numberless exchanges of equivalents among each other, in such a 
community as ours 
*********** 

" It can scarcely admit of a doubt, that the domestic commerce of North 
America bears a proportion as large as twenty to one of its foreign com- 
merce. Has internal commerce a tendency to concentrate in few points, 



POPULATION, COMMERCE, ETC. 

.Ke foreign commerce Is its tendency to concentration ess faan that of 
foreign commerce ? No difference in this respect can be perceived. All 
commerce develops that law of its nature to the extent of its means. For- 
eign commerce concentrates chiefly at those ports where it meets the 
greatest internal commerce. The domestic commerce being the great 
body, draws to it the smaller body of foreign commerce. New York, by 
her canals, her railroads, and her superior position for coastwise naviga- 
tion, has drawn to herself most of our foreign commerce, because she has 
become the most convenient point for the concentration of our domestic 
trade. It is absurd to suppose she can always, or even lor half a century, 
remain the best point for the concentration of domestic trade ; and as the 
foreign commerce will every year bear a less and less proportion to the 
domestic commerce, it can hardly be doubted that before the end of one 
century from this time the great center of commerce of aU kinds for North 
America will be on a lake, harbor. Supposing the center of population 
(now west of Pittsburgh) shall average a yearly movement westward, for 
the next fifty years, of twenty miles, this would carry it one thousand 
miles northwestward from Pittsburgh, and some five hundred or more 
miles beyond the central point of the natural resources of the country. It 
would pass Cleveland in five years, and Toledo in eleven years, reaching 
Chicago, or some point south of it, in less than twenty-five years. The 
geographical center of industrial power is probably now in northeastern 
Pennsylvania, having but recently left the city of New York, where it 
partially now for a time remains. This center will move at a somewhat 
slower rate than the center of population. Supposing its movement to be 
fifteen miles a year, it will reach Cleveland in twenty years, Toledo in 
twenty-seven years, and Chicago in forty-five years. 

* *'* * * * * * * * 

"At the present rate of increase, the United States and the Canadas, 
fifty years from this time, will contain over one hundred and twenty mil- 
lions of people. If we suppose it to be one hundred and five millions, and 
that these shall be distributed so that the Pacific States shall have ten mil- 
lions, and the Atlantic border twenty-five millions, there will be left for the 
great interior plain seventy millions. These seventy millions will have 
twenty times as much commercial intercourse with each other as with all 
the world besides. It is obvious, then, that there must be built up in 
their midst the great city of the continent ; and not only so, but that they 
will sustain several cities greater than those which can be sustained on 
the ocean border." 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD CO. 




NORTH SHORE LINE STDilMBOATS. 
DETROIT A^^^D BUFFALO. 



The new and magnincent Steamers PLYMOUTH EOCK, "WESTERN 
WORLD, and MISSISSIPPI will form this line the ensuing season, and 
commence running immediately upon the opening of navigation, as fol- 
lows : 

PLYMOUTH ROCK P. J. KALPH, Commander, 

Will leave Detroit —Mondays and Thursdays. 
" " Buffalo— Tuesdays and Fridays. 

WESTERN WORLD J. S. RICHARDS, Commander, 

Will leave Detroit— Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
" " Buffalo— Mondays and Thursdays. 

MISSISSIPPI S. G. LANG LEY, Commander, 

Will leave Detroit — Tuesdays and Fridays. 
" " Buffalo — Wednesdays and Saturdays. 

These steamers are all new, of the largest class, being about 2,000 tons 
each. The commanders and oflSoers are gentlemen of great experience and 
capability. They are fitted up and furnished for the convenience of pas- 
sengers in a style of comfort and luxury entirely unequaled, and are in all 
respects considered the safest and most desirable steamers that sail upon 
the Western waters. 

For the transportation of Freight, the line will surpass any thing ever 
before offered to the public, having arrangements with parties between 
Boston and New York, and all points west of Buffalo to St. Louis, which 
will enable them to forward goods and merchandise with greater dispatch 
than has ever yet been attained. 

For the transportation of live stock, these steamers offer facilities to 
drovers which can not be surpassed or equaled. 

^^" Shippers of merchandise from the East should mark packages to 
the care of C. L. Setmotjk, Buffalo ; merchandise frem the ^Velit should bo 
marked to the care of John Hosmee, Freight Agent, Detroit 

C. B. SWAir^^ Agent, 

DETROIT, MICH. 



ADVERTISEMKNTS. 



MICHIGAN SOUTHERl 

kiijZ-ijK^ feaaluLj^ j^^^a. ^ ^H^^ 

RAIL ROAD LI]SrE. 

BUFFALO TO CHICAGO. 

Toledo, MJIwankep, Racine, Kenosha, Waukegao Galena, 

Roik Island, Bnrimffton, Dnbnqne, Madison, Iowa 

City, St. Louis, St. Paul, and all Places in 

the West and Sonth West. 



The following New Low Pressure STE AMEES form the Line from 
BUFFALO TO TOLEDO, 

CONNECTING THERE "WITH THE 

MICHIGAN SOrTeEO AND NORTHERN IXDIANA RA'LROAD. 

OXLT 242 MILES TO CHICAGO. 

WESTERN METROPOLIS I. T. Pheatt, Com'r. 

Leaves Buffalo Mondays and Thursdays. 

CITY OF BUFFALO A. D. Perkins, " 

Leaves Buffalo Tuesdays and Fridavs. 

SOUTHERN MICHIGAN L. B."Goldsmith, " 

Leaves Buffalo Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
Leavinfj Micliigan Southern Railroad Dock, foot of Main Street, Buffalo, 
every evening ^Sundays excepted), at 9 o'cloclv, or immediately after the 
arrival of the Express Train from Boston, Albany, and New York, through 
to Toledo without landing, where passengers take the Lightning Express 
Train for Chicago, etc. 

J?^" Passengers, by delivering their Checks to the Agent on the Cars, 
can have their 

Bagijage Conveyed to tlie Boat fiee of Charge, and Checked 

Through 

At Toledo this Line of Steamers connects with the TOLEDO, WABASH, 
AND WESTERN RAILROAD. 

P.assengers who desire to go all the way by Railroad, can take the 
LAKE SHORE RAILROAD, at Buffalo, for Toledo, or GREAT WEST- 
ERN RAILWAY, at Suspension Bridae, for Detroit, where direct con- 
nections are made with tlie MICHIGAN SOUTHERN AND NORTH- 
ERN INDIANA RAILROAD. 

THROUGH TICKETS can be purchased at all Railroad and Steamboat 
OfiSces East ; of the Agents of the Company, John F. Porter, 193 Broad- 
way, Nc-. York; B. F. Fifield, Detroit; Geo. M. Gray, Chicago; II. B. 
Ritchie, foot of Main Street, Buffalo. 

SAM BROWN, General Superintendent, Toledo 0. 

EZEA DOWNER, Traveling Agent. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



CLEVELAND, DETROIT, AND 
LAKE SUPERIOR LINE. 




On the Opening of Navigation three first-class Propellers, 
carrying Freight and Passengers, will constitute the above line, 
running regularly from Cleveland and Detroit to Superior 
City, stopping at all intermediate points on Lake Superior 
The line will be composed of the 

IRON CITY Capt. J. E. Turxer. 

MANHATTAN " C. Ripley. 

(New Boat) " John Spalding. 

The " Iron City" is a new boat, built last season, and is 
one of the fastest boats on the Lake. The " Manhattan" has 
undergone a thorough repair, and is a sound, staunch boat in 
every particular. The 7iew boat, now being built expressly for 
the trade, with all the modern improvements for Freight and 
Passengers. These boats are fitted up expressly for Freight 
and Passengers. Every attention will be given to the comfort 
of Passengers, and the prompt delivery of Freight consigned to 
their care. 

^^* For Freight or Passage, apply to 

HANNA. CtARRETSON & CO., Cleveland. 

J. G. HUSSEY, Cleveland. 

G. 0. WILLIAMS & CO., Detroit. 

WM. P. SPAULDING, Saut Ste Marie. 

J. P. PENDELL, Marquette. 

P. M. EVERETT, 

WM. P. RALEY, Copper Harbor. 

S. LEOPOLD & CO.. Eagle Harbor. 

PITTSBURGH & BOSTON MINING CO., Eagle River. 

CARSON & CLOSE, Ontonagon. 

E. M. LIVERMORE, 

J. AUSTRIAN, La Pointe. 

C. C. CHILD, Bayfield. 

H. BOBBINS, Superior 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



GALENA, DUNLEITH, AND MINNESOTA 

PACKET C(3MPANY. 



ORRIN SMITH, President, Galena, 111. 
J. P. FARLEY, Vice President, Dubuque. 
GEO. C. BLISH, Secretary, Galena. 





MO INNING AND KVENLNG LINE TO ST. PAUL, 

AND A DAILY LINE 



The Boats of this Company will make regular trips between GALENA, 
DUBUQUE, DUNLEITH, AND ST. PAUL, connecting at Dunleith with 
the trains of the ILLINOIS CENTKAL EAILEOAD from the East and 
South, going up and returning— stopping at all intermediate points, and 
remaining sufficiently long for passengers to VISIT THE FALLS OF ST. 
ANTHONY. 

The following Boats comprise the line between Galena, Dubuque, Dun- 
leith, and St. Paul : 

NOETHEEN LIGHT Capt. Preston Lodwick. 

GEEY EAGLE " D. S. Harris. 

NOETHEEN BELLE " J. Y. Hurd. 

KEY CITY " J. "WoRDEN. 

WAE EAGLE " A.T.Kingman. 

GALENA " W, H. Latjghton. 

CITY BELLE " Kennedy Lodwick. 

GOLDEN EEA " John Scott. 

GEANITE STATE " W. H. Gabbeet. 

GOLDEN STATE " S.E.Harlow. 

ALHAMBEA " E. McGuiee, 

All first-class Steamers, commanded by the most skillful and gentle- 
manly officers, and are fitted up with a A'iew to the safety and comfort of 
Passengers. 

i^ Being UNITED STATES MAIL BOATS, their punctuality can 
be relied upon. 

this company will also run the 

FANNY H AEEIS Capt. E. Andrews. 

KATE CASSELL " 

Between Galena and Eock Island, making a Dailv Line, connecting at 
Eock Island with the CHICAGO AND EOCK ISLAND EAILEOAD, 
and the ST. LOUIS, KEOKUK, -AND EOCK ISLAND LINE OF FIEST- 
CLASS STExYMEES. and at Ful^n City with the trains of the CHICAGO, 
FULTON, AND IOWA EAILEOAD, and at Galena with the boats of the 
GAI^ENA, DUBUQUE, DUNLEITH, AND ST. PAUL LINE. 

J. F. HILLS, FreigM Agent, Dunleith, 111. 



?6