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Full text of "U. S. Communist Party assistance to foreign Communist governments ; (Medical Aid to Cuba Committee and Friends of British Guiana) : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, second session, November 14 [-15] 1962"

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U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO 
FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Medical Aid to Cuba Committee and Friends of 

British Guiana) 

PART 2 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



NOVEMBER 14 AND 15, 1962 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Pjinted for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
21-206 pt. 2 WASHINGTON : 1963 



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^3 



36 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

Erancis J. McNamara, Director 
Feank S. Tavbnneb, Jr., General Counsel 
Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

n 




CONTENTS 



PART 2 
(Afternoon session continued) 

November 14, 1962 : Testimony of— Pa^e 

Sidney J. Gluck 1951 

Albert S. Baker 1974 

November 15, 1962 : Testimony of — 

Emilio V. Soto ^^ 1987 

Jose G. Tremols 1992 

Dr. X 1997 

Leo Huberman 2003 

AFTEBNOON SESSION 

Leo Huberman (resumed) 2010 

Marcia G. Rabinowitz 2027 

Michael Creuovich 2032 

Index i 



PART 1 

Synopsis 1837 

November 14, 1962 : Testimony of — 

Melitta del Villar 1851 



AFTERNOON SESSION 



Melitta del Villar (resumed) 1902 

(Index appears in Part 2) 



m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Slenate and Eonse of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Ttie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is Muthorlzed to make from time to time investigations of (i) tlie extent, 
chanK'tcr. iuid objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For tlie i)urpose of any such investigation, the Committee on I'n-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Seiiate and the House of Ilei)resentativH.«! 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 87TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 3, 1961 

• ♦****• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

***** * * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United State.s, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities .shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subi>enas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any per.son 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

***** sjr * 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the Hou.se shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN 
COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Medical Aid to Cuba Committee and Friends of British Guiana) 

Part 2 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER, 14, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Acttvities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

AFTERNOON SESSION— Continued ' 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities re- 
convened at 2 p.m., Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chairman of the sub- 
committee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Morgan M. 
Moulder, of Missouri; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; and Gordon 
H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Also present : Representative Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S, 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Louis J. 
Russell and Neil E. AVetterman, investigators. 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Sidney J. Gluck. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Glu'i'k, do you solemnly swear that the testimony 
that you are about to give before this subcommittee will be the truth, 
the Avhole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Gluck. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY J. GLUCK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. JNIouLDER. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. AVill you state your full name, please ? 
Mr. Gluck. Sidney J. Gluck. 
Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Gluck. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. AVould counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D.C. 

1 At the conclusion of Mrs. del Villar's testimony, Sidnev J. Gluck was called as the 
next witness. 

1951 



1952 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Gliick, liave you also used the name Isadore Gluck ? 

Mr. Gluck. Before answering any questions, I should like to say 
that in view of the fact that my name has come up so strongly and 
prominently during the examination of the previous witness, it is only 
correct for me to tell you now that my association with this committee 
began long after it Avas formed. I had nothing to do with the forma- 
tion of this committee. I never directed this committee. I never 
gathered together the people who were involved in this committee. 
That I was even 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I think we should proceed in regular 
order. 

Mr. Gluck. The Honorable Mr. Scherer may have left 

Mr. Moulder. We are going to get into that, Mr. Gluck, I am sure. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask for regular order. 

Mr. Moulder. What is the question pending? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you used the name Isadore Gluck, as well ? 

Mr. Gluck. The name Isadore Gluck is on my birth certificate. It 
was an error on the part of the clerks. It happened to have been 
my father's name. And I had quite a time when I applied for a pass- 
port, in getting all the papers corrected, with the birth certificate 
people in Brooklyn. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present residence, Mr. Gluck? 

Mr. Gluck. 241 Central Park West, in New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. Gluck. Grammar school, high school. College of the City of 
New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you born, and where ? 

Mr. Gluck. Brooklyn, 1916. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Gluck. Textile technician. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the treasurer of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee ? 

Mr. Gluck. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Hovv long have you acted or served in that capacity? 

Mr. Gluck. I believe since April or May of this year. I don't know 
whether it was the end of April or the first part of May. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Melitta del Villar? 

Mr. Gluck. I met her about that time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is our information that the finances of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee have been jointly entrusted to Melitta del 
Villar, Albert S. Baker, and yourself. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Gluck. Well, I act as treasurer, and we sign checks together, 
and I act as a treasurer should act. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of an authorization previously 
marked for identification as del Villar Exhibit No. 14 (see p. 1917) , ad- 
dressed to The Amalgamated Bank of New York, authorizing with- 
drawals from the account of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, 
under the signatures of any two of the three named persons whose 
signatures appear upon the exhibit, namely. Chairman Melitta del 
Villar, Vice-chairman Albert S. Baker, and Treasurer Sidney J. 
Gluck. 

The date of change of signature is noted thereon as April 3, 1962. 

Is that your signature appearing there ? 

Mr. Gluck. That is my signature. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1953 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you advise us of the amount of money that 
has passed through the treasury of the Medical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee since your employment as treasurer to date ? 

Mr. Gluck. Well, may I say something about this document which 
I am holding? 

Mr. Moulder. What do you wish to explain about it ? 

Mr. Gluck. Why, yes. This is a signature card, apparently, when 
I undertook to act as treasurer — the funds were, had been, and con- 
tinued to be, at The Amalgamated Bank of New York. 

Now, since I was coming in to act as treasurer, naturally, they 
wanted my signature. The committee would want to have my signa- 
ture on checks. So I agreed that I would sign checks, and that the 
checks would be signed by two people, not just by one. 

Now, previously, the checks were signed by Melitta del Villar and 
Albert Baker, apparently. But since I came into the picture, it was 
any two of us. And that is all this document means. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I assume that you are acquainted with Dr. Louis 
Miller, the medical director of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Mr. Gluck. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Dr. Miller ? 

Mr. Gluck. I have known him for a number of years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know how long Dr. Miller has been associated 
with the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Gluck. Well, to the best of my recollection, and this would 
be hearsay, from having been told, it was almost from the start. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you brought into the Medical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee by Dr. Louis Miller ? 

Mr. Gluck. Dr. Louis Miller is the man who pressed me to come 
in and to help with the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. That is 
correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Dr. Louis Miller to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Gluck. I do not know Dr. Louis Miller to be a member of the 
Communist Party, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you known him to be a member of the Communist 
Party at some time ? 

Mr. Gluck. I have said I have not. That should be sufficient. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Celia Saperstein ? 

Mr. Gluck. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. When you refer to the fifth amendment, are you invok- 
i ng the self-incrimination clause ? 

Mr. Gluck. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mrs. Saperstein assist the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee at a fund-raising affair given at Camp Midvale, New 
Jersey, during the past summer ? 

Mr. Gluck. I take the same position. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a brochure marked Gluck Exhibit 
No. 1, which was issued in the summer of 19G2 by World Fellowship, 
Inc., including World Fellowship of Faiths, 66 Edgewood Avenue, 
New Haven, Connecticut, concerning its alleged Summer Vacation 
and Conference Center being held at Conway, New Hampshire. Dr. 
Willard Uphaus is listed as executive director. 

91669 O — 63 — pt. 2 i 



1954 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



You will note that Sidney Gluck is listed as a member of the board 
of trustees of World Fellowship. 

How long have you served in the capacity of trustee of World 
Fellowship Inc. ? 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Gluck Exhibit No. 1 

BOARD OP TRUSTEES ft^, wt noi sU OM FaUrn? Hsd/met 

Rhvbrhnd Gborgb a. ACMay, CUrmm *^ ^'^^ ertMti us? Malaoq 2:10 

Dr. Royal W. Biancb 
Mks. Royal W. Fbamcb 

ALHX M UhfSHLL^^^^^&XKP Uphaus 
Cykil Philip Lqlis Zhmbl 



ADVISORY COUNQL 

Rbv. George A. Ackerly, New York 

Rev. Harold J. Bass, Vasbington Sutt 

DB. HaBVP F. HaTY, Montana 

Charles J. Coe, Kew York 

Dr. Harry Cohen, New York 

Rev. ICen^s^th R^ , Forbes, Penntyhams 

^^ .■ Bfl YAl._W ■FPAN'"P-, Sew York 

^Amua-.E. ...Garvin, New York 

Laurence J. Jones, Mississippi 

Rfv. Richard R Keith ahn, India 

Rhv. WujjaM- U. PebXLNS, New York 

Dr. .Uollamp Roberts, California 
John Pratt Wwtmam, New Hampxhire 

Dr. Willard Uphaus, Executive Director 
Ola R Uphaus, Assistant to the Director 

Believing In a movement fhat works for 
worldwide friendship and a peaceful exis- 
tence for all peoples, without barriers of 
race, nationality, faith or political system. 

I wish to — 

Q Moke a contribution of 

D $5 □ $10 D S15 D $25 D 

Q Receive full information about World 
Fellowship's 1962 summer program in 
New Hampshire. 



Name 
StrMt 
City 




Zon* 



Stat* 



WORLD FELLOWSHIP, INC 

INCLUDING 

WORLD FELLOWSHIP OF FAITHS 

66 BDGEWOOO AVENUE 

NEW HAV»I 11, CONNECTICUT. U. $. A. 

SPruc* 6-3334 

SUMMER VACATION AND 
CONFERENCE CENTER 

CONWAY, NEW HAMPSHIRE 
Hickory 7-2280 



TTFC 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1955 



Gluck Exhibit No. 1 — (Continued) 



- DEFINITION .- . 

World Fellowship of Faiths is a 
movement ope a to people of all faiths, 
races, nationalities and social convictions 
who seek to understand one^ another's reli- 
gions and cultures and to stfengthen one 
another in working toward peace, brother- 
hood and plenty for all. 

OBJECTIVES 

The immediate objeaives of World 
Fellowship are ( 1 ) to keep open the chan- 
nels of free discussion in the U. S. and 
among peoples of all lands, (2) to clarify 
the teachings of the various faiths and show 
their relation to man's strivings for the 
abundant life, (3) to bring together from 
various parts of the world the representa- 
tives of different beliefs in order to strength- 
en and coordinate their efforts. 

Since developments based on atomic 
science make possible a new era of abund- 
ance for tfiankiltd, World Fellowship seeks 
a fresh approach to our economic and social 
structure. Basic economic changes are inevi- 
table and it is the concern of World Fellow- 
ship that these changes shall advance man- 
kind toward a more ethical society and a 
world in which all peoples and nations live 
in harmony as>. brothers and neighbors. 

SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES 

( 1 > The. Fellowship believes that the 
confidence bonuof -first-hand cootacts u es- 
sential to coopeiration for peace and pro- 
gress; that approaching by diverse routes 
the experienct of friendly living together 
brings a sense of sympathy in a common 
caoae. 



(2) A faith or a deep ethical conviction 
includes more than a program of action. It 
includes also a satisfying and ennobling con- 
ception of the nature of the universe and 
man's role in history. There is power in the 
quality of being as well as in organized 
effort. 

(3) Non-sectarian and dedicated to the 
broad interests of the people, the Fellow- 
ship urges its supporters to join the organi- 
zations of their respeaive faiths or of their 
choice for the purposes of study and action. 

(4; World Fellowship supports the 
right of self-determination of all peoples, 
working in harmony through trade and cul- 
tural exchange, and making full use of 
natural wealth and skill to abolish illiteracy, 
poverty and disease. 

(5) Informed public opinion, the free 
exercise of conscience, respea for the indi- 
vidual, open discussion and peaceable usscra- 
bly are the necessary means to liberty and 
justice. World Fellowship, or its local 
chapters and councils, may provide open 
forums on controversial questions witho\it 
committing the Fellowship or a n y of us 
members to a particular position. 

(6) World Fellowship does not seek to 
create a new faith or convert its supporters 
from one faith to another. We seek the 
common ground of all faiths, looking 
toward worldwide human unity. We urge 
all to show how their faiths and social con- 
victions can help solve the problems of war, 
hunger, disease, poverty and bigotry. We 
must struggle to meet man's spiritual and 
economic needs irrespective of his accepting 
a particular faith. 



1956 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



Si 



Gluck Exhibit No. 1 — (Continued) 
*IiuHfi. you G<Ut %0 

and 4^ Jtumatut^ 



Work for disarnument — general, complete and 
controlled, with the b»nishinent of nucleii weapoas 
from the earth Work dJligeiirly for a peace ecooomy 
in which our precious resources are used to mew the 
needs of the people of the world. 

G>me to the active support of those who tuffec 
because they uphold the Bill of Rights. Work for the 
repeal ot ihouglit lontrol laws and the abolitioo of 
Federal anJ state Inquisitorial commiwces. Resist all 
encroachments on civil and religious liberty. 

Work for rhe implementation of the 1954 U S. 
Supreme Court ruling on desegregation Support move- 
ments to make civil rights an issue at all levels. Civil 
ri/thts and civil liberty are indivisible 

Meet and share views with the rrpresentatiret of 
other faiths World Fellowship includes the World 
Fellowship of Faiths The West must undeneaa<l the 
faiths by which hundreds of millions of people in 
Asia, Africa aod other lands live. These faiths have 
a ditea bearia>: on political aaioo and peaceful 
rela:iuns. 

Encourage the exchange ol literature and visitiog 
delegations between the United States and ocfaer 
coumries 

Open your home for an informal friendly meeting 
at which persons of diverse faiths, nationalities, races 
anJ political philosophies exchange views and diKOver 
the common bonds of peace and brotherhood. 

Arrange receptions in your home or at conTenient 
centers at which arturs. scientists, writers, religious, 
political and labor leaders from other countries are 
introduced and given opportunity to entertain or speak 
about the cultures and problems of their people. 

Find out from the national office who in your 
community or city have been at World Fellowship 
or who have in other ways indicated an intercM in 
the movement. Bring them together to lee if they 
would like lo work on tome ipecific projea. 

Pkn now to spend your 1962 raatioo at WofU 
Pellowjhip Centex in New Hampshire. Wri« for in- 
ff*"**"^ about program and tecreatioaAl f i c i l i ti rs 

Make a generous contribution to WotU FcUowthip, 
a vital work for wocld friciMlship aad peace dhu needs 
your Mppon. 



// you do not go abroad m 1962 let ut 
bring the world to you tt WOftU) FELLOW- 
SHIP Center, Conway, New Hampthiie. 

JUNE 18 — SEPTEMBER 3 



l4JUat Qi4^eAU Sa4f'- 

"I was particularly impressed with the free and open 
discussion, friendly even when antagonistic views were 
being expressed. This I can only compare with my ex- 
perience at the Fabian Summer Schools in England ind 
with nothing I have known in this country." 

"It gave me just everything I needed to cotifitm my 
religious radicalism ... it made me feel as though I 
were in the main stream instead of a backwash some- 
where." 

"It was both fun and painful to be here and luten 
to such a variety of views. A year or so ago I would 
have gotten mad, probably insulted most everybody 
here and have left within a day or two. However, I 
listened and thought and was patient and what is moat 
important, I did not fly off the handle. ' 

"World Fellowship seems to me so much a way o( 
life — really thi way of life." 

"Among other things World Fellowship has greatly 
encouraged us to carry on in the struggle for peace 
and plenty for all and for a sane worldTlt has given 
us renewed suengtb and hope to live through this dark 
period of present-day America, permeated u it is with 
poisonous propaganda, in the knowledge that we can 
call you friends." 

"Never shall I forget the beauty of the oamral set- 
ting where we gathered this summer. But more ifun 
this shall I remember the sympathetic understanding 
extended to a stranger by your lovely attitude at all 
times under any circumsunces. It was a thrilling period 
and swifter than the plane which carried me, my 
thoughts wing across the miles whenever I take time 
to think, 'New Hamsphire'. " 

"The combination that you offer of rest, good food, 
beautiful country with the intellectual stimulation of 
the lectures and discussions I think is unique." 

"The largeness of viewpoint and the dedication to 
man that pervades the atmosphere at World Fellow- 
ship—plus the intagibles — is something that I shall 
never focget. I hope it has made a larger person of me." 

"It was such a healing experience." 

"You know, while no one was watching, I secretly 
'botded' whatever it is that flourishes at Fellowship. 
So whenever tfainp get rtmgh, I e xp ec t to draw upon 
these reser ve s ." 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1957 

Mr. Gluck. As long as we are having conversations, I am here 
to answer questions, and I will. I want to make that clear. But I 
am going to have to ask the interrogator not to pull such things as 
the alleged resort. You see, I don't want to play cute. You under- 
stand ? I will answer questions. 

So if you will present your questions cleanly, like that, I intend to 
answer. So I appreciate 

Mr. j\f ouLDER. Wliat is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been serving as trustee of World 
Fellowship, Mr. Gluck ? 

Mr. Gluck. One moment, sir. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. Quite frankly, before I answer this question, which 
I am prepared to answer, I want to know : Wliat does this question 
have to do with the business at hand ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is investigating Communist propaganda 
activities. You have heard the statement of the chairman of the 
committee. 

Mr. Gluck. I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE, I think the statement of the chairman sets forth with 
indisputable clarity the relevance of that question. 

Mr. Gluck. I don't know that it does. 

I don't mean to spar with you. It is discussing medical aid work, 
or other 

I have read this carefully. I have heard it reread. And I am quite 
prepared to operate within the framework of your investigation here. 
I don't know why we have to drag in some of the other organizations, 
unless you make it clear to me. 

Mr. Moulder. May I explain it this way. In the present hearing 
the committee will inquire into the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee 
and another organization known as the Friends of British Guiana, for 
the legislative purpose of determining whether the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act requires further amendment for its effective opera- 
tion in carrying out the intent of Congress as set forth in the act. 

Mr. Gluck. That is right. Wliat has the World Fellowship to do 
with that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It happens that Melitta del Villar has been invited to 
speak at the World Fellowship of Faiths, so that the inquiry will be 
also on that subject. 

Now, will you please tell us how long you have served as the trustee 
of World Fellowship ? 

Mr. Gluck. I turn to my lawyer just to corroborate what is in my 
own mind, quite frankly, that I don't see what a relationship with 
World Fellowship has to do with whether Melitta del Villar was 
there to begin with, as far as I am concerned, or the current investiga- 
tion by the committee. 

You have established the fact that she was there. 

Mr. Moulder. That will be for the committee to determine, whether 
or not that is pertinent to the investigation. 

Mr. Scherer. It is clearly set forth in your opening statement, Mr. 
Chairman : 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 



1958 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

I ask that you direct the witness to answer tlie (inestion. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Willis. I suggest that the Chair should rule first whether or 
not the question is pertinent. 

Mr, Moulder, I did so rule, that it is pertinent. 

Mr, Gluck, The Chair has ? 

Mr. Moulder, Because the act referred to defines the agent of a 
foreign principal as any person who within the United States solicits, 
disburses, dispenses, or collects compensation, contributions, loans, 
money, or anything of value, directly or indirectly, and so forth, for 
a foreign principal, 

Mr, Gluck. How does that connect with the AVorld Fellowship? 
1 am going to take that under advisement. May I, for just a moment ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. Quite frankly, I would discuss World Fellowship, but 
I would like to know from counsel what connection he feels World 
Fellowship has 

Mr. Willis. I think the Chair has ruled. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to proceed. 

Mr, Gluck, All right, I respect that. Just one moment, 

(Witness conferred with counsel,) 

Mr. Gluck. I am on the board, I am a trustee of World Fellow- 
ship. 

Mr. NiTTLE, The question was : How long have you served in that 
capacity ? 

Mr, Gluck, Oh, a number of years, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Commencing when ? 

Mr. Gluck, Well, I am not sure, but I would say about 4 years, 
or so. 

Mr, NnTLE, The brochure sets forth its definition of the World 
Fellowship of Faiths and declares that it "is a movement open to 
people of all faiths, races, nationalities and social convictions who 
seek to understand one another's religions and cultures and to 
strengthen one another in working toward peace, brotherhood and 
plenty for all," 

Now, were you a member of the Communist Party during the period 
you have served as a member of the board of trustees of World 
Fellowship ? 

Mr. Gluck. Let's not play cute. You know I will take the fifth 
amendment on that question, so let's not drag it in any more. I will 
not answer the question on Communist membership. 

Mr. Moulder. Just proceed in an orderly manner and take the 
fifth amendment, and not 

Mr. Gluck. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What causes you to say, "You know I will take the 
fifth amendment" ? Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gluck. I take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think we should get this on the record right. 

He refuses to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. I still ask that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr, Gluck, What question ? 

Mr. Bruce. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Gluck. I have answered that question, but I will repeat it. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1959 

I refuse to answer that question, under my privileges under the first 
and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in promoting the united-front policy 
of the Communist Party in mass organizations by becoming active 4 
years ago in the World Fellowship of Faiths? 

Mr. Gluck. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Moulder. Repeat the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in promoting the united-front jDolicy 
of the Communist Part}' in mass organizations by becoming active in 
the World Fellowship of Faiths^ 

Mr. Gluck. Excuse me. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. I don't know of any vsuch policy at all. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute, now. That is not an answer. 

Mr. Gluck. I said I don't know that policy. And I can tell you 
how I joined the World Fellowship if you will ask me. 

Mr. Moulder. You can answer the question directly, then, by yes 
or no. 

Mr. Gluck. I can't play with double things. I will answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you use the World Fellowship to promote a 
mass united front ? 

Mr. Gluck. AVhat united- front actions are you talking about ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The united-front policy is that policy which has been 
enjoined upon members of the Communist Party by directives issuing 
from the national leadership of the Communist Party, U.S.A., upon 
instructions from the Soviet Communist Party, directing all Commu- 
nists to infiltrate non-Communist organizations, and to cooperate 
for a limited purpose and period in the activity of non-Commimist 
organizations. 

Now, were you, as a member of the Communist Party, adhering to 
the discipline of Communist directives that I have just mentioned in 
engaging in activity in the World Fellowship of Faiths ? 

Mr. Gluck. You seem to know quite a lot more about these things 
than I do. 

I joined the World FelloAvship at the invitation of Dr. Willard 
Uphaus, and on tlie pressure of him to help him and to join his 
organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, will 3- ou please answer the question ? 

Mr. Gluck. That is the answer to the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whether you were joining that organization as a 
Communist? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. The point is this: Your question is a little mixed up. 
Tlie point is: I joined this organization at the request of Willard 
Uphaus, not on any question of Communist or not Communist. And 
I am telling you that is how I joined the organization. There were 
no other questions involved. 

Mr. Willis. So your answer to the question is "No" ? 

Mr. Gluck. I really don't known whether "no" would be right in 
that question, so I have to put it that Avay. 

Mr. Willis. He asked you whether you joined that outfit for the 
purpose he stated. You said you joined it for another purpose. 
Therefore your answer must be "No." 



1960 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Gluck. Oh, yes. Well, the point is that the answer is "No," 
but I want to make it perfectly clear that I don't know of any such 
purpose. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In my interrogation of the preceding witness, Melitta 
del Villar, I exhibited to her a copy of a program agenda for World 
Fellowship Center for the period June 1 to September 3, 1962, issued by 
World Fellowship, of which you appear to be a trustee. (See del 
Villar Exhibit No. 20, p. 1937.) 

I called her attention to the program for July 23-27 : "Cuba and 
Latin America. A study of the revolutions to the south of us, includ- 
ing British Guiana. Among the resource persons — Felix Cummings, 
representative of British Guiana's Premier Cheddi Jagan; Melitte 
del Villar, Chairman, Medical Aid to Cuba Committee," and others. 

Did you participate in the initial arrangements for the appearance 
of Felix Cummings and Melitta del Villar as resource persons for 
that study ? 

Mr. Gluck. No, I did not. Dr. Uphaus arranged the program 
himself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss the appearance of Melitta del Villar 
and Felix Cummings at the seminar ? 

Mr. Gluck. Well, I know that Felix Cummings' name never came 
up between me and Dr. Uphaus. He might have mentioned an 
invitation to Melitta, but I don't recall it specifically. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a trustee of World Fellow^ship, was it one of 
your purposes to assist in the establishment of Communist regimes 
in Cuba, British Guiana, and Latin America generally ? 

Mr. Gluck. No. That is not the purpose of World Fellowship. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking whether it was one of your purposes 
as a trustee of World Fellowship. 

Mr. Gluck. No, it wasn't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Gluck, have you not been long active as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party in promoting the objectives of the 
Communist movement ? 

Mr. Gluck. Is that the question ? The fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I shoAv you a copy of a leaflet marked for identification 
as Gluck Exhibit No. 2, disseminated in the course of the Korean 
conflict, which advertises an "Emergency Prayer Meeting and Vigil 
For Peace in Korea," held Sunday, October 7, 1951. simultaneously 
at various points in New York City, and sponsored by an organiza- 
tion called the Interfaith Committee for Peace Action, with address 
at Hotel Seville, 29th St. & Madison Ave., New York City. 

The leaflet states in part, you will note: "WE, MINISTERS xVND 
RABBIS of the Interfaith Committee for Peace Action deplore this 
callous disregard for life." 

Under a listing of several ministers and rabbis, your name appears 
upon the partial list of sponsors as "Sidney J. Gluck, Businessman, 
New^ York City." 

Were you then, in October of 1951, a member of the Communist 
Party? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1961 

Mr. Gluck, I refuse to answer that question, on the previous 
ground. 

What other question are you directing at me with regard to this 
leaflet? 

( Document marked "Gluck Exliibit No. 2" follows :) 

Gluck Exhibit No. 2 



^3 alT/viiii^'**'"^ 

For PEACE in KOREA 



Parttsl List of Sponsors: 



CM>'r« Coimmm\*y Owtk 




locUlslW Mftnwf.ol Chop*! 
Unl«*f*lfy of Oilc0DO 



SUNDAY, OCTOBER 7, 1951 

at 3 in the afternoon 



HEARTBRFAK RIDGE is in ihe Korean news — • heartbreaking news. 
Taken by American forces one day, recaptured by North Koreans cbe next, 
thousands of men were killed. They were killed at the very time that talk 
was going on about truce negotiations. 

WE, MINISTERS AND RABBIS of the Interfaith Committee for Peace 
Actidil deplore this callous disregard for life. We know the people's strong 
desire for peace. For this reason we are sponsoring a public prayer meeting 
where all voices may join to reaffirm the commandment, "Thou Shalt Not 
Kill." There must be an end to the slaughter in Korea. 

HUGO ERNST, the International President of the AFL Hotel and 
Restaurant Workers Union spoke out clearly. "In every war," he said, "chose 
who sulTer most are the working people and their families. The hope of 
peace is in the hands of the working people of the world." 

LABOR PAYS a heavy price in war. Sons and husbands arc separated 
from their families and face death. Tllj war economy produces inJation; 
cuts wages; but profits ato the greatest in history. Wartime prices, wartime 
rents have doubled. Wartime stabilization of wages prevents labor from 
even catching up with the cost of living, behind the smokescreen of war- 
time hysteria, restriction and repression is imposed. Race hatred is fotterecL 

TO STOP THE WAR IN KOREA is to build the first barrier to world 
war. "Peace in the Korean situation may he the first step towards the ac- 
cumplishmcni of a world without slaughter," wrote Earl W. Jimersoo and 
Patrick Gorman, President and Secretary Treasurer of the Amalgamated 
Meat Cutters Union, AFL. 

BECAUSE WE FIRMLY BEUEVE that all who want an end Co war 
must act together to make our voices heard, we, the Interfaith Committee 
for Peace Action urge you to join us Sunday afternoon, October 7ch, to 
work together for peace in Korea. 



• MANHATTAN CENTER 8th At.bu* and 34fli SUmt 

• ROCKLAND PALACE lS5th Str^t tmd 8ih At 

• ST. NICHOLAS ARENA 69 w..t 68th Sb«M 



Sponaored by. INTEBrAITH COMMITTBE FOR PEACE ACTION 
Hot^ SariUa. 29th Sc & Madtooo At*.. N. Y. C — Roooi 225 — L&te«tea 1-1712 



_ 21-206 0-63— pt. 2—2 



1962 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it not your purpose, in lending assistance to that 
"peace" effort, to frustrate American resistance to Communist aggi^es- 
sion in Korea ? 

Mr. Gluck. Excuse me. I want to consult with counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. If you can explain to me the pertinency of this ques- 
tion at this time, I will cx)nsider fuller answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is making inquiry into Communist 
activities. The Supreme Court has held repeatedly that this com- 
mittee is authorized to investigate Communist activities generally. 
It is also relevant to corroborate 

Mr. Gluck. I am advised by counsel — well, I will tell him — that if 
we want to go through the many, many things that I have done in 
my life, and I am 46, we will keep you here all week, because I am 
prepared to discuss them. I am not unproud of the things I have 
done. 

But he asked me to ask you: "".Yliat is the relevance of this thing? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I respectfully request that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Moulder left the hearing room.) 

Mr, Willis (presiding). What is the pending question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it not your purpose, in lending assistance to that 
"peace" effort, to frustrate American resistance to Communist aggres- 
sion in Korea ? 

Mr. Rein. This relates to leaflet put out October 7, 1951. 

Mr. Gluck. This was after the Korean war had been going for al- 
most a year and a half. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The peace efforts, Mr. Chairman, undertaken by the 
Communist Party at that time, are relevant. 

Mr. Willis. A document has been submitted. And as I under- 
stand it, this witness had some part in its preparation, and he is be- 
ing asked was it not his purpose, never mind how the document reads, 
in its dissemination, to propagate some Communist theory or philos- 
ophy or propaganda. 

I think it is a good question, and I order you to answer it. If it 
was not your purpose, just say so. 

Mr. Gluck. I want to answer the question. I really do. But I 
just want to be sure that we all understand that all this is being 
dragged in, because I do want to answer the question. 

You see, the Korean war had been going for 

Mr. Willis. No, no 

Mr. Gluck. I will give you my purpose behind it. 

The purpose was not to extend any Communist doctrine here 

Mr. Willis. Just answer the question. 

;Mr. Gluck. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

(The pendino; question was read by the reporter.) 

:Mr. Gli-ck. No, that was not my purpose. My purpose, and the 
purpose of the people who organized these prayer and vigil meetings, 
which speaks for itself, incidentally, for those who want to read it, 
is that we felt that it served no purpose to continue the Korean war. 
It was seesawing up and back. 



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ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1963 

Ultimately a President of the United States did take that position. 
And we settled at the 38th parallel. We had been g;oing up and back 
twice on the thing. We were having many casualties. 

I don't want to consider for the moment the question of casualties 
on the other side, but it was obvious that this w^as either going to work 
itself into an all-out world war, or that we were going to make a com- 
promise on this. And we felt that a compromise was in order, a 
compromise was ultimately made, and we feel that our position was 
a correct one for our country. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In contrast with the evident lack of will displayed by 
you toward protecting our freedoms in Korea, I now call your at- 
tention to an advertisement which appears 

Mr. Gluck. I object to the question, I might as well tell you right 
now, because you can't characterize any lack of will with regard to me. 
I had a very strong will with regard to the matter, and that was that 
we should stop the bloodshed going on in Korea. So let's do this 
right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now call your attention to an advertisement, identified 
as Gluck Exhibit No. 3, w^hich appeared in the Washington Post^ 
Monday, October 2, 1961, submitted and paid for by the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, of 421 7th Ave., New York 1, N.Y., titled 
"HAVE WE LOST OUR WILL TO PPvOTECT OUR FREE- 
DOMS?" 

You, Sidney Gluck, of New York, appear as a signer of the ad. 

Did you execute that advertisement in support of the Communist 
Party objective of defeating all legislation which impedes the organi- 
zational efforts of the Communist movement within the United States? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. Look, will you put the question to me once more, so 
that I will get the form of it ? 

I am not only interested in protecting our freedoms in Korea, but 
right here at liome. And frankly, I believe every word in this par- 
ticular statement, which says, "Have we lost our conviction and will to 
fight for our freedoms?" 

In our opinion, the test of our freedoms is to protect the right to 
dissent. And if we here want to make a crime out of the protection 
of the right to dissent, we might as well say our democracy has gone 
down the drain. And I am proud to have been a signer of that 
statement. 

You know, it is very easy to protect the democratic rights of some- 
body you agree with. But that is not the real test. And I repeat 
that point. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 3" appears opposite this 
page.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. "\Anien you allowed the use of your name for that adver- 
tisement, were you aware that the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee liad been described as a Comnumist fi-ont ? 

Mr, Gluck. Mr. Inquisitor, are you aware that they have been de- 
scribed as a Communist front, sir? And will you tell me chapter and 
verse wliere they have been so described ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the witness should be directed to answer the 
question. 



1964 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is: Were you aware at the time you 
signed that advertisement that the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee was a Communist front ? 

Mr. Gluck. I am not aware of it now. I couldn't have been aware 
of it then. So I would like for you, since you have made that allega- 
tion, to bring it into the record. 

I am quite prepared to sit here and wait and let's see where it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask the Chairman that the reference to 

Mr. Willis. He said he was not aware of it. That answers the 
question. 

Mr. Gluck. I even challenge the statement, here, because it leaves 
the impression that it is true. 

Mr. ScHERER. That organization has been cited by this committee 
as a Communist-dominated organization. 

Mr. Gluck. Just because this committee cited it doesn't make it 
so. I still haven't seen it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you allowed the use of your name for that advertisement ? 

Mr. Gluck. Would you mind repeating the question, sir? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you executed that advertisement ? 

Mr. Gluck. You are wasting time, because it is the same question 
again. 

Under the first and fifth amendments, I refuse to answer that 
question. 

And if you bring it in 20 more times, and want to create a record 
wliich says 20 times you used the fifth, it is your privilege and not 
mine. 

Mr. NiTFLE. That is your privilege. 

Mr. Gluck. That is right. And thank God we have got it in this 
country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a copy of a letter, marked for identifica- 
tion as Gluck Exhibit No. 4, upon the letterhead of an organization 
entitled "National Assembly for Democratic Eights," 118 East 28 
Street, New York 16, N.Y., which is addressed: "To all Sponsors, 
Participants, Committees and Supporters," over the signature of Pro- 
fessor Louise Pettibone Smith, to which is attached a copy of a letter 
signed by Harold C. Urey, the noted atomic physicist, elated Novem- 
ber 10, 1961. 

The letter of Dr. Urey is addressed to The Presideilt, The Wliite 
House, Washington, D.C, and protests the compulsory registration 
of Communist Party members required by the Internal Security Act 
of 1950. 

Professor Smith's letter on behalf of the National Assembly for 
Democratic Rights urges support for Dr. Urey's position, and urges 
all groups, organizations, and committees to popularize Dr. Urey's 
letter and to send concurring resolutions to the President. 

You appear as a sponsor upon the letterhead of the National As- 
sembly for Democratic Rights. Did you act in such capacity for that 
organization ? 

Mr. Gluck. I signed mv name, yes. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 4" appears on pp. 1965- 
1967.) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1965 
Gluck Exhibit No. 4 

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FOR 
DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS 

IIS EAST 28 STREET — NEW YORK 16. N. Y. 
PtioM: LE 242U 



SmON SCHACMTSt 



SrONSORi 

■ HENKY ABRAMS 
New Yock. N. Y. 
' VALTEK AUMENDINCEX 
Ronl 0>k. Midi. 
CHAIXES K. ALLEN 

Nnr York. N. Y. 
tOii BEITHA ANDERSON 

Miitnaipalu, Minn 
VICTOR ARNAUTOFF 

Colma, GUil. 
MICHaSL B. ATKINS 
Foral Hail. N 



REV WILLIAM T. BAIKD 

QuajD, lilinmi 
R£V. Era H. BALL 

Aidiln. Nnr York 



ApplRoa, 

waUlsn k- boxings 

San Pnnoaco, Cnlii. 
JESSIE F. BINFORD 

ChlcuD. m. 
PROF/DERK BODDE 

PhilnddphiA, Pa. 
PROF. G MURRAY BRANCH 

AdiAca, Gtotwit 
JAMES L BREWER. Em,. 

Rocbesm. Nev Yoik 
DOROTHY BRFWSTER 

Nrwyc»k25.N Y 
REV. CLINTON B. BROMLEY 

Stpuabtoo. Mmi 
VALBM J BRYANT 

P>1d Alfo. California 
PROF. EDWIN BERRY BURGUM 

N«w Yofk. N Y 
DR. R. F BURUNCAUB 

MUu. Mich. 
PROF. RUDOLF CARNAP 

Lot AaMtict. Calil. 
DR. SAMUEL H. CASSEL 

Clmlanil 26. Ohio 
EDWIN H. CBU4EY 

Mcslo Park. California 
ISOBEL M CBRNEY 

Menlo Park. California 
REV. MARK A CHAJifBERLAlN 

Graabam. Orc*oa 
PHE 

PROF. HUBERT" coffee 
BcrkdcT. Calil. 
. REV. JOSEPH C coles, JR. 
arreUnd. Ohio 
PAUL CORBY 
Saooma, Calif. 
. REV. DAVID 8- COVELL 
Tinimo, Micb. 
DR. HENRY Hm CRANE 
DcfToit. Michigan 
. GEORGE W. CROCKETT. ESQ. 

Dnroi<26, Micb 
. PROF. EPHRAIM CROSS 

Ntw Yotk25.N Y 
. LENORE WILSON CROSS 

Drioic6. Mich 
t MRS. ELFRIEDA DAIBER 
drrdand 2. Ohio 
DR. PERCY M DAWSON 
* Loa AJaoa. California 
MAX DEAN. Eaq 
Flint. HiAtma 
LOIS DIEHL 

New York. N Y. 
OR. W E B DU BOIS 

Naw York, N. Y 
DR. LEWIS A. ELORIDCE. JR 
Rmiadan-rillc. No York 
, DR. WILUS E ELUOT 

Cl<«<lan<i. Ohio 
I REV JOml E. EVANS 
Columbu M.Obio 
STANLEY FAULKNER. ESQ. 
New York 16. NY. 



To all Sponsors, Partlcipeuats, 

Committees (md Supporters: 



The letter which Dr. Urey, Nobel prize winner in 
chemistry and a consistent lover of freedom, has sent to 
President Kennedy (letter enclosed) in which he presents 
with clarity and cogiency both the danger to democracy 
in the Ifeited States of America inherent in the McCarran 
Internal Security Act and the reason why the President 
should act to protect the freedoms so essential to 
Democracy. 

Dr. Harold C, Urey is one of the sponsors of the 
National Assembly for Democratic Rights and all of us 
concerned with that Rational Assembly most gratefully 
appi^ciate bis forceful presentation of the situation. 

We can si^port Dr. Harold C. Urey's position by 
writing to the President ourselves, emd by urging others 
to write. We urge all groups, organizations and com- 
mittees to popularize this letter and to send concurring 
resolutions to the Presidenta 

Whatever we do must be done quickly. 



Professor Louise Pettibone Smith 



P.Sa We call to your attention the enclosed business 
reply envelope. Funds are needed urgently to contlnxie 
our activities. Ibank you. 

• * * « 
We take this opportunity to extend to you and your family 
the Seasons Greetings. 



"it behooves every mai wha values liberty of coiueienee, to retitt its invasion 



- Thomas jEmit«ON 



1966 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 
Gluck Exhibit No. 4 — (Continued) 



SIMON FEDERMAN 

New York. N Y 
MOE nSHMAN 
New York. N. Y 
« REV. DR HAZEL E. FOSTER 
Cleveland, Ohio 
DR ROYAL W. FRANCE 

.New York, N Y 
ELIZABETH P. FRAZIER 

Philadelphia, Fa. 
REV STEPHEN H FRITCHM.\N 

Gleodale, CaJiforoia 

DR JOSEPH B. FURST 

New York. N. Y. 

■• REV RICHARD GILBERT 

Ueveland. Ohio 

SIDNEY ; GLUCK 

New York. N. Y 
DR CARLTON B GOODLm 

Sao Fiaocmu. Calil 
SHIRLEY GRAHAM 
New York. N. Y 
DR. RALPH H GUNDLACH 

New York. N. Y 
ROBERT GWATHMEY 

New York, N. Y 
CARL HAESSLER 

DerroK. Mich 
VINCENT HALLINAN. ESQ 

Ruit .Cal. 
DR ALICE HAMILTON 

Hadiyme. Conn. 
WILUAM HARRISON 

Boston i 6. Mass. 
PEARL M HART. Adorney t 

Chicago, Illinois 
DOROTHY HAVEN 
Halls Village Conn 
• RICHARD HEALEY 
Portland. Ore. 
MARION E HERRICK 

Lo^ Angeles 12. Calil 
REV. CHARLES A HILL 

Detroit, Mich. 
VICTOR A HOERSCH 
Champaig.i, 111. 
I RABBI MORTON HOFFMAN 

San Rafael, Calif 
1 RABBI PHILIIP HOROVtITZ 
Cleveland. Ohio 
DANIEL HOWARD 

Windsor. Conn 
REV. KENNETH HUGHES 

Canibridsc Mas> 
JOHN L. JOH.NISON 

Crosby, Minn 
DR. OAKLtY <_ JOHNSON 
New York. N. Y. 
» RABBI WOLLI KACLTER 
Long Beach 15. Calit. 
SAMUEL KAMEN 

Bruoklyn 30, N. Y.- 
ROCKWELL KENT 
New York, NY 
t RABBI ISAAC KLEIN 

Bufifalo 16, N y. 
• OPAL F. KRACEK 
Nogales, Arizona 
RABBI ABRAHAM KRANTZ 

Greensburg, Pa. 
DR, NATHANIEL S l.bHKMEN 

Great Ncik. N Y 
IRMGARD lENEL 

Sanii Monica. ( ,ilil 
ARYAY LENSKE 
New Y..rk ■!« N Y 
t REV. B. H. LOGAN 
Pittsburgh 21, Pa 
DK SCU LONDE 

St. louis. Mo 
BISHOP EDGAR A LOVE 

Baltimore. Md 
HELEN H MacMAR lli\ 

Burlington, Vi 
PROP HARVEY K .Mc.\RTHt)R 

Hartford. Conn 
JOHN T. MCMANUS 

Montrose. N. Y 
FRANCIS I McTER.NAN 

San lia.iLisco ~ ( ilil 
JOHN T M.TEKNAN I i(> 

l..'s Anxeltv ■>. Call! 
HAKKY MARINSKY 

Ko.a)u.n. t ,.,,„ 
DR J M. MARSALKA 

New Haven, toon 
lAFAYFTTE MARSH 

LaGrjnijt. Ill 
DR HENRY MAVF.R 

Woodsldc. Calif 
DR. LEO MAYER 
New York. N Y 
MRS OLIVE MAVI;R 

W.^KlMdc. 1 alil 
REV WILLIAM HOWARD MFI ISM 

Brooklyn, New York 
HON STANLEY MOFFATT 
Los Angeles. Calif. 
• REV ANDREW J MONCOL 
Cleveland, Ohio 
HON lA.MFS f) MdNROI 

< .>Ili....,ll< I,; 
REV RICHARD MORPURD 
New York. N ^ 



• JOn MORGAN 

Detroit *8, .Mich 
CAPT. HUGH MULZAC 

Jamaica. New York 
GEORGE B. MURPHY. JR. 

Washinstoo. D C. 
. DR. OTTO NATHAN 

New York 3, N Y. 
WALTER M NFLSON, E.SQ. 

Dttroit ^6. Mich. 
REV J. PIFJtCE NEWEI.L 

Madison. New Jersey 

• AXEL NIELSEN 

South Havc-n, Miih. 
RERIMCE NOAR 
New Yoik 10, N Y 

• GEOKGF OKHAUSEN 

San Francisco y, Calif. 
» DK PAUL OLYNYK 

I le%el,.ml. Ohio 
I .MRS JOHN K. ORMOND 

Birmingham, Mich. 
FATHER CLARENCE PARKER 

Chapel Hill. N C. 
< PROF. HOWARD L PARSONS 



Pasadena, California 
REV. EDWARD L. PEET 

Sacramento, Californ-a 
REV DR. DRYDEN UNSLEY PHELPS 

Berkeley, California 
PROF ARTHUR UPHAM POPE 

Cornwall Bridge, I onn. 
RALPH E. POWE ESq 
Brooklyn. N. Y 
. KEV. RUDOLPH RABER 
Cleveland. Ohio 
BERTH A C REYNOLDS 
SitAighion, Mass 
• RKV. RICHARD R KODFS 

Cleveland, Ohio 
» W G ROMINGER 
Oklahoma Ciry. Okl.i 
IROF THEODORE ROSF.BURY 
St. Louis. Ml 
» DON ROTHENBHRG 
( leveland IK. Oiuo 
DANIEL RLIBIN, esq 
Br.^oklyn I2.N Y 
t DR ANNETTE T. RUniNSlFlN 

New York. N. Y 
, REV. VIRGIL R SANTLE 

f Uvcland. Ohio 
, DAVID SARVIS 

.Sail Francisio 7 C.ilif 
SIMON .SfHACHTER, l-.SQ 
.Niw York. N X 
, MORRIS U SCHAPHES 
New York 3,N Y. 

• HYMAN .SCHLFSINC.FR. ESQ 

Piitsburjh l'>. Pa 
EMMA SCHMIDT 

Chiiago M. Ill 
LOUIS B. S( OT1 

Albany 6. Calif 

• ANATOLE SHAFFER 

Berkeley ?. Calif. 
I REV, EMERSON ?. SHWfNK* 

C leveland. Ohio 
i C LEBRON SIMONS E.sy 

Detroit if,. Mich. 
THOMAS L SIATFR 

Chicago 13, Ml. 

PROP Louise pettibone smith 

Winchester. Conn 
I RUTH W SOLOMON 
Spokane. Wash 
REV WILLIAM n SPOFFOKD 
Tiinkhannofk. Ha 
1 EMMA GELDERS STERNI 
S.in lose 2".. Calif. 
MALRICF SUGAR. TSU) 

Onaway Miih 
.MRS PAULINE TAYLOR 
Yoiinftstown, Ohio 
, ROBERT C TRAVIS ■ 
Hollvwood 2». Calif 
JEANETTE a TURNER 

l.onR Islan.i ^ it,- NY ■ " 

Dl! WII.LARD UPHAf- 
i.i>nway. New Hajnp^'nu 
DR. HAROLD C URFY 

U lolla. Calif 
DR MARY VAN Kl EEC K 

W'oo.Uto. I- N ^' 
MRS. CLARA M VINC 1..M . 
|.vonl,l. .Mith. 
. JA,\rE$ WALKER 
DiToi/ 1^ Mich 
I . OR AIFRED H WASHBURN 
Denver 20, Colo. 
RFV WM CAMPBOLl.L \XA,SSIT, 

Boulder. Colo. 
PROF LFJIOY WATERMAN 
Ann Arbor Mirh. 
,S'.MUFL B WATERMAN, ESQ. 

New York 6. N. Y 
I REV l.OWEIL WELLMAN 
Cleveland. Ohio 
REV EUOT WHITE 

Xrlingron. Ma-s. 
■P'^f- BERTRAM I ^JlnlO)( 

1 la. J. Ne- Yi.ii 
REV. ROY M WING ATI 
• rtin- \-hr 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1967 

Gluck Exhibit No. 4 — (Continued) 
COPY 

HAROLD C. UREY 

7890 Torrey Lane 
La Jolla, California 
November 10, 1961 

Tbe Preaident 

The White House 

Washington 25. D. C. 

My dear Mr. President: 

I am deeply worried that freedom of thought, speech and association would Lc seriou<il> dania^ed if 
your Administration were to undertake prosecutions under the McC.aran Internal Se< urily Acl.^^'l am 
especially concerned because free and independent thinking is most urgently needed today when most 
thoughtful approaches to the troublesome problems of this century are required. As President Truman put 
it so forcefully when he vetoed the original bill in 1950: "We need not fear the expression of ideas — we do 
need to fear their suf^ression." If, as your Democratic predecessor contended, the law represent'^ "a clear 
and present danger to our institutions," it should surely be repealed. Pending further study by the Admin- 
istration and proposak for concessional reconsideration, I believe that you can and should suspend 
enforcement of the t t-egiatra ti on order which has been issued against the Communist Party. 

This order to rftgister, with all its attendant disabilities, was issued by the Subversive Activities Control 
Board not because of any criminal activities, but merely because the ideas of the American Communist 
Party were judged substantially to parallel the ideas of Communists abroad. Other organizations are now 
in line for condemnation because their ideas do not deviate markedly from those of the American Com- 
munist Party. Ideological similarity is supposed to provide sufficient cause to force organizations to 
denounce and label themselves as foreign agents, and worse, and to deny their members even the right 
to apply for passports. 

If prosecutions and arrests are pursued under this first registiation order, and if further orders are 
issued against "Communist fronts" and Communbt-in filtrated organizations, I fear that the effect on Ameri- 
can democracy would be disastrous. Organizations harassed by endless litigation would Le driven out of 
existence. Individuals, knowing that failure to register as members of designated organizations entails daily 
penalties of five years imprisonment and $10,000 fine, would be careful not to join any group whose ideas 
might at any future time be regarded as Communistic. Prudent Americans would then eschew expression 
of all ideas on controversial subjects or determine the Communist stand then espouse the opposite. 

Despite popular misconceptions, the McCarran Act has been accorded Supreme Court approval only 
in the narrowest sense. In a 5-4 decision the Court only ruled that a particular organization could be or- 
dered to register. It sjiecifically delayed ruling on whether the required self-denunciation of members would 
violate the 5th Amendment (a pertinent question particularly because the Court upheld the Smith Act's 
clause making membership in the Communist Party punishable). The Court has not yet ruled on whether 
the various disabilities accompanying registration violate the First .Amendment guarentees of freedom. 

You will recall that although courts upheld the Alien & Sedition \cts. President Jefferson, on prin- 
ciple, battled for their nullification. He freed the victims of these laws und successfully sought repeal. I 
believe that you, like Jefferson, have an important mission to fulfill in regard to the McCarran and Smith 
Acts, which are very like the now universally -condemned laws of 1798. It is in your hands to protect 
America's democratic way of life from the pervasive thought-censoring effects of these laws. 

I am sorry to make any appeal to you on behalf of people who I believe are so very much in error 
with respect to political and economic principles as those belonging to the Communist Party. Yet if we do 
not protect the rights of peo]de with whom we disagree, the time may well come when we must defend those 
with whom we do agree or indeed our very selves. 

Sincerdy yours, 

iSigrud) HAROLD C. UREY 



1968 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. In October of 1961, this committee investigated the 
National Assembly for Democratic Rights and a coordinating and or- 
ganizing group in support of it, the Citizens Committee for Constitu- 
tional Liberties. 

Both were found to be Communist fronts organized as propaganda 
devices for the conduct of mass activity in support of the reversal or 
nonapplication of the Supreme Court decisions of June 5, 1961, which 
upheld the constitutionality of the registration provisions of the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950, and the Smith Act membership clause, 
the latter making punishable active membership in the Communist 
Party. 

The question, Mr. Gluck, is: Were you a member of the Commu- 
nist Party at the time your name appeared as a sponsor of the National 
Assembly for Democratic Rights, as shown on the reverse side of Pro- 
fessor Smith's letter, Gluck Exhibit No. 4 ? 

Mr. Gluck. Fifth amendment. 

Is counsel aware of the fact that some of the statements that he 
just made with regards to the case, the McCarran Act case, and the 
order, is now in the courts, and there is a contradiction between that 
and the fifth amendment, which is going to be tested ? 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your efforts to repeal security legislation do not appear 
to be of recent origin. 

Mr. Gluck. Sir, I didn't hear that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say your efforts to repeal security legislation do not 
appear to be of a recent origin. 

For example, I hand you a copy of the Daily Worker of Monday, 
March 17, 1952, marked for identification as Gluck Exhibit No. 5, and 
call your attention to an item at page 3, titled "80 Brooklyn Notables 
Urge People to Act for Repeal of Smith Act." 

You are described as one of 80 Brooklyn community leaders who 
have joined in this petition, and you are referred to as Sidney Gluck, 
textile designer and businessman. 

Were you correctly described as a textile designer and businessman ? 

Mr. Gluck. They should have put in a feeble businessman. 

Mr.NmLE. On March 17, 1952? 

Mr. Gluck. Oh, I was correctly described, if that is your question. 

Is that your question wdth regard to this document ? 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 5" follows :) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1969 



Gluck Exhibit No. 5 
[Daily Worker, New York, Monday, Mar. 17, 1952, p. 3] 

80 Brooklyn Notables 
Urge People to Act for 
Repeal of Smith Act 

More than 80 prominent Brooklyn community leaders yesterday called on "all citi* 
zens to join with us in a public protest against the -Smith Act, and petition our represen- 
tatives and government to initiate and support all measures for the repeal of this "Act.* 
The signatures of mipisters, 



Seni. attorney. 

The list of siotatories to this 
public Call includes: 

- RcTcrand W. J. Atkinsan. K. Mjiry'* 
and 8t. Ilaik'f Church o( Chrltt; Bev 
CTcnd Albert* B. Baex, Fine Spaniili 
Methodist Church: Reverend Reginald H. 

a. Oentrml CommunJtj Chun:h; Cr. A. 

Beacber: Rereread BareU T. mtrrj. 
Wtisfat'i MemorUI Church: Reremd Dr. 



rabbis, trade union leaders, attor- 
neys, physicians, other profession- 
all and businessmen, are append 
ed to a statement' that the Smith 
Act "chaljenbes all Americans who 
abide by their faith in the Basic 
democratic principles of our land 
to speak out clearly against fur- 
ther encroachments on our bljer- ^ 

ties. No advocate of freedom can k. a. Biih«r». ayrun chmtt; Dr. man 
remain silent while the Bill of "'J^ j^„ i. Bob*; BewreiMi wuii«m 

Rights is shackled by this Smith a. Boo«nho»er: Al»in a. Bewmmo: ReT 
K^ ^U^ic-Inn " erend Dr. Bemuel Buchler. F«api«'t 8jm» 

ACt oecision. fotat: l-^eOene* Campbell: Rererwid 

Karl U. ChverowskT, Fourth Unitarian 
Church of BrooklTTi. 

Also, Samuel Clart: Joacph Catleltl: 
Revarend i. O. Oollini. WiUlamsbuis Mis- 
sion: Mrs. LnU Currev: Reverend Lewis 
CetiiDa. CotarnuollT Concreca t lofial 
Church of Bmhurst: Blshon rnuwls A. 
Dalrrmple. All BalnU CSiarch: Rev- 
erend Herbert D. Dicrtsen. Mes.itah-iEn(- 
llsh Evantellcal Cliurch: Dr. Carl Drajcr. 
Also, Dr. Jeroine Duckman: Dr. Kalman 
Dunn: Rabbi Zvi B. Elsenstat. Macsid 
Chove Torah aynafonie: Robert Bit. 
Urban Leafue: Miss Flora Evan^: Dr. 
Mnton D. Flshman: LoaU B. Frtshkoff: 
Reverend O. Shubert Prye. Assocute Ex- 
ecutive. Presbyterian Synod of New TorR. 
Alto Ramlltan Oeorfe: Reverend I. O. 
Glower; Rabbi Israel CSoIdsteln; Dr. WM- 
llam L. Cranfer; F. Greenbaum; Dr. Sarah 
Orecnbert. 
Also. Reverend Cornelius Grecnway. AH 



Stone baptist Church, and FrankfSouU Unlrersalist church: AHen Joadler 



The call was issued by the 
Sponsoring Group for the Brook- 
lyn Committee for the Repeal of 
the Sii\^ Act, which iniludes Dr. 
\'incent Bellafiore, Ridgewood 
conunum'ty leader; Lewis Flagg, 
Jr., attomev and leader 'of the 
NAACP; Sidney Gluck, textile de- 
signer and businessman; Rabbi 
Louis D. Gross, editor of the "Ex- 
aminer"; Reverend John Paul 
Jones, Union Church of Bav 
Ridge; Reverend John Howland 
Lathrop, Church of iKe Savious; 
Reverend Randy Ray, Comer 



Thomas B. Jone<: Rarold KInhner, 
stmctor. Lan( Island University: Mrs. 
Ulllan Kobn: John Howard Lawson: Ab- 
raham K. Marel: Or. Arthur J. Marab: 
Rarry Uanhak: Stella Marshak. 

Al.«o. John D. Mas-^o, bus'ne^ sfent. 
Local JS«. 01a» Bevelem. AFL' Reverend 
JoHph R. May: Rr. Franic W. UeCov: 
Rovererd Wm. H. Uellth. Church at the 
HolT Trinity: Alexander F. Miller; Dr. 
Herbert I. O^harln; S. Fozenurok; Mrs. 
Nancy B. PoHock. 

Also. Dr. Saul Price; Dr. Joseph L. 
Prusshln: Dr. John 8. Riley; Reverend 
Chsrlei S. Rhodra: Dr. E. RoS^nbert: Dr. 
Nonnsn Rosenbert: Dr. Paul Selden: Pr»- 
fenar Harry SlechowerBroaklyn Oollece: 
Felix Bper. 

Also. Rei-erend and Mrs. John Bpterr 
Ctiurch of tha Nelchhor; Martin J. Btar- 
Seld: Dr. Mark Straus; Roverend FranlB< 
Vasquec Church of Ood: Gerald A. Vlck- 
ers; Charles L. Warden: Dr. Jacob J. 
Wester: Benny While; Mrs. Ines White; 
Dr. Harold Yachnes. 



1970 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNIVIENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gluck. The fiiFth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to lending the use of your name, as a tex- 
tile designer and businessman to Communist causes, you have appeared 
in other occupational capacities, have you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. Mr. Nittle, the thing you are bringing in here 

Mr. Nittle. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Gluck. Mr. Nittle 

Mr. Nittle. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Gluck. You know, I don't know what question you are asking 
now. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be directed to 
respond. 

Mr. Rein. It would facilitate matters greatly if counsel did not 
have preambles to his questions, and simply asked a simple question. 

Mr. Moulder (presiding) . What is the question ? 

Mr. Gluck. I would like to say something for myself. 

We are not going to go through a whole series of denials that I have 
done these things. And if counsel wants to read into the record his 
interpretation of what these things mean, that is perfectly all right. 

Let's get on to the question of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, 
and I will answer the questions. You have established enough prece- 
dents. 

Mr. Nittle. An advertisement appeared in the Daily Worker of 
June 2, 1953, page 8, giving notice that a public discussion Avith audi- 
ence participation, sponsored by the New York Peace Council of the 
American Peace Crusade, would be held on Wednesday, June 3, 1953, 
at the Cornish Arms Hotel, New York City, on the subject, "Will 
Peace Bring a Depression?'' 

You are listed as one of the speakers, under the name of Sidney 
Gluck, and your qualifications or occupational capacity is listed as 
"Economist" and "Business Man." 

Were you then an economist ? 

Mr. Gluck. Self-taught. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 6" follows :) 

Gluck Exhibit No. 6 
[Daily W^orker, June 2, 1953, p. 8] 



Will Pemr4» Hrlitff m l^preMsl^nf 
Pearf*. .iafe!!— Can We Havi^ Beth? 

(:*rai«k Arms H«lel * S^SS&Ti^S^'Vk'IS^'^n 
til W 2>. %u ^ j^^^ Q^^ 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1971 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the Spring 1947 brochure of 
the Jefferson School of Social Science of New York, marked for 
identification as Gluck Exhibit No. 7 which sets forth a series of 
courses on the principles of Marxism. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. I am going to take the fifth amendment on this. 

Mr, NiTTLE. The program is captioned in bold type, "How Much 
Marxism Do You Know?'" followed by the statement, "Do you have 
a background in the Marxist classics and in the writings of the Ameri- 
can working class leaders?" 

I call your attention to two courses described therein, "Principles 
of Marxism I," given every evening by Sidney Gluck, and "Political 
Economy II: Production, Distribution, Crises," a Wednesday even- 
ing course given by Sidney Gluck. 

Did you derive your reputation as an economist by reason of your 
employment at the Jefferson School of Social Science ? 

Mr. Gluck. That is cute. 

I take the fifth amendment on all questions concerning the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why do you take the fifth amendment on every ques- 
tion concerning the Jefferson School of Social Science ? 

^Ir. Gluck. Why do I? Because I want to avail myself of my 
constitutional rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 7" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the Spring 1950 brochure of 
courses of the Jefferson School of Social Science, marked Gluck Ex- 
hibit No. 8, containing a list of instructors and guest lecturers. At 
page 42, your name, Sidney Gluck, appeared, described in this bro- 
chure as "Lecturer for trade-union and community groups." 

Were you a member of the Communist Party in the spring of 1950, 
when you were engaged as a lecturer at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. Gluck. Excuse me. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

IVIr. Gluck. I take the fifth amendment on that question. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 8" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Tlie June 30, 1955, report of the Subversive Activities 
Control Board 

Mr, Gluck. What was the date, if I may ask? 

Mr. NiTTLE, The June 30, 1955, report of the Subversive Activities 
Control Board, declared that the Jefferson School of Social Science is 
utilized as the Communist Party's principal training ground for 
effective membership and leadership. 

Was the Jefferson School of Social Science, at the time you were 
engaged as a lecturer, the Communist Party's principal training 
ground ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gluck. I will take the fifth. 



1972 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr, NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the National Guardian of June 
25, 1962, marked for identification as Ghick Exhibit No. 9. I direct 
your attention to an article appearing at page 10, entitled "Civic 
leaders urge U.S. youth to attend Helsinki peace festival." 

The article states : 

Fifty prominent educators and religious and community leaders have issued 
a statement encouraging participation of American youth in the Eighth World 
Festival of Youth and Students for Peace and Friendship to be held in Hel- 
sinki, Finland, July 28- August 6. 

Among those listed as initiators of the statement appears the name 
"Sidney Gluck, New York." 

Did you authorize the use of your name for that purpose? 

Mr. Gluck. The fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you authorize use of your name ? 

Mr. Gluck. I took the fifth on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mildred Blauvelt, a detective of the New York City 
Police Department, who, while serving in such capacity, performed 
duties as an undercover operative working within the Communist 
Party, testified before this committee, on May 3, 1955, that Sid Gluck 
was a member of the Flatbush Club of the Communist Party. 

Were you at any time a member of the Flatbush Club of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Gluck, Well, I take the fifth on that. You can have your 
Mildred Blauvelt. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. Go ahead to the next question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know Mildred Blauvelt ? 

Mr. Gluck. I take the fifth on tliat, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Was she telling the truth, or was she lying ? 

Mr. Gluck. I take the fifth on that, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She further testified that in November 1944, Sid Gluck 
was credited with having recruited 54 new members into the Com- 
munist Party. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you wish to offer any explanation or to give any 
testimony in affirmation or denial of the testimony of Mrs. Blauvelt ? 

Mr. Gluck. The fifth. 

Mr. Willis. You mean you invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Gluck. Yes, just to save time. Because I would like to an- 
swer questions about the Medical Aid Committee. 

Mr. Bruce. He can't invoke the fifth amendment just to sa^e time 
and move on. 

Mr. Gluck, No, no. You are well taken. I agree with you. I am 
taking the fifth to avail myself of the constitutional privileges under 
the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it because you sincerely believe a response to the 
question I asked would subject you to possible criminal prosecu- 
tion? 

Mr. Gluck. And do you sincerely believe that the answer will be 
other than that I take the fifth amendment to that question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. He is testing your good faith in it. 

Mr. Gluck. My faith is good. I am here to answer questions by 
the committee. 

(Document marked "Gluck Exhibit No. 9" follows :) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1973 



iLikL^ 



Gluck Exhibit No. 9 
[National Guardian, June 25, 1962, p. 10] 



Mm Mr§0 A S, ywrti^ 
attasd Hebkdd peacB kstikl 



FIFTY prominent •edacators au^ re- 
ligious and community leaclers have 
laftaed a ^tement encouraging i>artlci- 
paiion of American youth in the Eighth 
fWorld Festival of Youth and Students 
for Peace and Friendship to be held in 
Helsinki. Finland, July 2ff-Aug. 0. 

The signers included Rev. W. B. Spof- 
ford, editor of the Episcopal weekly Wlt- 
neis: Judge Stanley Moffat of South- 
gate, Calif.: Nelson Bengstoit, New York; 
Waldo Prank: R. L. Robertson, president 
of the Inter-continental Student Serv- 
ice Committee, Chicago: F. Woods Beck- 
man, former president, Tennessee Coun- 
cil on Human Relations. KnoxvlUe; Brig. 
Oen. Hugh B. Hester, U.S. Array, retired; 
[Jlllan E. Comey. director, weekday re- 
ligious education, Ohio Council of 
Churches, Columbus; Robert J. Heifetz 
<rf New York, son of the violinist and a 
city planner; Daniel Howard, superin- 
tendent of schools emeritus of Windsor. 
Conn., and Leo F. Koch, president of the 
School of Living. Santa Cru2. Calif. 

"It 1» ImportaDt," the statement said, 
"that American youth be represented by 
many Individuals from all walks of life." 

Initiators of the statement were: Rev. 
(Hottt A. Ackerly. New York: Dr. Carl- 
ton B. Ooodlet, publisher of the San 
Francisco 8«b Scportcr: Arthur D. Pratt 
Jr., president, Vijrm Christian Fellow- 



ship Houses, Baltimore. Md.. and Sidney 
aiu<*,_New Yprk. - ' I 

The Yowfch Festivals have been the 
subject at controversy both here and 
abroad. Presidftnt Kekkonen of Finland 
reconfly called upon unfriendly Finnish 
youth organizations to cooperate in 
maintaining a cordial atmosphere when 
the 18,000 yoimg people from all comen 
of the globe converge on the capital. 
yCThe United States Festival Commlt- 
^e, orgaolEer of the U.S. delegation, an- 
nounced that 548 applications have been 
received, "nie committee seeks to ar- 
range accommodations for 100 In excess 
of the anticipated 400 delegates. Among 
participants will be official observers or 
delegates from national and local organ- 
izations. These Include: University of 
Nwth Carolina. Trade Union Leadership 
Council of Detroit, the Harvard Tocatai 
and the Columbia Spectator. 

The U.S. group will present the Adam 
Darius ballet troupe, the Andrew Sisters, 
gospel .singers: the Archie Shepp Jaw 
Quartet, and ihe ApoUos, a blues quar- 
tet. A theater company from Stanford 
University and a number pf other pro- 
fesional performers will paitlcipatc. 

The U.S. committee needs $4.^00 for 
Its work and to provide scholarsMpa. 
Contributions should be sent to the OM. 
Festival Committee, 4«0 Pailc Ave. Bo., 
New Tort. 



I 



1974 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. While your name has been publicly associated with 
such activities as were related here, has any public announcement been 
made of your participation as treasurer in the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee? 

Mr. Gluck. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where was that public announcement made? 

Just on the letterhead ? Has it appeared in any other publication ? 

Mr. Gluck. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you were invited to serve as treasurer of 
the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, after discussions with Dr. Louis 
Miller, were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gluck. I invoke the privileges under the fifth amendment, not 
to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Dr. Louis Miller to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Gluck. I answered that before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am sorry. I didn't recollect it. 

Mr. Gluck. Well, I was just trying to help. 

Mr. Willis. And the answer was the invocation of the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Gluck. The answer was that I don't know him to be a member. 

Mr. Willis. No quarrel. I just did not remember your answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Gluck. I have a statement to make, then. 

Mr. Moulder, The witness is excused. 

Do you have another witness ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The rules of the committee require that any statement 
be submitted 48 hours in advance. 

***** * * 

Mr. Moulder. Do you think we should hear another witness or 
wait until in the morning ? 

Mr. Willis. It depends on how long he is going to be. 

Mr. NiTTLE. About 10 minutes. 

Mr. Moulder. We will call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Albert S. Baker. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Baker. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT S. BAKER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name for the record, please. 

Mr. Baker. My name is Albert S. Baker. Interchangeably, also 
used as Samuel Albert Baker — Albert Samuel Baker or Samuel Albert 
Baker. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you used any other name, Mr. Baker ? 

Mr. Baker. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and address ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1975 

Mr. Rein. The reporter has my name and address. David Rein, 
711 14th Street NW. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. Where Avere you born, Mr. Baker ? 

Mr. Baker. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you born in Russia ? 

Mr. Baker. October 28, 1888. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Are you now a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you been known by any name other than Albert 
S. Baker or Samuel Albert Baker while resident in the United States? 

Mr. Baker. I have not. 

Mr. Nittle. AMien did you arrive in the United States for per- 
manent residence ? 

Mr. Baker. I don't remember the exact date. The month was June 
1906. 

Mr. N1TTI.E. Would you state your present residence ? 
Mr. Baker. Yes, sir. My present residence is 70 LaSalle Street, New 
York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of vour foimal educa- 
tion? 

Mr. Baker. I would say the equivalent of a university, without 
actual graduation. 

Mr. ?«[iTTLE. Did you attend a university ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I attended nifrht courses at the T"'^niversity of 
Pennsylvania in 1914. 

Mr. Nittle. For how long a period of time ? 

Mr. Baker. I would say for a period of 6 months. 

Mr. Nittle. "VVliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Baker. I am retired. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat was the principal occupation you held before 
your retirement? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I was primarily, for the longest period of my 
life, an accountant, an investigating accountant, and also a psycholo- 
gist. 

Mr. Nittle. Wlien did you retire ? 

Mr. Baker. I retired in 1953. 

Mr. Nittle. The records and testimony indicate that you have 
served in the capacity of secretary-treasurer of the organization 
known as Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Mr. Baker. May I offer a correction at this point? Treasurer; I 
wasn't secretary. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat offices have you held within the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. Treasurer. 

Mr. Willis. Was that from the period of its formation ? 

Mr. Baker. From, I would say, October 16 until February 27. 

Mr. Willis. Of this year ? 

Mr. Baker. That is right. 



I 



1'976 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Commencing October 16, 1961 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Baker. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a resolution dated January 9, 
1962, marked for identification as Baker Exhibit No. 1, subscribed 
to by you as secretary of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, certi- 
fying that those persons holding office in that organization as of Janu- 
ary 2, 1962, are Mrs. Melitta del Villar, chairman, and Albert S. 
Baker, secretary-treasurer, and that the signatures set opposite are 
the genuine signatures of those persons named. 

Mr. Baker. The correction that I have made before still stands 
good, because the actual minutes of the organization would reflect the 
fact that I was appointed as treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Only? 

Mr. Baker. I have used at times my title secretarj^-treasurer, be- 
cause it was implied that while I was treasurer, since there wasn't any 
secretary, I was also secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of a resolution dated April 2, 
1962, marked for identification as Baker Exhibit No. 2, subscribed to 
by Rose Apolloni, recording secretary of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee, certifying that those persons holding office in that organi- 
zation as of March 27, 1962, are Melitta del Villar, chairman ; Albert 
S. Baker, vice chairman; Sidney J. Gluck, treasurer; and Rose Apol- 
loni, recording secretary, and that the signatures set opposite their 
typed names and offices are genuine signatures of the persons named. 

Is that your signature on that corporate resolution ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, sir, it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in addition to serving as secretary of the organi- 
zation, have you, as the certification indicates, served as vice chairman 
of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. There is an explanation to this. Miss Apolloni, who 
evidently was not aware of the fact that I had been substituted as 
vice chairman, or put in as vice chairman, for one or two meetings 
when Mrs. del Villar was ill — actually, I was not vice chairman of 
the committee, and as the record of the committee will indicate now, 
I am not vice chainnan of the committee. 

(Documents marked "Baker Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2" follow:) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1977 
Baker Exhibit No. 1 



^.-J^yr J^ C^- 



I. ^L^fif-r vj- c^ Arr/f . hereby certify th.t 

Iim ^ She *Y '>7'fr''*s. ^_ , «nd the official 

j^ , (OOcUl TiUj) ^^ f ^ 

cuModitn of the record] of r-y^Dic^i -i , r- ^7c C 1^,%^ \t --r /-) / f-^ K g , 
in uniDCorporited Associition doing business in /I' *?i* V^'^'^ 

iocluditij thcCooititutioa, Charter or By-Laws and the minute* of the meetings of the Members and 
the C ^ *r ^/ ' »*' ^ ■* thereof; and do further certify that the 

following is a true copy of certain resolutions duly adopted by the Members and the O <<«^ / f f f ■e. 

of said Association, at meetings thereof duly called and held on the ^ ^ 
day of JO^i^ fi^ '■: ^ 19 ty- . 

■kf BOlOPU, that the officni «od agents of this Associidon be tnd they hereby ut, tod etch 
of than is, tuthorizcd to deposit tny of the funds of this Associstioa from time (o time with 
Thi Amalcahatid Bank or Niw Yoik which is hereby designated as a depositary of this Asso- 
ciation, and until further order of the Mtmliers and the to withdraw the 

atrne from time to time upon cliedca or drafts or other instruments or orders for the payment of money, 
drai^ H^inst the accouol or in the name or in behalf of this Association, and maiw or signed by any 
/ L^ O of the following: 

and be it 

'Urtiff f SfBOIIIf U, that Thi Amalcamatio Bank of Nev Yokk be and it hereby 
is authotiacd and re<jueited to accept, honor, cash and pay without limit as to amount, without further 
iwjuiiy and until wntten notice of the levootian of the authority hereby granted is actually received 
bj said bank, all chedu, drafts and other mstrumeoti and orders for the payment of money when 
drawn, made, signed or endorsed u by the forrgoug resolution provided, whether the tuae be 
drawn against an account standing in the name of this Association, or in the name of any such 
oAcer or agent of this Association u such, including all such instruments payable or endorsed to the 
order of this Associaboo and/or payable or endorsed to the personal order of the officer or officen or 
agent or agents signing on behalf of this Association or any other officer or o^ers or agent or agents 
of this Association, or otherwise, whether tendered in payment of the uidividual obligation or deposited 
to the persona] account of any such officer or officers or agent or agents, or otherwise, 
and be it 

'Urtif Pr fipBOlOf U, that all the foregoing authorities shall be and continue in full force 
and effect until revoked or modified by written notice actually received by said Thi Ahai.camated Bank 
or Niv Yoax setting foeth resolutions to that eSecl staled to have been adopted by the Memben and 
the of this Association, signed by the officer of this Association who is the oflicial 

custodian of its records, including the Constitutsoo. Charter or By-Laws and the minutes of meetings, 
•>d rmmining a cctti&catioo by the President of this Association that such officer is such official custodian, 
aad hariaf this Ass nri i tin ns seal, if any. and said Thi Aualoamatcd Bank or Ntv Yo«k is 
hciiky sMmuad and Jinaad so a) all tanes irlgr upon ihr last nobcr received K it of any molution 
•s •• lh( foeagMsig aHikanlMa aaad as id liK penoos who frasn tunc to tune art us officers, and their 
sifnstans, whoi such aobce is signed by persons purporting tu be such oAcial custodian and Prevdcni, 

I farther certify that isone of the foregoing resolutions has been modified or repealed, but that 
mck thrtvof u in full force tnd e£Fect. 

I further certify that the foregoing resolutions are fully in accord with and pursuant to the 
oooidtutioo, charter or by-laivs of said Auodation. 

I further certify that the following are the genuine signatures of the persons now holding office 
m udi Asaociatica u indicated opposite their respective titles. 

/J J J njkja -j^ j^ TITIX ^SPECIJON SICItAT 




jn vttSIf IB WOf rf 01, I 'xve beicumo subacnfaed my name and affixed the seal of said 
*M (^"^ itfol CT'^'t 19 6 V > 

I, President °^ , ^ 

do hereby certify that on the <? C day of 'X^/*' , 19 ^v . 

who signed and attested the foregoing, 
was and now is the dtily qualified and acting 

of said Association and that be was tnd is duly aulfaoriied by the Coostitution, Charter or By-Laws 
to certify to the minutes and proceedings of the Members and the 
n of Mid Atecdatiaa, tnd to affix the seal of said AsMiation u such certificate^ 

Ac ^/.-^ cCfC U//U. 
21-206 0-63— pt. 2—3 



1978 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Baker Exhibit No. 2 

m iMflt iwywr a rf Kmecmiiam tam% hmimm k ?v«*»^ i/»>. A ■ *«^^ 
inrhntiin; tbe Cocutitutiaa, Oufter or B^-Lawt and the miiMtc* of Ifae '»-*"f of the Mcoben aad 
the tfaeieof; umI do fnitfacr certify that the 

foUowing U > true copy of cettmin raolutknt duJy uloptcd by the Memben and the ^y-fi-^^^-^-,^^ 

of uid Auocittioa, at meetings thereof duly called and held on the S. y ^ 
day of ?v~»-,.^^'<^ , 19 1 ^ 

K^BCllOf 0, that the oAoen ukI •fcoB of thu Aaodaboo be inJ Ibcy hcnby arc, tai cack 
of them it, luchorized to depotit lor of the funds of this Asncisdoo fnm time to time willi 
The Akalcamateo Bank or Niv Youc which ii hereby dcsigiutRl u • deposituy of this As»- 

ciiiion, ind until fuither ordef of the Memben lod the _^ to withdraw the 

same fracn time to time upon checks or divfts or other instiuments or orders for the payment of money. 
dra«jL. against the account or in the name or in bcbdi of this Atnciation, and made or signed by any 
""tu^ O of the following: 

(SuicNomhntoSiri) -~^ , ^^ ____ ^_ 



and be it 



9Urtl)rr SfSOlttf d, that the Amalcamatei> Bank of Nfw Yoik be and it hereby 
IS authonxed and requested to accept, honor, cash and pay without limit as to amount, without further 
inquiiy and until wntten nodce of the revocation of the authority hereby granted ii actually received 
by said bank, all checks, drafts and other instnimcnts and orders for the payment of money when 
drawn, made, signed or endorsed as k^ the foregoing resolution provided, whether the same be 
drawn against an account standmg in the name of this Association, or in the name of any such 
officer or agent of this Association as such, including all stsch instruments payable or endorsed to the 
order of this Association and/or payable or endorsed to the personal order of the officer or officers or 
agent or agents signmg on behalf or this Association or any other officer or officen or agent or agents 
of this Association, or ocfaerwise, whether tendered in payment of the individual obligation or deposited 
to the personal account of any such officer or officers or agent or agents, or otherwise, 
arxi be it 

^UrtllPr fif BOlDf 0, that all the foregoing authorities shall be and continue in full force 
and effect until revoked or modified by written notice actually received by said The Amalgamated Bank 
OF Nnr YoKK setting forth resolutions to that effect stated to have been adopted by the Members and 
the of this Association. iigr>ed by the officer of this Association who it the official 

custodian of its records, including the Constitution, Charter or By-Laws and the minutes of meetings, 
and containing a certification by the President of this Association thai such officer is such official custodian, 
and bearing this Astnciatioa't seal, if any: and uid Thi Ahaluamated Bank of Nft Yosk is 
hereby aulhurucd and directed to at all timet rely upon the last notice rrrnvrd by it of anv resolution 
as to the torcsoing authonbes and as to ttee persons who from time to time are its officers, and their 
signalam. when such notKT it Mgocd br persons puipMting ti^ he such iifft^ial custodian and Pre«i.icnt; 

I further certify that fKxie of the foregoing resolutions has been modified ui repealed, but that 
each thereof is in full force and effect 

I further certify that the foregoing resolutions are fully in accord with and pursuant to the 
coostitutian, charter or by-laws of said Association 

I further certify that the following are the genuine signatures of the persons now holding office 
in taid Association as indicated opposite their respective titles. 

NAME TITLB ) SPEQIfEN SIGNATURE 

Wllttia P»l VlllT ffh.t^—n / " /^ A-^^*^^ .^^ Mj^!,t^ 

AlbTt a. BateT Tl»«-Ch« Ir—o d^ ^^^iZJO^t^rZ/Cj^-^ 

f. %.KAv^j J.. Qluak Tr«« vmw_ /. ^.^ ^'' /i^^- / 

»o«> Apollonl >»cordia « S«cr«Mry /C^^ ^-^l^^A,^. 



3n ViltVSB Slbf rf of . ' 't*** hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of said 
AaooatKio ttui ^ ^ day of /tyt^"*- ' 19 ^ 

[Sad] /^ 

I, VaaaldaBt of ^fcV/cf)i /CiitJfb (cO^ ( o/n /?) 
do hereby certify that on the J)'"^ day of A^/C^ti'i- ~ . 19^v , 

^-i>s'f ^^o//'.'^" — ~ - who signed and attested the foregoing, 

was and now is the duly qualified and acting "eCc'yJttf^ ^ifTrrliuy 

of said Association and that be was and is duly authorized by the Constitution, Qiarter or By-Laws 

to certify to the minutes and proceedings of the Members and the 

of said Association, and to affix ttie seal of said Association to such certificate, . 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1979 

Mr. NiTTLE. That certification was for representation to the par- 
ticular bank invoh'ed, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Baker. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And amounted to a certification of your office in the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Baker. I would say at the time I was temporarily treasurer 
of the committee. The reason I said prcA'iously that I was not, was 
because I was not permanent vice chairman. I was vice chairman 
only for a temporaiy period. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you received any salary or compensation for 
services performed by you in an official capacity for the Medical Aid 
to Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Baker. None whatsoever, sir, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information indicates that you have had access to 
the books and records of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee since 
its inception. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Baker. That is correct. Since its inception, but not continu- 
ously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were the circumstances under which you became 
associated with the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, there was an appeal made, I believe, and I had 
found out about it and I was interested in its humanitarian objecti^-es 
and so I joined it as a member. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you undertake your work in the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee at the request, suggestion, or direction of any person 
known to you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Baker. No. 

Mr. Willis. Were you solicited as an officer by the lady who testified 
this morning and this afternoon ? 

Mr. Baker. I was not. 

Mr. Willis. How did you become a member? Or how did you be- 
come an official ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I heard of the objectives of the committee from 
people who were interested in charitable enterprises, because I am 
always interested in doing humanitarian work. And so I volunteered, 
since I am a retired man — I volunteered my services. 

Mr. Willis. To whom did you talk concerning your appointment as 
treasurer? 

Mr. Baker. Whom did I talk about ? 

Mr. Willis. Whom did you talk to ? 

Mr. Baker. There was a group meeting of people, who asked me at 
the time, whether or not, since I have sufficient time, whether or not I 
would volunteer to be a treasurer of the committer. 

Mr. Willis. ^Vlio were those people ? Would that include the lady 
who testified this morning, and Dr. Louis Miller? And who else? 

Mr. Baker. Dr. Louis Miller was not a member of the committee 
at that time. If I remember correctly, Mrs. del Villar was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Dr. Louis Miller? 

Mr. Baker. I have not known Dr. Louis Miller. 

Mr, NiTTLE. When did you first become acquainted with him? 

Mr. Baker. I have become acquainted with Dr. Louis Miller when 
he joined the committee, sometime in, I would say, in November 1961 ; 
late November or early December. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you first hear of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee ? 



1980 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Baker. I am not certain. I believe it was an announcement 
either in the Monthly Review^ to which I am a subscriber, or perhaps 
elsewhere. And I am not completely certain. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you also a subscriber to the National Guardian? 

Mr. Baker. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a subscriber of The Worker? 

Mr. Baker. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you subscribe to New Masses? 

Mr, Baker. No, sir. ^ 

Mr- NiTTLE. Do you subscribe to Political Affairs? 

Mr. Baker. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ever subscribe to those publications ? 

Mr. Baker. No, sir, at no time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, our information further indicates that, during 
the initial period of the establishment of this organization, you re- 
tained personal possession of the funds of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee. Under what circumstances did these funds come into 
your possession ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, quite simply. The committee at that time was in 
its period of formation. No formal bank account was permitted, be- 
cause we couldn't present a resolution on formation of the committee. 
The committee requested whether or not I, as treasurer, would utilize 
my personal account temporarily mitil a permanent account is opened, 
which was eventually opened at the^malgamated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VVlien did you deliver the possession of the funds that 
you personally had in your possession to the account of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I don't remember the exact date, but I would say 
it was at the beginning of January of this year — most likely January 
of this year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how much did you deposit to the account of the 
coimnittee at that time ? 

Mr. Baker. $1,053. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the source of that money ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, there were contributions that were sent in over 
a period from October 16 to the date in question, contributions minus 
expenditures. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicated that you first acquired knowledge of the 
formation of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee by reading an an- 
nouncement of that fact in the Mo7ithly Review^ is that correct? 

Mr. Baker. It is possible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I said isn't that what you said ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, I said that. 

Mr. Rein. He said he wasn't sure. I think the record should be 
clear on that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would I be accurately stating the facts, if I were to 
suggest that tlie fii*st public announcement of the formation of this 
committee appeared in the January 1962 issue of Monthly Review 
and in the February 19, 1962, issue of the Nati&nal Gvardian and that 
these were the tii'st announcements, publicly, of the formation of the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1981 

Mr. Baker. "Well, I said when I «rave you the answer that I wasn't 
certain exactly where, but it occurred to me, since 1 had read them in 
both 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, will you tell us where you first heard of 
the formation of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. I do not remember. 

Mr. NrrxLE. Your activity as treasurer of this organization was 
certainly an important event in your life. And you do not remember 
the occasion, or the circumstances, under which it first came to your 
attention ? 

Mr. Baker. No, I wouldn't be able to exactly pinpoint the date 
because, first of all, I am not, as my birth date Avould indicate, I am 
not a youngster any more. I am 74 years of a*>:e and, at times, I may 
forget certain things. 

Mr. Nittle. You did not forget how much money you delivered 
in January, money in your possession, to the account of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. Correct. Because there was a check made out for that 
amount. 

Mr. Nittle. And you did not forget that October 16, 1961, 1 believe 
you stated, was the date when you first became associated with the 
committee? 

Mr. Baker. That is right. 

Mr. Nittle. But you do forget, or do not remember, the circum- 
stances under which this organization first came to your attention? 

Mr. WiLlis. Well, you are talking about dates now. He does not 
remember the dates, he says. I think that might be acceptable. It 
would seem strange to me, sir, that you can't remember the people 
to whom you talked about it. That is hard for me to understand. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Corliss Lamont one of the early financial con- 
tributors to the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you.know of Corliss Lamont? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, I heard him at lectures. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Have you received any funds into your ])ossession 
which had their origin with Corliss Lamont ? 

Mr. Rein. I don't think that is a fair question. Funds which had 
their origin from Corliss Lamont ? 

This witness wouldn't know where funds may have originated. I 
don't think that is a fair question. 

Mr. Willis. Ask him does he remember. 

Mr. Nittle, Do you remember ? 

Mr. Baker. I can't remember every contribution made, because 
there were numerous contributions made to the committee from vari- 
ous sources. The committee was a charitable organization and made 
an appeal several times, and funds were coming in. 

Mr. Scherer. Does that show by the records of the committee? 
Does the committee keep a record of those who contributed? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, the committee kept a record. The committee has 
an exact record of all contributions made to it. The committee has 
a set of books. 



1982 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Baker, I suggest that a detailed account of the 
source of funds has not been kept by the committee. I say that on 
the basis that our information and investigation indicates that you 
have received funds on behalf of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee 
which have been credited to sources generally described only as 
"friends of Dr. Miller." 

Will you tell us who the "friends of Dr. Miller" were from whom 
your organization has received funds? 

Mr. Baker. I cannot tell you that, sir, because this particular ques- 
tion is completely groundless. It is not based on fact. There were 
no contributions ever made by any friends of Dr. INIiller's; not to my 
knowledge, not while I was treasurer of the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Dr. Louis Miller make any contribution to the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee at the time of its formation? 

Mr, Baker. Yes. As far as I believe, Dr. Miller made several 
contributions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. About how much money has passed through your hands 
as treasurer of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I should imagine — I wouldn't be able to state 
exactly at this point — but I would imagine that from October 16 to 
the date when the money was deposited in the formal bank account, 
approximately maybe $2,500 or $3,000. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't recollect whether I asked whether you knew 
Sidney J. Gluck. 

Mr. Baker. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Sidney J. Gluck ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I met him when he had become treasurer after 
I had resigned. Prior to that, I never knew him. 

Mr. Nittle. What position do you hold wath the organization now, 
if any ? 

Mr. Baker. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Nittle. When did you withdraw from the organization? 

Mr. Baker. Well, I would say I withdrew from the organization 
approximately in May or late April, when I was beginning to get 
indications that I have trouble with my eyesight and it was indicated 
that I had a cataract. 

Mr. Nittle. You are an accountant by occupation or profession? 

Mr. Baker. Well, yes, I was doing accounting work. I mean I 
was not a CPA. I was doing accounting work primarily, most of 
the time as an investigating accountant, or investigator. ' 

Mr. Nittle. May it be described as your contribution to the organi- 
zation that you set up the books for it ? 

Mr. Baker. Hardly. Because while I was treasurer, which, even 
at the time — I had stated that I would serve only temporarily because 
my health was not too good. 

At the time, there was what I would call a memorandum account, 
in other words, cash coming in and expenses paid, various vouchers 
paid out for various services that the organization had incurred. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you traveled abroad during the course of the 
past 10 years? 

Mr. Baker. During the past 10 years ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Baker. Why, yes, I traveled. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1983 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what are the places and dates of yonr visits? 

Mr. Bakek. I slioiild like to consult with my attorney. 

(AVitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Baker. AVhat bearing would my travels, whether I was in 
India or whether I was in South Africa or elsewhere, have on the 
question ? 

Mr. WiLEis. Mr. Chairman, I think this question is proper. 

I tliink we owe it to you and to ourselves and we imply nothing; 
by it. 

Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Baker. No. I am not now and nor have I ever been a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. Well, I think your travel is probably important, if it 
is connected with that committee. 

Mr. Rein. Tlie question is not connected with the committee. 

Mr. MouiJ)ER. Can you re-form your question, so as to make it more 
pertinent ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you traveled to Cuba in the last 10 vears^ 

INIr. Baker. I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When was the date of your last visit? 

Mr. Baker. 1961, prior to the rapture of diplomatic relations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many times tiid you visit Cuba prior to 1961 ? 

Mr. Baker. Once. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just in 1961 ? 

Mr. Baker. No, in 1960. 

Mr. NiT-i'LE. What date in 1960 did you visit ? 

Mr. Baker. Well, in April 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, have you visited 

Mr. SciiERER. Wait a minute. Before you leave Cuba — "Wliat were 
the occasions of those visits? 

Mr. Baker. What were the occasions ? 

Mr. SciiERER. What Avere the occasions for the two visits? 

Mr. Baker. What were the occasions? Well, I was first of all seek- 
ing a place to rest up and, secondly, I am a person who is quite inter- 
ested in what is going on in other parts of the world and I have never 
been to Cuba before. I have had some leisure. I thought that the 
Cuban climate was veiy good and I went to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Have you traveled to Europe? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, I traveled to Europe. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wiat countries did you visit? 

Mr. Rein. Mr. Cliairman, I thought that those questions had been 
ruled out, as I understood it. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you be more specific ? 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Have you traveled behind the Iron C^irtain within the 
past 5 years ? 



1984 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Baker. Gentlemen, I should like to cooperate with your com- 
mittee. But, at this point, I must say that I am ill. I am here in 
spite of the fact that I am only just off my bed from a cataract opera- 
tion. Now, any questions pertinent to the committee, to the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee, of which, by the way, I am not now an officer 
or a member, I will gladly cooperate and answer. But if you are going 
to start in on what, if you will pardon my expression, fishing expedi- 
tions, I will have to refuse to answer, under my privilege. I will in- 
voke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Rein. Mr. Chairman, may I pass up to the chairman of the 
committee a medical statement in connection with this witness? We 
have not used it as an excuse, but T do want to 

Mr. INIouLDER. Have you made any trip to any foreign country be- 
hind the Iron Curtain in connection with the interest of the Commu- 
nist cause or international Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Baker. In the interest of Avhat ? 

Mr. Moulder, Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Baker. Never. Under no circumstances. You just heard my 
answer under oath that I never have been, nor am I now, a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. Then what is the purpose of the examination, or the 
questions ? 

Mr. Baker, What is the purpose of what ? 

Mr, Moulder. I am asking counsel what is the purpose of this 
question, questions about travel overseas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I was going to inquire whether he had traveled tibroad 
with Dr. Louis Miller at any time. 

Mr. Baker. Absolutely not. I didn't know Dr. Louis Miller, as 
I told you. I am answering questions here under oath. And eveiy- 
thing I tell you is the truth, because I have sworn to tell you the 
truth. I have not met nor known Dr. Miller until he joined the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you this, and in the same vein as I did a 
while ago. 

Did you know then, or have you known since, that Dr. Miller was 
or had been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Baker. No, not at all. I didn't know anything about Dr. Mil- 
ler until he joined the committee. As a matter of fact, I never heard 
of his name. 

Mr, AYiLLis. Well, my question was: In the past and currently, did 
you know then, before, or since meeting him, that he was then or had 
been a member of the party ? 

Mr. Baker. I did not, sir. I knew nothing about his background. 

Mr. Sciierer. Now the record is not clear. Because I think coun- 
sel's question is a veiy pertinent question, namely, wlietlier this man 
has traveled behind the Iron Curtain in the last — how many years? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Five years. 

Mr. Moulder. Is there any reason why you should not answer that 
question ? 

Mr. Baker. I will tell you what the reason is that I should not an- 
swer the question — because it is not pertinent to the investigation at 
present. You are investigating the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, 
my connection with it. And what I did in 1958 or 1950, before there 
was any such committee, I don't see the relevancy of this question. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1985 

Mr. Moulder. Well, let it sro. 

Mr. SciiERER. 1 don't think the record is clear yet. He started to 
say he was goino; to invoke the fifth amendment. Now, my recollec- 
tion is that in the discussion there was no indication of invoking the 
fifth amendment in response to the question of counsel. 

Mr. Moulder. I asked him why he could not answer the question. 

Mr. Baker. I will simplify it for you gentlemen. 

I invoked the fifth amendment to the Constitution in refusing to 
answer this question. 

Mr. Nittle. The staff has no further questions. 

Mr. Sciierer. Mr. Baker, who is Bertha Friedman? 

Mr. Baker. Bertha Friedman ? 

Mr. Sciierer. Yes. 

Mr. Baker. I don't know Bertha Friedman. 

Mr. Sciierer. You don't know Bertha Friedman, who lived at 100 
LaSalle Street on Februaiy 28, 1962 ? You don't know her ? 

Mr. Baker. "Well, there are several Friedmans in the development, 
and I have been in the development now 5 years and I am on good 
terms with a number of the tenants, and there may be a Friedman 
there, Bertha Friedman, 

Mr. ScHERER. There may be a Bertha Friedman, but you do not 
know her? You lived on LaSalle Street, too; did you not? 

Mr. Baker. That is right. I lived on 70 LaSalle Street. 

Mr. Sciierer. Do you live there now ? 

Mr. Baker. I just stated under oath my name and address. Now, 
you are just occupj'ing your own precious time and mine. I am not 
feeling well. These questions, to my mind, if you will pardon my 
saying so, are redundant, because you know where I live. 

Mr. Sciierer. I am sorry. I may not have been paying attention. 
I may not rememlier where you live. Now, I just don't know. 

It is simple for him to say whether he lives at 70 LaSalle Street or 
not. 

Mr. Baker. I do live at 70 LaSalle Street. Correct. 

Mr. Sciierer. Now, when Mrs. Anister, or Mrs. del Villar, was on 
the stand, she was asked about a telegram which was addressed to 
Mrs. Bertha Friedman, 100 LaSalle Street, on February 23, 19G2, 
reading : 

Our toast to Rebecca, all the chicks there, patient husbands and silent partner. 
Love. Pat O'Morte. 

And it is my recollection that she said that that was a humorous 
telegram sent in connection with some kind of a celebration involving 
you. 

Mr. Baker. Calling for what ? I didn't get that. 

Mr. Sciierer. It was a humorous telegram sent by her, and she 
signed the name "Pat O'Morte," and it was sent in connection with 
some kind of a celebration or activity in which you were involved. 

Mr. Baker. What is your question, sir? 

What is the question to me — not to Melitta — to me, now? 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know anything about this telegram? 

Mr. Baker. No, I do not. I have no recollection of this telegram 
whatsoever. 

(See del Villar Exhibit No. 23, p. 1946.) 



1986 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. ScHERER. How is it, then, that your name appears on this tele- 
gram — and I will show it to you, Albert S. Baker — in the bottom 
right-hand corner, as subscriber? I think that is it. 

Mr. Baker. Subscriber to what ? I don't know. There is no 
signature of mine. I don't know what it means. It is my name, but 
I didn't send the telegram. I had nothing to do with it. I don't 
remember the telegram. 

Mr. ScHERER. Can you explain why your name would appear on 
that telegram, Albert S. Baker, down in the right-hand corner? 

Mr. Baker. I am sorry. I can't explain why. I didn't receive the 
telegram and I didn't send the telegram. 

Mr. ScriERER. That is all I wanted to know. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you the treasurer of the organization at tliis 
time? 

Mr. Baker. On February 23? I still was. I had resigned on 
February the 27th. So probably it was just put there because of 
that. I haven't sent it. 

Mr. Scherer. I mean, did you pay the telegraphic accounts? That 
is what I have been asking? 

Mr. Baker. Very likely. Because this is such a small item that 
I wouldn't remember exactly what was paid or how it was done. 

Mr. Sciierer. You were here, were you not, during the testimony of 
Mrs. Amster ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, I had been here. But I have been more or less re- 
motely away from the place where she was testifying and I haven't 
heard everytliing that she testified about. 

Mr. Scherer. You have no knowledge, then, of this telegram or why 
it was sent to JSIrs. Friedman in the veiy development in which you 
live? 

Mr. Baker. Absolutely not. 

Mr. Scherer. You heard her testimony, did you not, that this tele- 
gram was sent in comiection with some celebration in which you were 
involved ? 

Mr. Baker. I believe I have explained, and I hope satisfactorily, 
that I haven't heard everything that was testified to. 

Mr. Scherer. You said you didn't hear everything. But I was 
wondering whether or not you heard that part of her testimony? 

Mr. Baker. I did not hear it because, frankly speaking, I was more 
or less in torture, here, most of the day. I was expecting to be called 
early in the morning, so I could get away. I thought it would take 
maybe 15 minutes to a half hour. When the gentleman came to serv^e 
the subpena, I had just had my stitches taken out and I appeared at 
the door with the patch on my eye. 

And I am perfectly willing to cooperate with the committee, but I 
am not going to try to imagine things, or answer yes to things, when 
I know nothing about them. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. All right, the committee will be adjourned until 10 
a.m. tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Rein. This witness is excused ? 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 5:30 p.m., Wednesday, November 14, 1962, the 
committee adjourned until 10 a.m., November 15, 1962.) 



U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN 
COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Medical Aid to Cuba Committee and Friends of British Guiana) 

Part 2 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 : 20 a.m.. in the Caucus Room, Cannon Build- 
ing, Washin^on, D.C., Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Morgan F. Mould- 
er, of Missouri ; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana ; Gordon H. Scherer, 
of Ohio, also present, Representative Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Louis J. 
Russell and Neil E. Watterman, investigators. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

I would like to remind the photographers that we have two witnesses 
appearing, you understand, of whom we do not wish to have pictures 
taken. 

Would you call your first witness ? 

Mr. Nittle. Dr. Emilio V. Soto. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Dr. Soto. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EMILIO V. SOTO 

Mr. Moulder. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name, please? 

Dr. Soto. My full name. My first name is Emilio — E-m-i-1-i-o. 
My initial is V, and my last name is S-o-t-o. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation ? 

Dr. Soto. I am a medical doctor. And I have always been a doc- 
tor and a pediatrician. I am working at Fairfax Hospital in Falls 
Church, Va. And I was previously working in Georgia as a pedia- 
trician, too, and in Miami, at the Variety Children's Hospital. 

1987 



1988 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion? 

Dr. Soto. Well, I am a self-made man. I came from a poor fam- 
ily. My father was attached to the Justice Department in my coun- 
try. I was born in a small town in Cuba. 

I had my high school education in Cuba, and my medical educa- 
tion in Cuba. Then I won a scholarship and came over to this coun- 
try in 1935, where I went to the University of Pennsylvania, and 
where I got my M.D. in pediatrics. 

I worked as a resident in pediatrics at the Children's Hospital 
of Philadelphia, and then I went to Hopkins, where I worked at the 
Harriet Lane Hospital, in Baltimore, from 1937 up to 1938. 

Then I left this country, and I began to practice pediatrics in 
Havana, Cuba, and I was also attached to the University of Havana, 
working for the Department of Pediatrics. 

And what else would you like to know ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain in Cuba after your return 
there in 1938 ? 

Dr. SoTO. Well, I began to practice in Cuba around 1940, 1942, 
and I remained until exactly the 21st of August 1960, 

Mr. Willis. And then you came to the United States ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes ; T came to the United States with my whole family. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have remained here since ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you associated with any hospitals in Cuba ? 

Dr. Soto. Yes. I was connected with — I was the appointed chief 
of the Newborn and Premature Services at the Maternity Hospital in 
Havana, Cuba, and I worked as a Chairman of Pediatrics there since 
1943, up to 1960, when I left my country. 

I was also engaged in private practice, doing only pediatrics, as 
I told you before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee received testimony yesterday from a 
Melitta del Villar, who is the chairman of a committee called the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Dr. SoTO. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of the testimony, it became apparent 
that she was in correspondence with a hospital in Havana known 
as the Hospital Nacional and with a Dr. Martha Frayde, who is 
evidently in a position of leadership in that hospital. 

Do you know of the Hospital Nacional in Havana, Cuba ? 

Dr. SoTO. First of all, I don't know the lady mentioned. I never 
heard of her, the former lady mentioned. 

The doctor you mentioned, I know, and I know 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien you say you weren't familiar with the lady I 
mentioned, I assume you are referring to Melitta del Villar ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes. I never heard of her. 

Mr. NiTTLE. First, are you familiar with the Hospital Nacional? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes. I presume that the Hospital Nacional was — prob- 
ably the name has been changed, but I never heard of a Hospital 
Nacional in Havana. Probably it was named after Castro was in 
power. Probably Avas built up in previous government or in Batista's 
government, and it was taken over by Castro, I presume, but I was 
never there. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1989 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you left Cuba, were you familiar with a 
hospital named Plospital Nacional in Havana? 

Dr. Soto. Well, it was not open, so I couldn't be familiar with a 
hospital that wasn't open. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Dr. Martha Frayde ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes; I do. Not personally, but I know who is Martha 
Frayde. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And who is she ? 

Dr. SoTO. She is a notorious Communist in my country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVhat is the source of your information ? 

Dr. SoTO. Well, you see, I have belon^jed to all the medical societies 
in my country, and ri^ht away, I was the president of the Cuban 
Pediatric Society when I left my country. I also — I am ^oin^ to tell 
you this, because to let you know that I Avas related with many doc- 
tors in Cuba, so I know what I am talking about 

Mr. SciTERER. Pardon me. 

It is still a little difficult to hear up here. Could you move the 
microphone a little farther away from you ? 

Dr. SoTO. Oh, I am sorry. 

Mr. SciiERER. "WTiat was the woman doctor's name ? 

Dr. SoTo. Martha Frayde. 

Mr. SciiERER. Repeat that, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Martha Frayde — F-r-a-y-d-e. 

Mr. Willis. And is she the doctor who signed the letter that Mrs. 
del Villar referred to yesterday ? 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Yes, sir; she was in correspondence with INIelitta del 
Villar and Dr. Louis Miller. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wasn't she the principal contact with the representa- 
tives of this Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir, that is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. And you testified that you know her as a notorious 
Communist ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes. 

Mr. SciiERER. In Cuba ? 

Mr. Willis. And he was now about to talk about his background of 
knowledge of medicine and doctors and professional people as part 
of his testimony. 

Dr. Soto. I was saying that I was connected with all the scientific 
medical institutions in Cuba, and I do know who is Martha Frayde, 
because, first of all, her father Avas a professor of medical chemistry 
at the University of Havana, and he was my professor, too, so from 
a long time, I knew that Martha Frayde was a Communist. 

I don't know Martha Frayde personally. I mean, I never talked 
to her about whether she was a Communist or not, but everyone, every 
single doctor I talked with in Cuba, knew that Dr. Martha Frayde 
was a Communist. 

Mr. Willis. And that is why you said she was a "notorious 
Communist" ? 

Dr. Soto. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. That is why you chose that word ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes, because every time I talked to my colleagues, since 
I was not a Communist and I was very much against that doctrine, 
I became acquainted that she was a Communist. 



1990 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Nittle, do I understand that we had some evi- 
dence in the file that she, herself, is an admitted Communist? She 
admits she is a Communist ? 

Dr. SoTO. I think so. She never denied that, I guess. 

Mr. Moulder. One would have to, if they remain in Cuba, now ? 

Dr. SoTO. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Moulder. One would have to admit it in Cuba today ? 

Dr. SoTO. I believe so. 

Mr. Nittle. Are the medical clinics under the control of the Cuban 
Government ? 

Dr. SoTO. Absolutely. Every one of them are — no; not from the 
beginning, but now they are under the control, so they are practicing 
now what they call socialized medicine under the Communist regime. 

Mr. Nittle. Is medical treatment dispensed to all persons regardless 
of political affiliations in Cuba? 

Dr. SoTO. Well, I couldn't answer you that question correctly, be- 
cause I left Cuba in August 1960, and at the time I was there, j^ou 
know the Communists were not absolutely unmasked, so they tried 
to get along with most of the people. I didn't even know absolutely 
whether were Communists or not. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have any experience with the Castro govern- 
ment ? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes ; I know Castro personally, having taken care of his 
son since he was 4 months of age, when the child was brought from 
the Oriente Province to my office. 

Mr. Nittle. When did you first became acquainted with Castro ? 

Dr. Soto. Exactly when he was 23 years of age, and the child was 
4 months of age, and that was in February 1950. 

Mr. Nittle. Over what period of time did you treat Castro's son? 

Dr. SoTO. Well, up until I left Cuba, because in 1960, Castro's son 
had an automobile accident from which he was very sick, and he was 
taken down to surgery, and the spleen was removed. He was in a 
critical condition, and I took care o^ the child as a pediatrician, and 
I was very much acquainted with the surgeon that took care of this 
child, and the surgeon's name was Rodriguez-Diaz, who was at that 
time the best surgeon we had. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were the family doctor, then ? 

Dr. Soto. Yes, I was. 

Mr. ScHERER. For Castro's children or child ? 

Dr. Soto. The only member of Castro's family I know, unfortu- 
nately, is Mr. Castro, himself, but on the other side, you see, I know 
Castro's former wife very well, and this is the only child they had, the 
one that I mentioned, but Castro's former wife married again to a 
young lawyer that I know very well. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Mr. Nittle's question was over how long a 
period were you the pediatrician and/or the family doctor for Castro's 
son. 

Dr. SoTO. I believe since the child was four months of age up till 
the time I left Cuba. That doesn't mean that the child could not 
have been examined by some other doctors, but I was called many 
times, almost every year, to see the child. 

Mr. ScHERER. And how many years was that ? 
Dr. SoTO. Ten years. 
Mr. ScHERER. Ten years. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1991 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is there anything else you would like to tell us with 
respect to the use of medical sup])lies and assistance in Cuba that 
may be received from the United States? 

Dr. Soto. Well, I am willing to answer any questions you would 
like to ask me specifically. 

The only thin^ I do know is that at the time I left my country, 
there was a shorta^je of medicines in Cuba, and that, I think — the 
shortage — was created by Castro, himself. It was not a real fact, 
and I don't believe it was a real fact, because still the American 
manufacturers were there, and they were supplying medicine to the 
medical profession, so at the time I was there — and I say, at the 
time I was there — probably the shortage was created by Castro, who 
wanted to blame it on your country. 

Mr. Willis. I missed that last statement. 

Dr. SoTO. I said definitely that the shortage of medicine in 1960, 
when I left Cuba, was created by Castro, himself. 

Mr. Willis. In what way ? 

Dr. SoTO. He wanted to blame it on your countrymen. He wanted 
to make your country responsible for the shortage of medicine, and 
I don't believe that was true, because in Cuba, you know, I Avas very 
much acquainted with all the manufacturers, the American manufac- 
turers that were there, and so, for instance, I can name Lederle, 
Squibb, Lilly's, and some others that were still sujDplying medicine 
to our medical profession. 

Mr. Willis. And he wanted to portray a situation that there was 
a shortage, in order to blame our country for that, for not being 
humanitarian toward the people of Cuba? Is that it? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes, that is correct. It is what I wanted to say. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did these drug companies that you just named have 
branch offices or factories, or wholesale warehouses in Cuba? 

Dr. SoTO. Yes, and they were very well known in my country as 
in yours, because the medical profession in my country as well as in 
yours is helped by these companies, because we do some research, 
and they ga^^e us some grants to do this research that we were about 
to accomplish in any amount of time, so we were acquainted with 
these manufacturers. That is the reason why we knew that the 
manufacturers were there, they had enough supplies, and they had 
been in Cuba for many years. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Now, have the properties of these drug manufacturers in Cuba 
which you named been taken over by the Cuban Government? 

Dr. SoTO. Sure, they have been. And my properties, too. 

Mr. Willis. Your properties? 

Dr. SoTO. My house. I owned one property. My office — that I 
rented ; and my house — that was mine, and that is the only property 
I ever had as a doctor. I didn't have any more properties in my 
country. 

Mr. Willis. And that was taken over. 

Dr. SoTO. Absolutely. 

Mr. Willis. Now, were you compensated for it ? 

Dr. SoTO. Compensated? 

Mr. Willis. Paid for it. 

Dr. SoTO. I don't think I was ever compensated. 



1992 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. MoTJLDER, Going back to Dr. Frayde. I hesitate to interrupt 
the line of questioning, but did you understand or know her tx) be a 
notorious Communist prior to the Castro regime ? 

Dr. SoTO. Prior to Castro's regime, no one was acquainted with 
communism in Cuba, because the Cuban people — you know, first of 
all, Cuba Avas not a subdeveloped country, as they claim ; and, second, 
we were very happy, jolly people that always live in peace, and we 
were not acquainted with the Communists at all. 

In other words, we people of Cuba — I am a middle-class member 
of the Cuban society — I never thought that Cuba would have ever 
been taken over by Communists, so I didn't have — I didn't know 
Martha Frayde as a notorious Communist before Castro came in 
power. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you know her as a Communist at that time? 
Before? 

Dr. Soto. No, not before. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat I am trying to determine is whether she was one 
of the advance emissaries of the Communist government in Cuba, 
and you don't know that. 

Dr. Soto. Yes ; they fooled us, as you know, very well. When they 
came from the Oriente hills, they claimed that they were very religi- 
ous, that they were Catholic, because they knew that 90 percent of our 
population were religious people, so they claimed they were, and fooled 
every one of us as well as you. 

Mr. SciiERER. As has been often said, of course, when Castro took 
over, then the Communists came out of the woodwork. 

Dr. SoTO. I think you are right. I think that is true. 

Mr. Moulder. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Moulder. All right. 

Any questions, Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. We thank you very much, Doctor, for cooperating 
with the committee and giving us the valuable information which you 
liave. We certainly appreciate your doing this, and also compliment 
you on your courage and forthrightness in appearing before this com- 
mittee and testifying as you have. 

Dr. SoTO. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Dr. Jose G. Tremols. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Dr. Tremols. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Be seated. Doctor. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSE O. TEEM0I5 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name, please ? 

Dr. Tremols. Jose G. Tremols — T-r-e-m-o-l-s. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere were you bom? 

Dr. Tremols. Havana, Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain a resident of Cuba ? 

Dr. Tremols. Until December 15, 1960. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1993 

Mr. NiTTLE. You came to the United States December 15, 1960? 

Dr. Tremols. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. Why? 

Dr. Tremols. AVell, that is obvious. Really, it wasn't worth living 
over there, the way things were going. 

Mr. Willis. Well, we will develop that. 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your profession ? 

Dr. Tremols. Physician. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the extent of your educational 
training ? 

(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Dr. Tremols. Well, I was graduated at Havana University. And 
I also practiced my profession in Havana as a private physician. 
I became a pediatrician and after having the training at this same 
school of medicine of the Havana University, with Professor Abaye 
in 1930 or 1931, and I was in that practice all the rest of my life. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you continuing the practice of medicine now that 
you are residing in the United States ? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you associated with a hospital here ? 

Dr. Tremols. I am working with an HEW outpatient clinic. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you heard of a Dr. Martha Frayde during the 
course of your residence in Cuba ? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know her personally? 

Dr. Tremols. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is the extent of your knowledge of Dr. Frayde ? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, I only can say that formerly, she was working 
as a laboratorist. 

Mr. Scherer. As a what ? 

Dr. Tremols. Laboratorist, in laboratory, clinical laboratory. 

Mr. Scherer. Oh. 

Dr. Tremols. Excuse me, my broken English. 

And after Castro came in Havana, she became associated with the 
government, and she was nominated as a head, chief of the national 
hospital. Hospital Nacional, that was under construction — I tliink 
it began to be constructed under President Prio, and Batista went on, 
and it was finished during Cactro's regime. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect the date when Castro entered Ha- 
vana, Cuba, and assumed power in the government there? 

Dr. Tremols. I think that I would recall it now, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date ? 

Dr. Tremols. First of January 1959. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, do you recollect the date when the United States 
broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, it was in 1961, January or February 1961 . 

Mr. NiTTLE, So that, during the time you remained in Cuba and up 
until December 15, 1960, while you remained there, normal diplomatic 
relations were in effect between the United States and Cuba? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After Castro came into power in January 1959, was 
there any shortage of medical supplies during the time you remained 
in Cuba? 

21-206 0-63— pt. 2—4 



1994 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Dr. Tremols. Well, not really as short at that time. I was con- 
nected with a private hospital. I was a shareholder of that institu- 
tion, and in 1960, the last months of 1960, we were having really short- 
age, and we were not able to get the whole needs of our clinic, and 
at that time, there were many of these different firms still in Cuba, 
like Squibb, Parke Davis, Merck Sharp & Dohme, but they were 
not able to get the whole supply that was needed. 

Even I remember that, for a time, we were unable to get our sur- 
geon's gloves, for example, and we needed to be connected with one 
of our interns that was very well — had very good relations with the 
government, and he was the one that got the Czechoslovakian sur- 
geon's gloves for us at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Now I think I understand you. Yovi said in order to get surgeon's 
gloves 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You had to go to one of your interns, who had con- 
nections with the Communist regime? 

Dr. Tremols. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. And he was able to get you Czechoslovakia!! sur- 
geon's gloves ? 

Dr. Tremols. That is it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like to inquire whether, to your knowledge, 
the apparently growing shortage in 1960 of medical supplies was 
due, in fact, to the policy of the Cuban Government to sever trade 
relations with the United States and to transfer its trade relations 
to the Iron Curtain countries and obtain supplies from them? 

Dr. Tre^iols. It could be. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Nittle, will you speak a little louder? 

Mr. Nittle. We would like to know whether the explanation of the 
shortage of medical supplies in Cuba which began to appear in the 
latter part of 1960 was due, in fact, to the policies of the Castro gov- 
en!ment in cutting off trade relations with the United States by its own 
voluntary act in order to open trade communications with the Iron 
Curtain countries. 

Dr. Tremols. It could be- 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't understand the answer. 

Mr. Willis. He said it could be. 

Dr. Tremols. It could be, I am not quite sure. That was the gen- 
eral idea of the Communists. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask a question at this point of the counsel ? 

"\^T!at was the date of the entry of the previous doctor. Dr. Soto? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Soto left Cuba in August 1960. 

Mr. Willis. August 1960. 

And, Doctor, what was the date of your entry ? 

Dr. Tremols. December 1960. 

Mr. Willis. December 1960. 

Now, let me ask you this question. There is an apparent conflict 
between your testimony and that of Dr. Soto. 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And let's see if we can clarify it. 

He testified just a moment ago — and you must have been listening 
to him — that when he left in August of 1960, there was not so much 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1995 

a question of a shortage of medicines, but an effort to balloon that 
shortage on the part of the Castro regime to lay the blame on us. 
That we were not supplying — that we were not humanitarian. 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. You say that when you left in December of 1960, there 
was a shortage. Do you mean an actual shortage or a misdirection of 
the supply? Would you address yourself to that point? 

Dr. Tremols. I agree with you that it could be a misdirection of 
the supplies. 

Mr. Willis. I am not saying, I am asking. 

Dr. Tremols. I agree with that. I am sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned that you had to approach an in- 
tern who was friendly to the Castro regime in order to obtain certain 
medical supplies, and when you did obtain the particular item de- 
sired — namely, surgeon's gloA-es — did I understand you correctly to 
say that 

Dr. Tremols. That was one of the items. 

Mr. NiTi^LE. You found they were manufactured in Czechoslovakia ? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was this the first experience you had received in noting 
supplies, medical supplies, purchased from the Iron Curtain countries? 

Dr. Tremols. That was the firet time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, I understood the witness to say that he used 
the surgeon's gloves as an example, and that that was only one of 
the items. 

Dr. Tremols. That was one of the items. 

Mr. Moulder. I think that is clear. It has been very clear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to that time, had you had occasion to use sur- 
geon's gloves? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, I was not a surgeon. I work as a pediatrician, 
so I can't 

Mr. NiTTLE. I meant to say by that, was this the firet appearance 
of Iron Curtain medical supplies, to your observance, in 1960 ? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir ; in 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to 1960, had you seen any medical suj^plies, 
used by you or by those with whom you were associated, that were 
manufactured in the Iron Curtain countries ? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, prior to that time, we had a great stock in 
our clinic of American supplies, so we didn't have any shortage of 
our own in our private clinic. 

Mr. ScHERER. What I am interested in, before we leave the subject. 
Doctor, is: Can you tell us what other items you had to get from 
this particular intern or other interns who were friendly to the 
Castro government, other than rubber gloves ? 

Dr. Tremols. Rubber gloves and injections, and tablets. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. Injections and what? Tools? 

Dr. Tremols. Tablets. 

Mr. ScHERER. Tablets. I misunderstood you. But various medical 
supplies ? 

Dr. Tremols. Various medical supplies. 

Mr. Scherer. The only way you could get them was to get them 
from 

Dr. Tremols. Through that channel. 

Mr. Scherer. Through that channel. 



1996 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you this, Doctor. 

From your own experience, if you have any on it — and you left 
there in 1960 ; conditions now may well be different — and the question 
is this: For the record, did you, before you left Havana in Decem- 
ber of 1960, have any observation as to whether or not medical facil- 
ities, treatment, were uniformly applied or whether those who were 
avowed Castro friends would have better treatment and, if the con- 
ditions at that time were such that there was a difference between 
the two, or did they all become avowed, or even make-believe Com- 
munists ? 

Do you have any observations on that ? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, as I was working in my particular field, and 
in that particular clinic only, I have not that point of view. I think 
that we were having same kind of treatment to everyone in our place, 
at that time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Dr. Martha Frayde publicly known as a Com- 
munist at the time you left Cuba in December of 1960? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. So that was the general opinion of everyone 
there. 

Mr. Moulder. Any more questions ? 

Mr. Bruce. I have questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Bi-uce. 

Mr. Bruce. On this point that you referred to just a moment ago, 
where you said in your particular work, there was no discrimination, 
as it were, as far as the use of medical supplies. Now, yours was 
a private clinic ; am I correct ? 

Dr. Tremols. It was a private clinic ; private hospital. 

Mr. Bruce. To your knowledge, are the private hospitals still op- 
erating, or are they all under the government now ? 

Dr. Tremols. Well, after I left, I knew that every hospital, private 
or not, is in government control. 

Mr. Bruce. I see. 

Dr. Tremols. They were socialized. 

Mr. Bruce. And at the time you were in Cuba, the government 
hospitals were definitely under the control of the Communist regime ? 

Dr. Tremols. Everything under the government regime; govern- 
ment care. 

Mr. Bruce. And since that time, the type of operation in which 
you were working, private clinic, has also been nationalized? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask Just one question ? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. Doctor, was any of your property, personal property, 
taken over by the Castro regime ? 

Dr. Tremols. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Confiscated ? 

Dr. Tremols. It was. 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you, for the record — W^e call that con- 
demnation here and we value the property and pay for it — Were you 
paid for your property ? 

Dr. Tremols. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What was the nature of your property that was taken 
over? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1997 

Dr. Tremols. Well, it was my private office, and real estate, and 
my clinic. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Moulder. Doctor, you are excused as a witness, and we want 
to express our latitude and appreciation for your appearance and 
cooperation with the committee in giving the testimony which you 
have. 

Thank you very much. 

The committee will stand in recess for a period of 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Moulder, The committee will come to order, please. 

The Chair has a vei'y important announcement to make. 

After hearing the testimony of the two doctors — I am sure you will 
agree this is important — the committee has another witness who has 
arrived in the ITnited States within the past several months. His 
familj'^ remains in Cuba, and for fear of retribution, reprisals against 
his family, and endangering their safety and life, he requests permis- 
sion to appear before the committee in disguise with a mask. 

The committee has decided to hear this witness under these condi- 
tions, and the terms as requested by him. He is a doctor that practiced 
in Cuba and is in a position to give the committee valuable informa- 
tion pertaining to the subject under investigation. 

Would you Be sworn as a witness ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Dr. X. I do, sir, 

Mr. Moulder. All right. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. X 

Mr. NiTTLE, Wliere were you born ? 

Dr. X. In Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been a resident of Cuba until recently ? 

Dr. X. I abandoned my country within the last year. 

Mr. NiTTi^. You left your country within the last vear. 

Dr. X. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been in the United States since that time? 

Dr. X. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTi^. A^Hiat was your profession in Cuba ? 

Dr. X. Medical doctor. 

Mr. Nim^E. How long have you practiced your profession as such ? 

Dr. X. Roughly, 10 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Dr. Martha Frayde in Cuba? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere did she practice medicine? 

Dr. X. Well, she used to practice medicine in Havana; then she 
is taking care as the director of the National Hospital in Havana. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her personally ? 

Dr. X. No ; I didn't meet her personally, but everybody knows her 
in Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is Dr. Martha Frayde publicly known as a Commu- 
nist in Cuba ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long has she been publicly known as such '? 



1998 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Dr. X. Well, I knew it after Castro took the government. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will yon tell us what your experience has been in the 
conduct of your profession in Cuba since Castro came to power? 

Dr. X. Would you like to particularize a little bit the question, sir ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Has there been any shortage of medical supplies in Cuba ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what cause do you attribute the shortage ? 

Dr. X. Almost all the supplies we had in Cuba was coming from 
the United States and some Europe-owned laboratories, and I think 
they can't afford to buy the amounts they used to have before. And, as 
a matter of fact, I don't think Russia is prepared to give all the medi- 
cines, not in quantity, but in quality, that we are used to, to work 
with. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were American medical supplies being received in 
Cuba up until the time you left Cuba ? 

Dr. X. Yes, but there were very few. I mean, we didn't see too 
much in the last months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the medical supplies identified as coming from 
the United States ? 

Dr. X. Yes. But there were some that were labeled from socialist 
countries, and the tablets had the name of the American labs. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now I am sorry, Mr. Nittle. What was it ? I didn't 
get that answer. Could the reporter read it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you read that, please ? 

(The reporter read the answer as requested.) 

Mr. Moulder. Now, while we are interrupting the course of your 
testimony, I would like counsel to interrogate the witness to give an 
explanation as to why he appears in disguise on the witness stand. 

Mr. Willis. Well, he has a family. 

Mr. Moulder. About his family, and the reasons for appearing in 
a mask before the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ^Yhy are you appearing in a mask here today ? ' 

Dr. X. Because I have relatives in Cuba, and I am afraid that they 
might be hurt on account of my declarations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us what you know about the Hospital 
Nacional ? 

Dr. X. Well, the Hospital Nacional was built under Batista gov- 
ernment, and then when Castro came, he finished some details, you 
know, construction details, little, and then he didn't open the hospital 
for 1 year after, presuming that the people would think that it was 
one of the Castro programs in health, you know. 

And, as a matter of fact, all the equipment that this hospital has, 
which is very beautiful, is British equipment, and was bought before 
Castro came in. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask a question ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. To your personal knowledge, if you have any, were 
private hospitals taken over and operated by the Castro regime? 

Dr. X, Yes, sir. Most all of them. I think today — t don't think 
there is any private hospital in Cuba. I don't know it, but as things 
were going, almost all the good clinics — we call "clinics" the private 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 1999 

hospitals over there — were taken by the government, from one reason 
and another, from one excuse and another. 

One of the things tliey did is that the medical supplies they give 
them only a short amount, so they couldn't be able to work and 
make good medicine, because they didn't have enough supply to at- 
tend their patients. Almost all the supplies were kept by the gov- 
ernment, through a council that they call the Consolidated of the 
Pharmacy, and they distributed to the government-owned hospitals. 

Mr. Willis. Now, answer this if you care to, and don't, if you 
think it would be to your detriment. 

Was any of your property taken over by the Castro regime ? 

Dr. X. Well, not my property. Every property of a doctor who 
goes out of Cuba and stays in the United States is taken by the 
Public Health Department. My office, my books, my house, and they 
got my car, too. They take all these things when anyone leaves. 

Mr. Willis. Were you paid for the property they took over ? 

Dr. X. I beg your pardon, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. Did they pay you for the property they took over? 

Dr. X. No, sir, and even if they paid me, what can I do with the 
money I would not be able to take with me. 

Mr, NiTTi.E. Now, you were, of course, in Havana at the time of 
the Bay of Pigs invasion ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. April 17, 1961. 

D;:-. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what your experience was at that 
time? 

Dr. X. I want to tell you that the things I am telling you, I am 
100 percent sure that are true. I am not going to make any statement 
that I don't know. The only two facts that I can tell you are these : 
All the drug stores were prohibited to sell first-aid materials, like 
gauze, antiseptics, and bandaids, and all that, during those days, 
because that it was the only way that they could control. If a man 
of the underground is wounded, he had no choice ; he has to go to a 
hospital, because, you know, no other doctor would be able to cure 
him, you know, in a house, or something like that. 

And during those days a doctor, a Communist doctor, was trying to 
indoctrinate a doctor I know, and the words that he said to him was 
actually this: "Now the Marines are going to come, and with their 
own bayonets are going to put it into the belly of the pregnant 
womans." 

r don't give the name of the doctor, because of the security risks for 
myself. 

That is the only thing I can tell you about the Bay of Pigs. 

Mr. NiTPLE. Is the Cuban Red Cross under government control ? 

Dr. X. A hundred percent, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who is in charge of the Cuban branch of the Red Cross ? 

Dr. X. By the time I abandoned my country, was doctor who used 
to be In the hills with Raul Castro, by the time I abandoned. I don't 
know exactly now. 



2000 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. ScHERER. Doctor, do you remember the year they started to 
build this new National Hospital which you say was opened after 
Castro took over? 

Dr. X. I don't remember exactly, because I was not in Havana by 
that time, but I think it was around 1% or 2 years before Castro, back 
in 1956, or something like that. I am not quite sure of that, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Doctor, would you consider from your experience the 
control of medical supplies by the Government of Cuba as a weapon of 
political warfare ? 

Dr. X. Would you like to explain a little bit the question ? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. To bring in line those who were not in sympathy 
with the Castro regime by withholding medical supplies, by the con- 
trol, and what you already said, of forcing them to go to the hospitals 
instead of having private practice. 

Dr. X. "Well, sir, in Cuba, the private practice was very low when I 
got out of there, and, as a matter of fact, people who were belonging 
to private clinics, they had to go to the hospitals because that was 
the only way they could be able to have medicine. 

Mr. Bruce. Well, under the conditions at the time you left Cuba, 
any medical supplies coming in to a government hospital would be 
under the absolute control of the Communist government, would thev 
not? 

Dr. X. Sir, all the medical supplies that come to Cuba are under 
the government. All of them, because they have a Consolidated — they 
have an office called the Consolidated of the Pharmacy, that rules out 
all those things. 

Mr. Bruce. Then if a group, for instance, in the United States, were 
to send medical supplies to the National Hospital, they would be dis- 
tributed and controlled by the Cuban Government? 

Dr. X. Yes, and probably they were used only in the National Hos- 
pital. That is my personal opinion. 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. 

Mr, Nittle. Have you performed surgery in the hospitals in Cuba ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. And you are a surgeon ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you relate the circumstances under which you per- 
formed your duties there ? 

Dr. X. Well, as a matter of fact, there was only one circumstance 
that I had to operate with a female militiawoman into the operation 
with a gim, because they were afraid that I might do any sabotage 
into an operation, which is one of the most — I don't know. I don't 
know how they can think that a surgeon can do sabotage in an opera- 
tion, you know, but they think. 

Mr. Willis. Are you saying that while performing an operation 
you were under the surveillance of someone in effect representing the 
government ? 

Dr. X. I was ; in the operation room. 

Mr. Scherer. You used the word "militiawoman." Did you use 
that word? 

Dr. X. "Militia" is called the army that Castro founded in the be- 
ginning. 

Mr. Scherer. And you said in performing the surgical operations? 

Dr. X. I beg your pardon. Only once ; once only, I had to operate 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2001 

with a female guard with a gun into the operation room, which is 
against all the laws of, you know, antiseptics. 

Mr. Willis. Against all the ethics of the profession ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Do you have any knowledge as to how doctors are 
now trained in Cuba? Formerly many doctors have come to the 
United States for training. Where are they trained now ? 

Dr. X. They have now a plan to double up surgeons in 6 months. 
I mean they have a Junta doctor that puts them to work for 6 months 
with other doctors and after that they think they can undertake any 
kind of surgical operations. I cannot tell the name of the hospital for 
security reasons, but that's the information I got from Miami 2 or 3 
months ago. It wasn't at the time I was in Cuba. 

Mr. NiiTi.E. You have found recently that American medicines 
have been misbranded and misrepresented as coming from Iron Cur- 
tain countries, is that correct ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir, once we saw that. 

Mr. Moulder. Probably you sliould explain that a little. You 
mean that medicines were actually originating from other countries 
and were branded as having come from the United States? 

Dr. X. Xo, sir. 

Mr. Willis. The reverse. 

Mr. Moulder. That is what I didn't understand. 

Dr. X. I think they bought in the common market medical sup- 
plies from the United States companies and then put it into cases as 
made in Czechoslovakia or made in Poland, and all that, but when you 
get the tablets you can see really that there were the names of Lederle 
and Sharp & Dohme and, you know, those classical laboratories we 
have here. That only happened once. 

Mr. Moulder. You mean you observed it only once ? 

Dr. X. I observed it myself once. 

Mr. Moulder. You don't know how many times it has happened. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is treatment administered in Cuban hospitals upon a 
]X)litical basis to your knowledge ? 

Dr. X. At the time I was in Cuba, I didn't see anything about that, 
sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the occasion for a female guard overseeing 
the performance of surgery ? Did they attend all surgeons, or only 
surgeons that were not known to be members of the Communist Party? 

Dr. X. Well, at that time in the operation room was every time one 
female guard, even with the sympathetic or without a sympathetic. 
They don't trust anyone, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Cliairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. I would suggest that testimony that is pertinent to our 
investigation on the subject matter has been pretty well covered by 
this witness and any further details that might lead into other areas, 
1 .would suggest might be taken, for the protection of the witness in 
executive hearing at a later time, but I think it might be well to briefly 
summarize here for the concurrence of the witness the testimony that 
has been given. 

All medical facilities in Cuba at the time you left were rapidly, 
if not completely, being brought under government ownership and 
control ? 



2002 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Dr.X. Yes, sir. 

i\Ir. Bruce. The medical supplies that were coming into Cuba were 
coming: under direct government control ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. The medical supplies that were coming in from the 
LTnited States were being in great extent packaged under the labels 
of other countries ? 

Dr.X. No. 

]Mr. Bruce. Under the packaging of other countries ? 

Dr. X. No, it only happened once, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. But it did happen ? 

Dr. X. It did happen and I saw it. 

Mr. Bruce. That they were putting it under the label of other 
countries ? 

Dr. X. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Socialist countries, in other words ? 

Dr. X. Yes, Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Bruce. And any medical supplies, to your knowledge, that 
would be coming in under the existing regime from the United States 
today would be going into the hands of the government itself for dis- 
tribution and control ? 

Dr. X. Oh, sure, completely sure of that. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you very much. 

Dr. X. You are welcome. 

Mr. Moulder. I have this one question. Do you have any knowl- 
edge or information concerning any medical supplies coming from 
the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee? 

Dr. X. No, sir; just as I read in the paper. That's the first in- 
formation I had. 

Mr. ]\Ioulder. So far as you know as a doctor, you never saw or 
received or had use of such medical supplies ? 

Dr. X. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know of any doctor who did receive or had 
use of such medical supplies? 

Dr. X. No, not at the moment, sir. I could search for that. 

Mr. Moulder. The point I am trying to make is that all such medi- 
cal supplies received from the Medical Aid to Cuba (^ommittee prob- 
ably went to this hospital and the government used it for its own 
political purposes. 

Dr. X. Well, you see, they had a good hospital and it is without 
medicines, a bad thing, but if they have medicines in the best hospital 
that would give them a political support in the order of the program 
of health and all that. 

Mr. Moulder, Of the Communist regime ? 

Dr. X. Oh, sure, positive, 

Mr. Moulder. Any further questions ? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

]Mr. Moulder. You are excused for the present time as a witness. 
We certainly thank you for your testimony and appearance before 
the committee. 

Dr.X. Okay. 

Mr. Moulder. Doctor, thank you very much. 

(Witness excused.) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2003 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Leo Huberman. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Huberman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEO HTJBEEMAH, ACCOMPAIOED BY COUNSEL, 
EPHRAIM LONDON 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Huberman. My name is Leo Huberman. I live at 66 Barrow 
St., New York 14, N.Y. 

]Mr. N1TT1.E. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. London. My name is Ephraim London. Address is 1 East 
44th St., New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Huberman ? 

Mr. Huberman. October 17, 1903, Newark, N.J. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. Huberman. I went to schools in Newark, graduate of the 
Newark State Normal School and a graduate of New York Univer- 
sity, where I hold a bachelor's and master's degree, spent a year of 
study at the London School of Economics, taught in grade school 
and college. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that you are the provisional chairman 
of an organization known as the Friends of British Guiana. Are you 
presently serving as the chairman of the Friends of British Guiana? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I shall have to refuse to answer that question. I 
am invoking the fifth amendment, but I wish to make clear that I am 
doing so only with respect to a limited subject, because of the existence 
of certain statutes appearing to make criminal, activity that is com- 
pletely innocent, performed publicly and openly. 

I may add that I have not been guilty of conduct of which I feel, 
or have any reason to feel, ashamed or guilty. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of an item which appeared in the 
Monthly Review^ the May 1962 issue, described as an advertise- 
ment, bearing the title "For hick of a shoe the war was lost. Will 
British Guiana's Independence Be Delayed For Want of a Daily 
Paper?" 

The advertisement bears the name "Leo Huberman, Provisional 
Chairman, Friends of British Guiana. Please make checks payable 
to Marcia Rabinowitz, Treasurer, Box 544, Cooper Station, New York 
3." 

Are you the Leo Huberman whose name appears as the provi- 
sional chairman of the Friends of British Guiana? 

Mr. Huberman. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 1" follows :) 



2004 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 1 
[Monthly Review, May 1962] 



"For latk of 4 fhot tkt ut^r moi lost 

WUI Britith Guiana's 

kid9p% nd mH» B% Delayed 

For Want el a Daily Paper? 

BhiUJi OitUtui'i tHrM 4«iJy p«pef« «re tMtUrly Hostile to Um J«ffMi 

Xw So te UM un%U radio tution. Dr Jac4fi't tWCfd guvemflBcat 
upoa oivf crwHdy prinied, loully iji«d*-«|u*t« we«k)y p«pei u> 
eftpUin its poailMM ta (ho pcnpio, ond ihua lh« hew budget, dett^itoti 
U> 4«v«k»p o ImMvm imdxtmry «nd l« r»i« rhc luodord u/ hviiif, wo* 
armailr modt l» opve*' o ••ey ba«^w*»d b> ih# omi >ad«y* n d oaM 

A |*»l(l«o«l iiie«vm#t I or tovernuM o< wulutut thr nt0mn$ li> rutivry 
Hi f»ri)«i«M 10 ^k» hroAdMl moMrt of thv prtipio «tf»#r*i«a uitdvr « 
•owto luuidte^ f rWndi ol Kriiiih (itUaiui In thU rouiHry h«v« or 
conlinfly (|MenMia#d tt» prnviiU TV jofOJi'i mo¥«tti»oi. lh« PoopU'i 
FiTDifvMivo INlly, Willi « tinotype mot hino, phototnf raving oquipeioat. 
And othvt oMtiiliAl printtnff moiiiiAfry lo oeoK)* it to moot il« Im- 
pertonc palitirol oKJigotioM 

W« Iav4lt MA iTodcn lo jiia in ranking • d<>morrotir doily n«w«- 
pop«r pearfMa for tkcoe rmKoittod fri^ndi of droMH-rory. Only • frw 
tlwitMoad deHoiv m« nc^drd, port of %irhiHi hot aJrendy been mioed. 
A ciiloiiWn ho* be^n formed 10 fiw the campoifn o final p««h fioip 
if yoii 



Wfttnil ol Bfitifk Cmj^m. 



MoMt Bufcc dtockt povable to MA&CIAjLA|12^>Wr^, 
TMMirer, Bo> 544, Cooyer [>Utoon. Ne w IkA 5 

(od»frlu#fntfolj 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2005 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huberman, that advertisement appears in a maga- 
zine which I have named as the Monthly Review. You are in fact 
the Leo Huberman who is the editor of that magazine, are you not? 
Mr. Huberman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are a coeditor of the Monthly Review together 
with a Paul M. Sweezy ? 
Mr. Huberman. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On the cover of that magazine I believe you have 
caused a statement to be published, "An Independent Socialist Maga- 
zine." Is that correct ? 

Mr. Huberman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I believe the expression "socialist" has been vari- 
ously used. Soviet commentators have used it as synonymous with 
"Communist." On the other hand, Norman Thomas describes himself 
as a Socialist. I don't suppose that you wish to elaborate u^on the 
meaning which you impute to the word "socialist" in describmg the 
character of your magazine, do you ? 

Mr. Huberman. I have been a teacher, writer, and editor all of my 
mature life. What I believe is contained in my books and articles; 
what I have done, stems from those beliefs. I have openly proclaimed 
myself against the existing economic order. The books and articles I 
have written, the speeches I have made, leave no room for doubt on 
that score. Our magazine, as you have stated, carries on its masthead 
"An Independent Socialist Magazine." That is what I am, an in- 
dependent Socialist, and the definition is our own. You could get 
from a reading of our magazine — I think the committee is a sub- 
scriber, I am not certain — you could get from a reading of our maga- 
zine exactly what we mean by socialist. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask if you are registered under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I shall refuse to answer that question for the same 
reason I gave before. 

Mr. Willis. May I make a statement ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I should say to you, sir, that we are not charging that 
any particular organization not presently registered should be regis- 
tered. One of the objectives of these hearings is to look into the act, 
its wording, and to consider whether it should be expanded, modified, 
and amended. That is the purpose of these hearings. I think that 
should be put in context at this point. 

I am not asking a question. I made that statement for the record. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. You have told us that the magazine is a socialist 
magazine. Is it something more than a socialist magazine ? 

Mr. Huberman. I don't know how I could answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way. Do you recall testifying before 
the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate 
Committee on Government Operations on July 14, 1953 ? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. At that time Senator Mundt put the question to you : 
"You are a Marxist and a Socialist?" To which the record indicates 
you replied : "That is right." 

You further testified : "Yes ; I am a Marxist and a Socialist." 

Mr. Huberman. That's correct. 



2006 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe yourself as a Marxist-Leninist ? 

Mr. HUBERMAN. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Out of my own personal curiosity, I would like to — 
I am sorry, you may confer with your counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I would like to, in reply to that question, answer 
as I did before that committee. "Yes; I am a Marxist and a Socialist, 
and like millions of other non-Communists throughout the world, I 
believe in working, together with others, including Communists, to 
the extent that their aims and methods coincide with mine." 

Mr. Moulder. That, I think, answers my question I was about to ask 
you, if you were a member of the Communist Party or if you are 
a Commimist. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. And you are not a Communist ? 

Mr. Huberman. And I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you ever been a Communist ? 

Mr. Huberman. Never. I have never been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you agree with all the Communist philosophy and 
aims of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Huberman. I certainly do not agree with all of the aims and 
philosophy. I am an independent Marxist-Socialist. 

Mr. Moulder. And for reasons that you state, you are not compelled 
to register then as a Communist in this country ; is that it ? 

Mr. Willis. He didn't answer that question. He invoked the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment on that particular question. 

Mr. Moulder. Not this 

Mr. Willis (interrupting). Yes. I may have misunderstood the 
context. I thought you had been asked 

Mr. Moulder (continuing). On the Foreign Registration Act. 

Mr. Willis. I am sorry. 

Mr. Moulder. My point is that there are people in this country who 
are Communists who have escaped the provisions of the law requiring 
registration by stating that they are not an active member of the Com- 
munist Party, but are actually Communists. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yesterday, Mr. Huberman, the committee interrogated 
Mrs. Melitta del Villar, who appeared as chairman of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee. It was then pointed out that the March 
1962 issue of your magazine editorialized upon the formation of the 
Medical iVid to Cuba Committee. (See del Villar Exhibit No. 4, 
pp. 1871, 1872.) I asked Mrs. del Villar whether she had solicited 
the Monthly Revieio to call attention to this fact. Perhaps you will 
tell us tlie circumstances under which that article appeared in your 
magazine. 

Mr. Huberman. It wasn't an article, was it, sir? 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Editorial, I would say. 

Mr. Huberman. You mean notes from the editors ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Huberman. Well, we ^<ii across our desk a number of press re- 
leases about various committees, organizations, funds, whatever, and 
from time to time when we have room and agree with the purposes of 
whatever the committee or whatever it is, we might write a little note 
about it. I think that's probably what happened in this instance. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2007 

Mr. NittijE. Do you know Mrs. del Villar ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long: have you known her ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I can't remember exactly. A couple of years, I 
would say. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Medical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you require any compensation from the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee for the editorial note relating to that organi- 
zation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. We do not receive compensation for any of what 
you are calling editorial notes at any time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, was your interest in publishing that editorial 
note on the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee related to your pur- 
pose as a Socialist to solidify the Communist rule of Castro in Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. My motives in running that little note were purely 
humanitarian, in line with the aims of the committee as I understand 
it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it published in line with the aims of the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. The committee, as I understand it, was a commit- 
tee designed to send medicine to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. You have just read to us from your own testi- 
mony before the Senate subcommittee in which you confirmed your 
willingness to associate youreelf with Communists to the extent that 
their aims and methods coincided with your own. Did you know 
Sidney J. Gluck of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I may have known him. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know him or don't you know him ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I can't be sure. I think I may have met him 
somehow. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You may have met him sometime ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Sidney J. Gluck to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I do not. 

Mr. NiT^n.E. Have you ever known him to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. HuBEKMAN. 1 liave not. 

JVIr. Moulder. Do you know him to be a person who is a follower and 
promoter of the Communist cause in this country ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I have no way of knowing that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Dr. Louis Miller, the medical director of 
the Medical Aid to Cubr Committee? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I have met him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Dr. Louis Miller ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I don't know, maybe a year or so. 

Mr. NittIjE. Might it have been longer than a year?. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I don't think so. It may have been but I don't 
remember. 



2008 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call your attention to the fact that the May 22, 1961, 
issue of the National Guardian carried a calendar of events on page 
11, settino- forth tluit tlie Monthly Kevie^\• Associates of 333 Sixth 
Ave., New York City, extended a general invitation to hear "The 
Truth About Cuba, An Eyewitness Report by Leo Huberman who was 
on the scene when the invasion occurred,"' and announcing that one of 
the guests was Melitta del Villar. (See del Villar Exhibit No. 4-A, 
p. 1875.) Did you speak on that occasion ? 

Mr. HiTBEKMAN. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In extending assistance to the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee you have described your interest as purely humanitarian, 
because it is the ostensible purpose of that committee to supply 
medical assistance to Cuba; is that right? 

Mr. Huberman. I think so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With respect to your appearance in Cuba and having 
participated as an eyewitness to the invasion, which occurred, I be- 
lieve, in April 1961, what were your motives then? 

Mr. Huberman. I am coeditor of a magazine, my motive was to 
see what was going to happen in Cuba. I was also enroute to a lecture 
engagement in Jamaica, and on the way to Jamaica I was stopping off 
in Cuba for the purpose of seeing again the Cuban scene and reporting 
on it. 

Mr. NiTn.E. What was your motive, on the other hand, in having 
your publisher, Monthly Review Associates, extend invitations to the 
public to hear your story about the invasion ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I wanted as many people as I could reach to hear 
what I liad to say about Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your action in that respect for the purpose of 
conducting political propaganda favorable to the advancement and 
solidification of the Communist regime in Cuba ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Huberman. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say it was not ? 

Mr. Huberman. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it your purpose to speak on that occasion for the 
purpose of assisting in the destruction of the Cuban Communist 
regime ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Certainly not. My purpose was to report what I 
had observed as a journalist, as I stated before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I again refer to Huberman Exhibit No. 1, the advertise- 
ment in your magazine, Monthly Review^ which carries a request for 
funds for the purpose of obtaining printing machinery for Cheddi 
Jagan's government in British Guiana. The exhibit is described in 
your magazine as an advertisement. Was it an advertisement? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Yes, it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio paid for the advertisement, if anyone? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I shall refuse to answer that question on the same 
ground as I did before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Beg pardon ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2009 

Mr. HuBERMAN, I shall refuse to answer that question on the same 
ground I stated before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what grounds ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Grounds of the fifth amendment and whatever else 
went with it. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Are you the owner of Monthly Review Associates, the 
publisher of Monthly Review^ which lists you as the editor? 

( Wit ness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Htjberman. Monthly Review is a corporation of which I am a 
stockholder. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the sole stockholder ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No. There are three stockholders. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who are the stockholders? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. The other two are the coeditor, Paul Sweezy, 
and Sybil H. May. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Monthly Review Associates participate in 
the direction and control of the Friends of British Guiana? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. The Monthly Review Associates has nothing to do 
with any other organization other than Monthly Reviem. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement which appears in your magazine 
asks that checks be made payable to Marcia Rabinowitz, Treasurer, 
Box 544, Cooper Station, New York 3. I assume that you know 
Marcia Rabinowitz. Is Marcia Rabinowitz the treasurer of the 
Friends of British Guiana? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I shall refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Marcia Rabinowitz ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known her ? 

(Wtiness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I really don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know her husband, Victor Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Victor Rabinowitz? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Oh, maybe over 20 years. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, since it is almost 12 o'clock I suggest 
that the committee recess until 1 :30 or 2 p.m., at your discretion, and 
continue the interrogation at that time. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30 and 
the witness will be recalled at that time. 

(Committee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Moulder, Willis, Scherer, and Bruce.) 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 55 a.m., Thursday, November 15, 1962, the hear- 
ings were recessed to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m. of the same day.) 

21-206 0-63— pt. 2—5 



2010 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMJVIUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 1962 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :30 p.m., with Hon. Edwin E. 
Willis presiding.) 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis and 
Gordon H. Scherer. ^ 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel, you may proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF LEO HTJBERMAN— Resumed 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Pluberman, would you kindly tell the committee 
when the organization. Friends of British Guiana, was formed and 
for what purpose was it formed ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I am invoking the fifth amendment, but I wish 
to make clear that I am doing so only with respect to a limited sub- 
ject because of the existence of certain statutes appearing to make 
criminal, activity that is completely innocent, performed publicly 
and openly. 

I may add that I have not been guilty of conduct of which I 
feel '- 

Mr. Willis. Let me say this. 

We very much respect anyone's right and we cherish the right to 
the invocation of the fifth amendment, but now you come here and you 
talk about statutes making something appear criminal. 

A criminal statute is within the very Constitution that you invoke. 
It doesn't make anything appear. That is it. That is the law. Un- 
less you explain that, I do not see much sense in your opening 
statement. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

(At this point Mr. Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. May I answer that. Congressman Willis? 

Mr. Willis. It is not a question. It is a statement. I think we 
should proceed. The foundation you are seeking to make is without 
substance, and I suggest that counsel proceed with the next question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I think that the committee itself has made it clear 
that the statute is quite vague. 

Mr. Willis. You did not even talk about the statute you are talk- 
ing about. You were asked a question and you invoked the fifth 
amendment. That is based on the Constitution. The Constitution 
itself is quite clear, that to invoke it you must fear that it might sub- 
ject you to criminal prosecution. 

I am not stopping you from an answer, but you invoked the statute 
and then, in connection with that statute, you talk about a criminal 
law that makes something appear not lawful and you do not even 
admit that statute itself is constitutional. That does not impress me, 
but if you want to devote 2 minutes to your subject it is all right 
with me. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2011 

Chairman Moulder is present now. 

(Witness conferred witli counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You understand I did not deny you the right to the 
statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of page 4 of the National Guardian 
of April 23, 1962, and direct your attention to an item designated 
"Advertisement'' and on which appeal's your name, Leo Huberman, 
provisional chairman, Friends of British Guiana. The item states 
m part : 

In a recent Guardian interview Janet .Tagan, wife of tlie Prime Minister of 
British Guiana, declared that one of the chief reasons for the February riots 
in Georgetown was the government's lack of a daily paper to explain its new 
budget to the people. 

Friends of British Guiana in this country have accordingly determined to 
provide Dr. Jagan's movement, the People's Progressive Party, with a linotyjie 
machine, photoengraving equipment, and other essential printing machinery to 
enable it to meet its important political obligations. 

We invite all Guardian readers to join in making a democratic daily news- 
paper possible for these embattled friends of democracy. Only a few thousand 
dollars are needed, part of which has already been raised. A committee has 
been formed to give the campaign a final push. Help if you can. 

Then your name appears as provisional chairman and below that 
the statement: 

Please make checks payable to Marcia G. Rabinowitz, Treasurer, Box 544, 
Cooper Station, New York 3. 

Was this organization formed for the purpose set forth in this 
advertisement? 

Mr. Huberman. You asked before, earlier, if that was my name on 
the ad, and I refused to answer the question and I refuse again on 
the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 2'' follows:) 



2012 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 2 

[National Guardian, April 23, 1962, p. 4] 

ADVERTISEMENT 



"fmr Imek •/ a tthnt . ..the umr was lost ..." 

WiU British Guiana's 

Independence Be Delayed 

For Want of a Daily Pai)er? 

I.N A KECENT (Guardian interview Janet Jaigan, wit« ul 
the frimc Minister of British Cuiana, declared that one 
of the chief reasons for the February riot- m (ieorgetown 
»as the government !. lark of a daily paper to explain its new 
liiidKct to tlM- peopli British Guiana's three daily piipors 
are bitter!) hostile to the Jagan regime. So is the single 
radio station. Dr. Jafan'i elected government relies upon 
one crudely ^iated, totally inadequate weekly papor to ex- 
plain its pMlti«« to the people, and thu« the new budget, de- 
signed to develop ■ home iadustry and to raise the standard 
of li>inf. waa actually made to appear a *tep backward by 
the aati-independence, reactionary opposition. 

A polilwal movemrni 'ir government without the 
• •••Hns to coBvrv itit prugram i« the broadest masses of lh«; 
peop'r nperatei> under .1 severe handicap. Surh a handicap 
IK • -(>' >ally critical U» x (overnment whoi>e Ruals are dem- 
ocratic Micialism and independence from colonial ties. 
Thnurh th<> eapiilqtixn of British Guiana is small bareb 
MNi,<Mm It* pracetui ,<>uKreM toward ihcse goals is vital 
to the freedom and independence of all Sooth America. Not 
"for want of a nail" should the Guianese battle again>t 
l>»<ert> lAd foreixn dominalivn he lout. 

Friends of British Guiana in this country have accord- 
taifly determined to provide Dr. Jagan's movement, the 
Peaple'g Progressive Party, with a linotype machine, pho- 
t oea g r a ving equipment, and other essential printing ma- 
chinery to enable it tu meet its important political obliga- 
tions. 



Guardian readers and the citizens of Guiana have spe- 
cial ties. Tke Gnardian Library, founded in 1955 with thou- 
sands of books seat by readers in response to Mrs. Jagan's 
appeal, is flourishing in Freedom House, PPP headquar- 
ters. Readers will remember too that Prime Minister Jag- 
an was gvest of honor at the l%n Guardian banquet in 
.\ew York. 

We invite all t.uurdiun roa(k'r> to join in inukiiig a 
democratic daily newspaper po-silde for these enibattleil 
triends of democracy. Only a few thousand dollars are 
needed, part of which has alrendv been raised. A committee 
has been formed to give the canipaifrn a final push. Help if 
• "ii can. 

LEO HUBERM.W. Proiinional Cliairmaii. 
Friendn of British (iuiatia 

r .M m»ka ehackt payktt to MARCIA C. RABINOWITZ. 
T. -••»»>•' toi 544 Cooptr Station, Now Yoffc 3 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2013 

Mr. Willis. Let me see that ad. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I have that ? 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us the exact date when this organization 
was formed? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. One of the earliest indications of the alleged require- 
ments of Cheddi Jagan's People's Progressive Party for acquisition 
of printing equipment appeared in the February 26, 1962 issue of the 
National Guardian at page 8 in an article entitled, "The Facts Beliind 
the Colony's Turmoil. Guiana Rightist riots no surprise to Jagan," 

I hand you a copy of that article. The article appears, as you will 
note, under the byline of Victor Rabinowitz, whom I believe you have 
already identified as the husband of Marcia Rabinowitz, who is 
named as the treasurer of tlie Friends of British Guiana. 

Mr. HuBERMAx. I don't think, sir, that I identified him. You 
asked me if I knew him, and I said I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am sorry. 

Let me ask you now. Do you know Marcia Rabinowitz to be the 
wife of Victor Rabinowitz ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your answer was yes, I believe. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Natioiml Guardian states that Victor Rabinowitz : 

The author of this article is a prominent New York attorney who has closely 
followed events in Latin America for several years. He returned after a stay 
of several days in British Guiana just before the genei'al strike. 

In the article Mr. Rabinowitz states in part : 

Two things are urgently required if the government — 

referring, of course, to the Government of British Guiana — 

is to carry out its program successfully: (1) a daily newspaper capable of 
countering the opposition's propaganda machine, and (2) a body of trained 
political leaders to explain the program to the people being misled by the govern- 
ment's enemies. 

Now, did you have occasion to discuss with Victor Rabinowitz the 
urgent requirements to which he refers in this article? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 3" appears on pp. 
2014-2016.) 



2014 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 3 
[National Guardian, Feb. 26, 1962, p. 3] 



THE FACTS BEHIND TH€ COLO NY^ TURMOtt 

. , — ^ — -^— 

Gu iana Righ list riots 
no surprise to Jagan 

By Victor Rabinowitz 

"We are facing the issue of whether it t« possible for a nation to adopt 
a socialist form of government through peaceful and democratic methods. There 
are those who say that this is impossible — that the capitalists — the millionaires — 
will use force to overthrow any government which seeks to adopt socialism 
by parliamentary means. We will now see whether that is so." 

Force Party, led by D'Aguiar. which had 



THUS SPOKE Dr. Cheddi Jagan, Prime 
Minister of British Guiana, in a 
radio broadcast in Georgetown Feb. 6. 
Hlfi speech was designed to explain to 
the people of British Guiana the mean- 
ing and purpose of the budget his gov- 
ernment had just introduced. 

His words were prophetic. Even as he 
spoke, the right-wing United Force Party 
was whipping the people of Georgetown 
into a frenzy. Led by Peter D'Aguiar, a 
millionaire brewery owner who also owns 
the principal newspaper in the country, 
crowds roamed the streets with placards 
attacking the government and the bud- 
get it had introduced a few days earlier. 
A general strike was called for Feb. 12 
and for several days that followed, the 
capital city wa.s paralyzed. 

Dr. Jagan's People's Progressive Party 
had won the election of August, 1961, on 



The author of this article is a prom- 
ient New York attorju'y who has close- 
ly followed events iu Latin America 
for several years. He returned after a 
stay of several days in British Guiana 
just before tlie general strike. 



a platform calling for immediate inde- 
pendence and the establLshment of a 
socialist government. His opposition was 
split between the People's National Con- 
gress, whose support came principally 
from Georgetown and New Amsterdam, 
the second largest city, and the United 



won only four seats in the Legislative 
I Council. 

THE PEOGRAM: The PPP's strength 
lay almost entirely in the rural areas; the 
rice farmers and sugar farmers who 
tnake up the bulk of British Guiana's 
rural population had supported the PPP 
for many years and rallied behind the 
party last August to elect a majority of 
the Legislative Council. 

Immediately after the election the PPP 
proceeded to put Its legislative platform 
into effect. It made an Immediate de- 
mand for Independence and a conference 
later was scheduled for May in London. 
It also proposed a budget designed to 
raise sufficiently large sums to imple- 
ment Dr. Jagan's ambitious development 
and industrial program. 

It was the budget which was the im- 
mediate cause of the cuirent disturb- 
ances. It proposed <1) a thorough -going 
revision of the tax structure of the coun- 
try and <2) several new taxes designed 
not only to raise revenue, but to encour- 
age the consumption of Guiana-made 
products by taxing imports. A capital 
gains tax of 45% was Imposed using 1956 
values as a base. A gift tax equal in rate 
to the existing estate tax was imposed. 
Income taxes were increased. A net worth 
tax on amounts in excess of $50,000 was 
imEKJsed. Excise taxes were increased on 
rum. beer, canned goods, high-priced 
textiles, gasoline and many other items. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2015 



Hi'BERMAN Exhibit No. 3 — (Continued) 



The budgeteer 



this agitation coincided wtih the visit to 
British Guiana of the Duke of Edin- 

LOST IN THE frantic attempt by the burgh. Prince Phihp, which provided the 
Western press to label Guianan occasion for large groups to aflsemble. 
Prime Minister Jagan's budget as com- 



munistic was the fact that the budget 



A TROUBLED CITY: The general strike 



was recommended by economist Nicolas •'•^e** <>" ^»»- "• " Ka'^ered vomen- 
Kaldor, ft fellow of Kings College, Cam- 
bridge. Kaldor had previously drawn up 
tax and revenue plans tor India, Ceylon. 
Mexico and Ghana. His recommenda- 
tions have shocked some people, he said, 
"not iDecause what I sunpMted is radical. 
But in these countries people are not 
used to paying taxes on their true in- 
eooK. My systenki tone them to disclose 
their true hohUncf and earnings." 

The government also proposed a com- 
pulsory savings plan, providing for a 5% 
deduction on all income In excess of 
$1,200 a year for which seven-year bonds, 
paying 3^4% interest, would be issued. 
Wage levels in British Guiana are so low 
that not more than half of the popula- 
tion would have been affected. But this 
fact was obscured in the excitement that 
followed. 

A FASCIST PATTERN: D'Aguiar, whose 
prestige had suffered from his defeat 
in the election, saw the budget as an op- 
portunity to re-establish his leadership 
Strongly backed by the press and an ex- 
pertly managed publicity campaign, he 
launched an attack on the budget dur- 
ing the week of Feb. 5. The techniques 
followed a familiar fascist pattern. His 
impassioned oratory rang with vilifica- 
tion not only of Dr. Jagan, but of his 
wife Janet and his secretary. Jack Kel- 
shall. International communism and the 
Cuban government came in for their 
.share. 

Most of the business community joined 
in the attack. Prices of almost all com- 
modities were sharply increased on the 
excuse that they were now subject to 
new taxes, although the budget had not 
yet been adopted and had not even been 
discussed in the Legislative Council. 
Large newspaper advertisements an- 
nouncing the increase in prices helped to 
inflame the local population. 

An incidental feature was the fact that 




DR. CHEDDI JAGAN 

He expected trouble 

turn in the following two days so that 
by Feb. 14 public transportation came to 
ft halt. All stores were closed and elec- 
tric and water service were only sporadic. 
Most of the nurses in the hospital quit 
and the schools were closed, releasing 
thousands of children to roam the trou- 
bled streets. 

By the night of Feb. 15 the mobs were 
burning and looting property in George- 
town and were completely out of control. 
The goveriunent requested the aid of 
British troops, which were jjwomptly 
flown in from Jamaica. By Feb. 16. order 
had been restored but only after mil- 
lions of dollars of property had been de- 
stroyed. The strike was called oti Feb. 18. 

RIOTS FEARED: The inablUty of the 
Jagan government to cope with the fen- 
eral strike was the result of several fac 
tors. Meet important was that his sup- 



2016 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 3 — (Continued) 





*-<ii3^^ S^t 




^-^M 


\;Ar ^ 


^s:^^ ? 









porters were not brought in from the 
countryside — both because transporta- 
tion of large numbers of persons Is dif- 
ficult in Guiana, and because it was 
feared that the introduction into George- 
town of many East Indian farmers would 
result in serious communal riots with the 
already inflamed Georgetown crowds, 
most of whom were Negro. 

Within Georgetown itself, every daily 
newspaper canled on an unceasing cam- 
paign against the government and the 
budget, and the PPP had no funds with 
which to make effective response. The 
merchants, for the most part, are anti- 
government, and while they had agreed 
to keep their shops open, word was 
passed on that if their employees wanted 
to take time off they would be paid. In 
fact, most of the stores closed down their 
doors a few hours after the strike began. 

A ROUGH FUTURE: The British gov- 
ernment, in sending troops, made it clear 



Drawlog by Bdd 

that it was not expressing any (pinion 
on the merits of the political dispute, but 
was interested primarily in preserving 
' law and order. 

The Jagan government has refused to 
resign, pomting out that it was elected 
in a fair ballot. It said it intended to 
carry out its program. 

There is no doubt that the future will 
be difficult for the PPP. Its supporters 
are among the most impoverished grotips 
in the country. The fact that they are 
scattered in plantations along the coast 
makes it difficult to rally and organize 
them. 

Two things are urgently required if the 
government is to carry out its program 
successfully: (1) a daily newspaper cap- 
able of countering the opposition's prop- 
agaiKla machine, and (2) a body of 
trained political leaders to explain the 
program to the people being misled by 
the government's enemies. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2017 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following the appearance of the above Februaiy 26, 
1962, article by Victor Rabinowitz, there appeared in the Nnfwnal 
Guardian on April 2, 1962, an article under the byline of Joanne 
Grant, titled, "Janet Jagan's story of Guiana riots." I believe you 
have a copy of that article before you. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, we don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will hand you a copy at this point. You will note 
that Janet Jagan is quoted as saying : 

"One of our biggest tasks right now," she said, "is to establish a voice for 
the party to combat the propaganda of the daily commercial press." The PPP 
[People's Progressive Party] plans to establish a daily newspaper soon, but, 
she said, "we need money. We are selling shares in a publishing company to 
establish a progressive daily. Shares range from $5 to $25 British Guiana ($1.70 
BG equals $1 U.S.)." 

(At this point JNIr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

INIr. NiTTLE. This statement, the National Guardian relates, was 
obtained from Mrs. Jagan in a recent interview with the Guardian 
while Mrs. Jagan was in New York to talk with African and Asian 
delegates in the United Nations. 

Did you have occasion to talk to Janet Jagan during her appear- 
ance in New York to which reference is made ? 

(AVitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I don't recall whether the period is the same, but 
we did meet with Janet Jagan and I asked her for an article on what 
happened in British Guiana and she submitted that article to the 
magazine and we printed it. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Did you inform her that you were contemplating or- 
ganizing a group known as the Friends of British Guiana ? 

Mr, HuBERMAN. I refuse again on the same ground. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. i'' appears on pp. 
2018, 2019.) 



2018 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 4 



A^HI 2. tMl 



NATIONAL GUARDIAN 



WtiMIErS WIFE TELLS HOW THE RIGHTISTS STIRRED DISOR DERS 

Janet Jagan's story of Guiana riots 



By Joanne Grant 

JANET JAGAN, wife of Cheddi B Japan, 
Premier of British Guiana, .said in a 
recent Intenrlew with the GUARDIAN 
that an "ur»easy calm exists" in Guiana 
following last month's "general strike" 
and riots, 

Mrs. Jagan was In New York to talk 
with African and Asian delegates to the 
United Nations In an effort to gain sup- 
port for British Guiana's demand for in- 
dependence from Britain. The British 
have scheduled Independence talks for 
May in London. Mrs. Jagan, who is gen- 
eral secretary of British Guiana's ruling 
party, the People's Progressive Party, 
said: "We want independence this year." 
One of the opposition parties, the United 
Force, led by Peter D'Aguiar, Portuguese 
Industrialist, is campaigning against in- 
dependence under a slogan, "Better 
1,000 yrars under the British than inde- 
pendence under Jagan." The other oppo- 
sition party, the People's National Con- 
gress, led by Forbes Burnham, also is ex- 
pected to oppose independence. Mrs. 
Jagan commented: "It is difficult to say 
where Burnham will stand; he shifts his 
position. At the moment he wants a gov- 
ernment elected by proportional repre- 
sentation. He may come all-out against 
independence." 

OVATION IN CANADA: Mrs. Jagan was 
in New York March 15-19 on her way 
home to Georgetown from Canada. She 
had received a standing ovation from 
2,200 at a Canadian Peace Council rally 
where she spoke along with Dr. Willard 
Uphaus and the GUARDIAN'S Kumar 
Goshal. 

Mrs. Jagan held semi-official talks 
on Canadian aid for British Guiana, and 
was welcomed in the Canadian Parlia- 
ment. "I sat in the Speaker's Gallery 
with the Speaker's wife, and when a 
member called attention to my presence 
I received a desk-thumping welcome. My 
talks with Canadian officials were cor- 
dial. We are already receiving a small 
amount of aid from Canada." 

Mrs. Jagan is not a member of the 
■present Guiana government. In the short- 
lived regime headed by her husband in 
1953 before he was deposed by the Brit- 
ish, Mrs. Jagan was deputy speaker of 
the House of Assembly. In the Jagan 
government of 1967 to 1961 Mrs. Jagan 
was Minister of Labor, Health and Hous- 
ir\g. At present she is devoting full tipae 



to her duties as general secretary <A the 
PPP. 

PAPER P1.ANNED: "One of our biggest 
tasks right now," she said, "is to estab- 
lish a voice lor the party to combat the 
propaganda of the daily commercial 




press." The PPP plans to establish a daily 
newspaper soon, but, she said, "we need 
money. We are selling shares in a pub- 
lishing company to establish a progres- 
sive daily. Shares range from $5 to $25 
British Guiana ($1.70 BG equals $1 
U.S.)." 

Mrs. Jagan said the three dailies In 
Georgetown inflamed the population 
duiing the riots last mtmth. She cited an 
article in the Daily Chronicle, owned by 
D'Aguiar, which said a Cuban ship in 
the harbor was brlnsis« amw for the 
PPP. The ship had come to pick up rice, 
Mrs. Jagan said. 

"The government had the ship offi- 
cially searched when it docked." ahe 
said, "but the Chronicle ignored that 
story." 

Chronicle headlines screamed one day 
Lhiat the British Admiralty had an- 
nounc£d that three ol its warships were 
cruising the Caribbean looking for Cuban 
gun- runners. The British Admiralty is- 
sued a denial, but the Chrenlek did not 
publish it. 

"A Progressive Party daily would also 
be helpful in combating malicious mmors 
circulated agaitist the PPP," Mrs. Jligan 
said. "One such rutoor was that I had 
killed a policeman." 

FOES UNSCieUTULOHTS: The fotCM op- 
posing the PPP are eoopletely wamerap- 
ulous. Mrs. Jagan said. "ImaglDe trade 
union leaders tellinc the workers that if 
the Government taxnl big business, M( 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



2019 



HuBERMAN Exhibit No. 4 — (Continued) 



business would pass tbe tax on to the 
workers and therefore taoc provision* of 
the Government's new bodget should kt 
opposed." 

She said the riots were Instigated Ik 
an eiffort to teppl* ttke governma*. 
"Attacks broke oat aJI over the city at IfeB 
same time," she said. "It was a wri^ 
organizad effort." 

Tbe dvU service stzllBxs demandat a 
salary Increase and opposed the gof- 
ernment's plan to aboUsh a six-mODtll 
leave with pay and passage to England 
granted civil servants for each three 
years of service. Merchants closed busi- 
nesses and promised workers ttacr wooid 
be paid during the strike. Ibey alao 
threatened those who did not strike with 
loss of jobs. A Canadian Member of Par- 
liament. Erhart Regter, wh» was in 
Georgetown during the rioting said that 
"industries inspired their workers to 
strike." 

"We were able to maintain aMtntUl 
services." Mrs. Jagan said. "Tbe haiy lta l 
was manned by voltmteers. SUetclclty 
and much of the water service was aaaia.- 
talned. But water pnanre wm lev. •» 
ft waa difheult t* fltM tbe One rnhkeh 
spread in the Jewnitwii area sad de- 
stroyed 96 busltiMHa il 43 buMitaSl.'' 

The strike bad beea aaUed by Ike head 
of the Trades QoiiM Obutxril. Btchard 
IshMnael, a sugrar workers union leader 
who has little support in his own union. 
The bulk of his union's membership Is 
in the countryside, aad did not airtke 
The strike and dlaorders were coatlnecl 
to Georgetown. 

JOBL£98 IN CITT: An important fac- 
tor was high uaempteyment amony ur- 
ban workers. Gulaoa Joblessneas caecede 
1S%. affecting city workers mere tban 
agricultural workers, the Oc ar get awn 
population Is omUi^ of Africaa dMwnt. 
while the agricultural population Is of 
East Indian desocnt. Mrs. Ja 
most of Bumham's faOowers ara : 
but she pointed ovt that the PFP chair- 
man Is a Negro, and said the gftftm- 
mest's ethnic comportttnn rcDaite that 
of the population. The President of the 
Senate, whe is appotated. is a Negro; of 
10 cabinet members, foor are Negro, five 
are Indian and one is at mixed (Negro 
and Indian) parentage; «f the 20 legis- 
lators, seven are Negro. II are Indian, 
one Is Portaguese and one is mixed. A 
majority of Guiana's 600.600 people are 
Indians. 

"The forces of D'Agular, "his news- 
paper, and a good deal of money" stirred 
up the elty population and D'Aguiar led 




Ouardlan photo by Robert Joy 

JANET JAGAN 

Interviewed by the GUARDIAN 



an attaok en the electric company. Mrs. 
Ja«an said. "When the budget was altered 
to meet criticism two days before the 
rioting began, the slogans and themes 
of the strike changed. Then the attack 
was aimed at the Premier, at me and at 
other PPP leaders." 

'CSL'SABE' MONKT: Dr. JoQst Sluis of 
the Chiistian Anti- ComoeuniBm Crusade 
and a number of Americans were "mov- 
ing mysteriously about Georeetown." she 
said. <The Crusade's bead. Dr. Fred 
Schwaiz. admitted that tM.OM was spent 
to owpose Jagan in the August election). 
The International Confedwatlao of Free 
Trade Unions, the APL-CK) backed in- 
ternational, sent a planeload of food "to 
aid the strikers." 

Mrs. Jagan cited tbe government 
statement after calm was restored as a 
precise siunaiary of events: "All in all. 
the pleture is one of an almost perfect 
exampte of a counterrevoiution in which 
veeted Interests and conservative ele- 
ments used tbe middle-class elements 
and the dissatisfaction of some of the 
workers to attempt to overthrow a cot»- 
stltutionally elected government by vio- 
lence. Having failed to deifeat the PPP 
at the last three consecutive elccUxma. 
and seeing little prospect of winning fu- 
ture elections, the reactionaries are now 
abandoning constitutional methods and 
resorting to intimidation and force to 
overthrow the government." 



2020 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. I refer to Huberman Exhibit No. 2, the April 23, 1962, 
National Guardian advertisement in which the Friends of British 
Guiana request funds to provide Dr. Jagan's movement with printing 
equipment. 

That is the item from which I read a while ago. The article indi- 
cates that only a few thousand dollars were needed, part of which had 
already been raised. 

As to the funds which have been raised, admittedly, in that article, 
will you tell us to whom they were transmitted ? 

Mr. Huberman. I refuse to answer, again on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How much money was raised during the course of 
your activity in the Friends of British Guiana ? 

Mr. Huberman. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does Victor Rabinowitz exercise any direction or con- 
trol over the activities of the Friends of British Guiana ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement indicates that your organization 
merely has a post office box. I would like to inquire whether the 
organization maintains an office. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation reveals that this par- 
ticular postal box. No. 544, referred to in the advertisement, was 
obtained by Michael Crenovich on March 22, 1962. 

Was this organization formed on or about March 22, 1962? 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Michael Crenovich ? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Michael Crenovich ? 

Mr. Huberman. Maybe 7 or 8 months. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Might it have been longer ? 

Mr. Huberman. I would doubt it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know him as a Communist agent ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what capacity do you know him ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the name Michael Crenovich appeared at any 
time publicly in connection with i\\Q Friends of British Guiana ? 

(Witness conferred Avith counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To the committee's knowledge, so far as public an- 
nouncements are concerned, or otherwise, there appear to be only three 
persons connected with the Friends of British Guiana, yourself, 
Marcia Rabinowitz, and Michael Crenovich, that is, as members of 
the Friends of British Guiana. 

Are there any other persons connected with this organization 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer 

Mr. NiTTLE. — as officers oi- members ? 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the activities of your organization directed by 
any person known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2021 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 
I might add that I liave testified that I am not now, nor have I 
ever been, a member of the Communist Party, so I don't know that 

I could state that I knew any person who was a Communist except 

Mr. Willis. On that score. Counsel, may I ask a couple of ques- 
tions ? 
Mr. NiTPLE. Certainly. 

Mr. "Willis. If you stated it before, I honestly forgot your con- 
nection, if any, with the National Guardian. 
Mr. HuBERMAN. You never asked me. 
Mr. Willis. I am now asking. 
Mr. Htjberman. I have none. 

Mr. Willis. As I recall, quite earlier in your testimony you in- 
voked the privilege of the fifth amendment when you were asked — 
what is the name of your publication, that monthly ? 
Mr. HuBERMAN. Monthly Review. 

]Mr. Willis. — if it had registered under the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act. Is that correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. That question wasn't asked us I don't think. 
Mr. Willis. I thought it was the earliest invocation. 
Mr. HuBERMAN. Not the Monthly Revieu\ 

Mr. Willis. Wliat was it ? Was it the Friends of British Guiana ? 
Mr. HuBERMAN. Monthly Review is a magazine that has not regis- 
tered. 

Mr. Willis. That is not registered ? 
Mr. HtiBERMAN. Certainly not. 

Mr. Willis. Just for information 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. — as to which organization did you invoke the fifth 
amendment in response to the question as to whether that organization 
had been registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 
Mr. HuBERMAN. That was the Friends of British Guiana. 
Mr. Willis. The Friends of British Guiana ? 
Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Are you a member of that committee ? 
Mr. HuBERMAN. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 
Mr. Willis. Did you make a visit to British Guiana last year, or 
a couple of years ago ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 
Mr. HuBERMAN. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. But I understand that you did say affirmatively that 
you had met Janet Jagan, the wife of the Prime Minister of British 
Guiana. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. And did you invoke the fifth amendment in answer to 
the question as to whether you had discussed the provision of this 
printing press and other paraphernalia in the establishment of a news- 
paper tliere ? 
Mr. HtTBERMAN. I did refuse to answer, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You have quite frankly said that you were a Socialist 
and a Marxist and believed in the Marxist theory, but that you are 
not now, and never have been, a member of the Communist Party. 
Mr. HuBERMAN. That's right. 



2022 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Willis. Well, now, to my mind it poses a number of questions 
which are the crux of the heariiifrs here. 

The Internal Security Act established the Subversive Activities Con- 
trol Board and empowers that Board to cite and, upon due process, 
to conclude whether an organization is either Communist-action, 
Communist -front, or Communist-infiltrated and, having thus been 
cited, after being given an opportunity to contest the issue, if the 
Board finds that an association or organization comes under the word- 
ing of that statute and if it then fails to register as such, its directors 
and then its members may be compelled to register. 

Now, by saying that you are a Socialist and a Marxist, but not an 
actual member of the Communist Party — I am just thinking out 
loud — that may be a loophole and an escape A'alve under that stat- 
ute 

Mr. Moulder. Or a record member. 

ISIr. Willis. Or a record member. 

Then coming to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, it appears 
that you did have contact with the wife of the Prime Minister of 
British Guiana and, though you did not say it, I assume for the pur- 
pose of what I have in mind that there was an understanding that you 
would supply printing material and be instrumental in creating a 
newspaper favorable to her regime or that of her husband. 

There again, because of the position you take, the question is whether 
you are an agent or not. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. My views and position as a non-Communist were 
expressed and known long before the act of which you speak Avas 
passed. 

I am not a Communist. If I had agreed with the aims of the party, 
I would have joined it. 

Mr. Willis. Right, And by that position — let us assume the truth- 
fulness of your position — here is a wide-open breach, or an oppor- 
tunity for a wide-open breach, for a witness to escape both the For- 
eign Agents Registration Act and the Internal Security Act by saying, 
"Yes, I am a Communist, I am a Marxist, but I do not belong to any 
organization. Therefore, you cannot cite me and I am not an agent 
because I did not voluntarily 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I never said 



Mr. Willis. — have a contract with British Guiana." Yet under 
your theory, in furnishing these things, it might be another escape 
valve to escape registration ? I say that for the record because these 
hearings have to do with the continuing study of our internal security 
laws — I named two of them — and to find possible loopholes and escape 
valves, and since you haven't answered the questions I am adding this 
statement to the record to show that people who take your position 
and can get by with it have found a way to evade and avoid two 
internal security laws, which is the reason why we might have to 
consider amendments. I made the statement. You have refused to 
enlighten us, but I think my conclusions are justified and if you want 
to say anything about it and subject yourself to cross-examination, 
let us have it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. In your statement just made, I don't know whether 
you meant to do it, but you said that I say, or a person comes in and 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2023 

savs, "I am a Communist, I am a Marxist,-' and so on. I never said 
that. 

Mr. AYiLLis. I didn't say that. I said you are a Marxist and a 
Socialist, but you say you are not a Communist. 

Mr. IIuBERMAN. That is ri<rht. I just wanted to clarify that and 
ijo on to say I am not attempting to evade any laws. There is no 
implication or conclusion such as you have drawn mider the law or 
acts. 

Mr. Willis, xVnd I concede that. Maybe you have found a way. 
I have an idea that I am going to tell the staff to look into a situation 
of that kind. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. "Willis, I would suggest to you that the door is still 
open under the Internal Security Act on the question of groups that 
are infiltrating, because tlie Avitness has taken the fifth amendment 
regarding other key personnel in this organization known as the 
Friends of British (xuiana, so the door is not closed. That a loophole 
has been discovered on that section of the Internal Security Act is 
a possibility. 

Mr. Willis. We will do it in executive session, but I will say now 
for the record I suggest this part of the record be submitted to the 
Department of Justice. 

Mr. Bruce. Agreed. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Willis. For improvement in the law. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In line with the interrogation by Mr. Willis, I should 
like to inquire whether you were not a member of the National Council 
of the League of American Writers in the year 1938 ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I don't remember, but I may have been. 

(At this point Mr. Moulder and Mr. Willis left the hearing room.) 

ISIr. NiTTLE. Let me refresh your memory by submitting to you a 
copy of The BuUetin of the League of American Writers, Summer, 
1988, Volume IV, No. 4. I direct your attention to the lower left por- 
tion of page 2, which states in part : 

This report by the Executive Secretary was accepted and ordered printed in 
the Bulletin by the National Council at an enlarged meeting May 11. Present 
were : * * * Leo Huberman * * *. 

Mr. Huberman. I said I didn't remember, but I may well have been. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I should like to read into tlie record the 
statement of the former Attorney General of the United States, Fran- 
cis Biddle, as set forth in the committee's Guide To Subversive Or- 
ganizations and Puhlications: 

The League of American Writers, founded under Communist auspices in 
10.35 * * * in 11)39 * * * began openly to follow the Communist Party line 
as dictated by the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. * * * The overt activities 
of the League of American Writers in the last 2 years leave little doubt of its 
Communist control. 

Now, how long were you a member of the League of American 
Writers? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

(At this point Mr. Willis returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Huberman. Would you repeat the question, please ? 



2024 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been a member of the T><eague of 
American Writers ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. As I pointed out before, I didn't even remember 
that I was a member. I just don't remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps you will remember the purposes for which 
the League was formed. Were you in attendance at the Congress of 
American Revolutionary Writers set up for May 1, 1935? 

Mr. Willis (presiding). That is a question. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I don't remember, but I may have been. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Congress was held for the purpose of creating the 
League of American Writers anc^ the call for that Congress appears 
in the Communist Daily Worker bf Januaiy 18, 1935. I shall read to 
you excerpts from that call : \ 

Many revolutionary writers live virtually in isolation, lacking opiwrtunities to 
discuss vital problems with their fellows. Others are so absorbed in the revo- 
lutionary cause that they have few opportunities for thorough examination and 
analysis. Never have the writers of the nation come together for fundamental 
discussion. 

We proiK)se, therefore, that a Congress of American revolutionary writers be 
held in New York City on May 1, 1935 ^ ; that to this Congress shall be invited 
all writers who have achieved some standing in their respective fields ; who have 
clearly indicated their sympathy to the revolutionary cause; who do not need 
to be convinced of the decay of capitalism, of the inevitability of revolution. Sub- 
sequently, we will seek to influence and win to our side those writers not yet so 
convinced. 

* * 4: * « * * 

We believe such a Congress should create the League of American Writers, 
affiliated with the International Union of Revolutionary Writers. 

The International LTnion of Revolutionary Writers, Mr. Huberman, 
had its headquarters in Moscow, did it not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I have no idea. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, nonetheless, perhaps you do have an idea 

Mr. Huberman. I would doubt it very much, 

Mr. NiTTLE. — as to whether or not the League of American Writers, 
of which you appear to have been a member, subscribed nevertheless 
to the revolutionary cause of the world Communist movement as set 
forth in its call. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. I have no idea. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 6" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. In view of the fact that your memory with respect to 
what I think I may rightly describe as important events in 1935 and 
1938 seems to be a little weak, perhaps I should at this point determine 
whether your memory has been refreshed and ask you whether in the 
year 1938 you were a member of the Communist iParty. 

Mr. Huberman. I was not, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. You remember that fact distinctly, do you ? 

Mr. Huberman. I remember that I have never joined the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Oh, you have never joined the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Huberman. That's correct. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a Communist in 1938 ? 

1 The Congress was actuaUy held April 26-28, 193.5, In New fork City. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2025 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I have said repeatedly now that I have never been 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked were you a Communist? I did not add the 
word "Party." Were you a Communist in 1938 ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. 1 was not a Communist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at one time tlie director of public relations 
of the National Maritime Union in the early 1940's ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I^t me ask you at this point whether it was not one of 
your purposes in formintr the Friends of British Guiana to assist in 
the establishment of a Communist reo^ime in British Guiana? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I refuse to answer that question on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do know that Clieddi Jagan is a Communist, do 
you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I certainly do not. 

INIr. NiTTLE. I imagine you are aware that he has himself conceded 
that he is a Communist ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I am not aware of that at all, "I am aware that he 
was a guest at the Wliite House. 

Mr. SciiERER. A^Hiat did you say ? 

Mr, HuBERMAN. I say I am aware that he was a guest at the White 
House several months ago. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. It was unfortunate that he was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On Tuesday, June 26, 1962, in testimony before the 
British Guiana Commission of Inquiry, Cheddi Jagan testified, and 
I will quote in part from his testimony : 

1 have always said that I am a Marxist * * ♦. Now, Sir, by sayina: that I am 
a Marxist, I could be at one and the same time anti-Colonialist, an anti-Imperial- 
ist, a Democrat, a Socialist, a Himianist, and a Communist. 

That may seem to be a play upon words, 

Mr, Willis, What is your question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware of the testimony of Cheddi Jagan be- 
fore the Royal Commission ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I was not aware of the testimony, but I would 
like to observe that it doesn't say what you said it did. 

Mr. NiTFLE, Let us see whether he has been more specific at some 
other time. I am going to quote to you extracts from speeches made 
by Dr. Cheddi Jagan which have been collected and printed in the 
Report of a Commission of Inquiry into Disturbances in British 
Guiana in February 1962, a report printed in London by Her Maj- 
esty's Stationery Office. 

He said in a speech to the People's Progressive Party's Annual 
Congress on April 1962, a speech which was reported in the Sunday 
Times on May 13 at page 4 : 

We must not be divi^Jjed on the issue of Communism. Communism is winning 
throughout the world. It will win everywhere. 

On another occasion he said : 

We are a Socialist party and nationalisation of the sugar industry, and indeed 
of all major industries, is our objective. 

Have you personally talked to Cheddi Jagan about your proposed 
organization ? 

21-206 0-63— pt. 2—6 



2026 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. PIuBER]\rAN. Refuse ap^fiin on the same s^roiinds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. PTave you personally talked to Cheddi Jagan at all on 
any subject recently ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I have. Did you say recently? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. HuBERiMAN'. I don't know how recently but I have talked to 
him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Within the past year ? 

INIr. HuBERMAN. I think so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Felix Cummings, the registered agent 
of Cheddi Jagan in the United States? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HiTBERMAN. I refuse again on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your membership in the National 
Maritime Union, did you know Felix Cummings as a delegate from 
the Marine Workers Union of Trinidad, British West Indies? 

Mr. HiTBERMAN. I think I may have met him then but I don't re- 
member the occasion or what he was. I met a great many seamen at 
that time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has he, Felix Cummings, served as a liaison agent be- 
tween your group, the Friends of British Guiana, and Cheddi Jagan? 

Mr. HiTBERMAN. I refuse again on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you received any instructions from Felix Cum- 
mings with respect to the conduct of your organization ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. HiTBERMAN. To save time I am going to have to invoke the fifth 
amendment on any question relating to this organization. 

Mr. London. May I address the committee ? I know that ordinarily 
I am not supposed to. 

Mr. Willis. I prefer not. Really it would not get us anywhere. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Bruce. I would say again, Mr. Chairman, the same point I 
raised yesterday, however, that the witness cannot invoke the fifth 
amendment for the purpose of saving time. 

Mr. Willis. No. Well, we know that. 

Mr. London. I think the witness indicated that any question in this 
line would be answered in the same Avay, and he wanted to save the 
committee time by indicating that a repetition of questions relating 
to this organization would receive the same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. If this organization is dealing with the Cheddi Jagan 
regime down there, having conversations with it, negotiations with it, 
why would he invoke the fifth amendment when the administration 
is doing the same thing? 

Mr. Willis. I can guess. It is because of Federal law, the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act — it is the subject of our inquiry — and maybe 
other things. 

Mr. SciiERER. I don't think, Mr. Willis, that the witness is concerned 
about possible violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act on 
his part. In my opinion, that is not his reason for invoking the fifth 
amendment. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2027 

Mr. Willis. He might have found a loophole to get around it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Even the administration is not too concerned about 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act. The President not too long ago 
ignored an interpretation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act by 
the Attorney General in the Franklin Roosevelt administration and 
issued an Executive order which allowed blatant Communist prop- 
aganda to flood this country through the U.S. mail. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Huberman, has any money passed between you and 
Felix Cummings on behalf of your organization ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions by the staff, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions ? 

Mr. Bruce. I would like to. 

Have you at any time had the cooperation or the advice of anyone 
in Government in the formation or activities of the Friends of Brit- 
ish Guiana ? 

Mr. Huberman. Refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Bruce. You what ? 

Mr. Huberman. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Bruce. You plead the fifth amendment on that question ? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Willis. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Marcia Rabinowitz. 

Mr. Willis. Please come forward. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. RABiNOwnTZ. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARCIA G. RABINOWITZ, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. NiTTi.E, Will you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Marcia G. Rabinowitz. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Will counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, 711 14th St., N.W., Washington, 
D.C. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the place of your residence, please ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. 7 Serpentine Drive, New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. March 30, 1913, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I hold a degree, B.A. degree, from Hunter Col- 
lege and a master's degree from Hunter and have had graduate 
courses at New York University. 



2028 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. What graduate courses did you take at New York 
University ? What subjects ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Visual aids, statistics. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Housewife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information indicates that you are the Marcia G. 
Rabinowitz who represents herself as the treasurer of a recently 
formed organization titled "Friends of British Guiana." Are you 
presently serving the organization in that capacity ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I would like to invoke my privilege under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. I feel that this committee is not 
really interested in accumulating legislative data. I think over the 
period of years I have felt that the committee has been more in- 
terested in getting other kinds of material, asking people questions 
about people they have known. 

Mr. Willis. What, for instance ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Inquiring into their political beliefs and their 
associations, and I just have a feeling that 

Mr. Willis. That is not in accord with the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. No. I just have a feeling. I was just explain- 
ing to you as to why I took the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. That part is overruled because the Supreme Court 
has ruled many times we have jurisdiction, so that is the end of it. 
You invoke the fifth amendment. Any other statement you now are 
making I overrule as being improper according to the decisions of 
the Supreme Court itself. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Well, I was just trying to explain why I have 
felt it incumbent upon me to take the fifth amendment. I believe 
in the Constitution. I cherish deeply the privileges which it grants 
to us under the first and fifth amendments. I felt that this committee 
has not been interested, that in order to come before this committee 
and be a dissenter, that one is covered immediately with suspicion. 
I feel that our democracy and our country has grown because of 
dissent and because of controversy, and because I believe in the Con- 
stitution I therefore plead my privilege under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Would you tell us who are the other officers and 
directors of the Friends of British Guiana ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already answered. I take the fifth amend- 
ment, plead the privilege. 

Mr. NiTTu:. Mrs. Rabinowitz, in view of your statement, I shall be 
obliged to state to you that this committee has information that you 
were a member of the Coney Island Club of the Conmiunist Party in 
the Second Assembly District, Kings County, New York. Were you 
at any time a member of the Coney Island Club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you undertaken your activities in the organiza- 
tion. Friends of British Guiana, at the direction of persons known by 
you to be members or officials of the Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2029 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I haven't admitted or said that I have undertaken 
any activities on behalf of the Friends of British Guiana. 

Mr. NiTTLE, I realize you haven't admitted that, but I am asking 
you whether you have. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already answered the question by pre- 
viously stating 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your answer to the question ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already answered the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Wliat is your answer to the question I just propounded ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, just answer the question. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rabinowitz, were you present during the interro- 
gation of Melitta del Villar? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Yes, I was in the hearing room. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Melitta del Villar? 

Mrs. RABiNowaTz. Do I know her ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I saw her here yesterday. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you known her prior to her appearance here 
before this committee ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHTiRER. Wliy do you try to lead the committee to believe that 
you only knew this woman as the result of seeing her here yesterday ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I didn't lead the committee to believe anything, 
sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I heard your answer. You said, "I saw her 
here yesterday." 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Well, that was the question that was put to me, 
whether I had been in the hearing room yesterday and whether I had 
heard her testimony. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were asked whether you knew this woman. You 
said : "I saw her here yesterday." By making that kind of response, 
it is obvious that you tried to mislead the committee into believing 
that the only acquaintance or knowledge you had of this witness re- 
sulted from seeing her here in the hearing room yesterday. Then, 
when you are asked specifically if you knew her before yesterday, you 
refuse to answer and hide behind the fifth amendment. It is obvious 
to me that you knew her before yesterday and by your answer tried to 
mislead this committee. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Do you know her husband, Louis J. Amster? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Dr. Louis Miller ? 

Mrs. RABIN0^^^TZ. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, it was disclosed that George Evans, a member of 
the editorial staff of the National Guardian in charge of promotion, 
had been active in the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee group, and now 
it appears that a National Guardian representative, Kumar, K-u-m-a-r, 
Goshal, is active in support of Jagan's cause in British Guiana. Do 
you know Kumar Goshal of the National Guardian? 



2030 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz, I don't understand the line of the questioning:. 

Mr. Willis. The question is whether you know the individual named 
by counsel. 

(Witness conferred witli counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the April 2, 1962, National Guardian an article re- 
lating to Janet Japan's story of Guiana riots records certain events in 
Mrs. Japan's visit to North America as follows : 

OVATION IN CANADA : Mrs. Jagan was in New York March 15-19— 

that is in the year 1962 — 

on her way home to Georgetown from Canada. She had received a standing 
ovation from 2,200 at a Canadian Peace Council rally where she spoke along with 
Dr. Vraiard Uphaus and the GUARDIAN'S Kumar Goshal. 

(See Huberman Exhibit No. 4, pp. 2018, 2019.) 

Could you tell us whether Kumar Goshal is in any way affiliated 
with the Friends of British Guiana ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already claimed my privilege. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Are you personally acquainted with Cheddi Jagan ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I claim the privilege. 

(At this point Mr. Scherer left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you met with him during the course of his visits 
to the United States? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already claimed the privilege. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the* 1960 National Guardian banquet in 
New York at which he was reportedly the guest of honor? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I claim the privilege, 

Mr. NiTTLB. I hand you a copy of the April 23, 1962, issue of the 
National Guardian in which appears the advertisement already refer- 
red to in the interrogation of Mr. Huberman, entitled "Will British 
Guiana's Independence Be Delayed For Want of a Daily Paper," 
ostensibly an advertisement by the Friends of British Guiana in which 
your name appears as treasurer. In tliat advertisement of the 
Friends of British Guiana, dated April 23, 1962, the following lan- 
guage is contained : 

Guardian readers and the citizens of Guiana have special ties. The Guardian 
Library, founded in 19.")") with thousands of books sent by readers in response 
to Mrs. Jagan's appeal, is flourishing in Freedom House, PPP [People's Progres- 
sive Party] headquarters. Readers will remember too that Prime Minister 
Jagan was guest of honor at the 1900 Guardian banquet in New York. 

(See Huberman Exhibit No. 2, p. 2012.) 

Can you tell us whether any special ties exist between the National 
Guardian and the Friends of British Guiana? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already claimed the privilege in this 
direction. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Cedric Bel f rage is carried upon the masthead of the 
National Guardian as its Havana correspondent. 

Mr. Willis. Who is he ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Cedric Belf rage, B-e-1-f-r-a-g-e. 

Mr. Chairman, in response to your question, the committee will re- 
call that Cedric Belfrage, now described as eclitor-in-exile of the Na- 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2031 

tional Guardian^ testified before this committee on May 5, 1053. When 
advised that the committee was in possession of swoni testimony 
identifying^ him as a member of the Communist Party, he declined 
to answer any question rehiting thereto, invoking the fifth amendment. 
He also declined to answer any questions relating to his identification 
by Elizabeth Bentley as the Cedric Belfrage engaged in espionage 
activities in the United States who, while working for the British In- 
telligence Service, relayed information to the Russians. It is also in- 
teresting to note that James Aronson, editor of the Natlo7ial Guardian, 
in testimony before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on 
January 4, 1956, invoked the fifth amendment as a basis for refusal to 
testify as to whether or not he accepted directives from the publica- 
tions commission of the Communist Party, as well as to his member- 
ship in the Communist Party. 

Now Mrs. Rabinowitz, is Cedric Belfrage, the editor-in-exile and 
also the Havana correspondent of the National Guardian, known to 
you personally? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I plead the privilege under the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I have several questions. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act states that a foreign prin- 
cipal includes not only the governments of foreign countries, but, and 
I quote, "political parties and persons." 

Is the organization known as Friends of British Guiana an agent 
of Jagan or any political party or persons of British Guiana? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already claimed the privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr, Willis. The act further defines an agent of a foreign principal, 
among other things, as "any person who within the United States 
solicits, disburses, dispenses, or collects compensation, contributions, 
loans, money, or anything of value, directly or indirectly, for a foreign 
principal." 

Did the Friends of British Guiana solicit funds for presses or for 
the establishment of a newspaper or for any other purpose on behalf 
of Jagan or any political party or persons of British Guiana ? 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I have already claimed the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. This is a separate question. 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Did the Friends of British Guiana file ap])lication to 
be registered as the agent of a foreign principal, including Jagan, 
his wife, or any political party or persons of British Guiana? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Is not that really the basis for your refusal to answer 
these questions, the fear of violation of that law — and you would 
have a right to plead it. Isn't that the real basis why you and the 
gentleman who preceded you invoked the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment? 

(AVitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Rabinowitz. Well, I feel, sir, that I claimed the privilege 
and I think that that is self-explanatory. 



2032 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. Willis. All right. I think it is self-explanatory. 

I have no further questions. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Michael Crenovich. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Crenovich. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL CRENOVICH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Michael Crenovich, from New York City. 

Mr. Bruce. I could not hear the last part of the answer. 

Mr. Crenovich. I am living in New York City. 

Mr. Bruce. New York City ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Will counsel identify himself for the record, please, 
stating his name and office address. 

Mr. Rein. David Eein. I believe the 

Mr. Willis. What is the name of the witness ? 

Mr. Nittle. Crenovich. Your last name has been A'^ariously spelled 
C-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h, C-r-e-n-o-v-i-t-c-h, and G-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Crenovich. The only time that I can remember is when cleri- 
cal errore have been made, but the name is C-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h. 

Mr. Willis. Speak louder, please. 

Mr. Crenovich. The name is C-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h, and anything else 
would be a clerical error. 

Mr. Nittle. You have also used the first name of Miguel, have you 
not? 

Mr. Crenovich. It is the Spanish of Michael. 

Mr. Nittle. To save time, for a moment, I would like to sum- 
marize our information with respect to your birth and period of resi- 
dence. 

You were born in the year 1925 in Brooklyn, New York? 

Mr. Crenovich. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. And sometime in 1929 you left Brooklyn and took up 
your residence in Argentina ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Right. 

Mr. Nittle. Where you remained until the year 1946 ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Right. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2033 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you returned to the United States for service in 
the U.S. Army from which service you were discharged sometime in 
1947? 

Mr. Crenovich. Right. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Have you resided in the United States since 1947? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. XiTTLE. During the past 5 years have you traveled outside of 
the United States and, if so, would you state the countries you have 
visited and the periods of your residence ? 

Mr. Creno\t:ch. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. When you refer to the fifth amendment, do you refer 
to the self-incrimination clause? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I attended primary and secondary schools in 
Argentina. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you had any formal educational training in the 
United States? 

Mr. Crenovich. No. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I am a printing pressman. 

Mr. Willis. Printing pressman? 

Mr. Crenovich. Right. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Do you hold any office in an organization known as 
Friends of British Guiana ? 

Mr. Creno\icii. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation, Mr. Crenovich, dis- 
closes that you are the actual lessee of Post Office Box 544, Cooper 
Station, New York, which is the address given in the advertise- 
ment of the Friends of British Guiana that appeared in the April 23, 
1962, issue of the National Guardian^ to which reference has already 
been made. (See Huberman Exhibit No. 2, p. 2012.) 

Are you the lessee of Post Office Box 544, Cooper Station, New 
York3,N.Y.? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The records indicate that you made application for 
that box on March 22, 1962. Did you make application at that time? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 1," follows:) 



2034 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 
Crenovich Exhibit No. 1 



FOR 

POST OFFICE 

USE ONLY 



POSTMASTER 



. e»ft^Ort "Sa^flF^KBr^- *'» f l-UitD I BOX NO . 



AfPLlCANT PLEASE NOTE: Complmtion nl this application liiniRet your willingmaa to comply with all poatalA 
rutea ralattvB to the renting and uae of Post Office boxes. CI 

NAME OF APPLICANT (.Print or type) 

At( CH f^t ^ C RE ^ C // L'-L 

NAME OF FIRM OR CORPORATION (// box i» rented tor u§e of either) 

IWtD OF iUSIMESS 

BUSINESS ADDRESS (No . etreet, mnd Mone) 

2 yj'-/Vo' C ^ 

HOME ADDRESS (No., etreel. and tonm) 



SISHATUR^ /) ' » , ^,— ^ D*TE OF APPLICATION 



Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently the vice president of the Friends of 
British Guiana? 

Mr. Ckexovicii. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not give that information at the time you made 
application for your postal box ? 

Mr. Crexovicii. 1 decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Except on the records of the organization, the com- 
mittee's investigation discloses that your name has never publicly ap- 
peared as an officer of P^riends of British Guiana. Why has your 
name not appeared in public announcements of this organization? 

Mr. Crexovicii. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. At whose direction did yon make application for that 
postal box on behalf of Friends of British Guiana ? 

]Mr. Crexovicii. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As you might have gathered in the course of the hear- 
ings, mention has been made of Felix Cummings, who is registered 
with the Department of Justice as an agent of (yheddi Jagan and 
who has also appeared as a correspondent at the United Nations for 
Cheddi Jagan's newspaper, Thunderer. 

Are you personally acquainted with Felix Cummings? 

jNIr. Crex^ovicii. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you received any instructions from Felix Cum- 
mings witli respect to the efforts undertaken by you on behalf of 
Friends of British Guiana ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2035 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Crenovich. I received no instructions from Felix Cummings 
about anything whatsoever. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you discussed with Felix Cummings your activi- 
ties on behalf of Friends of British Guiana ? 

Mr. CRENO^^;cH. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Have you had any discussions with him ? 

Mr. Creno\^ch. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Felix Cummings to be a member of the 
Communist Party of the United States or of Puerto Rico or of 
British Guiana ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I have no knowledge of any such thing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been active in the affairs of the Commu- 
nist Party in any country or territory outside of the continental 
United States ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What have been your principal occupations since 1947 ? 

Mr. CREN0^^CH. I have been an office clerk. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Office clerk. 

Mr. Crenovich. And now printing pressman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now a printing pressman. 

Mr. Willis. For what publication ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Not — in job printing shops, not publications. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you not also been occupied as a political prop- 
agandist in addition to the occupations which you have named? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. I hand you a copy of a leaflet announcement in Span- 
ish of a forthcoming publication titled Ahora — A-h-o-r-a — issued on 
or about October 1947, which we have had translated into English. 
The leaflet and the translation are marked for identification as Creno- 
vich Exhibit No. 2. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The offices of the publication are at 799 Broadway, 
Room 833, New York 3, N.Y., and your name is spelled Miguel — 
M-i-g-u-e-1 — Grenovich — G-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h, listed as the "administra- 
dor," which I believe is the Spanish equivalent for business manager. 

Are you the Miguel Grenovich who appears as the admin istra dor of 
that publication? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Documents marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 2" appear on pp. 
2036,2037.) 



2036 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 



Crenovich Exhibit No. 2 



f^-.^ 



.>-c<i v*-' — 



F| (,,. 



AT EN CI ON 

EL LUNES S DE OCTUBRE EMPIEZA A CIRCULAR UN 
NUEVO PERIODICO HISPANO EN NUEVA YORK 

AHORA 

En Morc/io Hacia un Wundo de Poz y tiberfad 



El semanario "AHORA" dedicara sus paginas a la defensa de 
los intereses vitales e inmediafos del Pueblo. 

"AHORA" presentara a sus lectores informacion autentlca sobre 
\a lucha del pueblo paro mejorar sus condicior.es economicas y de- 
fender sus derechos politicos. 

"AHORA" servira a sus lectores con lecturo serio, amena, com- 
prensiblo. 

Paginas dedicados ol cine, los deportes, la modo, etc., foto- 
grofias, dibujos y caricatures. 

lo prensa al servicio del imperialismo y la reaccion se esfuerza 
per manfener al pueblo sumido en la confusion y el engaiio. Pero 
lot pueblos del mundo estan en morcho hacic la conquista de su 
Iiberaci6n . . . "AHORA" es parte de la lucha progressiva de los 
pueblos . . . 

"AHORA" sera el campeon de los derechos Puertorriqueiios, 

aqui y en Puerto Rico. "AHORA" luchora contra los infames 

atoques que la prensa imperialista dirige contra el pueblo Puerto- 

• rriquefio; luchara contra los abusos de la policia y por consequir 

el respeto que merece nuestra gente. 

En su primer numero "AHORA" presentara un analisis de la 
mas reciente maniobra del olcolde O'Dwyer para enganar a los 
votontes boricuas. No deje da leer este importante e interesante 
articulo. 

PARA ESTAR AL DIA CON LOS ACONTECIMIENTOS NACION- 
ALES Y MLJNDIALES LEA "AHORA". Procurelo en los puesfos de 
periodicos, en su organizacion, o en su sindicoto. "AHORA" es su 
peri6dico, ayudenos o extender su circulacion. 



Oftcinas: 

799 BROADWAY, Rm. 333 

New York 3, N. Y. 

Telefono: GR 5-3933 

CUERPO EDITORIAL: 

Director: Rafael Lopez Rosos 

Adm/nisfrodor Miguel Crenovich 

Carmen Meano, Rev. Pablo Cotto 
Oriiz, Angel M. Arroyo, Anlonio 
Rodriguez Berrros, Juan Emmano- 
elli, Emilio Ramirez, Francisco 
Archilla, Jesus Colon. 

COLABORADORES: 
Fronk Ibonez, Mouricio Collejo, 
Jose Dovila Semprit, Jose Luis 
Gonzolez, Gil Gereno, Jose Gil 
de Lomadrid, Julio Pinio Gondio, 
Ljis Que<o Cliiesa, Pedro A. Ra- 
mos, Romulo Locholanierc, Clem- 
onte Soto Velez. Mercedes 
Arroyo y otros 

Noejtro Progromo 

Por el mejoromlento econ6mrco, 
social y politico de lo comunidad 
puertorriqueiia e hispana. 

Por lo prornocion de los puerto- 
rriquenos e hisponos en empleos 
publicos y en lo direccion de los 
sindicolos obretos. 

Por la inmedioto supresion de 
los otiopellos de la policia. 

Poi lo solaridad de los trobo- 
judores puertorriquenos e hisponos 
con los fuerzos progresislos de 
America y del mundo. 

Por lo Paz y el cumplimiento de 
los derechos fundomentoles del 
hombre. 

Por la liberocion nacionat de 
Puerto Rico; por el derrocomienlo 
del foscismo en Espaiia,. 

Por la restauraci6n de lo Repipb- 
llco Espaiiola. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2037 

Crenovich Exhibit No. 2 — (Continued) 
Translation From Ahora Article 



Undated leaflet received for filing, October 7, 19^9, announcee 
new hippanic periodical to bep;in circulation in Mew York on Oct. 3. 

Leaflet ehovs thnt the weekly publication "Ahora" (Now) will 
present authentic Information to its renders concerning the fight 
of the people to improve econo.nic co",dltions and defend their 
political rights. 

Will cover theater, sports-, fashions — will contain photographs, 
sketches and caricatures. 

"'Ahora' will be the champion of Puerto Plcan rights here 
and in Puerto Rico. 'Ahora' will fight the InfpT.ous attacks that 
the imperialist preae makes on the Puerto Rlcpn people; it will 
fight against the abuses of the nollce and for the attainment of 
the respect that our people deserve." 

"In its first Issue, 'Ahora' will present an analysis of the 
most recent trick of Mayor O'Dwyer to deceive the Puerto Rican 
voters. . . " 

The folloKlnr is the program of the publication as shown on 
the leaflet: 

"Our Program 

For the economic, social and political betterment of the 
Puerto Rican and hlspenic community. 

"For the promotion of Puerto Ricane snd hlspanic people 
in DUbllc offices and in the admlnistrfltion of the workers' 
syndicates. 

■For the immediate suppression of the abuses of the police. 

"For the solidarity of the Puerto Rican and hlspanic workers 
with the progressive forces of America r-nd of the world. 

"For peace and t^.e attainment of t.-e fundcnentnl rights of 
man. 

"For the national liberation of Puerto Rico; for the overthrow 
of fascism In Spain. 

"For the restoration of the Spanish Republic." 

Several of the staff members of the publication have been 
affiliated with the publication "Llberacion. " (5ee folder on 
this publication) 

clc 



2038 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. The leaflet declares : 

"Ahora" will be the champion of Puerto Rican rights here and in Puerto Rico. 
"Ahora" will fight the infamous attacks that the imperialist press makes on the 
Puerto Rican people; it will fight against the abuses of the police and for the 
attainment of the respect that our people deserve. 

The profrram of the publication is set forth in the leaflet and in- 
cludes the following statement : 

For the solidarity of the Puerto Rican and hispanic workers with the progres- 
sive forces of Aanerica and of the world. 

Now, with respect to the last quotation from that exhibit, Mr. 
Crenovich, I ask you whether the reference to "progressive forces" 
in that statement of the program is Communist doubletalk meaning 
simply Communist forces? 

Mr. CRENO^^CH. I wouldn't say that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You wouldn't say that ? 

Mr. CRENO^^CH. That is not the way I read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were the ndministrador of that publication? 

Mr. CRENo\^CH. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. As a matter of language, what is the meaning of the 
word "Ahora'' ? 

Mr. CRExo^^CTI. In Spanish, it means "Now." 

Mr. Willis. Now ? 

Mr. Crexovich. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of page 4 of a publication titled 
Liberac'ion, dated May 21, 1949, likewise in Spanish, marked for iden- 
tification as Crenovich Exhibit No. 3, in which your name appears on 
the masthead as the business manager — that portion is in English — 
spelled Miguel C-r-e-n-o-v-i-t-c-h. 

The place of publication is indicated as 23 West 26th Street, New 
York 10, N.Y. This is also described in the masthead as a "progres- 
sive" newspaper. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the Miguel Crenovitch mentioned in the mast- 
head as the business manager of that publication ? 

Mr. Crexovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMJMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2039 
Crenovich Exhibit No. 3 



PMU 

DC rtntTovKO 



LIBEBAGION 



unmxA 

UtAHOU 



Ttl$VHA rtOGHCSISTA 

Published Weekly by 

LIBERACION T'llJLlSHING ASSOCIATION 

RAFAFX LOPEZ ROSAS — Editor 

JUAN EMMAMELLI — Manager 

MIGUEL CRENOVITCH — Husiness Manager 

23 West 26th Street. Tel. MU 4-8401 New York 10, N. Y. 

Snscription: 6 Months $1.00; $2.00 per Year. 

Entered as second class matter April 8. 1946, at the Post Office 

of New York. N. Y.. under Act ^^ March 3. 1879. 

ARO III NO. 21 SABADO. MAYO, 21, 1949 



Mr. NiTTLE. Where is your present office ? "^AHiere do you do your 
printing now ? 

Mr. CREX0\^CH. Printing of what ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You said you were a job printer, didn't you ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes, for a commercial house. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you do your printing? "Wliat address? 

Mr. Crexo'vtlcii. It is I do the job as an employee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. I said : ^Vliat is the address, the location ? 

Mr. Creno\tcii. The location is in downtown Brooklyn. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ^V\\a.t street ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Washington Street. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wiat number? 

Mr. Crenovich. I would rather — I would decline to answer the 
specific employer for which I work, on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I had the impression you were self-employed. Now, 
that is not correct, is it? 

Mr. Crenovich. No. 

Mr. Ni iTLE. You have an employer ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the name of your employer? 

Mr. Creno\tch. I decline to answer on the ground — on the same 
ground, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your employer the Communist Party or a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Creno^tch. I wouldn't know, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Creno^tch. I wouldn't know that. 

]\Ir. NiTi'LE. You wouldn't know, but, nonetheless, you plead the 
fifth amendment or invoke the fifth amendment to the inquiry who 
your employer is. 



2040 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Are you invoking: the fifth amendment because you sincerely believe 
an answer to this question miffht involve you in a criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I maintain the same answer. I decline to answer 
that question on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of a leaflet marked for iden- 
tification as Crenovich Exhibit No. 4, which sets forth the executive 
board and sponsors of an organization known as the Council for the 
Advancement of the Americas, with offices listed at 30 East 29th 
Street, New York 16, N. Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Michael C-r-e-n-o-v-i-c-h, together with such well- 
known and identified Communists as Ferdinand Smith, Joseph P. 
Selly, Murray Winocur, and Jesus Colon, appears as a member of the 
executive board. 

You are the Michael Crenovich named as a member of the executive 
board of the Council for the Advancement of the Americas, are you 
not? 

Mr. Creno\^ch. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat were you advancing for the Americas as a 
member of the executive board of that council ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Crenovich, it is the committee's information that 
you have been one of the principal contacts between Latin American 
and U.S. Communists. 

Would you desire to avail yourself of the opportunity to affirm 
or deny or explain that observation ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Crenovich. No, that observation has no foundation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It has what ? 

Mr. Crenovich. It has no foundation in fact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not at least correct to say that you are one of the 
principal exponents of the Marxist-Leninist ideology as applied to 
events in Latin America ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2041 



Crenovich Exhibit No. 4 



councL m THE flovmcEdiEniof liflfHERicfls 



30 8A9I 29CH SfSBFSI 



NEW YORK 16, N. T. 



Murray Hill 3-9080 



Executiv? Board 



Ilocl Austin 
Babbl Shepherd Z. Be\m 
Lewis Alan Berne 
Nauriclo Callejo 
liUlB Quero Chlesa 
Jasus Colon 
Michael Cranovlch 
Balph D. Currle 
Beverend Boise Dent 
Julio Pinto Oandia 
Olorla Oirven 
Swart 0. Ouinler 
Leonard Harris 
Alpheus Bunton 
franc ia Luban 



Reverand Luther MacNsir 

Manuel Medina 

V/inlfred Norman 

Heriian P. Osborne 

Ben Ossa 

Owen Boche 

Bafael Lopez Rosas 

Joseph P. Selly 

Doris Sank 

Ferdinand Smith 

Leon Straus 

Leona Thcmas 

Murray Vine cur 

Leon V/oi'sy 



Judy Peterson Hewnan, Secretary 



J Sponsors 

(Pertlal Listing) 

Louis Adamlc, Writer 

Msreedes Arroyo, Chairiiian, Muttislista Obrera Puprterriquena 

■oal Austin, Kzecutive Committee, Sons and DJUghters of Panama 

Babbi Sbapberd Z. Bsum 

Barry Bridges, President, International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union, CIO 

Alfonso Bujosa, President, Comlte Puertorriqueno pro Democracia DominicaBa, San Juan, 

P.B. 
Charles Collins, Vice-president, Hotel & Club Employees Union, Local 6, AFL 
Baverend Boise Dont, Prcteetant Committee for Latin America 
Irving Dlchter Regional Director, International Union, Mine, Mill & Smelter Vforkors, 

CIO 
Dr. W. X. B. DuBpis, Director of Special Research, Nat one 1 /Sjcclation for the 

Advence-nerit of Colored Peop].e 
Jaass B. Durkin, President, United Offic & Professional Workers, CIO 
frank Duttro President, Bekery & Confectionery Workers Union, Local 1, APL 
Professor Gary DeWltt Eldridge, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 
Professor Henry Pratt F:ilrchild, New York University, Now York City 
Jasus Flores, Lower H.^rlem Tensnts League, New York City 
Jose Flores, Writer, formerly with Office of Inter-American Affairs 
Joseph Gaer, Publisher 

Olorie r.irven. Director, New York Youth Council 
Shirley Graham, Novelist 

Ewart G. Guinicr, Secre tary -Treasurer , United Public Workers, CIO 
Professor Balph H. Gundlech, University of 'Washington, Seattle, Washington 
-Dashlell Hanmett, Writer 

Benito Hernandez, New York Dispatcher, National Maritime Union, CIO 
Brandon Howell, Secretary, Coraite Puertorriqueno pro V/allace, San JUen, Puerto Rico 
Langston Hughes, Poet 
Alpheus Hunton, Educational Director, Council on African Affairs 



21-206 0-63— pt. 2—7 



2042 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the Communist organ, The 
'Worker^ of March 8, 1959, page 15, marked as Crenovich Exhibit No, 5. 
There is an announcement of the Faculty of Social Science, 80 E. 11 
(Bway), New York, setting forth a schedule of registration for 
3-week classes, listing you as the instructor on the subject of Latin 
America. 

Did you instruct on that subject as scheduled? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 

Crenovich Exhibit No. 5 
[The Worker, Mar. 8, 1959] 

BBitti!iii>iii:i:raiii{Jii!inimiHtn!)iiii!i;ri;i'4U!t^ 

R^ffisUr now for new THREE-WEEK CLASSES— March 1«-Aprtl a 

Mondays (March 16, March 23, March 30) 
6:45 — Marxist Theory of the State — Henr^ Klein 
8:30 — Great Documents of US. History — Herbert Aptheker 

Tuesday.-* (March 17, March 24, March .".1) 
6:45 — Independent Pol \\<:?\ Action — A rnold, Jg Jtinson 
8:30 — Latin Amorica Today — Michael Crenovich 

We(ine-^<iays (March 18, March 25, April 1) 
6:45 — The New SoNiet SevenYear Plan — Myer Wei.so 
8:30 — The Chinese Commrr.es — Sue Wanvn 

Thursdays (March 19. March 26, April 2) 
6:45 •— Dialectics and Science — JosegjL ifahem 
8:30 — Three Film Masterpieces — Harold ColHns 

plus other courses and lecturers 

$2.50 for each full course; aiimA« adm ssiona — $1J>* 

FACULTY of 30CIAL SCIENCE, 80 E. 11 (Bway) GRamercy 3-Wlt 

diiiiiUttituiiiiiiiii^ 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2043 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I hand you another leaflet of the Faculty of So- 
cial Science, issued May 2, 1959, marked as Crenovich Exhibit No. 6, 
setting forth a "5-week term of 6 classes on the Marxist analysis of 
major current questions," titled "Six for Five on the world today," 
and scheduling Wednesday evening classes in the months of May 
and June, described as follows in the leaflet : 

THE U.S. AND LATIN AMERICA— with Michael Crenovich. Current devel- 
opments in Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, the Dominican Republic, and else- 
where ; and their significance for the U.S. 

Did you conduct that course ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Bruce. What was the date of that, Mr. Counselor ? 

Mr.NiTTLE. That is dated May 2, 1959. 

Did you obtain your knowledge of current developments in Cuba, 
Venezuela, Argentina, the Dominican Republic, and elsewhere, as ad- 
vertised in the leaflet, from contacts with Latin American Commu- 
nists ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Decline to answer on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, our committee's Guide to Subversive 
Organizations and Publications — and I address this also to the wit- 
ness — describes the Faculty of Social Science as the new Communist 
Party training school, opened in New York City in September 1958, 
as a successor of the Communist Jefferson School of Social Science, 
the latter having been dissolved principally for the purpose of evading 
the registration requirements of the Internal Security Act of 1950, 
and was disbanded only after proceedings had been instituted against 
it before the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Mr. Crenovich, were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of your instructorship at the Faculty of Social Science ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 6" follows:) 



2044 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 

Crenovich Exhibit No. 6 
[Faculty of Social Science, May 2, 1959] 

Org. /Faculty of Social Science 
5-2- 3S 



on he wofld today 



A NEnV S-WEEK TERM OF 6 CLASSES 

ON THE MARXIST ANALYSIS OF 

MAJOR CURRENT QUESTIONS 



SO METHING NEW! 

© 5 Tue»day Mornings - 10;15-n;45 A. M. - M»y 12, 19. 26; June 2. 9 

KEY WORLD AREAS - with Herbert Aptheker 

Analysis of U. S. foreign policy today in major areas of the 
world such as China; Mid- East; Germany; Soviet Union; Latin 
America; Africa. 



O 5 Monday i^veninga - 6;45-8;15 P.M. - May 11. 16. 25; June 1. 8 

LABOR ISSUES TODAY - with Irving PoUsh. Louis Wcinstock, others 

Economic questions; political action: trade-union democracy; 
labor and the Negro; labor and the Left. 

********** 
O 5 Monday Evenings - 8:30-10:00 P. M. - May 11. 18. 25; June 1. 8 

OUR COUNTRY AND OUR PEOPLE - with Herbert Aptheker 

A Marxist view of development and perspectives of the American 
people, with a critique of conservative, liberal, pragnnatic views. 

********** 

O 5 Tuesday Evenings - 8:30-10:00 P. ^.^. - May 12. 19. 26; June 2. 9 

SOCIALIST CURRENTS AND THE 1960 ELECTIONS - with WiUiam Albertson 

Policies, tactics, outlooks of the various socialist groupings in the 
U.S. towards the 1960 elections; role and policies of the Communists. 

********** 

O 5 Wednesday Evenings - 6:45-8:15 P. M. - May 13. 20. 27; June 3. 10 

THE N£GRO QUESTION - with James E. Jackson, Herbert Aptheker. others 

Roots of Negro oppression; economic and class structure; the South 
today; the Negro and world politics; theory of the Negro question. 

********** 

© 5 Wednesday Evenings - 8:30-10:00 P. M. - May 13. 20. 27; June 3. 10 

THE U.S. AND LATIN AMERICA - with KUchael Crenovich 

Current developments in Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, the Dominican 
Republic, and elsewhere; and their significance for the U. S. 



O All classes meet once weekly for five 90-minute sessions 

O Fee for each class is $5; single admissions • $1 per session 
O Registration 5-9 daily from April 27th 

w^Sst n street FflCULiy OF SOCIAL SCIEnCE gr 3-68.0 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS 2045 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Well, I think we should ask, Are you now a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Crenovicii. I decline to answer on the groimd of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Have you ever been a member ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Questions ? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. 

Mr. Crenovich, have you ever recently met with Che Guevara ? 

Mr. Crenovich. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Have you ever been in the country of Colombia ? 

Mr. Crenovich. No; except in an airport, in a regular stop on a 
flight. 

Mr. Bruce. Just passing through ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Willis. That is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Willis, that is all we have for today. 

Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Willis. This will conclude the hearings for today and the com- 
mittee will stand adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :25 p.m., Thursday, November 15, 1962, the hear- 
ings adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Abrams, Henry 1965 

Aekerly, George A 19-">4, 1073 

Adamic, Louis 2041 

Adams, Arthur Alexandrovich 1838, 1805 

Albertson, William 2044 

Albright, Paul F Opposite 1963 

Allen, Charles R 1065 

AUmendinger, Walter 1005 

Alonso, Daniel 1020 

Alper, B. S Opposite 1063 

Alper, Mrs. B. S Opposite 1063 

Amster, Louis J 1883, 1884, 2029 

Amster, Mrs. Louis J. ( See del Villar, Melitta. ) 

Anderson, Bertha 1065 

Anthony, Robenia F Opposite 1063 

Apolloni, Rose 1856, 1857, 1862, 1076, 1078 

Aptheker, Herbert 2042, 2044 

Archilla, Francisco 2036 

Arnautoff, Victor 1065 

Aronson, James 2031 

Arroyo, Angel M 2036 

Arroyo, Mercedes 2036, 2041 

Atkins, Leona M 1065 

Atkins, Mitchael B 1065 

Atkinson. W. J 1969 

Austin, Edmund O Opposite 1063 

Austin, Noel 2041 



Baez, Alberto B 1969 

Baird, William T 1840, 1884, 1065 

Baker, Albert Samuel (also known as Samuel Albert Baker) 1840, 

1855-1857, 1868, 1016-1018, 1045. 1046, 1048. 1040. 1052, 1053. 

1074-1086 ( testimony ) . 

Ball, Frederic E 1849, opposite 1063 

Ball, Lee H 1037, 1065 

Banker, Elizabeth C Opposite 1J>63 

Barnard, Harry 1850 

Barr, Stringfellow Opposite 1063 

Bass. Harold J 1954 

Bass, Reginald M 1061, 1069 

Batista y Zaldivar (Fulgencio) 1938,1940,1941,1088.1093.1008 

Baty, Harvey F 1954 

Baum. Shepherd Z 2041 

Beacher, A. I 1069 

Beals, Carleton 1037 

Beckman, F. Woods 1073 

Beiler, Irwin R 1965 

Belfrage, Cedric Henning (alias George Oakden) 2030,2031 

Bellafiore, Vincent 1060 

Bengston, Nelson 1850, 1884, 1973, 1086 

1 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Benson, Elmer A 1905 

Benson, Thomas W Opposite 1963 

Bentley, Elizabeth Terrill ( aliases : Helen ; Mary ; Helen Johns ; Helen 

Johnson; Helen Grant) 2031 

Berland, Morton Opposite 1963 

Berman, Daniel M 1850, 1886 

Bernard, John T 1894 

Bernay, Erie 1895 

Bernays, Hella Freud Opposite 1963 

Berne, Lewis Alan 2041 

Berrios, Antonio Rodriguez. ( See Rodriguez Berrios, Antonio. ) 

Berry, Harold F 1969 

Bertin, Gerald A Opposite 1963 

Bibernian, Herbert Joseph . Opposite 1963 

Billings, Warren K 1965 

Binford, Jessie F 1850, 1965 

Bishara, K. A 1969 

Bisk, Frank___r_ 1969 

Black. Hugo Lafayette 1846, opposite 1963 

Blauvelt, Mildred (aliases Mildred Brandt; Sylvia Vogel) 1838, 1972 

Bligh, Thea Opposite 1963 

Blum, Sara M Opposite 1963 

Bobb, James L 1969 

Bodde, Derk 1850, 1884, opposite 1963, 1965 

Bolinger, Dwight L 1850, 1886 

Boomhower, William G 1969 

Bowen, Theodore R 1850, 1886 

Bowman. Alvin A 1969 

Boyden, Elizabeth B Opposite 1963 

Braden, Anne (Mrs. Carl Braden) Opposite 1963 

Braden. Carl 1937 

Brameld, Theodore 1850, 1886 

Branch. G. Murrav Opposite 1963, 1965 

Brav. Stanley R 1850, 1884 

Brewer, James L 1965 

Brewster, Dorothy 1850, 1884, opposite 1963, 1965 

Bridges. Harry Renton (also known as Harry Dorgan) 2041 

Bromley, Clinton E 1965 

Bronstein. Eugene 1937 

Brooks, Phillips 1961 

Bryant. Valeda J Opposite 1963, 1965 

Buchler. Samuel 1969 

Budenz, Louis Francis 1838, 1895 

Buehrer, E. T 1850 

Buhai, Harriett * 1879-1881 

Rujosa, Alfonso 2041 

Burgum, Edwin Berry 1965 

Burlingame. R. F 1965 

Burnham, Forbes 2018, 2019 

Burr, Dudley H 1961 

Butler, Allan M Opposite 1963 

C 

Oadwallader, Mervyn L 1872 

Caldwell, Lena Opposite 1963 

Callejo, Mauricio 2036, 2041 

Calli.s, Henry A Opposite 1963 

Cameron, Clifford 1970 

Campbell, Frederick 1969 

Cannon, Walter B 1894 

Cantone, Joseph Opposite 1963 

Cardozo, D. N. Jessurun 1961 



' Appears as Harriet on p. 1880. 



INDEX ill 

Page 

Carnap, Rudolf 1965 

Carson, Saul 1^94 

Cassel, Samuel H 1965 

Castro Fidel 1839, 1&40, 1896, 1928, 1931, 

1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1988, 1990-1992, 1994^1996, 1998, 2000, 2007 

Castro, Raul 1999 

Cerney, Edwin H 196o 

Cerney, Isobel M 1965 

Chamberlin, Mark A 1965 

Champhe, Emil A 1965 

Chapin, John Hitchcock 1895 

Charry, Elias 1850, 1886 

Chermayeff, Serge Opposite 1963 

Chiesa. Luis Quero. (See Quero Chiesa, Luis.) 

Chomsky, Noam 1850, 1886 

Chworowsky, Karl M 1969 

Clark, Grenville 1850, 1884 

Clark, Samuel 1969 

Coe, Charles J 1954 

Coffee, Hubert S 1965 

Cohen, Conrad 1937 

Cohen, Harry 1954 

Cohen, Robert S Opposite 1963 

Colbv. Ruth Gage. ( See Gage-Colby, Ruth. ) 

Cole, Bertram Opposite 1963 

Coles, Joseph C, Jr 1965 

Colletti, Joseph 1969 

Collins, Charles 2041 

Collins. Harold (Hal) 2042 

Collins, J. G 1969 

Colon, Jesus 2036, 2040, 2041 

Comey, Lillian E 1973 

Conius, Lewis A 1969 

Corey, Paul Opposite 1963, 1965 

Cotto Oritz. Pablo 2036 

Covell, David R 1965 

Covici, Jerald M Opposite 1963 

Crane, Henry Hitt 1850, 1884, opposite 1963, 1965 

Crenovich, Michael (also known as Miguel Crenovieh ; Miguel Greno- 

vich) 1842, 1843, 2020, 2032-2045 (testimony) 

Crockett, George W., Jr 1965 

Cro.«;s. Ephraim 1850, 1965 

Cross, Lenore Wilson 1965 

Cummings, Felix 1936, 1937, 1960, 2026, 2034, 2035 

Currey, Mrs. Louis 1969 

Currie, Ralph D 2041 

D 

D'Aguiar, Peter 2014, 2015, 2018, 2019 

Daiber, Elfrieda 1965 

Dalrymple, Francis A. C 1969 

Daniels, Willem H Opposite 1963 

Darius. Adam 1973 

Davenport, John H Oppo^te 1963 

Davidson, W 1945 

Davila Semprit, Jose 2036 

Davi.s, Horace B 1850, 1886 

Dawber. Mark A 1961 

Dawson, Percy M Opposite 1963. 1965 

Day, Dorothy 1850. 1884 

Dean, Max 1965 

DeBoer, John J Opposite 1963 

Delany, Hubert T 1942'' 



2 Appears as Delaney. 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Dellinger, David 1861, 1932, 1942 

de los Rios, D. Enrique 1881 

de los Rios, Fernando 1894 

del Villar, Melitta (Mrs. Louis Amster ; born Emma Lopez-Nussa Carrion ; 

formerly Melitta Sheyne) 1837-1840. 1851-1949 (testimonv). 19.-)2, 

1953, 1957, 1960, 1976-1979, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 2006-2008, 2029 

De Maio, Ernest 1^50 

Dent, Boise 2041 

DePuy, Geraldine S 1925 

Diehsen, Herbert D 1969 

Dichter, Irving 2041 

Diehl, Lois 1965 

Dilliard, Irving 1937 

Dombrowski, James G Opposite 1963 

Donner, Frank J 1937 

Douglas, William Orville Opposite 1963 

Douglas, Wallace W 1850 

Drayer, Carl 1969 

Dubnau, David 1932 

Dubois, W. E. B 1965,2041 

Duckman, Jerome 1969 

Dunn, Zalman A 1969 

Durkin, James H 2041 

Dutto, Frank — _ 2041 * 

E 

Edises, Bertram Opposite 1963 

Einstein, Albert Opposite 1963 

Eisenstat, Zvl H 1969 

Eldridge, Cary DeWitt 2041 

Eldridge. Lewis A., Jr 1965 

Elliot, Willis E 1965 

Elzy, Robert 1969 

Emmanuelli, Juan 2036, 2039 

Ernst, Hugo 1961 

Evans, Flora 1969 

Evans, George 1928,2029 

Evans, John E 1850, 1961, 1965 

Evans, Joseph M 1961 

Evergood, Philip Opposite 1963 

F 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt 2041 

Faruck, Jarad 1961 

Faulkner, Stanley 1965 

Federman, Simon 1966 

Felshin, Max 1961 

Field, Robert D Opposite 1963 

Fishman, Milton D 1969 

Fishman, Moe 1966 

Flagg, Lewis, Jr 1969 

Flato, Charles S 1947 

Fletcher, Joseph F 1937, 1961 

Fletcher, Lenda G Opposite 1963 

Flores, Jesus 2041 

Flores, Jose 2041 

Forbes, Kenneth Ripley 1954, 1961 

Foster, Hazel E 1966 

France, Royal W 1954, opposite 1963, 1966 

France, Mrs. Royal W 1954 

France, Ruth C Opposite 1963 

Frank, Waldo 1861, 1973 

Frankel, Ruth Opposite 1963 

Frayde, Martha 1840, 

1841, 1920-1923, 1929, 1930, 1988-1990, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997 

• Appears as Duttro. 



ESTDEX V 

Page 

Frazier, Elizabeth P - 1^^^ 

Frenvear, Marion 1850. ISSfi 

Friedman, Bertha 1046. 1948, 1985. 1986 

Friedman, Leonard M 1850 

Frishkoff, Louis H 1^69 

Fritehman. Stephen H Opposite 1963. 1966 

Frve. G. Shubert 1^^ 

Fiirst, Joseph B 1966 

G 

Gaede. Erwin A Opposite 196.3 

Gaer. .Toseph ^ 2041 

Gage-Colby. Rnth 1861 

Gandia, Jnlio Pinto. (See Pinto Gandia, .Julio.) 

Garvin. Pauline P 1954 

Georjje. Hamilton 1969 

Gerena. Gil 20.S6 

Gibadlo, Charles Opposite 196.3 

Gibson. Richard 19.34-1937 

Gilbert. Richard 1966 

Gil de Lamadrid, Jose 2036 

Girven, Gloria 2041 

Glower. L G 1969 

Gluck, Isadore 1952 

Gluck. Sidney J 1838. 

1839, 1862, 1867, 1868, 1890, 1893, 1902, 1903, 1916, 1917, 1943, 1944, 

1949. 1951-1974 (testimony), 1976, 1978, 1982. 

Gnasnin, Charles G Opposite 1963 

Gnasnin. Mrs. Charles G Opposite 1963 

Goldburg. Robert E 1961, opposite 1963 

Goldman, Marcus I Opposite 1963 

Goldstein, Israel 1969 

Gonzalez. .Tose Luis. (Sec Luis Gonzalez, .Tose.) 

Goodlett. Carlton B 1850. 1884. 1966. 1973 * 

Gordon. .Tesse 1854. 185.5, 1870. 1872. 1927. 1928 

Gorman. Patrick E 1961 

Gorsline, Douglas 1861 

Goshal, Kumar 2018. 2029.2030 

Graham. Shirley (Mrs. W. E. B. Dubois) 1934. 1966. 2(H1 

Granger. William L 1969 

Grant. .Joanne 2017. 2018 

Green. Berta 1934 

Greenbanm, F 1969 

Greenberg, Sarah 1969 

Greenway. Cornelius 1969 

Grenovich. Miguel. ( See Crenovich. Michael. ) 

Griest. Ellwood Opposite 19&3 

Gross. Jjouis D 19fi9 

Guevara. Ernesto "Ch^" 2045 

Guinier. Ewart G 2041 

Gundlach. Rilnh H Opposite 196.3. 1966. 2041 

Gwatbmey, Robert 1966 

H 

Haber. Jack Tj Opposite 1963 

Haessler, Carl 1966 

Hall. Thomas C Opposite 1963 

Hallinan, Vincent Opposite 1963, 19RR 

Hamilton. Alice 196fi 

Hammett. Dashiell 2041 

Harris. Jjennnrd ^^_i 2041 

Harrison. William 1966 

Hart. Pearl M 1966 



* Misspelled Goodlet. 



Vl INDEX 

Page 

Haven, Dorothy Opposite 1963, 1966 

Haydon, A. Eustace 1850 

Healey, Richard 1966 

Heifetz, Robert J 1973 

Heiman, Julius 189j) 

Hernandez, Benito 2041 

Herrick, Marion E 1966 

Hester, Hugh B Opposite 1963, 1973 

Hickey, Edward J 1907 

Hill, Charles A 1850, 1886, 1961, 1966 

Hiskey, Clarence F 1895 

Hocking, William E 1850, 1884 

Hodson, Chester 1961 

Hoersch, Victor A 1966 

Hoffman, Morton 1966 

Holman, Halstead Opposite 1963 

Honzik, Charles H Opposite 1963 

Horowitz, Phillip 1966 

Howard, Daniel 1966, 1973 

Howell, Brandon 2041 

Howells, John N. M Opposite 1963 

Huberman, Leo 1842, 

1870, 1873-1876, opposite 1963, 20a3-2027 ( testimony ), 2030 

Hughes, Kenneth (DePew) 1966 

Hughes, Langston 2041 

Hunton, (William) Alphaeus 2041" 

I 

Ibanez, Frank 2036 

Ishmael, Richard 2019 

J 
Jackson, James E 2044 

Jacson, Frank. ( See Vandendreschd, Jacques Mornard. ) 

Jagan, Cheddi 1841, 1842, 1936, 1937, 1960, 2004, 2008, 2011-2016, 2018, 2020, 

2021, 2025, 2026, 2029-2031, 2034 
Jagan, Janet Rosenberg (Mrs. Cheddi Jagan) 1842, 

2011, 2012, 2017-2019, 2021, 2030 

James, Fleming, Sr 1961 

Jehle, Herbert 1850 

Jewett, Mary Lou Opposite 1963 

Jewett. V. Randolph Opposite 1963 

Jimerson, Earl W 1961 

Joedler, Allen 1969 

Johnson, Arnold 2042 

Johnson, John L 1966 

Johnson, Oakley C 1966 

Johnson, Stafford E 1961 

Jones, Ashton B Opposite 1963 

Jones, John Paul 1961, 1969 

Jones, Laurence J 1^4 

Jones, Thomas S 1969 

Joyce, Robert 2019 

K 

Kaelter, WoUi 1966 

Kahler, Erich Opposite 1963 

Kaldor, Nicolas 2015 

Kallen, Horace M Opposite 1963 

Kamen, Samxiel 1966 

Keithahn, Richard R 1954 

Kekkonen (Urho) 1973 



B Appears as Alpheus. 



INDEX vli 

Page 

Kelshall, Jack 2015 

Kenible, Edwin C Oi)iK)site 1963 

Kennedy, John F 1885 

Kent, Rockwell Opposite 1963, 1966 

Kilgore. Thomas, Jr 1961 

Kirchwey, Freda 1850, 1861, 1877, 1878, 1884, 1923 

Kirshner, Harold 1969 

Klein, Henry 2042 

Klein, Isaac 1966 

Koch, Leo F 1973 

Koenigsberg, Raphael 1880 

Kohn. Lillian 1969 

Kracek, Opal F 1966 

Krantz, Abraham 1966 

Kravltz, A. S Opposite 1963 

L 

Lachataniere, Romulo 2086 

Lamadrid, Jose Gil de. ( See Gil de Lamadrid, Jose. ) 

Lamb, Helen B 1850, 1884 

Lamont, (Corliss 1854, 1981 

Lane, Mark 1942 

Lathrop, John Howland 1961, 1969 

Lawrence, Edith C Opposite 1963 

Lawson, John Howard 1969 

Lazarus, Simon M 1839, 1881-1883, 1887 

Lealtad, Catherine D Opposite 1963 

Ijehrmen, Nathaniel S 1966 

Lenel, Irmgard Opposite 1963, 1966 

Lens, Sidney 1855 

Lenske, Aryay 1966 

Lockwood, Charles C Opposite 1963 

Loewy, Ariel G Opposite 1963 

Logan, B. H 1966 

Londe, Sol 1966 

London, Ephraim 2003 

Longstreth, Emily C. P Opposite 1963 

Longstreth. Walter C Opposite 1963 

Lopez-Xussa Carrion, Emma. (See del Villar, Melitta.) 

Lopez Rosas, Rafael 2036, 2039, 2041 

Lothrop, Donald G 1961 

Love, Edgar A 1966 

Luban, Francia 2041 

Luis Gonzalez, Jose - 2036 

Luscomb, Florence H Opposite 1963 

M 

MacDougall. Curtis D Opiwsite 1963 

Macewan, Arthur 1850 

Machado y Morales, Gerardo 1940 

MacMartin. Helen H 1966 

MacNair, Luther 2041 

Madison, Charles A Opposite 1963 

Mandel, Seymour Opposite 1963 

Marel, Abraham H 1969 

Marinsky, Harry 1966 

Marsalka, John M 1966 

Marsh, Arthur J 1969 

Marsh, Lafayette 196<? 

Marshak, Harry 1969 

Marshak, Stella 1969 

Masso. John D 1960 

May, Joseph H 1969 

May, Kenneth O 1850 

May, Sybil H 2023 

21-206 0-63— pt. 2—8 



viii INDEX 

Page 

Mayer, Henry Opposite 1963, 196G 

Mayer, Leo 19C6 

Mayer, Olive Opposite 1963, 1966 

McArthur, Harvey K 1966 

McCov, Frank W 1J>69 

McCrackin, Maurice 1937 

McGowan, Edv^^ard D 1961 

McManus, John T 1869, 1935, 1966 

McReynolds, David 1937 

McTernan, Francis J 1966 

McTernan, John T 1966 

McWilliams, Carey 187.") 

Meana, Carmen 2036 

Medina, Julio 1869, 1932, 1934 

Medina, Manuel 2041 

Meiklejohn, Alexander Opposite 1963 

Melish, William Howard 1937, 1966, 1969 

Miliband, Ralph 1872 

Miller, Alexander F 1969 

Miller, Clvde R 1850, 1886, opposite 1963 

Miller, Jay 1850 

Miller, Louis I 1838, 

1863, 1878, 1890-1895, 1898, 1902-1909, 1911-1914, 1918-1923, 1926, 
1927. 1953, 1974, 1979, 1982, 1984, 1989, 2007, 2029. 

Miller, Warren 1861, 1877-1880, 1923 

Mitchell, Walter 18.')0 

Moffatt, Stanley 1966, 1973 

Moncol, Andrew J 1966 

Monroe, James O 1966 

Morales, Juan Emraanuelli. ( t^ec Emmanuelli Morales, Juan. ) 

Morford, Richard 1966 

Morgan, Joe 1966 

Morris, Robert S Opposite 1963 

Morris, William 1872 

Mulzac, Hugh N 1961,1966 

Mundt, Carl 2005 

Munsell, Alex 1954 

Murad, Anatol Opposite 1963 

Murphy, George B., Jr 1966 

Muste, A. J 1850. 1884 

N 

Nahem, Joseph 2(M2 

Nathan, Otto 1966 

Nearing, Scott 1872 

Nelson, Clarence T. R 1850 

Nelson, Truman 1937 

Nelson, Walter M Opposite 1963, 1966 

Xewell, .L Pierce 1966 

Newman, Judy Peterson 2041 

NieLsen. Axel 1966 

Noar, Berenice 1966 

Norman, Winifred 2041 

Novick, Samuel 1895 

O 

O'Connor, Harvey 1937, 1949, opposite 1963 

O'Connor, Mrs. Harvey. {See O'Connor, Jessie.) 

O'Connor, James 1861. 1877, 1878, 1923, 1932 

O'Connor, Jessie (Mrs. Harvey O'Connor; nee Jessie Bross Lloyd) 1937 

O'Dwyer (William) ^ 2037 

Okhausen. George 1966 

Olynyk, Paul 1966 

Ormond. Mrs. John K 1966 

Orr, Paul Opposite 1963 



INDEX Ix 

Page 

Orr, Mrs. Paul Opposite 1963 

Ortiz, Pablo Cotto. {See Cotto Ortiz, Pablo. ) 

Osborne, Herman P 2041 

Osharin, Herbert I 1969 

Ossa, Ben 2041 

P 

Paine, George L Opposite 1963 

Parker, Clarence 1966 

Parsons, Howard L 1966 

Pauling, Linus (Carl) 1966 

Peet, Edward L 1966 

Perkins, William H 1954 

Perry, Lewis Opposite 1963 

Peterson, Arno A Opposite 1963 

Phelps, Dryden Linsley 1966 

PhiUp, Cyril 1942, 1954 

Pinto Gandia, Julio 2036, 2041 

PoUitt, Basil Riddiford 1851 

Pollock, Nancy R 1969 

Pontius, Dale 1850 

Pope, Arthur Upham 1966 

Potash, Irving 2044 

Potter, Russell Opposite 1963 

Powe, Ralph E 1966 

Pozenurok, S 1969 

Pratt, Arthur D., Jr 1973 

Price, Saul 1969 

Prio Socarras,, Carlos 1993 

Prusshin, Joseph L 1969 

Q 
Quero Chiesa, Luis 2036, 2041 

B 

Raber, Rudolph 1966 

Rabinowitz, Marcia G. (Mrs. Victor Rabinowitz) 1842, 

1843, 2003, 2004, 2009, 2011-2013. 2020. 2027-2032 (testimony) 

Rabinowitz, Victor 2009, 2013, 2014, 2017, 2020 

Ramirez, Emilio 2036 

Ramos, Pedro A 2036 

Ray, Randy 1969 

Regier, Erhart 2019 

Rein, David 1951, 1974. 2027. 2032 

Reynolds, Bertha C Opposite 1963, 1966 

Rhoden, Charles S 1969 

Rice, Michael 1937 

Richardson, Thomas 1970 

Riley, John S 1969 

Roberson, Mason A Opposite 1963 

Roberts, Holland (DeWitte) 1954 

Robertson, R. L 1973 

Roche, Owen 2041 

Rodes, Richard R 1966 

Rodriguez Berrios, Antonio 2036 

Rodriguez-Diaz 1990 

Rogow, Arnold A Opposite 1963 

Rominger, W. G 1966 

Rosas, Rafael L6pez. (See Lopez Rosas, Rafael.) 

Rosebury, Theodore Opposite 1963, 1966 

Rosenberg, E 1969 

Rosenberg, Norman 1969 

Rosenfeld, Herhert T Opposite 1963 



X rNDEX 

Page 

Rothenberg, Donald (Don) 1966 

Rubin, Daniel 1966 

Rubinstein, Annette T 1966 

Russell, Rose V Opposite 1963 

Rustin, Bayard 1854, 1855, 1861, 1870, 1872 

Ryan, W. Carson 1850 

S 

Santee, Virgil R 1966 

Saperstein, Celia 1&43-1945, 1953 

Sarvis, David 1966 

Schachter, Simon 1965, 1966 

Sehappes, Morris U 1966 

Schilpp, Guy E. A 1850 

Schlesinger, Hyman 1966 

Schmidt, Emma 1966 

Schoenfeld, Leslie Opposite 1963 

Schutzer, Arthur Opposite 1963 

Schwarz, Frederick Charles 2019 

Scott, Clinton Lee Opposite 1963 

Scott, Louis B Opposite 1963, 1966 

Scott, Peter Lee Opposite 1963 

Selden, Paul 1969 

Selly, Joseph P 2040, 2041 

Semprit, Jos4 Davila. ( See Dilvila Semprit, Jos6. ) 

Senk, Doris 2041 

Serri, Frank 1969 

Shaffer, Anatole 1966 

Sharp, Malcolm 1850 

Shepp, Archie 1973 

Shipler, Guy E 1850, 1884 

Shwenk, Emerson S 1966 

Siekevitz, Philip Opposite 1963 

Sigerist, Henry E 1894 

Silver, Edward N Opposite 1963 

Simons, C. Lebron 1966 

Singer, Rebecca Victoria (Mrs. Harry Stone) 1895 

Slater, Thomas L 1966 

Slochower, Harry 1969 

Sluis, Joost 2019 

Smith, Ferdinand C 2040,2041 

Smith, Louise Pettibone 1964-1966 

Socarras, Carlos Prio. (See Prio Socarras, Carlos.) 

Solomon, Ruth W 1966 

Soto, Emilio V 1841, 1987-1992 (testimony), 1994 

Soto Velez, Clemente 2036 

Spence, Homer 1880 

Sper, Felix 1969 

Spiers, John 1969 

Spiers, Mrs. John 1969 

Spofford, William B 1961,1966,1973 

Stalin, Jo.sef (losif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) 1881 

Stamm, Frederick K 1961 

Starfield, Martin J 1969 

Starr, William T 1850 

Sterne, Emma Gelders 1966 

Stone, Victoria (Mrs. Harry Stone). (See Singer, Rebecca Victoria.) 

Straus, Leon 2041 

Straus, Mark 1969 

Straus, Nancv P Opposite 1963 

Struik, Dirk J 1936, 1937 

Sugar, Maurice Opposite 1963, 1966 

Sutherland, Elizabeth 1860-1864, 1867. 1868, 1887 

Sweezy, Paul M 1870,2005.2009 



INDEX Xl 

T Page 

Taylor, Pauline 1966 

Thomas, Leona 2041 

Thomas, Norman 2019 

Thompson, E. P 1872 

Thcmipson, John B 1961 

Thorp, Anne 1850, 1886 

Toch, Hans Opposite 1963 

Tokar, Louis Opposite 1963 

Tompkins, Alva 1850 

Travis. Helen (also known as Maxine Levi ; Helen Levi Simon) 1839, 1881 

Travis, Robert C 1966 

Tremols, Jose G 1841,1992-1997 (testimony) 

TrigR, Charles Yoyng 1961 

Trotsky, Lev (Leon) (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein) 1839,1881 

Truman, Harry S Opposite 1963,1967 

Turner, Jeanette A. (Mrs. Jacob Turner; nee Stern) 1966 

U 

Uphaus, Ola H. (Mrs. Willard Uphaus) 1954 

Uphau.s, Willard 1936, 1937, 1953, 1954, 1959-1961, 1966, 2018 

Urey, Harold C 1964-1967 



Vandendreschd, Jacques Mornard (also known as Frank Jacson) 1881 

Van Kleeck, Mary 1966 

Vasquez, Frank 1969 

Velez, Clemente Soto. (See Soto Velez, Clemente. ) 

Vickers, Gerald A 1969 

Viereck, (George Sylvester) 1846 

Vincent, Clara M 1966 

W 

Walker, James 1966 

Walker, Moses S Opposite 1963 

Warden, Charles L 1969 

Warren, Susan (Mrs. Richard Frank; nee Susan Mildred Heiligman) 2042 

Washburn. Alfred H 1966 

Wasser, William Campbell 1966 

Waterman, Leroy 1966 

Waterman, Samuel B 1906 

Watts, Daniel 1937 

Weinstock, Louis 2044 

Weisberger, Stanley E Opposite 1963 

Wei.se, Myer 2042 

Wei.ss. Paul Opposite 1963 

Wellman. Lowell 1966 

Wesley, David 1937, 1949, opposite 1963 

Wester, Jacob J 1969 

Weston, Ross A 18.50 

White, Benny 1969 

White, Eliot Opposite 196?, 1966 

White, Inez 1969 

Whitman, .John Pratt 1954 

Wild, John 1961 

Willcox, Bertram F 1966 

Willcox, Henry Opposite 1963 

William, A. P Opposite 1963 

Williams, Aubrey 18.50 

Williams, David Rhys 1850, 1886 

Willoughby, George . Opposite 1963 

Wilson, H. H 18,50, 1884 

Wingate, Roy M 1966 

Winocur, Murray 2040, 2041 



Xii INDEX 

Page 

Wisner, Robert J Opposite 1963 

Witness Dr. "X" (Cuban refugee) 1841,1997-2002 (testimony) 

Wofsy, Leon 2041 

Woodbury, Frank T 1894 

Worley, Loyd F 1937 

Worthy, William 1854, 1855, 1861, 1869, 1870, 1872, 1877, 1878, 1923, 1933 

Wrage, Ernest J 1850 

Y 
Yachnes, Harold 1969 

Z 

Zemel, Louis 1954 

Oeganizations 

A 

Adam Darius Ballet Troupe 1973 

Air France (airline) 1912-1914, 1919 

Amalgamated Bank of New York 1916, 1917, 1952, 1953 

American Friends of Spanish Democracy : 

Medical Bureau 1838, 1893, 1894 

American Peace Crusade: 

New York Peace Council 1970 

Andrew Sisters Gospel Singers 1973 

Appolos, The (quartet) 1973 

Archie Shepp Jazz Quartet 1973 

B 

Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union, Local 1 (New 

York) 2041 

British Government : 

Commission of Inquiry into Disturbances in British Guiana 1842, 2025 

Bronx Fair Play for Cuba Committee. {See Fair Play for Cuba Commit- 
tee, Bronx chapter.) 

Brooklyn Committee for the Repeal of the Smith Act 1969 

Brooklyn Fair Play for Cuba Committee. {See Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee, Brooklyn chapter.) 

C 

Camp Midvale (New Jersey) 1935, 1943, 1944, 1953 

Canadian Peace Council 2018, 2032, 2044 

Chemical Bank New York Trust Co 1943, 1944, 1956 

Chicago Medical Aid to Cuba Committee {see also Medical Aid to Cuba 

Committee) 1839, 1889 

Christian Anti-Communism Crusade (Briti-sh Guiana) 2019 

Citizens Committee for Constitutional Liberties 1968 

Columbia University (New York City) 1973 

Comite Puertorriqueno pro Democracia Dominicana (San Juan, Puerto 

Rico) 2041 

Comite Puertorriqueno pro Wallace (San Juan, Puerto Rico) 2041 

Committee for Non-Violent Action 1884 

Communist Party, British Guiana. (See People's Progressive Party of 

British Guiana.) 
Communist Party of the United States of America : 
National Structure: 

National Committee 1838, 1843, 1895 

States and Territories : 
New York State: 

New York City Area : 
Kings County : 
Brooklyn : 

Flatbush Club 1838, 1972 

Second Assembly District : 
Coney Island Section : 

Coney Island Club 1843,2028 



INDEX xili 

Congress of American Revolutionary Writers. (See League of American 

Writers, First American Writers Congress.) Pas* 

Council for the Advancement of the Americas 2040, 2041 

Council on African Affairs . 2041 

Cuban Writers and Artists C<»ngress (Havana, Cuba) 1887 

D 

Detroit Medical Aid to Cuba Committee 1837, 1887-1889 

E 

Eighth World Festival of Youth and Students for Peace and Friendship. 
(See World Youth Festivals, Eighth Youth Festival.) 

Eli Lilly & Co. (Indianapolis, Ind.) 1991 

Emergency Civil Liberties Couunittee 1839, 1942, opposite 1963-1964 

E. R. Squibb & Sons (Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.) 1991, 1994 

F 

Faculty of Social Science. The 1843,2042-2044 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 1840, 1870, 1887, 1931, 1933, 1936, 1937 

Bronx chapter 1869 

Brooklyn chapter 1934 

Fellowship of Reconciliation 185.'* 

First American Writers Congress. (Sec entry under "League of American 
Writers." ) 

Flynn Christian Fellowship Houses (Baltimore, Md.) 1973 

Friends of British Guiana 1837, 1^1-1843, 1845, 1846, 1957, 2003-2045 

G 

Garment Committee for a Good Neighbor Policy (Provisional) 1935 

Guardian Library, The (British Guiana) 2012,2026,2044 



Harvard T'niversity (Cambridge, Mass.) 1973 

Hospital Nacional (Havana, Cuba) 1874, 

1896, 1920-1924,1929, 1988, 1997, 1998, 2000 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees' International Alliance and Bartenders' 

International League of America 1961 

Local 6 (New York) 2041 



Inter-continental Student Service Committee (Chicago, 111.) 1973 

Interfaith Committee for Peace Action 1900, 1961 

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 2019 

International Union of Revolutionary Writers (sec also League of Ameri- 
can Writers) 2024 

J 
Jefferson School of Social Science 1838, 1971, 20*3 



League of American Writers (see also International Union of Revolution- 
ary Writers) 2023, 2024 

First American Writers Congress, April 26-28, 1935 (New York City) 

(also known as Congress of American Revolutionary Writers). 2024 

Lederle Laboratories Division (American Cyanamid Co.) (New 

York) 1991, 2001 

Liberacion Publishing Association 2039 

Liberation Committee for Africa 1937 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 2041 

Los Angeles Medical Aid to Cuba Committee («ee also Medical Aid to Cuba 

Committee) 1839. 1879, 1881-1883, 1888, 1889, 1919 

Lower Harlem Tenants League, New York City 2041 



xiv INDEX 

M 

Page 

Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated 1961 

Medical Aid to Cuba Committee (see also: Chicago Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee, Detroit Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, Los Angeles Medi- 
cal Aid to Cuba Committee) 1837- 

1841, 1845, 1846, 1848, 1851-2003, 2006-2008, 2029 
Merck & Co. : 

Merck Sharp & Dohme 1994,2001 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 1839, 

1882, 1883, 2041, 20r)6 

Monthly Review Associates 1874, 1875, 2008, 2009 

Mutualista Obrera Puertarriquena 2041 

N 

National Assembly for Democratic Rights 1839, 1964-1968 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 2041 

National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. : 

Ohio 1973 

National Hospital, Havana, Cuba. (See Hospital Nacional, Havana, 

Cuba.) 

National Maritime Union 2025, 2026, 2041 

New York Peace Council of the American Peace Crusade. (See entry 

under American Peace Crusade.) 

New York Youth Council 2041 

North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democracy 1894 

O 
Office and Professional Workers of America, United 2041 

P 

Pan American Airways 1904 

Parke-Davis & Co 19M 

People's Progressive Party of British Guiana 1841, 

1842, 20O4, 2011-2013, 2017-2019, 2025, 2030 

Protestant Committee for Latin America 2041 

Public Workers of America, United 2041 

S 

School of Living (Santa Cruz, Calif.) 1973 

Sharp & Dohme. (See entry under Merck & Co.) 

Simon and Schuster (publishers) 1868 

Sons and Daughters of Panama 2041 

Squibb & Sons. (See E. R. Squibb & Sons.) 

Stanford University (Stanford, Calif.) 1973 

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 1937 

T 

Tennessee Council on Human Relations 1973 

Trade Union Leadership Council (Detroit) 1973 

Trades Union Council (British Guiana) 2019 

U 

United Force Party (British Guiana) 2014 

United States Festival Committee. (See entry under World Youth Festi- 
vals, Eighth Youth Festival.) 
U.S. Government: 

Commerce, Department of : 

Foreign Trade Division 1901, 1922, 1923 

Office of Export Control 1924, 1925 



INDEX XV 

U.S. Government — Continued 

State, Department of : Pa^e 

Passport Division 1877, 1878, 1901, 1904-1907, 1911, 1913 

Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) 1882, 

1883, 1971, 2022, 2043 

University of North Carolina 1973 

University of Puerto Rico 1936, 1937 

W 

West Side Committee for Friendly Relations with Cuba 1854, 1932 

World Fellowship, Inc. (including World Fellowship of Faiths) 1936, 

1937, 1953-1960 

Summer Vacation and Conference Center (Conway, N.H.) 1953-1956 

World Fellowship of Faiths. ( See World Fellowship Inc. ) 
World Health Organization : 

Pan American Health Organization 1947 

Pan American Medical Congress (1962, Minneapolis, Minn.) 1962 

World Youth Festivals : 

Eighth Youth Festival, July 29-August 6, 1962 (Helsinki, Finland) __ 1839, 

1972, 1973 
United States Festival Committee 1973 

Publications 

Ahora 2035-2038 

Baltimore American 1858 

Bulletin of the League of American Writers, The 2023 

Catholic Worker, The___l 1884 

Churchman, The 1884 

Liberacion 2037-2089 

Monthly Review (magazine) 1842,1870,1871,2005,2009 

Nation, The 1884, 1927 

National Guardian 1842, 1928 

Salt of the Earth (film) 1882 

San Francisco Sun-Reporter 1884 

Spectiitor (Columbia University publication) 1973 

Thunderer (newspaper, British Guiana) 2034 

Tocsin (Harvard University publication) 1973 

o 



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