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Full text of "U.S. Communist Party assistance to foreign Communist parties (Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade) Hearing"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



us Doc 2.791 



Committee on Uxk-^erican Activities 
House 
88th Congress 



COEES^S 



1* U.S. CoioEnmist Party assistance to foreign 
Coisimmist patties (Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade) ^o'"t^ 

2. Testimony of Eev. James E. Bobinson ^^ 1 

2. Violations of State Department regulations ---^ 
and pro-Castro propaganda activities in the ^ 
United States. Part 1 

4o M II M II Part 2 

5. •• « « II Part 3 

6. « w II » tt Errata sheet 

7. II « B « Part 4 

8. H H H » H Errata sheet 

9. « tt M s Part 5 






U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN 

COMMUNIST PARTIES 

(VETERANS OF THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE or REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 29, 1963 



INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




.2o 1963 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
22-139 O WASHINGTON : 1963 



as'"^ 






RICHARD H. I< 
GEORGE F. SE 






t4^u^Ji^ 






an 



WILLIAM M. T 

JOE R. POOL, ' ^^„gl^ 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Synopsis 601 

July 29, 1963: Testimony of: Moe (Mosess) Fishman ' 607 

Index i 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Repeesentatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

GEORGE F. SENNER, Jr., Arizona JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

u 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Synopsis 601 

July 29, 1963: Testimony of: Moe (Mosess) Fishman ' 607 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
* t * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

RtTLE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of vm-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclis 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such commitee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent rei)orts 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 88TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signatiire of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* * * * * * • * 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and iw 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

On July 29. 1963, a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities held a public hearin": in Washin^on, D.C., on the activities 
of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) in solicit- 
ing from the American public fluids and materials which it pretended 
would be used to assist families of persons imprisoned in Spain be- 
cause they had taken part in strikes in the spring of 1962. 

A principal legislative purpose of the committee was to determine 
the necessity for remedial legislation requiring a more candid dis- 
closure of the purposes and objectives of solicitations conducted by 
Communist-oriented organizations in the United States for the ben- 
efit of foreign Communist persons, parties, or interests. The commit- 
tee was also considering the advisability of amending the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938 to extend the definition of the term 
"agent of a foreign principal" so as more effectively to accomplish the 
purposes of the Act. 

The subcommittee was composed of Representatives William M. 
Tuck (chairman), Joe R. Pool, Richard H. Ichord, Donald C. Bruce, 
and Henry C. Schadeberg. 

The VALB was cited as subversive and Communist by the ITnited 
States Attorney General in 1947 and found by the Subversive Activi- 
ties Control Board (SACB) in 1955 to be a Communist-front organi- 
zation and, as such, required to register under the Liternal Security 
Act of 1950. The order of the Board is presently on appeal to the 
Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia. 

Testimony before the Board clearly shows that the VALB was 
created in accordance with directives issued by the Politburo of the 
Communist Party, U.S.A., beginning in late 1937, in anticipation of 
the return of veterans from Spain. These directives were issued at a 
series of meetings at which representatives of the Comintern were 
in attendance, particularly Fred Brown of the staff of Gerhart Eisler, 
who was then the Comintern representative in the United States. 
According to the report of the SACB, dated December 21, 1955, 
approximately 3.000 men went to Spain from the TTnited States to 
serve in the 15th Tntematinal Brigade. Of this number, 1,800 re- 
turned to the ITnited States and less than 600 survive today. 

Official Communist Party reports established that the principal 
objective and major purpose of the VALB was to serve as an integral 
part of the Communist Party apparatus and to advance Marxism- 
Leninism and Communist influence in the United States. It also kept 
alive the struggle for a Communist victory in Spain as the back door 
to Latin America, at the same time providing a vigorous group of 
men to carry out party programs. 

Preliminary investigation by the committee indicated that, under the 
guise of assisting "political prisoners" and "striking workers," the 
VALB has sought financial and other contributions from United 
States citizens for the purpose of assisting the Communist under- 
ground movement in Spain. 

601 



602 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Appearing as the sole witness before the subcommittee was Moe 
(Mosess) Fishman, executive secretary of the VALB. A native of 
New York City, Mr. Fishman testified that he received his elementary 
and secondary schoolinof in that city and that he had attended the 
City Collefre of New York from 1932 until about 1935, earning credits 
equivalent to 2 years of college. "\^nien questioned on nearly all other 
subjects, however, Mr. Fishman repeatedly invoked the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution as his reasons for refusing; to answer. 

Mr. Fishman refused to say whether he was presently the executive 
secretaiy or secretary of tlie VALB and whether he had been employed 
in either one of those positions since 1950. He also declined to state 
if he was ever affiliated with the VALB in any capacity. Mr. Fishman 
refused, on his previously stated grounds, to answer any questions per- 
tniniUjO- to the organization and activities of the VALB. 

The subcommittee counsel established for the record that the VALB 
is located at Room 405, 49 East 21st Street, New York, N.Y.. which is 
also the address of the headquai'ters of the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born (ACPFB), an organization cited as 
subversive and Communist by the Attorney General in 1948. "When 
asked if the VALB and the ACPFB occupied the same address in 
New York. Mr. Fishman declined to testify. 

Introduced in evidence at the hearing was a photostatic copy of an 
advertisement bearing the caption "what about the children?" which 
appeared on page 9 of the January 24, 1963, issue of the National 
fhia.rdian. At the lower left of the advertisement appeared a coupon 
for clipping, with the VALB of New York, N.Y., listed as the ad- 
dressee and containing the notation at the bottom : "Please make checks 
to: M. Fishman. Secretary."' 

The advertisement was an appeal by the VALB on behalf of the 
"wives and children" of men in Spain "now imprisoned because they 
dared to take part in the great strikes of 1962." It urged readers to 
make one of these families their concern and requested that a coupon 
in the advertisement be clipped and mailed to the VALB. An iden- 
tical advertisement appeared on page 10 of the February 3, 1963, issue 
of The Worker, official publication of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Fishman, in response to questioning, refused to state whether he 
was the same individual referred to in the advertisements, whether he 
wrote the copy for the adA^ertisements, or whether he arranged for the 
insertion of the ads in either the National Guardian or The Worker. 

The subcommittee counsel introduced in evidence copies of 
mimeographed VALB form letters mailed to six individuals who 
sent inquiries to the VALB in response to the foregoing published 
advertisements. Each letter, bearing the signature of Mr. Fishman 
as VALB secretary, advised the addressee to forward '•''good used 
clothing for men, women and children" to a certain person in Spain, 
whose name and address was typed at the bottom of the letter. The 
persons whose names appeared on the six letters as intended recipients 
of aid were: Teresa Carbajar de Andres, Matilde Morales, Encar- 
nacion Nunez Velanos, Sofia Castra Martinez, Ana Hernandez Her- 
nandez and Eulogia del Castillo.^ The subcommittee counsel disclosed 



1 Committee Investigation revealed misspellinfrs in two of the above names. The correct 
spellinRs are : Teresa Carvnjal de Andres and Sofia Cantro Martinez. Tiie investigation fur- 
tiier revealed that two other names were incomplete, the full names being : Matilde Morales 
Arcos and Eulogia de Castillo Villarrubia. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 603 

that all these individuals represented families of persons who had been 
imprisoned for Communist activities at various times since the 
Spanish Civil War. Committee information also revealed, however, 
that none of them is presently in prison for acts connnitted during the 
spring strikes of 1962, as claimed by the VALB in its advertisements. 
Moreover, four were in jail at the time the VALB advertise- 
ments were published and their imprisonment (for Communist ac- 
tivities) predated, and was in no way associated with, the spring 
strikes of 1962. 

Mr. Fishman was questioned extensively regarding each Spanish 
family recommended for relief by the VALB. He took refuge behind 
the first and fifth amendments when asked if he was the author of the 
form letters and if he actually mailed them in response to inquiries 
received from readers of the VALB advertisements. Moreover, he 
declined to reveal the source from which the names of the Spanish 
families were obtained. Wlien specifically asked whether he had ob- 
tained the names from either representatives of the Central Committee 
of the Communist Party of Spain or from any functionary of the 
Communist Party, U.S.A., Mr. Fishman also refused to answer. 

Mr. Fishman declined to provide the committee with any informa- 
tion regarding the backgrounds of the families who were listed on the 
form letters. He also refused to disclose the names and addresses of 
other persons residing in Spain on whose behalf he was seeking sup- 
plies and contributions on the alleged basis that they were inadequately 
fed and clothed. When asked why he failed to indicate in either his 
advertisements or in his letters the fact that the intended recipients of 
aid were actually families of persons imprisoned because of Com- 
munist activities, Mr. Fishman again invoked the same constitutional 
privileges. 

On the date of the hearing, the committee had not completed its 
investigation into the background of two additional individuals in 
Spain who had been rcommended as recipients of relief in letters 
signed by Mr. Fishman. The two were Ana Salvador Martin and 
Maria Paz Roda Zarabozo. 

The committee has since learned that Ana Salvador Martin is a 
widow residing in Madrid, who has been arrested on several occasions 
on charges of harboring Communist Party members sought by Span- 
ish authorities. Her son, Gregorio Valero Salvador, has been in prison 
in Spain since 1944, when he was arrested for working in underground 
activities of the Communist Party. 

Maria Paz Roda Zarabozo, also living in Madrid, is the wife of 
Aladino Cuervo Rodriguez, who has been imprisoned in Spain since 
February 1960 on charges that he was a member of the Spanish 
Communist Party directly responsible for an underground or.o-aniza- 
tion operating in northern Spain. Senora Roda, then a child, was 
sent to live in the Soviet ITnion in 1987, during the Spanish Civil War. 
She reportedly married her now imprisoned Spanish Communist hus- 
band, CuerA^o Rodriguez, while living there. She did not return to 
Spain until 1956. 

Mr. Fishman stated that he was unaware of the fact that high 
ranking Communist Party officials have actually supported and con- 
firmed the Spanish Government's claim that the 1962 strikes were led 
and inspired by Communists. At this point, an article appearing in 

22t-139 0-^63 2 



604 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

the January 1963 issue of World Marxist Review, an official organ of 
the world Communist movement, was introduced in evidence. The 
article, entitled "Communists on Trial in Spain," was written by 
Sebastian Sapirain, a member of the Central Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of Spain. 
Sapirain wrote, in part : 

Last spring Spain saw one of the biggest strike movements in the history of 
the working class of our country. The stril^es * * * embraced some 26 provinces 
* * *. Although at first a struggle for wage demands, the political character 
of the strikes soon became apparent. 

Then, referring to the scale of the strikes, Sapirain said : 

This is mainly due to the persevering work conducted by the Communist Party. 

In the article, Sapirain quoted with approval a statement made by 
Ramon Ormazabal Tito,^ a member of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of Spain, when the latter was arrested on June 14, 
1962, in Biscay, together with several other Communists. Ramon 
Onnazabal Tito ^ stated : 

I declare that the Communist Party assumes the responsibility for the recent 
big strikes in Euzkadi * • * and throughout Spain. 

The subcommittee counsel asked Mr. Fishman whether it was a fact 
that the immediate objective of the VALB in its present fund-raising 
and other activities is to assist in strengthening the Communist under- 
ground in Spain and, also to that end to obtain the release of im- 
prisoned Communists. In response to this question, Mr. Fishman 
stated that he had no knowledge or belief concerning the subject. 

The March 1962 issue of Esquire magazine contained an article titled 
"Tlie Abraham Lincoln Brigade Revisited," by Brock Brower. The 
author, in reporting an interview Avith Mr. Fishman, quoted the wit- 
ness as making the following statement witli respect to the VALB. 

I'm the organization. There's no other thing. If there's something to decide, 
I talk it over with the guys, and then decide what I'm going to do. Cockeyed, 
but that's the way it is. 

Mr. Fishman again invoked the first and fifth amendments when 
asked if the statement attributed to him in the Esquire magazine 
article was correct. 

The subcommittee's counsel introduced a copy of page 4 of the 
January 11, 1943, issue of the Daily Worker, official Commimist 
publication, containing an article by Sender Grarlin, titled "Chelsea 
Communists — Community Patriots." The article identified Mr. Fish- 
man as a Spanish veteran and as the chairman of the West Side 
Village Club of the Communist Party of New York. Mr. Fishman 
refused to confirm or deny whether he was the same person whose 
name appeared in Sender Garlin's article. He likewise declined to 
state if he was presently a member of the Communist Party and if he 
had been a party member following the. close of World War II. 

Mr. Fishman again invoked the first and fifth amendments when 
asked if he had ever been in Spain, if he served in the International 
Brigade in the Spanish Civil War from 1937 to 1938, and whether the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade was a Communist-organized unit. 



2 Correct spelling "Tlfe." 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 605 

A copy of Mr. Fishman's passport application, dated March 31, 
1937, was introduced in evidence by the subcommittee counsel. Ac- 
cording to that application, Mr. Fishman swore that he intended to 
use a U.S. passport for 3 months for the purpose of visiting relatives 
in England, France, and Poland. Appended to the application was 
an affidavit signed by Mr. Fishman which certified that he did not 
intend to use his passport for travel to Spain. 

Mr. Fishman when questioned by the committee, declined to state 
whether, at the time he swore to the application, he actually intended 
to travel to Spain to serve the Communist cause in the International 
Brigade, rather than to visit relatives in other countries. 

Mr. Fishman was showni a copy of another passport application, 
dated March 16, 1961, bearing the signature of Mosess Fishman, to- 
gether with an attached statement signed by the witness. Mr. Fish- 
man's statement, appended to his application, stated : 

I fought in the International Brigade which was part of the Spanish Repub: 
lican Army for parts of 1937 and 1938 but I did not talje an oath of allegiance to 
the Spanish Government nor did I participate in their electoral activities or 
elections. 

He continued to invoke the first and fifth amendments and refused 
to affirm or deny that he was tlie Mosess Fishman who had signed this 
passport application and attached statement. The witness also re- 
fused to state whether he falsely certified on his application the pur- 
poses and places of his intended visit. The committee disclosed that 
while Mr. Fishman swore on the application that he intended to visit 
France, he had actually traveled to Communist East Germany to at- 
tend a meeting of the Anti-Fascist Committee during the week of July 
18 to 25, 1961. According to the previously mentioned Esquire maga- 
zine article, Mr. Fishman met some of his associates in the Interna- 
tional Brigade on that occasion and heard repeated in German the 
farewell speech to the International Brigades originally given in 
Spanish by "La Pasionaria" (Dolores Ibarruri, a meniber of the 
Central Committee of the Spanish Communist Party) at the close of 
the Spanish Civil War. Mr. Fishman refused to answer several ques- 
tions put to him regarding the Esquire report of his attendance at this 
meeting in Communist-held territory. 

The witness, invoking the first and fifth amendments, declined to 
answer a series of questions regarding "La Pasionaria". Mr. Fish- 
man denied having any communication with her since 1961 — but then 
invoked constitutional privilege when asked whether he had corre- 
sponded with her to solicit a message she had sent to a VALB rally 
held in New York City during the spring of 1962. 

Evidence offered at the hearing disclosed that in 1946 Mr. Fish- 
man participated in the action of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee (JAFRC) in diverting to the Spanish Communist un- 
derground clothing and other items it had ostensibly collected for 
the relief of persons suffering in Spain. (The JAFRC was cited as 
subversive and Communist by the U.S. Attorney General in 1947.) 
Mr. Fishman, in invoking the first and fifth amendments, refused to 
state whether he was affiliated with the JAFRC; however, he denied 
the existence of any fraud in connection with JAFRC's collection 
activities. 



606 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. Fishman testified that, according to his knowledge, the VALB 
has not made application for registration with the U.S. Attorney 
General as an agent of a foreign principal pursuant to the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938. 

At the conclusion of the hearing, the chairman of the subcommittee 
stated that "probably there are grounds for further investigation of 
this matter by the Justice Department, in view of the likelihood of 
this witness having violated section 1341 of Title 18 of the United 
States Code with respect to using the mails for fraudulent purposes 
and violated also section 1001 of the same title in regard to fraudulent 
statements or representations in connection with any matter or thing 
within the jurisdiction of any agency of the United States." Tlie sub- 
committee chairman suggested that the staff forward the evidence and 
testimony of Mr. Fishman to the Department of Justice for whatever 
action it might deem appropriate. 



U.S. COMMUNIST PARTY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN 

COMMUNIST PARTIES 

(Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade) 



MONDAY, JULY 29, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

subcommiitee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in Room 219, Cannon House Office Build- 
mg, Washington, D.C, Honorable William M. Tuck (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives William M. Tuck, of Vir- 
ginia; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri; Donald 
C. Bruce, of Indiana; and Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Tuck, Pool, Ichord, 
and Bruce. 

Committee member also present : Representative John M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetterman, investigator. 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The subcommittee is convened to conduct hearings upon the subjects 
of inquiry and for the legislative purposes set forth in a committee 
resolution adopted June 26, 1963. I offer this resolution for the record. 
It reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to activities of members and aflBliates of the 
Communist Party of the United States in obtaining money and the shipment of 
property, ostensibly for families of alleged political prisoners said to be incar- 
cerated in Spanish jails, through false and fraudulent representations to the 
American public, for the following legislative purposes : 

1. Consideration of the advisability of : 

A. Amending Title 22, USC, 611(c), by extending definition of the term "Agent 
of a Foreign Principal" so as to remove any doubt as to what should be the 
true test of agency within the meaning of this Act. 

B. Amending the Internal Security Act of 1950 so as to make it a federal 
offense to engage in a scheme to defraud by obtaining or attempting to obtain 
money or property for the purpose of promoting or benefiting the government 
of a foreign country, foreign political parties and persons, partnerships, associa- 

607 



608 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

tions, corporations, organizations or other combinations of individuals, organized 
under the laws of, or having its principal place of business in, a foreign coun- 
try, through false and fraudulent representations. 

2. Th** execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act and all other laws, the subject matter of which is 
within the jurisdiction of this Committee, the legislative purpose being to exer- 
cise continuous watchfulness of the execution of these laws, to assist the Con- 
gress in appraising the administration of such laws, and in developing such 
amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 

We meet today to receive testimony relating to certain activities 
of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, an organization 
cited as subversive and Communist by the Attorney General in 1947 
and, in 1955, found by the Subversive Activities Control Board to be 
a Communist-front organization and, as such, required to register 
under the Internal Security Act of 1950. The order of the Board is 
prpsentlv on appeal to the Court of Appeals in the District of 
Columbia. 

Preliminary investigation indicates that, under the guise of assist- 
ing "political prisoners" and "striking workers," the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade has, in fact, sought financial and other 
contributions from United States citizens for the purpose of assisting 
the Communist movement in Spain. 

We desire to explore the nature and extent of these activities with 
a view toward determining the necessity for remedial legislation, re- 
quiring more adequate disclosure of the purposes and objectives of 
solicitations conducted by such organizations, and persons acting on 
their behalf, and making punishable the failure to make such dis- 
closures. 

Inquiry for such purpose in no way impinges upon the first amend- 
ment rights of any person or group seeking to obtain the support of 
the American public, even though for Communist enterprises. As was 
said by Mr. Justice Frankfurter, in writing for the Supreme Court 
majority in the Communist Party case : 

Where the mask of anonymity which an organization's members wear serves the 
double purpose of protecting them from popular prejudice and of enabling them 
to cover over a foreign-directed conspiracy, infiltrate into other groups, and 
enlist the support of persons who would not, if the truth were revealed, lend 
their support, it would be a distortion of the First Amendment to hold that it 
prohibits Congress from removing the masls. 

I now offer for the record the order of appointment of this subcom- 
mittee, as follows : 

July 11, 1963. 
TO : Mr. Francis J. McNamara 
Director 
Committee on Un- American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck as Chairman, and Honorable Joe 
R. Pool, Honorable Richard Ichord, Honorable Donald C. Bruce, and Honorable 
Henry C. Sehadeberg, as associate members, to conduct a hearing in Washing- 
ton, D.C., on Monday. July 29, 1963, at 10 a.m., on subjects under investigation 
by the Committee and take such testimony on said day or succeeding days, as 
it may deem necessary. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 609 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 11th day of July, 196.3. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

I note tliat Mr. Sc]iadeber<»: is not here and that Mr. Ashbrook, the 
g:entleman from Ohio, a member of the full committee is present. 

Are you ready, Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLp]. Would Mosess Fishman please come forward ? 

Mr. Tuck. Would you rise and raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the Avhole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

Mr. Tuck. You may be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF MOE (MOSESS) FISHMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Fishman. Just a moment, please. 

My name is Moe Fishman. I live at 421 West 24th Street, New 
York City, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTn.E. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Til Fourteenth Street, Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, you stated your first name to be "Moe," 
M-o-e. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you also known as Mosess Fishman? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You also identify yourself as M, Fishman ? 

Mr. Fishman. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Fishman. September 28, 1915, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would j'ou relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Fishman. I went through and received credits equivalent to 
the end of the sophomore term in the College of the City of New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the public school system and, if so, 
would you state where and for what years? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. I, going backwards, graduated from Stuy- 
vesant High School and attended public schools in Manhattan, Queens, 
the Bronx, and Brooklyn. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the university? 

Mr. Fishman. If you are referring to the City College of New 
York, yes. 



610 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. NrTTLE. During what years were you in attendance there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. 1932 through about 1935. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any degree from that institution? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Well, at this point I am going to have to refuse to 
answer, for the following reasons: I don't think that this committee 
of Congress has the right to investigate the subject which was read by 
the chairman of the committee and that, even if it had, my conscience 
won't permit me to cooperate further in this type of investigation, be- 
cause it violates the first amendment. 

The question that has just been asked certainly is not pertinent to this 
inquiry. And I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not 
to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently the executive secretary or secretary 
of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Well, obviously, for the reasons that I have given, I 
invoke the privilege not to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you not been employed since 1950 

Mr. FoRER. Excuse me a minute. 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. FoRER. Would you repeat ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you not been employed since 1950 as the execu- 
tive secretary of that organization ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. One moment, please. 

(Witness confers with coimsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer for the reasons I gave at the 
beginning. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Does not that organization maintain offices at Room 
405, 49 East 21st Street, New York 10, New York? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, I hand you a photostatic copy of an 
advertisement bearing the caption, "what about the childreii?" 
marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 1," which appeared 
at page 9 of the January 24, 1963, issue of the National Guardian. 

At the lower left of the advertisement appears a coupon for clipping, 
with the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, New York, New 
York, as the addressee, containing a notation at the bottom, "Please 
make checks to: M. Fishman, Secretary." 

Are you not the M. Fishman whose name appears thereon as 
secretary ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fishman. Well, I am refusing on the same grounds. But I do 
want to go on record in saying that I think it is a very fine ad. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We shall ask you more questions about it and we 
hope you will have some further statements to make in connection 
with it. 

I now hand you a photostatic copy of page 10 of the official Com- 
munist publication. The Worker, of Februaiy 3, 1963, marked for 
identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 2." 

You will note that the item titled "what about the children?" 
identical to that contained as an advertisement in the National Guard- 
ian, Exliibit 1, appears in Exhibit 2. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 611 

Now, did you, as executive secretaiy of the Abraham Lincoln Bri- 
gade, cause these items to be published in the National Guardian and 
The Worher% 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, and again 
would point out that there isn't one iota of difference between this one 
and the other one that appeared in the other paper, and it may have 
appeared in many more, as well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that Exhibits 1 and 2 be received 
in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck, 1 ley will be received, unless there is objection. 

(Documents marked "Fishman Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respectively. 
Fishman Exhibit No. 1 follows; Fishman Exhibit No. 2 retained in 
committee files.) 



22-139 O - 63 



612 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



FiSHMAN Exhibit No. 1 



|«imyy21.1963 



NATIONAL GUARDIAN 9 



ADVnTISEHENT 




THIS IS THE hearl-rendlnf 
question that cornea to us 
from the prisoners languishing 
in the hateful jaiis of Franco 
Spain: 

"Help <yur wii^es and chil- 
dren . . . here, in prison, our 
thoughts are with them every 
day. It is bitter cold in Spain 
thii winter. We had little 
enoiiflh to givt them irhen xce 
were xeith them. What u;il/ 
happen to them now?" 



THIS IS THE MESSAGE sent to us from inside the 
prison walls — from an Asturian miner, a f»c- 
tory worker from Barcelona, a railroad worker from 
Valencia and all the others now imprisoned be- 
cause tfiey dared to take part m the great strikes 
of 1962. 

)uan Abad has a vvife and frve children . . . tf>e 
oldest: 7. Sebastian Garcia has been torn away 
from his two girls, one a poliomyelitis victim. And 
so it goes down the list Thirty-five families in 
all. Some as large as nne, some smaller . . . but all 
vwth the same problem — how to stay alive, keep 
warm, get something to m. And how to cope 
with the everyday problems that all families have. 



A ABJIAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

Room 405. 49 I. 21«» St . New Yori 10. N.Y. 

I wMit f li«lp. Mmm »*m4 m% all the 4Mail( at 



I wMrt *• malia a MMtributten. H«n it it *$.. 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

cirr _ 

Seo* 
*im*«M nuke ctwdcs to: M. F 



what 



/ 



about Q^^ 
the ^^ 



> 



children 



•-'V 



How THIS WAS DONE when Papa was home 
was itself a heart - breaking, back - breaking 
job in Franco Spain. And now Papa is away be- 
cause he risked everything to make a Ittle more 
for his family ... a little better life Now, how 
will riiey live? 

It IS typical of these men to thmk first of their 
families. And it is natural that they should turn 
to us for help, because we've been helping Franco's 
prisoners and their families for years. We are 
makinf5 each of these families the concern of all 
of us. Wont you help by making one of them 
your particular concern' It takes so linle — to do 
so muck. 

A small effort on your part wilt %o a long 
way in Spain, and mn even longer way in 
the hearts of tliMe Spaniards who gare 
everytKinf for freedom. Clip tfie ceapon, 
(left) and fiitd out how you can bdp. W« 
wSI put you hi direct contact with ■ \ 
ilk family and tell ymt hov yett « 
Htem. Dea't delay ... we remeMbtr how 
CRUEL tte %p»nyk wintw cm W. 



Bsa«% — »»•»»»» 



«« « «« « »»»»*»*«* « *•«»■**•—*»»»■*•*»' 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 613 

Mr. Tucii. I would like to get in the record at this point that the 
witness relied on the first amendment and also on the fifth amendment. 
We frequently hear witnesses who appear before this committee, as 
we now hear this witness, say that inquiries conducted by this com- 
mittee pursuant to congressional mandate are violative of the first 
amendment rights. 

Although the witness has offered the first amendment claim along 
with the fifth amendment privilege, it must be understood that 
while, in a proper case, we accept the fifth amendment privilege, we 
do not regard the invocation of the first amendment by the witness as 
a valid ground for failure to testify. 

The Supreme Court, with the possible exception of Mr. Justice 
Black, have held with striking unanimity, particularly in the recent 
Communist Party case, that the Bill of Rights does not protect from 
inquiry or disclosure the machinations of a conspiracy, operating in 
concealment, under foreign control, which seeks to destroy the Bill of 
Rights itself and to displace our free form of government by a Soviet- 
style dictatorship. 

I think this should go into the record, not only as it relates to the 
testimony of this witness, but of other witnesses who appear before 
this committee from time to time, relying also on the first amendment. 

We recognize that any witness has a right under the Constitution, 
in a proper case and under the proper circumstances, to rely upon the 
fifth amendment. But we reject any reliance upon the firet amend- 
ment in this instance, as to this witness. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Mr. Chairman, may I ? 

Mr. Tuck. You may. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I just wanted to go on record, too, as stating that 
there are many citizens who do feel that this comes under the purview 
of the first amendment and, while you correctly stated that the Su- 
preme Court has to date so ruled, are of the firm belief that, in time, 
the Supreme Court will recognize that this right does fall under the 
first amendment and are endeavoring to convince their fellow citizens 
that it so does. 

Mr. Tuck. We have already niled and we are proceeding under 
the present decisions. 

Go head. Counsel. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Did you, Mr. Fishman, issue any checks in payment 
of these items contained and published in the National Guardian and 
The Worker 'I 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were either of those items, or both, published without 
charge to your organization ? 

Mr. FisHMAN". I again refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you write the copy for these advertisements? 

Mr. Fishman. Mr. Nittle, T don't know why you are continuing on 
this line, when obviously I am not going to answer anything in rela- 
tion to it. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us who wrote the copy for the advertise- 
ment? 

Mr. Fishman. Obviously you are again dealing in an area in which 
I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



614 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you work with a person, any person, in preparing 
them? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Is there any purpose in continuing these questions, 
when obviously I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you deny that you had anything to do with the 
preparation of those advertisements ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The items contained in the National Guardian and The 
WorJcer are identical appeals by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade on behalf of the "wives and children" of men in Spain, stated 
to be "now imprisoned because they dared to take part in the great 
strikes of 1962." 

The advertisement claims : "And now Papa is away because he risked 
everything to make a little more for his family" and asks the question : 
"Now, how will they live?" 

The advertisement appeals to the reader to make one of these families 
his concern. It asks that a coupon in the advertisement be cli]:)ped by 
the reader and mailed to the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

The coupon bears the message : "I want to help. Please send me all 
the details at once." 

Mr. Fishman, the persons on whose behalf the appeal is made are 
stated to be in prison sim])ly because they took part in the 1962 strikes 
and "gave everything for freedom." 

Is this statement true ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAX. It is a matter of public record that these strikes did 
take place in Spain; that thousands of workers were persecuted, hun- 
dreds put in jail, and their families impoverished. 

If that is the question you want answered, it is a part of the public 
record. It is true. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Could you be more specific as to why these persons are 
in jail? 

Mr. Fishman. Well, obviously, because they were arrested and 
placed in jail by the dictatorship in Spain, the government of Francisco 
Franco. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will go into that in a little more detail at a later 
point. 

At this point I would like to inquire : What did you do when you 
received replies in the mail to the advertisements you caused to be 
published ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fish:\[an. I consider that to be a loaded question since you 
haven't proved that I had anything to do witli that advertisement, and 
so I don't feel you have a right to even ask it. 

Mr, NiTTLE. You do not deny that you caused those advertisements 
to be published ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact that you sent a mimeographed form 
letter on the letterhead of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, bearing your signature as secretary, advising the sender to 
forward '■''good vsed clothing for men, women and children" to a cer- 
tain person in Spain, whose name and address was typed at the 
bottom of your form letter ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 615 

Mr. Ftshman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given 
and would also like to point out that this is certainly a subject which 
should not be inquired into in terms of the fact that there is no ques- 
tion about the need of people throughout the world for all kinds of 
help. 

And Avhen a committee of this kind begins questioning a humanitar- 
ian purpose such as this, then I think it is high time that the com- 
mittee itself reexamine what it is doing. 

Certainly it has not come into any kind of question as to need, nor 
is this committee, so far as I can tell, prepared to substantiate, to make 
an accusation or even substantiate one. 

Mr. Tuck. I understand that you declined to answ^er that question, 
you said on the previous grounds. I would like for you to state which 
previous groimcls. 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. FisiiMAN. All of them, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr, Tuck. Which particular one? You raised the point just 
now 

Mr. FisriMAN. Because I don't think this committee of Congress 
has a right to investigate the subject and that, even if it had, my con- 
science would not permit me to answer the questions indicated under 
the first amendment. 

I understand that you do not recognize that. 

Certainly, again, the question is not pertinent, in my opinion, to the 
inquiry ; and I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to 
be a witness against myself, 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you not also enclose shipping instructions and 
export declarations, including prepared parcel post forms, for such 
purposes? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated, 
and again indicate : What a horrible crime to enclose these receipts 
and to give tlie descriptions and to actually have people send some used 
clothing! What a terrible crime is being committed! 

Mr, IS'iTTLE, I hand you a photostatic copy of one sucli form letter 
dated March 13, 196-3, marked for identification as "Fishman Ex- 
hibit Xo. 3," upon the letterhead of the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, signed "Moe Fishman, Sec'y," addressed to one of 
the readers of your advertisements, whose name has been deleted, to 
which is attached the shipping instructions or postal forms to which 
we have previously referred. 

Is that not a true copy of one such form letter to which your signa- 
ture is appended? 

Mr. FiSTiMAN, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated, 
but I would like to read this into the record, if I may — this horrible 
subversive document. It is not long. It is just a letter. 

Mr. Ti'CK. The rules of this committee do not permit witnesses to 
read anything they desire into the record. You will file it, and we 
will consider it and make it a part of the record if we think it 
pertinent, 

Mr, FiSHMAX, But this is the committee's exhibit. Governor. 

Mr, NiTTT.E. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 3 in evidence, 

Mr. Tuck, It will be made a part of the record. 
(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 3'^ follows.) 



616 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



FisHMAN Exhibit No. 3 




/^anie and address of 
""addressee deleted^^^ 



VETERANS OF THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

ROOM 405, 49 EAST 2lrt STREET • NEW YORK 10. N.Y. • OR 4-5552 

Mcrch 13, 1963 



M* ftr« Boat pleaB«d to find such a varm reeponse to the plea for aid to the 
faallles of the political prleocers In Franco's Jalle and particularly velo 
jour offer to be of direct aid to one of the families. 

The heat aid Is good used clothing for sen, vomsn and children. Sssdlae a 
parcel of 22 lbs. costs $10.00. This is far more valuable to the raolplenta 
than say the $10.00 sent as a bank draft. What they need of the olotlies tb»j 
uae, the balance they sell and g»t far more than ve can afford to send aaeb 
IndlTldvMil family. Another reason for good used clothing orer other tbln^ !• 
that th«r« Is no duty to pay. 

We ur0S that you collect a parcel of good used gffot.^li« and ship It off JjamA- 
lately. Ttie ctu-tcm In which you pack the clothoe mxat have a length, vidtb mod 
girth of BO MCKE THAN 72 Inchfls. Wrap Vrcwn kreift paper around oarton, VAal 
vith guaaed tape and tie securely vlth strong cord. Place your naae and that 
at the recipient on tvo eldas of the carton. Under your name write the follenr- 
iDg legend: EXPORT LICEKSE NOT REQUIRED 

CI£ANING CiaTIFICATE INSIlffl ( we do this sending only clean clothes 

but not necoPfiarlly placing such 
certificate In parcel) 
Next yc« will have to get h forms and a yellow sticker from your poet office 
•• per the aampleB enclosed - which are filled out and self-explanatory. 

The parcel should be Insured for at least $1^.00 or $20.00. 

After shipping, send an airmail letter to the recipient notifying her that the 
parcel la en the way and itemizing the contents to her as put on the form, and 
glTlng your return address. lere, please say a few words of greetings to your 
new friend. It Is preferable that, you write In Spanish - if yo4 cannot do so 
yourself you may find a neighbor who will do It for you. 

We would rery rnioh appreciate hearing from you when you have sent off your first 
parcel. We do hope you will find it possible to send such parcels at least ooos 
every tvo months. 

All of uB Join in expressing our appreoiaticn for this most generous 'peoples 
to peoples* cantr«u3t you have undertaken. - — ^ /] 

^— Most alncfr^. 



MkM^I*P^ 



Tonr tamilj Ib:^^^^^^ Carbajar de Andres 
Ronde de Segoviti 42 
jytaidrid Spain 



I Ihat 6»>«riim*i>t of <4i* pcepl*. by Ih* pcopU and for the pMpI*. iKall not p*ri>h from liio oorth"— ABRAHAM LINCOLN 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



617 



FisHMAN ExiiiHiT No. 3 — Continued 






g€*<-«-<. 'I^v^ KJ-^^UAyy<Jl<^ 






■a e ? 

sfs 
55 






<s|§ 



INTERNATIONAL PARCEL POST 

CoUt Poatat tnternatlonal 

INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN BY SENDER 

Dispositi ons de I'E ipgdUenr 
ir undeliverable as addressed: 

Au cas de rwn-Uvraison: 
□ Return to sender. Return cbar^&s guaranteed. 
Le colii doit (Ire renvoyi d VexpidiieuT, 

qui i' engage d payer lea frais de relour. 
n Forward to. (Le colia doit Sire riexpi- 

dii d); . 




^^.Tcd^^. _. 

□ Abandon. (Abandon du colia.) 

(Sender's ^gaatim—Blirnaturt ie i'aiuUturj 



(To be flUed 

out by 

accepting 

clerk) 

WUOHT 



lbs. 

ozs. 

POSTAOa 

$ 

Clerk's 
Inituu 



PODFarai 

2922 
Mar. 1968 




' INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN BY SENDER 

DUposiiiont de VexpedtUur 

8«(id«rt most pf«Tid« l«r an aUvmatm fisystitim. 

Qwdi th« altemaliTa d«slrW aiW tipi tb* Htm ■■ tfa* fci M iM, 

IF UNDELIVERABLEi 

Awca» d« non-livraitati, U eoK* doit «(r«.' 

□ Return to aender. Return charv*« 
Renvoyi A rap4ditmr, gui i'm^a^s 4 payv 
fusrankeed. 

M /rau d* retour. 



2Z 



(Street and nunib^r^/ifue d num^o) 



Forwl 

RUzpM\t d U. 



Al»andon. 

A 6a ndonni. 



(Bi^natura of aender— 5vnotw« (t* r«xptf*<««r) 



(AddrcM of Modor—AdreMt d« r«p4dtfMr) 



To. 



^>><£^-5- 



(Name < 







(City. Province. State, etc. — ViUe. /Voting*, i><partem«n<, tic.} 






?^?-^t-t-'0 



(CouDtry — PoV*) 



RECEIPT OF THE ADDRESSEE 

QUITTANCE DD DE»TINATAIKE 
Th« undenigned declares he hoi recetved 

X* MlMWn^ doctor* OTKnr recu 

Ih* parcel designated on this bullelkl 
a aMt lUcrU «lr i< frtemt buUetiit 



(Bisnaton ol Add r Me o e e yoalvn d» doMiuMrt) 



,X^ 


L . - 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — PARCEL POST 


STAMP Of MAILINO OFPICC 
iTimbr* du Bwmu d'Oriffifw) 


r ■' 


DISPATCH NOTE 






(Bulletin d'Expedition) 




Number of Cojtono DeclaraHooi Weight Postage Fold $ 

INombra it alelaratiom «n ll^ruant) (Povls) (Ha.) (oi.) lAffranchiurmeiU perju) 


CUSTOMS DUTIES 


Inciiivrf Nn. 




(JVum^ro tf*(U«uranc«) 






6 


CUSTOMS STAMP 

ITimbn tt la Dvmaf) 











618 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



FiSHMAN Exhibit No. 3 — Continued 












ii 



12 
<■< 

D 



i 




il 


1 1 


i8 


1 i 


lU 


It ■: 


A 






4 : 


'. a 


S 


:1 


3 I 


:*5 




:& 


& 




^ 






■ i 


: : 


'■"o 


« 


is 


i 




■d 


■t 


•< 











o 



POO Form »W 
JUN. KM 



ro'y ^ 



UNITEO STATES OF AMERICA 
PARCEL POST 

CUSTOMS DECLARATION 



QUAKnTT 



USE INK OR TYPEWRITER 
ITEMIZED LIST OF CONTENTS 






Omu W«l(hl (PuotI) 



ln*ur«4 !•«- 

• (U.S.). 



(Data Stamp of Maillnff Offiaa) 



^ 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 619 

Mr. FoRER. May the witness read it, Governor ? 

Mr. Tuck. No. He may file it with the committee. 

Mr. FoRER. It is the committee's exhibit. 

Mr. Tuck. It is already in the record. 

Mr. FoRER. But you have people here listening to the hearing. They 
Avould like to know what it is about. 

Mr. Tuck. Well, it is already in the record. We are not going to 
read it in. 

Mr.- NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Fishman, you gave certain shipping instruc- 
tions in your letter. I quote from paragraph 3 : 

Place your name and that of the recipient on two sides of the carton. Under 
your name write the following legend : EXPORT LICENSE NOT REQUIRED- 
CLEANING CERTIFICATE INSIDE. 

And then you parenthetically state : 

we do this sending only clean clothes but not necessarily placing such certificate 
in parcel. 

Now, would you clarify this parenthetical statement for the com- 
mittee? 

jNIr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated. And cer- 
tainly this committee doesn't need to go inquiring about this. All 
they have to do is inquire from your post office and get all the instruc- 
tions you need as to how you send parcels to any place in the world. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, Ave are inquiring with respect to a specific instruc- 
tion you have given in that letter, in which you advise the reader to 
write on the package, "Export license not required ; cleaning certifi- 
cate inside," and then by a parenthetical statement you appear to 
suggest to the person to whom you are writing that he need not bother 
to enclose a cleaning certificate, though he states that one is enclosed. 

Are you not, in effect, suggesting to the sender that he or she may, 
by such act of misrepresentation, evade the postal regulations of the 
foreign country? 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Your question makes the assumption that I am the 
fellow that wrote this letter; and since that is an assumption, I am 
refusing to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You can clarify that point very simply, Mr. Fishman, 
by advising the committee whether you are not, in fact, the person 
who sent that form letter. 

Are you the Moe Fishman whose name appears upon that form 
letter? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Are you aware that the Spanish Government, as do 
most governments, demands such a certificate as a public health meas- 
ure, because certain communicable diseases can be introduced into a 
country by used clothing which is not properly cleaned? 

Mr. FisTi:\rAN. Well, your implication is that there are people 
around who send things illegally, irregularly. I would submit that 
this is not the case and that an interpretation that you are placing 
upon something here is not necessarily so and that many people send 
packages in all kinds of ways. 

And, of course, this is very dangerous to our Government, this whole 
very subversive question, ^nd one that demands investigation by an 

22h-139 O — 63 4 



620 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

important body composed of Congressmen who are confronted with 
many important issues that face our country today. 

And that they can piddle about and bother with such subjects 
and really waste their time is very surprising to me. 

Mr. Tuck. Ask him another question, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Fishman, you will note, in the lower left 
corner of the mimeographed letter. Exhibit 3 that you have before 
you, the name of the family which is to be the recipient of aid 
is inserted and stated as follows: "Your family is: Teresa Carbajar 
de Andres, Ronde de Segovia 42, Madrid Spain." 

Did you not forward that name of a person in Spain in response 
to an inquiry received from a reader of your advertisements? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

This horrible thing was done — terrible 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you tell us whether "Teresa Carbajar de 
Andres" is, to your knowledge, the wife or child of a worker in prison, 
as stated in the advertisement, because he "dared to take part in the 
great strikes of 1962"? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fishman. Well, I have not been in Spain lately, and to the 
best of my knowledge there are people in Spain who are the families 
of those who are arrested. And I would have no reason to believe 
that this is not such a person. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But now the specific inquiry relates to whether, to 
your knowledge, she is the wife or child of a worker imprisoned in 
Spain because he dared take part in the "great strikes of 1962." 
Would you give us a specific answer to that inquiry? 

Mr. Fishman. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What knowledge do you possess of the family of 
"Teresa Carbajar de Andres," whose name was sent in response to an 
inquiry from a reader ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. From whom did you receive any information pertaining 
to her? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you acquire this information ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is a loaded question again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is only "loaded" because you want it to be. 

Mr. Fishman. Well, also because this inquiry is loaded, from 
the point of view that here it is investigating something which I 
don't think is in its purview at all, that certainly the counsel 
for the committee would know is something that, if other agencies 
in the United States would undertake to do it, would gradually be 
something that some people would not be doing a thing about, because 
what can this do, at most ? Alleviate a little, teeny bit of suffering 
in a country which suffers so strongly, so greatly, from a dictator- 
ship which has existed for 25 years, which makes the people 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered to answer the question, and not 
make a speech. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears that you have caused to be published 
advertisements in the press, by which you solicit of American citizens 
and members of the public certain contributions — money and 
supplies — for people who, you state, are wives and children of per- 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 621 

sons imprisoned in Spain because they dared to participate in the 
"great strikes of 1962.'' 

You have sought these contributions upon the basis of a specific 
representation to the public— and in response to this advertisement 
for assistance, you have given the name of "Teresa Carbajar de 
Andres" to one of the readers of your advertisement. 

The committee wants to know what knowledge you possess of 
"Teresa Carbajar de Andres" in relation to the solicitation you have 
made. Is she the wife or child of .a worker imprisoned in Spain 
because he "dared to take part in the great strikes of 1962," as you 
have stated? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I already answered that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your answer? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That, to the best of public record, knowledge, and 
belief, there were thousands who were imprisoned in Spain. They 
are still in jail. 

No, that is not quite true. There are a number that have been 
released. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not responsive to the question. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes, I am. I am saying there were many that were 
arrested. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was "Teresa Carbajar de Andres" the wife or child of 
a worker imprisoned in Spain because he "dared to take part in the 
great strikes of 1962"? 

You can answer that "Yes" or "No," if you desire to respond to the 
question. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. As far as I know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From what source do you derive this knowledge ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be directed to 
respond to the inquiry. 

Mr. FoRER. He did. 

Mr. Tltck. The witness is directed to respond to the inquiry of the 
counsel. 

Mr. FoRER. Wliich inquiry, Governor? 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did he receive information relating to 
"Teresa Carbajar de Andres"? 

Mr. FoRER. He did not say he received any information from any- 
body relating to "Teresa Carbajar de" 

Mr. NiTTLE. He testified that to his knowledire 



Mr. FoRER. No, he didn't. He said as far as he knew. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. 

Wliat is the basis of your knowledge ? 

(Counsel confers with the witness.) 

Mr. FisiiMAN. Is that the question you wanted answered, Mr. 
Chairman ? 

I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, with respect to that, Mr. Chairman, I respect- 
fully request that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 



622 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I abide by my refusal for the reasons previously 

stated. 

Mr. Tuck. Which one of the reasons ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. For all of them. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I suggest that tlie witness has waived his fifth amend- 
ment privilege by asserting that, to the best of his knowledge, certain 
facts appear to him with respect to "Teresa Carbajar de Andres." 

Now, as we seek to probe the basis of his knowledge, he refuses to 
answer. 

Mr. FoRER. I suggest you are mistaken, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. And for that reason, I ask the chairman to direct the 
witness to respond to the inquiry. 

Mr. Tuck. I direct the witness to respond to the question. And the 
reason for the direction was that he had already gone into the subject 
and thus had, in effect, waived his claims under the fifth amendment. 

And the question is a perfectly proper question, and the witness 
should give his basis for the information which he has given. 

Will you now respond to that question ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. "\Vliat is the question ? 

Mr. Tuck. State the question. Counsel. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would the reporter please read it back to him ? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter, as follows: "From 
what source do you derive this knowledge ?") 

Mr. FisHMAN. I have not said that I had such knowledge, and 1 
refuse to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tuck. My recollection is that the witness stated that, to the 
best of his knowledge and belief, certain knowledge was true. The 
counsel asked him what was the basis for that. The Chair now directs 
him to answer. 

I take this opportunity of warning the witness of the dangers on 
which he may be treading, and I order and direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. FisHMAN. I abide by my refusal to answer. 

Mr. Tuck. All right. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What investigation did you make, if any, relating to 
the circumstances and facts concerning "Teresa Carbajar de Andres"? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I didn't say I made any such investigation. 

I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

]Sfr. Nittle. Did you make any investigation ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answ^er on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's information discloses that "Teresa 
Carbajar de Andres" resides, as you have stated in your letter. Exhibit 
3, at "No. 42 Ronde de Segovia in Madrid, Spain." 

I should also note that the correct spelling of her second name is 
"Carvajal." She is the w^fe of Angel Larroca Garcia. 

Now, was Angel Larroca Garcia, her husband, imprisoned in Spain 
merely because he "dared to take part" in the 1962 strikes? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated, 
but I would be interested, since the counsel knows the spelling so well, 
would he know if the person got the package, as well ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us precisely when Angel Larroca Garcia 
was imprisoned in Spain ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 623 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what cliarge was he imprisoned ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know that he is not even living in Spain to- 
day, and was not living in Spain as of March 13, 1963, when you 
sent the form letter to one of the readers of your advertisement? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. No, I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation reveals that Angel Lar- 
roca Garcia, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, 
volunteered in the Loyalist Army, joining the 116th Brigade, in which 
he was appointed a lieutenant, and a short time later he joined the 
Connnunist Party in Spain. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. Terrible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the end of the civil war, he was condemned to death 
because of his participation in the assassination of clergy in the Con- 
vent of Grinon at Toledo when returning from the siege of the Alcazar. 

However, his sentence was commuted to 30 years' imprisonment and 
later to 20 years. He was released from prison in 1946 and is presently 
working legally in Germany, contrary to your claim. 

Were you aware of these facts at the time that you caused this exhibit 
to be forwarded to one of the readers of your advertisement ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. No. I don't even know that they are facts. It sounds 
like you got this from Franco's government. I wouldn't be a bit 
surprised. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you in possession of any information to the 
contrary ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not assert in the advertisement that you were 
seeking contributions on behalf of persons, wives and children of 
persons imprisoned in Spain because of participation in the "great 
strikes of 1962" ? 

Mr. FoRER. The advertisement speaks for itself, doesn't it. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, of course it does. 

Mr. FoRER. Then what are you asking him for ? 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel for the witness well knows the rules of this com- 
mittee, as many times as he has appeared before the committee, and 
I respectfully request that he abide by the rules. 

Mr. FoRER. Governor, you are absolutely right, but it is hard. After 
all, I do want to protect the witness and I do think it was an improper 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Teresa's brother is Andres Carvajal de Andres, who 
resides in Madrid. He, too, joined the Communist Party in the couree 
of the Spanish Civil War. He was apprehended in 1939, at the close 
of the civil war, on the basis of certain allegations made against him. 
His case was dropped, however, because of lack of evidence with re- 
spect to those particular allegations. 

Now, the committee has no knowledge of any facts which would 
indicate the imprisonment of the husband or any member of the im- 
mediate family of Teresa Carvajal de Andres, either by virtue of 
participation in the strikes of 1962, or for any other cause. 

Would you tell us, please, what knowledge, if any, you may possess 
to the contrary ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I don't know anything. No. 



624 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a photostatic copy of another form 
letter of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, dated March 
13, 1963, posted under your signature, to a reader of the advertise- 
ment, marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 4." 

Mr. Cliairman, I offer Fisliman Exhibit 4 in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that the same be made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. To this reader you designate the family of Matilde 
Morales, Nuestra Senora del Rosario 3(5 — my Spanisli is not particu- 
larly good, as you may have observed. 

Now, Mr. Fishman, would you tell us whether the husband or any 
member of the family of Matilde Morales is imprisoned in Spain, or 
was imprisoned as of the time of your advertisement ? 

Mr. Fishman. I do not know. 

May I submit: It might be a cousin or a fifth uncle or someone else 
that could be imprisoned, as well. All I know 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, you wrote to a reader of your advertisement 
and said, "Your family is Matilde Morales." 

I want to know what you know about Matilde Morales, what you 
knew at the time you wrote to the reader of your advertisement. 

Mr. Fishman. I haven't acknowledged that I wrote that advertise- 
ment, and I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On behalf of what person now imprisoned in Spain by 
reason of participation in the 1962 strikes was clothing to be shipped 
to Matilde Morales? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that Matilde Morales, 
whose last name is Arcos, is the wife of Jose Cansinos Palma, who 
was born May 22, 1936, in Cordoba. 

"Were you appealing for assistance for the family of Jose Cansinos 
Palma, the husband of Matilde Morales? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer. Tlie exhibit that you show 
speaks for itself. You are obviously trying to intimate that you know 
who the family is that is being appealed for, and yet, from your 
own descriptions and your information, which has been' thoroughly 
investigated, it seems that it could be another part of the family 
as well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that Matilde's hus- 
band. Jose, was, in fact, detained in May 1962 during the course of the 
strikes. He was detained for being an active member of the Commu- 
nist Party in Spain in charge of Communist cells and working in the 
spring strikes of 1962.^ 

However, Jose was released from prison on January 9, 1963, before 
your ad was published. 

Were you aware on March 13, 1963, at the time you directed your 
letter on behalf of the family of Matilde Morales, that her husband 
had been released 2 months prior thereto? 



1 The Spanish Criminal Code provides that strikes by laborers (and combinations or 
conspiracies by management intended to paralyze work) are punishable as sedition. In 
addition, the Communist Party is outlawed in Spain : membership in it is punishable by 
prison terms of from 2 to 20 years, and sentences of 20 to 30 years can be given for 
aggravating circumstances such as an individual's participation in Communist "agitation" 
cells, in Communist conferences, or in the leadership of the party. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 625 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FisiiMAN. Tlie question assumes that I sent the letter, and I 
refuse to answer. Parenthetically, I don't know. I think to me it 
seems kind of 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not interested in parenthetical expressions on 
your part. We are interested in answers to questions. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I understand. But I can assume that the committee 
doesn't care Avhether a man has been in prison and comes out and maybe 
the family does need some help. And it is a horrible crime if the man 
has been in prison and is a Communist or isn't a Communist. And 
Franco certainly accuses all of them. There are no exceptions in his 
statements. And again I don't know the committee's source. I as- 
sume that it is a valid source. But the fact still remains that this is 
a very horrible thing that has been done. 

A family in Spain has gotten some used, old clothing from the 
TTnited States, and this horrible crime must be in some way stopped. 
This is unmasking to the American public a very dangerous situation 
that goes on. 

What if the person at the otlier end is of some other political per- 
suasion, or no political persuasion, and is simply a family of a political 
prisoner ? 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at the time you forwarded your letter of 
March 13, 1963, aware of Jose's Communist affiliations ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FisHMAN. The question again assumes that I wrote the letter. 
But I want the committee to know that I don't know anything about 
the political affiliations of that individual. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From what source did you receive the name of Matilde 
Morales? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you obtain that name from any representative of 
the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Spain ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. The question assumes that I received the names. 
And I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the witness testified that he had no 
knowledge of this person's political affiliation, and I asked him 
whether he received information relating to her from a member of the 
Central Committee, or a representative of the Central Committee, 
of the Communist Party in Spain, and he now refuses to answer. 

I suggest tliat he has waived his privilege in that respect and I ask 
therefore that he be directed to respond to the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair so rules and is of the same opinion as counsel. 

The Chair now orders and directs the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I abide by my refusal for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What etfort, if any, have you made to inquire, from 
time to time, as to the status of persons on whose behalf you make 
requests for contributions ? 

Mr. Flshman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you another such form letter on the letter- 
head of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, dated Marcli 



626 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

6, 1963, bearing your signature as Moe Fishman, secretary, received 
by another reader of the advertisement, marked for identification as 
"Fishman Exhibit No. 5." 

In this exhibit, the family you designate was that of Encarnacion 
Nunez Velanos, residing at "Calderon de la Barco 117, Tarrasa Bar- 
celona, Spain." 

Would you tell the committee what knowledge you possess relating 
to this individual ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse on answer on the gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I offer Exhibit 5 in evidence? 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. FoRER. I don't think you offered 8 and 4 yet, by the way. 

INIr. NiTTLE. If I have not done so, I now offer Exhibits 3 and 4 for 
the record. 

Mr. FoRER. Can I get a look at 3 and 4 again ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation with respect to Encarna- 
cion Nunez Velanos reveals that no person bearing the name of Encar- 
nacion Nunez Velanos resides in the vicinity of Tarrasa Barcelona, 
and indeed there is no record of the existence of such person in the 
Central Office of Spain.^ 

"What knowledge do you have relating to such person ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Did the party get the package back ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, would you advise the committee by what 
means and from whom you received knowledge that a person of such 
name resided at the address given by you ? 

^Ir. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you another form letter of the Veterans of 
the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

The form letter which I have just handed you is dated March 13, 
1963, marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 6," signed 
by you, addressed to a reader of the advertisement, and advising 
that the family "to which the reader may send aid is that of Sofia 
Castra ^ Martinez, Valadas de los Frailes, Villarrubia, Cordova, 
Spain." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 6 in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered to be made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee what information you 
posses relating to the husband or family of Sofia Castra Martinez? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is she the wife of a worker now imprisoned in Spain, or 
imprisoned in Spain at the time of the publication of your advertise- 
ments, because he "dared to take part in the great strikes of 1962"? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



2 Subsequent to this hearing, as a result of continuinfr investigations into the back- 
ffrounds of persons in Spain recommended for "relief by the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, this committee learned that its oricinal information regnrtliner Encar- 
nacion Nunez Velanos was incorrect. This individual does reside at the Barcelona 
address listed in the VALB letter of March 6. 1963. She is the wife of Ramon Martinez 
Martinez, who was convicted and imprisoned by Spanish authorities on .Tuly 5, 1960 — 
long before the 1962 strikes — ^for Communist activities. He is still in jail. 

3 Correct spelling "Castro." 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 627 

yh\ Chairman, if, in tlie course of its investigation, the committee 
has caused these names to be solicited and has not in turn sent packages 
to these people, I think this is a pretty terrible thing. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee investigation reveals that Sofia Castro 
Martinez is the wife of Rafael Lopez Barranco, who was active in the 
local committee of the Communist Party in Spain and was imprisoned 
in Spain in July 1960 — over 3 years ago. He was released from the 
prison of Burgos, however, on March 3, 1963. 

He was therefore not imprisoned because of his participation in 
the May 1962 strikes, nor w^as he imprisoned for any cause on March 
13, 1963, at the time you forwarded that exhibit. 

Do you possess any information to the contrary ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Does the counsel have any specific information that these clothes 
go to anyone but political prisoners' families? Isn't it conceivable 
tliat these families give it to other families ? 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is not here to ask questions, but to answer 
questions. Answer the questions propounded by counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee lias no information that any member 
of the immediate family of Sofia Castro Martinez is detained in prison 
because of participation in the May 1962 strikes. Do you have any 
such information ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you forwarded Exhibit 6, as of March 13, 
1963, or even prior thereto, did you possess any information advising 
you that the husband of Sofia Castro Martinez, or any member of 
her family, was then imprisoned in Spain because he "dared to take 
part in the great strikes of 1962" ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then possess any knowledge or information 
that any member of her family was imprisoned for any cause ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you another such form letter of the Vet- 
erans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, dated February 17, 1963, 
marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 7," signed by 
you, and posted to a reader of the advertisement, advising that the 
family to wliicli the reader may send aid is that of Ana Hernandez 
Hernandez, care of "Maria Ausiliadora 16 Huiguerou Cordova, 
Spain." * 

Did you designate the family of Ana Hernandez Hernandez as a 
recipient for aid pursuant to the advertisements contained in Exhibits 
1 and 2? 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I otTer Exhibit 7 in evidence, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. It will be ordered filed. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. What imprisoned member of the family of Ana Her- 
nandez Hernandez did you have in mind for assistance ? 



^ Correct name and address : "Maria Auxiliadora, 16 Higueron, Cordoba, Spain." 



628 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. FisHMAN. I refuse to answer on the pounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it her husband, Jose Barranco Escavia? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he in prison as of Februaiy 17, 1963, because 
he took part in the strikes of 1962 ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi>E. Wliat knowledge do you possess of the family of Ana 
Hernandez Hernandez? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation reveals that Ana's hus- 
band, Jose Barranco Escavia, was imprisoned in April 1961 — a year 
before the 1962 strikes — for a term of 5 years by reason of membership 
in the committee of the Communist Party in Higueron. 

Do you possess any infonnation to the contrary ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As of February 17, 1963, when you posted that letter 
to the reader, were you aware that Jose Barranco Escavia had been 
imprisoned for that reason and not because he "dared" take part in 
the strikes of 1962? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you another such form letter, dated March 
6, 1963, marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 8," 
bearing your signature, on the letterhead of the Veterans of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade, posted to a reader of the advertisements, and ad- 
vising that the reader may send aid to the family of Eulogia del 
Castillo, "Casas Buenas, Toledo, Spain." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Fishman Exhibit 8 in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that the document be made a part of the 
record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 8" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, would you tell the committee what knowl- 
edge you possess of Eulogia del Castillo and her family ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

However, I would like to point out that this letter has underlined, 
like the other letters, "aid to the families of the political prisoners in 
Franco's jails." It doesn't say to a particular political prisoner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are concerned about the representation, particu- 
larly, that you have made in the advertisements. 

Mr. Fishman. It doesn't even say to the strikers. It doesn't even 
refer to the strikers necessarily as being the only ones who are political 
prisoners. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think the exhibits will speak for themselves. 

Mr. Fishman. Well, the sad part of the exhibits is the fact that 
here are a whole number of people whom I would assume at this 
point, because of the activities of the committee — just — unless I had 
come here, no one would ever know that they hadn't gotten packages, 
that somebody obviously sent in a name falsely, and in all good faith 
were given a name to send a package of old clothing, and obviously the 
thing hasn't been sent. And I think that is a very terrible thing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were giving the name of a particular person to 
whom they were to send aid and you said it was given in good faith. 
Was this name given in good faith by a member of the Communist 
Party? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 629 

Mr. FiSHMAN, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLK. Is that tlie "good faith" to wliich you refer? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. It is a f ornn of good faith. 

]\fr. NiTTLE. Now, will you please answer the question as to whether 
or not the husband of Eulogia del Castillo is in jail ? 

Mr. Fish MAN. I don't know, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he in jail at the time you published your adver- 
tisements ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVas he in jail at the time you posted your letter to the 
reader of the advertisements ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that Eulogia del 
Castillo^ is a widow. Her husband, with no record of Communist 
activities, actually died in 1939, over 20 years ago, at 72 years of age. 

However, Avith respect to Eulogia del Castillo, the committee's in- 
vestigation discloses that during the Spanish Civil War she was a 
militant Communist who robbed and sacked private homes and dese- 
crated the church at Casasbuenas, for which at the end of the civil war 
she was imprisoned and then released. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. By Franco. And who made the charges? And 
which this committee would believe, of course. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware of these facts on March 6, 1963, at 
the time you forwarded this letter? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I don't even know that they are facts. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. FoRER. He did. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I said I don't know if they are really facts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AAHiat knowledge did you possess with respect to 
Eulogia del Castillo at the time you wrote to the reader of your 
advertisements? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. None whatsoever. 

You are assuming that I wrote, and I refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

yir. NiTTLE. The committee possesses further information that 
Eulogia is the mother of five children; namely, 51-year-old Alejandro 
Heredero del Castillo, born February 26, 1912; 61-year-old Martina 
Heredero del Castillo, born November 12, 1901; 54-year-old Mariano 
Heredero del Castillo, born December 8, 1908; 56-year-old Angela 
Heredero del Castillo, born March 1, 1907; and 59-year-old Geno- 
veva Heredero del Castillo, born January 3, 1904. 

Are these the so-called children on whose behalf you published the 
advertisement contained in Exhibits 1 and 2 ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The question assumes that I published the thing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you might clarify that. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. You might clarify it. You might find out if any of 
these people were political prisoners. Or maybe some of the family 
that you didn't name were political. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What knowledge did you possess of her at the time you 
designated her as a recipient of aid ? 



5 Full name "Eulogia del Castillo Villarrubia." 



630 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. Pool. Let's have him answer the questions one at a time, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. I will order the witness to answer the question and not 
argue with the counsel. 

Mr. FoRER. He starts to answer, and a new question comes. 

Mr. Tuck. Ask a single question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What knowledge did you possess of the family of 
Eulogia del Castillo ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As of March 6, 1963, or prior thereto or since that date, 
did you have any information in your possession that any of these 
so-called children, all over 50 years of age, were imprisoned because 
they took part in the strikes of 1962 ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, it is the committee's information that 
none of the children of Eulogia is or was imprisoned on account of 
such strikes. 

Mr. FisHMAN. Mr. Chairman, is it at all possible that a cousin or 
friends or somebody else might have been in prison ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are talking about the wives and children of people 
imprisoned because they dared take part in the strikes of 1962. You 
are not talking about 32d cousins. 

Mr. FisHMAN. But the letter says "families of political prisoners." 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel will proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, may I pursue a question, here ? 

Mr. Tuck. You may. 

Mr. Bruce. I would ask the witness : Do you have any information 
regarding the name given here and any relatives, however far removed, 
who were imprisoned for political or Communist or strike reasons or 
any other reasons? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that Eulogia's son, 
Alejandro, was, during the Spanish Civil War, an active member of 
the Communist Party and president of the Armed Militia Committee 
in Casasbuenas, charged with participating in acts for which he served 
a sentence, but was released in 1946. After release from prison in 
1946, he again resumed Communist Party activities, acting as a liaison 
agent between the Communist guerrillas and the National Committee 
of the Communist Party in Spain and joining in the conspiracy re- 
sulting in the explosion of the ammunition dumps of Alcala de Hen- 
ares, which resulted in his imprisonment for a term of 30 years, which 
he is presently serving. He was permitted to visit his mother, under 
guard, in Casasbuenas on March 15, 1963. 

Were you aware of Alejandro's record of Communist Party activ- 
ities which I have just related ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Well, obviously, there was a political prisoner in 
this family that we tracked down finally. There was one political 
prisoner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Not a political prisoner — a Communist, who was en- 
gaged in a conspiracy to blow up an ammunition dump, endangering 
the lives of Spanish people and citizens. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 631 

Is that a political prisoner? 

Mr. Fish MAN. Yes. Yes, because Franco has imprisoned I don't 
kno\Y how many people of all kinds of political beliefs for all kinds of 
crimes, and they are tried by court martial, no civil courts, no require- 
ment for a defendant to have defense counsel. This is Franco Spain 
you are talking about. ° 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the committee is informed that Eulo- 
gia's daughter, Martina, was president of the Women's Section of the 
Communist Party in Casabuenas; and that Eulogia's son, Mariano, a 
member of the Communist Party committee in Casasbuenas during the 
Spanish Civil War, was sentenced to a term of 30 years' imprisonment, 
later commuted to 12 years, now expired. 

Eulogia's daughter, Angela, is residing in Venezuela, with no rec- 
ord of Communist activities in her case, nor has she ever been impris- 
oned in Spain. 

Likewise, Eulogia's daughter, Genoveva, has no record of Commu- 
nist activities. She has not been imprisoned for any cause and pres- 
ently resides in Casabuenas. 

Do you possess such information as I have just related with respect 
to the children of Eulogia ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Nothing specifically of the nature that you are indi- 
cating. It is common knowledge that it is a difficult thing for any- 
body in Spain to receive packages from the United States and dis- 
tribute these packages to the families of political prisoners. It is lit- 
erally taking your life in j^our hands. 

And I am very much concerned lest the hearings that are being con- 
ducted here, and these names which are being made public, may not in 
turn make it very difficult, to say the least. And in Spain, making it 
very difficult can be a very serious business for the families who have 
actually received these packages. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have the knowledge of which he is inquiring ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Xo. I am sorry. I do not. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Now, it is apparent, Mr. Fishman, that you have in 
your possession a list of names of certain persons residing in Spain, on 
whose behalf you are seeking supplies and contributions on the alleged 
basis that they are inadequately fed and clothed there. We have called 
several names to your attention.^ 



" In May 1963. the total prison population in Spain was approximatPly 14, .'500. Of this 
total, .318 persons were sening sentences on charges involving Communist Party activity. 

The spring strikes of 19R2, at their height, involved about 60.000 workers. " Of these. 
759 were arrested on charges of suhversive artivities in connection with the strikes. 
Forty-eight of these, including several Communist agents, were detained and brought to 
trial. The other 711 were released. 

In Spain, crimes other than sedition are tried in civil courts. The accused has a right 
to defense counsel, which the court will appoint if he cannot afford one. Until the 
summer of 1963. crimes involving sedition were tried not by courts-martial, but by special 
military tribunals. Defendants appearing before such tribunals were entitled to counsel 
of their own choosing. Special civil tribunals now try such cases. 

■^ On the date of this hearing, the committee had not completed its investigation into 
the background of Ana Salvador Martin and Maria Pnz Roda Zarahozo. two additional 
individuals in Spain who had been recommended as recipients of relief in letters signed 
by Moe Fishman. 

The committee has since learned that Ana Salvador Martin is a widow residing in 
Madrid, who has been arrested on several occasions on charges of harboring Communist 
members sought by Spanish authorities. Her son. Gregorio Valero Salvador, has been in 
prison in Spain since 1944, when he was arrested for working in underground activities 
of the Communist Party. 

Maria Paz Roda Zarabozo, also living in Madrid, is the wife of Aladino Cuervo 
Rodriguez, who has been imprisoned in Spain since February 1960 on charges that he 



632 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Will you tell us how many names and addresses of persons in Spain 
on behalf of whom you are making a plea for aid are in your 
possession ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I haven't stated that I have any of these names in 
my possession, and I refuse on the grounds previously stated to an- 
swer, and I would like to know if you are acting as an agent for the 
Franco government in trying to get these names. You have done an 
excellent job thus far in making it a part of public record. 

Mr. Tuck. I ask you whether or not you have sought contributions 
for any of these purposes related here this morning. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTixE. Did you obtain any of these names from any Commu- 
nist Party functionary in the United States ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you obtain any of these names directly from any 
representative of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of 
Spain ? 

Mr. FisHMAX. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive these names from anyone in Spain 
known by you to be affiliated with the Communist Party there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you tell the committee whether, to your 
knowledge, any of those persons whose names appear on your list are 
not members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call your attention again to your form letter. In the 
opening paragraph there is this statement : 

Mr. FiSHMAN. May I see a copy, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. "We are most pleased to find such a warm response to 
the plea for aid to the families of the political prisoners in Franco's 
jails and particularly welcome your offer to be of direct aid to one of 
the families." 

Would you tell the committee how many persons responded to your 
pleas for assistance to these alleged Spanish prisoners? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Would you read the next paragraph, too, please? 
Just the next paragraph. 

Mr. XiTTLE. The letter is in evidence. Would you please answer 
the question addressed to you, as to how many people responded to 
your pleas for assistance to these alleged political prisoners? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Chairman, since he is referring to the letter, why don't you let 
the record be read ? 

Mr. Tuck. The letter is part of the record. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Neither in vour advertisements, Mr. Fishman, nor in 
your letters have you identified the intended recipients of aid as fami- 
lies of persons imprisoned because of Communist activities, whether 
during the Spanish Civil War or during the spring strikes of 1962 in 
Spain. 



was a member of the Spanish Communist Party directly responsible for an underground 
organization operating in northern Spain. Senora Rodia — then a child — was sent to live 
in the Soviet Union in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. She reportedly married her 
now imprisoned Spanish Communist husband, Cuervo Rodriguez, while living there. She 
did not return to Spain until 1956. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMIMUNIST PARTIES 633 

Why did you not reveal this fact ? 

Mr. FisuMAX. I refuse to answer on the gjrounds previously stated. 

And the fact still remains that these are political prisoners, who in 
Spain can be accused of anything at any point in the past, present, 
and including those who were arrested in the strikes, and there have 
been strikes in Spain since Franco took power and there have been 
political opponents of Spain, of all kinds of political persuasions, 
since 1939, right up to today. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed with your questioning. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Fisliman, you will be given an opportunity to speak 
at a later date. The question I would like to ask you, particularly 
with respect to what you have just said : Is it not a fact that the spring 
strikes of 19(>2 were led and inspired by members of the Communist 
Party in Spain ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FisiiMAX. In my opinion it is not a fact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has not the Spanish Government, which should know, 
made this charge ? 

Mr. FisiiMAX. Now, the Spanish Government has traditionally, 
since its inception, this Fascist dictatorship, called every bit of oppo- 
sition, including those democrats of Spain who are today in my opin- 
ion America's greatest allies. Communists. It labels anyone and 
everyone who is in opposition, be he a Mason, be he a Protestant, a 
Jew, be he anyone, of no politics whatsoever, who opens his mouth 
against 



No, I am sorry. He permits them to open their mouths. The min- 
ute they attempt the least bit of organization is the point at which he 
cracks down. And the accusation invariably, invariably is "Commu- 
nist." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, do you not know that high ranking Com- 
munist Party officials themselves actually support and confirm the 
Spanish Government's claim that tliese strikes were led and inspired 
by Communists? 

Mr. Fishman. I do not know of such a thing. And if it were stated 
so, I don't believe it to be true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, the World MnrxUt Review^ the official 
mouthpiece of the world Communist movement, published in Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, and distributed throughout the world in 19 languages, 
including the English, in its January 1963 English edition, w^hich I 
have before me, on page 91 features an article titled "Communists on 
Trial in Spain." It was written by no less an authority than Sebas- 
tian Sapirain, a member of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party of Spain. 

He wrote, in part : 

Last spring Spain saw one of the biggest strike movements in the history of 
the worlving class of our country. The strikes * * * embraced some 26 prov- 
inces * * *. Although at first a struggle for wage demands, the political char- 
acter of the strikes soon became apparent. 

Then, referring to the scale of the strikes, he said : 

This is mainly due to the persevering work conducted by the Communist Party. 

Then he quotes with approval a statement made by Ramon Onnaza- 
bal Tito,^ a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party 



8 Correct spelling "Tife." 



634 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

of Spain, when he was arrested on June 14, 1962, in Biscay, together 
with several other Communists. He stated : 

I declare that the Communist Party assumes the responsibility for the recent 
big strikes in Euzkadi * * * and throughout Spain. 

Now, do you still claim that the strikes were not Communist 
inspired ? 

Mr. FisHMAX. You are asking me if I "claim." Why don't you ask 
Mr. Reuther, who sent $20,000 in support of these strikes — why don't 
you ask the trade unions ? 

I don't understand why Mr. Nittle even reads such a statement to 
me. What knowledge would I have of any of this? 

The fact still remains that the trade union movement throughout 
the world — I would like to see Mr. Reuther publish the same kind 
of article, because I think it is more true 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 8-A" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. TrcK. Ask another question. 

Mr. Fishman. — that the confederation of trade unions played a 
leading role in Spain, and not the Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not the immediate objective 

]\Ir. FoRER. The question was an argument. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not the immediate objective of the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade, in the present fund-raising and other ac- 
tivities, to assist in the strengthening of the Communist underground 
in Spain and also to that end to obtain the release of imprisoned 
Communists? 

Mr. Fishman. I have no such knowledge or belief. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not tlie long-range objective of your organization, 
by working in concert with the world Communist movement, to estab- 
lish a Communist dictatorship in Spain? 

Mr. Fishman. What organization? 

Mr. Nittle. Are you not the organization ? 

Mr. Fishman. "V^Hiat organization ? 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Fishman, the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade. 

Mr. FoRER. What is the pending question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I inquired of this witness whether it was not the long- 
range objective of his organization, the Veterans of the Abraham Lin- 
coln Brigade 

Mr, FoRER. He hasn't said it is his organization. Why don't you 
name the organization ? 

Mr. Nittle. Strangely enough, he became much more communica- 
tive in March of last year, when an article was published in Esquire 
magazine, reporting an interview with him, in which he was reported 
as saying, that is, with respect to the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade — you were quoted as telling Mr. Brock Brower, the author 
of the magazine article : 

I'm the organization. There's no other thing. If there's something to decide, 
I talk it over with the guys, and then decide what I'm going to do. Cockeyed, 
but that's the way it is. 

Mr. Fishman. Is it conceivable that Mr. Brower made a mistake 
and misquoted ? 
Mr. Tuck. Did you make that statement ? 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 635 

Mr. FisHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "P'ishman Exhibit No. 9'' and retained in com- 
mittee hies.) 

Mr. FoRER. Governor, I don't understand. Was the witness brought 
here so Mr. Nittle could read long excerpts from the World Marxist 
Review ? Was that Life magazine ? 

Mr. Bruce. I make the point that counsel is out of order. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, testimony before the Subversive Activ- 
ities Control Board clearly shows that this organization, the Vet- 
erans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, was created in accordance with 
directives issued by the Politburo of the Communist Party, U.S.A., 
beginning in late 1937, in anticipation of the return of veterans from 
Spain. These directives were issued at a series of meetings at w^hich 
representatives of the Comitern were in attendance, particularly Fred 
Brown of the staff of Gerhart Eisler, who was then the Comintern rep- 
resentative in the United States. 

Official Communist Party reports established that the principal ob- 
jective and major purpose of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade was to "serve as an integral part of the Communist Party 
apparatus, to advance Marxism-Leninism and Communist influence 
in the United States, particularly by keeping alive the struggle for a 
Communist victory in Spain as the back door to Latin America, at the 
same time providing a vigorous group of men to carry out party 
programs.® 

INIr. Fishman, do you not have personal knowledge of such objectives 
and purposes of your organization, w^hich you serve as secretary? 

Mr. Tuck. Name the organization. 

Mr. Nittle. The Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

]Mr. Fishman. I have no knowledge of such objectives on the part of 
myself or the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Furthermore, it seems to me that if you are giving such long answers, 
and you seem to know it all, why don't you sit here and investigate 
yourself ? 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Fishman, you have refused to respond to the ques- 
tion whether you stated to Mr. Brock Brower of Esquire magazine that 
you were the organization. 

I would like to ask you again whether you did not tell Mr. Brock 
Brower, as he reported in Esquire magazine, that you are the organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Fishman. What organization? 

Mr. Nittle. The Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. If you had said that you were the organization, that 
would not be entirely accurate in any event; would it? 

Mr. Fishman. It is kind of a loaded question, wouldn't you agree, 
Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. Nittle. But it would not have been accurate, would it? 



" See Subversive Activities Control Board Report of December 21, 1955, setting forth 
various flndinRs of fact with respect to the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 
which justified the issuance of an SACB order requiring the VALB to register as a 
Communist front with the U.S. Attorney General. 



636 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not more correct to say that the ultimate control- 
ling hand of the organization is the Communist Party ? 

Mr, FiSHMAN. Which organization? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Not in my opinion ; and as a matter of fact, I think 
the court of appeals will uphold this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As executive secretary of the organization, the Veter- 
ans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, do you act under the discipline of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. FiSHMAX. I haven't said I was the executive secretary of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, are you ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny it. In any event, are you under the 
discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, the committee is informed, and it be- 
lieves reliably, that you have been a member of the Communist Party. 
Would you tell us whether that information is reliable ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously noted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Among other sources, the basis for the statement as to 
your membership in the Communist Party rests on no less an au- 
thority than the official Communist publication, the Daily Worker. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of page 4 of the January 11, 1943, 
issue of the Daily Worker., marked for identification as "Fishman Ex- 
hibit No. 10." I direct your attention to an article titled "Chelsea 
Communists — Community Patriots," by Sender Garlin. 

The article deals with the Chelsea, New York, Communist club, 
its objectives and leadership, referring to "Mitch" Berenson as the 
Communist leader for the Third and Fifth Assembly Districts, and 
his pride in his associates. 

You, Moe Fishman, identified as a Spanish veteran, are named as 
the chairman of the West Side Village Club of the Communist Party 
operating under Berenson's leadership. 

Were you not, then, correctly identified by tlie official Communist 
publication as the chairman of the West Side Village Club of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The date on this is Januaiy 11, 1943? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Fishman Exhibit 10 in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that the document be admitted as a part 
of the evidence in the record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 10" follows.) 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



637 



Pa«« 4 



FiSHMAN Exhibit No. 10 
DAILY WORKEk, NEW YORK, MONDAY. JANUARY 11. 1»4« 



Chelsea Communists- 
Community Patriots 

■■■ ''■ I 

Bjr SMdcr Garifai 

When "Mitch** Berenson first opened his eyes he must 

I have sensed thst he would one dmy be an organizer in the 

: Chelae* district of New York. For he was bom on St. Pat- 

j rick's. Day — March 17, 1916, and Chelsea, as you know, has 

,;a large Irish- American population. 

li Bereiuon wm nuiMd Mltch^ ln» r ' 

honor of the "reform" mayor of. 

New York City of that pttiodA UNION MAN 



John Purroy Mitchel. But hiH Now onlr M. Mitch bet»n to be- 

I father (a sruluate of a Tterlitlfor«.aiwl-aft«f-Khool work wfani 

jprlaon) was too btiay wHh hU flvejhe wm 10. Be waa tocc«irt?«ly a 

chUdren and the electrielani' imloo j new»!»oy with a couple of route* to 

to aotlce^ that ttit' mxyorl atnie i ^^t^u,^ im errand boy and dean* 

,had only one -I." Mitch haa I „.upper in a Mg dreae ahop. and 

never taken the troubU to makejuttr. at 17 when he waa expeUed 

the name eonfonn beeauae he from the aenlor daaa to hi«h achooi 



jhaan't been addreaaed by hti full 

handle ever alnec he waa old 

, enough to be scolded by hk mother. 



for militant acUritlaa, he learned 
the trade to ^m dreaa shop aud 
Joined the International Ladle* 



I Its the fashlooable thins to say o»rment Workers Union where he 
wbout ary orfsnlatr that he^i.uu 15 to »ood rtandlns. 
popular with his people, but toj He had Just rawred toto a shiny 

new flat cm West 16th St. and was 



Mitch's ease It happens to be Utcral 
truth. Be is OommunM chairman 
of the Srd and ftth Aaatmbly Dia- 
trlcts on the West Side, and thMC 
are few thlnfs about Chelsea, pMt 
or present, that he doesnl toov 
about. And tov important, ttera 
are few community orsanlaatlcna 
and their leaders that ha docant 
have contact arlth. AU of which 
means that he Is penonany ac- 
quatoted with a food many of the 
njom people who Inhabit Obdaea. 



arrangirt his books when I came 
over to talk with him yesterday 
afternoon. He hauled out an an- 
tediluvian portable typewriter and 
f punched out my notes as he 
Ulked. 

"The main problem, obviously." 
he began, "Is to unify the com- 
munity, the leadership of the va- 
rious old parUes. churches and 
fraternal organizations behtod war 
activity. WhUe the leadership of 



638 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



Fish MAN Exhibit No. 10 — Continued 



<m 
no 



these ((roups, of eourw. rMOfnlM WlHthtilKm prtamrOf to tt« Took- 
the nred for victory over tfa* Axis, AorwMB. MMeh mki thU In pMes 
they haven't translated this undMr-ttam tb«tr temUlM imaaH o( tlM» 
standing Into active orfaolntlon to)ar|e> fovni Itvtag an crdcal and 
unite the population of ChcltM ba- ■tnjMiOnt ntftovn of • canwntr 
hind the victory procram ot tht laseeartty. dae to the -Ompt-vfT 
Roosevelt admlnUtratfam. matbed at talrti« on the valartront. 

"The chief aim of the OoouBunlst tha kkk-lMwks and other ab usaa 
Party of Chelsaa-in thli eonaae- Row. be petaU «tt. vtth >«ik« Itv- 
tlon-is to ucite tha laadanhlp and ti« coata the ganatlgn m avm more 
to convince them that tha naadi ot acute. BacaiiM of tha iKal nature 
wartime demand a aew approneh on of their work to fetation to the war. 
their part. Instead of waltli^ forha Mid. tM piaMi of morak 
the people to eoma to UMm wlthaaonf tha ha^Mifiuan and thdr 
thoae simple. (Important, of oouna) laafilsa fe bgr no aaeaaa aacortdanr. 

tha UTMUUonal •fatora' asaodalad -^ rv-»«»««.a 
with Tammany, thay mutt laam ♦a^^, ^ST^ 
lead and in^-.-e tha paopla. and teSuTooX ^S th.>«l leader- 

■hip of tha dominant union In the 
Industry, tnm , tha Democratic 
BBOWDCB1 KKML Party ortantaatlona. or from the tn- 

Beranson added ilcntteantly that fluantlal loadeia of tha ootnmunlty." 
this preauppoaaa. of oouraa, that tha Ba made clMr. howovar. that the 
leadership Itself must aequlra that nairty-alaetad Ciamriasmaii, Thonaa 
deeper underatandlnt. larl Brew- F. BurdOU (DJ.^lMkS an appreda- 
der's iraat book. VWtaey and Aflar, tkm of tbeaa probtams and baa an 
ba suctaaied. might sarra that pur- historic opportunity to advance the 
poee moat efle^valy. and Informed tntoeeU of the people by his work 
me that the Chelsea Oommunlst In the House of Repraaentatltaa and 
orfsnlzatlon has seen to It that all at home emongrt bis own nelgh- 
responslbie community leaders e- Yttn." 
celve copies of the book. BurchlD. InddantaHy. Is himself 

The block pUn outlined by the the son of a )oncshortman. 
cmUan DefeB«e authorttlfa. tha or- Heferrlnt to the work of the 
lanlaer went on would aerre aa a chelae* Oommunlst oqanlaatlin. 
centrallaed dvlllan deftaae mobfll- Mitch said that both tha water- 
satkm If the procram would be i fnmt dufae and the Third and Fifth 
carried Into effect Re asplalned were grappllnc with the problsma 



deepen th 

on the issues of tha war.* 



that one of the principal reasons 
for the slowneea In the developoient 
of a mass war mo r—ent In Chelsea 



facing the lonisheraaan. Tha Party 
at thte time draws Na oudn strength, 
however, from the profeaslpnal and 
la due to the poor Ihrlng ooodltjona : white ooUar workera. "While gratl- 
«f moat ot tha eoamunlty. Ifisd at tha growtog raaponaa of 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



639 



FiSHMAN Exhibit No. 10 — Continued 



Umm new DMoibera of oan. wt art 
ruUy conscious of ihs twed for es> 
UbUBhlnc a bMe MBonc those ele- 
DMnta of th« poptitotiftn irhlch an 
oniolal tn prod u ction, tueh as the 
waterftvnt vorkan." 

MItdi said tha present worklnt 
proffam of tha Ohaiisa Oommunist 
orfaalaaUoa can ba brokan down 
Into thraa Ba)or points, namaly: 
"(1) laarati^ bow to work with 
tha new approach to tha Party Qr> 
tanliatlon, eapaclally In tha bit 
dubs Mw balnc fonnad; (S) Bak> 
lac a suceaM of tha Party racnitt* 
lag drivt by tha dtnlopawnt «( 



bene* responsfide for putting tha, 
Daily Worker and The. Wocfear cm 
the Chelsea - map: Mferthr Millet^ 
tha attractive younc esecntlvs 
retaiy of the CSidsea dob. 
practtriac poet, she Is now a p3aU-> 
cal (though hl^ily effleleni) cMb 
leader; Rae Owycn. orgaatar «( 
the branch la the Negro area kt tha 
Plfth.A. b., who. with her eoal- 
Bteer husband. Charlie Owyna, 
has participated la hktofle labor 
struggles ia Ponnsyhraala. OblkK 
Colorado and Utah; Al. chaliaiaa 
ot the Italiaa branch, a 
worker, says Mit^: Bloe 



work; fA a> buUdtog the Spaaith tH. rhalrmap of thb 
of tha Dally Worter and Tha Village dub on the West tUe; Uott. 
WiDrkar. whMi av» tha kaag-ranga secretary of the dub that operates 
9t the Aaerloaa peo» east of Plfth Ave., aad Pete Sauad- 



Tha Ch e ls ea orgaalntlon Is start- 
tag a regular Suaday afternoon 
forwa with thiB writer as the 
•peakar on Jaa. M. 

PMH7D or OnLSBA 

Nobody oould poerfbiy aocuae 
Mlteh Ber«M0B of belag aelf -aatla- 



ers, chakman of the branch la tha 
Negro area. A K'%ro miner. Saund- 
ers is now attending the aectloo 
training school of the Party. 

Lest I forget: legends persist that 
Communists have neither time nor 
desire for "prrsonal life." There- 
for I asked Mitch Berenson vhat 
fled or stuffy. In the awat natural *»* ^^ to do in his spare umc. 
way ha eonetantly balaaced the ''^ ' !fV^!^ !** **° •"•**• 
pluses with tha minuets of Party ^ ^"^1,^'^'*^ *^ ** ' «~* *" 
work. Modest, he Is by ae ■»»» U^e Ukes to read. pUy with his 1»- 
the conscionsly -sdf-elfaeing- type. atKHith-old son whwn he nantad 
He's proud of the work of hii Pelle after Martin Anderson Nexo'a 
Thim and PCth A. D., and ntjoad f«a»0U8 proletarian character, aad 

of hi. able aasodates: Norah Pend- ^'* \^^ «' "»^, t»»«*>^- ^ ^_ 

. ^ . If I were writing the regulation 

leton. the orgaalsatHm secretary, -^uman interest • story Id wind up 
daughter of an dd Virginia faaSy. by saying that Mich Is a "regular 
now a student hi the C. P. stata teUow.' 
training school; Janet Taylor, tha 
little iBimette called the 
Jeep." who Is 



640 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN C02VIMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I also ask, Mr. Chairman, that at the respective 
points in the interrogation Exhibits 8-A and 9 be admitted in 
evidence ? 

Mr. Tuck. They will be made a part of the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, have you not continuously maintained 
your membership -in the Communist Party since that time to the 
present ? 

Mr. Fishman. I never said I ever was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are given an opportunity now to affirm or deny 
the description given of you and the identification given of you in 
the Daily Worker as chairman of the West Side Village Club of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not also serve in the International Brigade in 
the Spanish Civil War during the years 1937 and 1938? 

Mr. FiSHMAx. What is the pertinence of that in the subject under 
inquiry, the pertinence of that question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The pertinence of the question is that this is the sub- 
ject imder inquiry : Your activity with the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade and with respect to specific solicitations. 

Mr. FiSHMAX. A specific solicitation. And what has that got to 
do with my relationship with anything else in terms of what I did 
in 1037 and 1938? 

Mr. NiTTi,E. Did you or did you not serve in the International 
Brigade in the Spanish Civil War during those years? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of a passport applica- 
tion, executed March 31, 1937, subscribed to by one Mosess Fish- 
man, marked for identification as "Fishman Exhibit No. 11." 

Is that not a true copy of your application made to the Department 
of State under your signature, together with your appended affidavit 
in support of it ? 

Mr. Fishman. Mr. Chairman, what has this got to do with the 
subject under inquiry, please? 

Mr. Tuck. The witness has been informed of the purposes of this 
investigation; it is obvious that it is pertinent. And I order and 
direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

]Mr. Pool. AYlien was the last time you were in Spain ? 

(Counsel confers with witness.) 

Mr. Fishman. I never said I was in Spain. 

Mr. Pool. You do not answer the questions, is that it? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer the Question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, yes. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr, NiTTLE. I otfer Exhibit 11 in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be admitted in evidence and made a 
part of the record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 11" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Tuck. The gentleman from Oliio. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 641 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Could we remind the witness that early in his testi- 
mony lie referred to the fact that he had not been in Spain lately. I 
wonder if he was correct in that statement. I am pretty sure that is 
what the record will show, 

Mr. FoREK. That does not mean he had been in Spain earlier, I was 
j ust trying to ask, ]Mr, Ashbrook. 

Mr, Pool, I think that the counsel is out of order and I think you 
should direct him not to interrupt, 

Mr. Tuck. Well, he has already been informed. 

Have you been to Spain ? 

Mr. FisHMAN, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Tuck, Proceed, Counsel, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, in that application, you swore to the 
truth of statements to the effect that you made application for a 
United States passport for the purpose of visiting England, France, 
and Poland to see relatives and that you intended to return to the 
United States within 3 months. 

Appended to your application is your affidavit that you did not 
intend to use any passport for which you were making application for 
travel to Spain. 

Mr, Fishman, at the time you swore to that application, wasit not 
your purpose to obtain a passport for the purpose of traveling to 
Spain to serve the Communist cause in the International Brigade in 
Spain, and not to visit relatives ? 

Mr, Fishman. I didn't admit to that being my passport, or that be- 
ing my application. And many a good man died upholding the 
cause of democracy, signing that same affidavit. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you answer the question, and not make a speech ? 

]Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was not the Abraham Lincoln Battalion composed of 
Americans constituted as a part of the 15th Brigade^ 

Mr. Fishman. Mr, Chairman, what is the relevance of all of these 
questions to the purpose of the inquiry? It seems to be wandering 
far away, has nothing whatsoever to do with the question under 
inquiry. 

It started out in this direction, and has completely deteriorated into 
questions about ])olicies over the world and this organization and that 
organization. It has nothing to do with the subject under inquiry. 

Mr, NiTTLE. This goes to the question of your knowledge and dispo- 
sition. It bears upon your knowledge, in fact, of the purposes for 
which you have inserted these advertisements, your knowledge as to 
the Communist affiliations of the persons involved. 

Mr. Fishman. How can my getting a passport in 1937 have any 
kind of bearing on the matter under discussion ? I don't see it. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness has been informed of the pertinency of the 
question, which was obvious before he asked that question. 

The Chair now orders and directs the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I should state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that Inter- 
national Brigades were set up in Spain commencing in the fall of 1936 
and units thereof first participated in the Spanish Civil War in Novem- 
ber 1936. 



642 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, tlie report and order of the Subversive 
Activities Control Board, in its decision of December 21, 1955, declared 
that the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was organized by the Communist 
Party pursuant to a directive from the Communist International in 
Moscow. Do you possess any knowledge to the contrary ? 

Mr. Fishman. Are you trying that case again here? I mean this 
was adjudicated in another hearing. It is now before the courts. 

Mr. Tuck. Will the witness answer the question ? 

Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked whether you possess any knowledge to the con- 
trary. You did not testify in the hearing before the Subversive Ac- 
tivities Control Board. 

Mr. Fishman. But there Avas ample testimony given at that hearing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And we would like your testimony now, if you choose 
to give it. 

Mr. Fishman. I do not choose to give it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will ask a direction. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that he be directed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Tuck. He refuses to answer that question. Proceed to ask him 
another question. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I would like the witness to state his rea- 
sons for not answering the question. 

Mr. Fishman. On the same grounds. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were not thousands of Communists, in that manner, at 
the direction of Moscow, poured into Spain in the course of the civil 
war, with the objective of assisting the Communist Party of Spain in 
seizing power in the course of the Spanish Civil War ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fishman. That is not my version of history. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you possess knowledge to the contrary ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fishman. You are asking an opinion, and in my opinion the 
facts are very much to the contrary. And I still don't see what bear- 
ing this has on whether or not a little ad placed in a newspaper has any 
relationship to all of this. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was not the Abraham Lincoln Brigade a Communist- 
organized unit ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

:ic 4^ 4: 4: ^ ^ 4c 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party follow- 
ing the close of World War II ? 

Mr, Fishman. I again refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not have access to the Communist directives? 

Mr. Fishman. What bearing can that possibly have to the subject 
under inquiry ? The counselor is roving over a whole historic epoch 
and asking me opinions of which certainly I have no knowledge. I 
can read the same books that the counselor reads. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 643 

Mr. Tuck. If you have no knowledge, simply state that you have 
no knowledge. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. But what is the purpose of the inquiry? 

Mr. Tuck. We have stated the purpose here several times. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. If you can see any relationship between these ques- 
tions and the purposes, it really escapes me. 

Mr. Tuck. We are not here to argue with the witness but simply 
to have him answer questions, which he can answer or not. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, I now hand you a photostatic copy of 
another passport application, marked for identification as "Fishman 
Exhibit No. 12," dated March 16, 1961, bearing the signature of 
Mosess Fishman, together with an attached statement under the signa- 
ture of Mosess Fishman, setting forth : 

I fought in the International Brigade which was part of the Spanish Republi- 
can Army for parts of 1937 and 1938 but I did not take an oath of allegiance to 
the Spanish Government nor did I participate in their electoral activities or 
elections. 

Is that exhibit a true copy of the application and statement filed by 
you with the Department of State on March 16, 1961 ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 12" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. On that application, you swore under oath that your 
purpose in making application for a passport was to visit "France," 
and you set forth that your purpose was "Convention and pleasure." 

At the time you made this application, did you not again falsely 
certify to the purposes and places of your intended visit for which you 
sought a passport ? 

Mr. Fishman. Mr. Governor, the statement here specifically says 
that this is a preliminary investigation. It "indicates that under the 
guise of assisting 'political prisoners' and 'striking workers,' the 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade has, in fact, sought finan- 
cial and other contributions from United States citizens for the pur- 
pose of assisting the Communist movement" * * *, We desire to 
explore^ — this is specifically what the thmg says — "the nature and 
extent of these activities" — referring obviously to the financial and 
other contributions, "with the view toward determining the necessity 
for remedial legislation." 

Now, I fail to see how inquiring about a passport in 1937 and a pass- 
port in '61, and whatever other activities of this nature, have to do 
with specifically what the committee seeks to establish— "financial and 
other contributions from United States citizens for the purpose of as- 
sisting tlie Communist movement in Spain." 

Mr. Tuck. The committee is thoroughly familiar with the state- 
ment, which was read here in your presence this morning and which 
has been explained to you on at least two other occasions by counsel. 

The Chair is of the opinion that it is pertinent to inquire into the 
background of this organization and your connection with it. The 
question is pertinent, and you are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And pursuant to that application, was not a United 
States passport issued to you on March 20, 1961 ? 



644 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr, FiSHMAN. I repeat, Governor, that this is going far astray, real- 
ly far astray. 

Mr. Tuck. Answer the question. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, did you not make application for this 
passport in March 1961 for tlie purpose of assisting a Communist 
propaganda oifensive in East Germany in connection with your duties 
as executive secretary of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 
by attending a meeting of the "Anti-Fascist Committee," which met in 
the so-called East German Democratic Republic during the week of 
July 18 to July 25, 1961? 

Mr. Fishman. Wliat is the question ? I heard a number of things 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not make application for a passport for the 
purpose of going to the East German so-called Democratic Republic, 
which was holding a meeting of the Anti-Fascist Committee during the 
week of July 18 to July 25, 1961 ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I already answered that when you asked questions 
about the application. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That you should be so reticent at this time is surpris- 
ing, in view^ of the fact that your visit to East Germany on this occa- 
sion was reported in the ai'ticle of Brock Brower in Esquire magazine 
last March, to which I referred. Exhibit 9. 

Mr. Brower reports that you met some of your associates in the In- 
ternational Brigade on that occasion; that you heard repeated in Ger- 
man the farewell speech to the International Brigades originally given 
in Spanish by "La Pasionaria" at the close of the Spanish Civil War. 
Was Mr. Brower's report of your interview accurate ? 

Mr. Fish:man. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 
And again, what has this got to do with the subject imder inquiry? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Although not identified in Mr. Brower's article, was 
not "La Pasionaria" none other than Dolores Ibarruri, a member of 
the Central Committee of the Spanish Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fishman. Why does hearing somebody in Germany, repeating 
a speech she made in 1938, and my hearing it in Germany 

Mr. Bruce. I ask that the chairman direct the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Tuck. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any communication with Dolores Ibar- 
ruri since 1961 ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Did you have any correspondence with lier, soliciting 
•A message from her for a rally held in New York City in the spring of 
1962? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. She did send greetings to your Veterans of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade, which was conducting a rally at Palm Gardens, 
New York, did she not ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 645 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, could we have the stenographer read 
back the hist two questions prior to this one and the answers to them? 

(Tlie record was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Bruce. I suggest that the witness himself has opened up fur- 
ther questioning in this area and has waived his right to the fifth 
amendment by a contradictory answer here, where he answered the 
one question "No'" and replied to the next question with the fifth 
amendment. We have a right to show which is correct. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. What question, please ? 

(The reporter read as follows :) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any communication with Dolores Ibarruri since 
1961? 

Mr. Tuck. The question is. Have you had any correspondence with 
this party, whose name I cannot pronounce? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dolores Ibarruri, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. FoRER, "When ? 

Mr. Tuck. Since 1961. 

Mr. FisHMAN". The answer is, No. 

Mr. Tuck. Then what is the next question ? 

Read the question one more time, and I order and direct you to 
answer that question. 

(The reporter read as follows :) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any communication with Dolores Ibarruri since 
1961? 

Mr. FisHMAisr. No. 

Mr. FoRER. Governor, may we have the record show at this point 
what that question was that he reread ? 

Mr. Tuck. It is in the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did your organization, the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, receive a communication from Dolores Ibarruri, 
sending gi-eetings to a rally conducted by the Veterans of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade in the spring of 1962 ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I never said it was my organization and I refuse to 
answer on the grounds previousy stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, in its report and order of December 21, 
1955, the Subversive Activities Control Board, after extensive hear- 
ings in which the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was repre- 
sented, found : 

The CPUSA [Communist Party of the United States] as a vehicle for carrying 
on the Communist strategy with respect to Spain, formed the respondent organi- 
zation [that is, the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade] in 1938 prior 
to the return of most veterans. The [Communist] Party purpose was to use 
respondent and the shibboleth of anti-fascism as a facade, an instrument to ad- 
vance Communist influence in the United States and to aid the world Commu- 
nist movement with reference to Spain. 

Are you not presently serving these same purposes in your activities 
as executive secretary of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I don't understand what the purposes are that you 
are talking about. And certainly I am not carrying out any such 
purposes. 



646 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

And furthermore, I would like to know that when the court of ap- 
peals overthrows this ruling, as I expect them to, will the Governor 
and this committee retract all of this garbage that has been spilled 
all over the record ? 

Mr, Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I did answer it, your Honor. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to the '"''good used clothing" which you 
suggest in your form letter as a form of aid, it appears that you are 
equally eager to receive cash. 

I direct your attention to a statement contained in the coupon of 
Exhibits 1 and 2, namely, "Please make checks to: M. Fishman, 
Secretary." 

Would you tell the committee how much money you have collected 
since the publication of that advertisement ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board in 1955 re- 
ported that of the approximately 8,000 men who went to Spain from 
the United States to serve in the International Brigade, about 1,800 
returned and less than 600 survive today. Would you tell us how 
many veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade are presently mem- 
bers of your organization ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board reported that 
the evidence established 

Mr. Fishman. Why don't you just read their record into the record ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — that the principal operative officers of ther Veterans 
of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade since its beginning, without excep- 
tion, were active functionaries and representatives of the Communist 
Party. 

Do you possess any knowledge to the contrary ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is not the address of your organization. Room 405, 49 
East 21st Street, New York, New York 

Mr. Fishman. It has not been established that I have any 
organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — also the headquarters and office of the American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, an organization, by the 
way, cited as subversive and Communist by the Attorney General in 
1948? 

Mr. Fishman. What has that got to do with the subject under 
inquiry? 

Now we are bringing another organization into it, which I don't 
know — maybe they did send something to somebody, and maybe they 
are instrumental in doing something very bad. Wliy don't you call 
them in and question them ? 

Mr. Tuck. The question is whether or not the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade and this other organization, the American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, occupy the same address 
in New York. 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 647 

Is that correct or not ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Fishman, during the 1940's and into the 1950's, 
the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, an organization likewise 
cited as subversive and Communist by the Attorney General in 1947, 
operated what it called the "Spanish Refugee Appeal." You were 
familiar with this operation, were you not ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you an item marked 

Mr. Fishman. And again, the committee has been out of existence 
since 1950-something. I don't know when. It is years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of item marked "Fishman Exhibit 
No. 13." 

It is a letter dated October 80. 19.50, written on the stationery 
of the Spanish Refugee Appeal of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee, and cosigned by you as secretary of the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade. I ask you to examine that exhibit. 

Mr. Chairman, I offer that exhibit in evidence. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered admitted as a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 13" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Fishman. May I read it into the record ? 

Mr. Tuck. Did you send it or not ? 

Mr. FishjMan. May I read it into the record ? 

Mr. Tuck. Well, did you send it ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Among other things, the Spanish Refugee Appeal of 
the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee collected clothing and other 
materials ostensibly for persons in Spain who were suffering political 
persecution. 

It is a fact, is it not, Mr. Fishman, that you were actually in charge 
of the warehouse where the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 
collected these materials? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

What, again, Governor, has what happened 10, 15, or 20 years ago, 
with another organization, with no connection whatsoever with what 
has been being discussed here, got to do with what we are discussing? 

Mr. Tuck. We made that very plain, as a part of the background 
of this. 

Mr. Fishman. I fail to see. Governor, where it has any kind of 
relationship whatsoever. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board in the course 
of its hearings on the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, re- 
ceived sworn testimony that you were in charge of the warehouse. 
Do you deny the accuracy of this testimony ? 

Mr. Fishman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The relevance of this particular inquiry will now 
appear. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board report and order on the 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade found, as a fact, that a 



648 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 



member of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, who was 
assigned to do so — and now I quote from the report — 

assisted Moe Fishman in packing materials and supplies which ostensibly were 
going to those suffering in Spain from Franco's regime but which were actually 
being sent to the Communist underground in Spain. Fishman stated this aid 
was necessary because the underground was at that time increasing its activi- 
ties and greatly needed supplies. 

Mr. Fishman, were you not tlien, in connection with the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee, perpetrating a fraud upon the public by 
diverting these supplies to the Spanish Communist underground, 
when they were contributed by American citizens who thought they 
would be used to assist needy persons who were allegedly suffering 
political persecution in Spain ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Fishman. The public record shows that the clothes collected 
by the Spanish Refugee Appeal were administered and distributed 
solely by the Quakers and the Unitarians of the United States.^" And 



" The Joint Antl-Fasclst Refugee Committee, established in 1942, represented itself 
as a purely "philanthropic" body providing relief and rehabilitation without regard to 
"creed" to thousands of individuals exiled from their homelands following the Spanish 
Civil War. The .TAFRC identified the "refugees" aided as (1) Spaniards who had fought 
on the side of the Republican government in Spain and who had left their homeland fol- 
lowing Franco's victory in March 19.39 and (2) other nationals who had fought in Spain 
as members of the Comintern-controlled International Brigades and were either imprisoned 
in Spain after the Republican defeat or stranded in alien countries due to the vicissitudes 
of World War II. 

While World War II was in progress, the JAFRC was required to submit financial reports 
to the President's War Relief Control Board, which indic-Tted that, from 1942 u^til mid- 
1945, $67,986 — or 12% of its total wartime relief collections — had been distributed in 
France and North Africa through representatives of the American Friends Service Com- 
mittee. These reports also stated that .^l 14. .360 — or 21% of total .TAFRC wartime relief — 
was distributed by the Unitarian Service Committee in France, Switzerland, Portugal 
(and in 1942^3 in Spain itself). Almost half of the JAFRC's wartime collections was 
sent to a local "relief" organization in Mexico headed by Vicente Lombardo Toledano. 
well-known leader of Communist-dominated Latin American labor unions and an avowe<l 
"scientific Marxist." 

In the spring of 1946 — the same year in which Moe Fishman was represented as being 
in charge of the JAFRC warehouse — the Committee on Un-American Activities conducted 
hearings on the JAFRC after investigation indicated it was a Communist front, combining 
political action and propaganda with relief appeals. JAFRC officers refused to obey a 
committee subpena calling for their financial records, and thej' were subsequently convicted 
of contempt of Congress. The JAFRC's executive secretary did submit a list of agencies 
which allegedly administered its relief in various countries of Europe. Africa, and Latin 
America. No Quaker organization was listed, but the Unitarian Service Committee con- 
tinued to appear as the administrator of funds (and clothing) collected for refugees in 
France, Switzerland, and Portugal. 

Although this congressional committee was denied access to JAFRC record.s and was 
unable to investigate the ultimate use of JAFRC funds abroad, subsequent investigations 
on other matters often provided significant information on the JAFRC. For example, 
this committee's hearings in 1947 into the activities of Gerhart Eisler, top representative 
of the Communist International in this country, revealed that for several years Eisler made 
daily visits to JAFRC in New York, was paid a regular monthly salary by the organization, 
and rendezvoused in its offices with officials of the Communist Party, USA. 

When this committee received testimony in 1948 from Whittaker Chambers on the work 
of underground Communist cells in U.S. government agencies, Noel Field was mentioned 
as one of the State Department employees who belonged to such an apparatus in the 19.30's. 
Subsequent witnesses have supplied additional information on Field, who has lived behind 
the Iron Curtain since 1949 and no longer conceals his Communist sympathies. This same 
man served as director of the Unitarian Service Committee's European relief activities 
from the spring of 1941 until the fall of 1947. The church organization dismissed him 
In 1947 after receiving reports that he showed favoritism toward Communists in his relief 
work. It admitted that Field had been a free agent in distributing relief supplied by the 
Unitarians. In the light of these subsequent revelations, the reiteration in Joint Anti- 
Pascist Refugee Committee publicit.v that its relief in Europe was administered by the 
use is hardly evidence of a nonpartisan relief effort. 

In its fund-raising appeals after World War II. the .TAFTIC also gave mueh publicity 
to the fact that it was sending funds throuirh the USC to maintnin n h-^^pitnl in Toulouse. 
France, for Spanish Civil War vete»-ans. In the autumn of 19.50, the French Govomment 
arrested and deported hundreds of foreign Communists. The press reported that the prin- 
cipal catch was the Spanish Communist movement centered in Toulouse and thnt the 
medical and administrative staff of the JAFRC-supported hospital was included in the 
roundup. 

In 1947, the Attorney General included the JAFRC in a listing of subversive and Com- 
munist organizations compiled in connection with the Federal emp'ovee security program. 
In 195.3. the Attorney General petitioned the Subversive Activities Control Board for 
an order requiring the JAFRC to register as a Communist front under the terms of the 



ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 649 

your question assumes that I had anything to do with a fraudulent 
nature or in any other way with this, and I refuse to answer on the 
grounds previously stated with relation to it, but I deny any fraud. 

Mr. Xrri'LE. Are you not now engaging in a similar operation by 
collecting money and supplies for the families of persons who, you have 
stated in public advertisements, are imprisoned in Spain for having 
taken part in strikes in 1962, when actually the money and supplies 
are diverted to the Communist underground and, in the instances here 
cited, these persons are not in jail because they dared to take part in 
strikes in 1962, some are not living, and some are living in a country 
other than Spain ? 

Mr. FoRER. That is not a question. That is an argument. How can 
somebody answer such a question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your answer to the question ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I still don't know what the question is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is : Are you now engaging in a fraud upon 
the public of the United States ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. No, definitely not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you have appealed for clothing and supplies on 
belialf of persons imprisoned in Spain because of participation in 
strikes in 1962. And this is not true, is that right ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously indi- 
cated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. To establish the fact of record, and without iniplying 
that you are or are not required to do so, have you or has your organi- 
zation, the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Bridge, registered or. 
applied for registration with the Attorney General as an agent of a 
foreign principal pursuant to the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938? . . 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I am not going to answer a question which assumes 
that it is my organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, have you applied for registration as an agent of 
a foreign principal pursuant to the requirements of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938 ? 

Mr. FoRER. He said no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the organization, the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, so far as any knowledge you may possess, made 
application for registration under such act? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. FisiiMAN. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, no further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. No further questions. Does that conclude the interro- 
gation for this witness ? 



Internal Security Act. This proceeding before the SACB was terminated because the 
organization went out of business in February 19f)5. 

The dissolution of the .TAPRC occurred during public inquiry into its activity by a 
New York State Joint Lejrislative Committee on Charitable and Philanthropic Agencies 
and Organizations. JAFRC officials refused to provide the investiKatinsr committee with 
records on where and how its funds were disbursed and invoked the fifth amendment in 
response to questioning on the same subject. The New York State body reported that 
there was reason to suspect the accuracy of the few incomplete records produced by JAFRC 
officials because several checks entered on the books as contributions to the veterans. hos- 
pital in Toulouse. France, were actually cashed in New York by a JAFRC employee. The 
State committee noted that, althoujrh the organization's books showed a total colle.ction 
of .fl, 325.010 by the end of 1954. fund-raising and administrative expenses were taking 
78 cents of every dollar raised from the public and "there is reason to assume that a good 
part of the receipts raised from the public * * * went to provide jobs to support the 
faithful members of the Communist Party." 



650 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN COMMUNIST PARTIES 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair is of the opinion that probably there are 
grounds for further investigation of this matter by the Justice De- 
partment, in view of the likelihood of tliis witness having violated 
section 1341 of Title 18 of the United States Code with respect to 
using the mails for fraudulent purposes and violated also section 1001 
of the same title in regard to fraudulent statements or representations 
in connection with any matter or thing within the jurisdiction of any 
agency of the United States. And I suggest to the staff that they 
make this evidence and the testimony of this witness available to 
the Justice Department for such action, if any, that they may deem 
appropriate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. It Avill be done, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. I would like to make that as a motion. 

Mr. Bruce. Second. 

Mr. Tuck. All those in favor of the motion will say "Aye." 

Opposed, "No." 

The Ayes have it, and the motion is carried. 

The subcommittee will adjourn. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :15 p.m. Monday, July 29, 1963, the witness was 
excused and the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 

Individuals 

A 

Page 
Abad, Juan 612 

Andres, Andres Carvajal de. (See Carvajal de Andres, Andres.) 
Andres, Teresa Carvajal de. (See Carvajal de Andres, Teresa.) 
Arcos, Matilde Morales. (See Morales Arcos, Matilde.) 

B 

Barranco, Rafael Lopez. (See Lopez Barranco, Rafael.) 

Barranco Escavia, Jose 628 

Berenson, Mitchell (Mitch) 636-639 

Black (Hugo L.) 613 

Browder, Earl 638 

Brower, Brock 604, 634, 635, 644 

Brown, Fred 601, 635 

Burehill, Thomas F 638 

C 

Cansinos Palma, Jose 624, 625 

Carvajal de Andres, Andres 623 

Carvajal de Andres, Teresa ' (wife of Angel Larroca Garcia) 602, 

616-618, 620-623 
Castillo, Alejandro Herdero del. (See Heredero del Castillo, Alejandro.) 
Castillo, Angela Heredero del. (See Heredero del Castillo, Angela.) 
Castillo, Genoveva Heredero del. (See Heredero del Castillo, Genoveva.) 
Castillo, Mariano Heredero del. (See Heredero del Castillo, Mariano.) 
Castillo, Martina Heredero del. (See Heredero del Castillo, Martina.) 

Castillo Villarrubia, Eulogia del 602, 628-631 

Castro Martinez, Sofia (wife of Rafael Lopez Barranco) 602, 626, 627 

Chambers, Whittaker 648 

Cuervo Rodriguez, Aladino 603, 631, 632 

E 

Eisler, Gerhart 601, 635, 648 

Escavia, Jose Barranco. (See Barranco Escavia, Jose.) 

F 
Field, Noel Haviland 648 

Fishman, Moe (Mosess) 602-606, 609-650 (testimony) 

Forer, Joseph 609 

Franco, Francisco 612, 614, 616, 625, 628, 629, 631, 633, 648 

Frankfurter (Felix) 608 

G 

Garcia, Angel Larroca. (See Larroca Garcia, Angel.) 

Garcia, Sebastian 612 

Garlin, Sender 604, 636, 637 

Gwynn, Charlie 639 

Gwynn, Rae (Mrs. Charlie Gwynn) 639 

1 Misspelled in some references. 



ii INDEX 

H Page 

Heredero del Castillo, Alejandro 629, 630 

Heredero del Castillo, Angela 629, 631 

Heredero del Castillo, Genoveva 629, 631 

Heredero del Castillo, Mariano 629, 631 

Heredero del Castillo, Martina 629, 631 

Hernandez, Ana Hernandez. (See Hernandez Hernandez, Ana.) 

Hernandez Hernandez, Ana (wife of Jose Barranco Escavia) 602, 627, 628 

I 
Ibarruri, Dolores (alias ' ' La Pasionaria") 605, 644, 645 

L 

"La Pasionaria." (See Ibarruri, Dolores.) 

Larroca Garcia, Angel 622, 623 

Lombardo Toledano, Vicente 648 

Lopez Barranco, Rafael 627 

M 

Martin, Ana Salvador. (See Salvador Martin, Ana.) 

Martinez, Ramon Martinez. (See Martinez Martinez, Ramon.) 

Martinez, Sofia Castro. (See Castro Martinez, Sofia.) 

Martinez Martinez, Ramon 626 

Millet, Martha 639 

Mitchel, John Purroy 638 

Morales Arcos, Matilde (wife of Jose Cansinos Palma) 602, 624, 625 

N 
Nexo, Martin Andersen 639 

Nunez Velanos, Encarnacion (wife of Ramon Martinez Martinez) 602, 626 

O 
Ormazabal Ramon, Tife ^ 604, 633 

P 

Palma, Jose Cansinos. (See Cansinos Palma, Jose.) 

Pendleton, Norah 639 

R 
Reuther (Walter) 634 

Roda Zarabozo, Maria Paz 603, 631, 632 

Rodriguez, Aladino Cuervo. (See Cuervo Rodriguez, Aladino.) 

S 

Salvador, Gregorio Valero. (See Valero Salvador, Gregorio.) 

Salvador Martin, Ana 603, 631 

Sapirain, Sebastian 604, 633 

Saunders, Pete 639 

T 
Taylor, Janet 639 

Tife, Ramon Ormazabal. (See Ormazabal Ramon, Tife.) 
Toledano, Vicente Lombardo. (See Lombardo Toledano, Vicente.) 

V 

Valero Salvador, Gregorio 603, 631 

Velanos, Encarnacion Nunez. (See Nunez Velanos, Encarnacion.) 
Villarrubia, Eulogia del Castillo. (See Castillo Villarrubia, Eulogia del.) 

Z 

Zarabozo, Maria Paz Roda. (See Roda Zarabozo, Maria Paz.) 



INDEX iii 

Organizations 

A 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade, or Battalion. (See entry under International 

Brigade, Fifteenth. "> Page 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (ACPFB) 602, 646 

American Friends Service Committee. (See Religious Society of Friends.) 
Anti-Fascist Committee 605, 644 

C 

Comintern. (See International, III) 

Communist International. (See International, III.) 

Communist Party of the United States of America 645 

National Structure 

Political Committee (or Bureau) (Politburo) 601, 635 

States and Territories 
New York State 

New York City Area 

New York County (Manhattan) 

Chelsea Club 636-639 

Fifth A.D. Club 636-639 

Third A.D. Club 636-639 

West Side Village Club 604, 636, 639, 640 

Communist Party, Spain 603-605, 623-625, 627, 630, 632-634, 642, 644 

G 
Garment Workers' Union, International Ladies', AFL-CIO 637 

I 

International, III (Communist) (also known as Comintern and Inter- 
national Workers' Association) 601, 635, 642, 648 

International Brigade, Fifteenth (also referred to as Abraham Lincoln 

Brigade) 604, 605, 641, 643, 644, 646 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade or Battalion 601,604,641,642,646 

International Brigades 605, 641, 644, 648 

J 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 605, 647-649 

Spanish Refugee Appeal 647, 648 



Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, International. (See Garment Workers' 
Union, International Ladies', AFL-CIO.) 

New York State Joint Legislative Committee on Charitable and Philan- 
thropic Agencies and Organizations 649 

R 

Religious Society of Friends, American Friends Service Committee 648 

U 
Unitarian Service Committee 648 

United States Government, Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) . . 635, 

645, 648, 649 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 601-606, 

608, 610-612, 614-616, 624-628, 634-636, 640, 643-649 

Publications 

Victory and After 638 

World Marxist Review 633 

o 



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