(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Urdu self-instructor or Ataliq--i-Urdu"

THE 



Urdu Self-Instructor 



OR 



ATALIQ.MJRDU. 



BY 



MADLAVI LAIQ AHMAD, 

FIRST EDITION. 



COPYRIGHT REGISTERED UNDER ACT XXV OF 1667. 



PRICE Rs. 



PRINTED AT THE 

nsari Pr ess, Daliii, By Maulavi Abdul Majid. 



1899. 

Orders should be addressed to 
S.M. NAZEER AHMAD, Morning Post Office, 

DELHI. 



PC 

ms 




PREFACE. 

In placing before the public " THE URDU SELF- 
INSTRUCTOU oil ATALEEQ," I have every .confidence 
that it will meet \viih approbation, as the book unpreten- 
tious though it is is a unique one in this country. 

Its purpose is to cause students of the Vernacular 
to commence at once to read the language. 

There are many Primers in existence, compiled by 
learned Scholars, European and Native, but they are not 
suitable for beginners, especially those who come out fresh 
from England, for the simple reason that they are, so far 
as Urdu is concerned, printed in a type which is neither 
the written nor the printed character used by the people. 
Let any one who doubts this statement first learn the 
characters given in Forbes's Manual, for instance, and 
then try to read a native newspaper or a Vernacular letter. 
He will find himself, as a brilliant countryman of mine 
says, " utterly in a hurly burly." 

When I began to teach the Vernacular language to 
Louis Tracy, Esq., of the Morning Post, during the cold 
weather of 1897-8, he suggested the preparation of a book 
for the guidance of Europeans who want to learn, the 
Urdu language in a simple and plain form. Acting upon 
his advice and with his assistance, I have produced the 
present work in the style of the common Vernacular Primer, 
taught to children in all Indian Vernacular Schools. 
Simple grammatical notes have been added where essential 
for the guidance of students. 

Each of the succeeding ten chapters deals with a 
progressive phase of the language, and each must be care- 



fully studied before its successor is attacked. Neglect of 
this thorough method will, probably, render the students' 
efforts nugatory. 

It is well known to all that the Persi- Arabic charac- 
ter, as taught in this book and in no other with which 1 am 
acquainted^ is used in every court in the North- West 
Provinces and the Punjab. Every member of the Civil 
Service, every officer of the Army and Police who under- 
goes examination in Urdu indeed, every officer of 
Government whose position requires a knowledge of the 
written language of Upper India should find this 
compilation of the utmost assistance. 

I must not omit, before I conclude, to offer my res- 
pectful and hearty thanks to T. Gr. Pike, Esq., also of the 
Morning Post, through whose very welcome support I 
have been enabled to publish Jhis book. 

S. M. LAIQ AHMAD. 



;riinslated into English. The English equivalent proverbs 
ire also given. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Tales and extracts frooi various Urdu books given for 
the purpose of reading. The translation of the first 
five tales is given as suggested by John Sime, E.j. } 
M. A., L. L. D., Director of Public Instruction, Punjab. 
Also a vocabulary of all difficult words occurring in the 
:ext ,together with "Military pigeon-English terms' 7 as 
suggested by Major General Sir Bindon Blood, K. C. B., 
is appended. 

CHAPTER X. 

A number of writing running-hand exercises, to- 
gether with their transliteration in a legibl^Jaand, and a 
number of good legible long-hand exercises in order to 
help the student in writing the language. 



CONTENTS. 

c 

CHAPTER I. 

The Persi- Arabic letters with their initial and final 
forms, together with complete exercises in the style of a 
simple Vernacular Primer, with brief explanatory notes, 
where essential. 

CHAPTER II. 

Words and sentences containing the initial and final 
forms of letters. 

CHAPTER III. 

The inec!ial forms of letters, exercises and comments 
on same. 

CHAPTER IV. 

A classified Vocabulary of useful words, a number of 
Compound- Yerbs and Synonyms of the language. 

CHAPTER V. 
Very brief synopsis ^ O^: ._aar. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Urdu dialogues on different topics in the Vernacular 
and Roman Characters with their English renderings. 

CHAPTER VII. 

A number of short Urdu tales with their literal and 
free English translations, and a collection of short stories 
and extracts in English, with and without their Urdu 

translation. 

CHAPTER VIII 
A number ot easy Urdu Proverbs and idioms literally 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



(By Louis TRACY, Esq., Managing Director, Morning Post, 
author of "The Final War, "An Emerican Emperor," etc., etc.) 

During tho cold weather of 1897-8 tho author of this work, 
MAULVI LAIQ AIIMAP, undertook to teach me tho Vernacular, 
AVhilst engaged in the initial stmgglo \vith the Persi-Arabic Cha- 
racter, I made the, to me, remarkable discovery that the so-called 
alphabets given in the ordinary grammars were wholly use! 
so far as their chief raison d'etre was concerned, namely, to enable 
the student to read the written and printed language of the people 
of Upper India, There is nothing fresh in this, of course. Every 
unfortunate who essays the " Bagh-o-Bahar " finds it out for 
himself, and, no doubt, dimly wonders what value the " fake " 
characters used in so-called " Guides " and " Tutors " can possibly 
be to any one. The natives of India do not write them, the 
Vernacular Press do not use them, and the odds are very heavy 
against a native of average education being able to read them. 

I decided at the outset to avoid the absurdity of using an 
imaginary type, " invented by a Missionary," and commenced 
to study the language on the basis of a Board School First 
Standard, or what I think such a method would be, having had 
no personal experience of it. That is to say, I began to string 
letters together and to write and talk monosyllabically. As the 
lessons progressed some slight grammatical construction was 
introduced, but the whole scheme of the work was kept studiously 
simple. 

What this book claims is this : tliat the student who lias 
mastered its contents will be able to read practically any newtpape? 
or Vernacular publication written in tlie Persi- Arabic Characters 
that he will know a great many icords and phrases in daih/ use 
among the people ; and that he will he well grounded for the ad- 
vanced stud// of the la?i waffe. 



It should be briefly noted that the great difficulty in the work 
of preparing the book was the absolute impossibility of repro- 
ducing the native characters by means of type, every combination 
of letters being capable of such infinite variation. The use of 
lithograpky (by which method all Vernacular publications are 
produced) overcame this obstacle, but the book remains as a 
real guide to tlie language the first of its kind, 

If the method of the book is mine, its preparation is, of course, 
the work of MAIJLVI LAIQ AHMAD, whose ample knowledge of 
Eastern tongues makes him their able exponent. 

He is painstaking to an extreme, and quick to grasp the 
difficulties of an Englishman in wrestling with the oblique modes 
of expression so common in Hindustani. Therefore I wish him 
and his book success, 

, D > LHI ' 1Q LOUIS TRACY, 

September, 1898. J 

Opinion of JOHN HARVEY, Esq., Inspector of Schools, Delhi 
Division, Delhi, 

The method of this book, " THE URDU SELF-INSTRUCTOR/* 
written by MATJLVI LAIQ AHMAD of the Morning Post, Delhi, 
is admirable, and is the one to be followed by all who desire to 
"become proficient in Urdu. 

The idea is not original : as every one, so far as I have 
known wh^se deep interest it is to learn the language, appears, in- 
tuitively, to have followed the same course himself. But the 
published book will certainly be original and unique, for twenty- 
five years' experience has shown me that there have been, at 
Jeast hitherto, insuperable difficulties in the way. As a text look 
to those desiring to study Urdu as it ought to be studied this 
work will be found invaluable and / strongly recommend it. I 
sincerely wish the author every success 

DELHI, 1 (Sd.) J. HARVEY, 

Dec.Zkth, 1898. J Inspector of Schools. 

.Opinion of COLONEL Gr. RICHARDSON, C. B., C. I. E., 



., Colonel on the Staff, Delhi. 

"M.vri.vi LAIM AHMAD 91 i- d-'-erving of tho hi^ho-f emlit for 
<!,,. hihmir h<- has he-tmved on the preparation of his work. 'Till-: 
l'i:ix SELJ^lNfiTBUCTOR." It appear- to In- a most useful book. Any 
one desirous of improving his knowledge () f the Vernacular will 
do \vell to pmvhase a copy. 1 wish the veiilun- \\ ~< it 

deserves. 

Hi. i. ni, \ (Sd.) GEO. RICHARDSON, To/., 

/ - . 20///, J898. J Co/, on the Staff. 



Opinion of CAIT. AV. 15. JAMES, Station Staff Officer, and 
Cantonmeni Magistrate, Delhi. 

MAtTLViLAiQ AHMAD of the Morning Post^ Delhi, asked mo to road 
his hook, '-TiiK Uunr SKLF-!NSTRUCTOU." I have done so in Manus- 
cript and considei- that it quite comes up to what he claims for it as 
a /H'drl/'t'til /look/or h<>, tinners, and for any one desirous of learning 
Hindustani as il is spoken and written at tlie present time. This 
little work, in my opinion, supplies a want for those who are not 
obliged to pass the Lower or Higher Standards, and yet who are 
obliged to have some practical knowledge of the Language for 
their daily occupations. 

DELHI, 1 (Sd.) W. B. JAMES, Capt., 

Oct. l&th, 1898. J 2nd B. L. 

Opinion of C. V. EOSSELET, Esq., B.A., London University, 
Head Master, Diocesan Boys' School, Naini Tal. , 

1 have looked carefully into Maulvi Laiq Ahmad's " Urdu 
Self-Instructor," and I find it likely to be the most useful of all 
the Urdu Grammars that I know to students of that language. 

I strongly recommend the look to those who are beginning 
the study of Urdu, and those who know something of the lan- 
guage will also, I am sure, find the book a help and an advantage 
to tliem. 

Teachers in European Schools, most of whom have some 
knowledge of Urdu, would derive great benefit themselves from 
the book, and, using it as (/iitde, will l>c able to impart jotffa 
knowledge of Urdu to their pupil f. 



If I should have to teach Urdu again, I should certainly use 
the book in this way myself. 



NAINI TAL, 



(Sd.) CHAS. U. ROSSELET, 



Jany. 2nd, 1899. Head Master Diocesan Boys' School, 



Opinion of H. B. MAY, Esq., Sub-Editor, Morning Post 
Delhi. 

MAUL vi LAIQ AHMAD is publishing an "URDU SELF-INSTRUCTOR" 
OR ATALEEQ," which I have had an opportunity of perusing before- 
hand and which appears to be likely to supply a long-felt want by 
all earnest students of the Vernacular, viz : a short and easy 
Grammar and exercises of the language, ly ivhich one can continue 
one's studies in ones leisure, without the necessity of always having 
a Munshi at one's elbow, which is not always easy nor convenient. 

His little book will be a great help to students who have been 
utterly puzzled and bewildered by the different grammars and 
who have made, after a time, the astonishing discovery that the 
characters and combinations given in them are not used by the 
natives of Upper India and that they are thus altogether useless? 
so far as helping him to read the written language is concerned. 

Maulvi Laiq Ahmad has taken very great pains with his 
little boojc, so as to make it, not only easy and intelligible for tlie 
"beginner, but also simple aud interesting, so that the student, as 
"o goes on, understands it better and better, feels that he is 
making some progress and is encouraged to persevere with his 
task and even to study in his leisure hours when he is alone 
which is very difficult, if not impossible by other methods. 

Those who use this method will, I am convinced, find it 
easy and attractive and will recommend it to their friends. I trust 
this little work will soon become widely known and have as large 
a circulation as it deserves. 

November, 1898. (Sd.) H. BALDWIN MAY. 



Copy of a letter from MAJOR-GENERAL SJR BINDON BLOOD 
K.C.I'., which runs as fjllows : 

I return your book herewith. / have looJced through it with 
much interest and see that it mill be most useful. 

When you deal with the Military part of it, I would recom- 
mend }our giving the actual "pigeon-English terms" used by the 
men, as well as the correct Urdu words. Evidently Urdu is 
assimilating a great deal of English, and the " language " of the 
" Bagh-o-Babar" is not DOW of much use to Military Officers. 

It appears to me that this is rot sufficiently recognised, and 
your book seems to me to be correctly designed accordingly. I 
fihall be glad to have a copy of it. 

(Sd). B. BLOOD, M.-G. 
January 24th, 1899. 
NOTE. Sir Bindon Bleed's recommerdation adopted. 

Copy of a letter from JOHN SIME, ESQ., M.A., LL.D., 
Director of Public Instruction, Punjab. 

DEAR SIR, It has given me a good deal of pleasure to look 

through the manuscript copy of your " ATALIQ" or "SELF-INSTRUC- 
TOR IN URDU," which is intended as an easy introduction to the 
study of Urdu for Europeans. Your design seems to me well 
adopted to the end in view ; and you have carried out your pla?t, 
I think, with considerable skill, the exercises being well graduated. 
The book should supply a distinct want, though Col. Holroyd's 
" Hindustani Made Easy" covers the same ground, but wholly in 
the Roman Character. The decision to use the lithographed Persian 
character instead of type is, I consider, a wise one. 

Whilst thinking well of your book generally, I hope you will 
permit me to say that the use of unmeaning combinations of letters 
to represent the sounds and foims of those, and the vowel sounds, 
does not commend itself to me, though we still use these combi- 
nations for infants at the almost purely mechanical stage. The al- 



phabets in Chapter I., first page, might, I think, be given from 
left to right, and a translation, without the transliteration of the 
Hikayats in Chapter IX. might, with advantage, be given. The 
Jonesian method of transliteration should be followed, in which 
case " maaltfm," as given by you, would be " ma'lum. " The 
idioms in Chapter VIII. should be simpler to begin with. 
Wishing you all success in your literary venture, 

I am, Deal Sir, 
Yours very truly, 
(Sd). J. SI ME. 

NOTE. Letters of the alphabet as suggested, given from left to 
right, also the translation, without the transliteration, of a few 
Hikayats given in Chapter IX. The Jonesian method has been 
followed only in those pages which were printed after the sugges- 
tion. The remaining suggestions will be attended to in the Second 
Edition. 

Opinion of T. G. PIKE, ESQ,, Editor of the Morning Post, 
Delhi. 

The scheme of Maulvi Laiq Ahmad's " URDU SELF-^STRUCTOR" 
is an altogether admirable one, and the book should be of 
the greatest value to students of the language. The views of 
those best qualified coincide with my own as regards the useful- 
ness of the " INSTRUCTOR," and I trust that it will, at once, meet 
with that measure of appreciation that the author si thoroughly 
deserves. 

DELHI: 1 (Sd.) T. GK PIKE, 

January 4th, 1899. J Editor, " Morning Post " 



Opinion of CAPT. L. C. DUKSTEKYILLE, a well-known Linguist, 
20th Punjab Infantry, Delhi. 

MAULVI LAIQ AHMAD has shown me the manuscript of th e 
" URDU SELF-INSTRUCTOK " which he intends publishing. 



It seems to mi to be far in alv'zncz, in practical utility, of 

any ulniiliirw irk which I hive come across hitherto, add I (enow 
of no book of the sort which gives so good a series of use/id every- 
day sentences an- 1 dialogues. 

DELHI: ) (SJ.) L. C. DUNSTERVtLLE, Capt., 

March 1th, 1899. } 20th (D. G. 0.) Punjab Infantry. 

Opinion of COUPL. II. SCHOSN, K.A., Lite Acting School- 
Master, Fort, Delhi. 

Certified that I have seen the book entitled the " URDU SELF- 
INSTRUCTOR," written by MAULVI LAIQ AHMAD, and consider it 
a very useful book, as it begins at the alphabet and takes a 
person on gradually. It is printed with the intention for a 
person to learn himself by the same method as a child is taught 
in the English School (step by step). 

The book is the first of its kind and teaches in a very simple 
manner how to read, write, and speak the Urdu language cor- 
rectly without the aid of a Teacher. 

DELHI : 1 (Sd.) H. SCHOON, CorpL, R. A., 

October 8th, 1898. } late Acting School Master, Fort, Delhi. 



IMPORTANT NOTE. In the Persi-Arabic char.cter the na^sal 
nun in the final form has no dot, and in the same manner the 
chhoti and bari ye have no dots beneath when used finally 
throughout the book. 



THE 



Urdu Self-Instructor or 
Ataleeq. 



CHAPTER I. 

T ETTERS of the alphabet with their separate Persi- Arabic forma 
and their pronunciation in Roman characters. 



alif be t*/ te te' se jim che' 



khe dal dal zal re re' IB zhe' sin 

i/ </ '(J > >" .^ & ^ t? 

shin suad zuad toe zo'e ain ghain fe qaf 

-r j^j 

^ ' r 'r i JL 



kaf gaf lam miin nun wao he' (small) doclashmi-he 

/ (f -rr 

hamza ye (small) ye' (large) 
NOTE. In the equivalentEnglish sounds & always has the 

r " " " f , - 'O/ . *{ M * **" - ^ i. " 

value of & in father ; a u in fun ; e a m gate ; 

' " jj " " <{ ** ' (( ^ < " i ~ << *> . 

i ee in feel ; i = i in mill ; u =00 in boot ; u u in 

full or pull ; o is always long as o" in note . The Arabic 

aad Persian sounds of certain letters need not b rleitlt *nth here. 

The student toust be thoroughly familiar with the forms and 
names of the foregoing letters before making any attempt to master 
the succeeding pages. 

Urdu characters read from right to lett, or exactly the opposite 
to the English method. 



VOWEL SOUNDS. 

To avoid eonfeion for the voice it is best to state that there 
ar no pure rowels, in the English sense, in Urdu. 

Ij and jare treated as vowels under certain circumstan- 
ces, but it will simplify mattery at the stage to set forth the three 
primary ?o wel sounds of the language. These are shown, first, by 
fche sign ( -) or zabwr placed over the letter it precedes, 
second? by the sign 71) or zer placed under the letter it precedes, 
and, third, by the sign <-.) or peek placed over the letter it 
precedes 

The pupil will understand this formula by repeating the 
following examples : , 

FIRST SOUND k^t alif be' zabmr mb 

SECOND SOUND *f[ alif be zer ib " 

THIRD SOUND *j^ alif bepe'sh ub 

v I followiug a consonant is always long thus: ^T* 

he alif (ba.) 9 without any sign following a consonant has 
always the sound of o, thus : 9 ^ ( j t ) be wao ( bo.) 

With the sign ~ over it 9 ha the sound of oo, 
thus : S**' *(J t ) be wao pesh ( bod.) 

{/'usually has the sound oftti"when following a conso- 
oant, thns : ( ^(tf) be ye ( bi.) 

^n usually has the sound of <-e-* when following a ccnso- 
nanjt, thus : ^-*^ *(^r)be yc Cbe x .) 

NOTE. Letters are all written in this exercise in their 
detached form , as the conjoined forms will be explained later. 
Examples ;~ 

ZABAR OR A SOUND. 
w'l alif be zabar * ab 
<<?& be be zabar - bab 

* paj 

* das 



ZER OR I. SOUND. 
ux (**) ftlif be i*r ib 



^^(*) pe b ze'r pib 

~ 



J J (Jk> dil ^ 

PESH OR u SOUND. 

^ / fw/i> llf be pesh ub 

be peih jub 



r %r-:r^ , , 

/; ^ ( t*f ) be nun path bun 

Examples of all the sounds already set forth : 
*** fc (LJ.*)* is pronounced jab 

(S^<(j& ki ' 8 

J 'f (J) " l 

I yr CUJ n 

. J 

, soo 

li 
ke 

EXEECISE No. 1. 



lit it at lip ip ap ub ib ab 



rl rl ?> ?\ ?\ r* 7J ?J ?1 

U Q O v t// (s & &' & 

1 ! ( +1 *i L' 1 

>1 *! 9' -? / )1 >) 9} 5/ 9\ 



4 ;t 
*1 X 



,( 4 



t >, [ < < 

>j x jr jj j' Jf J\ 

* * f / r ^ c>t 

It will be noticed that beneath certain combinations the equi- 
valent English letters have been placed, but they are merely 
relative. The Arabic letters fj and cannot be represented 
accurately by any combination of English letters. 

All the examples in this exercise are correctly written as 1 at 
fche beginning of a word is always written sepatately,and consonants 
that end a word after ) have their detached or full forms, 

The student is now assumed to be thoroughly familiar with the 
detached forms of the Urdu characters. He will now be gradually 
taught the initial and conjoined forms. 

EXERCISE No, 2. 

The letter ^^ in its initial form become.; ^or J,or J 

^ L # 

The same rule applies to *-^ ^^ *-* w the different letters 

being shown by their dots or the #ign J? Thus : ^ * /I, 

This, perhaps. Hooks confusing at nrst sight, but a little fami- 

liarity with the following exercise wili soon render it easy, The 

zabdr sign is frequently omitted if the initial letter is not followed 

by ) or (f 

C/ * " 

_____ ___ . be alifj and it is pronoupc-ed '*ba 

it 
^:be be t and it is pronounced bab there Seeing no vowel signs 



/ / . 

ehown, ^*^/ be be and having the zer sign is, pronounced bib 

j> f 
^*< be be are the same two consonants with the pesh sign hence 

bub The Exercise deals with the letter t^ 



t & 



< * *s -t> * s t V > 

-4< ' 4 4.- 4 4 4 4* 4* V U'.V 
***** j- > > 

, 4' < 4 4< S. 4 4, 4 s< 4 

(?.'$ Ji tf ^ 



NOTE. The studeot will observe that the first two combiaa- 
have no vowel sign. This is accordance with the rule 
that the sdbdr sign is omitted, save io oases where such ocaissiea 
would lead to misunderstanding. 

The only absolutely new feature in this exercise istVie presence 
of the small "h" or chhoti he, in the three final combinations. 
This letter 9 retains its separate form after h ) )jj J * *nd ) 
if it is the only other letter, because these letters do not join any 
letters that may follow them. The same rule applies to other conso- 
nants. This rule is without exception. The 9 latter ht after 
other letters, has this shape " * v aud generally has beneath it, 
when initial or medial, the aspirate sign'* 

Thus the exercise examples read : 

* be he zabar - bah 



' t_ ' i. ' ' i "i 

* be he zer - bih 

7" be he pesh - buh 
Other minor changes that must be noted are in ) and , *ith 

their kindred letters which become respectively > and fr wheu 

*^ 

united with another consonant tinaUy^ The letter w? becomes 
*^s when joined, 

The student should write the foregoing exercise several tunes, 
substituting the letters w*' \^^ ^/ and ^^ for the initial front? 

r I 

as *f and the changes being marked only by dots or the sigo J> 



( 6 ) 

EXEKCISENo. 3. 
The letter ^ with its kindred letters g,, and , has the 

siagle initial forsa -^ . The succeeding exereiae'.re^uires no fur- 

the comment, save the stipulation that it be also read and written 
* 

with fche same consonants in conjunction with /V 7. and 7, 

It. must also be noted that in this exercise one only of each 
set of kindred letters has been used, because the letter , joins 
with each of them in the same manner as it is joined with the sin- 
gle specimen given in this exercise. For instaaee the letter *, 
in conjunction with ^ ^ j rf and , will be used in the 
same manner when joined with k _ f ^ 9> j ,f and / 

This rule holds good throughout all the succeeding exercises* 






Jf 



, It will be observed that in the next exeroise a skip is 
made to (J several letters being omitted as intitials. These letters 
are, as already pointed one in Exercise JSo. 2, ^ ^ y> j j 

and * because they do not join with any letters that follow 
them, being written separately in their initial form. 

EXERCISE No. 4. , 

tt 

This shows the letters (J* and ^/" in elimination as an 
initial with otber letters. Their intial forms axe f and f 
respectively. 9 These two letters may be written also thus 1^ 

(sin) and /f-^(hin) the difference being marked by dots. ^ 



The exere*'s& deals only with [J* having the former form. 




EXERCISE No. 6. 

a * *a 

The letters \f and ijf have the intial forms r and 

f without other changes. The exercise deals only with 
J> > 




EXERCISE No. 6. 
The letter J> with its neighbour J? changes but slightly in iU 

initial form. The student with note a slight prorogation of its lower 
curve. Thus : 



* 




NOTE. In order to check any errors the student may have con 
tracted in reading, a translation of the foregoing exercise i* append 
ed in the Romaa character : Ta j tas, tia, tus } takh, tikh, bukh j 



( 8 ) 

tad, tirf tad; feffjtv, tor; tas, tis, tus; taz, tiz, tuz ; tax; tfz, tuz ; 
tagb, tigh, tugh ; tafc tif, tuf ; taq, tiq, tuq ; t^k, tik, tak ; ial, tU, 
tul; tain, ii m t u " m ; tars, tin, tun ; tab, tih, tub. 

EXERCISE No. 7. 

Th letters / and /^, simply become ^ and ^ in tbeir 
inilial 







& * *f f * 
f ** (y {y, O 

It is i 01 possible to give tbe equivalent English sounds of tbe 
Arabic letters , and /^, > so tbe foregoing exercise of / had 



better be treated as a" or at/if, tbe first line reading a or BS \ 

ib ; ub ; aj 7 ij, uj ; az s i, u. 

/ * * 

With tbe letter the student will read gka ; 



EXERCISE No. 8. 
* 
The tetter * * in its iaitial form becomes 9 tbus : 



'^ 3 ad ^^ 



* 



^Tbe same exercise uppiies to (J which has the same 
initial form as *^) with tbt exception of the two dote. 



EXERCISE No. 9. 

The initial form of *~f is ,J , as a general rule, tha only 

exceptions being its junctions with / and /I which the 
student will readily note. 



The same exercise and the sajne methods of joining 
I and apply to c/ 



10. 

This exercise deals with the letter ^J in combination 
other letters. It calk for no special comment. 



t, b '6 tf ft vt 
jf J, jJt* 

* -f 



EXERCISE No. 11. 
The letter /* initially has one of two forms, It i? eitber v 
or ^ and the method of using it is shown beneath, 



s, / * *, * 

^ tftf ^ ># ^(/c^C^c^tA 

J 4.4 ** J.J tf&& *}*,,*, 

f 



SPECIAL Nom There are-no exercises set out for the initial 
forms of the letters (^ and (f as they are treater} exactly like the 
letters *~~s \m-s &c., their .significance being shown by 

the dot or dot& Thus : *~s nab ; *.* yab. 



The student will find it advantageous to repeat Exercise 
No, 2 substituting /j and /( for . -^ . 



EXERCISE No, 12. 

The letter J or small " h " has initially three forms, either 

f or *y or 7 , but no difficulty need be experienced in reading 

> writing it, as the sign " M beneath the letter shows i 

anm istak Ji bly , 

A % i 4 



if & b 



EXERCISE No. 13. 

The student wil) probably have remarked that hitherto the 
letter } has not been given in combination with others. As ts 
connect use is important, it has been separately doaH with, and 
a transcript of its sounds is appended ; 






( 1" ) 

Equivalent English sounds : &u (nearly equalling " ow " 

ru -, *du, so, 5M -, sdu so, su ; tffu, to, tti ; au y p, u -Jdu, fj t fu ; kdu, 

n6, nu ; 



u ; 



EXERCISE No. 14. 

The letters (J and S ^ or the small and lar/^e " ye," 
with the equivalent use of " i and " ^ " respectively > are also 
dealt witli separately. A translation is appended. 

. 4- 




Equivalent English sounds : oi, ^, t ; 6a*', W, At \j&jk,jf\ 
i, c&, rf ; rae, r^ ri ; *ai, ^ * ; /, A?, i ; toe, **', tx > ai, /, * ; 
iyfe, fi ; kai, k>, ki ; lai % Iff. U ; mai, W, W ; wai, TX^ TU^ wai, iw, 
; fta, ^ hi, 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

As stated in the earlier patges of this vrtrk it is diflficult 
and almost impossible to give an accurate idea of the sounds of 
thos letters which have no English equivalents. The following 
general remarks, however, may be useful. 

<Ji^ The sound of this letter, vrhioh has no equivalent in 
gnglish, is softer and more dental than the English t, It is pro- 
nounced by turning the tongne towards the front teeth and not 
Upwards, as is done in pronouncing the English f. 

7 The sound of this letter is stronger and more forcible 
than the English h. Its sound Corresponds somewhat with that of 
the English k in the word " hall." ft is pronounced by pressing 
the lower muscles of the throat. 



( 12 ) 

This letter & (pronounced from the throat and is repre- 
sented in the Roman characters by " kh, " underlined thus kh. 

) This letter has no equivalent in English. It is softer and 
more dental than the English d, and is pronounced by pressing the 
tongue veil against the front teeth. 

^/ is sounded like the English letters rk and is pronounced by 
turning the tips of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth. No 
word commences with it. 

j The sound of this letter is that of the English s in the word 
" azure, " or that of s in the words " pleasure " or " leisure." 



The letters , and , are sounded from the throat and are 
guttural. In the Roman character they are represented by 
" a " having a dot underneath ad " gh, " having a line beneath, 
respectively. 

The letter 3 -*' has the sound of the English g in the word 
" gate " and never in the words " gem," " gentle," etc. 

Irt Vrrting the small and large ye in their final forms 
with the equivalent use of "i" and " e' w respective, 
ly, the natives of India do not make any difference but use 
either form at convenience. Thus (f may be used for <rt *~ 
having the sound of " e " instead of " i " and vice versa, but in 
.Educational Books when the ye has the value of " i " it is written 
with a small y/ and when that of <s e " with a large ye. This 
distinction is made to render it easy for beginners. Their medial 
form cannot be expressed distinctively as both letters have the 
game medial form, the difference being of sounds which the 
beginner will learn only by practice. I Have, however, in this 
work marked the medial form of smaD ye by placing ter beneath 
the letter, preceding .it. For the large ye I have left out the 
jeer. 

In the initial form they have no difference at all in shape or in 
Sound, 



( 13 ) 

In like manner the natives of India do not make any difference 
between the small he and the doc hash mi he. They use 
either form at convenience, but in educational books .the 
* dochashmi he is used only in the middle or at the end of 
a word in which the letter preceding the same Che') is sounded 
collectively, as in ^^ phal, fruit and ^ pijh, back. 

In the above Vords the he combines in sound with pe 
and te, the preceding letters, respectively. 

Take a gain a^ an <*/tf In these two words which have 
the same letters before and after he, the former has the 
>dcfeha8.hmi he, and the latter he with a tick beneath. The 
first will sound, -therefore, pher and the latter pahair. People 
generally write either he in the medial or final forms of such 
-words as pher, pahar, and pit^, but, in order to render it easy 
this distinction is made in the works of an educational character. 
The dochashmi he is never used in the initial form in educa- 
tional books, but the natives of India use it in the initial form 
also. 

By the way the nasal " n w in roman character is represented 
by " n" having a dot beneath, thus "n. " 

In the foregoing exercises strict accuracy has not been aimed . 
at. The- object has been to familiarise the student with the initial 
and final forms of the letters when combined together. Also he 
should have acquired a fair knowledge of the primary vowel sounds, 
always excepting the Arabic letter ^ which cannot be taught by 
any English equivalent. The place of utterance of the letters 
/ and / is in the lower muscles of the throat. 

The student must not pass to the next section until he 
thoroughly comprehends the portion now completed. 



CHAPTER II. 

PRELIMINARY. 

Having acquired the letters of the alphabet, so to speak, the 
student will, in future, be called upon to deal only with com- 
plete words each of current use and exact significance. Hence* 
forth, therefore, he will acquire a vocabulary with the advantage 
of learning sentences, each oi which may be used in conversation. 

So far as is compatible with the strict limitation of simplicity 
in structure, some grammatical ^explanations will be given, where 
necessary. 

Vocabulary of words used in Exercise No. 15. 
mat = (in the imperative sense) not bo-dena =to plant 

bal-deiia *to twist 



darna = to fear 



each = truth 
kahna * to tell 
hilna = to shake 
bas sufficient 
karna = to do 
le-chalna ~ to carry 

cbal-dena&to go away 
ana = to come 
ab <= now 
tu thou 

* 

yih ? he, she, it, this 
turn you 
rona * to weep 



kal = to-morrow, 

yesterday 
jana *to go 
sab -all, everything, 
everybody 
lenastotake 
wuh he, she, it, that 
chup = silent 
hona s to be 
das =ten 

rahna to remain 
ho ya hain sare 
sun Jena * to listen 



( 15 ) 

EXERCISE No. 15. 
1^* mat dar do not fear 
sieh kah tell the truth 
chal de go away 
mat ro do not (tfeou) weep 

le chal carry (it) 

>/ 
hil mat do not shake 

bas kar stop ! an idiom of which 
the exact rendering is 
" that will do " 

yihle, take this 

wuh do give (me) that 

V ' 

abja go now 

/ / ^ kal a come to-morrow 

s 



chup rah keep quiet, be silent 
as do give (me) ten 
> twist (it) 

listen 

bo-de plant (it) 

turn ho you are 



tf J> 
s ' 



sab sun listen (to) all 

NOTES. All the Verbs given in the above exercise are used 
in the form of the second person, singular, imperative mood, for 
the excellent reason that this is the root of all Urdu Verbs, from 
which the other tenses are formed. 



( 16 ) 

When a word in the English translation is given in brackets, 
it is understood and not expressed in the Vernacular. 

In the roman rendering of the native character several words 
are join6d by hyphens. These signify compound verbs with which 
the language abounds. 

The Infinitive mood, which, in Urdu, is often a Verbal Noun, 
is formed by adding L'fnajto the second person singular of the 
imperative. 

In all Dictionaries the infinitive of a verb is invariably given, 
so the converse of the foregoing rule holds good, namely, that the 
second person, singular, imperative or root is formed by dropping 
the sign I* (na)of the infinitive. 

The second person plural of the imperative mood, the most 
usual and polite manner of speaking is formed by aiding ) (o) to 
the root, but where the root itself ends in *-f " e, " this letter is 
dropped and " o " is added. There are very few exceptions to 
this rule. 

The second person singular, imperative, of the Verb I*) ana 
to come, is simply " a ", and is represented by I . In order to 
lengthen the sound a sign called * (mad) is put over it, 
thus : / Generally speaking, when the letter/itself is 

long in sound it carries the sign called > . 

Vocabulary of new words used in Exercise No. 16. 

ghul * noise to *a particle used only with 

sona *to sleep verbs to convey emphasis, 

lana = to bring so-rahna - to sleep 

khati letter ginna to add up 

pina s. to drink gin-lena . to count up 

hai * is bad = bad, wicked 

le-jana to take away pul - bridge 

dam breath par (prep ) = on, upon 

dam-lena ^ to breathe nah . not (abbriviated form of 

nahin) 



j 



J * 
*~> " 



a 
turn nah lo 

k/ ab mat hil 

f 

* tu nali dar 

,1* ghul nab kar 
bal nah de 



won. nah Jo 
'oil nah a 

dam nab le 



i 

Jr 



ab nah so 
tti nah son 
fid nah gin 
yih sab la 
wnh bad hai 



id 



to 



( I? ) 

EXEKCISE No. Iti. 

Do not (thou) go now. 
Do not (you) take (it). 
Do not (thou) shake ilow. 
Do not (thou) fear. 
Do not (thou) make (a) noise 

(from bal-dena) Do not 

(thou) twist (\t.) 
Do not (you) take that 

Do not (thou) come to-mor- 
row. 

Do not (thou) breathe (if 
"dam-lena" be understood 
otherwise^ "Do not (tbon) 
take breath." 

Take this away. 

Do not (thou) sleep now. 

Do not (thou) listen. 

Do not (thou) count* 

Bring all this. 

He is wicked. 

Go on the bridge. 

Do not (you) take (the) letter- 

This is true. 

Listen ! Here the particle 
to is iutrotlT^d between 
the two part* of & com- 
pound verb, afttHtouij to 
listen, in order to add 
great emphasis to the 



**\ ob so tab 



command a 
Sleep now. 



( 18 ) 
VOCABULARY. 



le-ana 


to bring. 


tab-l^arna 


o.. to fold. 


le-lena 


to take. 


giir. y . jaggery, coarse sugar. 


se; (prep.) 


from, with. 


do-g.i 


... will give. 


ki's-ne' 


by whom. 


ras 


... juice. 


un-se' 


from them. 


hu-hij 


... a childish expres- 








sion corres- 


ham-ko 


us, to us. 




ponding to 


tap 


ague. 


v 


" boo-Uoo. " 


dm 


day. 


is-ko 


... the accusative 








form of yih 9 


ko (prep.) 


to, rn, dur- 




meaning him 




ing. 




her, it or this. 


bakna 


to chatter. 


sin a 


... to sew. 


bak-bak-karna.., 


to chatter. 


chun-le'na 


... to pick up. 


milna 


to meet. 


diq-karna 


Jt i 

... to tease. 



NOTE. The student will notice that many Urdu Verbs have ap- 
parently the same English meaning, such as land and le-dnd, to 
bring ; lend and le-lena, to take. These are simple and compound 
Verbs respectively, and need not be explained at this stage. 

Prepositions in Urdu invariably follow tbe noun or pronoun they 

4 

govern &8S(J'pul par, on the bridge ; *- /twin se,from you. 

The particle / kd, added to a noun or pronoun is sometimes 

the sign of the accusative case. It also, has the value of "to" in 
the dative case, and at times means "in" but such instances will 
be clear from the context. 

f ' ' 
. The word 9)do-gij will give, introduces the future tense of the 

verb dena, to give. ' The tenses of Verbs will be separately dealt 
with afterwards. 3 n this place the student need merely learn the 
word, remembering that the final "i" shows that a feminine second 
person singular precedes it. Were the governing woid masculine, 
the word would be do-ge. 

In one of the succeeding sentences the student first makes the 
acquaintance of the "agent" case in Urdu- It reads : ^ (fj ^ 
Id* ne di hcii, "By whom is (it) givep," The English form would 
be, "Who has given it ? " Thifc is by far the most frequent nie- 



( 19 ) 

thod of speaking adopted by the natives of Upper India in using 
the past tense of Active Verbs. 

Instead of saying, I did this, they put it, "By me (it was) 
done.'* main-nd kiyd. He planted it. "By him (it was) planted," 
U8r-n6 loyd. Did ^ you learn this? "By you (was) this learut." 
kya yik tiim-ne silcka, which literally translated reads, "What 
this by you learnt ! " 

EXERCISE NO. 17. 

\ff * S t\ pul par nahja ... Do not (tUou) go on the 

bridge. 

khatdo'-gi ... Will you give (the) letter. 

* yih sab le'-lo .,. Take all this. 

, fa ^ yih sab sach hai ... This is all truth. 

S * Jf ^i ab ^hul nah kar ... Do not (thou) make a noise 

now. 

T ^- ** wuh le-a ... Bn'og that 

V" ^is oe di hai ... By whom is (it) given. 

Who has gistm (it.) 

Vfc^ ^ yih sab suu-lo ... Listen (to) all this. 
* " s 

^ ^ ct u ^ P^ par ja .... Go on the bridge to-tbor- 

^ TOW. 

* (j / Tarn kal nah ao ... Do not (you) come to-mor- 
row. 

~ J ^- /' un se li hai ... It was taken (Li being the 

past tense of Una and 
feminine to agree with 
it this thing -under- 
stood) irom them. 

x^ yih ham ko do ... Give this to us. 

2 turn ko tap hai ... You have ague. (lit. To 

you ague is). 
J J /^ ras k<^ pi-lrf .,, Drmk the juice 



( 20 ) 

din ko nah so ... Do not sleep in (during) 

the day. 

t* yih khat mat lo ... Do not take this letter. 

_ ' 

hu-hu nah kar ... Do not frighten (the child.) 

bas ab nah bak ... Stop, do not chatter DOW. 

[f- '* ' jl ir;i is ko nah si ... Do not sew this. 

V ^JA /(/\ * s ko gin-io ... Add up this, or add it up. 

in-ko chun-Jo ... Pick up these, 

is-ko tah-kar ... Fold this. 

in-senahlo ... Do not take (it) from 

them 

liamko diq nah kar..,, Do not tease us. 

usHko gur n&h do ... Do not give him coarse 

sugar. 

bis bak-bak nah kar Stop, do not chatter* 

bib se nah mil ... Do not (thou) meet with 
^ > everybody. 

NOTE. In the sentence 9\*(Jflwin hat ndh do the letter 
hamm (see alphabets) for the first time is used. It gives the aUf 

sound to^ and cfjast as alif is used with j> and ^*in exercises Nos o 
1*3 and 14, No word commences with the letter homed which te 
used only in the middle of a word of two or more syllables over 9 
or (S to give the sound ofatif, when the hamad marks the beginning 
of a new syllable, as i)jb(jd-un) etc. etc. 




CHAPTER III. 

It is now assumed that a fairly accurate knowledge has been 
acquired of the itutial nud final forms of the letters in the Urdu 
language. Henceforth a gradual use will be made of the medial 
forms, which present by far the greatest difficulty to the begin- 
ner. 



This difficulty is, however, more apparent than real. It moat 
be remembered that the dote and other distinguishing signs re- 
main the seme, and that tho medial form of a letter is only a 
slight development of the initial form 

In the first instance, the letter V' serves as tho model of a 
large class, namely, the letters ^^ *& ) ^* aud ^The 
commonest medial forma of these letters is * the exact value of 
the letter being shown by its distinguishing eigne. Thus ; bt 

* pe , cte\ te\ r se\ t nun; wad t chholi ye or bari 

ye. 

i 
There are, however, H number of exceptions, which the student 

will, at first, find sufficiently exitsperating. For instance, if the 
letters sudd, be, and al/if be joined they are sometimes written I* 

Here it is really impossible to stiy definitely that the he. is .shown 
by anything but the dot, as if 8uad t alif nlone be written the 
form will ba precisely similar, thus :- ^ sa. 

Again it the letters mim, mi/n,, be and aln. .^re joined they will 
be \vritten fy and will be pronounced ma/niba and not ma/nbq 
because the letter is) when followed by the letter *-* sometimes 
assumes the souurl ofy*and wt of. <,' Here, in this word, the first point 
covered by a dot is nun, and the second less marked undulation is 
6<}, because the dot is beneath it. Suppose the dote to be reversed 
and the word to be writtea gt it will be read m, 6, , ain. 

The best rule for absolute guidance that should be firmly adherd 
to is that the distinguishing dots or the siga J* and the pointed for- 
mation of the letter* w' * * & & 4/*aiid ^ supply the moai 
certain guide to tha nature of the letter indicated. 

The Roman characterization of a word giyea no indication ol 
the fact whether the letters have their initial, vtedialj or final 
forms in Urdu, for this reason that I ^ J jj *;* and J never 
join with the letters following them whether they cccur iu the 



( 22 ) 

beginning or the middle of a word. Hence it is obvious tbat if 
they are succeeded by other consonants the first of these will 
have its (nitial form, and if they are followed by only one con- 
sonant it will have its detached or full form. 

We are Sorry that this should he so, but we can't help it, as 
the Persi-Arabi'e character is built on those lines. 

However we will try to explain it by means of examples. 

(T$y rond (to weep). Here re and woo are written Separately as 
they have no independent initial form. The wwn on the other 
hand, joins! with Sl(f t and is shown clearly both by its initial curl 
and the distinguishing dot. 

If the dot overhead be changed into two dots beneath, thus \^9) 
royd (wept) the method of transmutation from wwn to yi is 
readily perceived. 

Again, take ytOfkitdben, books. When analysed this becomes 

kdf (initial form) ; " i w shown by the zer sign ; te (medial form) ; 
dlif (final form) ; be (initial form) \ ye (medial form) ; and wu/n 
(final form). 

One Other word of explanation when a consonant is not followed 
by ti vowel either indicated by a sign or understood, the signals 
placed over it to show that it runs into its next consonant. 



m, people. Here 7mm re'zabdr mar make up the first syl- 
lable and dal mim pesh ctiwn, the second. If the ja&m or-^ were 
not placed over r^, then the word would have read precisely the 
seme way, as the jazm Is seldom used, and the student need not 
worry about it. 

To make it easyiQ distinguish the medial fonns of letters we 



f 23 ) 



give below a number of words which will clearly show all the me- 
dial forms in use : 



Urdu word. 


The same 
in Roman 
character. 


Name of the letter toge- 
ther with its medial 
form. 


English 
meaning. 


";. 


abd ... 
ghajar... 


be medially becomes ^ 

j" a i> ^ 

/ 


slave, 
tree. 


4* 


qasam... 


sin >/ ^ 


oath. 


h 


chashm.. 
qasd .-.,. 


shin ^i^ 
suad ^ 


eye 
intention. 


j 


satar ... 


toe ^v 


line. 


(f 


141 ... 


" 3 ^ 


ruby. 


>" 


safar ... 


fe' j, 


journey. 


X 

j> 

/ 


fikr ... 
zulm ... 
kamar .. 


k f / 

, / 
lam ?J 

mim ,, ^ 


anxiety, 
tyranny, 
back. 


/ 


shahr ... 


h(^ (small) x 


city 


JI 


phal ... 


he (butterfly or jf 
docheshmi) 


fruit 



NOTE. It will be observed that some letters are omitted from 
the above list for the excellent reason that they bave the same 
medial form as one or other of those shown. For instance the 
letters ^ Jtr ^ ^ ^ {fand^-all possess the same 
medial form, as *^ in the above list the distinction being showu 
by dots or the signk 

Jt should also be pointed out here that in the succeeding exercises, 
where necessary, special attention will be ca'led to the medial 



( 24 ) 

forms of letters, bat the student is expected to carefully analyse 
the outlines of words by means of the added Roman characteriza- 
tion. For instance in the word xjy*l jdmhur, meaning 
republic, the mvtn and hd are in their medial forms. The hi is 
the small " h " or chhoti M and owing to the fact that it is often 
merely written by a small tick, it is difficult to recognise. The 
surest indication is the aspirate sign " < " placed beneath. 
For the initial forms of tHis letter see excercise No. 12, 

The pronoun, by fche way, agrees in gender with the noun 
to which it is attached, 

To render braipi softening unnecessary we will, in all future 
vocabularies, give the Urdu and Roman renderings of the words, 
but henceforth thu Roman characters will not be used in Exer- 
cises. 

VOCABULARY. 

Xsabr, (the concluding " r M being 
rolled somewhat like the same 
letter in Sacr-r-r-e !) patience.^ 

ilm -. knowledg- ffl kutta a dog. (Here, 

xikr mention. for the first time, the 

\jfjf z>kr-karna * to mention tashd/td is used, which 

jj JKU (prep.) * of, is placed over a letter 

kaoi - work. to double its sound. Its 

km-karna -to work. sign is ^ ** "), 

nahr ^ canal. 



qusur* fault . 

Gaqir * beggar. (J W kahan - whwe. 



^ J 
* U* 



wahan 

kiska -'geui live form 

of /cwwiii whose t^jf bat matter, 

l^s* mera 9 genitive form of wcwftj 
/*. m y. 

* knife yl balu = sand. 

^ your. ^ j garni *hot 

ky * what LJ^ Mis&^Egypt* 
nam =name ^ 

^ r kbana - food (Jtf "ghulel pellet-bow 

t'C^ khana 7 * to eat. "j& taiyar , ready. 




*tf: 



( 25 ) 

EXERCISE No. 18. 
Have patience now, (literally, Do patience 

now.) 
Make mention of knowledge. 

rj JL * This sand is hot. 
_L 

^ Do not cjo on th& c&ij&J. 

W, 

99 He goes to Egypt. 

(There) is a beggar there. 
* Whose fault is this ? 
This is my knife. 
What is your name ? 
When did you come ? 
Where is your dog ? 

Note. There should be little difficulty in reading the 
medial forms of sudd and qaf,iu the words quaur and/ogtr, be- 
cause they stand quite clearly from the letters preceding and 
following them. 

VOCABULARY. 

The following new words are used in this exercise : 
y W fcitab - book j& chftthl letter. 

. &19V dawat .inkstand ^fl/ rat anight. 

/ 

ag fire ^ aur -more, and. 

mez table J^ qalain =r pen. 

lafz word l~ hijje' spelling. 



( 30 ) 
dam .price 
cha'da'r * sheet 



clean ^/kaun.who. 







mot .pearl. 

EXERCISE No. 21. 
He is very sad to-day. 
'tf' Knowl ^ge is (a) great wealth. 
Wh t is the rent of this house ? 
Who ]iy es there ? 
What do you eat ? 
Give me my tooth-brush. 

' He is very fond of parrots, (isko toton-ka 
bara shauq hai). 

Whose house is fhj. ? 

Wh "t IB the price of these pearls ? 

Where d <>es he live ? 

w here is your umbrella ? 



VOCABULAKY. 
mor ^peacock 
kajna =to strike 
ghaW house 

* / 

tankhwah ^salarv ^ f 1 ^^^ " 

y ^~/^> f o-rana hai is weeping, *. 





( 31 ) 

khatkhatana'to r-(The present progressive singular ia 
knock at formed by adding to the root of a verb 

the word rdfta kai. For the jjlural 

* I " 

rahe fiain is added to the root. Thus 
[/tr~sf~~* We'jd rahe 
they are going 




wuh so raka kai lie is sleeping. 

EXERCISE No. 22. 
Give him this letter. 

Shu t the door of the window. 

*** 

/ What is your salary ? 

Give me (some)tooth-powder. 

* This is their peacock 
Put the pen on the table. 

9 

Do not go in that room< 

(It) has struck ten. 



Whose picture is this ? 

How far is your house from this 



Who knocks at the door ? 



is tliat ^ weeping ? 
VOCABULARY. 



/ / L* ' " ^ i x ^ * ' / 

^U'zalim * tyrant L%VT 8^^ -depth 



( 28 ) 

*, kitne = how many ^</khelnar:to play 
* I ksmra =- room J^ safar journey. 

kitaben :? books C^^ safar-karna =to travel. 

shatranj =? chess /}^ aql = wisdom. 




EXEBCISE No. 20. 

(It) will rain to-day. 
U This is (a) good season. 
99 He is a fool. 

How are you ? 
JS Why did you come ? . 

*r 

^^ Bring (me) my clothes. 
sG 

Where is (the) washerman ? 
Bring {a) newspaper. 
Shut (the) door. 

Bring (me) my book* 

> 

What work do you do ? 

This is (a) difficult book. 

What is the time now ? 

How many chapters are (there) in thia 

book? 
Do not take his letter, (lit : the letter of 

him.) 

Stop, be silent, or keep quiet. (May be 
read either as a compound verb, or 
as a simple verb, and an adjective.) 




( 29 ) 
Empty the large room. (lit : make 

empty, &c.) 

Come, let us play chess, (khttfy from 
khdna to play, first person 'plural, 
present tense, potential mood.J 
His box is full of " books." (kitdbon-Be, 
from books, the plural is formed 
by adding on to the singular when 
the case is inflected. Otherwise the 
plural is kitaben.) 
Be careful how you travel, (lit : make 

(your) journey by wisdom.) 

NOTE. It is of the utmost importance that all the words in 
the vocabularies should be committed to memory, and that the 
student should familiarise himself with their outlines in the 
Urdu characters. 



VOCABULARY. 

ghussa Danger (PJ}> tota parrot. 



2~ 



gbamgin c sad (J^ 8Dau q - fond new 
/*y kiraya . rent kuchfc any, some. 

o* bhuka hungry &^% qimat s price. 

I, piyasa thir6ty (/% cb^atri * umbrella. 

^/^-? miswak tooth-brash <z-j* tote' = parrots, 

chabuk *whip ^9> daulat wealth. 



( 26 ) 

4/ ' Jff " J 

* halki Alight ^JS huruf ^letters. 

v / i.^^ t ^ 

bhara - full . -<^P kaghaz ^paper. 

waste / ^ for ^ H< shigaf * slit 

^ siyahi ink ^9^^ sanduq * box 

*/ V **^' " " 

y bahut -very, many ,JJ daftar * office. 

/ / ' v 

* bhari * heavy ^*9 waqt time. 

>* bagh -s garden 



doa^Prayer kapra 7 * cloth. 






tircha-karna *to slant /ijj* maili ^ dirty. 



EXEKCISE No. 19. 
T ^s book is dirty, 
Bring the light table. 

That ^ is ful1 of 

' Bring ^ some ^ letter paper< 

Put the inkstand on the table. 
Spell this word. 

Slant the letters more. 

Tnis box is ver J heavy. 
Give me (some) ink. 



it of this 611 is 








At what time do you go to office ? 

Do not (thou) go in (or during) the night. 

When will you go ? (Turn kdbja-oge). 



( 27 ) 

Take a walk in the garden, (lit : Make 
the walk of the garden). 

<^ Pray to God (lit : Make request from God). 
x * 

Do not twist (it) (Here the turn, you, ia 

not used in English. The adverb 
" not " comes between the two parts 
of a compound verb). 
NOTE. In the sentence s~ _ / j^V$* (This book is dirty 

* c,* 

the adjective maili agrees in gender with kitab, and being femi- 
nine ends in "i ". All masculine nouns and adjectives ending 
in "a" are changed into "i" for the femiuiue. Examp! 
ghord, ghori, horse, mare ; achchha ddmi, a good man ; dchchhi 

aurat, a good woman. 

VOCABULARY. 



/ / 



9] aj to-day LV//^^ b^ 8 ^ nona *^ rain> 

/ achchha 2? good *Jfl be-waquf -foolish. 



mausa"m * season (Jj ky\m * why. 
kaisa -how 9Jb</S darwaza =door. 

/ X ^/* y/ 

dhobi =r washerman /lw khab* empty 

;L ff ~ 

* ' Vt^j* " 

akhbar # newspaper /^* mushkiJ * difficult. 

U?' band-karna -to shut <**l bab -chapter. 

' * 
men(prep) in (Jr[ hain ^ are, i5rst and third 

persons plural. 

* v ' /^ . , 

nahin ^not v; bara z 



telab -tank 
nadamat regret 
sher * tiger 
pakana to cook 

parhez abstinance 
pani water 
khilauna - toy. 
ilm -knowledge 

ghora * horse 


tin tbree 



( 32 ) 

ja'ldi chaste. 
kuan = well 
bawarchi =cook. 



khana = food dinner. 



dawa ^medicine, physic. 



Lj* 

-/i!>t/ wafadar- faithful. 
/4 x bila ^without. 

*$ kam * use, work. 

L & v * * * 
Ix/i g ir -P a P a * *' fall down. 




EXERCISE No. 23. 

He is a great tyrant. 

Open the lock of that door. 

How much is the depth of this 

The fruit of haste is regret. 

How many rooms are (there) in this house? 

The cook is cooking the dinner. 

Abstinance is good physic. 

O f w 

The water of this well is sweet. 

His dog is faithful. 

Wealth is of no use without knowledge. 

He fell down from his horse. 

Give these men rupees three 



( 33 ) 

to these men three three rupees 
give.) 

VOCABULARY. 

mangna = to ask, to want. t^U chahna *to want. 

* ' * * 

**l am = mango. X*^ mausam *- season. 

mere-pas =with me. ^^/*i P a ^ hai is with me, 
main .!. has, have. 

sabab -cause. ^ 9 U^j> kia " w ^ * at wliat lime ? 

miijhe to me, me. ^-^^ fursat * leisure, 

rawana-hona - to start l*(r; banana - to mend, to 

pas near. make, 

bichhauna =^bed. l^SI? baithna * to sit. 

gaon ^village. >^^ qasba =r town. 

Hindostan *India. kj^ m&lk ^ country, 

resham * silk, f?' siibh = morning. 
Dak-khana Post-Office. C^Hkhna =to write. 



EXERCISE No. 24. 
He wants two rupees for this book, 
Why do you want to go to the Bank P 




I have an orange. 

time shall I come ? 
What is the cause of this ? 
He is (a) great miser. 
I have no leisure to-daj. 
Mend my pen. 



\ 



^/lj^feg Thifl is a 
9] 9? $ Come to- 
4~U \JZ\0J\9 Where is 




( 34 ) 

A town is larger than a village. 
India is a large country. 
This is a silk handkerchief 
to-morrow morning. 

the Post-Office, 
want to write a letter. 

VOCABULARY. 

buzdiJ - timid. **-' seb * apple, 

faW ^ Persian. &A* daurna' *to run. 

tarjuma' ^ translation. *j% chirya ^bird. 
tariuW-kaW tp translate. ^ pan ir ^ cheese, 
zamin - surety- V$ khali-karna *to quit, 

ek ek -one by one. g,jA mizaj ^temper, 
puchhna ^to ask. ff*' jism *body. 

aisa^ 9 so & & ^ a/n ^ * mortal, 

ruh - soul 4/K ^^P * immortal, balance, 

bachche' * children ^t y atim ^ orphan . 
mehrban ^kind j^'nashtar ^lancet. 

, , AgH , finger. ^t^* C&l ^ ij ' 

bhul *forgetfulness. (^ g ul? ^ a ' mute - 
^/ b&<& -better. ttf jhiitha^ false, lying. 

^ mShn& -labour. J^ J*** *g reatne88 ' 
* ' /%/ ' Contentment. J/aram ^ease, rest. 

p EXERCISE No. 25. 
>* He is very timid. 
"J Translate this into Persian. 




am his ' t 

Go one by one (A ek kar fc j-o. 



^"^ Bo not eat this apple. 
Catch that bird. 



This cheese ia not good. 
Why do you laugh? 

What is he doing ? 

How are you to-day (lit: How is your 

temper to-day ? 
. The body is mortal, the soul immortal. 



** 

/ 

* These children are orphans, 



ty 



It is hard to put (one's) finger on (a] 

lancet, 
The calamity of knowledge is forgetfuines* 

Mute tongue is better than a lying tongue. 

'-" &l~L v 

Contentment is the key of ease, 

He is (a) very wicked boy. 
doubt in this 



( 36 ) 
CHAPTER IV. 

In the following pages will be found a highly useful and 
classified vocabulary embracing a large number of words in daily 
use and a number of Compound-Verbs and Synonyms of the 
language. 

PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


<& 


sina 


cheat. 


** 

* 


pitta 


gall-bladder. 


*UL*i 


platan 


breast. 




pet 


belly. 


ij 


pafili 


rib. 


*V 


ran 


thigh 


*\ 


hath 


hand* 


(f 


V 


heel. 


sl> 


dant 


tooth. 


*/* 


*i x 

jabra 


Jaar. 


&& 


munchh 
zabau 


moustache 
tongue. 


& 


putli 


pupil of the 
eye. 


(f* 


guddi 


nape. 


fa> 


dhela' 


eye-ball. 


U^ 


halq 


throat. 


&f* 


hont 


HP. 


yjf 


daW 


beard. 


% iv 


nakhun 


nail. 









^^r 






$ 


ungli 


finger. 


f 


kamar 


back. 


V 


lahu 


blood. 


k 


tarn' 


palate. 


& 


lat 


tangled hair ^_A/> 


zulf 


curl. 


$ 


til 
hatheli 


mole, 
palm of tlJ 


L*t 

j>* * 
PS 


baghal- 
narkhara 


armpit, 

windpipe. 






hand. 


/ 


V I/ 

massa 


wart. 


&' 


nathna 


nostril. 


($ 


kanpa^i 


temple. 


*& 


rirh 


back-bone. 


3r*t 


* / . / 
massu^ha 


gum. 


J>c 


naf 


naViL 


(/** 


thuddi 


chin. 


tf 


kavva 


uoula. 


Jf. 


A t 


joint. 


& 


cLo^i 


cue. 


** 


peril 


abdomen. 



Urdu 
word. 



The same 
in roman 
character 




English 
meaning. 



the tip of the 

ear. 

thumb, big toe 
lungs, 
whiskers. 

sole of the 

foot, 
liver, 
kidney, 
heart, 
ankle, 
flesh, 
stature, 
life. 

grinder, 
calf of the leg. 
spittle, 
pns. 
snot. 

urine, 
sweat, 
phlegm. 
foot, 
dirt, 
wrist, 
brehead. 
mouth. 



C 38 



Urdu 
word . 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


4/ 


bfl 


hair 


$ 


ankh 


eye. 


#J* 


khopri 


skull 


X 


bhaun 


eye-brow. 


tss 


* / / 
papota 


eye-lid. 


fc-tt 


palak 


eye-lash. 


& 


maghz 


bram. 


4JV 


riak 


nose. 


4^^i kan 


ear. 


^ 


bansa 


bridge of the 


5$ 


kokrti 


ear-nole. 






nose. 






NAMES OF RELATIVES. 




*?*, 


bap 

^ / 


father. 


/;/; 


dada 


fathers father. 


If* 


chacha 


f a t h e r's 


jK" 


taya 


father's elde 







you ii g er 





. 


brother 






brother. 


o^ 


uiamun 


mother's brothei 


w 


riane 


mother's 


\*<& 


phapha 


father's sister 






father 


j 




husband. 


$ 


khalu 


mother's sis- 


&<& 


nandoi. 


husband's sister i 




t 


ter's hus- 




; 


husband. 






band. 


& 


betA 


son. 


J* 


jeth 


bus ban d's 


$ 


1 / 
bhatija 


brother's son. 






elder bro- 


fa. 


bhai 


brother 






ther. 


nt' 


*ala' 


wife's brother. 


;& 


dewar 


husband > 


^ 


sarb \i. 


wife's sister's 


* 




younge* 


> 




husband. 






brother 


t-^v 


oawasa 


daughter's soi 


i^^C 


bhanja 


sister's son. 


u>*> 


dulha 


bridegroom. 


igfrf 


bahnoi 


ister s hus- 


/***' 


shauhar, "| 






band. ' 


Tjtft 


khasam ;. husband. 


>i\* 


datnad 


daughter's 


fy(j 


khawind. 








husband 


111? 


tai' 


father's * elde 












brother 8 wife? 



Jrdu 
vord. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


[Jrdu 
word. 


The same 
in romau 
character. 


English 

meaning. 


/** 


khusar 


w i f e 's or 














jf 


u / / 








husband's 


/' 4 L^ 


mumani.j 


mother'^ bro- 







father. 






ther's wife. 




pota 


son's son. 


(f& 


phuphi 


fathers sister. 


W 


larka 


lad. 


(\Sjr^ 


dewarani 


husband's youn 


<jl' 


niati 


mother 






ger brother's 


(f>/> 


dadi 


father's mo- 






wife. 






ther. 


(ife 


bhati j i 


brother's daugh- 


/"' 


chachi 


f a t h e r 's 


S 




ter. 






young e r 


^ 


bahan 


sister. 








t 1 S 


/ / 








brother's 


tf/ 


sali 


wife's sister. 






wife. 


</*'> 


* / 
dulhati 


bride. 


9 


i 




' ft 


/ / 




$^ 


nani 


mo t h e r s 


yjf 


poti. 


son's daughter. 






mother. 


& 


salaj. 


wife's brother's 


ttlf 


koala' 


mother's 


%^ 




wife. 




r 




f 


/ j 








sister. 


J^Z 


joru 


iwife. 


(JI&? 


jithani 


husband's 


(to. 


bivi 


J 






elder bro- 
ther's wife. 


% 


lepalak. 
mutabanna 


I adopted son. 


J> 






^TS**^ 


i f 




(& 


beti 


daughter. 


(J& 


bhabhi 


bro the r 8 


^, 


saut 


co-wife. 






wife. 


^ 


sauteli inati 


step mo- 


(S^ 


sas 


wife's or hus- 


(jfe. 


i ' 
bbanji 


ther, 
sis t e r's 


<k 


la*rki 


band's mother, 
lass. 


x 




daughter 


Ais 


nanand 


husband's sister. 


&* 


^ / / 
nawasi 


daugh t e r's 


*?* 


bahu 


son's wife. 






daughter. 










( 40 ) 
NAMES OF BIRDS. 



Urdu 
word. 


The same IB 
roman 
character 


r 

English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning 


yt 


baz 


bawke. 


&$ 


totru 


small dove. 


tyf 


murgbabi 


teal. 


M 


bat 


duck. 


Cv 


ababi'l 


iwallow. 


%& 


chamgadar 


bat. 




murgba 


;ock. 


&A 


murghi 


ben. 


>" 


titar 


partridge. 


7t& 


manjhl 


cocks wan. 


<^^ /9 


y / 




^jf 


/ ^ 




&** 


morni 


jealieu. 


fa* 


simurgb 


griffin* 








^fi 


ullu 


owl. 


(J^ 


/ V 

saras 


crane. 


tf 


huma 


phoenix. 


4 


chughad 


small owl. 


($ 


v / 

qumn 


turtle-dove. 




bagla 


heron. 


?4 


hud had 


1 hoopoe. 


Y& 


u w qab. 


eagle. 


i i 


pabari kav 


craven. 


(# 


chaba 


snipe. 


j(sW 


TB. 


J 


'<$ 


shutaVl 


ostrich. 


tJljfi' 


laklak 


stark. 




morgbj 




4 


cbakor 


bartavelle. 


^ 


bateir. 


quail. 


*> 


mamola 


wagtail. 


& 

* 


bulbul. 


mghten- 


J*%r 


chandol 


lark. 






gale. 





surkbab 


ruddy-goose. 


l& 


shlkra 


feicon. 


Z%' 


cbirya 


sparrow. 


l) 


liwa 


sand-lark* 


jf 


kabutar 


pigeon. 


$ 


kocl 


cuckoo. 


>V 


fakbta 


dove. 


*nf 


bawasal 


pelican. 


iM 


tota 7 


parrot. 




/ ^ 










&0i 


nil-kanth 


jay. 


% 


maina 


Jinagpie. 


it 


bay*' 

w *J 


bottle-bird 






toracula reli- 


iffy 


cans 
/ ^ 


goose. 


9 


y 


yiosa. 


Jjl/y 


raj-bans 


swan 


-*?, 


raor 


peacok. 


/* & 


kakatua 


cockatoo. 


r/ 


v >^/ 

kavva 


crow. 



( 41 



The same 

in roman 

character. 



The same 
in roman 
character. 



English 
meaning 



Kngligh 
meaning 



turkey. 
plover. 



J3*s kat-phora [wood-pecker. 
' 



starling. 

linnet. 

titmouse. 

NAMES OF QUADRUPEDS. 



I khachchar 



gilahri 

v ' 
dumb. 



i sheep with 



lakarba'gga I hyjena 



.. t bartsinga 
>y rrorkha 



orang-outang. 



siyah-gosb lynx 




Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


L 


, V , , / / 
bachhera 


colt. 


J>t> 


/ / 
saadni 


dromedry. 


ity 


mendha 


ram. 


sJ$ 


' I t 
chhachhun- 


mole. 


*j< 


sandti 


bull 


s 


dar 




& 


/ ' , 
geuda 


unicorn. 


u 


chuha 


rat. 




NAMES OF 4CQUATJC ANIMALS. 


($ 


V f 

machhli 


fish. 


j{ 


jonk 


leech. 


*jj 


rneudak 


frog, 


f. 


jhinga 


lobster. 


\*ff 


ke kra 


<-rab 








V* 


V 




s> 






Jlt^Tgtiar.yal 


ulligator. 


(Jy* 


sus 


porpoise. 


/^^(kachhwa 


tortoise. 


$ksJ 


daryai- 


river-horse. 


^JX 


magar 


crocodile 


tfj 


L / 1 

ghora. 








NAMES OF IN 


SECTS 




L/^" 


patanga 


moth 


JP 


/ 


cobra. 


i**. 


* / 




^ 






Mf 


tidda 


gross-hop 


4^U 


san p 


snake. 






pe 


rj$ 


jugnu 


ire-Hy. 


j> 


jun 


louse. 


A 


/ i, 
jhingar 


cricket- 





khatmal 


bug. 


Jr^ 


v / 
pissu 


flea. 


^^/ j0 * 


^ / 




*i* 


/ 




c#H 


chyunti 


ant. 


/& 


hhir 


wasp. 


w& 


dimak 


white- ant. 


/fat 


clujipkali 


lizard. 


^ 


dant> 


gnat 


* 


btchchu 


corpion. 


Js 


V </ 

inacuichhar 


mosquito. 


</j 


tiddt 


ocust. 


$ 


makkhi 


Hv. 


(/^ 


v / 

makri 


^pider. 


1 


NAMES OF PROFESSIONALS. 


J Jf 


/ 


t f 






(frl 


bnrhai 


carpeuterj yU-^ 


sunai 


gold-smith. 


&l 


bavarchi 


cook ^jl 


Juimr 


black-smith. 



Urdu 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 

meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


BBglitfa 

tne;ining. 


;u 


bazzaz 


draper. 


/; 


naukar 


servant. 


& 


mochi 


shoe-make 


r. /f 


teli' 


oil-seller. 


&i*< 


bhat 


bard. 


J 


hakim 


physician. 


&u* 


pan sari 


druggist. 


tC& 


chakki-raha 


inillei 


dfi 


bhangi 


sweeper. 


## 


bahrupia 


mulliform. 


Jrff 


thatera 


brazier. 


sb% 


palledai 


porter. 


&s 


bharbunja 


grain-parch 


3&^ 


nan-hai 


baker. 






er. 


$**fy 


aina-saz 


glazier. 


iU* 


bhatyafia 


inn-keepei 


tilx$ 


qasai 


butcher. 


'/A 


bharwa 


3imp. 


>t7^|kumhar | 


Cotter. 


tfft? 


* / / 
panwari 


betel-seller 


\V\ kunira 


green-seller. 


J/ / jl* 


khansama. 


butler. 


;'>/>J/ 


golandaz 


gunner. 


&M 


kharadi 


:urner. 


V 

** L 


man i hi a r 


brace let- maker. 


(S^z 


juhari 


gambler. C^Jv / *' 1 garibau 


garry-rlnver 


*$ 


jauhari 
thag 


eweller 
robber 


A 


qalaigar 
saudagar 


tinner, 
merchant. 


x 


chor 


thief 


(fts* 


darzj 


taiJor, 

, 


*il*k 


lildsax 


wok-bin- 


/ff9 


kha^anohi treasurer. 


* 






* -* 


y 








der. 




miuBQwir 


Artist. 


Jy* 


tialwai 


eon feet iou 


y/yVyj ghai i -sar 


MtahriMber 






er. 


i in ^adarva 


tjliephrf.J 


c^> 


darban 


gatenian. 




/ C7 

kasbi 


,,,,. 


y6"-' 


dhn 


eowberd 


fr 


/ / 


gjirdeuet- 


^ 


raj 


uaason. 


$ 


inallah 

, . - 1 






doiu 


songstei . 


d? 


moharkau engraver. 



Urdu 
word; 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


8B3* 


salotri 


farrier. 


$k 


bazigar 


juggler. 


J) 


qauwal 


singer. 


"& 


nat 


acrobat. 


c<k/ 


kisan 


farmer. 


9^* 


v i . v ' 
masknara 


jester. 


4 ^ 


/ / 






y 




(Jpp 


dhobi 


washerman, (ji* 


nai 


barber. 


Jo* 


daUa'l 


broker. 


(f^ 


sipahi 


soldier, 


Jj$ 


naqqal 


actor. 


(S*& 


t/ V 

kutub- 


book-seller. 


&z 


dhunya 


carder. 


yJ3 


farosh 




Jt4 


rangsaz 


painter. 


cfy 


V / V 

m aha) an 


banker. 


$'* 


daya 


nurse. 


^ 


saqqa' 


Waterman. 


o^ 


Sarban 


oamel-driv- 1^1 


hijra 


eunuch. 






er. 


^ 


nachar 


dancer. 


Jiff 


sarraf 


money- 


4 


beldar 


digger. 


0& 


filban 


ohanger. 
elephant- 


$ 

O? 


naqlnavis 
vakil 


copyist, 
pleader. 


&jfr 


mahawat 


driver. 


/ Kt i v i ' 
yyv kalvar. 


brewer. 








>i^ fassad 


bleeder. 






NAMES OF FRUITS. 










Ly* p\ ***' iA '* 1 

^^ **! v V 


jack-fruit, 


jA lemu 


lemon, 


Q/S \ turanj 


citron. 


(fat 


narangi 


orange. 


*;! 


aroo 


peach. 


$M 


nashpati 


pear. 


^ 


injir 


fig- 


JV 


falsa 


griva. 


u$i 


alu-bukhan 


i damson. 


Cf*k 


jaman 


rose-apple. 


***% 


phut 


mash-meloi 


i. $ 


khubani 


apricot. 


F* 


santrah 


rfweet- 


%$ 


" i. ' ' 
>mghara 


attrup, water- 






orange. 






aut. 



Urdu 

word. 


The same 
in rom;t!i 
character. 


English 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roinau 
character. 


Kuglish 
meaning. 


j^. 


pista 


pi^tachu- 


J 


X.f 

gular 


wild-fig. 










. / 








nut 


Jb [X| 

^^QW 


laukat 


Uxjuat. 








^ * 


r / 




_^ 






/jLJ 


kUirni 


MiemlesopH. 


JS 


angur 


grape. 


Ms 


tarbu/. 


water-melon. 


->>/' 


amrud 


guava. 


1 9 


chhuhara' 


date. 


,.7 


am 


mango. 


Jxyp|khopra 
y f S 


cocoanut. 


? 


stabri' 


strawberry 


& 


V W 

kishmish 


raisin. 


^ 






1r 


^ 




^jW 


aloocha ' 


/ ^fji 

or lean pi urns. v^Jf 


kaitha 


wood-apple. 


A'l 


anar 


poraegra- 


>%s 


kharbuza 


musk- melon. 


r!>l 



badaiii 


almond. 


4 


/ 
kamrakh 


caramhola. 




bJr 


plums 


^ 


sharifa 


custard-apple. 


Lfl]l 


anannas 


pine-apple. 


** 


kela 


plantain. 


Jy>< 


V ' / 

akhrot 


wal-nut. 


*~f 


se 'h 

1 


apple. 


<# 


V / 

bihi 


quince. 


\fy 


khatta- 


iemon. 




V 1 




. 


/ / 




(Jt^ 


imli 


tamarind. 


*' 


limu 


* 


<j* 


barhal 


moukey- 


&ft 


kaghazi- 


lime. 






jack. 


* 


limu 








NAMES OF FL 


DWERS. 




9 












V$ 


gulab 


rose 


<k& 


cha*mbeli 


jasmine 


d* 


<?e vati 


white- rose 


y 


kalgba 


cockscomb 



Urdu 
word. 

* 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


<A> 


ishq-pen- 
cha 


ivy 


& 

x 


jui 


wild-jasmine 








C^x 


sausan 


lily 


y 


la'la' 
ge'nda 


bulip 
marigold 


U^' 


nargrs 
kanwal 


narcissus 
lotua 


& 


surajmu- 
kbi 


sun- flower 


*** 


banafslha 


violet 


P 


v 1 

nasrin 
sumbul 


wild -rose 
spikenard 


jlj^ 

* wr t 


bahar 
gulshabbo 


daisy 
'taberose 


'&* 


chhui-mui 


:ouch-me- 


$%J 


gul-daudi 


chrysenthemum 






not 






indicuin 


X 


gul-khaira 
^ 


dltbea-ros< 


a 


iAINS. 




OF GJ 


(Jy* 

Jf 


gehun 
t 
moth 

matar 


wheat 
yetch 


(fz 


jawi 
jau 
chana 


oat 
barley 
gram 


j^ 


maki 
ti\ 
sarsoi) 


gmgelly 
ape-seed 


* 4 


bajni 

f 

awar 


millet 
Daddy 
ndian cniiiet 






JN AM Kg OF VEO 


TAB1.KS. 




yj 


alu 


potat. 


f*' 


Se'rr 


flat- bean. 


# 


baiogab 


brinja" 


J^' 


adrak 


ginger 



Urdu 
word. 

j 


The same 
in rornan 
character. 


Eoglish 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in romaa 
character. 


:'iisti 
roeduiog. 


^>% 


chaqundlr 


beet 


*J>>jL 


paudina 


peppermint 


V$ 


hafchichak 


artichak 


-^/|k<fthmii 


coriender 


^-<J 


lobya 


bwin 


*jtf 


kadu 


gourd 


tfj 


gobhi 


cabbage 


/f& 


methi 


en ug reek 


&* 


phul-gobhi 


cauliflower 


(fj 


ton 


ady's-tiager 




gajir 


carrot 


c?Z 


sohajaa 


horse-radish 


fit 


kliira 


turnip 
cucumber 


I 


palak 

sag 


spiuage 
greens 


JJ 


mail 


radish 


jtifc 


sliakarqand 


sweet-potato 


j 


matar 


peas 


$ 


auki 


pumpkin 


# 


bhindi 


vegitable- 
tinger 


ty 


valajti 
balngan 


tomato 


& 


ratalu 


yam 


(fjj 


arwi 


arum 


& 


soya 


fennel 


& 


lahSan 


garlic 






NAMES OF TREES. 




i 


bargad 


banyan 


iff 


nagphali 


cactus 


L% 


kibar 


acacia 


JtJ 


ara*nd 


caster 


s$ 


shisham 


black-wood 


& 


beri 


plum-tre*e 


&t 


/ v 
sa^avi o 


teak 


p 


he'd 


cane 


>l" 


tar 


palm 


s* 


.sanaubar 


fir 


^r 1 


balut 


oak 


3 


khajur 


date 


r^i^f 


unt-katara 


thistle 



(^JJ^P 


chandai. 


sandal 


L tt^ *!. 


Bbahtut 


mulberry 





nini 


margosa 


&*k 


janiHU 


rennet 


& 


imli 


amarind 


' t"l*L\ 


a malt as 


ctt^a fistu- 
la 


jfe 


dhak 


Butea frondosa 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


>k 


[hau 


tamm-in- 


& 


pelu 


salvadora-persica 


9 




dica 








& 


nil 


ndigo 


<fy 


4, / 

mehiidi 


myrtle 


cfa 


bakain 


iliac 


*S 


sarv 


cypress 








J\ 


/ 
am 


mango 


Ljr* 


ban s 


Bamboo 


J^l 


/ V / 

anwala 


emblic 


U^l 


abnns 


elbony 


Jj, 


nadar 


swallow-wart 


&# 


zaitun 


olive 


J&s; 


<, y 
zarishk 


cherry 


/%& 


bhoj-paltar 


)erch 


s 


san 


rtemp. 


&' 


nil 


cotton 










f 










Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 




ASTRONOMY AND NATURAL PHENOMENA. 


M 


Abr, 1 
baxlal/ 


cloud 


4* 


darja 


degree 




b'habnam 


Jj/ - ^ 
dew ^7x^^^ 


r , ~ i 
simtur-ras 


vertex 


$ 


ola 


hail 5y(^ 


sitara 


star 


& 


. / 




(i* 


~ / 




(f*!i 


andhi 


hurricane 


U 


falki 


celestial 


9* 


bagula 


whirl-wine 


M 


w ' 

qausi 


concave 


W' 


pala 


frost. 


-^ 


qiran 


conjunction of 


t>f 


jharna. 


cataract 






planets 


t,/' 


jawar- "1 


tide 


U^ 


qurs 


disk of the sun 


* * 


bhataj 




s 








jawala- ~1 


volcano 


^ 


qutab 


polar-star 


^8* 


mukhij 




*J 


kura 


globe 


^ 


zalzala 


earthquake )J[ 


kiran 


ray ' 


-*^ 


sailab 


inundation ^J[j5/ 


kahkashan 


milk- way 


tt 






t 






"v^ 


V I. 

Sarab 


mirage 


/ lr x 


saiyara 


planet 


;/l*> 


tufan 


storm 


J*. 


hila'l 

-i 


new-moon 


$ 


ghubar 


vapour Jj/r 


nisfun- [ 


mendan 







>L *1 a-^ 


7 




$ 


kbhri 


< 
fog 


^ B 


naharj 




* ds 






4^ 


^ / 




$J 


garaj 


thunder 


iT^ 


sham&i 


solar 


v*J 


girdab 


whirl-pool 


& 


w / 

qamri 


lunar 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


Englisl 
meaninj 


. Urdu 
y* word. 

' 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


, 


lahr 


wave 


~&>> 


dhanak 


rainbow 


- 


menh 

i / 
hawa 


rain 
air 


&J's 


shams ya 
suraj 


sun 


fys. 


bijli 
burj 


lightenir 
constella 
tion 


M 

' g / 

~ A iffL 

J 1 "' 


qamar 
ya chand 
dhup 


inoon 
sun- light 


'*/ 


badar 


-^ 

full-moon /*/^7 


i i 
asman 


sky 


$j[ 


grab an 


eclipse 


tfj 


zamin 


earth 


1 1 


daur~i- "\ 
qamar J 


cycle 


Q 


chandni 
dumdar- 


moon-light 
comet 




ya shamsJ 




"^ 


sitara 






NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK. 


* 

M 


itwar 


Sunday 


^ 


jumerat 


Thursday 


S+ 


pir 


Monday 


~A 


juma 


Friday 


4 


mangal 
budh 


Tuesday 
Wednesf 


lay 2*j 


ganichar 1 
hafta J 


Saturday 






SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC. 




' 

>V x 


saur 


taurus 


9 


sumbula 


virgo 


y 


hamal 


Ariel 


&!' 


mimu 


libra 


JK 


jauzah 


gemini 


^e^^tf 


qrab 


scorpio 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character, 


English 
meaning. 


^ 


sartan 


cancer 


(SJ 


<jus 


Sagittarius 


/ 








> / 




^ 


asad 


leo 


($J0 


jadi 


capncormus 


}> 


dalu 


squarius 


*? 


hut 


peaces 



THE FOUR SIDES. 


JU 


si lira a I J 
ya uttir J 


North 


** 4> 

^Jf^ 

L^^jlf 


mashriq ya \ 
purab J East 


/ 






* ^ 






janub yal 







maghribya 7 


C/' 


dakkhan | 


South 


'x 


pachchham J West 




J^ 


ON HOUSE AND ITS REQUISITES. 


X 
JH^If/ 


ahata 


compound v y^ 


diwar 


walJ 








w x 






jT^f 


astabal 


stable 


'fe* 


?,iua 


btair 


xifi 


paek^ana 


latrine 


^lA- 


saebao 


canopy 


I 
I** 


patthar 


stone 


!; 


taq 


niche 


>^ ^ 






^^ . 


/ / 




/yUff 


ausara 


peristyle 


tt* 


khirki 


window 


c^ 


angan 


yard 


W 


kahgal 


plaster 


*JX 


shahtii 


beam 


i/ 


mehrab 


arch 









' 








ohhat 


roof 


^tc 


machan 


nich 


1 


ult' | 
kaga- J 


w 

eave> ut the //* 
roof. 


mori 


drain 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


*$ 


int 
kothri 


brick 
cell 


^ 


khaprail 
kankar 


tiling 
pebble 


j& 


bunyad 


foundation 


c^ 


satun 


pillar 


>& 


baramda 


verandah 


*/ 


aftaba 


ewer 


i 
i 6 


parnala 
tah-khnna 


gutter ( 
cellar 


1$ 


ugaldan 

/, / i 
alcaari 


spitting-pot 
shelf 


$ 


jali 


lattice 


'$ 


algani 


clothes-horse 


t * 


chabutra 
chliajjah 


platform 
balcony 


4t 


ta't 
palna 


sack-cloth 
cradle 


&J/ 


chaukhat 


frame 


&i 


batti 


wick 


>) 


kamra 


room 


*T 


*-./ / 

aina 


mirror 


}l)lf 


dalan 


hall 




pankha 


fan 


*}bj> 


darwaza 


dooi 


ife 


tipai 


bench 


* 
n '9 

1 


charkha 

; 


spinning- 
wheel. 


J 


jharu 
chhuri 


broom 
knife 


& 


rassi 


rope 


uJ 


thaila 


bag 


#' 


chhari 


stick 


&* 


* v / 
sanduqchi 


casket 


^ 


charagh 


lamp 


&/* 


surahi 


goblet 


1 


lal-tain 

chhatri 
diwar-gir 


lantern 

umbrella 
wall- lamp 


1 


* ./ 
kunji 

kursi 


look 

key 
chair 



Urdu 

word. 



Th < 

T r m f BI 
ohafeote 



Knglish 
moaning 



i:rlu 
word. 



The sam 

in TOTOA 

character 



English 
meaning. 



hi/ 



chakki 



mundha 



Jlfc 



bartan ' 
chnmcha 



posh 



/ 



b^nit 



tfiulya 

, / / 
burqa 

a?gy 

j I rumal 
//./ 



ladder 

box 

mill 

rafter 

stool 

cup 

utensils 

spoon 



** 



mez 

* * , 
glmri 

gfewnta 

gul-tarash 

titnxu 

rakabi 

tanur 

haounain 



table 

clock or watch 

bell 

snuffer 

scale 

dish 

oven 

bath 



NAMES OF CLOTHES. 



coverlet 



dastar- 
khwan 



towel 
veil 
tays 
landker- 

chief. 
rousers 
rillow 
sown 



an- 1 

k, J 



i i i ' 

^r kwhan- 

posh 

* / 

qamis 

^'(JjfUlla'f 
/ V* kamjchwab 
qalin 



sanjaf 
/ / 



Able-cloth 

ray-lid 

shirt 

jovering 

rocade 

arpet 

dging 

at, cap 

urban 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


A 


chadar 


sheet 


L/ 


znalmai 


muslin 


I 






{J 






)(& 


jhaiar 


fringe 


Jlj 


nawar 


tape 


j& 


toshak 


mattress 


fa" 


razai 


quilt 


^% 


/ 
ohhint 

g 


chintz 


M 


liha'f 


big-quilt 


$ 


kurta 


waist-coat 


Jty 


paushak 


dress 


Cf/ 


guluband 


collar 


& 


r // 
inirzai 


jacket 


& 


gaddi 


cushion 


\f& 


chogha 


cloak 


iU 


sahaT 


skirt 
/ 


/JP* 9 f 


orhni 


scarf 


\2^> 


dast-mal 


napkin ^/ 
//2> ; 


astin 


sleeve 


<t^ 


harii 


silk-cloth 


JW 


astar 


lining 


ib^S} 


dastana 


glove 


^ 


jeb 


pocket 


$J^ 


inoza 


stocking 


* * 


tukma 


button 


J/ 


kambai 


blanket 


& 


kaj 


)utton-hole 


jfS 


tah-band 

< 


apron 





pW 


Delt 


& 


dOshala 


jshawl 

4 


,' 


moza-band 


garfcar 


& 


. / ,." 
janghia 


breeches 


/ 


makhmal 


relvet 






BUILDING TERMS, 




>$% 


atask-kha- 


fire-place 


skftfrM 


thick-pillar 




na 














\ 




*;tfj*'\ 


~ * / / 
astar-kari 


plaster 


1 \^\ ' / 


mortar 



word 


The same 
in ro:n:m 
character 


English 
in Miiing. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 

in rormm 
character. 


English 

meaning. 








/ A 


' 




L/^ 


bans 


bamboo 




/ ^ 
kichar 


mud 


4' 


bara 


wooden- 


% 


khak 


ash 






enclosure 








;I^L 


bala-khan 


upper-story 


$ 


ral 


resin 


#?' 


^ / 
bajri 


gravel 


tyf*. 


J ' ' 
biroza 


rosin 


T 


bhatti 


furnace 


J&<> 


rang 


paint 


-^ 


farsh 


floor 


\ty 


s ark an da 


reed 


/g 


patao 


roofing 


\JU^ 


sufeda 7 


white-lead 


-^^ 


pachche-^ 


mosiac > 


9^ 


sendur 


red-lead 


- 


kari. J 




$f> 


dhela" 


clod 


"Jit 


bhatta ^| 




^ 


salami 


slope 


s 


^ )\ r 




** 


. / 




vU 


pazawa J 


kiln 


L Jt ^ 


fasil 


parapet 


I ^ 


. ^ t / 




*r ^K( 


/ 




jv^ 




Venetian 


V 


kangni 


cornice 


4$ 


dagh-bel 


tracing- 


# 


koela 


coal 






align- 













ment. 








>V" 


/ / 




* Jt 


^ / ^ 




(7 


jhunti 


P e g 


/f$l 


apglthi 


hearth 


J^ 


kil 


nail 


& 


tokr*' 


basket 


'/X 


gare'sh 


^ 
jlue ijljP* 


dhuiran 


smoke 


"jf 


4 


fire 


$ 


ghara 


Ditcher 


/y| 


/ 


hay 


?*. 


pacbohar 


wedge 


^ 


pula 


laj-stack 


& 


salna 


to bore 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning, 


X 


1 
hataura 


^AMES OF 
hammer 


INSTI 


IUMENTS. 

charkhj 


pulley 


'** 

tif 


barraa 
kulhari 

4 


gimlet 
hatchet *L 


4 


chimta "^ 
dast-panaj 


tongs 


<%, 


reti 


file 


'(Sfc 


*/ / ' 
daranti 


reaping-hook, 


/-// 


ara 


saw 






a sickle 


($ J J 


/ i 
an 


small-saw 


Jy 


kudal 


pick-axe 





randa 


plane 


c^ 


sohan 


rasp 


fe 


^ / 
dhaukni 


bellows 


V 


khurpa 


dibble used by 


& 


pench-kasl 
belcha" 
basula 


screw-driv< 
spade 
adze 


r 

% 


hal 

- , / i 
ustara 


grass-cutters 
plough 
razor 


'# 


parkar 


compass 


J 


qainchi 


scissors 


Jft 


bank 


vice 


&% 


bandiiq 


musket 








jp 


talwar 


sword 


Jl 


rapi 


shoe-mak- 


s j 


sui 


needle 






er's knife 


tf 


naka 


eye of the needle 


Ju ^ 

^ 

ql/ 


dhal 
baktar 
kaman 
kasauti 


shield 
armour 
bow 
touch-stone 


"i 


angush-0 
tana J 

rukhani 

-,/ .' 

sutari 


thimble 

chisel 
awl 







"T 






Uruu 
word, 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English Urdu 
meaning, word 


The s&noe 
in romao 
character. 


English 
meauiog. 






I 










NAMES OF METALS 




t/t 


para 


mercury 


IV" 


sona 


gold 


r 








f 




L/? 


pital 


brass 


^ff 


eisa 


lead 


e 


tanba 


copper 


>l)S 


faulad 


steel 





jast 


pewter 


tj> 


loha 


iron 


Vfc 


chandi 


silver 

XT \ Ayfl? 


z r*TP onr 


dasta 

r\XTT7Q 


zino 




mica 

crystal 

topaz 



1 marble 



pearL 
emerald 

jasper 
porphyry J^t 



black- 
marble 




^ agate 
suVmanij 

antimony 
cinnabar 
ialt-petre 

sulphur 

) 

sapphire 
coral 
diamond 
ruby 

connelian 

orpiment 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
5, word. 


The same 
in roman 
character, 


English 
meaning. 






NAMES OF COLOURS. 




fafl 


adsk 


sky-blue 


$ 


khaki 


dusky 


ij 


/ */ 
bhura 


browne 


fyfj 


.//- / '. 

zaafram 


saffron 


);// 
(f% 


baijn i 
arghawani^ 
banafshi 


i 

purple 
violet 




sabzl 
haraj 
sufed 


green 
white 


Wr 


pila 7 

zardj 

'/ 

tula 

naranji 


yellow 
blue 
orange 




. Cf/r 


kala" 1 
siyahJ 
lal yal 
surkhj 


black 
red 




N^ 

MAHOMEDAJ 


iMES OF 

r 


NATIV 


2 MONTH* 

HINDU 


3, 


ft? 


moharram 




4^1 


chait 




S" 


safar 




JU 


baisakb 




"& 


i/ ^ lr 

1*8 bi~ul~- 




J$ 


je'th 






auwal 










Y 


rabi-us- 




^'M 


asarh 


. 


&; 


saui 










fa 


jamade-ul- 




y*^ 


sawan 






auwal 











- 



Uidi 

word 


The same L , h 

in roman 
, meaning 
ctiaracter. \ 


Urdi 
. word 


The sam 
in romar 
characte 


B T-- t i 

English 
meaning. 


r6te 


^ J 1 , / w 

namade-us- 


lj9>\t 


' bhadon 




L^ 


rajab 


J& 


k an war 




A 










/ * 


shaaban 1 


<J$\ 


ka'tfk 


[in, 


ramzan 


J/ 


aghan 




J^ 


ehawwai 


(A 


poos 




W 


* V 4 

ziqaad- ^f 


magh. 




V/ 


zilhijj Lv^ 


phagan 






TIME. 






gf 


oj to-day. 




dophar 


noon. 


X 


^yesterday 


/t*' 


se pahar 


afternoop . 


</ 


tal < or 


*(? 


ham 


evening. 




^to-morrow 


6 


ubh 


morning* 


r r 


/ ' / 
adhi-rat midnight. 


j 


mha 


minute. 


v 


eadi century. 


& 


mah'ina 


month. 


^ fa'dha- 1 half-an- 


J^ 


al 


yeai. 


^W J > 
L ghantaj hour. 


^ 


in 


day. 


Jy ghanta hour. 




J' the third day. 


2^ hafta week. ^ 


jyJ 


from this 






past or to come. 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 






day after 






the fourth day. 


Jr% 


parson 


to-morrow 


(jrf 


^ / 
narson 


from the present 




< 


or day be- 






time, past or 






fore 






.to come. 






yesterday. 


/**% 


pau-ghanta Quarter of-an- 


.{ x (paun- 1 three quart- 
i^iy 1 * ,, 1 
^? J ghantar ers of-an- 

hour. 






(^ hour. 




PLAY AND DANCE TERMS. 


khel 


play 


& 


anta 




billiards 


khilari 


player. 


4 


gend 




ball. 


shatranj 


chess. 


/^fkan-kaV 






muA 


chess-boarc 


i I va or 


; 


kite. 


mohra 


chess-man. 


Jfc 


patang ^ 






chal 


move. 


$ 


lattu 




top. 


shah 


king. 


w 


jhulaf 




swing. 


farzin 


queen, 




tash 




cards. 


rukh 


castle. 


& 


khilauna 




toy. 


fi] 


bishop. 


M 


pasa 




dice. 


t / / 
ghora 


w 





( Gi 



Urdu 

word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 








X * 


takhta-1 




M fe 


piyada 


pawn. 


Ss 


" ' f 
1-nard J 


backgamrnojo. 




/ 










k4 


mat 


meet 








i X 







f 






^ 


kisht 


check 


bZ' 


shart 


wager. 


^ 


tamasha 
kat-ptitll' 


fun 
puppet. 


& 


chiththi' ' 
kakhelJ 


lottery. 


^ 


sakhi 


partner . 


// 


juwa 


gambling. 


^ 


ustad 


dancing- 


$ 


nach 


ball. 






master. 


A" 


Ur 


wire. 


If 


Vt/ / 




^ 


4/ / 




fty 


taalim 


dancing- 


(J&S 


narsinga 


trampet. 






lesson 


'^" 


tan 


note. 


& 


kathik 


*r 

dancing-boy /jf* 


tal 


tune. 


'$ 


kanchani 


dancing- 


,.y*|khush- 1 


melody. 






girl. 


QW\ iih^ij 




lj. 


/ 


song. 


d*f 


eafai 7 


purity. 




saiangf 


fiddle. 


Lp* 


naql 


farce. 


k* 


barbat 


harp. 


J& 


natak 


drama. 


f 


kamancha 


fiddle-stick.^^* 


nach-ghar 


theatre. 




miczab 


fiddle-riog 


(if* 


. / , / * / 
jadugari 


tnagic. 


b 


tabla' 


drum. 


Jty 


mirdang 


a small drum. 


Ji 


bansri 


flute. 


sr? 


tambura 


tambourine. 


to 


jhanjh 


cymbal 


JZ* 


sitar 


guitar. 



Urd 
wore 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu The same 
in rowan 
W0rd " character 


English 
meaning. 






NAMES OF DISEASES. 




/ 


dukh 


sickness. 


\jf* phora 


boil 


*$ 


kamzori 
sujan 


weakness. ( 
swelling. 


j V^ ", "i /. 
^^]\\ akrahat 

J\} falij 


spasm, 
palsy. 


'& 


bukhar 


Fever. 


j!0 jala*n 


inflammation. 


fy* 


surkh-bada 


erysipelas. 


j lu 


sun-stroke. 


^V* 


/ 

sitla or 1 
chechak/ 


small pox, 


^ AX v I/ . 

^OT khurand 
/g ghumri 


scab, 
vertigo. 


& 


t/ <, _ / 
rasauli 


tumor- 






<f/' 


? / 

mirgi 


epilepsy. 


^ jir^n-'-] 


hemhcerrage. 


Mf 


chhala 
pagalpan 


pustule, 
melancholi 


* ' 

C^^ khun 1 

/ , t ^ ^ / 

i .^y bawasir 


hemhorroids. 


't5 


iaqwa 


facia! para- 


/ ganj 


baldness. 


, 


\f 

n 


lysis. 


l-'v 'i' 

/fy^ benoshi 


fainting. 


& 


sakta" 


apoplexy. 


/sZ^ khansi 


cough. 


# 


bhand 


cold. 


^>* naksir 


nose-bleeding. 


d 


zukam 


catarrh. 


a? 4 


consumption. 


(/a 


baun 


plague. 


>- ^ ^ x i ^j ' j ^ x 
J) )jj kadu-dana 


tape-worm. 


X 


tiaiza 


^ 
cholera. , a^ qabz 


constipation. 


i 

yy 


dard 
korh 


pain, 
leprosy. 


^Jjj^ jalandhar 


dropsy, 
goitre. 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 





tap 


ague. 


c/> 


dharkan 


palpitation. 


X 






* 






Jty 


chauthaiya 


quartan. 


t&tf 


gala- 


hoarseness. 


/ \^$1j,f 

X 


da*rd-i-asab 


neuralgia. 


" 


baithna 





/** 


dard-sar 


headache. 


&& 


chhilauri 


whitlow. 


^ 


chot 


bruise. 


(j*? 


haiz 


menstruation. 


(J/> 


naqraa 


goub. 








-fLoJ 


adhasisi . 


laimicrania 








i(f 


! 

ghau, "I 


Jyi 


/ 


^^jflBrrftnC^? 


i 


zakbm J 
khujli 


wound, 
itch. 


\ 


hichki 
bau-gola 

t/ 


hiccup, 
colic. 


(S~** 


phunsi 


pimple. 


^ 


qai 


vomitting. 


(,uj 


dhatiak bad tetanus. 


^fi^y 


motiya- 


cataract. 


* 


/ ^ ' 








t( LJ 


fpasli-ki 1 splenetic. 




band 




/ s L"* 

/ T^* * 


j w / '( 

L bemari.J 


(lT$* 


gungapan 


dumbness. 


JS 


pechish 


dysentry. 


<yj&* 


bhengapai 


i squinting. 


X 

X 


dast-lagna 
dama 


diarrhooa. 
asthma. 


'of 


rkhun- -\ spitting-blood. 
(^ thuknaj 


i*-"/> 


rataunda 


noctalopia 


Jlr- 


sozak 


gonorrhoea. 


Cg^ 


langra-pai 


i lameness. 




s, *' \ f -\ 
haiz-ka- 




Jjxesl 


X^ ^ ~ ^ * 

j isqat-i-ha- 
L mal 


1 abortion. 


t 


< ziyada*' 
. hona J 


menorrhagia. 



Urdu 
word, 


The same 
in romau 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 



rhoea. 



haklahat stammering, 
andha-pan blindness. 



MILITARY WORDS. 



Jt 


Jang 


war. 


2/y 


fauj 


corps. 




larai 


battle. 


<A 


paltau 


battalion. 


$s 


sulah 


peace,. 


Zfy 


halakat 


destruction, 


4 


phu^ 


discord. 


$ 


lashkar 


army. 


*l&> 


musaleha 


pacification 


^ 


dasta 


brigade. 


$ 


ghanim 


antagonist. 


fc 


pahla 


wing. 


f > 






t 


. 




^ 


dushman 


enemy. 


~tf 


maimaua 


right wing. 


M 


war 


the blew of 


trf 


nmisara. 


left wing. 






a sword. 


ffF, 


sipahi 


soldier. 


/ 






^ ** ' 


^ 




$ 


rafiq 


ally, 


"k 


piyadab 


infantry. 


j^ 


hi^/ 


strategein, 


& 


risals 


cavalry. 








i* 


jhand& 


flag. 


'tC* 


^atl-i-am 


massacre. 


A 


k^thgara 


stoeadte. 


's? 


khunre'zi' 


slaughter. 




qaidi 


captive. 


_! 


fath 


conquest. 


tjfj 


paret 


parade. 


* 


sbakast 


defeat. 


jietf 


qawaid 


drill 


** 

/^(^ 


taaqnb 


pursuit. 




hathyar 


arms. 



Urdu 

word 


The same )ish 

&=d ** 


Urdu 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


~$*4 


ch*irhai 


invasion. 


Jf 


talwar 


sword. 


(f 


muhim 


1 expedition 


jf 


khanjar 


dagger. 


Jr 


hamla 


attack. 


**5 


qabza 


hilt. 


^ 


saf 


ranking. 


j) 


nok 


edge. 


ifi 


phal 


blade. 


Hk 


bbala 


spear. 


(Stls 


myan 


sheathe. 


Jl/ 


dhai 


shield. 


it 
Lf'A^s 


gaodasa 


pole-axe. 


jlf 


banduq 


musket. 





khod 


helmet. 


# 


tamancha 


pistol. 


4 


nil/ 


barrel. 


(fK 


kanta 


pike. 


&& 


* .' 

sangm. 


bayonet. 


I 


barud 


gun powder. 


ofy 


chaqmaq 


fliot. 


^/ 


gola, 


ball. 


tf 


g ! 


bullet. 


S 

rlf 
V* 


chanp 


lock. 


y 


0*IZ 


ramrod. 


\J& 


kunda 


stock. t 


. > 


7 / 




. 


v 




v 




cap. 


&/ 


kfrach 


SngKgh sword. 


w& 


ranjak 


priming. 


^/ 


kuch 


march. 


/ 

u$# 


tamgba 
kartu's 


medal, 
cartridge. 


f 


hukm 
salah- 


order. 
arsenal. 


~'* 


to'p 


cannon. 


^ 


khana 




M/ 


'i*- j ' 

^olandaz 


gunner. 


> 


* ^ 
qila. 


fort. 


tff 


garhi 


fettee&g/ 

NO 


S 


damdama) 
mo'rcha J 


battery. 



Urdu 
word. 


The sain 
in roman 
characte 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


jV 


Ikhai' ' 










* * * 


khan dag 


ditch. 


Jt? 


y 
fas il 


ramport 


jf 


pipo'n-fe 

pul 


pontoon. 





, / r 
dera 

maqam 


tent 
halt 


& 


~. , / r 
rnaidan-i- 


field of 
battle. 


\sfy 


rasad 
ja'sus 


rations 
spy 




i* ' 

chhanvni 


cauton ment.j^j*/* 


farodgah 


camp. 


J 


qaleband 

w ' 

chauki 


fortificatic 


>n /J^ly 

y r 


bhagora' 
neza 


diserter 
lance 





zakhm 
bar bard ari 


wound 
baggage. 


^M 


mg;Cna J 


* 


ba'ghi 


rioter 





surang 


mine. 



NAMES OF THINGS THAT ARE EATEN. 




bread 

soup 
pulse 

meet 
beef 



9* 



mijhai 
barf 



mala'i 



matthft 



sweet-meat 

ice 

cream 

butter-mi) k 
fruit 



Urdu Thesame En gH sh Urdu The same E j fc 

-, in roman , in roinan 

W0rd * character. mea g' word - character. 



sirka 



mace 



namak 



elachi 



vinegar 

rai mustard 

darchmi cinnamon ^ifcj chatni 

supari betel-nut 4*5^ post 

< / * 

misn sugar-candy 



turmeric 
salt 

cardamum 

sauce 
poppy 





Barnes. 


Figures. 


Names. 


Figures. 


i 








0? 











9 


1 


In roman 






PS 

o 

a 


i 

o 


In roman 






P 
O 

a 


"1 * 


character. 


i 





^ 


- M . 


character. 


^ 


. 


^ 


3 .2 




'bio 
a 


1 


"S 







bb 


-2 


'B 


H-l 




W 


^ 


t> 


> 1 










^1 


ek 


I 


t 


/- 


y 


nan 


Q 


4 


* 


)> 


do' 


2 


r 


^ 


t/* 


das 


10 


1* 


cu 


C# 


tin 


* 3 


r 


^ 


%^ 


gyarah 


11 


II 


<MJ 


'fe 


char 


4 


^ 


/^ 


4 


barah 


12 


IK 


a-% 


> 




















# 


paxicla 


5 


6 


f " 


tf^ 


terah 


13 


W 


' 


^ 


chbi r 


6 


* 


** 


$ 


chaudah 


14 


It 


Ok rf^ 


OU 


4 


T 


^ 


'* 


"^ 


pan d rah 


i. 1<* 


l& 


^ 


J?7 


ith. 


8 


* 


* 


^ 


tab 


16 


H 


C^>. 





Names. 


Figures. 




Names. 


Figures 


I 

c 

c 

Jd 








m 


1 

,3 








ioney.1 





In roina 






p 


o 


In roinan 






H 


i! 


characte 
i 
j 


.i 




H 


1 . 


character. 

4 


vj 


d 


* 


3 H 


j 


'So 


j 


8 


j3 ^ 


n 




"2 


*- 




w 




P 


P 

HH 




W 


^ 


(9 


y> 


s^trah 


17 


u 


fe 


L/* 


paintis 


35 


^ 


*r* 


Jp 


^ / k/ 






/^ ^_ l~" 


i 






- 


I*' 


atthara 


18 


I* 


~*"b^ 


ciihattis 


36 


rv 





t/^' 


unnis 


19 


W 


^\r 


saintis 


37 


fi 


*3. 


cct 


bi'a 


20 


f. 


**[$ 


artis 


38 


r/i 


S=s 


tM 


ikkis 


' 21 


Y\ 


4-41 


y-ti 


v ' 
untalis 


39 


r9 


*ai 


s 










It W " 












i / 


22 


rr 


*-i 


t^ 


chalis 


40 


r- 


0*0 


j; 


teis 


23 


rr 


t? 


tg^ 


ikt^lis 


41 


ri 


* 


j& 


chaubis 


24 


^ 


rf 


^/xL^ 


beyalis 


42 


i^r 


4^ 


^ 


/ 






^_ 


^* * 

1 










j& 


pachcbis 


25 


r* 


s^ 




tentalis 


43 


r'r 


fi 1J 





r& 


chhSbbis 


26 


n 


2^ 


C//^ 


cKawalis 


44 


rt 


>& 


j& 


i / 

Sattais 


27 


* 


CLa 


tf 


pSintalii 


45 


rt 


Ojj. 


i* 


itthais 
* ' 


28 


Y* 


I r 


Wy^ 

i 


jhhiyalis 


46 


W 


2 


L//' 


tmtis 


29 


W 


^ 




samtalis 


4.7 


^.. 


QjzV 


</* 


tis 


' 30 


r- 




U$l 


artalii 


** f 

48 





*=S 


/^ 


ikattis 

i * j * 


31 


ri 


(U) 


% 


unanchas 


49 


w 


*4 


yrff 


battis 


32 


rv 


rf 


^ 


pachas 


50 


A. 


o- 


^f 


teatis 


33 


*r 


^. 


y,'pi 


ikkyawan 


5] 


d> 


4,*j 


&4 


c haunt is 


34 


W 


? 


Gl'l 


bawan 


52 


*v 


*& 





STames. 


Figures. 




Names, 


Figures. 


o 


In roman 






I 

s 


2 

03 

*a 


In roman 






1 
s 


ll 


character. 


A 

CO 


-r 


^ 

3 

T3 


Is 


character. 


'So 


T3 


1 


d 




p 


j-< 


E 


-*- 




a 


^ 


y^ 


w , 




W 





P 







W 


& 


12 


v* 


arepan 


53 


>r 


&e 


#. 


ikhattar 


71 


i 


0^ 


^ 


chauwan 


54 


t>? 


<L& 


/^ 


bahattar 


72 


*K 


9^ 


/^ 


>achpan 


55 


** 


a-g 


* * 


tehattar 


73 


*r 


ft* 


fe 


chhappan 


56 


*1 





sfa 


chauhattar 


74 


^f 


toa/ 


/ ** 


sattawan 


57 


<. 


te. 


)& 


pachhattar 


75 





0^ 


fl/l 


atthawan 


58 


</ 


9=5 


/*i 


chhihattar 


76 


*y 


S=iT 


Y 










/ 












unsath 


59 


6". 


^^^0i 


/**^ 


satattar 


77 


ii 


O^e; 











X 


AA 








" 


^ 


atb 


60 


1- 


4 


r* 1 


athattar 


78 


4M 


&M 


M 


iksath 


61 


11 


a-j 


$1 


unassi 


79 


^ 


0^ 


"j 


basath 


62 


If 


0-2 


& 


assi 


80 


A. 


<a_J 


r^" 


taresath 


63 


ir 




& 


ikyassi 


81 


A/ 


a-i 


-^ 


cbaunsath 


64 





0-jy 


fa 


bayassi 


82 


^ 


a=i 




<l 


painsath 


65 


1* 


<3= 


fc 


terassi 


83 


*r 


4=i 




chhiyasath 


66 


VV 


a_ 


& 


chaurassi 


84 


v 


OJfl 


^/>, 


sarsath 


67 


K 


9s 


<&. 


pachassi 


85 


^ 


^ 




arsatb 


68 


v/ 


&?. 


$* 


chhiyassi 


86 


< 


a_./ 


^T 


uuhattar 


69 


11 


a-; 


(fe 


sattassi 


87 


At 


Ssi 


*x 


v *^ 


70 


- 


T^f/* 


to 


athassi 


88 


/V* 


gj 



Names. 



Fi^un- . 



Names. 



Figureb. 



I 

o 



In roman 
character. 



be 
W 



lu ronifin 
character 




W 



nawassi 

nauwe 

ikkya'nwe 



nwe 



^~j$ te'ranwe 





^ chauranwe 
pachchanwe 
chhiyanwe 



91^ sattanwe' 
atthanwe 
ninnanwe' 



89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 



CLJ 



NOTE. The numbers above 



sau 
do sau 

X 

tin sau 
char sau 
pan sau 
chha sau 
sat sau 
ath sau 
nan sau 



lakh 



100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
800 
9009 
1,000 
1,00,000 



one hundred proceed somewhat 



like the English ones, with the exception that the conjunction 
is not generally expressed, as 6k sau dlh, one hundred (and) eight 
etc., etc. 

ORDINALS. 

lift pahli ^ first ^^ panchwan =fifth 
dusra ^ second i^ f chhataor 

tisra ^ third C''^ chhatwan ^gixth 

chautha = fourth GtPl*' twan ^ seventh 



( 72 ) 

NOTE. The remaining numbers are regularly formed by 
adding //lj wan to the cardinals. 



FRACTIONAL NUMBERS. 



t 



/ / 1 
pao or \ }^ 


* t 
sawa * 


one and a quart- 


chauthai/ = quarter. 




er 


tihai _ one-third /&/) 


derh 


one and a half 


s * 






adha ^ half (jk^ 
paun or| -. three- yl) 

" ' I ^1 
pauna J quarters fH^j^ 


w // . 

arhai or 1 
dhai J ' 
sarhe - 


two and a half 
one half more 


paune a quarter less 





NOTE. It should be pointed out ih&tpaune 9 sawd and 
xarhe, fractional numbers, have a peculiar use which will be useful 
for students to mention here, namely, paune, when prefixed to a 

+ V 

number, signifies " a quarter less " than that number, sawa, " a 
quarter more, '' and sarhe, one half more. As pavnc-do' means 
orjpe quarter less than two, i.e., one and three quarters ; sawa ath 
means eight and-a- quarter ; safhe ath means eight and-a-half 
etc.^ etc. 

The fractional number sarhe, signifying one half more, will 
always he prefixed to a number after three and never to one or two. 
For instance, u one quarter and-a-half" means derh and not 
sarke-ek etc. etc. 

* 

Distributives are formed by doubling the number, as af/t 
ath eight by eight. 

A doubtful number is expressed by adding ^ilefc to the 



number, 



& ek ddmi, means " about twenty men." 



( 73 ) 

.SYNONYMS. 



Urdi 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character. 


V' 


Khuda 


Qod 


allah, ilahi, khaliq, haq, khuda- 








wand, kirdigar, ban, and par- 








wairdigar 


<% 


j aim at 


aeaven 


firdaus^ bahisht^ baikunth, surag 


7 j9) 


dozakh 


hell 


jahannam^ narakh 


^ 


uraj 
chand 




sun 
moon 


shamsj aftab, khurshid, naiyar 
qamar, mah, mahtab, 


O*t 


barq 


lightning 


bijU 


u^ 


ba'dal 


clouds. 


* V / 

abr, ghata 


V** 


patthar 


stone 


sang 


ji 


Li 


origin 


bekh, jar, bunyad 


p 


ehakb 


branch 


* / / / 
tahni, dali 


^ 


baghban 

r / 

sirhi 


gardener 
ladder 


mali 

/ * 
zina 




gali 


street 


> 
kucha 





shaakat 
bafiz 


pomp 
watchman 


shan, dabdaba, martaba, ra^b 
nigahban, talaya^ pasban 


:t/f/ 


.%/<, * 
daulat 


wealth 


sarwat, hashmat, mal 


J& 


r&qim 


writer 


katib, moha*irir, dabir, DRwesinda 






<-r 


..r, / /. / 
hkhnewala. 



(74 ) 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in romau character. 










>* 


kht 


letter 


morasala, ruqqa, shuqqa, navish- 








ta, arzi, ariza, nama, chitthi, 


, 






. maktub 


&j 


'urqat 


separation 


judai, duri, hijrat. fira'q 


/>$ 


/, ." 
zahir 


known. 


ayan, fash, ashkar, shae 


& 


ihmaq 


fool 


kaudan, sadahlauh, bewaquf, 








jahil, be-saliqa, ghabi, beshaur, 








ul-jalul, bangru nasarnajh, 








betamiz 


J* 


Sql 


wisdom 


danai, fahm, firasat, danish, hosh, 








ziraki, hiya 


f* 


sitam 


oppression 


zulm, bedardi, bedad, jaur, taaddi, 








jabr, jafa X 


J$ 


bakhil 


miser 


khasis, laim, kanjus, shum 


*^ 


dost 


friend 


munis, anis, rafiq, ya'r, "gham- 








k^war, muhib, muwafiq, mehr- 








ban, mu'qa^ratb, shafiq, mashuq, 








sathi 


A 


gnrah, 


sin 


jufrn, isyaB, khata, qasur, taqsir. 








ilzam 








' r 



Urd 
wore 


The aam 
in roma 
characte 


English 
meaning 


Synonyms in roman character. 


*4* 


shujaat, 


bravery 


bahadaifi, dileri, dilawari, marda^i- 








gi, jasarat, jurat 


ufc 


marz 


sickness 


bimari, ranjuri, kasl-mandi, rog, 


'i 


juda 
ajezi 


separate 
humility 


alalat, mandgi 

alehda, alag, niyara 

, / , / / r ^ /, J r.~/.' 
bechargi, farotni, inkisari, maj- 








buri, hilm, nachari, bekasi, 








minnat 


fc*s 

I 


charwah'a 


shephard 


gadarya, gal le ban, chaupan, 
shaban 


^- ^^* 


mofena 


inspection 


mulaheza^ mushahida, dekhna 


.. 44 


sabqat 


surpassing 


peshqadmi, bartari, fiuqiyat, 

^ / 
tarjih 


* X 


ijazat 


permission 


rukhsat, chhutti, parwangi 


/, 


mashhur 


famous 


namwar^ nami, maaruf " 


'r ' 

J^ 

^ 


moti 
mahfil 


pearl 
meeting 


gauhar, dur, murwarid, lulu 

rnajlis, anjuman, panchayat, 




mausuf 


celebrated 


bazm, majmaa 
mamduh, mahmud, muttasif 




mash- "I 
warah^ 


advice 


/ ./ / / 
salah, tadbir, tajwiz, 



Urdu 
word. 



The same 
in roman 
character, 



English 
meaning. 



Synonyms in roman character. 



maqsad 
iradah 



nafarmani 



taqat 



* 
itaat 



dosti 



bura 



lalach 

/ * 
ftkhir, 



tobfa 



chhati 
mazbufc 



design 
intention 
insubordin- 
ation 
power 

obedience 
friendship 



matlab, muracl, mansiiba 
azm, qasd, himmat 
baghawat, sarkashi, balwa 

quwwat, qudrat, rnajal, zor, tawa- 

nai, daetras, tab, bal 
tabedari, farmanbardari, bandagi, 



parastish, ibadat 



bad 



avarice 
end 

gift 

chest 
strong 



ulfat, mua'feqat, sadaqat, mohab- 

bat, ittehad, ikhlas, ikhtalat 

/ / - . . / / / 

yan, uns, yaganagi 

kari'h, khabis, shaita'n, sharir, 
bad, badzat, badmash^, bad- 
cbalau 
hirs, ha was, tamaa, laawa 

ikhtatam^ khatam, arjjam, khate^ 



ma 
^ . / 



8augha% hadya, peshl<5sh^ atiya 



paedar, iDUstahkamj qawj, sakbt 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character. 





- ' ' 
kaunoa 


mean 


/ -V ' 

razil, sifta, kamin 


* ** 

L?^ 


ghussa 


anger 


qahr, atab, libashm^ ghaiz, gha- 
zab, kiiafgi, narazi, taTsh 


tj/ 


gharana 


dynasty 


qabila, kha'ndan, qaum 


J\f 


hal 


condition 


kaifyat, majra, waqe'a, hadsa. 








sarguzasbt 


(ft 


j an gal 


forest 


sahra, bayaban, dasht, wadi, besba 


tf 


mewah 


fruit 


bar, samar 


(SV. 


Hba's 


clothes 


paushak, pairahan, poshish, 


v' 


taur 


way 


qaeda, watira', tarz, ahewa, rab 


. J 






dastur 


J> 


malul 


sad 


ghamgin^ udas^ magbmooin, ran- 








jida' 


v 


de'r 


delay 


tawaqquf, dhil, ta'^bir, waqfa' 


# 


bairan 


perplexed 


shashdar, hakka-bakka, beqarar. 
muztarab. 


/ 


gbar 


bouse 


maaknu. makan, tnahal^ dauUt- 








khana, ghnrib-khana, khana, 






*< 


qa T) iwan 



Urdu 
word* 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character^ 


c* 


mashuq 


beloved 


mahbub, sanam, naznin, janoo 9 









dila'ram, dilbar, mahwash, mah- 








roo, ara'mjan, mehpara 


&f 


bads hah 


kirjg 


shah, shahr-yar, jahandar, sliahai^- 








shah, tajdar, khusro, khaqait. 








qahrman 


s/ 


tahrir 


writing 


nawisht, kitabat, ., qalmi, 


{" 


^ / 
qalil 


small 


* / 
tastir 


thora, mukhtasar, juzwi, qadre 








shimma 


J^ 


jhuth 


falsehood 


kizb, narast, darogh, khilaf, lagbve 


^f/ 


khauf 


fear 


dar, haul, khatr, dahshat, haibat, 




, 




* / * * *y/ 
hiras, daghdagha, waswasa 


&& 


ifcayat 


k indness 


Dnehibani, atefat, lutf, altaf, nawa = 










zish, shafqat 


<jf ; 


w ' 
xalil 


abject 


/ * ' 
khwar, haqir 





d ashman 


enemy 


*. . /,.*, ,,/ "i / i - 1 1 y i_ 

muy,ialif, khasm, adu, bad-knwan^ 

hasid 


J& 


inutafakki 


r enxiotis 


fikrmand, mutaraddid, mutahy- 








yaf* 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character 


t 

\f\ 


fath 
ajal 


conquest 
death 


jit, riusrat, kamyabi, firozi, zafar 
maut, intiqal, marg, wafat, rehlat 


1 * 


parhez 


abstinence 


ehtaraz. ijtinab, hazar 


9 gf 









Ijti 


gharat 


ruin 


lut, taraj, barbadi 





subuk 


light 


halka, khafif, thora 


>' 


bSkhl 


misery 


khisasat, khjssat, kanjusi 


jfr 


majnun 


mad 


diwana, pagal, shaida, shefta 


,{JI 


maldar 


wealthy 


mutamauval, tawangar, amir, 








j ' /**// 
ghani, fareghulbal 


|j 


." .r ' 

mtiqam 


revenge 


badla, qasa, talafij ewaz, maawe- 








zaj pada sh, jaza 


-2* 

v 


rauqim 


resident 


rahne-wala, sakin, sakna 


s 








\r 


hawa 


air 


saba, nasim 


jtt 


hakim 


officer 


rais, salar, mehtar, wali, sardar 


nr 


chaplusi 


flattery 


tamalluq, khushamad 


ijy* 


surakh 


hole 


chhed rozan, darar 


^ 


khusar 


[husband's or 


sauhra , susra' 






wife's 
^ father 




is 


arz 


request 


iltimas. gu/arish 


\*x 


tfuUt 


story 


kahaDi. da^rau. hikayat 








uaqT 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in rornan 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character* 





/ / 


bon 


: arzand, pisar^ pur 


s 

ft 


pur 
bad-bu 


full 
bad-smell 


jhara-him^ Jabrez, labalab 
i<aafiun, garidgi, afunat 


% 


faqir 


beggar . 


ajiZj haqir ; miskin, muflis^ gbarib* 
mohtaj, lachor, khaksar, kam- 








tarin, ahqar^ niyazmapd, bicha- 








ra, zaeef 


M 


/ / / 
himaqat 


folly 


nr(dani, jahalat, cifahat, bewaqufi 


~4 


rast 


true 


sadq, sadaqat, haq, sach 


^ 


* '. 
tarif 


praise 


hamd_, tausif, wasf, sataya^h, 








maclh, tiihem 


A 


madad 

** / 


help 


wiadad, kumak, yawari, ianat 


6^ 


saiyah 


traveller 


musafir, rahi, ibnussabil 


$ 


macbhli 


fish 


Lut, mahi 


'4 


parda 


screen 


aqab, hijab, burqa 


*s4> 


darakht 


tree 


shttjar, nihal 


^ 


cafs 


sensuality 


sarisht, tinat, tabiat 


rij^u 


qasid 


messingar 


harkara, rasul, safir, jafiu^ elchi, 


V 


lasbkar 


army 


pail 
fauj, sipah, jaishj hashm, jarraV 








A 



- character. 



bahut 



many 



khush 



glad 



roshni light 

khusurnat enmity 



Synonyms in roman character. 



diasa 



kasir, ziyadah, nihayat, baghayat 
bfsyaV, bekra'n, beqaya^ be- 
hiaob, beshumar, beendaza, 
behad, kasrat, an boh 

shadman, razi, khursand, khur- 
ram, khushnud, bashshash, 
masroor 

partau, shoa, ziya, tajalli, lama 

mukhalfat, adawat, dashmani, 

hasad, nafiaiq, kina^ bughz, bad- 

/ / 

khwahi 



satisfaction tamaniyat, itminan, tassali, dil- 



achchha good 
madndgar helper 



qabi 

sehat 



grave 
health 



* " 

dahi, diljamai 

v' v ^ * / * ' 
said, saad, munasib, thik, behtar, 

khub, pasindidah, afzal, ahsan 
nasir, maawin, moin, dastgir, 

yawar 

got, lahad, maz^r, turbat, mirqad 
tandrusti, afyat^ shife 



( 82 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character. 


<& 


baseen 


beautiful 


khubsurat, jamil, kj^ubru, wajih, 








basin ah 


J- 


a 


justice 


4-1 / / 

insaf, dad 


ur-i 


* t 
pidri 


hereditary 


abai, kbta^dan/, mafurusi 


<Ju 


saf 


clean 


shaffaf, abdar, raunaqdar, raushan 








chamakdar 


<% 


<j / 
jaldi 


haste 


tezi, phurti, tawali, ujlat 


*lty 


istaghasa 


complaint 


stiikayat, faryad, apil, nalish, 








duhai 


* 


befaida 


useless 


*f^ <u / / * / V / 

nikammS} bekar, kharab, fazul, 








besud 


(jt[fjf 


& * / * 


by cba.nce 


yakayak, acbanak, nagaban 


fy^ 


kharch 


expence 


sarf, uthao. 


& ^ 

^Iffi*. 


gunabgar 


accufied 


- ' w . / v / f 
mulzim, mujrim, taqsirwar 








kbatawar, 


ctf 


ankna 


guess 


ajkalna, janchna, andaza-karna 


fa* 


angan 


court-yard 


angnai, sehn 


0ty 


ixnan 


faith 


din, mazbab, yaqin, etabar, aqida 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in rorimn 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


Synonyms in roman character. 


* 


bacbcba 


child 


balak, shir-khwar, baba 


V 


bap 


father 


pidar, abba, bawa', pita, walid 


^ 


bat 


matter 


muamela, mazmuu 


%t 


badsahat 


kingdom 


shahi, saltanat, raj, hukumat. 




j 




riyasat, badshahi 


^ 


banjh 


barren 


aqima, bephal, usar 


#*> 


bandi 


male-servant 


w / * v ; / 

kanizak^ laundi, chhokri 


tit 


banda 


tail-less 


be-dum, ponchh-kata, landura. 








(a bird) 


^ 


bansri 


fife 


bansli, aighoza 


t*$ 


** / / 

lungara 


scoundrel 


luchcha, shohda, badmash, bad- 








zat 


9 


duiL 
lihaza 


tail 
therefore 


ponchhar, ponchb 
isliye, iswaste' 


y^ 


lahr 


wave 


mauj 


JU 


khayal 


thought 


wahm, soch 





nafa 


profit, 


iaida 



Urdu 
word. 



for* 



*>/ 



The same 
in rotnan 
character. 



English 


Urdu 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 



utha-dena to set up 




-jana 



ban>ana 



suddenly 

to succeed % 
to become ** 



pi-jana-i to drink 

'r /\ 

i-lenaj on or up 



rakk-lena to lay by 

rakh-dena to place 
to go to 
sleep 

so-rahaa C to conti- 



so-jana 



c6/ 



o-rahaa f 
j 



COMPOUND VERBS. 

lag-rahna C o continue 
to come 1 fixed' 

y-jana to be formed 

sath ho-1 to go along 

,/ / J 

lena * 

ra-le'na (to clasp, to em- 

^ brace 
ja-sakna' to be able to go 



Jtiba-chukna fto have done 



nue sleep- 



t# 



1 ' i " ' /I 
aya-karna I to 



ing 

kat-dalna to cut off 
kah-dena |to speak 
[ out 

kha~}aua to eat up 



eating 
come frequ- 
ently 
kyft-karna /to do frequent- 

likha- ^ to write fre- 

karna J quently 
jaji-karna fto go frequent- 

I'y 



Urd 
wore 


The same ,. , TT , 
English Urdu 

in rornan . 
i , meaning, word. 


The8ame ,.. . luli 
in roman IJiea b ni 
character. 


^^ y 9^ 


kho-dena fto squand- t*/i/y 
L er away 


bola-karna fto speak frr- 
L quently 


^^j*SO 

Jv/ 


gar-den a to bury Cl^tf 
gir-pajna j to fall 

M 

v down L^>^ ^*j 


' f / / / ^ 
gate-ana (to come sing- 

rote-rahna (to remain wee t - 


btf 


i 

gira-dena |^to throw 


l ing 




1 down '^0, 


likba- "1 to wish to write 


Clf<L 


le-jana^ fio take **7Jf 


chah naj 




1 away 


para-pherO to prow! about 


tf*L 


le-ana (to bring " V 


na 




Lalong >, . 


sikhne- ^j to begin learn- 


*f 


le-l^na fto take l^tfj^ 

J 

L bold off i^^J^m^ 
mar-dalna fto kill 


Jagna'j ing 
sone-dena (to give leave 
v to sleep 


^r ^ 









) outright 


ralme- ^ to leave to re- 


>Jt 


nikal-dena to turn out 


denaj main 


w^*iy J^ 


^6-jana oi\ ^J"* 

y y \ ^ x 

id-rahna | to become U/Lf 


dekhua- "j to see 
bhalnaj 


w ^ff -jSjJ* 


baith-jana to sit down ft fa JM 


bolna- ^l to converse 




nTinlnA 1 



Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in romau 
character 


English 
meaning. 


Urdu 
word. 


The same 
in roman 
character. 


English 
meaning. 


&x 


bujha- *> 
dena J 
bal-dena 


to extin- 
guish 
to twist 


0&JP9 


n f i 
ihona- ^ 

jt x ' i 
dhana J 


to wash 


# 


kahla* *| 
bhejna > 


to send 
word 


Ctytf 


3hul-jana 
rah-jana 


to forget 
to remain be- 


&%< 


V j ' / 
pila-dena 


to give to 






^ hind 






drink 


(&4 


i i ~ t ' 
cohip-jana 


to conceal 


.-A 


jalna- 


become 








'j*fCJ* 


bhunna 


enflamed 


(?/*"/ 


koshish- *J 


to try 


'W 


chhor-jani 


to leave 


Cr/ 


karna ^ 




*& 


utha-lena 
chun-lena 


to pick up 
to pick up 


* 


shuru- <\ 
karna / 


to begin 


tyj< 


y ,/ / 

gin-lena 


to add up 








,$ 





to remove 


/*$ 


J ' i " f 
taza-karna 


to refresh 


a* 


maiiqui- ^ 
karna > 


to abolish. 




adrniyat- 
pakarna 


to become 
civilized 


fa 


fkhJas- 1 
karna j 


to esteem 


H 


/, / , / / 
abru-lena 


(to take 
j away one's 




abru-utir 


to diegracf 






honor 


^ 


rm 











Tnlu 
word 


The same 
in roman 
character 


English 
meaning 


Urdu 
word 


The sam< 
in rornan 
character 


English 
meaning. 


fr 


chalas- ^J 
karna J 


to leave 


b* 


* * ' -\ 
|tt,faq-j 

hona ^ 


to happen 


*\' " 
/W 


imtiyaz -\ 
karna 1 


to discrimi 
nate 


: & 


bamla- ^j 

W 


to attack 




again- "j 
dena J 

i , , / / 
e-bhagna 


to comforl 
to run 


*^f 


*. r / 
pet-girna 

parda- 
karnaJ. 

O' 


to miscarry 
x> conceal 




' 

e-ebalna 


away 
c with 1 
to take 


efe 




i-jalna 
lisab- i 
lena J 


to perplex 
to take an ac- 
count 






* along 


^M )l ) 


dad-lena 


to take revenge 




e-jana 


to carry 


C *' 


dagh- i 


to brand 


1 s * 


at-parna 


'o have a 


**}&} 


j/ / i 
de.na J 


i 






bad ha- 


$0>, 


U-deaa 


to give the heart 


:*$ 


w / / / 

aga-dena 


" bit 
;o put to 


7j<r. 


abit- l 
karna ^ 


o prove 


'J& 


*ga-lena 


io attach 


W& 


ag-uthna 


to rise up 








*r 


am-dena 


to deceive 



Urdu 
word. 



tffc 



The same 
in Ionian 

character. 



mea 



Urdu 
word. 



sbor-karna' fo make 

< 

L noise 



fpunnat "\ 

karnaj to circumcise 



fazul-bak- (to talk- . > 

^t" 
na ^ nonsense f 



khafa- *j to become (l^J^l dant-pisna 

h' 'I 

hona J angry 

qubul- *) to accept 



karnaj *] 

khara- -\ to stand 



Dn.'i J 

a 



jama- 1 to collect 
karna 



iaga-rahna to be busy ^ 
sapurd 



japurd to tiand (rp^l 
karn'aj over [o 

m 

langar- "j to weigh ^ 

uthaWJ anchor *W * 
luka-lagi-J to inflame tl 



The same 
in roman 
character. 



-r, ,. . 

En S hsh 

meanln g- 



dam- 1 to feign death 



churanaj 



ant-pisna fto 
I 

arhnaj 
-gfra-1 to 
, X J 



gnash the 
te^th 

dam- '\ to respire 
charhnaf 



mar-ira- to knock down 



uth-baith- to sit up 



na 



J 



lf 
chhin-lena to bereave 



bang-dena to crow 
jatn-jana to freeze 
phansi- \ to hang 



thair-jana to forbear 
laga-rakhna to put by 



( 89 ) 
CHAPTER V. 

GRAMMAR. 

A brief, very brief, synopsis of grammatical forms in nov 
needful. The student will riot, if possible, be worried by exceptions 
and complexities, the motive of this book being simply u supply 
an Urdu Primer, which will readily enable any one not conversant 
with the language to read and write it with a fair degree of effi- 
ciency. 

All the appended items should be committed to memory, 
as the words themselves, and the changes they undergo, are parts of 
every day speech of the people. 

THE NOUN, 

As in French the Urdu noun ha& no neuter gender. It 
is either Masculine or Feminine. Most of them are known at 
once to be Masculine or Femenine from their meaning, ae 
(ghora)a horse, /^y/fghori,) a mare, etc. It is very difSculttor a 
foreigner to find out the gender of inanimate things in Urdu, 
we may, however, lay down a few general rules for the guidance 
of the student to distinguish the gender of an Urdu noun : 

All nouns that end in I or(a)are masculine, as ^/ fata,) 

6 
(tukra,) a piece, etc. 

la,; calamity, ^*' 

* 

a,) world ; (*>(doa.) prayer; ^>(dawa,) medicine] I 



flour, /P (kapra,) cloth, fy (tukra,) a piece, etc. 
Exceptions to the above rule : | (bala,; calamity, 



( 90 ) 

(haVa,) air; (j^; (parwa,) care and ^y(p4i*) worship. These 

nouns, though end in, /or (a) are feminine. 



All nouns that terminate in ( ^ and (JT are mostly 
Feminine, as /If (choti,) curl, ^^(haldi,) turmeric ; ^ J 
(maut,) death; tt (mat,) defeat. &lf (zat,) caste; r*?/ 
(kosbJsb,)endeavour ^/l/U-(sifarish,) recommendation, etc. 

The following woi ds, though, end in ( A and (Jf 

* . < ft 

are of the Masculine Gender : Jy(moti,) pearl, /y* (*}*) 

clarified-butter, if^\s (qazi,) judge ; //^y Cpujari,) worshipper, 
t (panij water; /? (ji,) heart ; ^/(dahi,) curdled-milk ; 

Cdant,) tooth; ^J^/Ckhe't,) field ; 4^(l)akht,) 
destiny; jJ^C^ (darakht,) tree; J^> (dast,) hand ; +5<f 
('gosht,) meatj4^J^ (shajbatj syrup ; */*/ (waqt,) time, ^J< 

K> ^ * 

(takht,) throne \(J*$) (do$hj) shoulder; //^ (farsh,) floor; 

^ ' 

y^^y^ (khargoshj) hare ; /yy (josh,)pa3ion. 

The gender of nouns that terminate in other letters must be 
learnt by practice. 

THE CASE. 

In English the case of a noun is denoted by its position either 
before or after a verb or it is governed by a preposition. In Urdu 
the cases are based more upon the Latin and Greek methods of 
declension, and the inflected cases are shown by syllables added 
to the end of the noun itself. Thus : 



SINGULAR. 

Nominative >/* mard man 

Genenitive IT*/* mard k of man 

Dative ))* mard ko to man 

Accusative >/* fmaid 

>/ tma 
Ablative 

Locative 




jnard KOJ 


man 


mard se 


from man 


mard men 




in man 


mard par 


on man 


mard tak 


up to man 


mard ne 


by man 



Three of the above cases require some distinctive notes. The 

" / " 

genetive formed by adding ka to the root is also very fre- 

u t K i 
quintly inflected into ke and ki because the genetive case 

in Urdu agrees with the gender or case of the noun which follows 
it. 

Henoe ghora, a horse ; being mascubne, if you wish to say. 
" the man's horse, " (the horse of the man) it will be 

(mard kaghoraj But "the man's book" will be w 

(mard ki kitab^becauae " kitab" is feminine. Again " The woman's 

house," is JTp w/y' aurat ka x ghar, because "ghar " is masculine. 

The remaining particle is ke. This is used when the ma$. 

ouline noun governed is inflected, thus : " to man's son " (to the 

son of the man) becomes /^^ . mard ke be'te ko'. 

Jr 

ll 



( 92 ) 

/ 

When the second or governed noun is feminine in all cases " ki" ie 
need, thus : (from the man's daughter) is ^ ^ /<~[ tl *S 

mard ki beii se. Keis a]go used when the governed noun is plural, 

thus : -(the man's horses) is ^^>y ^ (iy\ admi ke ghore. 

The accusative case may have the forms of the nominative 
or dative. It is difficult to state simply the exact usage in this 
matter, which rnusfc be learnt only by practice. The accusative 
case generally has the nominative form, because "kow is not 

flow oommooly used, as \) / )\ ^J[l ^~if* main-ne ek 

, S * ** to *S* 

admi dekha, or^/^/^^j^/r 4 mafn-ne ek admi ko dekha. 
I saw a man. The former is the conversational form, and the 
latter is not a geoeral manner of speaking. 

The foregaicg sentence biings us to the third important case 
namely, the Agentive. This is so frequently ued in speech and 
writing by the Datives of India that it largely usurps the place 
of the EugHsh nominative* 

It cannot be used in the present tense, but is the almost 
invariable form in trie Past, Peifect, Pluperfect and Past Dubious, 
tenses. 

For instance, I struck him, reads, main ne use rnara or 
inverted " He was struck by me." This, however, must not be 

allowed & lead to confusion. Ifc will be easier far the students to 

(t ,* /> " , " 
regard main, ham, wuh. I, we, he, she, it (nominatives) as the 

correct forms in the present and future tenses, and main-ne, ham- 



ne, unhon-ne by me, by u^ by them (Agentives) as having the 
same significance in the Past, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Past 
Dubious tenses. 

Other examples : 

)?? l</l fj+ main marta hun, I strike (preaentj. 
p /frj^l if main marunga, I will strike, (future). 

| j J f ** main ne mara, I struck, (past). 
__LL d~ ,j* naain ne / mara hai, I have struck, (perfect). 
^ <L*i/H main-ne mara tha, I had struck, (plujjerfectj. 
j/i {* -i i* main ne mara hoga, I ahall have struck (post 
dub*) 

NUMBER. 

To form the plural of nouns, again speaking, quite generally, 
the syllable on with a nasal " n " is interjected between the root 
and the particle in inflected cases. Thus : 



N 

G 

D 

Ac 

Ab 



mard 
mardon ka 



mardon ko' 



j ^ 



Ag 



CC (J*'S mardo'n men 
rnardon par 
mardon tak 
mardon ne 



men 
of meu 
to men 
mard, mardon ko men 
mardon se frem men 

in men 
on men 



up to men 
by meu 



( 94 ) 
Singular nouns ending in / or 9 form the nominative plural 

(( ,jj , u^S x 

by changing these letters into ***' ye or(e)thus IP kutta, 



_ 

kutte, dogs, a bandah, slave, -~f bande, 
slaves. 

The nominative plural of feminine nouns is formed by adding 

en to the singular, thus : ^f aiirat, woman ; (J* j? 
-"/ / ' * f */ - / 

auraten, women ; wLf kitab, book ; /yt Lf ( kitaben, books. 

^ S ^^* '^ * 

Feminine nouns ending iii^/or " i " form their nominativ^ 
plurals by adding )lsian to the singular, as /A/ larki, girl 



There are, however, several exceptions, but the foregoing 
rules will suffice for this primary work. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 
Adjectives ending in jor a agree with their nouns in number 

and gender, thus, //?/ 4zC^! <*k achchha admi ; a good man, 

*/ * ** 

(jy\&J achche admi ; good men, w$/Cj bari kitab, a large 

book, ^i^Y^ bari kita'be'n ; large books. 

It must be borne in mind that only adjectives ending, in| 
or a form their plurals into ^L~~ or e, the others remain same 
when used with both numbers, as $ *J(* sf larka^ a clean 
boy, saf larke^ clean boys, etc., etc. 



PRONOUNS. 

The Pronouns, being such important and commonly used parts 
of speech, must be set forth at some length. In common with 
the methods of most languages they are irregularly declined, and 
must be learat accurately. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

The personal pronouns which are main; I ; tu, thou ; and 
wub, he, she or it ; with their plurals ham, we ; turn, you ; 
and we, ttiey. . 

They are declined thus : 



FIRST PERSON. 



Singular. 

X 

Lj main 



, 




j^ mujhe, me 

. jfclC mujhko, to me 

-,& mujh-se, from me 
j 

f^/%tff mujhme'n, in me 

Loc I /*& m jn Par, on me 

L T 



.f 



i* 



Plural. 
ham, we 
hainara', 
ha mare', our 
hamari, 

4/ / 

hamen, us 

or 

hamko', to us 
ham se', from us 
bam meX ic us 
ham par, on us 



N 



D 

and 
Ac 



Ag ^ 



inujh tak, up to 

me 

c b Dao 



to us 



SECOND PSftSON. 

Singular. Plural. 



tu thou 




-^ 



turn you 



&& tumhar/- 
tjhe ^to thee, thee if*"* tumhe^ to you or you 



? - >l 

; fcvrib&oJ 
J 



or 



ko' 



tujh.se.from - thee ^*^/ tum-8e e from you 
tuihineri -c in thee /t*^ turn men*in vou 






QG =by thee 



tak = up to thee l turn take- up to you 



tumnesby you 



/ 
It should be uoted here that the word ^\ ^ap,) meaning, you, 

Sirj your honvor is most frequently used in the Urdu language 
for the jefcoad per ?(? singular to show respect, and is declined like 

a safc^nfc'iYe of the second class under singular form. 

ff the word u^/ (up; is not used to show respect for the 
? 

second person singular, but used to denote " self " or *' own * then 
ft is deciiced thus :--: 



N 
G 



and 
Ac 






Lac 



( 91 ) 

Singular. 

/ ap self own 

/ * / 
apna, apne, 

apni of self 

apne ko ") self or to self 

/ 
ya 

/ / / 
apne apko 

apne se from self 
apne men in self 
apne par on self 
apne tak up to self 

THIRD PERSOlf. 



Plorai. 



Wanting 



N 




Plural. 
<~~J we ^ thev 



uskU 

him 
.nd; \ or 

' tf i 

Ac \gZ-J use J to him 
Ab L., f\ us 02 from him 



' namen^-inhim 




them 



them 
un se^from them 



/ Eflpar - on him 
9 \ us tak = up to him 
r usne bj him 



r^/ un men^in them 
unpar-onthem 
un tak-up to them 
Qiihon ne^ 



( 98 ) 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The Demonstrative pronouns are proximate /// yih this ; 
and remote 99 wiih, that ; and are declined in the same way as 
the third person singular, 

There is, however, little difference between the declension of 
the third person singular and the demonstrative >*^ yih (this) 
which is declined thus : 

Singular. Plural. 



this 



iskef of this 




these 



inke, ( of these 



Loc / 
Ag 



iskoJ to this 

is se^from this 

* / 

is me a -in this 

is par on this 

is tak up to this 

* , 

is ne by this 




or 

inko - to these 

* / 

in sesfrom these 

in. mcn^ in these 

* * 

in par son these 

in tak -up to these 

1 i i 

m ne by these 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The Relative pronouns are (*)^ p, jo', jaun, he who, she, 
w.hp, &c. The latter jaun is not nowin use, becauee it is not now 




( 99 ) 

commonly used and ^ jo the first one is used instead. They 
are declined thus : 

Singular. Plural. 

/ jo \ he who )? J> .J a<un ^ ne y^ wno ; 

jaunj she who 

v 

jiskaS 

jiske f whose, &c. 

whom 

. or 

* /I 
jisko to whom 

jis se from whom 

jis par on whom 

.." / 

jis men m whom 

jis tak up to whom 
jis ne' by whom 

INTEROGATIVE PRONOUNS. . 

The Interogative pronouns /*jy kaun, who (applied to per- 
sons) and y, kya, what (for lifeless things) are declined in the 
same way as the relative pronoun /^ jo, and changes from the 
nominative into ^A kis, and ^~9 kahe, respectively in making 

the other oblique cases. 

The student should learn the foregoing example substituting 

(jj* 




jinko 

jin se^from whom 

* ^ 
J m pardon whom 

J^ n mencin whom 
Jin tak ^up to whom 
jinhon ne^by whom 



INDEFINITE PBONOUNS. 

/ / / ' 

The Indefinite pronouns /jy koi, some one, or any one* 
changes into ^ kisi for the oblique cases. 

The other terminations remain the same. 

SPECIAL NOTE. -It should be especially noted here that the 
gen stives singular and plural forms of the Personal Pronouns are 
also used as possessive pronouns, and precede the noun they govern 
as V^U ' uski kitab his book, &c. 

The genetive forms / apna, ^/apne, and /^/ apni 
have a peculiar^ use which is very important to mention here. 
When in Urdu there occurs in a sentence a possessive pronoun 

* 

belonging to the nominative or agent, it is expressed by ^ | 
apna. -I apne, and (fj apni for all the persons. 

For instance, in the "sentence, I have lost my book, the 

possessive "iny" belongs to the nominative "I," hence the 

* ' * ' ' 

rendering of " my " will be (\ apni and not (*S meri, 

and the sentence will read thus : ^_ /^> jfl^ j/r I ^^/J 

" /"i*' /r t > * ' 

main ne apni kitab khodi hai . 

I have lost his book, the possessive " bis" does not belong to 


the nominative, " I," hence the rendering of " his * will not be^*/ 

/* / 
apni, but /j*'\ uski. 

The same rule applies to the possessives of alL other pronouns, 
bot the possessive of the third person of personal pronouns 
requires fy apna, ^/ aW ^^ $ P ni if U ^^ refers 



k' ' 

to the nominative, and, if not, then it will require 

te^ / f ' nska, uske, uski, &o. For instance. He 

baa lost his book, the possessive " his/' if solely refers to the 
nominative "he," then the rendering of " his " will be ( apni, 

but if the possessive " his " refers to another third person, the 

/* \ / 
rendering will be /r'l uski. 

Again, if, in the nominative part of a sentence, there occurs 
a possessive pronoun belonging to the nominative, the rendering of 
it will not be i^/ apna, as " He and his brother have gone to 

their house. Here, in this sentence, there are two possessives, 

,/* ';' 

dtae {M " his," and the other If I " their," the first is in the 



nominative part of the sentence, and the other one is in the 
complimentary part of it. Hence the rendering of the former will 
be &l uska, and of the latter U' apna, according to 

the rule above stated. 

The possessives oi the first and second persons will always 
require (^) apna', ^1 apne, and (\ apni when be- 

longing to their nominative. ' 

There are very few exceptions which have been left out at 
this primary stage, as the student will find them confusing. 

THE VERB. 

The first, and perhaps the most difficult Verb in Urdu is 
Cjr ho'na, to be or to become. At the outset it must be under- 
stood that it if not used in the same general way as its English 

M 



( 102 ) 

equivalent. Three tenses alone correctly correspond with the 
English forms, and these are the Present, Past and Future tenses, 
I am, X was, and I will be, which are given below. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular Plural 



main hun l am t^/X ham bain we are 

tu hai thou art jf turn ho' you are. 



wuh hai he, she, (Jl^l we ba ^ n ^ e 7 are 

t 

or it is 

PAST TENSE. 

Singular Plural 

main tha yal + bam the ya*j 

thi I was \J* I * thin J we were 

tu tha ya 1 /^ % turn the 1 

/ J "*jST / / > 

thi thou wast j**,l ya thin J you were 

2, . H wuh tha yal he she ^4 d we the' ^ 

</i U5/ J !jj, '\ 

thi or it was LJ^'z J a thin' they were 
NOTE. The student will observe that in the Past tense 

> ; jr / 

given above, the forms vf tha and the are used when the 



5 ' 5 * 

nominatives are masculine, and /{*' thi and f /^thin, when 

feminine. 



( 103 ) 

In the conjugation of the Verb hona the distinction bet- 
ween the Genders will be made in the same manner, namely^ 
the masculine form will be put first, and the feminine last. 

It must also be pointed out here that the Verb must 
agree with its nominative in Gender and Number in all the tenses, 
except the Aorist and the Imperati ve. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 



main hiragal I will tfA ham hongel we will 

<i< >'. j x 6 'ULJJ 

ya hungi J be Lj)f* ? a ^Jg 1 ** 

tuhoga "I thouwiit l^? turn hoge^ you will 



4 /, K tuhoga "I thou 
M*& ^ ho ^ / ^ 

# A wuh hoga") he she 
' " * a hoi J or it wi 



ya 
" '' 



wehonge'l they wi 
ya hogi J or it will h ^ 



EXAMPLES. 






be 



(main yahan hun) I am here 

*> & 

*i)lj ( (turn waha'n the) you were there 
g^ ^ \ , 

7U*LjUZ( mQ * n * ^ wana/ ?> J W *H be there to morrow, 
hunga.) 

For the rest of the forms of the Verb ^ it will be -aaier 
to regard them as expressing the Verb " to become," meaning 



( 104 ) 

fy hona The Present, Past and Future tenses given above are 
highly important, because of their auxiliary nature. 

FORMATION OF TENSES. 

All the tenses of the Verb in the Urdu language are derived 
from the Infinitive, the sign of which in this language is I na 
as, l\ff jaris, to go ; I Ukhana', to eat ; (^ leaa', to take ; 
i*"% parhna, to read ; &c., &c. 

The Imperative second person, singular number, or root is 
formed by dropping the sign I* from the infinitive, thus : from 

i (J> khana to eat, the root becomes U> kha ; from (^ 

soixa, to sleep y^ so L> pina, to drink; il pi, and 

* / * 

so on. 

The Imperative second person, plural number, the mosfc 
usual and polite manner of speaking is formed by adding j or o 

to the root, thus : from &s* part it becomes ^^ parho | 

* * 

but when the root itself ends in ^ bari ye or (ej this lettdf 
is dropped and 5 or (o) is added. Hence ^~; de the root 

of the Verb lj dena', to give, becomes )) do fJL^le dia&jges 
into y 5 and ^ so " is unchanged. 

Boots ending in^chhotiye or "i w do nafc drop the ( 
or ''& but ^ or ^o; is added to them, as from ^ pi is 
pio i from ($\j 0| an ^ 8 on. 



( 105 ) 

* I 

NOTE : If the word ^ | ap is used for the second 

person singular to show respect in the Imperative mood then 

(*) or *~ye is added to the root as from l)ji<bo^ is L J 

", 
boJje (Be pleased to speak). But if the root ends in I or " a - 

then the letter / hamza is also placed over ^~ ye as from 



kha is ^u khaiye'. Be pleased to eat, &c., &c. 






^ 
If the root ends in (j chho$i ye or " i " then ^ jiye 

is added to the root as from l\ pi ii sfL pijiye (Be 

w ? ** 

pleased to drink). 



Roots ending in _ ban ye or " e " change the 4. 

bari ye' " or " e M into //CbhotiVe or " i w and then 

' * 

^ / / 

jiye is added to them as from ^-^J Cde) is 



(Be pleased to give) ~ (\b> (lijije) (Be pleased 

** 

to take.) There are very few exceptions to the above rules. 

The ^/^TPast tense is formed by adding L ys to the 

root, if it ends in /or. ^ , A$ from U W I\yff07n ** *$ \>f 
But if the root ends in any other letter then only (a) is 

added to the root as from ^J^ is i)j spoke and so on. The 
plural is formed by adding ^(e) to the roots whatever letter 
they may end in, as from l) is ^*y, and so on. 

The t-*V/^i or Perfect tense of all persons is formed by 
to the Past tense as from ty- vm>te, is 



or have written. The plural is formed by adding^ (hain) to the 

plural Past tense as from ^f^ia / j^^LHiave written). 

*** / 

I'* 



( 106 ) 

The >tXvH or Pluperfect tense is formed bj adding 
** 



to the Past tense as from ( is UUj (had written). The 
plural is formed by adding &> to the Past plural as 
(had written). 

The /P/f^i or Pag fc Itabious is formed by adding 
to the Past tense, as jjjfl/jj (shall have spoken) 
(shall have eaten). The Plural is formed by adding g to the 

Past plural as *y7g}f (shall have written). 

This should be noted here that the Nominative singular and 
plural of all persons used with the above four tenses is used in 
the Agentive case expressed by the particle ^ : as 4r^T% 
(I have written) and ^r\r ^-~^1 ^ e ^ ave wr ^ teu ) an< * ^ 



on. 

Thtre are* however, some, Verbs with the Past, Perfect 

Pluperfect and Past Dubious tenses of which the nominatives do 


not assume the form of Agent characterized by the particle {* - 

Thus : The past tense of (,*(/ (to bring) is I (J (brought) 

, / * 
requires (j I y thou, and 9) he, she, or it with their 



plurals for its nominatives and not *~~(jt (by me) 
(by thee) and ^/"i(by him) with their plurals. 

The Perfect tense of ail such verbs is formed by adding 

V the first person, and ^ for the second person and third 



persons singular to the Past tense, as 



( 107 ) 
brought not ^li)JL^/ it has been brought by me 

Thou hast brought, ^ \-\}** He has brought. 

' * 



For the first and third persons plural //J and for the 
second person plural jr are added to the Past plural./ t^^-ttf 
We have brought (J^ <L~\)~9 They have brought ^L/ 
You have brought. 

The Past Dubious and Pluperfect tenses also of such verbs 
will be formed in like manner. 

The Verb agrees in gender and number with the object of 

the tenses of those Verbs, which require the Agentive form of 
their nominatives in their Past, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Past 

Dubious tenses, but will never agree with the object of those 
Verbs with which the nominative is used in its own form in all 
persons. For instance, I have written a book, reads : 
~/jr^f^J[\ *~(jC main ne'ek kitab likhi hai. 

Here the Verb ^7 iy' ta ^ es ^ or its nominative 

jsh-i in the Agentive form, BO the Verb agrees with 
its objeet in gender and number. If the object had been plural 
i. e., ^/f books, the Verb would have been plural fclso and 
the sentence then reads thus : 

I have written books. (j (f}(J% \J^~ (jt 

Again I have brought a book, reads. 



Here the nominative * I, is used with the Verb in iU 



own form, hence, as a practical rule, the Verb will *fr agree with 







( 108 ) 

the nominative. I have brought four books, reads, 

We have brou g h t a book, reads, 

7 Verbs which require nominatives 


in the Agentive case characterised by the particle ^* 

ae for their Past, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Past Dubious 
tenses, are, for the most part, Active Verbs, but they must be found 
out by practice. 

Past Conditional is formed by adding IT to 



the root, as from Jy *is ^v had I written. The plural is 
formed by changing I* into^/as from $}ia ^L had we written. 

The (J\0 or Present tense is formed by adding ^J^ for the 
first, and ^~ for the second and third persons singular to the 
Past conditional, as from ^ is C-^C*; L/* (^ am 

writing). **&)$ (Thou art writing). ^ &$ BJ He 

is writing. For the first and third persons plural (J% is added 
to Past Conditional plural as /r^^L jf, (we are writing)* 

irt^fL^r} (They are writing). For the second 
person plural y% is added to the Plural Past Conditional as 
ft "^^ff you are writing. 

The /*l/l*/<^i or Imperfect tense is formed by adding (^ 
to the Past Conditional as from *^ is [&> (^ (wad writing). 

H *? 

The plural is formed by changing & into <ff- as from 
is ^- ^-^ (were writing). 



( 109 ) 

. j 

The Second and third persons singular of fy\*** or the 
Aorist are formed by adding ^~^ we to the root, if it endi 
in 1 or 9 as from ^ is ^-*U, from f is ^Jf 
and so on. 

The plural of the first and third persons is formed by adding 
the nasal l or " n M to the second and third person* singular 



of the Aorist as (J 9 ^ We m8 }' eafc (J 9 
eat. 



If the root ends in any other letter then ^-~ or " e ", only 
is added as from ) is ^-^/ and from is 



The first person singular of the Aorist is formed by adding 

to the root ^Jj (un) if it ends in 1 or ^ as from (^fis M 

v 
from X' it (J)r' , and so on. 

If the root ends in any other letter then ^1$ without any 
'(hamza) is added to the root for the first person singular as 

from / is J> ; frm ^ >is ^ &* &c - 



The second person plural is formed by adding only $ with a 
' (hamza) over it to the root if it ends in I or /as from (p 
is j( ; from y^' is /^ , and so on. 



If the root end* in any other letter only 9 if added without 
any ^ to the root, ^ from ^ ** 



The / 4 ^ or Future tense of all the persons singular 

is formed by adding p to the singular persons of the Aorist and 
ft ~ for all the persons, plural, as, 

#*/ Thou wilt write, J~y You will 
They will write. 

The respectful form of the future is formed by adding to the 
root, of a Verb ( iyega with a / (hamza) if it ends in I or 



9 as from [ i$ I&L* khaiyega from ^ is |ju*^ 

(soiyega), and so on. 

If the root ends in any other letter only Q^ yega with a 
hamza is added, as from /\^ is fa*% 

If the root ends in ^or " i >f then ^iyega' with ft hamza 
is added to the root, as from ^ is {jL^P&Wga* <* so an- 
Verbs are inflected according to the gender of their governing 

nouns; and that, as a general rule, when the masculine singular 

/ f 

ends in I or " a " the masculine plural ends in {L-~ or " e "3 tke 

feminine singufar ending in (J' or " i " changes in the feminine 
/ 

plural in^/l /j? with a nasal ) or " n " or sometimes Ljl* 

iyan. 

CONJUGATIONS. 
Infinitive tVj hona, to become. Root jf ho x . 






( "1 ) 

PAST TENSE. 
(I became, &o.) 
Singular. 




PERFECT TENSE. 
(I have become &c.) 



/ 



hua hu ) \iLftt~rtr ha'm huVhain ji \ 

'v*'*' * >Ps *' ' 

yahuihun 



tin hue bo y/ ) 

/^ . -i *'/ j 

huihai * buiho 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 
(I had become &o.) 



I// 






^^ wuh hua hai yal (jfi.)*~* we h bain ya) 
^ bmhi J C^J^fi huYhain 




*/ 



ain bua tha ya "j ^^yf ham bue tbe ya 1 
hri'thi J UTA*[\ huYthin * 



tha ya "| 
J 

y tu hua x tbi ya x l tum hue the' ya'l 

bu/tb/ ' UP* Jit bui'tbin 

h bua tha ya| ^sf^>s we' hue the y*l 

hu/tbi / hui'thin 



PAST DUBIOUS. 
(I shall or will have become, &.) 




+ 
yahmhoogi 



PAST CONDITIONAL TENSE. 
(Had I become, &c.) 



1 I {L^^fi ham hote ya "I 
h 



main hota ya 

hoti 

tuhotaya^oti (>"<L2 torn hoto y 

hot4 

hoti ^ we x hote ya 



PRESENT TENSE. 
(I am becoming, &o.) 




THB AORIST. 

(I may become, &c.) 

5_ . * . f . / / 

main bun L/^-tfXT ham^owen 

f ^^** i 5^ 

u bowe' 9*1/4 * u<m no/ 

wub bowe' L/*/C/^f^^ wehowcn'yahon 



FUTURE TENSE. 




^ ...///-, f / / / x 

t $}jf 99 wnb howega ya^j L G~9tf?^ we bowenge ya ) 

. f i // - / f (1 T_ / ^- / J 

/fjff bowegi (Ji*9tf bowengi 

Respectful form *^tf bujiyega 7 . 



f*i f" / / 
2 Conjugation of tbe Verb I (p kbaca to eat 

Infinitive L (JE kbana to eat 
Root i/kba 7 

Fast Tense. 
(I ate, We ate, &o.) 
t w^'Ljfc mai ^ ne/ ^y a/ v ytjLrff* bam na kbaya 

"^ Hune'kh^a' tUX/tnn ne---- 

us ne 7 klisya 

II 



Perfect Tense. 



(I have eaten, &c.) 



main ne' khaya 1 

". 
hai 

tu'ne khaya J 
hai 

usnekhaya'l 



hai 



J 



bam n kh *7 a 1 


hai 

turn ne' khaya'} 
hai 



unho'n ne' khaya 









hai 



Pluperfect. 



(I had eaten, &c.) 






main ne khaya 1 



ti ne kh^ya 



thi 



1 



khaya 



tha 



ne/ 






turn 



n^ kh^yi ? 



tha 

unhonnekhaya 
tha 



Past Dubious. 
(I shall have eaten, &c.) 



ne/ 



hoga 



' ' 



tn ne khaya j 



hoga 



khaya' 1 
llf 



ham ne khaya 1 

, / / J 

hoga 



turn 



^ khay,! 1 



unhonnekhaya 1 



Imperfect Tense. 
(I was eating, &c.) 



/ , i 
tis khawe 

wiih khawe 



' 



Past Conditional. 
(Had I eaten, &c.) 
ma^mkhata < ham khate' 

tukhata !^V tu * mkha/fce/ 

wuhkhata ^-iTk^ wekhata 



Present. 
(I am eating.) 

main khata' him (Jj tL&tf ham kha'tc hain 

/'.//, * 
tu khata hai 



wu^h khata hai ^<U/ we khate' haTn 




Aorifit. 
(I may eat, 

ham khaWn 



Future. 
(I shall or will eat, &c.) 



main khaunga 



*" 



wilhkhawega 



ham khawe'nge 
turn khaoge 



we khawenge 



Respectful form 






Imperative. 
(Eat thou or you.) 



kbao (tin.) 



khaiye (Be pleased to eat, &c.) 



U khi (to) /U 

Bespectful form ^ 4f* 

** X 

As the use of the Active Verb [ *J (karna) to do ia very 

mportant in forming the compound Verbs, we give below its 
nine tenses for the benefit of the student. Its past tense is 
(kiya) did, irregularly and not according to the rule. 



3 Conjugation of the Verb 

Infinitive IJ karna to do. 
Root ) kar. 

Past Tense. 



L/ 



karna to do. 



tii-ne kiyi 



kya 



ham ne kiya 
turn n^ kiyi 
ubhoa-ne 



Perfect Tenae. 



(I have done, &c.) 






main ne kiya hai ^jrV^^ ham ne kiya hai 

tu ne kiya hai rfj ' ^~"f ^ um ne ^^ a ^ 

I us ne kiya hai -(j^-'(J)"\ unhon ne kiya 

hri 



Pluperfect Tense. 
(I had done, &c.) 



main ne kiya tha ^ l^^-^ ham ne kiya tha 
th ne kiya tha *^l^^I*%? turn ne kiya tha 

us ne kiya tha ^i&*.^Jf?l unhon ne kiya 

tha 



Past Dubious Tense, 
(I shall or will have done, <fcc.) 
main ne' kiya 1 . > t ham ne' kiya 



hoga hoga 



( 118 ) 

Past Conditional. 
(Had I done, &c.) 
Singular. Plural. 



man 



~s fi ^ am ^* r ^ e 
fi turn karte 
wuh karta '' we karte 7 



Present Tense 
(I am doing, &c.) 
main karta hun 



tu karta' hai ^ tu * m k rt e ho/ 



^t^/ wuh karta hai (jl cLf^-J we' kaW bain 



Imperfect Tense. 
(I was doing, &c.JJ 
main karta' tha ^^- h m k rfce/ 



tu karta' tha' U turn kaVte the 




wuh kartu 7 tha x ,,* we kaW the 



Aorist. 

(I may do, &o.) 
kariin 



tu 






wuh ka *~* Wksren 



Future. 

>x 



J * i * ' ' L v i * ' ' 

Z main karunga &^j)ff, ham karenge 

.'.*>/ /* /4/ - , ' / ' 

karega G~}J > * um karoge 

", , v // n> X ' t-m * i *'i 

wuh karega <T~J* <L - we karenge 

Respectful form ^; kiji; yega. 



Imperative. 

(do thou, &c.) 

/^ j " / 

kar ^ karo 

Respectful form v ^^ kijiye (Be pleased to do). 

THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

The use of the passive voice in the Urdu language ia not 
so general as it is in the English language. It is formed by 
adding the various tenses of the verb I \f jana " to go " to 

the past tense of an active Verb, which is changeable to agree 
with a plural or feminine nominative. For instance, [/[ 

mara (beat) is the past tense of the active Verb Is I 

marna, so the passive form will be .[, \g\j^ mara' jana 



(to be beaten) and so on. 

The past tense of the Verb d \f jana is \J gaya irregu- 
larly, and not i (? jaya according to the rule. 

As the Verb l*U jana is frequently used, not so much 
in forming the passive voice, which is of very rare occurrence 

M 



( 120 ) 

in Urdu, but, as a useful member in the formation of compound 
Verbs, we shall give here its full nine tenses for the advantage of 
students, 

4 Conjugation of the Verb 1 1^ jana to go. 
Infinitive L \ff jana to go. 
Root If ja'. 

Past Tense. 
(I went, &c.) 

Singular. Plural. , 

* , v 
ham 



Ljt* 
iff 
** Jr 



*" "' 
a 



wuh 

Perfect. 

(I have gone, &c.) 
Singular. 

maingayahan 

/ * / * 
tu gaya hai 

* / v 

wuh gaya hai 

Pluperfect. 
(I had gone, &o.) 
' 




Plural. 

hamgae'hain 

* * t , / 
fcum S ae ho 

/ " ." 
we gae ham 



? maingayatha 
7 tu gay^ tha' 
wuh gaya tha 



the/ 



fclia fche 



1 1^ 



Past Dubious. 
(I shall have gone> &o.) 



mai P Sya h g tffi ***** g hong* 






Present Tense. 
(I am going, &c.) 



i afca hl 









x 

tu gaya hoga ^^^T ^*7^ tum 

* * / / * r* st* ' x / 
wuhgayahoga ^^^^^j we gac ho 



Past Conditional. 

(Had I gone, (fcc.) 

1**) " / / 

* r (A main i a ^ 



Hi &a Iht 






wejate 



rdti wh jata hai Us*-' ** Jte ^ 



Imperfect. 
(I was going, &o.) 



main jata tha Xl ham jate the 



tf tV J wih jati tbft \f*~9 we jate 






( 122 ) 
Aorist. 
(I may go, &c.) 

mainjaun ^T^t^/J ham jawen 

tu ja'we ^ \fZ turn jao' 

* V ' ' f*L,l> < / / 

wun jawe {J9 y f~~ 9 we jawen 



Future. 

(I shall or will go, #c. 
v fi ji main lanncra G9\0jT ham iawencrA 



main jaiinga 7 S~*ffi ham jawepge 

t^j> j^j7 tii jawega 

*} wiih jawega 7 ^^*^^ wejawenge 



Respectful form JX^^ jaij^ga, &c. 

Imperative. 
|f 2 ja /l^ 2 jao. 

Respectful fomi ^^ If j&ije* 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
5 Gosjugation of the Verb 1 1^ t It l&ya jana. 



(to be brought). 

I wl U laya ja'na (to be brought), 
layaja 



( 123 ) 
Past Tense. 
(I was brought, &c.) 



m 

l/t tl y tu la 



laya gaya ~ tum 






fih laya' gaVa' t~* welwgat 



Perfect. 
(I have been brought, &c.) 

(main laya gaya 




^ftu laya' gaya 

" 



hai 



Pluperfect. 
(I had been brought, 



tha 



11 " (W lae'gaY 



the~ 

iaegaV 



laya trAva. i ^ the 



( 124 ) 

Past Dubious. 

(I shall have been brought, &c.) 

main laya 7 gaya * # ^ fham lae gae 
hunga f*T honge 

/C x // " / *''/'/ 

'tti laya gaya j, 4 , tt r tum lae gae 



. 

hoga 



Past Conditional. 
(Had I been brought, 



M to 
L I/ ^ wuh laya jaW 




hoge 

- ' i 7/ 
e lae 

honge 



hamlaejatr 



we' la^ jate 



Present Tense. 
(I am brought, &c.) 



^inain laya 7 jata 



hnn 
tu laya jata hai fl*L*>\ 

laya jata 
hai 




laV jate x 



/ / . / / / 



}2 turn lae jate ho 
r we X lae jate' 



( 125 ) 

Imperfect. 

(I was beiiig brought, &c.) 

" // ' / ' X " " // V I / I I / 

main lava jata tha^^^Jjr ham laejfttethe 
u laya' jata tha ^-^U^l// turn laVjate the 



wuh laya jata ^^l/^/)^-^ wo laejate 
tha ~ the 

Aorist. 

(May I be brought, &c.) 

i / / 



tu layajawe )\f~V2 turn lae jao 

99 ' wuh laya jaVe ^J) lf>-l) ~) we lae jawen 



Fut'ire. 
(I shall or will be brought, &o.) 



aimgt 
1? I tfy tri laja jawe^a ,l turn lae jaoge 

^1 / H ^ *' x / / '* / ^/"'ll ////x / 

f^ W W ff wuh laya jawega ^t / L^U-l'^^^ ^e lae ja wcnge 

Respectful form j^^H l^e-jaiyega. 

Imperative. 
(Be brought thou or you.) 



SPECIAL NOTE. The Passive voice must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the compound verbs formed by the ad lit ioi> o f 



( 126 ) 
Uja'na, as (J/99 wuh margaya'. The principal verb in 



the former must be always transitive; for, the subject of the 
passive, is the real object of the active verb, besides, the principal 
verb of the passive voice is always a past tense or past perticiple ; 
while in the latter, i.e., the compound verb, the principal may be 
<m intransitive verb. For instance, the verb l/l/l raara 

gaya, was killed, is in the passive voise, because it is formed by 
adding the past tense y gaya of the verb t \f jana to the 
past participle J mara of the verb ^j i marna. 

Again the verb i// mar-gaya is a compound verb, and 

not in the passive voice, because it is formed from the root X* 
mar of the intransitive verb LX marna, to die, and the pasfc 
tense t/ gaya of the verb 7 jana* 

COMPOUND VEKBS. 

Compound verbs, with which the Urdu language abounds, are 
formed in various ways, as follows : 

1 et from he root. 

Compound Verbs from the root are formed by prefixing an 
unconjugated root to, the conjugated verb. 

For instance, tiie compound verb L%J&' utha-dena is 
formed by prefixing f-he ucocnjugated root \tt\ utha to the con- 
j ugttted verb Lrj (Jena, to gire. 



( 127 ) 
verbs are 
t:> carry ; *>*n*k*\-deu*) t to 



The following compound verbs are of this sort : 



turn out ; t" 9 Ji (^(kaVdalna), to cut off ; Cb^ (ad- 

ja'na), to go to sleep ; t^^jX (bol-sakna) to be able to apeak, 
and U*^*r (kah-chukna), to have done saying, &c., 

Nous, The Verbs ^ bol-ea'kna to be 



able to speak, and L^ kar-sakna to be able to do, 

also serve the purpose of a potential mood, thus : / J^/jCx/ K*r* 

" 



Ijlaia bol sakta hun. I can speak. &c. 

t*S f f * ~ ' 

The Verbs [^X* kah-chukna 9 to have doa saying, 

jjj s 1 

l*+faf} likh-chukna to have done writing, and all 

i 

compound Verbs, formed by prefixing an unconjugated root to the 

,// 
Verb iJf to be finished, also serve the purpose of a futnrc 

perfect tense, thus: (^y^r^/Jw? jab maic likh chu- 

if t 

kunga, when I shall have done > writing ** when i shall have 

written, &c. 

2 from the Present Participle or Past Condition!. 

These are iormed by joining ths present patticiple or past 
conditional of a verb to the ver&s l\g jana, co go, and 

[s*J rahna, to remain as, t^l?X ^ta-jan^, to go on 

/ /* 'i 7 w i. ' 
speaking i t-*^^-^^ rote-ranna, to remain weeping, and soon. 



( 128 ) 

The present participle or past conditional must agree with the 
nominative in gender and number, thus : 
Main parhta jata' hun, I go on reading 

We parhte-jate hain, They go on reading. 
Ham parhte jate x hain, we go on reading. (ft 
The verbs thus formed express the continuous action 



3, from the Past Participle or Past Tense. 

The Compound Verbs formed from the past participle or post 
tense express a habitual action, and are formed by joining an 



uniniected past participle to the tenses of the verb \fj karna, 

t / * 

to do, thus: (tf^s^* main 



\fj 

t / * 

tf^s^U* main *J* 
I am in the habit of coming, 



4. From Nouns and Adjectives, 

Compound Verbs formed from nouns and adjectives are 
called nominals. They are formed by subjoining a verb regularly 
conjugated to an inflected noun or adjective, thus - Ch^ 

jftmi-karna, to collect 5 l*|^/ ghota-lagana, to div ; 

l^/l/ gali-dena,to abuse; iViy 

M / 

to diminish ; Itjliv kala-kwma, to blacken $ 

khali-karna, to make empty, etc., &c. 



GENKKAL REMAKK8. 

The Article. 
There is no article in the Urdu language. The numeral ^*v 

' S " 

" ek " (one) or the pronoun /I f " koi " (some body or any) is 

employed for the Indefinite Article a or an. The Demonstrative 
Pronouns ^"yih" (this) d9 " wuh" (that) represent the defi- 

nite article the. 

Arabic Compounds. 

2 Many Arabic Compound Nouns enter very freely into the 
Urdu language the second part of which has the definite article 



"al" of the language prefixed to it. Thus 

V / 

Sharns-ul-Haq, (the sun of the truth) which is composed of two 

^ * 

nouns ^T shams (the sun) ^ haq (the truth), and the 

second of which has the article /)/"al" before it according to 
the above rale. 

When the article precedes a noun beginning with one of the 

following thirteen letters wJ/^yy/J^/J?j? and ) it is 



silent and the following letter has the force of a double letter, thus 

//iDl/ Qamr-ud-din (the moon of religion). On the other 

hand if the article is prefixed to a noun commencing with any 

other letters, besides the above thirteen, the (J (lam) retains its 



If* 



( 130 ) 

sound, as X^i<Lx^ Abd-ul-karim (slave of the merciful). The 
letter preceding the article in both cases has a * (pesh) over it 
and is pronounced like "u" in fulJ or pull, excepting vowels. 

The alif is not sounded at all in any case but Lam is only sounded 
in the latter case. 



The use of Infinitive. 
3 Infinitives in Urdu are sometimes used as substantives, 



for instance; jf^Z'^' " Tumhara kahan se ana 

* / 
tmwa " (Where have you come from ?) which litierally translated 

* 
reads, " your coming (II } is from where " ? 

It is also used as Imperative, as l&^[JlJ " Wahan 

mat jana ;J (Do not go there). Here in this sentence l? is 

J \ 
used for )\& and so on. 

i 

Construction of the Reported Speech,. 

4 In reporting the speech of another there are two methods 
in English, namely, " Direct Construction," i.e., using the very 
words of the speaker, and " Indirect Construction *' i. e., ex- 
pressing the meaning of the speaker without using his precise 

words. 






( 131 ) 

The latter, which is more usual in English, is at all neglected 
in Urdu. 

Moreover the particle that which can neve be used in the 

direct construction in English is necessarily used in the same 
and the only construction of the Urdu language. 

EXAMPLE. 

Direct Indirect 

He said, " / am going He said that he was 

home.'* going home. 

The Urdu rendering of both will be (Jfi fyJ>( 

" Usne kaha ke main ghar jata hun, " which literally translated 

* 
reads " By him was said that I am going home." In Urdu (J^ 

f 
main is never changed into *J wuh in such sentences. 

The use of the particle " ne. n 

The particle ne is an agent affix. It is used only with Active 
Verbs and confined to the Past, Perfect, Pluperfect and Past 
Dubious tenses. The Verb then agrees in number and gender 
with the object and not with the nominative, as already pointed out 
in a special note in the formation of tenses. 



It will never be used with 
to speak. 



( 132 ) 

l) lana to bring, 

bhulna, to forget \^t> samajhna, to under- 

stand and with all Compound Verbs ending in ly jwna Lie 



bolna 



chukna $*' sakna Cl ana and \)& chalna. 

V 

The use of the Aorist. 

,0f the three most frequently used tenses in Urdu, the future, 
imprative and aorisb (or present potential) the last named is most 
frequently used, and, of course, in common with many other parts 
of speech, is consequently indefinite and hard to limit. 

Generally speaking it is the equivalent of the English " may ' 
" might " " should," or " would " and is used after such conjunc- 

tions as jJI agar if, Ji take, Jke, f* jo that, /ffj\ agarche 

/ * 

although, <^v'L^ > jab tak until, and )^l^ inubada, lest. 

Again it implies obligation or necessity, as exemplified by the 
English " must." 

It is often used for the future, pure and simple, and always in 
an indeterminate sense. Here are some examples, 



Shayad main kal jaun, 

Wuh mere pas kal nah 

/ / 
awe, 

Agar tumeresdth chale 
to main Agre ko cha- 
lun. 



I may go to-morrow. 

He must not come to 
me to-morrow. 

If thou will accompany 
me I will go to Agra. 






\ff 



( 133 ) 



I 





f o 





( 135 ) 
CHAPTER VI. 

The following dialogues, on different topics, given in thia 
Chapter, have been appended for the benefit of students and travel- 
<>t conversant with the language. 

MERCANTILE. 

1 Hundi leja' aur rupija jald la. Take the draft and bring the 

money quickly. 

2 Jaldi jao ke mujhe wa'qt par Be quick, that I maj have the 
rupiya miljawe. money in time. 

3 Baza'r jao] aur do gol laltai- Go to the bazar and buy a pair 
nen mol lao. of globe lanterns. 

4 Bilo'n ko ka'un wasul karega ? Who will collect the bills ? 

5 Kiya turn ne apne mal ka Have you insured your goods ? 
bima kafraya hai ? 

6 Pichhle sal kai saudagro'n Last year ieveral mercbanta 
ne' diwale nikale. had become bankrupts. 

7 Aj hundi ka kya' bhao' hai. What is the rate of exchange 

to-day. 

8 Bajttk jao 7 aur is hun<Ji ka Go to the Bank and get this 
rupiya lao. bill of exchange cashed. 

9 Pichhle sal turn ne kitni rui 



Urup ko bheji. 
10 Gihiin ki ab bahut mang hai. 



How much cotton did you send 
. to Europe last year. J 
There is a great demand for 

wheat now. 
11 Aj kal alitn ka bazar garm There is a brisk market for 

opium nov-a-days. 
What is the price of linseed 



hai. 



1 ' ! " ' i * 

12 Alsi ki qiinat fi tan kya hai. 

per ton. 9 

13 Falane saheb se' riipia milna^ It is very difficult to get money 
banut mushkil hai. of such a one. 

14 Ma*in bazar gaya tha, shakkar I have been to the bazar, sugar 
fi'rupia' sarhe' tin ser bikti is now 3 seers a rupee. 

hai. 













. irf 



' 






15 Main ka'r-o-bar janta hum 
ED a j ho fareb den a dushwar 
hai. 

16 Bazar ka' nirkb thik ma'lu'm 
nahin hosakta'. 

17 Kalkatte^ men bazar kanirkh 
do ghari bhi eksao nahin 



raW 



18 Tumne unhen nainune se 
mila-lija hai, we barabar 
hain ? 

19 Do ya tin gat{he sab se 
behtar hain. 

' * // / * ' / 

20 Ek kishti karke in chizon 

ko jahaz par bhej-dc/. 

21 Ek waqt rai ki tajarat bahut 
faidema*nd thi, magar ab aisi 
nahin hai. t f * . 

22 Qihun, alsi^ haddi, aurun 



bahut ziyada Hindostan se 
Urup ko' jata hai. 

23 Suti kapre par ane ka mahsul 
mauquf hogaya hai. 

24 Wuh kahta hai aj jahaz men 
asbab nahin lad sakta hai. 

25 Jo wuh kahta hai use' mat 
maW, jo main kahta hun 
use sund. 

26 Daryaft karo ke kab jahaz 
rawana hoga aur mujhe 
khabar do. 



137 ) 

I understand business, and am 
not to be imposed upon. 

There is no understanding the 
bazar prices. 

In Calcutta the bazar rate is 
scarcely for two hours alike. 

Have yon corjnpard them with 
the sample, do they agree ? 

Two are three packages are 
superior. 

Get a boat and send these 
things on board the ship. 

Dealing in cotton was once very 
profitable but it is not so 
now. 

Large quantities of wheat 

linseed, myrobolans and wool 

are exported from India to 

Europe. 
The import duty on cotton 

piece goods is abolished. 
He says the goods cannot be 

shipped to-day. 
Don't mind what he says, but 

mind what I say. 

Enquire when the ship sails 
and bring me word. 



( 138 











( 1*9 ) 

27 Kainpani ke kaghaz par baza'r What is the discount on the 

men kya batta hai. company's paper m the j)azar 
* *''*/ ?/' / 

28 Yih chithiyan thikane ke Send these letters as directed. 

muwafiq bhej-do'. 

29 Par mat ghar se' ye 7 chizen Bring those goods in. carts 

/ f */ / / * ^ 

gari men lao. from the custom-house. 

30 Mai lene' se pahle turn ko You must pay for your goods 

rupiya' deiia' chahiyel before you can get them. 

31 Jis mal ki main ne farmaish If I do not get the goods order- 
ki hai iniijhe wa*qt par cd in proper tirne i, will not 
pahunchna chahiye nahin to 7 take them. 

main nah lunga. 

32 Baze sa'uda'gar dagha bazi se Some traders fraudtrlently go 
diwala nikalte hain. through the insolvency court. 

33 Arab jahaz-rani men mash- Arabs are famous for aaviga- 
hur hain. , tion. 

34 Tufani hawa ke ba'is jahazi Owing to the stormy weather 
karobar bahut tezi par nah there has not been much 
thaya (bfthdt maddharn tha). doing in shipping business. 

35 Nat silsdft puraW se 7 ma*nhgi The old rape-seed is dearer than 
hai, t the new. 

36 Ab til kasrat se ate hain. (Jingelly is now coming in 

; more freely. 

37 Qhalan lekar jaldi wahan Take the invoice and go there 
jao. directly. 

38 Main in gajhriyon ko khud t cainot myaeif cppa these 
nahin khol sakta hun. packages. 

39 Wuh kyun kar uaukrikare'ga 7 How does he n#an to do his 
use rcz hi bukhar rahta hai. work, he has a fever daily. 

40 Mere pa's kbarkJ-o-fa"rokht T have by me the accounts of 
ka hisab hai sales and purchases. 



( wo ; 









J 





if- 



4 1 Isko jakar ki bahi meq likhlo', 
khate men nah likhna. 

42 Robinson sahab kal jahaz 
par rawana' honge, unka 

^ / w f v 

hisab taiyar hai ? 

43 Inam-ul-Haq, jakar bahi, 
roznamcha, aur khite ki 

w ' w / ' ' t 

bahi aur bechne ki bahi sath 

44 Hisab mujhko do', main 
jahaz par jaunga, aur tasfia 
kar ke rupia launga. 



Enter this in the waste-book 
and not in the ledger. 

Mr. Robinson will sail to- 
morrow, is his account ready? 

Inam-ul-Haq, bring the waste- 
book, journal, and ledgei 
with the book of sales, with 
you. 

Give me the account, I will go 
on board the ship, settle it 
and get the money. 



GARDEN. 



1 Wuh har roz qabal haziri 
khane fce apne' bagh men ta- 
halta hai. 

*r * * t I /' 

2 Main is zamin men tarkari 
boni chahta bun. 

3 Kiya turn ne us chaman ko 
darust kiya hai. 

4 Malka ke bagh jao alir kai 
tarah ke bij lao. 

5 In jharion ko kat-daloaur in 
bijon ko wahan bo-do'. 

6 Subh ko jab phulon par os 
hoti hai tab we bahut khush- 
budar aur khubsurat ma' lam 
hote hain. 

7 Is darakht ke patte dawa 

/ i / /, / i ". 
men kam ate hain. 



He takes a short walk in his 
garden every morning before 
breakfast. 

I wish to make a kitchen-g . 

den of this ground. 
Have you put that new piece 

of ground in order. 
Go to the*Queen's garden and 
bring some seeds of different 
. sorts. 
Cut down these bushes and sow 

these seeds there. 
Flowers smell sweetest and look 
prettiest when they are 
covered with dew drops in 
the morning. 

The leaves of this plant are 
used as medicine. 



( 142 ) 






oo 






( 143 ) 



8 Yeh zamin banjar hai ye bij 
yahan nahin ug sikte bain. 

9 Is diwa'r ke pass ek qatar 
gulab ki la'gao aur us tiraf ki 

donon kiyaryon men kuchh 

" i *'i ' i * " 
guMaltj lagao. 

10 In kiyaryon men knehh- 
chambeli' ke' darakht lagao. 

11 Tumhara bagh kalian Imi aur 
us men kaun kalin me we hain ? 

12 Us purane darkht ka tana' 
khokhla hai aur shahad ki 

makhyon ne us men chhatta 

i * * ' i '* 
lagaya hai 

13 Yeh bij aur paude lo aur inko 
fa'uran bo'-do. 

14 In khiishbiidar dara'khton kd 

jahantak ho sake kothi ke pas 

i i i* ff 
hi lagao. 

15 Mausam par in darkhton ko 
chhant-dd aur unki qalmon 
se aur darakhton me'n pewand 



^ 

16 In darakhton ki chhal se 
ohamra kamaya jata hai. 

17 Us se kaho hSr roz char gul- 
_*.// /,, ' t 1 1 i 
daste, aur do khwan mewe ke 
// */. //r/ -. f / 

la we, main use mam dupga, 

18 Us phul ko zara dekhkar 
torna, kyun ke uski dandi 
men kante lage hain. 



This ground is barren, these 
seeds canpot grow here. 

By this wall plant a line of 
roses and in both beds of 
that side plant some tulips. 

Plant some jasmine trees in 

these beds. 
Where is your garden and what 

fruit it produces ? 
The trunk of that old tree is 

hollow, and the bees have 

made their hive in it. 

Take these seeds and plant" 
and plant them iinmidiately 

Plant these aromatic shrubs 
as near the house as possible. 

Prune these trees in the proper 
season and engraft the other 
with the cuttings from these. 

The barlr of these treesie used 

in tanning leather. 
Tell him to bring every day 

four nosegays, and two 

trays of fruit, I will give 

him a present. 
Be careful in plucking that 

flower as it has thorns on 

the stalk. 




( 144 ) 






J I rxv; 




( 145 ) 



19 In kiya'ryo'n ko' ghds aur 
kanton ne gher ifya hai. 

20 Iski kiya wajah hai ke aisi 

garhi ga'd hamesha is tala'b ke 

.' " . " '. * , : , 
pani par jami rabti hai. 

21 Baz phiil aksar sha'in k6 khfl- 

te haiu a"ur subh ko murjha 
. / . / , >. 
jate hum. 

22 Is talab ka sab pani nikal 

j ' i ' 

^ , , ' 

23 Uske bagh men dimak kas- 

rat se ho-gai hai^ u"nhoQ ne 
phulon ki sab kiyaryon ka 

*t ' ' ' 1 " T* ' 1 ** 

satya nas kar uiya hai. 

24 Bij bonewala kiyaryon men 
bij bakher-raha hai. 

** / / / ^ * * 

25 In kheton men hai achchhi 
taran chalao. 

26 Mali se' kaho ke pain-e-bagh 
men matar aur gajar bo-dewe. 



These beds are over-ran with 

weeds and thorus. 
How is it that such a thick 

scum is always on the 

water of this pond. 
Some flowers generally blow 
in the evening aud wither 

away the next morning. 
Drain off all the water of this 

pond. 
His garden 13 infested with 

white-ants they have dist- 

royed whole beds of fiowers. 

The sower scatters seeds in the 

furrows. 
Plough these fields well. 

Tell the gardener to plant the 

further garden with peas 

and carrots. 
These are fresh seeds, sow them 

carefully. 
What will you take for four 

baskets of greens'? 
Settle something monthly. 
I want a basket of fruits and 

four nosegays daily. 



SPORTING. 

1 Ham kal shikar ko jaweinge. We will go out shooting to- 
morrow. 



27 Yih taze bij hain in ko ho- 
shyari se bona. 

28 Turn char tokre tarkari ka 
kya loge ? 

29 Kuchh mahinewar thairaiye'. 

_ -m**-! ' i^j'i' / ' i f 

30 Mujhe char tokre me we ke 
aur char guldaste roz chahi- 



2 Kaun se jangal men bahut 
shikar hai. 

3 Aj kal Jamna men bahut 
rnurghabiyan hain. 

4 Is jangal men haran, nilgai, 
ba'ra singe, khargosh, mor, 
titar, bate'ren, a"ur bahut se 
aur shikari parand kasrat se' 
milte hain. 

5 Is gaon me'n se kisi ad mi ko 
baJaojo hamko shikar batt- 
lawe. 

6 Is barudLko dKup men sukhao' 

* / * / ' " * 
kyurike wuh gili hai. 

7 Us bherya ko dekho, jo us 
jhari ke pichhe chhip raha' 
hai. 

** (/ / V / 

8 Yih kaisi cluryarj hain ? 

9 Is jhil men murghabiyan 
hain. 

10 Turn us sher ko kab marue 

. / / / - 

ja-oge? 

1 1 Us bherye ko mat maro, 

^ / , V V 1 , I . I I I 

wama haran bhag jawenge. 

12 Is darya men bahut machh- 
liyaii hain. 

13 Tumhare pas kitni raachh- 
liyan pakarne ki chharen 
hain ? 

14 Us ne uske machbli pakarne 7 
ke saman ko kharab kardiya 
hai. 

15 Tunoheij ma'lum hai ke 

* tl * I V 

kuchh shikar hai. 



In what forest is there much 
game ? 

Now a days there are many 
teals in the Jamna. 

In this forept deer, nilgai) stags, 
hares, peacocks, partryiges, 
quails and many other birds 
of game are found in abun- 
dance. 

Send for a man from this vil- 
lage who may show as 
sports. 

Dry this gun-powder in the sun 
as it is damp. 

Look at that wolf, which is 
hiding behind that bush. 

What sorbs of birds are these ? 
There are wild-ducks in this 

lake. 
When will you go to shoot that 

tiger? 
Do not shoot that wolf, or the 

deer will go away. 
There are many fishes in this 

river. 
How many fishing rods have 

you ? 

He has spoiled his fishing 
apparatus. 

Do you think there is any game 
here ? 




( 148 ) 










*( 149 ; 

1C Ifarghabi ne abhi dubki The teal has just dived, but 
(ghota) lagaya 7 hai magar will soon appear again, 

jahli phir nikle'gi. 

17 Pjchhle hafte' me'n main ne I killed three deer in this 
is jangal men tin haran forest last week. 



> 
mare. 



18 In logon se kaho ke* sham ko Ask these people to beat up 

hamare waste jangal jharen. the game for us in the even- 
ing. 

19 Eb ya do ro'z ham yahanjL Let us Jyyjt here a diiy or two 
maqani karke' dekhen ke andsfetfifwe can get wjme 
kuchh shikar bhi hath ata shooting. 

bai ya nahin. 

20 Yih shakhs kabta hai ke bar This man says there is game 
qism ka shikar behut pas hi of all kinds very near. 



il sakta hai. 



TRAVELLING. 

i se Kaikatta kitDi'diir How far is Calcutta from Del hi, 
hai. 

2 Yt? dereifs cljhakre par la'clo. Load that cart with thes> l^nfs. 

3 Ye bail bahut ahisttv cbalfce These bullocks move very s' 



t 
4 k*rjt>an bankejao, dhup tez. Driver, go ou, tbe *un i5 . 



t?nghot 

5 Gari balu / ft^^i The cart has stuck iu tLe 



!V ,<.,,- sand. 

6 Paiyeko utLao aur^/^^ Lift up thewbeel 

^ ej ; , . ", cart. 

7 Ikkepar w yeh sab cbizep Take tbesif things down from 



8 TuVa a nba' i.ai, sab darva'- Tv Te i s a .lorn, eoaiog, shut 
ze ba'nci kai do. al , lte docri _ 



' / > / / I 

y Dere jald khau karo. 

10 In sanduqon ko dere' men 
rakkho, 

1 1 Dekho dere' ki mekhen a*ur 
rasyan khub mazbiit hain. 

12 Us dere 7 ki rasyon ko khub 
kas ke banJhdo. 

13 Agarche menh khub baras 
raha hai magar taubhi hawe 
ke jhoko'n se dere' men bahut 
khak chali iiti hai. 

14 Barsat men dero'ij meQ rahne 
se x bari taklif hoti hai. 

15 Jab tufan ata hai to dar 
rahta hai ko dere'sar par nab 
a-,paren. 

16 Kalkatte' ki's wa"qt rel jati hai. 

1 7 Agar turn chahte ho ke rel 
milja'we to' tumko' fstation 
waqt par pahonchna ohahiyeC 

18 Musafron ko chahye ke apne 7 

apne asbab ki khabar rakhen . 
*/ 

19 Yih larka bahut bara hai, 

adhe kiraye men nahin ja- 
wega. 

20 Chand ro'z ke^ HycT e'k kishti 
kiraya karo, 

21 Apni sab chizen taiyar karo 

kyun ke tumhen m^re sa'th 

1*1* x i ' 

chalnn hoga. 



151 ) 

Hive these tents up soon. 
Put these boxes in the tent. 

See that the tent pins and ropes 

are well secured. " 
Fasten the ropes of that tent 

tight. 
Although heavy rain ia falling, 

the gusts of wind are still 

bringing clouds of dust into 

the tents. 
It is very uncomportable to be 

in tents in the rainy season. 
When the storm comes, there 

is risk of the tents coming 

down about the ears. 
At what time the train goes to 

Calcutta. 

If you wish to catch the train 
you muit reach the station 
in time, 

Passingers are required to take 
care of their own luggage. 

This is a grown up bo}, he 
cannot be carried at half- 

fare ' jft^ ddy* 

Hire a boat for a jpooifin timn 

Get all your things read/ as 
you will have to go with me. 




( 152 ) 













)br 



( 153 ) 

22 Darzi se kaho ke ek kurta mere Tell the tailor to cut a coat for 
liye qat'a kare' a"ur sina shuru, me and begin to sew it, and 

when it is ready to send it 
t> me by some body. 



intend to return in a week 
perhaps it may be two or 
three days more. 



karde, aur jab wuh taiyar ho' 

jawe kisi admi ke hath 

i ' i ' ' 
bhejdewe. 

23 Mera irada ek hafte' men I 
wapas aneka hai ajab nah in 

jo do tin din aur ziyada ho' 
jawe'n. 

24 Jahan tak hosake asbab kam Reduce baggage to as little as 

possible to avoid both ex- 
pense and inconvenience. 
If we travel by land we must 
pack everything properly to 
guard against losses by the 



kardo take taklif kain ho aur 
kharach bhi bahut nah pare. 

25 Agar ham khushki ka safar 
karen to har chiz ko sambhal 
kar bandh lena chahiye' take 
naukron ki ghaflat se kuchh 
nuqsan nah ho-jawe. 

26 Admiyon s^ kahdo' ke deron 
ko pani ke pas khare kiya 
karen. 

4 * / / / v / / 

27 Kal hamen ek bare darya se 

f. / / to / / 
utarna parega. 

28 Is darya ka bara pat hai. 

29 Toshak khane ka sama'n isi 
kishti par rakhdewe'n j& jud\ 
kishti cbahiye ? 

30 Ek kishti bAwarche khane ke 
waste, ek batal khane' ke' 

waste aur do shagird peshon 

-, f i , ; * i 
Ice waste do. 

31 Kapro'n ke sandiiqo'n ko 
kishti ke upar rakho kyonke 

unki libas badalne ke liye 

* f i f * . 
zarurat hoti hai. 



carelessness of servants. 

Tell the people to pitch the 
tents near the water. 

We have to cross a large rivet- 
to-morrow. 

This river is very wide. 

Is the wardrobe to be put in 
this boat or must there be a 
separate one ? 

Give one boat for the kitchen, 
one for the pantry, and two 
for the domestics. 

The chest of clothes that ar 
necessary for change of dre^s 
let them be put on L 
the boat. 



* 



( 154 ) 













C 15S j 

32 Rat ke waqt chaukidar ko The watchman mast be on the 
bahut hoshy a'r rahna chahjye alert at night otherwise we 
nahin, to hamare yahan zarur 

chori hojawegi. 

33 Turn hare' zile mr'u barish ka 
kya hai hai. 

34 Dere ke itni pas khaua nah 



shall oertainly be robbed, 



pakao, kyun ke dhwen se 
hamara dam ghuta jata hai. 



What is tha state of rain in 

your district. 
Do not cook so near the tent, 

as we are almost stifled with 

the smoke. 



HOUSEHOLD. 



1 Turn bazar se khane ke' wa'ste 

kya mol le'ne' jate ho'. 

_, / v / / / f 

2 Murghi aur matfhhli ke siva 
a\ir kuchh nahin milta. 

3 Ap khana kis waqt kha- 
weng^. 

4 Us tukre ka kabab karo, 

5 Yih go'sht khub nab in pakka 

hai. 

* i x / * i / 

6 Us gobhi ko ubalo. 

7 Yih makkhan achchha nahin 
hai.^ 

8 Ha'zire 7 ke' liye' kuchh ande Get some eggs for breakfast. 



What are you going to get for 
dinner in the market. 

There was nothing to be had 
except fowls and fish. 

When do you wish dinner ? 

Roast that piece. 

This meat is not well done. 

Boil that cabbage. 
This butter is not good. 



. / 
lao. 



9 Mujrie' kuchh aur dudh do. 

10 Hath dhone 7 ko pani lao' aur 
bahre se' kaho' ke' ha'zfri' 






11 Yih chhun aur kanta saf 
nahin hain. 

12 Tumhari danist men liame / n 
wahan kuchh khane ki chiz 
mil-sakti hai ya naain. 



Give me some more milk. 

Bring water to wash my hands 
and tell the bearer to bring 
the breakfast. 

This knife and fork are not 
clean. 

Do you think we can get any- 
thing to eat or drink there ? 



( 157 

13 Is chhuri par san dharao'. 

14 Mujhe kuchh namak, mirch 
aur sirka do. 

1 5 Cha garm nahin hai. 

16 Dhobi nj aya hai ? 



17 Hamara dhobi hamare kapre 

* i ' i ' ' i * - 
nahixj laya hai 

18 Tumne' is men bahut kalaf 
diya hai. 

19 Turn hamare kapron par 
istari achchhi kyun nahin 
karte ho ? 

** ** / V ^ V ^ 

20 Yih kapra achchi tarahh 
.?ufed nahin hue. 

21 Turn kapre pharte ho kha- 
bardari se dhoya karo'. 

22 Tumne kapre bahut kharab 
dhoe hain aur turn har hafte' 
kapre nahin late ho. 

23 Agar kapre a*chchhe nah 
dho-oge aur thik waqt par 
nah Jaoge' to' turn alahda 
kardiye' ja^ge aur makan turn 
se' khali kara Hya jawega. 

24 Dekho phir mujhe is bare 
men kahne ki zarurat nah 



Get this knife sharpened. 
Give me some salt, pepper and 

venegar. 

The tea is not^ warm. 
Has the washerman come to* 

day? 
Our washerman has not brought 

our clothes. 

i 

You have starched this too 

much. 
Why do you not iron our 

clothes well ? 

These clothes are not white 
enough. 

You tear my clothes, you must 
be more careful. 

The washing is very badly done ; 
and you do not bring the 
clothes every week. 

If the clothes are not properly 
cashed and brought at the 
right time you will be dis- 
missed and the house will be 
taken from you. 

Mind, I will not te)l you again 
about this matter. 



/. .' . / 



25 Turn jao aur dhobi ko Rath You go and bring the washer- 
lekar ao. man with you. 

26 Mam abhi ghusal nahin I will not bathe just now. 
karunga. 



' 



Ek jora saf kapron ka lao. Get me a suit of clean clothes. 



( 158 ) 













( 159 > 



28 Yih qamis phati hai, dusri 

t ' ' 
lao. 

29 Yih mozon ki jori bahut 
ta*ng hai. 

30 Is kurte ko khub brush se' 
jharo. 

31 MeW kurta, paejama, aiir 
jute x kahan hain. 



This shirt is torn, I want 

another. 
This pair of stockings is too 

tight. 
Brush this coat; well.. 



Where are inj coat, 
and shoes ? 



trousers 



32 Sahib, mujhe' ma'lu'm na- I don't know, Sir. 
bin. 

* ^ / / V f I 

33 Tain kis kam ke naukar ho, 
jo turn mere kapron ki bhi 
kharbardari nahin rakhte'. 

^ it * / v * * 

24 Yih in era qusur nahin hai 

i ' i ' * ' * t ' w ii' 
kyunke apne unhen mujhko 

sapiird nah kije the 7 , 
35 Yih turn kiya kahte ho, yih 
tumhara kam hai our turn 
ko mere kapron ki Kuchh 
khabar nahin. 

46 Phir aisa huwa to' turn fauran 

w i s -i ' i * iit i 
alnhda kiye jaoge, 

47 Yih chitthi Jones Saheb ke 

I t / /*'* * * **-*-* ' A / 

pas lejao aur jawab ke waste 
thairo. 

38 Mehtar se' kaho ke^ is jagah 
ko khub saf kare. 

39 In kutton ki khub khabar- 
dari karo a*ur unhen subh 
aiir pham roz phiraya karo. 

40 Dai aur baohcha (baba) 
kahan hai. 



Of what use are you 00 a ser- 
vant if you can't even look 
after my clohes. 

It is not my fault, because you 
did not entrust them to my 
care. 

What is this you ay ? It is 
your work and you know 
nothing about my clothes. 

If such a thing happens again, 
you will immediately receive 
your dismissal. 

Take this note to Mr. Jones 
and wait for an answer. 

4 

Tell the sweeper to clean thia 

place well. 
Take good care of these dogg 

and take them out every 

morning and evening. 
Where is the nurie and the 

baby. 



( 160 








< n > 



HOUSE, RIDING, ETC. 

1 Saia seghoralaue kolraho. Tell the groom to bring the 

, horse, 

2 Ap ghore par hawa kha'ne' Are you going for a fide ? 
jute ham. 

3 Is bachhe're' ki kiya umar What is the age of this colt, 
hai. 

Main ab bahar jata hun, sais I am now going out, tell the 

se kaho' ke' ghora' taiyar kare' syce to get the horse ready. 

5 Chabuk kahan hai ? Where is the whip ? 

6 Turn ghore' ki' khub khabar- You must take good care of the 
dari karo'. horse. 

7 Use' ro'z ta'ze' pani se' dhoya' Wash him with fresh water 



karo. 



every day. 



8 Jo ghas him use do tazi a"ur Let the grass you give him be 

saf ho. fresh and clean. 

$ Yih ghora bahut gharib hai. This horse is very quiet. 

10 Turn ko ma'lum hai ke koi Do you know of any horse and 
ghora aur gari bikau hai. carriage for sale. 

1 1 Is ghore' ki turn kiya' dallali What brokerage do you charge 
lete ho'. for this horse. 

1 2 Is Arabi ghore ke' bare men What is your opinion about 

/ '/*/*/ 

fcpki kya rae hai ? 

1 3 Abhi to' bachhera hi hai. 

r ,' ' / , - * 

1 4 Is ghore par zin kaso. 

15 Adh ghante ke qarib usko 

I, ./ / 
thlao. 

16 Wuh khub gardan banakar 
chalta hai aur dil daul ka 
achchha hai. 

17 Is ghora ka kitna qad hai ? 



this Arab horse. 

He is quite a colt yet. 

i 
Saddle this horse. 

Walk him about for half an 

hour. 
He carries his head remarkably 

well and is well formed. 

What is the height of thise 
horse ? 















itr 



( 163 ) 

18 Do gbore kbush rafta'r kharid Buy two hoxaes that have good 

paces. 
Hold the stirrup while 1 get 

up. 
My grey horse is very swift. 



karo. 

19 Rakab thambe raho' jab main 
sawdV bun. 

20 Mera sabza bara tez rafta'r 
bai. 

21 Main bagb men a'ne ja'ne ke I want to set up a chariot to go 
liye gari 

bun. 



banwana' chahta 



backwards, and forwards to 

the garden. 

*> i ~ * > 

22 Us chakkar men use dulki Make him trot round that 



chalao. 



circle. 



ask for shoing him ? 
Moisten the horse's gram. 

Rub all the horses well and 
keep the bedding clean. 

I have sold my black mare as 
she was very dull. 



23 Na'lband uski nal lagwai kiya' What does the showing-smith 
mangta hai. 

24 Ghore ka dana 6higo-do'. 

25 Sab gboron ko khub malo, 
aur bichali ko saf rakho. 

26 Main no* apnf mushki ghori 

benchdi hai kiyunke' wuh 

* / / 

bahut matthi thi. 

27 Ghore' ki ayal aur dum ach- Cut the mane and tail of the 
chbi tarab tarasho. horse properly. 

28 Yib ghora thokar babut khata This horse stumbles very much 
hai, iski sawari men khatra there is danger in riding 
hai. him. 

29 Main ek ghora kharidna I wish to purchase a horse, 
chahta 7 hup, tumhari kiya what is your advice ? 

salah bai ? 
gO Behtar hai kisi dallal se 

pucbhye' kyunke usko in baton 

men ziyada dakhai bai. 
31 Mai$ ne siina hai ke yahan 

ke dallal bare dagbabaz bain 
> f i i */ ^1 ^ i * i " 



aur logo'n ko thagte bain. 



You had better consult a broker, 

as he knows more about 

such things. 
I have heard that the brokers 

here are great knaves 

cheat people. 



fe.fl ' r *' 




















( 165 ) 

32 Astabal men kitne than khali' How many stalls in the stable 
hain. are unoccupied. 

33 Yih gari bahut bhari' hai, This carriage is very heavy, my 
mera ablaq aur surang ghora 

use nahin khinch sakte. 

3 4 Main ek jori' hamrang chahta 
hup, unka rang mushki, ya 



piebald and chestnut horses 
cannot draw it. 



sura*ng, ya samand, ya' nnrjra 



ho'. 



I want u pair of one clour, let 
them be black or chestnut 
or bay or white. 



35 Wuh fe f . ^ ^ ?m 

hazar rupiye men dene par 
razi hai. 

36. Mujhe' andesha hai ke' koi 
diisra a'dmi khwahish se / use 

r> oVv 1 /I / ' I X 1 * \ t ' 

naia lelewe kyunke ghora 
bahut ae^chha hai aur a'pke^ 
htfth se jata lahe ! 

37 Main ghore ko kahan band- 
hun. 

38 Chabuk-sawar se kaho kehar 
roz in ghoron ko' kawa 7 deke 
gari ke liye taiya'r kare. 

39 Kisi salotari ko bulwaV 

40 Ek nai b^g do'r \&o. 



lie has consented to give thi* 
bay horse for one thousand 
rupees. 

I fear, as this horse is very fine, 
that some person, taking a 
fancy to him, shoald buy 
him i and he may slip out of 
your hands ! 

Where shall I tie the horse ? 

Tell the coachman to lunge 
these horses every day and 
break them in for a carriage. 

Send for a farrier. 

Get a new halter. 



MILITARY, 

1 Yahansc chhanwni kitni diir How far is the Cantonment 

hai V from here V 

^ / / / ** / / / 

* Baghyon ne (jile' ko gher The rioters surrounded the fort. 

liyaT 

3 Wuh kal haziri ke waqt He was absent at the roll-call 



azi 
ghair hizir tha. 



last night. 







* (Jl2-if<(fW&fuye-Jn$S& 

i'$l&$*jitffe/; r ' 





4 Aj kil kante ki paret hogi. 



5 Meri talvvar a*iir iniyan par 
zang 1%-gaya hai, 

6 Is chaiinwni men pairet ka 
maidan achchha' hai. 

7 Main chandawal men tha jab 
dushman ke pahunchne ki 
khftbar hainko mill. 

8 Dushman ne' hamari harawal 
par tarke hi hamla kiya'. 

9 Bhari banduqou wale' sipahi 
age barhen. 

10 Qlla' hath se' nikal hi gay a 
tha ; . 

11 Hawalat ki chabi kiske x pa's 
hai. 

12 Larai men hathyar aur zor se' 
ausali zfyada kam ate hain. 

13 Elchi kabhi mare^nahin jate 
aur nah qaid hote hain. 

14 Turn ne kaunsa kartus bhara' 

hai, golidar ya khali ? 

15 Topi ranjak kha gai hai. 

16 Achchhi tarah shast id. 



17 Tum-ne ghora charha liya 
hai? 

18 Chapp kholo'. 

19 Saagin aur giz saf karo. 



20 Kali aur kanda khub malo. 



There will be an inspection 

parade to-day. 
My sword and pcabbont have 

become rusty. 
There is a very good parade 

ground in this Cantonment. 
I was in the rear-guard when 

the news of the enemy* 

approach reached us. 
The enemy attacked our ad- 
vanced-guard early in the 

morning. 

Let the sepoys whose mnskeU 

are loaded come forward. 
The fort was nearly lost. 

Who has the key of the lock- 
up. 

Courage is more useful than 
arras and strength in war. 

Ambassadors are never put to 
death nor imprisoned. 

What catridge have you put 

in, ball or blank ? 
The cap has misfired. 
Take aim properly. 

Have you cocked the piece ? 

Open the lock* 

Clean the bayonet and the ram- 
rod. 
Hub the barrel and &took well. 



( 168 ) 










( 169 ) 



21 11 ii A no qila banakar dash- 
man ko bhagajtt* 

22 Ham ghat men baithe the We were lying in 



/ 



aur dushman ke ate hi ham 
uspar ekdam tut-pare. 



We formed square and routed 
the enemy. 

siiph, and 

on the enemy's arrival BUT' 
prised them. 



23 Kal qila' par inuhlat ka A flag of truce was hoisted on 



nishan eharhaya gay a. 

24 Pahle dushman ne ham par 

s ^!fct hamla' kiya' magar 
akhir ham ne unko shakast 

af. 

25 Ham ne dushman ka' sab 
sa'man liitliya 



the fort yesterday. 

The enemy at first attacked us 
severely, but subsequently 
we routed them. 



We plundered all tho baggage 
of the enemy. 

26 Toton ne pital ki' chhotitop The parrots fired the small 
apnf'chonchon se chhori. brass-cannon 

beaks. 

27 Uski bhari bandiiq ittifaqaii His loaded gun 



with their 
was let >ff 



u"i " ! 

chalgai. 



accidentally. 



28 Salar fauj Sir Wm. Lockha'rt H. E. Sir William Lockhart 

ne Miru^h ki fauj ki' qawai'd reviewe i the troops at 

Meerut, and Maj.-Geni. Sir 

Bin don i31ood was also 



K, aur Major General Sir 



Bindon 
tbt. 



Blood bhi hazir 



present. 
Har ek pal tan jate waqt apna Each regiment was 'played past 



baja baiati thi. 
30 I^ii s ^ pahan top khane ki 
<*o t*e / n ^j rawanibongi". 

Ham ne 
satpataya. 



men 



by its own band. 

Two guns of the Mountain 
Battery leave Delhi to-day. 

We surprised the ?uemv lf 
n i g ht. 



32 Ham ne dushman ki fauj ke W T e attacked the mam-body of 
" 



qalb par ha"mla kiya. 



the enemy's army. 




( no 
















( 1 

33 Hamari topon ke golon men 
se ek ne' dusk man ka' tama'm 
barut khana ur,a diya'. 

34 Turn kftne' ro'z se x qawai'd 
sikhte' ho 7 . 

35 Tnmhe'n rangin patloon, cha- 
pras, aur jh61a' mila hai. 

36 Kal rat lain men kya fa^ad 
howa ? 

37 Kal ko^ chand mari nah 

i > f 
hogi. 

38 Tumhari banduq kf ckanp ki 
, kamani kamzor hai. 

39 Piyale men ranjak kail' hai. 



40 Tuinhari banduq ke/ nah 
chhutne ka klya sabab hai. 

41 Tumhari band a) ki nali' kab 
rangi gai thi. 

42 Tumhara tosdan kahan hai ? 

43 Ek shakhs me'gzin men 
dakhil huwa aur wahan se ek 
banduq aur kuchh petian 
aar partale legaya. 

44 Unhon ne' nihatte admtyoa 

v,,/', / ,^ / / 

par khub ag birau. 

45 Jab Kaptan Sahib ne Man 
Singh se a'ge barhne ko 7 kaha. 
usne apne hathyar daldiye' a*nz 
kaha ke' jab tak meri charhi 
hui tan^hwah nah milegi main 
ek qadaia bhi nahiu barhun- 



One of our cannon blew up* 
the whole of the enemy'f 
magazine. 

How long have you been at 
drill. . 

Have you received fatigue- 
pantaloons, breast-plate and 
knapsack. 

what disturbance took place 
in the Lines last night. 

There will be no target-practice 
to-morrow. 

The main-spring of your Jock 
is weak. 

There is sufficient priming in 
the pan. 

What is the cause of your 
musket misfirii 

When were the barrels of your 
musket last browered. 

Where is your pouche. 

A man entered the arsenal and 
has taken away from it ft 
musket, a double-barrelled 
giro, and a number of waist- 
belt and cross-belts. 
They poured a Heavy fire on 
defenceless people. 

When the Captain ordered Ma n 
Singh to advance, he threw 
down his arms and refused to 
advance R step further until 
he received his arrears of 
pay. 



46 Top bahiit zor se pichhe' ko 
hati'. 

47 Jiin jun bam bajrhte jat^ 
theAfri'di pichhe hatte jate 
the. 

48 Turn kyun ^ age barb* jab 
we pichhe ko hate. 

49 Uske pas hukum aya hai jab 
tak tumhari jan men jan hai 
qila' dushman ko nab dena. 

50 Usne chand mari ke' waqt 
chand par g6li mari aur 
gulzari par lagne men zara 
hi si kasar rahgai. 

51 Agar ham .ddshman par 
chfiapa marte to. zariir fateh 
p4te. 

52 Me'ri bandiiq ki makkhi 
tut gai hai. 

53 Dargai ki sarak bahut retli 
hai aur bare bare path- 
thai pare' huwe bain. 

54 Afridion ne apne bacha6 ke 
waste kathgara bana liya tha 
isjiye ham unpar hamla nah 
kar sake'. 

55 Meri bandiiq ka ^hora aur 
laplapi dhili ho-gai hain. 

56 Safar mama ka Uavaldar 
kahta hai ke main ne shitabe 
men ag laga di, magar bariit 
rat ke barish ki wajah se silhi 
thi ur nah saki. 



The recoil of the gun was rerj 

violent. 
As we 1 were advancing the 

Afridis were retreating. 



Why did you not advance whe n 

they retreated. 
He received orders to defend 

the fort to the last extremity. 

At target practice he fired at 
the target and almost hit 
the bulFs eye. 

If we had surprised the enemy 

we should undoubtedly have 

gained the victory. 
The sight of my musket hua 

been broken. 
The road to Dargai Ls very 

rocky and covered with large 

B tones. 
The Afridis had stockaded 

themselves, so we could not 

Attack them 

The cock and triggers of my 
musket have become loose. 

The Havildar of the Pioneers 
says that he fired the train 
in the mine, but as the gun- 
powder was damp owing 
to last night's rain, it did not 
explode. 



( 175 ) 



57 Kal^ chare ki' qillat (kami) There will be scarcity of 
hogi kyiiiike jis mulk men fodder to-morrow, as the 

hokar ham dtlshman ke* pas 
pahunchepge wuh banjar 



country through which the 
enemy must be approached 
is lying barren. 

58 Do sfpahi, ek tambiirchi, Two sepoys, one drummer, two 
da bansn wale alir panch fifers and five buglers wh 

went to answer the call o* 
nature in this neighbouring 
forest, were attacked by the 
enemy and one of them was 
killed. 

The bridge of the river which 
comes in our way to-morrow 
has been washed away and 
the river is too deep and the 
stream too svift to admit 
of fording it and there are 
no boats. 

The Sappers and Miners are 
engaged in throwing over a 
pontooo-bridge over the river 

as the Executive Engineer 
is unable to get it ready in 
time. 

We were on the point of enter- 
ing the fort, we had con- 
quered, when the enemy 
attacked us. 

The enemy were repulsed with 

a heavy loss. 

63 Dushman ne surang laga kar The enemy having dug the 
qile k6 ura diya. mine blew up the fort. 



* i . -. 
para hai. 



bigel wale jo' is pas ke jangal 
men jae zarur ko gae the' 
unpar dushman ne hamla 
kiya a*ur ek uu men se jan se 
mara gaya. 

59 Darya jo' hamare' raste men 
kal parega uska pul bahgaya 
hai, darya men pa'ni bahut 
hai aur aise zor se bahta hai 

ke payab utar nahin sakte 
.:;*/ / // 
our kishtian hain nahin. 

60 Safar maina wa'le 7 darya par 
pipon ka pul bana rahe hain 

kyunke Ikziketive-Enginyar 

Sahib usko wa'qt paV taiyar 
nahin kara sakte. 

61 Ham qile men jisko ham ne' 
fateh kiya tha dakhil hone 
hi ko the jab ke ham par 
dushman ne hamla kiya. 

62 Dushmanon ka baliut nuqsan 
huwa aur we pas pa hue. 



( m ) 

CHAPTER VII. 

In the following pages will be found a number of short 
Urdu tale* with their Hfeerai and free English translations, and 
'also a -number of English stories with and without their English 
translation. 

i Urdu tales translated into English. 

On Hamiltonian System. 







Ek faqir-ne' kisi se kaha mujhe kuchh do' Ue-ne' 
A beggar some-one from said me something give. He 
bahut-si galiyan din. Faqir-ne jawab-diya' T auhchha baba ! jaiss 

much abuse gave. (The) beggar replied, well baba ! As 

, t i "* i / / / 

do-ge waisa pao-ge> 

wii! give so (yon) will receive. 



TRANSLATION. A beggar said to a certain man, " Give 
me something." He gave him much abuse. The beggar answered, 
" Weil, baba ! As you give, so yfm shall receive.'* 




Kisi-ne' ek hakim se' puchha' ke khana' kiswaqt 
Some-one one physician from asked that food at what time 



( m ) 

khana chahiye. Us-ne jawa-b-diya ke amir ko jab 

should ba eaten. He replied that (a) rich-man to whec 
bhuk-lage, aur gharib ko jab mile. 
feels hungry, and (a) poor man to when can get. 

FKEB TRANSLATION. Some one asked a physician, " At what 
time should food be eaten ? '' He replied, " A rich-man (should 

eat) when (hej feels hungry, and a poor-man when (he) can get 




T f ' ' t " ' t*l J ' * ''"' ~* \ 

Logon-ne Lnqman. hakim sd puohha ke apne adab 
People Luqman (the) wise from asked that yoa courtesy 
kb se sikha. Kaha be-adbon se yani jo 

whotn from did learn. (He) said impolite (on.es) from i.0. those 
fiai unka pasaad-nah-aya us se parhea-kiyri, 
axsts their did not like it from distained. 

FAES T&ANSLATIOH. People asked Luqman, the wise, " Of 
trhom'did you learn manners ? " He replied, " From the unman. 
nerly ; whatever I saw them do which I disapproved of, that I 
abstained from doing. 




: ^ u I -P vU 



JEk badHhah-ne ek parsa M puchha ke lii kabhi 

A king one religious-man from asked that thou ever 
mujhko bhi jad-karta bai. Us-ne jawab-diya, han, jab-kabhi 
to me also recollects. He replied, yes, whenever 

. main Kbuda, ko bhul-jata hua. 
I God to forget. 



TRANSLATION. A king asked a religious man, Dost 
thou ever think of me ? He answered, Yea, whenever I forget 
CH& 




* 

Kk admi-ne kntte se puchha ke tu rasbe men kyun para rahta 
hai, Kutte-ne jawab-diya ke bhale aur bure ko ma'lum k&rta ^hnc. 
Us-ne puchha ke yih tujhe kyunkar ma'lum hota hai, Ua-ne 
jawab diya, ke jo bhaia hai wuh apne raste chala jata hai maga? 
jo bum hat wuh khwahmakhwah mujhe thokar mar jata hai, 

TRANSLATION. A man asked a dog, Why dost thou remain 
lying in the road-way ? The dog 'replied. I distinguish between 
good and bad men. He (the man) asked, How is this knows* 
to thse ? He (the dog) replied, He, who is good, goes on his 
way, but the one, who is bad, intentionally kicks me, 




k ahakhs darya men diibta tha kai admiyonko kinarc par 
dekhkar pukarne-la v ga, ke ai yaro mujhe nikalo, nahin to jag 
diibk. Logon-ne darya se use nfkalkar pachha ke tere akele dabnc 
se jahan kyunkar dabta ? Us-ne kaha kiya tarn ne yih masal nahia 

rf - ' t 'l t A ' " -1 't- ' 

euni, Ap dube to jag duba. 

TRANSLATION. A man was drowning in the sea, when, seeing 
some persons on the shore, he began to call out, friends, take 
me out, otherwise the world will be drowned. The people taking 
him out from the sea asked, How would the world have beec 
drowned, if you yourself were drowned. He replied, Have you 
not heard this prorerb, To the drowned man the whole world is 
drowned, . Death's day is doomsday. 




^iAW^yfoyftf^JS 
'4/Kj-irf# **ss*i ( j>/$tfi .ifas-if.i, 

*WUiVi <M4>!*itdfy-i?tf 
u/ 



( 180 ) 

Ek chor ne kisi ka libas churaya anr bazar men lejakar kisi 
dallal ko diya ke ise bech-ia. Ittafaqan koi aur harif paida huwa aur 
mko uraiegayiL Chor khali hath apne jaron ke pas aya. Unhon ne 
sawal feiri k^ k&ho kitne ko becha. Us ne jawab diya ke' jitne ko 
lija tha utne bi ko becha, 

TRANSLATION. A thief, having stolen the dress f some one 8 

vent to the market and gave it to a broker (saying), Get it sold 

(for me). Perchance a rival appeared and took it away. The 

thief returned to his friends empty-handed* They enquired of 

him (saying), Speak, for how much did you sell it. He replied; 

1 sold it for as ranch as I hud paid for it 






Ek hajjam kisi shakhs ka sar mund raha tha. Ittafaqan 
hajjam ka hath k&opa aur uske sar men tistara lag-gaya, Wuh 
ehakhs kbafa' huwa aur kahne-iaga ke tu ne raeW ear kat dala 7 . 
Hajjam ke x nihViy at zarif tha 1 kahne laga, miyan khamosh, kata 
>iuwa sar nahin bol sakta, 

TRANSLATION. A barber was shaving some one's head. By 
c-lisnce his hand shook and the razor struck his head. The man 
got angry and began to say. You have cut (oil) my head. The 
barber, being very wilty began to say s Maste* i& quiet ? A 
head cannot speak, 



2 Short stories in English translated into Urdu 

A Fox reproached a Lioness, because she brojaght forth bu.t 
one whelp at time. Quite right, said the Lioness; but that one 
is a Lion. 

Translation. 





A man had a hen which every day laid a golden egg. The 
greedy man was not content vith this. He thought that if he 
killed the hen, he could at once get all the eggs. So he cut 
up the hen, but to his great grief, he found nothing. 




A hungry fox saw a large vine of grapes. " Oh," said he, " how 
nice they look ! I must have a taste of them/'. The fox then 
jumped aud sprang on this side and on that; but all in vain, tot 
he was not able to reach them. At last he said, " They are sow 
and are not fit to eat ;" and went on his way. 

Translation. 




( 182 > 

One day Abbas, the Great, was hunting in a narrow valley 
early in the morning when he raeb a very ugly man, at the sight 
of whom his horse started. Hiving dismounted and thiaking 
it a bad omen he' ordered his (the ugly man's) head to be struck 
off. The poor man, who was seised and was on the point of being 
killed, prayed that he might be told of his crime. 

" Your crime," said the King, " is your unlucky countenance, 
which js the first object I saw this morning, and which h*d 
nearly caused me to fall from my horse." 

" Alas! " said tha man " by this reckoning, what term must 
I apply to your Majesty's countenance which was the first object 
my eyes met this morning, and which is to cause my death ? 

The king smiled at the wit of the reply ordered the man 
to be set free, and gave him a present instead of taking off his 
bead. 



Translation. 




An ass and an ape were co/nparing grievances. The ass 
complained that he lacked horns aud the ape was troubled 
because he bad no tail. Stop your complaints, said mole, 
and bs thankful for what you have, for we poor blind inoles 
are in & much worse state than either of you. 




3 STORIED AND EXTRACTS IN ENGLISH* WITHOUT " 
THEIR URDU, TRANSLATION. 



An astrologer while gazing on the stars, fell into a ditch 

O * 4. 

a passer-by gave him this sensible advice. u Friend," said 

_2 

he, " leam from your present mis-adventure to let the stars 

go quietly on their patYs, while you look better to your own." 



. '* 

- . * * 

iRats are fond of eggs, and the way they carry them off is 

_ d _ y_ 

very curious A farmer saw some of them one day about a 

J 



_ 

ben's nest so he stood quite still at a little distance to 
/. 

watch what they did. In a short time he saw one of them 
JL _ <r_ iff __ 

lay itself down beside an egg and fold its body round it length- 

_ J_ 
ways. The others came near and dragged it and the egg 

/ 
together to their hole. 



(FROM THE MORNING POST.) 

A bragger was boasting of his strength. ^ He said: ^ This 
morning I lowered an empty cast into the river and pulled up 
thirty gallons of water.'' A j ,, 

14 Oh," said one of the listeners. " that's nothing to talk 

/ ____ u tr 

about. I lowered a boat into the stream this morning and pulled 
up the river;'* 

. . * *s . .- ? . . -it _/ ..** 



( 184 ) 



w Uf 

A gentleman had to dismiss his gardener for dishonesty* 
For tho sake 1 * of the man's family he gave him the following* 



ehit f- 



" I hereby certify that A. B. has been my gardener for over 
two years, and that during that ^ti me he has got more out of my 
garden than any man I ever employed." 



JL 
" DON'T you know it is against the law to beg for money ? 

said the lady to the tramp at the door. 

" I wasn't goin' # to beg for money, ma'am/ was the reply 
of the humble wanderer. 

" It's just as 6aH to beg for bread." 

" I wasn't goin' to beg for bread, ma'am. 

" What were you going to beg for, then, pray ? " 

" Only for one of your ptiofegraphs, ma'am ? " 



/ if 




A young man applied for the position of an assistant to < a 
watchmaker, who, to test his capacity, pufr him through a brief 
examination, 



_a_ ( 185 ) <t 

Supposing, now " he said, " a watch was brought to yon 



that had baftied all the watchmakers in this neighbourhood 
it was a good watch, had been repaired, cleaned, and a new spring 
put in, but in spite of all their etforts it refused "to go what 
would you do ? " 



rr 



^ 

The young man answered without the slightest hesitation * 

___ ft" rf* VQ 

" I would see if it was wound'up.'" lie got the place. 

r 






.*-* u ^J M Jp lt> Jfyljj ,. I), 

^. t J.*..-*- 

A lawyer was sitting in his office when a stranger appeared at 
the door and said : 

Can you please tell me where Robson's office is ?" 
" Yes, Bir next door. 

The stranger uttered his thanks and passed to the next door 
u tf i" ) 



which was locked. Returning to the lawyer he observed : 

*f 
Robson seems to be out." 

,* .* * 

" Of course he is. If you had asked that question in the firsf 
r U _ 2>i_ _ __ 

place I should have answered it by telling you." 

The visitor had a troubled look on his face as he passed out 
of the building, but that look was gone when he return*! next 
day and enquired of the lawyer : 



( 186 ) 



" How much will you charge me for a verbal opinion in a 

little matter ? * ^ 

" Oh, six-and-eight." 

The case was stated, and the opinion given, and the stranger 

was moving away, when the lawyer said : " My fee, please/' 

*< I haven t a half-penny to~pay you." 

" You haven't ?* 

Of course not. If you had asked me that question in the 
fittt place I should have answered by telling you so. Good 
morning, Sir " 




- 




CHAPTER VIII. 

lo this Chapter will be found a number of idioms and pro* 
Terbs literally tianslated into English as well as their English 
equivalents. 

IDIOMS WITH EXPLANATION. 

* t to change the eye, hence to withdraw one's favour. 

[ / to beat the eye, hence to wink, or to forbid by 
igns. 

4*** 

l^llSSLJ^^ ' nave c ' ovenn g ^ ^ QTL *^ e 
bence to assume ignoraoce of an acquaintance. 




( 187 ) 

. x * 

to show eyes, hence to threaten. 
e J e8 hence to connive at. 
one's eyes, hence to die. 
to make the eyeSred, hence to be angry. 
/Jt jj^/ to perish the water of the eye, hence 



to abandon modesty, 



to throw dust in some one'* 
eyes, hence to snatch away any thing unperceived - 

{Z&;s^Jjrl to pUce (some one) on eyes, hence to 

f 

love some-body with great affection. 

f j^ ** C ^ one ' 8 e J es ^ ence to be glad. 

L 

1 (Atnjon ka qulhowallah 
parhna) Entrails, i. e. 9 the belly saying that there ia but one God r 
hence to be very hungry. 



mean the same thing. 

* / ' 

^ji$~'<r to turn eyes like parrots, t. c., 

to withdraw ones' favour instantly. Parrots are supposed to do BO 

gererally, and hence the idiorn. 

' >{? 
^r^^J>/to be pointed by fingers, hence to 

be blamed by the public. 

/V'y^/j^yj^/ to lie on fire sparks, hence to be 
tormented through jealousy. 

^Ji j? * ma ^ e ( <l - e -> P roroir e ^ to-day or to-mor- 
row, i. e., to pretend to do a thing in a day or two, hence to pro- 
crastinate. 



188 ) 

to fly to the sky, hence to boast. 
to become the star of the eye, hence 
to be loved very much, 

tl^/ r\ * spread the eyes, hence to respect 
* W* 

some one. 

Jj(Jr^l to keep in eyes, hence to watch 
carefully. 

/*/> iff 

/*'' to cause one to dance on fingers, hence 

to make one very obedient. 

i* w/ the idol of fire, hence a fiery-tempeted man. 
to fight eyes, hence to fall in love. 

to wander in eyes, hence to remember. 

(*ff t - (J^^ to ^ wifcn e y es bence to do (a work) de- 
sirously. 





^ ^ r P (one) from eyes, hence to de- 
grade, or to demean. 

an arm P^ ^ ow > ^ence a secret enemy. 
to embrace. 

\tf r&r to sound the armpits, hence to be very glad. 

* */ ? 

CJ&lJb* tbe awakening of one*s fortune, hence 

to be prosperous. 



o ^ in the Diddle of some one, 
fcenco to negotiate. 



l^_ i( %A%^w/^ (Bismillah ke'gumbad men baithna). 
t$ rf IE ths cupola of BisroillaK (in the nsms of God) a hence 



( 189 ) 

to remain free from worldly pleasures and devote the whole 
time to God. 

I? ^^7? to cut 
give one little food. 



lyjf^*>O- to wander holding the belly, hence to 
become uneasy. 

Or(Ji,J(jl> to take off the skin of the hair, 
hence to be too critical. 

to converse t 



fc {ft' i t reject ( one's) words. 



&lf j fci within the word, hence in the twink- 
ling of an eye. ^ 

1 1 ^*/f{ to come into one's power. 
/y^ ,jt J to keep under control 

l'3i& ^ I to spoil the word, hence to mar a plot. 
\jjj ^*- (- to keep (one's) word, hence to 
comply. ^ ^ , 

tyC^lfsfetL the speech's getting the 
chair, hence to prove one's words. 

^04^< the dog of belly, applied to * man who 
eats much. 

V*!{**u&4 to ^^e beard oneT8 

* '"/ *^ M 

belly; applied to a child who makes speeches like an old man. 

\^ff^^(J^ to live by smelling a flower, applied 
to a man who eats very little. 

cursing some one drinking water, 



i. e. to eurae excessively, 



( 190 ) 

r* to fight with the air, hence to fight 
much. 

L y Iff to eat the air, hence to take a walk. 
I w^l 'fl to become air, hence to go away at once. 
L^U' i ljf to tie the air, hence to boast. 

IV* v !</* ^ __ ^J^/J^" to ride the horse of the air, hence 

* / ' 



tc hasten much. 

to ibid hands, hence to entreat. 

to w sh hands, hence to become hopeless 

to clear (one's) hand, hence to kill. 

on 8Olue one*s headj hence 



to patronise 



to grow mustard seed on the palm 
of the hand, hence to show curious things. 

[^jj^ll s //y ^ to put hands on ears, hence to be 
astonished, 

Proverbs with explanation. 

7 +ka*\ Self-done is well done. 

-"7V. lfrvj/*f*tvj one Bays that "* own batter - >ilk 

U sour. E. Every potter praises bis own pot. 





E. Every cock fights best on his own dung-hill. 
Silence gives consent. 

One hatches eggs, and the other 



takes the chickens. 



i All calamity of the stable is on the 
monkey's head (the lodging-house cat). 



(Auwal khwesh ba'dahu darwtsh) First . 
relatives then the beggar. . Charity begins at home. 

>i^>/Uwj' A pomegranate and a hundred petients. 

E. A thousacd applicants for one appointment. 

* * 

jJ*'&(b'9{/9l The (proper; devil of mackiod is 

mac. E. Man's chief enemy is man, 

& ^ l*9LJ 4 *'j7' ' Among the blind a one-eyed man 
a king. 

' * * i^T.1- ^^ r"^ * 
tyf*;~^~^l Weeping before a blind man i to lose 

one's eyes. E, A nod is as good as a wink for a blind horse. 

> { T""i 7 
y?.V>'>yZ'\r>l Half partridge, half quail. B. 

Neither fish nor flesh nor good red herring. 

LS*ff(f'flf*to/fe He,whohai a stick, has th* 
bufialo. 

$?({?%*(};% Th ttief has a straw in his 
beard. E. Guilty conscience self accuses. 

j^kf/]tfjj&J9 Distant drums sound well. E. 
The hills lock green that are far away. 

o not inter ^ er6 ^^ a 




f$1$4rlfilL AD M **** and a red bridlc - 

A crow in peacock's feathers, An old woman assuming the airs 



** ** country, so 
the dress, E. In Rome do as the Romans do. 

890 ***** 








( 192 ) 
angels. E* As gods, so are the worshippers. 

*-^ftj --,/} *~~/2' Better late than never. 

' the bosom acd r<im rcm (name of God) in the mouth. E. A 

wolf in sheep's clothing. 

/ , s { i 

< The head of a 




boasting word is low, E. Pride will have a fall. 

is 3ti11 fer awft - E - Rome was 3jot 




built in a day. 

Money makes the mare go. 

helps those who ( help themselves, 
ing's palace and scarcity of pearls. 

-f\ wf Wh en (his)fether dies (he)will distribute 
oxen. E. To wait fcr a dead man's shoes. 

1(jfi&M>4b t ~~(j J&^* M*M* i 8 n t given to a child by a 

mother unless he ories. E. Ask and ye shall get. 

f* s j> ^ 
~*/*5J\jT'& *'\ & *d *JT ^ ^ rae maE w ^ * ve ^ n ^ a ^ ar - ^ 

The will of the stronger prevails. ' 

&Ji>^~/b'^tj [(Jtftf^h* lady hewelf is poor at whose 
door beggars are standing. 

\tfyty ?* What has happened, has happened. 
E. Let bygones be bygones. 



the Carihing, E. You will get nothing out of a miser but his skin. 

thief only knows another 
. 
thiet E. Set & thief to catch a thiel 

*<r& The rat's young will mak 



( 193 ) 

holes. B. What'* bred in the bone will cot come out of the fleh. 

8ngar to the 



eater of sugar. 

A, S ' * 

~a%*j)/j~df(J*f When the fountain is foil 
the pipe plays. 

Unlawful actions are more tweet 



than lawful ones. . Forbidden fruit is sweet. 

s A melon acquires 
colour from seeing another melon. . When the old cock crows, 
the young cook learns. 




On the contrary the thief 
threatens the constable, j, 

$^vlf*4(}(jS* A farthing worth old 
woman whose shaving costs two pence. 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE following short tales and extracts, with and without their 
English translation, will be of great service to the student by 
accustomering him to the perusal of consecutive narratives. They 
should be studied with great care, special attebtion being paid 
to idioms and peculiarities of phraseology. 

Tales Translated into English, 









( 194 ) 

TRANSLATION. The house of a certain person caught fere in 
the winter season. A poor neighbour, coining there, began to 
warm .himself. Seeing this incident a humourist said, " What 
a wonder ! One man's loss is another man's gain/ (An 
idiomatic translation of an idiom. The literal words are : 
One man's house burns and another man warms himself) 



i 







TBAHSLATTOH. In a dark night a blind man, having taken a 
temp in his hand, and a jar on his shoulders, was going along in 
the market. Some- body said to him, " fool in thy eyes day and 
night are alike, of what use is a lamp to thee." The blind man 
bavfog laughed, said, " This lamp is not for me but for thee, that 
tbon i&ayst aot break my jar in the darkness." 





TRANSLATION. A judge was extremely skilled in lav. He 
to cany on his proceedings in a systematic way so far that 
he never used the word " we" in his decisions ; moreover he em- 
ployed the word " Court M in place of " we " By chance, one daj, 
be got headache, and wrote in his proceedings that, as the health 
of the Court is indisposed just now, this case will he adjourned 
to-day and will come on for hearing on the second (proximo) 






k^ 



TRANSLATION. Ooe of the well-wishers of NausherwAn 
petitioned. "The clerks and- officers of the kingdom first of all 
are trying for their own benefit and then carp in your profit and 
benefit.'' Nausherwan replied, " This word is not "worth admiring, 
because, unless, the dry earth becomes succulent, water cannot 
flow out of it." 






( 196 ) 




TRANSLATION : A painter from his native country went to 

c 

another, where he began to practice physic. It happend that ft 
Countryman of his also went there. When he met him, he asked 
" J What profession do you follow here." (The painter) replied, 
" Practice of phyic." Asked why ? He replied, " Whatever 
lault was committed in my previous profession retrained evident ; 
and the fault that I commit in the second (or present) profession 
is eoQceaied by the earth," 



Tales and extracts not Translated into English 

TEE following short tales and extracts from various books axC 
gives lor toe purpose of reading. The translation of all difficult 
words oeearriag in them is given at the end of the book. 
















lt'> V 














If 



(JLoo) 








\ 














. 









M 






*) 











</ls 








f-r 



tf 














fc,. if 



S) 






- XX VyU'j&A ^^U^- IV -/ 









y.. 



<*6) 



























-r* 

























f 



k V) L&j 








y. 



fl 



CHAPTER X, 
(The Shakasta writing.) 

IT is now assumed that the student is now quite able to read 
any Urdu letter or news-paper written in the Persi-Arabio character 
in the tfastaliq or " legible-hand" writing. In the following chap- 
ter, he will ba taught to read the SkZkxstd, or 4 * broken" writing^ 
which is generally used in corresp3iiience ? petitions &c., &cs. There 
is a great difference between the Nastdtiq (in which books are 
generally fmrifeed) and the Shakastd. In the latter most ofth* 
letters of the alphabet, which have the sains shape as their kindred 
letters in the Na8taliq y have each difierent shapes. 

For instance in the Nastaliq *-****.**' *J^ J^ & have the 

satse shape, being distinguished by dots, but in Shdkdstd each of 
them may be writ tin in various ways as the gtuient will perceiva 
by scrutinizing the alphabet given here. 

It is very difficult to convey an exact idea of the Shdkasta 
because it is written in very different ways* Therefore there can 
be uo general rule for either its use or interpretation. 

The dots of the letters sometimes are omitted. No difference 
is made in the dockdshmi he or chhoti he, and chhoti or bdri ye 
for either form is used at convenience. In such cases the meaning 
rests on the s&nse alone and on no other principle. 

Again the letters *9)}S'J-J* and / which, as a 

V * / / 

rule, do not join any letters that may follow them in the Nastaliq 
are joined with the letters following them and also with each other 
in the'&Ao&orfa', which the student will observe when going through 
the succeeding exercises. 

It should also be pointed out that letters, petitions, docu. 
want* and court-papers are generally given in the Shakasto in 
those Urdu books which treat of it, but in this work, I have lepeated 
some of the simple sentences and tales of the foregoing chapter?, 
in the Skakastot and then the sam* are givien beneath in Nastdliq 



Yl? 



writing, by which the student will be able to compare the two styles 
and distinguish between them. Also, as specimens, a few pe- 
titions are given, and the vocabulary of all the difficult words 
occurring therein is given at the end of the book. The letter* 
and native forms of address have been omitted as Europeans gene- 
rally do not write letters in the Urdu language and the Urdu 
forms of address (alqab) cannot be translated into English. The ' 
words are mostly Persian in origin, but owing to their extensive 
use they are now generally used in Urdu without any translation. 
If a translation be given it cannot be understood, and the original 
looses its sense. 

For instance, the form of address 9^~ L ,** ~-^ ,~- ^ ^, : 




& * t* *s ^ v * / / v / / 

chashm sa'datmand buland iybal tut 'umroku translated 

Urdu 

Ankh ki rdskni nfaafcktilcebhare, unche 




sinddgi. This 4s no Urdu at all. The literal English translation 
of this is, " The light of the eye, full of righteousness, of high luck, 
may increase thy life." This is quite meaningless. He tie* such 
forms are omitted, and sentences and tales are given in their place 
because the motive of this chapter is to familiarise the student with 
the Bkab&sta and to show him the difference between the two 
methods* 

^ / ' 
The Nastaliq long-hand combinations oi the alphabet, which 

follow the Skakasto. writing exercises, are given for the purpcse 
o! writing the language ? ncj require no comment 








cu 




f / 



U/7J) 





u*> 



'k&^v^&ffi't"'* 




>r 



IJ cri) 
'/ 

I(W 

ft-*^ 



<?^ 



4-<^ 




* W 



f K 



" 





' 1 b , 


















, t j^ic. 




^ 









^^ 











c^>t^ 




&^^ 

!p*^0j!$4^ 




( 2.5; .3; 






4*(tf^^^ 

<t-^lj&*^J^^^fr^ 

4^1 1 1 tj*if> V l*WAj/(y ^wy^*-^**^9Jwi'^*fod**-y 



* . 

ty~Af y^^l^&i^jy^2~- ty^yyhfr 

^^ j,^ ' iJ- fae* V^*^J * 7A?S *"5>iC<$Cf /^U '(p/lCttf' 

"^^ ^*^ 




(2.2,4; 







LAvjJ LJi3 




\s w 




( 2X9 ) 



Translation of all difficult word? occurring in 
the Urdu text not translated into English 



TALE 1. 

Badshah = King. 
Wa*zir -Minister, 
aiib-sebehtar = Best. 

Haq -Lot, Right. 
Arzkiya ~ Prayed, Begged. 
Adi karna To do justice 

Ra'iyat - Subject. 
Parwarash * Support. 

TALE 2. 
t i 
Qazi * Judge 

Kahoe laga Began to say. 
Qasam kha Take an oath. 
Chalaja'* Go away. 

TALE 3. 

Rotiliye' -Holding a piece 
bread. 

Par - Across. 
Say a ^Shadow. 
Dekh-kar* Seeing. 
Khola * Opened. 
Gir^pari FeU-Down. 
Hai! Oh! 



Lalach Greediness. 

Pala -Calamity, Misfo^une 

TALE 4. 
Jis-se rFrom which 

Shohrat *Fame 

Pakre Get. 

*/""*/ < 
Najat-i-akhrat FinkI deliverance, 

** / " 

Ibadat * Divine-worship 

Khairat Charity 

TALE 5. 
Afla'tu'n Plato. 
Darya ka safar kiya -Made 

voyages. 

'Ajaib = Wonders. 
Ajuba - Wonderful thing, 
of Kinara = Shore. 
Salamat= Safety. 
Pahuncha *Arrived. 

TALE 6. 

Sharm - Shame. 
Phailana To spread. 
Kan jus A miser. 
Ea$a jave c To be cut off 



( 234 ) 
TALK 7. TALE 10. 

" / ' 

'Aql-mand = A wige-man Najumi-An Astrologer 

Nek-bakht -Fortunate. Gbair shakhs =r A Stranger. 

Bad-bakht ~ Unfortunate. Biwi-ke-sath=In Company with 

Khaya'-Ale. his wife. 

Boya - Sowed (Gave in charity) Isqadar - So much. 
Marga$ra=Died Fasad = Strife e 

Chhorgaja=sLeft (kept collected. Barha= Increased, Ensued. 

TALE 8. Lipat-gae= Caught hold of each 

Kaql hai = It is related. other. 

Dana =The sage. Saheb-e-dil=A shrewed man. 

Harun-Kashid =The 5th Caliph of Hal = State of afiairs. 

the house of Abbas. Waqif-hokar-= Being apprised of 
Mutafakkir=: Anxious, Sorry. TALE 11. 

Sabab= Cause, Reason. t Nuqsan=Loss. 

Bewafai = Faithlessness. Maslehat=:Benefit. 

Andesha Anxiety Hansai ^Ridicule. 

Wafadar ^ Faithful. Khushi - Happineas. 

TALE 9. Duna= Double. 

Sikandar - Alexander. Ranj = Sorrow^ 

< 
Saltanat = Kingdom. TALE 12. 

Lazzat -Enjoyment. Mtisaheb= Aid-de-Camp. 

Maghliib-kar na =To sub-due Itamad Confidence, Trust 

Hawakh wah = Well-wisher, Daryaf t-kiy a =- Asked. 

Sarfaraz-Karna=To honour. Wajah=Cause. 
Mohtaj =The indigent. TALB IS- 

Hajat barlana = To supply the Sha*ir=Poet. 

want Amir-Bakhil A Rich Miser, 

SiwaMnke- Besides these. Mai -Property. 

'Etabar* Creditable. Nikala hai Has taken out. 



If Burat me'nrrln this way. 

Tanha^Alone. 

M us tahaq = Deserving. 

Haqiqat-men = In reality. 

Dar = Door. 

KaUm =Word, Answer. 

TALE 14. 

Jahil An ignorant man. 
Paighambari =Prophetship. 
Bula'bheja = Sent for. 
Mo'ajza^ Miracle. 
Hakim = Ruler, Officer. 
Ina'm =r Reward. 
Khalat -Robe of Honour. 
Rtfaqat=Society. 

TALE 15. 

Mash-bar hai-lt is well known. 
Bac h pan = Child-hood. 
Danishmand A wise-man. 
Imtahan = Examination. 
Zibah-karna^To sacrifice. 
Axu=Part of the body. 
Peshkfya=Presented. 
'Aibonse =From if fecte. 
Pik=Pure. 

TALE 16. 

Hakim^ A wise-man. 
Bemar-hue^ Fell-ill. 
'Ayadit = Visiting the sick. 



235 ) 

Nagawar = Unpleasant, Disagree- 
able. 

Marawwat Manliness, Genroffi- 
ty. 



Nasihat = Ad vice. 

TALE 17. 

Habshi Kotwal^An African or 

Negro Police Inspector. 

Bira qasur huwi -Committed a 

serious crime. 
kala-karaa=To blacken. 
Ghamao=Make (him) to go 

round. 

Warna= Otherwise. 
Janeng<UWill think. 
MWf-kiya^Pardoned. 
TALE 18. 

Hakim = A physician. 
Majlis = Assembly. 
Bay an kiya =JRelateI. 
Kb wab-dekha = Dreamt a dream 
Mut ajjib-hokar = Having asto- 
nished. 

M'aleja = Treatment. 
Tora ^ A purse, or a bag of one 

thousand rupees. 
Kandhonpar -On shoulders. 
Dukhne-lage -Began to pain. 
AnkhkhulU A wakened. 



( 232. ) 

TALE 19. Dard *Pain. 

Qarz Loan. Dunyawi * Worldly. 

Haziir In the presence. TALE 21. 

Bad-Khwah = Aa ill-wisher. Shika'r * Hunting. 

MeW * Haqmen -In my right Kisa'nsFarmer. 

About me. Martaba = Dignity, Position Rank 
Jahan-panah = Protector of the Laeq nahi'n Is not suitable. 

world, hence a King. Panah-le'na' To take protection. 

Khair-khwahi Good- will. Khe'me' khare' \ To pitch the 
Gruza'rtrf hai Becomes, Passes^ karna / tents. 

HazurkisflamSti 1 Pray for yourA"g-jala'-dena To lig*ht the fire, 
chahte hain, L Magisty's Jd kichh maujud tha Whatever 
J safety. was present. 

Nadamat ^Hepentence Con- Khidmat men In the presence 

trition. Bosa-diya aKissed. 

Mohabbat a Love, friendship. Utarna =To alight, to condescend 

Kami! Perfeot. Buland hona *To be exalted. 

Hasil huj Gfot. Qayam-kiya Stayed. 

TALE 20, Sawari * Retinue. 

- 

Ijfajntiar = Renowned. Shaukat ^ Splendour. 

Fatfth ^iye' ^Conqured. Kami Deminution. 

AJianpi bardar * Carrier of the flag. TALE 22. 

Kafan = Coffin. Himmatwala Noble-minded. 

Jhanda =Flag. Jangal Forest, Desert. 

Latka-kar = Hanging. Mazdur=. Labourer. 

}Take (it) Gattha' Bundle, 
about the Jama* karke Having collected 
city, Mehman-k^a'na, Feast 

Manadi k&rnji ^To proclaiia. J Alam * Crowd of people* 



( 233 ) 

Hash mat * Dignity. TALE 24. 

Shaukat -Poinp. Jaohar ?Jem. 

Hfmraat ^Generosity. Takabbur t Pride. 

Jawa'n-mardi -Leberality. Mehnat -Labour. 

4. , 

A hsan Obligation. 

TALK 23. 'Adn Enemy. 

Has id = Envious. 

'Aurten = Women. Bakh8hf8h Gift, Forgiveness. 

A pas men * Between themselves. Toassuf Lamenting. 

Jhagra karti ( r, 7 'Aqi = wisdom. 

thin 1 Were q^ll,ng 



G a wah - Witness. Mahrum Deprived ol ; Unfor- 
Insaf-chdba = Demanded justice. tunate. 

Jal lads The executioner. Kjmda wand * Master, Possessor. 

Bulaya Sent for. Diram =A coin about six-pence 

Farraaya * Ordered. Darkar Necessary. 
Do tukre kar -*Make (it in) two Enayat-kar Favour (Imp) 

parts. (Imp.) Dar-khwast karna *To apply, to 

Yih bat sunte hi=Upon bearing request. 

i - '. 
this word. Be-adbi Kudenee, presump- 

Chup-ho-rahi sRemaiued silent. tuousness. 

Faryad = Com plaint. Iltamas-kiya ^Besought. 

Shuru* ki Commenced. Bakhshna *To bestow. 

Kb.uda-ke- waste' For God's s^keBeja Improper. 
Yuqin * Certainty. Martaba -Rank. 

Sapurd kiya = Handed overQadr = Destiny. 
KoreWiaVke = Having whippedLa jawab-hona' =To be incapable 
Mikai-diytl - Turned out of answering 



TALE 26 
Saheb-za-da. . .Son. 

8ej... Couch. 
Tarazu... Scale. 



. Weighed 

Saja-karti-thi. . .Prepared. 
Laundiyan . . .Female-slaves. 

Le trie-men . . .By lying. 
Maza... Taste. 
Harm narm...Sofb. 
Bechhauna...Bed. 
Jhat...At once. 
Kind... Sleep. 
Chhupgai...Was hidden. 
Itne-men.c In the meanwhile. 

Hazrat., Jlis Majesty. 

Aram Kiya... Reposed. 
Karwat-lL , Turned the side. 
Cbubha... Stack. 
Be Chain-hokar... Becoming 
uneasy. 

Bala... Calamity. 
Hatakar.o. Turning. 



( 238 ) 

Be-ghal-o-ghash... Without aoy 
anxiety. 

Kambakht... Wretched. 
K^re... Stripes. 
Hins hanskar...Ia a laughing. 

state. 

Hath-jorkar ..With folded hands 
>Uqba... Futurity. 



>Azab...Pain. 

Saza. . .Punishment. 

Aqa... Master. 
Taj...Crowne. 

Takht.. Tbrone. 

Ghar...Cave. 

TALK 27. 

Saras - Crane 

Jita hai Lives. 
Burhapa = Old-ago. 

Par=Feathers, 
Girjate hain= Fall down. 
Kamzor = Weak 
HifazitrSafetj. 



Biohambeli...Name of the inai- Urna =To fly. 



den. 



Khurak=Food. 



( 239 ) 

TaUsh karni =To search Haq-shanasi ^Knowledge of what 

Mushkil parti hai^BecomeB is right 

difficult. Khidmat = Service, Duty 

Janwtr *= Animal. Waldain = Parents. 

Naql-karnewala' = Changer. Pairawi = Imitation, Following. 

Qiam = Kind. Admiyat = Manliness. 

Be-par-o-balUThe state of having Bazurgi = Greatness. 

no fathers and Qiem rakhna=rWant to teep. 
hair. Baja lawe = Carry put. 

Dukh ^Trouble. Jahan = Universe. 

Kahte hairi It is raid. 'Izzat = Honour. 

Jawan-bachehft=Young ones. THE CHINA WALL 

Chonoh=Bills. Mo-allif-= Compiler. 

Han hap Mother and father Tarikh-i-Chin = HUtory of Chin*. 

Parents. Sarhad=Frontier. 

Me^irftain. Waqe* hai = Is situated. 

phaklete hain= Cover them. Ahl-i-Tatar = Residents of Tata*. 
Jare-pale-men = la cool and Bar bar = Again and again, 
frost. Haulnak =Fierce. 

Zarorit = Necessity. Faghfdr = Title of th? Chioe 

/ 
Pith ^Back. Emperor. 

Oharhakar Mounting. Qaba) = Before. 

Gharaz=In short. Ta' mir-ki=Got built. 

Jiwani =Youth. Mane' = Obstacle. 

Badla =Keturn. Tul ^Length. 

'Aql haiwani = Instinct. Maqam = Places. 

Haq-giizati -Righteousness. Unchi = High. 

Rah batlati hai-Leads to the Choti=Top 

way. Pahar Mountai a. 



Kinchi hai Ia drawn. Patwar =r Rudder. 

Sadba jahaz = Hundreds of ships Algharaz -In a word 

- / 



Gaz rYard. 
Chauri = Wide. 
Bafar aghatf * Easily. 
Domanzila * Two-storeyed. 
Burj * Minaret. 
B&ia s- Foundation. 



Qayam * Existence. 
Be-misl -Unparallelled. 
Amr-e-gharibsA wonderful thing. 
THE BATLMIYOOS TOWER. 
Minara * Tower. 
Buland - High. 

Title of the Emperor Sikandarya Alexandria. 

*" / 
of China. Aina -sGlaes. 

Bamashiyat-EIahi =By the will of Atshi-aina * Fiery glass. 
God. Muqabil = In front. 
Urish. Attack. Para - Part. 

Malik Owners. Ahd = Time. 

Mauquf hogai ^Dispensed with. Bin Son. 
Ajib-o-gharib Wonderful. 



Wali' t= Poss^ssr. 



Sakht * Building. 

Hikmat Wisdom. 

Qudrat Power. 

Istaqlal * Perseverance, Firm. 

Dalilen ^Grounds. 

Sahara * Means. 



Sham ~ Palestine. 
Damishq = Damascus. 
Barqarar tha = Existed. 
Nasrani = Christian. 
Gara hua x hai * Is buried. 



Dhoka de / na x 
Batama' mal 



Deceive. 



* By the greedi- 
ness of treasure 



Ta'jjub*angez Strange. 
Josh-o-kharosh Overflowing. 

Tufan Storm Tor-dala - Destroyed. 

Kakhuda Captain of the ship. Kis hisab se -= By what man- 
Tajarbe-kar * Experienced. net. 

Mumkin hot^ -Were it possible. w Nasab tha Pixed 
Naqqare Drums. Asar ' Efifect. 



Qar&ai * Trumpet. 



Batil ho gaya* Became useless. 



( 2*7) 
CHAPTER X. 

Aftbab * Goods. 

PETITION 1. Mada'd = Assistance. 

Gharib parwar-Protector of the 'Afsos -Pity. 

V / ' 

poor. Amaldari = Reign. 



Salauaat >May you be safe. 
Janabe'Ali Your Magesty. 
Guzarish = Request. 

V / 

Fidwi = Humble servant. 

i i 
Shadi = Marriage. 



GbafiU Careless. 

Sir - utbawen Raise (thair/ 

Tahqiqat Enquiry 

PETlTIOIf 3. 

Mabligh - Amount. 



Hone'wali bai ^ Is to take place. Kare - Bracelets. 



Intdzam = Management 
Mumkin = Possible. 

Liba'za r Therefore. 

/ t f 
Arzi bc2.a = Presenting this 

guzrankar = same petition. 
Ummidwar bun Am hopeful 
Rukbsat ^ Leave. 
i*aur. j i = Days, 



Chandi 9 Silver. 



Milawat = Mixture. 
Mazknr = The said. 



Maafiq According. 
Qae'de =Law 

PETITIOH 4, 



Marabmat howe'^may be granted. Muqadma'= Case. 

Wpjfh = Reasonable. Gawahi=Evidence. 

Janka? - Knowing. Hajari nsteai of. 

.Arz kiya^Ptitioned Kbud*Self, 

PETITION 2. 'Ewazi = Substitute. 

Hazur-i-AlUMy Lord. 
Are -- Request 
imal = Time. 
Mai = Property. 



( 23* ) 

PI6EON ENGLISH TERMS. 

List of English words Commonly 

used by Native Soldiers vn, an 

Urduised form. 



Correct , English 
words. 


Urduised words in 
Roman Character. 


Urduised words in 
Persi-Arabic Character 


Battalion 


Paltan. 


^0 


Force 


Fauj. 


'Z 


Bayonet 


Benat 


**&* 


Advanced gt:ard 


Advaus gard, 


>tf(j*\i% 




v / 


1 s 


Detachment 


Kaman. 


^u 


Company 


Kampani. 


K 


Camp 


Kampu 


X? 


Rearguard 


Rir gard. 


&? 


Carts 


v 1 * 

Bail gari. 


/ x t^ t^ 

& *LJ* 


Commissariat 


Kamsariyat. 


**&f 


General 


Jar nail. 


J& 


Quarter Master 


Kot Master. 


s'tef 


Target 


C hand. 


>> 


Bull's eye 


Crulzari. 


($$ 


Bugler 


Bigler. 


3 


Regiment Rajmat J^g/ 



Correct EnglUh 
words. 


Uurduised words in 
Roman Character. 


Urduiaed worfi IB \ 
Perai-Arabic Character 


Recruit 


Rangrut. 


^35 


Commanding Officer 


Raman afsar. 


^&\f 


Cartridge 


Kartufi, Raind. 


Z&'Jitf 


Present 


Pirgent 


J&* 


Order 


Adar. 


jr 


Arm* 


Ante. 


U** 


Commence 


Kameen. 


c/ 


Line K 


Lain. 


J 


Forward 


Forwait. 


*'l "\f 


Inspection parade 


Infiction paret. 


*fe&^ 


Expedition 


Lam. 


-{, 


Mountain Battery 


Khachehar-batri 


(js^ 


Elephant Battery 


Hathi'batri 


&{Jt 


Equipment 


KU-fcanta. 


^"*u* 


Sappers and Miners 


. k * / 
Safar Maina. 


fe^ 1 '' 


Bandsman 


Bije-waUL 


ilJ^f 


Rations 


RaWn 


C^- 


Lascar 


Khilao' 


^ 


Rifle 


RaVl 


J** 




/ / * i / 


i , i I | 


To fire a volley 


Vali chalana. 


t<^/v 


Ammunition 


* ' / 
Jangi rauna. 


"^ 



/ 



( 24* ) 



Correct English 
words. 


Urduised words in 
Roman Character. 


Urduised words, in 
Persi-Arabic Character. 


Hospital 
Braces 


Aspatal. 
Diwali' 


U^r^ 

$4f 


Lieutenant 


Laftant. 


<j^J$ 


Adjutant 


Ajitan. 


cfc 1 


Pionch 
Roll call 

Pkquet 


Tosdan* 
Ginti 
BlWt, 


#w 

'& 


Sentry 

Overly 
Qnarter guard, 


V -' 

Sactri* 

ArdaH. 
KotaJ gard. 


iS L*J 

JsW/jf 


Horse Artillery 


Ghora hatri 


&$ 



Laiq Ahmad, Maulavi 

1975 The Urdu self -in struct or or 

L34 Ataliq-i-Urdu 1st ed. 

1899 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 

CARDS OR SUPS FROM THIS POCKET 

^^____^^^_____ 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY