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Full text of "U.S. Communist Party assistance to foreign Communist governments (testimony of Maud Russell). Hearing before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-eighth Congress, first session. March 6, 1963"

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U'S Tie-. 

U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO 
FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Testimony of Maud Russell) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 6, 1963 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
95966 WASHINGTON : 1963 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

JOE R. POOL, Texas JOHN M. ASHBROOK:, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1 

March 6, 1963: Testimony of— 

Maud Russell 9 

Index i 



III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States ot subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacl-s 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 88TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimonv, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that purpose, 
shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the agencies 
in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 requires registration 
with the Attorney General of certain agents of foreign principals^and 
the labeUng of political propaganda disseminated by such'agents. An 
agent of a foreign principal is defined by the Act to include, inter alia, 
any person who acts, or agrees to act, within the United States as "a 
public-relations counsel, publicity agent, information-service em- 
ployee, servant, agent, representative, or attorney for a foreign 
principal * * * ," "The term foreign principal is defined to include, 
inter alia, a government of a foreign country; a foreign political party; 
and a person or organization afhliated or associated with, or directed, 
supervised, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by a foreign govern- 
ment or political party. 

By resolution of August 2, 1962, the committee embarked upon a 
series of hearings relating to the necessity for, or advisability of, 
recommending amendments to the Act, and for the purpose of exer- 
cising the committee's legislative oversight functions in appraising 
the administration of the Act. The committee particularly directed 
its attention to the activities of members and affiliates of the Com- 
munist Party engaged in the conduct of propaganda on behalf of 
foreign Communist governments. Court decisions have raised ques- 
tions as to the true test of the agency relationship within the meaning 
of the Act. 

The initial hearings'of the committee on November 14, 1962, 
involved two organizations, the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee and 
the Friends of British Guiana. Hearings were continued on March 6, 
1963, when the committee received the testimony of Maud Russell, 
publisher of the Far East Reporter, who has been actively engaged for 
many years as a speaker and publisher, principally upon the subject 
of Red China. 

Armando Penha, an FBI undercover operative within the Com- 
munist Party from 1950 until March 19, 1958, had identified Maud 
Russell as a member of the Communist Party when he testified before 
this committee on the latter date. 

Miss Russell's activities most recently came to the attention of the 
committee in May 1962 when it received the testimony of Chi-chou 
Huang, a professor who had defected from Red China a short time 
prior thereto. In 1945, Mr. Huang had received a scholarship from 
the Yunnan Provincial Government of Nationalist China for study in 
the United States. While at the University of Maryland, during the 
period 1946-1949, he formed the desire to go to the area of North 
China then occupied by Communist forces which had launched a 
civil war for the purpose of overthrowing the government. 

Huang sought the assistance and advice of a Dr. Frederick A. 
Blossom, an employee of the Library of Congress, whom Mr. Huang 
had met while attending a lecture by Scott Nearing, a former member 
of the Communist Party still active in Communist fronts and causes. 
Dr. Blossom suggested that Huang contact Maud RusseU, and ar- 



2 SYNOPSIS 

ranged a meeting in his Washington, D.C., ofSce so that Mr. Huang 
could discuss the matter with her. Mr. Huang testified that at that 
meeting Maud Russell had suggested that he contact a Chinese news- 
paper, the Hua Shang Pao, that is, the Chinese Commercial Daily, in 
Hong Kong, where he would receive information that would put him 
in contact with Communist guerrillas in North China. 

In her testimony before the committee on March 6, 1963, Miss 
Russell testified that she had in fact met with Mr. Huang in the offices 
of Dr. Blossom and "very faintly" recollected her conversation with 
him. Wlien asked whether she had specifically referred Mr. Huang 
to the Chinese Commercial Daily, she replied that she did not recall, 
but did not "think" that she had referred him to any specific news- 
paper. She said she was "pretty sure" she had told Mr. Huang that 
if he went to Hong Kong he could get the information he wanted 
from newspapers there. 

The committee had prepared a memorandum summarizing a part 
of Miss Russell's speaking itinerary dining the past 2 years. When 
this was read into the record. Miss Russell agreed that the memoran- 
dum was an accurate account of her speaking engagements and that 
on all occasions the subject to which she had devoted her attention 
was that of Red China. When asked whether her talks promoted, 
praised, and supported the Communist Chinese regime, she replied 
that she "reported the facts." Miss Russell conceded, however, that 
the "facts" she reported were "favorable" to the Red Chinese regime 
and that slie believed the regime was good for the Chinese people.^ 

It was then called to the attention of Miss Russell that advertise- 
ments and notices about her lecture tour, as the itinerary memoran- 
dum indicated, were principally contained in the Communist Party's 
west coast publication, the People's World, and the pro-Communist 
National Guardian. When asked in what way these publications 
came into possession of knowledge of her speaking itinerary, she testi- 
fied that she paid for advertisements in them. She conceded that she 
did not place such advertisements in any non-Communist publication, 
but confined herself exclusively to the People's World and National 
Guardian. 

She denied having any knowledge of the Communist Party affilia- 
tions of Dorothy Hayes, who arranged her Chicago speaking dates 
between May and June 1961, or of Dr. J. C. Coleman, who arranged 
her Los Angeles speaking dates in October 1962. These two indi- 
viduals, whom Miss Russell conceded knowing over a period of years, 
have been identified as members of the Communist Party during exec- 
utive hearings held by this committee. 

Miss Russell admitted as "obvious" that she was the publisher of 
the Far East Reporter and agreed that a report, contained in the maga- 
zine, that she had served on the staff of the Young Women's Christian 
Association in China for 26 years, from 1917 to 1943, was correct. 
She conceded that after her return here, she served as the executive 
director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, cited 
as Commimist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 1949. She also 
admitted that she was the major defense witness for this organization 
in proceedings before the Subversive Activities Control Board, held 
for the purpose of determining whether it should be ordered to register 
with the Attorney General as a Communist-front organization. The 
respondent claimed that the organization had been dissolved on 



SYNOPSIS 3 

August 1, 1952.* She denied that the Far East Reporter, of which she 
is the pubhsher, was created to fill the void which occurred when the 
Far East Spotlight, the official organ of the Committee for a Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy, ceased publication. 

It was then called to her attention that the Far East Reporter had 
reported that she had visited Communist China in 1959 and that it had 
reproduced a photograph of her with Chinese national YWCA com- 
mittee members and staff, which had reportedly been taken in Shanghai 
in June 1959. Miss Russell invoked the fifth amendment privilege 
with respect to the accuracy of the report of her visit to China in 1959 
as contained in her own publication. 

It was pointed out to her that she had filed a passport application 
in 1959 in which she had indicated she intended to visit Great Britain, 
Scandinavia, France, the Soviet Union, India, and Japan. When 
asked whether she had also visited Communist China, she again 
invoked the fifth amendment. To the inquiries whether she had 
made any prearrangements with Communists in the United States 
or abroad for her entry into Communist China, and whether she had 
met any high-ranking Chinese Communist officials during her visit 
there, she again relied upon her privilege against self-incrimination. 

It was pointed out to Miss Russell that certain persons who had 
recently written articles for, or whose articles have been distributed 
by, the Far East Reporter — Israel Epstein, Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, 
and Anna Louise Strong — had all been active in the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy and had also contributed to 
publications of the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR). It was 
also pointed out to ,Miss Russell that the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee, after its investigation of the IPR, had reported that 
Israel Epstein and Anna Louise Strong had been identified in its 
hearings as members of the Communist Party and as persons who 
had collaborated with vSoviet intelligence agents — and that Elsie 
Fairfax-Cholmeley had been the subject of governmental action 
involving loyalty or national security. In addition, Miss Russell 
was informed that the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee had 
found the IPR, with which these persons had been affiliated, to 
be an instrument of Communist policy, propaganda, and military in- 
telligence; to be controlled by staff members who were either identified 
Communists or pro-Communists; and to have a policy objective of 
orienting American Far Eastern policy toward Communist objectives. 

Miss Russell, in response, denied knowing any of the above-named 
contributors to her publication as Communists. 

It was also pointed out that Susan Warren, a delegate to the New 
York State Convention of the Communist Political Association in 
August 1945 and thereafter an instructor at the Communist Party's 
Jefferson School of Social Science, was a contributor to the Far East 

' Herbert Brownell, Jr., Attorney General of the United States, Petitioner v. The Committee for a Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy, Respondent, Docket No. 113-53, before the Subversive Activities Control Board. The 
Attorney General filed a petition with the Board on April 22, 1953, for an order requiring respondent to 
register as a Communist-front organization as required by the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950. 
Service of the petition was made upon Maud Russell, former executive director of respondent. An appear- 
ance was subsequently entered by David Rein as counsel for Maud Russell only, and motions to dismiss 
the petition and to quash service thereof were filed with the Board, alleging that respondent went out of 
existence in August 1952 and was nonexistent at the time of the filing and service of the petition. Testimony 
was taken on the motion, and the hearing examiner issued his report finding the named organization to have 
been nonexistent at the time the petition was filed and recommended to the Board that the petition be 
dismissed. This recommendation was adopted by the Board, one member dissenting. The Board did not 
pass upon or reach the merits'or substance of the Attorney General's petition, but relied solely upon the 
mentioned technical ground for dismissal. 

9S966— 63 2 



4 SYNOPSIS 

Reporter. When asked whether or not she knew Susan Warren 
to be a Communist, Miss Russell chose to avail herself of the fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Also called to the attention of Miss Eussell was the reprint by the 
Far East Reporter of an article titled "India and China — a Contrast," 
first appearing in the New World Review, an officially cited Communist 
publication. This article was written by Helen Travis, an identified 
Communist Party member, most recently revealed in hearings before 
this committee as the secretary of the Los Angeles branch of the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, which was the subject of the com- 
mittee's initial investigation in relation to proposed amendments to 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act. When asked whether she knew 
Helen Travis as a member of the Communist Party, Miss Russell 
denied knowing her as such, although she stated that she had known 
Helen Travis "a little over a year, 2 years." 

When questioned whether she, Miss Russell, was now or had ever 
been a member of the Communist Party, she invoked the fifth amend- 
ment privilege. Miss Russell also claimed the fifth amendment 
privilege in refusing to affirm or deny the testimony of Armando 
Penha, an FBI undercover operative, that she was on the "national 
level" of the Communist Party. 

When asked from whom she had obtained the slides of life in Com- 
munist China, which she had displayed during a recent talk in Balti- 
more, Maryland, she invoked the fifth amendment, but specifically 
denied obtaining them from Edwin S. Smith of New York City, 
who is registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act as an 
agent of the China Photo Service of Peking, China, a propaganda 
agency of the Red Chinese Government. 

When asked whether, during her visit to Red China in 1959, she had 
conferred with any officials of that government and had agreed to 
serve as a propagandist for Red China in the United States, Miss 
Russell again invoked the fifth amendment. Wlien asked whether 
she had received an}'' compensation from the Chinese Communist 
Government or its representatives for her propaganda eftorts, she 
declared that she "received no compensation of any kind." But, 
when asked whether she was a guest of the Red Chinese Government 
during her 1959 visit, she invoked the fifth amendment. And when 
asked whether or not the Chinese Government had paid all of her 
expenses of travel and visitation and whether this was not a form of 
compensation for past propaganda assistance and any that she might 
give in the future, she again claimed the fifth amendment privilege. 
She declared that she has never registered as an agent of Red China 
and was not acting for a "foreign principal." 

Although Maud Russell has for years paraded as an authority on 
China, has been billed as a "noted speaker on the Far East," and told 
the committee that Red China should have nuclear weapons, she 
repeatedly refused to answer committee questions concerning the 
dispute between Red China and the Soviet Union in regard to basic 
Communist policy toward the United States and the rest of the non- 
Communist world — questions which, as one committee member 
suggested, would involve "the security and possibly the survival of 
the United States." 

(The Communist Party, USA, is backing the Soviet Communist 
Party in its widely publicized arguments with the Chinese party*over 



SYNOPSIS 5 

methods which should be employed by the international Communist 
movement in pursuit of a world Communist empire. The Chinese 
Communists, who are urging more militant and revolutionary tactics 
b}^ the world's Communists, have been accused by Soviet Com- 
munists of lacking faith in any victory for communism without armed 
struggle and of ignoring the consequences of modern war and the use 
of nuclear weapons.) 

Miss Russell invoked the fifth amendment in response to one ques- 
tion on this subject and, in response to others, said she did not want 
to get into a discussion of this "theoretical thing * * * this is a 
whole new field of relationships between the Communist parties, and 
I don't want to get into that question." She stated that she had 
been studying the Sino-Soviet differences, but did not have full 
knowledge and understanding of the subject. 



U.S. C0M3IUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN 
C0M3IUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Testimony of Maud Russell) 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm'suant to call, at 10:25 a.m. in Room 445, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; 
Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin; and 
John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. AIcNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Wilham 
Margetich, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will come to order, please. 

Are you ready, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Ai^e you ready Mr. Rein, as counsel? 

Mr. Rein. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Will the witness please come forward and be sworn? 
Will you please raise yoiu- right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Russell. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

I have an opening statement I will read. 

Let the record show that this is a hearing conducted by the sub- 
committee consisting of myself, the chairman; Mr. Johansen, of 
Michigan; and Mr. Willis, of Louisiana. Mr. Willis is the only one 
absent. Therefore, a quorum of the subcommittee is present. 

And this morning also sitting with us are Committee members 
Schadeberg, Bruce, Ashbrook, and Pool. We are glad to have you 
gentlemen with us. 

» Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 



8 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

I will proceed to read this opening statement. 

On March 5, 1963, the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met and duly adopted the following resolution: 

WHEREAS at a duly held meeting of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
held in executive session on August 2, 1962, a resolution was unanimousl}- adopted 
directing that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activities, or a sub- 
committee thereof, be held on such date or dates as the Chairman may desig- 
nate relating to propaganda activities of members and affiliates of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States for certain legislative purposes therein set 
forth; and 

WHEREAS it is the desire and intention of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities that said hearings which were not completed during the 2d Session 
of the 87th Congress, proceed and continue during the 88th Congress. 

NOW THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that, the hearings heretofore 
authorized by resolution on August 2, 1962, be continued and held by the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, or a subcommittee thereof, in Washington, 
D.C., or at such other place or places as^the Chairman may determine, on such 
date or dates as the Chairman may designate, relating to the same subject and 
for the same legislative purposes as set forth in said resolution of August 2, 1962. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee, which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

The resolution of August 2, 1962, to which I previously referred, 
was adopted in the preceding Congress, which I now read: 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C., or at such 
other place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as 
the Chairman may designate, relating to propaganda activities of members and 
affiliates of the Communist Party of the United States, for the following legislative 
purposes: 

1. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22, USC, 611(c), by 
extending the definition of the term "Agent of a Foreign Principal" so as to re- 
move any doubt as to what should be the true test of agency within the meaning 
of this Act. 

2. The execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act and all other laws, the subject matter of which is within 
the jurisdiction of this Committee, the legislative purpose being to exercise con- 
tinuous watchfulness of the execution of these laws, to assist the Congress in 
appraising the administration of such laws, and in developing such amendments 
or related legislation as it may deem necessary. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 

I now offer for the record the order of appointment, by the Com- 
mittee Chairman Francis E. Walter, of the subcommittee which meets 
today for the purpose of continuing the hearings upon the subjects 
and for the legislative purposes set forth in the aforesaid resolution 
of August 2, 1962, confirmed by the resolution of March 5, 1963: 

February 26, 1963 
To: Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Committee on Un-American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of the Honorable Clyde Doyle as Chairman, and the Honorable Edwin E. Willis 
and the Honorable August E. Johansen as associate members, to conduct a hear- 
ing in Washington, D.C., on Wednesday, March 6, 1963, at 10:00 a.m., on 
subjects under investigation by the Committee and take such testimony on said 
day or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 26th day of February, 1963. 

(S) Francis E. Walter 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 9 

I say to Miss Maud Russell, who has been subpenaed as a witness 
in this hearing and to her counsel, that this hearing is a continuation 
of hearings commenced on November 14, 1962, relating to the neces- 
sity for, or advisability of, recommending amendments to the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938 for its effective operation in carrying 
out the intent of Congress as set forth in the Act. 

The initial hearings involved two organizations titled the "Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee" and the ''Friends of British Guiana." 

Today our inquiry will relate to propaganda activities of identified 
members and affiliates of the Communist Party, in the publication 
of the Far East Reporter and the conduct by such persons of activities 
in support of the Chinese Communist Government. 

Are you ready, Counsel, to proceed? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And witness and counsel are ready? 

Mr. Rein. Well, I would like to state for the record that — perhaps 
it was an inadvertence — I had inquired earlier of Mr. Tavenner as to 
what the subject of inquiry was of this particular investigation, and 
Mr. Tavenner directed me to a specific matter of the testimony of 
Huang, and we were under the impression that the subject inquiry 
was limited to that and we had not been informed that the subject 
under inquiry was of the nature which you have now described. 

I am sm-e Mr. Tavenner didn't mean to mislead me, but that is 
the actual fact. 

Mr. Tavenner. I indicated to counsel, Mr. Chairman, that Miss 
Russell was called pursuant to the matters that had arisen during 
the questioning of the witness, the Chinese witness, and sent him a 
copy of it so he would know what matters had been inquired into. 

I did not spell out, or attempt to spell out, the legislative purposes, 
because I did not think that was any business of the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, we will proceed then. Proceed, Counsel, please. 

TESTIMONY OF MAUD RUSSELL, ACCOMPAINED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your fuU name and residence for 
the record, please? 

Miss Russell. Maud Russell, 552 Riverside Drive, New York 
City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by Counsel? 

Miss Russell. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, 711 14th Street, N.W., Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Miss Russell, you were born in Russell City, Calif., 
were you not? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were you born? 

Miss Russell. Hay ward, Calif. 

Mr. NiTTLE, In Alameda County? 

Miss Russell. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Russell City was the birthplace of your father, is 
that correct? 



10 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a citizen of the United States? 

Miss Russell. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Miss Russell. Well, I went through grammar and high school, 
graduated from the University of California, 1915, studied in England, 
took my Master's Degree at Columbia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Miss RussELL. Public speaker and publisher. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, in May 1962, the committee received 
testimony from a young man named Chi-chou Huang. 

Miss Russell. Huang. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Thank you for the correction in pronunciation. 

Miss Russell. We might as well have it correct, 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you speak Chinese fluently? 

Miss Russell. Well, I would leave out the last word. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Mr. Huang had defected from Red China a short time 
earlier. In his appearance before the committee, he testified that in 
1945 he received a scholarship from the Yunnan Provincial Govern- 
ment, then of Nationalist China, for study in the United States. 

In September of 1945, he enrolled in Johns Hopkins University, 
and then transferred to the University of Maryland, where he remained 
from 1946 until 1949. 

While at the latter university, he decided to go to Communist 
China, that is to say, the area then controlled by the Communist 
revolutionary forces which were in rebellion against the Nationalist 
Government. 

For the purpose of reaching Communist China, Mr. Huang 
testified that he sought in Washington, D.C., the assistance and 
advice of Dr. Frederick A. Blossom, an employee of the Library of 
Congress, whom Mr. Huang met while attendmg a lecture by Scott 
Nearing, a former member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Huang further testified that Dr. Blossom suggested that you, 
Maud Russell, could perhaps help get him to Red China, and that 
Dr. Blossom, in fact, did set up a conference in his office for you and 
Mr, Huang to discuss the matter. 

Mr. Huang testified that you gave him instructions to contact the 
Chinese newspaper, the Hua Shang Pao, that is, the Chinese Com- 
mercial Daily, in Hong Kong, a British crown colony on the border of 
Chma proper, where he would receive information that would put 
him in contact with Communist China. 

Do you recall meeting with Mr. Huang at the ofiices of Dr. Fred- 
erick A. Blossom in Washington at that time? 

Miss Russell. Well, after I read that hearing material that you 
gave my counsel, I remember it. It had completely passed out of my 
mind. That happened in 1948. 

Then I remembered that I did meet with a Chinese student for 
about, well, maybe half an hour. That is true, but I had completely 
forgotten about it until I read this transcript of your hearing with 
him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, I hand you a photograph of Mr. Huang, 
marked for identification as Russell Exhibit No. 1, which was taken 
about the time of your meeting with him, and while he was in attend- 
ance at the university. 

Miss Russell, Yes. 



I 



ASSISTAXCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 11 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Air. NiTTLE. Does that photo refresh your recollection? 

Miss Russell. Not a bit. I wouldn't know him if I met him. I 
just saw him so briefly, 15 years ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Dr. Blossom at that time? 

Miss Russell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you known Dr. Blossom prior to the 
meeting? 

Miss Russell. I think maybe 2 or 3 months. I am not sure but 
that was the first time I had met him in those 2 or 3 days. I did 
not know him before that. I think I was in his office about 2 or 3 
days — -I am not quite sure — but 2 or 3 days before this meeting with 
the student took place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us yom- recollection of the conversation 
at the meeting with Dr. Blossom and Mr. Huang? 

Miss Russell. Well, when I met him. Dr. Blossom told me that 
this student was very eager to return to China. I came into the 
office, just happened to come into the office, and the student was 
there. 

The student w^as looking for me, I think, and the student told me 
he wanted to get back to China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, just a moment. When you say he wanted to 
get back to China, are you distinguishing between the area occupied 
by the Communists and that occupied by the Nationalist Government? 

Miss Russell. Well, according to his testimony, he said he wanted 
to get back to North China. Now, I don't have any recollection of 
whether he said China in general, or North China. It probably was 
North China, because I don't think there would have been any 
question about him getting back to, you know, regular China. 

So, I don't recollect that, but I assume that that is what he said, 
because it could have been easy to get back to China itself, you see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He told you he wanted to get back to North China; is 
that your recollection? 

Miss Russell. No; that is not my recollection, but I think that 
this is probably what he said. I deduced that, because he could have 
easily gotten back to regular China, to the rest of China. 

There wouldn't have been any question, so I deduced that that was 
that, but I do not recollect. I very faintly recollect my conversation 
with him. It was 15 years ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why would he want to consult you about returning 
to Nationalist China from whence he came? 

Miss Russell. He wouldn't, so I say I deduced that. I do not 
remember him saying specifically he wanted to get back to North 
China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it clear to you, Miss Russell, that what Mr. 
Huang desired to do was to obtain assistance in getting to Red China? 

Miss Russell. I say I deduct that from what he said. I don't say 
I am remembering that. He may have said that. I am not denying 
it, but I just don't recollect that. I was so briefly with him, and it 
completely passed out of my mind until I saw your testimony. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you offer him any advice as to the means by 
which he might get to Red China? 

95966—63 3 



12 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Miss Russell. I said I had no connections whatever that would 
help him to return to China — I am pretty sure I said this — but that 
if he went to Hong Kong, there are many newspapers there, and 
from them, he could get information about travel into China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huang testified that you referred him to a specific 
newspaper. 



Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in Hong Kong, not to any newspaper but to a 
specific newspaper, and he stated that you mentioned particularly 
the Hua Shang Pao, which translated means the Chinese Commercial 
Daily. Isn't that right? 

Miss Russell. That is right, Chinese business or Chinese com- 
mercial reporter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, did you specifically refer him to the Chinese 
Commercial Daily in Hong Kong? 

Miss Russell. I don't think I did, because I did not loiow Hong 
Kong newspapers. I had not been in Hong Kong but very briefly. 
I knew the newspapers on the mainland. J don't think that I did, 
but I can't swear that I did, because T don't recollect. I don't think 
I laiew that newspaper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the past 10 years, how many times have you 
been in Hong Kong? 

Miss Russell. No times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I thought you stated that you had been in Hong 
Kong briefly at one time? 

Miss Russell. I was in Hong Kong in 1938, briefly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huang testified that he obtained passage to Hong 
Kong, went to the address of the Chinese Commercial Daily, and then 
discussed his desire to go to Red China with an individual named 
Fan Chien-ya, who after some delay arranged passage for Mr. Huang 
by vessel to Tientsin in North China, then under the domination of 
the Communist revolutionaries. 

Did you know Fan Chien-ya? 

Miss Russell. Never heard of him. Didn't know him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know any person connected with the Chinese 
Commercial Daily — ■ — 

Miss Russell. No; I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE.^ — ^who would give Mr. Huang assistance in getting to 
Chinese Communist territory? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is this newspaper still being published in Hong Kong? 

Miss Russell. I don't know. 1 don't know the Hong Kong papers. 
You see, I was in China. I read the Chinese papers, because places 
where I was, there were no English papers. In Hong Kong, there 
were English papers, so I didn't need to read the Chinese papers. 

I wasn't acquainted with Chinese papers in Hong Kong. I was on 
the Mainland, because there I had to depend upon them for the news. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you have, however, visited China over an ex- 
tended period of time. 

Miss Russell. I was there 26 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, you were last there in the year 1959, were you 
not? 

Miss Russell. I was. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 13 

Mr. NiTTLE. Durino- your visits to China, did you receive informa- 
tion from any person there with respect to the Chinese Commercial 
Daily? 

Miss Russell. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you assisted any other individuals besides 
Chi-chou Huang in getting to Communist China? 

Mr. Rein. I object. She liasn't said that she assisted anybody. 
I thmk it is unfair to put a question which assumes something which 
she hasn't testified to, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did, did you not. Miss Russell, advise Mr. Huang 
to contact the Chinese Commercial Daily in Hong Kong? 

Miss Russell. I told him that if he went to Hong Kong, he could 
get information, and probably from newspapers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you give such advice to any other person 
besides Chi-chou Huang? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us in what way Dr. Blossom acquired 
knowledge or information of your possible status as an American 
contact for what I might call the Chinese Communist underground? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I am going to take the fifth amendment on that. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you take the fifth amendment with respect to the 
self-incrimination clause, because you believe that a truthful answer 
to that question might incriminate you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, will counsel repeat that question 
concerning Dr. Blossom? I couldn't quite hear it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am sorry, Mr. Johansen. May I ask the reporter 
to read it, so that it will be given to you exactly? 

Mr. Doyle. And, will the reporter also read the answer that the 
witness gave? 

(The reporter read the question and answer as requested.) 

Miss Russell. Yes, I will change my testimony. I don't think 
Mr. Blossom could have any such information, because I was not a 
contact. 

Mr, Johansen. You were not a contact with whom or for whom? 

Miss Russell. On the implications of his question. 

Mr. Rein. With the Communist underground in China, as is his 
statement. 

Mr. Johansen. I am not asking comisel. I am asking the witness. 

Miss Russell. Would you repeat the question, then, please? 

(The reporter read the question of counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your answer? 

Miss Russell. What is the question, again? I have lost it. 

(The reporter read the question as follows: "You were not a con- 
tact with whom or for whom?") 

Miss Russell. I was not a contact, to quote that, of Commimist 
underground. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you, I just wanted to clarify the answer in 
relation to the earlier question. 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I might suggest that it is hard to hear up here. It 
may be that the fan of the air conditioner or whatever it is makes a 
continuous noise here, and we can't hear very well up here. 



14 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Therefore, if you could speak a little louder, I would appreciate it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You state that Dr. Blossom could not have that 
knowledge, because you did not tell him. Is that right? 

Miss Russell. Because I did not have that contact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have contacts of any kind in Hong Kong? 

Miss Russell. No, I do not. 

Mr. Nittle. That is to say, with persons known to you to be 
members of the Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. I do not. 

Mr. Nittle. You have contacts in the United States with persons 
known to you to have contacts with Chinese Communists? 

Miss Russell. I will take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, you have lectured extensively in this 
country on the subject of Communist China. You have been doing 
this for years. 

The committee has prepared a memo summarizing some, but not 
all, of your speaking itinerary during the past 2 years or so. I hand 
you a copy of the itinerary, marked for identification as Russell 
Exhibit No. 2. which reads as follows: 

ITINERARY OF MAUD RUSSELL (RusseU Exhibit No. 2) 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, February 20, 1961, page 11: 

"Far East Reporter presents 1960 film of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai 
Interview in Peking with Felix Greene, Brit, corres. Also, colored shdes 
taken in '59 & '60 bv Maud Russell and friends. Sun. Feb. 26, 7:30 P.M. 
Adelphi Hall, 74 5 Ave. [14th St.] Adm. $1.25." [New York City] 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, April 17, 1961, page 11: 

"Maud Russell Chicago Area Speaking dates — May 27 to June 12. Make 
arrangements with Dorothy Hayes, 1376 E. 53rd St. Phone Plaza 2-2949, 
evenings." 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, August 7, 1961, page 7: 

"Maud Russell annual speaking tour. Seattle and Washington dates Sept. 
1-14. Arrange with Marion Kinney, 210- 29th E. Phone: East 4-8904." 

PEOPLE'S WORLD, August 26, 1961, page 11: 

In the "What's On" column, under the heading, SEATTLE: 
" 'People's China Today' — Maud Russell, YWCA worker in China for 26 
years; publisher Far East Reporter. Recent visitor to New China. Sat., 
Sept. 9, Masonic Temple, Harvard Ave. & E. Pine St. Film 7:30 P.M. 
Doors reopen at 8 for main program. Donation $1.50; pensioners, students, 
50c. Ausp. Wash. Cultural Co-op." 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, Sept. 4, 1961, page 7: 

"Maud Russell's annual speaking tour. Northern Calif, area, Sept. 7 to 
Dec. 3rd. Write: Russell, c/o Thompson, 363 Lester St., Oakland. Phone 
GL. 1-7745." 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, Sept. 25, 1961, page 11: 

"Maud Russell annual speaking tour in Los Angeles area, Oct. 9-31. Make 
arrangements with Dr. J. C. Coleman, 5623 Cleon, N. Hollywood. Phone 
PO. 1-1728." 

PEOPLE'S WORLD, October 14, 1961, page 3: 

"Los Angeles — Maud Russell, world traveler and lecturer, will speak Satur- 
day, Oct. 21, 8 p.m. at the Brown House, 2103 S. Harvard blvd. 
"She wU speak on China, where she spent 26 years as a YWCA worker, 
leaving in 1947. She returned to China in 1959 for a three month visit." 
The following concerning the above lecture appeared in the PEOPLE'S 
WORLD, Oct. 21, 1961, page 3 under the heading, "Russell Lecture Switched 
to Sunday.": 

"Los Angeles — Latest movies on China, including a filmed interview of 
Premier Chou En Lai, will be shown by Maud Russell, editor of the Far 
East Reporter, at a meeting at 3 p.m. Sunday at the Brown House, 2103 
S. Harvard blvd. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 15 

"There will also be slides taken in 1960 and 1961, showing the Chinese 
people at work and at play. The Chou En Lai interview was obtained by 
Felix Greene, author of Awakened China," who put 12 questions before 
the Premier. 
"Miss Russell's lecture was originally scheduled for Saturday night." 

SOCIAL QUESTIONS BULLETIN, November 1961, p. 60 (published by the 
Methodist Federation for Social Action) : 
"Sept. 24 Maud Russell addressed our Oregon Chapter in Portland, on her 
impressions gained in her 10,()00-mile trip in China." 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN, June 4, 1962, page 11: 

"Philadelphia — Public invited — Hear Far East Reporter Maud Russell 
(who spent 26 vears in China as YWCA representative) speak on 'People's 
China Today'," Friday Eve. June 15, 8 P.M., Donation 50p, Y.W.C.A., 
1428 N. Broad St., Philadelphia. Auspices: 'Progressive Labor' Magazine." 

PEOPLE'S WORLD, August 4, 1962, page 11: (San Francisco edition) 

From the "What's On" column, with a Seattle dateline: "Maud Russell, 
Seattle area schedule Aug. 28-Sept. 9. Reservations for speaking through 
Marion Kinney, 210 East 29th Street, Seattle. Tel. EA. 4-8904" [The 
above information also appears in the PEOPLE'S WORLD, August 18, 
1962, page 11]. 

PEOPLE'S W^ORLD, September 15, 1962, page 11 (San Francisco edition) 

"Los Angeles — Maud Russell, Far East Reporter. Southern California 
dates: Friday, October 5th through Wednesday, October 31st. Please 
make speaking arrangements with Dr. J. C. Coleman, 5623 Cleon Avenue, 
North Hollywood. Phone PO 1-1728." 

OPEN FORUM OF MARYLAND, undated leaflet, received, January 25, 1963: 
"... The Open Forum of Maryland invites you to something new . . . 
Explore 'THE NEW CHINA', via a fascinating color-slide lecture by 
MAUD RUSSELL, noted speaker on the Far East. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

"As a Y.W.C.A. worker, Miss Russell, a Calif ornian, lived and traveled 
26 3'ears in China [1917-43]. Living in many major cities, she was close 
to student, labor and women's movements. Her fluent Chinese ena'Jed 
her to learji about the Asian peoples' efforts to rid themselves of feudalism 
and colonialism. "For 8 months in 1959, she returned to travel some 10,000 
miles through urban and rural China. Publishes the 'Far East Reporter'. 
Her color slides are from 1959-62 inclusive. 

"Friday, Jan. 25, 8:30 P.M. [1963] at the College Club, 601 W. 40th St., 
Baltimore. "Bring the entire family for a delightful and enlightening 
evening. Hear first-hand facts about the new China from one who long 
knew the old, too. Ask questions and discuss. 
"Admission $1.00 Students 50?^." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, would you please inform the committee 
if that is an accurate account of yoin- itinerary? 

Miss Russell. It is an accurate account. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The public sources of information, some of which are 
listed in that itinerary, indicate that on all these occasions, you spoke 
on the subject of Red China. Is this not true? 

Miss Russell. 1961 and 1962. I think so. I think so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not also true, Miss Russell, that your talks 
promoted, praised, and supported the Red Chinese regime? 

Miss Russell. I was telling the facts about China as I saw them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question, Miss Russell, is whether or not your 
talks promoted, praised, and supported the Red Chinese regime. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I was reporting the facts as I was reading them in 
the press, and as I knew them from Cliina. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say, and repeat the question, whether or not it isn't 
a fact that in your talks, you promoted, praised, and supported the 



16 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Red Chinese regime. Now, will you please answer that question, 
yes or no? 

Miss Russell. I reported the facts, and I thought the facts were 
good. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whether these facts were good or not, you did pro- 
mote, praise, and support the Red Chinese regime? 

Miss Russell. If people wanted to praise China on the basis of 
the facts I presented, O.K. I was presenting facts. I think the 
American people should have some facts about China. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Were those facts favorable to Red China? 

Miss Russell. They were favorable to China. That is true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, I believe in your response you indicated 
that you were giving the facts as you allegedly derived them from 
certain public accounts? 

Miss Russell. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, by that, are you referring to such newspapers 
as the New loj^k Times? 

Miss Russell. New York Times, New York Herald- Tribune, Wall 
Street Journal, Christian Science Monitor, and other papers that I 
read throughout the country, and some British publications, some 
Canadian publications. 

I think practically every single fact I presented came from American 
or Canadian or European sources. Very good magazines on China, 
I will recommend to you. Atlas, New Magazine, the National Observ- 
er, I also use a great deal. These are facts from the American press, 
and I am ver}^ careful, because I want to show people that even in 
our American press there are sources of information about China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you accurately reflect the newspaper accounts 
which appeared in those non-Communist publications? 

Miss Russell. These were facts that were presented in the paper, 
j^es, and sometimes with very favorable comments by the paper 
itself. 

But, these were facts that I get from our press that 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say, by what you have just said, 
that you reported only the favorable comments from the American 
press? 

Miss Russell. I reported the facts that I thought helped people 
understand the new China. Of course, the 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did you do about the unfavorable comments 
in the American press? 

Miss Russell. I did not report those, except when I was report- 
ing on criticisms within China of mistakes in China and failures in 
China. 

Our press sometimes reported that; I reported that, too, to show 
that there is evaluation and criticism in China, too; and I often 
pointed out this: That many places where our press criticizes China, 
they have taken it directly from the Chinese press, which I also see 
every day of my life. 

This is a very interesting fact, that these things that are against 
China, you know, they are not something souped up by some American 
correspondents, they are coming from the Chinese press, criticisms 
of China, failures in China, weakness in China. This is in our press. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well now, what you have said, Miss Russell, is very 
interesting, and I would also like to state a matter which appears 
equally interesting. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 17 

According to the testimony of Anita Bell Schneider, a former 
undercover operative for the FBI, you told her that you received 
directions from Mao Tse-tung. 

On June 27, 1955 she testified under oath before this committee 
that she served as an undercover operative for the FBI during the 
years 1951 to 1954, and that leaders of the Chinese Communist Party 
were reaching down into the California Communist Party and telling 
them what they should do. 

\lrs. Schneider further stated that on the occasion of yoiu- speaking 
at the San Diego Peace Forum, she received information from you 
that Mao Tse-tung, the Chinese Communist leader, had given you 
instructions that the best weapons to use against the Americans are 
their own publications, taken out of context. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Air. NiTTLE. Was Anita Bell Schneider telling the truth about 
that conversation with you which I have just related? 

Miss Russell. I was telling people, like the people who were 
arranging meetings — she arranged this peace meeting at the Unitarian 
Church there, and I was telling audiences: "Read the American press, 
because in the American press you do find facts." 

Now, she distorted it there. I didn't need anybody in China to tell 
me to read the American press. She said that Mao Tse-tung told 
Miss Russell to read the New York Times. What a crazy thing! 
And you believe that. Silliness. 

I was telling audience after audience: "Read the American press. 
There are facts there. Look for them, you can find them." 

I didn't need anybody to tell me to read the New York Times or any 
American press. 

Mr. NiTTLE. X)id you believe Anita Bell Schneider to be a member 
of the Communist Party when you had this discussion? 

Miss Russell. She was a peace worker. I had met her as a peace 
worker, and she arranged this meeting at the Unitarian Church. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You knew her as a peace worker? 

Miss Russell. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But, did you also know her as an alleged member of 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. I did not. I met her that one day, and that is the 
only time I saw her. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Now, Mr. Counsel, may we return to the question 
you asked her? I do not think she responded fuUy to your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think that is correct, Mr. Johansen. I will be pleased 
to repeat it, and I thank you for calling that to my attention. 

Mr. Johansen. And, I direct attention particularly to the statement 
alleging that she said that these quotations should be taken out of 
context. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Now, I must repeat this question to you, so that we have a specific 
answer to the question. Did you, or did you not, tell Anita Bell 
Schneider at the San Diego Peace Forum that Mao Tse-tung had 
given you advice or instructions that the best weapons to use against 
Americans are their own publications, taken out of context? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Johansen. Did he make such a statement to you? 



18 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Miss Russell. He did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever personally meet Mao Tse-tung? 

Miss Russell. I didn't meet him personally. I was at one big 
mass meeting where he was present. I have seen him personally, but 
I don't know him individually. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever have occasion to talk to Mao Tse-tung? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present at any gathering or meeting at 
which Mao Tse-tung spoke? 

Miss Russell. No, I was not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well now, you said you saw him at some gathering. 
What kind of gathering did you mean? 

Miss Russell. It was a mass meeting, and he was somewhere in 
the audience. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am going to return to the itinerary. Who paid 
your expenses in connection with each of these speaking engagements? 

Miss Russell. Well, I — as I say, I am a publisher and public 
speaker, and every year, I make this tour, speaking. I get paid for 
speaking. That pays my traveling expenses. 

I am a registered business woman in New York City, have my 
registration number, and this is my job. I go out speaking and I get 
paid for speaking. I also sell my literature. 

Mr. Doyle. Alay I inquire of the witness if Mao Tse-tung did not 
make that statement to j^ou? 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Did any other Chinese Communist leader make that 
statement to you, or substantially that statement? 

Miss Russell. No, absolutely not. I have got a good brain of 
my own, and I read the newspapers, and I did in China. I used to 
read the Chinese newspapers every day. 

I early in high school got this habit of reading the newspapers, and 
it is very useful to me now. It is a long custom I have had. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't quite hear you, whether or not you stated 
that you received periodicals from Communist China, which you also 
read. 

Miss Russell. Material comes in all the time. You can buj^ it in 
the stores. There are many magazines from China that come in, and 
I get c{uite a number of them, that is true. It is available to anybody. 

Mr. Doyle. I know that. 

Miss Russell. I don't get anything except what is available to the 
public, except I get private letters from people, you know, my friends 
that are in China, so that I keep in touch. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do your lecture fees and the income from the sale of 
your periodicals cover all expenses involved in the course of your 
speaking itinerary? 

Miss Russell. Well, I do about 24,000 or 25,000 miles a year, 
and the travel ex-pense for that comes to about $800, and the fees I 
get for speaking not only cover that but help me on the publication of 
my magazine, too, so that the income for the travel is from the speak- 
ing that I do throughout the country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who arranges the speaking engagements for you? 

Miss Russell. My subscribers in each area, as you have seen on 
this document No. 2 that you brought here. These are subscribers 
in the areas, and they arrange places. Where I have a one-night 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 19 

stand, I arrange directly myself, but where I am going to be in a place 
for a period of time, the local subscribers arrange it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you write to or contact any persons known to 
you as Communists to arrange your speaking engagements? 

Miss Russell. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will observe from Exhibit No. 2, the speaking 
itinerary which I handed you, that the advertisements and advices as 
to your lecture tour have been principally contained in the Communist 
west coast publication People^s World, and the pro-Communist 
National Guardian, a publication described in this committee's Guide 
to Subversive Organizations and Publications as '*a virtual official prop- 
aganda arm of Soviet Russia." 

In what way do these publications come into possession of knowl- 
edge of your speaking itinerary? 

Miss Russell. I put advertisements into them, pay for them as 
a business thing, count it as part of my travel expense. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make payment of these advertisements to 
the National Guardian and People's World? 

Miss Russell. Regular advertising payments. I can show you 
the checks, if you would like to see them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you place these advertisements in any non- 
Communist publications? 

Miss Russell. I didn't consider those Communist publications. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, whether you consider them to be such, or not, 
did you place your advertisements in other publications? 

Miss Russell. I didn't. Some of my local people put them in 
papers locally, but I didn't. The ones that I did were these. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You confined yourself exclusively to the People's 
World and National Guardian? 

Miss Russell. National Guardian and People's World, and I think 
that is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your travels, where do you live? 

Miss Russell. I stay at motels, as I travel, and sometimes I stay 
with friends. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Do 5'ou spend most of your time in motels or most 
of your time with friends as you go on tour? 

Miss Russell. A good deal of time with friends. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are any of these friends who put you up known to 
you as Communists? 

Miss Russell. I don't think there is a single one that is known 
to me as a Communist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dorothy Hayes, who arranged your Chicago area 
speaking dates between May 27 and June 12, 1961, was identified on 
August 3, 1955, as a member of the Communist party by a former 
FBI undercover operative in an executive session before this com- 
mittee. 

Do you know Dorothy Hayes as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Russell. I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do j'^ou know Dorothy Hayes? 

Miss Russell. Well, obviously I do. 

Air. NiTTLE. How long have you known her? 

Miss Russell. Maybe 10 years. I am not quite sure. 



9596ft— 63- 



20 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. J. C. Coleman, who arranged your Los Angeles 
area speaking dates between October 9 and October 31, 1962, was 
identified on January 15, 1952, as a member of the Communist Party 
by a former FBI operative in an executive session before this com- 
mittee. 

Did you know Dr. J. C. Coleman as a Communist Party member? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Dr. J. C. Coleman? 

Miss Russell. Obviously, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, how long have 3'OU known him? 

Miss Russell. Oh, maybe 6 years, 7 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On September 24, 1961, you addressed the Portland, 
Oregon, Chapter of the Methodist Federation for Social Action. The 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee in 
a publication April 23, 1956, stated the following about it: "With an 
eye to religious groups, the Communists have formed religious fronts 
such as the Methodist Federation for Social Action * * * ." 

When you spoke at the meeting sponsored by that group in Portland, 
Oregon, did you understand that you were speaking under the spon- 
sorship of a Communist-front organization? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that time know that that organization had 
been so described- — — 

Miss Russell. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — by the Senate subcommittee? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Russell, I do not think that you will deny 
that you are the publisher of the Far East Reporter. 

Miss Russell. That is obvious, isn't it? 

Mr. NiTTLE, You have issued several copies of the Far East Reporter, 
and distributed them at your various lecture tours, but they all appear 
to be undated. Is there some explanation for that? 

Miss Russell. I think one of the reasons is that the material is 
valid whatever the date is. And, if 3"0u have something that is, say, 
written in 1955 that still has very valuable material, people are less 
likely to pick it up if it is dated, so I emphasize the fact that the 
material is the workable thing. 

I get some criticisms from some of my subscribers for that, but that 
is my policy, has been my policy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. According to the Far East Reporter, you served on 
the staff of the Young Women's Christian Association in China for 
26 years, from 1917 to 1943. Is that correct? 

Miss Russell. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why did you leave the Chinese YWCA in 1943? 

Miss Russell. Well, I went to the national board in China, the 
Chinese, and I said, "Look, I am getting to be around 50 years old, 
and that is too old to live in China." 

You see, the responsible members in China of the YWCA, they 
get to be executive directors when they are about 28, and I was 
feeling I was getting too old for the China YWCA, because most of 
our staff with whom I worked were very young, and to have to go 
around with an old lady, I felt, was a little bit hard on them, so this was 
the main reason. 

I went to the various committees of the China YWCA, and said, 
"I think I ought to go home, because I am getting too old for the 
China YWCA." 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 21 

Mr. NiTTLE. This was in the course of World War II, was it not? 

Miss Russell. This was in 1943. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, at that time, there was considerable activity 
between the Chinese Nationalists and the Chinese Communists for 
control of the Chinese Mainland. 

Is that right? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. What year did you say? 

Mr. NiTTLE. 1943. 

Miss Russell. 1943. There was a "united front." 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say this was in the course of World War II. 

Miss Russell. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, during the period when there was a struggle for 
domination of the Chinese Mainland? 

Miss Russell. There was a "united front" between the Kuomin- 
tang and the Communists at that time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, their struggle was at that time expressed by the 
"united front." There is no doubt in your mind that the Chinese 
Communists were seeking to dominate China in 1943, is there? 

Will you answer that. Miss Russell? 

Miss Russell. Well, of course, they were attempting to over- 
throw the feudal regime of Chiang Kai-shek. There is no question 
about that. That is obvious. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Now, did you have some reason, other than 
the fact that you were 50 years old 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Before that question, if I might interrupt, Mr. 
Nittle, you used the term "united front" in relation to existing rela- 
tionship between the two factions. What do you mean, or how 
would you define that term? 

Miss Russell. Yes. Earlier, in the early 1920's, there was a 
united front between the Communist Party and the Kuomintang 
Party — that is Chiang Kai-shek's party — then in 1936 or '37 — I for- 
get which year it was — you remember General Chiang Kai-shek was 
taken prisoner by his own troops, and as a solution of that, he was 
not executed, they worked out this united front between the Com- 
munists and his party, because at that time the enemy was Japan, 
and they worked out this united front, so that was in existence in 
1943, the united front between the Nationalists and the Communist 
forces in China.^ 

' Miss Russell's description of the Sian rebellion of December 1936 and events which followed it is not 
quite accurate. When Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Chinese Nationalist Government, was visiting those 
Nationalist troops which had been posted near Sian in northwest China to oppose the Chinese Communist 
troops concentrated in that area, a number of the Nationalist army commanders in the area arrested Chiang 
Kai-shek and demanded that he agree to end armed struggle against the Chinese Communists and estab- 
lish a coalition of all groups to resist Japanese aggression. These army rebels, who had previously estab- 
lished contacts with the Chinese Communist forces they were assigned to oppose, then brought Chinese 
Communist leaders to Sian for conferences with Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang refused to make any concessions 
to obtain his release, though he expected to be executed for his refusal. 

Although the Chinese Communists had decided to support the Sian insurrectionists, they reversed them- 
selves when disapproval of the rebellion was expressed by the Soviet Union, which was then secretly con- 
ducting negotiations with the Nationalist Government in the hope of obtaining a Sino-Soviet nonaggression 
pact in the face of an increasingly aggressive Japan. Chiang Kai-shek was therefore released unbanned 
and continued to resist Chinese Communist appeals for a cessation of hostilities against them and for a 
"united front" of Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese. In defense of his position, Chiang 
has stated that whOe he opposed Japanese aggression he also felt the Chinese Communists were more inter- 
ested in promoting conxmunism in China than in resisting Japan. 

The Sino-Soviet nonaggression pact and the so-called united front of Nationalists and Communists came 
into being only after the Japanese began all-out war against China in July of 1937. Despite this truce, 
however, the Chinese Communists continuously utUized their military operations in Japanese-occupied 
China to bring additional troops and extensive land areas of China under exclusively Communist control. 
The number of Chinese living under Communist rule grew from 2 million in 1937 to an alleged 95 million 
by the end of the war. In view of the growing conflict between Chinese Communists and Nationalists 
during this period, which involved many direct military clashes between the two forces, the wartime "united 
front" actually became a dead letter by 1941, when the USSR ceased providing military supplies to the 
Chinese Nationalist Government. 



22 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, at that time recalled to the United 
States at the direction of any Communist Party functionary? 

Miss Russell. No, I certainly was not. It was my own initiative. 
I felt I was too old. I went to the various committees and asked if 
I could be released from the China YWCA to come home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After your return to the United States, did you in 
1945 participate in the formation of an organization entitled Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say that you did not? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 
was cited as Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 1949. 
Committee files indicate that you, in fact, served as the executive 
director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. l3id 
you not serve the organization in that capacity? 

Miss Russell. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not present at the original organization 
meeting of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy? 

Miss Russell. As I recall, I was not. I had nothing to do with 
the beginning of it. They called me in later as the director. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to your being called in as executive director, did 
you not have knowledge of the fact that this organization was in 
formation? 

Miss Russell. I think the initiative was well started before I knew 
anything about it, as I recall. I think I was out of the city. What 
year was that? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. What was your answer? Have you answered the 
question? 

Mr. Rein. I think she has. 

Miss Russell. I answered it; yes. 

Mr. Rein. I think she said she was not involved in the early period. 

Mr, Nittle. Dr. Max Yergan, who admitted his own Communist 
affiliations, testified under oath before the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee that you attended the first meeting of the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, which took place in 1945 at 
Frederick Field's home in furtherance of the directive from Eugene 
Dennis, a member of the National Secretariat of the Communist 
Party, given to Frederick Field to form this organization. Did you 
not attend the first meeting of the Committee 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. Nittle. — for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you deny the testimony of Dr. Yergan? 

Miss Russell. I deny it, yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. The Attorney General on April 22, 1953, petitioned 
the Subversive Activities Control Board for the purpose of citing the 
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy as a Communist-front 
organization. 

Is it not a fact that you were a major witness during those proceed- 
ings, and that you testified that organization was then defunct? 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I think it should be a matter of record 
that subsequently, on May 9, 1955, the Subversive Activities Control 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 23 

Board issued an Order of Dismissal because the respondent was, for 
the purposes of the Act, allegedly nonexistent prior to the institution 
of the proceedings. The Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy reportedly had dissolved on August 1, 1952. 

As a result of this and other proceedings our committee chairman 
on January 9, 1963 introduced H.R. 955, amending the Internal 
Security Act, which would prevent a termination of proceedings be- 
fore the Subversive Activities Board because of a previous dissolution 
or reorganization of an organization against which a proceeding had 
been brought. 

Miss Russell, was not the Far East\ Reporter, of which you are the 
publisher, created to fill the void which occurred when the Far East 
Spotlight, the official publication of the allegedly defunct Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, ceased its existence? 

Miss Russell. I would say, no. It was formed because my interest 
was China. My background was Chma — my interests. And I went 
on doing something that I was already engaged in, and I am now doing 
it as a complete individual. It has nothing to do with that former 
publication. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are not the policies and the purposes of the Far East 
Reporter substantially the same as those of the Far East Spotlight, 
namely, to advance the cause of Chinese communism? 

Miss Russell. No. 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
passport application filed in 1959, marked for identification as Russell 
Exhibit No. 3. If you will kindly look at that passport application, 
perhaps you will teU the committee whether it is not a true and cor- 
rect reproduction of a passport application filed by you in 1959? 

(Document marked ''Russell Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on this. 

Mr. Doyle. What was your answer, witness? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on this. I avail myself 
of my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In that passport application, you indicated that you 
would visit Great Britain, Scandinavia, France, the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, India, and Japan. Did you also visit Communist 
China 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in 1959 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — on the passport issued pursuant to that application? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call your attention to Russell Exhibit No. 4, an issue 
of the Far East Reporter, in which an article appears entitled "What 
about Christians in China? — The YWCA," in which at pages 15 and 
16, you are mentioned as a visitor to China in 1959. 

You appear on page 16 in a photo with other Chinese National 
YWCA committee members and staff — a photo reportedly taken at 
Shanghai in June of 1959. 

Did you, in fact, visit Communist China in 1959 as your Far East 
Reporter reports? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 



24 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ai'e you not included in the photo at page 16? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why did you not originally indicate on your applica- 
tion form that your intention was to visit Communist China? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you enter Communist China? 

Miss Russell. I continue to take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make application to the State Department 
for permission to visit China? 

Miss Russell. I take the filth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your visit to Communist China contrary to the 
policy and regulations of the United States Government? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make any prearrangements with either Com- 
munists in the United States or abroad for your entry into Commu- 
nist China? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were these arrangements made with Soviet Com- 
munists? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet any high-ranldng Chinese Communist 
officials during your visit in 1959? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Before we proceed, may I ask Miss Russell this? 
In each instance that you say you take the fifth amendment, you are 
involving the safeguards and your rights under the self-incrimination 
provision? 

Miss Russell. I avail myself — yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you actually believe and apprehend that if you 
were to respond to this series of questions regarding your visit to Red 
China that you would make youself liable to criminal prosecution? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Doyle. May we see that copy of the Far East Reporter in 
which Miss Russell's picture appears? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I think the witness has it. 

Mr. Rein. No, we have returned it. No, I am sorry, it hasn't been 
returned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, I now call your attention to a copy of 
the leaflet I just handed you, marked for identification as Russell 
Exhibit 5, which announces your appearance on January 25, 1963, at 
the College Club in Baltimore, Maryland, where you were to speak at 
The Open Forum of Maryland on the subject of "The New China," 
described as a "Fascinating Color-Slide Lecture by Maud Russell, 
Noted Speaker on the Far East." 

You did, in fact, appear and speak on that occasion, did you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I did, and one of your agents came, didn't pay the 
admission fee, and served a subpena on me. I think you might have a 
little of moral examination of some of your methods. I did speak 
there. It said very clearly "Admission $1.00." 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



25 



Mr. NiTTLE. He advises me that he did pay. 

Miss Russell. The people there told me that he did not pay. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you were primarily interested in communi- 
cating information, were you not, rather than receiving fees? 

Miss Russell. That is coiTect. This was a side remark to let you 
know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But, you did receive your fee for this engagement? 

Miss Russell. Certainly. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. By whom were you paid? 

Miss Russell. The Open Forum of Maryland. It is a group that 
has regular open forums. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Thank you. 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 






Russell Exhibit No. 5 







:H-INA" 

^'^ ^ ^^^aTtOLiUtj ^OLOH-aiD^ L£6Tff2a^ 

MAUD RU5SBLL 

NoyeO Sf EAKEP, <tK7S^ PAR EA^T 



As ^ Y.V/.C.A. v/orker. Miss Russell, a Callfomlin, lived and 
travelel 26 yeiro in China (1917-A3). Li/ino; \r\ ^.-iny major 
cities, she was cIosp to student, labor and womon ' s r.ovements. 
Her fluent Chinese enabled her to learn about the .\sian peoples' 
efforts to rid thnnselves of feudalism and 'colon i«l ism. 

For 3 months In 1959, she returned to travel some 10, OCX) niles 
throu'^h urban and raral Chlnj. Publishes th" "Far S^ot .'{eportar'' 
Her color slideT are from 1959-196.1, inclusive. 



FR10,^YJA^'.2&•6••30P 



(\ 



o\(s 



40^ ST. 

^ALTIMOf^e. 



Bring the entire fanily for a delii;htful and enlir.htenln;^ evening. 
Hear first-hand facts about the new China from one who long knew 
the old, too. Ask questions and discuss. 



/JMi^^ioN *(.oo 



SJlJ^t^T^ 'SO^ 



26 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did your fees cover all expenses incurred by you in 
presenting this lecture? 

Miss Russell. Well, if you take cleaning your clothes and buying 
new clothes, and gasoline, and all that, and bulbs for your projector, 
and all that, maybe, maybe not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say, maybe yes and maybe not? 

Miss Russell. Maybe yes and maybe no. If you do cost account- 
ing on the job, it probably would be no. But what you actually spent 
that day to ride down and come back, and keep your clothes clean, 
that might have covered it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you sell any books, pamphlets or newspapers 
at your lecture in Baltimore? 

Miss Russell. I sold my Far East Reporter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to that, you also sold the National Guard- 
ian, which has been previously mentioned? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who sold it on the premises? 

Miss Russell. Well, the Open Forum may have had it for sale, 
but I did not. It was not on my table. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not anxious to dissociate yourself from the 
sale of the National Guardian, are you? 

Miss Russell. I certainly am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It advertises your lectures. 

Miss Russell. I pay for advertising, 

Mr. NiTTLE. And, promotes your speaking engagements, doesn't it? 

Miss Russell. It doesn't promote my speaking engagements. It 
does when I pay them for something. 

Mr. NiTTLE. WeU, now, copies of the National Guardian were on 
the same table with your Far East Reporter? 

Miss Russell. That has nothing to do with me. The Forum had 
their material there also for sale. Including that, probably. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they ask your permission to seU the National 
Guardian along with the Far East Reporter? 

Miss Russell. No, not that I recall. It was their forum. It 
wasn't my forum. It was their's. They just employed me to come 
to it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they receive the compensation for the sale of the 
National Guardian? 

Miss Russell. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they receive the compensation for the sale of the 
Far East Reporter? 

Miss Russell. No, I got that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, have any articles in the Far East 
Reporter been written by identified Communists or individuals affil- 
iated with the Communist movement? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Rein. I think, Mr. Chairman, if I may say, I think that is a 
very vague question, impossible for this witness to answer the question 
of somebody affiliated with the Communist movement. How would 
she know? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, Mr. Chairman, the question was worded as 
whether to her knowledge. Now, that is entirely within her com- 
petence to answer. 

Miss Russell. Well, to my knowledge, the answer would be no. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 27 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any articles written for the Far East Reporter by 
identified Communists or by persons reported to you to be Com- 
munists? 

Miss Russell. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, among those who have recently 
written articles for, or whose articles have been distributed by, the 
Far East Reporter, are the following : 

Israel Epstein, who contributed an article to an issue of the Far 
East Reporter entitled, "China Facts For American Readers." Mr. 
Epstein's contribution to that issue was entitled, "Real Life as 
Contrasted with 'LIFE','' which was a critical comment of an item 
which appeared in Lije magazine October 17, 1961, entitled, "Red 
China in Trouble." Mr. Epstein seeks to refute the account of 
Life magazine. 

Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, who was also known as Mrs. Israel 
Epstein, and has utilized the pseudonym Edith Cromwell, contributed 
an article entitled "A Look at the People's Communes," which presents 
an attractive picture of the Chinese Communist commune system 
inaugiu-ated by Mao Tse-tung. 

Anna Louise Strong, who contributed an article to the Far East 
Reporter entitled "The Letter Life Would Not Print." The letter is 
dated at Canton, China, February 28, 1959, and includes likewise a 
critical comment on the January 5, 1959, issue of Life magazine deal- 
ing with Chinese communes. Anna Louise Strong's article alleged 
that the Life account was slanted and in some cases faked. 

I hand you copies of the Far East Reporter items to which I have 
referred, marked for identification respectively as Russell Exhibits 
Nos. 6, 7, and 8. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny that these articles were contributed 
by the aforementioned writers? 

Miss Russell. It is obvious. 

(Documents marked "Russell Exhibits Nos. 6, 7, and 8" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, these writers, Israel Epstein, Elsie 
Fairfax-Cholmeley, and Anna Louise Strong, were also contributors 
to publications of the Institute of Pacific Relations, which was an 
organization investigated in 1952 by the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee. 

The Senate Committee reported that the Institute of Pacific 
Relations was controlled by official staff members who were either 
Communists or pro-Communist, that the Institute was utilized by the 
Communists as a vehicle to orient American Far Eastern policy toward 
Communist objectives, and that the American Communist Party 
and Soviet officials considered that organization "as an instrument of 
Communist policy, propaganda and military intelligence." 

The Senate committee sets forth the Communist affiliations of those 
^^Titers for your publication, as follows: ^ 

Epstein, Israel, writer (exhibit 1334): 

Identified as a member of the Communist Party by one or more duly sworn 
witnesses. 

Collaborated with agents of the Soviet intelligence apparatus as shown by 
sworn testimony. 

Made one or more trips to Commvmist territory. 

' Senate Judiciary Committee. Senate Report No. 2050 on the Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952. 
pages 153 and 158. 



28 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Writer for official publications of the Communist Party or the Communist 
International or for a Communist government or for pro-Communist press 
services. 

Subject of action by agency of American government or a foreign non- 
Communist government on grounds in vol ving loyalty or national security. 

Out of the country or otherwise unavailable for subpena. 

Affiliated with: Allied Labor News (p. 662); Amerasia (exhibit 1355); 
Friends of Chinese Democracy (p. 622); China Aid Council (p. 1513); Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy (p. 2789). 
Fairf.\x-Cholmeley, Elsie (Mrs. Israel Epstein) (pseudonym: Edith Crom- 
well) (p. 50) writer: assistant to secretary-general (exhibit 801): 

Subject of action by agency of American Government or a foreign non- 
Communist government on grounds involving loyalty or national security. 

Out of the country or otherwise unavailable for subpena. 
Affiliated with Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Pohcy (p. 2789). 
Strong, Anna Louise, writer (exhibit 1334): 

Identified as a member of the Communist Party by one or more duly 
sworn witnesses. 

Collaborated with agents of the Soviet Intelligence apparatus as shown 
by sworn testimony. 

Made one or more trips to Communist territory. 

Writer for official publications of the Communist Party or the Communist 
International or for a Communist government or for pro-Communist press 
services. 

Affiliated with: Amerasia (exhibit 1355); Committee for a Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy (p. 56). 

(At this point Mr. Ashbrook left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know these persons as Communists when 
you were associated with them on the Committee for a Democratic 
Far Eastern Pohcy? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know these persons as Communists at the 
time their contributions were accepted by you for pubUshing in the 
Far East Reporter! 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr, JoHANSEN. Had you known, Miss Russell, that they were 
affiliated with the Communist Party and that they had been identified 
as participating in or being connected with Soviet intelligence, would 
that have aflPected your decision to accept or not accept their material 
for your publication? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I don't know. It would depend on the particular 
case, I should think, what they were publishing. If it was facts, I 
don't question what people's background is, if it seems to me facts 
to help enlighten the American people about the subjects I write 
about. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You would then consider it irrelevant that they, by 
having connection with Soviet intelligence, were engaged in, or pre- 
paring to be engaged in, espionage for the Soviet Government? That 
would have no relevancy? Is that your answer? 

Miss Russell. If they were writing facts that I considered valuable 
for the American people to know about China, I would publish 
material. 

Mr. Johansen. Regardless of this knowledge? 

Miss Russell. I don't question about people's other relationships, 
I examine things on whether it helps people understand what is 
happening on the particular subject on which I am writing. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 29 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire at this point, then, Miss Russell, when 
you say, "If they were publishing facts," I assume that you mean that 
if they were publishing facts known to you to be facts? 

Miss Russell. What I considered facts, yes. What I considered 
helping the American people better understand the Far East. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, did you check these articles as to whether or not 
they were factual? 

Miss Russell. Well, what I publish, I think, are facts that help the 
American people understand what is happening in the Far East. 
That is my objective, and if I think this material is that. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't make my question clear. As to these articles, 
that you published, three or four written by these folks — did you 
know to your own personal knowledge whether these facts which they 
alleged, were facts or not, or did you assume that these were facts 
and published them? 

Miss Russell. Well, first you asked me a theoretical question. 
Now you are asking me a concrete question, so you have mixed it up. 

First, his question was a theoretical question, which you followed. 
Now you say, "What you did publish," so you have mixed it up. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, answer the question that had some concrete in 
it. That part of the question. 

Miss Russell. I pubhshed what I thought were the facts on 
China. That is what I published. What seemed to me to be illumi- 
nating facts on China. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. Now, as I understand your testimony, you publish 
what you believe are only facts on China. Is that correct? 

Miss Russell. On the Far East. Not only China. 

Mr. Bruce. Well, on the Far East, all right. 

In the Far East Reporter, you state as a fact, that the YWCA was 
liberated by the Chinese Communists? 

Miss Russell. I think that was in an article by the YWCA leader 
from Canada, wasn't it? 

Mr. Bruce. Is this a fact? 

Miss Russell. Yes, I think I considered that a very good article 
on her reporting. Now, some of the things 

Mr. Bruce. Is this the fact? 

Miss Russell. That is true. 

Mr. Bruce. You state as a fact that the YWCA was liberated by 
the Chinese Communists in China? 

Miss Russell. I wouldn't say liberated by the Chinese Commu- 
nists. Is that what it says there? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. 

Miss Russell. O.K., then, that is what they told her. 

Mr. Bruce. You then hold it as a fact that the church in China 
was liberated by the 

Miss Russell. I should say what I saw of the church in China, 
and of the YWCA and of the YMCA, that they are very much more 
free than they ever were before to carry out their purposes, and in 
that sense they are liberated. 

Mr. Bruce. And, have you published the pictures of priests and 
clergymen who have come out of China in an emaciated condition, 
or aren't these facts? 



30 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Miss Russell. No, I haven't. Some of them may and some of 
them may not be. I know of some cases where they are not. I can 
tell you one case. 

One of my friends came from West China with a Roman Catholic 
priest who had been under house arrest, or under arrest, and he was 
then freed. When we travel in China, we take great big baskets 
with nets on top, and we carry our own bedding rolls. 

When they got to Hong Kong, that priest got off that train carrying 
the basket and that bedding roll over his shoulder. Then, when he 
crossed over the line, he posed — ^and this picture is in the Hong 
Kong press — as though he were a poor, weak thing, and that picture 
was used to raise money for that mission. 

Now, that is an absolute case. 

Now, a good deal of the things that get published, I do have a 
question about. 

Mr. Bruce. You believe that the statement in this undated issue — 
so I can't tell you the date — that the Christian church in China is 
now keeping its theology pure, and has been purified since the Chinese 
Communist government has literally taken over, is a fact? 

Miss Russell. This is a statement that the Chinese church makes 
over and over, and as I saw it, I saw their publications, I read their 
publications, I read what the church here tells about their publica- 
tions, and I would say that to my way of thinking, they are more 
strictly theological than they were before. 

That is certainly true of the YWCA. 

Mr. Bruce. They have been purified, in other words? 

Aliss Russell. And they publish church magazines, they have 
their evangelistic campaigns, but nowadays with the Communists, 
they carry on their work, and I would say that the YWCA and the 
church in China are freer today than they were before.^ 

I would say that as a fact. 

Mr. Bruce. Do you think they have been liberated? 

Miss Russell. I don't thmk you can say the Chinese Communists 
liberated it. The situation in China has changed, and they are now 
freer to express themselves and to carry out their purposes, and are 
very evangelistic. 

This is the thing that quite surprises me. The emphasis is on that. 
I was really, really surprised. 

1 The issue of Maud Russell's Far East Reporter, under discussion here, contained a "report" on an 
alleged improvement in the status of the YWCA and the Christian church under the Chinese Commu- 
nists, prepared by a Canadian social worker who spent 10 days in Red China in 1960. The Canadian 
writer, who was also described as having held various assignments on the YWCA staff and board in Canada, 
repeated what she was told by various individuals in Red China. The Red Chinese propaganda quoted 
in the Canadian's report included the following statement which shows in what sense the Red Chinese 
regime considers itself the "liberator" of the YWCA and Christian churches in China: 

"* * * Christianity was introduced to China by foreigners; now, since Liberation, the YWCA and the 
Christian Church are really our people's, not managed or controlled by outsiders. It was a liberation for 
the YWCA as well as for the nation." 

In an addendum to the same issue of the Far East Reporter, Maud Russell wrote that the Canadian 
visitor's account "substantiates Miss Russell's report of the YWCA of China as a going, energetic, patriotic 
and constructive participant in the building of the new China * * *." Miss Russell at the same time 
acknowledged that the "program work" of the YWCA in Communist China "centers on helping women 
understand and gear into the new society." 

Testimony received by the committee from non-Communist refugees and defectors from Red China has 
described the combination of brainwashing and physical violence employed by the Chinese Communist 
government to eventually eradicate any sign of religious devotion or organization on the mainland. This 
campaign, insofar as Christian churches are concerned, began in 1950 with the Communist demand that 
the Christians sever all foreign contacts, purge themselves of "imperialist" American influences, and sup- 
port governm.ent policy. The few Christian churches allowed to continue operations have been described 
as "propaganda" churches, controlled by the Communist regime and serving as instruments for advancing 
Communist ideology as well as the Communist program in economics and politics. 

See How the Chinese Reds Hoodwink Visiting Foreigners, testimony by Robert Loh, April 21, 1960; and 
Communist Persecution of Churches in Red China and Northern Korea, testimony by four Chinese Protestant 
ministers on March 29, 1959. The persecution of religion is also detailed in a number of books written by 
Christian clergymen of various denominations who have lived under Red Chinese rule. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 31 

Mr. Bruce. I have just read the article while you were talking. 
I am not impressed with their "evangelism." 

Miss Russell. That is right. They do. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel, please. 

Mr. Nittle. While you Avere in China dm^ing the period 1917 to 
1943, did you have contact ^vith Christian missionaries in China? 

Miss Russell. Oh yes, certainly. 

Mr. Nittle. Missionaries who were both in the zones occupied by 
Communists and the Nationalists? 

Miss Russell. Well, you see, most of the time, you didn't have 
the different areas of China until late in the 1940's. You had occu- 
pied China, where the Japanese were; you had free China, where the 
Chiang Kai-shek's were; and you had what we called the liberated 
areas, where the coalition of the Communists and the Kuomintang 
and the nonpolitical parties were, so you had three areas, and 1 was 
in free China during that time — Chiang Kai-shek's area.^ 

Now, communication went back and forth all the time. Letters 
went back and forth, so in that sense, you were in communication 
with those other areas. 

This was one of the amazing things, the way mail went back and 
forth, even to the liberated areas. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you ever communicate any information obtained 
through your discussions with Christian missionaries to representa- 
tives of the Communist Party in the United States? 

Miss Russell. No, I never did. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you ever communicate that information to Com- 
munist representatives or agents in China? 

Miss Russell. No, I did not. 

(Witness conferred witli counsel.) 

Miss Russell. The Chinese knew far more about those tilings 
than I did. 

Mr. Nittle. The Far East Eeporier has published a pamphlet 
entitled The Real Tibet, written by Susan Warren, which was dis- 
seminated and sold at your recent Baltimore lecture. 

I hand you a copy of that issue marked for identification as Russell 
Exhibit No. 9. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Susan Warren? 

Miss Russell. I will take the fifth amendment on that. 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 9" and retained in 
committee files.) 

1 Actually, Chinese Communist guerrillas have seized and maintained control over various territories 
of China ever since 1927— the year the civil war between the Communists and Nationalists bejan. Before 
Chiansr Kai-shek's Nationalist Army forced them to retreat into a far northwest Chinese province in 1934- 
35, Chinese Communists controlled more than 300,000 square miles of territory in south-central China. 

Japanese incursions into Chinese territory beginning in 1931-32 resulted in Japanese control of all of 
Manchuria in addition to certain territory in north China. After Japan's assumption of all-out war against 
China in 1937, much of eastern China was occupied by the Japanese. 

In order to obtain Chiang Kai-shek's approval of a "united front" action with Communists against the 
Japanese in 1937, the Chinese Communists, among other things, agreed to abolish the Soviet Chinese 
government in northwest China and introduce a government based upon democratic forms. 

However, the so-caUed "democracy" which replaced the Soviet government in northwest China and in 
other areas to which Communists extended their control in the course of "fighting" the .Japanese after 
1937 provided no opportunity for non-Communist political activity, and Communist dictatorship was 
essentially unchanged. 

The Communists' effort to give the impression that their regimes were "people's governments" with a 
democratic majority was aided by their subsequent adoption of a "one in throe" rule. 

Communist organizations were to limit themselves to H of the seats in representative bodies, thus per- 
mitting ],i to go to Nationalist representatives and another third to "nonparty" people. However, the 
"Nationalists" in Communist territory were a "sham party" willing to accept instructions from the 
Communists, as were many of the "nonparty" leaders. (See David J. Dallin, Soviet Russia and the Far 
East, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948.) 



32 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Doyle. Who is Susan Warren, Counsel? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, according to committee records, 
Susan Warren was a delegate to the New York State Convention of 
the Connnunist Political Association in August 1945. 

Our records further show that Susan Warren tanght at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science from approximately 1948 until the winter 
term of 1956. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board Docket No. 107-53, Report 
and Order oj June 30, 1955, characterized the Jefferson School of Social 
Science as follows: 

The Jefferson School * * * operates, primarily, to train its students, almost 
all of whom are Party members or potential recruits, in the Party's programs, 
strategy, and tactics * * *. Under rigid Party control, it is utilized as the 
Commujiist Party's principal training ground for effective membership and 
leadership therein. * * * 

The Jefferson School of Social Science was subsequently dissolved 
because of the proceedings brought against it by the Subversive 
Activities Control Board, which declared that school to be a Com- 
munist front organization, and required to register as such. 

After the closing of the Jefferson School of Social Science, Susan 
Warren lectured at the Marxist Forums which were initiated by the 
Communist Party to fill the Marxist training gap created by the 
closing of the Jefferson School. 

Later, Susan Warren joined the teaching staff of the Faculty of 
Social Science, which was established in the fall of 1958 as a successor 
to the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, Mr. Chairman, I want to make an observa- 
tion, and I want the witness to understand, and the record to clearly 
show, that I don't in the remotest way question the witness' right 
to invoke the fifth amendment, but it strikes me as strange that 
when it comes to publishing materials allegedly stating facts which 
involve the Communist regime in China, the witness testifies that she 
has no interest in other activities or associations of the authors of 
such articles, and it is amazing to me that there is apparently some 
basis of interest in other activities and associations of persons such 
as this name that has just been mentioned, as evidenced by the 
invocation by the witness of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Susan Warren to be a Communist? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of a pamphlet marked for identifi- 
cation as Russell Exhibit No. 10, entitled India and China — a Contrast, 
written by Helen Travis, who is also known as Helen Levi Simon. 
Did you not likewise cause this pamphlet to be sold and disseminated 
at your Baltimore lecture on January 25, 1963? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. Yes, I did. 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 10" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Helen Travis? 

Miss Russell. I have met her. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you known Helen Travis? 

Miss Russell. Maybe a little over a year, 2 years. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 33 

Mr. NiTTLE. On August 4, 1955, Milton Joseph Santwire, former 
undercover operative for the FBI, who attended many closed Com- 
munist Party meetings with Helen Travis, identified her as a Com- 
munist Part}^ member before this committee. 

Helen Travis, in fact, had been formerly employed by the Com- 
munist Daily Worker, writing under the name of Maxine Levi. 

A report of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, issued 
in 1950, which related certain facts in connection with the assassination 
of Leon Trotsky in Mexicoon August 20, 1940, ordered by his political 
rival, Josef Stalin, noted that Helen Travis, under the name of Helen 
Levi Simon, transferred $3,700 to one D. Enrique de los Rios, a 
"money drop" in Mexico City, to finance the release of Jacques Mor- 
nard Vandendreschd, who was charged with the murder of Leon 
Trotsky. 

Helen Travis was also identified in hearings before the committee 
on November 14, 1962, as the secretary of the Los Angeles branch of 
the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, which was the subject of our 
initial investigation in relation to proposed amendments to the Foreign 
Agent Registration Act. We are continuing our hearings today for 
the same purpose. 

Now, do you know Helen Travis as a Communist Party member? 

Miss Russell. I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note in your passport application previously re- 
ferred to as Exhibit No. 3, you did not answer the questions contained 
in the application, namely, "Are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party?", and, "Have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" 

Why did you not respond to those questions? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On June 27, — — • 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt, please? May I ask, Miss Russell, 
have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, witness? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't hear you. Are you now a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you filed this 1959 passport appHcation? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On March 19, 1958, Armando Penha, a former FBI 
undercover operative, testified under oath before this committee that 
you were on the national level of the Communist Party. Will you 
please deny or affirm this statement made by Armando Penha? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, it is true, is it not, that you have been 
lecturing in this country on the Communist revolutionaries in China 
and on the Chinese Communist regmie since the end of World War II? 

Miss Russell. I have been lecturing on China. People's Republic 
of China. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Would you repeat that question, Mr. Nittle? 



34 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sii-. 

Miss Russell, is it not true that you have been lecturing in this 
country on the Communist revolutionaries in China and on the Chi- 
nese Communist regime since the end of World War II? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And what was the witness' answer? 

Miss Russell. I say, I have been talking about China, yes. The 
People's Republic of China. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That is the Communist regune? 

Miss Russell. Which is under the leadership of the Communist 
Party of China, that is true. This is the current China, the People's 
Republic of China. That is what I am talking about. 

]\Ir. JoHANSEN. So, you have been lecturing about the Communist 
regime? 

Miss Russell. I have been lecturing about China. There are 
many elements of China that are not included in that particular 
question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Of course, there are other elements not included, 
but what you have been lecturing about does include the Communist 
regime? 

Miss Russell. I have been talking about the current China, which 
we all know is the People's Republic of China, which is led by the 
Chinese Communist Party. That is obvious. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. So among other matters, the answer is yes, that 
you have lectured regarding the Communist regime in China. 

Miss Russell. I have given my answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not also true. Miss Russell, that you have, both 
prior to the Communist seizure of power and since its seizure in 1949, 
consistently defended, praised, and promoted the Communist govern- 
ment of China, and distributed propaganda material favorable to it? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the reporter kindly read that question back? 

(The reporter read the question.) 

Miss Russell. I certainly have reported on what has been happen- 
ing in China, the people's struggle, and, of course, that includes what 
is the people's China becoming a part of the Socialist world. 

Of course, my material speaks for itself. That is what I am report- 
ing about, present China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me, marked Exhibit 11, a letter to the 
editor, published on the editorial page of the Daily Calijornian, which 
reports the substance of one of your lectures attended by the authors 
of the letter. Among the remarks made in the letter the following 
appears: 

Finally, we were treated to a few pearls of prognostication from Miss Russell's 
obviously as yet crude and untutored oyster bed. Taiwan, she said, should be 
left to itself— until, that it, it falls "like a ripe peach" into the waiting hands of 
the patient People's Republic. Red China needs the atom bomb, it appears, 
strictly for its own protection, particularly against "certain reactionary elements" 
in India, who have gone to the warmongering excess of dragging Chinese troops 
across the Himalayas onto Indian soil. However, all of these events of world 
scope actually affect the confidence of the Chinese people very little, because the 
wonderful and desirable process of "brainwashing" has wiped out all traces of 
fear and insecurity in their minds; they are no longer harassed, as we are in our 
decadent democracy. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 35 

Miss Russell. What is the date of that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. December 2, 1960. 

Mr. Doyle. What is the Daily Calijornian? 

Miss Russell. It is the student publication on the campus in the 
State of Cahfornia. 

Mr. Doyle. I know it is. I want the record to show. 

Miss Russell. I absolutely deny that. I never said those things, 
and anyhow, in 1960, who was talking about the Himalayas and India? 
I mean, on the surface of it, it is a phony. They must be quoting 
somebody else, because I did not say those things. 

(Document marked "Russell Exhibit No. 11" appears on following 
page.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why are you amazed that that should be mentioned 
in 1960? 

Miss Russell. Because the question of India and the Himalayas 
wasn't up then, as that indicates. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When was it up? 

Miss Russell. It is up this last year, 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But, were there not border wars? 

Miss Russell. No, there were not border wars. There were some 
patrol clashes at that time, but this, they must have been quoting 
somebody else, because I did not say those things. 

It is not in my kind of presentation.^ 

Mr. Doyle. How is that letter identified as reporting Miss Russell? 
To what extent does the letter identify our witness? 

Miss Russell. I did not say those things. I don't talk that way. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand a copy of that letter to you, Mr. Chairman, 
and I think you will see it reflects the writer's attendance at a lecture 
or lectures given by Miss Russell. 

Miss Russell. Well, I did lecture on the campus of the University 
of California, and I have said — quoting that — Taiwan will fall like a 
ripe peach, from the New York Times. I was quoting that from the 
New York Times, but I did not add that other that they said, and I 
didn't talk about pearls, or anything like that. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, you have an article against India, haven't you? 

Miss Russell. No, I have not. 

Mr. Nittle. You have an article in the Far East Reporter, which 
is 

Miss Russell. This is not against India. This is a presentation of 
facts. You wiU note— — ■ 

Mr. Nittle. In Miss Travis' article, she was 

Miss Russell. She was comparing conditions in India and China, 
and you have only to read the Christian Science Monitor today to 
find even worse characterization of the situation in India. She was 
characterizing that. 

' Armed conflict between Indian and Chinese Communist forces in disputed border areas broke out in 
the fall of 1959 and again in the summer and fall of 19G1. It was renevved in the fall of 19C2. 

In response to Indian protests against Chinese Communist occupation of border territory which India 
claimed asits own, Chinese Communist Premier Chou En-lai informed the Indian Government on Septem- 
ber 8, 1959, that his government claimed approximately 40,000 square miles of territory also claimed by the 
Indians. In Se|>tember 1959, Chinese Communist troops crossed the McMahon Line, which India recog- 
nizes as its border with Communist Tibet and Communist China, and captured the Indian outpost of 
Longju. In Octolier 1959, Chinese Communists captured 10 Indians and killed 9 others in a border clash in 
the Kashmiri state of Ladakh. The Chinese Communists blamed both clashes on "provocations" by the 
Indians. 

The authors of the letter in the Daihj Californian of December 2, 1960, were obviously making a satirical 
reference to these events when they stated the Indians "have gone to the warmongering excess of dragging 
Chinese troops across the Himalayas onto Indian soil." 



36 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



RtrssELL Exhibit No. 11 

[Daily Californian, December 2, 1960) 



Doily Colifornian 



«#Hr(«l« •HSatt «« gia!!» C iMtf Um't »«»« «•« "at» as <:Uil» «• ta».M«!a «««m« e« tWrwtltv *•*<>«€>• 




Btu«Sr"mte Iwr 'is^rs fa lh« Peo- 
ple's Republic ol Chins In 1639 
and hasn't b*#n quite the »*ni8 
»{nc*. The pinilicitinj it p*il oi 
the "aeu-punrturp" trrsttntnt for 
Arthr'.tiiJ wfilch. «c<r<)nJiin; to Misso 
RusmH. is one of lh« grtctest 
ed'ntjces In Hfi Chirta maee 
bniln^vjuhiiig — 

in Mv)» HukmU'b Tuesday nicii: 
ipeerh dowribirg hvr Sta'e r>e- 
partmyiit conri«?innfd TEip«HTi>n 
tour ui"" ^oU- 111 lilt) vllLagct »nd 
modrt cojiiinunes, wr were 
bnjffgtjt t» worvd«r how «he w)ut«l ■ 
«n'er Sirpe ^itht-u'ii her I0*-odd 
slidfs up $n(l forced h«n>el( tu 
lesvr that lar.U of iiniin<>y?d 
prorniw iiid oppoftisnity, miil »"'?■■ 
turn to our dii>mal "parasitfin- 
restrd" <»s ihe put it) repiuUiitisr 
dpKrt To a railicr «»ot«ftc and 
receptive auitifnce at the^_M^rp 
£a£um/^'»* Rusutell expouTiiii'd 
a Une 'whieh hardly aecmed lu 
differ frofu that of the Cumiiiu 
nists themKetveij. 

Brtncing ui a picture of Com 
muniit China replete with tre- 
mendous retlfUgged parades and 
drawing to- a ciuee with a bigger- 
than-liie sice imut^t of C<>aitr«d» 
Mao. Miss Hujiei! to!d si%. amop.s 
other thingi, hcv.' th«f Chincfi' 
people really detest American 
policy but sclufilly love Ihr 
Ameriean people Thf Chinp*? 
people, aerordlng to Uiaa BuawlL 
du not identifiy Aa\erieaa for- 
eign policy with the desirt-g ul 
the Arn«rican« lheaui«lv«^ a judg- 
ment reaniunable from the pro 
jectlon of their own experience 
— and tft« common ekp«rieuc« of 
millioni of other people in wh&t 
Mils Kussell btlthly called the 
"luaitcnt Democraciet.** 

W« weff told of tlie 7.900.000 
peasants who "volunteered" tu 
work without wa^es lo build a 
reservoir outside of Peking. But 
ft ^weli known that "iNiiuntsiy'' 
liboT in easy to find in Commir' 
nift d(cbt|or<(hip«, «i>p«i'iaily since 
thoaa who du not volunteer Ium 
U\eir |9<l|{ingn.. rstipli.wj^'. "nd 



it'fes, and are branded a« rea^tiwi- 
ao' parasites. 

We weT« ';otd of the overwhi'.ra- 
tng siicces^s of the backyard blait 
furnaces, p«rt n! an .'"Mrn, leisrn, 
inipsove" projiram In which e«ch 
cominun*' was chffrsed with mak- 
in< lt« own sitfS Ctiiidr*:) v.-ere 
plcSi<re<3 buiiding toy bicit-lar- 
nflt-t'» Blas2-(urmi' n ware pjjnted 
on waiU a? b!«s^furoacek war* 
the si^n cf a (ummuise'is bLsKss. 
But lite bisit fufn^cc progr^ro 
is, according lo official Chin«!S« 
»our«s, s rciiifrable fsilure; i>;i« 
in which the USitor of SO milisan 

Vie were ic'.d of ihe incrsds^le 
aniuunt uf U-iiiure time svaila^ie 
to Chintse workers, who are 
able to dally away" whole daya 
lU phib»Usii)ia»;ur!c parkt "lib- 
erated" frosj! capitaiikt parssil*!. 
Alid >et. according lo Thg ;R»t >art. 
er, a cdmmune worke^Ti^* ^.~', 
"^working day oj J4 to 16 hr.ira 
— and nut lest th«n 2S working 
dayk -a month ' 

We wi-re told of the cornc!e;t 
syst»mis i*;t up to transport work- 
ers tc their fsfiory job*, and the 
•fl&ckent BaruTied Mtabli.'thpd So 
care for ih« chiitiren of worklns 
mcshers. BuJ tii»>» tiuaseiS adcjed 
( perhaps insC-.i-rlen'J) > titat the 
children »& Iht- nurseries often 
come home tc ittcir viorking 5»r- 
enis* homes only one?' a wtr<'k. 

VV»» w?re l&lii thai ' iH f<K>d is 
uiujer the coistroi of the CtntraJ 
_Minijtrj of Kmancif." thereby 
miuiiniiing \(Hi\ shortages and 
o«er£up|)Iii'g. Hut tt was oaly 
hinted that thl^ food was made 
available lo cummune workers 
only in meu i.alh. in which rrt 
lirf families Wi-re fed thus free- 
ing the cihorvtii* dumc-sticatcii 
Chinese farm women for lat>or in 
the fivlds. Ini'idt-nUUy. the n'.ess 
halts pictured hv Mits Uu»s«!» sp- 
peared so ovenrowded asid «'c- 
crepit that, should a tlamiEius 
Cummonii b« erected alaivS bissU- 
fUr lines. ,SS^e would sui'i-ly have 
yet another'*5»iur to protest. 

Finally, w»« w«t jrc4ted 14 s 



few pearls of prognostication 
from Miss Rui^st'irs obvlotuiy as 
yet trade and untutored oyster 
b«j. Ts'wan. she a«id, should be 
left to ius'f— distil, that il. it 
falls "like a ripe peach" Into the 
walMng hands of the patient I'eo- 
ple'a Kepubltc. Red China needs 
the atom bomb, it appeai-s, .strict- 
ly foi its own protection, particu- 
Ssrty assinst "certain reacfionary 
»iemenl4" in India, vfbo have 
gone td live wamion.^erijng execs* 
«if drsSiUmS Chrines* lroor>s 
across the Himsiaysii onto Indian 
soil. Hovvevcr, all of theite evenLs 
of world scope actually affect 
th« confidence of the Chinese 
people very little, because the 
wonderful and desirable process 
<?f "brjinwashiiig" has wipecFout 
si! lrare« of fear acd inficcurity 
in their minds: they are no longer 
harassed, as we are. In our deca- 
dent democracy. 

We are dome no more, here. 
than aglnj;: ju»t whom docs Miss 
Ruiseir ihini she.'ts foolinj* 
Surely, in {his country, Jkljud 
iiusscl! iT!»«mbIes norttlnjf so 
much a? thst mother, who watch- 
ing parada, obwrved that c^vry- 
body was out of «t?p but her son. 
Miiaa Rt<7S«U was a mlsslonso' In 
China for S8 y^ars; could it be 
that htP overjealouj enthosiavn 
for the People's Republic can be 
etiribuied lo a desire '^o be al- 
lowed to 'return and conttnije 
her work* 

— Jeffrer Fw. 

fni, E.B. 

>-VIadhUv RervCj 

Sraff, kX. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 37 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did she say about that? 

Mr. Doyle. This letter certainly identifies you. 

Miss Russell. Well, that is surprising to me, because I did not 
say those things. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, it shows, doesn't it, that maybe some of your 
writeups that you copy from other papers are not accurately reported? 

Miss Russell. I didn't say those things. I didn't report those 
things. They must have added a lot, you know. I was on the cam- 
pus talking, and the person there reporting has added his own 

Mr. Doyle. This is a letter, you see, and it says here, "Editorial 
Page" of the Daily Calif ornian. 

Miss Russell. That is all right, but I disclaim it completely. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, now, Mr. Chairman, if I may interrupt, you 
say now that you disclaim it completely. I thought I understood 
you to say a moment ago that you did use this phrase regarding 
Taiwan failing "like a ripe peach." 

Miss Russell. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And you said it in this speech, and it was one of 
the 

Miss Russell. I don't know if I said it in that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And it was one of these factual statements from 
the N'ew York Times'^. 

Miss Russell. An observation from the New York Times. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Pardon? 

Miss Russell. An observation from the New York Times. This 
was. some maybe 5 or 6 years ago that this was in the New York Times. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. But that much that is referred to here you do not 
disclaim? 

Miss Russell. I said that in my talking, I do saj'' that. Now 
whether I said it there, I don't know. I don't know; I may have. 
Now that I say. I do say that, but I am quoting from the Times. 

]VIr. Bruce. Mr. Chau'man? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. Have you ever taken the approach that what you 
referred to as the "People's Republic of China" needs the atom bomb 
as a matter of self-defense? 

Miss Russell. I probably have said China has the perfect right to 
it if she wants it for protection. I would say that. 

Mr. Bruce. For defense? 

Miss Russell. I have not. I think in all the talking I have done, 
1 have only given one talk on which I even touched on the question 
of China and the atom bomb. That was a very small group. 

Mr. Bruce. But your position was 

Miss Russell. And I would say that China has the right, as any 
country has, to develop defenses. 

Mr. Bruce. Now, the context in which it is said is something else 
again. Are you saying that you have said, then 

Miss Russell. I have said China has the right to develop— — - 

Mr. Bruce. Let me finish. 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Are you saying that you have said that China should 
have the atom bomb as a means of her own defense? 

Miss Russell. I doubt if I said that. I said China has the right to 
develop the atomic bomb as a matter of her defense. 



38 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Bruce. As a matter of her own defense? 

Miss Russell. Yes, she has the right to. I would certainly say 
that. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire, What meeting did you speak to, of 
which this appears to be a report? 

Miss Russell. It was on the campus, in one of the big auditoriums 
there. I don't think there were very many people, maybe 60 or 70 
people, but it was on the campus in one of the buildings. 

Mr. Doyle. You showed your slides? 

Miss Russell. I showed slides, that is right, showed slides and 
talked and answered questions. 

Mr. Doyle. This apparently, as I now view it, is a written report to 
the Daily Calijornian of persons who heard you speak. 

Miss Russell. That is right; the reporters don't always report 
completely correctly, you know. 

Mr. Doyle. What? 

Miss Russell. Reporters don't always report completely correctly 

Mr. Doyle. I know that, but you apparently rely on newspaper 
reporters as always reporting accurately. 

Miss Russell. Did I say that? 

Mr. Doyle. No. 

Miss Russell. I studied this question. I study China morning, 
noon, and night and I don't take just one fact. There are many 
things. 

Mr. Doyle. The reason I state that, is that you quote these arti- 
cles, these five or six American newspapers. 

Miss Russell. That's right. 

Mr. Doyle. And other writers as accurately reporting facts. Now 
you say this isn't an accurate report. 

Miss Russell. There are two different things. One is, if you have 
a student of a subject and you find facts that you use, that is one thing ; 
but regarding this meeting, this is just reporting a meeting, and he 
is injecting what his reactions were. 

Mr. Doyle. Here is what this student who heard you speak, and 
saw your slides, says about your report, in part: 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. "Miss Russell expounded a line which hardly seemed 
to differ from that of the Communists themselves." 

Miss Russell. Well, that was his reaction to it. 

Mr. Doyle. That is his estimate of your talk? 

Miss Russell. That is his reaction. He has a right to have any 
reactions that he wants. 

Mr. Doyle. Why, surely, I understand that. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Bruce. Miss Russell, you have stated several times that 
you — I think you generally or always base your statements upon 
what has appeared in the Western press? 

Miss Russell. The Western press. I would say the Western 
press. 

Mr. Bruce. Now, have you ever used, for example, something 
taken out of a letter to the editor, and then attributed it to the New 
York Times? 

Miss Russell. I would identify it as in a letter. Yes, I use that 
sometimes, but I identify it. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 39 

Mr. Bruce. But you would associate the New York Times and 
the prestige of the New York Times with a letter to the editor and 
then use this as fact? 

Aliss Russell. If this is a point of view, for instance, on this 
question of India and China, one of the Kuomintang people in this 
country wi'ote a letter to the Times, agreeing with the present reports 
on China. 

This was quite significant, because this man was Vice President 
of China under Chiang Kai-shek. That was quite a significant 
letter. 

Mr. Bruce. But you do use letters to the editor and then say the 
New York Times says this? 

Miss Russell. I indicate it as being published in the Times. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Miss Russell, as I understood the very early part 
of your testimony, you stated that you told what was good or what 
were the facts regarding Communist China, That, I believe, is 
correct, isn't it 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. — in yom^ lectures? Am I correct in my under- 
standing that the present leadership in Communist China rejects 
the doctrine of peaceful coexistence and advocates the rapid advance- 
ment of communism by force? 

Miss Russell. I don't want to get into a discussion of this theo- 
retical thing, but I would say the answer there is "No." 

Mr. JoHANSEN. This is not theoretical. This is about as concrete 
and practical a question 

Miss Russell. I don't want to get into this, because this is a 
whole new field of relationships between the Communist parties, and 
I don't want to get into that question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Would you think that if Red China leaders did so 
advocate, that would involve the security and possibly the sm'vival 
of the United States? 

Miss Russell. I don't see the meaning of it. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I beg your pardon? 

Miss Russell. I don't see the relevance of your question, or the 
meaning of it. I don't get it clear. 

I don't want to get into a discussion of that ideological subject, so 
I take the fifth amendment on the question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You are doing what? 

Miss Russell. I will take the fifth amendment on your question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Let the record very clearly show that on the 
question relating to the facts about Communist China which relate 
directly to the security of the United States, the witness took the 
fifth, and I raised this question because of the witness' admission 
that she advocates the right of Communist China to have the atom 
bomb and nuclear weapons. 

Mr. Doyle. I am wondering. As I think of the question Mr. Jo- 
hansen asked you and your answer, you have allegedly claimed that 
aU you have reported in your lectures and in your publication is 
fact. 

Now, I am sure Mr. Johansen was not interested in what your 
philosophy is on that subject. We are not interested in your phi- 
losophy. It is a question of facts we are interested in. 



40 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Now, manifestly, you were thought of by many people and by 
yourself as considerable authority on the facts in Cliina. It is on 
the basis of trying to get the facts that we are questioning you. 

Mr. Johansen asked you a question, based on your knowledge of 
whatever the facts are, if you know — and I assume you know, from 
your own claims of authorship and reliability and selling your own 
publications. 

I just assume that I am not doing you an injustice. Therefore, 
I think the question Mr. Johansen asked is very relevant. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. This is a very deep question of political theory and 
this is a thing in which I am not an expert. I do study it and try to 
understand it, but I am not an expert on that. 

I am not even — I try to keep off that subject, because it is not 
something that I understand, and I don't want to get into a discussion 
of it here. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, we are not interested in philosophical discussion. 
We are only interested in what the fact is. 

Miss Russell. Well, this is being discussed very thoroughly among 
the various Communist parties of the world, and I certainly can't 
speak for them, and they themselves don't know yet, they are working 
on the thing; how can I speak for it? I just don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. You know what the facts are with reference to the 
claim of Red China's leadership, don't you? 

Miss Russell. I say this is a subject I do not want to get into a 
discussion of. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you don't claim to have knowledge, then, of 
what the fact is on that subject. Is that correct? 

Miss Russell. I do not have a fuU knowledge. I am studying it. 
I am trying to understand it, but I do not. I cannot speak for them. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, do you loiow what the fact is? 

Miss Russell. No, I do not. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead, Counsel, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, there is abundant evidence that would 
justify the conclusion that the Communists usually lay a propaganda 
base for future action or aggression. 

We recognize that the incidents on the Chinese-Indian border have 
recently come to a head. Now, the Daily Californian reports your 
discussion of border conflict between India and China in 1960. 

We would, therefore, like to inquire of you whether you received 
instructions from any Communist Party functionary to conduct 
propaganda on this subject m 1960? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, to return to your recent talk in Baltimore on 
January 25, 1963, we would hke to note that you not only exhibited 
slides displaying life in Communist China, but you also told the 
audience that you could obtain from Communist China any type of 
slide or any information they might want. 

Would you teU the committee from whom you obtain these slides? 

Miss Russell. It is true I can get material from China. Anybody 
can wi'ite to China, and my friends there send me slides if I write and 
ask for them. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, the witness did not reply to that 
question. She went beside the question. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 41 

Miss Russell. I say, I do obtain slides from Cliina. 

Mr. Bruce. Would you have the reporter reread the question? 

(The reporter read the question.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you name the persons from whom you obtain 
these slides 

Miss Russell. No, I will not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — which were exhibited in the Baltimore lecture? 

Miss Russell. No, I will not. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I ask you, Mr. Chau'man, to direct the witness to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Edwin S. Smith, of New York City, is registered 
with the United States Department of Justice as an agent of the 
China Photo Service, of Peking, China, a propaganda agency of the 
Red Chinese Government. 

Did you obtain any of your slides from him? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make this observation? Witness, I don't 
understand how you can consistently go before a public group in 
Baltimore and assert your ability to get any information 

Miss Russell. I didn't say that. I said I could get slides. I 
didn't say any type of slide, either. I said I could get 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you made a public offer to get slides. 

Miss Russell. I get them. I write to China and I tell people 
what pictures I want and I get them. 

Mr. Doyle. Perhaps we would like to write to China and get some 
slides. 

Miss Russell. You write me, and I wUl get them for you. 

Mr. Johansen. In other words, you are saying you decline to tell 
the sources which could conceivably have some relevancy on the relia- 
bDity and credibility of these slides themselves. Is that correct? 

Miss Russell. The slides speak for themselves. 

Mr. Johansen. Not necessarily. 

Miss Russell. Yes, they do. 

Mr. Doyle. Could we pay you a fee for that information? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you give it to us? 

Miss Russell. If you were an individual or if you were a friend of 
mine, and you wanted some slides, I could give you some, but cer- 
tainly not in business. 

Mr. Johansen. If anyone of the public not connected remotely 
with this committee asked for such slides and asked for information — 
in order to form their own judgment as to the credibility of those 
slides — as to what the source was, would you disclose that to them? 

Miss Russell. No, I would not. I am not in the business of 
supplying slides to people. 

Mr. Bruce. But you made a public offer, didn't you? 

Miss Russell. No, I did not. I said I could get them for illustra- 
tion. What I said was, "If you ask me questions about a specific 
subject, I can get slides to illustrate that." I did not make a public 
offer to get them for people. 



42 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

That is quite correct. But, you Ivnow, I asked the audience, and 
I welcome questions — I consider that the gravy of my meeting, 
because I Hke questions— and I say, "If you ask me a question that I 
need an illustration for, I can get a slide from China." 

I did not offer it to the public. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, I think, Mr. Chairman, the committee is 
being discriminated against, because the witness says she welcomes 
questions, but there are some here that she obviously did not welcome 
from us. 

Mr. Doyle. May I suggest to your counsel, I am sm-e you are 
familiar with the fact that Congress has enacted legislation that 
offers immunity to a witness. 

I would like to suggest that we might be interested in that offer 
now to this witness if she will reveal the soiu'ce from which she gets 
the slides, and not subject her to having to appear in court on the 
subject of this question in any way for pleading the fifth amendment. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Rein. The witness has indicated she is not interested in an 
offer of mimunity. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, thank you. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chau'man, may I interrupt to ask a question? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Pool. 

Mr. Pool. Have you ever written and gotten slides from Com- 
munist China for anyone here in the United States? 

Miss Russell. No, I get them for myself and I sometimes ex- 
change with people here who also have slides from China. 

Mr. Pool. You have gotten them for yourself. Have you given 
them to other people? 

Miss Russell. Various people who have slides exchange ^vith each 
other. 

Mr. Pool. You have distributed them here in the United States? 

Miss Russell. I wouldn't say distributed, no. I wouldn't say 
distributed. 

Mr. Pool. What do you call it, then? 

Miss Russell. This is quite a different thing, if I give to some- 
body who gives me a slide and I give them a slide. That is quite a 
dift'erent thing from distributing. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. It is an exchange. I will save my colleague re- 
ferring to her testimony. 



Mr. Pool. Have you told yom' audiences here in your lectures that 
you approve of the Red Chinese system of government? 

Miss Russell. Well, I have explained what is happening to the 
life of the people, and they make their own judgment whether they 
think it is good, or not. 

Mr. Pool. You haven't answered my question, though. Have you 
told your audiences? 

Miss Russell. I have told them what is happening in China. I 
have tried to show the changes in the life of the Chinese people, and 
whether they approve it — now I get criticisms. Some people approve 
of it and some don't. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 43 

Mr. Pool. Have you ever made the statement that you approve of 
the system of government in Red China? That is all I ask. 

Miss Russell. I have made the statement that I approve of it for 
the Chinese people, yes. 

Mr. Pool. You have made that statement to your audiences? 

Miss Russell. I have just now made it to you. I approve of it 
for the Chinese people. It is such an improvement over what they had 
before that I certainly approve of it. 

Mr. Pool. And you have told that to your audiences at your 
lectures? 

Miss Russell. It is implicit, I think, in the kind of things that I 
have shown'^them' about the life of the people in China. 

Mr. Doyle. What year were you in Red China last? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you afraid, or do you have fear of a criminal 
prosecution if you honestly told this committee 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. — what year you were there? 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, if the witness is stating that she feels 
that this is a good thing for the people of China, how, then, do you 
explain the thousands of refugees who stream into Hong Kong to 
the extent that they had to actually, from the Hong Kong side, 
literally put up barriers and stop them from coming in? 

Why would they be coming away from this workers' paradise? 

Miss Russell. Do you know the figures on it? 

Mr. Bruce. It is several hundred thousand. I think these figures 
are quite well understood. 

Miss Russell. The biggest figure that has been given is 150 
million, but the latest figures that the National Geographic and in 
the NeiD York Times and other publications, is 1 million people 
have left, and that is about one-fifth of 1 percent of the population 
of China; and besides that, according to CBS reports, Nev) York 
Times reports, and European reports, a great number of those 
returned. 

Mr. Bruce. Many of them were forced to go back. 

Miss Russell. They were not forced to go back. Those that came 
to the border that did not get in, they were kept out, but they go 
back all the time. 

Mr. Bruce. Why would a million people want to leave? 

Miss Russell. What is a million out of 670 million? 

Mr. Bruce. A million people aren't important? 

Miss Russell. They are important, but the extent of the people 
going — in fact, I would call them migrants rather than refugees, be- 
cause they go and then many of them come back. 

Even in our press reports, those that go back. 

Mr. Bruce. Oh, I see, in one issue of your publication. Far East 
Reporter, your headline is, "Why Do Chinese 'Refugees' 'Escape' to 
Hongkong?" [This was previously introduced as Russell Exhibit 
No. 8.] 

Miss Russell. "Why Do so-called Refugees Escape," if you wiU 
read it correctly. 

Mr. Bruce. Well, I have not had the opportunity to read it, but 
counsel has, and he informs me that in this publication your approach 



44 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

is that these are really capitalists and exploiters of the people who 
can't stand it in this freed, liberated society. Is that accurate? 
Is that a fact? 

Miss Russell. That is part of the people that go. The people 
who earned their living by exploiting others and who couldn't bear 
to live in the cooperative society; they have gone, that is true. 

The other people have gone because they have relatives in Hong 
Kong and there are many new jobs opening up. There is a tre- 
mendous industrial development, and even our press says they have 
to get the laborers from the Mainland in order to carry out these 
new developments, and the fields look a little greener over there, and 
so people go there. 

There are reasons for that. 

Mr. Bruce. You mean the fields look greener 

Miss Russell. In Hong Kong. 

Mr. Bruce. I wonder why? 

Miss Russell. Well, there are jobs there. 

Mr. Bruce. WeU, why would the fields look greener just over the 
line? 

Miss Russell. Because there are still jobs there for which they 
get paid, and there are relatives. Why does a person go from New 
York to another city to work? Because he thinks he is going to get 
a little better thing, that kind of thing. 

Mr.?BRUCE. Just that easy, that simple? 

Miss Russell. No, but if you read the comparison there, I think 
you will'get it. 

Mr. Bruce. Oh, I will. 

Mr. Pool. Have you ever received money from any source other 
than admission fees charged for your lectures in the past 10 years? 

Miss Russell. Well, I have. I get money for subscriptions to my 
magazine; I get money for speaking; I get money for selling the 
literature; and I also carr}^ pamphlets and books on the Far East that I 
sell, that I buy from the importer. 

4: « * * 4: * * 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, Mr. Chairman, has the witness ever received 
any money from the Communist Party, either in the United States 
or in Red China, or from any branch of the international Communist 
movement? 

Miss Russell. I have not. I am very careful about where my 
funds come from. If any of you want to look at my books, you may 
at any time study my books. It is reported. I make regular reports 
as a business person. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did I understand correctly that the advertisements 
for your lectures and appearances, at least on the Pacific Coast, your 
paid ads that you cause to be placed, are limited to the People's 
World and the National Guardian'? I want to clear the record on 
that. I wasn't sure. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 45 

Miss KussELL. I think so. I think those are the two. That is 
what I pay for. Now, some of my subscribers, when they are arrang- 
ing meetings, they may be paying for others. I don't know. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I reahze the distinction involved. What is the 
particular audience you hope to reach, or what is the basis for your 
limitation of your advertising to these particular media? 

Miss Russell. Well, they are both progressive papers; and the 
groups that I speak to are all kinds of groups, but a great many pro- 
gressives in the groups, and a great many of my subscribers also 
subscribe to those magazines. 

It is one way of my letting them know I am on the way. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did I understand you to testify earlier that you 
deny any knowledge that either of those is a Communist medium? 

Miss Russell. I did; that is right, yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Pool, your question of any other income 
to the witness was intended to go to the area of which Mr. Johansen 
has inquired, from Communist sources, wasn't it? 

Mr. Pool. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Before returning to the United States in 1943, did 
you confer with any officials of the Chinese Communist Government 
and agree to serve as a propagandist for Red China in the United States? 

Miss Russell. I did not. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact, in accepting the key post of executive 
director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy in 
1945, after your return here, you did so with the aim of using that 
organization as a propaganda agency for the Chinese Communists? 

Miss Russell. No. Your figure is wrong. It is 1946. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, during your visit to Red China in 1959, 
confer with any officials of that Communist government and agree to 
serve as a propagandist for Red China in the United States? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever received any compensation from the 
Chinese Government or its representatives for your propaganda 
efforts? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever received any compensation from the 
Chinese Government or its representatives for your propaganda 
efforts? 

Miss Russell. I have received no compensation of any kind. 

Mr. Nittle. Who paid your expenses for your travel in China in 
1959? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a guest of the Red Chinese Government? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 



46 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Were you, on any prior \dsits to China, a guest 
of the Chinese Communist Government? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. May I just say this. I am quite sure from your long- 
experience as a YWCA executive in China and those Christian 
church affihations — some of us are famihar with what they entail — 
I have 3^our application for a passport before me, and I just cannot — 
I wish to emphasize I cannot — understand how a person with your 
background and training and former affiliations w^ould hesitate in 
1959, when you made this application, to answer any and every 
question on your application. 

I can't help but notice that you refused the United States Govern- 
ment any information on your application whether or not you were, 
or ever had been, a member of the Communist Party. 

Though I recognize your constitutional privilege — and thank God 
we have it in our Constitution — I can't help but conclude that there 
is something about those questions that you did not want the American 
people to know, including your own Government, which gives you 
safety and protection. 

Miss Russell. Is that an observation or a question? 

Mr. Doyle. I did not intend it as a question. However, if you 
will answer it, I will make it a question. 

It is too bad that there is an area of secrecy in the experiences of 
some people, so they can't share when it comes to the protection of 
their own Nation. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I might add, Mr. Chairman, that that area of 
secrecy seems to emerge always when we get to the really crucial, basic 
questions. 

Mr. Doyle. That's right. 

Go ahead. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did not the Chinese Government pay all of your ex- 
penses of travel and visitation in the year 1959? 

Miss Rus&ELL. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not this a torm of compensation for past propa- 
ganda assistance and any that you might give in the future? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since your return to the United States, have you made 
reports relating to your itinerary and speaking engagements to any 
representative or agent of Communist China? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To no functionary of the Communist Party in the 
United States? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are your speaking engagements directed or assisted 
in any way by functionaries of the Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. Not that I know of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever register with the United States Depart- 
ment of Justice as an agent of Red China? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Russell, the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938 defines the term "publicity agent" as including "any person who 
engages directly or indirectly in the publication or dissemination of 
oral, visual, graphic, written, or pictorial information or matter of 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 47 

any kind, including publication by means of advertising, books, 
periodicals, newspapers, lectures, broadcasts, motion pictures, or 
otherwise." 

You will agree, I believe, that your activities clearly fall within that 
definition of publicity agent? 

Air. Rein. Mr. Chairman, I don't think it is fair to ask the witness 
a legal question as to whether or not. I don't think she is competent 
to answer the question and I don't think her answer, to say that she 
is or is not within the scope of the Foreign Agents Act, is a significant 
answer. 

It is obviously a legal question, and there is no sense in putting it 
to the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, of course, she can plead her constitutional privi- 
lege. 

Mr. Rein. I don't think it is a question of pleading constitutional 
privilege. She is not a lawyer. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, she may have had advice by lawyers. 

Mr. Rein. Well, she might be asked that question, as to whether 
she has ever consulted a lawyer on this subject, but I don't think she 
should be asked to give a legal opinion. 

Mr. Doyle. Ask that question, would you. Counsel? 

Mr. Rein. I will give a legal opinion that she is clearly not within 
the scope of the Act, if you want it. I think I am competent to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, of course, you aren't the witness. 

Mr. Rein. Well, I don't think the witness is competent to answer 
the question. That is my point. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you are advising the witness not to answer the 
question, nonetheless. Let me pass to another question. Perhaps 
she may agree to cooperate in this respect. 

The Act also defines the term "foreign principal" as including "an 
individual affiliated or associated with, or supervised, dii'ected, con- 
trolled, financed, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any foreign 
principal." 

There remains a question of whether you are acting for ^ foreign 
principal as defined in the Act. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you acting for any individual associated or 
aflSliated with, or supervised, dhected, controlled, financed, or sub- 
sidized, in whole or in part, by any foreign principal? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTiLE. The term "foreign principal" also includes a govern- 
ment of a foreign country and a foreign political paTt3^ Are you 
acting for a government of a foreign country? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or a foreign political party? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you receive instructions or information from 
representatives of tliie Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that, as I did 
previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No fm^ther questions, Mr. Chairman. 



48 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMIVIUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. Johansen. I have just one question, to sum up what I under- 
stood to be the witness' position, in the interests of clarity, having the 
record straight. 

As I understand it, the witness denies acting in any way as an 
agent of any foreign power or of the Communist Party in any of its 
international branches, but she is, on her own volition, stating the 
view to American audiences and the American people that the present 
Communist regime in China is good for the Chinese people. 

Is that a fair and accurate statement? 

Miss Russell. I am reporting the facts about Chma, which I 
think are very good facts for the Chinese people. 

Mr. Johansen. And, as I understood it, you said that included 
the statement you believed that the present regime was good for the 
Chinese people. 

Miss Russell. I did, yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. That is all. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr Pool? 

Mr. Pool. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Schadeberg? 

Mr. Schadeberg. I have just two questions. 

Miss Russell, you stated, I think — and if I am "not correct, you 
can inform me — that your pm"pose in the lectures and the publi- 
cations that you have was to help the American people understand 
what is going on in China. 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Well, on that basis, do you feel that, in order to 
understand what is going on in China, the people ought to know some 
of the adverse conditions that are taking place in China, also? 

Miss Russell. I also report that, because there is a great deal of 
information in the Chinese press and in the foreign press about that. 

As I said earlier, there is reported in the foreign press, and when it 
is in the foreign press, it comes from the Chinese press, and that is 
also reported. 

They do have problems. They have very serious problems. They 
make mistakes, and these are reported. 

Mr. Schadeberg. They are reported in lectures? 

Miss Russell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Schadeberg. I have one other question. 

Do you possess, or have you published, any facts on the increase or 
decrease in Christian church membership and in what age groups 
such increase or decrease might have taken place in China? 

Miss Russell. No, I haven't, because the church groups put out 
bulletins on that, and that goes out quite widely, and I get those 
bulletins, too. I mean, the National Christian Council furnishes bul- 
letins on that. When I talk about it, I quote from those. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Is it your knowledge that it has increased or 
has decreased? 

Miss Russell. Well, the nmiiber of Christians in China have de- 
creased. They figured before that they numbered about four million. 
That includes both Roman Catholics and Protestants. 

I think the figure today is three million or less. There are no more 
"rice" Christians in China. Do you know what a "rice" Christian is? 

Mr. Schadeberg. Yes. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 49 

Miss Russell. The people who are in it to get something out of it, 
and the people who are in it to get something out of it certainly have 
evaporated. 

I think the people who are in the church in China today are real 
believers. I mean, they really believe in their Christian and their 
religious philosophy, so I think the church is stronger, though smaller. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Will the gentleman yield? 

Mr. ScH.'^DEBERG. Ycs, I yield. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You mentioned an organization that was the source 
of these statistics. 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. What was the name of that? 

Miss Russell. Well, it is under the National Christian Council, 
you know. They have their headquarters on Riverside Drive in 
New York. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is it the National Council of Churches? 

Miss Russell. The National Council of Chm-ches, I guess, and 
then there is a China division of it, which publishes a regular bulletin 
giving facts from China about the Christian movement in China, 
quite full.^ 

Mr. Schadeberg. May I just make one other comment? And, 
that is, It is your understanding, then, that it has decreased by about 
a million? 

Miss Russell. It has decreased in numbers. 

Mr. Schadeberg. And the population of China probably has 
increased? 

Miss Russell. That is right. It is a small segment of China. It 
alwaj^s has been a small segment, but quite an important segment, I 
would say. 

Mr. Schadeberg. So you think that the atheist Communist govern- 
ment of China has done a great service to the Christian church in 
purifying the church? 

Miss Russell. Well, I think that the members of the church are 
people that really believe in it now, really believe in it, and that, of 
course, is a strengthening, and I went to some of the cities. I. visited 
quite a number of the churches, and where you had before quite a 
number of churches scattered all over the cities, you now had maybe 

■ The Far Eastern Office of the Division of Foreign Missions of the National Council of Churches Issued 
a China Bulletin, superseded in 1962 by China Nvtes. In response to an inquiry from this committee, NCC 
staff members stated they were unable to locate through indexes to NCC publications, statistics similar 
to those given by Maud Russell. 

Evidence with respect to the persistent persecution of Christian churches under the Chinese Communist 
regime is contained in NCC publications, however. The NCC pamphlet, China Conniltation — 1958 carried 
an article by Francis P. Jones, editor of the NCC China Bulletin, which declared, in part: 

"* * * It is estimated that the Protestant membership in Communist China dropped from about a 
million in 1949 to not more than 600,000 in 1952. * * * 

"Life has been dilticult for these Christians. They have been harassed and discriminated against in both 
official and unofficial ways. * * * the stories have multiplied of Christian students not allowed to continue 
studies. Christian nurses in hospitals being assigned to the most menial and distasteful duties, and humili- 
ations heaped upon pastors just because they are pastors. • * * 

■'* * • During the period of land redistribution 1951-1953, all country churches were officially closed. * * * 
today, five years after the land redistribution program came to an end, many of those country churches 
have still not been allowed to reopen * * *. 

"The Communist Government's control of the life of every citizen in Red China is so complete that it is 
difficult to find time for church acti\ ities. * * * 

"The corporate life of many of the churches of China has been still further disturbed by the ruthless arrest 
and imprisonment of many of their leaders. * * • None of those released from prison has been able to 
resume his former work. * * • In Hunan * * • the outstanding preacher in each of [the three major] 
churches was condemned as a rightist dming the past year and dimissed from his post, 

"The Communist system adds another difficulty to church life in the fact that the new economic system 
makes church support very difficult. * * • indeed the present demand is that every pastor support him- 
self by manual labor, and he is being ridiculed as a parasite if he does not make his contribution to the eco- 
nomic building up of the country." 



50 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

four or five, which I attended one Sunday morning, and quite a 
number of them had educational directors and other programs, a 
great strengthening of the church in that, you see.^ 

Mr. JoHANSEN. When was that? 

Miss Russell. That is when I was in China. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Wlien was that? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. 1959? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. May I ask another question, if I may, please? 

Are these Christian pastors supported by the Communist Party? 

Miss Russell. They are supported by their members. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. By free-will offering? 

Miss. Russell. Yes, by free-will offering, and all the Christian 
groups in China are considered people's movements. I mean, all 
the religious groups. 

You "have Buddhists, Taoists, Chi'istians, and Mohammedans. 
They are all considered people's movements, and facilities for serv- 
ices are available to all these groups. To that extent, the Christian 
group is aided, as are all the people's movements in China. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman? 

When, Miss Russell, did you leave China at the termination of 
your work with the YWCA? 

Miss. Russell. 1943. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Have you been there since? 

Miss. Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, now, I make the point, Mr. Chairman, that 
the witness has opened up this line of questioning by referring to a 
trip made to China, or a visit to China, when she visited all of these 
churches and saw these things that she testified to; and I suggest 
that she has waived her privileges under the fifth amendment with 
respect to her 1959 trip. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I thmk there is no question about it. There- 
fore, I will instruct the witness to answer that question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. And do it, as Mr. Johansen says, on the basis that 
you yom-self volunteered that you had seen a change in the attendance 
in the churches and all. You visited the churches. . 

I instruct you to answer the question. 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand the question Mr. Johansen asked 
you, Witness? You understood Mr. Johansen's question? 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you answer his question? I saw you shake your 
head, but I didn't hear any answer. 

Miss Russell. Which question are you referring to? 

Mr. Doyle. Will you read the question, Reporter? 

(The reporter read the question of Mr. Johansen as follows: 
"Have you been there since?") 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hear the reporter read that question? 

Miss Russell. Yes. 



1 See footnote, p. 30. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 51 

Mr. Doyle. Your answer was you pleaded the fifth amendment? 

Miss Russell. That is right. 

Air. JoHANSEN. You understood my question? 

Miss Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand now that the question you have 
pleaded your constitutional privilege to is Mr. Johansen's question 
as to whether or not jou have returned to China since you left there, 
according to yom- own testimony, in 1943. 

You understand that that is the question Mr. Johansen asked you, 
do 3"0u not? 

Aliss Russell. Yes, and I took the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr, Doyle. You took the fifth amendment. And you still take 
the fifth amendment, in spite of my instruction to answer the question? 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment, yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. Pool. Give the witness another direction, 

Mr. Doyle. Well, so that we wUl have the record perfectly clear, 
I direct you again to answer that question by Mr. Johansen of whether 
or not you have returned to China since you left there in 1943, 

Miss Russell. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr, Doyle. All right. 

Anything else, any Member of the Committee? 

Thank you. Counsel. The subcommittee stands adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 1 p.m., Wednesday, March 6, 1963, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Bevc, Vladislav 36 

Blossom, Frederick A 1, 2, 10, 11, 13, 14 

Brownell, Herbert, Jr 3 

Chi-chou Huang 1, 2, 10-13 

Chiang Kai-shek 21, 31, 39 

Cholmeley, Elsie Fairfax. (See Fairfax- Cholmeley, Elsie.) 

Chou En-lai 14, 15, 35 

Clark, Tom C 2, 22 

Coleman, J. C 2, 14, 15, 20 

Cromwell, Edith. (See Fairfax-Cholmeley, Elsie.) 

Dallin, David J 31 

de los Rios, D. Enrique 33 

Dennis, Eugene (born Francis Xavier Waldron; also known as Paul Eugene 

Walsh; Milton) 22 

Epstein, Israel 3, 27 

Epstein, Mrs. Israel. (See Fairfax-Cholmeley, Elsie.) 
Fairfax-Cholmeley, Elsie (Mrs. Israel Epstein; also known as Mary 

Epstein, Edith Cromwell) 3, 27, 28 

Fan Chien-ya 12 

Field, Frederick (Vanderbilt) 22 

Fray, Jeffery 36 

Greene, Felix 14, 15 

Hayes, Dorothy 2, 14, 19 

Huang, Chi-chou. (See Chi-chou Huang.) 

Jones, Francis P 49 

Kinney, Marion 14, 15 

Loh, Robert 30 

Mao Tse-tung 17, 18 

Mornard, Jacques (also known as Jacques Mornard Vandendreschd; 

Frank Jacson) ^ 33 

Nearing, Scott 1, 10 

Penha, Armando 1, 4, 33 

Rein, David 3, 9 

Russell, Maud Muriel 1-5, 9-51 (testimony) 

Santwire, Milton Joseph 33 

Schneider, Anita Bell (Mrs. Virgil A. Schneider; alias Seeta) 17 

Smith, Edwin S 4,41 

Stalin, Josef (losif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) 33 

Strong, Anna Louise 3, 27, 28 

Thompson 14 

Travis, Helen Simon (Mrs. Robert Travis; nee Levi; also known as Maxine 

Levi) 4,32,33,35 

Trotsky, Lev (Leon) (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein) 33 

Vandendreschd, Jacques Mornard. (See Mornard, Jacques.) 

Warren, Susan (Mrs. Richard Frank; nee Susan Mildred Heiligman)_ 3, 4, 31, 32 

Yergan, Max 22 

Organizations 

American Peace Crusade: Southern California Peace Crusade: San Diego 

Peace Forum 17 

China Aid Council 28 

China Photo Service (Peking, China) 4, 41 



ii INDEX 

Paere 

College Club (Baltimore, Md.) 24,25 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policj^ 2, 3, 22, 23, 28', 45 

Communist Political Association (May 1944 to July 1945) ' 3^ 32 

Faculty of Social Science, The ' 32 

Friends of British Guiana 1 

Friends of Chinese Democracy 28 

Institute of Pacific Relations 3^ 27 

Jefferson School of Social Science 3,' 32 

Johns Hopkins University (Baltimoi-e, Md.) 10 

Marxist Forums 32 

Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, Los Angeles branch 1, 4, 33 

Methodist Federation for Social Action, Oregon chapter 15, 20 

National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S. A 48, 49 

Open Forum of Maryland 15, 24-26 

San Diego Peace Forum. (See entry under American Peace Crusade.) 

SLATE 36 

SLATE Forum 36 

U.S. Government: 

Library of Congress 1, 10 

Senate, United States; 

Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee 3, 20, 27 

Subversive Activities Control Board 2, 3, 22, 32 

University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) 35 

University of Maryland (College Park, Md.) 10 

Washington Cultural Co-op (Washington State) 14 

Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) 29 

Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) 14, 15, 25, 44, 50 

China 2, 3, 20, 22, 23, 29, 30, 46 

Publications 

Allied Labor News 28 

Amerasia 28 

China Bulletin 49 

China Notes 49 

Daily Calif ornian (University of California student newspaper) 34-37 

Far East Reporter 1, 3, 23 

Far East Spotlight 3, 23 

Hua Shang Pao (Chinese Commercial Daily, Hong Kong) 10, 12 

Progressive Labor magazine 15 

Social Questions Bulletin 15 

o 



^ iagjiS