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Full text of "The useful native plants of Australia, (including Tasmania)"



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USEFUL NATIVE PLANTS OF AUSTRALIA. 



The Technological Museum of iNew South Wales, 

Sydney. 



THE USEFUL 

NATIVE PLANTS 



OF 



AUSTRALIA. 

(Including Tasmania) 



J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S, F.C.S, &c., 
curator of the museum. 

HEW YOlfK 
BOT^NICAI 



f rtnteb bg oxhtx of t^e Committee of Paiuigcment. 



L^Oltbfflt: TRUBNER AND CO., LUDGATI-: HILL. 

^gbneg: turner and henderson. 



1889. 



THE TECHNOLOGICAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND 
SANITARY MUSEUM OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Founded 1880. 



SIR ALFRED ROBERTS, Knt., M.R.C.S., E. (Chairman). 

ROBERT HUNT, Esq., C.M.G-., F.a.S. 

PROFESSOR LIVERSIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 

This Museum, which already contains over 25,000 specimens, is 
intended to occupy a similar position and fulfil the same purpose 
in this Colony, which the South Kensington Museum, the Bethnal 
Green Museum, the Museum of Practical Geology, the Patent 
Office Museum, and the Parkes Museum of Plygiene do in 
London. 

A complete synopsis of the Museum would be too voluminous; 
the following notes will, however, probably give some idea of the 
scope of it. 

I. Animal Products (exclusive of foods) and specimens to show 
the methods followed in their preparation and manufacture. 
Products of (a) Mammalia. — Wool, hair and bristles, horn, 
hides, skins and leather, furs, bones and ivory, oils, fats and 
perfumes. (3) Birds. — Feathers, down, birdskins, eggs, oil 
and fat. (c) Fisheries. — Sponge, coral, pearls, shells, fish- 
oil, furs, whale-bone ; fish culture and apparatus. (</) 
Reptilia. — Tortoise shell. 
lA. Economic Entomology. — The specimens are arranged so 
as to enable the public to discriminate between insects 
which are injurious to man and those who work for his 
benefit ; and show their life history and specimens of the 
materials which they have destroyed or injured. Insect 
ornaments. Insects used in medicine and dyeing. Silk-worm, 
honey bee, &c. 



vi. SYNOPSIS OF MUSEUM. 

2. Vegetable Products, from the raw material through the 

various stages of manufacture to the finished fabric or other 
article. This section includes gums, resins, oils, woods, 
fibres, tans, dyes, drugs, perfumes. Forestry and forest 
products. 

3. Waste Products, whether of animal, vegetable, or of inorganic 

origin, with illustrations of their utilization. 

4. Foods, animal and vegetable, their constituents, and illustrations 

of their adulterations. Dietary tables and information con- 
cerning the chemical composition and other important par- 
ticulars regarding the human foods of the world. 

5. Economic Geology. — IMetallic ores. Building and ornamental 

stones. Mineral combustibles. Lime, cement and hydraulic 
cement, raw and burned. Artificial stone. Clays, kaolin, 
silica, and other materials for manufacture of pottery, glass, &C- 
Refractory materials. Substances used for grinding and 
polishing ; pigments of inorganic origin. Collections of 
minerals, rocks, and fossils, to illustrate well-known text- 
books. Collections of minerals to illustrate physical proper- 
ties, e.g., colour, lustre, diaphaneity. Woven fabrics of 
mineral origin {e.g., wire-cloth, asbestos-cloth). 

5A. Ceramics, Pottery, Porcelain. — Bricks, drain-tiles, terra 
cotta, architectural pottery ; fire-clay goods, crucibles, pots,, 
furnaces, chemical stoneware; tiles for ornament, pavements, 
roofing, &c. ; earthenware, stoneware, art pottery and porcelain. 

5B. Glass. — Glass used for construction and for mirrors, window- 
glass, plate-glass — rough ground and polished, toughened 
glass, chemical and pharmaceutical glassware, decorative 
glassware. 

6. Original Specimens of Artistic Workmanship in wood,, . 

metal, and other substances. Coins and medals. 

7. Photographs, Electrotype, Plaster, and other reproductions. 

of examples of art workmanship where originals are not to 
be obtained. 

8. Ethnological Specimens. — Musical instruments, national cos- 

tumes, historical costumes, lace and embroidery. 



SYNOPSIS OF MUSEUM. VU. 

9. Metallurgy. — Metals in a crude and refined state, with 

specimens illustrating the various stages of production ; also 
samples of products of working alloys. Products of washing 
and refining precious metals. Electro-metallurgy. Products 
of the working of metals (rough-castings, wrought-iron, &c.) 
Manufactured metals (blacksmiths' work, wheels and tires, 
&c.) Wire drawing — Needles, pins, &c. 

10. Mine Engineering. — Boring and drilling rocks, &c. ; con- 

struction of shafts, &c. ; hoisting ; pumping and draining ; 
ventilating ; hydraulic mining ; quarrying ; models of mines, 
veins, &c ; geological maps, sections, and plans of gold and 
other fields. 

11. Specimens illustrative of the Mechanical Properties of various 
kinds and qualities of structural materials. 

12. Military and Naval Armaments, Ordnance, Fire-arms, and 

Hunting apparatus. Military small arms, muskets, pistols, 
and magazine guns, with their ammunition. Light artillery, 
compound guns, machine guns, mitrailleuses, &c. Heavy 
ordnance and its accessories. Knives, swords, spears and 
dirks. Fire-arms and other implements used for sporting and 
hunting. Traps for game, birds, vermin, &c. 

13. Naval Architecture, &c. Railway apparatus. ^Erial, 
pneumatic, and water transportation. 

14. Agriculture. Agricultural tools, appliances, and machinery ; 
also soils, manures, &c. In this section will be included 
mineral fertilizing substances, e.g., gypsum, phosphate of 
lime, marls, shells, coprolities, &c., not manufactured. 
Specimens to illustrate the life-history of animals useful to 
man. 

15. Instruments of precision and apparatus for observations, 

research, experiment, and illustration. Instruments for 
physical diagnosis. Surgical instruments and appliances, 
with dressings. Dental instruments and appliances. 

16. Sanitary Conditions, Appliances, and Regulations. Industrial 
designs. Domestic architecture and building construction. 
Architectural designs in general. Decoration of interior of 



Vlii. SYNOPSIS OF MUSEUM. 

buildings. Vehicles and appliances for the transportation of 
the sick and wounded during peace and war, on shore or at 
sea. Apparatus for heating and lighting. Apparatus used 
for cooking. Laundry appliances. Bath-room and water- 
closet. Manufactured parts of buildings (sashes, &c.) 

17. Educational. — ^Arrangements, furniture, appliances, and 

modes of training of Kindergarten, schools, colleges, pro- 
fessional and technical schools, institutions for deaf, dumb, 
blind, etc. 

18. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products. — Organic and 
inorganic preparations which are put to some useful purpose. 

19. Models, Drawings, and Descriptions of Patents: Special 
attention is paid to those which are likely to prove of use in 
the Colonies, or which have been taken out in Australia. 

20. Exhibition Catalogues, Trade Journals, Price Lists, and 

descriptions of new processes or industries. The information 
afforded to manufacturers, merchants, and tradesmen by a 
collection of this kind is of great value. 



Series of specimens illustrating all the stages of a manu- 
factured article are especially desired. Loans of suitable exhibits 
(removable at pleasure) are also received, and the Committee 
undertakes to take especial care of such, and to insure them 
against fire. 

Sufficient concise information is attached to each exhibit or 
group to satisfy without wearying the visitor ; a full description will 
be given in the catalogues. The prices paid for specimens and 
their commercial value is indicated wherevfir possible. The cost 
or value of gifts is not affixed where donors express wishes to 
the contrary. 

J. H. MAIDEN, 

Curator and Secretary. 






PREFACE, 



This book originated in a catalogue the author had prepared of 
such specimens obtained from plants indigenous in Australia as 
were in the Museum. But as the work proceeded new specimens 
continued to arrive, and as it was found that the catalogue would, for 
that reason alone, never be complete, he decided to extend it, so 
as to include all Australian plants which up to the present are 
known to be of economic value, or injurious to man and domestic 
animals. 

The subdivisions of "Timbers," "Drugs," "Foods," etc., 

are those which from experience he has found most convenient to 

Museum visitors. Under each of these sections the species have 

been arranged in alphabetical order. The practice of subdivision 

into sections has the drawback of causing a certain amount of 

repetition, which, however, the author has endeavoured to minimise 

by cross references, but its many advantages are at once apparent. 

At the end will be found a complete index of the whole of 

the botanical names (whether in use now or obsolete), and the 

vernacular and aboriginal names used throughout the book, 

together with a brief miscellaneous index. It is believed that the 

list of aboriginal and colonial names is the most complete which 

has been published up to the present time. Wherever possible, 

an endeavour has been made to indicate the locality in which a 

vernacular name is in use, as many of them are extremely local. 

It will be observed that some of the colonial names are very 

misleading, and the matter is sometimes rendered more difficult 

through the same name having been given to several plants. 

p^ Many of the names, as might be expected, are those of European 

CD plants Australian ones are supposed to resemble. But as the flora 

I of the two continents are very dissimilar, difficulties in giving 

CO them common names crop up very readily. A few of the names 

I — may prove to be erroneous, especially some of those attributed to 

Eucal}'pts, but the greatest care has been exercised, while the 



X. PREFACE. 

reprehensible practice of fitting botanical names on to vernacular 
ones has never been attempted by the author. He has reason, 
however, to suspect that this has been done in some lists of 
economic plants he has quoted. 

The literature of Australian economic vegetable products may- 
be said to date from the great Exhibition of 185 1. But until the 
last few years, owing to the somewhat unsettled nomenclature of 
Australian plants, the properties of the same plant will be often 
found described under a variety of botanical names. In order to 
make these old books of reference conveniently available to 
readers, the author has found it necessary to give the synonomy of 
all plants referred to. The nomenclature adopted is that of the 
Flora Anstraliensis of Bentham and Mueller. All references 
to that work are denoted by " B.Fl."' But the species-names have 
been invariably compared with the Census 0/ Australian Plants 
of Baron Mueller (Part i. " Vasculares," printed for the Victorian 
Government, 1882, and with annual supplements). The references 
to that work are indicated by " Muell. Cens." Where no such 
reference is made, it denotes that the species named in the Flora 
Anstraliensis and the Census are identical. But in those cases 
in which the Census species-name differs from that in the Flora, 
a note to that effect is invariably given. In some cases the Census 
is the only authority quoted ; in these instances the species has 
not been described in the Flora. In the case of some new species, 
the names are to be found in neither of these works, for these, 
suitable references are given. 

The use of the learned Baron's Census side by side with the 
Flora Australiensis, became an absolute necessity for the following 
reasons. The earlier volumes of the Flora were published over 
twenty-five years ago, and during that period a large number of 
species have been added (almost entirely by Baron Mueller himself), 
the localities of plants have been confirmed or rectified, and 
greatly extended, and the two learned botanists have not always been 
unanimous as to the botanical limitation of genera and species. 
Further, additional information has shown that some of the names 
(especially in the earlier volumes) of the Flora required amending. 
The Census is, in part, an enlarged index and supplement to the 



PREFACE. XI. 

seven volumes of the Flora, and is not merely useful, but 
absolutely indispensable to the student of Australian plants. 

The genus Eucalyptus is the only one in which any alteration 
of the arrangement referred to above has been made. In regard 
to this the author has generally adopted the nomenclature of 
the classical monograph, Eucalyptographia, of Baron INIueller 
(Government Printer, Melbourne, issued in ten parts, descriptive 
of one hundred species, from 1879 ^o 1^884), and cross-references 
have been made to the Flora Australiensis. 

Because this is not a text-book of Systematic Botany, 
botanical diagnoses of all kinds have been rigorously suppressed. 
They would be simply useless padding in a book with the aim of 
the present one. 

Where possible the writer has quoted or embodied the reports 
of uninterested experts outside the colonies in regard to the adapt- 
ability of Australian raw products. Many commendations of raw 
products for specific uses have been made either hastily or 
ignorantly. It goes without saying that where such commenda- 
tions have been found by manufacturers and others to be 
undeserved, the reputation of Australian products in general has 
suffered. The man who lauds a raw product must not forget the 
responsibility he thus takes upon himself. These remarks have 
impressed themselves on the author with great force in regard to 
the products of this new country. 

The author has not confined himself to the uses to which 
plants, not endemic in Australia, are alone put in that continent. 
Doubtless the knowledge of the uses to which a plant is put in 
other countries of the world may lead, in some cases, to its useful 
employment here. 

Wherever he could trace the original authors of statements, the 
author has made it a point of honour to acknowledge them. Of 
course, he is largely indebted to the works of Baron Mueller, and 
also to the readiness with which that distinguished botanist always 
assists him to disperse his difficulties. The Rev. Dr. Woolls of 
Sydney has recorded many useful facts in regard to the utilization 
of our native plants, and has also favoured the author with others. 
To Mr. F. M. Bailey, Government Botanist of Queensland, he is 



XII. PREFACE. 

indebted for many notes. He is much indebted to his assistant, 
Mr. R. T. Baker, for patient aid in revising the proofs ; aid which 
has frequently necessitated sacrifice of his own time. 

As this is the first book covering the whole of the subjects to 
which it refers, the author trusts it may be found useful. Many of 
the observations will be found to be original ; some have been 
jotted down in his note-book during the last few years, others 
have been obtained from actual examination of the excellent 
collection of Australian products now in this Museum. While 
this work has been passing through the press he has obtained a 
mass of further information, and cordially invites correspondence 
on Australian economic botany. 

Technological Museum, 
yanuary, i88g. 



CONTENTS. 



1. Human Foods and Food Adjuncts . - . . 

2. Forage Plants — 

a. Grasses - - - - - - 

b. Exclusive of Grasses, and including Plants noxious 

TO Stock --.... 



c. Kinds 
5. Oils — 

a. Volatile or Essential 



7» 



"3 



3. Drugs ..--.-.. 14^ 

4. Gums, Resins, and Kinos — 

a. Gums -.-._.. 208 

b. Resins ------- 223 



235 



253 



b. Expressed or Fixed ----- 283 

6. Perfumes -.--.-. 288 

7. Dyes -----... 293 

8. Tans - - - - .- - - - 302 

9. Timbers ...--.- ^31 

10. Fibres .---.-.. giy 

11. Miscellaneous ...... 6^6 

Index of Miscellaneous Subjects .... g^y 

,, ,, Vernacular Names ..... g^g: 

,, ,, Botanical Names ..... 667 



Human Food and Food Adjuncts. 



Hooker, in his Flora of Tasmania, truly remarks that the 
products of many plants, although "eatable," are not "fit to eat," 
and would never be employed as food except in the direst 
necessity. Australian indigenous fruits, roots, leaves, and stems 
are nothing to boast of as eatables ; and, as in the greater part of 
this continent there is a very great scarcity, or even entire absence 
of water, an explorer can rarely traverse long distances without 
taking suitable food with him. 

There is little doubt that most of those which are here 
recorded as having been utilised for food in other countries are 
also eaten by the omnivorous Australian aboriginal. Besides 
these, only those parts of certain plants have been referred 
to which have been recorded as having been used as food by 
aboriginals and colonists. Extended observations must greatly 
augment the list. 

Knowledge in regard to the indigenous vegetable food 
resources of these colonies should be considered an absolute 
necessity by those whose avocations take them out of beaten tracks, 
especially in the dry country, while the ordinary citizen may find 
himself occasionally in a position in which an acquaintance with 
the scanty vegetable food products of the bush would be useful to 
him. 

Aboriginal Method of Obtaining Water. 
We are indebted to the aboriginals for a method of obtaining 
water, and that from a source in which we should perhaps least 
look for it. This simple method, which had best be given in the 
words of those who have had much intercourse with the blacks, 
is now given, and no adult in Australia should be ignorant of it. 



* This section forms the substance of a paper entitled, " Australian Human Foods and 
Food-Adjuncts," read by the autlior before the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 
30th May, 1888. 

B 



2 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

There is no doubt that a knowledge of this method of obtaining 
water would have been the means of saving the lives of many 
people who have suffered one of the most terrible of all deaths — 
death from thirst. 

" It frequently happens to the natives, when out in the mallee 
country, that the water-holes on which they had counted on 
obtaining a supply of water have dried up ; but they are never at a 
loss. They select in the small broken plains some mallee trees, 
which are generally found surrounding them. The right kind of 
trees can always be recognised by a comparative density of their 
foliage. A circle a few inches deep is dug with a tomahawk 
around the base of the tree ; the roots, which run horizontally, are 
soon discovered. They are divided from the tree and torn up, 
many of them being several feet in length. They are then cut 
into pieces, each about nine inches long, and placed on end in a 
receiver, and good, clear, well-tasted water is obtained. The 
roots of several other trees yield water." (Dr. Grummow.) This 
method of obtaining water in arid regions has been described in 
almost similar language by many explorers. 

" How the natives existed in this parched country was the 
question ! We saw that around many trees the roots had been 
taken up, and we found them without the bark, and cut into short 
clubs, or billets, but for what purpose we could not then discover. 
. . . . I expressed my thirst and want of water. Looking as 
if they understood me, they hastened to resume their work, and I 
discovered that they dug up the roots for the sake of drinking the 
the sap. It appeared that they first cut these roots into billets, and 
then stripped off the bark or rind, which they sometimes chew, 
after which, holding up the billet, and applying one end to the 
mouth, they let the juice drop into it." — Three Expeditions 
(Mitchell), pp. 196 and 199. 

See also a paper by Mr. K. H. Bennett, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., viii., 213. 

See Eucalyptus, Vitis, Hakea. 

Aboriginal Beverages. 

" The natives used also to compound liquors — perhaps after 
a slight fermentation to some extent intoxicating — from various 



HUMAN FOODS. 3 

flowers, from honey, from gums, and from a kind of manna. The 
iiquor was usually prepared in the large wooden bowls (iarnucks) 
which were to be seen at every encampment. In the flowers of a 
dwarf species of Banksia (B. orna/a) there is a good deal of 
honey, and this was got out of the flowers by immersing them in 
water. The water thus sweetened was greedily swallowed by the 
natives. The drink was named Beal by the natives of the west of 
Victoria, and was much esteemed." — Aborigines of Victoria 
,(R. Brough Smyth), i., 210. 

See Banksia, Grevillea, Hakea, Lambertia, Telopea. 

Sir Thomas Mitchell {Three Expeditions., ii., 288), speaking 
■of an "Ironbark" near Port Phillip (Melbourne), says: "The flowers 
are gathered, and by steeping them a night in water the natives 
made a sweet beverage called ' bool.' " (Evidently the same name 
as that in the preceding paragraph.) 

I- Acacia aneura, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 402. 

" Mulga." 

In Western New South Wales two kinds of galls are commonly 
found on these trees. One kind is very plentiful, very astringent, 
and not used ; but the other is less abundant, larger, succulent and 
edible. These latter galls are called " Mulga apples," and are said 
to be very welcome to the thirsty traveller. 

Western Australia, through the other mainland colonies to 
Queensland. 

2. Acacia Bidwilli, Benth., N.O. Leguminosce, B.Fl., ii., 420. 

" Waneu," of the aboriginals of Central Queensland ; " Yadthor," of 
those of the Cloncurry River, Northern Queensland. 

"The roots of this tree are edible after baking." (Thozet.) 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

3- Acacia Cibaria, F.v.M., N.O. Leguminos®, Muell. Cens., 

p. 46. 

" Wonuy," of the natives about Shark's Bay. 

" The natives use the seeds for food." (Mueller and Forrest, 
Plants Indigenous around Shark's Bay, W.A., 1883.) 

A quantity of these seeds, obtained from near Milparinka, 
New South Wales, is in the Technological Museum. They are 



4 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

two or three times as large as most acacia seeds (resembling small 
castor-oil seeds somewhat), have excessively hard and very thick 
coats, and what little nutritive matter they contain seems very 
liable to the attacks of an insect. 

Western Australia and New South Wales. 

4- Acacia loncifolia, WHld., var. SoPHORiE. (Syn. A. Sophorce, 
R. Br., Mimosa Sophorce, Labill.,) N.O. Leguminosae, 
B. FL, ii., 398. 

It was the " Boobyalla " of the aboriginals of Tasmania. 

" The natives of Tasmania used to roast the ripening pods of 
this wattle, pick out the seeds and eat them." (Backhouse.) It is 
believed that the seeds of other species of wattle were consumed 
in a similar manner. 

Near the coast in all the colonies except Western Australia. 

5. Acsena Sanguisorbse, Vahl., (Syn. A. sarmentosa, Carmich.,) 

N.O. Rosacese, B.FL, ii., 434. 

A " Burr." 
The leaves of this plant have been used as a substitute for 
tea, and have been highly spoken of by some for this purpose. 
All the colonies except Western Australia. 

6. Achras aUStralis, R- Br., (Syn. Sapota australis, A.DC, 

Sideroxylon australe, Benth., and J. Hook.,) Muell. Cens., 
p. 92, N.O. Sapotacese, B.Fl., iv., 282. 

"Black Apple," "Brush Apple," "Wild" or "Native Plum" of 
colonists. Following are some aboriginal names: — " Jerra-wa-wah," 
Illawarra and Brisbane Water (New South Wales); "Wycaulie," Richmond 
and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales); "Tchoonboy," Northern New 
South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

The rich milky sap resembles cream in taste ; the fruit is like 
a very large plum, but of coarse, insipid flavour. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

7- Adansonia Gregorii, F.v.M., N.O., INlalvace^, B.FI., i., 223. 

" Sour Gourd," " Cream of Tartar " tree. 
"The dry acidulous pulp of the fruit is eaten. It has an 
agreeable taste, like cream of tartar, and is peculiarly refreshing 
in the sultry climates where the tree is found. It consists of gum. 



HUMAN FOODS. 5 

Starch, sugary matter, and malic acid." (Treasury of Botany?) A 
fine figure of this tree has just been pubHshed in part 26 of the 
Picturesque Atlas of Australasia. 

This species is hardly to be distinguished from the Baobab of 
Africa i^A. digitatd). 

Northern Australia. 

8. Adenanthera pavonina, Linn., N.O. Leguminosx, B.Fl., 

ii., 298, and Muell. Cens., p. 43. 

" Barricarri " of India, "False Jequirity." 

In India these seeds are occasionally used as an article of 
food. They are of the size of a kidney bean. They would 
doubtless require boiling, or some similar preparation, for it should 
be borne in mind that the Leguminosce must be regarded as a 
poisonous Natural Order, in spite of the fact that it yields some 
of the most valuable foods used by man and beast. 

Queensland. 

9. Agaricus (Psalliota) campestris, Li^m., N.O. Fungi, Muell. 

Fragm. XL, Suppl., p. 79. 

" The Common Mushroom." 

This, and several other edible species of mushroom, are found 
in Australia. Besides the present one, no mushroom perhaps is 
generally used in these colonies as food. Of course the dryness 
of the climate renders these edible fungi much less abundant than 
they otherwise would be. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

10. Aleurites moluCCana, WHld., (Syn. A. Amhiriux, Pers., 
A. triloba, Forst., fatropha moluccana, Linn.,) N.O. 
Euphorbiacese, B.FL, vi., 128. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 20, 
as A. triloba. 

" Candle Nut Tree." 

The natives of the countries in which this tree grows are very 
fond of the nut, which is similar in flavour to the common walnut, 
and very wholesome. It is, however, rather rich, from the quantity 
of oil it contains. 

Queensland. 



6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

11. Alsophila aUStralis, R.Br., (Syn. A. exceha, R.Br. - 

A. Cooperi, Hook., et Bak.,) N.O. Filices, B.Fl., vii., yro, 
iov A. auslralis, and 711 for A. exceha and A. Cooperi. 
Bentham, however, expresses some doubts as to whether 
these may not be distinct species after all, and Baron 
Mueller (Cens., p. 137) records A. auslralis and A. exceha 
as distinct species. Dr. Woolls further discusses the subject. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vi., 746. 

" Tree Fern." The aboriginals of Illawarra (New South Wales) used 
to call it " Beeow-vvang," and the aboriginals of Queensland, " Nanga- 
nanga." The aboriginals of the Corranderrk Station (Victoria) call it 
" Pooeet." 

The pulp of the top of the trunk is full of starch, and is 
eaien raw and roasted by the aboriginals. This whitish substance 
is found in the middle of the tree from the base to the apex, and 
when boiled tastes like a bad turnip. Pigs feed on it greedily. 
(See also Tasmanian Journal for 1842, p. 35.) 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, for 
A. auslralis; the two latter colonies for A. exceha. 

12. AmarantUS Viridis, Linn., (Syn. Euxohis viridis, Moq.,) 

N.O. Amarantacese, B.Fl., v., 215.'' Bentham considers this 

may be introduced, and Mueller (Cens.) omits it. 

This weed is a perfect nuisance in gardens and roadsides, but 
Mr. F. M. Bailey points out that besides being a fair substitute 
for cabbage, the leaves have been used externally with advantage 
as an emollient poultice. I have had this plant cooked, and I do 
not hesitate to pronounce it a valuable vegetable. It is an excel- 
lent substitute for spinach, being far superior to much of the 
leaves of the white beet sold for spinach in Sydney. Next to 
spinach it seems to be most like boiled nettle leaves, which when 
young are used in England, and are excellent. This amaranlus 
should be cooked like spinach, and as it becomes more widely 
known, it is sure to be popular, except amongst persons who may 
consider it beneath their dignity to have anything to do with so 
common a weed. 

All the colonies. 



HUMAN FOODS. 7 

13- Angiopteris evecta, Hoffm., N.O. Filices, B.Fl., vii., 694. 

" The aboriginals used to feed on the pith of this tree-fern, 
which contains a certain amount of starch similar to sago." (Foster.) 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
Queensland. 

14- Apium australe, Than. (Syn. A. proslratum, Labill. ; 

Petroseliniiim prostralu?n, DC. ; Helosciadiiini ausirale, 
Bunge; H. prostraltim,'Qm\gQ.), N.O. Umbelliferae, B.Fl., 
iii., 372. A. prostraiiim in Muell. Cens., p. 63. 

" Australian Celery." 

"This plant may be utilised as a culinary vegetable." (Mueller.) 
It is not endemic in Australia. 
All the colonies. 

15- Aponogeton elongatus, F.v.M., and A. monostachyns 

Liftn., N.O. Alismacese, B. Fl., vii., 188. 

" The tuberous roots of these water-plants are starchy, and of 
excellent taste, though not large " (Mueller.) 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia, 
A. elongatus; Queensland and Northern Australia, A, mono- 
siachyus. 

16. Araucaria Bidwillii,^'?^''^'?^, N.O. Coniferae, B.Fl., vi., 243. 

" Bunya Bunya." 

" The cones shed their seeds, which are two to two and a-half 
inches long by three-quarters of an inch broad ; they are sweet 
before being perfectly ripe, and after that resemble roasted chest- 
nuts in taste. They are plentiful once in three years, and when 
the ripening season arrives, which is generally in the month of 
January, the aboriginals assemble in large numbers from a great 
distance around, and feast upon them. Each tribe has its own 
particular set of trees, and of these each family has a certain 
number allotted, which are handed down from generation to 
generation with great exactness. The bunya is remarkable as 
being the only hereditary property which any of the aborigines are 
known to possess, and it is therefore protected by law. The food 
seems to have a fattening effect on the aborigines, and they eat 
large quantities of it after roasting it at the fire. Contrary to their 



8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

usual habits, they sometimes store up the bunya nuts, hiding them 
in a water-hole for a month or two. Here they germinate, and 
become offensive to a white man's palate, but they are considered 
by the blacks to have acquired an improved flavour." (Hill.) 
Dr. Bennett mentions that after an indulgence in this exclusively 
vegetable diet they have an irresistible longing for flesh, and that 
in order to satisfy that craving cannibalism used to be frequent 
amongst those tribes who were visitors (for the purpose of eating 
the bunya-bunya seeds) of those tribes in whose territory the 
bunya-bunya tree grows. 

Queensland. 
17- Astelia alpina, R.Br.. N.O., Liliaceae, B.Fl., vii., ii, 

"The fruit is sweet, and the bases of the leaves are eaten.'" 
(R. C. Gunn.) 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

i8. Astroloma humifusum, R.Br., (Syn. A, pallidum, Sond. ; 
Styphelia hiunifusa, Pers. ; Vetiletiatia humifusa, Cav.,) 
and A. pinifolilim, (Syn. Styphelia pini/olia, Spreng., 
Stenanihera pmifolia, R. Br.,) N.O. Epacrideae, B.FI., iv., 
156 and 159. Styphelia humifusa and S. pini/olia in 
Muell. Cens., p. 105. 

Commonly called " Ground-berry." In Tasmania the fruits are often 
called " Native Cranberries." 

The fruits of these dwarf shrubs are much appreciated by 
school-boys and aboriginals. They have a viscid sweetish pulp, 
with a relatively large stone. The pulp is described by some as 
being "apple-flavoured," though I have always failed to make out 
any distinct flavour. 

All the colonies, except Queensland, A. humifusa ; Tasmania, 
Victoria, and New South Wales, A. pinifolia. 

19. Atalantia glanca, Hook, f, (Syn. Triphasia glatica, 
Lindl.), N.O. Rutaceoe, B.FL, i., 370. 

" Native Kumquat," " Desert Lemon." 

The fruit is globular, and about half-an-inch in diameter. It 
produces an agreeable beverage from its acid juice. A fair pre- 
serve may be made out of the fruit. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



HUMAN FOODS. 9 

20. Atherosperma moschata, Labill., N.O. Monimiaceae, 
B.FL, v., 284. 

" Sassafras." 

The fragrant bark of this tree has been used as tea in Tasmania. 
A decoction or infusion of the green or dried bark was made, and 
according to Mr. Gunn, it has a pleasant taste when taken with 
plenty of milk. Its effect is, however, slightly aperient. 

It is also used in the form of a beer. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

21. Atriplex Cinerea, Poir. (Syn. A. halimus, R.Br., A. 

elceagfioides, Moq.,) N.O. Chenopodiaces, B.Fl., v., 171. 

Once used as pot-herb in New South Wales. During his 
overland journey to Port Essington, Leichhardt used a species of 
Atriplex as a vegetable, and spoke very highly of it. 

All the colonies. 

22. Avicennia officinalis, Linn., (Syn. a. tometitosa, Jacq.,) 

N.O. Verbenaceas, B.FL, v., 69. 

"Mangrove." " Egaie," of the Cleveland Bay aboriginals; " Tagon- 
tagon," of the Rockhampton aboriginals; " Baa-lunn," and " Tchoonche " 
are other aboriginal names. 

" The fruit is heart-shaped, with two thick cotyledons. The 
aboriginals of Cleveland Bay dig a hole in the ground, where they 
light a good fire; when well ignited, they throw stones over it, 
which when sufficiently heated, they arrange horizontally at the 
bottom, and lay on the top the Egaie fruit, sprinkling a little 
water over it ; they cover it with bark, and over the whole earth is 
placed to prevent the steam from evaporating too freely. During 
the time required for baking (about two hours), they dig another 
hole in the sand ; the softened Egaie is put into it, they pour 
water twice over it, and the Midavio is now fit for eating. They 
resort to that sort of food during the wet season when precluded 
from searching for any other." (Murrell's testimony,* quoted by 
Mens. Thozet.) 

In Salt-water estuaries all round the coast. 



* Murrell was a shipwrecked sailor, who lived for seventeen years with the aboriginals 
of Cleveland Bay, Queensland. 



10 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

23. Banksia, spp., N.O. Proteace:», B.Fl., v., 541. 
" Honeysuckle." 

The name " honeysuckle " was applied to this genus by the 
early settlers, from the fact that the flowers, when in full bloom, 
contain, in a greater or lesser quantity, a sweet, honey-like liquid, 
which is secreted in considerable quantities, especially after a 
dewy night, and is eagerly sucked out by the aborigines. "It is 
so abundant in B. ericifolia and B. collina that when in flower the 
ground underneath large cultivated plants is in a complete state of 
puddle; bees and wasps become intoxicated, and many lose their 
lives in it." (Smith : Dictiojiary of Useful Plants.) This may 
possibly be true of a particular Banksia cultivated under exceptional 
conditions. But certainly it does not apply, except in a very- 
modified degree, to the case of any Banksia I have noticed, and 
since I observed the above statement I have taken the trouble to 
look at hundreds of individuals of various species with the view to 
testing its accuracy. I have also requested Mr, Bauerlen (a 
collector for the Technological Museum) to make similar obser- 
vations, and he writes: — " I have never heard from anyone having 
observed the liquid exuding so abundantly as mentioned by 
Smith. I have often found the flowers pretty rich in the honey- 
like liquid, and when travelling over dry, waterless areas I have 
sometimes sucked the liquid from the flowers to quench my 
thirst, but always endeavour not to do so, as it invariably gives me 
a headache, and a feeling of nausea afterwards." See also 
Gr evil lea, Hakea, Telopea, Lainhertia (all Proteaceous plants). 

Throughout Australia. 

24- Billardiera SCandens, ^mith (Syn. B. mutabiUs, Salisb.; 

B. la/ folia, Putter!.; B. grandifora, Putterl.; B. angusti- 

folia, DC. ; B. canariensis, Wendl.,) N.O. Pittosporese, 

B.Fl., i., 123. 

" Apple Berry." 

The berries are acid and pleasant when fully ripe. From their 

shape children call them "dumplings." When unripe, a small 

quantity of the juice p)roduces very disagreeable and persistent 

heartburn. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 



HUMAN FOODS. II 

25. Bombax malabaricum, DC. (Syn. B. heptaphyllum, Cav.; 

Salmalia Malabarica, Schott.), N.O. Malvacece, B.Fl., i., 
223. 
The " Simool '' tree or " Malabar Silk-cotton " tree of India. 

" The calyx of the flower-bud is eaten as a vegetable in India." 
(Brandis.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

26. Bowenia spectabilis, Hook., N.O. Cycadeae, B.FL, vi., 254. 

"The yam-like rhizome is used largely for food by the natives." 
(Bailey.) 

Queensland. 

'2']. Brasenia peltata, Pursh., (Syn. Hydropeltis purpurea, 

Mich.,) N.O. Nymphseaceae, B.FL, i., 60. Cabomba peltata, 

F.V.M., Muell. Cens., p. i. 

This plant is considered nutritious in America, probably from 
the large grained starch it contains. 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

28. Buchanania arborescens, BUune (Syn. Coniogeton arbor- 
escens, R.Br.,) N.O. Anacardiaceos, Muell. Cens., p. 25. 

The " Little Gooseberry-tree " of Leichhardt. 
" The unripe fruits of this plant were gathered, and, when 
boiled, imparted an agreeable acidity to the water, and when thus 
prepared, tasted tolerably well. When ripe, they become sweet 
and pulpy, like gooseberries, although their rind is not very thick. 
This resemblance induced us to call the tree 'the little gooseberry' 
tree. It was much esteemed by the natives." (Leichhardt: Over- 
land yourney to Port Essitigton, p. 479.) 
Queensland. 

29. Caladenia, spp., N.O. Orchidea?, B.FL, vi., 376. 

" Spider Orchids." 

These and other orchids have edible tubers. 
Throughout Australia. 



12 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

30- Calophylhm inophyllum, Linn., N.O. Guttiferse, B.Fl., i., 

183. 

The " Ndiio " of India, 

During a debate on the Pearl Fisheries Bill in the Queensland 
Assembly, a clause was specially inserted to protect trees of this 
species at Thursday Island. A fine of £\o is inflicted on any 
person who cuts down or injures this or a cocoa-nut tree, or any 
other tree bearing edible fruit. This clause is, of course, in the 
interest of the aboriginals. 

Queensland. 

31. Canavalia obtnsifolia, DC, N.O. Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 

256. 

" The seeds are eaten by the blacks after cooking, as they are 
poisonous in the raw state. Some shipwrecked sailors in North- 
west Australia were poisoned by them." (Forrest.) 

New South Wales, Queensland, Northern and Western 
Australia. 

32. Capparis canescens, Banks, N.O. Capparidea^, B.Fl., i., 96. 
" Native Date." " Mondoleu " (diminutive of " Mondo," C. Mitchelli) 

of the aboriginals about Rockhampton. 

" The fruit is pyriform and half an inch in diameter. It is 
eaten by the aborigines without any preparation." (Thozet.) 
Mr. P. O'Shanesy observes that the pulpy part in which these 
Australian species of Capparis are imbedded is a good substitute 
for mustard. 

Queensland. 

33- Capparis Mitchelli, Lindl., (Syn. BusbeckiaMUchelU, F.v.M.,) 
N.O. Capparideas, B.FL, i., 95. 
"Small Native Pomegranate," "Native Orange," " Mondo," of the 
aboriginals about Rockhampton (Queensland); " Karn-doo-thal," of the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (Northern Queensland.) 

The fruit is from one to two inches in diameter, and the pulp, 
■which has an agreeable perfume, is eaten by the natives. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Western Australia. 



HUMAN FOODS. 13 

34' Capparis nobilis, F.v.M., (Syn. Busbeckia arborea, F.v.M.; 
B. nobilis, Endl.), N.O. Capparideae, B.Fl., i., 95. 

" Native Pomegranate," " Grey Plum," " Caper-tree," " Karum," of 
the aboriginals about Rockhampton (Queensland). 

The fruit, which is from one to two inches in diameter, is 
eaten by the natives. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

35- Cardamine hirsuta, Linn., (Syn. C. parviflora, Hook. ; C. 
debilis, Banks ; C. paticijuga, Turcz.,) N.O. C 
B.FL, i., 70. 

Called " Lady's Smock " in England. It is a " Cress." 

This and other species afford excellent pot-herbs when 
luxuriant and flaccid. The present one is a common weed almost 
throughout the world. 

Throughout the colonies. 



36. Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn., N.O. Sapindacese, 

B.Fl., i., 453- 

" Heartseed," " Heart-pea," " Winter-cherry," "Balloon Vine." 

This common tropical weed is eaten as a vegetable in the 
Moluccas. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

37- Careya arborea, Roxb., (Syn. C. ausfralis, F.v.M. ; 
Barringtonia Careya, F.v.M.,) N.O. Myrtacete, B.Fl., iii., 
289 (C austral is in Muell. Cens., p. 60). 

Called "Broad-leaved Apple" tree. The " Barror " of the Rock- 
hampton aboriginals. Variously called "Go-onje" and " Gunthamarra," 
by the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (Northern Queensland) ; and 
" Otcho," by the aboriginals of the Mitchell River. 

The Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods records that the Queensland 
blacks eat the seeds, and he has heard it said that they roast and 
eat the fruit as well. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



14 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

38. Cargillia aUStralis, R.Br., (Syn. Maba CargilUa, F.v.M. ; 
Diospyvos CargilUa, F.v.M,,) N.O. Ebenaceae, B.Fl., iv. 
288. Diospyros Cargillia in Muell. Cens., p. Q2. 

" Black Plum," of lUawarra (New South Wales) ; " Booreerra," of 
some aboriginals. 

The fruits are of the size of a large plum, and of a dark 
purple colour. They are eaten by the aboriginals. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

39. Carissa OVata, R.Br., (Syn. C. Broivnii, F.v.M.,) N.O. 
Apocyneaj, B.Fl., iv., 305. C. Brownii, F.v.M., in Muell. 
Cens., p. 93. 

" Native Scrub Lime.'' " Karey " of the aborigines of the Rockhampton 
tribe (Queensland); " Ulorin " of the aboriginals of Cleveland Bay tribe; 
" Kunkerbury " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (Northern 
Queensland). 

This little bush produces a very pleasant fruit, which is both 
agreeable and wholesome. It is like a sloe, egg-shaped, and about 
half-an-inch long. It exudes a viscid milky juice and contains a 
few woody seeds. " I can testify that the fruit is both agreeable 
and wholesome, and I never knew an instance of any evil conse- 
quences, even when they were partaken of most abundantly." — 
(Tenison-Woods, Vol. vii., 571., Proc. Lirin. Soc. N.S.W.) 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

40. Cassytha filiformis, Lin?t., (Syn. C. guineensis, Schum.,) 

N.O. Laurince, B.FL, v., 311. 

This and other species of Cassytha are called " Dodder-laurel." The 
emphatic name of " Devil's guts " is largely used. It frequently connects 
bushes and trees by cords, and becomes a nuisance to the traveller. 

" This plant is used by the Brahmins of Southern India for 
seasoning their buttermilk." {Treasury of Botany?) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

41. Castanospermum australe, A. Cunn., N.O. Leguminosae, 

B.FL, ii., 75. 
" iVIoreton Bay Chestnut," " Bean " tree. Called " Irtalie " by the 
aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales) ; 
and " Bogum " by others of Northern New South Wales. 



HUMAN FOODS. 15 

"The beans are used as food by the aborigines, who prepare 
them by first steeping them in water from eight to ten days ; they 
are then taken out, dried in the sun, roasted upon hot stones, 
pounded into a coarse meal, in which state they may be kept for 
an indefinite period. When required for use, the meal is simply 
mixed with water, made into a thin cake, and baked in the usual 
manner. In taste, cakes prepared in this way resemble a coarse 
ship biscuit." (C. Moore.) 

A sample of starch from these beans was exhibited by 
Mr. Moore at the Intercolonial Exhibition of Melbourne, 1866. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

42. CaSUarina Stricta, --J''^-, (Syn. A. quadrivalvis, Labill. ; 

C. macrocarpa, A. Cunn. ; C. cristata, Miq. ; C. Gunnii, 

Hook.), N.O. Casuarinece, B.Fl., vi., 195. C. quadrivalvis 

in Muell. Cens., p. 22. 

"Shingle Oak," "Coast She-oak," " River Oak," " Salt-water Swamp 
Oak." The " Worgnal " of the aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarenc 
(New South Wales). 

In cases of severe thirst, great relief may be obtained from 
chewing the foliage of this and other species, which, being of an 
acid nature, produces a flow of saliva — a fact well-known to bush- 
men who have traversed waterless portions of the country. This 
acid is closely allied to citric acid, and may prove identical with it. 
Children chew the young cones, which they call " oak apples." 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

43- Chenopodium auricomnm, LindU, N.O. Chenopodiaceai, 

B.FL, v., 159. 

This is another of the salt-bushes, which, besides being 
invaluable food for stock, can be eaten by man. All plants of the 
Natural Order Chenopodiaceae (Salsolacese) are more or less useful 
in this respect. 

The following account of its practical utilization will be of 
interest : — 

" We have recently gathered an abundant harvest of leaves 
from two or three plants growing in our garden. These leaves 
were put into boiling water to bleach them, and they were then 



1 6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

cooked as an ordinary dish of spinach, with this difference in 
favour of the new plant, that there was no occasion to take away 
the threads which are so disagreeable in chicory, sorrel, and 
ordinary spinach. We partook of this dish with relish — the 
flavour — analogous to spinach, had something in it more refined, 
less grassy in taste. The cultivation is easy : sow the seed in 
April (October) in a well-manured bed, for the plant is greedy; 
water it. The leaves may be gathered from the time the plant 
attains 50 centimetres (say 20 inches) in height. They grow up 
again quickly. In less than eight days afterwards another 
gathering may take place, and so on to the end of the year." — 
Jourrial de la Ferme et des Maisofis de Compagne, quoted in 
Pharm. Journ. [2] viii., 734. 

In all the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

44- Chenopodium murale, Linn., (Syn. C. erosum, R.Br.,) 
N.O. Chenopodiacece, B.Fl., v., 160. Bentham considers 
this may have been introduced, and Muell. (Cens.) omits it 
altogether. 

" Australian Spinach," " Fat-hen." Other species share this name. 
A pot-herb, which may be utilised in the same manner as the 
preceding species. 

Southern colonies. 

45- CitriobatUS paUCiflorUS, A. Cunn., (Syn. Ixiospoms spine- 
scens, F.v.M.,) N.O. Pittosporese, B.FL, i., 122. 

" Native Orange," " Orange Thorn." 

The fruit is an orange berry with a leathery skin, about one 
inch and a half in diameter. The seeds are large. It is eaten by 
the aboriginals. 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

46. Citris aiistralis, Planch., (Syn. Limonia australis, A. 
Cunn.,) N.O. Rutacese, B.FL, i., 371. Citrus Planchonii, 
F.v.M. , in Muell. Cens., p. 112. 

" Native Lime," " Orange." 

The fruit, which is an inch and a-half in diameter and almost 
globular, yields an agreeable beverage from its acid juice. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 



HUMAN FOODS. I7 

47- Claytonia balonensis (Balonnensis^ Lindi., (Syn. Caian- 

drinia Balonnensis, F.v.M.), N.O., Portulace®, B.FL, i., 

172. 

Called " Periculia " by the aboriginals. (Stuart). 

"This plant is eaten with bread by white people. The blacks 
also use it for food, mixed with baked bark." (Annie F. Richards, 
\x\Proc. R.S.S.A., iv., 136.) 

"The seed is used for making a kind of bread, after the 
manner of that of Portulaca oleracea.'' (Mueller, Fragm., x., 71.) 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

48. Claytonia polyandra, F.v.M., (Syn. Talimim polyandrum, 

Hook.), N.O., Portulaceae, B.FL, i., 172. 

" Coonda" of the aboriginals about Shark's Bay. 

" Used as food by some Western Australian tribes." (Mueller 
and Forrest, Plants Indigenous about Shark's Bay, W.A., 1883.) 

North and Western Australia, South Australia, and New 
South Wales. 

49. COCOS nucifera, Linn., N.O., Palmas, B.FL, viL, 143. 

" Cocoanut Palm." 

This nut is so well known that the following few notes con- 
cerning it will be sufficient. As an article of food the kernel is of 
great importance to the inhabitants of the tropics. In the 
Laccadives it forms the chief food, each person consuming four 
nuts per day, and the fluid, commonly called milk, which it 
contains, affords them an agreeable beverage. While young they 
yield a delicious substance resembling blanc-mange. 

Among other products of this palm may be mentioned 
" toddy," which when fermented is intoxicating ; strong arrack is 
also distilled from it, besides which it yields vinegar and " jaggery," 
or sugar. 

50. Colocasia antiquorum, Schott, (Syn. Caladium acre, R.Br., 

Aru7n Colocasia, Linn.), N.O., Aroidese, B.FL viL, 155. 

The " Taro " of the Fijians. 

"This plant is cultivated in most tropical countries, Egypt, 
India, etc., for the sake of its leaves, which when uncooked are 
acrid, but on boiling, the water being changed, they lose their 



1 8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

acridity, and may be eaten as spinach." {Treasury of Botany^ 
" Acid fruits are added to assist the removal of the acridity. 
Hindoos and Mahometans are very fond of all parts of the plants 
of this genus." (Dymock.) 

" When the crop is gathered in Fiji," says Dr. Seemann {Flora 
Vtliensis), " the tops of the tubers are cut off and at once replanted. 
The young leaves may be eaten like spinach, but, like the root, 
they require to be well cooked in order to destroy the acridity 
peculiar to aroideous plants. The Fijians prefer eating the cooked 
Taro when cold ; Europeans as a rule like it quite hot, and, if 
possible, roasted. A considerable number of varieties are known, 
some better adapted for puddings, some for bread, or simply for 
boiling or baking. The outer marks of distinction chiefly rest 
upon the different tinge observable in the corm, leaf, stalks, and 
ribs of the leaves — white, yellowish, purple." 

The roots are also largely consumed for food in Japan, and in 
a descriptive Catalogue of the Japanese exhibits at the Healih 
Exhibition, London, 1884, they are styled "Japanese Potatoes." 

Following is an analysis taken from the Catalogue : — 

Albumen i'427 

Fat o'oSo 

Glucose o' 1 20 

Starch 10*400 

Pectose, etc i'i54 

Ash o"987 

Water 85*202 



100* 
Queensland. 

51. Colocasia macrorrhiza, Schott, (Syn. Caladium rnacror- 
rkizon, R.Br. ; Alocasia macrorrhiza, Schott), N.O., Aroidese, 
B.Fl., vii., 155. 

" Pitchu," of the aboriginals of the Burnett River (Queensland); 
" Cunjevoi," of those of South Queensland; " Hakkin," of the Rockhamp- 
ton (Queensland) aboriginals; " Bargadga," or " Nargan," of the Cleve- 
land Bay aboriginals. 



HUMAN FOODS. 19 

" The young bulbs, of a light rose colour inside, found growing 
on large old rhizomes, are scraped, divided into two parts, and 
put under hot ashes for about half an hour. When sufficiently 
baked, they are then pounded by hard strokes between two stones 
— a large one, Wallarie, and a small one, Kondola. All the pieces 
■which do not look farinaceous, but watery when broken, arc 
thrown away; the others, by strokes of the Kondola, are united 
by twos or threes, and put into the fire again ; they are then taken 
■out and pounded together in the form of a cake, which is again 
returned to the fire and carefully turned occasionally. This 
operation is repeated eight or ten times, and when the Hakkin, 
which is now of a green-greyish colour, begins to harden, it is fit 
for use." (Thozet.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

32. CoprOSma hirtella, LabHI., (Syn. C. cuspidi/oUa, DC), 
N.O., Rubiacece, B.Fl., iii., 429. 

Fruit sweet, eatable, not agreeable. The fruits of other 
species may be eaten also. 

All the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

53- Coprosma Billardieri, Hook. /., (Syn. C. micro phylla. 
Hook, f . ; Canthium quadrifidum, Labill. ; Marquisia 
Billardieri, A. Rich.), N.O., Rubiacese, B.FL, iii., 430. 

" Native Currant." " Morr," of the aboriginals of Coranderrk Station 
•(Victoria). 

This plant bears a small round drupe, about the size of a 
small pea. Mr. Backhouse states that (over half a century ago) 
■when British fruits were scarce, it was made into puddings by some 
of the settlers of Tasmania, but the size and number of the seeds 
•were objectionable. 

Tasmania and Victoria. 

5-1- Cordia Myxa, -^^Vzw., {^yn. C.dicholo7na,Yox?,\..; C. Brownii, 
DC; C. lati/olia, Roxb. ; C. ixiocarpa, F.v.M. ; C. obliqua, 
Willd. ; C. polygama, Roxb.), N.O., Boragineae, B.Fl., iv., 

386. 

The " Sebesten Plum " of India. 



20 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" In India the tender young fruit is eaten as a vegetable, and 
is pickled ; the ripe fruit is eaten, and is greedily devoured by 
birds ; the kernel is eaten, and tastes somewhat like a filbert ; 
that of the cultivated tree is better." (Brandis.) 

Queensland. 

55. Correa alba, Andr., (Syn. C. coHnifoUa, Salisb. ; C. rufa 

Vent. ; Mazeutoxeron rufum, Labill.), N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl. 

!•> 354- 

" Called " Cape Barren Tea" in Tasmania, on account of its use near 
that headland. 

The leaves of this plant have been used by the sealers on the 
islands in Bass's Straits as a substitute for tea. 

Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

56. Crimim flaccidum, Herb., (Syn. AmarvlUs auslralasicUr 

Ker; C. aus/ralis, Spreng.), N.O., Amaryllideae, B.FL, vi.,. 
454. 

•The " Darling Lily." 

This exceedingly handsome white-flowered plant, which grows 
back from the Darling, has bulbs which yield a fair arrowroot. 
On one occasion, near the town of Wilcannia, a man earned a 
handsome sum by making this substance when flour was all but 
unobtainable. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

57- CuCUmis trigonus, Roxb., (Syn. C. pubescens, Hook. ; 
C. jucundus, F.v.M. ; C. picrocarpus, F.v.M.), N.O.,. 
Cucurbitaceae, B.FL, iii., 317. 

" Boomarrah," of the aborigines of the Cloncurry River (North Queensland). 

Sir Thomas Mitchell, in one of his western trips, speaks of 
this plant growing in such abundance that the whole countr}- 
seemed strewed with the fruit, which was then ripe, and of which 
the natives ate great quantities, and were very fond. It is about 
the size of a plum only. 

In the Treasury of Botany it is observed that the tender tops 
of all the edible species of Cucurbilacece, boiled as greens or 
spinach, are even a more delicate vegetable than the fruit. 



HUMAN FOODS, 21 

New South Wales, Queensland, Northern and Western 
Australia. 

58. Cyathea medvillaris, Swartz, N.O., Filices, B.Fi., vii., 708. 

" Black-stemmed Tree-fern." 
" The aboriginals used to feed on the pith of this tree-fern, 
which contains a certain amount of starch similar to sago." (Foster.) 
Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

59. Cycas media, R-Br., N.O., Cycadeas, B.FI., vi., 249. 

" Nut Palm." " Baveu," of Central Queensland aboriginals. 

" Employed by the aborigines as food. An excellent farina is 
obtained from it. The nuts are deprived of their outer succulent 
cover (sarcocarp) and are then broken; and the kernels, having 
been roughly pounded, are dried three or four hours in the sun, 
then brought in a dilly-bag to a stream or pond, where they remain 
in the running water four or five days, and in stagnant water three 
or four days. By a touch of the fingers the proper degree of 
softness produced by maceration is ascertained. They are after- 
wards placed between the two stones mentioned under Colocasia 
macrorrhizon, reduced to a fine paste, and then baked under the 
ashes in the same way that our bush people bake their damper." 
(Thozet.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

60. Cymbidium canalicnlatum, R.Br., N.O., Orchidese, B.Fi., 

vi., 302. 

" The only orchid of the interior of tropical Australia which 
affords mucilaginous food." (Mueller.) The stems, etc., are eaten. 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern 
Australia. 

61. Cyttaria Gunnii, Berk., N.O., Fungi, Muell., Fragm., xi., 

loi, Supp. 

This edible fungus is found on the branches of Fagus 
Cunnittghamii, or native Beech. 
Tasmania. 



22 . AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

62. Dendrobium canaliculatum, R.Br., (Syn. D. Tattonianum^ 

Batem.), N.O., Orchideas, B.Fl, vi., 282. 

" Yamberin," of the Queensland aboriginals. 

" The bulbous stems, after being deprived of the old leaves^ 
are edible." (Thozet.) 
Queensland. 

63. Dendrobium speciosum, Smith, N.O., Orchldeae, B.Fl., vi., 279. 

" Rock Lily." 

The large pseudo-bulbs have been eaten by the aboriginals; 
they, however, contain but little nutritive matter. 
Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

64- Dicksonia antarctica, Lahill, (Syn. D. BiUardieri, F.v.M. ; 

Cyhotium Billardieri, R. C. Gunn in Tas. Journ. 1842.),. 

N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 712. D. Billardieri in MuelL 

Cens., p. 137. 

The pulp of the top of the trunk is full of starch, and is eaten 
by the aboriginals both raw and roasted. 

" The native blacks of the colony used to split open about a 
foot and a-half of the top of the trunk, and take out the heart,, 
in substance resembling a Swedish turnip, and of the thickness- 
of a man's arm. This they either roasted in the ashes, or ate as 
bread ; but it is too bitter and astringent to suit an English 
palate." (Gunn.) 

All the colonies, except Western Australia. 

65. Dioscorea hastifolia, Endl, N.O., Dioscoridece, B.FL, vi., 461. 

A "Yam." 

"One of the hardiest of the yams. The tubers are largely 
consumed by the local aborigines for food ; it is the only plant on 
which they bestow any kind of cultivation, crude as it is."^ 
(Mueller.) 

Western Australia. 

66. rioscorea Sativa, Linn., (Syn. D. lalifolia,^tv\i\\.; D. bulbi- 
fera, Forst. ; Hehnia hulbifera, Kunth), N.O., Dioscoridese, 

B.Fl., vi., 461. 

"Yam." " Karro," of the aboriginals of the Mitchell River (North- 
Queensland.) 



HUMAN FOODS. 23 

This yam is eaten by the aboriginals of Australia, and in India 
it is cultivated almost everywhere as a vegetable. In Watts Diet. 
the tubers are said to contain 23 per cent, of starch, and 68 per 
cent, of woody fibre, gum, etc. In the same work, however, the 
tubers of D. hulbifera (merged in this species) are only credited 
with 10 per cent, of starch. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

67. Dioscorea transversa, R.Br., (Syn. D. pufictata, R.Br.), 

N.O., Dioscoridece, B.FL, vi., 460. 
" Long Yam." " Kowar," of the aborigines of Central Queensland. 
" The small young tubers are eaten by the aborigines without 
any preparation." (Thozet.) 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

68. Dodonsea spp. div., N.O., Sapindacea^. 

"Native Hops," on account of the capsules bearing some resemblance 
to hops, both in appearance and taste. 

In the early days of settlement the fruits of these trees were 
extensively used, 3'east and beer of excellent quality being pre- 
pared from them. They are still so used to a small extent. D. 
attenuata, A. Cunn., for instance, was largely used in the Western 
District. In times of drought cattle and sheep eat them. ; 

Throughout the colonies. 

69. Diploglottis Cunninghamii, Hooii. /., (Syn. Cupania Cun- 

jiinghamii, Hook. f. ; C. australis, Hook. f. ; Stadmannia 
australis, Don), N.O., Sapindaceae, B.FL, i., 454. 

" Tamarind Tree." " Burrunedura," of the aboriginals of Illawarra ; and 
" Aucoloby," and Toonoum," of those of northern New South Wales. 

This tree produces racemes of pleasant sub-acid fruit, used 
for preserves. 

New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

70. Lrimys aromatica, F.v.M., (Syn. Tasmannia aromatica, 
R.Br.), N.O., Magnoliacese, B.FL. L, 49. 

" Pepper Tree." 



24 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The drupe is used as a condiment, being a fair substitute for 
pepper, or rather allspice The leaves and bark also have a hot, 
biting, cinnamon-like taste 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales 

71 ElseagnUS latifolia, Linn.^ (Syn. E. conjerta, Roxb. ; F^ 
ferruginea, A. Rich.), N O,, Elaeagnese, Muell Cens., p. 64. 
"The fruit is eaten in India, It is acid and somewhat astrin- 
gent* It makes good tarts." (Beddome.) 
Queensland. 

72. Elseocarpus Bancroftii, l'\v.M., and Bail,, N.O., Tiliaceae. 

Proc. R.S Queensland, 188^. 

The cotyledons or " kernels " have a good flavour, and are 
eaten by the settlers. Other species of ElcEocarpus have fruits 
which are more or less useful in this respect. 

Johnstone River, Queensland. 

Th' Entada SCandens, Benih., (Syn. E. Purscetha, DC; Mimosa 
scandens, Linn.), N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 298. E. 
Purscetha, in Muell. Cens., p. 43. 

" Queensland Bean," " Barbaddah," of the Cleveland Bay aboriginals. 

"These large beans are eaten by the aboriginals. They are 
put into the stone oven and heated in the same way and for the 
same time as those of Avicennia tomentosa (q.v.); they are then 
pounded fine and put into a dilly-bag, and left for ten or twelve 
hours in water, when they are fit for use." {MurrelVs testimony). 
The natives of India also eat them after roasting and soaking in 
water. 

Queensland. 

74. Erythrina indica, Lam., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 253. 

" Indian Coral " tree. 

In Ceylon the young tender leaves are eaten in curries. 
Queensland and Northern Queensland. 

75- Eucalyptus COrymbosa, Smith, (Syn. Metrosideros gummi- 
fera, Soland.), N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 256. 
" Bloodwood." 



HUMAN FOODS. 25 

Archdeacon King has noticed Mellitose-manna on the leaves 
of this tree to a small extent when they are pierced by a beetle. 
{Anophgnathus cereus.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

76. Eucalyptus dumosa, A. Cunn., (a Mallee), B.Fl., iii., 230; 

E. gracilis, F.v.M., (a Mallee), B.Fl., iii., 211 ; E. incrassata, 

Labill., (a Mallee), B.Fl., iii., 231; E. microtheca, F.v.M.; 
("Bastard Box" or " Coolibah,") B.Fl., iii., 223 ; E. oleosa, 
F.v.M., (a Mallee), B.FL, iii., 248, N.O., Myrtacete. 
These Eucalypts, amongst others, yield water from their roots.- 
See page i. See also Hakea leucoptera and Vitis (Cisst(s). 

Chiefly in the arid regions of the colonies. 
77' Eucalyptus dumosa, A. Cunn., N O., Myrtaces, B.FL, iii., 230. 

" Lerp," " Larp," " Laap," or " Larap " Eucalypt. 

This shrub yields a kind of manna called Lerp or I.arp by 
the aboriginals. It is the nidus of an insect, and consists of 
starch-like substance, which is eaten in summer by the aborigines 
of the mallee country of Victoria. It somewhat resembles in 
appearance small shells ; it is sweet, and in colour white or 
yellowish-white. According to Dr. Thomas Dobson, of Hobart, 
the insect which causes the Lerp to form is Psylla Eucalypti. 
It is probably formed on the leaves of other mallee Eucalypts. 

" This substance occurs on the leaves, and consists of white 
threads clotted together by a syrup proceeding from the insect 
{Psylla Eucalypti) which spins those threads. It contains, in 
round numbers, of water 14 parts, thread-like portion 33 parts, 
sugar 53 parts. The threads possess many of the characteristic 
properties of starch, from which, however, they are sharply 
distinguished by their form. When lerp is washed with water the 
sugar dissolves and the threads swell but slightly, but dissolve to 
a slight extent, so that the solution is coloured blue by iodine. 
The threads freed from sugar by washing consist of a substance 
called Lerp-amylum. 

" Lerp-amylum is very slightly soluble in cold water, not 
perceptibly more so in water at 100°, but entirely soluble to a thin 



26 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

transparent liquid when heated to 135° in sealed tubes with 30 
parts of water ; this solution on cooling deposits the original 
substance in flocks, without forming a jelly at any time. The 
separation is almost complete. 

" If the material employed in this experiment were entirely 
free from sugar, the liquid left after the separation of the flocks will 
also be free from sugar. The flocks deposited from solution are 
insoluble in boiling water, therefore lerp-amylum suffers no 
chemical change on being heated to 150° with w-ater. Heated in 
the air-bath to 190° while dry, it turns brown, and is afterwards 
merely reddened by solution of iodine ; at the same time it 
becomes partly soluble in hot water ; hence it appears that lerp- 
amylum undergoes a change similar to that which occurs when 
starch is converted into dextrin. By oxidation with nitric acid it 
yields oxalic acid, but no mucic acid ; it is neutral to vegetable 
colours, and is not precipitated by lead acetate, and is therefore not 
to be confounded with the gums, etc. 

" It gave by analysis 437 and 43*07 carbon, 6'6 and 6'4 hydro- 
gen, agreeing with the formula Cg H^^, O^ (44'4 C. and 6"24 H.) 
Like starch, lerp-amylum rotates the plane of polarisation to the 
right; and on digestion with dilute sulphuric acid, etc., forms a 
crystallisable carbo-hydrate w^hich agrees in its properties with 
dextrin. It is insoluble in ammonia cuprate, and is homogeneous. 

" Though the behaviour of lerp-amylum to iodine and to 
water, and its insolubility in cupra-ammonia distinguish it from 
cellulose, it is to be borne in mind that there are forms or condi- 
tions of cellulose which are blued by iodine and dissolve in 
water." (Fliickiger, in Walts' Diet, vii., 2nd Suppl. 733.) 

See also a paper : " On a new kind of Manna from New South 
Wales," by Th. Anderson {yourn. fur Prakt. Cheviic. xlvii., 449.) 

Victoria, and Southern New South Wales. 

78. Eucalyptus dnmosa, A. C«««., (for synonyms see B.Fl.), 
N.O. Myrtacece, B.Fl., iii., 230. 

The "White Mallee," of South Australia; " Weir-Mallee," of 
aboriginals ; " Bunurduk," of the aboriginals of Lake Hindmarsh Station 
(Victoria). 



HUMAN FOODS. 27 

" The blacks in South Australia powder the bark of the root 
of this and perhaps other IMallees, and eat it either alone, or mixed 
with portions of other plants. They call it ' Congoo.' '' {Proc. 
R S.S.A.) 

South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

79- Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hook. /., (Syn. E. liguslrina, Miq.; 
E. acervula, Hook, f.), N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 246. 

In Tasmania this is known as "Cider Gum," and in South-Eastern 
Australia occasionally as the " Sugar Gum." In the same part it is known 
as "White Gum," "Swamp Gum," or " White Swamp Gum," and in the 
Noarlunga and Rapid Bay districts of South Australia as " Bastard White 
Gum." Occasionally it is known as " Yellow Gum." Near Bombala (New 
South Wales) two varieties go by the names of " Flooded or Bastard Gum," 
and "Red Gum." 

The sweetish sap of this tree is often converted by settlers 
(especially in Tasmania) into a kind of cider. 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

80. Eucalyptus Eaveretiana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtace^e, F.v.M.. 

Fragm. x. 

" Grey Gum," " Iron Gum," " Thozet's Box." 

" From cuts in the stem an acidulous, almost colourless liquid 
exudes in considerable quantity, in which respect this species 
resembles E. Gun7iii.''' (Mueller.) 

Queensland. 

81. Eucalyptus viminalis, Z^^^-^^'//., {?,yr\. E./abrorum, Schlecht, 
and several other synonyms), N.O., Myrtaceas, B.FL, iii., 239. 

The " White Gum," or " Swamp Gum " of Tasmania. It is also 
called "Manna Gum." Other names are "Grey Gum," "Blue Gum," 
" Drooping Gum," etc. 

From the bark of this tree a kind of manna exudes. It is a 
crumbly white substance, of a very pleasant, sweet taste, and in 
much request by the aborigines. 

A white, nearly opaque manna from the normal E. viminalis 
was found by Mr. Bauerlen at Monga, near Braidwood (New South 
Wales). It is in small pieces, about the size of peas, but of 



-28 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

irregular, flattened shape. In appearance it very much resembles 
.lime which has naturally crumbled or slacked by exposure to a 
moist atmosphere. 

It is composed of an unfermentable sugar called Eucalin, 
which is peculiar to the sap of the Eucalyptus, together with a 
fermentable sugar, supposed to be Dextroglucose. The manna is 
■derived from the exudation of the sap, which " drying in the hot 
parched air of the midsummer, leaves the sugary solid remains in 
a gradually increasing lump, which ultimately falls off, covering 
the ground in little irregular masses.'' (McCoy.) This exudation 
of the sap is said by McCoy to take place from the boring of the 
" Great Black or Manna Cicada." {C. moerens.) 

The Hon. William Macleay of Sydney is, however, by no 
means of that opinion, as he thinks it cannot be doubted that the 
manna is the work of a gall-making Coccus. The subject requires 
clearing up, and it is to be hoped that a naturalist will give his 
earnest attention to the matter. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

:82. Eucheuma Speciosa, J- Agardh., (Syn. Gigartina spectosa, 
Sond.), N.O., Algae, Plate lxiv. Harvey's Phycologia 
Australasica. 

" Jelly Plant," of Western Australia. 

This is a remarkable sea-weed of a very gelatinous character 
-which enters into the culinary arrangements of the people of 
Western Australia for making jelly, blanc-mange, etc. Size and 
■cement can also be made from it. It is cast ashore from deep 
water. 

Coast of Western Australia. 

-83. Eugenia Jambolana, Lam., (Syn. E. Moo ret, F.v.M. ; 
Syzygium JainhoJanum, DC), N.O.; Myrtacese, B.Fl. iii., 
283. E. Moorei in Muell. Cens., p. 59. 

" Durobbi," of the aboriginals. 

"The fruit is much eaten by the natives of India; in ap- 
pearance it resembles a damson, has a harsh but sweetish flavour. 



HUMAN FOODS. 29 

somewhat astringent and acid. It is much eaten by birds, 
and is a favourite food of the large bat or flying fox." (Brandis.) 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

84. Eugenia myrtifolia, S/ms., (Syn. J^. australis, Wendl. ;; 
yavihosa australis, DC. ; J. Thozetiana, F.v.M.), N.O.,. 
Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 286. 

" Brush Cherry," or " Native Myrtle." 

The fruit is acid, and makes a good preserve. 

" The red juice of the fruit of this tree is similar in its pro- 
perties to that of red grapes. It contains free tartaric acid, cream 
of tartar, sugar, and red colouring matter very sensitive to the 
action of acids and alkalies. By fermentation it yields wine 
possessing a bouquet. The colouring matter, which is soluble in 
alcohol and ether-alcohol, but not in pure ether, is precipitated by 
lead-acetate, decolourised by reducing agents, and recovers its red 
colour on exposure to the air, just like litmus and the red colour 
of wine." (De Luca and Ubaldini, in Watfs' Did., vi., ist 
Supp., 608.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

85. Eugenia Smithii, Poir., (Syr. Ac7nena florihunda, var. y8. 
DC; A. elliplica, Don; My r his Smithii, Spreng. ; Syzy- 
giuvi brachyneinum, F.v.M.), N.O., Myrtaceas, B. FI., iii.^ 
283. 

"Lilly Pilly." Called "Tdgerail," by the aboriginals of Illawarra 
(New South Wales) ; and " Coochin-coochin," by some Queensland 
aboriginals. 

The fruits are eaten by the aboriginals, small boys, and birds. 
They are formed in profusion, are acidulous, and wholesome, 
They are white with a purplish tint, and up to one inch in diameter. 

Victoria to Northern Australia. 

86. Eugenia Tierneyana, F.v i\L, N.O., iMyriacea;, B.Fl., iii.^ 

284 

The fruit of this tree is used fcr jam making by the settlers. 
It is produced in very large quantities. 
Queensland. 



30 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

87- EustrephllS latifolius, R.Br., (Syn. E. Brownii Fv.M. ; 

E. Watsonianus, Miq. ; Luzuria^n lati/olia, Poir.), N.O., 

Liliaceae, B.FI., vii., 18. E. Brownii in Muell. Cens., 

p. 117. 

"This climber produces sweet thouT;h only small tubers, 
which, however, are probably capable of enlargement through 
culture." (Mueller.) 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland 

88. ExOCarpuS CUpreSSiformis, RBr., (Syn. Leptomeria acerba, 
Sieb. non R.Br.), N.O., Santalaceae, B.FI., vi., 229. Exo- 
carpos in Muell. Cens. 

" Native Cherry." " Tchimmi-dillen," of Queensland aboriginals ; 
" Coo-yie," is another aboriginal name. 

The fruit is edible. The nut is seated on the enlarged 
succulent pedicel. This is the poor little fruit of which so much 
has been written in English descriptions of the peculiarities of the 
Australian flora. It has been likened to a cherry with the stone 
outside (hence the vernacular name) by some imaginative person. 

All the colonies. 



89. ExOCarpUS latifolia, R.Br., (Syn. E. miniata, Zipp. ; E. 
luzoniensis, Presl. ; E. ovata, Schnitzl.), N.O., Santalaceoe, 
B.FI., vi., 228. 

Broad-leaved " Native Cherry," " Scrub Sandalwood." " Oringorin " 
of the Queensland aboriginals ; and " Ballat " of those of Gippsland. 

The fruit is edible, being much the same as the preceding 

species. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
Northern New South Wales to North Australia. 



90- FiCTlS aspera, Forst., (Syn. F. scabra, Forst.), N.O., 
Urticeae, B.FI. vi., 174. F. scabra in Muell. Cens., p. 22. 

" Rough-leaved Fig." Called also " Purple Fig " and "White Fig." 
" Noomaie," of the Rockhampton aboriginals ; " Balemo," of the Cleveland 
Bay (Queensland) aboriginals. 



HUMAN FOODS. 31 

" The fruit, which is black when ripe, is eaten by the abori- 
ginals." (Thozet.) 

Victoria to Queensland. 

91- FicUS glomerata, WHId., {Syn. F. -'est-a, F.v.V.; Covellia 
glomerata, Miq.), N.O., Urticeae, B.Fl., vi., 178. 

" Clustered Fig " tree. 

The fruit, which is of a light red colour when ripe, hangs in 
clusters along the trunk and on some of the highest branches and 
is used as food by the aborigines. 

"The ripe fruit is eaten, and is good either raw or stewed."' 
{Gamble, Manual of Indiaii Timbers.) Brandis, however, says : 
" In times of scarcity the unripe fruit is pounded, mixed with 
flour, and made into cakes." 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

92. FicUS platypoda, A. Cunn., (Syn. Urostigma platypodum, 
Miq.), N.O., Urdcece, B.FL, vi., 169. 

On his journey from Western Australia to the overland 
telegraph line, Mr. John Forrest, on more than one occasion, 
pronounced the fruit of this tree to be " very good." 

P. A. O'Shanesy {Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W., vi., 736), 
however, states that the fruit of this species is not edible. But 
the appetities of explorers frequently become voracious, and not 
too discriminating. 

South Australia, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

•93- FusamiS aCUminatUS, ^-Br., (Syn. Sanlalum Preissianum, 

Miq.; S. acuminatum, A. DC), N.O., Santalacea?, B. Fl. 

vi., 215. S. acuminatum in jMuell. Cens., p 64. 
" Quandong," " Native Peach." 

The fleshy pericarp which envelops the seed known as the 
•Quandong, makes an excellent sub-acid preserve and jelly. It is 
•somewhat of the same flavour as the black guava. By simply 
extracting the stones and drying the fruit in the sun, it may be 
•dried and used when convenient, just like preserved apples. The 
kernel is also edible, being very palatable. It is quite spherical. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Queensland. 



32 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

94- FusanuS persicarius, F.v.M., (Syn. Santalum perstcarium, 

F.V.M.), N.O., Santalacese, B.Fl., vi. 216. 

" Native Sandalwood." 
" The root-bark is used as food by the aboriginals." (Hokero.) 
All the colonies, except Tasmania and Queensland. 

95- Gastrodia sesamoides, R.Br., N.O., Orchideae, B.Fl., vi., 

309- 

" Native Potato," of parts of Tasmania. 

The tubers were roasted and eaten by the Tasmanian natives. 
These tubers grow out of one another, and are of the size, and of 
nearly the form of kidney potatoes ; the lowermost is attached by 
a bundle of thick fleshy fibres to the root of the tree from which 
it derives its nourishment. Mr. R. C. Gunn described the taste 
of them as somewhat resembling beetroot. 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

96. Gaultheria antipoda, var : Forst., (Syn. G. depressa, Hook., f.), 
N,0., Ericaceae, B.FL, iv., 142. 

The fruit is of superior flavour. 
Tasmania. 

97- Gaultheria hispida, R.Br., N.O., Ericaceae, B.FL, iv., 141. 
" Wax-cluster." 

The fruit is eatable. The flavour is difficult to describe, but 
it is not unpleasant. The late Mr. R. C. Gunn states that in tarts 
the taste is something like that of young gooseberries, with a 
slight degree of bitterness. 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

98. Geitonoplesium CymOSUm, A. Cunn., (Syn. G. viontanum, 

A. Cunn. ; G. asperum, A. Cunn. ; G. angustifolium, A. 

Koch ; Luzuriaga cymosa, R.Br. ; L. montana, R.Br.), 

N.O., Liliacece, B.FL, vii., 19. 

" The young shoots offer a fair substitute for asparagus.'' 
(O'Shanesy.) And Baron Mueller suggests the culture of the plant 
with the view to its improvement. 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 



HUMAN FOODS. 33 

99- Geranium dissectum, Linn., (Syn. G. parviflomm, Willd. ; 
G. pilosum, Forst, ; G. philonolhutn, DC. ; G. potentilloides, 
L'Her. ; G. ausirale, Nees), N.O., Geraniaceae, B.Fl., i., 296. 

" Crow-foot." Called " Native Carrot " in Tasmania. 

The roots used to be eaten by the Tasmanian aboriginals, and 
doubtless by those of Australia. They used to roast them, for 
they are large and fleshy. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

Throughout the colonies. 

100. Gleichenia dichotoma, Hook., (Syn. G. Nermann/, R.Bt.; 
Polypodium dichotomum, Thunb. ; Mertetisia dichotoma, 
Willd.), N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 698. G. Hermanni in 
Muell. Cens., p. 137. 

The aboriginals have used the root of this fern for the 
purpose of extracting the starch for food. This plant is not 
endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

loi. Gracilliaria COnfervoideS, var: Grev., N.O., Algae, Harvey's 
Phycologia A iistralasica. 

This almost cosmopolitan sea-weed is used for making a 
jelly in Tasmania. For ordinary purposes it can be ranked in 
nutritive value with Irish or Caragheen Moss. 

Tasmania and South Coast of Australia. 

102. Grevillea annulifera, F.v.M., N.O., Proteace^e, B.Fl. v., 460. 

The seeds are comparatively large, of almond taste, and the 
fruits are produced copiously. The shrub will live in absolute 
desert sands. (Mueller.) 

Western Australia. 

103. Grevillea Kennedyana, F.v.M., N.O., Proteaceae, Proc. 

R,S. Vict., 1887. 

Many of the Grevilleas contain more or less honey, but this 
recently discovered one contains it the most abundantly, as far as 
I am aware. The flowers are exceedingly rich in a clear, sweet, 
honey-like liquid, which can be easily shaken out from the 



34 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

flowers and collected. Mr. Bauerlen tells me that on account of 
this liquid the flowers are difficult to preserve. See also Banksia 
Grey Ranges, New South Wales. 

104- Grewia polygama, Roxb., (Syn. G. heliclerifoUa, Wall), 
N.O., Tiliaces, B.Fl., i., 271. 

" Plain Currant," " Karoom," of aboriginals of the Rockhampton 
tribe. " Ouraie," of aboriginals of Cleveland Bay, and " Kooline," of those 
of the Cloncurry River. 

" I found a great quantity of ripe Grewia seeds, and, on 
eating many of them, it struck me that their slightly acidulous 
taste, if imparted to water, would make a very good drink ; I 
therefore gathered as many as I could, and boiled them for about 
an hour ; the beverage which they produced was at all events the 
best we had tasted on our expedition, and my companions were 
busy the whole afternoon in gathering and boiling the seeds." 
(Leichhardt, Overland Expedition to Port Essington, p. 295.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

105. Haemodorum spicatum, R.Br., (Syn. H. edule, Endl.), and 
other species, N.O., Amaryllide^E, B.Fl., vi., 420. 

The bulbs are eaten by the aboriginals. 
Western Australia. 

106. Hakea leUCOptera, R.Br., (Syn. H. Uucocephala, Dietr. ; 
H. virgata, R.Br. ; H. tephrosperma, R.Br. ; H. lojtgictispis, 
R.Br. ; H. stricta, F.v.M.), N.O., Proteace^e, B.Fl., v., 515. 

" Needle-bush," " Pin-bush." 

Good drinking water is got from the fleshy roots of this bush 
in the arid districts in which it grows. The same method of 
obtaining it is employed as described at page i. 

" In an experiment on a water-yielding Hakea, the first root, 
about half-an-inch in diameter and six or eight feet long, yielded 
quickly, and in large drops, about a wine-glassful of really 
excellent water." (Lockhart Morton, Proc. R.S. Vic, i860, 

P- 132-) 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Western Australia. 



HUMAN FOODS. 35 

107 Haksa lorea, R.Br., (Syn. GrevUha lorea, R.Br.), N.O., 
Proteaceie, B.Fl., v., 496. 

" Cork-tree." 

The Proleacece seem to be the most abundant yielders of 
honey amongst Australian plants. The flowers of the present 
species are very rich in a brown, thick, honey-like liquid, which 
sometimes is so abundant as to flow along and envelop the twigs. 
Wlien pressing some flowers for herbarium specimens, Mr. Bauerlen 
found the liquid actually to run out between the papers. See also 
Banksia. 

From New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

108. Heleocharis (Eleocharis) sphacelata, R.Br., (Syn. H. 

planfaginea, F.v.M. ; Scirpus sphacelatus, Spreng.), N.O., 
C'yperaceae, B.FL, vii., 292. 

" Kaya," of the aboriginals of Central Queensland. 

" This plant has small, almost spherical tubers — six or twelve 
to each plant. They are eaten by the aborigines without any 
preparation." (Thozet.) 

All the colonies, except Western Australia. 

109. Hibiscus heterophyllus, Vent.. (Syn. H. gramUflorus, 
Salisb.), N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 212. 

" Queensland Sorrel," and " Green Kurrajong." It is the " Batham " 
of the aboriginals of Central Queensland. " Dtharang-gange " is a New 
South Wales aboriginal name. 

The young shoots, leaves and roots are eaten by the 
aborigines without any preparation. (Thozet.) 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

1 10. Hibiscus tiliaceUS, Linn., (Syn. Paritiuni iiUaceuin, St. 
Hil.), N.O., Malvaceae, B.FL, L, 218. 

" Cotton-tree." " Talwalpin" is an aboriginal name. 

Forster sa3's the bark is sucked in times of scarcity when 
bread fruit fails in the South Sea Islands. It abounds in mucilage. 
The late M. Thozet says the aborigines of Central Queensland 
prize the root of this tree very much for food, and, in times of 
scarcity, eat the tops, which taste like sorrel. 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 



36 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

111. Hirneola auricula— Jndse, Fries, (Syn. Exidia auricula- 
y tides, Fries), N.O , Fungi, F.v.M. Fragm., xi. (Suppl.), 90. 

This species is largely used in China as food. It is a common 
European species, growing chiefly on the elder, but also on the 
elm. 

Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales. 

112. Hirneola polytricha, Fries, N.O., Fungi, Fragm., xi.. 
(Suppl.), 90. 

"This is the common form in Port Jackson and along the 
east coast. It is also found in New Zealand, where it became an 
article of export for the Chinese market. It is used to thicken 
soup." (Tenison-Woods and Bailey, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

v., 77-) 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

113- Hovea longipes, Benth., (Syn. H. leiocarpa, Benth.), N.O., 
Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 174. 

Mr. P. A. O'Shanesy says that the young pods of this shrub 
are eaten by the Queensland aborigines. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

114- Ipomoea spp., N.O., Convolvulaceae. 

" Native Yams." 

The tubers of these plants are sometimes eaten by the 
aboriginals.' 

115. Lagenaria vulgaris, ^SVr., N.O., Cucurbitaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
316. 

The fruit of this plant is purgative, and even poisonous, but 
after due preparation the aboriginals have been known to eat it, 
while some of the cultivated varieties seem to be eaten with 
impunity in various parts of the world. 

At the Health Exhibition of 1884, held in London, the dried 
fruit from Japan was exhibited. The following particulars are 
taken from the catalogue of the Japanese exhibits. The method 
of manufacturing it is the following : — The first step is to cut ofT 
the extremities ; then the seeds and pulp are taken out. The fruit 



HUMAN FOODS. 



37 



is then cut to a certain length, and is dried by hanging it on sticks. 
It will thus be preserved tor a long period, if kept in proper 
vessels and closed tightly. The method of cooking is by boiling 
with water, soy, sugar, mirin (sweet wine), etc. Following is an 
analysis : — 

Albumen .... 8322 
Extract by Petroleum ether i'S44 
Glucose .... 20080 
Dextrin .... 15410 
Non-nitrogenous substances 

and starch traces . . i8'688 
Cellulose .... io'686 

Ash 4"920 

Water .... 20'390 



Queensland. 



100040 



Carbon 


37-855^ 


Sj 


Nitrogen . 


1-310 




Hydrogen . 


4-380 


I0 •- 


Oxygen 


31-182 




Ash . 


4-920; 


qS 


Water 


20-350 





99997 



116. Lambertia formOSa, Sm/Z/t, (Syn. Proteanectarlna, Wendl.,) 
N.O., Proteacese, B.Fl., v., 415. 

" Honey-flower," or " Honeysuckle." 

This plant is as well known to small boys about Sydney as it 
is to birds and insects. It obtains its vernacular name on account 
of the large quantity of a clear honey-like liquid the flowers 
contain. After sucking some quantity the liquid generally 
produces nausea and headache. Sometimes it is so plentiful as 
to flow down the twigs. See Banksia. 

New South Wales and Western Australia. 



117. Lavatera plebeia, Sims., (Syn. Z. Behriana, Schlect. ; 
Malva Behriana, Schlecht. ; M. Preissiana, Miq.), N.O,, 
Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 185. 

" Tree Mallow." 

" In the early days of South Australia the roots of a white- 
flowering variety of this mallow were largely used by the natives 
for food. These roots were somewhat of the consistency of 
parsnips." (Bailey.) 

All the colonies except Queensland. 



38 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

118. Leptomeria acida, R.Br. ; L. aphylla, R.Br., (Syn. Z. 

pungens, F.v.M.) ; L. Billardieri, R.Br. (Syn. Thesimn 
drupaceum, Labill.), N.O., Santalaceoe, B.Fl., vi., 222. 
" Native Currants." 

The berries are edible, having a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
They are useful to quench the thirst when in the bush, and are 
used for making jelly and preserve. The fruits of Leptomeria 
acida have been examined chemically by Mr. (now Dr.) Rennie. 
Vide Proc. Roy. Sac. (N.S.W.), p, 119, et seq. 

Tasmania, New South Wales, and Queensland (L. acida) ; 
South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales (L. aphylla) ; 
Tasmania, New South Wales, and Victoria (L. Billardieri). 

119. LeptOSpermum SCOparium, Forsi., (Syn. L. floribundum, 
Salisb. ; L. reciirvifolium, Salisb. ; L. jumper itnivi, Smith ; 
L. midtifloriim, Cav. ; L. jiiniperifolium, Cav. ; L. squar- 
rosuin, Sieb. ; L. rtibricaule, lAnk; L. slj'p/ielioides, Schau.; 
L. aciculare, Schau. ; L. oxycedrus, Schau. ; L. baccaiuvi, 
Schau. ; L. persiciflorum, Reichb. ; L. divaricaium, Schau.), 
N.O., Myrtaeese, B.Fl., iii., 105. 

" Tea Tree." 

It is said that this is the shrub the leaves of which were 
utilised by the crews of Captain Cook's ships for the purpose of 
making '' tea," and that they were also used with spruce leaves 
in equal quantity for the purpose of correcting the astringency 
in brewing a beer from the latter. It is exceedingly common 
about Sydney, so large quantities would therefore be available to 
the sailors. Species of this genus are exceedingly abundant 
not far from the coast, and the leaves would be very readily 
available, but the taste of the infusion made from them is too 
aromatic for the European palate. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

120. LeUCOpOgon Eichei, R.Br., (Syn. L. parviflorus, Lindl.; 
Z. polystachyus, Lodd. ; L. lanceolatus, Sieb. ; Styphelia 
Richei, Labill. ; 5". parviJJora, Andr. ; S. g7iidiuvi, Vent.), 



HUMAN FOODS. 39 

N.O., EpacrideLG, B.FL, iv., i%(), Siyphelia Ricliei, in Muell. 
Cens., p. 105. 

" Carrot-wood." 

The insignificant and barely edible berries of this shrub are 
said to have saved the life of the French botanist Riche, who was 
lost in the bush on the South Australian coast for three days, at 
the close of the last century. 

All the colonies. 

121. Linum marginale, ^ • Ctimi., (Syn. Z. augus///oi/'um, DC.), 
N.O., Lineaj, B.Fl., i., 283. 

" Native Flax." 

"The mucilaginous seeds of this plant are eaten by the 
aborigines." (Mueller.) They are less than half the size of 
ordinary linseed, but possess all the properties of the latter. 
Towards the end of the summer large quantities of the seed may 
be obtained in many places. 

Throughout the colonies. 

122. Lissanthe montana, J^.Br., N.O., Epacrideae, B.FL, iv., 176. 
United with Z. Hookeri, Sond., under the name of Styphelia 
montana, F.v.M., in Muell. Cens., p. 106. 

The while, transparent fleshy fruits of this species are edible. 
Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

123. Lissanthe Sapida, ^-^z-. ; Styphelia sapida, F.V.M. ; N.O., 
Epacridese, B.Fl., iv., 175. Styphelia sapida in Muell. 
Cens., p, 105. 

" Native Cranberry." 

The fruit is edible. It is something like the Cranberry of 
Europe both in size and colour, but its flesh is thin, and has been 
likened {^Treasury of Botany') to that of the Siberian Crab. 

New South Wales. 

124. Lissanthe StrigOSa, R.Br., (Syn. Z. subulata, R. Br.; Z., 
intermedia, A. Cunn. ; Styphelia strigosa. Smith), N.O., 
Epacrideae, B.FL, iv., 175. Styphelia strigosa in Muell. 
Cens., p. 105. 

The berries are edible. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 



40 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

125. Livistona aUStralis, Mart., (Syn. L. inermis, Wendl. 

Corypha australis, R.Br.), N.O., Palmae, B.Fl., vii., 147. 

Muell. in Cens., p. 120, separates L. inermis from Z. 

aiistralis. 

" Cabbage Tree." " Kondo " of the aboriginals. 

The aboriginals are very fond of the growing centre or heart 
of this tree, which they eat in a raw or cooked slate. But Baron 
Mueller says that the value of this esculent was not known to 
them in their uncivilized state. 

" Several of my companions suffered by eating too much of 
the Cabbage-palm " (Leichhardt, Overland Expedition to Port 
Essington.) At p. 41, he says, "the tops of the Corypha palm 
eat well, either baked in hot ashes or raw, and, though very indi- 
gestible, did not prove injurious to health when eaten in small 
quantities." 

Victoria to Queensland. 

126. Maba laurina, I^.Br., N.O., Ebenaceae, B.Fl., iv., 289. 
This tree bears green, palm-like fruit, which is edible. 

(Kennedy.) 

Queensland. 

127. Macadamia ternifolia, F.v.M., (Syn. Helida temi/olia, 
F.V.M.), N.O., Proteacea\ L.Fl., v., 406. 

" Queensland Nut." Kindal-kindal " of the aboriginals. 

This, tree bears an edible nut of excellent flavour, relished 
both by aborigines and Europeans. As it forms a nutritious 
article of food to the former, timber-getters are not permitted to 
fell these trees. It is well worth extensive cultivation, for the nuts 
are always eagerly bought. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

128. Macrozamia Spp., N.O., Cycadeas, B.Fl., vi., 250. Ence- 
phalartos in Muell. Cens., p. no. 

"The kernels of the nut, after being pounded, macerated and 
baked, are eaten by the natives. Curiously enough, the original 
occupants of the soil seemed never to have made use of the copious 
starch, which can be readily washed out of the comminuted stems 



HUMAN FOODS. 41 

of any Cycadaceous plants. All these plants are pervaded by a 
virulent poison-principle, which becomes inert or expelled by 
heat." (Mueller.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania and Victoria. 

129. MacrOZamia Miquelii, F.v.M., (Syn. Encephalartos Miquelii, 
F.V.M.; E. fridentatus, Lehm.), N.O., Cycadese, B.FL, 
vi., 253. 

" Dwarf Zamia." " Bangja " of Central Queensland aboriginals. 

Found generally in the same locality as Cycas media, with a 
large cone fruit not unlike a pine-apple. The seeds, orange-red 
when ripe, and separating freely, are baked for about half-an-hour 
under ashes ; the outside covers and stones are then broken, and 
the kernels, divided by a stroke of the Kondola, are put into a 
dilly-bag and carried to a stream or pond, where they remain six 
or eight days before they are fit for eating. (Thozet.j 

Queensland. 

130. MacrOZamia spiralis, Miq., (Syn. Zamia spiralis,. R.Br.; 
Encephalartos spiralis, Lehm.), N.O., Cycadaceae, B.Fl., vi. 
251. Encephalartos spiralis in Muell. Cens., p. no. 

" Burrawang Nut," so called because they used to be, and are to some 
extent now, very common about Burrawang, N.S.W. 

The nuts are relished by the aboriginals. An arrowroot of 
very good quality is obtained from them. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 
131- Marattia fraxinea, Smith, (Syn. M. salidna, Smith), N.O., 

Filices, B.FL, vii., 695. 

The aboriginals used to feed on the pith of this tree-fern, 
which contains a certain amount of starch similar to sago. 
(Foster.) The roots were used for a similar purpose. This plant 
is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

132. Marlea Vitisnsis, Bentham, (Syn. Rhrtidatidra vitiensis, A. 
Gray ; R. polvosmoides, F.v.M. ; Pseiidalangium polyos- 
moides, F.v.M.), N.O., Cornaceae, B.FL, iii., 386. Rhyti- 
dandra vitiensis in Muell. Cens., p. 74. 
" Musk Tree." 



42 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The fruit is edible. (P. O'Shanesy.) This plant is not 
endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

133. Marsdenia Leichhardtiana, F.v.M., (Syn. Lekhhardtia 

ausirah's, R..Br.). N.O., Asclepiadaceae, B.Fl., iv., 341. 

" Doubah " or " Doobah " (aboriginal name for pods). It is the 
" Carcular " of the Central Australian aboriginals. 

The milky unripe fruits of this tree are eaten by the abori- 
gines. In this state they are about the size of a large acorn, but 
more pointed at the ends. Sir Thomas Mitchell speaks of the 
aboriginals as eating the fruits, seeds and all, but they were pro- 
nounced better roasted. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

134- Marsilea quadrifolia, Linti., N.O., Marsileaceai, B.FL, vii. 
683 (where see synonymy). 

" Clover-fern," " Nardoo." 

In the summer months the swamps containing this plant dry 
up, and it withers completely away, but the spore cases remain. 
In former years (and even now in remote districts) the natives used 
to collect these, grind them between two stones, so as to make a 
kind of flour or meal, which they made into paste and used as an 
article of food. Nardoo contains but little nutritive matter, and 
must be exceedingly difficult to digest. Nevertheless, the fruits 
of this plant (or perhaps Sesbania aculeata — see Bailey's remarks 
under that head) were the diet the Burke and Wills expedition 
were at one period reduced to. The following quotation from 
Wills' Journal is taken from Brough Smyth's Aborigines of 
Victoria : — "I cannot understand this nardoo at all; it certainly 
will not agree with me in any form. We are now reduced to it 
alone, and we manage to get from four to five pounds a day 
between us. . . . It seems to give us no nutriment. . . . 
Starvation on nardoo is by no means very unpleasant, but for 
the weakness one feels and the utter inability to move oneself, 



HUMAN FOODS. 43 

for, as far as appetite is concerned, it gives me the greatest 
satisfaction." 

"To Dr. Beckler is due the credit of having pointed out, first 
of all, when releasing I^yons and Macpherson from their perilous 
position, that the Marsilea fruit formed part of the food of some of 
the aboriginal inland tribes, the use of the plant having providen- 
tially been communicated to Lyons and his companion by the 
natives. Previously we were not aware of the economic utility of 
this kind of fern." (Mueller, Trans. R.S. Victoria, 1862.) 

For full notes and physiological observations on the Nardoo 
plant, loc. cit. 

In Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, i., 383, will be 
found a drawing of these stones, such as are used by the natives 
of the Darling. The following description is given : — 

" The slab, generally of sandstone, is about twenty-two-inches* 
in length, fourteen inches in breadth, and about one inch in 
thickness. The handstones (Wal/ong) are round, or of an oval 
form, and vary in size. One is four inches and a-half in breadth, 
and one inch and three-quarters in thickness; and another is six 
inches in length, four inches and a-half in breadth, and three 
inches in thickness. The Wallong have hollows cut in them, so 
as to be more easily held by the hand. 

" Mr. Howitt says that the stones here figured are like those 
usually seen at Cooper's Creek. In the flat stone there is a 
depression which leads out to the edge by a channel. In grinding 
grass, or portulaca-seed, a little water is sprinkled in by the left 
hand, and the seeds being ground with the stone in the right 
hand form a kind of porridge, which runs out by the channel into 
a wooden bowl {Peechee), or a piece of bark. It may then be 
baked in the ashes, or eaten as it is, by using the crooked fore- 
finger as a spoon. The term used for grinding seeds is Bowar- 
dakoneh. 

* In the Technological Museum is a very tine pair of stones from the Korningbirry 
f'reek, one hundred miles N.W. of Wilcannia, and eighty miles south of Milparinka, 
N.S.W. The material is of tine-grained sandstone, inclining to quartzite. The dimensions 
of the bed-stone are 23 x 14 (widest part) x | to 2 inches, while those of the hand-stone are 
5? X 4 X \\ inches. The handstone has no hollow cut in it, but it is well-worn, and it is,, of 
course, impossible to say what its original thickness was. 



44 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS 

" Nardoo seeds are pounded by the above, placing a few in at 
a time with the left hand. The ' tap-tap " of the process may be 
heard in the camp far into the night at times." 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

335. Melodorum Leichhardtii, Ben/k.,{Syn. Unona Leichhardta, 

F.v.M.), N.O., Anonacese, B.Fl., i. 52. 

" Merangara " of the aboriginals. 

" This tree has an oblong or almost round fruit, with one or 
two seeds. It is eaten by the aborigines without any preparation." 
(Thozet.) 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

136- Mesembryanthenrnm sequilaterale, Haw., (Syn. J/, giauces- 

cens, Haw. ; M. Rossi, Haw. ; Af. nigrescens. Haw. ; M. 
prcBcox, Haw.), N.O., Ficoidea?, B.Fl., iii , 324. 

" Pig Faces." " Karkalla," of the Port Lincoln (S.A.) aboriginals ; 
"" Katwort," of the East Gippsland aborigines ; " Berudur," of those of the 
Lachlan River (New South Wales). It was the " Canajong," of the 
Tasmanian aboriginal. 

The fleshy fruit is eaten raw by the aborigines. The leaves 
are eaten baked. Wilhelmi, in Proc. R.S. Vict., i860, gives an 
interesting account of the preparation of this substance for food 
by the Port Lincoln natives (S.A.) : " Pressing the fruit (pigs' 
faces) between their fingers, they drop the luscious juice into 
their mouth. During the ' Karkalla ' season, which lasts from 
January to the end of summer, the natives lead a comparatively 
•easy life ; they are free from any anxiety of hunger, as the plant 
grows in all parts of the country, and most abundantly on the 
.sandy hills near the sea. The men generally gather only as much 
.as they want for the moment, but the women collect large 
quantities for eating after supper. The Port Lincoln blacks eat 
only the fruit of this plant, but those living between the Grampians 
and the Victorian ranges, as a substitute for salt with their meat, 
■eat also the leaves of this saline plant." 

All the colonies. 



HUMAN FOODS. 45 

137- MicrOSeris Forsteri, Hook.. (Syn. Scorzonera scapigera, 
Forst. ; S. (Monermios) Larvrencii, Hook. f. ; Phyllopappus 
lanceolatus, Walp.), N.O., Compositae, B.FL, iii., 676. 

"Murr-nong," or " Mirr n' yong," of the aboriginals of New South 
Wales and Victoria. 

The tubers were largely used as food by the aboriginals. 
They are sweet and milky, and in flavour resemble the cocoanut. 
All the colonies. 

138. Mimusops Browniana, Benth., {^yn. M. Kauki, R.Br.; M. 
Kaiiki, var. Browniana, A. DC.), N.O., Sapotaceae, B.FI., iv.,. 
285. 

The fruit is edible. 
Queensland. 

139. Mimusops parvifolia, R.Br., N.O., Sapotaceae B.FL, iv., 284. 
This tree yields a thick milky sap, which tastes like fresh 

cream. (Hill.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

140. Morinda Citrifolia, Linn., (Syn. Sarcocephalus cordatus, 
Miq. ; .S'. undulatus, Miq. ; .S'. Leichhardlii, F.v.M, ; Nauclea 
Leichhardtii, F.v.INI. ; N'. coadunata, Smith ; N. undulata^ 
Roxb. ; N. cordata, Roxb.,) N.O. Rubiacese, B.FL, iii., 402 
and 423 ; Muell. Cens., 74 and 75. 

" Leichhardt's Tree," " Canary Wood," " Indian Mulberry." 
'• Ooipanje," of the aboriginals of the Mitchell River ; and " Coobiaby," of 
those on the Cloncurry River ; both in Northern Australia. It is the 
" Toka " of those of Rockhampton ; and " Taberol " of those of Cleveland 
Bay. 

" It has a bitter-flavoured, granulated fruit, of which the 
natives are very fond." (Thozet.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

141- Mucuna gigantea, DC, N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 254. 

" The seeds are eaten by the blacks after due preparation." 
(Woolls.) This plant is not endemic in x\ustralia. 

Northern New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern' 
Australia. 



46 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

142. Muhlenbackia adpressa, Mdssn., var. hastifolia, (Syn. 

M. Gunnii, Hook, f. ; Polygonum adpressum, Hook, i.), 

N.O., Polygonaceae, B Fl., v., 274. 
" Native Ivy." " Macquarie Harbour Vine or Grape," of Tasmania. 

The currant-like fruits are sub-acid, and were, and perhaps 
still are used for tarts, puddings, and preserves : the leaves taste 
like sorrel. 

All the colonies except Queensland. 

143- Mylitta aUStralis, Berk., (Syn. Notihydnuin ausirale, 
F.V.M.), N.O., Fungi. Muell. Fragm., xi., 101. 

" Truffles," or " Native Bread." 

This insipid underground fungus is generally met with by 
accident. When growing rapidly it sometimes causes the ground 
to crack, and may thus be discovered by a careful observer, as it 
probably was by the aborigines, who used it as food. It should 
be boiled, though cooking changes its character but little. It is 
said to taste like boiled rice. It is, however, perfectly insipid. 

" The largest I have seen is about the size of a child's head, 
but a much larger one was dug up at Melbourne some months 
ago."' (WooUs, 1859.) 

" It has a black skin which drops off in little fragments, enclos- 
ing a veined white mass, which at first is soft, and has a peculiar 
acid smell, but when dry becomes extremely hard and horny.'' 
{Treasury of Botany'). Mr. Brough Smyth likens its appearance 
to unbaked brown bread. Backhouse states that the natives always 
informed him that they obtained it from the neighbourhood of 
a rotten tree. 

An interesting note on a specimen from Tasmania, by Mr. Wm. 
Southall, F.L.S., will be found in Pharni. Journ. [3], xv., 210, 
and a drawing of a section of a young plant is also given. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. 

M4- Myoporum debile, R.Br., (Syn, M. diffusum, R.Br.; 
Pogonia debilis, Andr. ; Aftdreusia debilis,YQnX. ; Capraria 
calycina, A. Gray), N.O., Myoporinea?, B.Fl., v., 8, 

" Amulla," of the aborigines. 



HUMAN FOODS. 47 

The fruit, which is a quarter of an inch in diameter, is 
slightly bitter to the taste. It is eaten by the aboriginals. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

145- Myoponim serratum, R.Br., (Syn. M. imnlare, R.Br.; 

M. tasmanicum, A. DC), N.O., Myoporinece, B.Fl., v., 6, 

M. insulare in Muell. Cens., p. 104. 

" Blue-berry " tree, " Native Currant " tree, " Native Myrtle," " Native 
Juniper," " Cockatoo Bush." " Palberry " of the aborigines of the Coorong 
(South Australia.) 

The berries are edible, though somewhat of a saltish and 
bitter flavour. They are much relished by birds. 
All the colonies except Queensland. 

146. Myoponim platycarpum, ^•^/'•, (Syn. Disoon platy carpus, 

F.V.M.), N.O., Myoporinae, B.Fl., v., 7. 

" Sandalwood," " Dogwood." 

The saccharine exudation or manna from this tree is of a 
dirty-white colour with a pinkish tinge, and is eagerly sought after 
and eaten by the aborigines. It is exceedingly sweet, and very 
pleasant to the taste. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Queensland. 

147- Myrtus acmenioides, F.v.M. 

" White Myrtle," of the Richmond and Clarence. " Ligniimvitse." 

Myrtus fragrantissimi, F.7).M.,l<i.O., Myrtaceaj, B.Fl., iii., 
276-7. 

The leaves of these two species are used for flavouring tea 
in Queensland. (O'Shanesy.J 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

148. Nasturtium palustre, ^C, (Syn. iV. terrestre, R.Br.; N. 

semipitmatifidum, Hook.), N.O., Cruciferae, B.Fl., i., 65. 
Called " Native Cabbage " on the banks of the River Nepean (New 
South Wales). 

This and other species afford excellent pot-herbs when 
luxuriant and flaccid. (Hooker.) This plant is not endemic in 
Australia. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 



48 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

149- Nelumbium speciosum, WHld., {Syn. N. nucifera, Gsertn.), 
N.O., Nympheaceaj, B.Fl., i., 62. Nelumbo nuct/era, in 
Muell. Cens., p. i. 

" Sacred Lotus," " Pink Water-lily." " Aquaie," of the aboriginals. 

" This plant was worshipped by the ancient Egyptians. It 
no longer is found on the Nile, but in many parts of Asia, and in 
India, China, and Japan, it is still held sacred. In China, India, 
and North Australia the root, stock and seeds are used as food, 
while medicinal properties are assigned to the viscid juice of the 
leaf-stalks." (Treasury of Botany.) The seeds are eaten raw, 
or roasted as coffee. (Hooker.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

150. Nitraria Schoberi, f^'nn., (Syn. N. BUlardieri, DC; N. 
Olivieri, Jaub., and Spach. ; ZvgophvUum australasicum, 

.Miq.), N.O., ZygophyllEe, B.Fl., i., 291. 

" Karambi," of Port Lincoln natives, South Australia. 

It produces fruit of the size of an olive, of a red colour, and 
agreeable flavour. When the weather is hot the natives lie at 
full length under a bush, and do not leave it until they have 
stripped it of its berries. (Wilhelrni.) Proc. R.S. Vic, i860, 
p. 143. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Queensland. 

151. Nymphsea gigantea, Hook., (Syn. N. stellata F.v.M.), 
N.O., Nymphoeacese, B.Fl., i., 61. N. gigantea and N. 
stellata are separated into two species, Muell. Cens., p. i. 

"Blue Water-lily." " Yako Kalor " of the Rockhampton aborigines 
(Queensland); " Kaooroo," of those of Cleveland B,iy ; " Arnurna" of 
those of the Mitchell River. 

The roots and fruit are eaten. The flower-stalks, too, may 
be eaten when young. (Thozet.). 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

152. Ccinrnm sanctum, Linn., (Syn. O. anisodorum, F.v.M.; O. 
caryophvlUnum, F.v.M.), N.O., Labiatce, B.FL, v., 74. 

"Mooda," of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North Queens- 
land) ; " Bulla-bulla " of those of the Mitchell River. 



HUMAN FOODS. 49 

The odour of the variety occurring in North Australia is 
similar to anise, while that of the East Australian variety resembles 
cloves. A pot herb. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

^53- Oryza Sativa, Linn., N.O., Gramineae, B.Fl., vii., 550. 

" Rice." " Kineyah," of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River 
(North Queensland). 

Baron Mueller found this plant to be truly indigenous in 
Australia. It is so well-known that it need not be dwelt upon 
here. 

Northern Australia and Queensland. 

154- Owenia acidula, F.v.M., N.O., Meliaceae, B.Fl., i., 385. 

"Sour Plum," " Native Peach or Nectarine," " Emu Apple." " Mooley 
Apple " is a Western New South Wales name. Aboriginal names are 
" Rancooran," " Warrongan," and " Gruie-Colaine." 

The sub-acid fruit of this tree relieves thirst. It is eaten both 
by colonists and aboriginals, and is of the size of a small nectarine. 
South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

155- Owenia Cerasifera, F.v.M., N.O., Meliaceae, B.FL, i., 386. 
" Queensland Plum," " Sweet Plum," " Rose Apple," " Rancooran." 

This plant bears a fine juicy red fruit with a large stone. 
When fresh gathered it is very acid, but the Rev. J. E, Tenison- 
Woods states that on keeping, or better still, burying for a day or 
two in sand, it is both palatable and refreshing. 

Queensland. 

156. Owenia venosa, F.v.M., N.O., Meliaceae, B.Fl., i., 386. 

"Sour Plum," "Tulip Wood," '' Mouliibie," of the aborigines of 
Southern Queensland ; " Pyddharr," is another aboriginal name. 

A beverage is produced by boiling the fruit, which, after 
going through certain processes, is denominated wine, and forms 
an agreeable beverage. (Hill.) 

Queensland. 



50 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

157- Oxalis COrniculata, Linn., (Syn. O. microphylla, Poir. ; 
O. perenttans, Haw. ; O. Preisstana, Steud. ; 0. cognata, 
Steud.), N.O., Geraniaceae, B.Fl., i., 301. 

" Clover Sorrel," or " Sour Grass." 
The acidulous leaves of this plant are eaten by the 
natives. (Mueller.) 

Throughout the colonies. 

158- PandanUS odoratissimUS, Linn./., {Syn. P. spiralis, R.Bt.), 
N.O., Pandaneae, B.Fl., vii., 148. 

" Screw Pine." 
"The natives at this season (September 16) seemed to live 
principally on the seeds of this plant, but they evidently require 
much preparation to destroy their deleterious properties. At the 
deserted camp of the natives which T visited yesterday, I saw half 
a cone of the Pandanus covered up in hot ashes, large vessels 
(kooliynans) filled with water in which roasted seed-vessels were 
soaking, seed-vessels which had been soaked were roasting on the 
coals, and large quantities of them broken on stones and deprived 
of their seeds. This seems to show that in preparing the fruit 
when ripe for use it is first baked in hot ashes, then soaked in 
water to obtain the sweet substance contained between its fibres, 
after which it is put on the coals and roasted to render it brittle, 
when it is broken to obtain the kernels." (Leichhardt, Overland 
Journey to Port Essi7igto7i.') 

" The lower, yellow, pulpy part of the drupes, and also the 
tender white base of the leaves, are eaten raw or boiled during 
times of scarcity in India." {Cyclop, of India.) 

Northern Australia. 

159- Pandanns pedunculatus, R.Br., N.O., Pandaneae, B.FL, 
vii., 149. 

"Screw Pine," "Bread Fruit." The "Wynnum," of Queensland 
aboriginals. 

The kernels of the fruit are eagerly eaten by the aborigines, 
as are also the mucilaginous young parts of the leaves, etc. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 



HUMAN FOODS. 51 

160. Panicum deCOmpOSitum, R.Br., (Syn. P. Icsvinode, Lindl. ; 
P. proUferum, F.v.M.; P. amabile, Balansa), N.O , Gramineae, 
B.Fl., vii., 489. 

"Native Millet," "Umbrella Grass." The seed used to be called 
" Cooly " by Western New South Wales aboriginals, and " Tindil " by the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North Queensland). 

The grains pounded yield excellent food, although the grains 
are rather small. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 

161. Parinarmm Nonda, F.v.M., N.O., Rosaceoe, B.Fl., ii., 426. 

The " Nonda Tree " of N.E. Australia. 

The aborigines use the esculent drupes as food. When ripe 
they taste somewhat like a mealy potato, with, however, a trace of 
that astringency so common to Australian fruits. They resemble 
in size and appearance a yellow egg-plum. Leichhardt, in his 
Overland yourney to Port Essifigton,Y>- 315, describes the tree 
and its fruit, and also states that he found the fruit in the dilly- 
bags of the natives, and also abundantly in the stomachs of emus. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

162. PersOOnia spp., N.O., Proteaceae. 

" Geebung." 
These fruits are mucilaginous, insipid, and slightly astringent. 
They are largely consumed by aboriginals, and also to some extent 
by small boys. 

163. PhaseolnS MungO, Linti., (Syn. P. Max, Linn.), N.O., 
LeguminosEe, B.FL, ii., 257. 

" Komin," of the Rockhampton aboriginals ; " Kadolo/' of the Cleve- 
land Bay aboriginals. 

The roots of this pulse-plant are edible, and can be eaten 
after baking. (Thozet.) Doubtless the blacks eat the seeds as well. 
It is commonly cultivated for its seeds in India and parts of 
Africa, where it is a common article of food. There are numerous 
cultivated varieties. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



52 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

164. Physalis minima, Lmn., (Syn. P. parviflora, R.Br.), N.O., 
Solaneae, B.Fl., iv., 466. 

" Neen-gwan," of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North 
Queensland). 

The berries are eatable. The plant is not endemic in Aus- 
tralia. Another species is the well-known " Cape Gooseberry." 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

165. Picris hieracioideS, Linn., (Syn. P. barbarorum, Lindl. ; 
P. angustifolia, DC. ; P, attetiuata, A. Cunn. ; P. asperrima, 
Lindl. ; P. hamulosa, Wall.), N.O., Compositse, B.Fl., iii. 
678. (Not in Muell. Cens.) 

Sir Thomas Mitchell ( T^y^r^^ Expeditions, ii., 149) thus speaks 
of this plant : — '' Near our camp we found some recent fire-places 
of the natives, from which they must have hastily escaped on our 
approach, for in the branches of a tree they had left their net 
bags containing the stalks of a vegetable that had apparently 
undergone some culinary process, which gave them the appearance 
of having been half-boiled. 

"Vegetables are thus cooked, I am told, by placing the root 
or plant between layers of hot embers, until it is heated and 
softened. The stalks found in the bag resembled those of the 
potato, and they could only be chewed, such food being neither 
nutritious nor palatable, for it tasted only of smoke." 

This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies. 

1 66 PipturUS argenteUS, Wedd., (Syn. P. propinquus.^QM.; 
Urtica giganiea, Forst.), N.O., Urticeae, B.FL, vi.. 185. P. 
propinquus in Muell. Cens., p. 22. 

"Native Mulberry." " Kongangn," and " Coomeroo-coomeroo " of 
Queensland aboriginals. 

The white berries are eaten by the aboriginals. (Thozet.) 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



HUMAN FOODS. 53 

167. Pittosporum phillyrseoides, DC, (Syn. P. angiaH/oUum, 

Lodd. ; and others), N.O., Pittosporeag, B.Fl., i., H2. 

Called variously " Butter-bush," " Native Willow," and " Poison-berry 
Tree." 

The seeds are very bitter to the taste, yet the aborigines in 
the interior were in the habit of pounding them into flour for use 
as food. (Tepper.j 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

168. Podocarpus SpinuloSUS, R.Br., (Syn.P. aspleni/oUa, Labill. ; 
P. ptingens, Caley ; Nageia spinulosa, F.v.M.), N.O., Coni- 
ferae, B.Fl., vi., 247. N. spinulosa in Muell. Cens., p. 109. 

" Native Plum/' or " Native Damson. 

This shrub possesses edible fruit, something like a plum, 
hence its vernacular names. The Rev. Dr. Woolls tells me that, 
mixed with jam of the Native Currant (Leptomeria acida), it 
makes a very good pudding. 

New South Wales. 

169. Portulaca napiformis, F.v.M., N.O., Poitulaceae, B.Fl., i., 
169. 

The tubers of this plant are used by the natives for food. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

170. Portulaca Oloracea, Linn., N.O., Portulaceae, B.FL, i., 169. 

"Pigweed," or "Purslane," of England; " Thukouro," of the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River. 

The seeds of this plant are largely used for food by the 
natives of the interior. One would suppose that so small a seed 
would scarcely repay the labour of collecting, but the natives 
obtain large quantities by pulling up the plants, throwing them in 
heaps, which after a few days they turn over, and an abundant 
supply of seed is found to have fallen out, and can be easily 
gathered up ; the food prepared from this seed must be highly 
nutritious, for during the season that it lasts the natives get in 
splendid condition on it. The seeds are jet black and look like 
very fine gunpowder. The natives grind them in the usual mill 
{i.e., a large flat-stone or bed-stone on which the seed is put, and a 



54 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

smaller one to be held in the hand for grinding), and of the flour 
they make a coarse paste. See Marsilea. 

" We had almost daily occasion to praise the value of the 
Purslane, which not only occurred in every part of the country 
explored, but also principally in the neighbourhood of rivers, 
often in the greatest abundance. We found it in sandy and grassy 
localities so agreeably acidulous as to use it for food without any 
preparation, and I have reason to attribute the continuance of our 
health partly to the constant use of this valuable plant. The 
absence of other antiscorbutic herbs in the north, and the facility 
with which it may be gathered, entitle it to particular notice." 
Baron Mueller's Botanical Report of the North Australian Expe- 
dition (quoted by Dr. Woolls). 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

171- Pteris aqnilina, Linn., var. esculenta, Hook.,{S>yn. P. escu- 

lenta, Forst.), N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 731. 

" Brake-fern " or " Bracken." Formerly called " Tara " by the abori- 
ginals of Tasmania. 

The aboriginals use the starchy rhizomes of this plant for 
food. They are eaten both raw and roasted. By crushing and 
washing, the little starch they contain can easily be obtained. In 
Tasmania this fern is often tall enough to conceal a man on 
horseback. An interesting account of the economic value of this 
fern, by Mr. J. R. Jackson, will be found in the Pharm. yourn. 
[2], viii., 354. 

In Japan the starch from this fern is called " Warabi," and is 
obtained in the following manner : — " In the season when the fern 
is withered, and no young shoot is to be seen, its root is collected, 
cut up into pieces, pounded, washed, decanted, and the settled 
starch is collected and dried. It is mixed with wheat-flour or rice- 
meal and made into cakes, or when made into paste by boiling with 
water mixed with the astringent juice of the Japanese date-plum 
(Diospyros Kaki), it is used for joining paper together ; the joint 
does not part though exposed to rain, hence it is widely used for 
this purpose." (Catal. of Japanese Exhibits at the Health Ex- 
hibition, London, 1884^. 

All the colonies. 



HUMAN FOODS, 55 

172- Ehagodia parabolica, R.Br., N.O., Chenopodiaceae, B.Fl., 

A " Salt-bush." 

This bush yields, according to Mr. Stephenson, who accom- 
panied Sir Thomas Mitchell in one of his expeditions, as much as 
2 ozs. of salt by boiling 2 lbs. of leaves. 

Travellers in the interior have found these salt bushes 
exceedingly useful as vegetables. Sir Thomas Mitchell relates that 
after twice boiling the leaves a few minutes in water to extract 
the salt, and then an hour in a third water, they formed a tender 
vegetable resembling spinach. 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

173- Rhamnus Vitiensis, Benlh., (Syn. Dallachya vitiensts, 
F.v.M,; Colubrina vitiensis. Seem.), N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl,, 
i., 413. Dallachya vitiensis, in Muell. Cens., p. 60. 

" Murtilam," of the aboriginals. 

The berries, which are a quarter of an inch in diameter, are 
edible. 

Queensland. 

174- Rubus Gunnianus, Hook., N.O., Rosaceae, B.Fl., ii., 430. 
This plant yields the best native fruit in Tasmania (R, C. 

Gunn.), though perhaps that is not saying much. 
Tasmania. 

175- EllbTlS rossefolius, Stnith, (Syn. R. rosoefloriis, Roxb. ; R. 
eglanteria, Tratt. ; R. piingens, Cambess. ; R. Sikkimensis, 
O. Kze.), N.O., Rosaceae, B.Fl., ii , 431. 

" Native Raspberry." " Neram " of the aboriginals. 

Baron Mueller says, " This shrub bears in woody regions an 
abundance of fruits of large size, and these early and long in the 
season." 

The Australian species of Rubtis are for the most part insipid, 
with a mawkish, granular taste, and with a trace of astringency. 
They are encouraging to look at, but extremely disappointing to 
taste. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 



56 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

176. SaliCOmia aUStralis, Soland., (Syn. S. indka, R,Br.), N.O., 
Chenopodiaceae, B.Fl , v., 205. 

The young shoots are pickled. 
All the colonies. 

177. Sambucus Gauc^chaudiana, DC, and S. xanthocarpa, 

F.v.M.f (Syn. Tripelelus auslralasicus, Lindl.), N.O. Capri- 

foliaceae, B.Fl., iii., 398. 

" Native Elderberry." 

The fruit of these two native elders is fleshy and sweetish, 
and is used by the aborigines for food. 

A.11 the colonies except Western Australia {S. Gaudichau- 
diand) ; Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland (6". xantho- 
carpa. 

178. Santalum lanceolatnm, R.Br., (Syn. .v. oblongatum, R.Br.), 
N.O., Santalaceae, B.FL, vi., 214. 

"Sandalwood" of the colonists. The " Tharra-gibberah " of the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North Queensland). 

This tree produces a small purple fruit of very agreeable 
taste. (Leichhardts Overland Joiiryiey to Port Essington, 

P- 95-) 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Victoria. 

179. ScseVOla Koenigii, r<////, (Syn. ^. Taccada, Roxb. ; S. 
sericea, Forst. ; 6". Lobelia, De Vr. ; S. macrocalyx, De Vr, ; 
6". chlorantha, De Vr. ; S. Lambertiana, De Vr. ; ^. viontarui, 
Labill.), N.O., Goodeniaceae, B.FL, iv., 86. 

It sometimes goes under the name of " Native Cabbage." 

A large, succulent shrub, often met with along the sandy 
beach. It has large rich gieen foliage, and a vegetable might be 
made out of it. It is a common coast plant in the warmer parts 
of the world. 

Queensland and Nortliern Australia. 

180. Schmidelia Serrata, DC, (Syn. S. timoriensis, DC. ; 
Ornitrophe serra/a, Roxb. ; Allophyllus ternaius. Lour.), 
N.O., Sapindacex% B.FL, i., 455. Allophyllus ternatus, in 
Muell. Cens., p. 24. 



HUMAN FOODS. 57 

Its small red, ripe berries are eaten in India. {Cyclop, of 
India). 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

x8i. SemecarpUS Anacardium, Linn., (Syn. ^. austmlasicus, 
Engl.), N.O., AnacardiaccK, B.Fl., i., 491. 

" Marking-nut" tree of India. 

The thick fleshy receptacle bearing the fruit is of a yellow 
colour when ripe, and is roasted and eaten by the natives of India. 
The seeds, called Malacca-beans or Marsh nuts, are eaten. 
{Treasury of Botany). The Portuguese at Goa salt the green 
fruit and use them like olives. (Dymock). When fresh the 
fruit is dry and astringent — roasted, it is said to taste somewhat 
like roasted apples, and when dry somewhat like dates. (Brandis). 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

182. Sesbania aculeata, ^^^-y-, (Syn. -S". rtMj/ra/z'.r, F.v.M.), N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 213. 

The " Nardoo" of the aboriginals of the Norman River, Queensland. 

The natives of Northern Queensland make, or used to make, 
a bread of the seeds of this species. (See Marsilea quadrifolia). 

"In North Queensland, according to Mr. T. A. Gulliver, the 
natives make bread of the seeds of Sesbania aculeata, Pers. I am 
of opinion that this is the true Nardoo of the Cooper's Creek 
natives. The unfortunate explorers (Burke and Wills) might 
easily have mistaken the spore cases of a Marsilea for the shelled- 
out seeds of Sesbania!' (Bailey, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1880, p. 8). 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern 
and Western Australia. 

183. Solanum aviculare, Forst., (Syn. S. vescutn, F.V.M. ; ^. 
laciniatiim, Ait. ; .S. reclinatum, L'Her.), N.O., Solaneae, 
B.Fl., iv., 448. In Muell. Cens., p. 95-6, S. aviculare and 
iS. vescum are made separate species. 



58 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" Kangaroo Apple," " Gunyang," or " Koonyang" of the Gippsland 
and other aboriginals. '' Meakitch" or " Mayakitch" or " Mookich" of the 
aboriginals of Western Victoria (Lake Condah). 

Its large fruit resembles that of the potato. The fruit when 
perfectly ripe, which is indicated by the outer skin bursting, may 
be eaten in its natural state, or boiled and baked. It has a mealy, 
sub-acid taste, and may be eaten in any quantity with impunity; 
but until the skin bursts, although the fruit may otherwise appear 
ripe, it has an acrid taste, and causes an unpleasant burning 
sensation in the throat. (Gunn). 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

184. Solamim esnriale, Lindl., (Syn. S. pulchellum, F.V.M.), 
N.O., Solanese, B.Fl., iv,, 454. 

" Comyn" of the aboriginals of the Lachlan River, New South Wales. 
" Oon-doroo" of those of the Cloncurry River, North Queensland. 

The berries of this plant were eaten by the native guides of 
Sir Thomas Mitchell. {Three Expeditions, ii., 43). 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

185. Solanum hystrix, R.Br., N.O., Solaneae, B.Fl., iv., 458. 

Called " Walga" by aborigines in South Australia. 

The blacks use the fruit for food, but only with the pounded 
and baked bark of the mallee root, called " Congoo" by them. 
Before using the fruit they take off the shell (the dry prickly calyx), 
and remove the seeds. This leaves a pulpy skin about the thick- 
ness of that of a native peach (? Owenia) ; the fruit and bark are 
then made into a cake. When fruits are not obtainable, and they 
are otherwise hard pressed for food, the natives bleed themselves 
in the arm, and use the blood with the bark. The natives told 
me, when opening the fruit for the seeds, not to eat the fruit, as it 
would make my throat sore, nor yet to touch my eyes with my 
fingers. The fine prickles and juice got into my fingers, and 
produced a good deal of pain and inflammation for a short time. 
(Annie F. Richards, in Proc. R.S. S.A., iv., 136). 

South Australia. 



HUMAN FOODS. 59 

186. Solanuni simile, F.v.M., (Sjn. S. ladniatum, var. R.Br., 
S.fasciculatum, F.v.M.), N.O., Solaneae. B.Fl., iv., 448. 

Called " Quena," by aboriginals in South Australia. 

The blacks are fond of the fruit, but do not eat it until it has 
fallen to the ground. Both black and white men agree that to eat 
many will cause sickness. The fruit causes a hot burning taste in 
the mouth, but its scent reminds me of that of strawberries. 
(Annie F. Richards, Proc. R.S.S.A., iv., 136.) 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Queensland. 

187. Sonchus oleraceus, Linn., (Syn. S. asper, Fuchs; S. 
ciliatus. Lam. ; 6'. fallax, VVallr.), N.O., Compositse, B.FL, 
iii., 679. The genus Sonchus is omitted from Muell. Cens. 

Commonly called "Sow-thistle." It is the " Thalaak " of the East 
Gippsland aborigines. 

The stems and roots are eaten. (Hooker.) Leichhardt, in 
his Overland Journey to Port Essington, says that the young 
shoots of Sotichus made an excellent vegetable. This plant is 
not endemic in Australia. 

Throughout the colonies. 

i88. Sterculia diversifolia, G. Don., (Syn. BrachycMlon popul- 
neum, R.Br. ; Pcecilodermis populnea, Schott.), N.O., Stercu- 
liacese, B.Fl., i., 229. Brachychiton populneum in Muell. 
Cens., p. 15. 

" Black Kurrajong." The " Bottle-tree " of Victoria. 
The tap-roots of young trees, and the young roots of old 

trees, are used as food by the aborigines. (Macarthur.) When 

boiled they have a flavour similar to that of turnips, but sweeter. 

The seeds of this and other species are edible, and make a good 

beverage. 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

189. Sterculia quadrifida, R.Br., N.O., Sterculiace», B.Fl., i., 
227. 
A " Kurrajong." " Calooi," of the aborigines of northern New South 
Wales. " Convavola" is another aboriginal name. 

The black seeds taste like filberts. As many as eleven of 
the brilliant scarlet fruits may be seen in a cluster, and each of 



6o AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

them may contain up to ten or eleven seeds. (Mueller.) The 
mucilaginous substance of the unripe fruit is also edible. 
(Thozet.) 

Northern New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern 
Australia. 

190. SterCUlia rupestris, Bentk., (Syn. Delabechea rupestris, 
Lindl. ; Brachychiton Delabechii, F.v.M.), N.O., StercuU- 
acese, B.Fl., i., 230. Noted as Brachychiton Delabechii, in 
Muell. Cens., p. 15. 

A " Kurrajong." The " Bottle-tree " of N.E. Australia, and also 
called " Gouty-stem," on account of the extraordinary shape of the trunk. 
It is the " Binkey " of the aboriginals. 

The stem abounds in a mucilaginous substance resembling 
pure tragacanth, which is wholesome and nutritious, and is said 
to be used as an article of food b}' the aborigines in cases of 
extreme need. A similar clear jelly is obtainable by pouring 
boiling water on chips of the wood. 

" It is said that the soft juicy tissue of the stem can be eaten, 
and that many a wanderer in the bush has staved off hunger by 
its means. The young shoots and roots of young trees are 
agreeable and refreshing. The nuts also are eaten." (Thozet, 
also Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. vii., p. 573. 

Thozet speaks of the natives cutting holes in the soft trunk, 
where the water lodges, and rots the trunk to its centre. These 
trunks are so many artificial reservoirs of water. When a tree 
has been cut its resources are not exhausted. The tired hunter, 
when he sees a tree that has been tapped, cuts a hole somewhat 
lower than the old cuts, and obtains an abundant supply of the 
sweet mucilaginous juice afforded by the tree. 

Queensland. 

191. SterCUlia trichosiphon, Benth., (Syn. Trichosiphon atistrale, 
Schott; Brachychiton platanoides, R.Br.), N.O., Sterculiaceae, 
B.Fl., i., 229. Brachychiton platanoides in Muell. Cens., 
p. 15. 

" Ketey" of the aborigines. 



HUMAN FOODS. 6r 

The roots of young plants are eaten by the aborigines with- 
out any preparation. (Thozet.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

ig2. Styphelia adscendens, R.Br., N.O., Epacrideae, B.Fl., iv., 
146. 

The fruit is eatable. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania. 

193. Styphelia trifiora, And/-., (Syn. ^S". glaucescetis, Sieb.), N.O. 

Epacrideae, B.FL, iv., 147. 

"Five Corners.' 

These fruits have a sweetish pulp with a large stone. They 
form part of the food of the aboriginals, and are much appreciated 
by schoolboys. When from a robust plant they are of the size of 
a large pea, and not at all bad eating. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

194- Sussda maritima, Dumort., (Syn. 6". australis, Moq. ; 
Chenopodium maritimum, Moq. ; ^S". australis, Moq. ; Cheno- 
podium ausirale,R.BT.), N.O. Chenopodiacese, B.FL, v., 206. 

The fleshy leaves of this plant can be utilised for pickling. 
(Woolls.) 

It is common on the sea coasts of most temperate and 
sub-tropical regions of the world. 

Throughout the colonies. 

195. TaCCa pinnatifida, ForsL, N.O., Taccacese, B.FL, vi., 458. 

The root is very bitter when raw, but yields a great quantity 
of white fecula, of which good flour for confectionery is made. 
The fecula much resembles arrowroot, and is very nutritive. In 
Arracan the starch is, or was extracted for the China market. 
{Pharm. Journ., vi., 383.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



62 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

196. Telopea speciosissima, RBr., (Syn. Embothrium speciosis- 
simum, Smith; E. spathulalum, Cav. ; E. speciosa, Salisb. ; 
Hylogyne speciosa, Knight), N.O., Proteacese, B.Fl., v.. 534. 

" Waratah," or " Native Tulip." 

So early as 1803 it was observed (Curtis's Bot. Mag.) that 
the natives make an agreeable repast by sucking the tubular 
flowers, which abound in honey. See Banksia. 

New South Wales. 

197- Terminalia Sp., N.O., Combretaceae. 

" We collected a great quantity of Terminalia gum, and 
prepared it in different ways to render it more palatable. The 
natives, whose tracks we saw everywhere in the scrub, with 
frequent marks where they had collected gum, seemed to roast it. 
It dissolved with difficulty in water ; added to gelatine soup it was 
a great improvement. . . . But it acted as a good lenient 
purgative on all of us." (Leichhardt, Overland yourney to Port 
Essington, p. 374.) 

198. Terminalia Catappa, Linn., N.O. Combretaceae, Muell. 

Cens., p. 50. 

" Country Almond" of India. 

This plant is also a native of India. The seeds are like 
almonds in shape and whiteness, but, though palatable, they have 
none of their peculiar flavour. {IVeasury 0/ Botany.) 

Queensland. 

199. Terminalia oblongata, F.v.M., N.O. Combretaceae, B.FL, 
ii., 499. 

" Yananoleu " of the aboriginals." 

The purple fruit is edible. 
Queensland. 

200. Tetragonia expansa, Murr., (Syn. T. inermis, F.V.M.), 
N.O., Ficoideae, B.FI., iii., 325. 

" New Zealand Spinach." 

This plant was introduced to England by Sir Joseph Banks 
on his return with Captain Cook from his first voyage round 
the world. As a substitute for summer spinach it has been 



HUMAN FOODS. 63 

grown in private (English) gardens for many years past, and it 
yields a large produce, which in the hands of a skilful cook may 
be made an excellent vegetable dish, though inferior to spinach. 
The chief objection to it as a cooked vegetable is the abundance 
of mucilage, which gives it a somewhat slimy consistence. 
{^Treasury of Botany^ It should be eaten when young, as when 
mature it possesses some acridity. It is already cultivated to 
some extent in Australian gardens, but it is abundantly wild at 
many parts of the coast. 
All the colonies. 

201. Tetragonia implexicoma, Hook. /., (Syn. 'letragonella 
implexicoma, Miq.), N.O., Ficoideae, B.Fl., iii., 326. 

Called " Ice Plant" in Tasmania. 

Baron Mueller suggests that this plant be cultivated for 
spinach. 

All the colonies except Queensland. 

202. TimoniuS Rumphii, DC, (Syn. Polyphragmon sericeum, 
Desf. ; Guettarda polyphragmoides, F.v.M.), N.O., Rubiaceae, 
B.Fl., iii., 417. 

" Kavor-kavor," of the aboriginals. 

The aboriginals are particularly fond of this fruit, which has 
much the appearance of the crab or wild apple of Europe. 
<Thozet.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

203. Trigonella SUavissima, Lmdl., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, 
ii., 187. 

" The perfume of this herb, its freshness and flavour, induced 
me to try it as a vegetable, and we found it to be delicious, tender 
as spinach, and to preserve a very green colour when boiled." 
(Mitchell, Three Expeditions, p. 554.) It is an excellent antiscor- 
butic. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Queensland. 



64 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

204. Typha angUStifolia, Z/««., (Syn. T. Brownii, Kunth. ; 7. 
latifolia, G. Forst. ; T. Shuttleworthii, Sond.) ; N.O., 
Typhaceae, B.Fl., vii., 159. Muell. Fragm., vii., 116. 

Called " Bullrush," and also " Cat's Tail " and " Reed Mace." It is the 
" Wonga" of the Lower Murray aboriginals. 

The young shoots are edible, and resemble asparagus. The 
root is excellent. The pollen is used as food by the natives of 
Scinde, India, being made into cakes. (Dymock). It is used for 
the same purpose in New Zealand. 

In a paper by Gerard Krefft {Proc. Philos. Soc. N.S.W. 
1862-5) " On the Lower Murray Aboriginals," the following 
description is given by him of the method of preparing these roots 
for food. He gives the species name as T. Shuttleworthii, but 
this has been merged in the present species : — " At a certain 
period, I believe January and February, the women enter the 
swamps, take up the roots of these reeds, and carry them in large 
bundles to their camp. The roots thus collected are twelve to 
eighteen inches in length, and they contain, besides a small 
quantity of saccharine matter, a considerable quantity of fibre. 
The roots are roasted in a hollow made in the ground, and either 
consumed hot or taken as a sort of provision upon hunting ex- 
peditions ; they are at best a miserable apology for flour, and I 
almost believe it was on account of the tough fibre thus obtained 
that these roots were made an artcle of food." 

This plant is also termed the " Asparagus of the Cossacks," 
the Cossacks of the Don being very fond of it. They prepare it 
like asparagus, and cut it, like the latter, when the young shoots 
are pushing ; the tender blanched part is boiled in water seasoned 
with salt, and served up in the same way as asparagus. The 
various culinary preparations to which asparagus is subjected are 
suitable for Typha latifolia. In collecting it they peel off the 
cuticle, and select the blanched tender part, usually about eighteen 
inches in length, near the root, and this constitutes a dish cool, 
agreeable and wholesome. {Pharm. jfoiirn., vii., 543). 

For notes on the economic value of this plant, see also Proc. 
R.S. Tasmania, 1882, p. 163. 



HUMAN FOODS. 



65 



100 parts of the entire plant contain, after drying, 9'58 per 
cent, ash; and the ash contains, in 100 parts : — 



Potash 




14.8 


Lime ... 




21.9 


Magnesia 




1.56 


Ferric Oxide ... 




0.2 


Sulphuric Anhydride... 




2.5 


Silica ... 




0.6 


Carbonic Acid... 




21.0 


Phosphoric Pentoxide... 




3-9 


Potassium Chloride ... 




16.8 


Sodium Chloride 




16.9 


(Schulz-Fleeth, Wa//'s Bid., v 


., p. 930). 




The pollen contains : — 






Stearin and Olein 


... 


3.6 percent 


Sugar ... 




18.3 


Starch ... 




2.0 


PoUenin 


... 


25.0 


Magnesium and Potassium 


Phosphates 


> 


together with small quantities 


f 


other potassium salts 




2-5 


Silica ... 




0.4 



The root-stock contains, in the fresh state, according to 
Lecocq, in December, 12.5 parts starch to 73 parts water; but in 
April only 10.5 parts starch to the same quantity of water. 

A decoction of the root is said to be used in Turkey as a 
remedy for dropsy and snake-bites. (Landerer, Wat is' Diet., v., 
930)- 

" Balyan " (Typha angustifolia ?) 

" The principal food of the inhabitants of the Kalaire, or 
Lachlan, appeared to be ' balyan,' the rhizome of a monocoty- 
ledonous plant or bulrush growing amongst the reeds. It contains 
so much gluten,, that one of our party, Charles Webb, made, in a 
short time, some excellent cakes of it; and they seemed tome 
lighter and sweeter than those prepared from common flour. The 
natives gather the roots and carry them on their heads in great 

F 



66 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

bundles within a piece of net. . . . And, indeed, this was 
obviously their chief food among the marshes." (Mitchell, 
Three Expeditions, ii., 6i.) 
Throughout the colonies. 

205. Typhonium BrOWnii, Schott, (Syn. Arum orixense, R.Br.,) 
N.O., Aroideae, B.Fl., vii., 154. 

" Merrin" of Central Queensland aboriginals. 

The tubers, which are yellow inside, are manipulated in the 
same way as those of Colocasia macrorrhiza (No. 51, q.v.),, 
but none are watery, and they are made to adhere together after 
the first roasting. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

206. Vigna lanceolata, Benth., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 
260. 

This twiner produces, along with the ordinary cylindrical 
pods, others underground from buried flowers, and these some- 
what resemble common ground or pea nuts. (O'Shanesy.) 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern 
and Western Australia. 

207. Vitis hypoglauca, F.v.M., (Syn. Cissus hypoglauca, A. 

Gray ; C. australasica, F.v.M.), N.O., Ampelideae, B.Fl., i., 

450. 

" Native Grape," " Gippsland Grape." 

This evergreen climber yields black edible fruits of the size 
of small cherries. This grape would perhaps be greatly improved 
by culture. (Mueller.) 

Mr. Bidwill's life was saved when he was lost in the bush by 
the water he was able to procure by incising one of these vines. 
(Dr. George Bennett.) 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, 

208. Vitis opaca, F.v.M., (Syn. Cissus opara, F.v.M.), N.O., 
Ampelideae, B.Fl., i., 450. 



HUMAN FOODS. 67 

" Burdekin Vine," " Round Yam." " Yaloone " is the aboriginal 
name (Qentral Queensland) for the large ones, and " Wappoo-wappoo " for 
the small ones. 

The tubers are very numerous, and some weigh from five to 
ten pounds. They are eaten after immersion in hot water Hke water- 
melons (the small and young ones are the best) ; they are, how- 
ever, difficult to digest. (Thozet.) 

It is probably the yam alluded to by helchhsirdt {Over/and 
Expedition to Port Essington, p. 150). " Both tubers and berries 
had the same pungent taste, but the former contained a watery 
juice which was most welcome to our parched mouths.' 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

209. Xanthorrhea, spp., N.O., Juncacese. 

" The bases of the inner leaves of the grass-tree are not to be 
despised by the hungry. The aborigines beat off the heads of 
these singular plants by striking them about the top of the trunk 
with a large stick ; then they stript off the outer leaves and cut 
away the inner ones, leaving about an inch and a-half of the 
Avhite tender portion joining the trunk ; this portion they ate raw or 
Toasted, and it is far from disagreeable in flavour, having a nutty 
taste, slightly balsamic." (Backhouse.) 

The centre of the stem contains about five per cent, of sugar. 

" The interior or pith of the tree is broken up. It is then 
subjected to hydraulic pressure, when a copious flow of the 
saccharine juice takes place. About twenty gallons to the ton 
are obtainable. On distillation this quantity of raw juice yields 
four gallons of proof spirit." (Ligar, Trans. R.S. Victoria, 
1866;. 

In the year 1876 an application (which lapsed) was made at 
the Patent Office, Melbourne, for a patent for making sugar from 
^Y. hast His. Following is the specification : — " The substance used 
is the inner white or cellular portion of the plant. This is 
submitted to pressure, mechanical or hydraulic. The juice 
expressed is boiled till a scum rises to the surface. This scum is 
skimmed off, lime being used to assist in the operation. After 
clarification, the juice is filtered through animal charcoal, and 



68 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

again boiled. The clear syrup thus produced may then be 
crystallised and manipulated by the process used to produce sugar 
from cane." 

Throughout the colonies. 

210. Ximenia americana, Linn., (Syn. X. elUptica, Forst. ; X. 
laurina, Del. ; X. exarmata, F.v.M.), N.O., Olacinese, B. Fl., 
i., 391. X. elliptica, in Muell. Cens., p. 63. 

This plant bears round orange-coloured fruits, of which the 
natives of the South Sea Islands are very fond, though they are 
rather tart. {Treasury of Botany?) Before they are ripe they 
possess a powerful odour of essential oil of almonds. 

211. Sizyphus Jujuba, Lam., N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., i.,412. 

" Jujube Tree " of India. " Balyan " is an aboriginal name, but, of 
course, different to the " Balyan " of p. 65. 

This tree yields an excellent dessert fruit, and is largely 
cultivated by the Chinese, who recognise a great number of 
varieties, differing in the shape, colour and size of the fruits. 
(Treasury of Botany.) In India it is much cultivated. 

Queensland. 

212. SizyphuS CEnoplia, Mill., (Syn. Z. celtidfoUa, DC; Z. 
rufula, Miq. ; Z. Napeca, Roxb.), N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., i., 
412. 

In India the fruit is eaten by the natives, its taste being 
pleasantly acid, and it is a great favourite with the thirsty traveller; 
mice are fond of it, (Cyclop, of India.) 

Northern Australia. 



HUMAN FOODS. 69 



APPENDIX. 



Anoplognathiis cere us. (See EucalyptUS COrymbosa.) 

I cannot, up to the present, trace any account of this species 
of Anoplognathiis. 

Cicada moerens. The " Great black or Manna Cicada." 

In the Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, by Prof. McCoy, 
Decade V., Plate 50, will be found admirable drawings of this 
insect, and also a full account of its life-history. From this source 
the few particulars following are taken : — 

The young resemble fleas in size and shape ; they quickly 
reach the ground, into which they burrow, and whence they may 
be dug out at the roots of trees any time during the larval and 
pupa states. The larva is white, and seems to feed on under- 
ground roots ; the eyes, six legs, and antennas agreeing with the 
pupa, which chiefly differs in having the rudimentary wings visible 
at the sides of the body. The pupae ultimately come out of the 
ground, crawl up a few feet on the trunk of the nearest gum-tree 
in the night, and then, splitting along the back, the surprisingly 
larger, winged, perfect insect creeps out, leaving the empty pupa 
skin clinging to the tree quite perfect, even to the smallest hair or 
other part, in the position of life, . . . Both sexes have short 
lives in the perfect state, and may be seen lying about the ground 
under the trees, dead or dying in abundance, after their noisiest 
few days. This particular species chiefly frequents Eucalyptus 
vi?ninalis, 

Psylla Eucalypti. A homopterous insect which, on the 
leaves of Eucalyptus dumosa, produces "Lerp Manna" (q.v). 
This and many other species are in the preparatory stages covered 
with a white cottony secretion, and their excrement forms threads 
or masses of a gummy sucreous nature. 

See a paper by Thos. Dobson, B.A., in the Proc. R.S. Van 
Diemen s Land oi 1851, on the life-history of this insect. Excel- 
lent plates and full particulars of its life-history are given. A 
reprint of a paper by Dr. Anderson, of Edinburgh, on the same 
subject appears in the same volume. 



Forage Plants. 



A. GRASSES, 



* 



OR 

NATURAL ORDER GRAMINEM. 



A FEW grasses, not useful as fodder plants, but having miscel- 
laneous uses, have been placed here for convenience. 

Hardly any group of plants is so variable as the present 
one, hence the different statements made by different authors 
in regard to some of the species. 



I. Agropynim SCabnim, Beauv., (Syn. Festuca scabra, Labill. ; 
F. rectiseta, F. Browniana, F. BiUiardieri, Anthosachne aus- 
tralasica, Steud. ; Triticum scabnitn, R.Br. ; Vulpia rectiseta, 
V. BrowJiiani, V. scabra, V. Braujiiana, Nees.), B.Fl., vii., 
665. Agropyron in Muell. Cens., p. 135. 

This grass is a good winter species. It stands the drought 
well. It is rather coarse, growing plentifully on rich soil ; it is not 
much relished by stock, but is eaten when young. The seeds are 
very injurious to sheep, often causing blindness by penetrating 
their eyes. They deteriorate wool greatly. 

It has been rather differently described as follows : — " A 
perennial grass ; grows about two feet in height ; does not perfect 
its seed well; produces plenty of tender foliage, and is not much 
affected by dry seasons, or easily injured by overstocking. It is a 
valuable grass." 

* I am indebted to Mr. Frederick Turner, Superintendent of Hyde Park Gardens, 
Sydney, for some of the notes on grasses. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 7 I 

Differences in soil and latitude affect some grasses greatly. 
Absence of these particulars in reports on individual species often 
causes their reconcilement to be a matter of difficulty. 

All the colonies. 

2. Agropyrum velutinum, Nees., (Syn. Tritkum Tehitinum, 

Hook, f.), B.Fl., vii., 665. 

Annual ; seeds in October and November. This species is 
not much relished by stock, when other and more palatable kinds 
are obtainable. It grows plentifully on black soil, or on ground 
liable to inundation. 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

3. AgrOStis SCabra, WUld., (Syn. A. parviflora^ R.Br.; A. 

intricata, Nees ; A. laxiflora. Rich. ; Trichodium laxiflorum, 

Mich.), B.Fl., vii., 576. 

" Slender Bent Grass." 

A slender tufted, glabrous grass, of delicate, succulent habit. 
It is useful, in spite of the prejudice which exists against 
species of the grass. 

In all the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

4- AlopeCUniS geniculatUS, Linn., (Syn. A. australis, Nees; A. 

paniceiis, Q^der). B.Fl., vii., 555. 

" Knee-jointed Fox-tail Grass." 

A delicate annual spring grass, growing around shallow pools 
of water. It is much relished by stock of all kinds and is very 
nutritious, but unfortunately is of short duration, withering off on 
the advent of hot weather. It seeds in September and October. 
It should be observed that the opinions of some British authors in 
regard to the value of this grass are contradictory. 

5- AmphibromUS Neesii, Steud., (Syn. Avena nervosa, R.Br.; 

Danthonia nervosa, Hook.), B.Fl., vii., 589. Noted as 
Danthonia nervosa in Muell. Cens., p. 134. 



72 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

A tall succulent, perennial grass, growing in and around 
shallow pools of water ; it is of rather a fugitive nature, but during 
its existence stock of all kinds are exceedingly fond of it. It 
seeds in September and October. 

All the colonies except Queensland. 

6. Amphipogon Strictus, R-Br., (Syn. J. caridnus.Y.vM.; A. 

Brownei, F.v.M. ; j^gopogon strictus, Beauv.), B.Fl., vii., 

597. 

A short, close-growing, perennial grass, growing on rich 
loamy soil. Although attractive-looking from its vivid greenness, 
it is not much eaten by slock whilst other more palatable kinds are 
obtainable. Drought-resisting, and valuable when other kinds are 
scarce. Seeds from October to January. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

7- Andropogon affinis, R.Br., B.FL, vii.,' 530. 

A good open pasture grass, which will stand close feeding* 
It is a perennial dwarf-growing species ; it stands drought well, 
and on that account is valuable. It yields a fair amount of fodder. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

8. Andropogon anmilatus, Forsk., B.Fl., vii.,''53i. 

" Blue Grass." 

Recommended as a meadow grass. It is both a summer and 
winter grass. It does not grow fast in winter, but at the period of 
its greatest growth it sends up an abundance of herbage. It is of 
an upright habit of growth. 

South Australia, Victoria, Queensland, and Northern Aus- 
tralia. 

9. Andropogon bombycinus, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 533. 

" Woolly-headed Grass." 
A valuable pasture grass, highly spoken of by stockowners, 
and said to be very fattening. (Mr. P. A, O'Shanesy, however, 
states that it is not at all relished by stock.) The bases of the 



FORAGE PLANTS. 73 

Stems of this species, like those of several others of the genus, are 
highly aromatic. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

10. Andropogon erianthoides, F.v.M., B.Fl., vii., 529. 

A very superior grass, and stock are considered to thrive 
better upon it than upon most others. It produces a heavy crop 
of rich, succulent herbage, much relished by all descriptions of 
stock. It spreads from the roots, and also seeds freely. 

" It would be hard to find a superior grass to this, for even 
when eaten close to the ground, stock are said to do better on this 
than on any other of our indigenous species." (Bailey). 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

11. Andropogon intermedins, R.Br., B.FL, vii., 531. (Syn. A. 

mundaius, F.v.M.j 

A strong, erect-growing grass, yielding a quantity of feed 
during the summer months. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

12. Andropogon lachnatherns, Benth., (Syn. A. procerus, F.v.M. ; 

A filipendulinus, Hoch.), B.FL, vii., 534. 

Produces a heavy crop of grass relished by stock ; found on 
low, wet soils. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

13- Andropogon pertnsns, wnid., B.FL, vii., 531. 

" Blue Grass." 

Good for pasture, and very generally distributed. It stands 
drought well, and is a fair winter grass, if the weather is not too 
severe. It is very highly prized. It is not endemic in Australia. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

M- Andropogon refractns, R.Br., B.FL, vii., 534. 

" Kangaroo Grass." 
A grass said to be excellent for either pasture or hay. It is a 
very productive summer grass, but makes little growth during the 



74 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

winter, unless upon sheltered forest land. Its roots have a strong 
aromatic flavour. 

" It was usually a coarse jungle-grass, more like a rush or 
sedge, and often completely concealing the horses. The species 
was most commonly Andi-opogon refr actus, a worthless, weedy 
grass, only good when young and green. In the dry state the 
horses would not touch it." (Tenison-Woods, Explorations in 
Northern Australia.) 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

15. AndropOgon sericeUS, ^.^/-■, (Syn. ^4. chrYsatherus,Y.vM.\ 
A. atmulattis, F.v.M.), B.Fl., vii., 529. 

" Blue Grass." 

This grass yields enormously during the summer months, but 
not being permitted to seed, as it requires to do every few years, 
it is now becoming scarce. It is one of the most esteemed of our 
pasture grasses, beloved by all herbivorous animals. It grows on 
rich, loamy soil, and seeds in October and November. It is per 
ennial. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

16. Anthistiria avenacea, F.v.M., (Syn. A. dasisericea,F.vM.), 

B.FL, vii., 543. 

" Oat Grass," A " Kangaroo Grass." 

In parts it is one of the most productive grasses in Australia, 
and (unlike other kangaroo grasses) it possesses the advantage of 
being a prolific seeder. It is nutritious and perennial, and pro- 
duces a large amount of bottom-fodder. It seeds in November 
and December, is peculiar to the back country, and is found only 
on the richest soil, only in a few places, and there over a limited 
area. It grows in small detached tussocks ; the leaves or blades 
are eaten by stock, but the seed-stalks are left standing. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

17' Anthistiria Ciliata, ^"'«., (Syn. A. austra/is, R.Br.; A. 
ccEspitosa, Anders.; A. cuspidata, Anders.), B.Fl., vii., 542. 
"Common Kangaroo Grass." 



FORAGE PLANTS. 75 

A tall, perennial, upright-growing grass, often three feet in 
height. The roots are strong, fibrous, and penetrating. It is 
found in all parts of Australia, forms but few perfect seeds, and 
these do not germinate freely. It is one of the finest and most 
useful of the indigenous grasses. It remains green during the 
summer, but turns a little brown during the autumn, when its 
nutritive qualities are at the highest. Horses keep in better con- 
dition on this grass, doing hard work, than on almost any other 
species of native grass. Hooker wrote, in 1859: "This is the 
best fodder-grass in Australia." Although in the eastern portions 
of New South Wales, and also of Victoria, this is looked upon as 
a good pasture grass, it is not much esteemed in western New 
South Wales, and is not relished by stock. It is very restricted in 
its habitat, being found chiefly in the back country, and there to 
a limited extent, and only on the richest soils ; in fact, the only 
situations in New South Wales in which it is largely found are the 
small rich alluvial flats, found in the gorges and valleys of the 
rocky hills between the Lachlan and Darling. In such places it 
grows very rank and luxuriant, and perhaps for this reason is not 
liked by stock. It seeds in November. 

Baron Mueller says : " This is an excellent grass for stock, 
and makes a larger amount of bottom-feed than the other kangaroo 
grasses. Its growth should be encouraged by every means." 

It contains : — 

Albumen 2-05 per cent. 



Gluten 

Starch 

Gum 

Sugar 

(F.V.M., and L. Rummel). 
All the colonies. 



... 4-67 

... o 69 

... i'67 

... 3-06 



18. Anthistiria frondosa, R-Bv., N.O., Gramine^e, R.Fl., vii., 542. 

" Broad-leaved Kangaroo Grass." 

A most useful grass, to judge by the manner stock feed it 
down when young. (Armit.) 

Etheridge River (Queensland), and Northern Australia. 



76 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

19- Anthistiria membranacea, Lindi, (Syn. heiUma Mitcheiiu, 

Anders.), B.FL, vii., 543. 
" Barcoo Grass" of Queensland ; called also " Landsborough Grass." 

One of the best pasture grasses in Queensland. It is exceed- 
ingly brittle when dry, and stock are so fond of it that they are 
sometimes found licking the broken parts from the ground. It 
seeds freely, and is particularly fitted for dry hot pastures, even of 
desert regions. It is a quick-growing summer species. It is 
fattening. Others remark that on account of its being so thinly 
scattered on stiff clayey soils on the plains only, it is seldom eaten 
by stock, and is consequently of little value. Annual ; seeds in 
November. 

West and South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

20. Aristida arenaria, Gaudich, (Syn. A. contorta, F.v.M. ; 
Arthratherum arenarium, Nees.) ; B.FL, vii., 561. 

A dry wiry grass, bad for sheep on account of its sharp seeds. 
It is perennial, and seeds in October and November. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 

21. Aristida calycina, R.Br.,B.Y\., vii., 563. 

A dry, coarse, wiry grass, not relished by stock. It grows on 
sandhills in detached tussocks. It is only eaten in times of 
scarcity, and is of little value. The seeds are injurious to wool. 
It is perennial, and seeds in November and December. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

22. Aristida depressa, Retz., (Syn. A. vulgaris, Trin.), N.O., 

Gramineas, B.FI., vii., 563. 

Perennial ; seeds in October and November. A rather coarse 
grass, growing on sandy or light loamy soils, and not much liked 
by stock. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

23- Aristida leptopoda, Benth., B.FL, vii., 562. 

A grass yielding a fair amount of fodder; found growing on 
rich soils. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Western Australia. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 77 

24. Aristida Stipoides, R.Br., N.O., Gramineae, B.Fl. vii., 561. 
A coarse, perennial grass, seeding in November growing on 

sand-hills, and not relished by stock. 

All the colonies, except Victoria and Tasmania. 

25. Aristida VaganS, Cav., (Syi^- •^- ramosa, Sieb. ; A. parvifloray 

Steud.), B.Fl., vii., 562. 

A superior grass to A. calycina, though perhaps that is not 
saying much. It keeps green in the winter. It is an annual;, 
seeds in October and November; is an exceedingly coarse species ; 
grows plentifully on sand-hills, and is only eaten by stock in times 
of scarcity. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

26. Arthraxon Ciliare, Beanv., (Syn. Batratherum echitiaimn, 

Nees. ; Andropogon echittatus, Heyne) ; N.O., Graminese^ 
B.Fl., vii., 524. 

A broad-leaved, creeping grass, found about swamps. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

27. Amndinella Nepalensis, Ti-in., (Syn. Acratherum miliaceujii,. 
Link.), B.FL, vii., 545. 

A grass well adapted for hay. On the Darling Downs, under 
cultivation, it has been cut three times during the season. In 
some districts it yields a fair amount of fodder, in others it is of 
a dry, coarse nature. It is not endemic in Australia. 

Throughout Queensland. 

28. Astrebla elymoides, Bail, et F.v.M., p. 660, Synop. Queens- 

land Flora (Bailey). 

" True Mitchell Grass." 

A strong-growing grass, the flowering spike resembling ears 
of wheat ; is said to have highly fattening qualities. It is used as 
food by the natives. It is one of our best pasture grasses, and 
springs from every joint after rain; it will stand well through the 
droughts, and is highly spoken of by all stockowners. The most 
valuable fodder grass in Queensland. 



78 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" I met this grass on the Warrego in 1876, when it was almost 
the only grass showing any vitality." (Bailey). 
Queensland. 

29. Astrebla pectinata, F.v.M. (Syn. Danthonia pectinata, Lindl). 

B.Fl., vii., 602. 

" A Mitchell Grass." 

This is a valuable grass ; it stands the drought well, and is 
sought greedily after by stock. It is a perennial desert species, and 
very fattening. It is often spoken of very favourably by the 
squatters of Northern Queensland. It seeds in October and 
November. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

30. Astrebla triticoides, F.v.M., (Syn. Danthonia triiicoides, 

Lindl). B.Fl., vii., 602. 

" Mitchell Grass." 

A Strong growing grass. The flowering spikes resemble ears 
of wheat, and are said to have highly fattening qualities. It is 
somewhat wiry, and grows on stiff clayey soil. It is readily 
eaten by stock, but is by no means plentiful. It is perennial, and 
seeds in November and December. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

31- Astrebla triticoides, var. lappacea, ^.^'-l/., (Syn. Danthonia 
lappacea, Lindl). 

This grass, although of a coarser nature than A. pectinata., 
possesses the same characteristics, and from the well-known 
fattening and drought-resisting qualities of both species, they are 
deserving of cultivation. Seed has been sent to America for trial 
in the Southern States. 

Central Australia. 

32. Bromus arenarius, LahUl, (Syn. B. australis, R.Br). B.Fl., 
vii., 661. 

" Wild Oats." " Sea-side Brome-grass." 

An annual early spring grass, very rare in Queensland ; in 
other colonies it is more abundant. It makes its growth during 



FORAGE PLANTS. 79 

winter and early spring. It makes excellent hay. Seeds August 
to October. It is a delicate species, growing on rich moist soil ; 
is of an exceedingly fugitive nature, withering off quickly on the 
advent of dry weather. 

Buchanan (^Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand) speaks of 
it as a common sea-side weed, which from its dry woolly nature 
is very unpalatable to all kinds of stock. Some authorities, how- 
ever, state that cattle are fond of it. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

33- Cenchrus australis, R.Br., (Syn C. echinalus, var. Trin.), 

B.Fl., vii., 497. 

This grass affects moist banks, and is very nutritious, but 
its long spikes of clinging seeds prevent cattle from feeding on 
it. (O'Shanesy.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

34- Chionachne Cyathopoda, F.v.M.,{^yxi Schrachne cyatkopoda, 
F.V.M.), B.FL, vii., 516. 

It is a valuable fodder grass, yielding a large return. 
Tropical and Eastern sub-tropical Australia. 

35- Chloris aciCTllaris, Lindl., (Syn. C. Moorei, F.v.M.), B.Fl., 

vii., 612. 

" Lesser Star Grass." 

Similar to C. divaricata, and grows on similar soil. It seeds 
in November and December. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

36. Chloris divaricata, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 612, 

" Dog-tooth Star Grass." 

An early grower, and although the stalks appear dry, it 
yields a quantity of nutritious feed. The flower panicles give it 
an uninviting appearance. It is a succulent and highly relished 
perennial summer grass, growing thickly on rich, loamy soil, and 
seeds in November and December. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



8o AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

37- Chloris scariosa, F.v.M., B.Fi., vii., 614. 

Particularly recommended as a pasture grass. It is scarce 
out of the Rockhampton district. (Bailey.) 
Tropical Australia. 

38. Chloris truncata, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 612. 

" Windmill Grass." 

An erect species, found in Queensland, on the Condamine 
River. It is perennial and showy, an excellent summer and 
autumn grass, of ready growth, and relished by stock. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

39. Chloris ventricosa, R.Br., (Syn. C. scUrantha, Lindl.), B.Fl., 
vii., 613. 

" Blue Star Grass." 

An erect, quick-growing species, found along the borders of 
scrubs. It produces a large quantity of leafy feed. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

40. Chrysopogon Gryllus, Triii., (Syn. Andropogo?t Gryllus, 
Linn., Holciis Grvllus, Trin.) ; B.FL, vii., 537. Noted in 
Muell. Cens., p. 132, as Aridropogon Gryllus. 

An excellent pasture grass, easily recognised by its golden 
beard. It produces a large quantity of feed during the summer 
months. It is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies, except Tasmania. 

41- Chrysopogon parviflorUS, Be7il/i., (Syn. C. violascens, Tun.: 
C. moJitanus, Trin.; Andropogon monfanus., Roxb. ; A. 
micranthus, Kunth. ; Holciis parviflorus, R.Br. ; H. coerul- 
escens, Gaud.; Anatherum parvifloriim, Spreng. ; Sorghum 
parviJIoru??i,BQ2i\xv.); B.FL, vii., 538, Referred to in Muell. 
Cens., p. 132, as Andropogon montanus. 

" Scented Grass." 
A tall, strong-growing, coarse grass, deep-rooted, and of 
stoloniferous habit. It is partial to rich flats. The flower panicles 
possess a peculiar perfume. It is of too dry a nature to be of 



FORAGE PLANTS. 8l 

value for fodder. Mr. P. A. O'Shanesy however states that cattle 
are fond of it. 

Victoria to Northern Australia. 

42. Cynodon dactylon, J^ers., (Syn. Fankum dactylon, Linn. ; 

Digitaria stoloni/era, Schrad.) ; B.Fl., vii., 609. 
" Indian Doub Grass," " Couch Grass." 

This is generally considered an introduced grass, but it is, 
however, indigenous. It is good for pasture, especially when 
mixed with white clover. Sheep are very fond of it. It is a most 
troublesome weed in cultivated places. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

43- Cynodon tenelhs, R.Br., (Syn. C. altior, F.V.M.); B.Fl., vii., 

609. 

This is one of the creeping grasses. It makes a quantity of 
feed during summer. Stock are fond of it. 
Queensland. 

44- Danthonia bipartita, F.v.M., (Syn. Monachather paradoxus, 

Steud.); B.Fl., vii., 592. 

Available as a tender-leaved and productive perennial grass 
for arid country. Mr. Buchanan (hidigenous Grasses of Neiv 
Zealand) , remarks that the Daiithonias seem to possess an inherent 
recuperative power, which enables them at any time, when the 
destroying agency is removed, to renew their growth, and spread 
in abundance. This may be partly ascribed to their capacity of 
ripening abundance of seed, and their ready adaptation to climatic 
changes and difference of soil. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

45- Danthonia longifolia, R.Br., B.FL, vii., 593. United in 

Muell. Cens., p. 134, with other species to form D. peniciUata. 

" White-topped Grass." 
This grass is of a wiry nature on the Darling Downs (Queens- 
land), but on the coast it yields a fair amount of fodder. 
Southern Queensland and New South Wales. 

G 



S2 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

46. Danthonia pallida, J^.Br., B.Fl., vii., 593. United in Muell. 

Cens., p. 134, with other species to form D. penicillata. 
" Silver Grass," 

A fine useful, drought-resisting species, growing plentifully in 
stiff clayey soil, and much relished by stock of all descriptions. 
It is perennial, and seeds in September and October. 

Throughout Australia. 

47- Danthonia penicillata, F.v.M., B.Fl., vii., 592. Baron 

Mueller's name to include D. pallida^ D. longi/olia, D. 

robusia, D. racemosa, D. pilosa, D. semiannularis, D. 

selacea, D. pauciflora ; but Bentham, while conceding that 

some of them may require further investigation, considered 

they should at least be distinguished as marked races. 
" Wallaby Grass." 

This perennial grass is useful for artificial mixed pasture. It 
is principally valuable in spring. It is one of the most variable of 
grasses. 

Throughout Australia. 

48. Danthonia racemosa, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 594. (See D. penicil- 
lata, under which species this is included by Baron Mueller.) 

" Mulgja Grass." 
Peculiar to the back country. It derives its vernacular name 
from being only found where the Mulga-tree {Acacia ajieura and 
other species) grows ; it is a very nutritious and much esteemed 
grass. Perennial ; seeds in October and November. 

49- Danthonia robusta, F.v.M., B.Fl., vii., 593. United by 

Baron Mueller, Cens., p. 134, with other species to form Z>. 

penicillata. 

Forms large patches of rich foliage at the very edge of 
glaciers. 

Australian Alps (Victoria and New South Wales). 

50. Deyeuxia Forsteri, Kunth., (Syn. Agrostis Sola^idri, F.V.M. ; 
A. Forsteri, Roem. et Schult ; A. cetnula, R.Br.; A. retro- 
fracta, Willd. ; A. semiharhata, Trin. ; A, debilis, Poir ; 



FORAGE PLANTS. 83 

Lachnagrostis retro/racla, Trin. ; L. Willdenowii, Trin. ; 
Calamagrostis cemula,^\&\xdi.; C. Willdenowii, '^\.^\idi);'Q^\., 
vii., 579. Noted as Agrosiis Solandri in Muell. Cens., 

P- 133- 

" Toothed Bent Grass." 

Produces a large quantity of sweet fodder in damp localities, 
valuable for pastures. It is essentially a winter-grass, dying out 
on the approach of summer. 

Its percentage composition is : — 

Albumen ... ... ... 4.08 

Gluten 8 

Starch ... ... ... i 34 

Gum ... ... ... 2.50 

Sugar 9.75 

(Mueller and Rummel). 

It seeds in September and October. Some authorities say 
that it is rather a coarse grass, and not much relished by stock, 
but is eaten while young. Its pointed seeds are very injurious to 
wool, and frequently cause blindness. 

All the colonies. 

51. Dichelachne Crinita, -^6i<''^, /., (Syn. D. Hookeriana, Trin.; 
D. Forsieriana, Trin. ; D. comata, Trin. ; D. longiseta^ Trin. ; 
D. vulgaris, Trin. ; Anthoxanthum crinittim, Linn. ; Agrosiis 
crinita, R.Br. ; Muehlenhergia crinita, Trin. ; M. mollicoiua, 
Nees ; Apera crinita, Palisot), B.Fl., vii., 574, 

" Long-hair Plume Grass." 

A good winter species which grows quickly and bears 
abundance of seed. 

" It is a valuable grass, and forms, when in flower, a promi- 
nent feature in pasture. As a pasture grass, when grown under 
favourable circumstances on rich valley bottoms with perennial 
moisture, it is very succulent, but when on dry clay hills it is harsh 
and scanty ; its nutrient qualities may be admitted, forming as it 
does a large constituent of pastures famous for fattening stock. 
As a fodder grass it possesses considerable bulk, and would add 



84 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

much value to a mixed crop of hay. (Buchanan, Indigenous 
Grasses of Neiv Zealand). 

All the colonies, , 

52. Dichelachne SCiurea, Hook. /., (Syn. D. Sieheriana, Trin. ; 
D. vulgaris., Trin. ; D. montatia, Endl. ; Agrostis sciurea, 
R.Br. ; A. rara, Nees. ; Muehlenhergia sciurea, Trin. ; Stipa 
Dichelachne, Steud.) ; B.Fl., vii., 574. Vide also Muell. 
Fragm., viii., 105. 

" Short-hair Plume Grass." 

One of the best winter grasses ; a quick grower, and an 
abundant seeder. It is of slender, succulent habit, and would 
become valuable as a fodder plant, if cultivated. It is a small, 
tufted, glabrous species. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

53- Diplachne fusca, Beauv., (Syn. Festiica fusca, Linn.; Lepto- 

chloa fusca, Kunth ; Triodia ainhigua, R.Br. ; Uralepis 
fusca, Steud. ; U. Drummondii, Steud.) ; B.Fl., vii., 619. 

This species is found in low, wet ground ; it yields a succulent 
herbage relished by stock. It is a highly nutritious perennial 
grass, and seeds in October and November. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

54- Diplachne loliiformis, F.v.M., (Syn. Festuca, or Leptochloa 
loliiformis, F.v.M.), B.Fl., vii., 618. 

A good pasture grass, of slender habit. It is low-growing, 
plentiful on light, loamy, or sandy soils, and a good sheep grass. 
Perennial ; seeds in October. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

55- Distichlis maritima, Rafinesgue, (Syn. D. thalassica, E. 
Desv. ; Brizopyruvi spicaium, Hook, et Arn. ; Uniola dis- 
iichophjlla, Labill. ; Poa distichophllya, R.Br. ; P. paradoxa. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 85 

Roem. et Schult. ; P. Michaicxi, Kunth ; P. thalassica, 
Kunth. ; Festiica disiichophylla, Hook, f.) ; B.Fl., vii., 637. 

This dwarf creeping grass is of great value for binding soil, 
forming rough lawns, useful for edging garden plots in arid places, 
and covering coast sand. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

56. Echinopogon OVatuS, Beauv., (Syn. E, Sieberi, Steud. ; 

Agrosiis ovata, Forst. ; Cinna ovaia, Kunth ; Hystericina 

alopeciirioides, Steud.) ; B.FL, vii., 599. 
" Rough-bearded Grass." 

An erect, glabrous grass, found plentifully throughout the 
winter months along the banks of rivers and creeks. Mr. Buchanan 
(Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand) speaks of it as a harsh, 
scabrid grass. He states that it is eaten by sheep and cattle, but 
is of little value on account of its harsh, non-succulent foliage and 
straggling habit. 

All the colonies. 

57- Ectrosia leporina, R.Br., B.FL, vii., 633. 

Perennial ; seeds in October and November. A good pasture 
grass. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

58. Ectrosia leporina, var. micrantha, R.Br., B.FL, vii., 634. 

Perennial ; seeds in October and November. A somewhat 
uncommon grass, growing on sandy soil, and not of much value 
on account of its rarity. 

North Queensland. 

59- EleUSine Segyptiaca, Pers., (Syn. E. cnuiata. Lam. ; E. 
radulans, R.Br.; Cynosurus cBgyptitis,U\nn.; Dactylocteniu7n 
agyptiacicm, Willd.), B.FL, vii., 615. 

" Egyptian Finger Grass." 



86 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

This is a fine dwarf succulent open pasture grass, highly- 
spoken of by sheep owners. It is a very nutritious annual, of 
prostrate habit, growing plentifully on rich soils; seeds in October. 

" It is deserving of extensive cultivation." (Bailey). 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

60. Eleusine indica, Gcerln., (Syn. E. marginata, Lindl. ; 

Cynostirtis indiciis, Linn. ; Paniciim covipressuvi, Forst.); 
B.Fl.. vii., 615. 

In the southern districts this is a strong succulent pasture 
grass in summer; but further north it affords good pasture 
throughout the season, and may be recognised by its deep green 
colour, strong stalks, and star-like panicle, the spikelets of which 
are flat and broad. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

61. Eliomims citreilS, Mimro, (Syn. Andropogon citreus, R.Br.); 
B.FL, vii., 510. 

A leafy grass, with slender stems, bearing spikes of a strong 
citron scent. 

Northern Queensland. 

62. Eragrostis Brownii, Nees, (Syn. Poa Brownii, Kunth. ; P. 
polyniorpha, R.Br. ; Megastachva poljmorpha, Beauv.); B.FL, 
vii., 646. 

There are several varieties of this fine pasture grass, common 
on both rich and poor soils, producing an abundance of foliage ; 
it bears hard feeding, and is one of the best grasses to stand both 
summer and winter. In fact it keeps beautifully green in the 
driest Australian summer, even on poor soil. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

63. Eragrostis Brownii, Nees, var. intermpta, (Syn. E. inter- 

rupla, Steud. ; Poa interrupta, R.Br.) ; B.FL, vii., 647. 

A stronger grower than the normal species, but its qualities 
are much the same. 

Queensland and New South Wales. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 87 

64. Eragrostis chsetophylla, Steud,, (Syn. E. setifoUa, Nees ; 

Poa diandra, F.v.M.) ; B.Fl., vii, 648. Noted in Muell. 
Cens., p. 135, as E. setifolia. 

A wiry, but excellent fodder grass, perennial, and growing 
on stiff loamy soil. It seeds in November and December. 
All the colonies except Tasmania and Victoria. 

65. Eragrostis eriopoda, Benth., B.FL, vii., 648. 

Though of rather a wiry nature, this grass is eagerly eaten by 
stock, and has remarkable drought-resisting powers. It grows on 
clayey soil, and stock are very fond of it ; it is perennial, and 
seeds in November and December, as do all the species of this 
grass. 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Northern Australia. 

66. Eragrostis falcata, Gaud., (Syi^- Poa falcata. Gaud.); B.Fl., 
vii., 649. 

Peculiar to the back country ; only grows on sandy soil. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 

67. Eragrostis laniflora, Benih., B.Fl., vii., 648. 

Found on clayey soil only ; one of the grasses of the remote 
interior. 

South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

68. Eragrostis lacunaria, F.v.M., B.FL, vii., 649. 

A fine, but rather wiry grass, on sandy soil ; it is perennial, 
and is an excellent pasture grass, according to some, while others 
state that it is of little value for feed. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

69. Eragrostis leptOStachya, Si end., (Syn. Poa hptostachya, 
R.Br., B.FL, vii., 645. 

A slender growing grass, yielding a fair amount of fodder. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 



88 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

70. EragrOStis pilosa, Beanv., or JPalisoi (?) (Syn. E. parviflora, 
Trin. ; E pellucida, Steud. ; IPoa pilosa, Linn. ; P. verticil- 
lafa, Cav. ; P. parviflora, R.Br. ; P. pellucida, R.Br.) ; B.Fl., 
vii., 645. 

A very abundant, erect, tufted annual grass, affording good 
feed to stock throughout the season. It is a dehcate species, and 
seeds in abundance. 

South and Western AustraUa, Victoria, New South Wales, 
and Queensland. 

71 EragrOStis tensUa, Beaur,, (Syn. Poa tenella, Linn.), B.Fl., 
vii., 643. 

An erect, tufted annual, and a fine productive grass for a 
sheep run. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

72. Eriachne obtusa, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 632. 

A variable grass, making a quantity of feed. It is peculiar to 
the back country, where it grows on sandy soil, and, although of 
a somewhat wiry nature, is much relished by stock. It is not 
plentiful ; it is perennial, and seeds in October and November. 

New South Wales, Queensland, South and Western Australia. 

73- Eriachne SquarrOSa, R-Br., (Syn. Aira squarrosa, Spreng.); 
B.Fl., vii., 628. 

An erect-growing species, and a good pasture grass. 
Northern Queensland. 

74. Eriochloa anmilata, Kunth, (Syn. IBaspalum anfiulaium, 
Flugge ; Helopus annulatus, Nees) ; B.Fl., vii., 463. 

A quick-growing, succulent grass, highly relished by stock. 
It is perennial, and endures moderate cold, and in South Queens- 
land affords fodder all the year round. It resists drought. 
(Bailey.) It stands well during the winter months, and makes 
early spring growth. It is annual, and seeds in December. 

Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 89 

75. Eriochloa punctata, Hamilt., (Syn. Milium punciatum, 

Linn. ; Paspalum punctatum, Fliigge) ; B.Fl., vii., 462. 

This is an excellent grass, both for summer and winter ; it is 
rapid-growing, sweet, and succulent, and is greatly relished by 
stock. It is perennial, and grows on stiff, clayey soil. Seeds in 
November and December. 

Queensland, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

76. FestUCa Ovina, Linn., (Syn. F. duriuscula, Linn.) ; B.FL, vii., 

664. F. duriuscula in Muell. Cens., p. 134. 
" Sheep's Fescue." 

A perennial grass^ thriving on widely different soils, even on 
moory and sandy ground. It yields a good crop, resists drought, 
and is also well adapted for lawns and the swards of parks. It is 
not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

77' Glyceria dives, F.v.M., (Syn. Festuca dives, F.v.M. ; Poa dives, 
F.V.M.); B.Fl., vii., 659. Poa dives in Muell. Cens., p. 134. 

One of the most magnificent of all sylvan grasses, not rarely 
twelve feet, and exceptionally seventeen feet high ; root perennial, 
or, perhaps, of two or three years' duration. This grass deserves 
to be cultivated in any forest tracts, as it prospers in shade ; along 
rivulets in deep soil it assumes its grandest forms. It requires a 
cool climate. The large panicle affords nutritious forage. 

Victoria, from West Gippsland to Dandenong, and the 
sources of the Yarra and Goulburn. 

78. Glyceria fluitans, R.Br., (Syn. Festuca fluitans, Linn.) ; 
B.Fl., vii., 657. Poa fluitans, Scopoli, in Muell. Cens., 

p. 134. 

" Manna Grass." 

Perennial; excellent for stagnant water and slow-flowing 
streams. The foliage is tender. The seeds are sweet and palat- 
able, and are in many countries used for porridge. 

All the colonies except Queensland. 



go AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

79- CJlyceria Fordeana, F.v.M., (Syn. Poa Fordeana, F.V.M.); 
B.FI., vii., 637, Poa Fordeana in Muell; Cens., p. 134. 

Perennial ; seeds in September and October. An excellent 
fodder grass, rich and succulent, growing plentifully in moist 
situations. 

South Australia, Tasmania, and New South Wales. 

80. Glyceria ramigera, F.v.M., (Syn. Poa ramigera, F.V.M.); 
B.FI., vii., 659. Poa ramigera in Muell. Cens., p. 134. 

" Cane Grass," " Bamboo Grass." 

A tall cane-like species, growing plentifully in large detached 
tussocks in " clay pans," or as they are locally termed, "cane 
swamps." It is largely used for thatching purposes, for which it 
is admirably adapted. Roofs twenty years old made of this grass 
are standing and are waterproof still. Stock are exceedingly fond 
of the seed-heads and young succulent shoots. It seeds as a rule 
in November and December, and is perennial. 

South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

81. Hemarthria COmpreSSa, R.Br., (Syn. H. midnata, R.Br.); 

B.FI., vii., 510. 

A strong, hard grass, with creeping roots, found on wet sour 
soils, and useful for covering land of that description. 
Throughout the colonies. 

82. HeteropOgOn COntortUS, Rcem. et Schult., (Syn. H. hirlus, Pers. ; 
Andropogon contortus, Linn. ; A. slriatus, R.Br.) ; B.FI., 
vii., 517. Andropogon contortus in Muell. Cens., p. 132, 

" Spear Grass." 

A splendid grass for a cattle run, as it produces a great 
amount of feed, but is dreaded by the sheep-owner on account of 
its-spear-like seeds. 

Western Australia ; New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

83. HeteropOgOn insignis, Thw., (Syn. Andropogon triticeus, 
R.Br.); B.FI., vii., 517. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 132, as 
Afidropogon triticeus. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 91 

A robust perennial, and one of the tallest of our tropical 
grasses. The flower-stalks attain a height of eight to twelve feet, 
and are hard and cane-like, but a quantity of leafy feed is produced 
at their base. Its strong and wiry roots penetrate from two to 
three feet into the ground. Cattle and horses are extremely fond 
of it. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

84. Hierochloa alpina, Rcem. et Schult., (Syn. H. borealisi 

Schroeder ; H. odoratus, Linn. ; H. Fraseri, Hook.) ; B.Fl., 

vii., 559, where it is given var. Fraseri of H. redolens. 

H. redolens in Muell. Cens., p. 132. 
" Holy Grass." 

This is a very sweet scented grass. Much historical interest 
is attached to this species in some parts of Europe, from a long- 
prevailing custom of strewing it before churches on certain festivals. 
In Sweden it is hung over beds, in the belief that it induces sleep ; 
and in Iceland it is used to scent the clothes and apartments of 
the inhabitants. According to Cuthbert W. Johnson, its nutritive 
qualities are greater than in most of the early spring grasses ; but 
from the paucity of its foliage it cannot be recommended in 
agriculture. From this opinion it may be concluded that this 
species will be valuable in the sub-alpine pastures of New Zealand 
as an early and nutritious food, and, from its small growth, be well 
adapted for sheep. (Buchanan, Indigenous Grasses of New 
Zealand). 

In Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

85. Hierochloa redolens, R.Br., (Syn. H. antarctua, R.Br. ; 

Holcus redolefts, Forst. ; Melica inagellanica, Desv. ; Dis- 
arrhenum aniarcticum, Labill.; Torresia redolens, Brown) ; 
B.Fl., vii., 558. [^Hierocloe in Muell. Cens.) 
"Scented Grass." 

A tall, perennial, nutritious grass, with the odour of Coumarin. 
It is worthy of dissemination on moist pasture land. These 
grasses are particularly valuable for their fragrance as constituents 



92 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

of hay. Hierochloas are particularly suitable for cold, wet, moory 
grounds. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

86. Imperata arundinacea, Cyr., B.Fl., vii., 536. 

" Blady Grass." 

This is one of the grasses most frequently met with on rich 
alluvial land, is one of the most common grasses of Northern 
Australia, and produces, after being burnt, a large quantity of 
succulent feed, relished by stock. When kept eaten down in the 
spring, and not allowed to become rank, it affords good feed for a 
considerable length of time. 

All over the colonies. 

87. Isachne australis, R.Br., (Syn. Fanicum atrovirens, Trin. ; 
P. anlipodum, Spreng.) ; B.Fl., vii., 625. Recorded as 
jPani'cum atrovirens in Muell. Cens., p. 130. 

A perennial grass, not large, but of tender, nutritive blade, 
particularly fitted for moist valleys and woodlands. It is greedily 
eaten by all kinds of stock ; it also grows in India, China, etc. 
Mr. Buchanan says that little is known of this grass except in 
the Auckland district, New Zealand, where, according to Kirk, it 
is abundant in swampy places. He calls it a valuable grass. 

Eastern Australia. 

88. Ischaemum aUStrale, R.Br., (Syn. Andropogon cryptatherus, 
Steud.), B.Fl., vii., 519. 

This species is found near rivers and swamps ; it has a 
creeping underground root, from which it springs up quickly, 
yielding a good deal of fodder. 

New South Wales and Northern Australia. 

89. Ischsemum laxum, R.Br., (Syn. Andropogoti nervosus, 
Rottb. ; Hologamium nervosum.^ Nees) ; B.Fl., vii., 522. 

"Rat-tail Grass." 



FORAGE PLANTS. 93 

An upright, slender growing grass ; found throughout the 
colony, rather coarse, but yielding a fair amount of feed, which is 
readily eaten by cattle. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

90. Ischsemum pectinatum, Trin., (Syn. Andropogon faUatus, 

Steud.); B.Fl., vii., 521. 

This is a fine growing grass, forming dense tufts of herbage. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

91. LappagO racemosa, WHld., (Syn. Tragus racemosuSy'DesL); 

B.Fl., vii., 506. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 131, as Tragus 
racemosus. 

An annual, found on ridges, and a good grass for winter and 
early spring. It is very similar in habit to Panicum helopus ; 
stock are very fond of it ; it seeds in October and November. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Tasmania. 

92. Leersia hexandra, Sivartz., (Syn. Z. australis, R.Br. ; Z. 

mexicana, Kunth ; Asprella australis, Roem. et Schult.) ; 

B.Fl., vii., 549. 

" Rice Grass." 

A rough-leaved species, common along the watercourses of 
Queensland. Stock are remarkably fond of it. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

93. LeptOChloa Chinensis, Nees, (Syn. Z. temrrima, Roem. et 
Schult; Poa decipiens, R.Br. ; P. chinensis, Keen; Eragrostis 
decipiensy Steud. ; Eleusine chinefisis, F.v.M.) ; B.FL, vii., 
617. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 134, as Eleusine chinensis. 

An excellent pasture grass, much relished by stock ; it has 
tender panicles, and grows from two to three feet high. It is not 
endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



94 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

94- LeptOChloa SUbdigitata, Trin,, (Syn. Poa digitata, R.Br. ; 
Eleusine digitata, Spreng. ; E. polystachya, F.v.M.) ; B.Fl., 
vii., 617. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 134, as Eleusine 
digitata. 

Valuable for fixing wet river banks and slopes ; it forms large 
patches ; cattle and horses relish it. 

All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

95. Microloena Stipoides, R.Br., (Syn. M. Gunnii, Hook. f. ; 
Ehrharta stipoides, Labill.); B.Fl., vii., 552. Noted in 

Muell. Cens., p. 132, as Ehrarta stipoides. 

" Weeping Grass," " Meadow Rice Grass." 
A perennial grass, which keeps beautifully green all through 
the year. For this reason its growth for pasturage should be 
encouraged, particularly as it will live on poor soil, provided it be 
damp. It is considered nearly as valuable as Kangaroo grass, 
and in the cool season more so. Mr. Bacchus finds it to bear 
overstocking better than any other native grass, and to maintain a 
close turf. It is valued in New Zealand. High testimony of the 
value of this grass is also given by Ranken, after experiments 
extending over many years. It, however, does not always freely 
seed. An analysis made in spring gave the following results : — 
Albumen ... ... ... i'66 

Gluten ... ... .. 9" 1 3 

Starch ... ... ... i'64 

Gum ... ... ... ... 3*25 

Sugar ... ... ... 5 "05 

(F.v.M. and L. Rummel). 
Throughout the colonies. 

96- Neurachne Mitchelliana, Nees, B.Fl., vii., 508. 

" Mulga Grass." 
With its companion, N. Munroi (F.v.M), eligible as a 
perennial fodder grass for naturalisation in sandy or dry sterile 
land. It endures drought, but requires heavy rain to start anew. 
<R. S. Moore.) 



FORAGE PLANTS. 95 

According to Mr. Bailey it produces good pasture feed, and 
is relished by stock of all kinds. It is a short, thickly-growing 
species, peculiar to back country ; seeds in September and 
October. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queens- 
land. 

97- Neurachne Munroi, F.v.M., {Syn. Panicum Alunroi, F.V.M.); 
B.Fl., vii., 508. 

A very rare grass, peculiar to the back country, and only 
found amongst Mulga scrubs (^Acacia aneura and allied species). 
Interior of South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

98. OplismemiS COmpOSitUS, Beauv., (Syn. Panicum composiium, 
Linn.; Orthopogon compositiis, R.Br.); B.Fl., vii., 491. 

This is a useful grass for covering ground under the shade of 
trees. It is not of much use for fodder, as stock seldom touch it. 
Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

99. Oplismenus setarins, var., Roem. et Schult., (Syn. O. (zmulus, 

Kunth ; Panicum imbecille, Trin.; Orthopogon oemuhis, 

R.Br. ; Hekaterosachne elaiior, Steud.) ; B.Fl., vii., 492. 

Under Setaria glauca in Muell. Cens., p. 130. 
" Slender Panic Grass." 

A sparse-foliaged grass, not adapted for pasture, its usual 
habitation being under the shelter of bush. It may be termed an 
unsocial grass, as it is most commonly found growing in isolated 
patches, and it probably could not exist under a struggle for 
place with grasses of more robust habit on open land. Cattle eat 
this grass readily, but their relish for it must be greatly lessened 
by the large amount of foreign matter, such as dead leaves, with 
which it is usually associated ; it may, therefore, be classed with 
some other bush grasses as an auxiliary to supplement neigh- 
bouring pastures during .dry seasons. (Buchanan, Indigenous 
Grasses of New Zealand?) 

South Australia and Victoria, to Northern Australia. 



96 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

100. Panicum bicolor, R.Br., B.FI., vii., 487. 

A good, useful perennial pasture grass, growing thickly on 
sandhills. It seeds in November and December. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

loi. Panicum brevifolium, Fliig., (Syn. P. tenuiflorum, R.Br.); 
B.FI., vii., 461. 

This grass has a running stem, and forms a good bottom as 
a pasture grass. (Bailey.) It is not endemic in Australia. 
New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

102. Panicum coenicolum, i^.z^.A/., B.FI., vii., 467. 

Valuable as a lasting grass for moist meadows. 
All the colonies except Queensland and Tasmania. 

103. PaniCTim COloimm, Linn,, (Syn. Oplismenus colonicm, Kunth); 
B.FI., vii., 478. 

" Shama Millet" of India ; called also, in parts of India, " Wild Rice " 
or " Jungle Rice." 

Has erect stems from two to eight feet high, and very 
succulent. The panicles are used by the aboriginals as an article 
of food. The seeds are pounded between stones, mixed with 
water, and formed into a kind of bread. It is not endemic in 
Australia. 

Composition of Shama (husked) — 





In 


100 parts. 






In I lb. 


Water 




12.0 




I 


oz. 403 grs 


Albuminoids 


9.6 




I 


„ 234 „ 


Starch 




74.3 




II 


„ 388 „ 


Oil 




.6 






42 „ 


Fibre 




1-5 






105 „ 


Ash 


... 


2.0 






140 „ 


Food-grains 


of India 


(Church). 






North Queensland. 











104. PaniCTlin Cms-galli, Linn., (Syn. OpUsmenus crus-galli,. 

Kunth ; Echinochloa crus-galli, Beauv.); B.FI., vii., 479. 

" The Barnyard, or Cockspur Grass." 



FORAGE PLANTS. 97 

A strong-growing grass, which affords a large amount of feed 
to cattle in seasons of scarcity, and is much improved by cultiva- 
tion. It is from one to eight feet high, and is found in swamps. 
It is a rich but annual grass of ready, spontaneous dispersion, 
particularly along sandy river banks, also around stagnant water. 
It will succeed also on somewhat saline soil, particularly on 
brackish watercourses, also in moor land. It is regarded by 
R. Brown as indigenous in Eastern and Northern Australia, and 
Bentham, while retaining the species, observes that this common 
weed of most tropical and temperate countries has probably been 
introduced in some of the Australian localities. In an English 
work it has been described as "a strong, coarse grass, found in 
moist, arable land in Great Britain, but of no agricultural use." 
(Parnell). But according to Bailey, speaking of its adaptability 
for Queensland, " this fine, succulent grass is well adapted for 
sowing on damp land, for cutting like sorghum for fodder. If cut 
early it will make a second growth. Horses are particularly fond 
of it." 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

105. Panicum deCOmpOSitum, R.Br., (Syn. P.proUferum, F.V.M.; 
P. amabile, Balansa ; P. IcBvinode, Lindl.) ; B.FI., vii., 489. 
" Australian Millet," "Umbrella Grass," "Tindil" of the aboriginals of 
the Cloncurry River, North Queensland. 

One of the most valuable of the Darling Downs (Queensland) 
grasses. Under cultivation it has yielded in one season over three 
tons of hay per acre. It is a semi-aquatic species, tall, coarse, 
and succulent, producing abundance of feed, and greatly relished 
by stock. It seeds in December and January. It is short-lived, 
but is one of the most spacious of Australian nutritious species. 
The aborigines convert the small millet-like grains into cakes. 

Alluding to this grass, Sir Thomas Mitchell {Three Expedi- 
tions) pp. 237 and 290, says : — "In the neighbourhood of our 
camp the grass had been pulled to a very great extent, and piled 
in hay-ricks, so that the aspect of the desert was softened into the 
agreeable semblance of a hay-field. The grass had evidently been 
thus laid up by the natives, but for what purpose we could not 

H 



98 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

imagine. At first I thought the heaps were only the remains of 
encampments, as the aborigines sometimes sleep on a little dry 
grass, but when we found the ricks, or hay-cocks, extending for 
miles, we were quite at a loss to understand why they had been 
made. All the grass was of one kind, and not a spike of it was 
left in the soil, over the whole of the ground. . . . We were 
still at a loss to know for what purpose the heaps of one particular 
kind of grass had been pulled, and so laid up hereabouts. 
Whether it was accumulated by the natives to allure birds, or by 
rats, as their holes were seen beneath, we were puzzled to deter- 
mine. The grass was beautifully green beneath the heaps, and 
full of seeds, and our cattle were very fond of this hay." (See 
" Foods.") 

This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

1 06. Panicum distachjnim, Linn., (Syn. P. suhquadriparum, 
Trin.) ; B.Fl., vii., 478. 

The stems of this grass creep and root at the joints ; it is an 
immense yielder, and is grown for hay in the northern districts. 

This is one of several indigenous grasses tested at Grace- 
mere, near Rockhampton, and considered best for the purpose of 
hay-making. (Bailey). It is not endemic in Australia. 

Northern Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, and 
South Australia. 

107. Panicum divaricatissimum, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 467. 

" Spider Grass." 

Found more abundantly in the warmer inland regions. A 
good perennial and drought-resisting species. It is an excellent 
fodder grass, and grows profusely on light loamy and sandy soil. 
It seeds in November and December. 

All Australia, except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

108. Panicum effusnm, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 488. 

An erect'growing grass, making a good pasture ; it is a free 
seeder, and a favorite amongst stockowners. It is a succulent 



FORAGE PLANTS. 99 

summer grass growing on stiff clayey soil ; it is much relished by 
stock, but is of short duration, soon withering off It seeds from 
October to December. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

109. Panicum flavidum, Retz., (Syn. P. brizoides, Jacq.) ; B.Fl., 
vii., 474 

" Vandyke Grass" (of Bailey). 

This is a fine succulent grass ; when growing on alluvial fiats 
the panicles are often prostrate from the weight of seed ; a good 
winter species. Amongst the many species of grasses found in 
Western New South Wales there is none that stock are more fond 
of than this. It is met with both on the plains and in the back 
country, more particularly in the latter, and is onlv found on rich 
sandy or loamy soil, and amongst timber, and as a rule beneath 
the shelter of some spreading tree or large bush. It is perennial, 
and seeds in October and November. It is not endemic in 
Australia. 

The warmer parts of New South Wales, also Queensland and 
Northern Australia. 

no. Panicum foliosum, R.Br., B.Fl , vii., 481. 

A grass with broad, hairy leaves, usually found on ground 
that has been cultivated. It yields a fair amount of feed ; it is one 
of the best grasses for river banks. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

111. Panicum gracile, R.Br., (Syn. p. jubiflorum, Trin. ; P. 
distans, Trin.) ; B.Fl., vii., 475. 

A highly nutritious grass, growing on light rich soil. All 
descriptions of stock are fond of it. It is a summer species, and 
is perennial ; it seeds in November and December. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

112. Panicum helopUS, Trin., (Syn. Urochloa pubescens,BQ2i\xv.', 
U. pa7iicoides, Beauv.) ; B.Fl., vii., 476. 

An e.xceedingly succulent and nutritious annual grass, 
growing plentifully on sand-hills and loose, sandy soil. It is of 



100 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

prostrate habit, seeds in October and November, and all descrip- 
tions of stock are fond of it. 

South Australia ; New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

T13. PanicTim indicum, Linn., B.Fl., vii., 480. 

A grass usually found in wet soils and swamps ; produces a 
fair amount of feed during summer. It is not endemic in Aus- 
tralia. 

North and South Queensland, and New South Wales. 

114- Panicum leucophseum, H.B. et K., (Syn. P. vUlosum, 

R.Br. ; P. Brownii, Roem et Schult.'; P. glarecB, F.v.M. ; P. 
laniflorum, Nees.) ; B.FL, vii., 472. 

A very good pasture grass, producing an abundance of feed 
during winter. It is a tall, perennial summer species, growing in 
detached tussocks on sand-hills. Stock of all kinds are extremely 
fond of it. The seeds ripen freely in November and December, 
and are of a beautifully soft and velvety nature. It is not en- 
demic in Australia. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

115- Panicum macractiniim, Benth., B.Fl., vii., 468. 

" Roly-poly Grass." 

This species produces immense dry and spreading panicles ; 
it is perennial, and seeds in November and December. It is a some- 
what straggling species, growing in detached tufts, on sand-hills 
and sandy soil, and much relished by stock. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

116. Panicum marginatum, P.Br., B.Fl., vii., 485. 

A rigid, coarse grass, found on hard, strong ground ; of little 
value for fodder. 

Southern Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. 

117- Panicum melananthum, F.v.M., B.Fl., vii., 488. 

An annual, with a creeping stem ; yields a fair amount of 
feed during the summer ; this species is easily distinguished by its 



FORAGE PLANTS. lOl 

large panicle of dark-coloured seeds. It seeds in October and 

November, and is rather a rare species, growing on light loamy 

soil. 

Southern Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. 

ii8. Panicum Mitchelli, Benth., B.Fi., vii., 489. 

An erect-growing perennial grass, nearly allied to P. effusum, 
but of stronger growth, a quick grower, yielding a great amount 
of feed, highly relished by stock. It seeds in October and 
November, and is a highly succulent and nutritious grass, growing 
in detached tussocks on rich loamy soil on the plains. The leaves 
of this species are unusually broad; it soon withers in dry weather. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

119. Panicum myurUS, Lamarck., (Syn, P. interruptiun, Willd. ; 
Hymenachne myurus, Beauv.) ; B.FI., vii., 480. 

A perennial aquatic grass, with broad-bladed foliage, fit for 
ditches and swamps. It is regarded as very palatable and 
nutritious to stock by Mr. Bailey. It is a common tropical grass. 

North-eastern Australia. 

120. Panicum parviflornm, R.Br., B.Fi., vii., 470. 

A fine pasture grass, generally met with on ridges. There 
are two varieties — one with fine spreading panicles, and the other 
having only one or two very long, erect spikelets in its panicle. 
Both of them are excellent grasses, and worthy of cultivation. 
The species is erect-growing, very productive during summer, 
stands drought well, and produces plenty of seed. According to 
Mr. Bailey it is amongst the nutritious grasses of Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

121. Panicum prolutum, F.v.M., B.Fl., vii., 490. 

An erect, rigid-growing species, producing a quantity of feed 
during the summer months, and seeds at various times during the 
year; it is perennial. It is a very common grass on black soil or 
ground subject to inundation, and valuable from its drought- 
resisting nature. When other grasses are plentiful it is not much 



102 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

eaten, but when the more delicate kinds are withered, it is readily 
eaten, as it retains its greenness long after the others have become 
dry. In former years, the seeds of this grass were gathered in 
large quantities by the natives as an article of food, and being 
ground between two stones, was converted into a kind of meal. 
All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

12 2. Panicum prostratum, Lamarck., B.FI., vii., 476. 

Perhaps also indigenous to tropical America. It is perennial, 
and good for pastures. 

Northern Australia. 

123. Panicum pygmseum, R.Br., B.FI., vii., 484. 

A small species, creeping and rooting at the nodes ; will grow 
well under a dense shade. It forms a soft, thick, carpet-like 
verdure. (Bailey.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

124. PaniCTim repens, ^^«'^-j (Sy"- P- arenarhmi, Brot. ; P. air- 
otdes, R.Br.) ; B.FI., vii., 484. 

The stems spring from a creeping and rooting base ; it is too 
small a grass to be of value for feed, but will grow well under a 
dense shade, yet some style it a good fodder grass. It is per- 
ennial, and well suited for naturalization on moist soil, river banks 
or swamps. It is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

125. Panicum Sanguinale, Linn., (Syn. Digitaria sanguinalis. 
Scop. ; Syntherisma vulgare, Schrad.) ; B.FI., vii., 469. 
"Hairy" or " Cock's-foot Finger-grass." " Summer Grass." 

A creeping, quick-growing grass ; a great pest to farmers. It 
readily disseminates itself on barren ground, and is likely to add 
to the value of desert pastures, although it is annual. Stock 
relish this grass. 

" It is of no agricultural use, but rather a troublesome weed, 
especially in those countries in which it is a native." (Parnell.) 



FORAGE L^LANTS. 103 

It produces much seed, of which birds are very fond, and 
requires to be protected by nets, or otherwise, during the time of 
ripening. The smaller birds pick out the ripe seed, even when 
only a small quantity is formed among the blossoms. The 
common method of collecting and preparing it in GerniLxny is as 
follows : — At sunrise the grass is gathered or beaten into a hair- 
sieve from the dewy grass, spread on a sheet, and dried for a 
fortnight in the sun ; it is then gently beaten with a wooden pestle 
in a wooden trough or mortar, with straw laid between the seeds 
and the pestle, till the chaff comes of¥ ; they are then winnowed. 
After this they are again put into the trough or mortar in rows, 
with dried marigold flowers, apple, and hazel-leaves, and pounded 
till they appear bright ; they are then winnowed again, and being 
made perfectly clean by this last process, are fit for use. The 
marigold leaves are added to give the seed a finer colour. A 
bushel of seed with the chaff yields only about two quarts of clean 
seed. When boiled with milk and wine it forms an extremely 
palatable food, and is in general made use of whole, in the manner 
of sago, to which it is in most instances preferred. {Hortus 
Gramineus Woburnensis). 

All the colonies except South Australia and Tasmania. 

126. Panicum Semialatum, R-Br., (Syn. Urochloa semialatay 
Kunth ; Coridochloa semialata, Nees.) ; B.Fl., vii., 472. 

This species produces a quantity of feed from thick nodes at 
the base ; it will stand drought well, and stock are fond of it. It 
is a tall, superior pasture grass, of easy dispersion in warm, humid 
localities. It is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

127. Panicum trachyrachis, Benth., B.Fl., vii., 490. 

" Oo-kin" of the aborigines of the Mitchell River (North Queensland). 

A valuable open pasture grass, of quick growth, producing a 
great amount of feed during summer; is also a free seeder. The 
seeds are sometimes used as food by the natives. 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 



I04 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

128. Pappophorum nigricans, R.Br., (Syn. P. commune, F.v.M. ; 
p. pallidum., R.Br. ; P. purpurascens, R. Br. ; P. gracile, 
R.Br. ; P. ccerulescens, Gaud. ; P. flavescens, Lindl. ; P. virens, 
Lindl.) ; B.Fl., vii., 601. P. commune in Muell. Cens., p. 133. 

Widely dispersed over the continent of Australia, also in some 
parts of Asia and Africa. Perennial ; regarded as a very fattening 
pasture grass, although the flower spikes are of a wiry nature. It 
is useful for arid localities. It is a somewhat coarse species, 
growing on sandhills plentifully; but it is not much eaten by stock 
when other grass is available. Seeds in October and November. 

All the colonies except Tasmania, 

129. Paspahm brevifolium, Flug., (Syn. Pankum tenuiflorum, 
R.Br.); B.FL, vii., 461. 

Stems erect and slender from a creeping root ; will stand on 
high land ; produces a fair amount of feed and plenty of seed. 
Northern Australia, Queensland, and New South Wales. 

130. Paspalum distichum, Liim., (Syn. P. lUtorale, R.Br.) ; B.Fl., 
vii., 460. 

" Sea-side Millet," " Water Couch," " Silt Grass." 

A creeping, rapid-growing, succulent grass, found growing in 
swampy land, sometimes in water, producing in the summer 
months a quantity of feed ; is a poor grass for making hay, as it 
turns black in drying. Horses and cattle eat it readily. It 
supplies valuable food for stock in localities where species of value 
are never abundantly found. It is beautifully green throughout 
the year, and offers a suflficiently tender blade for feed ; is excep- 
tionally adapted to cover silt or bare slopes on banks of ponds or 
rivers, where it grows grandly; moderate submersion does not 
destroy it, but frost injures it ; it thrives well also on salt marshes. 

Queensland, New South Wales, and Western Australia. 

131. Paspalum SCrobiculatum, Linn., (Syn. P. orbiculare, Forst.; 
P. polystachyum, R.Br. ; P. pubescens, R.Br. ; P. metabolon 
Steud.) ; B.Fl., vii., 460. 

" Ditch Millet." The " Koda Millet " of India. " Hureek." 



FORAGE PLANTS. 105 

An erect, quick-growing, pasture grass, which furnishes a 
good ingredient for hay. The stem sometimes attains a height of 
eight feet. It stands winter well, and will bear close feeding. 
The flower panicle of this species is terribly subject to ergot in the 
autumn months. Its value for pasture by itself is probably insig- 
nificant. A variety of this grass, called " Hureek " in India 
(which is, perhaps, the " Ghohona Grass," a reputed Indian 
poisonous species), is said to render the milk of cows that graze 
upon it narcotic and drastic. (Lindley, quoted in Handbook of 
New Zealand Grasses.) Is this because of its liability to 
ergotism? This grass is much used by the Fijians for strewing 
the floors of their houses and public buildings. A good variety 
of this grass (" Koda Millet ") is used in India as a food-grain. 

Composition of "Koda Millet" (husked). 





In 100 parts. 


In I lb 
oz. grs, 


Water 


... II.7 


I 382 


Albuminoids ... 


... 7-0 


I 52 


Starch 


... 77.2 


12 154 


Oil 


... 2.1 


147 


Fibre ... 


... 0.7 


49 


Ash 


... 1.3 


91 



Food Grains of India. (Church.) 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 

132- Penmsetum COmpresSUm, R.Br., (Syn. Setan'a compressa, 
Kunth; Gymnothrix compressa, Brogn.) ; B.Fl., vii., 495. 

A strong-growing, coarse kind of grass, found on the margins 
of swamps. Of little value for fodder. 

Southern Queensland and New South Wales. 

133- Perotis rara, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 509. 

This is a slender-growing species, attaining the height of one 
foot ; is a quick grower, and succulent, and stock are stated to be 
fond of it; but Mr. P. A. O'Shanesy, speaking of the dry summer 



Io6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

of 1881, States that he has observed that goats will not eat it, even 
in places where there are no other grasses. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

134- Poa Billardieri, Steud., (Syn. p. australis var. Billardieri, 
Hook; Arimdo poce/ormis, Labill.) ; B.Fl., vii., 651. 

A perennial, rigid grass, of some value for pasture. 

All the colonies except New South Wales and Queensland. 

135. Poa CSespitOSa, Forst., (Syn. p. australis, R.Br. ; P. lavis, 
R.Br. ; P. plebeia, R.Br. ; P. affi7iis, R.Br.) ; B.Fl., vii., 651. 

" Weeping Polly-Grass," " Wiry Grass." 
A fine grass, with rather a tufty habit of growth, and of very 
variable form, generally met with upon rich, damp soils, where it 
produces freely. It is a rich and succulent grass, forming a fine 
fodder. It seeds in September and October. 
All the colonies. 

136. Pollinia fulva, Benth., (Syn. Saccharu?n fulvum, R.Br.; 
Erianthiis fulvus, Kunth) ; B.Fl., vii., 526. Noted in Muell. 
Cens., p. 131, as Erianthus fulvus. 

" Sugar Grass." 

The " Sugar Grass" of colonists, so called on account of its 
sweetness ; it is highly productive, and praised by stockowners. 
Cattle eat it close down, and therefore it is in danger of extermina- 
tion, but it is readily raised from seed. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

137- Eottboellia Ophiurioides, Benth., (Syn. Andropogon rott- 

bcellioides, Steud.; Ischcemuni rottb<Blltoides, 'K.Bt.); B.Fl., 

vii., 514. 

A tall, perennial grass, praised by Mr. Walter Hill as a fodder 
plant. It is hardy in regions free from frost. Its culm rises to 
the height of eight feet, and it yields a large quantity of fodder, as 
its culm, seed, and foliage, together with the base of its thick 
stem, are eagerly eaten by cattle and horses. 

Queensland, and Northern Australia. 



FORAGE PLANTS. IO7 

138. Setaria glaUCa, Palisol, ('Syn. Panicum glaucum, Linn. 
Penniseluyn glaucum, R.Br.) ; B.Fl., vii., 492. 

An erect-growing, annual grass of quick growth, producing 
an abundance of succulent herbage, highly relished by stock ; is 
also a free seeder. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

139- Setaria macrOStachya, ^.^. el K., (Syn. Panicum macro- 
slachyum, Nees. ; Pennisetum italicum, R.Br.); B.Fl., vii., 493. 

Found along the banks of creeks, but will also grow on any 
ground. Produces a great amount of feed, of which cattle are 
extremely fond. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

140- Schedonorus HookeriamiS, Benth., (Syn. Festuca Hookeriana, 
F.v.M. ; Poa Hookeriana, F.v.M.) ; B.Fl., vii., 656. Noted 
in Muell. Cans., p. 134, as Festuca Hookeriana. 

A tall, perennial grass, evidently nutritious ; should be tried 
for pasture, and perhaps destined to become a meadow grass of 
colder countries. It does not readily produce seed. It stands 
mowing and depasturing well, and is much liked by cattle, horses, 
and sheep. 

Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. 

141- Schedonorus littoralis, Beauv., (Syn. .?. BUlardieranus, 
Nees ; Festuca littoralis, Labi 11. ; Arundo triodioides, Trin.) ; 
B.FL, vii., 655. Noted in Muell. Cens., p. 134, as Festuca 
littoralis. 

An important grass for binding drift-sand on sea-shores. 
All the colonies. 

142. Sorghum fulvum, Beauv., (Syn. Holcus fulvus, R.Br.; 
Andropogon tropicus, Spreng.) ; B.FL, vii., 541. Andropogon 
tropicus in Muell. Cens., p. 132. 

A strong erect-growing species, succulent when young, and a 
splendid grass for a cattle run. Not endemic in Australia. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 



Io8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

143- Sorghum halepense, JPers., (Syn. Hokus hahpensis, Linn. ; 
Andropogon halepense, Sibth.); B.Fl., vii,, 540. Noted in 
Muell. Cens., p. 132, as Andropogon halepense. 

A strong, erect-growing species, varying from two to ten feet 
high, succulent when young, a splendid grass for a cattle run, 
though not much sought after by sheep. It is a free seeder. 
The settlers on the banks of the Hawkesbury (New South Wales) 
look upon it as a recent importation, and seed of it has been 
distributed under the name of Panicum speciabile ! (WooUs.) 

Coast of Queensland, New South Wales, and Western 
Australia. 

144. Spinifex hirSUtUS, Labill, (Syn. ,S'. serUeus, Raoul. ; ^. 
inermis, Bks. et Sol. ; Ixalum inenne, Forst.) ; B.Fl., vii., 
503- 

" Spring Rolling Grass." 

The present grass has no claim whatever as a food plant for 
stock, and can only be recommended as a sand-binder in fixing 
drift sands when encroaching on valuable land. For this purpose 
it deserves more attention than has hitherto been bestowed upon it. 
It is a plant of comparatively rapid growth, and would give 
effectual aid in checking the inroads of wind-driven sand, 
conditionally that the plants be carefully conserved from fire. 
(Buchanan, Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand^ S. longifolius, 
R.Br., (Syn. ^S". fragilis, R.Br.), is another species valuable for 
the same purpose. 

On the coast of all the colonies. 



145- Sporobolus actinocladus, F.v.M., (Syn. Vil/a or Agrostis 
adinoclada, F.v.M.) ; B.FL, vii., 623. 

Perennial ; seeds in October and November. A much 
esteemed pasture grass of the back country, common on rich 
loamy soil ; stock of all kinds are very fond of it. 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



FORAGE PLANTS. I09 

146. Sporobolus indicus, ^--S/-., (Syn. ^. ehngatus, R.Br. ; ^. 
tenacissimus, Beauv. ; Vilfa eJongata, Beauv. ; V. tenacissima^ 
Trin. ; V. capenst's, Beauv.); B.Fl., vii., 622. 

"Rat-tail Grass." "Chilian Grass." " Jil-crow-a-berry " of the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, Northern Australia. 

A fine, open, pasture grass, found throughout the colonies. 
Its numerous penetrating roots enable it to resist severe drought. 
It yields a fair amount of fodder, much relished by stock, but is 
too coarse for sheep. The seeds form the principal food of many 
small birds. It has been suggested as a paper-making material. 
(See " Fibres.") 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

147- Sporobolus JAndlQfl, Beitth., (Syn. S. pal/idus, Lmd\. ; S. 
subtilis^ F.v.M. ; Vilfa Lindleyi, Steud.); B.FL, vii., 623. 
" Yak-ka Berry " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, North 
Queensland. 

A slender-growing species, making a quantity of growth 
during winter. It is a perennial grass, growing on rich soil, and 
is much relished by all kinds of stock. It seeds from October to 
December. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

148. Sporobolus pulchellus, R.Br., (Syn. Vilfa pulchella, 
Trin.) ; B.Fl., vii., 623. 

Similar to S. actinocladus, but extremely rare. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

149- Sporobolus virginicus, var. (.?) pallida, Kunth, (Syn. 

Agroslis virginica, Linn. ; Vilfa virginica, Beauv. ; B.FL, 
vii., 621. 

A fine grass, found near salt marshes, possessing highly 
fattening qualities. It is also described as a rare grass, only found 
on loose, white sand, around the margins of lakes, and of no great 
value. Perennial ; seeds in November. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 



no AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

150- Stipa spp. 

" Spear Grasses." 
These grasses are excellent feeding before the appearance of 
the inflorescence ; afterwards they are known as " Spear Grasses." 
Throughout the colonies. 

151- Stipa aristighmis, ^.y-'i/-, B.Fi., vii., 570. 

Graziers consider this perennial grass to be very fattening, 
and to yield a large quantity of feed. Its celerity of growth is 
such that when it springs up it will grow at the rate of six inches 
in a fortnight. Horses, cattle and sheep are extremely fond of it. 
It ripens seed in little more than two months in favourable 
seasons. It is a somewhat coarse species, growing plentifully on 
rich soil in the back country. The seeds of this grass are very 
injurious to sheep and wool, often in good seasons causing the 
death of numbers, by first becoming attached to the wool and 
working through the skin, causing intense fever, and often pene- 
trating into the vitals. Perennial ; seeds from September to 
November. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

152. Stipa elegantissima, Labiii, B.FI., vii., 565. 

A climbing species. It is usually found growing beneath the 
shelter of some thick bush, three or four feet high; at the flowering 
season the seed heads force their way through the bush and cover 
the whole with a mass of beautiful silver plumes, forming a 
conspicuous object. It is much relished by stock. It seeds in 
September and October, and is perennial. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

153- Stipa micrantha, Cav. {?) S. verticillata, Nees., (Syn. S. 

ramosissima, Nees ; Streptachne verticillata, Trin. ; 6". ramo- 
sissima, Trin. ; Urachjie ramosissima, Trin.); B.FI., vii., 566. 
Noted in Muell. Gens., p. 132, as Stipa verticillata. 

" Bamboo Grass." 
Though apparently a hard grass, it is highly spoken of as 
horse-feed, and produces a very large quantity of fodder. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 



FORAGE PLANTS. Ill 

154- Stipa pubescens, R.Br., (Syn. ^. rudis, Spreng. ; ^. commu- 
iata, Trin.); B.Fl., vii., 569. 

Another climbing grass, found only in the back or timbered 
country. The seed-heads differ in colour, being a rich brown, 
nor does it grow so tall as the preceding. Stock are very fond of 
it. Perennial ; seeds in October. 

All the colonies. 

155- Stipa scabra, Lhtdi., B.Fl., vii., 570. 

Although to the casual observer this grass may appear 
identical with Deyeiixia Forsteri, it is really quite distinct, and the 
difference can be detected by the leaves or blades being much 
shorter, and in the living plant more thick or fleshy, and as a rule 
lying flat on the ground, from the centre of which the seed-stalks, 
rarely more than two in number, spring ; whilst they seldom, if 
ever, attain the height those of D. Forsteri does. This grass is 
peculiar to the back country, and is only found on dry chalky or 
limy soils, where it grows plentifully. Stock, especially sheep, 
are excessively fond of it, more so than of the other species, 
although they are considered good pasture grasses. Perennial ; 
seeds in October and November. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

156. Stipa setacea, R.Br., B.Fl., vii., 568. 

"Spear Grass." 

A rather coarse but very useful grass on account of its 
drought-resisting qualities, and much relished by stock of all 
kinds. The seeds are injurious to sheep and to wool ; seeds in 
September and October. 

All the colonies. 

157- Stipa teretifolia, Sleud., (Syn. Dkhelachne stipoides. Hook, 
f . ; D. setacea, Nees ; D. rigida, Steud. ; Agrostis rigida, 
A. Rich.) ; B.FL, vii., 567. 

A densely-tufted or tussock grass, its habitat being near the 
sea, on banks or rocks. It is perennial, and seeds in January ; it 
is of little value as food for stock, and from its very rigid, non- 



112 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

succulent habit, is not likely to be improved by cultivation. It is 
only grazed by horses and cattle during its flowering and seeding 
season, and the hard wiry nature of its foliage renders it worthless, 
either in pasture or as fodder. It might, however, be utilised in 
the manufacture of paper, as it possesses a strong fibrous structure. 
(Buchanan, Lidigetious Grasses of New Zealand.) 
Western Australia, Tasmania, and Victoria. 

158. Soysia pungens, Willd., (Syn. RottbalUa unijlora, A. Cunn.); 
B.Fl., vii., 506. 

A grass of considerable value on littoral swamps and dry flats 
near the sea. According to Kirk, it is found sometimes forming 
a compact turf of dry land, and affording a large supply of succu- 
lent herbage for horses, cattle and sheep. Its value, however, in 
such localities, if bulkier grasses would grow there, must be com- 
paratively little, as, from its close-growing habit, it chokes out all 
other species. It is evidently much relished by stock, and is 
worthy of introduction in sand-hill districts near the sea, or saline 
soil inland ; it would clothe the wet fiats with a valuable sward. 
It will be easiest propagated by roots, the closely-matted, wiry 
fibres forming coherent masses of turf, which are easily conveyed 
in fragments to a distance without injury. (Buchanan, Indigenous 
Grasses of New Zealand.) 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 



Forage Plants. 



B. NON-GRASSES, 

INCLUDING 

PLANTS INJURIOUS TO STOCK, 



Owing to the severity of the droughts, and, in some districts, the 
competition of rabbits and other vermin, cattle and sheep in 
Australia have at times to endeavour to preserve existence by 
devouring any vegetable matter whatsoever. The plants eaten 
by stock therefore embrace a very large number of species, but 
I have confined myself in the following pages to references to the 
plants usually eaten by them, either because they are abundant, or 
readily withstand the drought, or because stock are very partial to 
browsing upon them. The poisonous plants, of course, come 
under a different category. If I were to record the names of all 
suspected poisonous plants the list would be a very long one. The 
observations of bushmen as to the poisonous nature of certain 
plants are not always to be relied onf and the enquiry, even to a 
scientific man, is attended with much difficulty. In Plants 
Injurious to Stock (Bailey and Gordon), Government Printer, 
Brisbane, will be found references to a number of suspected 
plants, but in regard to many, the verdict of " not proven " must 
be entered. 

* Nearly the whole of this section formed the subject of a Paper read by the Author 
before the Royal Society of N.S.VV,, 6th June, 1888. 

t The allegation is from time to time made in the newspapers that, sometimes through 
ignorance, and sometimes as a matter of expediency, squatters report that their sheep or 
cattle have fallen victims to poison-weeds, when in reality they have perished from disease. 
Whatever the extent of this mis-representation may be, it is an undoubted fact that, during 
the last few years, many instances of alleged poisoning by weeds having been enquired into 
on the spot by a competent veterinarian, have been proved to have been caused by disease. 

I 



114 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

See also " Remarks on some Indigenous Shrubs of South 
Australia, suitable for culture as Fodder." (S. Dixon.) Proc. R.S. 
of 8. A., vol. viii. 

See also a paper by the Rev. Dr. WooUs, " On the Forage 
Plants Indigenous in New South Wales." (Proc. Linn. Soc, 
N.S.W.,vu., 310.) 

Notes on the plants eaten (whether from inclination or 
necessity) by stock, with good or bad results, the distribution of 
them, together with any other particulars bearing upon their use 
as fodder plants, are much required, as the systematic recording 
of such information is even yet (at least as far as Australia is 
concerned) in its infancy. It is highly desirable to collect seeds 
of each useful (or likely to be useful) fodder plant, for experi- 
mental cultivation, either with the view to its improvement under 
such treatment, or with the view to acclimatise it in some other 
country in which it is not indigenous or already introduced. A 
careful system of exchange of this kind cannot but result in 
benefit to the countries concerned. 



1- Abrus precatorius, Lt7in., N.O., Leguminosse, (Syn. A. 

pauciflorus, Desv. ; A. sqiiamulosus, E. Mey.) ; B.Fl., ii., 

270, 
The pretty little red seeds with black spots are called "Crab's Eyes," 
and " Jequirity Seeds." 

This plant is not sufficiently abundant in Australia to affect 
stock to an appreciable extent, but it is interesting to observe that 
the cattle plague commission of India (1870), in their report, 
mentioned that a large number of the criminal cases of cattle- 
poisoning are effected through the agency of the seeds of this 
plant. More extended enquiry showed that this practice was 
common throughout the greater part of India. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

2. Acacia aneura, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, and other species, 
B.FL, ii., 402. 
" Mulga," forming the chief ingredient of the scrub of that name. 



FORAGE PLANTS. II5 

The leaves are eaten by stock. In the Technological 
Museum are samples of wool from sheep fed eylusively on this 
shrub on a station in Western Queensland. The wool is not of 
the first quality, as might be expected, but it is good. The follow- 
ing are some particulars of the wool : — 

Wool of ewe hoggets (under 10 months' growth), average 
length of staple 2i inches. 

Wool of wether hoggets (12 months' growth), average length 
of staple 4 inches. 

Wool of 4-tooth ewes (18 months' growth), length of staple 
6i inches. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

3. Acacia doratoxylon, A. C«/z«., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 
403. 

" Spear-wood," a " Brigalow," " Currawang," or " Caariwan," 
" Hickory." 

The leaves are eaten by stock. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

4- Acacia pendula, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, (Syn. A. 

leiicophylla, Lindl.); B.FL, ii., 383. 

" Weeping " or true " Myall." Called " Boree " and " Balaar " by the 
aboriginals of the western districts. 

Stock are very fond of the leaves of this tree, especially in 
seasons of drought, and for this reason, and because they eat down 
the seedlings, it has almost become exterminated in parts of the 
colonies. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

5- Acacia salicina, Lindl., N.O., Leguminosse, (Syn A. ligulata, 

A. Cunn.); B.Fl., ii., 367. 

" Native Willow," and " Broughton Willow," near the Broughton 
River (Northern S.A.), Called " Cooba" or " Koobah" by the aboriginals 
of Western New South Wales, and " Motherumba" by those on the Castle- 
reagh River, New South Wales. 

The leaves are eaten by stock. This is another tree which is 
rapidly becoming scarce, owing to the partiality of stock to it. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 



Il6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

6. Albizzia basaltica, Benth., N.O., Leguminosae, (Syn. Acacia 
basaltica, F.v.M.); B.FL, ii., 422. 

" Dead Finish." 
Cattle like the foliage of this tree. 
Queensland. 

7- Albizzia lophantha, Benth., N.O., Leguminosae, (Syn. Acacia 
lophantha, Willd. ; Mimosa distachya. Vent. ; M, elegans, 
Andr.); B.Fl., ii., 421. 

Cattle browse on the leaves of this tree. It is, however, of 
rapid growth. 

Western Australia. 

8. Angophora intermedia, DC, N.O., Myrtace^, (Syn. Melro- 

sideros floribunda. Smith); B.FL, iii., 184. 

" Narrow-leaved Apple Tree." 
Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

9. Angophora SUbvelutina, F.v.M., (Syn. A. velutina, F.v.M.) ; 

B.FL, iii., 184. 

" Broad-leaved Apple Tree." 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

The Rev. Dr. WooUs states that these "apple trees" are 
sometimes cut down to keep cattle alive in dry seasons, as the 
leaves are relished by them. 

10. Apium leptophyllum, F.v.M., N.O., Umbelliferas, (Syn. 

Helosciadium leptophyllum, DC); B.FL, iii., 372. 
" Wild Parsley." 

Occasionally eaten by stock. It is worthy of note that this 
plant (in common with others of the genus) is sometimes acrid 
and injurious when grown in damp soils. It is, doubtless, capable 
of much improvement by careful cultivation. This plant is not 
endemic in Australia. 

Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

II. Atalaya hemiglauca, F.v.M.^ N.O., Sapindaceae, (Syn. 
Thouinia hemiglaiica, F.v.M.); B.FL, i., 463. 
«' Cattle Bush." " White-wood." 



FORAGE PLANTS. II7 

The leaves of this tree are eaten by stock, the tree being 
frequently felled for their use during seasons of drought. 
South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. 

12. Atriplex Billardieri, Hook, f., N.O., Chenopodiaceae, (Syn. 

A. crystallina. Hook. f. ; Obione Billardieri, Moq. ; 

Theleophyton Billardieri^ Moq.); B.Fl., v., 180. A. crys- 

tallinum in Muell. Cens., p. 30. 

A " Salt-bush." Several species of this genus are indigenous in 
England, where they go by the name of "Orache." 

This herb vegetates solely in salty coast sands, which, like 
Cakile, it helps to bind, on the brink of the ocean and exposed to 
its spray. (Mueller.) 

All the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

13- Atriplex Campanulata, Benth., N.O., Chenopodiaces ; B.Fl., 
v., 178. 

" Small Salt-bush." 

Salt-bushes are so appreciated by stock, that in many parts of 
the colonies they are far less plentiful than they used to be. 
Unless stock-masters can see their way clear to keep their sheep, 
&c., in certain paddocks, while the vegetation in others is en- 
deavouring to recuperate, this kind of vegetation will continue to 
diminish, to the detriment of the pastoral industry. Greedy crop- 
ping of salt-bush without any efforts at conservation is assuredly 
" killing the goose with the golden eggs." 

The following analysis of this salt-bush, by Mr. W. A. Dixon, 
will be found Proc. Royal Society, N.S. W., 1880, p. 133 : — 



Oil 

Carbohydrates ... 
Albuminoids ... 
Woody fibre 
Ash-CO, 



2.24 

43-47 
12.25 

18.12 
23.92 



100.00 
Nitrogen ... ... ... ... 1.96 



Woody parts of plant ... ... 8 per cent. 

Edible ... ... ... 92 per cent. 



ri8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 





On ash. 


On plant 


Potash 


... 13.61 


3-25 


Soda ... 


... 26.22 


6.27 


Chloride of sodium .. 


- 35.36 


8.46 


Lime 


... 8.47 


2.03 


Magnesia 


... 582 


1-39 


Ferric oxide ... 


... 1.83 


.44 


Sulphuric oxide 


2.62 


.63 


Phosphoric oxide 


... 3.80 


.91 


Silica (soluble) 


2.27 


•54 



100.00 23.92 
South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

14 Atriplex halimoides, LindUy, N.O.. Chenopodiaceae, (Syn. 

A. Lindleyi, Moq., A. inflata, F.v.M.); B.Fl., v., 178. 
A " Salt-bush." 

Found over the greater part of the saline desert-interior of 
Australia, reaching the south and west coasts. A dwarf-bush, 
with its frequent companion, A. holocarpum, (F.v.M.), among the 
very best for salt-bush pasture. (Mueller.) 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

15- Atriplex nummularia, LindUy, N.O., Chenopodiaceae; B.Fl., 

v., 170. 

" Old-man Salt-bush," or " Cabbage Salt-bush." 

One of the tallest and most fattening and wholesome of 
Australian pastoral salt-bushes ; also highly recommended for 
cultivation, as natural plants. By close occupation of the sheep and 
cattle runs, have largely disappeared, and as this useful bush is 
not found in many parts of Australia, sheep and cattle depastured 
on salt-bush country are said to remain free of fluke, and get 
cured of Distoma-disease, and of other allied ailments. (Mueller.) 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Tasmania. 

The following analysis of this salt-bush is by Mr. W. A. 
Dixon {Proc. Royal Society^ N.S. W., 1880, p. 133) : — 



FORAGE PLANTS. 



119 



Oil 

Carbohydrates 
Albuminoids 
Woody fibre 
Ash CO2 

Nitrogen 



2.18 
42.85 
16.45 

7.24 
31.28 

100.00 
2.63 



Woody parts of plant ... 


10 per 


cent. 


Edible 


90 per 


cent. 




On ash. 


n plant. 


Potash 


.. 15.69 


4.91 


Soda 


.. 29.57 


9.25 


Chloride of sodium ... 


.. 30.28 


9-47 


Lime ... 


.. 8.65 


2.71 


Magnesia 


.. 6.77 


2.12 


Ferric oxide 


.. .64 


.20 


Sulphuric oxide 


•• 3-17 


•99 


Phosphoric oxide 


4-II 


1.28 


Silica (soluble) 


1. 12 


•35 




100.00 


C51.28 



16. Atriplex semibaccata, R- Br., N.O., Chenopodiaceae ; B.Fl., 
v., 175. 

A perennial herb, much liked by sheep. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 

17. Atriplex spongiosa, F.v.M., N.O., Chenopodiaceae, (Syn. A. 
semibaccata, Moq., not R.Br.); B.Fl., v., 179. 

A useful salt-bush for culture. 

Through a great part of Central Australia, extending to the 
west coast. 

18. Atriplex vesicaria, Heward^ N.O., Chenopodiaceae; B.Fl., 
v., 172. 

A " Salt-bush." 



120 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Perhaps the most fattening and most relished of all dwarf 
salt-bushes of Australia, holding out in the utmost extremes of 
drought and scorched even by the hottest winds. Its vast 
abundance over extensive salt-bush plains of the Australian 
interior, to the exclusion of almost every other bush, except 
A. halimoides, indicates the facility with which this species 
disseminates itself. (Mueller.) 

In the interior of South-eastern Australia, also in Central 
Australia and Western Australia. 

19. Avicennia officinalis, Linn., N.O., Verbenacese, (Syn. A. 
iomeniosa, Jacq.); B.Fl., v., 69. 

A " Mangrove " or " White Mangrove." The "Tchoonchee" of some 
Queensland aboriginals, and the " Tagon-tagon " of those of Rockhampton 
(Queensland), and " Egaie " of those of Cleveland Bay. 

The leaves of this tree are eaten by cattle, and are considered 
very nutritious. 

All the colonies (round the coast) except Tasmania. 

20. Barringtonia acutangula, Gcertn., N.O., Myrtacese, (Syn. 

Stravadium rubrum, DC); B.Fl., iii., 288. 

Brandis {Forest Flora of India) states that the bark of this 
tree, mixed with pulse and chaff, is given as cattle fodder in India. 
Northern Australia. 

21. Boerhaavia difPasa, Linn., N.O., Nyctagineae, (Syn. B. 
pubescens, R.Br. ; B. procumbens, Roxb.J ; B.Fl., v., 277. 

Called " Goitcho " by the natives of the Cloncurry River, Northern 
Queensland. 

The Rev. Dr. Woolls points this out as a useful forage plant, 
which, having a long tap root, can withstand a considerable 
amount of drought, whilst it affords pasture early in the season, 
ere the grasses are fully developed. This plant is not endemic in 
Australia. It is a troublesome weed in some warm countries. 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

22. Bulbine bulbosa, Haw., N.O.,Liliaceae, (Syn. B. australis, 

Spreng. ; B. suavis, Lindl. ; B. Fraseri, Kunth ; B. Hookeri, 



FORAGE PLANTS. 121 

Kunth; Anthericum bulbosum, R.Br.; A. semibarbatum, 

Hook.); B.Fl., vii., 34. 

" Native Onion," " Native Leek." 

Mr. W. N. Hutchison, Sheep Inspector, Warrego, Queens- 
land, reports of this plant : " Its effects on cattle, sheep and horses 
are almost the same, continually lying down, rolling, terribly 
scoured, mucous discharge from the nose, of a green and yellowish 
colour. Cattle survive the longest ; sheep take some three days, 
and horses will linger for a week." In Plants Injurious to 
Stock (Bailey and Gordon) two cases of poisoning are also 
instanced. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

23. Bursaria spinosa, Caz^. , N.O.,Pittosporese, {Syn. Itea spmosa, 

Andr.); B.Fl., i., 115. 

" Native Box." 

It is greedily eaten by sheep, but its thorny character preserves 
it from extinction upon sheep-runs. It is very variable in bulk ; 
usually a small scrub, in congenial localities it developes into a 
small tree. 

All the colonies. 

24. Cassia eremophila (nemophilaj,^- C«««, N.O., Leguminos^, 

(Syn. C. canah'culata, R.Br., C. /leteroloba, Lindl.); B.FL, 
ii., 287. 

Mr. S. Dixon states that both the pods and leaves of this 
plant are eaten by stock. 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

25. Castanospermum anstrale, A. Cunn; N.O., Leguminosse ; 
B.Fl., ii., 275. 

" Moreton Bay Chestnut." " Bean Tree." Called " Bogum" and 
" Irtalie " by the aborigines. 

Stock owners are destroying this tree owing to the belief that 
cattle are poisoned through eating the seeds. They are, however, 
quite harmless when cooked, and form, in fact, part of the diet 
of the aborigines. 



122 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The Government Analyst of New South Wales has failed to 
find an alkaloid or poisonous principle in the seeds, and suggests 
that they may be injurious on account of their indigestibility. 
(^Report of Dept. of Mines, N.S. W., p. 46.) It is, however, to be 
borne in mind that the Leguminosae are emphatically a poisonous 
Natural Order, although they yield some of the most valuable foods 
of man and beast. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

26. Casuarina Stricta, Ait., N.O., Casuarinese, (Syn. C. quadri- 

valvis, Labill.; C. macrocarpa, A. Cunn.; C. crt'sfa/a, Miq. ; 

C. Gunnii, Hook, f.); B.Fl., vi., 195. C. quadrivalvis in 

Muell. Cens., p. 22. 

'' Coast She-oak." " Swamp Oak." " River Oak." " Wargnal " 
of the aboriginals. 

Mr. S. Dixon states that in Port Lincoln (S.A.) the fallen 
catkins (male inflorescence) form the chief sustenance in winter, 
on much of the overstocked country. 

The foliage is eagerly browsed upon by stock, and in cases of 
drought these trees are pollarded for the cattle. Old bullock- 
drivers say that cattle prefer the foliage of the female plant (J. E. 
Brown). Casuarina foliage has a pleasant acidulous taste, but it 
contains a very large proportion of ligneous matter. 

Mr. S. Dixon (op. cit.) states that this tree is too sour to be 
very useful to ewes rearing lambs, but if sheep had only enough 
of it the " brake " or tenderness of fibre would often be prevented 
in our fine wool districts, and much money saved by the increased 
value a sound staple always commands. 

All the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

27. Casuarina SUberOSa, Otto et Dietr., N.O., Casuarineae, (Syn. 

C. leptocladaW\(\.; C. mcesta F.v. M.); B.Fl., vi., 197. 

" Erect She-oak." " Forest Oak." " Swamp Oak." " River Black- 
oak." " Shingle Oak." "Beef Wood." " Dahl-wak" of the aborigines, 

A very valuable fodder tree, largely used and much valued in 
the interior districts as food for stock during periods of drought. 
The same remarks apply more or less to all species of Casuarina. 

All the Colonies except Southern and Western Australia. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 1 23 

28. Cedrela Toona, Roxb., N.O., Meliaceae, (Syn. C. australis, 
F.V.M.); B.FL, i., 387. C. australis in Muell. Cens., p. 9. 

"Ordinary Cedar." Called " Polai " by the abori£;inals of Northern 
New South Wales; " Mumin," or " Mugurpul," by those about Brisbane; 
and " Woota" by those about Wide Bay, Queensland. 

The leaves are used to feed cattle in India. (Gamble.) It 
should be observed, however, that Baron Mueller differs from 
Bentham in considering the Australian " Cedar " specifically dis- 
tinct from the "Toon" of India. In any case the trees are so 
closely related that any property possessed by the one is shared 
by the other. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

29. Claytonia polyandra, F.v.M., N.O., Portulaceae, (Syn. Talinum 
polyajidrum, Hook.); B.Fl., i., 172. 

" Coonda " of the aboriginals about Shark's Bay, Western Australia. 

Sheep can largely feed on this succulent shrub for a consider- 
able time without drinking water. (Mueller and Forrest, Plajtls 
Indigenous about Shark's Bay, W.A., /SSj.) The same obser- 
vation is doubtless true of the other Claytonias, and also of the 
closely related Portulaca oleracea, the common Purslane. 

Interior of New South Wales, South- Western and Northern 
Australia. 

30. Chionanthus ramiflora, Roxb., N.O., Jasminese, (Syn. C. 
effusiflora, F.v.M. ; Linociera effusiflora, F.v.M. ; L. rami- 
flora, DC; Mayepea ramiflora, F.v.M.); B.FL, iv., 301. 
Mayepea ramiflora, F.v.M., in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 

The fruit of this plant is the food of the jagged-tailed bower- 
bird (Preonodura Neivtoniana). (Bailey.) This observation is 
interesting, and is the more valuable in that the vegetable foods 
of our indigenous fauna have very rarely been botanically deter- 
mined. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland. 

31. Claytonia (Calandrinia) Balonnensis, or balonensis, i^z'«^/., 

N.O., Portulaceae; B.Fl., i., 172. 



124 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" Munyeroo," of natives of South Australia ; " Periculia " of natives of 
Central Australia. (Fragm., p. 71.) 

Mr. S, Dixon states that a large mob of cattle, destined to 
stock a Northern Territory run, travelled some two hundred miles 
without a drink, which would have been altogether impossible in 
the absence of this succulent plant. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

32. Conospermum Stcechadis, Ejtdi., N.O., Proteaces, (Syn. 

sderophylluin, Lindl.); B.Fl., v., 374. 
Western Australia and New South Wales. 

C- triplinervium, R.Br., (Syn. C. lanijforum, Endl. ; C. 
undulaium, Lindl.) ; B.Fl., v., 375. 

Western Australia. 

Baron Mueller suggests that these plants be tried on the 
worst desert country, as all kinds of pasture animals browse with 
avidity on the long, tender, and downy flower-stalks and spikes, 
without touching the foliage, thus not destroying the plant by close 
cropping. 

33- Cucunms trigonus, Roxb., N.O., Cucurbitaceae, (Syn. C. 
pubescens. Hook. ; C. jucundiis, F.v.M. ; C. picrocarpus, 
F.v.M.);B.Fl., iii., 317. 

'' Boomarah " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, North 
Queensland. 

Stock are said to be very fond of this plant in the Western 
districts of Queensland. (Bailey.) Sir Thomas Mitchell speaks 
of this plant covering a great area of ground, in one of his journeys 
in Western New South Wales. 

New South Wales, Queensland, Northern and Western Aus- 
tralia. 

34- LailCTlS brachiatus, Sieb., N.O., Umbelliferae, (Syn. Scandix 
glochidaia, Labill.); B.FL, iii., 376. 

" Native Carrot." 
Stock are very fond of this plant, when young. Sheep thrive 
wonderfully on it where it is plentiful. It is a small annual 



FORAGE PLANTS. 1 25 

herbaceous plant, growing plentifully on sandhills and rich soil ; 
the seeds, locally termed " Carrot Burrs," are very injurious to 
wool, the hooked spines with which the seeds are armed attaching 
themselves to the fleece, rendering portions of it quite stiff and 
rigid. The common carrot belongs, of course, to this genus, and 
the fact that it is descended from an apparently worthless, weedy 
plant, indicates that the present species is capable of much 
improvement by cultivation. This plant is not endemic in 
Australia. 

All the colonies. 

35- Daviesia spp., N.O., Leguminosae. 

" Hop Bush." 

Some of these shrubs are called " Hop Bushes " on account of 
the pleasant bitter principle which pervades them. Horses and 
cattle are fond of browsing on them. 

Chiefly in Western Australia, but also in New South Wales 
and other colonies. 

36. Dodonsea lobulata, F.v.M., N.O., Sapindacese; B.Fl., i., 479. 

" Hop Bush." 

One of the best fodder shrubs in the Lachlan district of New 
South Wales. The seed pods in particular contain a very pleasant 
bitter. There is no reason to suppose that this particular species 
is preferred by stock to any other of the genus, only I have not 
seen it recorded that sheep, cattle, &c., have actually been observed 
to browse upon any other, with the exception of D. viscosa. 

Southern and Western Australia, New South Wales and 
Victoria. 

37- Eremophila longifolia, F.v.M., N.O., Myoponne®, (Syn. 

Stenochilus longi/olius, R.Br,, S. sab'cinus, Benth., S. 

puhiflorus, Benth.) ; B.Fl., v., 23. 

" Emu Bush," " Dogwood ; " " Berrigan" of the natives. 

The leaves are greedily eaten by cattle and sheep. Observa- 
tions in regard to the effect on stock of browsing upon plants 
belonging to the Myoporinea are much needed, as statements 
hitherto made in respect to them are not always reconcilable. 



126 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Mr. S. Dixon states that this tree is one of the first to be 
barked by rabbits. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

38. Eremophila maculata, F.v.M., (Syn. StenochUus maculatus, 
Ker. ; .S". racemosus, Endl. ; S. curvipes, Benth.); N.O., 
Myoporinese, B.Fl., v., 29. 

Called " Native Fuchsia" in parts of Queensland. 

This is considered poisonous by some, and by others a good 
fodder bush. 

It does not appear to be dangerous to stock accustomed to 
eat it, but to others, travelling stock particularly, Mr. Hutchinson 
of Warrego (Q.), considers it to be deadly. The effects of this 
plant are always worst after rain. It appears to be most dangerous 
when in fruit. (Bailey and Gordon.) 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

39- Eremophila Mitchelli, Benth., N.O., Myoporineae. B.Fl., v., 

21. 

"Rosewood," or "Sandalwood." 

The leaves are eaten by stock. The seeds of several species 
are eaten by emus. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

40. EncalpytUSCOrynOCaljrx, ^.J'.i^/.,(Syn. E.cladocalyx,Y.\M.); 

N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 218. 

" Sugar Gum." 

The sweetish foliage of this tree is browsed upon by cattle 
and sheep ; in this respect this eucalypt may be classed with one 
other, E. Gunnii. (J. E. Brown.) 

South Australia. 

41- Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hooker/., (Syn. E. ligiistriiia, Miq. ; E. 
acervula, Hook, f.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 246. 

" White Swamp Gum," or " Cider Gum." It possesses some other 
vernacular names. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 127 

This tree also bears the name of the " Sugar Gum" because 
of the sweetness of the leaves, which consequently are browsed 
upon by stock. It is a common tree in Tasmania, where it is 
called " Cider Gum," as an e.xcellent cider is made from the sap 
taken from it in the springtime. 

Tasmania, the extreme south-eastern portion of South Aus- 
tralia, thence to Gippsland, and into New South Wales as far as 
Berrima. 

42. Eucalyptus paUCifiora, Sieb., (Syn. E. con'acea, A. Cunn., 
the species name in B.Fl. ; E. plebophylla, F.v.M. ; E. sub- 
viultiplinervis, Miq. ; E. piperita^ van paicciflora, DC. ; and 
E. procera, Dehn., perhaps); N.O. Myrtaceje, B.FL, iii., 201. 
" White Gum," " Drooping Gum." It is sometimes called " Moun- 
tain Ash." It possesses other vernacular names. 

The leaves of this tree are very thick, and in dry seasons are 
eaten by cattle. (Woolls.) Opossums have a predilection for 
the young foliage of this tree, so that they often kill trees of this 
species. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

43- Euphorbia alsinaeflora, Baill., N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., 

vi., 49. 

This plant is said to be a dangerous poison-herb to sheep. 
The natural order is emphatically a poisonous one. 
Northern Australia. 

44- Euphorbia Drummondii, Boiss., N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FL, 

vi., 49. 

Called " Caustic Creeper" in Queensland. Called " Milk Plant " and 
" Pox Plant " about Bourke. 

This weed is unquestionably poisonous to sheep, and has 
recently (Oct., 1887) been reported as having been fatal to a flock 
near Bourke, N.S.W. 

It has been observed that when eaten by sheep in the early 
morning, before the heat of the sun has dried it up, it is almost 
certain to be fatal. It is seldom eaten, except by travelling sheep, 
and when grass is scarce. Its effect on sheep is curious. The head 



128 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

swells to an enormous extent, becoming so heavy that the animal 
cannot support it, and therefore drags it along the ground ; the 
ears get much swollen, and suppurate. (Bailey and Gordon.) 

Following is Mr. S. Dixon's remarks on this plant : — " A 
friend of mine fed some old ewes on the undoubtedly poisonous 
E. Drnmmondii, but could not kill them, although he had often 
lost an odd sheep or two from poison, and no other known poison- 
ous plant exists on his property." 

Throughout the colonies. 

45- Euphorbia eremophila, A. Ctmn. (Syn. E. desertkola, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., v., 52. 

This plant should be, perhaps, placed in the " suspected " 
list. In the western interior some people say it is highly poisonous, 
others, as usual, say that they have seen sheep eat it with not the 
least injurious result. 

Mr. Bauerlen gathered a quantity of this plant for the Tech- 
nological Museum, and appended the following note : — " The 
plants I send I gathered in a horse paddock. There was plenty 
of evidence on the plants that horses or cattle browse on it, but 
no injurious result is recorded at the station." 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

46. PicUS glomerata, WUld., (Syn. F. vesca, F.V.M. ; Covellia 
glomerata, IMiq.); N.O., Urticese, B.FL, vi., 178. 

" Clustered Fig." 
The leaves are used in India for cattle and elephant fodder. 

(Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers.) 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

47- Flagellaria indica, Linn., N.O., Liliacese, B.FL, vii., lo. 
A " Lawyer Vine." 

'L€\q}v^zxA\. {Overland Jour tiey to Port Essington), p. 424, 
speaks of his bullocks feeding heartily upon this plant, particularly 
as the country was most wretched and the grass scanty and hard. 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Northern Australia. 



i 



FORAGE PLANTS. 1 29 

48. Flindersia maculosa, F.v.M., (Syn. F. StrzeUckiana, F.v.M. ; 

ElcBodendroii maculosum, Lindl. ; Strzeleckya dissosperjua, 

F.v.M.); N.O., Meliacese, B.Fl., i,,389 . F. Strzehckiana in 

Muell. Cens., p. 9. 

" Spotted Tree," " Leopard Tree." 

During periods of drought sheep become exceedingly fond of 
the leaves of this tree, which they greedily devour, as well as the 
twigs up to the size of a goose-quill, and hence the tree is in 
danger of extermination, as it has not the recuperative power of 
some trees. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

49- Gastrolobmm Spp., especially G-. Obovatum, Benth. ; Ct. tri- 
lobum, Benth ; Q. spinoSUHl, Benth., (Syn. G. Preissii, Meissn.), 

G-. oxylobioides, Benth. ; G. calycinum, Benth. ; G. callis- 

tachyS, Meissn., (Syn. G. lineare, Meissn.); Q-, bilobum, R.Br., 

N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 101-7. 

Commonly known as " Poison Bushes." At the Blackwood River, 
according to Oldfield, G. calycinum is known as the " York Road Poison 
Bush." 

These plants are dangerous to stock and are hence called 
*' Poison Bushes." Large numbers of cattle are lost annually in 
Western Australia through eating them. 

The finest and strongest animals are the first victims; a diffi- 
culty of breathing is perceptible for a few minutes, when they 
stagger, drop down, and all is over with them. After the death of 
the animal the stomach assumes a brown colour, and is tenderer 
than it ought to be ; but it appears to be that the poison enters the 
circulation, and altogether stops the action of the lungs and heart.* 
The raw flesh poisons cats, and the blood, which is darker than 
usual, dogs ; but the roasted or boiled flesh is eaten by the natives 
and some of the settlers without their appearing to suffer any 
inconvenience. (Drummond, in Hooker's Journal of Botany.) 

The blossoms are also frequently eaten by animals, and are, 
I think, the most poisonous part, for the greatest number of sheep 
are lost from the poisonous effect of this plant at the period of its 

* See also an interesting account of some physiological experiments to ascertain the 
nature of the poison, Pharm. Journ., vi., 312 
K 



130 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

inflorescence. When the seeds fall on the ground, the wild pigeons 
greedily feed and fatten on them ; if the crops of these pigeons, 
containing the seeds, be eaten by dogs, they die ; yet the pigeons 
themselves, when dressed, are good food, and at that season are 
eaten in large numbers by the settlers. Horses, so far as is 
known, are not affected by it, at least this is the prevailing opinion, 
although it is disputed by some of the settlers. (T. R. C. Walter, 
in Pharm. jfoiirn., vi., 311.) 

With sheep who have eaten the herb, the best treatment has 
been found to fold them, or shut them up in a close yard, so 
closely packed that they can hardly move, and to keep them thus 
without food for thirty-six hours. (See an interesting account in 
Pharm, Journ., vi., 311.) 

In the Flo7-a Australiensis a statement is quoted that G. 
bilobum is the worst of the " Poison Bushes." Certainly some of 
them render extensive tracts of country unoccupiable. 

Western Australia. 

50. Gastrolobium grandifiornm, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosse, 

B.Fl., ii., 103. 

" Wall-flower or Desert Poison Bush." 

With one exception, this is the only Gastrolobinm out of 
Western Australia, and it is the only Queensland one. 

Baron Mueller identified this plant as having poisoned large 
numbers of cattle and sheep on the Cape River, and at the sources 
of the Burdekin and Flinders Rivers in 1863-4. He recommends 
frequent burning off on the stony ridges it frequents, with the 
view to its suppression or eradication. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

51. Geijera parviflora, Lindl., (Syn. G. pendula, Lindl.); N.O., 
Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 364. 

" Wilga," " Sheep-bush," " Dogwood " and " Willow." 

Mr. S. Dixon states that sheep only are particularly fond of 
this bush, and it seems quite unaffected by droughts. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 131 

52. Geraniuin dissectum, Liym., (Syn. G. piIosum,Yox%i.; G. 

parviJlonim,\^\\\d.; G. philonothum,'DC.; G. potentilloides, 

L. Her. ; G. australe, Nees ; G. carolinianum, Linn.) ; 

N.O., Geraniacese, B.FI., i., 296 ; G. carolinianum in Muell. 

Cens., p. 13. 
" Crowfoot." "Terrat" of the aboriginals of Coranderrk Station, Victoria. 

This plant is known and highly prized as a very superior pasture 
herb. It is very plentiful on the sand-hills during the springtime of 
good seasons. The seeds, which ripen about the end of September, 
are very injurious to sheep and wool, and when this plant is plenti- 
ful, often cause the death of numbers of sheep, and if the shearing 
is late, injure the wool to a very great extent. The seeds, which 
have exceedingly sharp, hard, barbed points, readily attach them- 
selves to wool or the skins of sheep, whilst the spiral shaft, with 
the long crank attached, gives the whole the action of an auger, 
worked by the movements of the animal or the action of the wind. 
If the point of one of these seeds is stuck lightly into the sand on 
a windy day it will soon bury itself up to the base : this is how the 
seeds are planted by nature. Injurious as this plant is, it has its 
redeeming points, for it is one of our most nutritious fodder 
plants, all kinds of stock being exceedingly fond of it, and when 
cut in a green state, and before the seeds mature, it makes excel- 
lent hay. 

Thoughout the colonies. This plant is not endemic in Aus- 
tralia. 

53- Gompholobium uncinatum. A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosa?, 
B.FI., ii., 46. 

This small shrub is noteworthy as being very hurtful to sheep 
that may eat of it {Treasury of Botany). South Australia is 
quoted {pp. cit.) as its habitat, but this is a mistake. 

New South Wales. 

54- Gossypium Sturtii, F.v.M., (Syn. Sturtia gossypioides, 

R.Br.); N.O., Malvaceae, B.FI., i., 222. 

This plant affords stock a good summer feed. (Dixon.) 
South Australia and New South Wales. 



132 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

55- Heterodendron olesefolium, Desf., N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., 

i., 469. 
" Emu Bush." " Jiggo " and " Behreging " are aboriginal names. 

The seeds, which are dry, are eaten by emus. Mr. S. Dixon 
states that both sheep and cattle feed greedily upon it. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

56. Hibiscus heterophyllus, Vent., {^yn. H. grandiflortis,'S>zX\%\>.); 
N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 212. 

" Green Kurrajong." " Dtharang-gange " is an aboriginal name. 

The leaves, branches, and bark of this tree are greedily eaten 
by cattle in winter. They are mucilaginous, in common with 
other plants of this natural order. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

57- Jacksonia scoparia, R.Br., var. macrocarpa, (Syn. j. 

cupuli/era, Meissn.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ij., 60. 
y. cupulifera in Muell. Cens., p. 34. 

A " Dogwood." 
Cattle and horses relish the foliage of this small tree 
amazingly. (Mueller.; 
Western Australia. 

58. Kochia aphylla, R-Br., N.O., Chenopodiaceag, B.FL, v., 188, 

Considered by Baron Mueller to be a variety of K. villosa. 

(Muell. Cens., p. 30.) 

A " Salt-bush." 

All kinds of stock are often largely dependent on it during 
protracted droughts, and when neither grass nor hay are obtain- 
able I have known the whole bush chopped up and mixed with a 
little corn, when it proved an excellent fodder for horses. One 
drawback it has, its stems are very fibrous, and the older 
portions indigestibly so. It is the principal cause of those bezoars, 
or felted knobs in the manipulus of the sheep, which in very pro- 
tracted droughts kill them by hundreds. When, however, the 
rains come, and soft herbage is abundant, these bezoars either 
partially dissolve, or become covered with a shiny black coating, 
so that they resemble a papier-macht^ ball. (S. Dixon.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 



133 



59. Kochia pyramidata, Benth., N.O., Chenopodiaceoe, B.Fl., v., 

186. 

"Blue Bush." 

The following analysis of this salt-bush by Mr. W, A. Dixon, 

is to be found in the Proc. Royal Society, New South Wales, 

1880, p. 133 :— 



Oil 


2.14 


Carbohydrates ... 


32-63 


Albuminoids . ... 


19-94 


Woody fibre 


8.04 


Ash, CO, 


37-25 







100.00 


Nitrogen 


37 1 


3-19 


Woody parts of plant 


)er cent. 


Edible 


63 f 


)er cent. 




On ash. 


On plant 


Potash 


... 12.39 


4.62 


Soda ... 


••• 34-43 


12.83 


Chloride of sodium ,. 


... 26.67 


9-93 


Lime ... 


... 8.75 


3.26 


Magnesia 


... 7.32 


2.72 


Ferric oxide 


1.28 


.48 


Sulphuric oxide 


I. II 


.41 


Phosphoric oxide 


... 3.98 


1.48 


Silica (soluble) 


4-07 


1.52 



100.00 37.25 
South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

60. Kochia Villosa, Lindl., (Syn. K. to/nentosa, F.v.M. ; K.puhes- 

cens, Moq. ; Maireana iomentosa, Moq.); N.O., Chenopodia- 

cese, IJ.Fl., v., 186. 

"Cotton Bush." 

A valuable salt-bush, which withstands a very high tempera- 
ture. But Mr. S. Dixon {op. ciL) states that this species is 
*' hateful " to stock. (See K. aphylla.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 



134 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

6 1. Lotus anstralis, Andr., (Syn. Z. IcBvigatus^ Benth ; L. 
albidus, Lodd.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., i88. 

All the colonies. 

Lotus corniculatus, Linn. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

These plants are often reputed poisonous in Australia, which 
is doubtless a mistake, as they make excellent fodder, and are 
considered valuable ingredients in meadows and pastures. (Bailey.) 

Doubtless this idea has arisen owing to the poisonous nature 
of some leguminous bushes similar in leaf and habit. Baron 
Mueller, however, states (Tra«j. i?. S. Victoria, vol. vi., 1861-4), 
that this plant causes sheep to perish, in some cases, in half an 
hour. The most contrary evidence as to the effect of these plants 
on stock is to hand from Western New South Wales. 

"I am inclined to believe that many leguminous plants reputed 
to be poisonous are not really so, but that an excess of either 
foliage or seeds eaten by a hungry animal throws of? such an abun- 
dance of gases, that "hoove" ensues, which is nothing more than an 
excessive distension of the stomach, pressing against the diaphragm, 
preventing the lungs from working, and the animal is really 
strangled to death. To this cause I attribute all the deaths (and 
they are very numerous) caused by Lotus australis, var. Behrii, 
really an excellent fodder plant, akin to the Lucernes, but when 
seeding, and especially after rain, if hungry sheep are allowed to 
feed greedily upon it they die by hundreds, while sheep in con- 
finement, and fed solely upon it, do not die, but actually thrive, as 
was shown some years since in Adelaide." (S. Dixon, op. cit.) 

(>2. Malvastrum spicatum, A. Gray, (Syn. Malva spicata, Linn. ; 
M. ovata, Cav. ; M. timorensis, DC, M. brachystachya, 

F.V.M.); N.O., Malvacese, B.FL, i., 187. 
Some squatters have considered this a valuable sheep-herb. 
(Bailey.) This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 135 

63. Marsilea quadrifolia, Limi., (Syn. M. Broivnii, A. Braun. ; 

M. angustifolia, R.Br. ; M. hirsuta, R.Br. ; M. Drummondii, 

A. Braun.); N.O., Marsiliacese, B.Fl., vii., 683. 
" Nardoo," " Clover Fern." 

This plant is much relished by stock. It grows plentifully in 
swamps and shallow pools of water. It is, however, better known 
as yielding an unsatisfactory human food in its spore-cases. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

64- Myoporum deserti, A. Cunn., (Syn. M, duke, Benth.; 

M. strictum, A. Cunn. ; M. patens, A. Cunn. ; M. rugulo- 

sum, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myoporinese, B.FL, v., 5. 

" Ellangowan Poison-bush " of Queensland. " Dogwood Poison-bush" 
of New South Wales. 

This appears to be a well-authenticated poison-bush, but 
apparently only when in fruit. It is reported from Ellangowan, 
Darling Downs, Queensland, that out of a flock ot 7,000 sheep 
passing Yandilla (Q.), 500 succumbed to eating this plant. 
(Bailey and Gordon.) 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

65. Myoporum platycarpum, B.Br., Disoon platycarpus,Y.\M.., 

N.O., Myoporineoe, B.FL, v., 7. 

"Dogwood." "Sandalwood." 

The leaves are eaten by stock, but not, as far as I can learn, 
with any evil effects. It is often felled for sheep in time of 
drought. 

All the colonies except Victoria and Queensland. 

66. Nicotiana Snaveolens, Lehm., (Syn. N. undtdata. Vent. ; 
N. AusfralasicBfR.Br.; iV. rotundifolia, LindL; M. fasti- 
gi'ata, Nees) ; N.O., Solanese, B.FL, iv., 469. 

" Native Tobacco." 

This plant grows luxuriantly on the sand-hills in the Riverina 
(New South Wales) in good seasons. It used, in the early days 
of the colonies (and in the interior districts up to quite recent 
years), to be manufactured into tobacco. It is readily eaten by 
stock. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 



136 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

67- Pimelea hsematostachya, F.v.M., N.O., Thymelese, B.Fl., 

vi., 22. 

This very handsome plant might with advantage be introduced 
into garden culture, but it is one of the worst of poisonous herbs, 
and often causes the loss of hundreds of sheep, yet their lives 
could, perhaps, be saved by slitting their ears soon after they had 
eaten the herb. (Bailey.) 

Queensland. 

68. Pittosponim phillyraeoides, DC, (Syn. P. angnstifoUum, 

Lodd. ; P. longi/olium, Putterl. ; P. Roeaiium, Putterl. ; 
P. ligusiri/olium, A. Cunn. ; P. olece/olium, A. Cunn. ; 
P. acacioides, A. Cunn. ; P. saliciniim, Lindl. ; P. lanceola- 
tum, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl., i., 112. 
Called variously "Butter-bush," "Willow Tree," " Native Willow," 
and " Poison-berry Tree." 

In times of scarcity this tree is of great value, as it with- 
stands drought, and sheep and cattle browse upon its foliage. 
Stock are so partial to it in the interior districts that it is in danger 
of extermination in parts, and it is a tree which should be con- 
served. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

69. PlantagO varia, R.Br., (.Syn. P. debiUs, Nees) ; N.O., Plan- 
tagineae, B.FL, v., 139 (where see synonymy). 

" Native Plantain." 

This plant is relished by stock. Speaking of an allied species 
(P. lanceolata), an English writer observes : — " Its mucilaginous 
leaves are relished by sheep, and, to a certain extent, by horses and 
cattle, but it seldom answers as a crop, unless on very poor land 
where little else will grow. It was generally sown with clover, and 
this mixed crop is occasionally seen now on barren soils, but there 
can be little doubt that the plantain is inferior in produce, and 
probably in nutritive qualities, to many plants that would grow 
equally well on the same land. Mingled with grasses in permanent 
pasture it may be beneficial in small quantity, but tends, like all 
broad-leaved plants, to destroy the more delicate herbage around it." 

All the colonies. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 137 

10. Pomaderris racemosa, Hook., N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., i., 421. 

The leaves when chewed or soaked are found to be slightly 
mucilaginous. This explains the fondness that stock have for 
this plant. It always seems fresh and green, and stands stocking 
well. (S. Dixon.) 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

71. Psoralea tenax, Lindl., N.O. Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 193. 

Considered a good fodder by some, (Bailey.) 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

72. Pterigeron adscandens, Benth.,'^,0., Compositae, B.Fl., hi., 

533. 

Specimens of this plant have been frequently sent to Brisbane 
as a poison herb. (Bailey.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia, 

73- Ehagodia spp., N.O., Chenopodiaceae, B.Fl., v., 151 et seq. 
" Salt-bushes." 
These plants are palatable to sheep and cattle on account of 
the salt which they contain, nearly two ounces having been 
obtained from two pounds of leaves. They are all more or less 
useful, but the two following are perhaps best known. 

74. Ehagodia Billardieri, R- Brown, (Syn. R. baaala, Moq. ; 
Chenopodiuni baccatum, Labill, ; R. Catidolleajia, Moq.) ; 
N.O., Chenopodiaceae, B.FL, v., 152. 

This is an important bush for binding moving sand on sea- 
shores. (Mueller.) It is eaten by stock. 
All the colonies. 

75- Ehagodia parabolica, R.Br., (Syn. B. redmata, A. Cunn.) ; 
N.O., Chenopodiaceae, B.FL, v., 153. 

" Salt-bush." 
This plant is relished by stock. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 



f38 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

76. SarCOStemma australe, R.Br., N.O., Asdepiadese, B.Fl., iv., 

328. 

Called "Caustic Plant," or "Caustic Vine" in Queensland, and 
" Gaoloowurrah " by the aboriginals at Port Darwin. 

In the Warrego district, Queensland, a great number of fat 
cattle have perished from eating this plant. The death of sheep 
from eating it is also well authenticated. (Bailey and Gordon.) 

Yet Mr. S. Dixon stated that he had not known stock to touch 
this plant till the summer of 1 880-1, when the cattle on the eastern 
plains of South Australia lived upon it, without water, for some 
months of continued drought. {Froc. R.S., S.A., iv., 135.) 

All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

77. Sclerolsena bicornis, Lmdl., (Syn. Chenolea bicornis, {Vide 
Froc. R.S., 1880); Keniropsts lana/a, [M.oq. ; Anisacantha 
bicornis, F.v.M. ; Bassia bicornis, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Chenopo- 
diacese, B.FL, v., 195. 

Bassia bicornis in Muell. Cens., p. 30. This must not be 
confounded with the Sapotaceous genus Bassia of Linn., which 
are usually large trees. Genera Plantarinn, Benth., and Hook., 
ii., 658. 

N.B. — In Mr. Dixon's paper the name is given as Chenolea 

bicornis. There is no such species. It is probably intended for 

Sclerol(E7ia bicornis. 

" Cotton-bush." 

The following analysis of this Salt-bush by Mr. W. A. Dixon 

is in the Froc. Royal Society, TV. 6". f^F., 1880, p. 133 : — 

Oil ... 2.88 



Carbohydrates 
Albuminoids 
Woody fibre 
Ash, CO2 



56.03 

9.18 

24.91 

7.00 

lOO.OCO 



Nitrogen i.47 

Woody parts of plant 6 per cent. 

Edible 94 per cent. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 



139 





On ash. 


On plant 


Potash 


•• 24.73 


1-731 


Soda 


.. 20.17 


1. 412 


Chloride of sodium 


.. 8.24 


•577 


Lime 


•• 24.33 


1.703 


Magnesia 


.. 8.27 


•579 


Ferric oxide 


.. 1.28 


.090 


Sulphuric oxide 


•• 3-95 


.276 


Phosphoric oxide 


.. 5.44 


.381 


Silica, soluble ... 


•• 3-59 


.251 



100,00 7,000 
All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

78. Sesbania Segyptiaca, Pers., (Syn., ^schynomene Sesbaiif 
Linn.); N.O., Leguminosas, B.Fl., ii., 212. 

" jS^geen-jerry " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North Queens- 
land). 

The leaves and branches are cut for cattle-fodder in India. 

(Gamble.) 

Northern Australia. 

79- Sida rhombifolia, Linn., N.O., Malvaceae, B.FL, i., 196. 

" Common Sida Weed," " Queensland Hemp." Called " Paddy 
Lucerne" in the Clarence and Richmond River districts of New South 
Wales. It is often called " Native Lucerne " in other parts of the colony. 

It may not be generally known that the ripe carpels of this 
weed often cause the death of fowls that feed on them, by the 
sharp terminal arms of the carpels irritating the inside and causing 
inflammation. (F. M. Bailey.) 

The leaves are mucilaginous, as are also the tops, and cattle 
are very fond of them. They are, however, unable to destroy the 
plants, by reason of the very strong fibre of the stems. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

80 Solanum eremophilum, F.v.M., N.O., Solaneae, B.Fl.,iv., 459. 
Between Cobham and Mount Arrowsmith (New South Wales) 
an old drover stated that he has repeatedly seen sheep and cattle 
die after eating this pretty blue and purple plant. 



I40 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

8 1. Solanum simile, F.v.M., (Syn. S. ladniatum, var., R.Br.; 

S.fasciculatum, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Solanaceae, B.Fl., iv., 448. 
Called " Quena" by aboriginals in South Australia. 

Sheep feed on this plant. (Annie F. Richards in Vroc. R.!S., 
S.A., iv. 136.) 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Queensland. 

S2. SterClllia divsrsifolia, G- Don..^ (Syn. Brachychiton popul- 
neum, R.Br. ; Pcecilodermis popuhiea, Schott.); N.O., Stercu- 
liacese, B.Fl., i., 229. Brachychiton popuhieum in Muell. 
Cens., p. 15. 
"Kurrajong," or " Black Kurrajong;" the " Bottle Tree" of Victoria. 
Cattle and sheep are fond of the leaves and branches, and in 
some dry seasons have existed for long periods on scarcely any- 
thing else. In parts of the Riverina (New South Wales) the trees 
are cut down as required for this purpose. {^General Beport, 
Sydney International Exhibition, i8yg.) 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

83. Swainsonia spp., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 216 et seq. 

" Native Indigos." 

These plants are reputed poisonous to stock. The active 
principle does not appear to have been isolated, as it only exists 
during certain stages of growth (prior to flowering) of the plant, 
and it seems to be decomposed on drying the plant. The real 
nature of the poison will, therefore, probably remain undetermined 
until such time as a chemist can work at the plant on the spot, or 
take steps to receive a perfectly fresh supply of it. 

Throughout the colonies. 

84. Swainsonia galegifolia, R.Br., (Syn. 5". Osbomii, Moore; 

Vicia galegi/olia, kndx.; Cohitea galegi/olia, Sims); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 217. 

" Darling Pea," " Indigo Plant." 

This is a dreaded plant from the great amount of loss it has 
inflicted on stock-owners. Its effect on sheep is well known ; they 
separate from the flock, wander about listlessly, and are known to 
the shepherds as " pea eaters," or " indigo eaters." When once a 



FORAGE PLANTS. 141 

sheep takes to eating this plant it seldom or never fattens, and 
may be said to be lost to its owner. The late Mr. Charles Thorn, 
of Queensland, placed a lamb which had become an " indigo 
eater" in a small paddock, where it refused to eat grass. It, how- 
ever, ate the. indigo plant greedily, and followed Mr. Thorn all 
over the paddock for some indigo he held in his hand. 

At Taroom (Q.) horses were hobbled for the night at a place 
where much of this plant was growing. On the following morning 
they were exceptionally difficult to catch, and it was observed how 
strange they appeared. Their eyes were staring out of their heads, 
and they were prancing against trees and stumps. The second 
day two out of nine died, and five others had to be left at the 
camp. When driven they would suddenly stop, turn round and 
round, and keep throwing up their heads as if they had been hit 
under the jaw ; they would then fall, lie down for a while, rise, and 
repeat the agonising performance. On one station, in the course 
of a few weeks, eight head were shot, having injured themselves 
past hope of recovery. Plants Injtirious to Stock (Bailey and 
Gordon). 

The Rev. Dr. Woolls, however, points out (Proc. Linn. Soc, 
N.S.W., vii., 315), that from experiments made near Mudgee, 
New South Wales, it does not appear that this species is dele- 
terious when eaten vvith other herbage. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

85. Swainsonia Greyana, Lindl., (Syn. 6". grand i^ora, R.Bt.) ; 
N.O. Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 216. 
" Poison Bush." 

This plant is reported to cause madness, if not death itself, to 
horses. The poison seems to act on the brain, for animals 
affected by it refuse to cross even a small twig lying in their path, 
probably imagining it to be a great log. Sometimes the poor 
creatures attempt to climb trees, or commit other eccentricities. 
(Woolls.) It is regarded with great horror on the Darling, 
especially in dry seasons, when other herbage fails. Baron 
Mueller believes in the poisonous properties attributed to this 



142 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

particular species. {Tra?is. R.S. Victoria, vol, vi., 1861-4.) It 
Avould appear to be very similar in its effects to the preceding 
species. 

" I may add that this plant is popularly supposed to produce 
a sort of insanity, ending in some cases in death, in stock that 
feed upon it, I am of opinion that this is incorrect ; 1 have never 
seen any stock actually feeding upon it, but I have seen horses 
•eat freely, without any evil effect, of another species of the same 
^enus (?), which grows plentifully on the black soil flats which are 
at times inundated by the waters of the Darling. The Hon. 
William Macleay, who has had large experience in a district where 
this plant grows, informed me a few days ago that he also was of 
opinion that it is not poisonous to stock." (H. R. Whittall, in 
Proc. Linn. Soc. JV.S.W., ix., 179.) As testimony in regard to 
the properties of 6". Gi-eyajta, this is a little vague, but I have 
^iven it litteratim. 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

86. Tephrosia purpurea, Pers., (Syn. T. piscatoria and others, 
Pers.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FI., ii., 209. 

These species possess properties deleterious to stock. The 
latter was reported from the Flinders River, Queensland, as a 
poison herb. (Bailey and Gordon.) T. rosea, F.v.M., is also 
poisonous. 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



87. Trachymene aUStralis, Benth., (Syn. Didiscus pHosus, Benth. ; 
D. anisocarptis, F.v.M. ; D. grandis, F.v.M. ; Dimetopia 
ariisocarpa, Turcz ; D. grandis, Turcz.); N.O., Umbelliferae, 
B.FI., iii., 349. Didiscus pilosus in Muell. Cens., p. 62. 

" Wild Parsnip." 

Recently (December, 1887) the sudden death of numbers of 

cattle in the vicinity of Dandenong, Victoria, was attributed to 

their having eaten a plant known as the wild parsnip. Baron 

Mueller pronounced specimens forwarded to him by the Chief 



FORAGE PLANTS. 143 

Inspector of Stock to belong to this species. Its action is so 
powerful that no remedial measures seem to be of an}^ avail. 
The only way to destroy the plant is to pull it up by the roots 
and burn it. 

In all the colonies. 

88. Trema aspera, Bhime., (Syn. Celtis aspera, Brong ; Sponia 

aspera, Planch.); N.O., Urticese, B.FL, vi., 158. This, and 
other species of Trema recorded by Bentham, are all united 
by Baron Mueller under the typical T. cannabina, Lour., 
{Vide Muell. Cens., p. 21.) 
" Peach-leaved poison bush." " Elm." " Rough Fig." A " Kurrajong." 
This shrub is firmly believed by some to be poisonous. It is 

likely very indigestible, as it produces an excellent strong fibre. 

(Bailey.) 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

89. Trichodesma Zeylanicum, R.Br., (Syn. PolUcMa zeylanka, 

F.v.M.) ; N.O., Boraginese, B.FL, iv., 404. P. zeylanica in 

Muell. Cens., p. 100. 

Baron Mueller recommends this plant as a fodder herb, 
stating that the dromedaries of Giles' exploring party (1873-4) 
were found to be particularly partial to it. It is not endemic in 
Australia. 

All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

90. Trigonella snavissima, LindUy, N.O., Leguminos®, B.FL, 
ii., 187. 

From its abundance in the neighbourhood of Menindie it is often 
called " Menindie Clover." It is the " Australian Shamrock" of Mitchell, 
and the " Calomba " of the natives of the Darling. 

This perennial, fragrant, clover-like plant is a good pasture 
herb. Sir Thomas Mitchell {Three Expeditions) speaks of it in 
the highest manner as a forage plant on several occasions. 

Interior of Australia, from the Murray River and tributaries 
to the vicinity of Shark's Bay, Western Australia. 



144 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

91. VentilagO viminalis, Hook.; N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., 1., 411. 
"Supple Jack." "Thandorah" of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry 
River (North Queensland). 

The leaves are eaten by stock. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 



92. Sizyphus jujuba, Lam.; N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., i., 412. 
"Jujube Tree." 
The leaves are much valued for cattle-fodder in India. 
Queensland. 



Substances Reputed Medicinal 

(DRUGS); 



In regard to the " New Remedies," it will be well to remember 
the judicious remarks of Sir Joseph Hooker in his introductory 
essay on the Flora of Australia, appended to the Flora of 
Tasmania. 

" I have not alluded to pharmaceutical plants : such may exist, 
and multitudes of the weeds, seeds, and roots of Australia will no 
doubt enjoy a more or less substantial reputation as drugs for a 
period, and then be consigned to oblivion. This is the pharma- 
ceutical history of the plants of all countries that have long been 
inhabited by civilised man, and Australia will form no exception 
to them, the fact being, that of the multitude of names of plants 
that appear in Pharmacopaeias, the number of really active and 
useful plants is extremely small." 

Queensland is by far the richest of the colonies in plants con- 
cerning which medicinal properties have been recorded ; but the 
great majority of these will be found to be also common to India 
and the Archipelago, and to have been employed by the natives of 
those countries. 

With the exception of some plants not endemic in Australia, 
which have already been utilized by dwellers in older countries, 
most of the plants of this continent reputed medicinal, have 
been enquired into only when their true botanical positions 
were assigned. We are aware that certain properties are 
possessed by plants belonging to certain genera and natural 
orders ; when an Australian plant is found to belong to such an 

* See also " Essential Oils," " Gums," &c. The species found in New South Wales 
are dealt with in a paper read by the author before the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales, March, 1888, entitled Some Reputed Medicinal Plants 0/ Nezu South IVales. 

L 



146 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

order or genus, we can usually make a very sagacious surmise as 
to its properties. The science of botany, therefore, may save the 
student of Materia Medica from groping about and testing plants 
in an empirical way. Nevertheless, there is still much empiricism 
in the study of vegetable Materia Medica, as it is only of 
comparatively recent years that the analyst and physician have 
recognised the enormous mutual advantage of co-operation with 
the botanist. Yet comparatively few genera have been tested for 
medicinal properties throughout the world, so that the limit of the 
aid afforded us by analogy is easily passed. 

Australian botany may be said to have been brought into order 
by the publication of the Flora Ausiraltensis, the oldest volumes 
of which only date back some twenty-five years. Before that 
time very few people in these colonies professed any botanical 
knowledge whatsoever, and our plant-nomenclature was in a 
pitiable state, empirics adding to the prevalent lack of knowledge 
by bestowing names on plants without a word of description, 
increasing the difficulty of the situation by synonymy worse than 
useless. Anyone need only examine old exhibition literature to 
be convinced of the truth of my remarks. To Baron Mueller and 
Mr. Bentham are, of course, mainly owing the " exact " position 
which Australian botany holds in this centenary year. The main 
work of the classification of our plants has already been performed, 
and the student of Materia Medica now can reap the advantage. 
There is no doubt that many observations of early colonists on the 
medicinal properties of plants have been lost to us through their 
lack of botanical knowledge, or lack of facilities to have plants 
named in which they were interested. And considering the circum- 
stances under which many of the pioneers of this colony worked, it 
becomes a matter of surprise to us, not that they have recorded 
so little, but that they have been recorded so much, and in such 
detail, in regard to the economic properties of our indigenous flora. 
Of course, drugs form but one group or division of substances 
which have been pressed into the service of man. 

In fairness to ourselves we must confess ourselves very little 
indebted to the Australian aboriginal for information as to the 
medical (or in fact any other) properties of our plants. The 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 147 

poor aboriginal chiefly takes interest in the vegetation as supplying, 
him with his scanty food, or as affording him fibre useful in 
securing fish and other animal sustenance. As far as we know, the 
Materia Medica of the blacks is of a very meagre description, yet 
the acquisition of even such little knowledge as they are supposed 
to possess has been slow and diflScult, inasmuch as persons who 
have lived in a state of nature with them have not been 
distinguished for either their medical or botanical knowledge. 
Civilised or semi-civilised blacks frequently know but little about 
their native Materia Medica, and the difficulty of obtaining 
reliable information is enhanced (as I have experienced to a slight 
extent) through the extreme willingness of town blacks to impart 
information in regard to any plant which may be shown them, 
which impresses one with the thought that they are too willing 
to oblige. But perhaps this is mainly owing to asking them 
leading questions. 

With the native Materia Medica of India, for instance, the 
case is very different. While some remedies are evidently used 
fancifully, and others for every disease to which the human frame 
is liable, much of the knowledge in regard to it is exact, the out- 
come of intelligent observation and enquiry, and the work of the 
European practitioner to classify the native drugs is a compara- 
tively easy one. 

There is an important matter which I have often heard 
referred to by medical men and others. It may be only an 
ingenious surmise, but I am inclined to think it is more than that, 
as evidence to prove its truth is from time to time brought forward. 
It is this. Native Australian drugs will probably be found 
peculiarly efficacious in the treatment of diseases, or modifications 
of diseases, which are co-extensive with their distribution. 

The number of really useful New South Wales drugs, as far 
as our knowledge at present extends, is, as will be seen, but very 
limited, and in regard to these even, our knowledge lacks precision. 
It will thus be seen how little trodden has been this particular field 
of enquiry. Yet it is not too early even now to attempt to system- 
atise such knowledge as we possess — this has been the object in 
view in submitting the few pages which follow. 



148 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

I- AbniS precatorius, Linn., (Syn. A. pauciflorus, Desv. ; A. 

squamulosus, E. Mey.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 270. 
" Indian Liquorice." 

The roots of this plant are used in India as a substitute for 
liquorice, though they are somewhat bitter. In Java the roots are 
considered demulcent. The leaves, when mixed with honey, are 
applied to swellings, and in Jamaica are used as a substitute for 
tea. Under the name of " Jequirity" the seeds have recently been 
employed in cases of ophthalmia, a use to which they have long 
been put in India and Brazil. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

2. Ablltilon indiCTim, G. Don., (Syn. A. asiaticum, G. Don; Sida 
indicum, Linn. ; ^. asiatica, Linn.); N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl.^ 
i., 202. 

This species, together with many others of this natural order, 
possesses demulcent properties, and is used for that reason. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

3- Acacia spp, N.O., Leguminosae. 

" Wattles." 

The barks of all wattles are more or less astringent (see 
"Tans"), and are used in domestic medicine to make decoctions 
or infusions employed in diarrhoea or dysentery, perspiring feet, 
some affections of the eyes, and a number of severe and trifling 
ailments in which an astringent may or may not be of service. 

The medicinal properties of these barks are discussed in a 
paper by Dr. S. J. Margarey on A. pycnantha, in Trans. R.S. 
South Alls i7- alia, iii., xiv. 

The astringent principle (accompanied by no injurious sub- 
stance in large quantity) is present to a more or less useful extent 
in the barks of scores of genera of our native trees, e.g.. Eucalyptus, 
Banksia, Casuarina. 

The gums of some species of wattle are used to a limited 
extent in domestic medicinej and surgery. ( Vide Flindersiu 
maculosa, infra.) 

Throughout the colonies. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 149 

4- Acacia delibrata, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 404. 

Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane, has found a saponin in the pods. 
Physiologically, it was found to act as an irritant poison. It has a 
very disagreeable taste, and is soluble both in alcohol and water. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

5. Acacia falcata, Willd., (Syn. A. plagiophylla, Spreng.; Mimosa 

obliqua, Wendl.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 361. 

" Hickory." " Lignum-Vitse." " Sally." It used to be called " Wee- 
tjellan" by the aboriginals of the counties of Cumberland and Camden 
-(New South Wales). 

This bark, which contains much tannin, was used by the 
aboriginals of the counties of Cumberland and Camden to stupefy 
fish, and to make embrocations for the cure of cutaneous diseases. 
{Macarthur.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

6. Acacia implexa, Benth., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 389. 

The Rev. Dr. Woolls observes that the bitter bark of this tree 
probably possesses medicinal properties. The bark of young 
trees contains a very pleasant bitter. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

7- Acacia penninervis, Sieb., (Syn. A. impressa, Lindl.); N.O., 

Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 362. 

" Hickory." " Blackwood." 

The bark (and, according to some, the leaves) of this tree 
was formerly used by the aboriginals of southern New South 
Wales for catching fish. They would throw them into a water- 
hole, when the fish would rise to the top and be easily caught. 
Neither the leaves nor bark contain strictly poisonous substances, 
but, like the other species of Acacia, they would be deleterious, 
owing to their astringency. 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 



150 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

8. Acacia Salicina, var. varians, Lijidh, (Syn. A. variants, 
Benth.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 367. 

The " Goobang " of the natives of the western interior of New South 
Wales. 

Sir Thomas Mitchell speaks of the natives using a bough of 
this tree to poison the fish in water-holes. 
In the interior. 



9- Achras laurifolia, F.v.M., (Syn. Sersalisia lauri/olia, K. Rich.; 
S. glabra, A. Gray ; Sideroxylon Richardi, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 
Sapotacese, B.Fl., iv., 282. Sideroxylon Richardi in Muell. 
Cens., p. 92. 

This bark has a remarkably sweet taste, but is at the same 
time astringent. Dr. Bancroft suggests that lozenges made of an 
extract of it might prove useful in throat diseases. Following is 
an analysis by Mr. Staiger : — 

Extract (containing glycyrrhizin) ... ... 30.0 

Tannin ... ... ... ... ... 12.0 

A substance intermediate between India- 
rubber and gutta-percha ... ... 0.25 

Woody fibre ... ... ... ... ... 50.0 

Moisture ... ... ... ... ... 7.75 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



10. AchyrantheS aspera, Linn., (Syn. A. australis, R.Br.; and 
inch y4. canescens, R.Br. ; /I. argentea,\j2.-m?)\ N.O., Amar- 
antacese, B.FL, v., 246. 

Found also in all the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the 
old world. The herb is administered in India in cases of dropsy. 
The seeds are given in hydrophobia, and in cases of snake-bites, 
as well as in ophthalmia and cutaneous diseases. The flowering- 
spikes, rubbed with a little sugar, are made into pills, and given 
internally to people bitten by mad dogs. The leaves, taken fresh 
and reduced to a pulp, are considered a good remedy when applied 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 151 

externally to the bites of scorpions. The ashes of the plant yield 
a considerable quantity of potash, which is used in washing 
clothes. The flowering spike has the reputation in India (Oude) 
of being a safeguard against scorpions,, which it is believed to 
paralyse. (Drury.) 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and Nor- 
thern Australia. 

11. Adiantum Sethiopicnm, Linn., (Syn. A. assimile, Swartz ; 

A. trigonum, Labill.) ; N.O., Fihces, B.Fl., vii., 724. 
Common " Maidenhair Fern." 

This plant is said to possess medicinal properties, being 
slightly astringent and emetic. It has been used in Europe in 
making ^^ Sirop de Capillaire," a demulcent drink, employed in 
diseases of the chest. 

All the colonies. 

12. Alstonia COnstricta, F.v.M., N.O., Apocyne®, B.FL, iv., 314. 

" Fever Bark." " Bitter Bark." 

This yellowish-brown, often thick and deeply fissured bark, is 
intensely bitter, and possesses valuable febrifugal and tonic 
properties. It is regularly quoted in London drug lists. A 
decoction is sometimes sold in the colonies as " bitters." 
Mr. Christy states that it is used by some English brewers of 
pale ale for export, as it produces neither headaches nor other ill 
effects of hops. It tastes remarkably like Cinchona bark, and 
seems to partake somewhat of the properties of both quinine and 
nux vomica. This drug is undoubtedly worthy of careful experi- 
ments by medical men. (See A. scholar is.) 

The bark contains, according to Palm (who examined it in 
1863), a neutral resinous bitter principle, called by him alsionin, 
similar to cailcedrin and tuhicunin, a volatile oil, smelling like 
camphor, an iron- greening tannin, gum, resin, fat, wax, protein 
substance, oxalic acid, and citric acid. The ash, amounting to 
6.06 per cent, of the bark, contains in 100 parts : — 



152 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Soda (anhydrous) ... ... ... 0.48 

Potash „ 6.96 

Sodium Chloride ... ... ... 3.06 

Lime 32-83 

Magnesia ... ... ... ... 3.61 

Ferric oxide ... ... ... ... 3.43 

Manganoso-manganic oxide... ... 0.78 

Sulphuric acid (anhydride) ... ... 9.33 

Phosphoric peroxide ... ... trace 

Silica ... ... ... ... ... 15.60 

Carbonic acid ... ... ... 23.50 

{Watts Diet., vi., ist suppt, loi.) 

Mueller and Rummel, in Wittstein's Organic Co7istituents of 
Plants, give the following account of the alkaloid '.--Alstonin, the 
alkaloid of the bark of Alstonia constricta^ F.v.M., is obtained by 
treating the alcoholic extract with water and a little hydrochloric 
acid, adding to the filtered solution a small excess of ammonia, 
dissolving the separated flocculent precipitate in ether, evaporating 
the ethereal solution, and purifying the remaining alkaloid 
(alsto7iin) by dissolving again in dilute acid and repeating the 
above process. It forms an orange yellow, brittle, pellucid mass, 
of very bitter taste, melts below 100°, and is carbonised at higher 
temperatures; dissolves easily in alcohol, ether, and dilute acids, but 
sparingly in water. All its solutions in the dilute state exhibit a 
strong blue fluorescence which is not affected by acids or alkalies. 
Its alcoholic solution has a slightly alkaline reaction. Alstonin 
combines with acids, but does not completely neutralise them. 
Hydrochloric and other strong acids, also alkalies, decompose it 
partly on evaporation in the water-bath to a dark-coloured acid 
substance. The hydrochloride of alstoniti gives precipitates with 
the chlorides of platinum and mercury, iodide of potassium, the 
phospho-molybdate and meta-tungstate of soda, bichromate of 
potash, picric acid, and with the alkalies and alkaline carbonates. 
Tannic acid does not precipitate the hydrochloride, but does the 
acetate and the pure base. Concentrated nitric acid dissolves 
alstonin with crimson colour, yellow on warming ; sulphuric 
acid reddish-brown, afterwards dirty green ; hydrochloric acid only 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 153 

effects a yellowish solution. Alstoniti differs from diiamine 
chiefly by its behaviour towards concentrated acids, and by its 
fluorescence, which has not been recorded of the other alkaloid. 

The correctness of the above results has been disputed by 
Hesse, who expressed the opinion that the supposed alkaloid was 
a mixture of chlorogenine and porphyrine. {Ber. d. Deutsch. 
Chen. Gessells, iSjS, p. 2175.) 

In June, 1879, Oberlin and Schlagdenhauffen* announced 
the isolation of two alkaloids from this bark, a crystallizable and 
an amorphous one. They found the bark to be soluble in ether 
to the extent of 1.038 per cent., and to this ethereal extract their 
attention was confined. In Pharm. Journ. [3], ix., 1059, is an 
abstract of their paper, and an account is given not only of the 
method of preparing these alkaloids, but also of their physical and 
chemical properties. The crystalline alkaloid occurring in silky 
tufts of brilliant, colourless, isolated, or stellate crystals, is styled 
alstonine-\, while an amorphous nitrogenous residue, possessing 
alkaloid properties, obtained by spontaneous evaporation from the 
mother liquor which yielded aUtonine, is provisionally termed 
ahtonicine. 

In 1 88 1 an exhaustive research on this bark was contributed 
by Hesse to the Annalen der Chojiie, ccv., 360, of which a careful 
abstract appears in the Pharm. Journ. [3] xi., 775. Palm's 
ahtonin (notwithstanding the alleged absence of nitrogen) was 
shown by Hesse to consist essentially of an alkaloid which he had 
obtained from the bark and called chlorogenine. But as Palm's 
name had priority, Hesse called the alkaloid alstonine. But unfor- 
tunate confusion has arisen in Mueller and Rummel and Oberlin 
and Schlagdenhauffen (vide supra) also having given so descrip- 
tive a name to substances of different composition. The abstract 
above referred to gives a very lucid account of the overlapping of 
various researches, and shows how the different products obtained 
by different observers may be reconciled. After this necessary 
preliminary statement, Hesse gives a full account of the prepara- 
tion and properties of the alkaloids found by him. They are : — 

* Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie. t Probably Hesse's porphyrine. 



154 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

1. Ahtonine (synonymous with chlorogeriine, and probably 
identical with Palm's alstonin.) It is a brown, amorphous mass, 
which can be rubbed to a brownish-yellow powder. 

2. Porphyrine, a white powder found in very small quantity. 

3. Porphyrosine, the examination of which is not yet com- 
plete. 

4. Ahlojiidme, consisting of colourless, concentrically grouped 
needles. 

Hesse believes that this list by no means completely enumer- 
ates the alkaloids obtainable from this interesting bark. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

13- Alstonia SCholaris, R.Br., (Syn. A. cuneata,Wa.\\.)',l^.O., 

Apocynese, B.Fl., iv., 312. 

"Devil Tree" of India. " Dita Bark." 

The powerfully bitter bark of this tree is used by the natives 
of India in bowel complaints. (Treasury of Botany.) It has 
proved a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhoea and the advanced 
stages of dysentery. It has also been found effectual in restoring 
the tone of the stomach and of the system generally in debility 
after fevers and other exhausting diseases. (Pharm. of India.) 
It is officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as an astringent tonic, 
anthelmintic, and antiperiodic. It is held in the highest repute in 
the Phillippine Islands. For further information see Dymock 
(Materia Medica of Western India). Most writers who speak of 
it at all speak of it in terms of the highest praise. A ver}' full 
account of the various substances which have been extracted from 
this bark will be found in Watf s Diet., 3rd suppt., Part i., page 
688 et seq. 

Northern Queensland. 

14- Ammannia indica, Lam., (Syn. A. vesicatoria,'Koyih.); N.O. 

Lythrarieae, B.FL, iii., 296. Not in Muell. Cens. ; the Baron, 
therefore, probably considers it introduced. 

The whole plant has a strong aromatic smell. The leaves 
are acrid, and are commonly used by the natives of India to raise 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 155 

blisters in rheumatic pains, fevers, etc. The fresh leaves bruised 
perform their office effectually in half-an-hour, (F. M. Bailey.) 
Queensland and North and South Australia. 

15- Antidesma Dallachyannm, BailL, N.O., Euphorbiacese, 

B.Fl.,vi., 85. 

" Herbert River (Queensland) Cherry." 

The fruit, which in size equals that of large cherries, is of a 
sharp acid flavour, resembling that of the red currant, which it 
also equals in colour when made into jelly ; and as the European 
fruit is placed among medicinal plants on account of its juice 
being grateful to the parched palates of persons suffering from 
fever, this is worthy of a similar place. (Bailey.) 

The same remarks are applicable to many of the sub-acid 
fruits mentioned under " Foods." 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

16. Archidendron Vaillantii, F.v.M., (Syn. Pithecolohium Vaii- 

laniii, F.v.M.; Alhizzia Vaillajtiii, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Legum- 

inosae; Mueller, Fragm., v., 9, and ix., 178. 

The pods contain beans which possess a black colour, and 
nauseous, hot taste. The bark also is hot and acrid. Alcoholic 
extract of the dried bean was made, five grains of which, sus- 
pended in a few minims of water, were injected under the skin of 
a kitten, which died asphyxiated in a few hours. The bark was 
found to be more poisonous than the bean or leaves. Guinea-pigs 
poisoned with this substance have painful convulsive movements 
of the whole muscular system, increasing in frequency and force 
as the poison gets absorbed. The hind legs get paralysed, and 
the animals lie in a helpless state for many hours before they die, 
and utter feeble cries when moved about. After death the muscles 
contract when cut across, or when stimulated through their 
nerves up to their exit from the cord. Neither the motor nor the 
sensory nerves seem to be affected. This substance kills by 
paralysing the reflex function of the spinal cord. (Dr. Bancroft, 
in Froc. U.S. W.S. W., 1886, p. 70.) 

Queensland. 



156 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

17- Asparagus racemOSUS, Wi/ld., (Syn. A. fasckulatus, R.Br.; 
Asparagopsis Jloribufida, Kunth ; A. Brownei, "Kxinih; A. 
Decaisnei, Kunth) ; N.O., Liliaceae, B.Fl., vii. 17, 

The roots of this plant are used medicinally by the natives of 
India, but they appear to be wholly unworthy of notice. (Pharm. 
0/ India.) An account of some of the uses to which it is put by 
them will be found in Drury's Useful Plants of India, p. 56. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

18. Atherosperma moschata, LabUl, N.O., Monimiacese, B.Fl., 
v., 284. 

" Sassafras" (see Doryphora). 

The bark contains an agreeable bitter, of much repute as a 
tonic amongst sawyers. It is called Native Sassafras from the 
odour of its bark, due to an essential oil closely resembling true 
sassafras in odour. Bosisto likens the smell of the inner bark to 
new ale, and says that a decoction from this part of the tree is a 
good substitute for yeast in raising bread. It is diaphoretic and 
diuretic in asthma and other pulmonary affections, but it is known 
more especially for its sedative action on the heart, and it has been 
successfully used in some forms of heart disease. 

It is prepared of the strength of 4 ounces of the bark to 20 
ounces of rectified spirit, and is given in doses of 30 to 60 drops, 
usually on a lump of sugar. The volatile oil of the bark alone is 
said to have a lowering action on the heart. See " Volatile and 
Essential Oils." 

The bark has been examined by N. Zeyer, who has found in 
it volatile oil, fixed oil, wax, albumin, gum, sugar, starch, butyric 
acid, an aromatic resin, iron-greening tannic acid, and an alkaloid 
which he designates atherospermine. The lead-compound of the 
tannic [acid was obtained by precipitating the clarified aqueous 
decoction of the bark with lead acetate, digesting the well-washed 
precipitate with acetic acid, and exactly saturating the filtrate with 
ammonia. The greyish-yellow precipitate thus formed gave by 
analysis, after drying, numbers corresponding to the formula 
C:o Hu PbOa." 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 1 57 

When the bark, after being boiled with water and treated 
with dilute sulphuric acid, is exhausted with weak sodaley, the 
aromatic resin passes into solution, and may be separated by preci- 
pitation with hydrochloric acid, and purified by treatment with 
alcohol and water. It is brown-red, has a faint aromatic odour, 
tastes distinctly like nutmeg and sassafras, melts at 1 14°, dissolves 
easily in alcohol and in alkaline hydrates and carbonates, but with 
difficulty in ether and turpentine oil. The analysis of the resin 
gave numbers according to the formula C^ H32 O5. 

The ash, amounting to 3.64 per cent, of the air-dried bark, 
and 4.06 per cent, of the bark dried at 100°, was found by Zeyer 
to contain : — 

Sodium chloride ... ... ... 2.675 

Potash (anhydrous) ... ... ... 4.036 

Soda do. ... ... ... 8.321 

Lime ... ... ... ... 45.445 

Magnesia ... ... ... ... 4.361 

Alumina ... ... ... ... 0.191 

Ferric oxide ... ... ... ... 0.098 

Manganic oxide ... ... ... 0.447 

Sulphuric acid (anhydride) ... ... 1.442 

Phosphoric pentoxide ... ... 1.186 

Silica ... ... ... ... 1-396 

Carbonic Acid ... ... ... 30.005 

Atherospermine. The solution filtered from the impure lead- 
precipitate, already said to have been obtained by N. Zeyer, 
yields, on addition of ammonia, a precipitate which, after washing 
and drying, digestion with alcohol, evaporation of the brown solu- 
tion, mixing of the remaining mass with hydrochloric acid, and 
precipitation with ammonia, yields crude atherospermine ; and by 
agitating this substance with carbon bisulphide, dissolving the 
mass left after evaporating off the carbon bisulphide in hydro- 
chloric acid, and again precipitating with ammonia, the atherosperm- 
ine is obtained in the pure state.* 

* The bark, which had been boiled with water for the preparation of the tannic acid 
still retained a portion of the alkaloid, which was extracted therefrom by digestion 
with dilute sulphuric acid. 



158 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Aiherospermine forms a white, somewhat greyish, light, highly 
electric powder, inodorous, and having a pure bitter taste. It turns 
yellowish when exposed to sunshine, melts at 128°, and at a 
higher temperature emits an empyreumatic odour, takes fire, and 
burns away without residue ; when slowly heated it gives off 
an odour of putrid meat, and afterwards of herrings {^propyla- 
mine?'). It is nearly insoluble in water, dissolves with difficulty 
in ether, more easily in alcohol, the solution having a distinct 
alkaline reaction ; is soluble also in chloroform, oil of turpentine, 
and other volatile oils. When dissolved in dilute acids, it neutra- 
lises them with formation of varnish-like salts. In contact with 
iodic acid and a little water, it liberates iodine with brown colour. 
The neutral solution of the alkaloid in hydrochloric acid is preci- 
pitated white by alkalies and alkaline carbonates, yellow by picric 
acid, yellowish-white by tannic acid, dirty-yellow by phospho- 
molybdic acid, pale yellow by platinic chloride ; it likewise preci- 
pitates with iodide, ferrocyanide and sulphocyanide of potassium, 
auric chloride, &c. The formula of atherospermine has not yet 
been ascertained. (Zeyer in Watfs Diet., vi., suppt., 231.) 

The following account of Aiherospermine will also be 
interesting : — 

Aiherospermine — C H NO (?) Alkaloid of the bark of 

' 30 20 5 ^ 

Aiherospermine moschattim. Extract with warm water, acidified 
by sulphuric acid, and precipitate with carbonate of soda. Wash 
and dry the precipitate and extract with bi-sulphi-de of carbon. 
Distil with water containing sulphuric acid, precipitate the 
remaining liquid with ammonia, wash and dry the deposit. It is 
a white, voluminous, highly electric powder, of crystalline 
appearance under the microscope, and of a pure and lasting bitter 
taste. Water dissolves only traces of it, but acquires a bitter 
taste; ether dissolves at 16° one-thousandth, when boiling, 
one-hundredth; alcohol of 93 per cent, at 16° one-thirty-second 
part, at the boiling point half its weight. Of greater solvent 
power are chloroform, bi-sulphide of carbon, oil of turpentine and 
other essential oils and diluted acids. Chlorine-water produces a 
yellow solution, not changeable by ammonia. Iodic acid gives 
with atherospermine the same re-action as towards morphine and 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 159 

oxyanthine, viz., it becomes deoxidised, and iodine is set free. 
The neutral solution of chloride of atherospermine gives a white 
precipitate with corrosive sublimate, a pale greenish-yellow with 
chloride of platinum, and a yellow or orange precipitate with 
nitrate of palladium. (Mueller and Rummel in Wittstein' s 
Organic Constituents of Plants.) 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

19- Barringtonia aCUtangula, Gaertn., (Syn. Stravadium rubruni, 
DC.) ; N.O., Myrtacece, B.Fl., iii., 288. 

In India an extract or juice is obtained from the leaves of 
this tree which, when mixed with oil, is used in native practice for 
eruptions of the skin. The kernels, powdered and prepared with 
sago and butter, are used in diarrhoea; mixed with milk they 
produce vomiting {Treasury of Botany). The root is bitter, and 
is said to be similar to Cinchona, but also cooling and aperient. 
(Drury.) 

Northern Australia. 

20. Barringtonia racemosa, (?««^.;N.O.,Myrtacese,Muell.Cens., 

p. 29. 

" Yakooro " of the aboriginals of the Mitchell River (North Queensland). 

The root of this tree has a bitter taste, and is used by Hindoo 
practitioners on account of its aperient and cooling qualities. The 
seeds and bark are also used in native medicine ; the latter is of 
a reddish colour, and is said to possess properties allied to the 
Cinchonas. The pulverised fruit is used as snuff, and, combined 
with other remedies, is applied externally in diseases of the skin. 
{Treasury of Botany^ 

Queensland. 

21. Barringtonia Speci0Sa> Linn, f, (Syn., B. butonica, Forst. ; 
Mammee americana, Linn. ; Mitraria commersonia, Gmel. ; 
Butonica speciosa, Lam. ; B. splendida, Sol.) ; N.O., 
Myrtaceae; B.Fl. iii., 288. 

" Mammee Apple" of Central America. 



l6o AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The outer portion of the fruit, which is poisonous, is used in 
Fiji for stupefying fish for the purpose of catching them. 
(Seemann.) 

Queensland. 

2 2. Bombax malabaricum, DC. (Syn. B. heptaphylla, Cav. ; 

Salmalia f?ialabarica, Schott) ; N.O., Malvaceae ; B.Fl. i., 

223. 

The " Simool Tree " or " Malabar Silk Cotton Tree " of India. 

The young roots are considered to have restorative, astringent, 
and alterative properties (Dymock), but Waring {Pharm. of India) 
thinks the roots generally attributed to this species may belong to 
Curculigo orchwides, Gaertn. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

23. Boronia rhomboidea, Hook. ; N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl. i., 324. 
The leaves of this shrub are chopped up with fodder and given 

to horses for worms in parts of Southern New South Wales. 
Tasmania, Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 

24. Brasenia peltata, Ptirsh. (Syn. Hydropeltis purpurea^ Mich. ; 

Cabomba peltata, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Nympheaceae, B.Fl. i., 60; 
Cabomha peltata in Muell. Cens., p. i. 

A "Water-lily." 
The leaves are astringent, and have been employed in phthisis 
and dysentery in North America. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

25. Caesalpinia nuga, Ait. (Syn. C. paniculata, Desf.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii, 277. 

It is said that the roots are used in Asia in decoctions for 
calculous and nephritic complaints. (F. M. Bailey.) 
Queensland. 

26. Calophyllum inophyllum, Linn. ,- N.O., Guttiferae, B.Fl., i., 

183. 

" Alexandrian Laurel." " Ndilo Tree.' 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. l6l 

The seeds are used to form a thick, dark green, strong-scented 
oil, employed as an external application in rheumatism by the 
natives of India. (See " Oils.") 

27. Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn.; N.O., Sapindaceae, 
B.Fi. i., 453- 

" Balloon Vine " (because of its inflated membranous capsule), " Heart- 
seed" or " Winter Cherry," " Heart Pea" (because of the heart-shaped 
scar on the seed). 

This plant is found in all tropical countries. The root is 
laxative, diuretic, and demulcent. It is mucilaginous, but has a 
slightly nauseous taste, and is used in rheumatism. (Treasury of 
Botany?) Sanskrit writers mention this plant under the name of 
Jyautishmati, and describe the root as emetic, laxative, stomachic, 
and rubefacient ; they prescribe it in rheumatism, nervous diseases, 
piles, &c. The leaves are used in amenorrhoea. 

Rheede says that on the Malabar coast the leaves are adminis- 
tered in pulmonic complaints. According to Ainslie, the root is 
considered aperient, and is given in decoction to the extent of half 
a teacupful twice daily. It would appear that in rheumatism the 
Hindus administer the leaves internally rubbed up with castor-oil, 
and also apply a paste, made with them, externally ; a similar 
external application is used to reduce swellings and tumours of 
various kinds. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

28. Careya anstralis, F.v.M., (Syn. C. arborescens, Leich. ; 
Barrtngtoma Careya, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FI., iii., 
289, where it is described as Careya arhorea var. 1 austral is. 
Vide Muell. Cens., p. 60, and Muell. Fragm., v. 183. 

" Go-onje," and " Gunthamarrah " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry 
River. " Ootcho " of the aboriginals of the Mitchell River. 

The bark of this tree is used by the blacks of Cleveland Bay, 
Queensland, for stupefying fish, in fresh or salt water. 

The typical C. arborea is used in native Indian medicine in 
several ways. It has a rough bark, the interior of which is red, 
and very fibrous ; it gives out much mucilage when moistened, 
and is used on this account for preparing emollient embrocations. 

M 



1 62 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The clove-shaped calyces are used, as well as the juice of the fresh 
bark, with honey, as a demulcent in coughs and colds. (Dymock.) 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

29. Cassia Absns, Linn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 290. 

The seeds of this plant, which also grows in Egypt and India, 
are bitter, aromatic, and slightly mucilaginous. They are used in 
Egypt as a remedy for ophthalmia. (Treasury of Botany^ For 
this purpose the grains are reduced to fine powder, and a small 
portion, a grain or more, introduced under the eyelid. It was 
tried with success in an epidemic of purulent ophthalmia which 
visited Brussels in 1822. {Phann. 0/ Itidia.) 

It is a remedy which should be used with caution. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

30. CaSSytha filiformis, Linn., (Syn. C. gtuneensis, Schum.); 
N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 311. 

" Dodder- Laurel." " Devil's Guts." 

The whole plant pulverised, and mixed with dry ginger and 
butter, is used in the cleaning of inveterate ulcers in India. The 
juice of the plant, mixed with sugar, is occasionally applied to 
inflamed eyes. (Rheede.) It is used in native practice as an 
alterative in bilious affections, and for piles. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

31- Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., (Syn. C. muricata, Roxb.); 

N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 197. 

" Forest Oak." " Bull Oak." " Swamp Oak." " Wunna-wunna- 
rumpa" of some Queensland aboriginals. 

The bark, according to Dr. Gibson, is an excellent astringent, 
and may be used with advantage in chronic diarrhoea and 
dysentery. It is not used medicinally by the natives of India. 
The Chinese in Bombay say that it is used as an astringent in 
China. (Dymock.) Doubtless the barks of the numerous other 
Australian species possess similar properties. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 1 63 

32. Cedrela Toona, Roxb. (Syn., C. australis, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Meliaceae, B.Fl. i., 387 ; C. australis in Muell., Cens., p. 9. 
Ordinary "Cedar." For aboriginal names, see " Timbers." 

This tree is also a native of India, and its bark has been found 
valuable in fevers, dysentery, &c. (Treasury of Botany.) It is 
astringent, and in India has been considered a reliable antiperiodic, 
and by Dr. Newton a good substitute for cinchona. (Pharm. of 
Iniia.) The flowers are considered emmenagogue. (Dymock.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

33. Cerbera OdoUam, Linn. (Syn. C. Manghas, Bot. Mag.); N.O., 

Apocynese, B.Fl. iv., 306. 

This tree is also a native of Malabar, and while the fleshy 
drupe, according to Lindley, is innocuous, the nut in the interior is 
narcotic, and even poisonous. The bark is purgative ; the unripe 
fruit, moreover, is dangerous, and is said to be used by the natives 
of Travancore to destroy dogs ; the teeth of the unfortunate animals 
being, as is reported, loosened so as to fall out after masticating 
it. {Treasury of Botany.) 

Waring (Bharm. of India) deprecates the use of the milky 
juice and leaves of this plant as emetics and purgatives, on the 
ground that they are dangerous, and that there are numbers of safe 
and efficient drugs for these purposes. 

In Java the leaves are used as a substitute for senna. (Drury.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

34- Chionanthus picrophloia, F.v.M., (Syn. Mayepea picrophloia, 
F.V.M.); N.O., Jasminese, B.Fl. iv., 301 ; Mayepea picrophloia 
in Muell., Cens. p. 92. 

The intensely bitter bark of this tree may be administered in 
intermittent fevers. 
Queensland. 

35- Cinnamomum Tamala, Th. JVees (Syn. C. LanhatH, F.V.M. ; 

C. albifloru?7i, Nees; C. Cassia, Blume ; Laurus Tamala, 
Hamilt.; L. Cassia, Roxb.; N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl. v., 303. 
"Cassia Cinnamon." 



164 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The leaves are used both as a condiment and as a medicine 
in India. They are considered to be carminative, stimulant, 
diuretic, diaphoretic, lactagogue, and deobstruent. (Dymock.) 
The bark is also used for almost similar purposes. 

Queensland. 

36. COCOS nncifera, Linn.; N.O., Palmeas, B.Fl., vii., 143. 
" Cocoanut Palm." 

Various medicinal qualities are attributed to this palm. The 
flowers are employed by the natives of the tropics as an astringent, 
the roots as a febrifuge, the milk in ophthalmia, &c. 

Queensland. 

37- CodonOCarpUS COtinifolmS, F.v.M., (Syn. Gyrostemon cotini- 
/olitis, Desf. ; Gyrostemon pimgens, Lindl. ; Gyrostemon 
acacicEformis, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Phytolaccaceae, B.FI., v., 148. 
"Quinine Tree." "Medicine Tree" of the interior. Called also 

*' Horse-radish Tree," owing to the taste of the leaves. 

This bark contains a peculiar bitter, and no doubt possesses 
medicinal properties. The taste is, however, quite distinct from 
quinine. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Queensland. 



38. Colocasia antiquorum, Schott., (Syn. Caladmm acre, R.Br.; 
Arum Colocasia, Linn.); N.O., Aroidese, B.FL, vii., 155. 

The acrid juice of the petioles of several varieties of this 
species is a common domestic remedy in India, on account of its 
styptic and astringent properties. The petiole is slightly roasted, 
and the juice expressed. " I have seen a purulent discharge from 
the ears in children stopped by a single application. The tubers 
of these plants chopped fine, tied in a cloth and heated, are used 
as a fomentation in rheumatism." (Djmock, Materia Medica of 
Western India.) It is said that the juice of the petioles will even 
arrest arterial haemorrhage. {Pharin. of India?) 

Queensland. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 165 

39. Colocasia macrorrhiza, Schott., (Syn. CalacUum macrorrhizon, 
R.Br. ; Alocasia macrorrhiza, Schott.); N.O., Aroideae, B.Fl., 
vii., 155. 
" Pitchu " of the aboriginals of the Burnett River, Queensland; 

" Cunjevoi " of those of South Queensland ; " Hakkin" of the Rockhampton, 

Queensland, aboriginals ; " Banganga," or "Nargan," of those of Cleveland 

Bay. 

This plant possesses much acridity in the fresh state, and is 

employed by the natives of India as an external stimulant and 

rubefacient. The acrid principle is, however, very volatile, and by 

the application of heat, or simple drymg, the roots become 

innocuous. {Pharni. of India.) As an antidote to the stings of 

plants, see Laportea gigas. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

40. Cordia Myza, Linn., (Syn. C. dichotoma, Forst. ; C. Broivnii, 

DC. ; C. lati/olia, Roxb. ; C. ixiocarpa, F.v.M. ; C. obliqua, 

Willd. ; C. polygama, Roxb.) ; N.O., Boraginese, B.FL, iv., 

386. 

The " Sebesten Plum " of India. 

This plant is also a native of India, and has succulent, muci- 
laginous, and emollient fruits. From their mucilaginous qualities, 
combined with some astringency, they have been employed as 
pectoral medicines under the name of Sebesiens. The bark is a 
mild tonic, and is used in India as gargles, {Treasury of 
Botany.) The bark is much used as a mild tonic in Java. 
(Drury.) 

Queensland. 

41- Croton phebalioides, R-Br., (Syn. C. stigmatosus, R.Br.); 

N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FL, vL, 125. 
" Warrel" of the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. A 
" Native Cascarilla." 

The bark contains an agreeable aromatic bitter. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

42. CryptOCarya australis, Benth., (for botanical synonyms, see 
"Timbers "); N.O., Laurineae, B.FL, v., 299. 
" Laurel," or " Moreton Bay Laurel," and " Grey Sassafras." 



l66 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The bark has a persistently bitter taste, due to the presence 
of an alkaloid which crystallises from its solution in stellate masses 
of acicular crystals. When administered to warm-blooded animals 
the alkaloid produced difficulty of respiration, ending in asphyxical 
difficulty and death. It also had a poisonous action on cold- 
blooded animals belonging to the reptilia. (Bancroft, in Australian 
Journ. of Phann., 1887.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

43- Cucumis trigomis, Roxb., (Syn. C. pubescens, Hook.; 
C. jucutidus, F.v.M. ; C. picrocarpus, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 
Cucurbitaceae, B.Fl., iii., 317. 

This is an aboriginal food (see " Foods"), but I am unaware 
of its use in the colonies as a medicine. 

" The fruit is of the size and shape of a small ^%g, and 
marked with green and yellow streaks, like colocynth. It is very 
bitter, and at the feast of the Diwali, or New Year of the Hindus, 
is brought to market for sale. The Hindus of Bombay have a 
custom at this season of breaking the fruit under the foot and 
then touching the tongue and forehead with it, with the idea that 
having tasted bitter of their own accord, they may hope for preser- 
vation from misfortune during the year. It is not eaten, but is used 
medicinally in the same way that Citrullus amarus is used in 
Sind." (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India?) 

New South Wales, Queensland, Northern and Western 
Australia. 

44- Cymbonotus Lawsonianus, Gaud., N.O.. Compositae, B.FL, 

iii., 674. 

In the southern parts of New South Wales the country people 
prepare a salve, used for wounds, &c., by extracting the medicinal 
properties of this plant by means of melted lard. Alternate 
layers of lard and leaves are made, the mass is allowed to cool 
slowly, and afterwards the lard is run out and is ready for use. 
Some country folk are loud in their praises of its quick healing 
effects. Mr. Bauerlen tells me they copied this use of the plant 
from the Chinese. Although this humble plant is found in all 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 167 

the colonies, it does not extend to China, so the Chinese probably 
first used it in an empirical manner. 
All the colonies. 

45- Cjmometra ramiflora, Linn., var bijnga, (Syn. c. bijuga, 

Spanoghe) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FI., ii., 296. 

The root is purgative. In India a lotion is made from the 
leaves boiled in cow's milk, which, mixed with honey, is applied 
externally in scabies, leprosy, and other cutaneous diseases. 
(Rheede.) 

Queensland. 

46. Daphnandra micrantha, Benth., (Syn. Atherosperma micran- 
ihtim, TuL); N.O., Monimiaceae, B.FI., v., 285. 

" Light Yellow-wood." "Satin-wood." 
The bark of this tree is intensely bitter, and is in much 

repute as a tonic amongst sawyers. (Hill.) Dr. Bancroft has 

quite recently drawn attention to the properties of this bark, which 

are similar to those of D. repandula (q.v.). 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

i'Z- Daphnandra repandula, ^.z'.^/-, N.O., Monimiacese, Muell. 

Cens., p. 3. 

The bark of this tree has a transient bitter taste, and when 
first removed from the tree it has a yellow colour on the inner 
surface, which changes to a metallic black on exposure to the air, 
but becomes yellow again when dry. Infusions of the bark are of 
a yellow colour, and remain free from microscopic organisms 
when kept. The extract of the bark does not appear to contain 
either gum or resin, but is rich in alkaloids. The extract is very 
poisonous, one grain being a fatal dose for a frog, and ten for 
warm-blooded animals. The alkaloids contained in the bark are 
colourless when pure and crystalline. The active one is easily 
separated from the others, being soluble in water. Its poisonous 
action is chiefly due to its action on the heart. To some extent it 
is antagonistic to strychnia. The poison powerfully affects fish, 
molluscs, and infusoria. When applied topically to voluntary or 



l68 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

involuntary muscles it paralyses them rapidly. It also retards the 
development of septic organisms, and will deodorise putrid meat. 
It checks the growth of grass, and will kill some water plants. 
(Dr. Bancroft, in Australian Joum. of Pharm., 1887, 104, and 
Proc. U.S., li.S. W., 1886, p. 69.) 
Queensland. 

48. Dorjrphora sassafras, Endl., N.O., Monimiaceae, B.Fl., v., 

283. 

" Sassafras." 
The bark is used as a tonic medicine. It is taken in the 
form of an infusion. 
New South Wales. 

49. Derris Uliginosa, Benth., (Syn. Pongamia uliginosa, DC. ; 
P. religiosa, Wight) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 272. 

The leaves are pounded and thrown into water, for the purpose 
of stupefying fish, by the natives of many tropical countries. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

50. Drimys aromatica, F.V.M., (Syn. Tasmannia aromatica, 

R.Br.); N.O., Magnoliaceas, B.Fl., i., 49. 
" Pepper Tree." 

This tree possesses aromatic properties, particularly in the 
bark, which so closely resembles the Winter's Bark of the Straits 
of Magellan (Drimys Winteri), that it is said to be sometimes 
substituted for it. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

51. Duboisia HopWOOdii, F.v.M., (Syn. Anthocerds ? Hopwoodii, 

F.v.M.) ; N.O., Solanese, (Scrophularineae in B.Fl.); B.FL, iv., 

480. D. Hopwoodii in Muell. Cens., and that name has 

been followed in this instance. 
"Pituri;" spelt also " Pitchiri," " Pitchery," " Pedgery," " Bedgery." 

This is the masticatory of the aboriginals of Central Australia, 
corresponding in this respect to the " Coca" of Peru, the Betel nut 
of the Eastern Archipelago, the " Taezi Kaat" {Catha edulis) of 
Arabia, &c. The drug is in the form of leaves, more or less 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 169 

powdered, mixed with finely broken twigs, forming altogetlier a 
brown herb. So fine is the powder, and so irritating, that the 
most careful examination of a specimen is attended with sneezing. 
The plant is, as far as known, extremely patchy in distribution, 
and the blacks prize it so highly that they travel enormous dis- 
tances to procure it ; besides, it is a most valuable commodity for 
tribal barter. They gather the tops and leaves during the month 
of August, when the plant is in blossom, and hang them up to 
dry. They are sometimes sweated beneath a layer of fine sand, 
dried, roughly powdered, and then packed in netted bags, skins, 
&c., for transport. I have examined perhaps a dozen packages of 
Pituri at different times, and they have all been made of netted 
work or canvas. Every bag appeared to be precisely the same 
both in size, pattern and material. The material I believe to be 
obtained by the aborigines from gunny-bags or wool-packs ; these 
are unpicked, woven into circular mats about six inches in 
diameter and folded over the contained Pituri like a jam-tart. The 
bag is then sewn up with fibre of the same material.* Two of 
these bags now in the Technological Museum were obtained, the 
one from Mount Margaret station, Wilson River, south-west 
Queensland, to which place it had been brought by the blacks 
from the Herbert River ; the other also from the Herbert River, 
lat. 23° S., long. 139° E., near the Pituri Creek. In neither case 
can more precise localities of the place from which the Pituri was 
procured be obtained, perhaps partly because the blacks do not wish 
the locality to become generally known, and partly because the 
packages have passed through so many hands. 

Sometimes pituri is chewed in company, a quid being passed 
round from one native to another, and when they have had suffi- 
cient, one politely plasters it behind his ear. It is also smoked, 
and to prepare the leaves for this purpose they are damped, mixed 
with potash prepared from the ashes of suitable plants, and rolled 



* In the South Australian Museum the following pituri bags ^amongst others* may be 
seen : — 

1. Skin of small animal, with the flesh-side outwards. 

2. Bag of blue and red stripes, probably of European yarn. 

3. A bag with red stripes, and stripes of the usual unbleached fibre. 



rjO AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

up in the shape of a cigar. This is often chewed, and the saliva 
swallowed. In small quantities it has a powerful stimulating effect^ 
assuaging hunger, and enabling long journeys to be made without 
fatigue, and with but little food. It is also used by the aboriginals 
to excite them before fighting. It is used to poison emus. 

Wills' diary from Cooper's Creek (p. 283) has the following^ 
under date May 7th, 1861 : — 

" In the evening, various members of the tribe came down 
with lumps of nardoo and handfuls of fish, until we were positively 
unable to eat any more. They also gave us some stuff they call 
"bedgery" or "pedgery;" it has a highly intoxicating effect when 
chewed even in small quantities. It appears to be the dried stems 
and leaves of some shrub." 

" The pituri consists of leaves broken into small particles and 
mixed with acacia leaves, small dried berries containing reniform 
seeds, and unexpanded flower-buds of the shape of a minute 
caper." (These surmises are, of course, not correct.) 

In March, 1872, Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane, read a paper 
before the Queensland Philosophical Society on " Pituri." He 
obtained specimens from a Mr. Gilmour, who had procured them 
from the neighbourhood of the Kulloo water-hole, eight miles 
beyond Eyre's Creek. He stated that the use of the pituri is con- 
fined to the men of a tribe called Mallutha, all the males of which 
are circumcised. The pituri caused a severe headache in Euro- 
peans who used it. 

Dr. Bancroft thus describes the effect of an infusion of 
pituri : — 

1. Period of preliminary excitement from apparent loss of 

inhibitory power of the cerebrum, attended with rapid 
respiration ; in cats and dogs, with vomiting and profuse 
secretion of saliva. 

2. Irregular muscular action, followed by general convulsions. 

3. Paralysis of respiratory function of medulla. 

4. Death, or 

5. Sighing inspirations at long intervals. 

6. Rapid respiration and returning consciousness. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 17I 

7. Normal respiration and general torpidity, not unattended with 
danger to life. 

The poison given by the mouth acts with less vigour ; when 
it is injected into the intestines the results are more certain. The 
animal has a longer stage of excitement, the convulsive fit is not 
so severe, and recovery is more certain. Torpidity remains for 
some hours. 

A quarter of a drop injected under the skin of a rat causes 
excitement ; the animal starts with slight noises, may fall over a 
few times from very strong muscular irregularities ; remains 
excitable for some time, then gradually becomes torpid. 

In small medical doses we may expect to find the period of 
the excitement and the torpidity to be the only marked symptoms. 
In cats and dogs the excitement is not marked, but vomiting of a 
violent kind occurs. 

Dr. George Bennett, of Sydney, has some notes on the drug 
in the N.S.W. Medical Gazette, \\\., 8, May, 1873. His pituri 
was obtained from the same source as that used by Dr. Bancroft, 
but was in a damaged condition. 

In September, 1878, Mr. A. W. Gerrard experimented with 
a very small quantity (30 grains) of pituri, which had come into 
his possession. He found an alkaloid, to which he gave the pro- 
visional name of "pituria," but on account of the smallness of 
material available, he was unable to describe its properties with 
much definiteness. (See Pharm. Joiir^i., [3], ix., 251.) Loc. cit. 
p. 638, will be found a chatty account of pituri, taken from the 
Lancet, to which it was sent by Mr. J. G. Murray, surgeon to a 
Central Australian exploring expedition. 

Mr. A. Petit having obtained a quantity of pituri, repeated 
and supplemented Mr. Gerrard's experiments. (See a paper in the 
Pharm. yoiirn. [3], ix., 819.) He pronounces the alkaloid con- 
tained in the substance to be nicotine, and quotes some physio- 
logical experiments by Professors Sydney Ringer and Murrell as 
supporting his view. 

On 3rd November, 1880, Professor Liversidge, of the Sydney 
University, read a paper before the Royal Society of New South 



172 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Wales on the subject. Professor Liversidge had more material at 
his disposal than had previous observers ; moreover, his research 
is probably the most exhaustive that has ever been made on the 
subject. The paper {Proc. R.S., N.S.W.^ 1880, 123) scarcely 
bears abstracting. Professor Liversidge isolated a brown, liquid, 
acrid alkaloid, distinct from nicotine, which he calls piturine. 

Interior of all the colonies except Tasmania and Victoria ; in 
other words, from the Darling and Barcoo Rivers to Western 
Australia. 

52. Luboisia myoporoides, B.Br., (Syn. Notelaa Ugustrina, Sieb.) ; 

N.O., Solaneae (Scrophularinese in B.Fl.) ; B.Fl., iv., 474. 

Called "Corkwood" and "Elm" by the colonists, and "Orungurabie" 
by the aboriginals of the Clarence River, New South Wales. " Ngmoo " is 
another aboriginal name. 

The first important statement as to the narcotic effect of this 
plant I can find is recorded by the Rev. Dr. WooUs, from a 
correspondent of his. " It has an intoxicating property. The 
aborigines make holes in the trunk and put some fluid in them, 
which, when drunk on the following morning, produces stupor. 
Branches of this shrub are thrown into pools for the purpose of 
intoxicating the eels and bringing them to the surface. I have 
known an instance in which giddiness and nausea have arisen 
from remaining in a close room where branches of it have been 
placed." The smell is faint and sickly, but with nothing like the 
intensity of D. Hopwoodii. 

Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane, obtained an extract from the plant, 
which he found useful in ophthalmic surgery, and he introduced it 
to the medical world. 

The leaves owe their active properties to the presence in them 
of an alkaloid called duboisine, which Ladenberg pronounces 
identical with hyoscamine, albeit there are minute differences 
between them. The method adopted by Mueller and Rummel to 
obtain the alkaloid, and a short account of the latest researches 
of Ladenberg in regard to its position, are given herewith. (See 
also Liversidge, Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1880, 125.) 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 1 73 

Dtiboisine is a volatile alkaloid of the leaves and twigs of 
Duboisia myoporoides^ R.Br., and probably identical with the 
piturine found by Staiger in Duboisia Hopwoodii, F.v.M. Pre- 
pared like nicotine. It is a yellowish, oily liquid, lighter than 
water, of a strong narcotic odour, resembling that of nicotine, and 
also cantharides, of a very strong alkaline reaction ; neutralises 
acids completely ; dissolves in any quantity of water, alcohol, and 
ether ; throws down ferrous oxide from ferrous sulphate ; dissolves 
concentrated acids, forming a colourless solution. Its hydro- 
chloride in a weak, aqueous solution, is precipitable by biniodide 
of potassium, the iodides of potassio-mercury, and of potassio- 
bismuth, and by tannic acid, not by other alkaloid reagents. 
Nicotine, which duboisine resembles, is distinguished from the 
latter by its specific gravity, its less-powerful odour, and by its 
hydrochloride in a diluted aqueous solution being precipitated by 
phosphomolybdate of soda, picric acid, and chloride of platinum. 
(Mueller and Rum.mel, in Wiltstein's Organic Constituents of 
JPlafits.) 

About seven years ago. Professor Ladenberg, during his 
investigation of the mydriatic alkaloids, arrived at the conclusion 
that duboisine, the base obtained from the Australian Duboisia 
myoporoides, was identical with hyoscyamine {Pharm. Journ. [3], 
xi., 351), though as generally met with probably contaminated 
with some impurity. This opinion was subsequently challenged 
by Herr Harnack, who affirmed that duboisine exercised a much 
stronger physiological action than hyoscyamine. Professor 
Ladenberg has, therefore, been induced to re-investigate the subject, 
working upon a sample of duboisine supplied by Herr Merck. 
The base, as received, was a yellow-brown, syrupy mass, which was 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and precipitated with gold chloride. 
The gold salt had at first a resinous appearance, but after four 
recrystallizations, it became homogenous, melting constantly at 
197° to 198°, and showing all the properties, and having the same 
elementary composition as the gold salt of hyoscine. Neither 
hyoscyamine nor any other alkaloid could be detected in the first 
mother-liquor from the gold salt. Professor Ladenberg is of 
opinion that the explanation of this different result probably lies in 



174 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

some variation in the method of preparing the duboisine, but con- 
fesses he cannot say in what respect. It will be remembered that 
the name " hyoscine " was appropriated for a base found in the 
mother-liquor, after the removal of hyoscyamine, in preparing that 
alkaloid from henbane ; it is isomeric with atropine and hyoscya- 
mine, but is split up by alkalies into tropic acid and pseudo- 
tropine. {Pharm. Journ., 25th June, 1887.) 

For an account of Gerrard's experiments with the alkaloid of 
this plant, together with some physiological experiments with it 
(Vide Pharm. Journ. [3], viii., 787, et seq.) 

In practice, the sulphate of the alkaloid, which forms golden 
yellow scales, is usually preferred. The dose is from yi^ to 3-^0 of 
a grain. 

The extract is said to have been given with great benefit in 
cases of the night sweats of phthisis, without producing any bad 
effects on the appetite. It produced entire relief from pain in a 
severe case of vesical tenesmus from inflammation of the urethra 
and neck of the bladder. 

The following references to the alkaloid are taken from 
Martindale and Westcott's Extra Pharmacopczta. It dilates the 
pupil, dries the mouth, checks perspiration, causes headache and 
drowsiness, I antagonises muscarine. On the eye it acts more 
promptly than atropine. {Lancet, i., 1878, 304.) 

Eight cases of toxic symptoms, giddiness, delirium and 
dryness of the mouth, from use of eye drops, four grains to the 
ounce. {Laftcet, ii., 1879, 353-) 

As a mydriatic it is much stronger than atropine. Its use 
requires care — it is apt to produce giddiness, etc., and even 
delirium. {Lancet, ii., 1879, 441-) 

Its action relative to atropine, physiologically, etc. {Prac- 
iitiotter, xxiii., 246.) 

Therapeutic and physiological effects, differs from atropine 
by the persistence and greater rapidity of its action on the muscle 
of accommodation ; is a useful calmative in maniacal delirium ; 
as a sedative ointment, one in five hundred of vaseline applied 
night and morning is useful in inflammation of the cornea. 
{Prac, XXV., 294.) 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 1 75 

In exophthalmic goitre, -^^^ grain, two or three times a day 
gives great relief. {BM.J., i., 1883, 958.) 

R6sum6 of its physiological properties. {Laficet, ii., 1881, 
S06. British Medical yournal, ii., 1879, 3^^, ii., 1881, 529. 
Trans. Med. Congress, 1881, i., 511.) 

53- ElephantopUS scaler, Linn., N.O., Compositae, B.Fl.,iii., 461. 

The leaves of this plant are used in Travancore, boiled and 
mixed with rice, for pains in the stomach, and swellings in the 
body. {Treasury of Botany.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

54- Entada SCandens, Benth., (Syn. E. PurscBtha, DC. ; Mimosa 

scandens, Linn.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 298. E. 

PurscBtha in Muell. Cens., p. 43. 

" Queensland Bean." " Leichhardt Bean." 

The properties of the seeds do not appear to have been tested 
in European practice ; among the natives of India they have the 
reputation of being emetic. An infusion of the spongy fibres of 
the trunk is used with advantage for various affections of the skin 
in the Philippines. (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India.) 

Queensland. 

55- Epilobium tetragomim, Linn., N.O., Onagreae, B.FL, iii., 

305- 

The Rev. Dr. WooUs mentions that this small swamp plant is 
used in rustic medicine in certain urinary disorders. 
All the colonies. 

56. Erythraea australis, R.Br., N.O., Gentianeae, B.FL, iv., 371. 
" Native Centaury." 

This plant is useful as a tonic medicine, especially in 
diarrhoea and dysentery. The whole plant is used and is 
pleasantly bitter. It is common enough in grass-land, and 
appears to be increasing in popularity as a domestic remedy. 

All the colonies. 

57- Erythrina indica, Lam., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 253. 
" Coral Tree" (of India). 



176 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Wight states that the leaves and bark are used as a febrifuge. 
Kanni Loll Dey, in a communication in the Calcutta Exhibition 
Catalogue, says : — " It is anthelmintic and useful as a collyrium 
{i.e., eye-salve or eye-wash) in ophthalmia. The leaves are 
applied externally to disperse venereal buboes and to relieve pain 
in the joints." In the Concan, the juice of the young leaves is 
used to kill worms in sores, and the young roots of the white- 
flowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an 
aphrodisiac. (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

58. Erythroxylon australe, F.v.M., N.O., Lineae., B.Fl., 1., 284. 

Erythroxlyum in Muell. Cens. 

Mr. Staiger linds that the leaves do not contain cocaine (the 
well-known alkaloid of E. Coca), but they contain coca-tannic acid. 
Queensland. 

59- Eucalyptus spp, N.O., Myrtacese. 

It is very difficult to trace to individual species the properties 
ascribed to the genus Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus is a name very 
loosely used by many people, who forget that it comprises (Baron 
Mueller's census) no less than 134 species, while a fresh one is 
occasionally discovered, and some of these have varieties so well 
marked as to be classed as distinct species by some authors. It 
should not be lost sight of that in this vast genus the properties of 
different species are frequently very different, so that to describe a 
product as simply " Eucalyptus" is but a bald description, and one 
likely to lead to great confusion. There is some excuse for this, 
however, as Eucalyptus products have only been brought under 
notice during the past quarter of a century, and some allowance 
must be made to outsiders in respect to their references to a genus 
so imperfectly known to Australians themselves. The leaves and 
flowers are usually far removed from the ground (especially the 
flowers), and some apparatus not usually possessed by pedestrians 
must be used to obtain the latter. They are, therefore, compara- 
tively unfamiliar ; this is doubtless partly the reason why they are 
not better known. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. I77 

Eucalypts contain a volatile oil, varying in composition in 
some species, and of a somewhat complex nature (see " Oils"), 
a bitter or tonic principle, in an amorphous condition, and strongly 
hygroscopic, and a kino. 

The following species may perhaps be considered the chief 
medicinal species : — 

For volatile oil — E. amygdalina, E. oleosa, E. globulus. 
For bitter principle — E. rostrata, E. globulus. 
For kino — E. rostrata, E, calophylla, E. corymbosa, E. 
maculata, E. tesselaris, E. siderophloia, E. amygdalina, E. 
piperita. 

It was formerly imagined by some that Eucalyptus leaves 
contain quinia or some other of the well-known alkaloids of 
Cinchona barks. But the experiments of Broughton, the Govern- 
ment quinologist, Ootacamund, India, entirely disprove this ; for 
upon careful examination of the bark and leaves, this chemist 
states that neither quinia nor any of the other alkaloids of Cin- 
chona barks, as quinidia, cinchonia, or cinchonidia, exist in the 
plant in any proportion. The properties of the leaves, therefore, 
so far as is known at present, depend essentially upon the volatile 
oil. (Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants, 109.) 

The latter statement is hardly correct, as they owe some of 
their principles to the bitter principle already referred to. 

The juice of Eucalyptus leaves of various species has been 
tried as a stimulant for the growth of the hair, much in the same 
way as rue is used, but although the remedy certainly can do no 
harm, the cases in which good has been reported to have ensued 
are not so well authenticated as one could wish. 

Mr. Baker (United States Consul at Buenos Ayres, where 
several Eucalypts have been largely introduced), reports that the 
people there bruise the leaves of E. globulus and bind them to 
the forehead in nervous headache. 

The leaves of E. globulus and other species possess febrifugal 
properties to some extent, and Mr. Bosisto has prepared a " Liquor 
Euc. globuli," which is sold as a fever and ague remedy. It is 
said to counteract malaria without exciting the prejudicial effects of 
quinine on the nervous system. It is also used as a general tonic. 

N 



IjS AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

In the Ausf. Journ. of Phartn. for May, 1887, occurs the 
statement that a miner at Kimberley, Western Australia, cured 
himself of scurvy by making a decoction of the leaves of a 
" White Gum." What species of Eucalyptus is alluded to I can- 
not guess at. 

The dose of Eucalyptus leaves is given in Martindale and 
Westcott's Extra Pharmacopoeia at five grains or more, in powder. 
When coarsely powdered, they are employed for smoking in 
cigarettes in cardiac and aneurismal asthma. 

The following references are obtained from the same source : 
History of the drug, its uses and botanical origin. Is a febri- 
fuge ; the leaves are also employed as a healing application to 
wounds. (Medical Times and Gazette, i., 1874, 540. Pharm. Journ. 
1874, 872 ; 1879, 865.) Ague, rapid cure of, by one to two 
drachm doses of the tincture. {Practitioner xviii., 366.) 

In ozoena, bronchitis with profuse foul expectoration, and 
uterine catarrh, tincture and infusion used both internally and 
externally {Pr. xx., 206), 

Tincture used in intermittent fever {Pr. xx., 411 ; xxiv., 138). 

Use of steam from the infusion of leaves in infectious 
diseases, especially diphtheria {Lancet, i., 1883, 316). 

A correspondent writes to the Town and Country Journal, 
Sydney, that there is a remedy for the ills of the poultry yard 
always at hand in the gum trees around it. He says : — " For 
diarrhoea, dysentery, and cholera in fowls, get a quantity of 
Eucalyptus leaves (white or blue gum ; I have used both), dry the 
leaves sufficiently to make them brittle, crush, and make into pills 
with the aid of a little bread or dough. Put as much of the 
powder {i.e., crushed or powdered leaves) as you can lift with a 
shilling into each pill. Give one to each fowl affected, and if 
necessary repeat the dose next day. I have not had a single 
death among my fowls since I used the foregoing remedy. I lost 
seventeen in two days with cholera, and the four I saved out of 
the twenty-one I had could not stand when I gave them the pills. 
They are now fine healthy birds. I have recommended the 
remedy to several people, and in no case has there been a single 
failure. I lost at the same time a collection of Australian parrots 



A 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 179 

from the same complaint, and it was by observing a flock of 
parrots on a white gum tree that I found out the remedy. I have 
not lost a single parrot since. I give any parrot ailing a little 
powdered leaf in a tube, inserting one end into the throat of the 
bird, and blowing the powder into it. Put a few leaves into the 
cage for them to eat. Finally, I may add that I have taken a large 
pill, composed of the blue gum, for a very severe attack of 
dysentery, which proved effectual, and the best remedy I have 
ever used. I have been a severe sufferer. I think the Eucalyptus is 
nature's remedy for the foregoing complaints, and is worth trying." 
* In France, five different Eucalyptus preparations are in use. 

1. A tincture made by an alcoholic maceration of the fresh 

leaves. 

2. A tincture obtained from the dry leaves by the same process. 

3. An alcoholic extract. 

4. A wine. 

5. A liniment prepared from the essence (sic). 

"It is interesting to note that the preparations used in 
Italy against the marsh fevers in Rome and its vicinity all come 
from a place called Tre-Fontane, and have the form of a highly 
concentrated ethereal extract, and an alcoholic elixir." (See E. 
globulus, "Timbers.") 

" If a few drops of an Eucalyptus preparation are placed on 
the tongue, a sensation of pungent freshness, soon followed by 
one of warmth, is experienced, the latter being due to a hyper- 
secretion of the salivary and buccal glands. Its ingestion into the 
stomach creates a similar sensation of warmth, and, besides, an 
emission of its characteristic odour by the mouth. The urine 
reveals a faintly violet colouration, indicating the passage of the 
■drug through the system. . . . Larger doses of the drug pro- 
duce headache, malaise, general fatigue and prostration, and even, 
as shown by Gimpert, fatal results in animals, by paralysing the 
reflex motor centres of the spinal cord." (La France Medicale, 
Nos. 43-5, 1885, quoted in Therapeutic Gazette. (See also 
*' Oils.") 

* Some of these preparations were actually on sale at the recent Adelaide Jubilee 
International Exhibition. This is taking coals to Newcastle with a vengeance. 



l8o AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

"An honourable and noteworthy rank as an auxiliary remedy 
in miasmatic fevers is all that can be claimed for the preparations 
of Eucalyptus. The statement that Eucalyptus asserts its antipyretic 
character also in the thermal elevations of tuberculosis and cancer 
appears, if true, to us all the more noteworthy, as its virtues in this 
direction have been most generally overlooked. 

"Important as the antimiasmatic and general antipyretic 
properties of Eucalyptus unquestionably are, it is in the laryngeal 
and bronchial inflammatory affections that the drug renders its 
most signal service. Its action in this respect rivals turpentine and 
tar, and offers even advantages in being better borne by the 
digestive organs, and being easier administrable. 

" Dr. Gimpert, of Cannes, the celebrated consumptive specialist, 
believes it to be of benefit in tubercular disease, but warns, how- 
ever, against exhibiting the drug in too large doses, lest haemoptysis 
should set in." {^La France Medicale, loc. cit.) 

The value of Eucalyptus oil in the various catarrhal affections 
of the urino-genital apparatus is likewise great. 

Dr. Owen reports in the Australian Medical yournal of 
1 5th September, 1885, the case of a child, 17 months old, which was 
poisoned by drinking a few drops of Eucalyptus extract out of a 
supposed empty bottle. The symptoms were alarming, but the 
patient recovered under proper treatment. 

Throughout the colonies. 



Planting of Eucalyptus Forests. 
{See also " Timbers.") 

Monsieur Ramel is to be credited with having first suggested the 
idea of planting Eucalyptus trees in Europe, with the view of 
thus ridding territory from baneful marsh and malarial fevers. 
The same object led to its cultivation at the Cape. It was this 
ingenious transplantation of species of this genus to the vicinity 
of Rome, that enabled the Trappists of Tre-Fontane to recover 
and render habitable a vast area formerly exposed to the ravages 
of malaria. It is highly probable that the disinfectant power of 
the tree depends largely upon its capacity of absorbing large 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. iSl 

quantities of water from the surrounding soil, and of thus dessi- 
cating the germs of malaria. Baron Mueller's services in forwarding 
seeds of Eucalytiis globulus and other species to the Trappist 
Fathers of Tre-Fontane (through the late Archbishop Gould, of 
Melbourne), must not be forgotten. 

'■' We have as yet no accurate pathologic data on the effect 
of the exhalation of Eucalyptus forests on phthisic patients ; but 
I anticipate, that in the same manner as the air of dense pine- 
woods is apt to stay the inflammatory processes in diseases of the 
respiratory organs, so the vapours of our Eucalyptus forests, the 
odour of which we so easily perceive and recognize, will likewise 
arrest the progress of these sad diseases, more particularly in their 
earlier stages, and probably more so than sea-air, notwithstanding 
its pureness, the atoms of bromine and iodine carried with it, and 
the increased ozone which it evolves. Indeed, I should assume 
that sanitarian dwellings could nowhere on the whole earth be 
provided for phthisic patients more auspiciously and more hope- 
fully than in mountains clothed with Eucalyptus forests in extra 
tropical Australia, and at elevations (varying according to latitude 
from looo to 3000 feet), where the slightly rarified air of a very 
moderate humidity pervaded by Eucalyptus vapour, together with 
the comparative equability of the temperature, would ease the 
respiration greatly. This assumption is largely based on the 
facts that no other gregarious trees in the world evolve essential 
oil so largely as our Eucalypts, unless, perhaps, some of the most 
terebinthine pines of colder climes, and that thus is most copiously 
afforded an oily volatile emanation, befitted to absorb and con- 
dense oxygen into ozone, the most powerful vitalizing, oxidizing, 
and, therefore, also, chemically and therapeutically disinfecting 
element in nature's whole range over the globe." (Baron von 
Mueller in Eucalyptographia.) 

It is but right to quote testimony on the other side of the 
question. Speaking of E. crebra, the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods 
states {Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1882, 336): "On the Peak 
Downs, about Clermont and Copperfield, it is especially plentiful, 
and all around the Hodgkinson diggings. I mention this fact just 
to show that whatever febrifuge qualities the Eucalypts may possess, 



1 82 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

ihe mere presence of some species will not be enough to dissipate 
malaria. In the places I have mentioned fever and ague were 
common enough, yet the prevailing winds used to blow through 
hundreds of miles of these gum trees ere they reached the infected 
localities." (See also "Oils and Oil-seeds.") 

60. Eugenia jambolana, Lam. (Syn, E. Moorei, F.v.M. ; Syzygium 
jambolanum, DC. ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl. iii., 283 ; E. 

Mooreim Muell., Cens. p. 59. 

" Durobbi " of some aboriginals. 

A vinegar prepared from the juice of the ripe fruit is an 
agreeable stomachic and carminative ; it is also used as a diuretic 
in India. The bark is a useful astringent. The expressed juice 
of the leaves enters into Indian medicine in various ways. The 
seeds are said to be a powerful remedy in diabetes, but their true 
value has not yet been assigned. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

61. Euphorbia spp., N.O., Euphorbiaceae. 

It is stated that the natives of Northern Territory use the 
juice of a species of Euphorbia as a specific in smallpox. 

Another species affords a juice said to be a remedy in cancer. 
Without committing oneself to an expression of opinion as to the 
utility of the Euphorbias alluded to, our native species will doubtless 
well repay a thorough examination of their medical properties. 

Throughout the colonies. 

62. Euphorbia alsinseflora, BailL; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl. vi., 

49. 

This herb is used in infusion by bushmen in cases of chronic 
dysentery and low fever. (Bailey.) 
Northern Australia. 

63. Euphorbia Drummondii, Boiss.; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl. 
vi., 49. 

Called "Caustic Creeper" in Queensland, and "Milk Plant" and 
" Pox Plant " about Bourke, New South Wales. 

An alkaloid called drumine has been extracted in Australia 
from this plant. It is said to have the same local action as cocaine. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 183 

but more extended experience will be necessary before its true 
value can be assigned. 

Since the above was written the so-called alkaloid has been 
examined in England, and found to consist mainly of calcium 
oxalate ! (Pharm. Jouryi., 'jth Jan., 1888.) No explanation has, 
up to the present, been submitted in explantion of what is either 
crass ignorance or trifling. 

Some people contend that this plant contains nj poisonous 
principle, yet cases of poisoning (chiefly of animals) seem without 
any doubt to have been traced to this particular plant. But per- 
haps its virulence only exists at a certain stage of its growth. 

In Western New South Wales the aboriginals use an infusion 
or decoction of the plant in genital diseases, and use rather strong 
doses, but it is said that an overdose simply causes headache. 
Mr. P. A. O'Shanesy observes that this plant is said to be an 
infallible remedy for dysentery and low fever. 

Throughout the colonies. 

64. Euphorbia pilulifera, Linn., (Syn. E. hirta, Linn. ; E. capit- 
ata, Lam.; E. globuli/era, Kunth ; E. vertictllata, Vellox); 
N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 51, 

" Asthma Herb," or " Queensland Asthma Herb." 
This plant having obtained some reputation in Australia in 
certain pulmonary complaints, has acquired the appellation in the 
colonies of " Queensland Asthma Herb." Nevertheless, it is by 
no means endemic in Australia, for it is a common tropical weed. 
Bentham gives the following places where it abounds : — All 
tropical America, from Florida and New Mexico to Brazil and 
Peru ; tropical Africa, from the western coast to Mozambique ; 
Mauritius, East Indies, South Sea Islands,* China, Japan, Sand- 
wich Islands, Ceylon, and Queensland, about Rockhampton. 
(Northern Australia must now be added.) 

* Seemann [Flora ntiensit, p. 217), however, says that this is evidently a comparatively 
recent introduction to Polynesia, as it was not mentioned or collected by the older botanists. 
If this be so, doubtless it is an introduction into Australia too. He gives the Fijian name 
as " Do ni osi " {i.e., horse-dung, from the natives believing that this weed was introduced 
together with the horse). 



1 84 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

It was first introduced to notice by Dr. Carr-Boyd, of Towns- 
ville, Queensland, about 1880, as a remedy in asthma, bronchitis, 
and other diseases of the respiratory organs. 

The herb from Fiji is said to be of better quaUty than that 
from Queensland, but inasmuch as it is a common weed in many 
countries, and, moreover, easily cultivated, any demand for it 
could be readily supplied. 

The direction usually given by vendors is to simmer one 
ounce of the dried herb in two quarts of water, and to reduce the 
liquid to one quart ; a wineglassful of this decoction is to be taken 
three times a day. If the fame of this drug be maintained, 
doubtless some enterprising pharmacists will present it to the 
public in a more elegant form. 

The smoke, also, of the herb should be inhaled, either by 
means of an ordinary tobacco pipe, or by burning it on a slab. 
In either case, care should be taken to get the smoke well into the 
lungs. 

It is said that alcohol fails to extract the medicinal properties 
of this plant as efficiently as water. 

It is reported to be of service in phthisis, relieving the distressing 
cough in that disease. Nevertheless, it is not an infallible cure, nor 
does it always even give relief in cases of asthma. I have known 
cases in which it has apparently utterly failed. My friend, 
Dr. Thomas Dixson, lecturer on Materia Medica at the University, 
Sydney, says that from his own observations the virtues of the 
plant have been vastly over-rated, and that in reality it is but of little 
value. Still, many cases have come under my notice in which it 
has unequivocally given relief, and I have no doubt that when the 
drug shall have longer stood the test of experience, members of the 
medical profession will largely record their experience of its use, 
and it will be assessed at its proper value. At present, as far as I 
have learnt the opinion of medical men in Sydney on this plant, it 
is only to be considered as one of the numerous remedies which 
give more or less temporary relief, and must on no account be 
regarded as a specific. 

A correspondent from Fiji says that some people prefer the 
herb, as a beverage, to the common China teas. This is, perhaps, 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 185 

a vague comparison, as the China teas in question may have been 
very common indeed. " A little euphorbia, mixed with ordinary 
Congo, gives it quite an Indian flavour." I cannot accept this as a 
fact, but I give the sentence as embodying the experience of one 
who professes to have had much to do with the drug. 

As it belongs to the notoriously poisonous genus Euphorbia, 
care should be exercised in its administration. 

There is an excellent article, entitled " A Contribution to the 
Study of Euphorbia pilulifera," by Dr. A. Marsset of Paris, in 
The Therapeutic Gazelle (Detroit, U.S.A.) of February, 1885. It 
is accompanied by a woodcut of the plant, but a much better 
picture (a water-colour drawing from a living plant) is exhibited 
in the Technological Museum. 

While acknowledging that the use of the plant in pulmonary 
complaints is of very recent origin, he gives the following, which 
shows that its use in medicine is by no means recent. Dr. Marsset 
says, " Pison (Opera, Amsterdam, 1658) appears to have been the 
first to have spoken of Euphorbia pilulifera from a medical 
standpoint. After having given an exact but incomplete description 
of the plant, he adds, that "if chewed or freshly bruised leaves are 
applied on a snake-bite, they not only assuage the pain, but even 
remove the venom and heal the wound. A pinch of the dried 
powder, taken in some convenient menstruum, excites the heart 
and arouses the vital forces depressed by the poison." 

Ainslie, in his '■'^ Materia Medica" (London, 1826), describes, 
under the name of " Pill-bearing Spurge," a plant of India and 
Ceylon, which seems to have been either the E. pilulifera of 
Brazil, or a kindred species with lilac flowers, " The native 
physicians," he says, "employ the fresh juice as an outward 
application in aphthous affections." 

It is doubtful whether the plant alluded to by Lescourtilz (Flore 
Med. des Antillas, Paris, 182 1), which he calls E. pilulifera, and 
an infusion of which is recommended by him as a "lenitive 
ptisan in gonorrhoea, be really the botanical species under con- 
sideration ; his description would, in fact, make it probable that 
he had in mind another species." . . . The leaves have been 
compared to those of spearmint and pellitory, but are a little 



l86 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

thicker, and they have an oily savour joined to slight astringency 
and acidity, not at all disagreeable. If you cut or tear them 
there issues a little white, thick juice, which is without acridity." 

Dr. Marsset then gives, in more or less detail, reports of 
twelve cases, and adds : " Of the twelve patients who were the 
subjects of the above reports, eleven suffered from crises of 
dyspnoea, with or without euphysema and chronic bronchitis. In 
some the respiratory distress followed pulmonary disease, in others 
it preceded all other symptoms. All these patients derived the 
greatest benefit from the Euphorbia ; some of them seemed to be 
radically cured under its use." 

I now quote Dr. Marsset's conclusions, and commend the 
whole of his paper to the consideration of my readers : — 

1. The active principle of E. pilulifera is soluble in dilute 

alcohol and water, insoluble, or but little soluble in ether, 
chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and essence of turpen- 
tine. 

2. It is toxic in doses to small animals, killing them by arrest of 

the respiratory movements and cardiac pulsations, which 
are first accelerated, then slowed. 

3. Its effects are not cumulative. 

4. It seems to act directly on the respiratory and cardiac centres. 

It leaves intact the other organs. 

5. It seems to be eliminated by the liver. 

6. Locally, it is without action on the skin and mucous mem- 

branes, except the gastric mucous membrane, which it 
irritates. 

7. It gives good results in attacks of dyspnoea caused by 

spasmodic asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis. 

It ought to be employed in daily doses, corresponding at the 
most to one gramme of the dried plant, and should be taken well 
diluted with water at meal-time. 

These conclusions are based upon reports which are given at 
fairly full length. Whether the conclusions are fair deductions 
from the reports is purely one for medical men to decide ; as a 
layman, I do not presume to offer an opinion. 

Queensland and Northern Austraha. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 187 

65. EvolvuluS alsinoides, Linn., (Syn. E. linifolius, Linn. ; E. 
decumhens, R.Br. ; E. villosus, R.Br. ; E. heterophyllusy 
Labill. ; E. pilosns, Roxb.) ; N.O., Convolvulaceae, B.Fl., iv., 
437. E. linifolius in Muell. Cens., p. 95. 

The stalk, leaves and roots are a reputed remedy in dysentery 
and fever. (Ainslie.) Tliis plant is not endemic in Australia. 
All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

66. Excsecaria Agallocha, Linn., (Syn. E. affinis, Endl.; Commia 

Cochi?ichinensis, Lour. ; Stillingia Agallocha, Baill.) ; N.O., 

Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 152. 
" River Poisonous Tree." " Milky Mangrove." " Blind-your-eyes.'' 

It produces, by incision in the bark, an acrid, milky juice, 
which is so volatile that no one, however careful, can gather a 
quarter of a pint without being affected by it. The symptoms are 
an acrid, burning sensation in the throat, sore eyes, and head- 
ache. A single drop falling into the eyes will, it is believed, pro- 
duce loss of sight. The natives of Eastern Australia, as well as 
those of New Guinea, etc., use this poisonous juice to cure certain 
ulcerous chronic diseases, e.g., leprosy, but in Fiji the patient is 
fumigated with the smoke of the burning wood. (Vide Seemann, 
Flora Vitiensis.) In India the sap of the tree is called " Tiger's 
Milk," and is said to be applied with good effect to inveterate 
ulcers. The leaves also are used in decoction for this purpose. 
A good caoutchouc may be prepared from the milk. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

67. FiCTlS glomerata, Roxb., (Syn. F. vesca, F.v.IM. ; Covellia 
glomerata, Miq.) ; N.O., Urticese, B.Fl., vi., 178. 

" Clustered Fig." 
This tree possesses an astringent bark ; this, as well as the 
fruit, which is considered to have similar properties, is prescribed 
in hoematuria, menorrhagia, and haemoptysis. The dose is about 
200 grains. The fruit filled with sugar is considered to be very 
cooling, and the small, blister-like galls which are common on the 
leaves, soaked in milk and mixed with honey, are given to prevent 
pitting in smallpox. Ainslie tells us that "from the root of the 



155 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

tree, which in Tamil is called Attievayr, there exudes, on its being 
■cut, a fluid which is caught in earthen pots, and which the 
Vytians consider a powerful tonic when drunk for several days 
together." In Bombay the sap is a popular remedy, which is 
locally applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular 
•enlargements, and is used in gonorrhoea. (Dymock, Materia 
Medica of Western India.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

68. Flagellaria indica, Linn., N.O., Liliacece, B.Fl., vii., lo. 
" Lawyer Vine." 
The leaves are said to be astringent and vulnerary. (Bailey.) 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

'69. Frenela Endlicheri, Parlat., N.O., Coniferse, B.Fl., vi., 238. 

The Callitris calcarata of Muell. Cens., p. 109. 

" Cypress Pine." For botanical synonyms, and other vernacular names, 
■see " Timbers." 

Mr. Bauerlen informs me that the twigs of this tree are used 
in Northern Victoria and Southern New South Wales for mixing 
with fodder to expel worms in horses. See also Boronia rhom- 
■boidea. 

Northern Victoria to Central Queensland. 

70- Geijera salicifolia, Schott., N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 364. 

" Balsam of Copaiba tree." " Wilga." 
The bark contains a powerful bitter, and has the odour of the 
-drug from which it obtains one of its vernacular names. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

71- Goodenia spp., N.O., Goodeniaceae. 

A species of Goodenia is supposed to be used by the native 
gins to cause their young children to sleep while on long journeys, 
but it is not clear which is used, or how it is administered. 
(Bailey.) Many plants of this natural order contain a tonic bitter 
■which does not seem to have been critically examined. 

Throughout the colonies. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. iSg. 

72- Gratiola pedunculata, B.Br., and G-. peruviana, Limi., (Syn.. 

G. ptcbescens, R.Br. ; G. latifolia, R.Br. ; G. glabra, Walp.) ;. 

N.O., Scropularinese, B.Fl., iv., 492-3. 
" Brooklime." " Heartsease." " Tangran" of the aboriginals of the- 
Coranderrk Station, Victoria. 

A decoction of these plants is used by people in the Braid- 
wood district (New South Wales) for liver complaints with (many 
say) good results. They enter into domestic medicine for some 
complaint or other in various parts of the colonies. The latter 
plant is not endemic in Australia. 

All the colonies except Tasmania, (G. pedunculata ;) all the 
colonies, {G. peruviana.) 

73- Guilandina Bonducella, Linn., (Syn. Casalpinia Bonducella,. 
Fleming); N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 276. CcBsalpinia 
Bonducella in Muell. Cens., p. 42. 

The seeds are called " Molucca Beans," or " Bonduc Nuts," and 
" Nicker Nuts." 

The kernels of the nuts are very bitter, and are said by the 
native doctors of India to be powerfully tonic. They are given in 
cases of intermittent fevers, mixed with spices in the form of 
powder. Pounded and mixed with castor-oil they are applied 
externally in hydrocele. At Amboyna the seeds are considered 
anthelmintic, and the root tonic in dyspepsia. In Cochin China, 
the leaves are reckoned deobstruent and emmenagogue, and the 
root astringent. The oil from the former is used in convulsions,, 
palsy, and similar complaints. In Scotland, where they are 
frequently thrown on the sea shore by the currents, they are known 
as "Molucca Beans." (Drury.) 

Northern New South Wales, Queensland and Northern 
Australia. 

74- Hardenbergia monophylla, Benlh., (Syn. H. ovata, Benth. ; 
H. cordata, Benth. ; Kennedya monophylla^ Vent. ; K. 
longiracemosa, Lodd. ; K. ovata, Sims ; Glycine bimactclaia, 
Curt. Bot. Mag.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 246. Ken- 
nedya monophylla in Muell. Cens., p. 41. 

Commonly, but wrongly, called " Native Sarsaparilla." 



igo AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The roots of this plant are sometimes used by bushmen as a 
substitute for the true sarsaparilla (Smt'lax), but its virtues are 
purely imaginary. It is also a common thing, in the Spring, in the 
streets of Sydney, to see persons with large bundles of the leaves 
on their shoulders, doubtless under the impression that they have 
the leaves of Smi'Iax glycyphvlla. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

75. Herpestis Monnieria, H.B.et.K., (Syn., Bramia indka. 

Lam.) ; N.O., Scrophularineae, B.Fl., iv., 491. Bramia 

indica in Muell. Cens., p. 97, 

This small creeping plant is common to the tropical portions 
of both hemispheres. It is regarded by the Hindoos as a power- 
ful diuretic and aperient, and the juice of the leaves, conjoined 
with petroleum, is used in India as a local application in rheuma- 
tism. " Whatever beneiit is derived from this formula is doubtless 
due to the petroleum." (Pharni. of India.) 

New South Wales and Northern Australia. 

76. Hibiscus diversfolius, Jacq., (Syn., H. ficulmus, Diss., non 

Linn.); N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 213. 

" Cooreenyan " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (North 
Queensland). 

The native physicians of Fiji use the juice of the leaves to 
procure abortion. (Seemann.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

77- HydrOCOtyle asiatica, Linft., (Syn. H. repanda, Pers. ; H. 
cordi/olia, Hook, f.) ; N.O., Umbelliferae, B.Fl., iii., 346. 

In anaesthetic leprosy good results have followed the use of 
this herb, but it possesses no claim to the character of a specific 
attributed to it by some. It has been found more useful in 
secondary or constitutional syphilis, especially in those cases 
where the skin and subjacent cellular tissue are principally 
affected. In non-specific ulcerations, and in skin diseases, it is 
of value, both as an internal and as a local remedy. [Pharm. of 
Jndia.^ 

All the colonies. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 191 

78. Indigofera enneaphylla, Linn.; N.O., Leguminosae, B Fl. ii., 

196. 

An infusion of the whole plant is diuretic, and as such is given 
in fevers and coughs in India. (Ainslie.) It is not endemic in 
Australia. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Northern Australia. 

79- lonidium STlfEniticOSUm, Ging., (Syn. Pigea Banksiana, DC. ; 

Hyhanthus enneasperinus, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Violaceae B.Fl. i., 

loi ; H. enneaspermus in Muell. Cens., p. 6 ; see also Muell. 

Fragm., x. 81, where no less than eighteen synonyms of this 

species are given. 

Mr. F. M. Bailey (Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. W., 1883, p. 3) 
points out that the roots of this species are used in India in diseases 
of the urinary organs, and the leaves as an external application. 
Other species are used medicinally in various parts of the world, 
and there is no doubt that the Australian species possess medicinal 
properties. This particular species is widely spread over tropical 
Asia and Africa. 

North and South Australia, New South Wales and Queens- 
land. 

83. Ipomoea Pes-Caprse, Roth., (Syn. /. maritima, R.Br. ; /. biloba, 

Forsk. ; Convolvulus pes-caprae, \Ann.; C.mariiimus,T)esT. ; 

C. iilobatus, Roxb. ; C. brasiliettsis, Linn.) ; N.O., Convolvu- 

lacese, B.Fl. iv., 419. 

The boiled leaves are used externally as an anodyne in cases 

of colic, and in decoction in rheumatism ; the juice is given as a 

diuretic in dropsy, and at the same time the bruised leaves are 

applied to the dropsical part. (Dymock, Materia Medica of 

Western India.) 

Western Australia, New South Wales and Northern Australia. 

81 Justicia prOCTimbens, Linn., (Syn. y. juncea, R.Br. ; J. 
media, R.Br. ; J. adscendens, R.Br. ; Bostellaria {Rostel- 
lularia) prociimbens, Nees ; R. media, Nees ; R. juncea, 
Nees ; B. pogonanthera, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Acanthacese, B.FL, 
iv , 549 



192 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

In South India the juice of the leaves squeezed into the eyes 
is a remedy in ophthalmia. (Drury.) 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Victoria. 

82. Lagenaria vulgaris, Seringe, N.O., Cucurbitaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

316. 

" Bottle Gourd." 

This plant, so plentiful along the tropical coast of Queensland > 
is said to be a dangerous poison. It is said that some sailors were 
killed by drinking beer that had been standing for some time in a 
bottle formed of one of these fruits. (F. M. Bailey.) 

Queensland. 

83. Laportea gigas, Wedd., (Syn. Urtka gigas, A. Cunn. ; U. 

excelsa, Wedd. ; Urera rotuiidifolia^ Wedd.) ; N.O., Urticeae, 

B.Fl., vi., 191. 

"Giant Nettle." " Irtaie " of the aboriginals of the Richmond and 
Clarence, New South Wales. " Goo-mao-mah " is another aboriginal name. 

The poisonous fluid secreted from the foliage is very power- 
ful, particularly in the younger leaves, and their sting is exceedingly 
virulent, producing great suffering. Cattle become furious when 
they come in contact with the leaves. It is stated that the pain 
caused by the sting of this plant will be instantly relieved by the 
milky juice of the lower part of the stem of Colocasia macorrhiza 
(" Cunjevoi " of the natives), being rubbed on the affected part. 
{Proc. R.S. Queensla?id, 1885.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

84- MallotUS phillipensis, Muell. Arg., (Syn. Rottlera tinctoria^ 
Roxb. ; Crototi philippensis, Lam. ; Echinus philippensiSy 
Baill.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaces, B.Fl., vi., 141. 
" Kamala " of India. " Poodgee-poodgera" of the Queensland 

aboriginals. 

The reddish powder from the capsules of this plant, called 

" Kamala" by the Hindoos, is a useful vermifuge, especially 

adapted for the expulsion of taenia. 

Anderson found that a concentrated ethereal solution of 

Kamala allowed to stand for a few days, solidified into a mass of 

granular crystals, which by repeated solution and crystallisation in 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 193 

ether were obtained in a state of purity. This substance, named 
by him Rottlerin, forms minute, platy, yellow crystals of a 
fine satiny lustre, readily soluble in ether, sparingly in cold alcohol, 
more so in hot, and insoluble in water. The mean of four analyses 
gave its composition as Q,.^ H^o Og. [Pharmacographia.) 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

85. Melaleuca uncinata, RBr., (for synonyms and vernacular 

names see "Essential Oils.") N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 

150. 

A " Tea-Tree." 

According to Mr. J. G. O. Tepper {Proc. R.S., S.A., iii., 
174), the leaves of this plant, if chewed, are very useful in alleviat- 
ing and curing ordinary catarrh. This observation is well worth 
repeating, especially as this particular species is widely distributed, 
and as there is no reason to suppose that this property is confined 
to this species. 

Western and South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and 
Queensland. , 

86. Melastoma malabathricum, Lvm., (Syn. 3f. polyanthum, 

Blume; M. deniiculaiuin, Labill. ; M. Novcz-HoUandioe, 
Naud.); N.O., Melastomacese, B.Fl., iii., 292. 

The leaves are used in India in cases of diarrhoea and 
dysentery. (F. M. Bailley.) 

From New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

87. Melia COmpOSita, WHld., (Syn. M. Azedarach, Linn. ; M. 
auslralasica, A. Juss.) ; N.O., Meliaceas, B.Fl., i., 380. 

" Dygal " of the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. "White 
Cedar" and " Cape Lilac " of the colonists. Called "Persian Lilac," and 
other names, in India. 

The Hindoos use the flowers, fruit, leaves, and bark for many 
medical purposes. The root-bark is on the secondary list of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia as an anthelmintic. In large doses 
it is said to produce narcotic effects, though these, if produced, 
pass off without injury to the system. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



194 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

88. Mentha gracilis, R.Br., (Syn. Micromeria gracilis, Benth.); 

N.O., Labiatse, B.FI., v., 83. 

" Native Pennyroyal." 

Mr. Bauerlen points out that this plant and M. satureoides are 
used in the southern districts of New South Wales at least, by 
females in irregularities of the menses, with most satisfactory results. 
Either infusion or decoction is used. It should, however, be borne 
in mind that these two species are much more acrid than the 
European species of Mentha commonly used for a similar pur- 
pose, and, therefore, greater care should be exercised in their use. 
Both herbs are also strewn about floors and beds for the purpose 
of keeping away insects, and they are very efficient in driving 
away fleas and bugs. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

89. Mentha SatlireioideS, R.Br., (Syn. Micromeria satureioideSy 

Benth.) ; N.O., [.abiats, B.FI., v., 84. 

See M. gracilis. 1 

All the colonies, 

90. Mesembryanthenmm seqnilaterale, Haw., (Syn. M. giauc- 

escens. Haw, ; M. Rossi, Haw. ; M. nigrescens. Haw. ; M. 

prcBcox, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Ficoideae, B.FI., iii., 324. 
" Pig's Face." "Berudur" of the aboriginals of the Lachlan River, 
Newr South Wales. It was the " Canajong" of the Tasmanian aboriginals. 

Many species, and especially M. acinaciforme, Linn., from 
which this species scarcely differs, are used in South Africa. 
There the expressed juice of the succulent leaves taken internally 
checks dysentery, and acts as a mild diuretic, while it is also, for 
its antiseptic property, used as an excellent gargle in malignant 
sore throat, violent salivation, and aphthae, or in the form of a 
lotion in burns and scalds. (Bailey in 8y7i. Qd. Flora.) 

Near the coast in all the colonies. 

91- Morinda citrifolia, TJmi., (Syn. M. quadrangularis, Don.) ; 

(For other synonyms see " Timbers.") N.O., Rubiaceae, B.FI., 

iii., 423. 

"Indian Mulberry." 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 195 

The Cochin-Chinese place this amongst their medicinal plants, 
believing the fruit to be deobstruent and emmenagogue. In 
Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds 
and ulcers, and are administered internally as a tonic and febri- 
fuge. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern A.ustralia. 



92. MuCUna gigantea, DC, (Syn. Carpopogon giganteum, Roxb.); 
N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 254. 

Used in India in rheumatic complaints. The bark for this 
purpose is pulverised, mixed with dry ginger, and rubbed over the 
parts afflicted. (Rheede.) 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



93- Myriogyns minuta, Less., (Syn. ///. CunninghaniH, DC; 
Centipeda orbicularis, Lour. ; C. Cunninghami, F.v.M. ; 
Sph(zromorph(za centipeda, DC. ; S. Russelliana, DC. ; 
Cotula minuta, Forst. ; C. cuneifolia, Willd. ; Gratigea 
cuneifolia, Poir. ; G. minuta, Poir ; G. decumbens, Desf. ; 
Artemisia jninima, Thunb.) ; N.O , Compositae, B.Fl. iii., 
553; Centipeda orbicularis and C. Cunnifighami, as distinct 
species, in Muell. Cens., p. 84 See also Muell. Fragm. viii., 
143- 

" Gukwonderuk " of the aboriginals at Lake Hindmarsh Station, 
Victoria. " Sneezeweed " of Southern New South Wales. 

The following letter from the Rev. Dr. Woolls (then of Rich- 
mond), to the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald, appeared in 
that journal on Christmas Day, 1886. I give it in full, as if this 
plant only partially realizes the expectations formed of it, it will be 
a valuable addition to our indigenous vegetable materia medica. 

Following is Dr. Wooll's letter : — " Some weeks since, the 
Rev. S. G, Fielding, of Wellington, called my attention to a weed 
(known to botanists as Myriogne minuta, of the composite order,) 



196 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

which he stated had been used with success in cases of blight. 
Being anxious to test the efficacy of the remedy, and to ascertain 
wHether any bad effects would arise from its application, I placed 
some of it in the hands of Dr. Jockel of this town, who has 
furnished me with the following remarks : ' I have much pleasure 
in testifying to the efficacy, in cases of ophthalmia, of the plant 
which you so kindly sent me. A case came under my notice a few 
days ago of a drover who was suffering from a severe form of 
purulent ophthalmia, contracted up the country. I made an infusion 
of the plant according to directions, and the first local application 
seemed to have almost a magical effect. The man expressed him- 
self as relieved at once of the intense smarting which he had 
previously suffered. He got on so well that in two days he was 
able to start back up country again, and could hardly express his 
gratitude for the very great relief afforded. Louis C. Jockel.' 

" I find, from a communication of Baron Mueller, that for 
some time past he has had an idea that Myriogyne might be utilised 
for medicinal purposes, and that he had actually submitted it to 
Dr. Springthorp, an eminent physician in Melbourne, for the purpose 
of experiment. The Baron, however, was not aware of its efficacy 
in simple ophthalmic inflammation, and he regarded the discovery 
as interesting. I mention this as a matter of justice to Dr. Jockel, 
who, I believe, is the first medical man in Australia who has proved 
the value of Myriogyne in a case of ophthalmia. This weed^ 
growing as it does on the banks of rivers and creeks, and in moist 
places, is common to all the Australian colonies and Tasmania, 
and it may be regarded as almost co-extensive with the disease 
it is designed to relieve. It is described in the Flora AtistraliensiSy 
vol. iii., p. 553, and figured amongst Baron Mueller's plants of 
Victoria. In the document relating to the Intercolonial Exhibition, 
1866-67, it is noticed as remarkable for its sternutatory properties, 
and recommended for the manufacture of snuff ; and I find that 
Endlicher, in alluding to the species of the genus of Myriogyne^ 
characterises them as herba ramosissimce acres sterntitaioricE, 
{Genera Planlarum, p. 440)." 

The Rev. Mr. Hartmann says (Brough-Smyth's Aborigines of 
Victoria, ii., 173) that this plant is used as medicine by ihe 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. I97 

aborigines of Lake Hindmarsh, but he does not say for what 
complaint.* 

It is also found in India, Madagascar, and Japan. The 
natives of India consider it a hot and dry medicine, useful in 
paralysis, pains in joints, and special diseases ; also as a vermi- 
fuge. {Cyclop, of India.) 

Throughout the colonies. 

94. Nelumbmm SpecioSUm, Wnid., (Syn. Nelumbo nud/era, 

Gaertn.); N.O., Nympheaceae, B.Fl., i., 62. N. jiucifera in 

Muell. Cens., p. i. 

'• Pink Water Lily." 

The milky viscid juice of the flower-stalks and leaf-stalks is 
used in India as a remedy against sickness and diarrhoea. (End- 
licher, quoted by Bailey.) The petals of the flower are also stated 
to be astringent. It is commonly distributed in the warmer 
regions of Asia. 

Queensland. 

95. Ocimum sanctum, Linn., (Syn. 0. anisodorum, F.v.M. ; O. 

caryophyllinum, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Labiatae, B.Fl., v., 74. 

" Mooda" of the aboriginals of the Cloncurrj' River, and " Bulla-bulla" 
of those of the Mitchell. 

This plant is much cultivated in India and Ceylon, and is 
frequently used in medicine in the latter country. {Treasicry of 
Botany.) Stimulant, diaphoretic and expectorant virtues are 
assigned to it by the natives. {Pharm. of India.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

96. Pagetia medicinalis, F.v.M., N.O., Rutaceae, Muell. Cens., 

p. 12. 

The oil of the leaves is supposed to be of medicinal value. 
(Bailey.) 

Queensland. 

* There is a figure of Centipeda (Myriogyne) Cunninghami in Mueller's Plants Indigenous 
in Victoria. Other synonyms of C. orbicularis, beyond those given, will be found in Muell. 
fragm., viii., 142. 

The Baron prepared a snuff from this plant, which he exhibited at the Intercolonial 
Exhibition of Melbourne, 1886. 



1 93 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



97' Petalostigma quadriloculare, F.v.M., (Syn. P. triloculare, 

Muell. Arg. ; P. australianum, Baill. ; Hylococcus sericeus, 
R.BrJ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FL, vi., 92. 

"Crab Tree." "Native Quince." "Emu Apple." " Bitter Bark." 
" Quinine Tree." " Muntenpen " of some Queensland aboriginals. 

The bark contains a very powerful bitter, said to have the 
same properties as cinchona. (Hill.) Tenison-Woods, however, 
states {Explorations in Northern Australia): "It is usually 
covered with fruit like a small yellow plum, of eminently nasty 
taste. This is, I believe, its only claim to be called a " quinine." 
This surmise is hardly correct. 

The stem-bark contains, together with the ordinary plant- 
constituents, a camphoroidal essential oil, and an indifferent bitter 
principle belonging to the glucosides. 

The ash of the bark (8.3 per cent.) contains, in 100 parts : — 



Sodium Chloride 

Potash 

Soda 

Lime ... 

Magnesia 

Alumina 

Ferric Oxide ... 

Manganoso-Manganic Oxide. 

Sulphuric anhydride ... 

Phosphoric pentoxide 

Silica ... 

Carbonic Acid 
(Falco, in Watts Diet., vi., ist Suppt. 904.) 
New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



2.94 

2.75 

0.94 

46.23 

1-43 

0.05 
0.18 
0.46 
1.32 
0.56 
2.21 
40.33 



98. Piper Novse-Hollandiae, Miq.,- N.O., Piperaceae; B.Fl. vi., 
204. 
" Native Pepper." " Mao-warang " was an aboriginal name. 

An excellent stimulant tonic to the mucous membrane. Used 
by Dr. Bancroft in the treatment of gonorrhoea, and other mucous 
discharges, with considerable success. This is one of the largest 
native creepers, the root being at times from six inches to a foot in 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 199 

diameter. The plant climbs like ivy to the top of the tallest trees, 
and when full grown weighs many tons, so that a good supply of 
the drug is readily obtainable. The active principle, as dissolved 
out by ether, is a brownish oily fluid, soluble in water to a limited 
extent only, the insoluble portion producing an oily emulsion. It 
has a warm, aromatic, pleasant taste, and a benumbing effect on 
the tongue, when applied to it in minute quantity. (Bancroft.) 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

99- Pittosponim undulatum, Vent.,- N.O, Pittosporese, B.Fl. i., 

III. 

" Native Laurel." " Mock Orange." 

I am not aware that this plant is employed medicinally, 
but the following chemical investigation of the bark will be found 
interesting, and may do something towards preparing the way for 
its utilization. 

Pitiosporine. Glucoside of the bark and fruits of Pittosporum 
undulatum. The pulverised bark is extracted with hot alcohol, 
filtered when cold, mixed with an equal bulk of ether, filtered 
again, and evaporated. It is a whitish, loose powder, sweetish at 
first, afterwards bitter and acrid ; dissolves in water and alcohol, 
not in ether ; froths with water, gives precipitates with acetate and 
sub-acetate of lead. Separates, by boiling with diluted acids, into 
sugar and a white substance, insoluble in water. (Mueller and 
Rummel, in Wittstein's Organic Constituents of Plant s^^ 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

100. Plumbago zeylanica, Linn., N.O., Plumbaginese, B.Fl., iv., 
267. 

In India, a tincture of the root-bark has been employed as an 
antiperiodic. Dr. Oswald states that he has employed it in the 
treatment of intermittents with good effect. It acts as a powerful 
sudorific. (Pharm. of India.) It is a common medicine for 
dyspepsia in India. It is also frequently used as a poultice for 
abscesses, &c. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. , 



200 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

loi. Polanisia visCOSa, DC, (Syn. P. icosandra, Linn. ; Cleome 
flava, Banks; C. viscosa^ Linn.); N.O., Capparidese, B.Fl., i., 
90. Cleome viscosa in Muell. Cens., p. 4, 

Used by the aboriginals to relieve headache. (Mr. H. W. 
Stone, quoted by Mr. Bailey.) It is also used in Cochin China as 
a counter-irritant, in the same way as sinapisms in Europe, and 
also as a vesicant ; and in the United States the roots are said to 
be used as a vermifuge. In India the leaves boiled in ghee are 
applied to recent wounds, and the juice to ulcers. The seeds are 
occasionally given in fevers and diarrhoea. (Ainslie. Lindley.) 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia; 
Western Australia. 

102. Pongamia glabra, Veftt., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 273. 

" Indian Beech." 

This tree also grows in tropical Asia and Fiji. In India an 
oil (called Poonga oil) is extracted from the seeds for use as an 
illuminant, and as an application in scabies, herpes, and other 
cutaneous diseases. The oil is also much used as an embrocation 
in rheumatism. A poultice of the leaves is a popular application 
in India to foul ulcers. The plant is used medicinally in various 
ways, and for various purposes, by the people of India. (Dymock.) 

Dr. Bancroft {Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1886, p. 70) points out 
that all parts of this plant contain a principle of great activity as 
an emetic. Frogs poisoned with extract of the bark vomit for 
several hours, after which they become torpid, and generally die 
within forty hours. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

103. Portnlaca Oleracea, Linn., N.O., Portulacacese, B.Fl., i., 
169. 

" Common Pig-weed,"' or " Purslane." " Thukouro" of the aboriginals 
of the Cloncurry River, North Queensland. 

This plant is a native of most warm parts of the world. It 
has been cultivated from very ancient times, and possesses anti- 
scorbutic properties. The young shoots are sometimes put in 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 201 

salads, and the older ones are used as a potherb or for pickling. 
(See also "Foods.") 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

104. Pteris aquilina, Linn., var. eSCUlenta, (Syn. P. esculenta, 
Forst.); N.O., Filices, B.FL, vii., 732. 

" Brake Fern," or " Bracken." 
The European plant is astringent, bitter, and anthelmintic, 
and the rhizome has been used as a substitute for hops. 
All the colonies. 

105. Ehizophora mucronata, Linn., (Syn. R. Mangle, Roxb. ; 
R. Candelaria, Wight et Am.) ; N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.FL, 

ii-, 493- 

A " Mangrove." 

The bark has been tried medicinally in cases of hsematuria, 
but with what result I have been unable to learn. For notes on 
the medicinal utilization of the astringency of this tree, see Pharm. 
Journ., vi., 11. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

106. SarCOStemma australe, R- Brown, N.O., Asclepiadeae, B.FL, 
iv., 328. 

Called " Gaoloowurrah" by Northern Territory natives. 

The juice is used by the Port Darwin (Northern Territory of 
South Australia) natives as a remedy in smallpox. {Proc. R.S., 
S.A., v., 9.) In the interior districts of New South Wales its 
milky juice is used by white men as an application to wounds. 

All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

107. Schmidelia serrata, L)C., (Syn. .S". hmoriensis, DC; Orni- 
trophe serrata, Roxb. ; Allophyllus ternatus, Lour.) ; N.O., 
Sapindacese, B.FL, i., 455. Allophyllus ternatus in Muell. 
Cens., p. 24. 

The astringent root is employed in parts of India to check 
diarrhoea. {Cyclop. 0/ India.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



202 , AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

io8. Scoparia dulcis, Linn., N.O., Scrophularinese, B.FI., iv., 504. 

This plant is a native of every part of the world, within the 
tropics. In India it is used in infusion in ague. {Cyclop, of 
India ^ 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

109. Sebssa OVata, R^Br., (Syn. Exacum ovatum, Labill, ; Erythraa 
chlorcB/olia, Lehm.) ; N.O., Gentianese, B.FI., iv., 371. 
This neat little annual herb can be utilized for its bitter tonic 

principle. It and Erythraa australis (which see) may be used 

indiscriminately. 

Throughout the colonies. 

no. SemecarpUS Anacardium, Linn., (Syn. S. australasicusy 

Engl.) ; N.O., Anacardiacese, B.FI., i., 491. 
" Marking-nut Tree" of India. 

This tree is common in some parts of India. The hard shell 
of the fruit is permeated by a corrosive juice, which is employed 
externally in sprains and rheumatic affections, in scrofulous 
eruptions, and for destroying warts. {Treasury of Botany.) The 
nut is also used to produce the appearance of a bruise in support 
of criminal charges preferred through enmity, its application in a 
diluted form producing great cedematous swelling and redness of 
the skin. It is also used as a fumigation for haemorrhoids in 
India ; it causes sloughing of the tumours. It is given internally 
in asthma, after being steeped in buttermilk, and is also given as 
a vermifuge. Both the nut and the oil obtained from it are used 
in India for purposes too numerous to mention. (Dymock, 
Materia Medica of Western India.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

Ill- Sesbania Segyptica, Pers., (Syn. CEschynomene Sesban^ 
Linn.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.FI., ii., 212. 

" Ngeen-jerry " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, North 
Queensland. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 203 

In India the leaves of this shrub are used as a cataplasm to 
promote suppuration. {Cyclop. 0/ India.) The warmed leaves are 
simply moistened with a little castor oil. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

112. Sida rhombifolia, Linn., (Syn. 6". retusa, Linn.); N.O., 
Malvaceae, B.FL, i., 196. 

" Queensland Hemp." Called "Paddy Lucerne" on the Richmond and 
Clarence Rivers, New South Wales ; " Native Lucerne," is a common name, 
also "Jelly Leaf." 

This herb is largely used by the natives of India in con- 
sumption and rheumatism. It is given as an infusion, and is said 
to promote perspiration ; the leaves are used as a poultice for 
snake-bites, and in cases of the stings of wasps and other insects. 
It contains a quantity of mucilage, which, no doubt, accounts for 
its use in diseases of the chest. {Pharm. 0/ India.) Its colonial 
name of "Jelly Leaf " is in allusion to its mucilaginous nature. 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

113. Smilax glycyphylla, Smilh, N.O., Liliaceae, B.Fl., vii., 7. 

" Native Sarsaparilla," " Sweet Tea." 
This plant has been recommended as an alterative and tonic 
and anti-scorbutic. It is one of the earliest plants pressed into 
the service of medicine in New South Wales. At p. 230, Journal 
of a Voyage to New South Wales, by John White, Esq., Surgeon- 
General to the Settlement, London, 1790, (the information must 
have been furnished almost immediately after the foundation of. 
the colony), occurs the passage , . . . " good for the scurvy. 
The plant promises much in the last respect, from its bitter, as a 
tonic, as well as the quantity of saccharine matter it contains." 
The decoction is made from the leaves, and is similar in properties 
but more pleasant in taste, than that obtained from the roots of 
S. officinalis, or Jamaica sarsaparilla. The herb is a common 
article of trade amongst Sydney herbalists. 

Glycyphyllin. Glucoside of the leaves of Smilax glycy- 
phylla; a brownish-yellow, amorphous mass, or by slow evaporation 
of the ethereal solution, concentrically united tufts of crystals of 
aromatic odour and bitter-sweet taste ; dissolves better in hot than 



204 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

in cold water, easily in alcohol and in ether ; breaks up on boiling 
with dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid into sugar and another 
product, (Mueller and Rummel, in Wittstein's Organic Con- 
stituents of Plants.) 

See also a paper by Prof. Rennie, of Adelaide, on Glycy- 
phyllin, the sweet principle of .S". glycyphylla, in Journ. Chem, 
Soc, December, 1886. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

114- Sophora tomentOSa, Linn., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 
274. 

" Sea-coast Laburnum." 

The roots and seeds have been considered as specifics in 
bilious sickness. (Bailey.) 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

115- Tabernaemontana orientalis, R.Br., N.O., Apocyneae, B.Fl., 

iv., 311. 

" Bitter Bark." 

This small tree has an intensely bitter bark, and a decoction 

of it is sometimes sold as " bitters." 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

116. Tacca pinnatifida, Forst., N.O., Taccaceae, B.FL, vi., 458. 

The starch from the tubers is far preferable to that of any 
other arrowroot for dysentery. {Treasury of Botany?) This 
plant is not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

117- Tephrosia purpurea, Pers., (Syn. 7". piscatoria, Pers. ; T. 
toxicaria, Gaud. ; T. Baueri, Benth. ; Galega littoralis, 
Forst. ; G. piscatoria, Sol.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii. 

209. 

This plant is used in many tropical countries for the purpose 
of stupefying fish for the sake of capturing them. 

In India the plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic, 
useful in cough and tightness of the chest, bilious febrile attacks, 
obstructions of the liver, spleen and kidneys ; the natives recom- 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 20$ 

mend it as a purifier of tlie blood, and for boils, pimples, &c. 
(Dymock.) 

South Australia; New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

1 1 8. Thespesia populnea, Corr., (Syn. Hibiscus populneus, 
Willd.) ; N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 221. 

The fruit abounds with a yellow viscid juice, which is a 
valued local application in scabies and other cutaneous diseases 
amongst the natives of Southern India, the affected parts being 
also washed daily with a decoction of the bark of the tree. 
{Pharm. of India ^ 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

119. Trichodesma Zeylanicum, R.Br., (Syn., PolUchia zeylanica, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Boragine^, B.Fl., iv., 404. P. zeylanica in 
Muell. Cens., p. 100. 

In India this, with other species, is considered diuretic, and 
one of the cures for the bites of snakes. (Bailey.) 
All the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

120. Typha angUStifolia, Linn., N.O., Typhaceae, B.Fl., vii., 159. 

A Bull-rush." 

The root-Stock, which abounds in starch, is somewhat 
astringent and diuretic, and is employed in Eastern Asia in dysen- 
tery, gonorrhoea, and the measles. 

All the colonies. 

121. Urena lobata, Linn., N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 206. 

This common tropical weed possesses mucilaginous properties, 
for which reason it is used medicinally in India. In Brazil a 
decoction of the root and stem is used as a remedy for windy 
colic, and the flowers as an expectorant in dry and inveterate 
coughs, according to Mr. F. M. Bailey. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



2o6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

122. Zanthoxylum veneficum, ^a/V^y, N.O., Rutaceae. (Suppt. to 

Queensland Flora.) 

The bark possesses a peculiar tingling, hot taste, like aconite. 
Numerous experiments were made with extract of the bark upon 
dogs, cats, rats, frogs, and grasshoppers. It acts upon the spinal 
cord, increasing the reflex excitability, and finally paralysing the 
cord. It poisons grasshoppers, while strychnine has no action 
upon them. It tetanises frogs, even when applied to the skin. In 
its physiological action it resembles strychnine. The following 
may be taken as a typical example of the effect of this substance 
upon warm-blooded animals : — 

Four grains of the alcoholic extract suspended in five minims 
of water and five of spirit were injected under the skin of a large 
cat. Immediately afterwards, the cat was uneasy, would lie down, 
then raise itself, walk a little, and lie down again. In eighteen 
minutes a tremor of the head and ears was noticed, the pupils were 
dilated, locomotion was affected ; the animal could only walk a 
yard or so, in a stiff, awkward way. In twenty minutes the tremors 
were frequent, and power to walk almost gone. In thirty minutes 
there were convulsive contractions of the fore limbs and muscles 
of the chest ; a strong light would not alter the iris. In thirtj*- 
three minutes the lips were livid, and tetanic convulsions com- 
menced ; during one of these attacks the respiration is very 
laboured, inspiration stertorious, the head hangs down, and the 
cat jerks itself backwards ; directly after, the spasm goes off, the 
cat lies down exhausted. In forty-five minutes there was a tetanic 
spasm every minute, and the animal was expected to die every 
convulsion. In fifty-five minutes tetanic spasms last about a 
quarter of a minute ; inspiration extremely laboured and prolonged, 
with wheezing. At times no air can be inspired, and the chest 
becomes collapsed. In sixty minutes the cat jumped and fought 
for breath in a frightful way, and died. The heart could be felt to 
beat regularly for two minutes afterwards. Four hours after death 
there was rigor mortis, the right side of the heart was empty, and 
the left ventricle firmly contracted ; the intestine was bloodless and 
contracted. 



SUBSTANCES REPUTED MEDICINAL. 20J 

With larger doses than five grains tetanic spasms come on 
rapidly, and the animals die in a few minutes. Large dogs recover 
sometimes after five grains have been injected under the skin. 
(Dr. Bancroft, in Froc. R.S., N.S. W., 1886, p. 70.) 

Queensland. 

123. Zizyphus jujnba, Lam., N.O., Rhamneae, B.Fl., i., 412. 
"Jujube Tree" of India. 

The French prepare a demulcent Pate de Jujuhes from the 
fruits of this tree. Various parts of the tree are used in native 
medicine in India. The bark is a powerful astringent ; the dried 
and powdered fruit is used in medicine, as are also the leaves, and 
a decoction of the root. (Dymock.) 

Queensland. 



Gums, Resins, and Kinds. 



A. (GUMS.) 



DEFINITIONS. 
The following definitions are conaplete enough for ordinary pur- 
poses : — 

(a) A gum is entirely soluble or swells up in water, but entirely 
insoluble in alcohol (commonly called " spirit "). S^.g-, " Wattle- 
gums." (Acacia.) 

(b) A resin is entirely soluble in alcohol, but entirely insoluble 
in water, ^-g., " Pine resin." (Frenela Endlicheri.) 

(c) A gum-resin is intermediate in character between a gum 
and a resin, that is to say, it is partly soluble in water and partly 
soluble in alcohol. E.g., the gum-resin of Pittosporum undulaium, 

{d) Kkino is the astringent inspissated juice of a tree; excel- 
lent examples are afforded by the various species of Eucalyptus. 

Important note. The classification of the exudations from 
some of the species is only intended to be provisional. In the 
absence of some of the products which I have had no opportunity 
of examining, I am unable to say, for instance, whether some of 
them should be grouped as " gums," or as " gum-resins." 



1. Acacia spp, N.O., Leguminosse. 

" Wattles." 
These gums are exported for adhesive purposes, for cotton- 
printing, &c. A large number of Acacias yield them in greater 
or less quantity. Speaking of wattle-gum in general, Bentley and 
Trimen {Medicinal Plants) say : " It is found commonly in large 
tears or masses, of a dark yellow or reddish-brown colour. This 
gum, which has a transparent appearance, being nearly free from 
cracks or fissures, is said to be readily soluble in water, and to 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 209 

form a very adhesive mucilage. It is frequently contaminated 
v^^ith pieces of the astringent barks of the trees from which it is 
obtained ; hence, its solution, unless carefully prepared, will 
frequently contain some tannic acid." 

The allusion to solubility in the preceding quotation is only 
partly true. Very little has been done in regard to the systematic 
examination of our gums, but the writer, as the result of fairly 
close attention to them during the past few years, hardly inclines 
to the opinion that there is much commercial future before them. 
" Best selected Turkey Gum Arabic " is, of course, the most valu- 
able gum yielded by Acacias. If judging were to be by points, it 
would take the highest place as regards absence of colour, freedom 
from accidental impurities, ready solubility, and adhesiveness of its 
mucilage. The highest quality of Australian gum the author has 
ever seen falls far behind this high standard. As far as his experi- 
ments go, those samples obtained from the interior (comparable 
in its aridity to the Soudan, and other noted gum-producing coun- 
tries) are completely soluble in water, and make good mucilages, 
while those obtained east of the Dividing Range, i.e., in well- 
watered districts, in which vegetation is comparatively luxuriant, 
are more or less insoluble, portions, at least, merely swelling up in 
water, like cherry gum. In other words (speaking of the eastern 
colonies), the eastern wattle-gums contain metagummic acid, while 
the western ones do not. And when it is borne in mind that the 
yield of gum in the interior is insignificant as compared with that 
of the coast country, it becomes apparent how hazardous is the 
generalization that Australian gums are readily soluble in water. 

Owing to the great cost of unskilled white labour in Australia, 
and the impossibility of utilising the services of the few aboriginals 
for the purpose of gum collecting, Australian gum arable will never 
find its way into the world's markets to any very great extent. 

Taken internally, it is used by country folks in diarrhoea and 
piles, and in veterinary practice in the country, for wounds and 
raw shoulders in horses ; but the uses to which it is put are very 
miscellaneous. 

The author has been shown a statement by a " good practical 
man," who, by the way, lives in the midst of wattle-trees, and gets his 
p 



210 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

living by collecting their bark, to the effect that wattle-gum, dis- 
solved in benzole, "makes an excellent carriage varnish." It 
never occurred to him to try the experiment for himself, and while 
pointing out that wattle-gum is quite insoluble in that liquid, 
the present may be a convenient opportunity of again protesting 
against the reckless statements which are made in regard to our 
little known raw products. 
All the colonies. 

2. Acacia binervata, -OC, (Syn. A. umbrosa, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosse, B.Fl. ii., 390. 

" Black Wattle" of Illawarra (New South Wales), and other places. 
" Hickory." " Myimbarr " of the aboriginals of Illawarra. 

Yields an inferior gum arable. It is rather dark, though, if 
properly sorted, some of it is of a very light, clean colour. It has 
a dull fracture. As a rule, it does not exude from the trees in large 
quantities, and, therefore, usually comes to market with adherent 
bark, through having been chipped off the tree to waste no gum. 
It dissolves but fairly well in water, leaving rather a considerable 
quantity of insoluble matter in the form of a flocculent deposit. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

3. Acacia dealbata, ^^'nk. (Syn. A. irrorata, Sieb.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 415. 

" Silver Wattle." 

The gum from this tree is exceedingly viscous, and is quite as 
useful as some low kinds of gum arable, taking high-rank amongst 
wattle-gums. It varies from a light sherry colour to a very dark 
and dirty colour, and can frequently be easily detached from the 
tree in large masses. It has a clear fracture. 

South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and 
Queensland. 

4- Acacia decnrrens, Wnid., N.O., Leguminosae, B.F1., ii., 414. 

" Black, Green, or Feathery Wattle," sometimes called " Silver 
Wattle," once called " Wattah " by the aborigines of the counties of 
Cumberland and Camden, New South Wales. 

This tree yields gum copiously during the summer season. 
In colour, it is amber of all shades, but often it is one of the 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 211 

darkest of wattle-gums. It can usually be gathered with fair 
rapidity without much of the bark adhering. It is scarcely soluble 
in water, but swells up in that liquid to a great extent. After 
several days boiling in a large quantity of water it almost entirely 
dissolves. When quite dry it feels horny under the teeth, though 
with smart blows it may be reduced to powder. Small boys are 
well aware of the jelly which it forms when water is added to it. 
They sweeten it, call the preparation ''gum jelly," and consider it 
exceedingly toothsome. The author has seen it exposed for sale in 
Sydney labelled " chewing gum," and was told by the shopkeeper 
that he can sell all that falls into his hands (which is not much) for 
making jellies, in lieu of isinglass. Some tanners also use this and 
allied gums, with admixture of glue, for sizing leather. 
All the colonies except Western Australia. 

5- Acacia decurrens, Willd., var. mollis, (Syn. A. molUssima, 
Willd.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 415 

"Silver Wattle," "Black Wattle" of the early colonists of New 
South Wales. " Carrong," or " Currong," of the aboriginals of Victoria. 

Forms a lower class gum arable. It is sometimes substituted 
for that from A. dealbata, but it is far inferior. In the Cat. 
Intercol. Exh., Melbourne, 1866, it is stated that the aboriginals 
of the Yarra used this gum for fixing the bottom ends of their 
spears, which were made from a small wattle in the Loddon 
district. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania, 

6. Acacia elata, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 413. 

This gum is in amber coloured tears. The tree itself is of 
very local distribution, and as far as the author's experience goes, 
the gum is very rare. Out of perhaps two hundred individuals 
examined, only one exuded it to the extent of a quarter of a pound, 
perhaps half a dozen gave a few grains each, while on the remainder 
no trace of gum was visible. It is apparently very similar in 
properties to the gum of A. decurretts, but the author has not yet 
submitted it to close examination. 

New South Wales. 



212 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

7- Acacia famesiana, Wnid., (Syn. A. lenticUlata, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 419. 

" Dead Finish." 

This gum is collected in Sind, and forms a part of what is 
known in Bombay as " Karachi Gum " — a kind of gum arabic. 
(Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India, p. 281 ._) The author 
has not heard of its collection in Australia. 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern 
and Western Australia. 

8. Acacia glaucescens, WHld., (Sjti. a. homomalla, Wendl. ; A. 

cinerascens, Sieb. ; A. leucadendron, A. Cunn. ; Mimosa 

binervis, Wendl.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 406, 
"Yarran." A " Myall." A " Rosewood." A "Brigalow" of Western 
New South Wales ; " Motherumba," of North- Western New South 
Wales ; " Kaareewan," of the aboriginals of Cumberland and Camden, 
New South Wales. 

The gum from this tree is said to make excellent adhesive 
mucilage. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

9. Acacia harpophylla, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 389. 

" Brigalow." 

Yields a gum arabic. Some collected by Mons. Thozet was 
exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition, Melbourne, 1866, but 
neither of this nor of the gum from A. Bidwilli, Benih., exhibited 
on the same occasion, were any particulars given.' 

South Queensland. 

10. Acacia homalophylla, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, 

ii., 383- 

"Curly Yarran." "Myall" (Victoria). A " Spear-wood." (For 
aboriginal names, see " Timbers.") 

This tree yields a gum copiously throughout the summer 
season. A specimen in the Technological Museum outwardly 
resembles, in a striking manner, ordinary pine resin or "rosin." 
Its fracture is conchoidal, and very lustrous. From its resem- 
blance to " rosin" its colour is a drawback, but it is a remarkably 
light and clean gum, and as it is so freely soluble, and so adhesive. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 213 

it would well pay to export, could it be obtained in sufficiently 
large quantites. It yields a fairly pale solution. 

Interior of- South Australia, New South Wales and Northern 
Victoria. 

11. Acacia linifolia, Wnid., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 371. 

(For synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

Sometimes called " Sally." 

This shrub, or small tree, rarely exudes gum, so far as the author's 
experience goes. But a plant i^ inch in diameter, found by him at 
The Valley, Blue Mountains, yielded about an ounce of a pale 
gum. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

12. Acacia microbotrya, Benth., (Syn. A. myriobotrya, Meissn. ; 

A. leiophylla var. microcephala, Meissn. ; A. sub/alcata, 
Meissn.; A. daphni/olia, Meissn.; A. rostellifera, Seem.; 
and perhaps A. pterigoidea. Seem.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, 
B.FL, ii., 363. 

" Badjong " of the aboriginals. 

This species often produces 5olb. from one tree in one season. 
The aboriginals store it in hollow trees for winter use ; it is of a 
pleasant sweetish taste. (G. Whitfield.) It forms a superior gum 
arable. 

Western Australia. 

13- Acacia pendula, A. Cunn. (var. glabrata, F.v.M.); N.O., 

Leguminosae. 

A " Yarran." 

A sample in the Technological Museum dissolves entirely in 

cold water, forming a perfectly clear, almost colourless solution of a 

brownish tint. Like some other wattle-gums, this would require 

selecting for the market. There is a marked difference in 

appearance between the old and new gum of this tree. The new 

gum is in rounded pieces, and very similar in appearance and 

usual size to Senegal gum and Aden gum arable. The gum which 

remains long on the trees becomes filled with minute fissures. The 



214 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

fissures, which radiate from the centre of a lump, cause the lump 
to break into sub-triangular or conical pieces. 

Interior of New South Wales and Queensland. 

14. Acacia pycnantha, Bejith.^ (Syn. A.petiolaris, Lehm. ; A.fah 

cinella, Meissn.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 365. 
" Golden Wattle." " Green Wattle." " Broad-leaved Wattle." 
Yields an inferior gum arabic. A quantity was exhibited at 
the Intercolonial Exhibition, Melbourne, 1866. 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

15. Acacia retinodes, SMecht.; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii.^ 

362. 

Said to yield a good gum arabic. 

Victoria and South Australia. 

1 6. Acacia Saligna, Benth., non Wendl., (Syn. A . Jeiophylla, Benth. ; 

Mimosa saligtia, Labill.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B. Fl. ii., 364 
A. leiophylla in Muell. Cens., p. 44. 

It yields a gum arabic. 
Western Australia. 

17. Acacia sentis, F.v.M., (Syn. A. Vidoricc, Benth.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 360. 

" Prickly Wattle." 

These trees are for the most part small, and gum is found on 
them very sparingly. Much of it is of a rich amber colour when 
freshly exuded, while portions of it are nearly as pale as the best 
Turkey gum arabic. It is sparkling and clean looking, and would 
be a very acceptable article of commerce if it could be obtained 
in quantity. It is readily and completely soluble in water, and 
very easily reducible to a powder, on account of its somewhat 
vesicular nature. 

Interior of all the colonies except Tasmania. 

18. Adansonia Gregorii, F.v.M., N.O., Maivace^, B.Fl., i., 223. 

" Sour Gourd." " Cream of Tartar" tree. 
A dark red gum exudes from the fruit. (Bentham.) 
Northern and Western Australia. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 215 

19. Atalaya hemiglauca, F.v.M., (Syn. Thouinia hemiglauca, 

F.V.M.); N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 463. 

"White Wood." 
This tree exudes a useful pale-coloured gum. 
Interior of South Australia, New South Wales and Queens- 
land. 

20. Albizzia prOCera, Benth., (Syn. A. elaia, Roxb. ; Mimosa 
procera, Roxb. ; M. elata, Roxb. ; Acacia procera, Willd.) ; 
N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 422. 

" Tee-coma " of the aboriginals of the Northern Territory. 

This tree exudes gum copiously. It is in dull, horny-looking, 
roundish lumps, usually about the size of a marble. It requires 
picking, as much of it is dark coloured and inferior. The dull 
appearance is only superficial, for it has a very bright fracture. It 
swells up in water to a large extent, and partly dissolves. The 
soluble portion is clear, and almost colourless. This gum differs 
in behaviour from such of the Acacia gums as are only partially 
soluble in water, in that a few hours after placing it in cold water 
it disintegrates, forming flaky masses, whereas the partially soluble 
Acacia gums, while likewise swelling up considerably, preserve a 
certain amount of cohesion for a day or two. 

Northern Australia.. 

21. Calophyllum inophylhm, Linn., N.O., Guttiferse, B.FL, i., 

183. 

" Ndilo Tree" of India. 

This tree, when wounded, exudes a small quantity of bright 
green gum, which is not collected, nor does it appear to be made 
use of in any way. (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India.) 

Queensland. 

22. Calophyllum tomentOSUHl, Wight., (Syn. C. eiatum, Bedd.) ; 

N.O., Guttiferae, Muell. Gens., p. 8. 

" Poon," or " Sirpoon," of India. 

The gum of this tree is black and opaque, and much mixed 
with pieces of corky bark ; it has a feebly astringent taste, and is 
very soluble in cold water, to which it yields a yellow-brown 



2l6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

solution, exhibiting a strong blue fluorescence. If the gum is 
steeped in water for some time the solution becomes very dark in 
colour. Alum, followed by carbonate of soda, throws down 
apparently some of the brown colouring matter without interfering 
with the fluorescence, as after precipitation the solution, although 
lighter in colour, is very strongly fluorescent. A solution purified 
by alum in this way has its fluorescence immediately destroyed by 
acids, and restored again by alkalies. Examining its absorption 
spectrum it is found that while fluorescent, the solution gives a 
broad absorption band at the violet end of the spectrum extending 
to about G ; this band disappears on destroying the fluorescence 
by acids, but re- appears on the addition of alkalies. The solution 
of the gum does not appear to rotate polarized light. The gum 
itself communicates only a very faint fluorescence to rectified 
spirit. I do not know whether this gum is applied to any indus- 
trial or medicinal use, but as it is collected by the natives of India 
it is probable that it is supposed by them to have some medicinal 
virtues. (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India.) 
Queensland. 

23. Cedrela Toona, Roxb., (Syn, C. australis, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Meliacese, B.Fl., i., 387. 

'■ Red Cedar." (For other names, see " Timbers.") 
This tree yields a perfectly transparent pale amber-coloured 
gum in small quantity. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

24. ErTthrina indica, Lam., N.O., Leguminosas, B.Fl., ii., 253. 

" Indian Coral " Tree. 
This tree yields a brown gum of no value. It is not endemic 
in Australia. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

25. Flindersia maculosa, F.v.M., (Syn. F. Strzehckiana, F.v.M. ; 

Sirzeleckya dissosperma, F.v.M, ; Elaodendron maculosum, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Meliacese, B.FL, i., 388. F. Strzehckiana in 
Muell. Cens., p. 9. 

" Spotted, or Leopard Tree." 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 21 7 

The gum from this tree forms good adhesive mucilage. It 
reminds one strongly of East-India gum arable of good quality. 
During the summer months large masses, of a clear amber-colour, 
exude from the stem and branches. It has a very pleasant taste, 
is eaten by the aboriginals, and forms a very common bushman's 
remedy in diarrhoea, &c. A sample in the Technological Museum 
is half as large as an emu-egg, and is frequently obtained in 
pieces as large as pigeons' eggs. It would be readily sought 
after in the colony for adhesive purposes if it could be obtained in 
any quantity. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

26. Hakea acicularis, R. Br., (Syn. H. sericea, Schrad.; 
H. decurrens^ R. Br. ; Conchium aciculare, Vent. ; C. com- 
pressum^ Sm. ; Banksia tenuifolia, Salisb.) ; N.O., Proteaceae, 
B.Fl., v., 514. 

A clear, hard, yellowish gum ( ? gum resin) has been observed 
on this shrub in the Illawarra district of New South Wales. In 
the catalogue of Western Australian products at the Intercolonial 
Exhibition, Melbourne, 1866, it is stated: " Gums of Hakea species 
are found plentifully after the autumn rains." 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

i1' Macrozamia Fraseri, Miq., (Syn. M. spiralis, Miq. ; M. 
Preissii, Lehm. ; Zamia spiralis, R.Br. ; Cycas Reidlei, 
Gaud. ; Encephalartos Fraseri, Miq. ; E. Preissii, F.v.M.) ; 
B.FL, vi., 252. Encephalartos Fraseri in Muell. Cens., p. 
no. 

And M. Miquelli, F.v.M., (Syn. Encephalartos Miquelli, 
F.v.M.); N.O., Cycadeae, B.Fl., vi., 253. Encephalartos 
tridentaius, Lehm., in Muell. Cens., p. no. 

Mr. C. R. Blackett, of Melbourne, describes in the Australian 
supplement to the Chemist and Druggist, May, 1882, some 
experiments upon the gums exuded by the above two species. A 
quantitative examination remains to be made, but Mr. Blackett 
states that the gums are analogous to Bassora gum, or tragacanth, 
but whether they can be used instead of tragacanth remains to be 



2l8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

tried. He gives the results of several qualitative experiments with 
them. 

Western Australia (M. Fraseri) ; New South Wales 
(M. Miquelli). 

28. Macrozamia Perowskiana, Miq., (Syn. M. Denisonii, F.v.M. ; 

Lepidozamia Perowskiana, Regel. ; Encephalartos Denisonii, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Cycadeae, B.Fl., vi., 253. Encephalartos 
Deiiisonii in Muell. Cens., p. no. 

A small quantity of gum of this species has been received at 
the Technological Museum, and apparently much resembles that 
experimented upon by Mr. Blackett. It is in flattened pieces, 
reminding one strongly of " button lac," but much lighter in 
colour even than the " fine button lac " of commerce. The 
flattened shape is due to the mode of collecting it. A spontaneous 
flow of gum does not appear to occur in any species, but from the 
cut ends of the cones and bases of leaves it exudes more or less 
freely. If put to drain on a plate, the flattened shapes of " button 
lac " will be very readily obtained. If one of these flattened pieces 
be placed in water, it begins to swell immediately, and this 
absorption of water goes on for several days, by the end of which 
period it has swelled to about fifty times its original size. It then 
presents the appearance of an almost colourless, quivering jelly. 
This jelly assumes a pseudo-crystalline appearance, forming 
angular masses. This result is, of course, in consequence of the 
minute fissures in the dried gum. It breaks readily, has a bright 
fracture, and in the mouth feels somewhat like tragacanth. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

29. Macrozamia spiralis, Miq., (Syn. Zamia spiralis, R.Br., 
partly ; Encephalartos spiralis, Lehm.) ; N.O., Cycadeae, 
B.Fl., vi., 251, Encephalartos spiralis, Lehm., in Muell. 
Cens., p., no. 

" Burrawang." 

This is another species, the gum of which the author has 

collected. He has no doubt that the proximate analysis of each will 

be found to give closely-agreeing results. A few days after the 

plants have been mutilated, as already described, the dried gum may 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 219 

be picked off. It usually assumes one of two forms, viz., small 
scaly pieces, reminding one strongly of gelatine before it has been 
bleached and purified. The prevailing colour is dirty brown, and it 
is admixed with more or less accidental impurity. But with careful 
collecting a number of small tear-shaped masses may be obtained, 
which evidently present the gum in a fairly pure form. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

30 Melia COmpOSita, WUld., (Syn. M. Azedarach, Linn.) ; N.O., 

Meliaceas, B.Fl., i., 380. In Muell. Cens,, p. 9. 

" White Cedar." (For other synonyms and vernacular names, see 
*' Timbers."} 

The tree yields a gum similar to that produced from the 
Acacia, plum and cherry trees ; it may be collected in considerable 
quantity. (Bennett.) A specimen of gum, said to be derived 
from this tree, is in irregular tears, rather adhesive and dull, with 
a shining fracture, amber-coloured and brownish, rather friable, 
mixed with fragments of bark, tasteless, soluble in water. (Cooke, 
Gums and Resins of India.) The author has seen an amber- 
coloured gum in small quantity exuding from trees of this species 
near Sydney, but never freely. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

31- Nnjrtsia floribunda, R.Br., (Syn. Lorafithus floribundus, 

Labill.) ; N.O., Loranthaceae, B.FL, iii., 387. 
" A Mistletoe." 

The gum from this tree is said to make good adhesive 
mucilage. 

Western Australia. 

32. Pittosponim bicolor, Hook., (Syn. P. discolor, Kegel. ; P. 

Huegelianum, Putterl.) ; N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl., i., 113. 
" Whitewood " of Tasmania, Called " Cheesewood" in Victoria. 

This tree is said to yield a pale, useful gum. (See P. undu- 
latum, "Resins.") 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 



220 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

33- Pittospornm phillyrseoides, DC, N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl., i., 

113- 

Variously called " Butter Bush," " Native Willow," and " Poison-berry 
Tree." (For the numerous botanical synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

This tree is said to yield a gum somewhat similar to gum 
arable, and even superior to it. (See P. undulatum, " Resins.") 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

34- Semecarpus Anacardinm, Lmn., (Syn. S. australaskus, 

Engl.); N.O., Anacardiacae, B.Fl., i., 491. 

" Marking-nut Tree " (of India). 
In India a brown, nearly insipid gum, exudes from the stem. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

35- Stenocarpns salignus, R-Br., N.O., Proteaceae, B.FL, v., 539. 

" Silver Oak." (For botanical synonyms and vernacular names, 
see " Timbers.") 

Small quantities of gum may occasionally be seen on bruised 
trees of this species. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

36. SterClllia acerifolia, ^- Cmm., (Syn. Br achy chiton acerifol- 

ium, F.V.M.); N.O., Sterculiaceae, B.Fl., i., 229. Brachy- 

chiton acerifoliwn in Muell. Cans., p. 15. 
" Flame Tree." Lace-bark Tree." 

A gummy substance exudes from the trunk of this tree. It 
looks most like Tragacanth of any of the well-known gums. The 
same remark is more or less true of other species of Sterculia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

ZT- Sterculia diversifolia, (Syn. Pcedlodermis populnea, Schott. ; 
Brachychiton populneum^ R.Br., in Muell. Cens.) ; N.O., 
Sterculiaceae. 

" Kurrajong." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This tree sometimes yields the tragacanthoid substance already 

alluded to rather abundantly, Mr. Bauerlen informs the author 

that at the foot of a tree about one foot in diameter and thirty feet 

high, in the Clyde River district of New South Wales, about a 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 221 

bucketful of gum was found, naturally exuded and partly viscid,, 
while enormous tears had flowed down the stem and were adherent 
to it. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

38. Sterculia mpestris, Benth., (Syn. Delabechea rupestris, Lindl.; 

Brachyehiton Delabechii\ F.v.M.) ; N.O., Sterculiaceae, B.Fl.,. 

i., 230. Brachyehiton Delabechii \n Muell. Cens., p. 15. 
" Bottle Tree," or " Gouty Stem." A " Kurrajong." 

A gum exudes freely from the tree, and forms what may 
be called an inferior tragacanth, for want of a better name. 

Sir Thomas Mitchell observed many years ago that when 
boiling water is poured over shavings of this wood a clear jelly^ 
resembling tragacanth, is formed, and becomes a thick, viscid 
mass ; iodine stains it brown, but not a trace of starch is indicated 
in it. 

The gum from this tree (and the following description is- 
more or less true of other species of this genus) is remarkably- 
like paraffin in appearance, and almost as free from colour. It is 
rather tough and horny, and breaks with a dull fracture. In the 
mouth the author fails to detect (except in the shape of the pieces) 
any difference between it and the best tragacanth. It is in irregular 
lumps, full of angles and points, the result of the fusion of 
innumerable " tears." 

Sterculia gum and tragacanth, however, present many points 
of difference. Their closest similarity is in outward appearance. 
The former gum does not thicken water, except to an almost in- 
appreciable extent, and, therefore, could not have the economic 
uses to which the very viscid tragacanth is put. On treating them 
both with cold water, the most obvious difference between them is 
the bluish-opalescent, and comparatively fine-grained appearance 
of the mucilage afforded by the Sterculia gum, 

Queensland. 

39- Terminalia sp, N.O., Combretaceae. 

For a note on gum from a species of Terminalia, see- 
"Foods," page 62. 



222 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

40. Xylomelum pyriforme, N.O., Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 408. 

" Native Pear." (For other vernacular names and botanical synonyms, 
see " Timbers.") 

The author is not aware that the finding of gum on this tree 
has been previously announced. In the Blue Mountains he found 
about an ounce on a sapling six inches in diameter, which had 
been cut down, leaving four feet of stump, from which there was 
a free growth of new leaves. It is of a yellowish-brown colour, 
tough, and of dull appearance. It may turn out to be a gum-resin, 
as the author is inclined to think that all the gums of the 
Proteaceae will be found to contain a small percentage of resin. 

New South Wales. 



CuMS, Resins, and Kinds. 



B. (RESINS.) 

INCLUDING GUM-RESINS. 



1. Aleurites moluccana, WHId., (Syn. a. Ambinux^ Pers. ; A, 

triloba, Forst.; Jatropha moluccana, Linn.) ; N.O., Euphorb- 

iaceae, B.Fl., vi., 129. A. triloba in Muell. Cens., p. 20. 
"Candle-Nut Tree." 

This tree exudes a resin, especially from the fruits. It is 
little, if ever, used in Australia, but Dr. George Bennett states that 
the natives of the South Sea Islands chew it. 

Queensland. 

2. Arancaria Bidwilli, Hook., N.O., Coniferae, B.Fl., vi., 243. 

" Bunya Bunya." 
A sample of resin from this species is in the Technological 
Museum, and it is as different from the resin of A. Cunninghamii 
as it is possible for it to be. It is rather brighter in colour than 
a low-grade red grass-tree gum {Xanthorrhcea arbored), otherwise 
they are very similar in appearance. Except in redness of 
colour, it is much like some samples of inferior gum benzoin. 
It has an odour like creasote. Its prevailing colour is purple- 
brown, and lustre dull-resinous. It is quite brittle, and powders 
readily. It stains the fingers with handling, and is gritty to the 
teeth. When powdered, it is of a bright red, something between 
Venetian and Indian red, exhibiting a very pleasing colour. The 
pure resin is clear, and very like that of the Moreton Bay Pine. 

Queensland. 



224 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

3- Araucaria Cunninghamii, Ait., N.O., Coniferae, B.Fl.,vi., 243. 

" Moreton Bay Pine," "Hoop Pine," "Colonial Pine." " Coorong " 
of the aboriginals of the Richmond River, New South Wales. "Cumburtu" 
of those of Brisbane, and " Coonam " of those of Wide Bay, Queensland. 

The resin which exudes from this tree is very remarkable, as 
it is transparent and nearly colourless, and that portion of it which 
adheres to the trees hangs from them in pendants, which are 
sometimes three feet long and six to twelve inches broad. (Hill.) 

This tree is very rich in resin, as it flows from every slight 
wound. A sample in the Technological Museum is very much 
like gum Thus or common Frankincense, the product of Pinus 
australis, except that it is paler in colour, having the colour of 
and lustre of amber. Although these pieces have been collected 
some years, and externally are quite hard and very brittle, yet 
internally they are still in a viscid condition, and possess the 
pleasing odour of Canada Balsam, with perhaps a trace of 
creasote. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

4- Atherosperma mOSChata, LahUl, N.O., Monimiacese, B.Fl., 

v., 284. 

" Sassafras." 

The resin contained in the bark of this tree has been examined 
by Zeyer (Pharm. VierielJ, x., ^jy), an abstract of whose paper 
appears in Gmelin s Handbook. The following is his account of 
it. The bark, previously exhausted with water, is exhausted with 
very weak caustic potash ; the solution is allowed to stand till clear, 
and the resin is precipitated by hydrochloric acid. The precipitate 
is indigested with alcohol, the extract evaporated, and the residue 
boiled with water, and dried. Brown-red, mehs at 104° C. 
Dissolves easily in caustic alkalies and their carbonates, from 
which it is precipitated by acids, and also in alcohol, but it is 
nearly insoluble in ether. Contains at 100° C, on the average 
69.38 7o C, 8.85 7o H» ^"d 2177 O, corresponding to the formula 

^42 •tl32 Ujo. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 22$ 

5. Bertya CuiHimghamii, Planch., N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., 

vi., 75. 

The branchlets of this plant exude a clear gum-resin so 
abundantly as to give dried specimens, when held up to the light, 
a pretty hyaline appearance. The substance is of a yellowish 
colour, and no doubt would prove exceedingly interesting if 
examined, but theauthor has, up to the present, been unsuccessful in 
obtaining a quantity of it. It has a pleasant, bitter taste, some- 
thing like wormwood. 

Many of our Euphorbiaceous plants yield resin in greater or 
less quantity, and will provide useful material for future 
experiment. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

6. Beyeria viscosa, Miq. (For synonyms, see "Timbers,") 

N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.FL, vi., 61. 

The " Pink Wood " of Tasmania. Called also " Wallaby Bush." 
A resinous substance exudes from the leaves, sometimes so 
abundantly that characters can be traced in it by means of a style. 
All the colonies. 

7- Ficus macrophylla, Desf., N.O., Urticese, B.FL, vi., 170. 

" Moreton Bay Fig," " Karreuaira," or " Waabie," of the aboriginals. 

The milky sap (latex) of this tree yields a very fair caoutchouc. 
Other species of Ficus yield juices more or less similar. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

8. Ficus rubiginosa, Desf., (Syn. F. australis, Willd. ; Urostigma 

rubiginosum, Caspar.); N.O., Urticese, B.FL, vi., 168. 

"Port Jackson Fig," "Narrow-leaved Fig," "Native Banyan," 
" Dthaaman" of the aboriginals. 

This fig, like other figs, exudes a juice when the bark is 
wounded. At present, it is put to no useful purpose. It has 
formed the subject of the following chemical investigation : — 

" The resinous exudation of this tree resembles Euphorbium 

in appearance, varies in colour from dirty yellow or red to almost 

white, solid, generally brittle, but tough in the interior of large 

pieces, opaque, with dull and wax-like fracture ; at 30° C it softens 

Q 



226 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

and becomes plastic, like gutta-percha, but not sticky, provided 
it has been previously wetted with water. In its natural state it 
has neither taste nor odour, but evolves an odour like that of wax 
when heated, and evinces a characteristic taste on being masticated. 
It is quite insoluble in water, either hot or cold. The greater part 
of it is soluble in cold alcohol, and a considerable portion of the 
remainder in hot alcohol, and by treating it with these solvents in 
succession it may be separated into the following constituents : 

Resinous substance, Sycoretin, easily soluble in cold 

alcohol ... ... ... ... 73 

White crystalline substances, chiefly Acetate of 
Sycoceryl, C^ H O, C^ H^ O, insoluble in 
cold, but soluble in warm alcohol 14 

Caoutchouc, fragments of bark, sand and loss ... 13." 
(Warren de la Rue and Hugo Miller, in Watt's Diet., ii., 646.) 

Sycoretin. When the solution in cold alcohol (which is of a 
pale-brown colour) is mixed with water, the sycoretin is precipi- 
tated, and may be rendered colourless by repeated solution and 
precipitation. Sycoretin is amorphous, white, neutral, very brittle, 
and highly electric. It melts in boiling water to a thick liquid, 
which floats on the surface. It is insoluble in water, dilute acids, 
ammonia and aqueous alkalies. It dissolves easily in alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, and oil of turpentine. It is not precipitated 
from its alcoholic solution by neutral acetate of lead, or acetate of 
copper. {Watts Diet., v., 647), where further particulars are 
given. See also articles " Sycocerylic Alcohol," and '* Sycocerylic 
Ethers," p. 646, loc. cit. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

9. Frenela (Callitris) spp, N.O., Coniferae. 

The trees of this genus yield Australian Sandarach in greater 
or less quantity. These resins are very much alike, and they all 
possess a pleasant aromatic odour, similar in character to, but 
distinctly different and more powerful, than the odour emitted by 
sandarach under similar circumstances. When the trees are 
wounded the resin exudes in almost colourless transparent beads 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 22/ 

and tears. It has obviously high refractive power, and is much 
like ordinary pine resin in taste, smell, and outward appearance, 
when the latter is freshly exuded. When the resin is older it 
becomes quite hard and brittle, and if allowed to remain some 
time on the trees becomes of a mealy appearance on the outside. 
Powdered, they all make fairly good "pounce," and form an 
efficient substitute for ordinary sandarach. 
Throughout the colonies. 

10. Prenela Endlicheri, ParlaL, (Syn. F. fruticosa, Endl. ; F. 
pyramidalis, A. Cunn. ; F. calcarata, A. Cunn. ; Callitris 
calcaraia, R.Br. ; Otoclinis Backhousii, Hill) ; N.O., Coni- 
ferae, B.Fl., vi., 238. Callitris calcarata in Muell. Cens., p. 
109. 

"Black Pine." "Murray Pine." "Red Pine." "Scrub Pine." 
" Cypress Pine." 

When fresh, it is of a yellow colour, and strikingly similar to 
sandarach, as it is usually found in America. It is obtainable in 
fairly large quantities. 

Northern Victoria to Central Queensland. 

11. Frenela robusta, van verrucosa, A. Cunn., (Syn. F. verru- 

cosa, A. Cunn. ; F. tuberculata, R.Br. ; Callitris tuberculaia, 

R.Br. ; C. verrucosa, R.Br.) ; N.O., Coniferse, B.Fl., vi., 237. 

Callitris verrucosa in Muell. Cens., p. 109. 
" Cypress Pine." 

A resin in larger tears than an ordinary sandarach is yielded 
by this tree. It yields it in considerable abundance, eight or ten 
ounces being frequently found at the foot of a single tree, but 
although this exudes naturally, the supply is stimulated by 
incisions. 

In the Report on Indigenous Vegetable Substances, Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861, it is thus described : — " A transparent, colour- 
less or pale-yellow body, fragrant and friable, fusing at a moderate 
temperature, and burning with a large smoky flame, very soluble 
in alcohol and the essential oils, and almost totally so in ether ; 
turpentine at the ordinary temperature does not act upon it, nor 



228 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

do the dry'wg oils, but it may be made to combine with these 
solvents by previous fusion." 

A sample in the Technological Museum is of a dark-amber 
colour, and externally possesses the dulled appearance of lumps 
of amber. It is the darkest resin of the genus examined by me. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

12. Grevillea robusta, ^- Cunn., (Syn. G. umbratka, A. Cunn.); 

N.O., Proteacese, B.Fl., v., 459. 

" Silky Oak." (For aboriginal names, see "Timbers.") 

This tree is frequently planted for ornamental and shade pur- 
poses in the colonies, but to a far greater extent in Ceylon, India, 
Algeria, &c. It exudes a gum resin, which I have never seen 
except in minute quantity in Australia, but it appears to be more 
abundant in India and Algeria. Cooke {Gurus and Resins of 
India) thus describes it : . , . " of a vinous-red colour 
and but little soluble ; it is said to have been obtained from this 
tree, which is cultivated to a limited extent in Mysore. It has a 
bright, shining, resinoid fracture, which it retains. It is much 
mixed with pieces of friable bark, to which it adheres." 

In some notes (i 881) on the Shevaroy Hills, India, by Deputy 
Surgeon-General Shortt, the following passage occurs : — " Of 
the plants intoduced in these hills, I have to notice a peculiarity 
as regards Grevillea rohusta; one tree, which is now eleven 
years old, has for the last two years, during the rains, produced 
spontaneously each year about ten ounces of a translucent gum,, 
which has no smell or particular taste, is of a pale-yellow colour, 
and mixes readily with water, when it forms a whitish-brown 
coloured mucilage, and, as a paste, answers all the purposes of the 
so-called gum arabic for adhesive purposes." 

This gum-resin has been examined by Fleury (see Journ. 
Pharm. [5], ix., 479-80), an abstract of whose paper is given in 
Journ. Chem. Soc, xlviii., 238. He describes it as yellowish- 
red, slightly translucent, slightly friable, and similar in appearance 
to cherry-gum. In water it swells a little, and slowly produces a 
very persistent white emulsion, which passes through all filters. It 
contains no starch, but gives 3 per cent, of ash. The emulsion 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 229 

treated with absolute alcohol gives a copious precipitate of gum 
proper. When the alcoholic solution is evaporated, it gives 5.6 
per cent, of a reddish, transparent resin. The gum proper is grey, 
and does not appear to give a true solution in water. The gum 
already soaked in water dissolves immediately if a little potash, 
lime, or potassium-carbonate be added, and the solution gelatinises 
under the influence of a ferric salt. This reaction is said to dis- 
tinguish this product from all other known gums. The gum is 
laevorotatory, and has no action on Fehling's solution. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

13. Grevillea striata, R.Br., (Syn. G. Uneata, R.Br.); N.O., 

Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 462. 

" Beefwood." (For other names, see " Timbers.") 

A resin from this tree has just been sent to the Technological 
Museum from Whittabranah, in the far-west of New South Wales. 
It is quite free from odour, and has a dark, reddish-brown colour. 
When pure, it has a bright fracture, but much of it is admixed 
with woody matter in a fine state of division. The warmth of 
the hand is sufficient to cause the resin to adhere to it. It sticks to 
the teeth, but is without taste. It is reduced to powder with the 
utmost facility, forming a dull powder. It is opaque-looking, and 
in appearance is most like E. maciilata kino of any substance with 
which the author is acquainted. It appears to be of rare occurrence, 
but was abundant on two particular trees. It was so hard on 
them that a hammer and chisel was necessary to remove it. It 
appears to be a true resin, and if so, will be the first recorded, so 
far as he is aware, from any Proteaceous plant. 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

1 4- Myopomm platycarpum, R.Br., (Syn. Disoon platycarpus, 

F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myoporinae, B.FL, v., 7. 

"Sandalwood." "Dogwood." "Sugar Tree." 

The resin from this tree is used by the aboriginals as a sub- 
stitute for pitch and wax ; e.g., they cement the stone heads of 
their tomahawks to the fibre which joins them to the stick forming 



230 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

the handle. It forms a natural sealing-wax, and for this purpose 
is used by the settlers in the interior. It would certainly serve as 
a constituent of black sealing-wax ; alone, it is too soft for long 
keeping. 

It is usually received in small rounded lumps, weathered on 
the outside, and possessing a pleasant, empyreumatic odour. The 
lumps appear of a dark reddish-brown colour, and if the weather 
be not warm they fly with the slightest touch of the pestle, and 
are easily powdered. The resin softens even with the warmth of 
the hand, and if kept in a bottle the heat of an average summer 
day is sufficient to fuse pieces presenting fresh fractures. It has 
a bright, almost black fracture, showing reddish-brown at the 
edges. It presents some resemblance to Guaiacum (especially 
when this resin comes to the market in small lumps), but it is not 
so green in colour as the latter. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Queensland. 

15. Pittosponim Undulatum, Vent., N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl., 

i.. III. 

" Cheesewood." (For other names, see " Timbers.") 

This tree yields a gum-resin which easily softens in the heat 
of the sun, but which only appears to be obtained from wounded 
trees. It is viscid, possesses a powerful, and to my mind a 
delicious odour of a turpentiny character, which somewhat 
resembles that of oil of cubebs, but the odour is quite per se. The 
author has been informed that a gentleman in the Illawarra district 
applied this "gum" to a wound of a dog, "on account of its 
aromatic smell," when the wound healed " with amazing quicKness 
in a few days." 

See pages 219 and 220 for an account of s,ors\Q gums ironx 
species of Pittosporum. 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

16. Syncarpia laiirifolia, Ten., (Syn. Metrosideros glomuUfera 
in Muell. Cens., p. 59); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 265. (For 
other synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

" Turpentine Tree." 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 231 

On cutting through a fruit the substance is seen to contain 
small globules of an orange-red resin disseminated through it. 
On the outside of mature fruits small tears of the resin will also 
be found. The resin also exudes from wounds made in the bark. 
It is best obtained, however, by felling a tree, when it exudes 
between the bark and sapwood in small drops, which may be 
scraped off, and the resin collected fairly continuously, and in a 
pure state. It is an oleo-resin, and is remarkably like Venice 
turpentine, both in colour (a rich reddish-brown) and in viscidity. 
It has a very agreeable (to the author) turpentine odour, in degree 
and character something between those of Venice turpentine and 
Canada Balsam. The native bees seem to make much use of it, 
as they carry it away very assiduously. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

17- Xanthorrhsea spp., N.O., Juncaceae. - 

" Grass Trees." The resin is usually, but incorrectly, called " Grass 
Tree Gum." 

This resin has an agreeable smell, or none at all, and is 
soluble in ether, alcohol, and caustic potash. Its solution in the 
latter, when treated with hydrochloric acid, deposits benzoic and 
cinnamic acids; nitric acid readily converts it into picric acid. By 
distillation this resin yields a light neutral oil, which appears to be 
a mixture of benzoic and cinnamic, and a heavy acid oil, consisting 
of hydrate of phenyl, mixed with small quantities of benzoic and 
cinnamic acids. 

It yields, by oxidation with melting potash, so large a quantity 
of paraoxybenzoic acid (36 grains from 9 ounces) that it may be 
conveniently used as a source of that acid. The mother-liquor of 
the ethereal extract contains also resorcin and pyrocatechin, as 
well as the double compound of protocatechuic and paraoxyben- 
zoic acids, Ci4 H12 O7, H2 O, first obtained from benzoin. ( Watts 
Diet., vi., ist Suppt. 2.) 

The aborigines use it for fastening on the heads of spears, &c. 
It could probably be used in candle-making, for it burns by itself 
with a bright flame, and mixes with fat in all proportions. 



232 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

As usually found in commerce, it is in very small pieces 
(almost powder), or else these small pieces are aggregated, form- 
ing a friable mass. In this state it is more or less impure, being 
mixed with soil, and fragments of the yellowish bases of the leaves. 
After a bush fire has passed over grass trees the heat causes the resin 
to run into more or less spherical masses (the author has some in 
his possession as spherical as if turned in a lathe), and these 
masses can be picked out either from the interior of the charred 
stump or from the ground at the place where a grass-tree once 
grew. Such masses present the resin in a very pure form, but 
collecting in this way would entail too much labour to be profitable 
commercially — the ordinary method being to break up the grass- 
tree stumps, and subject the fragments to rough winnowing and 
washing. 

The resin (" Grass-tree Gum " it is invariably called) has a 
very small demand, the ordinary retail price being from fourpence 
to sixpence a pound in Sydney, and the wholesale price, of course, 
much less. It is chiefly used as a colouring for varnishes, and is 
used by European and Chinese workmen (chiefly the latter) to 
stain wood in imitation of cedar, and also by inferior French- 
polishers. It has been observed above that abundance of picric 
acid, a very powerful yellow dye, can be prepared from it. But 
this substance can be so cheaply made from coal-tar that the 
resin is not now thought of for the purpose. The result is that 
many storekeepers in the colonies, who eagerly bought up grass- 
tree gum with the view to exporting it to England, have for years 
past had stocks on hand, and quantities now sold have frequently 
been gathered, say — fifteen or twenty years. 

The following is the usual method adopted for collecting 
grass-tree gum in Australia — the articles required are an axe, a 
flail, a sieve, and a sheet. The stems of the grass-trees are 
hacked down, broken into convenient pieces, and allowed to fall 
into the sheet. A stout stick or flail completes the work of disin- 
tegration. The substance is then passed through the sieve, the 
ligneous portions of the grass-tree for the most part failing to pass 
through its meshes. A gentle breeze is sufficient to winnow what 
has passed through the sieve, in order to render it ready for the 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 233 

market; but it usually comes to Sydney having been subjected to 
no winnowing process. 

Throughout the colonies. 

18. Xanthorrhaea arborea, R.Br., N.O., Juncacece, B.Fl., vii., 

215. 

" Grass Tree." 

A sample of resin of this species in the Technological Museum 
is presented in large concentric masses, consisting of the remains 
of leaves (in situ), cemented together by the resin, the resin 
usually being so abundantly in excess that large pieces of the pure 
substance are readily obtainable. The inner portion of these 
masses is a true mould of the caudex. Where the resin weathers 
it is seen to be of a liver-colour, but it readily fractures (in a very 
similar manner to that of gamboge), and shows a very bright sur- 
face. The colour is very pleasing, and I can only describe it as 
of a rich purplish-brown, inclining to crimson. It is readily 
reducible to a fairly fine powder, which is of a dull, burnt sienna- 
brown, admixed with a few dark particles. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

19. Xanthorrhoea australis, R.Br., N.O., Juncaceae, B.FL, vii., 

116. 

" Grass Tree." 
The shapes which the resins of the various species of 
Xanthorrhaea assume are quite accidental. Some of these forms 
are described under various species, and refer to specimens which 
have actually been examined. The resin of this species "is found 
in masses of irregular globular shape, within the body of the tree, 
and exuding in large tears and drops near its roots. It is a dark- 
red, friable substance, the purer homogenous specimens exhibiting 
a most brilliant ruby colour when crushed into fragments; it fuses 
readily with the same deep colour, and exhales the characteristic 
odour of gum benzoin and dragon's blood under such circum- 
stances. In many respects it resembles the last-named substance, 
but its solutions are less intensely red, inclining to yellow, while as 
a varnish, it has much more body and gloss. It is very soluble in 
alcohol, and in the essential oils from the eucalypts, that from the 
Dandenong Peppermint (E. amygdalina) proving an exception 



234 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Ether takes up a portion only, leaving behind a resinous substance 
coloured more intensely red than that which it dissolves ; turpen- 
tine exercises no solvent action upon it, and the drying oils but 
very little." {^Report on Indigenous Vegetable Substances, Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861.) 

Tasmania and Victoria. 

20. Xanthorrhoea hastilis, R- Br., N.O., Juncaceae, B.Fl., 

vii., 115. 

" Grass Tree." 

A sample 'of resin of this species is in the Technological 
Museum. It is in almost spherical pieces, and represents the 
substance in its purest form. It possesses a sweet odour similar 
to that of benzoin, which is much increased on powdering the 
substance. It breaks readily with a shining fracture, and is 
reducible with the greatest facility to an impalpable powder. No 
substance bears a greater resemblance to it than powdered 
gamboge, although that pigment is perhaps a shade darker. 
Exposure to the light causes the resin to change its colour to 
Indian red, which is the external colour of masses of the pure 
" gum." This colour is quite superficial. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

21. Xanthorrhoea Tateana, F.v.M., in Muell Cens., (Suppt. for 

1885); N.O., Juncacese. 

" Grass Tree." 

The author is indebted to Mr. J. E. Brown, Conservator of 
Forests of South Australia, for a quantity of the exceedingly hand- 
some resin of this new species. It is obtainable in large pieces free 
from woody matter. It is more or less vesicular, and powders 
with the utmost facility. The fresh fracture is very bright, and of 
a rich, pure ruby colour ; the powder is dead, and of the colour 
of the best chrome orange. The colour of the lumps readily 
becomes dulled by the friction of the masses against each other, 
and so is generally seen of a liver-colour to chrome orange. 
Neither in lump nor in powder has the resin any odour at 
ordinary temperatures. 

Kangaroo Island (South Australia). 



CuMS, Resins, and Kinds. 

C. (KINGS.) 



(SEE ALSO "TANS.") 



1. Angophora intermedia, DC, (Syn. Metrosideros floribunda. 

Smith, non Vent.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 184. 
" Narrow-leaved Apple Tree." 

A kino of a reddish-brown colour and brittle nature. From 
this circumstance, the small masses in which it is obtained speedily 
lose their bright appearance. It forms a dull-looking powder of a 
pinkish-brown colour. Water acts but slowly upon it, forming a 
pale reddish-brown solution, and leaving abundance of sediment. 

A sample from Colombo, near Candelo, N.S.W., yielded the 
author 90.7 per cent, of extract, and 46.95 per cent, of kino-tannic 
acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., iS8y, p. 83.) 

Angophoras yield a watery liquid in some abundance, which 
occasionally goes by the name of " liquid kino." That name is 
misleading, as it does not harden to form ordinary kino. A 
sample of this liquid is in the Technological Museum, obtained 
from a tree more than two feet in diameter by making a few cuts 
through and under the bark, in order to look for kino. Eight or 
ten gallons of the liquid could have been obtained from that one 
tree. It has a specific gravity of 1.008, and is a clear reddish- 
brown liquid. It has an acidulous smell, acetic acid being 
plainly discernible, but accompanied by a strong and unpleasant 
odour, reminding one somewhat of spent tan. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

2. Angophora lanceolata, Cav., (Syn. Metrosideros co statu, 

Gsertn. ; M. lanceolata, Pers. ; M. apocynifolia, Salisb.) ; 
N.O., Myrtace», B.Fl., iii., 184. 



236 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Called variously "Apple Tree," " Mountairj Apple Tree," "Orange 
Gum." " Rusty Gum." The "Toolookar" of the Queensland aborigines. 

When freshly exuded, this kino has (like other Angophora 
and a few Eucalyptus kinos) a smell like sour wine, but more dis- 
agreeable. Even when quite freshly exuded it is exceedingly brittle. 
It has a bright fracture, and is of a ruby colour, with a tinge of 
brown. Colour of powder orange-brown. Its behaviour with 
water is similar to that of the preceding species. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

3. Angophora "Woodsiana, Bail., (Syn. Queensland Flora, Bailey); 

N.O., Myrtaceae. 

This "Apple Tree " yields a brittle reddish kino, used by the 
settlers as a remedy in diarrhoea. (Bancroft.) 

Queensland. 

4- Baloghia lucida, Endl., (Syn. Codiaum. lucidum, Muell. Arg.); 

N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., vi., 148. 

"Scrub, or Brush Bloodwood." " Nun-naia" and "Dooragan" of 
the aboriginals. • 

A blood-red sap oozes from the trunk when cut, and was 
obtained in the following manner in Norfolk Island : — " A knife, 
similar to a farrier's, is used, but stronger, fixed upon a handle 
four to five feet long, which enables the workman to reach high up 
the trunk of the tree. A perpendicular incision is made through 
the bark, an inch wide at the surface, but tapering to a point near 
the wood, and from eight to ten feet long, forming the main 
channel through which the sap flows to the base of the tree, 
where a vessel is placed for its reception; branch channels are 
cut on each side of the main one, leading obliquely into it, six 
or eight inches apart, and extending nearly two-thirds round the 
trunk. The sap generally flows from these channels for about 
twelve hours, when it is collected. The quantity produced by 
each tree varies; sometimes about a pint, but on an average about 
half that quantity. The sap forms an indelible paint, and was 
formerly used in the island for marking bags, blankets, and other 
articles." (Shepherd.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 237 

5. Bombax malabaricum, DC, (Syn. B. heptaphyllum, Cav. ; 

Salmah'a Malabarica, Schott.); N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 223. 

The " Simool Tree," or " Malabar Silk-cotton Tree " (of India). 

The gum {Mocharas or Mucherus) only exudes from portions 
of the bark which have been injured by decay or insects; incisions 
in the healthy bark produce nothing. It is very astringent, and 
is used both by Hindus and Mahometans in diarrhoea, dysentery, 
and menorrhagia, in doses of from 40 to 50 grains for an adult. 
(Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India?) Waring {J?harm. 
0/ India), however, says that this gum, or rather product of a 
diseased action, is incorrectly referred to this species, and that its 
botanical source is unknown. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

6. Ceratopetalum gummifernm, Sm., N.O., Saxifragese, B.Fl., ii., 

442. 

" Christmas Bush." (For other names, see " Timbers.") 
By well wounding the tree, or, better still, by felling a tree 
and cutting it into logs, there exudes a kino of exceptionally beau- 
tiful appearance. It is of a rich ruby colour, perfectly transparent,, 
very tough, though when it has become thoroughly hard it breaks 
with a bright fracture. It is exceedingly astringent, sticks to the 
teeth, and obviously contains a large proportion of gummy matter. 
The author having only recently collected the substance, is unable 
to give further particulars in regard to it at present. 
New South Wales. 

7- Eucalyptus spp, N.O., Myrtacese. 

Many trees yield their kino in a viscid state on tapping a gum 
vein in spring or autumn. Exposure to the air usually hardens it 
almost immediately. As a very general rule, the kinos are col- 
lected naturally exuded and hardened on the outside of the bark. 

There is a great difference between various species in regard 
to the yield ; E. corymbosa, for instance, producing it in the 
greatest abundance, while some yield it so little that it has not been 
recorded as having been found on them. But there is no doubt 
that on every species it will be found in at least minute quantity. 



238 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The kinos vary very much if allowed to remain for an indefi- 
nite length of time on the trees, as they are readily affected by the 
rain, the soluble portion being more or less washed out ; besides, 
the action of the sun contributes to alteration of their chemical 
composition. 

Some of them are used by the settlers for ink and for staining 
leather black, the process simply consisting in boiling the kino in 
an iron saucepan. 

The following notes on medicinal preparations of Eucalyptus 
kinos are taken from Martindale and Westcott's Extra Pharma- 
copoeia. 

Besides being useful in diarrhoea and relaxed throat, is given 
with success to check the purging of mercurial pill, administered 
for Syphilis. 

Decoctum Eucalypti gummi — 

Eucalyptus kino ... ... ... ... i 

Distilled water ... ... ... ... 40 

Boil till dissolved and strain. Used as gargle, and given for 
diarrhoea in two to four drachm doses. {Lancet, ii., 83, 1029.) 
Extractiun Eucalypti gummi liquidum — 

Eucalyptus Kino ... ... ... i 

Distilled Water ... ... ... ... 3 

Dissolve by constant shaking and strain. Dose — 30 to 60 
minims in water. 

A styptic. Injected into the nostril stops bleeding from the 
nose, and applied on lint arrests haemorrhage from wounds. A 
tablespoonful to a pint of water forms an astringent injection for 
the vagina or bowel. (Squire.) This dilution may also be used 
as a gargle. 

Insufflatio Eucalypti gummi — 

Eucalyptus kino in fine powder. 
Starch, in fine powder, of each i-grain. 
Applied by means of an insufflator, is a powerful astringent in 
haemorrhage and relaxed conditions of the larynx and trachea. It 
does not thus affect the palate or appetite. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 239 

Syrupus Eucalypti gummi. (Squire.) Liquid extract of 
Eucalyptus — 

Kino ... ... ... ... 5 ounces. 

Sugar 3 ounces. 

Dissolve. Dose — 30 to 60 minims. 
Tinctura Eucalypti gummi. (Squire.) — 

Eucalyptus Kino ... ... 10 ounces. 

Rectified Spirit... ... ... 4 ounces. 

Shake till dissolved, and strain. Dose — 20 to 40 minims, i 
part to 7 of water forms a very astringent gargle. 
Trochisci Eucalypti gummi — 

Contain i grain in each, combined with fruit paste. 
Trochisci Eucalypti compositi, (L. Browne). Contain in 
each — 

Chlorate of Potassium ... ... 2 grains. 

Cubeb powder ... \ grain. 

Eucalyptus Kino... ... ... i grain. 

Used in congested and relaxed throats, especially when 
accompanied by arrest of mucous secretion. 

8. Eucalyptus acmenioides, Schau., (Syn. E. pilularis var. (.?) ac- 

menioides, Benth. ; E. trianthos, Link.); N.O., Myrtaceae 

B.Fl., iii., 208. 

"White Mahogany" of New South Wales. (For other vernacular 
names, see " Timbers.") 

This kino occurs in small quantity only, is of an amber colour 
when recently exuded, passing subsequently to red and black. 
(Bancroft.) 

New South Wales and South Queensland. 

9. Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

202. 

" Peppermint," " Mountain Ash," &c. (For the numerous botanical 
synonyms and vernacular names of this tree, see " Timbers.") 

A clear, port-wine coloured kino, which is very friable, form- 
ing a sparkling powder, unless, of course, it is made impalpable. 
It is readily soluble in cold water. " Ribbon gum kino," yielded 
by a variety of this species in the Braidwood district of New South 



240 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Wales, is soluble in water to the extent of 99.22 per cent., and 
yielded the author 57.76 per cent, of kino tannic acid. (Proc. 
R.S., N.S W., i88j, p. 36.) The kino of another variety, "Pep- 
permint," yielded the author (loc. cit. 192) 96.06 per cent, of 
extract, and 58.41 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 

Tasmania, Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 

10. Eucalyptus botryoides, Sm., (Syn. E, platypodos, Cav.); 

N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 229. 

'• Swamp Mahogany." (For other names, see " Timbers."} 

This species appears to yield but little kino. Some sent from 
a tree known in the Illawarra district of New South Wales as 
" White Gum," or " Scribbly Gum," varies in colour from pinkish 
jO a dark ruby colour. This decidedly pink colour is somewhat 
unusual in kinos. It appears of a brown colour when broken up. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

11. Eucalyptus Calophylla, R.Br., (Syn. E. splachnocarpa. 

Hook.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 255. 

" Red Gum" of Western Australia. 

Baron Mueller has stated that the viscid kino of this tree is 
obtainable in considerable quantity, and that it is soluble in cold 
water to the extent of 70 to 80 per cent. It appears to be 
one of the most abundant and useful of Eucalyptus kinos. 

Western Australia. 

12. Eucalyptus CQXyXii^OZdii, S77itih, {Syn. 3fetrostderos gummi/era, 

Soland.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 256. 
" Bloodwood." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This tree is as fortunate in its vernacular name as any of 
the Eucalypts. When freshly exuded, the kino has all the appear- 
ance of a stream of blood, and so freely does it flow that 
frequently the appearance of the ground at the foot of one of these 
trees is quite startling. The kino runs down the tree in large 
quantities, dries almost immediately, becoming exceedingly brittle- 
When freshly exuded it has a distinct smell, which, as far as I 
know, is characteristic, and soon recognised. It has something 
of a vinous odour. Much of the kino exuded becomes entanorled 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 241 

in the scaly porous bark of this tree, but one frequently comes 
upon quite a store of the substance through tapping the com 
munication with a reservoir underneath the bark, or between the 
concentric circles of wood. Frequently, on felling a tree, large 
masses of indurated kino (always more or less admixed with woody 
matter) may be obtained in cavities around these circles, and the 
presence of gum-veins of greater or less extent is always notice- 
able in a log of this timber. This interior kino, although quite 
bright when first deposited, has frequently the appearance of a 
very pulverulent purplish-red haematite, such, for instance, as is 
common in the Elba mines. It readily makes an impalpable 
powder of a Venetian red colour, soiling everything with which it 
comes into contact. Such kino is very variously soluble in water, 
whereas the freshly exuded pure substance, which is almost of a 
vermilion colour frequently, and, therefore, the most brilliantly 
tinted of all kinos, is readily and completely soluble in cold water. 
It forms part of the " Botany Bay kino " of commerce, and 
Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane, says that it may be administered 
medicinally in doses of from two to ten grains. 
New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

13- Eucalyptus eximia, Schauer, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

258. 
" Mountain Bloodwood." (For other names, see " Timbers.") 

This "Bloodwood" yields far less kino than E. corymbosa, 
and the product is by no means of such a brilliant colour, having 
a liver-coloured cast, but redder than that of E. punctata. It is 
very friable, yielding a powder of a very dark buff colour. 

New South Wales. 

1 4- Eucalyptus globulus, LabilL, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

225. 

The " Blue Gum " of Victoria and Tasmania. (For other vernacular 
. names and synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

This well-known tree is by no means an abundant yielder 
of kino. A sample sent to Dr. Wiesner, of Vienna, some time 
ago, is thus described by him: — "Readily soluble in water; solu- 
tion pale reddish-yellow, slightly acid, very turbid on cooling ; 

R 



242 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

on heating, becomes cool again. No gum-resin; crumbling 
masses of light-brownish colour." 

Tasmania, Victoria and just into New South Wales. 

15. Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hook., /., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 246. 
" Cider Gum." " Swamp Gum." (For other names and synonyms, see 

" Timbers.") 

In bulk, this kino resembles, in general appearance, that of 
Angophora intermedia It is, perhaps, a little brighter in appear- 
ance than the latter. To cold water it yields a pale orange 
solution, leaving a quantity of a turbid sediment of a salmon 
colour, in which are interspersed a few dark-coloured particles. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

16. Eucalyptus hsemastoma, Smith, (Syn. E. signala, F.V.M.; 
E. /alci/olia, Miq. ; and including^, micrantha, DC); 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 212. 

"Scribbly Gum," "Spotted Gum," "White Gum," &c. (For other 
vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

The specific gravity of the kino from this tree is about 
1.378, and the percentage of tannin 64.51. (Staiger.) A sample 
from Colombo, near Candelo, N.S.W., yielded the author 95.53 
per cent, of extract, and 54.12 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 
(Proc. R.S., N.S. W., p. 84.) 

It is of a bright-ruby colour, soluble completely and entirely 
in cold water when fresh, characteristics it possesses in common 
with many other kinos, e.g., amygdaWia, macrorrhyncha. It is 
soluble in water, and when dried forms shining scales. They 
may be placed on wounds, cuts, or ulcers, with satisfactory 
results. (Bancroft.) It is a little gummy, and, therefore, does 
not powder well. 

lUawarra (New South Wales) to Wide Bay (Queensland). 

17- Eucalyptus leuCOXylon, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sideroxylon, A. 

Cunn.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 209. 

" Ironbark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This tree is comparatively rich in kino, as much as 23 per 
cent, having been obtained from the fresh bark by Baron Mueller; 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 243 

*' the tannic acid of eucalyptus kino is not, however, equal to 
that of oaks and acacias in tan-power, but it can be used as a 
subsidiary in the tanning process, where light-coloured leather 
is not an object. This kino is easily soluble in water, is of 
slightly acid reaction, becomes turbid, but clear again on heating." 

Frequently the bark of this tree is completely honeycombed, 
the cavities being entirely filled with kino. The blackish kino 
set in rows, in the light reddish-brown bark, has a beaded, granular 
appearance, characteristic, as far as I know, of this species. 
When old, this kino becomes horny and more or less insoluble. 
The bark (with enclosed kino) yielded the author 67 per cent, of 
extract to water, and 41.9 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. (Proc. 
J^.S., N.S. IF., fSS^, p. 38.) 

Spencer's Gulf (South Australia) to Southern Queensland. 

18. Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha, F.v.M., (Syn. E. acervula, Miq.); 

N.O., Myrtacege, B.Fl,, iii., 207. 

" Stringybark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Specimens of this kino from near Bombala, New South 
Wales, have been examined by the author. He found 97.54 per 
•cent, of extract, and 78.72 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. 
R.S.^ N.S. W., iS8y, p. 84.) The kino is of a rich ruby colour. 
It is readily friable, and for this reason usually appears of a dull 
colour, unless it has been very little handled. It reminds one 
somewhat of some specimens of seed-lac. It is readily soluble 
in water. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

19- Eucalyptus maCUlata, Hook., (Syn. E.variegata, F.v.M.; E. 

peliata, Benth.) ; N.O., Myrtacege, B.Fl., iii., 254 and 256. 
The common " Spotted Gum." 

The appearance of this kino is characteristic, as is also its 
odour. It is of a yellowish-brown to olive colour, while its odour 
is difficult to describe, but readily recognised when once observed. 
It is one of the most friable of all kinos, perhaps ranking only 
second to E. corymbosa in that respect. This friability is assisted 
by its porous nature, some of it being nearly as porous as pumice. 



244 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

and distinctly vesicular to the eye. It can readily be crushed 
between the fingers into a fine powder. It forms a yellow solu- 
tion in cold water, leaving a resinoid residue of a dirty brownish 
colour, and much like soft toffee in appearance. On long 
continued digestion with water it loses its resinous texture, and 
almost entirely dissolves. Its solubility varies very much accord- 
ing to its degree of freshness. The observations of different 
chemists in this respect can scarcely be reconciled in the absence 
of information in regard to the ages of the kinos, and particulars in 
regard to the trees which yielded them. According to Mr. Staiger^ 
of Brisbane, this kino contains benzoic acid in an impure 
state, also catechin. " Like that of E. tesselaris, the insoluble 
portion of the kino treated with ether gives up a sticky substance, 
and leaves behind a clear, reddish, tasteless, brittle resin, having 
the properties of shellac." Mr. E. Norton Grimwade {Pharm. 
Jouni., 26th June, i886) gives an account of some experiments 
with this kino. He found 'j.o'j per cent, of volatile constituents,. 
consisting almost entirely of water, with the merest trace of a 
volatile oil, " to which the peculiar aromatic odour, strongly 
resembling styrol, possessed by the gum, is due." The quantity 
of this oil obtained was only two or three drops from three-quarters 
of a pound of kino. Unlike Mr. Staiger, Mr. Grimwade found 
no trace of benzoic acid, neither of cinnamic acid. The latter 
adds : " I tried the gum as a varnish, employing as solvents tur- 
pentine, methylated spirit, and linseed oil ; the linseed oil and tur- 
pentine, I believe, practically dissolved nothing, but the methylated 
spirit yielded a hard, smooth, and transparent varnish." Mr. Staiger 
gives the specific gravity of the kino at about 1.405, and the percent- 
age of tannic acid at 34.97. My own experiments with kinos, from 
different sources, up to the present, give percentages var)'ing 
between 23 and 51. Mr. Grimwade ^/<?f. aV.^ finds the percentage 
in his sample to be 10 per cent, of tannin, " closely allied, if not. 
identical, with querco-tannic acid," 

Central New South Wales to Central Queensland. 

20. lucalyptus microcorys, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii.^ 
212. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINGS. 245 

"Turpentine Tree," or "Tallow- wood." (For other names, see 
*' Timbers.") 

A sample in the Technological Museum has crumbled into 
small pieces, for the most part of the size of currants. In bulk, it 
looks remarkably like a parcel of uncut garnets. Owing to the 
friability of the kino, the bright fractures become dulled with 
very little friction. Colour of powder, orange-brown. It is readily 
soluble in water, leaving a turbid residue, which eventually dis- 
solves. Mr. Staiger gives the specific gravity at 1.395, and the 
percentage of tannin 53.33. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

21. Eucalyptus Obliqua, L. Her it. ^ N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 

204. 
A " Stringybark." (For other synonyms and vernacular names, see 
"Timbers.") 

Like other stringybarks, this yields a kino of a ruby colour, 
perfectly transparent and bright-looking, and quite soluble in 
water. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

22. Eucalyptus Odorata, Behr., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 215. 
" White Box." " Peppermint." (For botanical synonyms and ver- 
nacular names, see " Timbers.") 

A dull-looking kino, very pulverulent (for a kino), forming a 
dark, dirty-brown powder. It is apparently not obtainable in large 
pieces. 

South Australia, Victoria and South-east New South Wales. 

23. Eucalyptus paniculata, Smith, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

211. 
" She Ironbark." (For other names and synonyms, see " Timbers.") 
Fresh kino of this species is characteristic, as far as my speci- 
mens go. It resembles orange lac in appearance to a marked 
degree, though some fragments vary in tint to brown and garnet 
lac. In all cases the resinous appearance of the kino is strikingly 
similar to lac. It is brittle, and forms a bright powder. It dis- 



246 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

solves readily in water, forming a very pale-coloured solution of a 
bright orange-brown colour. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

24. Eucalyptus pilularis, Smith, N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 208. 
" Blackbutt." (For other names and synonyms, see " Timbers.") 
Specimens collected by the author so closely resemble, in 

outward appearance, the kino of E. piperita, as scarcely to be 
distinguished from it. It dissolves readily in water, forming a 
comparatively pale solution. 
Victoria to Queensland. 

25. Eucalyptus piperita, Smith, (Syn. E. acervula, Sieb.); N.O., 

Myrtaceoe, B.Fl., iii., 207. 

" Blackbutt." " Messmate." " Narrow, or Almond-leaved Stringy- 
bark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This is another kino of the E. amygdalitia type. It can be 
procured in fairly large quantities. It yielded the author 99.75 
per cent, of extract to water, and 62.12 per cent, of kino-tannic 
acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S. W., iSS'j, p. 192.) 

Gippsland, New South Wales and Queensland. 

26. Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, F.v.M., 

Fragm., xi. 

"This kino is of very great astringency, and, therefore, parti- 
cularly valuable for therapeutic purposes ; after adherent impurities 
are removed by alcohol it is found to be composed mainly of kino- 
tannic acid, the percentage being 93.88 of that acid, the rest (6.12) 
consisting simply of real gum, and seems quite free of gallic acid." 
(Mueller, Eucalyptographia.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

27. Eucalyptus punctata, DC; N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 244. 
" Grey Gum" and " Leather-jacket." (For other names and synonyms, 

see "Timbers."} 

This kino, especially when in large masses, somewhat re- 
sembles Hepatic Aloes in appearance, but it is far more brittle 
than that substance, crumbling without much difficulty by pressure 
of the fingers. Its colour may be described of a very dark brown. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 247 

with a slight orange tint, and comparing it with still another sub- 
stance, one from the mineral kingdom, it is much like some of the 
Melanite garnets from Franklin, New Jersey, U.S.A. The powder 
is of an ochre colour, slightly more brown than " Oxford ochre." 
When freshly collected it has a vinous odour, somewhat similar to, 
but less powerful than that of -£". maculata. The author happened to 
tap a reservoir of this kino at the base of a tree, which was as fluid as 
molasses at first, but on a few minutes' exposure to the air it 
hardened and became quite brittle. On treatment with cold water 
the bottom layer of liquid is of a rich reddish-brown, the rest of 
the liquid becoming, by diffusion, of the colour of olive oil. There 
is abundant sediment, which powders readily, of a light buff colour, 
forming a turbid liquid. 
New South Wales. 

28. Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith, (incl. E. spectabHis, F.v.M. ; 
E. pellita, F.v.M. ; E. Kirtoniajia, F.v.M. ; E. hemilampra, 
F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 245. 

"Jimmy Low." " Red, or Forest Mahogany." (For other vernacular 
names, see " Timbers.") 

In most English books the bold statement is made that 
"Botany Bay kino is the produce of E. resinifera ;" this species is 
not intended, but E. siderophloia, one of whose synonyms is 
E. resinifera (A. Cunn). Unless, however, special pains have 
been taken to diagnose the species yielding a kino, the name 
E. resinifera must be only understood generically, for there are 
scores of species of Eucalyptus which yield kino as abundantly, 
or more abundantly than either E. resinifera, Smith or A. Cunn, 
Authenticated kino of this species is all but unknown to science. 
A small quantity in my possession is in smallish tears for the mpst 
part, and invariably showing firmly adherent wood and bark on 
one side. It is clear looking, and exhibits a dark ruby colour by 
transmitted light. It has, however, been collected for a con- 
siderable time. It is inclined to be tough and horny, though it 
has a bright fracture; colour of powder, burnt sienna. It dissolves 
in water, forming a clear solution. Mr. Staiger gives the specific 



24S AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

gravity of a sample of this kino at about 1.416, and the per- 
centage of tannin 65.57. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

29. Eucalyptus rOStrata, SchleM., (Syn., E. longirostris, F.v.M. ; 

E. acuminala, Hook. ; E. brachypoda^ Turcz. non Benth. ; 
E. exserta, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl. iii., 240. 
" Red Gum." " Flooded Gum." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

Thanks to the enterprise of Mr. Bosisto, of Melbourne, this 
kino is probably the best known of all Eucalyptus kinos to 
European and Australian medical men. Mr. Bosisto describes it 
as a delicate mucilaginous astringent, which also possesses tonic 
properties, employed with benefit in affections of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach and bowels, and a reliable remedy in 
the treatment of chronic dysentery and diarrhcea. As a topical 
astringent for the uvula and tonsils, either in the form of a gargle, 
syrup, or lozenge, it forms a useful remedy. But the statement, 
" none approaches it in value for medicinal purposes," may or may 
not be literally true, or perhaps it only refers to Victorian species, 
for of Australian kinos in general, our knowledge is of the most 
elementary and empirical description. 

Mr. Bosisto 's extract is freed from insoluble matter, whether 
consisting of old kino (kinos all tend to insolubility with age), or 
accidental impurity, and is an elegant preparation. 

Kino of this species, when quite fresh, is quite soluble in cold 
alcohol and cold water. 

South Australia to Northern Queensland. 

30. Eucaljrptns saligna, Smith, N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 245. 
" Grey .Gum." " Blue Gum." (For other vernacular names, see 

"Timbers.") 

The author has very rarely seen this kino. A sample he collected 
is dullish-looking, and of all tints of garnet. It is of horny consis- 
tence for the most part, and in bulk it perhaps most generally 
resembles that of E. punctata in appearance, but it has none of 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 249 

the brown tint of the latter. It readily dissolves in cold water, 
forming a perfectly clear liquid of an orange-brown colour. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

31. Eucalyptus Siderophloia, Benth., (Syn. E. resinifera, A. 

Cunn., non Smith ; E. persicijlora, DC. ; and probably E. 

fibrosa, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 220. 

" Ironbark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

See E. resinifera, Smith. A certain amount of the " Botany 
Bay kino" of commerce was formerly obtained from the present 
species, hence Allan Cunningham and other botanists were 
accustomed to call it E. resinifera, a term now loosely applied 
to Eucalyptus kinos in drug lists. 

When new, it is of a rich ruby colour, both by reflected and 
transmitted light. It is mostly in tears, inclined to be horny or 
gummy, and, therefore, somewhat difficult to powder; colour of 
powder, sienna-brown. It dissolves almost entirely to a light 
orange brown liquid. 

Some bark of this tree (with adherent and apparently very old 
kino) was examined by the author (Proc. U.S., N.S. W., iSSy, p. 
39), with the following results : — {a) Bark with adherent kino 
yielded 68.1 per cent, of extract, and 26.48 per cent, of kino-tannic 
acid, {b) Bark freed from kino yielded 26.56 per cent, of extract, 
and 10.4 per cent, of kino-tannic acid, {c) Kino alone, extract 
97.56 per cent., and kino-tannic acid 35.1 per cent. 

Southern Queensland to Port Jackson. 

32. Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F.v.M., Syn. E. virgata, (the species 
name in B.Fl.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 202. 
" Cabbage Gum " of the Braidwood district of New South Wales. 
" Mountain Ash." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This kino is one of the most soluble of the Eucalyptus kinos. 
The slightest shower of rain softens it on the trees. It is of a rich 
garnet colour. It is rather tenacious to powder, yielding a dull, 
orange-coloured powder. This kino, as taken from the trees, has 
very much the appearance of ribbon gum kino (E. amygdalina 
var.), except that perhaps it is a shade duller in colour, but the 
difference between them is perceptible immediately each is tapped 



250 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

with the pestle, the large pieces of E. Sieberiana kino readily 
becoming dulled by a coating of their own powder. It is readily 
soluble in cold or hot water. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

33- Eucalyptus Stellulata, Sieb., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 200. 
"Sally," or " Black Gum." (For botanical synonyms and vernacular 

names, see " Timbers.") 

This kino very much resembles in appearance that of E. 
Sieberiana. It fractures readily, forming angular, bright garnet 
grains, but it is too tenacious to powder well. It is exceedingly 
astringent. It yielded the author 62.96 per cent, of tannic acid, 
and it is practically entirely soluble in water, the author having 
found it soluble to the extent of 99.22 per cent. [Proc. R.S., 
N.S. W., i88y, p. igr.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

34- Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F.vJf., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
243 (partly). 

"Turpentine Tree." "Apple-scented Gum." (For synonyms and 
other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Mr. Bauerlen, who collected a quantity of this kino for the 
Technological Museum on the borders of New South Wales and 
Victoria, gave me the following scrap of information. Some 
ladies who saw him thus employed assured him that they knew 
of nothing which cleanses the teeth so quickly and effectually as 
this kino. Its friability, combined with its astringency, have 
doubtless given it this reputation. 

It is a comparatively dull-looking kino, having somewhat the 
appearance of seed-lac, and the particles are -equally variable in 
point of colour. It is exceedingly brittle, forming a powder of a 
dull sienna-brown. It only partially dissolves in water, forming 
abundant sediment of an ochrey-brown colour. 
Tasmania to Queensland. 

35 Eucalyptus tereticornis, SmUh, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 
241. 



GUMS, RESINS, AND KINOS. 25 1 

" Grey Gum," " Bastard Box," etc, (For other names and synonyms, 
see "Timbers.") 

This is the dullest looking kino the author has ever seen. Its 
general colour is brown ; it can readily be reduced to a fairly fine 
powder between the fingers. It forms a light reddish-brown turbid 
liquid, leaving a muddy-looking residue of a salmon colour, 
evidently composed of finely divided particles of resin, wood, and a 
gelatinous substance. The last portions of soluble matter are 
exceedingly tedious to extract. 

Victoria to Queensland. 

36. Eucaljrptus terminalis, F.v.M., (Syn. E. poly car pa, F.V.M.); 

N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 257. 

" Bloodwood." (See also " Timbers.") 

This tree is for the most part sparsely distributed, and then 
on rivers and creeks ; also, very few trees exude kino, and then 
only in small quantities. A small sample in the Technological 
Museum has quite freshly exuded. It is in very small fragments, 
with attached bark. It is of a pale ruby colour, and very bright 
looking ; colour of powder, dark salmon ; it can readily be 
crushed by the fingers. With water it forms a pale orange-brown 
liquid, with a light brown sediment. 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

37- Eucalyptus tesselaris, Hook., (Syn. E. viminalis. Hook, f.; 
E. Hookeri, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 251. 
" Moreton Bay Ash." (For other vernacular names, see "Timbers.") 
This kino has the property of exuding of a dark brown treacle- 
colour, and soon becoming black without any tint of red. 
According to Mr. Staiger, it has a specific gravity of 1.35, and 
contains 71.7 per cent, of matter soluble in boiling water, and on 
cooling the solution becomes turbid, and deposits catechin. The 
portion insoluble in water is soluble in alcohol, and the residue, 
when treated with ether, leaves a dark coloured brittle mass 
identical with shellac, possessing the same qualities, both 
technically and chemically, and giving a good French-polish of a 
rather darker colour than the usual commercial article. This 
shellac constitutes about one-fifth of the entire gum ; it is insoluble 



252 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

in benzine, kerosene, and the essential oils. The portion dissolved 
by ether forms a pliable, reddish, transparent mass, which does 
not become dry, even after four or five days. (Bancroft.) 

South Australia, New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

38. Eucalyptus trachyphloia, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., 

iii., 221. 

" The analysis of one sample of kino gave us as much as 73 
per cent, of kino-tannic acid (soluble in water and alcohol, and 
precipitable by acetate of lead out of an acidified solution), 18^ 
per cent, kino-red or allied substance (insoluble in water, but 
soluble in alcohol), Si per cent, gum and pigment (soluble in 
water, and partly in alcohol, but not precipitable by acetate of 
lead "). (Mueller, Eucalyptographia.) 

39. Eucalyptus viminalis, LahUl, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

239- 

" White Gum," etc. (For other names and synonyms, see " Timbers.") 
A sample in the Technological Museum is in small fragments, 
and the prevailing colour, ruby, of all depths of tint. It is bright- 
looking, and easily reducible to a powder between the fingers; 
colour of powder, light orange-brown. In water, it forms a solu- 
tion of an orange-yellow colour, something like linseed oil. The 
muddy residue is of a palish salmon colour. 

Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 



OILS: 
A. (VOLATILE or ESSENTIAL.) 



1. Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linn. (Syn., A. Martini, Roxb.; 

A.ci/ra/um,'DC.; Cj'/nbopogon Schoenan/hiis,Spveng.); N.O.^ 
Gramineae, B.FI, vii., 534. 

This sweet-scented grass is distilled in India, and yields the 
fragrant, often adulterated Rusa or Citronelle oil of commerce, 
one of the " Grass " or " Verbena " oils. In one experiment 
Dr. Dymock obtained ilb. 5^023. of oil from 373lbs. of grass. It is 
much used by the Arabs and Turks as a hair-oil. 

Queensland. 

2. Angiopteris evecta, Hoffm.; N.O., Filices, B.Fl. vii., 694. 

This plant yields an aromatic oil, said to be used in the South 
Sea Islands for perfuming cocoa-nut oil. (Woolls.) 

Queensland. 

3. Atherosperma moschata, ^«^''//.; N.O., Monimiacese, B.Fl. v., 

284. 

" Native Sassafras." 

The oil obtained by aqueous distillation from the bark is thin,, 
unctious, pale-yellow when fresh, but becomes yellowish-brown 
with age. (That obtained from the leaves is a distinct essential 
oil, is of a greenish colour, and resembles oil of mace. It requires 
further examination. Bosisto.) It resembles, in odour, ordinary 
sassafras oil, with an admixture of oil of caraways. The taste is 
aromatic, bitter, and prickly to the tongue. Sp. gr. 1.04. Boils at 
230° to 245°. (Report of the London Exhibition 0/1862.) 



254 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



One hundred pounds of the bark yielded, in one case, i8oz. 
6dr. of the oil. 

In large quantities it must be regarded as a dangerous poison- 
Rubbed externally upon the skin it does not, like myrtaceous oils, 
act as a rubefacient or irritant. 

An extract of this bark is preferred medicinally, as the essen- 
tial oil is said to have a lowering effect on the heart. The latter 
is, however, given in certain circumstances, in doses of one or two 
drops. 

Oil of Atherosperma vioschata. 



Specific 

Gravity at 

15.5° C. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


1.0425 


14° 


1.5172 


1.5274 


1.5628 


+ 7° 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. The 
rotatory power was determined for a column of liquid 10 inches 
long {Watts Diet.) 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 



4- Backhousia Citriodora, F.vJI., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 270. 
The dry leaves yield a slightly acid essential oil of specific 
gravity .887. (Staiger.) By age it becomes yellowish and resinous. 
(Bancroft.) In the report of Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, 
(Pharm. Journ., 28th April, 1888), the following statements are 
made in regard to this oil : " Sp. gr., .900; boils from 223° to 
233°. Both these oils [Eucalyptus Staigeriatia is also referred to) 
are distinguished by an intense odour of lemon or verbena, and for 
the Backhousia oil especially, there is probably a future. The 
most important constituent of the two oils is a ketone (Cjo Hie O ?) 
with a strong, pure, lemon odour. The oil of E. Staigeriana con- 
tains a considerable quantity of a terpene, whilst that of Back- 



OILS. 255 

housia citriodora appears to consist principally of the previously 
mentioned ketone." 
Queensland. 

5- Eucalyptus spp., N.O., Myrtacese, 

" Eucalyptus Oil." 

The remarks which appear in journals in regard to experi- 
ments with Eucalyptus oil do not allude, as a very general rule, to 
the oil of any particular species of Eucalypt. The oils from some 
of the commonest species appear to be more or less similar, but 
there are most important differences between some of them, and 
each will be described under its species-name. The following 
preliminary remarks apply to Eucalyptus oils in general. See also 
remarks under the head of " EucalyptuS." ("Drugs.") Eucalyptus 
oil is only obtained, in practice, from the leaves ; (it is also con- 
tained in the flower-buds.) In Payen's Industrial Chemistry 
(Paul), p. 724, it is said to be obtained in part from the flowers. 
This is scarcely correct, except as a theoretical source. 

Robert has made a number of experiments with Eucalyptus 
oil, and comes to the conclusion that it possesses the power to 
destroy bacteria or animal life, and can well be classed with 
antiseptics. In order to test the properties of volatile antiseptics 
on animal life found in decomposing liquids, he made a number 
of experiments with an infusion of hay-seeds placed in a bottle 
and exposed to the atmosphere; in the course of a few days the 
liquid became turbid and slimy, but if a few drops of the oil of 
Eucalyptus were added the liquid remained clear. The oil being 
volatile, some micrococci were exposed to the vapour, the action 
of which caused a destruction of the animalcules. Some 
surgeons have employed a spray of Eucalyptus oil during 
operations, thereby destroying every possibility of germs entering 
from the surrounding atmosphere ; the wound is then dressed in 
the ordinary manner, and the results have been very promising. 
(Med. Chirurg., Cent, blatt.) 

As an antiseptic, it has the advantage over carbolic acid that 
it is not caustic ; also, it is more than three times as powerful as 
that substance in preventing the development of bacteria ; and is, 



256 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

moreover, not so poisonous. Eighty minims may be taken in two 
and a half hours. {Practitioner, xxv., 212.) 

Air impregnated with Eucalyptus oil vapour is recommended 
as a substitute for the carbolic spray. {British Medical JournaU 
ii., 1882, 420.) 

As a surgical dressing, gauze dipped in a solution of the 
oil 3, alcohol 15, and water 150. This gauze may be left 
undisturbed four or five days. {Lancet, ii., 1880, 387. See 
Martindale and Westcott's Extra Pharmacopma.) 

Therapeutic Action. " In considering the medicinal effect of 
the oils of Eucalyptus, it must be remembered that we are dealing 
with bodies of simple composition, and, consequently, different 
from those complex compounds of the type of the well-known 
energetic poisons. 

The hydrocarbon character of the Eucalyptus oils, together 
with their low specific gravity, varying from 0.880 to 0.91 1, points 
to their rapid diffusibility when taken internally. Analogous com- 
pounds, such as camphor, alcohol, and conia, afford the key to 
their action. The immediate effect of each of the bodies just 
named is well known to be on the cerebro-spinal nervous system ; 
any one of these taken in large doses produces more or less 
complete flaccidity of the muscular system, and ultimately pro- 
duces a state of inebriation and unconsciousness ; a similar result 
follows extreme doses of Eucalyptus oil. Medical men report 
that a small dose promotes appetite ; a large one destroys it. In 
stronger doses of lo to 20 minims, it first accelerates the pulse, 
produces pleasant general excitement (shown by irresistible desire 
for moving about), and a feeling of buoyancy and strength. It is 
intoxicating in very large doses, but, unlike alcohol or opium, the 
effects are not followed by torpor, but produce a general calmness 
and soothing sleep. The antidote for an overdose is also alike in 
character, viz., a strong cup of coffee, without milk or sugar, 
which speedily removes any alarming symptoms. Now these 
results, as compared with the medicinal action of Conium 
maculattim, are very striking — an overdose of this drug leaves the 
intelligence and sensory system intact, while it paralyses the 
motor system ; overdoses of Eucalyptus produce similar results. 



OILS. 257 

The bitterness left on the palate after taking Eucalyptus oil is 
evidently due to a principle isomeric with the oil, not separable. 
It is probably in the active agent, so often referred to by medical 
writers when urging the anti-periodic properties of the oil." 
(Therapeutic Gazette.) 

Dr. Leighton Kesteven {Practitioner, May, 1885) used 
Eucalyptus oil methodically in an epidemic of typhoid fever. The 
doses were at first two to five drops, made into an emulsion of mucilage, 
but latterly he employed 10 minims every four hours. In cases in 
which the drug does not agree with the stomach, careful emulsifi- 
cation and the addition of half a drachm each of aromatic spirits 
of ammonia, spirits of chloroform, and glycerine, will often remove 
the nauseous taste. Dr. Kesteven reports that in 220 cases treated 
in 18 months he only had four deaths. 

Dr. J. H. Mussen, of Philadelphia, furnishes a paper to The 
Therapeutic Gazette, of July, 1886, "On the Value of Oil of 
Eucalyptus in some Malarial Affections." The following are his 
conclusions : — 

1. That the oil of Eucalyptus is of decided value in about one 
third of all cases of intermitting malarial fever. 

2. That it has no specific value in any one type of the disease. 

3. That the longer the duration of the disease, the less likely it 
is to do good. 

4. That relapses are not prevented by it. 

5. That its influence on the spleen has not been demonstrated. 

6. That a dose of five drops four times daily has been a sufli- 
cient dose, but that five drops every three hours would be of 
greater value possibly. 

7. That good results are not attained as quickly as by large 
doses of quinine, but that a good effect should be noticed within 
five days at least. 

An emulsion may be made by putting equal quantities of 
gum arable and the oil into a dry bottle, adding 40 parts of water, 
more or less, and shaking well. This is useful, for example, as 
a urethral injection or lotion, and may be given internally in one to 
four drachm doses, 
s 



258 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Eucalyptus oil in general is employed, usually mixed with an 
equal quantity of olive oil, as a rubefacient in cases of rheumatism, 
lumbago, sciatica, chronic hepatitis, asthma, bronchitis and sprains. 
It is also an anthelmintic, 30 to 60 minims being injected per anuin 
in mucilage of starch. It has been successfully used in the treat- 
ment of diphtheria, not that it possesses any specific action in this 
disease, but " in its local action it seems to be all that can be 
desired." 

It has also been recommended for deodorising iodoform and 
other drugs. It has been largely used in gynaecological practice 
in America, with good results. 

In diphtheria, a mixture of 5 grammes of oil, 25 grammes of 
rectified spirit, and 170 grammes of water used for 10 inhalations, 
or equal parts of the oil and rectified spirit, of which 10 to 60 
drops were used for an inhalation. (^Medical Times and Gazette, 
ii., 1879, 214. See also Zawf^/, ii., 1883,362.) 

In gynaecological practice pessaries, composed of six drachms 
of Eucalyptus oil, and four drachms each of oil of theobroma and 
white wax divided into twelve, one night and morning, or at night 
only, found useful after parturition, checks fetor and decomposition 
of lochial discharge; and five minims of Eucalyptus oil mixed with 
20 of olive oil, used and recommended as a hypodermic injection 
for pyaemia. (Lancet, ii., 1882, 343, quoted by Martindale and 
Westcott.) 

The following preparation is to be found in the British 
Pharmacopceia (1885) : — 

" Oleuj7i Eucalypti (oil of Eucalyptus). 

The oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus 
globulus (Labill.), Eucalyptus amygdalina (Labill.), and probably 
other species of Eucalyptus. 

Characters and Tests. Colourless, or pale straw-coloured, 
becoming darker and thicker by exposure. It has an aromatic 
odour, and a spicey and pungent flavour, leaving a sense of cold- 
ness in the mouth. It is neutral to litmus paper. Specific gravity 
about 900. Soluble in about an equal weight of alcohol. Dose, 
one to four minims. Preparation, Unguentum Eucalypti. 



OILS. 259 

Ungentum Eucalypti. Ointment of Eucalyptus. Take of 
Oil of Eucalyptus, by weight, i ounce, or i part. 

H rf^d"^^^" I °^ ^^^^ •" ^ o^"c^s, or 2 parts. 
Melt the hard and soft paraffins together, add the oil, and stir 
until cold." 

The following preparations in which Eucalyptus oil is the 
active ingredient, are taken from the Extra Pharniacopceia of 
Marti ndale and Westcott : — 

Eucalyptus gauze (Carbasus Eucalypti). In 6-yard pieces. 
Unbleached cotton gauze, impregnated with 

Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... ... i 

Dammar Resin ... ... ... ... 3 

Paraffin ... ... ... ... ... 3 

An antiseptic surgical dressing. In using it there is no 
danger of poisonous absorption of the antiseptic, as with carbolic 
acid gauze. {Lancet, i., 1881, 828; B,M.J., i., 1881, 850.) 

Iodoform and Eucalyptus Bougies (Cereolus Iodoform! et 
Eucalypti) — 

Iodoform, precipitated .. ... 5 grains. 

Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... 10 minims. 

Oil of Theobroma ... ... 35 grains. 

To make one bougie 4 inches long. Used to arrest gonorrhoea. 
Unguentum lodo/ortni et Eucalypti — 

Iodoform ... ... ... 60 grains. 

Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... i ounce. 

Heat gently till dissolved, and add to 

Paraffin ... ... ... ... 2^ ounces. 

Vaseline... ... ... ... 2\ ounces. 

Melted together. Stir till cold. 

Eucalyptol (CijH.^oO) is contained in large quantity in the oils 
of some species of Eucalyptus. It is not present in E. amygdalina, 
but E. globulus contains it abundantly. The crude oil contains 
also a number of products boiling between 188° and 190° and about 
200°, the Eucalyptol being contained in the portion which passes 
over between 170° and 178°, from which it may be obtained pure 



26o AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

by contact, first with solid potassium hydrate, then with calcium 
chloride, and subsequent distillation. 

Eucalyptol boils at 175°, has a specific gravity of .905 at 8°, 
and turns the plane of polarization to the right. Its molecular 
rotatory power is 10.42° for a length of 100 mm. It is slightly 
soluble in water, and dissolves completely in alcohol ; the dilute 
solution has an odour of roses. Vapour density observed =5.92, 
calculated =6.22. Ordinary nitric acid slowly attacks Eucalyptol, 
forming, among other products, an acid probably analogous to 
camphoric acid. Strong sulphuric acid blackens Eucalyptol, and 
water separates from the product a tarry body which yields by 
distillation a volatile hydrocarbon. 

Eucalyptol heated with phosphoric anhydride gives up water, 
and yields Eucalyptene {q-v.). At the same time there is formed 
another liquid, Eticalyptolene, which has the same composition, but 
boils above 300°. 

Eucalyptol absorbs a large quantity of dry hydrogen chloride, 
the liquid first solidifying to a crystalline mass, which, however, 
afterwards liquefies, with separation of water, and formation of a 
body apparently identical with Eucalyptene. (Cloez, in Waits 
Diet, ii., Suppt., p. 492.) 

Later experiments by Faust have, however, modified those of 
Cloez, above described, inasmuch as the body called Eucalyptol 
has been found to be a mixture of about 70 per cent, of Eucalyptene^ 
and 30 per cent, cymene. After rectification over sodium, it boils 
between 171° and 174°. It dissolves in all proportions in absolute 
alcohol, ether, and chloroform, and in about 15 parts of 90 percent, 
alcohol; has the odour of a fine terpene; detonates with iodine; 
absorbs oxygen with avidity ; turns brown with strong sulphuric 
acid, and is converted by oxidation with dilute nitric acid into 
paratoluic and terephthalic acids. 

The Eucalyptene and cymene contained in Eucalyptol cannot 
be separated by fractional distillation. To obtain the cymene, the 
mixture was shaken with sulphuric acid diluted with one-fourth 
part of water, and then heated, whereby the Eucalyptene was 
polymerised ; then, after three day.=, the liquid was mixed with 
water and distilled, whereby a distillate was obtained, consisting of 



OILS. 261 

cymene, which, after repeated rectification over sodium, boiled at 
173° to 174°. 

The camphoroidal body, Cio His O) is a colourless oily liquid 
which becomes faintly yellowish on exposure to light, boils at 216° 
to 218°, is insoluble in aqueous potash, and yields cymene when 
distilled with phosphorus pentasulphide. Its analysis gave numbers 
intermediate between those required by the formulas Cio H^ O and 
Cio H16 O, but the reactions of the body show that it is not an 
oxycymene. {Wa//s' Die/., 3rd Suppt., Part i., p. 761.) 

Eucalyptol is employed as a therapeutic agent in diphtheritic 
and bronchial affections. About one teaspoonful, with half a pint 
of water, is placed in the inhaler. It is also administered internally 
in mucilage, syrup, or glycerine, the dose being from three to five 
drops in those vehicles. 

Eucalyptene (see " Eucalyptol "). 

Oppenheim and Pfaff have examined Eucalyptus oil (probably 
obtained from E. odorata and E. amygdalina). By repeated 
treatment with potash, washing with water, and fractionation, it 
yielded Eucalyptene (Cio Hig), boiling at 172 — 175° and having a 
vapour-density of 68.55 and 68.22 (calc. 68, H=i). This hydro- 
carbon did not form a crystallised compound with hydrochloric 
acid, or yield a crystallised hydrate when left for six months in 
contact with nitric acid and alcohol. When treated with half the 
calculated quantity of iodine it was converted into cymene, Cio H^, 
which, when oxidised with dilute nitric acid, yielded paratoluic 
acid, melting at 173° — 175°. The crude oil did not yield any 
oxidised compound answering to the Eucalyptol of Cloez. ( Wa//s' 
Diet., 3rd Suppt. Ft. i., p. 761.) 

Algeria and California are now powerful competitors with 
Australia in the production of Eucalyptus oil. It is affirmed that 
Algeria alone is now in a position to supply the whole world with 
Eucalyptus globulus oil, and that a large quantity is available from 
California, where it is produced as a bye-product in the manufac- 
ture of anti-calcaire preparation for boilers. The production of 
Eucalyptus oil appears, moreover, to be increasing in Australia, 
where it has spread from Victoria* to South Australia, whilst in 

* Eucalyptus oil is distilled in quantity in New J^outh Wales. 



262 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Tasmania, also, a company has been formed for the distillation of 
different species of Eucalyptus. A statement made in a previous 
report that the Australian oil from Eucalyptus arnygdaltna contains 
no Eucalyptol, and is inferior in this respect to the Eucalyptus 
globulus oil from Algeria and California, was subsequently chal- 
lenged and stigmatised as " distinctly erroneous." Messrs. 
Schimmel, however, now reaffirm that statement, and say that the 
fraction of the amygdalina oil, separable at a temperature of 
i76°-i77°C, has a specific gravity of 0.886 at 15X (Eucalyptol has 
a specific gravity of 0.930), and is probably a mixture of terpene 
(Eucalyptene, Qo His) and a small quantity of cymol." (Pharm. 
Journ., 1888.) 

The following excerpt from the India-rubber and Gutta-percha 
Journal, 1887, on the subject of Eucalyptus leaves for preventing 
and removing scale in boilers is interesting, and may perhaps be 
mentioned under this head, pending the settlement of the question 
as to what constituent or constituents in the leaves causes the 
action stated. The matter is worthy of consideration by steam- 
users in Australia, to whom illimitable supplies of gum leaves are 
available for experiment. 

" Boiler cleaning is an important subject to all users of steam 
power. The extract from the leaves of the Eucalyptus, or blue 
gum (which has recently been found so efficacious for the above- 
named purpose), is procured by boiling the leaves in a battery of 
boilers under a pressure of 4olb. of steam. Twenty tons of 
leaves are boiled every day, and the boilers, after constant use of 
two years, are as sound as when they came from the shop. 
Extract of Eucalyptus globulus, or blue gum, has been tested by 
Professor E. \V. Hilgard, of the Agricultural Department of the 
University of California, in respect to its contents of tannin, its 
taste being highly astringent. It was found that a standardised 
tannin solution would precipitate '337 per cent, only of tannin; 
that beyond these limits either tannin or gelatine solution would 
produce a precipitate of about equal amount. After removing 
the tannin as far as possible, by digestion with animal membrane, 
the acid reaction shown by the extract was found to be equivalent 
to only -127 per cent, of sulphuric acid, an amount so small that 



OILS. 263 

it is doubtful whether the cleansing action upon the boilers can be 
attributed to acid in solution. In most instances scale will be 
lessened during the first application, but in others, where the scale 
is hard, it does not begin to move for six weeks or more. The 
extract does not act suddenly on the scale, but on close observa- 
tion good results will be immediately seen. The liquid may be 
put in through the manhole, feed-pipe, safety-valve, condenser, or 
hot-well. After it is put in no new scale will form, and the iron 
will cease to rust." 

6. Eucalyptus amygdalina, LabilL; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl. iii., 
202. 
" Peppermint." " Mountain Ash." (For the numerous botanical 
synonyms and vernacular names of this tree, see " Timbers.") 

This species is far richer in oil than any other Eucalypt, the 
average yield from the leaves being demonstrated by Mr. Bosisto 
at about 3 per cent. The distilled oil is pale-yellow, thin, of rather 
pungent cajeput-like odour, resembling, but coarser than, lemons; 
of a cooling, but afterwards bitter taste, of specific gravity at 15"^, 
.881 (later experiments give .856 for rectified, and .865 for non- 
rectified), boiling point 329° to 370°F., and it deposits stearoptene 
at low temperatures (18° which melts at 3°). It dissolves gutta- 
percha readily, and may be used in lamps like petroleum, with the 
important advantages of greater illuminating power, pleasant odour, 
and non-liability to explosion, but it is much more expensive than 
the latter. (Mueller.) Some of this oil was exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862. The price quoted was 
six shillings per gallon, and the jurors proceed to remark : — 
" Three ounces of the oil were sufficient to scent very strongly 
eight pounds of soap, at a cost of about one farthing per pound. 
The perfume produced by this oil alone would, however, be con- 
sidered by some more peculiar than agreeable, and we obtained a 
much better result by combining it in a second experiment with 
oils of cassia, cloves, and lavender, which mixture yielded a very 
pleasant fragrance." 

The "Oil of Eucalyptus" in general use, is frequently obtained 
from E. artiygdaltna, and not from E. globulus, being more 



264 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

abundant, much cheaper, and containing the usual remedial 
properties assigned to Eucalyptus oil. It is very fluid, almost 
devoid of colour, has a persistent and camphoraceous odour, is 
slightly soluble in water, but completely so in alcohol, oils, fats, 
and paraffin. It is not caustic, like carbolic acid, nor does it pro- 
duce much irritation of the skin, unless applied with extreme 
friction ; in that case the application of an emollient will speedily 
give relief. It is very destructive to low organic growth. It is a 
powerful antiseptic, and by some practitioners stated to be more 
than three times as strong as carbolic acid in preventing the 
development of bacteria. Its uses are manifold. 

Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, state that this oil differs 
from all other Eucalyptus oils known to them, and contains, 
probably, scarcely any oxygenated constituents ; it more likely 
consists of at least one well-characterized terpene (Cio His), and 
possibly a small quantity of cymol. Its specific gravity is 0.890 ; 
it boils practically between 170^ and 180°, and is laevogyre. Obser- 
vations on three different samples, gave, in a 100 mm. column, 
a rotatory power of 27°, 28.4°, and 28.6° ; consequently, this 
property allows of it being easily distinguished from the dextrogyre 
oil of E. globulus. {Pharm. Journ., April, 1888.) Messrs. 
Schimmel also allege, that in consequence of this oil having been 
proved to contain no Eucalyptol, the demand for it has fallen off. 

The following essential oil is described as from E. Jissilis, a 
variety of E. amygdalina : Pale, reddish-yellow oil, of 0.903 sp. 
gr.; boils at 177° to 196". (Wittstein and Mueller.) 

Speaking of Eucalyptus oils, Mr. Bosisto says: (Pharm. 
Journ?) " People in England would always speak principally of 
E. globulus, but the fact is that it is considered in Australia to be 
the worst of the whole lot." Now the incorrect labelling of ship- 
ments from Australia has much to do with this practice, but it is 
hoped that scientific people throughout the world will use the 
correct species-name when they are able to do so. 

Mr. Leopold Field, the soap-maker (at a meeting of the 
Pharm. Soc, at the close of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition), 
said the oil they always obtained came to them in iron tins holding 
about 561bs., and it was labelled E. globulus, and sometimes, by 



OILS. 



265 



way of a change, E. amygdalina, for the two things seemed 
exactly the same. They had had one sample of E. diimosa oil, 
which was vastly superior, and they had tried to get it again and 
again, but had never succeeded in getting a similar oil. The 
various Eucalyptus oils were of great interest to the soap-maker. 
E. citriodora oil was a very interesting substance, and might, if 
worked into soap, give the public very great satisfaction, inasmuch 
as the odour appeared to be pleasanter than lemon-grass, and not 
so sickly as that of citronelle. All the odours the various Eucalypti 
were capable of assuming had the peculiar property common to 
camphoraceous odours, and no doubt the soap-maker would be 
able to utilize them largely. 

Oil of Eucalyptus amygdalina, 
Table(i). 



Specific 

Gravity at 

15-5° C. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


.8812 


13-5'' 


1.4717 


1.4788 


1. 5021 


-136° 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. The 

rotatory power was determined for a column of liquid 10 inches 

long. 

Table (2). 



Specific 

gravity at 

20° C. 


Boiling 
Point. 


Refractive 
Index A 
at 20° C. 


Dispersion 
at 20° C. 


Sensi- 
tiveness. 


Specific 

Refractive 

Energy. 


Rotation. 


.8642 


171° 


1.4696 


.0323 


49 


•5434 


-142° 



(Gladstone, vide Watts Diet., iv., 186.) 

South Australia, Tasmania, South and East Victoria, coastal 
districts of New South Wales (not extending far to either west or 
north). 



266 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

7- Eucalyptus Baileyana, F.v.M.; N.O., Myrtaceae, F.V.M., 

Fragm. xi. 

A " Stringybark." 

The fresh leaves yield .900 per cent, of essential oil of .890 

specific gravity, and having an acid reaction. (Staiger.) It is 

described as having a turpentine odour. "Strongly resinified; 

sp. gr. 0.940 ; boils between 160*^ and 185°. This oil, and those 

of E. microcorys and E. maculata, var. citriodora, are very similar 

to one another. They possess a magnificent melissa-like odour. 

It is thought they will prove to possess extraordinary practical 

value. Chemically, the three oils are quite characteristic. Neither 

of them contains a terpene, but they consist of a ketone (Cw HgO), 

smelling like melissa, and a body that is probably an alcohol 

(Cio H18 O ?), which possesses a beautiful odour resembling that of 

geranium. (Messrs. Schimmel & Co., in Pharm. yourn., April, 

i888.) 

Near Brisbane (Queensland). 

8. EucaljrptUS Capitellata, Smith, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 206. 
" Stringybark." (For names and synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

Under the name of E. piperita, an account of this tree is 
given in a Journal of a Voyage to Neiv South Wales, by John 
White, Esq., Surgeon-General to the Settlement, published in 
1790. He (or rather Dr. Smith) says of it (p. 227) : " The name 
of peppermint tree has been given to this plant by Mr. White 
on account of the very great resemblance between the essential 
oil drawn from its leaves and that obtained from the Peppermint 
{Mentha piperita) which grows in England. This oil was found 
by Mr. White to be much more efficacious in removing all 
cholicky complaints than that of the English Peppermint, which 
he attributes to its being less pungent and more aromatic." Mr. 
White sent a quart or more of the essential oil from this, or other 
Eucalyptus leaves, to England. This was the commencement of 
what is now a flourishing industry, engaged in by almost all the 
colonies, and capable of still greater expansion. 

Victoria to Queensland. 

9- EucaljrptUS COrymbosa, Smith, {^yn. Metrosideros gummifera, 
Soland.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 256. 



OILS. 267 

" Blood-wood." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 
This essential oil smells slightly of lemons and roses ; it tastes 
a little bitter; is somewhat camphor-like ; is colourless, and of 
0.881 sp. gr. at 15°. (Wittstein and Mueller.) 

Bosisto says, speaking of some experiments made by him 
{Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi , 1861-4) : "The material from 
this species had suffered from close packing and length of time in 
transit. The yield from loolbs. of leaves was 90ZS. 3drs. of 
pure, limpid oil, 6oz. zdrs. of oil containing resinous matter in 
suspension. Supposing one half of this latter part of the yield to 
consist of resinous matter, the net amount of oil from loolbs. 
will be i2^ozs." 

Coastal districts of New South Wales and Southern Queens- 
land. 

10. Eucalyptus dumOSa, A. Cunn., (Syn. E. latnprocarpa,Y.yyi.; 
E. /ruliceiortim, F.v.M. ; E. santalifolia^ Miq. (partly) non 
F.V.M.); N.O. Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 230. 

A " Mallee." " Bunurduk " of the aboriginals of the Lake Hindmarsh 
Station (Victoria). 

The specific gravity of the essential oil of the leaves of this 
tree is about .912. It has a strong camphoraceous odour. 

Forms with E. gracilis, etc., the mallee country of Northern 
Victoria, Southern New South Wales and South Australia. 

II- Eucalyptus globulus, LabilL; N.O., Myrtaceaj, B.Fl. iii., 
225. 
The common "Blue Gum" of Victoria and Tasmania. The " Fever 
Tree" of the Continent of Europe. (For other botanical synonyms and 
vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This essential oil is very pale-yellow, thin, of cajeput-like odour, 
but is less disagreeable. It is cooling, and has a mint-like taste ; 
is of 0.9 1 7 sp. gr., and boils at 1 49-°! 77°. (Wittstein and Mueller.) 
Later experiments give a specific gravity of ,920. One hundred 
pounds of fresh gathered leaves yielded Mr, Bosisto i2|ozs. of oil, 
and he adds that the supply of oil is greater after the leaves have 
changed from obovate to lanceolate, which is the case when the 
trees are from three to four years old. This oil darkens and 



268 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

becomes resinous on exposure to the light. The word "globulus " 
is taken by many dealers in Eucalyptus oils (in and outside the 
colonies) to be generic, so that many other oils of different species 
of Eucalyptus are sold as if they were the product of E. globulus. 

In Watls' Diet., 3rd Suppt., Part i., p. 61, it is stated that 
Faust has found that this oil contains a terpene boiling at 1 50°- 
151°, another terpene called Eucalyptene boiling at 172°-! 75°, 
together with cymene, and a camphor-like body, Cm Hjg O. The 
terpene boiling at 150°-! 51° is present in small quantity only ; it 
takes fire with iodine, and resinises on exposure to the air. (See 
the remarks on " Eucalyptus oils " at the commencement of this 
genus.) 

" The oil obtained in a first distillation corresponded in its 
general properties with the commercial French and Californian* 
distillates, but the distillation of it yielded some interesting infor- 
mation. This oil showed a specific gravity of 0.925, and was 
dextrogyre (-f 5°). The specific gravity of the commercial 
varieties referred to varies between 0.915 and 0.925, and though 
they are always dextrogyre, their rotatory power varies between 
1.3° and 15.4°. Six commercial samples examined varied from 
50 to 70 per cent, in the amount of Eucalyptol they contained, and 
as Eucalyptol is optically inactive, this property might be utilised 
in judging the quality of an oil. In distilling the leaves of E. 
globulus, aldehydes of the fatty acids were observed; the presence 
of valeraldehyd was determined with certainty, and apparently 
butryaldehyd, and probably capronaldehyd were also present. 
The greater part of these bodies was dissolved in the distillation 
water, but the valeraldehyd could also be detected in the oil; it was 
also present in two commercial samples of the oil." (Report of 
Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, in Pharm. Journ.^ April, 

1888.) 

Tasmania, Southern and Eastern Victoria, and Southern 

New South Wales. 

12. Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F.v.M., (Syn. E. elaophora, F.V.M.); 
N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 229. 

* This species has been extensively cultivated in Southern France and Algeria, Cali- 
fornia, etc. 



OILS. 269 

" Called " Mountain Ash," " Spotted Gum," etc. (For other vernacular 
names, with the localities in which they are used, see " Timbers.") 

The essential oil of this Eucalypt is pale yellow; of pungent, 
penetrating, rather disagreeable odour, and exceedingly unpleasant 
taste. Sp. gr., 0.918; boiling point, 152° to 175°. (Wittstein 
and Mueller.) loolbs. of fresh leaves gave i6ozs. of essential 
oil. (Bosisto.) 

Victoria and New South Wales, as far north as Braid wood. 

13. Eucalyptus gracilis, F.v.M., (Syn. E. fniticetomm, F v.M., 

(partly); E. calycogona, Turcz. ; E. celastroides, Turcz); 

N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 211. 

A " Mallee," or " Desert Gum." 

Baron Mueller found that looolbs. of fresh twigs of this 
plant (comprising perhaps 50olbs. of leaves) yielded 54I0ZS. of 
essential oil. 

Forms, with other species of Eucalyptus, the "Mallee" 
country of Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South- 
western Australia, 

14. Eucalyptus hsemastoma, Smith, (Syn. E. signata, F.v.M. ; 
E. falci/olia, Miq. ; and including E. micrantha, DC.) ; 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 212. 

" White Gum," &c. (For other vernacular names of this tree, see 
" Timbers.") 

The essential oil from the fresh leaves gives a yield of 1.875 
per cent; in other words, 6720ZS. of oil from one ton of leaves ; 
it has a slightly acid reaction, and a specific gravity of .880. 
(Staiger.) Dr. Bancroft observes that this oil is among the more 
agreeable oils derived from the genus, and describes the odour as 
being intermediate between oil of geranium and oil of peppermint. 
It has been suggested as a soap-perfume. 

Messrs. Schimmel & Co. have recently published the follow- 
ing report on a Queensland sample of this oil : " Specific gravity 
0.890; boils from 170"^ to 250°. This oil differs from all other 
described Eucalyptus oils, and has an odour resembling that of 
cumin oil. It contains terpene and cymol, and among the 



270 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

oxygenated compounds is one having a peppermint odour, pro- 
bably menthon." 

Illawarra (New South Wales) to Wide Bay (Queensland). 

15- Eucalyptus incraSSata, ^a*^''//., (Syn. E. dumosa, (B.Fl., iii., 
230,) A. Cunn. ; £. angulosa, Schau. ; E. cuspidate, Turcz. ; 
E. costaia, Behr., et F.v.M.; E. sanlali/olia, Miq. ; E. latnpro- 
carpa, F.v.M.; E. Mtielleri, Miq.; E. fruticetorum, F.v.M.); 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 231. 

A " Mallee." 
Baron Mueller found that lODolbs. of fresh twigs of this tree 

(comprising, perhaps, 50olbs. of leaves) yielded 1400ZS. of 

essential oil. 

The whole southern part of the continent. 

16. Eucalyptus leUCOZylon, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sideroxylon, A. 

Cunn.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 209. 

" Ironbark." (For the numerous other vernacular names of this tree, 
see " Timbers.") 

Bosisto (Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi., 186 1-4) gives the 
yield of essential oil at i6ozs. ydrs. from loolbs. of the leaves, 
but says this amount must be taken as approximate only, as the 
leaves had lost some part of their oil through being heated in 
transit. This is, of course, a fraction over i per cent. The oil is 
thin, limpid, very pale yellow ; the taste and smell are like that of 
the oil of E. oleosa ; sp. gr., 0.923 ; boiling point, 155° to 178°. 
(Wittstein and Mueller.) 

Spencer's Gulf (South Australia), through Victoria and New 
South Wales to Southern Queensland. 

17- Eucalyptus longifolia, Link, (Syn. E. Woolsii, F.V.M.); N.O., 

Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 226. 

" Woolly Butt," or " Bastard Box," 

This essential oil has an aromatic and cooling taste, and 
fragrant, camphor-like smell; sp. gr. 0.940; boiling point, 194*^ to 
215''. (Wittstein and Mueller.) The yield of essential oil from 
loolbs. of leaves, which had suffered in transit, was 30Z. 3idrs. 



OILS. 271 

This oil much resembles an expressed oil, and possesses the 
remarkable property of imparting an indelible stain to paper, 
indicating that some peculiar substance is held by it in solution. 
Its high specific gravity bears out this supposition. (Bosisto.)' 

Victoria, and New South Wales, as far north as Port Jackson. 

18. Eucalyptus maCUlata, ffook./.,(Syn. E.variegata, F.v.M.; E. 
pellata, Benth.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 254 and 258. 

" Spotted Gum." 
The fresh leaves yield, on distillation, a neutral oil of specific 
gravity 0.891. (Staiger.) 

Port Jackson, northward, to Central Queensland. 

19. Eucalyptus maculata, Hook./., var. citriodora, N.O., Myr- 

tacese, B.Fl., iii., 257. 

" Lemon, or Citron-scented Gum." (For synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

The dry leaves yield a neutral essential oil of specific gravity 
.892. (Staiger.) It possesses the remarkably delicious odour of 
the leaves. (See E. Baileyana.) 

Queensland. 

20. Eucalyptus microcorys, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceoe, B.Fl., iii., 

212. 
" Tallow-wood," or " Turpentine." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

The fresh leaves of this tree yield 1.960 per cent, (other 
figures give 3750ZS. to one ton of leaves) of an essential oil of an 
acid reaction, and a specific gravity of .896. (Staiger.) This oil 
has not a very agreeable odour (see remarks under E. Baileyana), 
but it probably might be found useful in varnish-making. 

Dr. Bancroft points out that the oil distilled from the young 
leaves is of finer quality and more fragrant than that from the 
mature foliage, which remark is probably true of most Eucalypts. 
(See E. Baileyana.) 

Northern coast districts of New South Wales to Cleveland 
Bay (Queensland). 



272 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

21. Eucalyptus Obliqua, LHerit., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

204. 

Variously called " Stringybark," " Messmate," " Black Box," and 
" Ironbark Box." (For synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

The essential oil is reddish-yellow, of mild odour, and bitter 
taste. Sp. gr., 0.899; boiling point, 171° to 195°; it becomes 
turbid at 18°. (Wittstein and Mueller.) 

Southern coast districts of New South Wales, but chiefly in 
Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia. 



22. Eucalyptus Odorata, Behr., (Syn. E. porosa, Miq. ; E. 
cajuputea, Miq.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 215. 

Variously called " Peppermint Box" and " Red Gum." 

Baron Mueller found that looolbs of twigs of this tree (com- 
prising, perhaps, 50olbs. of leaves) yielded iia^ozs. of essential 
oil. Bosisto (Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi., 186 1-4), however, 
gives the following figures : — loolbs. of leaves from trees growing on 
elevated spots yielded 40Z. i3drs. of oil, of specific gravity 922, 
while the same quantity of leaves from trees growing on low, 
swampy lands, yielded only s^drs. of oil of specific gravity .899. 
It is pale-yellowish, with a greenish tinge, and an aromatic, some- 
what camphoraceous smell. It boils between 157° and 199°. 

South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 



23- Eucalyptus oleosa, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sodalis, F.V.M.; E. 

iurbinata, F.v.IM., et Behr.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 248. 
A " Mallee." 

Baron Mueller found that looolbs. of the foliage of this tree 
(of which perhaps half the weight consisted of branchlets) yielded 
62^oz. of oil (Mr. Bosisto's figures are 20 oz. of oil from lOolbs. 
of the green leaves and branchlets), of •911 specific gravity, at 70^ 
F., boiling at 341° F., and of rather a pleasant mint-like and 
camphoraceous odour, and yellowish colour. (Later experiments 
give the specific gravity at '904.) 



OILS. 

Oil of Eucalyptus oleosa. 



273 



Specific 

Gravity at 

15.5° c. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


.9322 


13-5'' 


1. 4661 


1.4718 


1.4909 


+ 4^ 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. The 
rotatory power was determined for a column of liquid 10 inches 
long. (Watts Did. of Chem.) 

Western and South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

24. Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, F.v.M., 

Fragm., xi. 

The fresh leaves yield .06 per cent, of an essential oil, having 
a specific gravity of .915. (Staiger.) 

The odour of this oil is described as peculiar, allied to 
citronelle, but differing from it. It has been suggested as a soap- 
perfume. 

Near Brisbane, and Northern New South Wales. 

25. Eucalyptus populifolia, Hook.^ (Syn. E. populnea, F.v.M. ; 
and including E. largiflorens var. parviflora, Benth. ; E. 
platyphylla, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaces, B.Fl., iii., 214. 

Variously called "Poplar Box," " Red Box," "White Box," " Bimbii, 
or Bembil Box." 

The essential oil obtained from the leaves closely resembles 
cajeput in odour, perhaps more so than any other Eucalyptus oil. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

26. Eucalyptus rostrata, SMecht., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
240. 

" Red Gum." (For the numerous other vernacular names and botanical 
synonyms of this Eucalypt, see "Timbers.") 
T 



274 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The essential oil is pale-yellow to reddish-amber in colour ; 
it smells and tastes like that from E. odorata; is of 0.918 specific 
gravity, and boils at 137° to 181° F. (Wittstein and Mueller.) 

Plants grown on high ground give an oil of a dark amber 
colour, possessing an agreeable aromatic flavour, and having the 
odour of caraways. The yield from loolbs. of the fresh gathered 
leaves was i oz. 6drs. The plants grown on low marshy soil 
yielded an oil of a pale-yellow colour, in appearance and smell 
similar to that yielded by E. odorata, the quantity being 9|drs. to 
lOolbs. (Bosisto, Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi., 186 1-4.) 

South Australia to Northern Queensland. 

27. Eucalyptus Staigeriana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, Bailey in 

Synop. Queensland Flora. 

" Lemon-scented Ironbark." 

The leaves possess an odour very like the scented verbena 
(Lippia citrtodord), and yield an oil similar to the verbena oil 
(from Andropogon citratus) of commerce. Mr. Staiger found the 
dried leaves to yield 2f to 3 per cent, (other figures give 12900Z. 
to I ton of dry leaves) of volatile oil of specific gravity .901. Later 
experiments fix the specific gravity at .871, while Messrs. Schimmel 
& Co., of Dresden, give the specific gravity 0.880, and boiling point 
from 170° to 230°. 

It is said that the yield of oil from this Eucalypt is only 
exceeded by one other species, viz., E. amygdalina, and the 
yield is only very slightly in favour of the latter. Compare Back- 
housia citriodora. 
Queensland. 

28. Eucalyptus uncinata, Turcz., (Syn. E. hptophylla, Miq.; 

E. oleosa, F.v.M. (partly) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 216. 
A " Mallee." " Gunamalary " of the aboriginals of the Lake Hind- 
marsh Station (Victoria). 

Baron Mueller found that looolbs. of twigs of this tree (com- 
prising, perhaps, 50olbs. of foliage) yielded 690ZS. of essential oil. 

West and South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

29. Eucalyptus viminalis, LabUl., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

239- 



OILS. 275 

" Manna Gum." " Grey Gum." " White Gum." (For the other 
numerous vernacular names and botanical synonyms of this Eucalypt, see 
" Timbers.") 

The essential oil is of a pale yellowish-green colour, of dis- 
agreeable, but not penetrating smell; of 0.921 sp. gr. ; it boils at 
159° to 182°. (Wittstein and Mueller.) A tree grown at St. 
Kilda, Melbourne, yielded Mr. Bosisto half-an-ounce of oil per 
loolbs. of leaves. The sp. gr, of the essential oil of E. dealbata 
(viminalis) is given by Mr. Staiger at .871 at 72° F. Its odour is 
described as being allied to citronelle, though differing from it, 
and it is suggested as a soap-perfume. Messrs. Schimmel & 
Co. {Pharm. Journ.^ April, 1888) speak of the oil of E. dealbata 
as possessing, in common with those of E. Baileyana, E. micrO' 
corys, and E. ijiaculata, var. citriodora, " a magnificent, melissa- 
like odour, which, especially in the oil of E. dealbata, is manifest 
in a surprisingly fine and rich bouquet. It is thought they will 
prove to possess extraordinary practical value." 

Bosisto {Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi., 1 861-4) states that 
the oil of E. fabrorum {viminalis) is transparent, reddish-yellow, 
milder in odour than that from E. globulus ; in flavour, resembling 
caraways and smoke-essence combined, and distinctly bitter to the 
taste. Yield : 8ozs., from loolbs. of fresh leaves. 

Tasmania, South Australia, through Victoria to New South 
Wales. 

30. Melaleuca deCUSSata, R.Br., (Syn. M. parvipra, Reichb.; 
M. oligantha, F.v.M.; M. tetragona. Otto.); N.O., Myrtaceae, 
B.Fl., iii., 133. 

The essential oil is of oily consistence and amber colour, sp. 
gr. 0*938; it boils at 185*^-209°, and resembles the oil from M. 
Wilsonii. (Wittstein.) lOolbs. of the leaves and branchlets 
yielded about 6oz. of essential oil. (Mueller.) 

Victoria and South Australia. 

3 1 • Melaleuca ericifolia, Smith, (Syn. M. nodosa, Sieb. non Smith ; 
M. Gunniana, Schau ; M. heliophila, F.v.M.) ; N.O. 
Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 159. 



276 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



The essential oil is pale yellow, and has a taste and smell like 
cajeput oil; is thin, specific gravity o'Sqq — 0*902, and boils at 
149" — 184*^, (Wittstein and Mueller.) loolbs. of the leaves and 
smaller branches yield 5 oz. of oil. With age, it improves greatly. 
(Bosisto.) 

Oil of Melaleuca ericifolia. 



Specific 

Gravity at 

15.5° c. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


.9030 


9° 


1.4655 1 1.4712 


1. 4901 


+ 26° 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. 
The rotatory power was determined for a colour of liquid 
10 inches long. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

32. Melaleuca genistifolia, Smith, (Syn. M. lanceolata, Otto; 
M. bracteaia, F.v.M. ; Meirosideros decora, Salisb.) ; N.O.,. 
Myrtaceae. 

" Ridge Myrtle." Called " Ironwood" in Queensland. 

The essential oil is pale greenish-yellow, and mild in odour 
and taste. Mr. Bosisto gives loz. 2drs. as the approximate yield 
of oil from loolbs. of leaves and branchlets. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

33- Melaleuca Leucadendrcn, Z?««., (Syn. M. Cajtiputi, Ro%h.; 

M. minor, Smith ; M. viridijlora, Gaertn. ; M. salignoy 

Blume ; Meirosideros albida, Sieb. ; M. coriacea^ Salisb.) ; 

N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 142. M. Leucadendra in Muell. 

Cens., p. 55. 
" White Tea-tree." " Broad-leaved Tea-tree." " Swamp Tea-tree. "^ 
" Paper-barked Tea-tree." " Atchoourgo" of the aboriginals of the Mitchell 
River, North Queensland. " Whitewood" of Northern Territory. 

This is a tree which has several fairly well-defined varieties. 
The fresh leaves of the Australian variety yield '895 per cent, of a. 



OILS. 277 

slightly acid essential oil, of specific gravity '917. (Staiger.) Dr. 
Bancroft, (speaking of M, Leucadeiidron var. lancifolia), considers 
" this oil to be more agreeable than that of cajeput oil, which it 
closely resembles." He finds that small insects imprisoned in its 
vapour are intoxicated. He has found it of value as an antiseptic 
inhalation in phthisis, for which purpose he considers it more 
pleasant than Eucalyptus oil. A sample of Queensland oil, how- 
ever, examined at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition by an expert, 
was described as having " a distinctly disagreeable odour, not 
resembling cajeput, but reminding one of rotten fruit," so that 
probably the variety yielding it is somewhat removed from the 
typical form yielding the cajeput oil of commerce. In Bentley 
and Trimen's Medicinal Plants, 108, the name Melaleuca minor 
is retained as the species name for the cajeput oil plant ; " as, 
however, it appears that this is the form only from which the oil is 
obtained, we have maintained the specific name without intending 
thereby to express any opinion as to its distinctness from the 
common Australian 'Tea-tree' {M. Leucadendron.J" 

I have, however, given a few notes on cajeput oil, although I 
am a little uncertain as to whether the particular variety of Mela- 
leuca which produces it is actually indigenous in Australia. But, 
whether it is actually indigenous or not, the oils yielded by the 
various species of Melaleuca possess a greater or less family 
likeness, and as the oil of the present species has been most 
worked at, the notes will be useful as a guide. 

Rumphius says that the leaves are gathered on a warm day 
and placed in a sack, where they become hot and damp. They 
are then macerated in water and left to ferment for a night, and 
afterwards submitted to distillation. Two sacksful of the leaves 
yield only about three fluid drachms of the oil. Lesson's account 
is also given in Bentley and Trimen's Medicinal Plants. This is 
probably a proper and convenient way of treating the leaves of 
many of our myrtaceous trees with the view of extracting the oil 
they contain. 

"Cajuput, or cajeput oil, is much used in India as an external 
application for rheumatism. It is a powerful anti-spasmodic 
diffusible stimulant, and sudorific. It is coming more into use in 



278 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

European practice. It varies in colour from yellowish-green to 
bluish-green ; it is a transparent mobile fluid, with an agreeable 
camphoraceous odour, and bitter aromatic taste, sp. gr. 0*926, 
it remains liquid at i3"^C.,and deviates the ray of polarized light to 
the left. (The author has noticed the oil of every shade of brown, 
but when exposed to the light it in a few days turns to a greenish 
colour.) The green tint of the oil may be due to copper*, 
a minute proportion of which metal is usually present in all that is 
imported. It may be made evident by agitating the oil with very 
dilute hydrochloric acid. To the acid, after it has been put into a 
platinum capsule, a little zinc should be added, when the copper 
will be immediately deposited on the platinum. The liquid may 
then be poured off, and the copper dissolved and tested. When 
the oil is rectified, it is obtained colourless, but it readily becomes 
green if in contact for a short time with metallic copper. 
Guibourt has, however, proved by experiment, that the volatile oil 
obtained by the distillation of the leaves of several species of 
Melaleuca, Metrosideros and Eucalyptus, has naturally a fine 
green hue. It is not improbable that this hue is transient, and 
that the contamination with copper is intentional, in order to obtain 
a permanent green." {Materia Medica of Western India, Dymock.) 
Oil of cajeput consists mainly of the dihydrate of a hydro- 
carbon, called Cajputene, isomeric with oil of turpentine. On 
submitting it to fractional distillation, dihydrate of cajputene, 
which constitutes about two-thirds of the crude oil, passes over 
between 175° and 178°; smaller fractions, perhaps products of 
decomposition, are obtained from 178° to 240°, and from 240° to 
250° ; and at 250'' only a small residue is left, consisting of car- 
bonaceous matter mixed with metallic copper. On treating this 
residue with ether, a green solution is obtained, which, when 
evaporated, leaves a green resin, soluble in the portion which boils 
between 175° and 178°, and capable of restoring the original 
colour. {Watts' Diet., i., 710.) For a full account of Cajputejie, 
Isocajputene, Paracajputene, and the salts of Cajputene, see p. 
71 1-2, loc. cit. 

* This is by no means proved. The question is discussed in almost every treatise on 
Materia Medica, 



OILS. 
Cajeput Oil. 



279 



Specific 

Gravity at 

15.5° c. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


.9203 


25.5° 


1.4561 


1.4611 


1.4778 


0° 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. The 

rotatory power was determined for a column of liquid 10 inches 

long. 

Western Australia, New South Wales and Northern Australia. 

34- Melaleuca linariifolia, Smith, (Syn. Metrosideros hyssopt/olia, 

Cav.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 140. 

The essential oil is light-straw coloured, mobile, of rather 
pleasant cajeput-like odour; very agreeable taste, suggestive of 
mace, but afterwards mint-like; of 0.903 specific gravity, and 
boiling point 175° to 187°. {Jurors Report Exhib., 1862, chiefly 
from Bosisto's experiments.) Mr. Bosisto obtained 28 ozs. from 
loolbs. of the fresh leaves. 

Oil of Melaleuca linariifolia. 



Specific 
Gravity at 

15.5° c. 


Refractive Index. 


Rotation. 


Temp. 


A 


D 


H 


.9016 


9° 


1.4710 


1.4772 


1.4971 


+ 11° 



These determinations were made by Dr. Gladstone. 
The rotatory power was determined for a column of liquid 10 
inches long. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

35. Melaleuca squarrosa, Smith, (Syn. M. myrtifoUa, Vent.); 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 140. 



280 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The essential oil from this shrub is green, and of disagreeable 
taste. Yield, only 5drs. from loolbs. of material. (Bosisto.) 
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

36. Melaleuca uncinata, R.Br., (Syn. M. hamata, F. and G. Sert., 

PI. ; M. Drummondii, Schau. ; M. semiteres, Schau.) ; N.O., 

Myrtacese, B.Fl. iii., 150. 
. Common "Tea-tree." Called " Broom " in South Australia. "Yaang- 
arra"ofthe aboriginals of Illawarra (New South Wales); "Dyurr" of 
those of Lake Hindmarsh Station (Victoria). 

This essential oil is green, and smells like that of M. erici- 
folia, with an admixture of peppermint. (Wittstein.) 

South and Western Australia, Victoria and New South Wales, 
and Queensland. 

37. Melaleuca Wilsonii, F.v.M. ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl. iii., 134. 

This essential oil somewhat resembles cajeput oil, and is of 
0.925 specific gravity. The yield is 40ZS. from loolbs. of green 
material; the oil is of a pale-yellow colour; in odour, slightly 
resembling that from M. ericifolia^ but devoid of its sweetness. 
(Bosisto.) 

Victoria and South Australia. 

38. Mentha aUStralis, R.Br., (Syn. Mkromeria auslralis, Benth.); 
N.O., Labiatse, B.Fl. v. 83. 

" Native Peppermint." " Panaryle " of the natives at the Coranderrk 
Station (Victoria). (Query : Is this an aboriginal attempt to pronounce the 
word " Pennyroyal ?") 

In taste and smell, this oil hardly differs from ordinary oil of 
peppermint, but it may be described as somewhat coarser than the 
best samples of that substance. (Report of Dublin Exh., 1865.) 
Mr. Bosisto obtained 30ZS. of oil from loolbs. of this plant. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

39. Mentha gracilis, R.Br., (Syn. Mkromeria gracilis, Benth.) ; 
N.O., Labiatae, B.Fl., v., 83. 

The herb from which this oil is obtained contains a portion of 
its volatile oil in the stems, the total yield from loolbs. of the 
green plant being 30ZS. Its smell is like oil of peppermint, with a 



OILS. 281 

slight admixture of pennyroyal. The supply of oil from the leaves 
is tolerably copious, loolbs. of the fresh green shrub, inclusive of 
branchlets, furnishing 6|ozs. of a pale-yellow, limpid oil, the odour 
of which is hardly distinguishable from that of oil of rue, though, 
perhaps, a little intense and penetrating. Its taste is very dis- 
agreeable and acrid, strongly resembling that of rue. The 
medicinal action of this oil is that of a diuretic and diaphoretic. 
{Report Dublin Exh., 1865.) 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

40. Mentha grandiflora, Be7ith., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., v. 82. 

This mint oil has a fiery, bitter, and very unpleasant nauseous 
taste, together with a characteristic after-taste. It could not be 
used as a substitute for common peppermint, except for medical 
purposes. Its specific gravity is .924, and its yield 5 oz. from 
lOolbs. of the fresh herb. (Report 0/ Dublin Exhibition, 1865.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

41- Mentha laxiflora, Benth., N.O., Labiatae, B.Fl., v. 82. 

This plant yields, on distillation, a pleasant oil, similar to that 
from peppermint. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

42. NeSOdaphne ObtUSifolia, Benth., (Syn. Beihchmiedia obtusi- 
folia, Benth., et Hook.; Cryptocarya obtusifolia, F.v.M.); 
N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v. 299. B. obtusifolia in Muell. 
Cens., p. 3. 

"Queensland Sassafras." 

One ton of the dry bark yields 770 oz. of essential oil 
(Staiger), =2.15 per cent. The specific gravity is .978 at 72"F. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

43- Pittospomm undulatum, Vent., N.O. Pittosporeae, B.Fl., 
i., III. 

" Native Laurel." " Mock Orange." " Wallundun-deyren " of the 
aborigines. 

The oil obtained from the flowers by distillation is limpid, 
colourless, lighter than water, of an exceedingly agreeable jasmine- 
like odour ; the taste disagreeably hot and bitter, reminding one 



282 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

slightly of turpentine and rue. (Bailey.) loolbs. of flowers gave, 
on distillation, 2oz. of essential oil (Mueller). Iodine, when 
brought in contact with it, gives rise to an explosion. This is true 
of many other oils. 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

44. Polypodium phymatodes, Linn., (Syn. PUopeltis phymatodes, 
T. Moore); N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 769. 

This plant yields an aromatic oil, said to be used in the 
South Sea Islands for perfuming cocoa-nut oil (WooUs.) See 
Angiopteris eve eta. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

45- Prostanthera lasianthos, ^a3z7/., N.O., Labiatse, B.Fl., v., 93. 

Called "Dogwood" in Victoria. " Coranderrk ; " the aboriginal 
station of that name is called after this plant. 

A greenish-yellow oil, limpid, and of mint-like odour and 
taste, and specific gravity 0.912. The yield from lOolbs. of fresh 
leaves is 2 oz. 4^ drachms. (Bosisto.) 
All the colonies. 

46. Prostanthera rotundifolia, R.Br., (Syn. P. retusa, R.Br.; p. 

cotinifolia, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., Labiatae, B.Fl., v., 96. 

This essential oil is of darker colour, and of sp. gr. 0.941, but 
otherwise resembling the oil from P. lasianthos. (Report 0/ Exh., 
1862.) The yield from loolbs. of leaves is 12 ozs. of oil. These 
oils are carminative. (Bosisto.) 

All the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

47. Sieria Smithii, Andr., (Syn. Z. lanceolata, R.Br.; Boronia 
arborescens, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 306. 

Colonial names are "Sandfly Bush" and "Turmeric." It is called 
" Stinkwood " in Tasmania. 

The essential oil is distilled from the leaves. It is pale 
yellow, of the taste and odour of rue, and of 0.950 specific gravity. 
(Report Exhib., 1862,) lOolbs. of the green material produce 
6iozs. of oil. (Bosisto.) 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 



OILS: 
B. (EXPRESSED OR FIXED.) 



Australia is as remarkable for its fewness of plants yielding fixed 
oils in any quantity, as it is for its wealth of plants yielding essential 
oils. As far as the author is aware, not a single indigenous species 
actually yields, in this continent, fruits or seeds for the oil-press. 



I. Aleurites moluccana, Wnid., (Syn. A. Ambimix, Pers.; A. 
triloba, Forst. ; Jatropha moluccana, Linn.j; N.O., Euphor- 
biaceae, B.Fl. vi., 128; A. triloba in Muell., Cens., p. 20. 

" Candle-nut." 
This tree also flourishes in the East-Indies and South Pacific 
Islands. The nuts look like small walnuts, only they are more 
spherical, and the kernels are so full of oil that in some of the 
South Sea Islands they are threaded on a reed and serve as a torch. 
They yield an excellent drying oil, useful to artists, and called 
"Country Walnut Oil" in India, " Kekune Oil" in Ceylon, and 
" Kekui Oil " at Honolulu. (Treasury of Botany.) The kernels 
are said to yield 54.3 per cent, of oil, and 45.7 per cent, of amyla- 
ceous and nitrogenous substances. This latter gives \Q)\ per cent, 
of ash, rich in phosphoric acid. (Staiger.) 

The results of a set of experiments by the Italian chemist, 
Nallino, are given in Watts' Diet., vii., 2nd Suppt. 239. 



Average weight of husks ... 


... 6.5 grams. 


,, ,, almonds 


... 3-3 .. 


Composition of husks : — 




Water 


3-71 


Organic matter 


89.9 


Mineral do. 


6.39 



284 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Composiiion of almonds : — 

Water ... 5.25 

Fat (extracted by carbon bisulphide) ... 62.97 

Cellulose, and other organic matters ... 28.99 

Mineral matter ... 2,79 



Composition of the ash of the almond : — 

Lime ... ... ... ... ... 18.69 

Magnesia 6.oi 

Potash 11-33 

Phosphoric acid 29.3 

The fatty matter extracted from the almonds by carbon 
bisulphide at ordinary temperatures forms a transparent, amber- 
yellow syrupy liquid. When cooled to 10° it becomes viscous, 
but neither loses its transparency nor changes colour. 

Queensland. 

2. Calophylkm inophyllum, Liym., N.O., Guttiferae, B.Fl., i., 183. 
The " Ndilo" of India. 

This tree is widely distributed throughout India, where a 
greenish coloured oil is extracted from the seeds, and is used for 
burning by the poorer classes. It is also used as an application 
in rheumatism, &c. (Dymock, Materia Medica of Western India.) 

The following analysis of Queensland grown fruits is by 
Mr. K. T. Staiger :— 

Shells 62.5 

Kernels 37.5 



100. 



Greenish-yellow oil ... ... ... 43 

Dry residue ... ... ... ... 27 

Moisture ... ... ... ... 30 



100. 



Ashes of whole kernels, 1.66 per cent. Ashes of exhausted 
residue, 6.15 per cent. The green oil, on saponification, yields a 



OILS. 285 

bright-yellow soap, the green pigment of the oil having been 
changed into a bright yellow. 

The oil is bitter and aromatic; specific gravity .942; it solidifies 
at +S^- (Lepine.) 

Queensland. 

3. Cerbera Odollam, Gner/n., (Syn. C. Manghas, Bot. Mag.) ; 

N.O., Apocynese, B.Fl., iv., 306. 

The seeds give an oil which is used for burning in India. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

4. COCOS nucifera, Linn.; N.O., Palmeae, B.FI., vii., 143. 

" Cocoa-nut Palm." 

Oil is procured by boiling and pressing the white kernel of 
the nut (albumen). It is liquid at the ordinary temperature in 
tropical countries, and while fresh is used in cookery ; but in 
England, and even in many parts of Australia it is semi-solid, and 
has generally a somewhat rancid smell and taste. By pressure, it 
is separated into two parts; one, stearine, is solid, and is used in the 
manufacture of stearine candles, the other being liquid, is burned 
in lamps. It is a pale-yellow oil, which, in cold weather, concretes 
into a white butter. One part of it boiled with caustic soda 
solution forms from two to three parts of a hard, white soap, 
perfectly soluble in alcohol. The oil, and the soap in a less 
degree, has a faint characteristic odour. Solidified cocoa-nut oil 
melts at 20° C; melted, it solidifies at 18° C. When kept for 
some minutes at a temperature of 240° C, it remains fluid for 
forty-eight hours. 

Queensland. 

5. FusanUS aCUminatXlS, R.Br., (Syn. Santalum acuminatum, 

A. DC. ; S. Pressianum^M.\(\.; S. cognatum, Miq.) ; N.O., 

Santalaceae, B.Fl., vi., 215. Described in Muell. Cens., p. 64, 

as Santalum acuminatum* 

" Quandong," or " Native Peach." 

The kernels of the nuts (Quandongs) of this small tree are 
not only palatable and nutritious, but they are so full of oil that if 
speared on a stick or reed they will burn entirely away with a clear 



286 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

light, much in the same way as candle-nuts {Aleurites triloba) do. 
Quandongs are so abundant in parts of the country that they may 
possibly be used as oil-seeds in the future. 

Queensland and New South Wales to Western Australia. 

6. Hemandia bivalvis, Benth., N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v. 314. 
" Grease-nut" Tree. " Cudgerie" of the aboriginals. 

The kernel contains 64.8 per cent, of oil, which is similar to 
common laurel oil, is of the same consistency, and has also the 
same stearine and narcotic smell. (Staiger.) 

Queensland. 

7- Pongamia glabra, Vent., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 273. 
" Indian Beech." 

The seeds yield an oil, pale-sherry coloured (Dymock), thick, 
red-brown (Gamble), used for burning, and in skin diseases by the 
people of India. It solidifies below 6o°F. The yield of oil from 
the seeds is 27 per cent., having a specific gravity of .945, and 
solidifying at 8°C. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

8. RicinOCarpilS pinifolius, I^es/., (Syn. R. sidae/ormis, F.v.M. ; 

Rceperia pini/olia, Spreng. ; Echinosphcera rosmarinoides, 

Sieb.) ; N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.FL, vi., 70. 
" Native Jasmine." 

This plant yields abundance of seeds, Hke small castor-oil 
seeds. They yield an oil which does not appear to have yet been 
examined. 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

9. SemecarpUS Anacardium, Linn., (Syn. S. australasicus, Engl.); 

N.O., Anacardiaceae, B.Fl., i., 491. 

" Marking-nut Tree." 

A sweet oil is obtained from the seeds, used in painting in 
India. {Treasury of Botany.) The pericarp contains 32 per 
cent, of a vesicating oil of sp. gr. .991, easily soluble in ether, and 
blackening on exposure to the air. (Dymock.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



OILS. * 287 

10. Terminalia Catappa, Linn., N.O., Combretaceae, Muell. 

Cens., p. 50. 

" Country Almond" (India). 

The kernels of the nuts of this tree produce over 50 per cent, 
of a pecuharly bland oil. (Drury.) It is edible and pleasant 
tasted, but if kept for any time deposits a large quantity of stearine. 
It has been suggested as a substitute for almond oil. This plant is 
not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland. 



Perfumes. 

(SEE ALSO "ESSENTIAL OILS.") 



Although many Australian plants (notably a few of the wattles) 
have sweet-scented flowers, the author is not aware of any serious 
attempt having yet been made in the colonies to utilize their 
perfumes. Several of the essential oils, e.g., Backhousia citriodora. 
Eucalyptus maculafa, var. citriodora and E. Staigeriana, page 
254 et seq., obtained from the leaves of plants are really 
perfumes, and their chief use is in scenting soaps, and other 
preparations. But the quantity obtained is but small, and the 
plants used are wild. The advice to landowners to try the 
planting of perfume plants has been frequently given, but it does 
not appear to promise a heavy profit immediately, and so 'the 
industry is neglected. Many parts of littoral Australia are very 
gardens of flowers, and for a comfortable selector to establish the 
minor industry of flower-farming and storage of their perfumes, 
there would be but little outlay ; the time required would chiefly 
be odd moments, while the produce would be a valuable com- 
modity. But, however much we may regret it, we must acknow- 
ledge that there is too little enterprise amongst those of us engaged 
in tilling the soil. 

The following is interesting, being from the pen of an 
authority on perfumery, and one who had travelled in Australia, 
and who had facilities for learning about Australia not possessed 
by many dwellers in Europe : — 

"The commercial value of flowers is of no mean importance 
to the wealth of nations. But, vast as is the consumption of 
perfumes by the people under the rule of the British Empire, 
little has been done in England, either at home or in her tropical 
colonies, towards the establishment of flower-farms, or the pro- 



PERFUMES. 289 

duction of the raw odorous substances in demand by the manu- 
facturing perfumers of Britain ; consequently, nearly the whole are 
the produce of foreign countries. 

" The climate of some of the British colonies especially fits 
them for the production of odours from flowers that require 
elevated temperature to bring them to perfection. 

" But for the lamented death of Mr. Charles Piesse, Colonial 
Secretary for Western Australia, fiower-farms would doubtless 
have been established in that colony long ere the publication of 
this work (1862). Though thus personally frustrated in adapting 
a new and useful description of labour to British enterprise, I am 
no less sanguine of the final results in other hands." (Piesse, The 
Art of Perfumery?^ 

The few species given below do not profess to be a complete 
list of Australian perfume plants ; the list may, however, be 
suggestive. 



1. Acacia COnferta, A Cun?t., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 343. 

The flowers of this tree possess a remarkable perfume which 
Dr. WooUs thinks might be utilized commercially. The following 

species— Acacia acuminata, Benth., A. doratoxylon, A. Cunn., 

A. harpophylla, F.vM., A. pendula, A. Cunn., amongst others, 
yield scented wood, and, therefore, may rank amongst perfumes. 
(See " Timbers.") 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

2. Acacia famesiana, Wt'lld.,{Syn. A. Ienh'a'lla/a,F.vM.); N.O., 

Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 419. 

" Dead Finish " is the absurd name given to the wood. 

The flowers yield a delightful perfume, and for that quality 
are much cultivated in the South of France. The cultivation of 
this plant is particularly worthy the attention of settlers in Aus- 
tralia as an auxiliary industry. In Italy and France its sweet- 
scented flowers are mixed with melted fat or olive oil, which 
becomes impregnated with their odour, and constitutes the fine 
pomade called " Cassie." 
u 



290 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Interior of South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland 
and Northern Australia. 

3. Acacia pycnantha, Benth., (Syn. A. petiolaris, Lehm; A. 

falcinella, Meissn.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 365. 
•' Golden Wattle." " Green Wattle." " Broad-leaved Wattle." 

An extract of the flowers of this Wattle was shown as a 
perfume at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 

A score of other species of Acacia, e.g., A. stiaveolens, might 
be selected as worthy of culture as perfume plants. " Mutton fat 
being cheap, and the Wattle plentiful, a profitable trade may be 
anticipated in curing the flowers, &c." (Piesse, Arl 0/ Perfumery.) 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

4- AndropOgOn SChcenanthuS, Linn., (Syn. A. Martini, Roxb. ; 

A. ciiratum, DC; A. Nardus, Linn.; Cymbopogon schoenan- 
thus, Spreng.); N.O., Gramineae, B.Fl., vii., 534. 
A strong-growing grass, more in repute as a perfume than a 
fodder. Other species of Andropogon are more or less aromatic. 
Queensland, 

5- Anisomeles salvifolia, R.Br., N.O., Labiatse, B.FL, V. 89. 

Mr. P. A. O'Shanesy points out that this plant may be made 
to yield a very deUcate perfume. It is a very variable species. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

6. BackhOTlsia Citriodora, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 

270. 

" Scrub Myrtle." " Native Myrtle." 

The foliage of this tree is deliciously lemon-scented, like the 
Scented Verbena {Lippia citriodora). The essential oil from the 
leaves has been tested for scenting soaps, and has answered the 
purpose well. The dried leaves, put in little bags (such as are 
employed for holding lavender flowers) give, for a long time, a 
very pleasant odour to ttre contents of linen-presses, &c. 

Queensland. 

7- Eucalyptus maculata, Hook/., var. citriodora, (Syn. E. citrio- 
dora, Hook, f.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 257. 



PERFUMES. 291 

"Citron, or Lemon-scented Gum." The aboriginal name is " Urara." 
The leaves emit a delightful odour of citron, especially when 
rubbed. They should be used to perfume and protect clothes- 
presses. The Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods states they are certainly 
a specific against cockroaches and " silver-fish" insects, which 
are great domestic pests. 
Queensland. 

8. Gliettarda speciosa, Linn., N.O., Rubiacese, B.Fl., iii., 419. 

The flowers of this tree are exquisitely fragrant. They come 
out in the evening, and have all dropped on the ground by morn- 
ing. The natives in Travancore distil an odoriferous water from 
the corollas, which is very like rose-water. In order to procure it 
they spread a very thin muslin cloth over the tree in the evening, 
taking care that it comes well in contact with the flowers as much as 
possible. During the heavy dew at night the cloth becomes 
saturated, and imbibes the extract from the flowers. It is then 
wrung out in the morning. The extract is sold in the bazaars. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

9. Hierocloa spp, (See " Grasses," p. 70.) 

These possess a powerful odour of " Coumarin." 

10. Hxilliea elegans, Smith, (Syn. Calomeria amanthoides. Vent.); 

N.O., Compositse, B.Fl. iii., 589. 

The whole plant on being bruised emits a delightful scent, so 
overpowering as sometimes to produce headache. Dr. George 
Bennett (Gatherings of a Naturalist) is of opinion that a very 
valuable perfume might be obtained from it. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

11. Murraya exotica, Linit., {?)yn., M. paniculata, ]2iCk); N.O., 

Rutaceae, B.Fl. i., 369. 

" China Box." 

This bush, which is also a native of India and China, has such 
delightfully fragrant flowers that it might be worth while to cultivate 
it as a perfume plant. 

Queensland. 



292 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

12. Pandanns odoratissimus, Lmn./., (Syn., P. spiralis, R.Bt.); 

N.O., Pandaneae, B.Fl., vii., 148. 

" Screw Pine." 

The natives of India are fond of the scent of this flower, which 
they place amongst their clothes. The male flowers are exceedingly 
fragrant, and are much appreciated by the Burmese. The Hindus 
use them in certain of their religious ceremonies. (Cyclop, of 
India.) 

Northern Australia. 

13. Pittosporum undTllatum, Vent., N.O., Pittosporese, B.Fl., i., 
III. 

" Native Laurel." *' Mock Orange." " Bart-bart " of the aboriginals 
of the Karnathun tribe, Lake Tyers (Victoria). 

This tree is well worth cultivating on a commercial scale for 
the sake of the sweet perfume of its flowers. 

All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

14- Pterigeron liatroides, Benth., (Syn. Pluchea Ugulata, F.V.M.; 
Sirepioglossa Sleelzu, F.v.M. ; Erigeron liatroides^ Turcz.) ; 
N.O., Compositse, B.Fl., iii., 532. 

This plant yields a delicious perfume, and therefore may be 
deemed worthy of cultivation by the horticulturist or flower-farmer,. 
Western and South Australia, and New South Wales. 



Dyes. 



Australia certainly does not appear to be a land which can 
boast of its native vegetable dyes. But it is only fair to observe 
that practically nothing has been done in the way of experiments 
with our raw dye-stuffs. Almost the only technological experi- 
ments with any of them are by Baron Mueller and Mr. Rummel 
(Intercolonial Exhibition of Melbourne, 1866), and which are 
referred to below, while Professor Rennie has investigated the 
pigment contained in the tubers of a species of Drosera, interest- 
ing, however, only from a scientific point of view. 



1. Acacia harpophylla, F.v.M.; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 

389. 

" Brigalow." 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree. Various tints of reddish-brown were obtained. 

South Queensland. 

2. Acacia SUbcoemlea, Lindl, (Syn., A. hemiteles, Benth.; A, 

apiculata, Meissn.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 369. 

" Silvery," or " Blue-leaved Acacia." 
From the bark a very good yellow dye has been produced. 
(Bennett.) 

Western Australia. 

3- Alstonia COnstricta, F.v.M., N.O., Apocyneae, B.Fl., iv., 314. 
" Fever Bark." 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree from Queensland. Various shades of yellow were 
obtained. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



294 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

4' Baloghia lucida, Endl., (Syn. Codiceum lucidum, Muell. Arg.); 

N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., vi., 148. 

" Scrub, or Brush Bloodwood." Called also " Roger Gough." " Nun- 
nai" and " Dooragan" are aboriginal names. 

The sap from the vulnerated trunk forms, without any 
admixture, a beautiful red indelible pigment. (Mueller.) (See 
also " Kinos.") 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

5. Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst., N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl. vi., 

197. 

" Forest Oak." " Swamp Oak." "Bull Oak." " Wunna-wunnerumpa" 
of the Queensland aboriginals. 

The bark of this tree is astringent, and was formerly used by 
South Sea Islanders to dye their cloth. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

6. Cedrela tOOna, Roxb., (Syn. C. australis, F.V.M.); N.O., 

Meliacese, B.Fl., i., 337. C. amtralis in Muell. Cens., p. 9. 
Ordinary " Cedar," or " Red Cedar." (For aboriginal names, see 
" Timbers.") 

The small flowers of this tree (called "Toon ") are used for 
the production of a red or yellow dye in India. 

New South Wales and Queensland. • 

7- Chionanthns picrophloia, Roxb., (Syn. C. effudflora, F.v.M. ; 

Linociera ramijlora, DC. ; L. effusiflora, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Jasminese, B.Fl., iv., 301. 

" Eurpa " of the aboriginals. 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree. Various tints of brownish-yellow were obtained. 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland. 

8. Coelospermum reticulatum, Benth., (Syn. Pogonolobus retku- 
latus, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Rubiacese, B.Fl., iii., 425. 
The bar-k, which is often very thick, produces an excellent 

dye. (Bailey.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



DYES. 295 

9. Croton insularis, BailL, (Syn, C. phebalioides, A. Cunn.) ; 

N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 124. 

" Queensland Cascarilla." 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree from Queensland. Reddish-browns were obtained. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

10. Cudrania javansnsis, TrecuL, (Syn. Madura javanica, Miq. ; 

Morus calcar-galli, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., Urticeoe, B.FL, vi., 

179. 

" Cockspur Vine." " Cockspur Thorn." " Fustic." 

The duramen, or heartwood, is of a dark yellow colour, is 
hard, and is used in dyeing yellow and brown, hence its colonial 
name of " Fustic." This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

11. Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., (Syn. C. bijuga, Span.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl. ii., 296. 

Chips of this wood give in water a purple dye. (Skinner.) 
This plant is not endemic in Australia. 
Queensland. 

12. Drosera Whittakeri, -P/'2«^'^., (Syn. Z). r(?j«/a/a, Behr.); N.O., 

Droseraceae, B.Fl., ii., 462. 

"A Sun-dew." 

Dr. Rennie has extracted two beautiful red colouring matters 
from the bulbs of this plant. ( Vide Joiirn. Chem. Soc, April, 
1887.) 

Victoria and South Australia. 

13- Erythroxylon australe, F.v.M.; N.O., Linese, B.Fl. i., 284. 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree. Tints from yellow to brown were obtained. 

Queensland. 

14. Eucalyptus amygdalina, LabUL, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
202. 



296 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" Messmate." " Stringybark." (For vernacular names and synonyms, 
see " Timbers.") 

Some of the settlers make ink from this abundantly-produced 
kino. The operation merely consists in boiling the kino in an 
iron saucepan containing a little water. The kinos of such other 
Eucalypts as may happen to be convenient may be used. 
Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

15. Eucalyptus COrymbosa, 'S'/w/M, {?>yn. Metrosideros gummi/era, 

Soland.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 256. 

" Bloodwood." (For other vernacular names, see E. corymbosa— 
" Timbers.") 

This dark-coloured kino contains a rich dye material of a 
reddish colour. 

New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

16. Flindersia Oxleyana, F.v.M., (Syn. Oxleya xanthoxyla, 

Hook.); N.O., MeHacese, B.Fl., i., 389. 

" Light Yellow-wood " of the colonists. Called " Long Jack " in 
Northern New South Wales, and " Yeh" by the aboriginals of the same 
district. 

The wood of this tree yields a yellow- dye. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

17- Gliettardella putaminosa, Benth., (Syn., Bobea putaminosa, 

F.v.M ; Tiinonius puta7ninosus, F.v.M.); N.O., Rubiaceae, 

B.Fl., iii,, 419. 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree. Brownish-yellows were obtained. 

Queensland. 

18. Hernandia bivalvis, Bemh., N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 314. 
" Grease-nut Tree." 

The shells of the fruit of this tree contain a dye, soluble in 
soda, but not in ether, alcohol, or water. (Staiger.) 

Queensland. 



DYES. 297 

19- Hymenanthera dentata, R.Br., (Syn., H. Banksii,F.wM.); 

N.O., Violacese, B.FL, i., 104; II. Banksii in Muell., Cens., 
p. 6. 

Dr. Ludwig Beckler drew attention to the lasting purple 
pigment obtainable from the berries of this plant. 

Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

20. Indigofera tinctoria, Linn., N.O., Leguminosae, Muell. Cens., 

p. 140. 

"Indigo." 

Baron Mueller considers this plant indigenous in Northern 
Queensland. It is also a native of the East Indies, and other parts 
of Asia. Indigo is prepared by throwing bundles of the fresh- 
cut plants into shallow vats and covering them with water, care 
being taken to keep them under the surface. After steeping for 
ten or twelve hours the liquid is run off into another vat, and the 
plant is beaten with sticks or bamboos from one and a half to 
three hours, in order to promote the formation of the blue 
colouring matter, which does not exist already formed in the 
tissues of the plant, but is formed by the oxidation of other 
substances contained in them. The colouring matter is then 
allowed to settle, the precipitation being accelerated by the 
addition of a small quantity of clean cold water, or lime-water, 
and the supernatant liquid drawn off and thrown away, while the 
deposited matter is put into a boiler, and kept at the boiling-point 
for five or six hours. After this, it is spread upon frames covered 
with cloth, and allowed to drain for twelve or fourteen hours, and 
when it is sufficiently solid it is pressed, cut into cubes, stamped 
and dried for the market. (Treasury of Botany.) (See, also, 
Watts' Diet., iii., 250, et seq.) 
Queensland. 

21. MallotUS discolor, F.v.M., (Syn. RottUra discolor, F.v.M. ; 

Macaranga mallotoides, var., F.v.M.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, 
B.Fl., vi., 143. 
" Bungaby " of the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. 



298 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The capsules of this plant yield a powder which gives a bright 
yellow dye. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

22. MallotUS phillipensis, Muell. Arg., (Syn. Crohn philltpensis, 
Lam. ; Rottlera tinctoria, Roxb. ; Echinus phillipensis, 
Baill.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., vi., 141. 

"Kamala" of India. " Poodgee-poodgera" of the aboriginals of 
Queensland. 

This plant is also a native of tropical Asia. The capsules 
yield a reddish powder, known in India by the name of " Kamala," 
and employed by the Hindu silk dyer to yield a red dye of great 
beauty by boiling with carbonate of soda. Other parts of the plant 
yield a similar powder, but in much less abundance than on the 
capsules. The bark is also used for dyeing. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

23. Morinda Citrifolia, Linn., (Syn. Sarcocephalus cordatus, 
Miq.); N.O.. Rubiaceae, B.Fl., iii, 402 and 423. (Muell., 
Cens., 74 and 75.) 

" Leichhardt's Tree." "Indian Mulberry." (For other botanical 
synonyms and vernacular names, see "Timbers.") 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with bark 
from the root of this tree from Queensland. Tints of yellow were 
obtained. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

24. Morinda citrifolia, Linn., (Syn., M. quadrangularis, Don.); 

N.O., Rubiaceae, B.Fl., iii., 423. 
" Indian Mulberry." (For other synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

The root yields a yellow, and the bark a red dye. It is used 
by Polynesians to colour their dresses, and in Madras for 
dyeing red turbans. The colour is fixed with alum. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



DYES. 299 

25. Olearia argophylla, F.v.M., (Syn. Aster argophyllus, Labill.; 
Eurybia argophylla, Cass.) ; N.O., Compositae., B.Fl., iii., 
470. Aster argophylltis in Muell. Cens., p. 78. 

" Musk Tree." 
A brilliant sap-green has been obtained from this plant by 
Mr. Bosisto. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

26. Petalostigma quadriloculare, F.v.M., (Syn. P. triloculare, 

Muell. Arg. ; P.australianum, Baill. ; Hylococcus sericeus, 

R.Br.); N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 92. 

" Crab Tree." " Bitter Bark." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1866, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark 
of this tree from Queensland. Brownish-yellows were obtained. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

2T, PiptuniS argenteUS, Wedd., (Syn. P. propinqtms, Wedd.) ; 
N.O., Unices, B.Fl., vi., 185. 

" Coomeroo-coomeroo " of the Queensland aboriginals. 
A rich brown dye is obtained from the bark. This plant is 
not endemic in Australia. 

Kew South Wales and Queensland. 

28. Ehizophora mucronata, Lam., (Syn. R. Mangle, Roxb. ; R. 
Candelatta, Wight, et Arn.) ; N.O., Rhizophorese, B.FL, ii., 

493- 

" Mangrove." 

The blood-red sap is much used by the natives of Fiji for 
dyeing their hair. Mixed with the sap of Hibiscus moschatus, 
Linn., it is used for painting crockery by the native potters. 
(Seemann, Flora Vitiensis.) 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

'29. SemecarpUS Anacardium, Linn., (Syn. ^. australasicus, 
Engl.); N,0., Anacardiacese, B.Fl., i., 491. 
" Marking-nut Tree" of India. 



300 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The juice, when mixed with quick-lime, is employed to mark 
cotton or linen with an indelible mark. It is used for this purpose 
all over India. When dry, it forms a black varnish much used 
in India, and, amongst other purposes, it is employed, mixed with 
pitch and tar, in the caulking of ships. (Treasury of Botany.) 
The unripe fruit is employed for making a kind of ink. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

30. StGrCTllia acerifolia, ^- Cunn., (Syn, Br achy chiton aceri- 
folium, F.V.M.); N.O., Sterculiaceae, B.Fl., i., 229. Br achy- 
chiton acerifolium in Muell. Cens., p. 15. 

" Flame Tree." " Lace-bark Tree." 
A dye is obtained from the seed-vessels, according to Mr. 

Guilfoyle. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

31- SjrmploCOS spicata, Roxb., (Syn. 6", StawelU, F.V.M.); N.O., 

Styraceae, B.Fl., iv., 292. 

The leaves of this tree are used as dyeing in India. (Gamble.) 

Northern New South Wales. 

32- Terminalia Catappa, Linn.; N.O., Combretaceae, Muell., 

Cens., p. 50. 

" Country Almond" (of India). 

The bark and leaves yield a black dye. (Gamble.) 

Queensland. 

33. Thespesia populnea, Corr., (Syn. Hibiscus populneus,WiM.); 

N.O., Malvaceae, B.FL, i., 221. 

The flower-buds and unripe fruits yield a viscid yellow juice, 
useful as a dye. This plant is not endemic in Australia. 

The pollen of Typha japonica is used in Japan as a yellow 
pigment. A similar pigment might, perhaps, be prepared from 
the Australian species. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

34 Zanthoxylum (Xanthoxylon) brachyacantlmm, F.v.M., N.O., 

Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 363. 

" Satin-wood." " Thorny Yellow-wood." 



DYES. 301 

Baron Mueller exhibited at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Melbourne, 1886, cotton and woollen fabrics dyed with the bark of 
this tree from Queensland. Brownish-yellows were obtained. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

35. Zieria Smithii, Andr., (Syn. Z. lanceolata, R.Br. ; Boronia 
arborescens, F.v.M.); N.O., Rutaceae, B.FI., i., 306. 
"Turmeric Tree" and "Sandfly Bush." Called " Stinkwood " in 

Tasmania. 

This tree has a yellow inner bark, suitable for dyeing. 
All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 



Tans. 



(FOR SUCH TANS AS ARE KINGS, SEE 
"KINGS.") 



Acacia spp, 

" Wattle Barks." 
Wattle Barks are often gathered in Australia all the year round, 
whereas the bark should only be stripped for three or four months 
in the year; (the months recommended are September, October, 
November, and December) ; out of that season there is usually a 
depreciation of tannin in the bark. In these months, also, the sap 
usually rises without intermission, and the bark is easily removed 
from the tree. The impression appears to have prevailed amongst 
bark-strippers that whenever the bark would strip it possessed full 
tanning properties, but this is erroneous. After a few days of 
rain during other seasons of the year, a temporary flow of sap will 
cause the bark to be easily detiched from the trunk, but then it is 
greatly inferior in quality. The bark obtained from trees growing 
on lime-stone formations is greatly inferior in tannin to that of trees 
grown on any other formation. ( Vide Report of the Wattle Bark 
Board, Melbourne, 1878.) 

Wattle Bark should only be procured from mature trees, i.e., 
from those whose bark possesses the full natural strength. 

It should be purchased in the stick or bundle. " In this form 
its quality can be more readily judged ; but when the supply of 
mature trees became diminished, nearly all the bark was chopped 
or ground prior to shipment, good and inferior being bagged 
together." 

For export to England, however, it is perhaps best sent in the 
form of extract, an enormous saving in freight being effected in 
this way. The following letter from a well-known London firm of 



TANS. 303 

brokers, which appeared in the Leather Trades Circular and 
Review of the 8th March, 1887, is valuable : — 

" In reply to a question as to the best form in which to ship 
Mimosa (Wattle) Bark, we beg to state that the trade, as a rule, 
prefer it ground, so long as they can be sure it is not adulterated. 
Some few, however, cannot be satisfied unless they grind it them- 
selves. 

" We should recommend shipments of well ground, with a 
few parcels chopped or crushed in bags, but as we know that 
freight is heavier on the latter, and buyers expect a reduction of 
from los. to 20s. per ton to cover cost of grinding, the former will 
generally be most satisfactory to shippers. We think that the 
strength is better preserved in the chopped than in the ground, 
but there is nothing we can suggest as an improvement on the 
best standard marks of Adelaide ground. 

" If shipments of chopped be made it should on no account 
be shot loose in the ship's hold." 

Owing to the greedy and indiscriminating way in which 
Wattle Barks have been gathered, and the moist condition in which 
they have often been shipped, purchasers in England, finding the 
quality variable, have not entered into its regular employment as 
largely as might have been expected. 

Wattles have been extensively planted by at least three 
Australian Governments, those of South Australia, Victoria, and 
New South Wales, especially the former. It is even yet too early 
to predict whether Wattle-planting by Government (except in 
South Australia) will be a profitable commercial enterprise. In 
New South Wales, at least, a large number of Wattles have been 
planted in the narrow strips of ground between the fences and 
the railway lines. But the cost of keeping the young trees free 
from grass is very great, the cost of planting out in such an 
extended fashion also very great, and watering the young plants 
till they are established is out of the question. The telegraph line 
repairers have also killed a large number of the Wattles which 
were most thriving, because it was feared that they might interfere 
with the wires. Altogether, the difficulties in the way of growing 
Wattles along the railway lines are so considerable that the enter- 



304 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

prise will probably be entirely abandoned, or confined to extremely 
favourable localities.* 

" Messrs. Borrow and Haycroft have established at Echunga> 
South Australia, a manufactory of tannage, which must be of great 
interest to all colonists, and from the methods employed is almost 
pharmaceutical. About 10,000 tons of Wattle Bark are sent annually 
from South Australia alone, and it is calculated that the waste in 
stripping is about four times this amount. The new factory con- 
verts the branches too small to pay for stripping into a strong fluid 
extract called tannage, which contains water 60 per cent., and 
soluble tanning 38.2 per cent., according to an analysis by 
Mr. G. H. Hodgson of samples from the first 80 tons recently 
shipped to England. The Wattle trash yields 12 to 16 per cent, of 
tannage; two men can often cut and load five tons, and the waggons 
can bring in two loads a day, equal to five or six tons ; and at the 
price (;^i a ton) which the firm is paying for thinnings, and tops, 
and branches, so much is offering that the patentees are obliged ta 
distribute their order. The trash is tied up in large bundles and 
carted into the factory. It is there weighed, close beside the 
machine which cuts it up into chaff. This machine is very much 
like an ordinary steam-plane, the chisels revolving at a high speed, 
and cutting through 2|-inch saplings quite readily. The chips are 
shovelled into large wooden hoppers, into which steam is intro- 
duced from a large Cornish boiler. There are three steam-heated 
vats, and the liquor is transferred from one to the other, pumped 
into elevated tanks, and thence allowed to flow from a tap on to 
steam-heated evaporating pans about thirty or forty feet in length. 
The evaporation is so rapid that in traversing the pans from the one 
end to the other the liquid is converted into a thick, tenacious,, 
treacly extract. At the end of the pans it flows into a cistern, and 
thence by a kind of treacle-gate into the casks, each of which will 
hold about 10 cwt. All that now remains to be done is paste on 
a label, put in a bung, weigh the cask, and send it off to market 
In the process of evaporation a certain portion of the tannic acid 

* See also a paper " On the Export and Consumption of Wattle Bark, and the Process 
of Tanning," by James Mitchell {Proe. R.S. f^an Diemen's Land, iSji). The subject of 
Extracts is here dealt with. 



TANS. 305 

is destroyed. The plant can be easily moved from place to place. 
It does not pay to cart the trash far, but a few square miles of 
wattle country will keep a factory going. The utilisation of thinnings 
allows the cultivation of the tree thickly on waste ground, and to 
begin cutting the third year. European tanners are quite accus- 
tomed to the use of such extracts, but it is said that it will be very 
hard to introduce it into the colonial tanneries." {Chemist and 
Druggist, 1886.) 

I. Acacia aneura, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 402. 
" Mulga." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

A specimen of the bark of this tree from Ivanhoe, N.S.W., 
yielded the author 10 per cent, of extract, and 4.78 per cent, of 
catechu-tan nic acid. A narrow-leaved variety from the same 
neighbourhood yielded 20.72 per cent, of extract, and 8.62 per 
cent, of catechu-tannic acid * {Proc. R.S., IV.S. W., 1887, P- 32-) 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

3. Acacia aulacocarpa, ^. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

410. 

"Hickory Wattle." 

This tree yields a tan-bark, used in Queensland to some 
extent. 

Central and Northern Queensland. 

3- Acacia binervata, DC, (Syn. A. umbrosa, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 390. 

" Black Wattle," or " Hickory." " Myimbarr " of the aboriginals of 
lUawarra (New South Wales). 

The bark is used by tanners, though it is not so rich as that 
of A, decurrens. (W. Dovegrove.) Nevertheless, it is a very- 
valuable bark ; specimens from Cambewarra, N.S.W., yielded the 
author 58.03 per cent, of extract, and 30.4 per cent, of catechu- 
tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 90.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

* Important Memorandum. The percentages of tannic acid determined by the author, 
and recorded in Proc. R.S., N.S. IK, are all calculated upon the bark dried at ioo°C 



306 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

4. Acacia Calamifolia, Sweet, (Syn. A. pulveruUnta, A. Cunn.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 339. 

"Willow," or "Broom Wattle." "Wallowa" of the aboriginals at 
Lake Hindmarsh Station (Victoria). 

An excellent tan-bark. A sample in the Technological 
Museum contains 20.63 P^"^ c^"^- ^^ tannin, according to an 
analysis by Mr. Thomas, of Adelaide. 

The dry interior of South Australia, Victoria, New South 
Wales and Queensland. 

5. Acacia COlletioides, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 325. 

" Wait-a-while" (a delicate allusion to the predicament of a traveller 
desirous of penetrating a belt of it). 

Some bark from a very old tree was examined by the author, 
and yielded 10.56 per cent, of extract, and 4.4 per cent, of 
catechu-tannic acid {Troc. B.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 8). 

New South Wales, Victoria, South and Western Australia. 

6. Acacia Cvmninghami, Hook., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

407. 

" Black Wattle." " Bastard Myall " of Northern New South Wales, 
" Kowarkul " of the Queensland aboriginals. 

The following is an analysis of this bark : — Tannin, 9.13 per 
cent.; extract, 16.15 PS'" cent. {Queensland Comm., Col. and 
Indian Exh., 1886.) 

Central New South Wales to Central Queensland. 

7. Acacia dealbata, Link., (Syn. A. irrorata, Sieb.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 415. 

" Silver Wattle." 

An excellent tanning material. A sample in the Techno- 
logical Museum of Sydney contains 29.25 per cent, of tannin. 
The analysis was by Mr. Thomas, of Adelaide. Some specimens 
from Quiedong, near Bombala, N.S.W., yielded the author 29.86 
percent, of extract, and 21.22 percent, of catechu-tannic acid. 
{Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 92.) The bark of this tree is much 
thinner and inferior to the Black Wattle {A. decurrens, var. mol- 
lisima), in quality. It is chiefly employed for lighter leather. 
This tree is distinguished from the Black Wattle by the silvery, or 



TANS. 307 

rather, ashy hue of Us young foliage. It flowers early in spring, 
ripening its seeds in about five months, while the Black Wattle 
blossoms late in spring, or at the beginning of summer, and its 
seeds do not mature before about fourteen months. (Mueller.) 

South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and 
Queensland. 

8. Acacia decurrens, Willd.,- N.O., Leguminosas, B.Fl., ii., 214. 

" Green Wattle " of the older colonists of New South Wales. " Black 

Wattle" and "Silver Wattle" of the colonists. " Wat-tah " of the 

aboriginals of the counties of Cumberland and Camden (New South Wales), 

The following analysis of this bark was given by the Queens- 
land Commissioners at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 
1886: — Tannin, 15.08 per cent.; extract, 26.78 per cent. 

It is an important tan-bark in most of the colonies, and as it 
grows in the poorest soils (almost pure sand) every encouragement 
should be given to its cultivation. A specimen of this bark from 
Ryde, near Sydney, yielded the author 48.74 per cent, of extract, 
and 32.33 per cent, of catechu-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 
1887, p. 93.) 

This Acacia is being grown successfully on a somewhat 
extensive scale at Coonoor, in India. It thrives pretty well at 
Ootacamund, but does not bear fruit there. 

South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and 
Southern Queensland. 

9- Acacia decurrens, van mollis, Wnid., (Syn. A. molHssima, 

Willd.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 415, 

" Black Wattle " of the older New South Wales colonists. " Silver 
Wattle." "Garrong" of some aboriginals of Victoria, and " Warra- 
worup " by those at the aboriginal station, Coranderrk. 

Since the subjoined was written, Baron Mueller has again 
conceded specific rank to this so-called variety. "The bark, rich 
in tannin, renders this tree highly important. The English price 
of the bark ranges generally from ^^8 to j^ii. In Melbourne it 
averages about ;^5 per ton. It varies, so far as my experiments 
have shown, in its tannin, from 30 to 54 per cent, {sic) in bark 



308 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

artificially dried. In commercial bark the percentage is some- 
what less, according to the state of its dryness — it retains about lo 
per cent, of moisture, i^lb. of Black Wattle Bark gives ilb. of 
leather, whereas 5 lbs. of English oak bark are requisite for the 
same results ; but the tanning principle of both is not absolutely 
identical. Melbourne tanners consider a ton of Black Wattle Bark 
sufficient to tan 25 to 30 hides ; it is best adapted for sole leather, 
and other so-called heavy goods. The leather is fully as durable 
as that tanned with oak bark, and nearly as good in colour. Bark 
carefully stored for a season improves in tanning power lo to 15 
per cent. From experiments made it appears that no appreciable 
difference exists in the percentage of tannin in Wattle Barks, 
whether obtained in the dry or in the wet season. As far back as 
1823 a fluid extract of Wattle Bark was shipped to London, 
fetching then the extraordinary price of ;^50 per ton, one ton of 
bark yielding 4cwt. of extract of tar consistence (Simmonds), thus 
saving much freight and cartage. The cultivation of the Black 
Wattle is extremely easy, being effected by sowing, either broadcast 
or in rows. Seeds can be obtained in Sydney or Melbourne, at 
5s. per lb., which quantity contains from 30,000 to 50,000 seeds; 
they are known to retain their vitality for several years. Seeds 
should be soaked in warm water before sowing. Any bare, barren, 
unutilised place might be most remuneratively sown with this 
Wattle ; the return would be in from five to ten years. Full-grown 
trees, which supply also the best quality, yield as much as icwt. of 
bark. Mr. Dickinson states that he has seen locwt. of bark 
obtained from a single tree of gigantic dimensions at Southport, 
Queensland. A quarter of a ton of bark was obtained from one 
tree at Tambo, Queensland, without stripping all the limbs. The 
height of this tree was sixty feet, and the stem two feet in diameter 
The rate of growth is about one inch in diameter of stem annually^ 
It is content with the poorest and driest, or sandy soils, although 
in more fertile ground its growth is more rapid. (Mueller, Select 
Extra-tropical Plants.) 

Eastern South Australia, through Victoria and New South 
Wales to Southern Queensland. The only form of this species 
in Tasmania. 



TANS. 309 

10. Acacia falcata, Wnid., (Syn. A plagiophylla, Spreng. ; 

Mimosa obliqiia, Wendl.); N.O , Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 361. 
"Hickory." " Lignum-vitje." "Sally." " Wee-tjellan " of the 
aboriginals of Cumberland and Camden (New South Wales). 
Yields a good tanning bark. 
Central New South Wales to Southern Queensland. 

11. Acacia flavescens, ^. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 391. 

This bark contains 10.2 per cent, of tannin. (Staiger.) 
Queensland. 

12. Acacia glaUCeSCSns, Willd., (Syn. A. homomalla, Wendl.; 

A. chierascens,'^\^\i.; A. leucadendron, A. Cunn.; Mimosa 
binervis, Wendl.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 91. 
A " Myall," " Brigalow," &c. (For other vernacular names, see 

*' Timbers.") 

Bark from near Bombala, N.S.W., yielded the author 14.29 

per cent, of extract, and 8.10 per cent, of catechu-tannic acid. 

ij^roc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 91.) The leaves {loc. ciL, p. 260) 

yielded 30.96 per cent, of extract, and 2.874 per cent, of tannic 

acid. 

From Victoria to Queensland. 

13- Acacia harpophylla, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 

389- 

" Brigalow." 

This tree yields a considerable amount of tan-bark. 

Central Queensland. 

14- Acacia homalcphylla, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, 

ii-, 383- 

" Narrow-leaved Yarran." A " Myall." (Forother vernacular names, 
see " Timbers.") 

The bark from an oldish tree has been examined by the 
author, with the following result : — Extract, 21.51 per cent., and 
tannic acid 9.06 per cent. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 189.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



3IO AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

15- Acacia implexa, Benth., JM.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 389. 
Yields a tan-bark. 
Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

16. Acacia leptocarpa, A. Cu?m., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

407. 

The following is an analysis of this bark : — Tannin, 10.20 per 
cent.; extract, 26.41 per cent. (Staiger.) 
Northern Queensland. 

17- Acacia longifolia, Willd.,- N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 

397- 

" White Sallow." " Golden Wattle." 
The bark of this tree is only half as good as that of A. decurrens. 
It is used chiefly for sheepskins. The following is an analysis of 
this bark: — Tannin, 12.67 P^r cent.; extract, 32.05 per cent. 
(Staiger.) A specimen from Cambewarra, N.S.W., yielded the 
author 30.35 per cent, of extract, and 18.93 per cent, of catechu- 
tannic acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 90.) Other specimens 
{a) from Oatley's Grant, near Sydney, and {b) Ryde, near Sydney, 
yielded the author {loc. ciL, p. 190) 24.91 and 23.53 P^^ c&ni. of 
extract respectively, and 15.34 and 15.99 P^"^ cent, of tannic acid 
respectively. Both were from much younger trees than the 
specimens from Cambewarra. The leaves {loc. cit. p. 260) yielded 
21.55 per cent, of extract, and 1.932 per cent, of tannic acid. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, 
Southern Queensland. 

18. Acacia longifolia, wnid., var. Sophorae, (Syn., A. sophorce, 

R.Br.; Miviosa sophor(B,\jdSy\\^\ N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 

ii., 398. 

This bark is used for tanning light skins in Queensland, but 
as it is comparatively weak in tannin it fetches but a low price. 
Ml. W. Adam informs me that Sydney fishermen often tan their 
sails and nets with this bark, and are well pleased with it, the 
articles being pliable after use. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and 
Southern Queensland. Chiefly on the coast. 



TANS. 311 

19- Acacia melanoxylon, R-Br., (Syn. A. arcuata, Sieb.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 388. 

Variously called " Blackwood," " Lightwood," " Black Sally," 
" Hickory," " Silver Wattle." 

The bark of this highly valuable timber has usually gone to 
waste, after the splendid wood has been obtained from the logs. 
The bark is, however, rich in tannic acid, and ought not to 
be left unutilised, though no trees of this species should be sacri- 
ficed for the sake of their bark alone. (Mueller.) A sample of 
bark from Monga, near Braidwood, N.S.W., yielded the author 
20.63 per cent, of extract, and 11.12 per cent, of catechu-tannic 
acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 31. The leaves C/^f. cit., 
p. 259) yielded 23.22 per cent, of extract, and 3.382 per cent, of 
tannic acid. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

20. Acacia neriifolia, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 

363. 

" Black Wattle." 

The following analysis of the bark is given by the Queensland 
Commissioners, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886: — Tannin, 
13.91 per cent.; extract, 17.87 per cent. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

21. Acacia Oswaldi, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 384. 

" Miljee." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 
The bark from an oldish tree has been examined by the 
author, with the following result : — Extract, 20.7 per cent. ; tannic 
acid, 9.72 per cent. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 189.) 
In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

22. Acacia pendula, var. glabrata, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, 

B.F1., ii., 383. 

" Yarran." 

Bark from this variety, obtained from near Hay, N.S.W., 
yielded the author 17.91 per cent, of extract, and 7.15 per cent. - 
of catechu-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S.W. 1887, p. 89.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



312 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

23. Acacia penninervis, Sieb., (Syn. A. impressa, Lindl.); N.O., 

Leguminosas, B.FL, ii., 362, 

"Blackwood." Called "Hickory" in the Braidwood district of New 
South Wales. 

The bark contains 17.9 per cent, of tannic acid, and 3.8 per 
cent, of gallic acid. (Mueller.) The following analysis is given 
by the Queensland Commissioners, Colonial and Indian Exhibi- 
tion, 1886 : — Tannin, 14.49 per cent. ; extract, 33.06 per cent. 
Specimens from Monga, near Braidwood, N.S.W., yielded the 
author {a) from the bark of the twigs, 22.88 per cent, of extract, 
and 16.24 per cent, of catechu-tannic acid; {b) from the bark of 
the trunk, 45.5 per cent, of extract, and 16.96 per cent, of catechu- 
tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W. 1887, p. 30.) 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

24. Acacia podaljrrisefolia, A. Ctt««., (Syn. A. FraseH, Hook.; 
A. Caleyi, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 374. 

" Silver Wattle." 

The bark is used in tanning, giving a light colour to 
leather. The following analysis is given by the Queensland Com- 
missioners, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886 : — Tannin, 12.40 
per cent.; extract, 29.50 per cent. 

Northern^ New South Wales and Queensland. 

25. Acacia polystachya, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 

407. 

The following is an analysis of this bark : — Tannin, 7.59 per 
cent. (Staiger.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

26. Acacia pycnantha, Benth., (Syn. A. petiolaris, Lehm. ; A. 
falcinella, Meissn.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 365. 

" Black, Green, or Golden Wattle." " Broad-leaf Wattle." " Witch" 
of the aboriginals of Lake Hindmarsh Station (Victoria). 

One of the richest tanning barks in the world. A sample in 
the Technological Museum contains 33.5 per cent, of tannin, 
according to an analysis by Mr. Thomas, of Adelaide. This tree, 
which attains a maximum height of about thirty feet, is second per- 



TANS. 



313 



haps only to A. decurrens in importance for its yield of tanner's 
bark ; the quality of the latter is even sometimes superior to that 
of the Black Wattle {A. decurrens^ var, mollissimd), but its yield is 
less, as the tree is smaller and the bark thinner. It is of rapid 
growth, content with almost any soil, but is generally found in 
poor sandy ground near the sea-coast, and thus also important for 
binding rolling sand. (Mueller, Select Extra-tropical Plants.) 

In part iii. of the Forest Flora of South Australia^ by J. E. 
Brown, are some very interesting analyses of the bark of this tree 
by Mr. G. A. Goyder, Superintendent of the Crown Lands Labora- 
tory at Adelaide. The table is given herewith. The localities are 
all South Australian. 











"o 




"o 


c 


Locality where 
grown, elevation, &c. 


Character of soil 
upon which grown. 


Age 

of 

tree 


ll 

H 


Portion of 

tree from 

which taken. 


u . 
at c 

c c 

V 

a. 


^ c 

k 

2 


Government Farm^ 




Yrs. 


lbs. 


in. 


From 






Belair, elevation 


Sandy loam, with 








^ trunk wood "i 






1000 ft 


clay sub-soil ... 


6 


45 


0.22 


< and bark >■ 


34-0 


ii-3 


Do. 


Do. 


6 




— 


(. of twigs ) 


S.I 


20.5 


Do. 


Do. 


6 


— 





Leaves. 


3-S 


27.1 


Torrens Island- 
















Almost sea-level .. 


Deep sandy soil ... 


i 


38 


0.23 


Trunk. 


2S-2 


46- S 


Do. 


Do. 


s 




0.04 


Twigs. 


21.7 


40.8 


Do. 


Do. 


i 


— 


— 


Leaves. 


6.S 


3S-S 


Bundaleer Forest — 
















Elevation, 1,800 ft. 


Ferruginous loam, 
with clay sub- 
















soil 


1 


128 


0.20 


Trunk. 


31.4 


49.9 


Do. 


Do. 


7 


— 


o.oj 


Twigs. 


22-3 


45.6 


Do. 


Do. 


7 


— 


— 


Leaves. 


4-9 


34.4 


Semaphore — 
















20 ft. above sea- 




abt. 












level 


Deep sand 


30 


307 


0.18 


Trunk. 


25.8 


42.6 


Brighton — 
















20 ft. to 30 ft. above 
















sea-level 


Clay soil 


6 


— 


0.21 


Trunk. 


28.7 


S3-4 


Do. 


Do. 


6 


— 


0.03 


Twigs. 


25-3 


41.6 


Do. 


Do. 


6 


— 


— 


Leaves. 


3-6 


31.9 


Mount Gambler 


Calcareous sand ... 


7 


— 


0.13 


Trunk. 


3«-7 


S2.0 



The dried leaves of this species furnish as much as 15.16 per 
cent, of tannic acid. (Mueller and Rummel.) 

South Australia Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 



27. Acacia retinodes, -SVA/^f A/. ; N.O.,Leguminos3e, B.Fl., ii.,362. 
Yields a good tan-bark. 
South Australia and Victoria. 



314 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

28. Acacia rigens, A. Cunn., (Syn. A. chordophylla, P'.v.M.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 337. 

" Nealie," or " Needle Bush." 

Bark from an old tree, from near Hay, N.S.W., yielded the 
author 19.05 per cent, of extract, and 6.26 per cent, of catechu- 
tannic acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S, W., 1887, p. 88.) 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

29. Acacia salicina, Lindl., (Syn. A. Ugulata, A. Cunn.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 367. 

" Cooba," or " Koubah." " Native Willow." '* Motherumba." 

An excellent tan-bark. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

30. Acacia saligna, Benth. non Wend/., (Syn. A. leiophylla, 
Benth ; Mimosa saligna, Labill.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, 
B.Fl., ii., 364. 

In South-west Australia it is the principal source of tan-bark. 
It contains nearly 30 per cent, of tannin. 
Western Australia. 

31. Acacia sentis, F.v.M., (Syn. A. Victoria, Benth.); N.O., 

Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 360. 

A specimen of bark from Ivanhoe, N.S.W., yielded the 
author 18.02 per cent, of extract, and catechu-tannic acid 6.32 
per cent. {Froc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 29.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

32. Acacia SUbporosa, F.V.M., supporosa in MuelL, Fragm., iv., 

5 ; N.O., Leguminos«, B.FL, ii., 382. 

This bark yielded tannic acid 6.6 per cent., and gallic acid 
1.2 per cent. (?>Iueller.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

33- Acacia vestita, Ker, N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 375. 

Bark from near Bombala, N.S.W., yielded' the author 50.82 
per cent, of extract, and 27.96 per cent, of catechu-tannic acid 
{Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 89). The leaves {loc. cit. p. 258) 



TANS. 315 

yielded 40.18 per cent, of extract, and 15.18 per cent, of tannic 
acid. 

Southern New South Wales and Northern Victoria. 

34. Albizzia lophantha, Benth., (Syn. Acacia lophatttha, Willd. ; 

Mimosa dislachya. Vent, non, Cav. ; M. elegans, Andr.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 421. 

The bark contains 8 per cent, of tannin. (Mueller.) This 
tree is naturalised on the Nilgiris. (Beddome, Flora Sylvatica of 
Southern India ^ 

Western Australia. 

35- Alphitonia excelsa, Reissek, (Syn. Colubrina exceha, Fenzl.); 

N.O., Rhamneae, B.FL, i., 414. 

" Red Ash." " Mountain Ash." " Leather -jacket." (For aboriginal 
names, see " Timbers.") 

The bark of this tree is occasionally used for tanning. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia, 

36. Atherosperma moschata, Labill., N.O., Monimiacese, B.FL, 

v., 284. 

" Sassafras." 

From the bark of this tree the following tannic acid may be 
prepared. It only possesses scientific interest. 

Atherosperma Tannin. Precipitate the decoction of the bark 
with acetate of lead, treat the precipitate with acetic acid, precipi- 
tate the filtrate by ammonia, decompose the precipitate suspended 
in water by hydrogen sulphide, and evaporate the filtrate. It is a 
yellow liquid of faintly acid and astringent taste ; it greens ferric 
salts. (Mueller.) 

Tasmania, Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 

37- Banksia integrifolia, Linn., fil., (Syn. B. spicata,^^.^^^.; 

B. olei/olia, Cav. ; B. viacrophylla, Link.; B. compar, R.Br.); 

N.O., Proteaceae, B.FL, v., 554. 
" Coast Honeysuckle." " Beef-wood." (For aboriginal names, see 
" Timbers.") 

The bark of this and other species of Banksia are occasionally 
used for tanning. The author has analysed a sample of this bark. 



3l6 AUSTRALIAN. NATIVE PLANTS. 

obtained from the neighbourhood of Sydney, and has found 
10.825 per cent, of tannic acid, with 14.2 per cent, of extract. 
(Proc. U.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 203.) 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

38. Banksia serrata, Ltnn., /., (Syn. B. conchifera, Gaertn.; 

B. mills, Knight; B. dentala, Wendl.; B. media, Hook, f., 

non R.Br.); N.O., Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 556. 
" Honeysuckle." Formerly called " Wattung-urree " by the aboriginals 
of Cumberland and Camden (New South Wales). 

The bark of this tree has yielded nearly 10.8 per cent, of 
tannic acid, and .7 per cent, of gallic acid. (Mueller.) The author 
has examined a sample of bark of this species obtained in the 
neighbourhood of Sydney. He found 27.38 per cent, of extract, 
of a very deep colour, and no less than 23.25 per cent, of tannic 
acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 204.) 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

39- Bruguiera Eheedii, Blume, (Syn. B, australis, A. Cunn. ; 

B. Rumphii, Blume); N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.FL, ii., 494. 

B. Rheedi and B. gymnorrhiza are united by some authors. 

" Red Mangrove." '* Kowinka " of the Queensland aboriginals. 

The following is an analysis of this bark : — Tannin, 19.48 per 
cent.; extract, 37.91 per cent. (Staiger.) Another experiment 
gave 18.2 per cent, of tannin. It is used for tanning chiefly in 
India. 

Queensland and North Australia. 

40. CaSTiarina glauca, Sieb., (Syn. C. toruhsa, Miq. non Ait.) ; 

N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 196. 

" Belar," " Billa," or " Bull Oak." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

The author e.xamined a specimen of bark of this species 
brought from Ivanhoe, New South Wales. It contained 17.2 per 
cent, of extract, and 11.58 per cent, of tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., 
1887, p. 205.) 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 



TANS. 317 

41- CaSTiarina SUberOSa, Otto and Dietr., (Syn. C. leptodada, 

Miq. ; C. mcBsia, F.v.M.); N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 197. 

This tree has the following colonial names : — " Erect She-Oak." 

" Forest Oak." " Swamp Oak." " River Black Oak." " Shingle Oak." 

*' Beef-wood." " Dahl-wah " is an aboriginal name. 

The barks of Casuartnas are more or less astringent, and 

are occasionally used for tanning. In India this astringency is 

availed of for medicinal purposes, and less frequently in Australia, 
Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

42. Cedrela tOOna, Boxb., (Syn. Cedrela australis, F.v.M.); N.O., 
Meliaceae, B.FL, i., 386. C. australis in Muell. Cens., p. 9. 
Ordinary " Red Cedar." (For aboriginal names, see " Timbers.") 
This bark contains a considerable quantity of tannin, which 

produces a purplish leather. (Fawcett.) It is occasionally used 

for tanning in India. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

43- Elseocarpus grandis, F.v.M.,- N.O., Tiliacese, B.Fl., i., 281. 
" Blue Fig." " Brisbane Quandong" (owing to the blue fruits being 

eaten by children and aboriginals). By the latter it is frequently called 
" Calhun,"or " Callangun." 

The author has examined this bark for tannic acid. (JProc. 
R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 182.) That yielded by a tree cultivated in 
Sydney gave 21.566 per cent, of extract to water, and 10.28 per 
cent, of tannic acid. It will be interesting to compare the per- 
centages of tannic acid found by Mr. Skey in two New Zealand 
species of this genus. E. dentatus, Vahl. (" Hinau "), gave 21.8 
per cent., and E. Hookeriamis, Raoul, 9.8 per cent. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

44- Eremophila longifolia, F.v.M. (Syn., Stenochilus longifolius, 
R.Br.; S. salicinus, Benth.; .S. puhiflorus^ Benth.); N.O.^ 
Myoporineae, B.Fl., v., 23. 

" Emu Bush," owing to emus feeding on the seeds of this and other 
species. " Berrigan " of the aboriginals. 

The author has examined the leaves and bark of this small 
tree for tannic acid, with the following results : — Leaves, 9.705 
per cent, of tannic acid, and 42.92 per cent, of extract; Bark, 



31 S AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

5.107 per cent, of tannic acid, and 19.11 per cent, of extract. 
(Froc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 199.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 



45- Eremophila OppOSitifolia, R- Br., (Syn. E. arborescens, 
A. Cunn. ; E. Cunninghamii, R.Br. ; Eremodendron Cun- 
iiinghamii, A. DC); N.O., Myoporinae, B.Fl., v., 20. 

" Emu Bush." 
The bruised leaves of this plant are used by the aboriginals 

in the Western District for tanning wallaby and other skins used 

by them for carrying water. Probably other species of Eremophila 

are used for the same purpose. 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

46. Eucalyptus spp, 

Not only the bark, but also the leaves of Eucalypti contain a 
peculiar variety of tannin, different in its action on the salts of iron, 
compared with the tannic acid of Acacias and other plants, but 
yet valuable as an adjunct to other tanning materials. Our experi- 
ments showed that about four weeks were required to effect the 
tanning of cow-hides, by simple immersion in the tan-liquor as 
obtained by decoction, without addition of other substances, 
whether leaves or bark were employed, except in the case of E. 
Gunnii, the tanning process with that species being completed in 
two weeks, and with E. goniocalyx in three weeks. The leather 
obtained from leaves of E. Leucoxylon was grey-brown, hard and 
tough ; that from the bark of E. Gunnii light-brown, and rather 
flexible ; that from bark of E. viminalis, E. goniocalyx, and E. 
atnygdalina, reddish-brown and tough ; that from the bark of 
E. macrorrhyncha and E. melliodora darker still than that of the 
preceding three ; that from the bark of E. obliqua red-brown in 
colour. (Mueller, Eucalyplographia.) 

47- Eucalyptus acmenioides, Schauer, (Syn. E, pilularis var. (.?) 
acmenioides, Benth. ; E. trianthos, Link) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, 
B.FL, iii., 208. 



TANS. 319 

" Stringybark" of Central Queensland. " White Mahogany " of New 
South Wales. " Jundera " of the aboriginals of the Richmond River 
(New South Wales). 

This bark is said to be occasionally used for tanning. 

New South Wales and South Queensland, but not far inland. 

48. Eucalyptus amygdalina, LabUl, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., 

iii., 202. 
" Messmate," " Peppermint," " Mountain Ash." (For other ver- 
nacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This bark contains from 3.22 to 3.40 per cent, of kino- 
tannic acid. (Mueller and Hoffmann.) The leaves of a variety 
(" Ribbon Gum ") from Nelligen, Clyde River, New South Wales, 
yielded the author 32.13 per cent, of extract, and 1.815 per cent, 
of tannic acid. The leaves of another variety (" Peppermint ") 
from Bombala, in the same colony, yielded 44.24 per cent, of 
extract, and 8.75 per cent, of tannic acid. (Proc. P.S., N.S.W., 
1887, p. 262-3.) 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 



49- Eucalyptus Baileyana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, F.v.lM., 

Fragm., xi. 

" Rough Stringy-bark." 

A tan-bark occasionally used. 

Near Brisbane (Queensland). 

50. Eucalyptus COrymbosa, Smith, {^yn.Metrosideros gummifera, 

Soland.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 256. 
" Bloodwood." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Baron Mueller records 2.7 as the percentage of tannic acid 
obtained in a specimen of this bark. The author obtained 5.85 
per cent, of tannic acid, and 12.16 per cent, of extract in a sample 
of bark of this species obtained from Cambewarra, New South 
Wales. {Proc. R.S.. N.S. W., 1887, p. 196.) The leaves (loc. cit. 
p. 273) yielded 36.72 per cent, of extract, 18.377 per cent, of 
tannic acid. 

From New South Wales to Northern Australia. 



320 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

51- Eucalyptus COSmophylla, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

225. 

The ordinarily dry leaves gave 13 per cent, of tannin accord- 
ing to a solitary experiment; equal to nearly 15 per cent, in 
absolutely dry leaves. (Mueller and Rummel.) 

South Australia. 

52. Eucalyptus doratoxylon, F.v.M.; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FI., iii., 

249. 

" Spearwood." 

Mueller and Rummel obtained 7.01 per cent, of tannic acid in 

the dried leaves. 

Western Australia. 

53- Eucalyptus globulus, Lahill; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
225. 
The well-known " Blue Gum." (For other vernacular names and 
synonyms, see " Timbers.") 

This bark contains 4.84 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. (Mueller 
and Hoffmann.) Count Maillard de Marafy has suggested that 
the leaves of this species can be used as a substitute for Sumach. 
" Leaves of E. globulus, taken from a plantation near Alexandria, 
and pulverised like Sumach, when used upon cotton and wool in 
the same proportion as the best Sicilian Sumach, gave an intense 
black that left nothing to be desired." 

Tasmania, Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 

54. Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F.v.M.; (Syn., E. elaeophora, F.v.M.) ; 

N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 229. 
" Spotted Gum." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This bark contains 4.12 to 4.62 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 
(Mueller and Hoffmann.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

55- Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hook. /., {Syn. E. ligusirtna,M\({.; E. 

acervula. Hook, f.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 246. 

" Cider Gum " (of Tasmania), (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 



TANS. 321 

The bark contained 3.44 per cent, of tannin as the result of 
one experiment. (Mueller.) The author has examined the barks 
of two varieties of this species — (a) " Flooded Gum " or " Bastard 
Gum," and (<5) " Red Gum." Both are from near Bombala, 
N.S.W., the former yielded 19.4 per cent, of extract, and 9.45 
per cent, of kino-tannic acid, while the latter yielded 20.84 per 
cent, of extract, and 11.35 P^r cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. 
U.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 86.) Leaves {he. cit., 272-3) yielded {a) 
41.08 per cent, of extract, and 8.28 per cent, of tannic acid; 
{b) 40.61 per cent, of extract, and 16.59 V^^ cent, of tannic acid. 

Tasmania, the extreme south-eastern portion of South Aus- 
tralia, thence to Gippsland and into New South Wales as far as 
Berrima. 

56. Eucalyptus hsemastoma, Smith, (Syn. E. dgnata, F.v.M. ; 

E. falcifolia, Miq. ; and incl. E. micrantha, DC.) ; N.O., 

Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 212. 
" Scribbly Gum." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This bark is occasionally used for tanning. Leaves of this 
species yielded the author 47.19 per cent, of extract, and 11.27 
per cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 267.) 

Illawarra (New South Wales) to Wide Bay (Queensland). 

57- Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F.v.M., (Syn. E. albens, Miq.); 

N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 216. 
" Gum-topped Box." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

One of the barks occasionally used for tanning by settlers. 

Eastern South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and 
Southern Queensland. 

58. Eucalyptus leucoxylon, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sideroxylon, A. 

Cunn.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 209. 
" Ironbark." (For the other numerous vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

The bark of this tree contains 21.94 per cent, of tannic acid. 
(Mueller.) It is hence useful as a tanning material, but only for 
inferior leather, as the extractive substance of the bark imparts a 
dark coloration, and also seems to impair the tanning process. 
The Sydney fishermen sometimes tan their sails and nets with it, 

Y 



322 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

but they then become dark-coloured and hard. " The dried leaves 
yielded 9^ per cent, of tannic acid." (Mueller and Rummel.) 

Spencer's Gulf (South Australia), through Victoria and New 
South Wales to Southern Queensland. 

59. Eucaljrptus macrorrhyncha, F.v.M., (Syn. E. acervuia, 

Miq.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 207. 

" Stringybark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

This bark contains ir.12 to 13.41 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 
(Mueller and Hoffman.) The leaves have been examined by the 
author, and found to yield 40.18 per cent, of extract, and 10.13 
per cent, of tannic acid. (Proc R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 265.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

60. Eucalyptus maCUlata, Hook. /., (Syn. E. variegata, F.v.M. ; 
E. peltata, Benth.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 254 and 258. 

" Spotted Gum." 

A tan-bark, occasionally employed. The author obtained 
9.74 per cent, of tannic acid, and 20.865 per cent, of extract from 
a sample of this bark obtained from Cambewarra, New South 
Wales. {Proc. P.S., N.S. W. 196.) The leaves {loc. cii., p. 274) 
yielded 28.32 per cent, of extract, and 5.263 per cent, of tannic 
acid. 

Port Jackson to Central Queensland. 

61. Eucalyptus melliodora, ^. Ctmn., {Syn. E. pateniiflora,U\(l., 
non F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 210. 

" Yellow Box." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 
This bark contains 4.03 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 
(Mueller and Hoffmann.) Leaves of this species yielded the 
author 49.8 per cent, of extract, and 7.89 per cent, of tannic acid. 
{Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 266.) 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

62. Eucalyptus microcorys, F.v.M.,- N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 

212. 

"Tallow-wood." "Turpentine." "Tee." 



TANS. 323 

A settlers' tan-bark. 

Northern coast districts of New South Wales, to Cleveland 
Bay, Queensland. 

63. Eucalyptus obliqua, LHirit., (Syn., E. giganfea, Hook, f.; 

E. falcifolia, Miq., (partly); E. nervosa F.v.M. ; and incl. 

E. heterophylla, Miq.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 204. 

A "Stringybark." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

The bark contains only from 2.5 to 4.19 per cent, of kino- 
tannin. (Mueller.) Leaves of this species, from Cambewarra, 
New South Wales, yielded the author 41.13 per cent, of extract, 
and 17.2 per cent, of tannic acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, 
p. 264.) 

Southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South 
Australia. 

64. Eucalyptus Odorata, Behr, (Syn., E. porosa, Miq.; E. cajti- 
putea, Miq.); N.O., Myrtaces, B.FL, iii., 125. 

"White Box." (For other vernacular names, see "Timbers.") 
Leaves from a variety of this species, obtained from near 
Eden, New South Wales, yielded the author 40.19 per cent, of 
extract, and 6.775 P^r cent, of kino-tannic acid, (Proc. R.S., 
.Y.S.W., 1887., 268.) 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

65. Eucalyptus piperita, Sm'/k, (Syn. E. acervula, Sieb.) ; N.O., 

Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 207. 

" Peppermint." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Leaves from this species, locally known as " Messmate" and 
" Narrow " or "Almond-leaved Stringybark," at Brooman, Clyde 
River, New South Wales, yielded the author 34.08 per cent, of 
extract, and 12.59 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., 
N.S.W.,^. 265.) 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

66. Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schauer, N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., 

iii., 213. 

" Box." (For synonyms and vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 



324 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

This bark contains 3.97 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. 
(Mueller and Hoffmann.) Leaves of this species yielded the 
author 29.69 per cent, of extract, and 1.881 per cent, of tannic 
acid. {Proc. F.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 267.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

67. Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith, (Syn. E. spedabiUs, F.v.M. ; 
E. pellita, F.V.M. ; E. Kirtontana, F.v.M. ; E. hemilampray 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 245. 

" Red " or " Forest Mahogany." (For other vernacular names, see 
"Timbers.") 

Used occasionally as a tan-bark. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

68. Eucalyptus robusta, Smith, (Syn. E. rostrata, Cav. non 
Schlecht.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 228. 

" White," or " Swamp Mahogany." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

Leaves of this species, obtained from Brooman, Clyde River, 
New South Wales, yielded the author 34.7 per cent, of extract, 
and 12.069 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S.W.y 
1887, p. 269.) 

New South Wales. 

69. Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlecht., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

240. 
" Red Gum." (For synonyms and vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Some insect galls from saplings, causing the abortion of leaf- 
buds and flower-buds, have been examined by the author. They 
were more or less perforate, the perfect insect having in most 
cases taken its departure. They were more or less weather-worn 
and pulverulent. The colour yellowish to a dirty yellowish-brown. 
Average diameter about i in. They yielded 70.22 per cent, of 
extract, and 43.4 per cent, of tannic acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S. W.,. 
1887, p. 85.) 

Baron Mueller gives the percentage of tannic acid in the bark 
at 8.22. Leaves of this species yielded the author (loc. cit., p. 
271), 40.8 per cent, of extract, and 6.62 per cent, of kino-tannic 



TANS. 325 

acid. These leaves were previously dried at 100° C, as usual. 
Mueller and Rummel found 4.68 per cent of tannic acid in the 
" fresh leaves." Making allowance for moisture, the results closely 
approximate. 

In all the colonies. 

70. Eucalyptus Siderophloia, Benth., (Syn. E. resini/era, A. 

Cunn., non Smith; E. persicifolia, DC; and prob. E. 

fibrosa, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtace», B.Fl., iii., 220. 

" Ironbark." (For other vernacular names, see "Timbers.") 

This bark, which contains more or less kino disseminated 
through it, is occasionally used for tanning. Sometimes the 
Sydney fishermen use it for tanning their sails and nets, but it 
discolours them. 

At p. 193 {Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887) the author describes 
an examination of the bark of a sapling of this species. The bark 
differs from that described {loc. ciL, p. 39, see "Kinos"), in 
containing but traces of kino visible to the naked eye, and con- 
sisting of the whole thickness of the bark. The complete difference 
will be apparent from the following description of the bark now 
referred to. It reminds the author very strongly of virgin cork, more 
so, in fact, than any other specimen of Eucalyptus bark examined 
by him up to the present time. It is deeply fissured, light 
(though not quite so light as cork bark), and these particular 
specimens certainly might be used as floats for fishermen's nets. 
It is very soft and elastic, and can easily be indented, and even 
torn away by the finger-nail. In a word, it is simply inferior cork. 
Its outer surface has nothing of the hardness characteristic of Iron- 
barks, though it possesses their rugged, furrowed appearance. 
Prevailing colour, light grey. The corky portion is readily detach- 
able, and about an inch in thickness. It yields 14.2 per cent, 
of extract, and 6.702 per cent, of kino-tannic acid. Leaves of this 
yielded (loc. cit., p. 269) 22.93 per cent, of extract, and 5.95 per 
cent, of tannic acid. 

Southern Queensland, south to Port Jackson. 

71- Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F.v.M. (Syn., E. virgata, Sieb.); 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 202. 



326 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" Mountain Ash." " Cabbage Gum." (For other vernacular names, 
see " Timbers.") 

A specimen of kino from near Braidwood, N.S.W., yielded 
the author 95.04 per cent, of extract, and 36.96 per cent, of kino- 
tannic acid. (Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 37.) The leaves 
{loc. cit., p. 262) yielded 32.31 per cent, of extract, and 2.389 per 
cent, of tannic acid. 

In all the colonies except Queensland and Western Australia. 

72. Eucalyptus Stellulata, Sieb., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 200. 

" Box," " Black Sally," &c. (For vernacular names and botanical 
synonyms, see "Timbers.") 

A specimen of bark from near Braidwood, N.S.W., examined 
by the author, yielded 27.64 per cent, of extract, and 12.86 per 
cent, of kino-tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, p. 35.) 
The leaves {loc. cit., p. 261) yielded 42.14 percent, of extract, 
and 16.62 per cent, of tannic acid. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

73- Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F.v.M., (Syn. E. persici/olia, Miq., 

non Lodd.; E. Baueriana, non Schauer ; E.falcifolia, Miq.); 

N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 243 (partly). 

" Woolly Butt." (For the numerous other vernacular names of this 
tree, see " Timbers.") 

The bark contains 4.6 per cent, of tannic acid, and .7 per cent, 
of gallic acid (Mueller). The author obtained 5.25 per cent, of 
tannic acid, and 15.39 P^^ cent, of extract in a sample from near 
Bombala, New South Wales. {Proc. P.S., N.S.W., 1887, 195.) 
The leaves yielded (loc. cit., p. 271) 42.74 per cent, of extract, 
and 10.158 per cent, of tannic acid. 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

74- Eucalyptus viminalis, Labill., N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 

239- 
" Manna Gum." " Ribbony Gum." (For other vernacular names, see 
" Timbers.") 

This bark contains 4.88 to 5.97 per cent, of kino-tannic acid 
(Mueller and Hoffmann); the latter being obtained from the bark 



TANS. 327 

of a young tree. The author has found 7.504 per cent, of tannic 
acid, and 18.65 per cent, of extract in a sample obtained from the 
neighbourhood of Bombala, New South Wales. {Proc. . R.S.., 
N.S.W., 1887, p. 194.) Leaves of this species yielded {loc. cit., 
p. 270) 40.59 per cent, of extract, and 3.998 per cent, of tannic 
acid. Mueller and Rummel found 3.47 per cent, in leaves of this 
species. 

South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and New South Wales. 

75- Eucryphia Moorei, F.v.M., N.O., Saxifragese, B.FI., ii., 447. 

" Acacia " of the colonists, as when not in flower it resembles some of 
the larger species of that genus. " Plum" of Southern New South Wales. 
Called also " White Sally." 

This bark has been tried by some settlers in the Braidwood 
district as a tan, " with excellent results." A specimen from this 
locality yielded the author 21.4 per cent, of extract, and 7.74 per 
cent, of tannic acid. {Proc R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 34.) 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

76. Eugenia Smithii, Poir., (Syn. E. elUptica, Smith ; Myrtus 
Sfni/At'i, Spreng.; Acmena Jlonbunda, \a.r, DC; Syzygium 
brachynemum, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FI., iii., 283. 
" Lilly-pilly" is the common colonial name. " Tdjerail " and " Coochin- 

Coochin" are aboriginal names in use in New South Wales and Queensland 

respectively. 

The bark contains 16.9 per cent, of tannic acid, and 3.6 per 

cent, of gallic acid. (Mueller.) 
Victoria to Northern Australia. 

77- ExOCarpUS CUpreSSiformis, LabUl., (Syn. Leptomeria acerba, 
Sieb. non R.Br.); N.O., Santalaceae, B.FI., vi., 229. 
" Native Cherry." (For other vernacular names, see "Timbers.") 
The author has examined a specimen of bark from this species. 

The specimen was taken from a poor tree, yet it yielded 15.752 per 

cent, of tannic acid, and 29.99 P^'' cent, of extract. (Proc. JR.S., 

N.S.W., 205.) 

In all the colonies. 



328 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

78. FusamiS aCUminatUS, (Syn. Santalum acuminatum, A. DC. ; 

S. Preissianum, Miq. ; .S". cognatum, Miq.) ; N.O., Santalaceae, 

B.Fl., vi., 215. (6*. acuminatum in Muell., Cens., p. 64.) 
" Quandong." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

Bark of this species obtained from near Hay, N.S.W., yielded 
the author 39.46 per cent, of extract, and 18.84 per cent, of tannic 
acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 1887, p. 94.) 

In all the colonies except Tasmania. 

-79. Grevillea striata, P.Br., (Syn. G. Umata, R.Br.); N.O., 
Proteaceae, B.FL, v., 462. 

" Beef wood." 
The author has obtained 22.02 per cent, of a dark-coloured 
extract, and 17.84 per cent, of tannic acid from a sample of this 
bark obtained from near the Darling River. (^Proc. R.S., N.S. W., 
1887, 202.) 

In all the colonies except Victoria and Tasmania. 

80. Hakea leUCOptera, R.Br., N.O., Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 515. 

" Needle," or " Pin Bush." " Water Tree." (For botanical synonyms, 
see " Timbers.") 

The author has obtained 14.95 per cent, of extract, and 
10.99 P^r ^^"^- of tannic acid from a sample of bark of this 
species obtained from near Ivanhoe, New South Wales. {Proc. 
P.S.,N.S.IV., 1887,202.) 

South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

81. NesodaphnG Obtusifolia, Benth., (Syn. BeHschmiedia obtusi- 
folia, Benth. et Hook.; Cryptocarya obtusifolia, F.v.M.); 

N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v. 299. BeHschmiedia obtusifolia in 

Muell. Cens., p. 3. 

" Sassafras." 

The bark contains a tannin similar or identical with cinchona- 
tannin, to the extent of 7^ per cent. (Staiger.) 
Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 



TANS. 329 

82. Pittosporum undulatum, Vent., N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl. i., 

III. 

" Native Laurel." " Mock Orange." 
The bark yielded 1.2 percent. of tannic acid, and .7 per cent, 
of gallic acid (Mueller). 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

83. PolygOimm plebejum, R.Br., N.O., Polygonaceae, B.FL, v. 

267. 

A species of Polygonum is used for tanning purposes in the 

United States. The author was, therefore, induced to examine 

this common Australian species of Polygonum. The whole plant, 

except the root, was taken, and 28.11 percent, of extract obtained, 

and 1 1. 19 per cent, of tannic acid. {Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887, 

200.) 

In all the colonies except Western Australia and Tasmania. 

84- Ehizophora mucronata, ^<z»2., (Syn. R. Mangle, Roxb.; R. 

Candelaria, W\ghi et Am.); N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.Fl., ii., 

493- 

" Mangrove. 

The bark of this mangrove is used for tanning in India. 
The following is an analysis of the bark : — ^Tannin, 28.85 per cent.; 
extract, 29.24 per cent. (Staiger.) 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

85. Rhus rhodanthema, F.v.M., (Syn. R. elegans, Hill); N.O., 

Anacardiaceae, B.Fl,, i., 489. 
" Deep Yellowr-wood." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.") 

The author has examined the leaves and bark of this tree. 
{Proc. R.S., N.S.W., 1887.) The bark was found to contain no 
less than 23.15 per cent, of tannic acid, and 44-79 P^"^ *^^"^- °^ 
extract to water. The leaves yielded 32.2 per cent, of extract, 
and 16.91 per cent, of tannic acid. This percentage is lower than 
that yielded by other species of Rhus producing the sumach of 
commerce, but as R. rhodanthema leaves will undoubtedly yield a 
light-coloured leather, they may yet come into commerce. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



330 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

86. S3nicarpia Hillii, Bail., N.O., Myrtacese, Proc. Royal Soc, 

Queensland, i., 86. 
" Turpentine Tree" and " Peebeen." (Frazer's Island, North Queens- 
land.) 

The bark contains 7.68 per cent, of tannin. (Staiger.) 

Queensland. 

87. Tristania COnferta, R.Br., (Syn., T. su5verlici'lla/a, Wendl.; 

T. macrophylla, A. Cunn. ; Lophostemon arborescens, Schott. ; 

L. macrophyllum, R.Br.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 263. 

" White Box." " Red Box." " Brush Box." " Bastard Box." 
"Brisbane Box." "Mahogany." " Tubbil-pulla " of some Queensland 
aborigines. 

This bark is occasionally used for tanning. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 



Timbers. 



The timbers of Australia are the most valuable of all the un- 
cultivated vegetable products. The indigenous trees are numerous, 
both as regards species and individuals, but we must confess that 
our knowledge in regard to their timber lacks precision. To 
reconcile the different conflicting statements in regard to certain 
timbers will be the work of years, and can only be accomplished 
by the generous co-operation of people in all parts of the colonies. 
At least, as far as New South Wales is concerned, the author 
ventures to express the hope that dwellers in different parts of it 
may favour him with small specimens, sufficient in size for critical 
examination, of each timber in their neighbourhood, with samples 
of the bark, flower, and fruit, and attached to each parcel the local 
vernacular name. On most stations there is an intelligent 
employee to whom the task of getting together such specimens 
could be entrusted. 

Mr. William Hogarth, of IMomba, Wilcannia, has com- 
municated to the author the following observation on the 
durability of timbers: — 

"In any locality, wherever a particular kind of tree pre- 
dominates, that timber will last longest in the ground — for instance, 
the IMulga where Mulga predominates, that is in dry situations, 
while in damp situations, where " Box " predominates, the Mulga 
soon rots, and Box lasts longer in the ground. Where Oak 
{Casuarina) predominates, Mulga and Box will rot sooner than 
Oak, and so on." Mr. Hogarth made these observations, having 
had many old fences to pull down on his run, and in putting up 
new ones he acts as much as possible keeping this in view. 
These conclusions have been combated by some gentlemen from 
Western New South Wales to whom the author broached the 
subject. The matter is, however, worthy of ventilation, and the 
author would much like to receive communications on the subject 
from various parts of the colonies. 



332 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Seasoning of Timber. 

It is hoped that the few notes which follow may be of service. 

The method the author has adopted for seasoning logs of 
timbers for exhibition in the Technological Museum is as 
follows : — 

The logs are stood on end, and the upper end, which is 
exposed to the atmosphere, is soaked with boiled linseed oil, and 
this is covered with white-lead of the consistency of cream one or 
two days after. The other end of the log stands on the floor, and 
is not sealed up in any way, as this would prevent the moisture 
draining away or evaporating. Two iron bands are made, of the 
same diameter as the log. The ends are free, are turned out at 
right angles, and holes are bored to receive a screw-bolt. By 
means of nuts, each band is tightened up as much as possible, 
having previously, by a few blows of the hammer, caused each 
band to follow the outline of the log. Every few days the bands 
are tightened up. The author has only adopted this method for 
eighteen months, so it would be premature to say too much about 
it, but up to the present he has no reason to suppose that it will 
not be effectual. 

A similar plan seems to be adopted in the Mauritius, where 
ebony, when freshly cut, is beautifully sound, although it splits like 
all other woods by neglectful exposure to the sun. The workmen 
immerse it in water as soon as it is felled for six to eighteen 
months ; it is then taken out, and the two ends are secured from 
splitting by iron rings and wedges. 

This method is, of course, somewhat expensive and tedious, 
but even if it should be considered out of the question to thus treat 
the most valuable of our Eucalyptus timbers, many of our smaller 
ornamental timbers would well repay the moderate amount of 
trouble involved in treating them in this way. 

As a matter of fact, the timbers in Australia rarely receive any 
seasoning or care whatsoever. Timber of a particular kind often 
appears in patches in a forest, and wherever convenient a sawpit is 
established in a position as central as possible. After a tree is 
felled, it is usually converted into sawn stuff with a minimum of 
delay. Seasoning is, as a rule, never thought of, though some go 



TIMBERS. 



333 



SO far as to partially season by storage in sawdust from the pit, 
while others sometimes adopt the water process. 

The remarks of Mr. Shields {infra) are as true to-day as when 
spoken twenty-five years ago. It is, however, not likely that 
any immediate improvement will take place in the matter of 
seasoning, for the reason that Australian hardwood (which forms 
the great bulk of the timber) is cheap on account of its abundance, 
while the cost of labour is very great. Moreover, the difficulty of 
manipulating it, on account of its great weight, stands in the way 
of seasoning it on an extensive scale. It has not yet been brought 
home to our country sawyers that seasoning of timber will pay. And 
more attention should be paid than at present to cutting the timber 
at the proper season, i.e., when the sap is least active, a time which 
(within certain limits) can only be determined locally in each case. 

Mr. Shields stated, from his experience in the use of Australian 
woods, that it was the custom in that country to cut down the 
timber as it grew, to convert it into the required shape, and to use 
it without any kind of seasoning or preparation. It was not to be 
supposed that timber, under such conditions, would, when exposed 
to the burning sun of India, endure for any long period. He 
believed that when properly seasoned, as all timber required to be, 
by the use of some simple means of preparation, such as immersion 
in water, or exposure, under cover from the sun, to a current of air, 
Australian timber would be found as durable as that of any other 
country, and he knew of none in any part of the world which was 
equal to it in strength or tenacity. It approached inferior wrought 
iron in textile strength, and possessed excellent properties if it was 
subjected to fair treatment. He thought more might be done with 
Australian timber than had been the case hitherto, and he con- 
sidered the use of it should not be abandoned without further 
trial. {Proc. Inst. C.E., xxii., 258.) 

The author has compiled the few notes on seasoning which 
follow, chiefly from N'otes on Builditig Construction, Part iii. 
(Rivingtons), The Materials 0/ Engineerifig (Thurston), Sawmills^ 
their Arrangement and Management (M. Powis Bale). 

Natural or air seasoning gives the best results. The timber 
should in all cases be squared as soon as cut, and all large logs 



334 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

should be halved, or even quartered. It is then piled in the 
seasoning yard in such a manner as to be protected as far as 
possible from the sun and rain. It should be placed where the air 
may circulate freely on all sides, not only of the pile, but of each 
log; bad ventilation is sure to cause rot. (Thurston, op. cit.) If 
stacked in the open air it should be arranged at a considerable 
inclination. (Bale.) It should be sheltered, if possible, from high 
winds. Rankine states that natural seasoning to fit timber for 
carpenters' work usually occupies about two years; for joiners' 
work, about four years. 

Hoi air seasoning is resorted to where it becomes necessary 
to season wood rapidly. The timber is piled in large chambers or 
ovens. The sap is expelled by a current of hot air having a 
temperature of 121° to 149°* C for logs of hardwood. 

Seasoning by passing the smoke-laden products of combustion 
from the furnace, directly through the pile of timber, has been 
found not only a good method of seasoning, but also to have an 
important and useful preservative effect. (Thurston, op. cil.) 
]\IcNeile's process, consisting in exposing the wood to a moderate 
heat in a moist atmosphere charged with the various gases produced 
by the combustion of fuel, is a modification of this. 

Different forms of apparatus for hot-air seasoning are either 
described or figured (or both) in most works on constructive 
materials. Rankine calls this the best method of artificial seasoning. 

It is sometimes convenient to season timber by stacking it 
about the boiler of the engine used to drive machinery. 

Desiccation is useful only for small scantling ; the expense of 
applying it to large timber is very great; moreover, " as wood is one 
of the worst conductors of heat, if this plan be applied to large logs, 
the interior fibres still retain their original bulk, while those near 
the surface have a tendency to shrink, the consequence of which 
would be cracks and splits of more or less depth." (Tredgold.) 
Desiccated timber should not be exposed to damp before use. 
Mr. Laslett states that during this process ordinary woods lose 
their strength, and coloured woods become pale and wanting in 
lustre. 

* The temperature varies with different authorities. 



TIMBERS. 335 

Water seasoning is accomplished by immersoa in water for a 
long time. It is a slow and imperfect method, but for limber to 
be used in water or in damp situations, it answers well. The sap, 
in this case, is removed by solution. (Thurston, op. cit.) Timber 
thus seasoned is less liable to warp and crack, but is rendered 
brittle and unfit for purposes where strength and elasticity are 
required. Care must be taken that the timber is entirely 
submerged. Partial immersion, such as is usual in timber pond s, 
injures the log along the water-line. It must then be carefully 
dried, with free access of air, and turned daily. Timber that has 
been saturated should be thoroughly dried before use; when taken 
from a pond, cut up and used wet, dry rot soon sets in. Salt- 
water makes the wood harder, heavier, and more durable, but it 
should not be applied to timber for use in ordinary buildings, 
because it gives the wood a permanent tendency to attract 
moisture ; also, if salt-water be used, great watchfulness must be 
exercised to prevent any damage to the timber by salt-water 
borers. Two or three weeks' water-seasoning is sometimes found 
to be a good preparation for air-seasoning, by dissolving out the 
more soluble salts contained in the wood. (Thurston.) 

Steaming timber is a method of seasoning sometimes em- 
ployed. It, however, impairs the strength, but it preserves from 
decay (as it is considered by some to prevent dry rot), as well as 
from injury by warping or cracking. 

Boiling timber in water has much the same effect as steaming, 
but objections to both processes are their cost, and their weakening 
effect on the timber. 

Seasoning by boiling in oil is resorted to for some purposes, 
as in making teeth in mortice gears. The temperature should be 
kept at, or somewhat under 121° C. The wood should be 
seasoned in blocks roughed out to near the finishing size, and they 
become not only well and uniformly seasoned, but, as shown by 
the experiments of Mr. G. H. Corliss, considerably strengthened. 
(Thurston, op. cit.) 

It is especially necessary that timber used for wheelwright 
purposes should be thoroughly well seasoned, as it will be found 
that often, after very little use, the spokes will shake in their places, 



336 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

and the wheel almost fall to pieces. To obviate this, many good 
makers block out the wheels roughly, and let them season for a 
time before finishing. In any case it is highly important that the 
parts of the wheel should not be put together before the wood has 
entirely ceased to shrink. This remark applies equally well to 
agricultural implements, furniture, &c. (Bale.) Some authorities 
recommend the boring of a hole through the centre of a log to 
facilitate seasoning, and the author knows wheelwrights in New 
South Wales who regularly practice it with Eucalyptus timbers, 
though to what extent the method is adopted he cannot say. 

Mr. T. Laslett objects to ringbarking Teak with the view to 
seasoning it, and inasmuch as the practice of ringbarking is all 
but universal in Australia, whether to bring the land under 
cultivation or pasture, or to utilize the timber, it will be well to 
consider his observations on the effect of the practice as regards 
the quality of the timber. 

" II is the practice in Burmah to girdle the Teak trees three 

years before they intend to fell them The natural 

juices contained in a tree being gradually run off by the root 
while it stands. This, and the great heat of the climate combined, 
seasons the wood, and renders the log — which in its green state 
would have a specific gravity of at least i.ooo, and be difllicult to 
move if felled — so much lighter that it flows easily over the 
shallows of the streams or rivers to the port of shipment. . . . 
The practice of girdling is, I think, objectionable, inasmuch as the 
timber dries too rapidly, is liable to become brittle and inelastic, 
and leads frequently to the loss of many fine trees by breakage in 
falling ; further, it must be regarded as so much time taken from 
the limit of its duration, which is of great importance. Girdling 
has been discontinued in the Annamallay forests of Malabar, 
under the impression that it causes, or at least extends, the heart- 
shake." (Timber and Timber Trees, '^. 115.) 

The best method of seasoning timber in Australia is still, 
however, unsettled. With the object of ascertaining the best 
method of treating timbers with the view to seasoning, the 
Victorian Carriage Board recommends that " a number of trees of 
each several kind might be rung and left standing in the forest, a 



TIMBERS. 337 

similar number being felled, both after a lapse of time being 
opened and compared. If the standing timber compared 
favourably with that felled, the former method might be recom- 
mended for adoption, more particularly to settlers in agricultural 
districts, where the standing timber would offer but a small 
obstruction to farming operations, and might be removed at 
convenience." 

In regard to the soft brush timbers, it is the experience of 
bushmen that, if they are seasoned in the log they go bad ; in 
order to season properly they should be split or cut open soon 
after falling. But, of course, there is a diiference between 
seasoning in the log under cover, and allowing the logs to be 
exposed to the weather. 

Experiments on the Strength of Australian Timbers. 

Experiments on Australian timbers (chiefly hardwoods) have 
occupied different workers for many years, but they vary so much 
in their results, and have been performed under such diverse 
circumstances, that it is impossible to condense them into one 
general statement. In regard to those experiments, the results of 
which are more or less difficult of access to the majority of people, 
the author has given brief statements of the conditions under 
which they were performed, and this, taken in conjunction with 
the plan which he has invariably adopted, of giving all information 
known to him in regard to each timber under the name of that 
timber, will render comparison of the experiments as easy as 
possible. 

In this connection he would invite attention to a paper, en- 
titled *' The Want of a Uniform System in Experimenting upon 
Timber," by F. A. Campbell, C.E., Proc. Royal Soc. of Victoria, 
9th December, 1886. Mr. Campbell summarises as follows the 
circumstances which affect the results in timber tests : — 

1. Age of tree. 

2. Nature of locality where grown. 

3. Part of tree from which timber is taken. 

4. Length of time seasoned. 

5. Deflection as affecting the bending moment of a beam. 

6. Size of piece tested. 

z 



338 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Some of these points will be dwelt upon below, and the author 
will now content himself by adding that one of the greatest diffi- 
culties in the utilization of results is the doubt which exists as to 
the identity of the timbers experimented upon by different 
observers. A wood may be stated to be " Ironbark" or "Blue 
Gum," and it may be one of some half a dozen timbers. In 
regard to Eucalyptus timbers in particular, the author can say 
(as one through whose hands many hundreds of specimens of 
such timbers have passed, and who has some little know- 
ledge of Australian timber trees) that the origin of those used 
in many experiments is open to doubt,* and that in regard to 
many species the work of testing the timber, having previously 
placed its identity beyond all doubt, by means of a complete series 
of botanical specimens obtained from the same, or an adjacent 
tree, remains to be done. 

Following are references to published experiments on the 
strength of Australian timber : — 

185 1. " On the strength, durability, and value of the timber 
of the Blue Gumf of Tasmania, and of some other Eucalypts X 
for ship-building." With tables, by James Mitchell. (Papers and 
Frocs., Royal Society of Van Diemen s Land, Vol. ii.. Part i., 
1852. I2th Nov., 1851.) 

" The apparatus used for testing the transverse strength con- 
sists of two strong pieces of frame-work, seven feet asunder, 
attached to the sides of a small building. The deflection was 
measured upon a scale attached to the wood by a silk thread 
stretched over the frame-work by plummets, in the same manner 
as described by Professor Barlow. The weights (561bs. and 
under) were placed upon a scale hung upon the middle of the 
wood by means of a half-inch iron-eye, two and a half inches square. 
" The weights were then placed upon the scale until the 
deflection amounted to half an inch, when they were removed, 
and the wood was permitted to resume its original straight form; 

* With the reservations made when speaking of some individual specimens of 
timber, the origin of the timbers experimented upon in the instances selected by the author 
is open to no doubt. 

+ £. globulus, 

t E. 'viminalis and E. obliqua. 



TIMBERS. 339 

the weights were then replaced, and removed at each succeeding 
eighth of an inch of deflection, until the wood was observed to lose, 
however slightly, the power to recover its rectilineal form; a 
failure in this respect, amounting to the diameter of the thread, 
was sufficient to determine its character for elasticity, after which 
the weights were continued until the fracture took place. 

"The apparatus used for ascertaining the direct cohesion was 
as follows: Lengths of about i6 inches were cut from the pieces 
broken transversely, and turned in an ordinary lathe to about one 
and a half inches diameter; about an inch in the middle was further 
turned down to three-eights of an inch diameter, which was then 
carefully squared to a quarter of an inch with a fine file ; and this, 
in each case, formed the portion to be tested. Through a hole 
accurately bored across the thick part of these pieces, near each 
end, short bolts were passed ; to these bolts were attached short 
pieces of good rope, having eyes spliced in each end to receive 
them. A second piece of rope, passed through the first in the form 
of a link, sustained the scale at the lower end ; and a similar one 
at the upper end hooked the beam which held the whole." 

1855. Tests of New South Wales timbers at the Paris Exhi- 
bition, by Captain Fowke, R.E. (The author has been unable to 
obtain access to a record of these tests.) Some of the results are 
reproduced in Mr. Balfour's Report (in/ra). 

The experiments were all made on samples two inches square 
and one foot between supports, any which did not agree with those 
standard dimensions being reduced thereto by calculation. 

1858. "Report of Results obtained from Experiments on 
^he Elasticity and Strength of Timber in New South Wales, pro- 
cured through the Chief Commissioner of Railways, and tested at 
the Sydney Branch of the Royal Mint, in the month of March, 
1858." Read before the Philosophical Society of New South 
Wales (now the Royal Society), 12th May, 1858, and printed in 
The Sydney Magazine of Science and Art for May, 1858 
(p. 258). 

"The specimens used were fresh cut, taken from trees in the 
neighbourhood of Belford, which lies eighteen miles from Maitland 
and ten miles from Singleton, on the Great Northern road. 



340 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The experiments were conducted as follows: — "The distance 
between the supports was four feet ; the beam rested on iron 
trestle-heads, firmly fixed and prevented from collapsing by 
stays, the ends left free, the weights were applied in the 
centre, and increased by half-hundred weights at a time, at 
the intervals of half-an-hour, till the elasticity was evidently 
destroyed, when the interval between each addition was pro- 
longed to an hour. At the end of each interval the beam was 
relieved of its weight. This was effected by means of a screw- 
jack, which raised the scale on which the weights rested, thus 
the beam was always relieved from pressure, and subjected to it, 
without jerks." 

i860. "Report of further experiments conducted at the 
Sydney Branch of the Royal Mint, to determine the strength and 
elasticity of colonial timber, by E. W. Ward, Esq., Deput3'-Master, 
presented to Parliament 6th February, 1861." New South 
Wales Votes and Proceedings for 1861, vol. ii. (In the following 
pages this report is referred to when the words " Sydney Mint '* 
are used.) 

The experiments were conducted as follows : — " The timber, 
which usually consisted of a beam 2" x 2" in scantling, and five 
feet in length, was placed horizontally on supports four feet apart, 
and consisting of iron trestle-heads firmly fixed, and secured from 
collapsing by stays. The ends of the beam were left free. The 
weights were applied to the centre by means of a scale suspended 
from an iron staple adjusted half way between the supports. 
Commencing with a weight of six cwt., an addition of half a cwt. 
was made at the end of every half-hour until nine cwt. had been 
applied, when the interval between each successive application was 
extended to one hour. At the end of each interval the beam was 
reheved of its weight by means of a screw-jack, which raised the 
scale in which the weights rested, and after the addition of half a 
cwt. the weight was brought to bear by gently lowering the scale,, 
by the means which it had been raised. As soon as it was 
noticed that the beam on being relieved did not return to its 
horizontal position, the weight in the scale, and the deflection of 
the beam at that weight (the deflection at any particular weight 



TIMBERS. 341 

was indicated on a dial fixed above the beam, and having a point 
connected by a simple arrangement with the iron staple to which 
the scale was attached), were recorded as thoie at which the 
elasticity had become impaired, and used as the necessary factors 
for determining the value of E. After this, successive additions 
were made of half a cwt. at the intervals and in the manner already 
mentioned, until the beam broke ; the breaking weight, or that 
less by half a cwt., if the beam broke within one minute of the 
weight being applied, being taken to determine the value of the 
constant S. 

"The screw-jack employed was found convenient for many 
purposes. Being fitted on the top with a horizontal table, it 
served to raise and lower the scale containing the weights, and 
thus to apply to the beam the desired pressure without jerk ; it 
admitted of such an adjustment of the table as to prevent (on the 
fracture of the beam) the fall of the scale through unnecessary 
space, and the damage to the scale often so occasioned ; and it 
allowed the scale to be attached to a fresh beam without removing 
the whole of the weights." 

1865. " Results of a series of experiments on the strength of 
New Zealand and other colonial woods, by J. M. Balfour, C.E,, 
Provincial Marine Engineer of Otago, etc." Forming Appendix 
C of the Report of the New Zealand Exhibition of 1864. 

The experiments were conducted in the following manner : — 
" A pressure of 5olbs. was applied for two minutes (as 
measured by a sand-glass), and the sample was then released; 
75lbs. were then applied for the same time; then a loolbs., and 
so on, increasing by 2 5 lbs. each time. Each time the sample was 
released the point on the deflection scale to which it returned was 
read, and when it came to be notably under the original reading, 
the specimen was allowed to remain unloaded for two minutes, to 
see whether it would in time further recover itself. When, how- 
ever, there were indications that the point of fracture was nearly 
attained, the pressure was gradually and steadily increased, with- 
out being again removed, until the specimen broke, the observer 
keeping his eye on the deflection scale and noting its reading at 
the first crack, the maximum pressure exerted being indicated on 



342 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

the proper scale, by a simple self-registering arrangement. After 
a certain number of specimens of the wood being examined had 
been treated in this way, the remainder, if any, were broken more 
rapidly by a gradually increasing steady pressure which was never 
relaxed. These experiments were specially noted in a 'remarks' 
column. This system was used throughout, except that, when the 
first experiment showed that the wood was very weak, the first 
weight applied was 2olbs. only, and the regular increment 
varied from lolbs. to 2olbs., according to the circumstances of 
the case. 

"The period during which each pressure was applied w-as 
certainly rather short to allow the weight to have its full effect, 
but it was adopted as a necessary compromise between the work to 
be overtaken and the time in which it required to be done. The 
rapidity with which the experiments were carried on may have had 
the effect of making the results somewhat high, but as the values 
of E should be equally influenced with those of S, and as the 
values of E are not inconsistent with those ascertained at Sydney, 
{Further Experiments^ &c., by Capt. Ward, R.E.), there is no 
evidence to show that such has been the case. 

. . . " In Barlow's work E is calculated for a unit of 
one inch long and one inch square. In calculating these results 
the unit has been assumed as one foot long, so that Barlow's E has 
to be divided by 12^ or 1,728, and vice versa., to get the corres- 
ponding quantities. . . . Column S is the most important 
of all, as giving the ultimate strength of the timber. The values 
. extracted from Barlow's work and elsewhere have been divided 
by twelve, to reduce the results to a uniform standard of one foot 
long, which is considered more convenient than the old unit of 
one inch." 

1875. Timbtr and Timber Trees, Native and Foreign, by 
Thomas |Laslett, Timber Inspector to the Admiralty. London, 
Macmillan & Co. 

" The tests for the transverse strengths in my experiments 
were conducted, in every case, with pieces 2'' x 2" x 84" = 336 
cubic inches. Each piece was placed upon supports exactly 
six feet apart, and then water was placed gently and gradually into 



TIMBERS. 343 

a scale suspended from the middle until the piece broke, note 
being taken of the deflection with 39olbs. weight, and also at the 
crisis of breaking. 

" After this, a piece two feet six inches in length was taken, 
whenever it was found practicable, from one of the two pieces 
broken by the transverse strain, and tested for the tensile strain 
by means of a powerful hydraulic machine, the direct cohesion of 
the fibres being thus obtained with great exactness. Further, for 
the purpose of determining the proportions of size to length best 
adapted for supporting heavy weights, a great many cube blocks 
were prepared, of various sizes, as also a number of other pieces 
of different form and dimensions, which were then, by the aid of 
the same machine, subjected to gradually increasing vertical 
pressure in the direction of their fibres, until a force sufficient to 
crush them was obtained." 

1879. F. Byerley, C.E., in The Australian Engineering and 
Building News, November, 1879. 

He experimented (see Eucalyptographia, under E. tesselaris) 
on seasoned specimens of one inch square, weights being applied 
to the middle of the rods between supports one foot apart, the 
ends being free. 

1879. " Experiments on the Tensile Strength of a few of the 
Colonial Timbers," by Fred. A. Campbell, C.E., Trans. Royal 
Soc. of Victoria, 1879. 

" As the power I could bring to bear on the specimens did 
not exceed one ton, I found it necessary to work upon specimens 
with a sectional area of one-sixteenth of an inch. , . . The 
apparatus used was of the roughest description, but it answered 
its purpose. The specimens were held at each end by wrought 
iron clips (figures are given with the paper), and then hung and 
pulled by means of a lever. Using known weights, and sliding 
them along the lever, which was graduated, I readily obtained the 
breaking weight of the specimen. The weights were always 
applied in such a way as to cause a gradually increasing stress 
upon the specimen, perhaps fifteen to twenty minutes being taken 
to work up to the breaking weight." 



344 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

1880. " Results of experiments on the transverse strength of 
the wood of E. globulus," by Baron von Mueller and J. G. 
Luehmann. 

" Results of experiments on the transverse strength of the 
wood of various Eucalypts," by the same. 

Both these tables are published in a Catalogue of Timbers of 
Victoria in the Technological Museum of Melbourne, by Baron 
Mueller. They were originally published in the Sixth Decade of 
the learned Baron's Eucalyptographia under E, globulus. 

The experiments were performed on pieces of two inches 
square, and two feet long between the supports, the weight sus- 
pended in the middle, both ends free. The E. globulus timber 
was seasoned for nine months ; similar information is not given in 
regard to the other timbers. 

1884. "Official Report of the Carriage Timber Board, 
Victorian Railways, Melbourne, 1884." This Board was appointed, 
on a motion in the Victorian Parliament, with the view of 
ascertaining, by various experiments, the best kind of timber 
grown in the Australian colonies adapted for the construction of 
railway vehicles. 

The timbers received were seasoned for a year, and tests of 
them were conducted at the railway workshops at Newport, near 
Melbourne, from January to April, 1884. The mode of testing 
the various specimens was as follows : — 

" Two standards, six feet apart, were erected to form bearings 
for the specimens, which were seven feet long, and one seven- 
eighth of an inch square. Weight was applied at the centre, where a 
measure was adjusted to show, in inches and parts, the exact 
deflection at, and before breakage. Three specimens of each 
contribution were tested, and the mean result recorded." 

1886. "The strength and elasticity of Ironbark timber as 
applied to works of construction," by Prof. Warren. (See Proc. 
R.S., N.S.W., 1886.) In this paper Prof. Warren (besides the 
experiments performed by himself) alludes to two experiments on 
the transverse strength of beams of Ironbark not referred to above. 

1887. " The strength and elasticity of New South Wales 
timbers of commercial value," by Prof. W. H. Warren, M.I.C.E. 



TIMBERS. 345 

(Government Printer, Sydney). The paper is illustrated by 
numerous plates showing the apparatus employed, and also 
showing graphically the stresses to which the timbers were 
subjected. An autographic stress-strain apparatus (designed by 
Prof. Warren and Mr. J. A. McDonald) was used. 
Enemies of Colonial Timber (Xylophages or Wood-eaters), 

The following animals are referred to in the section 
"Timbers" as being injurious to wood; it may, therefore, be 
interesting to have a few notes about them : — 

Chelura terebrans, a small Amphipodous Crustacean which 
bores in wood-work immersed in sea-water. (For figure, see 
Treasury of Natural History, p. 123.) 

Cobra is the vernacular name given to certain molluscs, 
Calobates sp., etc., very destructive to wood immersed in sea-water. 

In the Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxv., 564, is a paper by 
Professor Percival Wright, on the TeredidcB. In that paper 
he describes and figures two new species, Calobates australis, 
destructive to timber at Fremantle, Western Australia, and 
Nausitoria Saulii, similarly destructive in Port Philip, Victoria. 

Teredo, or " Ship-worm," is the name given to a genus of 
testaceous molluscs, which form their habitations by boring holes 
in submerged timber, and thereby occasion destructive ravages in 
ships' bottoms, sunken piles, etc. The Teredo navalis is worm- 
shaped, and about six inches long. (See figure in Cassell's 
Natural History.) In making its excavations into the wood, 
which it does by boring into the substance in the direction of the 
grain, each individual is careful to avoid the tube made by its 
neighbour, and often a very thin leaf of wood alone is left between; 
it also, when a knot occurs in its path, makes a turn to avoid it. 
(^Treasury of Natural History.) 

However, " but for the maligned Teredo, the sea would be so 
covered with floating logs as to be to some extent unnavigable ; 
the rivers of warm latitudes would be choked up by the accumu- 
lated drift-wood at their mouths, and their fertile banks would, in 
many cases, be converted into morasses." (Dr. Ball, quoted by 
Patterson.) 



346 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

There is a paper in the Proc. R.S., Van Diemen's Land, 
1852, by Sir W. T. Denison, on "The Operation of Teredo 
navalis in colonial timber." He states : " The absolute amount 
of the action of the worm in the Harbour of Hobart Town from 
these observations would appear to be equivalent to a reduction of 
one and a half inches in the diameter of a round pile in eight 
years, or at the rate of about one-fifth of an inch per annum." 
Two species of Eucalyptus are referred to, but their botanical 
names are not given. One is probably E. globulus, and the other 
E. amygdalina. For a return showing the approximate injury 
done by the Teredo and other sea-worms, to submerged timbers 
within the waters of Victoria, see Report on Indigenous Vegetable 
Substances, Victorian Exhibition, 1861. 

Termites, or White Ants. "Next to locusts, they may be 
reckoned the most destructive insects known to man. They live 
in societies, often prodigiously numerous, and, like the bee and 
ant, are composed of three sorts of individuals. In all the stages 
of their existence, save that of the ovum, they are active, carni- 
vorous or omnivorous ; and are, beyond all doubt, the greatest 
pest of tropical climates; destroying all articles of furniture made 
of wood, clothes, &c., and even entering the foundations of houses, 
and eating out the whole interior of the timbers, so that while they 
appear perfectly sound externally, they will fall to pieces under 
the slightest blow. . . . The Termites generally make their ap- 
proaches to the nest under ground, descending below the foundations 
of houses and stores at several feet from the surface, and rising again 
either in the floors or entering at the bottoms of the posts of which 
the sides of the buildings are composed, following the course of 
the fibres to the top, and having lateral perforations or cavities 
here and there. While some of them are employed in gutting 
the posts, others ascend from them, entering a rafter or some other 
part of the roof in search, as would seem, of thatch, which appears 
to be their favourite food ; and if they find it, they bring up wet 
clay, and build galleries through the roof in various directions, as 
long as it will support them. In this manner a wooden house is 
speedily destroyed ; and all that it contains is, at the same time, 
subjected to the ravages of these destructive insects. 



TIMBERS. 347 

"In carrying on this business they sometimes find, by some 
means or other, that the post has a certain weight to support, and 
then, if it is a convenient track to the roof, or is itself a kind of 
wood agreeable to them, they bring their mortar ; and, as fast as 
they take away the wood, replace the vacancy with that material, 
which they work together more closely and compactly than human 
strength or art could ram it. Hence, when the house is taken to 
pieces, in order to examine if any of the posts are fit to be used 
again, those made of the softer kinds of wood are often found 
reduced almost to a shell ; and almost all of them are found trans- 
formed from wood to clay, as solid and as hard as many kinds of 
stone that are used for the purposes of building." (Treasury of 
Natural History.) The above is taken from an account of Tennes 
bellicosus, but the description more or less applies to other species.. 
For an account of the life-history of Tennes see the book above 
quoted, also Cassell's Natural History, vi., 137, which is adorned 
with some splendid illustrations of this genus. See also appendix 
to Carpenter's Zoology. 

The Wattle Goat-Moth. Zeuzera (Eudoxyla) Eucalypti 
(Boisd. Herr. Schsef.) 

The following notes respecting this insect are entirely taken 
from Professor McCoy's Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, 
Decade iii., where (Plate 30) a coloured plate illustrating its life- 
history is given. 

Considering the great importance attached by the Government 
to the preservation and cultivation of wattle trees (Acacia), it is 
important for bark-strippers and others interested in the industry, 
to know the appearance of the insect represented on the plate 
(above alluded to) as the greatest destroyer of these trees, so that 
attention may be given to destroying the perfect moth ; the large 
abdomen of the female of which is distended with millions of 
eggs, each of which will produce a voracious grub as thick as 
one's thumb, and five or six inches long, eating the timber for 
years. 

It is unfortunate that the specific name Eucalypti should have 
been given to this species, as it never frequents any Eucalyptus, 
but feeds exclusively on the wood of Acacias. 



348 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The lava, hatched from eggs laid in crevices of the bark of the 
branches, works steadily into the interior of the tree, proceeding 
head downwards, enlarging the cylindrical burrows as it gradually 
grows larger and eats its way downwards, often reaching to the roots. 
When about to assume the pupa state it forms a slight cylindrical 
cocoon from four inches to a foot long, of silk and sawdust-like 
small grains of wood, as a lining to the end of its burrow. When 
the burrow terminates in a root a few inches below the surface of 
the ground, the cocoon is continued from the hole in the wood 
upwards as far as close to the surface of the ground ; but when 
the burrow ends in the surface of the trunk of the tree above the 
ground level there is no prolongation of the cocoon. In either 
case the pupa works itself forward by means of the little deflected 
spines on the rings, pushing for half-an-inch or so through the end 
of the cocoon before it bursts to allow the imago to escape. 

The ovipositor of the females is of extraordinary length and 
rigidity, equalling half the length of the abdomen when exserted, 
but capable of being entirely retracted out of sight ; with this the 
eggs are deposited deep in the crevices or fissures of the bark of 
the trees, on the inner timber of which the larva feeds. 

It is common in the winged state about February, flying in 
the twilight, in all parts where wattle trees abound. 

In most forest-bearing countries the natural enemies of the 
larvae, and protectors of the trees, are woodpeckers, who by 
instinct know where the larvae are, and by powerful strokes of 
their bills cut down quickly On them through the sound wood, and 
transfixing the grubs with their long worm-like, barbed tongue, 
draw them out, and devour them. In Australia there are no 
woodpeckers, and the consequence is that every tree cut up for 
firewood is seen to be traversed with large cylindrical canals made 
by these or allied larvae, which are the greatest destroyers of our 
forests, so abounding in the wood of almost every forest tree that, 
in a storm, it is dangerous to go near a large tree, as one ap- 
parently sound may snap across unexpectedly with a moderate wind. 

Note. — The heights and diameters given of trees (below 
referred to) must only be received as approximations. The dia- 
meters are those of the stems about three feet from the ground. 



TIMBERS. 349 

1. Acacia acuminata, Benth., (Syn. A. Oldfieldii, F.v.M.); N.O.. 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 404. 

A " Myall." The ordinary name for species of the genus Acacia in the 
colonies is " Wattle." The name is an old English one, and signifies the 
interlacing of boughs together to form a kind of wicker-work. The abori- 
ginals used them in the construction of their abodes, and the early colonists 
used to split the stems of slender species into laths for " wattling" the walls 
of their rude habitations. 

The scent of the wood is comparable to that of raspberries. 
It is the best of West Australian woods for charcoal. The stems 
are much sought after for fence-posts, being very lasting, even 
when young. (Mueller.) The wood is also used by the abori- 
ginals for making various weapons. It is a dark reddish-brown, 
close grained, hardwood, and Mr. Allen Ransome, who reported 
on the timbers sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 
expressed the opinion that it should find a ready sale in England 
for ornamental wood work. Height, 30 to 40 feet. 

Western Australia. 

2. Acacia aneura, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 402. 

The chief ingredient of " Mulga" scrub. ("Mulga" is the name of a 
long narrow shield of wood, made by the aboriginals out of Acacia wood.) 
A " Myall." 

Wood excessively hard, dark brown, used by the aboriginals 
for boomerangs, sticks to lift edible roots, shafts of spears, nuUa- 
nullas, and jagged spear-ends. (Mueller.) It makes excellent 
fencing posts, and in parts of Western New South Wales it is 
exceedingly plentiful and much appreciated. It is often used for 
bullock-yokes. Diameter, 9 to 1 2 inches ; height, 20 to 30 feet. 

Western Australia, through the other mainland colonies to 
Queensland. 

3. Acacia armata, R.Br., (Syn. A. fur df era, Lindl.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 347. 

" Kangaroo Thorn." 

Much grown for hedges, though less manageable than various 
other hedge plants. Important for covering coast-sand with an 
unapproachable prickly vegetation. (Mueller.) The wood is 



350 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

small, but beautifully grained, sound, and durable. Height, lo to 
20 feet. 

Western Australia, through the mainland colonies to 
Queensland. 

4- Acacia aulacocarpa, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 

ii., 410. 

" Hickory Wattle." 

Wood hard, heavy, tough, and dark-red ; useful for cabinet- 
work. (Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1866.) 
Queensland. 

5. Acacia Bidwilli, Benth., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 420. 

" Waneu " of the aboriginals of Central Queensland. " Yadthor" of 
the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, North Queensland. 

Timber hard, close-grained, and takes a good polish. It has 
a light yellow sap-wood, while the heart-wood is dark. Diameter, 
10 to 16 inches. Height, 20 to 30 feet. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

6. Acacia binervata, DC, (Syn. A. umbrosa, A. Cunn.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 390. 

"Black Wattle" of Illawarra (New South Wales), and further south. 
"Hickory." " Myimbarr" of the aboriginals of Illawarra. " Meroan- 
gange" of the aboriginals of the Counties of Cumberland and Camden 
(New South Wales). " Malla-waundie" of the aboriginals of Northern 
New South Wales. 

This wood is close-grained, tough and light, and much 
prized for axe-helves and bullock yokes. As regards colour, it 
varies between a dirty white and pinkish, and a uniform dirty 
colour, similar, but more intense, than California Red Pine. The 
specimens seen by the author have no figure. Three slabs of this 
wood in the Technological Museum, which have been seasoned 
over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862, under the names A. binervaia, 
A. umbrosa, and Pithecolobium umbrosumj, have weights which 
correspond to 5olb. 8oz., 511b. 40Z., and 561b. iioz. respec- 
tively per cubic foot. Height, up to 30 or 40 feet, and 8 to 12 
inches in diameter. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 351 

7- Acacia brachybotrya, Benth., (Syn. A. didyocarpa, Benth.); 
N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 374. 

Specific gravity of the wood 1,021. {Report Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861.) 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

8. Acacia Calyculata, A. Cunn.,- N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 

410. 

Wood dark brown, hard, heavy, and close-grained ; suitable 
for turnery and cabinet work. (Cat., Queensland Woods, Col. 
and Ind. Exb., 1886.) 

Queensland. 

9. Acacia crassicarpa, A. Cunn.; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii. 

410. 

Wood prettily marked, hard, and dark coloured. Height, 
30 to 40 feet. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

10. Acacia Cunninghaini, Hooker, N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 

407. 

" Bastard Myall " of Northern New South Wales. " Kowarkul " of 
some Queensland aborigines. 

Wood close-grained, and takes a good polish. It is dark- 
coloured and heavy, and a useful wood for cabinet purposes. It 
reminds one very much of Red Cedar, but it is rather heavier. It 
is very homogeneous. A slab of this wood in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 
been exhibited at the London Exhibition of 1862), has a weight 
which corresponds to 461bs. I20zs. per cubic foot. Diameter, 
9 to 12 inches; height, 20 to 30 feet. 

Central New South Wales to Central Queensland. 

11. Acacia dealbata, Link, (Syn. A. irrorata, Sieb.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 415. 

"Silver Wattle" (owing to the whiteness of the trunk, and the silvery 
or ashy hue of its young foliage). 



352 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Used in Tasmania for cask staves and treenails. It is also 
useful for rustic work and for fuel. This Acacia has been 
naturalised on the Nilgiris (India) since 1840. The following is 
interesting as showing the facility with which it can be acclimatised 
in Southern India. 

" Ootacamund (Madras) was till recently completely over-run 
with this wattle, but owing to the persistent crusade waged against 
it both by the municipality and house-owners, its progress has been 
held in check, only a few full grown trees being left, though much 
remains slill to exterminate it. The myriads of suckers which 
spring from the extensive and encroaching wattles come up with 
renewed vigour and amazing rapidity as fast as they are cut down, 
and form an inexhaustible fuel reserve" {Madras Mail), and, 
might be added, an inexhaustible tan-bark supply. 

It is being tried in plantations in the hills of the Punjab, 
North-West Provinces and Sikkim. A specimen of timber cut 
from a tree eleven years old, forty-six feet high, and about twelve 
inches in diameter, is thus described by Mr. Gamble: "Wood 
moderately hard, light-brown, but warps considerably. Pores 
small, often in short linear groups. Medullary rays short, fine, 
and moderately broad, well marked on a radial section." 

Colonel Beddome, in his report on the Nilgiri Plantations for 
1878, says this wattle grows very readily from the stool, but 
comes up in a dense mass of small twig-like stems, so that it can 
only be depended upon for very small firewood. 

South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and 
Queensland. 

12. Acacia decurrens, wnid., var. normalis, Benth., (Syn. A. 

decurrens, Willd. ; A. atigulaia, Desv. ; A. sulcipes, Sieb.; 

A. adenophora, Spreng ; Mimosa decurrens, Wendl.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 414. 

"Black Wattle" (from the dark colour of the old bark). "Green 
Wattle" (of the older colonists, and still in use in Southern New South 
Wales, at least). " Feathery Wattle." " Wat-tah " of the aboriginals of 
the counties of Cumberland and Camden (New South Wales). 

Timber light, tough and strong ; suitable for staves^ The 
wood is generally much bored by larvae of coleopterous insects. 



TIMBERS. 353 

It is useful for rustic-work, and even in a green state furnishes 
excellent fuel. It is easy to work. The sap-wood is white, and 
the heart-wood of a pinkish colour. 

Specific gravity, .727 and .773 (say between forty-five and 
forty-eight pounds per cubic foot); yield of charcoal per cent., 
26.125; of crude wood-vinegar, 44.75 ; and of tar, 7.125. (Mueller.) 
Two slabs of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
have been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), have weights 
which correspond to 5 2 lbs. 70Z. and 53lbs. 70Z. respectively per 
cubic foot, and a third, exhibited under the name A. adenophora, 
weighs no less than 62lbs. 140Z. per cubic foot. Diameter, I3 
to i8in.; height, 40 to 50ft. 

New South Wales. 

13- Acacia decurrens, wnu., var., mollis, (Syn., a. molUssima, 

Willd.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 415. 
" Black Wattle " of the older colonists (counties of Cumberland and 
Camden, N.S.W.) " Silver Wattle." " Garrong," or " Currong," of the 
aboriginals of Western Victoria (Lake Condah), and also of the Yarra 
blacks. 

Timber light, tough, and strong ; used for staves for beef and 
water casks in Tasmania. It is subject to attack by insects. It 
was formerly used by the Yarra blacks for mulgas (club shields), 
boomerangs, and spears. Specific gravity, ,773 and .727. {^Report, 
Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) 

Since the above was written Baron Mueller has conceded 
specific rank to this so-called variety. Diameter, 6 to Qin. ; 
height, 20 to 30ft. 

Timber Experimented upon by Victorian Timber Board, 1884. 

The samples tested were each 7ft. in length, by ifin. square; 
the distance between the bearings was 6fi. ; and the weight was 
gradually applied in the centre until the sample broke. 

Local name, Silver-wattle; botanical name, A. decurrens var. 
mollis, {A. molltssinia) ; locality where grown, Waterloo, Victoria. 
Approximate date when the timber was cut, April, 1883 ; dimen- 
sions of tree, 2ft. diameter; date of testing, January 28th, 1874. 
2 A 



354 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Weight of samples, gibs., 8|lbs., 8|lbs.; average weight of samples, 
8.581bs.; average weight per cubic foot, 50. 2olbs.; average specific 
gravity, 0.804 ; total average specific gravity, 0.804 J breaking 
weight of each sample, 6 tons i cwt. gibs., 6 tons i cwt. 4lbs., and 
7 tons, 2 cwt. 3lbs.; average breaking weight of samples, 752.3lbs.; 
total average breaking weight, 752.3lbs.; deflection at point of 
rupture, 6iin., 5|in., and 3fin. ; average deflection, 5.29in.; total 
average deflection, 5.29in.; average specific strength, 2053. 
Geological formation where the trees grew, mesozoic ; elevation 
above sea -level, about 1,200ft. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

14- Acacia doratoxylon, a. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

403. 

"Spear-wood" (it being used by the aboriginals of the interior 
districts for that purpose). " Hickory ; " a " Brigalow ; " and " Caariwan ; " or 
" Currawang" of the aboriginals, which latter name has come to be 
frequently used by the colonists. 

Wood hard, and close-grained, tough, heavy, and durable ; 
used for gates, buggy-poles, furniture, etc., and by the aboriginals 
for boomerangs and spears. It is dark-brown, with a small yellow 
sap-wood. Mr. G. S. Home tells me that this is one of the most 
useful timber trees in the Lachlan district of New South Wales. 
Specific gravity 1.2 15. {^Report, Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) 
Diameter, 6 to i2in.; height, 20 to 35ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Australia, South 
Australia arid Victoria. 

15- Acacia excelsa, Benth., (Syn. A. Daintreana, F.v.M.); N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 390. 

"Ironwood." Sometimes (though erroneously) called "Brigalow." 
Called "Bunkerman" by the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River, North 
Queensland. 

The wood is hard, close-grained, and very tough and elastic. 
It possesses great beauty for cabinet-work, and has the odour of 
violets. (Hill.) Diameter, 24 to 36in ; height, 70 to Soft. 

Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 355 

1 6. Acacia falcata, W/lld., (Syn., A. plagiophylla. Sprang.; 

Mimosa obliqua, Wencll.); N.O., Legaminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

361. 
Called variously " Hickory," " Lignum Vitae," and " Sally," or 
" Sallee." It is the " Bastard Myall " o£ the Braidwood district (New 
South Wales). The " Wee-tjellan" of tha aboriginals of Cumberland and 
Camden (New South Wales). 

Wood hard, and much prized for stock-whip handles. An 
excellent tree for raising a woody vegetation on drift sand. 
(Mueller.) Near the outside of the log it is yellow, the rest is light 
brown. It is heavy and tough. It is bent into acute curves for 
coach-building purposes, the wood of A. melanoxylon being used 
for curves of greater radius. Diameter, 6 to izin.; height, 
20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

17- Acacia farnesiana, Wnid., (Syn. A. lentidllata, F.v.M.); 

N.O., Leguminosai, B.Fl., ii., 419. 

Sometimes called by the absurd name of " Dead Finish." This name 
given to some species of Acacia and Albissla, is on account of the trees or 
shrubs shooting thickly from the bottom, and forming an impenetrable 
barrier to the traveller, who is thus brought to a " dead finish " (stop). 

This species is common in the tropics of both worlds. Wood 
close, heavy, and tough, taking a good polish. It is much used in 
India for ship-knees, tent-pegs, and similar purposes. Gamble 
{Manual of Indian Timbers) gives its weight as 49lbs. per cubic 
foot. Diameter, 3 to 6in. ; height, 12 to i8ft. 

The interior of South Australia and New South Wales, 
Queensland, Northern and Western Australia, 

18. Acacia fasciculifera, F.v.M., N.O,, Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 
361. 

Timber very hard, heavy, tough, and close-grained, yet easily 
worked. It is of a reddish colour. Diameter, 6 to i5in.; 
height, 20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



356 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

19. Acacia flavescens, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

391- 

Wood of a brown colour, prettily marked, close-grained, and 
hard. 

Queensland. 

20. Acacia glaticescens, Willd., (Syn. A. homotnalla, Wendl. ; A. 
ctnerascefts, Sieb. ; A. leucadendron, A. Cunn.; Mimosa 
binervis, Wendl.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FI., ii., 406. 

Called variously " Brigalow," " Mountain Brigalow," " Rosewood," 
and " Myall." It is the " Kaarrewan" (see " Caariwan," A. doratoxylon) 
of the aboriginals of Camden and Cumberland (New South Wales), and the 
'' Motherumba" (see also A. salicina) of the Castlereagh River (New South 
Wales) aboriginals. 

Wood close-grained and prettily marked, scented, though less 
so than some other species of Acacia. It is very suitable for 
cabinet-making and turnery. It is used for spring-bars, tool 
handles, spears, &c. It has been likened to English walnut and 
rosewood. A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, 
which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been 
exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), under 
the name of A. homomalla, has a weight which corresponds to 
54lbs. 40Z. per cubic foot. Diameter, 12 to i8in. ; height, 
30 to 45ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

21. Acacia GnidiTim, Beftth.. N O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 359. 
Wood close-grained, hard, blackish, and takes a good polish. 

Diameter, 6 to i2in. ; height, 12 to 20ft. 
Queensland. 

22. Acacia harpophylla, F.V.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 
ii., 389. 

The common "Brigalow," so called because it forms "Brigalow scrubs." 
The word was spelt " Brigaloe " by Gould, and " Bricklow " by Leichhardt. 
The latter stated he could not ascertain the meaning of the name. 
" Orkor" of some aboriginals. 

Wood brown, hard, heavy, and elastic; used by the natives 
for spears, boomerangs, and clubs. The wood splits freely, and 



TIMBERS, 357 

is used for fancy turnery. Saplings used as stakes in vineyards 
have lasted twenty years or more. It is used for building purposes, 
and has a strong odour of violets. 
South Queensland. 

23. Acacia homalophylla, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 

ii., 383* 

A "Spear-wood." Called "Myall" in Victoria. "Curly Yarran" and 
" Narrow-leaved Yarran " are New South Wales names. Aboriginal 
names are as follows: — " Gidya," " Gidia," or "Gidgee" (with other 
spellings) in New South Wales and Queensland. This is the commonest 
colonial name. " Wong-arrah," Cloncurry River, Northern Queensland. 

This dark-brown wood is much sought after for turners' work 
on account of its solidity and fragrance; perhaps its most extensive 
use is in the manufacture of tobacco-pipes. (Mueller.) It is well 
adapted for cabinet-making purposes, and fancy articles, such as 
rulers and napkin rings, are often made from it. The natives of New 
South Wales formerly employed it for spears. (A. Cunn.) 
Specific gravity, 1.124. (Report, Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) 
In Western New South Wales the wood is considered very 
durable, and is, therefore, used for the lining of wells, but then it is 
said to give the water a bad taste for several years. The smell of 
the tree when in flower is abominable, and just before rain almost 
unbearable, and on this sign people frequently foretell the approach 
of rain. I have heard of instances in which men who were 
employed in cutting down a tree of this species just before rain 
became so sick as to be compelled to leave the tree. 

Interior of South Australia and New South Wales; Northern 
Victoria. 

24. Acacia implexa, Benth., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 389. 

Wood hard, and close-grained, dark brown, with yellowish 
stripes ; much in demand for turnery, cog-wheels, and other pur- 
poses which need tenacity and strength. (Dickinson.) The wood 
is very similar to that of A. melanoxylon. Specific gravity .711, 
i.e., weight 44lbs. per cubic foot of dry wood. (Mueller.) 
Diameter, 12 to i6in. ; height, 30 to 40ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 



358 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

25. Acacia juniperina, WHld., (Syn. A. vertidllata, Sieb. ; A. 
echtnula,'DC.; A. pungens, Sprang.; Mimosa juniperina , 
Vent. ; M. nlicina, Wendl ; M. ulicifolia, Salisb.) ; N.O., 
Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 332. 

The common " Prickly Wattle." 

The wood is light, white, and tough, and much esteemed by- 
splitters for maul handles. (Guilfoyle.) It is never rhore than a 
shrub. Height, 8 to 12ft. 

Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and Southern Queens- 
land. 

26. Acacia leprosa, Sieb., (Syn. A. redinata, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 358. 

" Native Hickory." 
Though a rather small tree, it yields excellent wood for small 
cabinet work and turnery. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

27. Acacia leptocarpa, ^- Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 407. 

Wood dark-brown, close-grained, hard, and prettily marked; 
useful for cabinet and turnery work. 
Queensland. 

28. Acacia linearis, Sims, (Syn. A longissima, Wendl.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 399. 

This small tree yields wood available for minor articles of 
furniture, implements, etc. Specific gravity, .934. (Report^ 
Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) Height, up to 20ft. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

29. Acacia linifolia, WHld., (Syn. A. abietina, Willd. ; Mimosa 

linifolia. Vent. ; M. linearis, Wendl., non Sims.) ; N.O., 

Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 37 r. 

" Sallee." 

Wood soft and elastic, and suitable for axe-handles (Hill)» 
and perhaps cabinet purposes. It is of a light colour, and reddish 
at the centre. Diameter, 4 to 6in. ; height, 12 to i8ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 359 

30. Acacia longifolia, Willd., var. typica, (Syn. A. obtusifoHa, A. 

Cunn. ; A. spathulata, Tausch. ; A. intertexta, Sieb. ; 

Mimosa longi/olia, Andr.); N.O.,Leguminos3e, B.Fl., ii.,397. 

" White Sallow." Called "Golden Wattle" in Southern New South 
Wales. The W3iv'\ety floribunda sometimes goes by the name of "Sally," or 
" Sallow," in Southern New South Wales. 

Timber light, tough, and hard ; used for tool-handles, etc. 
Towards the outside it is pale yellow; the heart-wood is brown, 
streaked with black. Diameter, gin. ; height, 20 to 33ft. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

31. Acacia longifolia, Wtiid.,vzx. Sophcrse, (Syn. A. Sophorm, 

R. Brown ; Mimosa Sophorce, Labill.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, 

B.Fl., ii., 398. 

" Boobyalla " is an aboriginal name. 

This wood is white, hard, tough, and durable. It is an excel- 
lent tree for binding coast-sands. 

Sea coast from Southern Queensland to South Australia, and 
Tasmania. 

32. Acacia macradenia, ^^w//^-, N.O.,Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 362. 

" Myall," or "Toney." 
A beautiful, hard, blackish, close-grained wood, which takes 
a very high polish. Diameter, 2 to i2in. ; height, 30 to 50ft. 
Queensland. 

33. Acacia melanoxylcn, R.Br., (Syn. A. arcuata, Sieb.); N.O., 

Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 388. 
Called " Blackwood " on account of the very dark colour of the mature 
wood. It is sometimes called " Lightwood " (chiefly in South Tasmania, 
while the other name is given in North Tasmania and other places), but this 
is an inappropriate name. It is in allusion to its weight as compared 
with Eucalyptus timbers. It is the " Black Sally" of Western New South 
Wales, the " Hickory " of the southern portion of that colony, and is some- 
times called " Silver Wattle." The "Mootchong" of the Ja-jow-er-ong 
tribe, Victoria, and " Mooeyang " of the Yarra blacks. 

This is considered by some people to be the most valuable of 
all Australian timbers. It is hard and close-grained ; much valued 
for furniture, picture-frames, cabinet-work, fencing, bridges, etc., 
railway, and other carriages, boat-building (stem and stern post, 
ribs, rudder), for tool-handles, gun-stocks, naves of wheels, 
crutches, parts of organs, pianofortes (sound-boards and actions), 



360 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

billiard tables, etc. The Yarra blacks used to use it to make 
mulga, or club shields. The figured wood is cut into veneers. It 
takes a fine polish, and is considered almost equal to American 
walnut. In fact, when polished or ebonised, it might easily be 
made to replace walnut, and no doubt many of the articles alleged 
to be made of walnut are of this wood. It is an excellent wood for 
bending under steam. It warps and twists in boards over twelve 
inches wide unless they have been very carefully seasoned. 

" This wood is largely used for oil-casks, and is the only wood 
we have in Australia, as far as we know, that is suitable for the 
purpose. It is split into staves, six by three inches thick, and six 
feet long." (Tenison-Woods.) It is often very dark coloured, 
except for about one inch of thickness of sap-wood, which is 
almost white. It sometimes shows a very pretty " broken grain," 
which looks well under polish. " Its specific gravity is from .664 to 
'in, i-e-, weight of a cubic foot of the dried wood 4ilbs. to 481bs. 
The yield of charcoal from the wood is 29.25 per cent.; crude 
wood-vinegar, 40.25; and tar, 7.062." (Mueller.) 

Mr. Gamble gives the weight per cubic foot of an Indian grown 
specimen at 361bs., and states that it was cut from a tree twenty 
years old, and ninety feet high, which gave a plank two feet broad. 

*' This tree has been extensively cultivated in Madras for 
revenue purposes, but the wood has there been found to possess 
few qualities prized by the cabinet-maker and builder. It warps 
after many months of seasoning, is not easily worked, and is not as 
durable as other timber accessible to the residents of the hill 
stations. The slowness of growth is much against the tree, and 
where it has been tried, in two instances, as an avenue tree, it has 
proved a failure. The worst feature, however, is its liability to 
attacks from a parasitical plant not unlike the mistletoe (Loranthus 
sp.), which spreads rapidly among the branches, and cannot be 
easily disengaged. . . . This parasite appears over and over 
again, as often as it is removed. As a fuel tree it is not prized so 
highly as A. dealbata." (Madras Mail, 1885.) 

This tree was introduced on the Nilgiris in 1840, and is now 
completely naturalised. It is also being grown on the hills of the 
Punjab, Kumaun, and Sikkim. 



TIMBERS. 



361 



With regard to its rate of growth, Colonel Beddome, in his 
report of April, 1878, on the Nilgiri plantations, says that in the 
Bleakhouse plantation, Wellington (India), the average girth of the 
trees in the portion which is twenty-one to twenty-two years old, 
taken from the measurement of 30 trees as they came, was 35in. 
at six feet from the ground (about four rings per inch of radius), 
the girth of some of the largest trees being 56, 55, 50, 46 and 44in. 
It does not coppice well, unless very young. (Gamble.) 

Following is a report by Mr. Allen Ransome on some samples 
of this timber sent from Victoria to the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition. " Samples of both old and young trees were sent for 
trial. The former were made into joiners' specimens, the latter 
into casks. The figure of the old-growth wood is very fine, and 
the surface left by the cutters was all that could be desired. The 
casks also proved a complete success. The wood has already 
been imported into England in small quantities, and sold at prices 
ranging from 2s. to 3s. per cubic foot." 

Mr. F. A. Campbell (Proc. R.S., Victoria, 1879) examined 
the tensile strength of this timber. Following are his results, in 
pounds per square inch, {a) 26,500. {b) 24,000. (r) 32,000. 
(c/) 20,000. {e) 23,000. d and e were of a different wood 
from the others ; much lighter in colour, more open in grain ; 
evidently younger wood, and ill-seasoned, a^ b, c, were from fine, 
close-grained, dark coloured wood, well seasoned, and extremely 
hard, c showed round the fractured part fibres like threads of silk. 

Experiments on the transverse strength of the wood of Acacia 
melanoxylon, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long x 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


W) Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

78olbs. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


« ll I Air-dried. 

"(5 1 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.08 
.08 


Inches. 
.50 


Pounds. 

2296 

2261 


1722 .616 
1696 .625 


.529 
•536 





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TIMBERS. 363 

Diameter, 18 to 36111.; height, 60 to looft. 

Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

34- Acacia neriifolia, A. Cufm., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 
363- 

The duramen is of a light-yellow colour, the rest is of a 
darker colour. It is prettily marked, close-grained, and tough. 
Diameter, 6 to i8in,; height, 40 to 50ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

35- Acacia notabilis, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminos», B.FL, ii., 365. 

" Hickory." 

Timber close-grained, tough, strong, durable ; it splits freely, 
and is probably useful for turnery, etc. Diameter, 10 to izin.; 
height, 25 to 30ft. 

South Australia and New South Wales. 

36. Acacia Oswaldi, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 384. 
Often called " Umbrella Bush," as it is a capital shade-tree. " Karagata" 
is an aboriginal name. " Miljee " is a name in Western New South Wales. 
A small bushy tree. The timber is faintly scented, but has a 
very disagreeable smell when fresh. The heart-wood is dark, 
hard, heavy, close-grained, and durable; it is not used, but would 
be useful for cabinet-work, turnery, etc. The natives make short 
weapons, such as clubs, etc., of it. Diameter, 6 to gin.; 
height, 15 to 20ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

37- Acacia pendula, A. Cu?in., (Syn., A. hucophylla, Lindl.);, 
N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 383. 

" Weeping," or " True Myall." It is sometimes called " Bastard Gidgee " 
in Western New South Wales. Called " Boree " by aboriginals, and often 
" Boree," or " Silver-leaf Boree," by the colonists of Western New South 
Wales. " Nilyah " is another New South Wales name. By the aboriginals 
further north it is called " Balaar." 

Wood hard, close-grained, of a rich dark colour, and beauti- 
fully marked. It is used by the aboriginals for boomerangs. 
It is heavy, and rarely exceeds a foot in diameter, and yet has 
been used for veneers. As long as it remains unpolished it 



364 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

preserves its peculiar fragrance of violets, which does not occur in 
such perfection in any other known substance. As soon as this 
remarkable property became known to European manufacturers 
the wood came into request for making glove, handkerchief, and 
other fancy boxes, and especially for tobacco-pipes. Other Acacia 
woods are often artificially scented to imitate the true Myall, but 
the perfume of wood thus prepared is fugacious. 

Baron Mueller has kindly named for me an Acacia growing 
in Western New South Wales, and known as "Yarran." He 
pronounces this particular " Yarran " to be A. pendula, var., 
glabrata. The timber possesses many of the qualities attributed 
to the typical A. pendula. Twigs with pods (accompanied by 
flowers) of A. pendula would be very acceptable at the Techno- 
logical Museum. Diameter, 6 to i2in.; height, 20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

38. Acacia podalyrisefolia, A. Ctmn., (Syn., A. Fraseri, Hook.; 

A. Caleyi, A. Cunn.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 374. 

Sometimes called " Silver Wattle," as it has foliage of a more or less 
grey, mealy, or silvery appearance. 

Wood of a pinkish colour, nicely marked. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

39- Acacia polybotrya, Benth., var. foliolosa, N.O., Leguminosae, 
B.FL, ii., 414. 

Wood pinkish, close in grain, hard, and beautifully marked ; 
would be a useful wood for the cabinet-maker. (Cal. Queensland 
Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., London, 1886.) 

Queensland and New South Wales. 

40. Acacia polystachya, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 
ii., 407. 

Wood dark-coloured and close-grained, with pretty markings. 
Queensland and Northern Australia, 

41- Acacia pycnantha, Benth., (Syn. A. petiolaris, Lehm. ; 
A. /alcinella, Meissn.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 365 



TIMBERS. 365 

Called " Golden Wattle " owing to the beautiful mass of bright-yellow 
flowers which adorn it. It is also called " Green Wattle," and also, for the 
sake of distinction between some other tan-bark Wattles, the " Broad- 
leaved Wattle." 

This is a tough and close-grained wood. Its specific gravity 
is about .83, that is, the weight of a cubic foot of the wood is 
about 5i|lbs. (Osborne.) 

South Australian, Victoria and New South Wales. 

42. Acacia retinodes, *S'f^/(?f^/., N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl.,ii., 362. 

The wood is prettily grained, tough, and durable. Height, 
20 to 25ft. 

Victoria and South Australia. 

43. Acacia rigens, A. Cunn., (Syn. A. chordophylla, F.v.M.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 337. 

" Nealie," or " Needle Bush," of the interior. 

A small tree 12 to 15ft. in height. The timber is exceedingly 
hard and tough, and possessed of a very agreeable perfume. The 
natives of the interior employ it in the manufacture of weapons. 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

44- Acacia Salicina, Lindl., (Syn. A. Ugulata, A. Cunn., includ- 
ing .(4. varians, Benth.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 367. 
The " Cooba," or " Koobah," of the aboriginals and colonists of Western 
New South Wales. " Native Willow " is another colonial name. About 
the Castlereagh River (New South Wales) it takes the name of " Mother- 
ulnba." " Bremgu" is the name at the Lake Hindmarsh aboriginal station 
(Victoria). " Bakka" is a Queensland aboriginal name. 

Timber close-grained, tough, heavy, dark brown, and nicely 
marked. The aboriginals make boomerangs, and the colonists 
tables, chairs, and other furniture from it. {General Report, 
Sydney Iniernatwnal Exhibition, 1879.) ^^ '^ valued for bullock- 
yokes in Western New South Wales, and also for shafts of carts. 
Mr. G. S. Home tells me that cheffoniers, and other articles of 
drawing-room furniture, are commonly made from it in Western New 
South Wales, as it takes such a high polish. Specific gravity .763, 



366 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

or weight of a cubic foot of the dried wood about 47^1bs. 
(Mueller.) Diameter, 12 to i8in. ; height, 30 to 50ft. 
All the colonies except Tasmania. 

45- Acacia saligna, Wendl., (Syn. A. kiopkylla, Benth. ; Mimosa 

saligna, Labill.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.FL, ii., 364. 

A. leiophylla in Muell. Cen., p. 44. 
" Weeping Wattle." 

This wood is prettily grained, and if larger it would be 
suitable for cabinet-work. Height, 10 to 30ft. 

Western Australia. 

46. Acacia sentis, F.v.M., (Syn. A. Victoria, Benth.) ; N.O., 
Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 360. 

Usually a small, low, spreading tree. The timber is soft, 
but very tough, and the young twigs are armed with slender, 
acute spines or thorns. 

In Western New South Wales the presence of this tree in any 
locality is always considered a sure indication of underground 
"water. Mr. W. Scott, of Whittabranah, Grey Ranges, states that 
in sinking wells he has traced the roots of this Acacia down to a 
depth of 80 to 90ft., and it certainly looked the freshest green 
-of all the plants of the district. Height, up to 30 or 40ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

47- Acacia Spinescens, Benth., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 323. 

Specific gravity of the wood, i.oio. {^Report, Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861.) 

South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

48. Acacia Stencphylla, ^. Cunn.,N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 

385- 

Called " Ironwood" on account of the hard and heavy timber, and 
" Dalby Myall " on account of its occurrence in the vicinity of that Queens- 
land town. 

This timber is very hard, heavy, close-grained, dark, beauti- 
fully marked, and takes a fine polish. It planes excellently, 



TIMBERS. 367 

showing a very smooth surface. Diameter, 15 to 24in. ; height, 
40 to 60ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

49- Acacia Stricta, WHld., (Syn. a. emarginata, Wendl. ; 

Mimosa stricia, Andr.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 358. 

" Berry-yung " is the aboriginal name at the Coranderrk Station 
(Victoria). 

This wood is of a beautiful texture, sound and durable. It is, 
of course, too small to have anything but a very limited use. 
Height, 3 to 8ft. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

50. Acacia subporosa, F.v.M., {supporosa in Muell.Fragm. iv., 5) ; 

N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 382. 

A valuable wood for many purposes. It is exceedingly 
tough and elastic ; would make good gig-shafts, handles for tools, 
gun-stocks, etc. Tall, straight spars, fit for masts, can be obtained 
of considerable length, and i8in. in diameter (L. Morton). 
Height, up to 40ft. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

51- Acacia tetragonophylla, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 

ii-> 330. 
Another Acacia bearing the absurd name of " Dead Finish." 

The wood of this interior species is too small for anything 
except whip-handles. It grows very crooked as a rule. Diameter 
up to a maximum of 6 or 8in. 

South Australia and New South Wales. 

52. Acacia tonilosa, Benlh., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 405. 
Wood dark brown, tough, and strong. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

53- AchraS aUStralis, R.Br., (Syn. Sapoia ausirahs, A.DC; 

Sideroxylon auslrale, Benth. et Hook, f.) ; N.O., Sapotaceae, 

B.Fl., iv., 282. Sideroxylon ausirale in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 

The " Black Apple," " Brush Apple,' " Wild," or " Native Plum," of the 

colonists, as it has a fruit very like a plum, though of coarse, insipid flavour. 



368 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Following are some aboriginal names : — " ]erra-wa-wah," Illawarra and 
Brisbane Water (New South Wales) ; " Wycaulie," Richmond and Clarence 
Rivers (New South Wales) ; " Tchoonboy," Northern New South Wales 
and Southern Queensland. 

The wood is close-grained, firm, prettily veined, and good for 
cabinet-work. (Macarthur.) Very handsome planks can some- 
times be obtained from it. It is occasionally used by turners and 
wood-carvers. It is of a pale-yellow colour, and the complicated 
grain affords a pattern of a singularly pretty appearance. It is 
probably the unevenness of the grain (which gives rise to this 
pretty figuring) that is the cause of this wood being unsuitable for 
good engraving. It requires very careful seasoning. 

Two slabs of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
have been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), have weights 
which correspond to 55lbs. 130Z. and sylbs. 140Z. respectively per 
cubic foot. It is used for staves and laths, and for general 
building purposes. Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; height, 80 to looft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



54- Achras laurifolia, F.v.M., (Syn. Sideroxylon Richardi, 
F.v.M. ; S. laurifolium, F.v.M. ; Sersalisia laurt/oltaf 
A. Rich.; S. glabra, A. Gray.); N.O., Sapotaceae, B.Fl., iv., 
282. Sideroxylon Richardi m Muell. Cens., p. 92. 
Called " Sycamore" in Southern New South Wales. 
Wood light-grey towards the outside, brown in the centre; 

grain close. Diameter, 2 to 4ft.; height, 80 to 150ft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

55- Achras myrsinoides, ^ . C«««., fSyn. Sideroxylon myrsinoides, 
Benth. et Hook, f.) ; N.O., Sapotaceae, B.Fl., iv., 283. 
Sideroxylon myrsinoides in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 

Timber firm, elastic, hard, but easily worked, used for dray- 
poles, shafts, timber trucks, etc. Diameter, 12 to i8in. ; height, 
20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 



TIMBERS. 369 

56. AchraS Obovata, F.v.M.^ (Syn. Sideroxylon obovattim, R.Br. ; 
S. argenieum, Spreng., (partly) ; S. Browtiii, F.v.M. ; Ser- 
salisia obovata, R.Br.); N.O., Sapotaceae, B.Fl,, iv., 283. 
Sideroxylon Brownii in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 

Wood of a yellow colour, hard, and close in the grain. 
Queensland. 

57- Achras Pohlmaniana, F.v.M., (Syn. Sideroxylon Pohlmania- 
num, Benth. et Hook. ; Sapota Pohlmaniana, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 
Sapotaceae, B.Fl., iv., 281. Sideroxylon Pohlmanianum in 
Muell. Cens., p. 91. 

" Beleam " of the aboriginals. 
Wood bright yellow, hard, and close-grained ; the best of all 

Queensland woods for engraving purposes. (Cai. Queensland 

Timbers, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) Diameter, 12 to 2oin. ; 

height, 40 to 70ft. 
Queensland, 

58. Acronychia Baueri, Schott., (Syn. A. HilUi, F.v.M.') ; N.O., 
Rutaceae, B.FL, i., 366. 

The " Brush Ash" of the Illawarra (New South Wales). 

This wood is excellent for mallet and chisel handles. { General 
Report, Sydney Ifiternational Exhibition, 1879.) Diameter, 20 
to 3oin. ; height, 50 to 60ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

59. Acronychia laevis, Eorst., (Syn. J. lawina, F.V.M. ; Lawsonia 
Acronychia, Linn. f. ; Cyminosma oblongifolium, A. Cunn.); 
N.O., Rutaceae, B.FL, i., 366. 

" Yellow-wood." 

This timber is of a light colour and close-grained ; it is said 
to be durable, but it is not much used. Diameter, 24in. ; height, 
70 to Soft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

60. Adenanthera pavonina, Linn., N.O., Leguminosae, Muell., 
Cens., p. 43. 

The " Barricarri" (of India). " Red Sandal-wood." 

2 B 



370 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

In India this tree yields a solid useful timber, which, like 
another dye-wood, bears the name of " Red Sandal-wood." A 
dye is obtained by simply rubbing the wood against a stone, and 
this is used by the Brahmins for marking their foreheads after 
religious bathing. {Treasury of Botany.) Gamble {Manual of 
Indian Timbers) says this wood is used in South India for house- 
building and cabinet-making purposes, and gives the weight at 
561bs. per cubic foot. The wood is described by Skinner as 
follows : — " Heart-wood hard and durable ; when fresh cut of a 
beautiful coral-red colour, and sometimes marked with stripes of a 
darker shade; after exposure it turns purple, like rosewood." 
Kurz (Flora of British Burmah), describes it somewhat 
differently : — " Wood rather heavy, coarse, fibrous, light-brown or 
yellowish-grey, turning brown on exposure, hard and close-grained, 
soon attacked by xylophages ; the heart-wood dark-brown, solid, 
hard and durable." 

North Queensland. 

6i. JEgiceras majUS, Gcertn., (Syn., ^. fragrans. Keen.; yE. 

corniculata, Blanco); N.O., Myrsineae, B.Fl., iv., 277. 
" River Mangrove." 

A. shrub or small tree. Wood of light colour, close-grained, 
and easily worked. It is used for firewood and for native huts in 
Jessore. It weighs 4olbs. per cubic foot. (Gamble, Manual of 
Indian Timbers.) The flowers are deliciously scented. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

62. Ailanthns imberbiflora, F.v.M.,- N.O., Simarubeae, B.Fl., i., 

373 

Wood yellow, porous, soft, and light. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

63. Akania Hillii, Benth., (Syn. Cupania Iticens, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 471. 

Occasionally called " Turnip wood." 
Wood of a light colour, close-grained, and prettily marked ; 
warps very much in drying, but this particular log was from a 



TIMBERS. 371 

young tree. {Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 
London, 1886.) Height, 30 to 40ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

64. Albizzia basiltica, Benth., (Syn. Acacia basaltica, F.v.M.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosoe, B.FL, ii., 422. 

Another timber graced with the absurd name of " Dead Finish." 

A shrub which furnishes a useful wood for stock-whip handles. 
It is extremely tough, of a good colour, like pale cedar, and takes 
a good polish. Its colour has been otherwise described as '* sap- 
wood bright yellow, with a dark red heart-wood." It is fine 
grained, and an excellent wood for cabinet-work. The Rev. J. E. 
Tenison- Woods says of this timber: "Even when cut very thin 
and light, the wood is so tough that it will bear an enormous 
strain." 

Queensland. 

<35. Albizzia Canescens, Benth., (Syn. Pithecolobimn canescens, 

F.v.M.) ; N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 423. 
Called " Walkor" by some aboriginals. 

Wood close-grained and tough. It is brown, resembling 
walnut, and nicely marked. 

The sap of this wood is of a light yellow colour ; wood not 

unlike cedar towards the centre, but harder ; very much prized by 

cabinet-makers. (Thozet.) Diameter, 15 to 2oin ; height, 30 to 

50ft. 

Queensland 

66. Albizzia Hendersoni, F,v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, Muell., 

Cens., p. 47. 
The " Nuggum-nuggum " of the aboriginals of Northern New South 
Wales. 

This timber is hard and beautifully streaked. The jurors at 
the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879 drew special attention 
to it, and said, " It seems to be remarkably tough, and very suitable 
for coach-building purposes." Diameter, 24 to 3oin. ; height, 
90ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



372 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

67. Albizzia procera, Benth., (Syn., A. elata, Roxb.; Mimosa 
procera, Roxb.; M. elata, Roxb.; Acacia procera, Willd.); 
N.O., Leguminosje, B.Fl., ii., 422. 

" Tee-coma" of the aboriginals of the Northern Territory. 

Timber close-grained, easily worked, and in use for building' 
purposes. (Hill.) It is of a dark colour, resembling walnut, and 
is a useful cabinet wood. Weight of a cubic foot of Indian-grown 
timber (seasoned), from 39lbs. to 481bs. It loses nearly half its 
weight in drying. (Brandis.) It seasons well, and the heart-wood 
is durable. It is used for sugar-cane crushers, rice-pounders, 
wheels, agricultural implements, bridges, and house-posts. It is 
used by tea-planters for stakes for laying out tea gardens, as it is 
found to split well, and occasionally for tea-boxes and charcoal, for 
which it is found to be very good. (Gamble.) Diameter, 18 
to 24in. ; height, 30 to 60ft. 

Northern Australia. 

68. Albizzia Thozetiana, F.v.M., (Syn. Acacia Thozetiana, F.v.M.; 
Pithecolobiiim Thozetiamim, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, 
B.Fl., ii., 422. 

Timber very hard, heavy, tough, and close-grained. IMay 
prove useful for gig-shafts, gun-stocks, etc. It is of a red colour. 
(Thozet.) Diameter, 12 to 3oin. ; height, 40 to 60ft. 

Queensland. 

^>9- Albizzia Toona, Bail., Supp. to Syn. Queensland Flora. 
(Bailey.) N.O., Leguminosae. 

Wood of a light colour for several inches inwards from the 
bark ; the rest resembles cedar ; a valuable wood for many pur- 
poses. (Cat. Queenslaiid Timbers, CoL and Ind. Exh., London^ 

1886.) 

Queensland. 

70. Aleurites molnCCana, Willd., (Syn. a. triloba, Forst. ; A. 

Ambiniix, Pers. ; Jatropha moluccana, Linn.) ; N.O., 

Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 128. A. triloba in Muell. Cens.,. 

p. 20. 

*' Candle-nut." 



TIMBERS. 373 

Wood of a light colour, soft, and light ; if cut when full of 
sap it is especially liable to decay, but it is not a durable wood 
under any circumstances. Weight, 381bs. per cubic foot. It is 
common in the Eastern Archipelago and South Sea Islands. 

Queensland. 

71- Alphitonia excelsa, Reisseck, (Syn. Colubrina excelsa, Fenzl.); 
N.O., Rhamnese, B.Fl., i., 414. 
Variously called "Mountain Ash," " Red Ash," " Leather-jacket," and 
*' Coopers' Wood." In the Illawarra district of New South Wales it is 
called " Humbug," while " Murr-rung " was formerly an aboriginal name in 
the same district. " Nono-groyinandie " has been given as a Clarence 
River (New South Wales) aboriginal name for this tree. The aboriginals 
of Northern New South Wales call it " Culgera-culgera," while some 
Queensland aboriginals call it " Mee-a-mee," 

The wood is hard, close-grained, durable, and will take a 
high polish ; it is suitable for gun-stocks, and a variety of other 
purposes. (Hill.) The timber becomes dark when old. It is 
valuable for coopers' staves and indoor purposes. Wood near 
the outside somewhat pinkish, the inner wood dark-brown, or 
parti-coloured throughout ; very tough, and warps in drying. 
A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight 
which corresponds to 53lbs. 50Z. per cubic foot. 

The Revd. J. E. Tenison- Woods points out that in Queens- 
land this is one of the very characteristic trees of the " Brigalow " 
scrubs. Diameter, 18 to 24in. Height, 45 to 50ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

72. Alsophila aUStralis, R.Br., (Syn. A. excelsa, R.Br.; A. 
Cooper i. Hook, et Bak.) ; N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 710. 
A " Tree-fern." By the aboriginals of Illawarra (New South Wales) 
it used to be called " Beeow-wang," and by the aboriginals of Queensland 
" Nanga-nanga." The aboriginals at the Coranderrk Station (Victoria), call 
it " Pooeet." 

This timber {i.e., the outer hard portion) is used for walking 
sticks and articles of fancy furniture. It is nicely veined, and 



374 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

takes a good polish. It is brown and white in streaks, the brown 

being very hard. The stem yields : — 

Charcoal... ... ... ... 29 per cent. 

Crude wood vinegar ... ... 44 „ 

Tar ... 6 „ 

Tannic acid ... ... ... 2.9 ,, 

Gallic acid ... ... ... .9 „ 

(Mueller.) Diameter, 9 to i2in. Height, 30 to 40ft. 
All the colonies except South and Western Australia. 

73- Alsophila Leichhardtiana, F.V.M., (Syn., A. Macarthurii, 
F.V.M.); N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 711. 

" Prickly Tree-fern," called from the circumstance of the stalk being 
covered with sharp, black prickles. " Yarrah-wah " of the aboriginals 
of Illawarra (New South Wales). 

Wood, or outer hard portion of stem, black with white streaks, 
the black portion being very hard. This description will apply to 
the stems of many tree-ferns. Useful for rustic-work. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

74- Alstonia COnstricta, F.v.M., N.O., Apocyneae, B.Fl., iv., 

3U- 

Called " Fever -bark," or " Bitter-bark." 

Wood of a pale yellow colour, close in the grain ; warps in 
drying. (Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exhib., 1886.) 
This tree is largely sacrificed for its medicinal bark, and the 
timber apparently goes to waste. Diameter, 6 to i5in. Height,. 
40 to 70ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

75- Alstonia SCholaris, R.Br., {?>yn. A. ^««m/a. Wall.) ; N.O., 

Apocyneae, B.FL, iv., 312. 

" Devil Tree" (of India). 

The light wood of this tree is used in Ceylon for making 
coffins. {Treasury of Botany^ It obtained the specific name 
" scholaris " from the fact of its planks being used as school- 
boards when covered with sand for tracing letters. It is white and 



TIMBERS. 375 

close-grained. (Drury.) The wood varies in weight from 28 
to 4olbs. per cubic foot. Height, up to 80 or 90ft. 
Northern Queensland. 

76. Alstonia Verticillosa, ^•^'•^^•. (Syn. Alyxt'a actinophylla, k. 
Cunn.); N.O., Apocyneae, B.Fl., iv„ 313. 

Wood of light colour, soft and easy to work. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

n- Alstonia villosa, Blume.'^.O., Apocynese, B.Fl., i\.. 313. 

Wood of a light colour, close in the grain, works easily, is 
firm, and would probably be suitable for staves. {Cat. Queens- 
land Timbers, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) This tree is not 
endemic in Australia. Height, up to 30ft. 

Queensland. 

78. Alyxia buxifolia, R.Br., (Syn. A. capitellata, Benth.) ; N.O., 

Apocyneae, B.Fl., iv., 307. 
Called " Tonga-bean Wood " owing to its scent ; also" Heath-box." 

This straggling sea-side shrub, with a stem three to five inches 
in diameter, has a fine and close-grained wood, of a lightish-brown 
mottled appearance. It smells strongly of Coumarin. 

All the colonies except Queensland. 

79- Amoora nitidula, Benth., N.O., Meliaceae, B.Fl., i., 383. 

" A tall tree." Wood of a light colour, tough, and close in 
the grain. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland 

80. Angophora intermedia, DC, (Syn. Metrosideros flonbunda. 

Smith); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 184. 

" Narrow-leaved Apple Tree." Angophoras axq czW^A "Apple Trees" in 
the colonies, from a fancied resemblance to those trees. 

This timber is subject to gum-veins, but when free from those 
defects it is used for naves and spokes of wheels, blocks, etc., and 
is cut into boards. It bears dampness well, and is hard and 
tough. It burns freely. Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; height, 80 to 
1 00ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 



376 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

81. AngOphora lanceolata, Cav., (Syn. Metro side ros CO Stat a, 
Gaertn.; M. lanceolata, Pers., Syn. ii., 25 ; M. apocynifolia, 
Salisb.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 184. 

Variously called " Apple Tree," " Mountain Apple Tree," "Orange 
Gum," " Red Gum," or " Rusty Gum," in allusion to the bark being stained 
a rusty-red colour from the kino. Some Queensland aboriginals call it 
" Toolookar." 

Timber strong, heavy, subject to gum-veins ; used for naves 
of wheels, slabs, rough buildings and fuel. " Specific gravity 
.893." {Report, Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) Diameter, 24 to 
36in.; height, 70 to 80ft. 

New South Wales and Queenland. 

82. Angophora subvelutina, ^•j'..^/., (Syn. A. velutina, F.v.M.); 

N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 184. 
" Broad-leaved Apple Tree." The " lUarega " of the aboriginals of 
the Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales). 

The wood is moderately heavy and tough, soft while green, 
very hard when dry ; it is used for wheel-naves, bullock- yokes, 
handles, etc. ; it turns well, and contains a large proportion of 
potash. (Hartmann.) It is durable, and is used for posts and 
rails. It is of a uniform reddish colour, requires careful seasoning; 
dresses and polishes well. A slab of this wood in the Techno- 
logical Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years 
(having been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 
1862), has a weight which corresponds to 52lbs. 140Z. per cubic 

foot. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

83. Angophora Woodsiana, Bail, (Syn. Queensland Flora, 

Bailey.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae. 

Wood of a pinkish colour, hard and heavy. 
Queensland. 

84- Aphananthe phillippinensis, Planch., (Syn. Taxotropkis 

rectinervis, F.v.M. ; Sponia ilici/olia, S. Kurz.) ; N.O., 
Urticeae, B.Fl,, vi., 160. 
Called by the colonists " Elm " and " Tulip-wood," and by the 
aborigines of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers, " Mail," 



TIMBERS. 377 

This timber is used for linings, ceilings, etc. It may be 
found a useful wood for turners. It is close-grained, light in 
colour, and Mr. Bailey suggests that it might do for stamps. It 
is not endemic in Australia. Diameter, 15 to i8in. Height, 
80 to 90ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

85. Apophyllum anomalum, F.v.M., N.O., Capparideae, B.Fl., 

i., 97. 

Wood very hard. Diameter, 6 to i6in. Height, 20 to 

30ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

86. Araucaria Bidwilli, Hooker, N.O., Coniferae, B.Fl., vi., 243. 

The " Bunya-bunya" of the aboriginals — a name invariably adopted by 
he colonists. 

The wood is not only very strong and good, but it is full of 
beautiful veins, and capable of being polished and worked with 
the greatest facility. (Hill.) It is not allowed by the Govern- 
ment to be felled on Crown Lands owing to its seed yielding an 
article of food to the aborigines. (See " Foods.") 

A sample of this timber was sent to the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, and examined by Mr, Allen Ransome. He states: 
"This is a straight-grained, light-coloured, mild-working wood, 
often prettily marked. Judging by the experiments, it should 
make excellent framing, and as it planes well could be used for 
common furniture, as it is not inclined to warp or twist." 
Diameter, 30 to 48in. ; height, 100 to 150ft. 

An allied species /i . ^.r^/jfl ("Norfolk Island Pine") some- 
times has knots of enormous size. Mr. Holtzapfel (Turning and 
Mechanical Manipulation, i., 37) had portions of one which 
attained the enormous size of about four feet long, and four to six 
inches diameter. " In substance it is very compact and solid, of 
a semi-transparent hazel-brown, and it may be cut almost as well 
as ivory, and with the same tools, either into screws, or with 
eccentric or drilled work, etc. ; it is an exceedingly appropriate 
material for ornamental turning." 

Queensland. 



378 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

87. Araiicaria Cunninghamii, Ait., N.O., Coniferae, B.Fl., vi., 
243- 

Called variously " Moreton Bay Pine," " Hoop Pine," and " Colonial 
Pine." By the aboriginals of the Richmond River (New South Wales) it 
is called " Coorong," by those about Brisbane, " Cumburtu," and by those 
about Wide Bay (Queensland), " Coonam." 

The timber is an article of great commercial importance. It 
is strong and durable when dry, but it soon decays when it is 
exposed to alternate damp and dryness. When procured from the 
mountains in the interior of Queensland it is fine-grained, and 
susceptible of a high polish, equal to that of satin-wood or bird's- 
eye maple. (Hill.) The pine obtained from the mountains is 
preferred to that obtained from the low lands near the coast. 

A piece of this timber was exhibited at the London Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862, and is thus referred to: — "A noble 
specimen, which is remarkable for the peculiar figure set up, by a 
series of remote, small, pea-shaped, pale clouded knots, arranged 
in quincunx order, somewhat like drops of rain in general effect, 
and not easily described. The sap-wood appears peculiarly liable 
to rot." It yields spars 80 to looft. long, and one tree has been 
known to yield io,oooft. of timber. It is pale coloured, and 
extensively used for flooring and lining boards, also for punt- 
bottoms when kept constantly wet. It is apt to get of a dirty 
colour with age. The specific gravity has been given (Sydney 
jMint Experiments, i860) at .763. Two slabs of this wood in the 
Technological Museum, which have been seasoned over twenty- 
five years (having been exhibited at the London International 
Exhibition of 1862), have weights which correspond to 3olbs. 2oz. 
and 33lbs. 120Z. respectively per cubic foot, or, in round numbers, 
a specific gravity of about .5. 

Mr. Allen Ransome thus reports on a sample of this timber 
sent from Queensland to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition : 
"This is a rather harder and better wood than the last mentioned. 
{A. Bidwilli). It is of a light colour, with a straight grain, and 
planes very smooth with a rapid feed." Diameter, 36 to 66in. 
Height, 150 to 200ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 379 

88. Archidendron Vaillantii, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosse, Mueli. 

Cens., p. 47. 

Wood of a red colour, close-grained, strong, and durable. 

Queensland. 

89. Areca Noraianbyi, F.v.M., (Syn. Ptychosperma Normanbyi, 

F.v.M. ; Cocos Normanbyi, W. Hill); N.O., Palmeae, B.Fl., 

vii., 142. 

" Black Palm." 

Wood, or outer part of the stem, very hard and black, 
beautifully marked ; used in the manufacture of walking sticks ; 
about 50ft. high. 

Queensland. 

90. Argophylhm Lejourdanii, F.v.M., N.O., Saxifragese, B.Fl., 

ii., 436- 

Wood yellow, close-grained, and hard, but, of course, very 
small. A shrub of 6 to 8ft. high. 
Queensland. 

91. Atalantia glauca, Hook./., (Syn. Tnphasia glauca, Lindl.) ; 
N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 370. 

The " Native Kumquat," or " Desert Lemon." 
The wood is close-grained, and takes a fine polish. It is of 

a bright yellow colour, with numerous brown streaks or veins. 

Diameter, 2 to 6in. Height, 8 to 15ft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

92. Atalaya hemiglauca, F.v.M., (Syn. Ihouinia hemiglauca, 

F.v.M.); N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i. 463. 

Commonly called " Whitewood." 
A tall shrub, or small tree. Wood yellowish, hard, and of 
close grain. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

93- Atalaya salicifolia, Blume., (Syn. Sapindus salicifoliiis, DC.;- 
Cupania salicifolia, DC; Thouinia ausiralis, A. Rich.); 
N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 463. 



380 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Timber close-grained and hard, and takes a good polish. 
(Hill.) It is not endemic in Australia. Diameter, I4t0 22in.; 
height, 30 to 50ft. 

Northern Australia. 

94- Atherosperma moschata, Labill., N.O., Monimiaceae, B.FI., 

v., 284. 

" Sassafras." 

The wood is very suitable for sash and door work. It is 
useful to the cabinet-maker also, for it has a dark duramen, and 
frequently exhibits a pleasant figure ; it has also the quality of 
taking a beautiful polish. It is said to be peculiarly suitable for 
the sounding boards of musical instruments. It is close-grained, 
very tough, easily worked, and much esteemed for shoemakers' 
lasts, and also for carpenters' bench screws. Height, up to 100 
or 150ft. in Tasmania. 

New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. 

95- Avicennia officinalis, ^'ww., (Syn. A.iomenlosa, Jacq.); N.O., 
Verbenaceae, B.FI., v., 69. 

The " Mangrove," or " White Mangrove." The " Tchoonchee " of 
some Queensland aboriginals, and the " Tagon-tagon " of those of Rock- 
hampton (Queensland) ; and " Egaie " of those of Cleveland Bay. 

Its wood, when small, is valuable on account of its inlocked 
fibre, for stonemasons' mallets, and is used for knees of boats and 
vessels (Macarthur), also yokes for bullocks. The sawdust is 
particularly pungent and foetid. (Guilfoyle.) Its weight is 581bs. 
per cubic foot. In India it is by some considered a brittle wood, 
and used only for fuel. Major Ford, however, says it is used for 
mills for husking paddy, rice-pounders and oil mills, in the 
Andamans. (Gamble.) It discolours on keeping, and is very 
hard to dress, both on account of its chipping under the plane, 
and of the coarseness of the grain. It requires to be seasoned 
very carefully. A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, 
which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been 
exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a 
weight which corresponds to 49lbs. 30Z. per cubic foot. Diameter, 
2oin. ; height, 20 to 30ft. 



TIMBERS. 381 

In salt-water estuaries extending along the Australian sea- 
coast. 

96. BackhOTlsia Bancroftii, F.v.M. et Bail., N.O., Myrtaceae, 
Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886. 

" Langdon's Hardwood." 
Wood of a light-grey colour, hard, close-grained, something 
like teak, useful as a building timber; rather dark towards the 
centre in large trees ; splits straight and freely. (Bailey.) 
Johnstone River (Queensland). 

97- Backhousia Citriodora, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 

270. 

The wood is hard, fine-grained, and likely to be useful for 
ornamental purposes. It is of a light-pink colour. Diameter, 
9 to i2in. ; height, 18 to 20ft. 

Queensland. 

98. BackhoUSia myrtifolia, Hook, and Haw., (Syn., B. ripariay 

Hook.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 269. 
"Scrub Myrtle," or "Native Myrtle," or " Grey Myrtle." "Lance- 
wood." 

Wood close-grained, of a light-yellow colour, and often prettily 
marked with dark walnut stains. It is used for tool handles, 
mallets, etc. It is suitable for turnery, and perhaps for wood 
engraving. Boys (in the early days of the colony at least) used 
to make bows of this tough and durable wood. Diameter, 9 to i2in.; 
height, 20 to 40ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

99- Backhousia SCadiophora, F.v.M.; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

270. 

" Myrtle." 

Timber hard, close-grained, and prettily marked ; not generally 
used or known, but considered likely to be useful for wood 
engraving. Diameter, 24in. ; height, 80 to 90ft, 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



382 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

100, Baloghia lucida, E)idl. (Syn., Codiaum lucidum, Muell., 

Arg.); N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FI., vi., 148. 

" Scrub," or " Brush Bloodwood." Called also " Roger Gough." Used 
to be called " NuUiera " by Brisbane Water aboriginals. The " Nun-naia" 
of the aboriginals of the Clarence River, The " Dooragan " of some 
Northern New South Wales aboriginals. 

Wood fine and close-grained. It is impregnated with a resinous 
substance, and burns readily in a green state. It is of a buff or 
even light reddish-brown colour, apparently evinces no tendency 
to split, and is probably a very useful timber. Some specimens 
of it are rather pretty when polished. Two slabs of this wood in 
the Technological Museum, which have been seasoned over twenty- 
five years (having been exhibited at the London International 
Exhibition of 1862), have weights which correspond to 44lbs. and 
45lbs. 40Z. per cubic foot respectively. Diameter, 24 to 3oin.; 
height, 70 to Soft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

loi. Banksia Semilla, R.Br., (Syn., B. serrata, Cav. non Linn. f. ; 
jB. serrati/olia, Salisb.; B. serrce/olia, Knight; B. elatior, 
R.Br.; B. undtdata, Lindl.); N.O., Proteaceae, B.FI., v, 556. 

A shrub. Wood deep red, coarse-grained, prettily marked, 
shrinks unequally in drying ; an excellent wood for the cabinet- 
maker. (Cai. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

102. Banksia dentata, Linn.,/., N.O., Proteaceae, B.FI., v., 555. 

Wood of a dark-red colour, hard, close grained, and prettily 
marked. Height, 15 to 20ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

103. Banksia integrifolia, Linn., (Syn. B. spicata, Gaertn. ; 
B. oleifolia, Cav. ; B. macrophylla, Link. ; B. co7npar, 
R.Br.); N.O., Proteaceae, B.FI., v., 554. 

The ordinary name of a Banksia in the colonies is " Honeysuckle." 
This species is commonly called " Honeysuckle," or " Coast Honeysuckle," 
and " Beef-wood," from the colour and texture of the wood. It is the 



TIMBERS. 383 

*' Courridjah " of the aboriginals of Cumberland and Camden (New South 
Wales), and the "Pomera" of Queensland aboriginals. 

Timber tough; used for knees of boats, bullock yokes, etc. 
It is moderately dense, pinkish in colour, and beautifully grained ; 
suitable for fancy work ; very perishable when exposed to 
atmospheric influences, but otherwise durable. Specific gravity of 
wood, .799 ; weight of a cubic foot of dry wood about 5olbs. 
(Mueller.) Diameter, 8 to i2in. Height, 20 to 30ft. 

A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight 
which corresponds to 39lbs. per cubic foot. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

104. Banksia littoralis, R.Br., N.O., Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 547. 

This wood is beautifully grained, of a rich brown colour, and 
suitable for cabinet and inlaid work. Height, 20 to 40ft. 
Western Australia. 

105. Banksia marginata, Cav., (Syn. B. mkrostachya, Cav. ; B. 
oblongifolia, Lodd. ; B. australis^ R.Br. ; B. depressa, R.Br.; 
B. patula, R.Br.; B. insularis, R.Br.; B. Gunnn, Meissn.); 
N.O., Proteaceae, B.Fl., v., 553. 

" Honeysuckle." The " Wallum " of the aboriginals of Wide Bay 
(Queensland). "Woreck" of the aboriginals of the Lake Hindmarsh 
Station (Victoria). 

This wood is not of much utilitarian importance. It is 
remarkably porous, soft, spongy, and light. When full of sap and 
newly cut, it is not unlike uncooked beef in the centre, and 
towards the surface of a reddish-white colour, hence it has the 
appearance of well-grown beef, with a quantity of fat on the 
outside. In the process of drying it twists and warps to a great 
extent, but when thoroughly seasoned it admits of a fine polish, 
and has a very pleasing appearance. It is used for cabinet 
purposes and indoor ornamental work. (J. E. Brown.) A cubic 
foot of the wood, when dry, weighs 381bs., equivalent to a specific 
gravity of .598. (In the Repor/ 0/ /he Victorian Exhibition, 1861, 
the specific gravity is given as .610.) 



384 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Yield of charcoal 29.5 per cent. 

Crude wood vinegar ... 40.062 „ 

Tar ... ... ... ... 6.562 „ 

A ton of dry wood gave a maximum yield of I4|^lbs. of pearl-ash, or 
6|lbs. of pure potash. (Mueller.) Height, 10 to 20ft. 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

106. Banksia Serrata, Linn. /., (Syn. B. conchi/era, Gaertn. ; B. 
mill's. Knight ; B. dentata, Wendl. non Linn. f. ; B. media, 
Hook, f., non R.Br.); N.O., Proteacese. B.Fl., v., 556. 

" Honeysuckle." Formerly called by the aboriginals of Cumberland 
and Camden (New South Wales) " Wattung-urree." 

This tree produces a handsome wood, but it is always bored 
by the larvae of coleopterous insects. It yields a purplish, 
mahogany-coloured wood, of remarkable colour, of coarse, open 
grain, and strong ; forms a mottled figure in certain sections. 
Used for window frames. {Jurors' Reports, London International 
Exhibition, 1862.) It is available for boat and ship-building 
purposes, not being liable to split with nailing ; it is used as 
knees, etc., and would make good furniture. {General Report, 
Sydney International Exhibition, 1879.) Specific gravity, .803; 
weight of cubic foot of dried wood, about 5olbs. (Mueller.) Like 
other Banksia woods it requires to be seasoned very carefully. 
The figure of Banksia timber is quite per se, and can rarely be 
mistaken. A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, 
which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been 
exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has 
a weight which corresponds to 381bs. 140Z. per cubic foot. 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

107. Barkleya syringifolia, F.v.M, N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 
ii., 275. 

Wood hard, close-grained, and of a blackish-grey colour. It 
might be suitable for tool handles. This tree is, however, of 
greater value to the horticulturist than to the limber merchant, its 
pleasant foliage and luxuriant yellow flowers rendering it a pretty 
object in gardens. Diameter, 12 to I5in. ; height, 40 to 50ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 385 

108. Bamngtonia aCUtangula, Gaertn., (Syn. Stravadhim 
rtibrum, DC); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 288. 

A large tree ; the wood is hard and of a -fine grain, red, and 
equivalent to mahogany, according to Mr. McClelland. It is used 
in India for boat-building, well-work, carts, rice-pounders, and by 
cabinet-makers. Its weight is 461b. per cubic foot. (Gamble.) 
Beddome says it turns black when buried in mud. 

Northern Australia. 

109. Bamngtonia speciosa, Linn./., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
288. 

A large tree ; wood of a yellow colour, tough, and firm ; might 
be useful in cabinet-work. 
Queensland. 

no. Banhinia Carronii, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 

295. 

" Queensland Ebony." Called " Pegunny " by the aboriginals of the 
Cloncurry River, Northern Queensland (Myappe tribe), and " Thalmera " 
by the Mycoolan tribe. 

Wood light-brown, but becoming much darker towards the 
centre, hard, heavy, close in the grain ; suitable for cabinet-work. 
(CaL Queensland Timbers, Col. and Ind. Exh., i886.) 
South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

111. Bauhinia. Hookeri, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 
296. 

"Mountain," or "Queensland Ebony." " Warwor " of some Queens- 
land aboriginals. 

Wood supple and heavy; of a dark-reddish hue. Will answer 
well for veneers (Thozet). Diameter, 10 to 2oin. ; height, 
30 to 40ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

112. Bedfordia salicina, Z)C., (Syn. CacuUa salidna, Labill. ; 
Senecio Bed/ordii, F.v.M.; Culculitium salicinum, Spreng.) ; 
N.O., Compositae, B.Fl., iii., 673. Senecio Bed/ordii, in 
Muell. Cens., p. 84. 

2 c 



386 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

The " Dog-wood" of Tasmania, and the " Cotton-wood " of Southern 
New South Wales, on account of the abundant down on the leaves. 

A hard, pale-brown, well-mottled wood, said by some to be 
good for furniture. It emits a foetid smell when cut. Specific 
gravity of a steam-dried specimen, .896 (Osborn). It is little 
used in Southern New South Wales on account of its brittle nature. 
Mr. Bauerlen has pointed out that fresh shavings of this wood 
change colour in a remarkable manner. It is exceptionally 
difficult to season. Height, up to 30ft. 

Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

113. Beyeria visCOSa, Miq., (Syn. B. oblongifoUa, Hook. f. 
Crolon viscosum, Labill. ; Calyplrostigma viscosum.,YAo\.z'S,^. 
C. oblongifolinm, Klotzsch.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., vi 

64. 
" Pink-wood " of Tasmania. Sometimes called " Wallaby bush." 

" A tall shrub or tree." The wood is used for sheaves of 
blocks, and for turnery. It is remarkable for hardness and 
uniformity of colour and grain ; it is of a very pale-reddish 
mahogany hue. 

All the colonies. 

114- Blepharocarya involucrigera, F.v.M., Muell. Cens., p. 25, 

N.O., Sapindaceae. 

Wood of a light-red colour, of a close grain, soft, and easy to 
work. 

Queensland. 



115. BombaX malabaricum, DC, (Syn., B, heptaphyllum, Cav.; 

Salmalia malabarica, Schott.); N.O., Malvaceae, B.Fl., i., 

223. 

The " Malabar Silk Cotton Tree " (of India). 

A large tree ; in India this wood is not considered durable, 
except under water. It is light, coarse-grained, and soft. It is 
used for planking, packing-cases, tea boxes, toys, scabbards, 
fishing-floats, coffins, and the lining of wells. In Bengal and 
Burmah the trunk is often hollowed out to make canoes. The 



TIMBERS. 387 

weight of a cubic foot of the wood varies between 20 and 321b. 
(Gamble.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

116. Bosistoa sapindiformis, F.v.M., (Syn., Evodia pentacocca, 

F.V.M.); N.O., Rutaceae, B.Fl., i., 359. 

" Union Nut." The " Daurah," or " Towra," of the Queensland 
aborigines. 

Timber close-grained, yellowish, beautifully marked, easily 
wrought, and suitable for cabinet-work. It is, however, liable to 
split in drying. Diameter, 9 to I2in. ; height, 20 to 3ofl. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

117- Brassaia actinophylla, Endl, N.O., Araliaceae, B.Fl., iii., 

385. 

" Umbrella Tree," the large leaves being set, like umbrella-ribs, at the 
top of numerous stems. " Pinankaral " of the aboriginals. 

Wood soft, close-grained, and dark in colour. It is not durable. 
Diameter, 6 to i2in. ; height, 30 to 40ft. 

Queensland. 

118. Breynia Oblongifolia, Muell. Arg., (Syn. B. dnerascens, 
Baill.); N.O., Euphorbiaceag, B.Fl., vi., 114. 

Wood straw-coloured, close-grained, and firm, but, of course, 
quite small. A shrub of 10 to 15ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

119. Bridelia exaltata, F.v.M., (Syn. B. ovata var. exaltata, 
Muell. Arg. ; Amanoa ovata, Baill.) ; N.O., Euphorbiaceae, 
B.Fl.. vi., 119. 

The " Biggera-biggera " of the aboriginals of Northern New South 
Wales. 

This wood is brown, hard, and close in the grain ; some- 
what resembling walnut, and said to be as suitable for cabinet- 
work. Diameter, 24 to 3oin. ; height, 90 to looft. 
Northern New South Wales. 

120. Bridelia faginea, F.v.M., (Syn. Amanoa faginea, Baill.); 
N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.Fl., vi., 120. 



388 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" A tall shrub or small tree." Wood greyish-brown, mottled, 
becomes darker towards the centre ; an easily-worked wood ; 
suitable for cabinet-makers. (Cat. Queensland Timbers, Col. and 
Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

Queensland. 

121. BrugTiiera gymnorrhiza, Lam., N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.Fi.,. 

ii., 495. 

See 5. Rheedii. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

122. Bniguiera Rheedii, ^/«^<?, (Syn. B. australis, A. Cunn. ; 
B. Rumphii, Blume) ; N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.FI., ii., 494. 
B. gymnorrhiza and B. Rheedi are united by some authors. 

" Red Mangrove." The " Kowinka" of Queensland aborigines. 

This wood is hard and durable, and of a yellowish colour, or 
reddish brown, with the sap-wood lighter coloured. It is close- 
grained and coarse-fibrous, useful for many purposes, especially 
axe and pick handles. It is a common Indian tree. Gamble 
(Manual of Indian Timbers) gives its weight as 54lb. per cubic 
foot, and states that it is used for firewood, house posts, planks, 
and articles of native furniture. 

The aerial roots of this tree are used by the Fijians for makings 
bows. (Seemann, Flora Vitiensis.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

123. Buchanania mangoides, F.v.M., N.O., Anacardiace», MuelL 
Cens.,.p. 25. 

Called " Plum Tree " in Northern Australia. 
Wood of a pinkish colour, close in the grain, tough, and easy to 
work. (Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 
Queensland. 

124. Bursaria spinosa, Cav., (Syn. Itea spinosa, Andr. Also 
B. spinosa var. incana, Berith., (Syn. B. incana, Lindl.) ; 
N.O., Pittosporeae, B.FI., i., 115. 

"Native Box," or "Box Thorn." "Native Olive." "Kurwan" of 
the aboriginals at Coranderrk (Victoria,). " Geapga " of those of Lake- 
Hindmarsh Station (Victoria). 



TIMBERS. 389 

The wood is close-grained, wliite in colour, and takes a fine 
polish. It is used for turnery. Its scent is pleasant, but fleeting. 
Diameter, 6 to gin. ; height, 20 to 30ft. 

All the colonies. 

125. Cadellia monostylis, Benlh., N.O., Simarubeae, B.Fl., i., 
375- 

Wood of a yellowish colour, somewhat resembling some kinds 
of walnut and satin-wood. It is of a pretty grain, and would be 
useful for cabinet-work and for toy making. (Cat. Queensland 
Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

126. Callicoma serratifolia, Atidr., N.O., Saxifrageae, B.Fl., ii., 

440. 

" Native Beech." This is one of the trees called by the early colonists 
" Black Wattle," from the fancied resemblance of the flowers to those of 
some of the wattles. 

This wood has a reddish tint, and seems easy to work. 
Diameter, up to 12 in. Height, 50 to 60ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

127. Callistemon lanceolatus, DC, (Syn. C. marginatus, DC; 
C. scaler, Lodd. ; Metrosideros lanceolata. Smith ; M. citrina, 
Curtis, Bot. Mag.; M. lophantha, Vent.; M. marginata, 
Cav, ; M. rugulosa, Sieb. ; M. semperflorens, Lodd.); N.O., 
Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 120. 

" Red Bottle-brush." (The flowers of some species of Callistemon are 
like bottle-brushes in shape.) " Water Gum." The " Marum " of some 
Queensland aboriginals. 

Wood hard and heavy ; it is used for ship-building, wheel- 
wrights' work, and many implements, such as mallets. Its shavings 
will bind like a ribbon. Diameter, 12 to i8m. Height, 30 to 
40ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

128. Callistemon salignus, DC, (Syn. C paindus, DC; 

C lophanthus, Lodd, ; Metrosideros saligna, Smith ; 
31. pallida, Bonpl.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 120. 



390 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Called " Broad-leaved Tea-tree," *' River Tea-tree," " Stonewood," 
and " River Oak." It is the " Unoyie " of the aboriginals of Northern 
New South Wales. " Humbah " is another aboriginal name. 

Wood very hard and close-grained ; it has the reputation of 
being very durable underground. It has been used for engraving, 
but with no marked success. An engraving in which this wood 
is used will be found at page 50 of the Proc. Philosoph. Inst, of 
Victoria for 1859. ^^ varies in colour from a uniform drab to 
dark red, and some specimens have a very pretty grain which looks 
well under polish. It is fairly easy to work, and dresses admirably. 
Two slabs of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
have been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), have weights 
which correspond to 561b. 130Z. and 6olb. 120Z. per cubic 
foot respectively. Specific gravity .983 (6iilb. per cubic foot), 
[Report Victorian Exhibition, 1861). Diameter, 18 to 24in. 
Height, 40 to 50ft. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

129. Calophyllum inophylkm, Linn,, N.O., Guttiferse, B.Fl., 

i., 183. 

" Ndilo" (of India). 

Wood of a reddish colour, and pretty wavy figure, strong and 
durable; a useful wood for the joiner and cabinet-maker. 

This tree is also a native of India, where it is used for masts, 
spars, railway-sleepers, machinery, etc. The weight is 631b. per 
cubic foot, according to Kurz ; " the specimens received by me 
averaged 421b." (Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers^ 

Queensland. 

130. Calophyllum tomentosum, Wight, Muell. Gens., p. 8, (Syn. 
C. elatian, Bedd.) ; N.O. Guttiferae. 

" Poon Tree" (of India). 

This tree yields the Poon Spars of commerce, of which good 

ones fetch large prices. The timber is used for bridge-work in 

India, is of a red colour, strong, and durable ; it also is useful to 

the joiner and cabinet-maker. " Couch's experiments at Plymouth 



TIMBERS. 391 

Dockyard gave 36 to 431b. per cubic foot, mine gave 351b. per 
cubic foot." (Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers.) 
Queensland. 

131. Canarium australasicum, F.v.M., N.O., Burseraceae, B.Fl., i.. 

377- 

Wood of a grey colour, dark towards the centre ; works 
easily, and would suit for lining-boards of houses. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

132- Canthium blixifolium, Benlh., (Syn. Pledronia buxifolia, 
Benth.); N.O., Rubiacese, B.Fl., iii., 422. 

The various species of Canthium are tall shrubs or small 
trees. In this species the wood is of a light colour, close in the 
grain, and useful for turnery and cabinet-work. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

133- Canthium COprosmoides, F.v.M., (Syn. C. barbatum, Seem.; 
Pledronia barbala, Hook.f. ; Chiococca barbaia, G. Forst.; 
C. odoraia, Hook, et Am.) ; N.O., Rubiacese, B.Fl., iii., 422. 
Muell. Fragm., ix., 186. 

Wood dark yellow, streaked with a brown colour, very prettily 
marked or grained ; a useful wood for turnery and cabinet-work. 
(Cat. Queensland Woods, Col, and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

134- Canthium latifolium, F.v.M., (Syn. Pledronia latifolia, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Rubiacese, B.Fl., iii., 421. 

" Mogil-Mogil." " Wild Orange," or " Wild Lemon." 
A small tree ; the timber is hard and close-grained, but 

seldom used. It is, nevertheless, somewhat ornamental, being 

pinkish, with streaks of a darker colour. Diameter, 3 to 6in.; 

height, 16 to 20ft. 

In the interior of all the colonies except Tasmania and 

Victoria. 



392 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

135. Canthium lucidum, Hook, et Am., (Syn. C. lamprophyllum, 
F.v.M. ; C. odoratum, Seem. ; Plectronia odorata, F.v.M. ; 
Coffea odoraia, G. Forst. ; Ixora odorata, Spreng. ; Pavetta 
dubia, Endl.) ; N.O., Rubiaceae, B.Fl., Hi., 421 ; Muell. Cens., 
ix,, 185. 

Wood of a yellow colour, close-grained, tough, and nicely 
marked ; likely to prove useful for cabinet-work. ( Cat. Queens- 
land Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) Diameter, 6 to i2in. ; 
height, 20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales to Northern Australia. 

136. Canthium oleifolmm, Hook., N.O., Rubiaceae, B.Fl., iii., 422. 
Wood hard, close-grained, and capable of a high polish. 

Thozet says this shrub is met with in poor soil. Diameter, 5 to 
loin. ; height, 25 to 30ft. 

The interior of New South Wales and Queensland. 

137- Canthmm vacciniifolium, F.v.M., (Syn. C. mkrophyiium, 

F.V.M. ; Plectronia vacciniifolia. Hook, f.); N.O., Rubiaceae, 

B. Fl., iii., 422. 

Wood close grained ; used for walking-sticks. (Hill.) It is 
tough, and of a light-yellowish colour. Diameter, i to 4in. ; 
height, 20ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

138. Capparis Mitchelli, Lindl., (Syn. Busbeckia Mitchelli, 

F.v.M.); N.O., Capparideae, B.Fl., i., 96. 

"Small Native Pomegranate," "Native Orange" (from the size and 
shape of the fruit). " Karn-doo-thal " of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry 
River (Northern Queensland), and " Mondo " of the aboriginals of Central 
Queensland. 

The wood is whitish, hard, close-grained, and suitable for 
engraving, carving, and similar purposes. Sir Thomas Mitchell, 
who discovered this small tree, says {Three Expeditions, ii., 137), 
" The wood resembles lancewood so much as not to be 
distinguished from it." Diameter, 10 to uin. ; height, 14 to 20ft 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 



TIMBERS. 393 

139- Capparis nobilis, F.v.M., (Syn. Busleckia arborea, F.v.M.; 

B. nobilis, Endl.); N.O., Capparideae, B.Fl., i., 95. 
" Native Pomegranate." " Grey Plum." "Caper Tree." 

The timber is hard and close-grained, of a hght or whitish 
colour, and likely to prove useful for carving. Mr. C. Moore says 
it is occasionally used for whip handles. Diameter, 6 to i4in. ; 
height, 20 to 25 ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

140. Carallia integerrima, DC, (Syn. C. zeyianica, Am.; C. 

lucida, Roxb.); N.O., Rhizophorse, B.Fl., ii., 495. 

Wood light-coloured, but darkening prettily towards the centre, 
close in the grain, easy to work, and polishes well. It is used 
in Burmah for planking, furniture, and rice-pounders ; in Ceylon 
for furniture, and also for building purposes. The sap-wood is 
perishable, but the heart-wood is very hard and durable. Weight, 
471b. per cubic foot. (Gamble.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

141- Cardwellia SUblimis, F.V.M., N.O., Proteaceae, B.FL, v., 

538. 

Wood of a light colour, prettily marked ; perhaps suitable for 
cabinet-work. Height, 80 or 90ft. 
Central Queensland. 

142. Careya arborea, Roxb., var. (?) australis, F.v.M., (Syn. 

C. australis, F.v.M. ; Barringtonia Careya, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 289. Careya australis in Muell. Cens., 

p. 60. 

"Broad-leaved Apple Tree." "Barror" of some Queensland ab- 
originals. Variously called " Go-onje " and " Gunthamarra " by the 
aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (Northern Queensland), and "Ootcho" 
by the aboriginals of the Mitchell River. 

" A tree attaining a large size." Wood of a light-grey 
colour, red in the centre, close in the grain, and tough ; works 
easily, liable to crack unless very carefully seasoned. 

Of the typical C. arborea, Gamble says the wood was per- 
fectly sound after being stored for 50 years in Calcutta. The 



394 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

wood is little used in India except for agricultural implements. 
It is being tried for railway sleepers on some Bengal railways, 
but the result of the experiment is not yet known. It is used in 
Burmah for gun-stocks, house-posts, planking, carts, furniture, and 
cabinet-work. It stands well under water. Weight of cubic foot 
of wood about 541b. (Gamble). 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

143- Cargillia aUStralis, ^. 5/-., {^^yn. Maba Cargillia,Y.v.y[.', 
Diospyros Cargillia, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Ebenaceae, B.Fl., iv., 
288. Diospyros Cargillia in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 
The "Black Plum" of Illawarra (New South Wales), and the 
" Booreerra " of the aboriginals of the same district. 

Wood close, very tough, and firm, of little beauty, but likely 
to be useful for many purposes. It is very apt to get discoloured, 
and to rend in seasoning (Macarthur). It makes excellent whip- 
handles, and other light work. This forms one of the many 
timbers exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862. 
Most of the original specimens are in this museum, and this is the 
only timber of them riddled by xylophages. A slab of this wood 
in the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned over 
twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the Lontlon Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which corresponds 
to 52lb. per cubic foot, but, as already remarked, it is riddled 
with small holes. Diameter, 18 to 24in. Height, 60 to Soft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

144. Cargillia pentamera, F.v.M., (Syn. Mabapentamera, F.v.M. ; 

Diospyros pentamera, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Ebenaceae, B.Fl., iv., 

288. Diospyros pentamera in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 
The " Black Myrtle " and " Grey Plum " of Northern New South 
Wales, and the " Chowan " of the aboriginals of the same district. 

Timber reddish, close-grained, tough, and durable ; soft 
when fresh. It is not much used, except for tool handles 
occasionally, and for flooring boards. Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; 
height, 80 to 1 00ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 395 

145- Carissa OVata, R.Br., (Syn. C. Brownii, F.v.M.) ; N.O., 

Apocyneje, B.Fl., iv., 305. C Brownii, F.v.M., in Muell. 

Cens., p. 93. 
" Karey " of the aboriginals of the Rockhampton tribe (Queensland). 
" Ulorin " of the aboriginals of the Cleveland Bay tribe. " Kunkerberry " 
of the aboriginals of the Cloncurry River (Northern Queensland). 

A moderately hard and heavy wood, very clear, and works 
well. Along the grain are a number of narrow white pithy streaks, 
which causes the wood, in transverse section, to have a pretty 
dotted appearance. A slab of this wood in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 
been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), 
has a weight which corresponds to 561b. 140Z. per cubic foot. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

146. Caruiribmni populifolmm, Reinw., (Syn. C. populneum, 
Muell. Arg., (and other sp.) Omalanthus {Homalanthus) 
populifoUus, Grab.); N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.Fl., vi., 150. 
Oryialanthus populi/o litis in Muell. Cens. p. 21. 

" Queensland Poplar." 
Wood soft, and of a light colour. This tree is not endemic 

in Australia. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

147- Cassia BreWSteri, F.v.M., (Syn. Carthartocarpus Brewsteriy 
F.v.M.); N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 282. 

Wood pale-yellow, close-grained, and nicely marked. Height, 
up to 30 or 40ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

148. Cassinia aculeata, R.Br., (Syn. C. affim's, R.Br. ; C. adunca, 
F.v.M. ; Calea aciileata, Labill.) ; N.O., Compositse, B.FL, 
iii., 586. 

A shrub; the wood is white and hard. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

149- Cassinia Isevis, B.Br., (Syn. C. rosmarinifoUa, DC.) ; N.O., 
Compositse, B.FL, iii., 587. 



39^ AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Called " Wild Rosemary " in parts of Queensland. 

A rather slender shrub. . The wood is dark and beautifully 
marked, close-grained ; would be a very valuable wood cut in 
veneers for cabinet-work. {Cal. Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. 
Exh., 1886.) 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

.150- Castanospermum aUStrale, A. Cunn., N.O., Leguminosae, 

B.FL, ii., 275. 
"Bean Tree," or " Moreton Bay Chestnut." The " Irtalie " of the 
aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales), and 
" Bogum " of others of northern New South Wales. 

The timber is soft, fine-grained, and takes a good polish, but 
it is not durable. It is somewhat like walnut, but more pitted in 
appearance, and is occasionally used for cabinet-work. The 
beautiful dark cloudiness of the wood of young trees is lost as the 
trees grow older. It is sometimes split for staves. It dresses well. 
A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 391b. 8oz. per cubic foot. 

Mr. Allen Ransome tested some specimens sent to the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition. He thus reports : — " A beauti- 
fully figured, brown wood. The sample sent, being very wet, 
was tried under somewhat unfavourable circumstances. A baluster 
was turned from it, and some boards and panels planed, the work 
from both lathe and planing-machine being excellent. The wood 
should prove valuable for cabinet-makers, but should be thoroughly 
seasoned before being used, as it shrinks very much in drying." 
Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; height, 80 to 90ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

151- Casuarina spp, 

In Mr. Holtzapfel's Turning and Mechanical Manipulation, 
Casuarina timber is called " Botany Oak," and it is stated that it is 
shipped in round logs from 9 to i4in. in diameter. In general 
colour it resembles a full red mahoganj', with darker red veins ; 
the grain is more like the evergreen oak than the other European 



TIMBERS. . 397 

varieties, as the veins are small, slightly curled, and closely 
distributed throughout the whole surface. It is used in veneer for 
the backs of brushes, Tunbridge-ware, and turnery ; some specimens 
are ver}' pretty. 

Throughout the colonies. 

152. CasTiarina Cunninghamiana, i^%- '■ N.O., Casuaringe, B.Fi., 

vi., 198. 
From a fancied resemblance of the wood of Casuarinas to that of oak, 
these trees are called " Oaks," and the same and different species have 
various appellations in various parts. " Scrub She-oak." " River Oak." 

Timber hard, close, and prettily marked. It is used for 
shingles and staves. This and other Casuarinas burn well, and 
their ashes retain the heat for a long while. Diameter, 24in. ; 
height, 60 to 70ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

153- CaSUarina distyla, Vent., (Syn., C. stn'cta, Miq., non Ait.; 
C. Muelleriana, Miq. ; C. rt'gida, Miq.) ; N.O., Casuarineae, 
B.FI., vi., 198. 

" River Oak." " Stunted She-oak." 
The wood is strong, light, and tough. It is used for bullock 
yokes. (Hill.) In young trees the wood is white, but at a more 
mature age it is of a deep-red or brown colour. (J. E. Brown.) 
Diameter, 18 to 24in. ; height, 40 to 60ft. 
All the colonies except Queensland. 

154- CaSUarina equisetifolia, Forst., (Syn., C. murkata, Roxb.); 
N.O., Casuarineae, B. FL, vi., 197. 

" Swamp Oak," " Forest Oak," and " Bull Oak." Called also " Iron- 
wood" and " Beef -wood." Some Queensland aboriginals have bestowed 
upon it the name of " Wunna-wunnarumpa." 

Wood coarse-grained and beautifully marked ; it is used for 
fuel, and also for purposes where lightness and toughness are 
required. (Hill.) It is employed for log fencing, gates, and 
shingles. This, tree will live in somewhat saline soil at the edge of 
the sea. In India it grows on pure sand, and is .used. as fuel for 
railway purposes. For this purpose plantations of it have been 
made near Madras. The. ashes of this tree yield a quantity of 



398 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

alkali, which is used in some places to produce a coarse soap. The 
name " Iron-wood," which it sometimes bears, is given to it on 
account of its colour, hardness, and durability. The natives of the 
South Sea Islands make clubs of it. The weight per cubic foot 
varies from 551b. to 631b., according to Gamble. Diameter, 12 
to 2oin. ; height, 50 to 70ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

155. Casuarina Praseriana, Miq., (Syn. C. toruiosa, Miq. non 

Ait.) ; N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 199. 

" A tall, erect shrub, or small tree." The wood easily splits 
into shingles. It is the best furniture wood of South-western 
Australia, as it does not rend. (Mueller.) 

Western Australia. 

156. Casuarina glauca, Sieb., (Syn. C. /£?r«/oja, Miq. non Ait.) ; 
N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 196. 

" River She-oak." " Bull-oak." " Desert She-oak." " Swamp-oak," 
and " Belah " or " Billa." "Ngaree" of the aboriginals of Lake Hind- 
marsh Station (Victoria). 

The timber is strong and tough, and is used for staves, 
shingles, etc. ; also for rails, but not for posts. It is of a red 
colour, beautifully marked, close in the grain, but very brittle. It 
might be useful for cabinet-work. Diameter, 12 to 24in; height 
40 to 50ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

157- Casuarina inophloia, F.vJI. et Bail., Muell. Cens., p. 23. 

N.O., Casuarineae. 

Wood very beautiful, of a reddish colour, but with numerous 
dark marks, the grain close ; a very desirable wood for cabinet- 
work {Cat. Queensland Woods, Col. and Lid. Exh., 1886). 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

158. Casuarina Stricta, -A-lt. non liliq., (Syn. C. quadrivalvis, 
Labill. ; C macrocarpa, A. Cunn ; C. cristata, Miq. ; C 
Gunnii, Hook, f.); N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 195. C. 
quadrivalvis in Muell. Cens. p. 22. 



TIMBERS. 399 

"Shingle-oak," Coast She-oak," "River-oak," " Salt-water Swamp- 
oak." The " Worgnal " of the aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarence 
Rivers (New South Wales). 

Wood close, but not durable. (Hill.) It is tough, and yields 
2'] per cent, of charcoal, 43 per cent, of crude wood-vinegar, and 
7 per cent, of tar. The wood is of a reddish colour, and has 
dark bands running through it, chiefly in a longitudinal direction, 
which gives to the polished wood a fine mottled appearance, 
rendering it very suitable for the manufacture of furniture. It is 
also used in turnery, and for such articles as bullock-yokes, wheel- 
spokes, axe-handles, staves, shingles, etc. As fuel, it can hardly 
be excelled. (Mueller and J. E. Brown.) The appearance of this 
handsome wood is very difficult to describe, its heart-wood is darker 
and less handsome than the other portions. It works up 
splendidly. Two slabs in the Technological Museum, which 
have been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), have weights 
which correspond to 561b. 140Z., and 631b. per cubic foot 
respectively. In the Report Intercol. Exh., 186 1, the specific 
gravity of this wood is given as 1.037 (equivalent to 651b. per 
cubic foot), while the specific gravity of the wood of C cristata 
(included under this species), is given at .935 and .965 (58I to 
6o^lb. per cubic foot). The lighter (of the Museum samples) wood 
is also the lightest in colour of any Casuarina timber the author has 
seen. It is so light, and has so little figure that a second glance is 
necessary to be quite sure that it is Casuarina wood at all. Sir 
William Macarthur, who collected this variety, calls it "Salt-water 
Swamp-oak," and says of it: "Tall growing, found only near the 
margin of salt-water." Wood not much valued. Diameter, 9 to 
i5in. ; height, 20 to 30ft. 

All the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland. 

159- Casuarina SUberOSa, Otto et Dietr.,{^yn. C. kptodada, Miq.; 
C. mcBsta, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Casuarineae, B.Fl., vi., 197. 
On this tree a number of appellations have been bestowed, viz. : — 
" Erect She-oak," " Forest-oak," "Sw imp-oak," "Shingle-oak," "River 
Black-oak," and "Beef-wood." Formerly called " Wayetuck " by the 
Yarra aboriginals. 



400 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Timber used for bullock yokes, mauls, tool handles, shingles, 
etc. It is of great beauty for cabinet-work, but very apt to rend in 
drying ; it should be used only in veneers. (Macarthur.) The 
Yarra (Victoria) blacks used to make boomerangs of this wood. 
A ton of dry wood yields about 7ilb. of pearl-ash, or 4|lb. of pure 
potash. (Mueller.) A slab in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 591b. iioz. per cubic foot. Diameter, 24in. ; 
height, 40 to 50ft. 

All the colonies except Western Australia. 

160. CaSTiarina tonilosa, Ait., (Syn. C. tenuissima, Sieb.) ; N.O., 

Casuarineas, B.Fl., vi., 200. 

"Forest-oak." "River-oak." Called "Mountain-oak" in Queens- 
land. " Beef-wood." The " Noo-loi " of the aboriginals of Northern New 
South Wales, and the "Koondeeba" of those of Southern Queensland. 
" Bureutha" of some Central Queensland aboriginals. 

Much used for fuel. The wood is close, and prettily marked, 
yielding handsome veneers. This handsome wood has a marking 
peculiarly its own. The line of demarcation of the heart-wood is 
well-defined. It is used for cabinet-work, and produces very 
superior shingles. It is one of the best woods for oven fuel. 
A slab in the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned 
over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London 
International Exhibition of 1862, as C. tenuissima), has a 
weight which corresponds to 641b. per cubic foot. Diameter, 18 
to 24in. ; height, 60 to 80ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

161. Cedrela Toona, Roxb., (Syn. C. australis, F.V.M.); N.O., 

Meliaceae, B.Fl., i., 387. C. australis in Muell. Cens., p. 9. 

The "Cedar," or "Red Cedar" (a universal appellation in Australia). 

Called " Polai " by the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales, 

" Mumin," or " Mugurpul " by those about Brisbane, and " Woota" by 

those about Wide Bay (Queensland). The " Toon " Tree (of India). 

This timber is light, very durable, easily worked, and is 
largely employed in house joinery and furniture making; in fact 



TIMBERS. 401 

wherever lightness and durability are required. Its use, especially 
in New South Wales and Queensland, is so well known that it is 
unnecessary to dilate upon it. The junctions of the large 
branches with the stem furnish those beautiful curled pieces of 
which the finest veneers are made. Speaking of this wood the 
Jurors of the London International Exhibition of 1862 reported : — 
"A sideboard top made of veneers of root-pieces of this timber is 
of astonishing and perfect beauty, and resembles a rich marble." 
A slab in the Technological Museum, about two feet square 
and two inches thick, cut from near the root, is of great beauty. 
It has a beautiful vertical marking, and branching from this, on 
either side, are beautiful parallel markings. A piece eight feet 
across, cut from near a fork, is of still greater beauty. 

The following is taken from Gamble's Manual of Indian 
Timbers, speaking of C. Toona : " Weight of cubic foot about 
351b. The wood is durable, and not eaten by white ants; it 
is highly valued, and universally used for furniture of all kinds, 
and is also employed for door panels and carving. From Burmah 
it is exported under the name of ^ Moulmein Cedar,' and as 
such is known in the English market. In North West India it 
is used for furniture, carvings, and other purposes. In Bengal and 
Assam it is the chief wood for making tea boxes, but it is getting 
scarce, on account of the heavy demand. The Bhutias use it for 
shingles and for wood-carving ; they also hollow it out for rice- 
pounders. It is, or rather used to be, for very large trees are now 
rather scarce, hollowed out for canoes in Bengal and Assam." 
It is one of the " Chittagong woods " of commerce. 

Mr. Allen Ramsome thus reports on a Queensland specimen 
sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition : " This resembles the 
wood last mentioned (Dysoxylon FraseriantimJ, but is somewhat 
inferior. It is softer and lighter, and considerably coarser in grain. 
It planes and works very well, however, and would do for common 
cabinet-work. It is already known in the English market as 
* Moulmein Cedar.' " Mr. Ramsome could not have been given 
an average piece of cedar, but a very inferior one (and the finest 
timber in the world has some of inferior quality belonging to the 
same species), of he could not have written so lukewarm, or even 

2 D 



402 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



disparaging, a report on what the most disinterested person in the 
colonies knows to be a timber of the highest class. 

Campbell (Proc. R.S., Vict., 1879) gives 200olb. to 30001b. 
per square inch as the tensile strength of this timber. Diameter, 
36 to 78in.; height, 150 to iSoft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

CEDAR EXPERIMENTED UPON BY THE VICTORIAN 
TIMBER BOARD, 1884. 

The samples tested were each 7ft. in length by i|in. square ; the 

distance between the bearings was 6ft.; and the weight was 

gradually applied in the centre until the sample broke. 



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162. Celastrns bilocularis, F.v.M.,- N.O., Celastrineae, B.Fl., i., 
399- 

Wood of a light-grey colour, close in the grain, hard, and 
tough. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

163. CelastruS Cunninghamii, F,v.M.,{?>yn., Catha Cunninghamii, 
Hook.); N.O., Celastrineae, B.Fl,, i., 399. 

The wood is close-grained, easily worked, and likely to be 
serviceable for turning and cabinet-work. (Hill.) It is of a 
pinkish colour, nicely marked, and useful for cutting into veneers. 
Diameter, 12 to i6in. ; height, 20 to 3ofL 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 



TIMBERS. 403 

164. CelastruS dispermus, F.v.M., N.O., Celastrinece, B.Fl., i., 
399- 

Wood close-grained, and capable of a fine polish. (Hill.) 
Diameter, 3 to 5in. ; height, 12 to i6ft. 
Queensland. 

165. Celtis paniculata, Planch., (Syn. C. itigens, F.v.M. ; 
Solenostigma paniculatum, Endl. ; S. brevinerve, Blume.) ; 
N.O., Urticeas, B.FL, vi., 156. 

Wood white, soft, and pliable ; used for hoops for casks. 
(Hill.) This species is not endemic in Australia. Diameter, 6 
to I2in. ; height, 25 to 35ft. C. ausfralis, the " Nettle Tree*' of 
Europe, yields a highly-prized wood. It is used for furniture and 
carving, and the branches are extensively employed in making 
hay-forks, coach-whips, ramrods and walking-sticks. It is also 
used for flutes. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

166. Celtis philippinensis, Blanco, (Syn. C. strychnioides. 
Planch.); N.O., Urticeae, B.FL, vi., 156. 

" A tall shrub or stunted tree." Wood light-coloured, hard, 
and close-grained. This species is not endemic in Australia. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

167. Ceratopetalum apetalum, D. Don, N.O., Saxifrageae, B.FL, 
ii., 442. 

"Lightwood," " Coachwood," or "Leather-jacket." Formerly called 
" Boola " by the aboriginals of Illawarra, and " Ngnaa-rewing " by those 
of Brisbane Water. 

Wood light, exceedingly tough, good for joiners' and cabinet- 
work, and in much request for boat and coach building, too! 
handles, etc. It possesses an agreeable fragrance. It is said to be 
peculiarly well adapted for sounding boards for musical instru- 
.ments, stethoscopes, and similar purposes. It has no figure to 
speak of. A slab in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at 



404 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight 
which corresponds to 421b. per cubic foot. Diameter, 18 ta 
24in. ; height, 50 to 70ft. 
New South Wales. 

168. Ceratopetalum gummifornm, Smith, N.O., Saxifrage®, 

B.Fl., ii., 442. 

" Christmas Bush " (from being largely used in Christmas decoration). 
" Officer Plant" (from its bright-red appearance). " Lightwood." 

This wood is fine-grained, of a reddish colour, and is used 
occasionally by turners. It is useful for tool handles. A slab of 
this wood in the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned 
over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London 
International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which corresponds 
^0 4 lib. 140Z. per cubic foot. Height, up to 30 or 40ft. 

New South Wales. 

169. Cerbera Odollam, Gartn., (Syn. C. Manghas, BoLMag.); 
N.O., Apocyneae, B.FL, iv., 306. 

" An erect, tall, shrubby bush, or tree." Wood white, very 
soft and spongy, but of no great use. It is occasionally used for 
firewood in India. Weight, 2ilb. per cubic foot. (Gamble.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

170. Ceriops Candolleana, Am., (Syn. Rhizophora Timoriensis, 
DC); N.O., Rhizophoreae, B.Fl., ii., 494- 

"A tall shrub or small tree." This wood is used in Sind for 
the knees of boats, and other purposes ; in Lower Bengal for 
house-posts and for firewood. Its weight is 631b. per cubic foot. 
(Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers?) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

171. Chionanthus ramiflora, Roxb., (Syn. C. effmiflora, F.v.M.; 
Linociera ramiflora, DC. ; Z. effusiflora, F.v.M, ; Mayepea 
ramiflora, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Jasminese, B.Fl., iv., 301. Maye- 
pea ramiflora in Muell. Cens., p. 92. 

" Eurpa " of the aboriginals. 



TIMBERS. 405 

Wood dark grey, somewhat mottled, of close grain, and 
easily worked, yet hard and tough. This tree is not endemic in 
Australia. Diameter, 6 to i5in. ; height, 30 to 60ft. 

Queensland. 

172. Chrysophylhm prunifenim, F.v.M., (Syn. Niemeyera pruni- 
fera, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Sapotaceae, B.Fl., iv., 278. Niemeyera 
prunifera in Muell. Cens., p. 91. 

Wood of a uniform pale yellow colour ; close-grained, hard, 
and tough ; might be suitable for bent-work. Diameter, 12 to 
ioin. ; height, 30 to 70ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

173- Cinnamoimim Tamala, Th. iV.?<?j-, (Syn. C. LaubatU, F.v.M.; 
Laurus Tamala, Hamilt. ; L. Cassia, Roxb. ; C. albijlorum, 
Nees; C. Cassia, Blume.) ; N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 303. 

" Cassia Cinnamon." 

"A large tree." Wood of a light brown or grey colour, 
•close-grained, firm, strongly scented, and of a glossy surface. "Its 
weight varies from 35 to 4olb. per cubic foot." (Gamble.) It is 
not endemic in Australia. 

Queensland. 

174- CitriobatUS multifloniS, A. Cunn. N.O., Pittosporese, B.Fl., 

i., 121. 

" Orange Thorn." 

A shrub ; wood close in the grain, and very tough ; light 

coloured. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

175- CitriobatUS pauciflonis, ^. Cunn., (?>yn. Ixiospomm spines- 
cens, F.v.M.); N.O., Pittosporeae, B.Fl., i., 122. 

" Orange Thorn." "Karry " of some Queensland aboriginals. 

Wood close-grained, of a light uniform yellowish colour, and 
hard. Takes a good polish. This shrub has been suggested for 
•edges of borders in a garden. Diameter, 4 to 6in. ; height up 
to 15ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 



406 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

176- Citrus australasica, F.v.M., N.O., Rutaceae, B.FI., i., 37 K 

'■ Native," or " Finger Lime." 

The wood is close-grained, hard, and of a yellow colour. 
It may possibly be useful for wood engraving. Diameter, 6 to 
loin. ; height, 15 to 20ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

177- Citrus aUStralis, Planch., (Syn. C. Planchonii, F.v.M. ; 
Limonia australis, A. Cunn.) ; N.O., Rutaceae, B.FI., i., 371. 
C. Planchonii in Muell. Cens., p. 12. 

" Native Orange." 

The wood is hard, close-grained, and of a fine light yellow 
colour. It is of the same texture as the wood of the common 
orange. Diameter, 9 to i2in.; height, 30 to 40ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

178. ClaOXylon aUStrals, Baill., (Syn. Mercurialis australis^ 
Bail!.); N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FI., vi., 130. 

Wood of a light yellow colour, hard, and close-grained; 
useful for cabinet-work. (Ca/. Queensland Timbers, Col. and 
Ind. Exh., 1886.) Diameter, i to 2ft.; height, 50 to 60ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

179- Cleistanthus Cunninghamii, Mtcell. Arg., (Syn. Lebediera 
Cunninghamii,MnG\\. Arg.; Amanoa Cunninghamii, h^ixW.); 
N.O., Euphorbiaceae, B.FI., vi., 122. 

"A tall shrub." Wood hard, close-grained, and light 
coloured. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

180. Clerodendron tomentosum, R.Br., N.O., Verbenaceae, B.FI., 
v., 62. Clerodendrum, Muell. Cens. 

"A tall shrub or small tree." Wood of a light yellow colour, 
so soft and porous that it may be torn away with the finger-nail, 
and warping and splitting to such a degree that it is worthless as a 
timber. It cannot be dressed up for the simplest purpose, except 
with the expenditure of labour entirely beyond its value. A slab 
of this wood in the Technological Museum, which has been 



TIMBERS. 407 

seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 341b. 90Z. per cubic foot. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

181. COCOS nucifera, -^'>^«-, N.O., Palmese, B.Fl., vii., 143. 

"Cocoa-nut Palm." " Porcupine- wood." 
The hard shells of the fruit of this well-known palm are made 
into spoons, drinking cups, lamps, and fancy articles ; reduced 
to charcoal and pulverised, they afford an excellent tooth-powder, 
and very good lamp-black is obtained from them. The extremely 
hard wood obtained from the outer portion of the trunk is used in 
the construction of both houses and their furniture. In England, 
under the name of " Porcupine-wood," it is made into work- 
boxes, and other fancy articles. {Treasury of Botany) Attains 
a height of 70 or 80ft., but often only 30ft. in Australia. 
Queensland. 

182. CodonOCarpUS australis, A. Cun7t., (Syn. Gyrostemon 
attenuatiis, Hook.); N.O., Phytolaccacese, B.Fl., v., 148, 

" Bell Fruit." 
Wood soft and spongy, and of a light colour. Height, 30ft. 
Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

183. Coelospernmm reticnlatum, Benth., (Syn. Pogomlobus 

reticulatus, F.v.M.); N.O., Rubiaceae, B.Fl., iii., 425. 
" A scrubby shrub." Wood of a grey colour. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

184. Commersonia echinata, Forst., N.O., Sterculiacese, B.Fl., i., 

243- 

" Brown Kurrajong." 

A tall shrub or small tree; wood soft, close-grained, white, 
and light. This species is not endemic in Australia. 
Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

185. CordiaMyxa, -^'"/z., (Syn. C<//V/^o/<9zna, Forst.; C.Brownii, 
DC. ; C. latifolia, Roxb. ; C. ixiocarpa, F.v.M. ; C. obliqua. 



408 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Willd. ; C.polj'gama, Koxh.); N.O., BoragineEe, B.Fl., iv., 

386. 

The "Sebesten Plum" (of India.) 

The wood is soft, and is said to have furnished the timber 
from which the Egyptian mummy-cases were made. It is one of 
those used for preparing fire by friction in India. (Drury.) It is 
olive-coloured, greyish, or light brown, coarse-grained, easy to 
work, and strong, and seasons well, but it is readily attacked by 
insects. It is used for boat-building in India, for well curbs, gun 
stocks, and agricultural implements, and in Bengal for canoes. It 
might be tried for tea-boxes. It is an excellent fuel. The weight 
of a cubic foot varies from 281b. to 421b. (Gamble.) 

Queensland. 

186. Croton inSTllaris, Baill., (Syn., C. phebalioides, A. Cunn.); 
N.O.,Euphorbiaceae, B.FL, vi,, 124. 

" Queensland Cascarilla." "Warrel" of the aboriginals of Northern 
New South Wales. 

A tall straggling shrub or small tree. Wood of a yellow 
colour, close-grained, hard, and very tough. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

187. Croton phebalioides, F.v.M., (Syn., C.stigmatosus, F.V.M.); 
N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.FL, vi., 125. 

This timber has a yellowish colour, is close-grained and tough, 
but very liable to warp and split, and has some tendency to get 
dirty-looking with age. A slab of this wood in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 
been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), 
has a weight which corresponds to 51 lb. 20z. per cubic foot. 
Height, up to 50ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



188. Croton Verreauxii, -Brt:^'//., N.O., Euphorbiacese, B.FL, vi., 

126. 

" Native Cascarilla," , . 



TIMBERS. 409 

A small tree; wood of a yellowish colour, close-grained, 
and firm. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

189. CryptOCarya australis, Benth., (Syn. Laurus Bowiei, Hook. ; 
L. australis, A. Cunn. ; Oreodaphne Bowiei, Walp. ; Caryo- 
daphne australis, A. Braun); N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 299. 

" Laurel," or " Moreton Bay Laurel." and " Grey Sassafras." 
Timber light, easily wrought, and useful when not exposed to 

the weather. Owing to its smell, insects do not like it. Diameter, 

12 to 2oin. ; height, 80 to looft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

190. OryptOCarya Cinnamomifolia, Benth., N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., 
v., 298. 

Wood of fine grain, easy to work, and of light colour. Height, 
up to 40ft. 

Queensland. 

191 CryptOCarya glaucescens, R- Br., N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., 

v., 297. 

" Sassafras " (of the early days of New South Wales) ; even now 
called " Black Sassafras." "White Laurel." "She-beech," or "Beech." 
Called also " Black Beech." " Urri-burrigundie " of the aboriginals of 
Northern New South Wales. " Oorawang " of the aboriginals of Illawarra, 
and " Baa-nung " of the aboriginals of Brisbane Water (New South Wales). 

Wood soft, not durable, but useful, and not without beauty, 
(Macarthur.) It is used only for staves and inside work. 
Diameter, 18 to 24in. ; height, 70 to 80ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

192. CryptOCarya Meissnerii, F.v.M., (Syn. C. hypoglauca, 

Meissn. ; var. attenuata.) ; N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 298. 
" Leather-jacket." 

Timber white, close-grained, and tough ; probably a useful 
wood, and said to make good staves. Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; 
height, 80 to 1 00ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



4IO AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

193- Cryptocarya Murrayi, F.v.M., N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 

295. 

A large tree; wood of a dark colour, hard, and close-grained. 
Queensland. 

194. Cryptocarya obovata, R.Br., (Syn. C. hypospadia, F.v.M.); 

N.O., Laurineae, B.Fl., v., 296. 

"Sycamore," " White Sycamore," " Bastard Sycamore," "She-beech,'* 
"Flindosa," " Myndee." 

This tree produces a soft, whitish, and useful wood, useful for 
cabinet-work ; it turns darker with age. It is fairly durable when 
not exposed to the influence of the weather. It may undoubtedly 
be called a good wood ; it works admirably. A slab of this wood 
in the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned over 
twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which corresponds to 
34lb. 150Z. per cubic foot. Diameter, 24in.; height, 70 to Soft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

195- Cryptocarya triplinervis, R.Br., (Syn. Caryodaphne 
Browniana, Nees); N.O., Laurineae, B.FL, v., 297. 
A tall tree ; wood of a grey colour, close in the grain, and 

tough. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

196. Cudrania javanensis, Trie, (Syn. Morus cakar-galU, A. 

Cunn,; Madura javanica, Miq.); N.O., Urticeae, B.Fl., vi., 

179. 

" Cockspur Thorn." "Fustic." 

A shrub or small tree; wood dark yellow, and close-grained; 

a desirable cabinet wood. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

197- Cupania anacardioides, A. Rich.,^.0., Sapindaceae, B.FL, 

L, 458. 

"Brush Deal" and "Tuckeroo" arc Queensland colonial and aboriginal 
names respectively. 

A slender tree; the timber is occasionally used for house 
building purposes, but it is not generally valued. (Moore.) It is 



TIMBERS. 411 

of a light pinkish colour, close-grained, ^nd tough. It dresses 
well, and is not an ill-looking timber, but it cannot be called 
handsome. A slab in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 471b. per cubic foot. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

198. Cupania nervosa, F.v.M., N.O., Sapindace^, B.FI., i., 459. 
United with C. xylocarpa as a var. in Muell. Cens. 

" A moderate-sized tree." Wood of a light colour, but the 
centre dark ; the grain close. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

199. Cupanh psendorhus, A. Rich., N.O., Sapindacese, B.FI., i., 

459- 

" Iccaaya " and " Bunderoo " are aboriginal names on the Richmond 
and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales). 

Wood fine-grained, of a light pinkish-brown colour, and very 
tough. It would be excellent for pick handles. It shrinks some- 
what, but does not appear to split and crack. It is of very even 
texture. A wood-borer commenced boring into this slab, but 
although it was left undisturbed, it abandoned the enterprise after 
making a small and very shallow groove. A slab of this wood in 
the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty- 
five years (having been exhibited at the London International 
Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which corresponds to 431b. 
140Z. per cubic foot. Diameter, 14 to 2oin. ; height, 30 to 40ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

200. Cupania SemiflailCa, F.v.M., (Syn., Nephelium semiglaucum, 
F.v.M. ; Arytera semiglatica, F.v.M.); N.O., Sapindaceae, 
B.FI., i., 457. Muell., Fragm., iv., 158. 

" White Bark." " Black Ash." " Wild Quince." " Tyal-dyal " of 
the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. 

The wood soft, and, as yet, of no recognised value. (Hill.) 
Another authority, however, speaks of it as toughs close-grained, 



412 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

and elastic. It is white, and nicely veined by numerous wavy lines 

radiating from the centre. Diameter, 12 to isin. ; height, 50 to 

^oft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

201. Cupania serrata, F.v.M., N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 458. 

A rather light, clear-working wood, which polishes well, and 
reminds one very much of beech, but it is much more porous than 
ihat wood. It does not work well on the end-grain. A slab of 
this wood in the Technological Museum, which has been seasoned 
over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London 
International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which corresponds 
to 361b. 80Z. per cubic foot. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

-202. Cupania Xylocarpa, A. Cunn., N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., 

i-, 459- 
Called "Marsh Hickory" in Queensland, and "Wootorie" by the 
aboriginals of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales). 

Timber close-grained, and hard, particularly so when dry. 
(Moore.) It is tough, and of a light-yellow colour, the grain 
lesembling lance-wood ; it would be useful for making tool 
handles. (Ca/. Queensland Woods, Col. aiid Ind. Exh., 1886.) 
The samples under my charge are of the ordinary pinky-brown 
colour, peculiar to Cupania timber. It is apparently a useful wood 
for ordinary purposes, but seems to have nothing specially to 
recommend it. A slab in the Technological Museum, which 
has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited 
at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight 
which corresponds to 421b. loz. per cubic foot. Diameter, 12 to 
24in. ; height, 40 to 50ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

203. Cuttsia viburnea, F.v.M., N.O., Saxifrageae, Muell. Cens., 

p. 48. 

Wood white, close in the grain, and very tough. {Cat. 
Queensland Timbers, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 415 

204. Cycas media, R.Br., N.O., Cycadeae, B.Fl., vi., 249. 

Wood or outer part stringy ; the centre of the stem spongy. 
Of no use for timber purposes, but perhaps it might be useful to a 
limited extent for rustic-work. Height, from 10 to 20ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

205. Cynometra ramiflora, Linn., (Syn. C. bi'Juga, Span.) ; 

N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 296. 

Gamble says that this timber is used in India for native huts 
and for fuel. Its weight is 561b. per cubic foot. 
Queensland. 

206. Dacrydmm Franklini, Hook/., (Syn. D. Huonense, A. Cunn.); 
N.O., Coniferse, B.FL, vi., 245. 

" Huon Pine," or " Macquarie Pine." 
This wood is light and tough. Whaleboats are built of it. 
For boat-building it is peculiarly adapted, and it is also used for 
house-fittings. In the New Zealand Exhibition of 1865 there was 
shown a board of this timber which had been forty-five years in the 
same building, and was yet thoroughly sound. The old timber is 
so hard and durable that the fallen trees lie in the damp forests for 
many years without rotting. " The aroma is said to keep off insects. 
The beautiful marking of the butt, roots, etc., is peculiar, and 
quite unrivalled for pale cabinet-work." (Jurors Reports, London 
International Exhibition, 1862.) This invaluable wood has been 
so much appreciated that it is now quite scarce, and is, con- 
sequently, very expensive. Usually 60 to 80ft. high, but sometimes 
looft. 

Tasmania. 

207. Dalbergia densa, Benth.^ N.O., Leguminosse, B.FL, ii., 271. 

A small tree ; wood of a light colour, and close grain. 
Queensland. 

208. Lammara robusta, F.v.M., (Syn. D. Brownii, (garden 
name) ; Agathis robustSy Salisb.) ; N.O., Coniferse, B.FL, 
vi., 244. 



414 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

"Queensland Kauri," or " Dundathu Pine." 
Wood of a light yellow colour, close-grained, soft, and easy 

to work ; largely used by joiners and cabinet-makers. Diameter, 

36 to 72in. ; height, 80 to 130ft. 
Queensland. 

209. Daphnandra aromatica, Bail., N.O., Monimiaceae, Supp. 

Queensland Flora. (Bailey.) 

Wood of a light colour, not unlike deal, for which it would 
form a substitute, (Bailey.) 

Johnston River, Queensland. 

210. Daphnandra micrantha, Benth., (Syn. Atherosperma 
micrantha, Tul.) ; N.O., Monimiacese, B.Fl., i., 285. 

" Sassafras," " Light-yellow Wood," " Satin-wood." 
The wood of this tree-climber is soft and weak, and of little 
value except for packing cases. (Hill.) It is quite yellow 
when fresh, takes a fine polish, but it becomes dirty-looking 
with age, and is rarely pretty. It is fragrant, and might perhaps 
be suitable for cabinet-work, such as the making of cabinet 
drawers, shelves, etc. A slab in the Technological Museum, 
which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been 
exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a 
weight which corresponds to 431b, 8oz. per cubic foot. Diameter, 
18 to 24in.; height, 50 to Soft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

211. Daphnandra repandula, F.v.M., N.O., Monimiaceae, Muell. 
Cens., p. 3. 

Wood of a light colour, nicely figured, grain close ; probably 
it might serve for engraving. It clesely resembles English holly. 
(Cal. Queensland Woods Col. and Ind. Exh.^ 1886.) 

Queensland. 

212. Darlingia spectatissittia, F.V.M., (Syn. Helicia Darlingiana, 
F.v.M»; Kjiightia I>arltngii,^»\.'M..); N.O.,Proteaceae,B.Fl., 
v., 533- 



TIMBERS. 415 

Wood of a light brown colour, nicely marked, light, and firm ; 
a useful wood for both cooper and cabinet-maker. {Cat. Queens- 
land Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) 

Northern Queensland. 

213- Davidsonia pniriens, F.v.M., N.O., Leguminosae, Muell., 
Cens., p. 48. 

Wood dark-coloured, close-grained, hard, and tough. 
Queensland. 

214. Daviesia arborea, fF'. ^//Z, N.O., Leguminosse, Cat. Queens- 
land Timbers, S.I.E., (1879). 

" Queen-wood." 

This wood is hard, close-grained, with beautiful pink streaked 
lines, and takes a beautiful polish. It is destined to take a 
prominent position with cabinet-makers. {Cat. of Queensland 
Timbers, p, 65, No. 141, Sydney International Exhibition, 1879.) 
In the absence of a botanical description of Hill's species, I am 
unable to say whether it is identical with D. aborea, F.v.M. et 
Scortech,, in the Proc. Lifin. Sac, N.S.W., vii., 221 (1882). 
Diameter, 6 to i2in.; height, 15 to 30ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

215. Denhamia obsCTira, -^^<?''-rj»-. (Syn. D. xanthosperma,¥.v.M.; 
D. heterophylla, F.v.M. ; Leucocarpon obscuru7n, A. Rich.) ; 
N.O., Celastrinese, B.Fl., i., 401. Leucocarpon obscurum in 
Muell. Cens., p. 26. 

Wood fine-grained and tough. Diameter, 3 to 4in. ; height, 
12 to 15ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

316. Denhamia pittosporoides, F.vM., (Syn. Leucocarpon pittos- 
poroides, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Celastrineae, B.Fl., i., 402. Leuco- 
carpon pittosporoides in'hlvi^X: Cens., p. 26. 

The timber is hard, fine-grained, and takes a good polish. 
(Hill.) It is of a uniform pale-yellow colour, resembling English 



4l6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

elder, and suitable for engraving, pattern-making, and similar 
uses. Diameter, 6 to Sin. ; height, 20 to 30ft. 
Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

217. Derris uliginosa, -5<?«^^., (Syn. Pongamia uliginosa, DC); 
N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 272. 

The stems of this scandent shrub are used for tying logs to 
boats in parts of India. (Gamble.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

218. Dicksonia Youngise, C. Moore, N.O., Filices, B.Fl., vii., 713. 
Wood, or outer part of the stem, black, streaked with white, 

the dark very hard. This description applies more or less to the 
trunks of other tree-ferns. Diameter, 4in. ; height, 10 to 12ft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

219. Liospyros hebecarpa, A. Cunn., N.O., Ebenaceae, B.Fl., iv., 
286. 

Timber soft and elastic ; used for pick handles, etc. It is of 
a yellow colour, with numerous small black spots. Diameter, 
12 to i8in. ; height, 30 to 50ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

220. Diplanthera tetraphylla, R.Br., (Syn. Bulweria nobih'ssima, 
F.v.M. ; Tecomella Bulweri,Y.vM.; Deplanchea Bulwerii, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Bignoniaceae, B.Fl., iv., 540. 

" A moderate-sized, or sometimes lofty tree." Wood of a 
whitish colour, close-grained, and firm. (Cat. Queensland Woods, 
Col. atid Ind. Exh., l%%(i.) 

Queensland. 

221. Diploglottis Cunninghamii, Hook. /., (Syn. Cupania 
australis, Hook, f.; C. Cunninghamii, Hook, f.; Stadmannia 
australis, Don.); N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 453. 

"Tamarind-tree," " Burrunedura " of the aboriginals of Illawarra, 
and " Acouloby " and " Toonoum " of those of Northern New South 
Wales. 



TIMBERS. 417 

Wood white, close-grained, and firm. (Hill.) " It appears 
that if properly cut it would yield an excellent figure for cabinet- 
work." {yurors Reports, London Inlemaiional Exhibition, 
1862.) This description may be supplemented by saying that its 
usual colour is something between drab and flesh colour ; it has 
a pretty wavy end-grain ; it dresses excellently on the face, but 
not on the end-grain. Two slabs of this wood in the Techno- 
logical Museum, which have been seasoned over twenty-five years 
(having been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 
1862), have weights which corresponds to 381b. 90Z. and 5olb. 
80Z. per cubic foot. These determinations have been carefully 
made, and the author has no reason to suppose that the woods are 
mis-named. No date as to the respective ages of the trees, or as 
to the parts of the tree whence the slabs were taken, are in my 
possession. Diameter, 12 to 24in. ; height, 50 to looft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

222. Dissiliaria baloghioides, F.v.M., N.O., Euphorblaceae, B.Fl., 

vi., 90. _ ' 

"Teak." The " Currungul " of the aboriginals. 

Timber hard, close-grained, and durable; brown in colour, 
becoming darker towards the centre; might be useful for any 
purpose to which the English apple is put, and which the wood is 
thought to resemble. {Cat. Queensland Timbers, Col. and hid. 
Exh., 1886.) Diameter, 18 to 3oin. ; height, 40 to 60ft. 

Queensland. 

223. Dodonaea attenuata, A. Ctmn., (Syn. D. Preissiana, Miq.); 
N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 477. Incl. under D. viscosa in 
Muell., Cens., p. 25. 

Specific gravity of the wood, 1.022. (Report, Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861.) 
All the colonies. 

224. Dodonsea triqUQtra, Andr., (Syn. D. laurina, Sieb. ; D. 
longipes, G. Don) ; N.O., Sapindacese, B.Fl., i., 474. 

" Hop Bush " (the name for all species of Dodoncea). " Kinjenga- 
kilamul " of some Queensland aboriginals, and " Wallam-bunnang " by 
some near Camden. 
2 D 



4l8 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Dodonoeas are shrubs. Wood of a light colour, except near 
the centre ; close-grained. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

225. Dodonsea visCOSa, Linn., (Syn. D. dioka, Roxb. ; D. angusii- 
folia, Linn, f.) ; N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 475. 

" Watchupga" of the aboriginals at Lake Hindmarsh Station (Victoria) . 
The " Switch-Sorrel" of Jamaica. 

Wood of a brown colour, close-grained, and hard. It is 
used in India for engraving, turning, tool handles, and walking- 
sticks, and the branches to support the earth of flat roofs. 
(Gamble.) 

All the colonies. 

226. Lodonsea visCOSa, Benth, var. spathulata, (Syn. D. viscom, 
var. asplenifoUa, Hook f. ; D. spathulata^ Smith ; D. con/erta, 
G. Don) ; N.O., Sapindaceae, B.Fl., i., 476. 

This wood is exceedingly dense, close-grained, and durable, 
of a very flinty nature, so much so that the edge of a well-tempered 
axe is often broken when it comes in contact with this tree. The 
heart-wood is greenish-black, streaked with rose. It is fit for 
sheaves of ships' blocks, rulers, treenails, turnery, inlaid work, and 
for many other purposes. (Guilfoyle.) 

South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

227. Loryphora sassafras, Endl., N.O., Monlmiacese, B.Fl., v., 
283. 

" Sassafras." The following are, or were, some of its New South 
Wales aboriginal names : — " Caalang," Illawarra ; " Tdjeundegong," Bris- 
bane Water ; " Boobin," northern districts. 

The timber is fragrant, and disagreeable to all kinds of 
vermin ; it is soft and weak, yet suitable for the inside lining of 
houses, for some kinds of furniture, etc. It is also used for 
packing-cases. It is light in weight, and light coloured, and 
sometimes presents a neat figure, but the author does not think it 
can be durable. Diameter, 2 to 3ft. ; height, over 50ft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 419 

228. Dracaena angustifolia, Roxb., (Syn. D. refiexa, F.v.M. ; 

Cordyline Rumphii, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Liliaccce, B.Fl., vii., 20. 

Wood, or the outer hard portions of the stem, of a light 
colour, the rest very soft and spongy. Height, 6 to 12ft. 
Queensland and Northern Australia. 

229. Duboisia myoporoides, R.Br., (Syn. Nolelcea Ugustrina, 
Sieb.); N.O., Scrophularinese (in Muell. Cens., referred to 
Solaneae) ; B.Fl., iv., 474. 

"Corkwood." "Elm." " Onungunabie" is the name by which it is 
known to the aboriginals of the Clarence River (New South Wales). 
" Ngmoo " is another aboriginal name. 

Timber white or yellowish, soft, close-grained, and firm, though 
succulent in a green state. It is used for carving and wood- 
engraving. Its bark resembles that of the Cork Oak. The late 
Mr. Macpherson, teacher of wood-carving in the Technical College, 
Sydney, informed the author that he was using large quantities of 
this wood, and was much pleased with it. On the face-grain it 
gives a clean surface with facility, but it is very difficult to work on 
the end-grain. It has no figure to speak of. Two slabs of this 
wood in the Technological Museum, which have been seasoned 
over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the London 
International Exhibition of 1862), have weights which correspond 
to 3olb. and 3olb. 120Z. respectively per cubic foot. Diameter, 
12 to 24in.; height, 20 to 25ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

230. DySOXylon Fraseriamim, Benth., (Syn. Hartighsea Fraseri- 
ana, A. Juss.) ; N.O., Meliaceae, B.Fl., i., 381. Dysoxylum 
in Muell. Cens, 

Called variously " Rosewood," " Pencil Cedar," and " Bog-onion." 
It is called " Bullerum " by the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. 
Timber fragrant, and much valued for indoor work, furniture, 
cabinet-work, turning, wood engraving, and ship-building. 

Speaking of a Queensland specimen sent to the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, Mr. Allen Ransome says: "This wood is 
of a reddish colour, with a good figure. It worked excellently in 



420 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

the machines, and planes especially well. If it can be imported 
at a reasonable price it might take the place of mahogany." 
Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 50 to 70ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

231. DySOXylon Muelleri, Benth., N.O., Meliacese, B.Fl., i., 381. 

" Pencil Cedar," or " Turnip-wood." The " Kidgi-kidgi," or " Kedgy- 
kedgy," of the aboriginals of Northern New South Wales. 

Timber of a rich red colour ; used for cabinet-making and 
window work. When fresh cut the wood has much the smell of 
a Swedish turnip. It easily splits, and is undoubtedly a most 
valuable wood, though the statement that it is equal to Spanish 
mahogany is probably an exaggeration. Diameter, 20 to 4oin. ;: 
height, 70 to Soft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

232. Lysoxylon oppositifolium, F.v.M., N.O., Meliacese. Muell. 
Cens., p. 9. 

Wood with a small prettily-marked heart- wood, and a large 
quantity of yellow wood towards the bark ; grain close, easily 
worked, and fragrant ; a useful wood for both joiner and cabinet- 
maker. 

Queensland. 

233. DysOXylon nifum, Benth., (Syn. Hartighsea rtifa, A. Rich.) ,- 
N.O., Meliacese, B.Fl., i., 382. 

" Bastard Pencil Cedar." 

The wood is nicely grained, and used for various purposes, 
but principally for cabinet-work. (Hill.) Diameter, i8 to 24in. ; 
height, 40 to 50ft. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

234. EchinOCarpUS aUStralis, Betith., (Syn. Sloanea austrah's,. 
F.V.M.); N.O., Liliaceae, B.Fl., i., 279. Sloafiea australis in 
Muell. Cens., p. 17. 

" Maiden's Blush." The " Kerabin," or " Yaarum," of the Northern. 
New South Wales aboriginals. 

Timber soft and durable ; fine pieces may be used for cabinet 
and ornamental purposes. It is of a delicate rosy colour when 



TIMBERS. 421 

freshly cut, but this soon fades hito light yellowish brown. A 
slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which has been 
seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
■corresponds to 391b. per cubic foot. Diameter, 2 to 4ft. ; height, 
80 to 1 00ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

-235. Ehretia acuminata, R.Br., N.O., Boragine^, B.Fi., iv., 387. 

" Brown Cedar." 

Wood light brown, grain coarse, firm, easy to work ; closely 
resembling English Elm. {Cat. Queensland Timbers, Col. and 
Ind. Exh., 1886.) Height, 20 to 30ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

-236. ElseagmiS latifolia, Liim., (Syn. E. conferta, Roxb. ; E. 
ferrugmea, A, Rich.) ; N.O., Eleasagnese, Muell. Cens., p., 64. 

Speaking of an Indian-grown specimen, Gamble says : 
"The weight of this wood is 451b. per cubic foot." 
Queensland. 

237- Elseocarpus Bancroftii, F.v.M. et Bail, N.O., Tiliacese. 
Proc. R.S., Queenslatid, 1885. 

Wood hard and durable, light, with a darker colour in the 
centre; likely to prove useful for sheaves for blocks. (Ca/. 
Queensland Woods, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) It considerably 
resembles the American lignum vitm, for which, indeed, it might 
form a good substitute. (Mueller.) Diameter, over 2ft. ; height, 
over 1 00ft. 

Queensland. 

238. Elseocarpus Cyaneus, Ait., (Syn. E. reticulatus, Smith); 

N.O., Tiliace^, B.FI., i., 281. 

"Native Olive." "White Boree." "White Bark." "Blueberry 
Ash," in Southern New South Wales. 

This wood is dark-coloured inside, with white sap-wood, and 
very tough. It makes good handles and poles. (General Report, 
Sydney Intertiational Exhibition, 1879.) It is suggested as a 



422 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

wood for engraving, and by some it has been likened to English 
Ash. Diameter, 12 to isin.; height, 40 to 50ft. 

Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

239. Elseocarpus grandis, F.v.M., N.O., Tiliacese, B.Fl., i., 281. 
" Blue Fig " and " Brisbane Quandong " of the colonists. " Callhum," 

" Calhun," or " Cullangun " of the Queensland aboriginals. 

The wood is soft, and easily worked. It is likely to be 
serviceable for brakes for railway carriages. (Hill.) Diameter, 
24 to 36in.; height, 90 to looft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

240. Elseocarpus holopetalus, F.v.M., N.O., Tiliaceae, B.FI., i., 
281. 

"Blueberry Ash." "Prickly Fig." Called " Madda-gowrie " in the 
Bombala district of New South Wales, owing to its supposed resemblance 
to a New Zealand tree bearing that name. 

This wood is white, close-grained, and good for joiners' work. 
(Macarthur.) Baron Mueller speaks of it as "exquisite for 
cabinet-work." A slab of this wood in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 
been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), 
has a weight which corresponds to 371b. 70Z. per cubic foot. 
Diameter, 12 to 24in. ; height, 60 to Soft. 
Victoria and New South Wales. 

241. ElaeocarpUS Kirtoni, F.v.M. inedil., N.O., Tiliaceae; Supp. 
Syn. Queensland Fl. (Bailey). 

" White Beech." E. reticulata, var. Kirtoni, is known as " Illawarra 
Ash," or " Mountain Ash." 

Wood light-brown, fine-grained, and suitable for furniture. 
It somewhat resembles English Sycamore. A specimen of timber 
from Southern New South Wales in the Technological Museum 
has been pronounced by Baron Mueller to be F. reticulata, var. 
Kirtoni (.' = E. Kirtoni). It is said to get very hard after 
drying, but will not stand for outside work ; locally it is being 
used for flooring-boards, and it is being tried for butter-kegs. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 



TIMBERS. 423 

242. ElseOCarpUS longifolia, C. Moore, ined., N.O., Tiliaceae. 

" Mountain Ash " of Illawarra, the " Miltary-miltary " of Northern 
New South Wales. 

This wood is close-grained, elastic, and easily worked ; it is 
used by wheelwrights, and for oars. {General Report, Sydney 
International Exhibition). It has a white sap-wood and a brown 
heart. 

New South Wales. 

243- ElseOCarpUS obovatUS, G. Don., (Syn. E. parviflorus, A. Rich. ; 

E. pauciflorus, Walp.) ; N.O., Tiliaceae, B.Fl., i., 281. 
" Ash " (Ash Island, Hunter River, New South Wales, owes its name 
to this tree), " Pigeon-berry Ash," " Chereen " of the aboriginals of 
Northern New South Wales, and " Woolal " of those of Queensland. 

This wood is white, hard, tough, and used for oars, etc. It 
is firm, and easy to work. Diameter, 24 to 3oin. ; height, 80 
to 90ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

244. Elseodendron aUStrale, Vent., (Syn. Portemchlagia aiistralis, 

Tratt.); N.O., Celastrineae, B.Fl., i., 402. 
"White Cedar." " Blue Ash." "Couraivo" is an aboriginal name. 

Timber close-grained, pinkish, and prettily marked, but it is 
apt to split in seasoning. It is very valuable for staves, oars, and 
shingles. (General Report, Sydney International Exhibition, 
1879.) A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which 
has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at 
the London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 491b. 8oz. per cubic foot. Diameter, 4 to i2in. ; 
height, 20 to 30ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

245- Elseodendron melanocarpum, F.v.M., N.O., Ceiastrinese, 

B.Fl., i., 403. 

" Korawal " of some Queensland aboriginals. 
Wood tough, of a light colour, and fine grain. Diameter, 4 
to loin. ; height, 40 to 60ft. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 



424 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

246. Emmenospermum alphitonioides, F.v.M., N.O., Rhamneae, 

B.FL, i., 415- 

" Dogwood," or " Mountain Ash." 

Timber durable and straight-grained ; excellent for staves, 
oars, wheelwrights' work, tool handles, and for boat-building ; also 
esteemed for general building purposes. Diameter, 24 to 30in. ; 
height, 130 to 170ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

247- Endiandra glauca, R.Br., N.O., Laurinese, B.FL, v., 300. 

" Teak." " Murrogun " of the aboriginals of Brisbane Water, near 
Sydney. 

The wood is hard, close, and fine in grain, the duramen dark 
coloured, and frequently very handsome, with a powerful aromatic 
fragrance throughout when fresh. It is said to be a very valuable 
timber. (Macarthur.) It is used to a limited extent for cabinet 
and ornamental purposes. Diameter, 18 to 2 4in. ; height, 70 to 
Soft. 

Queensland and New South Wales. 

248. Endiandra Sieberi, Nees, N.O., Laurineas, B.FL, v., 301. 
"Corkwood." "Till" of the aboriginals. 

Timber light brown, soft, and easily worked ; suitable for 
cabinet-work and tool handles. Diameter, 18 to 2 4in. ; height, 80 
to 90ft. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

249- Endiandra virens, F.V.M., N.O., Laurine^, B.FL, v., 302. 

A tall shrub or tree, attaining a considerable height. Wood 
of a grey colour, close-grained, and firm ; useful for many 
purposes. 

Northern New South Wales and Queensland. 

250. Entada SCandens, Benth., (Syn. E. Purscetha, DC; Mimosa 
sca7idens, Linn.); N.O., Leguminos^, B.FL, ii., 298. £. 
PiirscEtha in Muell. Cens., p. 43. 

"Queensland Bean." 
This climbing plant is a native of the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres, and the pods often measure six or eight feet in length. 



TIMBERS. 425 

The seeds are about two inches across, by half-an-inch thick, and 
have a hard woody and beautifully polished shell, of a dark brown 
or purplish colour. These seeds are converted into snuff-boxes, 
scent-bottles, spoons, etc., and in the Indian bazaars they are used 
as weights. {Treasury of Botany.) In the colonies we usually see 
the beans of this plant mounted with silver, as match-boxes. The 
wood itself is soft, fibrous, and spongy. 
Queensland. 

251- Eremophila bignoniseflora, F.v.M., (Syn. SienochUus hig- 

nonicEjIorus, Benth.); N.O., Myoporinse, B.FL, v., 25. 
" Pombel " of some Queensland aboriginals. 

Wood fragrant, and most elegantly marked with green and 
yellowish figures ; it takes a high polish. (Thozet.) It is close- 
grained and hard, with a pretty green and yellowish figure. If well 
cut it would produce a good bold figure. (Jurors Reports, 
London International Exhibition, 1862.) Diameter, 6 to I2in.; 
height, 20 to 30ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania and Western Australia. 

252. Eremophila longifolia, F.v.M., (Syn. StenochHus longi/oUus. 
R.Br.; -S". salicinus, Benth,; .S". pubiflorus, Benth.); N.O., 
Myoporinese, B.Fl., v., 23. 

"Emu Bush." " Berrigan " of aboriginals of the interior of New 
South Wales. 

The timber is brittle, and not used. " Specific gravity, .925." 
(Report, Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) Diameter, 4 to Bin.; 
height, 10 to 15ft. 

All the colonies except Tasmania. 

253. Eremophila Mitchelli, Benth., N.O., Myoporineae, B.Fl., 
v., 21. 

"Sandal-wood" or " Bastard Sandal-wood." " Rosewood." "Balvory" 
of some Queensland aboriginals. 

Wood very hard, brown, beautifully grained, and very 
fragrant. It affords handsome veneers for the cabinet-maker. 
Owing to a strong aromatic odour, resembling that of sandal-wood, 
furniture made of this timber is said to be free from the attacks 
of insects. (Thozet.) 



426 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" It is said that this wood will keep away the Blatta or cock- 
roach. I cannot confirm this statement. I had a good-sized 
billet cut and planed, and the odour from it was so strong as to 
perfume one of my trunks in which it was placed, but the cock- 
roaches treated it with the utmost disdain. They ran over it and 
laid their eggs under it just as if it had been put there for their 
accommodation." (Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. W.^ 
vii., 574.) Diameter, 9 to i2in, ; height, 20 to 30ft. 

South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

254. Eremophila Sturtii, R-Br., N.O., Myoporineae, B.Fl., v., 2u 

" Scentless Sandal-wood." 
A tall shrub ; wood of a grey colour, hard, close-grained,, 
and nicely marked. 

South Australia and New South Wales. 

255. Erythrina indica, Lam., (Syn. E. Corallodendron, Forst.,. 
non Linn.); N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., ii., 253. 

" Indian Coral Tree." 

In India and the Straits Settlements this tree is employed for 
supporting the weak stems of the pepper plant, for which purpose 
it is kept dwarf. It affords a very soft, porous wood, greatly 
used in India for making toys, light boxes, and similar articles, 
which are usually overlaid with a thick coating of varnish or 
lacquer. (^Treasury of Botany?^ Its weight is about i81b. to the 
cubic foot (Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers). It is soon 
attacked by insects. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

256. Erythrina vespertilio, Bent ham, N.O., Leguminosae, B.Fl., 

ii., 253. 

"Batswing Coral." "Coral Tree." "Cork Tree." " Heilaman 
Tree." " Wotheugn " of some Queensland aboriginals. 

The wood is soft, and used by the aborigines for making 
their " heilamans," or shields. It is exceedingly light and spongy,, 
and of the greatest difficulty to work up to get anything like a 
surface for polishing. A slab of this wood in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 



TIMBERS. 427 

been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), 
has a weight which corresponds to i61b. 70Z. per cubic foot. It 
might perhaps be useful for floats for fishing-nets. M. Thozet 
states that the logs used to be used by the aboriginals for cross- 
ing rivers and creeks. Diameter, 12 to 2 5in. ; height, 30 to 40ft. 
South Australia, Queensland, Northern Australia and 
Western Australia. 

257. Erythrophlseum Laboucherii, F.v.M., (Syn. Laboucheria 

chlorostachys, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Leguminosse, B.Fl., ii., 297. 
" Ah-pill" of the aboriginals of the Mitchell River (North Queensland). 
Probably the " Leguminous Ironbark," frequently mentioned by Leichhardt^ 
Overland Journey to Port Essington. 

Wood red, very hard, the hardest in Australia, close-grained,. 
and very durable. {Cat. Queensland Timbers, Col. and Ind Exh., 
1886.) 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

258. Erythroxylon australe, F.v.M., N.O., Lineae, B.Fl., i., 284.- 

Erythroxylum in Muell. Cens. 

Wood hard and tough, and takes a good polish ; it can be 
used for cabinet-work ; it is red, and prettily marked. Diameter,. 
4 to I sin.; height, 20 to 30ft. 

Queensland. 



EUCALYPTUS TIMBERS. 

[Preliminary Remarks.] 

Scarcely a branch of Australian economic botany is in a more 
confused state than that which pertains to the timber of the 
Eucalypts. The genus is perhaps the most difficult one in the 
world, intrinsically, and also because of accidental circumstances,. 
i.e., difficulty of obtaining flowers and fruit, and irregular flowering- 
seasons ; moreover, the trees vary according to climate and soil to- 
such an extent as to render the definition of a species rather 
expansive, and as this difference often extends to the wood, timbers- 
of totally different character are sometimes reckoned under the 
same species. 



428 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

In consequence, the botanical synonyms are very numerous, 
and this being so, the non-botanist must not be upbraided for his 
formidable list of vernacular names. These names have been 
given at some length in the following pages, as a practical know- 
ledge of Eucalyptus timbers cannot be dissociated from them, and 
surely no other genus has ever been honoured by such a number. 
The author believes that it will be found that some of the vernacu- 
lar names given have been assigned to wrong species by some 
observers, but he offers the notes as a contribution towards the 
compilation of a glossary of Eucalypt names. He would be grateful 
for corrections and criticisms. 

Mr. Bauerlen informs the author of his belief that species of 
Eucalyptus can be unerringly determined by means of the leaf- 
galls. He made the observation at first very diffidently, but 
subsequent experience seems to bear out his view to some extent. 
The author is aware that the late Mr. W. Sharp Macleay long ago 
used to favour a somewhat similar idea. In the Technological 
Museum the variety of Eucalyptus galls is great. The subject is 
interesting, but much more evidence requires to be collected 
before an authoritative opinion can be pronounced. 

Mr. Henry Deane informs the author that in the Cooma 
district, New South Wales, Eucalyptus timber which assumes a 
white or hoary appearance on the outside, is considered to be 
durable. 

Wherever he could, the author has quoted the opinions of 
■unbiassed people outside the colonies. The opinions of Mr. Laslett, 
late Timber Inspector to the Admiralty, are, on the whole, not 
favourable to Eucalyptus timbers. But much of the " shake" 
noticed in the large logs, and to which all timber of this kind 
seems liable, appears to be preventable wholly, or in part, by 
proper seasoning, careful felling, so that the trees do not come 
down with a crash, and rejection of trees of the largest size. 

The experiments of Mr. Allen Ransome on samples of timber 
sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 are more 
favourable, but it is a pity that the samples at his disposal were so 
few and so small, and, consequently, his reports so brief. 



TIMBERS. 429 

259. Eucalyptus acmenioides, Schaner., (Syn. E. pilularis, var. 
? acmetiioides, Benth. ; E. tn'anthos, Link.j; B.FI., iii., 208. 

The "White Mahogany" of New South Wales, and the "Stringy, 
bark" of Rockingham Bay (Queensland). Called also " Broad-leaved Box." 
The " Jundera" of some Richmond River (New South Wales) aboriginals. 

Timber heavy (Baron Mueller gives the specific gravity of a 
sample of this timber as 1.066, which would be about 6'j\\h. per 
cubic' foot), strong and durable; it has been found good for 
flooring-boards, slabs, rails and palings ; it is readily fissile like 
stringybark, but heavier and more durable. Its palings are not apt 
to warp when exposed. Dr. Woolls says : " It has a satiny lustre 
when planed, and is sometimes prettily waved." At the London 
Exhibition of 1862, there was exhibited {Cat. No. 45) a sample of 
timber from Brisbane Water as " White Mahogany," and said to 
be " a good building timber." It probably belonged to this species. 
Diameter, 18 to 3oin. ; height, 40 to 60ft. 

South Australia, New South Wales and South Queensland, 
but not far inland. 

260. Eucalyptus amygdalina, LabUL, (Syn. E.fissiUs, F.v.M.; 

E. radiata, Sieb. ; E. data, Dehn. ; E. tenuriajyiis, Miq. ; 
E. nitida, Hook, f. ; E. longi/olia, Lindl. ; E. Lindleyana, 
DC; and perhaps ^. i?i'.f^^«/. Hook, f.; (Risdon or Drooping 
Gum, a separate species in B.FI., iii., 203) ; E. dives, Schauer. ; 
B.FI., iii., 202. A tall variety has been called E. a?)iyda- 
lina var. regnans. 

This Eucalypt has even more vernacular names than botanical synonyms. 
It is one of the "Peppermint Trees" (and variously "Narrow-leaved 
Peppermint," " Brown Peppermint," " White Peppermint," and sometimes 
"Dandenong Peppermint"), and "Mountain Ashes" of the Dandenong 
Ranges of Victoria, and also of Tasmania and Southern New South 
Wales, It is also called "Giant Gum" and "White Gum." In 
Victoria it is one of the " Red Gums." It is one of the New South 
Wales " Stringybarks," and a " Manna Gum." Because it is allied to, or 
associated with, "Stringybark," it is also known by the name of " Messmate." 

* E. amygdalina of the Upper Yarra district (Victoria), and elsewhere, where it attains 
gigantic proportions, is called " Mountain Ash ;" the same liind of Eucalyptus in other 
districts, where it is of smaller size, is designated " Peppermint." (Report of Carriage 
Timber Board.) 



430 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Allusion to its fibrous bark is also made in the aboriginal name in 
Gippsland of the tree (" Wangara "=bark. string). " Woorun " is the 
aboriginal name at Coranderrk Station (Victoria), while " Tirba-twebin " is 
the name at the same place given to the variety formerly called E.fissilis. 
A variety of this gum (E. radiata) is called in New South Wales " White 
Gum " or " River White Gum." The aboriginal name in the counties of 
Cumberland and Camden was " Kayer-ro." A variety of E. amygdalina 
growing in the south coast district of New South Wales, goes by the name 
of " Ribbon Gum," in allusion to the very thin, easily detachable, smooth 
bark. This is also E. radiata probably. A further New South Wales 
variety goes by the name of "Cut-tail" in the Braidwood district. 
The author has been unable to ascertain the meaning of this absurd 
designation. These varieties are, several of them, quite different in leaves, 
bark, and timber, aud there is no species better than the present one to 
illustrate the danger in attempting to fit botanical names on Eucalypts when 
only the vernacular names are known. 

This is probably the tallest tree on the globe, individuals 
having been measured up to 400ft., 410ft., and in one case 420ft., 
Avith the length of the stem up to the first branch 295ft. The 
height of a tree at Mt. Baw Baw (Victoria) is quoted at 471ft. 

This timber is useful for many kinds of carpentry work ; 
in drying it does not twist. When it forms straight, long stems, 
as in rich forest valleys, it splits with remarkable facility, and in 
one particular instance a labourer split 620 five-foot palings in 
one day. The timber of E. amygdalina is, as a rule, particularly 
well adapted for shingles, palings and rails, and also for use in 
shipbuilding, especially keelsons and planking. It does not form 
a very superior fuel. (Mueller.) 

" Cut-tail " grows with a straight bole over 200ft. high, 
and with a diameter of 6 to 8ft. Its wood is fissile in the 
highest degree, since it can be readily split almost to the thinness 
of paper. A sample of this timber from Haydon's Bog, near 
Delegate, cut in March, 1885, is in the Technological Museum. 
It is very straight in the grain (as might be expected), and very 
easy to work. 

The timber of E. amygdalina is comparatively light, as it 
floats on water. A slab in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at 
the London International Exhibition of 1862 as E. radiaia), has 



TIMBERS. 431 

a weight which corresponds to 481b. loz. per cubic foot. (Baron 
Mueller gives the specific gravity of " Messmate " {E. Jissilis) as 
.865 or about 54ilb. per cubic foot. (Other determinations of 
the specific gravity of timber of this species will be found in the 
tables.) This particular specimen was collected by Sir William 
Macarthur, and called by him " River Gum of Camden." He 
describes it (No. 109, Catal. N.S. IV. Timbers, Fan's Exh., 
1855) as a small, quick-growing species, very elegant when in 
blossom, found only on the immediate sandy banks of rivers, and 
the inner bark used for tying grafts, and for other similar common 
purposes. Diameter, i to 2ft. ; height, 30 to 50ft. His disparag- 
ing remarks in regard to this tree, "of no value for timber," 
exactly tally with those of Dr. Woolls in regard to E. radiata 
{infra), yet this sample which has been worked up under the 
author's supervision, works splendidly, and is good to dress and 
plane up. It is light in weight, and of a light-buff colour. It 
appears to be a useful timber, but it is only right to say that these 
remarks are based upon a small slab. 

Speaking of E. radiata (now merged in this species), the 
Revd. Dr. Woolls calls it a brittle wood. He does not approve 
of it being merged in E. amygdalina for the reasons given 
in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W., v., 448, and he is not alone in 
that opinion. 

Mr. W. Archer (Proc. R.S. Tasmania, 1864) says E. 
radiata is called " Curly White Gum " in Tasmania, and by 
the sawyers " Bastard White Gum." The trunk is often 
twisted, the timber curly, and the branches weeping. (But is 
not this "weeping" appearance rather more characteristic of the 
variety E. RisdoniF). 

Tasmania, South and East Victoria ; coastal districts of New 
South Wales (not extending far to either west or north). 

The timber of this species, or rather that of the Victorian 
"Mountain Ash," called regnans, is one of four colonial timbers 
recommended by the Victorian Carriage Board for the manufacture 
of railway carriages. The Board reports as follows: "Lacking 
the richness of colour of ' Blackwood ' (Acacia melanoxylon), 
it is in appearaiKe less attractive for carriage-building (the 



432 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

practice with the Railway Department being not to paint its 
passenger stock, but to varnish), but in other respects we 
consider it, if not equal, second only to Blackwood for the 
purpose named. 

It should be felled during the winter months, when it has 
attained maturity, and is at stump height, say between 4 and 5ft. 
diameter. For six months it might so remain before being broken 
down into plank for seasoning. The Otway Forest, Mirboo, 
and Narbethong were visited by a contingent of the Board, and 
both this timber and Blackwood were found in those localities 
to be of very superior quality, of large size, and abundant. 
Mountain Ash may be found of the finest quality in the ranges of 
felspar porphyry formation in the Upper Yarra district, especially 
those bordering the valley of the Watts." (These are all 
Victorian localities.) 

A slab of the normal species in the Technological Museum, 
obtained from Victoria, is a very sound timber, close in the grain, 
and good to work. It is of a brown colour, and has a neat, and 
even pretty figure, disposed in stripes. 

As illustrative of the durability of the timber of this species. 
Dr. Crowther, of Tasmania, showed at the New Zealand Exhibi- 
tion of 1865 portions of stumps which had been felled thirty-two 
years (the stumps remaining in the ground), and except on the 
surface, they were as sound as if they had been freshly felled. A 
charred fence-post of the same wood which had stood in Burnt 
Island for thirty-eight years was in the same condition. But 
Baron INIueller {Eucalyptographia) expressly states : "It has 
not been found very lasting underground . . . indeed 
the stems, when fallen, perish more quickly than those of 
many other Eucalypts, and thus the records of individual trees 
of marvellous height, when measured lying on the ground, are 
often early lost." 

There is another timber (at present at least included under 
E. amygdalina) which is very durable, especially under water. A 
specimen (in the Technological Museum), which formed part of 
the spoke of a mill-wheel for twenty years, and afterwards for a 
year was lying exposed to the weather, shows no signs of decay. 



TIMBERS. 



433 



It is called "White Ironbark," or "Mountain Ash," and is found 
about Braidvvood, New South Wales. 

These variations in durability will be seen to be by no means 
the only instance of great difference in properties between timbers 
now included under the same species, and the question must 
sooner or later force itself on botanists — to what extent shall the 
properties of a timber be taken cognizance of in the determination 
of species .'' Difference in climate and soil are insufficient to 
account for the utter diversity of some timbers now included under 
the same species of Eucalyptus. 

A log of " Messmate " timber, from Adelong, New South 
Wales, is in the Technological Museum. It was obtained from 
a small tree (diameter, 15 inches), has seasoned fairly well, is 
easy to work, and is of a rich reddish-brown colour. 

The timber exhibited by Sir William Macarthur at the 
London Exhibition of 1862 {Cat. N.S.W. Woods, No. 40), and 
stated to be called in the Illawarra " Messmate" and "Warreeah" 
by the colonists and aboriginals respectively, belongs without doubt 
to this species. It is described as " A fine timber tree, very like 
stringybark, excepting towards the butt." Height, 80 to 130ft., 
diameter, 3 to 5ft. This sample cannot be distinguished (as far 
as appearance goes) from the specimen of " Mountain Ash " 
used as a mill-wheel, and above alluded to. It is of a dirty 
yellowish-brown, light, easy to work, straight in the grain, and a 
good splitting timber. It has a few borers. 
Experiments on the Transverse Strength, etc, of the Wood 

OF E. amygdalina, by Baron Mueller and J. G. I>uehmann. 

The specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. (See p. 344.) 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

78oib. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


strength, 
LW 

s- 

48 D-^ 


. . J.J Absolutely 
^"^-^"^'i- dried. ^ 


Inches. 
.12 
.12 


Inches. 

•65 

■ .70 


Pounds. 
2195 
3132 


1646 
1599 


1.045 -878 
1.076 .908 



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TIMBERS. 435 

-261. Eucalyptus Baileyana, F.v.M., Fragm., xi,, 37. 

A " Stringybark." 

Wood of a light-grey colour, very tough, suitable for tool 
handles and other purposes where toughness is required. It is of 
very limited occurrence, and little is known about it at present. 

Near Brisbane. 

-262. Eucalyptus botryoides, Smith, (Syn. E. platypodos, Cav.) ; 
B.Fl., iii., 229. 
The " Blue Gum " of New South Wales coast districts. " Bastard 
Mahogany " of Gippsland and New South Wales ; called also " Swamp 
Mahogany " in Victoria and New South Wales. It also bears the names 
•of " Bastard Jarrah," and occasionally " Woolly Butt." Sydney workmen 
often give it the name "Bangalay,"* by which it was formerly known by 
the aboriginals of Port Jackson. It is called " Binnak " by the aboriginals 
of East Gippsland. 

A valuable timber, hard, tough, and durable. Used for 
felloes of wheels, and one of the finest timbers for ship-building. 
(Hill.) When the tree has grown on rich soil among running 
streams its timber is regarded as one of the best amongst 
Eucalypts, and isf then utilised for the manufacture of waggons, 
trucks, all the heavier kinds of wheelwrights' work, particularly 
felloes ; it is also very eligible for shingles, as water does not 
become discoloured by them. (Mueller.) When the tree grows 
on coast sands its wood is still useful for sawing and fencing, 
though the stems are often gnarled. (Kirton.) It is sought 
also for knees of vessels or boats ; the timber is usually 
sound to the centre. The various accounts given of the durability 
underground of this timber are contradictory. (Mueller.) The 
Baron, however, instances a case in which no decay was observable 
in posts which had been in use fourteen years. It does not split 
well. In external appearance and limber it seems to merge into 
E. saligna. 

* Pronounced Bang alley. 

t It is one of four colonial timbers recommended by the Victorian Carriage Timber 
Board for use in the construction of railway carriages. Specimens from Gippsland 
(" Gippsland Mahogany ") are spoken of as " a timber of good colour, as strong as ' Blue 
■Gum ' (E. globulus), but of less specific gravity." 



436 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

A tree called "White Gum," or " Scribbly Gum," in the 
neighbourhood of Cambewarra* (between Moss Vale and Shoai- 
haven, New South Wales), has been pronounced by Baron Mueller 
to be E. botryoides. It has a height of 40 to 50ft., and a diameter 
of 2ft. On account of the abundant insect markings, and whitish, 
smooth appearance of the trunk, the author was inclined to think 
the tree E. hcemastoma in the absence (at that time) of any 
botanical specimens. The outer bark is deciduous, and varies in 
colour from white, through yellow to light grey, and has an appear- 
ance which may best be described as " soapy." 

A slab of wood of this species from Victoria is in the Techno- 
logical Museum. It is of a warm rich brown colour, and of fine 
grain, but shows shakes and gum-veins. 

According to Bentham (B.Fl.) a sample of timber exhibited 
by Mr. Edward Hill, not by Sir William Macarthur (as stated 
in the Flora), at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, and marked 91, is 
of this species. It was also exhibited at the London Exhibition of 
1862, and marked 18. It came from Brisbane Water, where it 
bore the aboriginal name of " Couranga," and was also called 
" Blue Gum " of the coast districts. It " attains a diameter of 7ft. 
without natural unsoundness within ; considered to be the finest 
timber for ship-building, but not so hard, and probably not so 
durable as the Ironbarks." Diameter, 40 to 6oin. ; height, 100 to 
i6oft. (See page 437.) 

The author is of opinion that the sample (No. 94, Cat. 
N.S.W. Timbers, Paris Exh., 1855, and No. a^z, Lond. Exh., 
1862) should be referred to this species. The names given to it 
are in the Paris Catalogue "Rough-barked Gum," name at 
lUawarra, and "Burram-burrang," an aboriginal name at the same 
place; and in the London Catalogue: "Swamp Mahogany" and 
" Bangalay," both in use at Brisbane Water. Diameter, 30 to 
36in. ; height, 40 to 80ft. " A good hardwood timber tree.' 
(Paris Catal.) " A crooked-growing tree, the timber much 
valued for knees and crooked limbers of coasting vessels. (London 
Catal.) It is of a light, dull red colour, close and straight in the 
grain, and easy to work. This sample has a shake in it. 

* This is the most southern locality yet recorded for this species. 



{ , TIMBERS. '• 437 

; No. 25 in the London Exhibition Catalogue undoubtedly also 
belongs to this species. The author arrived at this decision 
ignorant of the fact that its vernacular names (" Rough-barked 
Gum" and " Burram-burrang ") were also borne by the tree 
which yielded the last specimen. This tree is described as 36 to 
48in. in diameter, and 80 to 90ft. in height, and it is said to yield 
*' a good hardwood timber." The present sample has a red colour, 
somewhat disposed in stripes, has a close, even grain, is tough, and 
a splendid working timber. It is evidently from a comparatively 
free-growing tree. It has split somewhat, apparently in the drying. 

The timber (No. 136, Cat. Paris Exh., 1855, and No. 43 
London Exh., 1862) should also be referred to this species. In 
the former catalogue Sir William Macarthur describes it as the 
"Swamp Mahogany" of Camden, and as "a fine species, with 
handsome foliage, yielding fine timber, but not of such strength 
and durability as many other kinds. Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; 
height, 80 to looft." E. robusta has " handsome foliage," and is 
also a " Swamp Mahogany," but this timber is more like the type 
samples of E. botryoides). In the 1862 catalogue the Camden 
aboriginal name is given as " Burram Murra," and it is stated to be 
"a useful timber for inside work." It is of a light brown colour, 
light in weight, and exceedingly good to work. Diameter, 30 to 
5oin. ("up to 8ft." Mueller); height, 70 to lOoft. 

The Board also experimented upon a piece of " Blue Gum" 
from " Queensland," which is called E. botryoides in their Report. 
This is a mistake. The Queensland Blue Gum is E. saligna. 
(q.v.) The confusion in nomenclature has arisen in this way. 
In B.Fl., iii., 229, Bentham puts E. botryoides as indigenous in 
Queensland, on the ground that Sir William Macarthur's sample 
of wood. No. 91, Catalogue of N.S. IV., etc., Timbers at the Paris 
Exhibitioji, 1855, came from Brisbane. This is a clerical error 
for Brisbane Water, near Sydney. It is as well to draw attention 
to this inadvertence, inasmuch as (presumably following Bentham) 
Bailey has included this species in his Syn. Queens^land Flora, and 
it has even caused Baron M.viQ\\Qv{Eucalyptographia),io\iQi\\.dXQ3i^ 
to whether E. botryoides is found in Queensland or riot. The original 
timber specimen referred to by Bentham is in the author's charge. 



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TIMBERS. 439 

Eastern Victoria, and in the coastal districts of New South 
Wales. (See page 437.) 

263. Eucalyptus Calophylla, R.Br., (Syn. E. splachnocarpa, 
Hook.) ; B.Fl., iii., 255. 

The " Red Gum" of Western Australia. 

The wood is tough, and is, therefore, drawn into use for naves, 
spokes, harrows, ploughs, shafts, and handles ; it is also useful for 
frames, rails, and various building purposes, but it is not durable 
underground. (Mueller.) In an official report it is stated that 
this Eucalypt covers 800 square miles of country. Height, up to 
1 50ft. 

Found in South Western Australia. 

264. Eucalyptus Capitellata, Smilh, (Syn. E. piperita, Smith, in 
White's Voyage, 216 ; E. piperita, Reichb.) ; B.Fl., iii., 206. 

One of the common " Stringybarks " of the neighbourhood of Sydney, 
and farther south. By way of distinction it is often called "White Stringy- 
bark." In the New England district of New South Wales it bears the name 
of " Spotted Gum," from the bark falling off in patches. It is one of the 
numerous " Peppermints " of New South Wales and Victoria, and is note- 
worthy as being the first Eucalypt so called, at any rate in print, (See 
White's Voyage to New South Wales, lac. cit.) By the aboriginals of Gipps- 
land it is called " Yangoora." 

It is a good timber for splitting, and is hence much used for 
posts, rails, buildings, and fuel. It is said to be tough, strong, and 
durable. 

There was exhibited at the Paris^Exhibition of 1855 (No. 96), 
and at the London Exhibition of 1862 (No. 46), a timber which 
the author takes to be of this species. It is thus described : — 
"Aboriginal name, *Dtha-dthang;' colonial name, ' Stringybark.' 
The coast variety : one of the most prized of the colonial hard- 
woods for house-carpentry; differs from the tree of the same 
name growing further inland " {Paris Exh. Cat.) " Stringybark of 
coast," "Dthah-dthaang" of the Illawarra natives, " Ngneureung " 
of those of Brisbane Water. Height, 80 to 120ft.; diameter, 3 
to 5ft. " {London Exh. Cat.) 

Mr. J. M. Balfour {op. cit.^ p. 341) experimented on a timber 
from George's River, near Sydney, labelled " Stringybark," 



440 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

" Dthah-dthaang," which may be of this species. He says " this 
timber is not very highly prized." He finds its specific gravity 
to be .838 (or 52.26ib. per cubic foot), the value of E to be 175.14? 
and of S 212.2, 

Further particulars in regard to the timber of this species 
would be very desirable. Height, up to 200ft. 

Queensland, New South Wales and Eastern Victoria. 

265. Eucalyptus clavigera, A. Cunn., (Syn. E. polysdadia, 
F.v.M.) ; B.Fl., iii., 250. 

The wood of this large shrub or small tree is of a dark-brown 
colour, close in the grain, hard, and durable. It is a little known 
Eucalypt. 

Queensland and Northern Australia. 

266. Eucalyptus COrnuta, LabUl., (incl. E. Lehmanni, Preiss ; 
E. macrocera, Turcz. ; Symphomyrius Lehmmini, Schauer; 
E. annulata, Benth.; a separate species in B.Fl., iii., 234.) 
B.FL, iii., 234. 

The " Yate," or " Yeit," of Western Australia. 

This hard and elastic wood is sought particularly for cart- 
shafts, agricultural implements, and boat-ribs, being for these 
purposes as useful as E. loxophleba, and approaching in value to 
English Ash. It is a heavy wood, sinking in water even when 
well dried, being the heaviest of all West Australian timbers ; 
when air-dried it has a specific gravity of 1.235. (Mueller.) 
Height, up to looft. 

South Western Australia. 

267. Eucalyptus COrymbosa, Smith, (Syn. Metrosideros gunimifera, 
Soland.); B.Fl., iii., 256. 

The " Bloodwood" of New South Wales and Queensland. By the 
aboriginals of Southern Queensland it is called " Boona." 

On account of being subject to gum-veins, it is not a 
favourite as sawn timber, but it is very durable, and is principally 
used for posts and rails, as it does not readily take fire, nor does 
it suffer much from white ants, and very little from damp situations. 
It is easily worked when fresh, but becomes very hard when dry. 



TIMBERS. 441- 

Piles, sleepers, buildings, and jetties, also find use for it. Baron 
Mueller observes that it is less known to artizans than it deserves. 
A log in the Technological Museum (from an unknown 
New South Wales locality) is from a tree with a diameter of 2ft. 
It has seasoned to a warm brown, shells in concentric layers 
following the gum-veins, and dresses very well and readily. A 
slab of Victorian timber is of a dark-red colour, is straight and 
close in the grain, but, as usual with this species, it is full of gum- 
veins. 

The timber exhibited under this species at the London 
Exhibition of 1862, and called "The True or Yellow Box of the 
•county of Camden" is, of course, not of this species, the mistake 
being clerical, (See E, melliodora.) 

The timber exhibited (No. 103, Paris Exhibition, 1855, and 
No. 39, London Exhibition, 1862) under the name of "Blood- 
tree" and "Bloodwood" belongs to this species. In the Paris 
catalogue it is referred to as E. paniculata, in error ; in the London 
catalogue no species-name is given. The Camden aborigines used 
to give it the name of " Mannen." Diameter, 2 to 3ft.; height, 
50 to 1 20ft. " A fine-looking tree, its wood in bad repute for 
durability, but likely to be very good when not exposed to the 
weather." {Paris Catal.) (These early descriptions are some- 
times not perfectly correct.) " A worthless sort of timber." 
{.London Catal.) It is dark reddish-brown, very easy to work, but 
porous, and full of gum-veins. 

At the Exhibition of 1862 there were exhibited two samples 
of timber (marked Iviii. and lix. in the catalogue of N.S.W. 
timbers), both from " Clarence and Richmond open Forests." 
Both were called by the aboriginals " Weni Aabie," and the former 
by the colonists "Rough-barked Bloodwood," and the latter 
^'Smooth-barked Bloodwood." They are thus described: — 
(Iviii.) " Prevailing to a great extent; a tree of considerable size. 
Timber of great strength and very durable, both in and out of the 
ground. Used principally for posts and beams." (lix.) "This and 
the preceding are mere varieties of the species, and only to be 
distinguished from each other (by the bark.?). Both are equally 
common, and used for the same purposes." The author has 



442 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

examined these timbers, and finds them to belong to E. corymbosa. 
The former sample is of a red colour, fairly good to work, and 
shows gum-veins. The latter is a cleaner sample ; and if obtainable 
in large pieces of as good quality, would be well adapted for 
cabinet-work. It is of a reddish-brown colour, comparatively light 
in weight, and fairly easy to work. 

Specimens of this timber from Bowenfels, N.S.W., were used 
in the Sydney Mint experiments. The average dimensions of the 
trees were: height, 30 to 50ft.; diameter, 8 to i6in. Specific 
gravity, .853. Value of E, 434,200; of S, 2,310. Other 
specimens from Brisbane were from a tree 35ft. to the fork, and 
with a diameter of 2iin. Specific gravity of wood, .983. Value 
of E, 364,700 ; of S, 1,680. Diameter, 2 to 4ft.; height, 80 to 
1 00ft. 

Eastern New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

268. Eucalyptus COrjmOCaljrx, F.vM., (Syn., E. cladocalyxr 
F.V.M.); B.Fl., iii., 218. 
Sometimes called " Sugar Gum," on account of its sweetish foliage, 
which attracts cattle and sheep. 

This timber is remarkably heavy, much more so than E. 
rostrata ; it has great lateral strength, is very hard when dry, of a 
yellowish-white colour, and its durability and power of resistance 
against damp-rot, and the attacks of white ants, are of a high order. 
One of its chief recommendations is that, of all our colonial 
timbers, it is the least likely to warp when exposed to the weather. 
The timber is used for fencing purposes generally, railway sleepers, 
joists and rafters, piles, planking, naves, and felloes of wheels. 
(J. E. Brown.) This tree grows under the most unfavourable 
circumstances, when most other species have been killed by the 
drought. Baron Mueller notes that a post of this tree which had 
been fifteen years in the ground showed no signs of decay. 
Diameter, 5 to 6ft. ; height, 120ft. 

South Australia. 

269. EucaljrptUS Crebra, F.v.M., (Syn, E. resim/era, A. Cunn. ; 
Metrosideros salici/oUum var. /3. Solander (perhaps), E. 



TIMBERS. 443 

angusii/olia, WooWs] and including^, melanophloia, F.v.M.); 

B.Fl., iii., 22 1. 

" White," " Red," or " Narrow-leaved Ironbark," and sometimes " Grey 
Ironbark," or " Grey Gum." 

An excellent timber ; hard, tough, of inlocked fibre, durable 
and useful for many building purposes. It is much in use for 
fence-posts, railway cross-ties, bridge material, piles, waggon- 
building, etc., including spokes of wheels. 

Mr. Allen Ransome examined samples of this timber sent 
from New South Wales to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition^ 
1886, and reported: " spokes were turned from the sample, and 
boards planed, the finish of both being excellent." 

A log of this timber sent to the Technological Museum is 
described as " Grey Ironbark," and no more definite locality than 
" Eastern N.S.W." is given. It was cut from a tree 2\{i. in dia- 
meter, is of a rich brown colour, is hard to work, and is full of 
shakes. 

This is probably the species called in the Sydney Mint 
experiments (i860) "Narrow-leaved Ironbark." It is described 
as of excellent quality, and very durable. It came from Singleton, 
N.S.W. The trees were from 20 to 70ft. to the fork, and had 
an average diameter of 10 to i2in. (maximum 3ft.) exclusive of 
the bark. Specific gravity, i.i 19; value of E, 534300; of S, 2688. 
Timber called " Ironbark " was also examined in the Sydney 
Mint experiments of 1858. This was probably the same species 
as the latter, as both samples were collected at the same place by 
the same gentleman (Mr. Collett). Captain Ward gives the 
specific gravity at 1.211 ; the value of E, 417400; and of S, 2288. 

A slab of "Narrow-leaved Ironbark" from Appin, shown at 
the London Exhibition of 1862, as No. 8 (and previously at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1855, as 123b), is exceedingly like the log of 
E. crehra above referred to, and the author does not hesitate to 
refer it to this species. Diameter, 24 to 48in. ; height, 60 to 
1 00ft. It is of a dark purplish colour, cross-grained, tough and 
hard, tearing much under the plane. It is very heavy. 

Mr. Byerley (see p. 343) experimented upon some Queens- 
land timber of this species, and found a rod of lin. section and 



444 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

1 2 in. long, to bear g/olbs. before breaking. Diametef, 20 to 
3610.; height, 70 to 90ft. 

Coastal districts of Queensland and New South Wales, from 
near the Gulf of Carpentaria to Port Jackson. 

270. Eucalyptus diversicolor, F.v.M., (Syn. E. colossea, F.v.M. ; 

and incl. £. goniantha, Turcz. (considered a separate species 

inB.Fl., iii., 248); B.Fl., iii., 251. 

Commonly known as " Karri," but in its native habitat to a limited 
•extent as "Blue Gum." 

The wood is light-coloured, bends freely, is straight in the 
grain, and tough, but is not so easily wrought as E. marginata 
(Jarrah) ; it is particularly in request for large planks, and also 
for spokes, felloes, and rails; it has also come into use for ship- 
building — for planks, rudders, and even masts. A case is on 
record of a baulk of this timber which had been exposed in the 
wash of the tides at Cape Leeuwin for twenty-six years, continuing 
^ound. The durability of this timber for lengthened periods 
underground yet remains to be proved. (Mueller.) In an official 
report it is stated that this Eucalypt covers 2,300 square miles of 
•country. 

" The wood is red in colour (Baron Mueller speaks of it as 
light coloured, supra), hard, heavy, strong, tough, and slightly 
wavy or curled in the grain, but it has no figure to recom- 
mend it for cabinet purposes. Six logs of this timber, viz. : two of 
12 X i2in. X 28ft., one of 12 x I2in. x 34ft., two of 24 x 24in. x 24ft., 
and one of 24 x 24in. x 32ft., were recently shipped at Fremantle 
by the Western Australian Government for delivery at one of the 
Royal Dockyards in England, for experimental trial in the navy, 
the colonists being of opinion that it will ere long be in great 
request for ship-building and other architectural works. Unfortu- 
nately all these logs had the defect of star-shake, which rendered 
them unfit for almost any purpose except where they could be 
employed in very large scantlings. It was also noticed that the 
Karri had the peculiar blistery appearance of the annual layers, 
also common to the Jarrah, consequently this wood is not con- 
sidered to be suitable for any work requiring nicety of finishj 



TIMBERS. 



445 



although, no doubt, it would be admirably suited for piles for 
jetties, bridges, etc., and generally for heavy structures where large 
scantlings and great strength are required. It will not last 
between wind and earth, though as far as is yet known, it resists- 
the action of water. It is much to be regretted that a tree sa 
noble in its dimensions should prove so disappointing in its 
character, but like the Jarrah, to which it has some resemblance, 
it is not, I think, likely to be in request for architectural works in 
England." (Laslett, Timber and Timber Trees, 1875.) 

This timber, sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 
was tested by Mr. Allen Ransome. He thus reports : " A log 
3ft. in diameter, planted in the yard at Stanley Works to re- 
present a growing tree, was cut down by the Steam Tree Feller ; 
and another log of the same size was cross-cut, as it lay on the 
ground, by a similar machine. In each case the operation was- 
complete in about three minutes. The wood was operated upon 
in the following ways: — The rail-seatings were adzed on a sleeper, 
and the spike-holes bored, giving satisfactory results. A plank 
passed through the vertical frame produced clean sawn boards ; 
spokes and hammer handles were also turned out satisfactorily. 
. . . It does not finish well in the planing and moulding 

machines." 

TRANSVERSE EXPERIMENTS. 

(Laslelt.) 



Number of the 
Specimen. 


Deflections. 


Total Weight required 
to Break each Piece. 



o. 


-3 x 

11 

> o> 


Is ■ 


With the Appa- 
ratus Weighing 


^ i 
i i 

< 


At the crisis of 
Breaking. 


I 

2 
3 

4 

s 

6 


Inches. 
.75 

1. 25 

1.35 
•75 
1. 00 

I.OO 


Inch. 
.00 
.00 
.10 

.05 
•05 
.05 


Inches. 
5.00 
6.2s 
4.60 

7-So 
6.50 
6.50 


lbs. 
820 
72s 
9-<5 
840 
920 
9'S 


957 
885 
1023 
987 
1013 
1023 


8S5 
819 
934 
851 
908 

903 


lbs. 
205.00 

181. 2.( 
238.75 
210.00 
230.00 
228.75 


Average 


1. 01 


.04 


6.06 


862.S 


981.33 


878.33 


215.625 



Each piece broke with scarph-like fracture, 8 to 10 inches in 

length. 



446 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

TENSILE EXPERIMENTS. 

(Laslett.) 



Number of 
Specimen. 


Dimensions of 
each piece. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Weight Direcfcohesion \ 
the piece on 
broke with. I square inch. 


7 
8 

9 

< lO 

II 

12 


Inches. 
> 2 X 2 X 30 < 




Lbs. Lbs. 
31,080 7.770 
30,800 7-700 
3'.36o 7-840 
31.360 7.840 
22,120 5.530 
22,960 <.74o j 


Average 




•981 


38,380 1 7.070 

' 1 


Vertical or Crushing Strain on Cubes of Six inches, j 


No. 13. 

Tons. 

I7S 


No. 14. 

Tons. 

19S 


Total. 

Tons. 

370 


Average. 

Tons. 

185 


Ditto on 

I square inch. 

Tons. 

S-14 


E = 930.940- S = 2,264. 1 



TABLE SHOWING COMPARATIVE TESTS OF "INDIAN 
TEAK" AND "ENGLISH OAK." 

Compared with Western Australian Tuart (E. gomphocephala), 
Jarrah (E. marginata), and Karri (E. diver sicolor). 










-c 











«.= m , 




.D 


rt 




Average Tensile Exp 


eriments. 


^. 2 c 


1> t05 • 


Name of wood 


0.% 


&b 


00 rt 








S^o 


"0.0 J c. 




























JS"*- 


u 


" s* 


Dimen- 


Weight 


Direct 


U =J2 


imb 
igne 
love 
ildin 




V 


0. 


c !r, 


sions of 


the piece 


cohesion 


^Ic - 




>• 


(/J 


2 ^ 


each piece 


broke with 


of I sq. in. 


= 


^l^ 








H 








u 










Value 




Lbs. per 


Lbs. per 


In tons 






Lbs. 




of S. 


Inches. 


sq. m. 


sq. in. 


persq. in. 


1 


Indian Tealt 


49-47 


807 


2203 


2 X 2 X 30 


13.207 


3.301 


2838 


14 yrs. 


English Oak 


31.72 


886 


2117 


2 X 2 x 30 


30,287 


7.571 


34" 


9 » 1 


Tuart 


73-06 


1 169 


2701 


2 X 2 X 30 


40,487 


10,284 


4 '95 


-~ 1 


larrah 


63.12 


lOIO 


1800 


2 X 2 X 30 


11,760 


2,940 


3198 


12 „ ! 


Karri 


61.31 


981 


2264 


2 X 2 X 30 


28,280 


7,070 


5140 


12 „ ' 



From tlie Official Catalogue of Western Australia, Melbourne 
International Exhibition, 1880. 



TIMBERS. 



447 



'• KARRI " {E. diversicolor) EXPERIMENTED UPON BY 
THE VICTORIAN TIMBER BOARD, 1884. 





c 

V . 



























Q ^ 


c 


1" 



S c 






.Sx <«■ 

en's 


£■3. 


.E « 


"5 % 


uX 

2-S 
<c 

•3.2 

Q 


X 

to 

c 





11 

ex 


V 

I 


1" 


< 


t = 
> 
< 


0. 


M-l ^ _ 


.2 2 


rt.S 

> 
< 


2^ 

I. 
V) 


^ 


< 
























A 


^ 
























K, 


iS 
























% 




31/1/84 


ion 








8.2.16^ 




4i 1 








< 
C 




4/2/84 


9i (• 


lo.So 


61.44 


0.988 


8.0.8 - 


960.0 


^'f 


4-54 


■f-S4 


2621 




fl " 


31/1/84 


iiU 








9.0.0, 




31 j 








^ 


t« 

























This is an enormous tree. Mr. Muir saw specimens about 
300ft. up to their first branch, while Mr. Pemberton Walcott 
noticed (on the Warren River) one about 400ft. in total height, and 
widths of timber as much as 12ft. can be obtained from the tree. 

South Western Australia. 

271- Eucalyptus doratoxylon, 'F.v.M., B.Fi., iii., 249. 

" Spear-wood." 

The aboriginals of Western Australia travel long distances to 
obtain saplings of this species for their spears, on account of the 
straightness of the stem, and the hardness and elasticity of the 
wood ; hence its specific and vernacular names. Diameter, up to 
3ft. ; height, perhaps up to Soft. 

South Western Australia. 

272. Eucalyptus dumOSa, A. Cunn., (Syn. E. lamprocarpa, F.v.M.; 

E./ruclicetorum, F.v.M. ; E. santalifolia, Miq., partly; non 

F.v.M.) ; B.FI., iii., 230. 
One of the trees called " Mallee," owing to its helping to form part of 
the vegetation called " Mallee Scrub." The aboriginal name for this scrub 
is " Weir-Mallee." It forms with E. gracilis the Mallee country of Northern 
Victoria, southern New South Wales, etc. 

This timber is used for firewood and fencing ; it is hard and 
durable, but small. The same remarks would apply to other 
Mallee timbers. 



448 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

273. Eucalyptus eugenioides, Sieb., (Syn. E. piperita, var. eugeni- 
oides, Benth. ; and probably E. scabra, Dumont. 
A " Stringybark," and sometimes " White Stringybark," and " Broad- 
leaved Stringybark." 

This wood is pale-coloured, splits well into shingles, palings, 
rails, and slabs, and can also be sawn into flooring-boards, but it 
forms a very inferior fuel. It is stated to be somewhat less fissile 
than other Stringybark trees, but more lasting. (Mueller.) It is 
said to grow as high as 200ft., though the author has never seen 
it so high. 

Eastern Victoria to Southern Queensland, usually at no great 
distance from the coast. 

2 74- Eucalyptus eximia, Schauer, B.Fl., hi., 258. 

By Sydney people this is variously known as " Mountain Bloodwood," 
*' Yellow Bloodwood," and " Rusty Gum." It is called " Bloodwood " 
partly because kino exudes in the concentric circles of the wood (which 
kino, by the way, cannot be mistaken for that of E. corymbosa), a.nd partly 
because its fruits are in shape very similar to those of E. corymbosa. 
Baron von Mueller states {Encalyptographia) that it sometimes goes by the 
name of " Smooth-barked Bloodwood." The colour of the bark is a dirty 
yellow. 

This tree does not afford durable timber, the wood being 
soft and light-coloured ; it makes good fuel. It is a most 
valuable timber for the formation of waterworks ; an instance is 
known in which a piece of this timber was 35 years under water, 
and no sign of decay was visible {General Report, Sydney Inter- 
national Exhibition, 1879). Height, up to Soft. 

Blue Mountains of New South Wales. 

275- Eucalyptus fcecunda, Schauer. Possibly including E. 

loxophleba, Benth., (a separate species in B.Fl., iii., 252); 

(Syn. E. amygdalina, Schauer non Labill. ; E. fruticetorum, 

F.V.M.); B.FL, iii., 252. 

By the aboriginals of Murchison River (Western Australia) this tree 
is known as " Ooragmandee." E. loxophleba is known by the aboriginal 
name of " Yandee," but usually to the colonists of Western Australia as 
" York Gum," as it is very abundant near the town of York. 



TIMBERS. 449 

A shrub or small tree. If E. loxophleha is a variety, it is a 
larger variety. 

Tlie aboriginals use the wood of this tree for making spears, 
on account of its hardness and elasticity. (Walcott.) Samples of 
this timber were sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition under 
the name " York Gum " i^E. loxophleba). Mr. Allen Ransome 
reported as follows: "This is a light-pink wood, close-grained, 
hard, and heavy. The samples submitted, being very small, only 
spokes could be made from them; for which purpose the wood 
seems eminently adapted." 

Western Australia. 

276. Eucalyptus gamophylla, F.v.M., Fragm. xi., 40. 

The missionaries in Central Australia employ this wood for 
various utensils, it being easily worked, though widths above eight 
inches are not obtainable, and only a few kinds of timber are 
within their reach. (Mueller.) 

Interior of South and Western Australia. 

277- Eucalyptus globulus, LabUl., (Syn. E. cordata, Miq. ; E. 
diver sifolia, Miq. ; and perhaps E. glaiica, DC. ; E. pulveru- 
lenia, Link. ; E. per/oliata, Noisette); B.Fl., iii., 225. 

The "Fever-tree" of the Continent of Europe. In Australia it is- 
universally known as " Blue Gum," or rather " Tasmanian " or " Victorian 
Blue Gum" from the colour of its foliage. It is called " Ballook" by the 
aboriginals of Gippsland. 

This tree has been largely cultivated on the Continent of 
Europe in some malarial localities, with remarkable success. 
Perhaps the most striking instance is that of the Roman Campagna 
planted by the Trappist Monks. (See " Oils,'' essential.) 

Speaking of this tree, which has been planted in thousands in 
Southern California, Professor Rothrock believes that it will be 
more profitable to cultivate it in many places for its timber than 
to grow cereals. Consul Baker (^..S". Consular Reports, Nov. 
and Dec, 1882, p. 403) gives a glowing account of the success 
which has attended the planting of Eucalypts in the neighbour- 
hood of Buenos Ayres, and singles out this species for particular 
2 G 



450 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

recommendalion. For a resume of instances in which it has 
been utilized for subduing malaria, see the Monthly Reports 
4)/ the Department of Agriculture, U.S.A., 1873, p. 583. 

The experience, however, of the Forest Department in India, 
in regard to the acclimatisation of this Eucalypt, is not so favour- 
able. 

" The Eucalyptus globulus has been tried at numerous places 
all over India, chiefly on account of the reports that it would 
prevent malaria, and that it was valuable in reclaiming marshy 
land. Whatever may be the truth about these questions, the tree 
has almost universally failed in the plains, and in the Himalayas it 
has only succeeded in a few localities. At Simla, whether from 
frost or for what reason, it seems to die down yearly, sending up 
vigorous shoots to replace the dead stem ; at Darjeeling its growth 
has been slow, and the trees formed merely thin poles, probably 
the effect of too much damp ; while its chief success has been at 
Ranikhetand Abbottabad." {G2imh\Q, Manual 0/ Indian Timbers.) 

The following different testimony refers to the planting of this 
tree in Southern India : — 

" Eucalyptus globulus is to be met with everywhere (Madras). 
It thrives in the most exposed situations, and in the poorest soils. 
Under adverse conditions a growth per annum of from three to 
four feet may be ensured, but in forest soil and a sheltered situa- 
tion, a growth of from ten to twelve feet is not uncommon. At an 
elevation below 4000ft. the blue gum has a straggling, stunted 
growth, but above that, to 8000ft., no finer or more rapid- 
growing hardwood tree can be found. Private enterprise has 
taken up the planting of blue gum for fuel with an energy which 
in a few years will probably clothe the hill sides with an endless 
succession of plantations in every stage of growth. The price of 
the timber for fuel is three rupees per thousand pounds." {Madras 
Mail.') This is, say, 12s. 4d. per ton, and the planting is in its 
infancy. £1 per ton and more is the cost of Eucalyptus timber 
cut to lengths in the large cities of Australia. 

En parenthese, it may be remarked that while we in Australia 
are very prone to recommend Eucalyptus planting to dwellers in 



TIMBERS. 451 

Other countries for sanitary purposes, we do not follow our own 
precepts. It is a fact that comparatively very few Eucalypts are 
artificially planted in Australia, and yet most of its towns are like 
other towns in having low-lying, damp portions, and typhoid fever 
carries off a terribly sad proportion of their population. It is also 
a fact that the orthodox method of improving (?) land is to fell 
the trees (generally Eucalypts) which grow upon it. In preparing 
suburban land for purposes of sale it is usually the object to 
eradicate every trace of vegetable growth, and the idea of leaving 
say one Eucalypt to each allotment for the purpose of desiccating 
the ground seems never to be thought of. 

Baron Mueller attributes the salubrity of Eucalyptus regions 
to the following causes: — i. Their ready and copious absorption 
of moisture from the soil. 2. Their corresponding power of 
exhalation, much greater than that of many other kinds of trees. 

3. Their evolution of a peculiar, highly antiseptic, volatile oil. 

4, The disinfecting action of the fallen leaves on decaying organic 
matter in the soil. Eucalyptus leaves create no noxious effluvia 
by their own decomposition. 

E. globulus has been introduced experimentally in India, in 
the Nilgiris and Punjab. In the former hills the growth has been 
9ft. girth in 20 years. (Brandis.) The wood of a tree grown on 
the Nilgiris, 18 years old and 95ft. high, is grey, with darker 
streaks, and moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, round, 
frequently arranged in groups or in radial or oblique lines. 
Medullary rays fine, very numerous, the intervals between the rays 
smaller than the diameter of the pores. Pores marked on a 
longitudinal section, and medullary rays visible as narrow bands 
on a radial section. 

Mr. Gass found in the Newman plantation, then five to six 
years old, an amount of material of 152 tons per acre> and Colonel 
Beddome is of opinion that the best treatment of Eucalyptus 
plantations, so as to get the greatest profit, will be to cut for 
coppice every five or six years, obtaining at the cuttings at least 
100 tons per acre. (Gamble, Mofiual of Indian Timbers.) 

The timber of E. globulus is of a rather pale colour, hard, 
heavy, strong, and durable, more twisted than that of E. obliqua, 



452 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

E. amygdalina, and many other fissile kind?, but not so inter- 
locked as that of E. rostrata, E. melliodora, and most of the 
species called "Box Trees." Its specific gravity varies between 
^98 and 1. 108. (See below for Laslett's and other determinations 
for comparison.) In transverse strain its strength is about equal 
to English Oak. In durability, it occupies a medium position 
amongst Eucalypts. 

The following is the number of years assigned to the sound 
wood of E, globulus'. — For floors of ships, first and second 
futtocks, main and rider-keelson, beams and hook, 10 years ; for 
third futtocks and top-timbers, stem and stern-posts, transomes, 
knight-heads, hawse-timbers, apron, deadwood, knees, rudder, 
windlass, timber and bilge-strakes, and ceilings between, clamps, 
stringers, shelf-pieces and lower deck-waterways, 9 years ; for light 
water-mark to wales, topsides, sheer-strakes, upper deck-waterways, 
spirkiting and plank sheers, 8 years ; keel to first futtock-heads, 
thence to light watermark, 12 years. This wood is also very 
extensively used by carriage-builders* and manufacturers of 
implements ; for instance, for poles and shafts of light and heavy 
vehicles, for undercarriage work, swivel-trees, spokes and rims, 
axle beds, plough-bars, handles of axes, picks, shovels, forks, hoes, 
and hammers, and all other similar purposes. It is furthur used 
for telegraph poles, for planking of bridges and jetties, and for 
structures in water. For railway sleepers it was formerly largely 
employed, but during late years it has given way to the wood of 
E. rostrata for this purpose. Settlers used the wood of E. globulus 
for fencing, especially for rails where it is readily obtainable. 
(Mueller.) 

The following table taken from Rankine's Mamial of Civil 
Etigifieeriiig shows the comparative durability of some kinds of 
timber for ship-building, as estimated by the Committee of 
Lloyds : — 



* In the report of the \'ictorian Carriage Board it is recommended as one of four 
colonial timbers suited for railway carriage building. It is recommended to treat it in the 
same way as " Mountain Ash" (see E. amygilal!ria),a\\A Corner Inlet and Mirboo, Victoria, 
are recommended as suitable localities for procuring it. 



TIMBERS. 453 

Twelve years: Teak, British Oak, Mora, Greenheart, Iron- 
bark*, Saul; ten years: Bay Mahogany, Cedar {Juniper us Vir- 
giniand) ; nine years : European Continental Oak, Chestnut, Blue 
Gumf , Stringybark {Eucalyptus gigantea)%\ down to four years, 
which is the length of time assessed to Hemlock Pine (North 
America). 

In Tasmania, this timber is usually procured by hand- 
sawyers, who cut up the trees where they fall in the forest. It 
makes the very best planking for ships' bottoms. It has the 
property of swelling under water to such an extent that it becomes 
a matter of some difficulty to find the seams when the vessels are 
put upon the slips for coppering. But much judgment is required 
in selecting the timber. All pieces that contain heart-wood or 
sap-wood must be rejected. These are both worthless, and soon 
decay. The true serviceable blue gum must come from the 
circumference of the tree about midway between the bark and the 
centre, (Tenison-Woods.) 

In 1865 there was taken out of the old Hobart Courthouse 
a beam of this wood which had remained there for 45 years. It 
was as sound as when fresh felled. Planks from Tasmania, 
between 80 and 90ft. in length, were shown at the London 
International Exhibition of 1862. 

A sample of this timber, sent from Victoria to the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, was tested by Mr. Allen Ransome. He 
reported : " By way of testing the sample sent a sleeper was 
adzed and bored, and a panel planed. Both experiments proved 
very satisfactory, the latter especially so, as the wood was found to 
plane as well against the grain as with it." 

The following account of this timber by an English expert 
(Laslett) will be of interest: '■'■Eucalyptus globulus is a tree of 
straight growth, and attains a height of 200 to 300ft., with a 
diameter of from 6 to 25ft. Like the Jarrah {E. marginata), it is 
characteristic of the larger trees, that while they appear to be 
healthy and vigorous, and continue to increase in height and 
bulk, the centre wastes away near the root, and, when felled, 
they are often found hollow for some considerable distance up 

* £. sidtrophloia, Benth. t E. globulus, Labill. t E. obliqua, L'Her. 



454 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

from the butt. The dimensions of the serviceable logs which the 
trees yield will, therefore, depend much upon its soundness ; but 
unquestionably very large scantlings can be procured from it if 
required. The wood is of a pale straw colour, hard, heavy, 
moderately strong, tough, and with the grain twisted or curled. 
In seasoning, deep shakes occur from the surface, aud it shrinks 
and warps considerabl}'. 

"I remember to have seen in one of the Royal Dockyards some 
extremely long and broad planks, or thick stuff, of this description 
of timber, which had been apparently flitched from some of the 
hollow trees before referred to. These, after being kept to season 
for a while, warped and split to such an excessive degree that it 
was impossible to use them for any planking purpose whatever. 
In consequence of this defect it was found necessary to reduce the 
planks to very short lengths, in order to utilize them at all, and so 
they passed to quite inferior services. 

"A specimen log of Blue Gum, 31ft. x 24in. x 28in., was for- 
warded with other woods to the London Exhibition of 1862 by the 
Tasmanian Commissioners, and this, at the close of the Exhibition, 
was transferred to the Woolwich Dockyard for trial, experimentally, 
in ship-building. It came in, however, too late, just when wood 
was giving place to iron in this branch of architecture, so that no 
favourable opportunity ever offered for its employment. This log, 
although of very large dimensions, had been cut clear of the centre, 
and very probably had formed part of one of the hollow trees before 
alluded to, consequently the tree to which it belonged must have 
been at the least 6 to 7ft. in diameter. A plank six inches thick 
was cut from it, which quickly warped or twisted two inches, and 
ultimately went to three-and-a-half inches, and stood at that in 
1870. Upon examination then, it was found to be full of deep, 
fine shakes, but otherwise it was not much changed, and there 
were no signs whatever of decay, although it had for a long time 
been exposed to the weather. It seems, therefore, likely to be a 
durable wood." 

Four samples of this timber from Tasmania gave Mr. F. A. 
Campbell {Proc. R.S., Vict., 1879) the following values in pounds 
per square inch, for the tensile strength : — 26,500, 24,000, 29,800, 



TIMBERS. /J55 

26,700. The timber was very good, well seasoned, and beautifully 
clean and straight in the grain. 

Mr. J. M. Balfour (see p. 341) has experimented upon several 
samples of timber of this species, all from Tasmania, except 
perhaps the first : — 

I. A fine, well-seasoned sample, cut from an old window 
sill. Specific gravity, 1.153 (or weight of cubic foot 71.8711b.); 
E, 322.2; S, 317. 2. Mean results with three samples: — 
Specific gravity, 1.014 (63.191b. per cubic foot) ; E, 312 ; S, 269. 
3. Mean results with four other samples : — Specific gravity, 
1.078 (67.261b. per cubic foot) ; E, 259.8; S, 239. 4. Curled 
Blue Gum \ mean with five samples : — Specific gravity, .988 
(61.571b. per cubic foot); 8,95.8; E not given. Summary — 
General mean of eight experiments, excluding the curled variety : 
Specific gravity, 1.061 (66.171b. per cubic foot); E, 291.1 ; 
S, 260. General mean of thirteen experiments, including the 
curled variety : — Specific gravity, 1.035 (64.51b. per cubic foot); 
S, 196.8. The ordinary Blue Gum broke with a fibrous fracture, 
but all the samples of curled broke nearly straight across, though 
tried in all positions of the grain. " Obviously the ' curl ' extends 
over a considerable thickness, and larger samples would probably 
give much higher results, as the timber looks well in large pieces." 
Attached to Mr. Balfour's result is the following note : " Diameter, 
5t0 3oft.; average of those felled for use, 6ft.; height, I50to35oft." 

Rankine gives the resistance to crushing of this timber (in 
pounds per square inch crushed along the grain) at 8800, and the 
specific gravity at .843 (i cubic foot weighing 52.51b.) 

A tree of this species, measured at Tolosa (Tasmania) in 
1848, had an estimated height of 330ft., and the actual measure- 
ments were — circumference at ground, 78ft. 9in. ; at 6ft. 
above the ground, 71ft. 9in. {Proc. R.S., V.D. Land, 1851.) 
In moist and rich ground in Tasmania this tree attains a 
diameter of 24 to 3oin. in twenty years. The diameter of the 
tree is greatly increased near the ground by the spreading of the 
bole, and, in consequence, the sawyers and splitters have to erect 
stages ten feet and more above the ground, and then chop and 
saw it through where the diameter is much less, say ten or twelve 
feet. 



456 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



TASMANIAN BLUE GUM {E. globulus). 
Experiments by Mr. James Mitchell. (See p. 338.) 









K 


S 


^ c 






Value of 


Value ot 


"p 


Name of Wood, etc. 


Specific 


Elasticitv. 


Strength. 




1 to 15, each 7ft. long and 2in. square.) 


Gravity. 


I2 w' 


1 w 








s- . 


a 






^ ad» d 


4ad''' 


I 


Blue Gum, green piece, newly cut ... 


1.027 


6083932 


1982 


2 


„ ., „ ...... 


1.078 


9845472 


2100 


3 


„ seasoned about 3 year.>< 


1.003 


6022637 


*i693 


4 


„ ,, ,, 8 mouths 


1.076 


7260624 


2149 


5 


11 ;i ;> 


I -034 


13551368 


2276 


5 


„ „ from 2 to 3 vears 


1.054 


13625285 


2701 


7 


,, 4t''5 » 


1.078 


11126670 


2737 


8 


„ ,. „ 2 to 3 „ 


.987 


12180827 


2921 


9 


>. 4 to 5 


1. 071 


I I 692433 


2921 


JO 


„ ,, „ 3 years 


.942 


14271872 


2945 


II 


„ „ yellow coloured 


1.018 


8791776 


2969 


13 


„ ., brown ., 


•997 


15478693 


2992 


13 


„ „ curlv gum 


1.005 


16426368 


3242 


14 


„ „ brown coloured 


1.008 


14908785 


3365 


15 


Separate Experiment — 


1.089 


13955485 


3491 


16 


Piece of keel from a steamer 5ft. long 










ijin. square 


1.090 





2213 




Weight reduced to 7ft. long and 2in. sq. 






2210 



* Contained much sap-wood. 

TRANSVERSE EXPERIMENTS. 

(Lasleit.) See page 342. 

Pieces 7ft. long by 2in. square. Weight suspended in the middle; 
both ends free. 



No. of 

the 

Specimen. 


Deflections. 


Total weight 

required to break 

each piece. 




-3 


Weight required 

to break 
one square inch. 


With the 

Apparatus 

weighing 3901b. 


After the 

Weight 

was removed. 


At the 

crisis 

of breaking. 


'J 


Weight reduce 

to specific 

gravity 1000. 


I 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Inches. 

1.25 

1-75 
1-35 
1. 00 

1-25 
1. 00 


Inches. 
• 15 
.20 
.10 
.00 
.15 
.00 


Inches. 
4- SO 

3-75 
5.75 
3-75 
3-50 
4.00 


Lbs. 

767 
602 
710 

767 
684 
741 


1079 

997 
1037 
iioS 
1026 

924 


711 
604 
684 
692 
656 
801 


Lbs. 
191-75 
150.50 
177-50 
191-75 
171.00 
18S-25 


Average 


1.26 


.10 


4.21 


712 


1029 


693 


177.96 



Each piece broke with a short fracture. 



TIMBERS. 



457 



TENSILE EXPERIMENTS. 
(Lasletl.) 



Number of 
the specimen. 



Average. 



Dimensions of 
each piece. 



Inches. 



Specific 
gravity. 



997 
1079 
1037 
1 108 
1026 



Weight 

the piece 

broke with. 

LbiT"" 
14S60 
26600 
24360 
26600 
28840 



24192 



Direct cohesion 

on 

I square inch. 



Lbs. 
3640 
6650 
6090 
6650 
7210 



6048 



Vertical or Crushing Strain on Cubes of Two Inches. 



No. 12. 
Tons. 
12875 



No. 13. 
Tons. 
13000 



No. 14. 
Tons. 
12750 



No. 15. 
Tons. 
11125 



No. 16. 
Tons. 

lOjOO 



No. 17. 
Tons. 

13625 



Total. 
Tons. 

73875 



Average. 
Tons. 
12312 



Ditto on 

I square inch. 

Tons. 

3078 



E = 778300. 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of Wood of 
E. globulus, by Baron von Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. 
The pieces were two inches square, two feet long between the 
supports, the weight suspended in the middle, both ends free. 
The timber was seasoned nine months. (See page 344.) 





Deflection. 


Total weight 

required to 

Break each 

piece. 






No. 


With 
Apparatus 
Weighing 


After the . 
Weight cd 

removed. ^^'^' 


tthe 
sis of 


LW 
'^■' 4bd.2 


Specific 
Gravity. 




72olbs. 












Inches. 


Inches. In 


•hes. 


Lbs. 






I 


.12 


.04 


7S 


2444 


1833 


•938 


2 


.08 


Nil. 


62 


3224 


2418 


.992 


3 


.16 


.04 


58 


2256 


1692 


.913 


4 


.12 


.04 


75 


2661 


1996 


.942 


5 


.10 


.02 


75 


2740 


2055 


.94^ 


6 


.12 


•°3 


55 


2288 


1716 


.927 


7 


.12 


.02 


75 


2409 


1807 


.924 


8 


.12 


.04 


58 


2280 


1710 


.845 


9 


.16 


.04 


62 


2252 


1689 


.852 


10 


.05 


Nil. 


58 


3752 


2814 


1.094 


11 


.08 


Nil. 


65 


3024 


2268 


1.096 






S (strength; = 


L (length) x W (weight 
4 X b (breadth) x d^ (de 


) 
jthi) 





458 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



P^ 


\o 


w 


C/J 


pq 


d 


S 


f- 


t-H 


C/3 


H 


bo 










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rt 


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n 


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o 
> 

w 

>^ 
w 

o 

Oh 
P 

w 



W 
X! 



^0 



t s 



o >:= 



-a i! 



p 


c 


-n 


Pi 




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<3 


1- 


o, 


o 

pq 


>-> 

j3 


a, 




j= 












60 


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t: 


s 




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03 


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o 


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4> 





S331X 34} SJ^MAX 
iionEiujoj itaiSoioag 


Mesozoic 






'c 





Granite 















i? 


•Sdi))U| ui uoijjjy3(j 

a^KiaAy IKJOJ^ 












4 


■saqDuj UI 
uoipsyaQ 3SEJ3AY 














' •a 






00 






saipuj ui ajtijdn'jj jo 




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m 




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d 




i 1 


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S3|dLUBy JO }i|Si3;\\ 

i5Ul>(EJiy aHEJ-lAV 


























o 

lo 

r< 00 


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ui a|diuEy qoE3 jo 


d> 


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'^ 


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^: 2" j. 


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33KJ9AV IE40X 













On 

ON 

o" 


•XjiAEJO atipadg 
aSEJSAV 


/ — 













— \ 

u-j 0. 
On 

- o' 






o" 




•sqi UI 400 J .^iqn^ 
ipd iq^ipAV aSBi^Ay 








00 




ON 


•sqi UI ssiduiBg 
JO ;qai3y\Y 33BJ3AV 








X 






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-t- 




lO 00 

^ 0" 


■sqi UI aiduiBg 
qjB9 jojq3!3;VV 


- "0 


"0 


"^ 


""wi^ 


r-W 


- M 


•3U11S3X JO ajEQ 


'I- 1- 

ot cc 


00 


90 




0? 


CO 00 00 00 


suojSuauiiQ 


•^ iw 


£ 
■5 


■?> 


C 


6 
.2 


1 1 


■JU3 SEAA 

jaquiix aq; u3qA\ 
3}EQ ajBuiixoiddy 


«T> 






00^ 




Seasoned 

at least 

twelve 

months. 


Locality 
Where 
Grown. 


"ii: 

i 1 




.£ 

a 



C 






> 


Tomer Inlet, 
S.E. Victoria 

Southern New 
South Wales 



TIMBERS. 459- 

Height, up to 300ft. 

Tasmania, Southern and Eastern Victoria, and sparingly in 
Southern New South Wales. 

278. Eucalyptus gomphocephala, DCy B.Fl., iii., 231. 

The "Tourxrt," " Tooart," or "Tewart" of Western Australia. Some- 
times called " White Gum." 

This wood is of a pale yellowish colour, is remarkable for hard- 
ness and strength, is very heavy, of a close and twisted, and even 
curled grain, rendering it difficult to cleave, and (what in 
Eucalyptus timbers must be considered a particularly valuable 
quality) it shows no aptness to rend. (Mueller.) A sample sent ta 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition was examined by Mr. Allen 
Ransome, who thus reported on it: " This wood is of a light-brown 
colour, heavy, durable, and tough. From the sample sent, some 
felloes were shaped, and some spokes turned, the finish from both 
machines being all that could be desired." 

The following information regarding this wood is taken from 
Timber and Timber Trees, by Thomas Laslett, late Timber 
Inspector to the Admiralty: — 

"It is a very sound wood, possessing few or no defects, with 
the exception of a mild form of heart and star shake at the centre, 
which would necessitate a small amount of waste, if it were 
required to reduce the logs into thin planks or boards ; but if 
employed in large scantlings, it will be found a most valuable 
wood, especially when great strength is needed. 

" The Tewart shrinks very little in seasoning, and does not 
split while undergoing that process ; it is also a characteristic of 
this wood that it will bear exposure to all the vicissitudes of 
weather for a long time without being in any but the least degree 
affected by it. I have known it subjected to this severe test for 
fully ten years, and when afterwards converted, it opened out with 
all the freshness of newly-felled timber. Possibly no better 
evidence is required to show that this is a durable wood. 

"It is used in ship-building for beams, keelsons, stern-posts, 
engine-bearers, and for other works below the line of flotation, for 
which great strength is required, a weighty material in that position 
not being objectionable in a ship's construction. 



460 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



" In civil architecture the Tewart is scarcely, if at all known 
in England, although it might be employed with advantage for 
many purposes. It would make good piles for piers, and supports 
in bridges, and be useful in the framing of dock-gates, as it with- 
stands the action of water, and is one of the strongest woods 
known, whether to be tried transversely or otherwise. But it would 
probably be found too heavy for general use in the domestic arts." 

It is not to be split, and is capable of enduring a great amount 
of heat without rending. It is used for keels, capstans, windlasses, 
naves of wheels, etc., also in the engine-rooms of vessels, where it 
is liable to exposure to great heat. Both this timber and Jarrah were 
used to a small extent in the construction of H.M.S. Hannibal. 
TRANSVERSE EXPERIMENTS. 
(Laslett.) 





Deflections 




■c . 




. 


OJ= 


d 

1 E 








3 u 


rt 


■3 " 


■- K 
'5 'A 

0"S 




a; « - 


c 
.2 ti 


S t 






'5^ 

< 


Is 
■rt« 



'0 
0. 
7} 


^0 

"^ a. 
7; 


^1 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Lbs. 






Lbs. 


I 


I-2S 


• IS 


4-5° 


1071 


, "47 


942 


267.75 


2 


1.25 


.00 


450 


972 


"73 


829 


243.00 


3 


I.I5 


.20 


5.00 


1032 


1184 


1 872 


258.00 


4 


I.2S 


-15 


5.00 


1116 


"47 


' 973 


279.00 


5 


1-35 


•05 


4-8S 


:oi7 


1170 


869 


254-25 


6 


1-35 


.10 


4-65 


g66 


"94 


' 809 


241-50 


Average 


1.27 


.108 


4-75 


1029 


1169.16 


882.23 


2S7-2S 



Each piece broke with moderate length of fracture, and very fibrous. 

TENSILE EXPERIMENTS. 

{Laslett.^ 



Number of 
Specimen. 


Dimensions of 
each piece. 


Speciric 
Gravity. 


Weight 
the piece 
broke with. 


Direct cohesion 

on 

I square inch. 


7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


Inches. 
> 2 X 2 X 30 \ 


1147 
1 184 
"73 
1170 

"47 
"94 


Lbs. 
32580 
44520 
46900 
34160 
34720 
5 1 240 


Lbs. 

8820 
1 1 130 
"7^5 

8S40 

8680 
12810 


Average 




1 1 69 


40687 


10284 



("For Vertical Experiments, see p. 462.) 



I— I 

PS 
o 

U 



W 
O 



oo 

CO 



Z Pi 

g o 

I— I CQ 

X CQ 









Pi 

<: 



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3SBi3.\V 


o 






o 




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uoipayaa 33b-i3.\y | 


o w) 




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luioj }E uoipsyaci 


"'1 1- "1 "ii- n- 1- 


3aBi3.\V l^lOX 


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o 


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ssiduiBS jom3i3M^ 

Sui^iBaaH 9^Ba3.\v 


q q 

ON r^ 
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UI ajduiBy i{DB3 jo 


ri M q -. O CI 

o' d f^ ^ *i *? 

O O O^ CTi O- Q^ 




a;^Bi3AV lEloj_ 


00 

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~ 2 


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1 


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IM^PAV 3SBJ3AV 


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jaquiix ^m uaqM 
31BQ ajBiuixojddv 


sqjuoui 
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! 




1 

Locality 
Where 
Grown. 


Western 
Australia. 









t4 



> 


^ 


rr 


n1 




(l> 


c 


H 


s 


c 


l-i 


rt 




Tl 


u. 


r! 


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462 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

VERTICAL EXPERIMENTS. 
{Lasleti.) 



Number of 
the Specimen. 


I Inch. 


3 Inches. 


3 Inches. 


4 Inche s. 


Crushed with. 


Crushed with. 


Crushed with. 


Crushed with. 


13-16 
17-20 
21-22 
23-24 


Tons. 
4.000 
4.500 
4.625 
4-7SO 


Tons. 
16.875 
16.750 
16.500 
17.000 


Tons. 
37-625 
33-'25 


Tons. 
67.00 
64.25 


Average 


44.69 


16.781 


35-375 


65.625 


Do. per inch. 


4.469 


4-195 


3-931 


4.102 


E = 776,990. S = 2,701. 



Height, up to 150ft. 

Western Australia (south-west coast). In an official report it 
is stated to cover 500 square miles of countr}'. 

279- Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F.v.M., (Syn. E. elceophora, F.V.M.); 
N.O., Myrtaceee, B.FL, iii., 229. 

This tree is variously known (in Victoria and about Twofold Bay, New 
South Wales) as "Spotted Gum," "' Grey Gum " (East of Dividing Range), 
" White Gum " and " Blue Gum." It also has the names " Mountain 
Apple" (Queanbeyan to Cooma and Tumberumba), "Bastard Box," and 
"Grey Box," and in East Gippsland it goes by the name of " Mountain Ash." 

This wood is hard and tough, usually free from kino- veins, 
varies from a pale yellowish to a brownish colour, is exceedingly 
durable, and lasts long underground, not warping, and on account 
•of the interwoven woody fibres is almost as difficult to split as 
E. rostrata. It is much esteemed by wheelwrights, particularly 
for spokes, for ship and boat-building, for railway sleepers, and 
when not used for better purposes, it is sought for fuel. According 
to Mr. Boyle, the rough-barked variety from low, dry, and stony 
ranges, supplies a timber which wheelwrights consider equal to 
Ironbark, with the advantage of its not being so weighty ; the 
taller mountain variety with smoother bark is more used for planks^ 
piles, and general building purposes, the timber also in this instance 
being more durable than that from wet forest valleys. This wood 
resembles in many respects that of E. globulus. (Mueller.) 



TIMBERS. 



463 



^ 








< 




c 




t— ( 




Ui 




0^ 











H 














^ 




> 




a 


<L> 








B 


H 




^ 




> 






.5 


M 






— 










:z; 




cfl 


3 







"O 


t> 


a, 




.5 


(1> 


Q 


00 







a; 




00 




^ 


z 


Q 
< 


(/I 






c 




1— ( 





^ 


a, 
n. 


w 


w 




a 




't1 




>-> 




pa 


to 

C 




■^H 


c 


U) 


<3 




_^. 


oi 


.^ 




t^ 




J» 








^ 




-C 


x: 


^ 







bO 



^ 



o 

PQ 
Q 

< 

PQ 



^ -5 



•n 


T3 


a; 


C 


CO 


rt 


CD 


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cn 


<ii 




VO 


a, 


en 






■A\ajS 
1101JBU1JO.J iBaiSoiosg 







■qjSuajjg 31) pads 
aSBiSAV 


1 

00 


•sail.iii] in 

UO!P.iy^Q 3SBJ3AV 


I 


■S3l|3UI UI 3Jlljdn>I }0 
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r s 


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Sui^lEajg sSeiSAV 




ON 


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jqSpyVV ^"^Baja 


o' d 


•-(liAEJO aijpadt,' 

sSbj3av 


^' 




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jjd }qSi3^\v 53BJ9AY 





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f^ 


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qoES JO iqSp^^Y 


^ ^^ II 


i 


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00 00 
-r -t- 




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jaquii I aqj u3qA\ 
3;eq S4BuJ!xojddv 


smuoui 

3APAS.4 JSB3| 

4B pauosEPg 


Locality 
Where 
Grown. 


North, 
eastern 

Victoria. 



464 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. gontocalyx, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long, and 2in. square : — 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 
strength, 

LW 

s 


Specific 


Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


4BD2 


Inches. 
.16 
.20 


Inches. 
.50 

.58 


Pounds. 
2209 
2050 


1658 
1537 


.948 

•937 


.807 
.798 



A sample of E. goniocaJyx timber (" Spotted Gum ") from 
Victoria, in the Technological Museum, is of a light-brown colour, 
straight in the grain, good to work, and free from gum-veins. 
Another slab, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years 
(having been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 
1862), has a weight which corresponds to 731b. 150Z. per cubic 
foot. Mr. Henry Deane informs me that the rough-barked variety 
is known as " Mountain Apple " in the Queanbeyan District, New 
South Wales, and the smooth-barked variety takes the name 
"Grey Gum" east of the Dividing Range. Diameter, up to 6 
and even loft. ; height, up to 300ft. 

Victoria and New South Wales, as far north as Braidwood. 



280. Eucalyptus gracilis, F.v.M., (Syn. E. friitketoruyn, F.v.M.; 
partly ; E. calycogona, Turcz. ; E. celastroides, Turcz.) ; 
N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 211. 
This is a " Mallee," also sometimes known as a " Desert Gum." 

Wood hard, heavy, and close in the grain, of a yellowish-grey 
colour, tough, and durable. The Mallees are, however, too small 
to be useful as timber trees. 



TIMBERS. 465 

Forms, with other species of Eucalyptus, the Mallee country 
of Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South-western 
Australia. 

281. Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hook./., (Syn. E. Hgustrina, Miq. ; E. 
acervula, Hook., f.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 246. 

In Tasmania this is known as " Cider Gum," and in South-eastern 
Australia occasionally as the " Sugar Gum." In the same part it is known 
as "White Gum," " Swamp Gum," or " White Swamp Gum," and in the 
Noarlunga and Rapid Bay districts of South Australia as " Bastard White 
Gum." Occasionally it is known as " Yellow Gum." Near Bombala, 
New South Wales, two varieties go by the name of " Flooded," or " Bastard 
Gum," and " Red Gum." 

The sweetish sap (see "Foods ") of this tree is better known 
than its timber. " This tree is of too crooked a growth to be 
available as a timber tree to any great extent, and its average height 
is only about thirty feet in South Australia. The wood is hard and 
of good weight, but it is looked upon by the splitter as of very poor 
quality for general utilitarian purposes. For posts and underground 
work the timber is worthless. It^ however, makes excellent charcoal." 
(J.E.Brown.) In the extreme south of New South Wales, the variety 
called "Flooded Gum," or "Bastard Gum," has a timber which is 
considered brittle, and is not used. The variety called " Red 
Gum " is, however, considered by most people in the neighbour- 
hood to be the very best for standing underground, and is therefore 
preferred to any other for posts and piles, and especially for house 
blocks. It is also used for fencing, slabs, etc. This timber is 
rather hard to cut, and has a reddish colour, and, therefore, it is 
just possible that it may have been confused with the ordinary 
" Red Gum " {E. 7-ostratd), whose durable properties are well 
known. The " Flooded Gum" occurs near creeks and swampy 
places, and the trunk is apt to branch out at no great altitude from 
the ground ; the " Red Gum " (E. Gnnnii) grows in higher and 
drier situations, runs up to a pretty high straight trunk, and the 
timber is hard to cut and darker in colour than the former. 

A specimen of timber (" Swamp Gum ") of this species, 
from Victoria, in the Technological Museum, is tough, of a light 
reddish-brown colour, and has a few gum-veins. 
2 H 



466 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. Gimnii, var. (Swamp Gum), by Baron Mueller and J. G. 
Luehmann. The specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 
weight 
required to 
break 
each 
piece. 


Value of strength, 
. LW 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.12 
.14 


Inches. 

•75 
•75 


Pounds. 
2327 
2268 


1745 
1701 


.950 
1.02 1 


.802 
.842 



Exceptionally attains a height of 250ft., usually much less. 
Tasmania, the extreme south-eastern portion of South Australia, 
thence to Gippsland, and into New South Wales as far as Berrima. 

282. Eucalyptus hsemastoma, Smith, (Syn. E. signata, F.V.M.; 

E./alci/olia, Miq. ; and including E. micrantha,T)C.)', N.O., 

Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 212. 

This is a " Spotted Gum," and " White Gum " of New South Wales 
and Queensland. About Sydney it is occasionally called " Blue Gum." 
As its white bark usually shows the serpentine marks of a boring insect, it 
is often called " Scribbly Gum." In the Iliawarra district (New South 
Wales) it goes by the name of " Black-butt," and in the county of Camden, 
in the same colony, it is sometimes known as " Mountain Ash." In the 
extreme south a variety sometimes goes by the name of " Rough," or 
"Small-leaved Stringybark." Some Queensland aborigines know it by the 
name of " Kurra-gurra." A variety (micrantha) goes under the name of 
"Brittle Gum" in the Queanbeyan district. New South Wales. 

The wood is of a grey or reddish colour, and not durable if 
exposed. It is considered the most worthless of the Queensland 
Eucalypts. While it is apt soon to decay, it furnishes a fair fuel, 
.and material for rough carpentry. It also has some limited use 
for ship-building and wheelwrights' work. 

Mr. Bauerlen's opinion (the result of special enquiry) is a 
little more favourable. Writing from Colombo, Candelo, N.S.W., 
he says : "Timber second, or almost equal to E. melliodora in 
usefulness. Used for slabs and fencing purposes." Mr. H. Deane 



TIMBERS. 



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468 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

describes it as a short-grained, brittle, reddish wood, and states 
that the variety micrantha (which perhaps should be restored to 
specific rank) is called " Brittle Gum " for obvious reasons. 

The following specimen of timber in the Technological 
Museum I have little hesitation in referring to this species. It 
was collected for the Exhibition of 1862, and bore the number 30, 
a piece of the same timber bearing the number 163 in the 
collection for the Paris Exhibition of 1855. It is called "White 
Gum," and bore the aboriginal names "Caarambuy" and 
" Calang-arra." It was from a tree 24 to 40in. in diameter, and 
60 to 80ft. in height. It is described as " not much valued, being 
generally of crooked growth." It is beautiful to work; has a close, 
smooth grain, and a dark wavy, stripy red colour, almost like a 
she-oak in pattern. 

Diameter, 24 to 2 Sin. ; height, 60 to 120ft. 

lUawarra (New South Wales) to Wide Bay (Queensland). 

283. Eucalyptus hemiphlcia, F.v.M., (Syn. E. albens, Miq.); 
N.O., Wyrtaceas, B.FL, iii., 216. 
This is a common " Box " of New South Wales and Queensland. In 
the latter colony it often goes by the name of " Yellow Box." Other 
colonial names are "Canary Wood," "Grey Box," "White Box," and 
" Gum-topped Box." About Sydney it is called " White Gum." By the 
aboriginals of sub-tropical Eastern Australia it is known as " Narulgun." 

An excellent timber, famous for its hardness, toughness, and 
durability, (Hill.) It is remarkably heavy, yellow-white in colour, 
of great lateral strength, and is used for such purposes as railway 
sleepers, naves, felloes, scantlings, jetty and bridge piles, plankings, 
mining slabs, and fence posts. A great drawback to this tree 
is its tendency to become hollow at a comparatively early age. 
(J. E. Brown.) It is largely used by coachmakers and wheel- 
wrights for the naves of wheels and heavy framing ; and by wheel- 
wrights for the cogs of wheels. It is employed in ship-building, 
and forms one of the best materials for treenails, and for working 
into large screws. It is pale, strong, hard, of close and interlocked 
grain, and not fissile. It is useful for such articles as mauls and 
handles, which need toughness of wood for their manufacture. 



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470 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

It is subject to destruction by white ants and dry rot when standing- 
long in the ground. 

Mr. Allen Ransome tested a sample of this wood sent from 
Victoria to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. " During the 
trials a sleeper was adzed and bored ; but for boring especially, 
the wood seems very hard. A panel was also passed through the 
planing-machine, but, owing to the sample being very cross- 
grained, the results were not good." 

The Rev. Dr. Woolls points out that this species is indicative 
of good grazing country. 

I have assumed that the "Box" timber tested by Captain 
Ward (Sydney Mint Experiments, 1858) belongs to this species. 
It came from Singleton. Specific gravity, 1.230; value of E, 
538,800; of S, 2,445. 

A specimen called " White Box," or '* Grey Box," from 
Victoria, in the Museum, is hard and tough, of very close grain,, 
and of a brown colour. A sample of timber (No. 10, London 
Exhibition of 1862, and No. 102, Paris Exhibition of 1855) is in 
this Museum, and very probably belongs to this species. It is a 
light buff coloured timber, heavy, very hard, tough, and durable. 
In the catalogue it is called "Illawarra Box," and its aboriginal 
name is given as " Gnooroo-warra." Height, 120 to i8oft. ; 
diameter, 48 to 72in., and described as " a tree with magnificent 
timber, of first-rate quality for size, hardness, toughness and 
durability." 

Diameter, 20 to 4oin.; height, 50 to 60ft. 

Eastern South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and 
Southern Queensland. 

284. Eucalyptus largifiorens, F.v.M., (Syn. E. pendula, A. Cunn.^ 

E. bicolor, A. Cunn. (the name of the species in B.Fl.) ; E. 

hamastoma, Miq. non Smith) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 

214. 

This tree bears the names of " Cooburn," " Box," " Black Box," 

" Yellow Box," " Bastard Box " (workmen supposing it to be a cross 

between "Box " and " Grey Gum "), " Grey Box," and " Ironbark." It is 

also called " Slaty Gum," from the grey and white patches on the bark. 



TIMBERS. 471 

This timber is hard, tough, and durable, very lasting under- 
ground, and of a red colour. It is used for fencing, rough 
buildings, and sleepers, also for shafts, poles, and cogs. It is 
more easily worked than the generality of Ironbarks. The large 
trees are frequently hollow and decayed at heart. Diameter, 24 to 
36in. ; height, 100 to 120ft. 

South Australia, round Eastern Australia to the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

285. Eucalyptus leuCOXylon, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sideroxylon, A. 

Cunn.), (see p. 473) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 209. 
Common " Ironbark." It is occasionally known as " Black Ironbark," 
and from Sydney to the Blue Mountains as " Red Ironbark," or " Red- 
flowering Ironbark " (E. sideroxylonj. In the neighbourhood of Twofold 
Bay (New South Wales) it is called " Black Mountain Ash." In South 
Australia it has the following names : — " White Gum," " Blue Gum," 
" Bastard Blue Gum," " Scribbly Blue Gum." It occasionally boasts the 
ridiculous name of " Fat Cake." By the aboriginals of Gippsland it is 
known as " Yerrick." It was called " Easip " by the aboriginals of the 
Yarra (Victoria). 

Important Note. — E. leucoxylon, F.v.M. The "Blue or 
White Gum " of South Australia and Victoria is a gum-tree with 
smooth bark and light-coloured wood (hence the specific name). 
The flowers and fruit of E. leucoxylon (compare figure in Brown's 
Forest Flora of South Australia) are very similar to those of E. 
sideroxylon, and in this way two trees have been placed under one 
name which are really quite distinct. Baron Mueller points out 
(Eucalyptographia) that there are two well-marked varieties of E. 
leucoxylon in Victoria. That known as " White Gum " has the 
greater portion of the stem pale and smooth through the outer 
layers of the bark falling off. The variety known chiefly as the 
" Victorian Ironbark," and mostly growing on stony ridges or 
mountains of the lower Silurian sandstone and slate formation, 
retains the whole bark on the stem, it thus becoming deeply 
fissured and furrowed, and very hard and dark coloured. But 
this rugged-barked variety must not be confused with the " Red- 
flowering Ironbark" (E. sideroxylon) of New South Wales. The 
individual Victorian trees with rugged bark round the butt are 
probably few, and a mere variety. 



472 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

A little confusion has arisen in descriptions of different kinds 
of timber under this species, but the author has endeavoured to 
allot them correctly to E. leucoxylon, F.v.M., and E. sideroxylon, 
A. Cunn. 

E. leiicoxylon, F.v.M. The wood of this tree is of a very 
superior class. It is very durable, possesses great lateral strength, 
and when dry is hard and tough; in colour, it is yellowish-white or 
pale pinkish-white. Amongst the more important purposes to 
which it is applied may be enumerated railway sleepers, bridge- 
piles and planking, jetty planking, naves and felloes of wheels, 
waggon shafts, telegraph poles, axe handles, bullock yokes, fencing 
posts, beams and rafters of buildings, and slabs for mining 
operations. The weight of air-dried wood varies from 63I to 
7 libs, per cubic foot; it yields 28 per cent, of superior charcoal, 
45 per cent, of crude wood-spirit, and 6 per cent, of tar. 
(Mueller.) Builders call this wood close and straight-grained, 
and slightly greasy, but this latter property makes it serviceable 
to the millwright for the cogs of heavy wheels. 

It is called "Box" in the Report, Vicion'an Exh., 1861, and 
the following statement is made concerning it : " This is of a light 
colour and a greasy nature, remarkable for the hardness and 
closeness of its grain, its great strength and tenacity, and its 
durability both in the water c.nd when placed in the ground. It 
is largely used by coachmakers and wheelwrights for the naves of 
wheels and for heavy framing ; and by millwrights for the cogs of 
their wheels. In ship-building it has numerous and important 
applications, and forms one of the best materials for treenails, 
and for working into large screws in this and other mechanical 
arts." A sample, sent from South Australia to the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, was thus reported on by .Mr. Allen Ransome : 
" A sleeper was experimented on in the adzing and boring 
machine with highly satisfactory results, and boards passed 
through the planing machine left the cutters with an excellent 
surface." 

This species has succeeded admirably at Abbotabad, Punjab, 
India. (Gamble.) 



TIMBERS. 



473 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. leucoxy Ion, hy Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 

strength, 

L W 


Specific gravity. 


With the 

Apparatus 

weighing 

78olbs. 


At the 
crisis of 
breaking. 


Air dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


'^ 4BD2 


Inches. 
•03 


Inches. 

•63 
.60 


Pounds. 
4192 

3977 


3144 
2983 


1.028 
1. 061 


.908 
•913 



E. sideroxylon, A. Cunn.* The " Red-flowering Ironbark " 
of New South Wales, occurring in the bush between Parramatta and 
Liverpool, in paddocks at South Creek, and in the neighbourhood 
of Richmond, and again beyond the Blue Mountains, near Mudgee, 
and Wellington, and elsewhere, being widely diffused over the 
auriferous districts of the western interior. The bark is dark, and 
deeply furrowed, and the wood is of a deeper colour than that 
of any other Ironbark. It has been made by Baron Mueller 
(Eucalyptographia) a synonym of E. leucoxy Ion (see p. 471), and, 
perhaps against his better judgment (but as a matter of convenience 
in describing the two timbers), the author has accepted this 
arrangement in the present work. 

E. sideroxylon, A. Cunn. This tree has a straight even 
bole; the timber is of the highest reputation for strength and 
durability, and is very much used for large beams i:i stores for 
heavy goods, poles for bullock drays, railway sleepers, girders 
and piles for bridges, and other purposes where great strength is 
required. It is one of the best fuel woods of New South Wales 
for domestic uses and steam engines. Its average weight is from 
75 to 781b. per cubic foot when green, and it loses 3 to 51b. in 
drying within the first two years. (General Report, Sydney 
International Exhibition, 1879.) 

E. sideroxylon is described as follows in the Report, Victorian 
Exhibition, 1861 : — " ' Ironbark,' This is one of the hardest and 

* See Woolls, Plants of Ne-w South IFales. 



474 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

heaviest of our native woods, and has a pecuharly thick and rugged 
bark, with deep longitudinal fissures, which is very characteristic. 
It possesses great strength and tenacity, and has a close and straight 
grain, on which account it is highly useful to the coachmaker and 
wheelwright for the poles and shafts of carriages, and the spokes 
of wheels. Its greasy nature also renders this wood very service- 
able to the millwright for the cogs of heavy wheels. It is also 
valuable for many purposes in ship-building, and constitutes one of 
the most imperishable of our timbers." 

Following are brief descriptions of timbers of this species in 
the Technological Museum of Sydney : — " Red-flowering Iron- 
bark," or " Black Ironbark :"* Of very dark red colour, close in 
the grain, and fairly good to work. A useful wood where strength 
is required. It is very heavy and hard. (Victoria.) (Cai. 
Timbers, Technological Museum, Melbourne.^ " Red Ironbark :" 
Diameter, 2ft. Colour, dark reddish-brown, full of shakes, very 
heavy, and difficult to dress. (Eastern N.S.W.) " Red Ironbark:" 
Diameter, 2ft. Colour, rich red. Shelling in concentric layers 
near the heart, and full of shakes. Very difficult to dress. (New 
South Wales.) " Red Ironbark :" Diameter, 2ft. Colour, brown.. 
Full of shakes ; works fairly well, splits tolerably freely. (New 
South Wales.) The last two samples have been cut at the wrong 
season. 

The three following timbers (also in the Technological 
Museum) must also be referred to this species : — i. No. 3 {Lond., 
1862); No. 90 {Paris, 1855). "Ironbark" of Illawarra, and 
" Barremma " of the aboriginals. Diameter, 36 to 6oin,; height,. 
80 to 130ft. "Of the highest reputation for strength and 
durability." It is of a dark red colour, figured in stripes, heavy, 
tough, hard, and difficult to work, strong, and very durable. 

2. No. 5 {Lo7td., 1862); No. 137^ {Paris, 1855), from Appin, 
New South Wales. It is of a dirty streaky-brown colour, very 
heavy, cross-grained, and tough, and not very good to work. 

3. No. 6 {Lojid., 1862); 137c {Paris, 1855), from the upper part 
of the Bargo Brush. Diameter, 24 to 36in.; height, 60 to Soft. 

* This specimen was received from Victoria, labelled E. sideroxylon, and with the 
vernacular names given. Yet it cannot be the New South Wales species. 



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476 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

With the exception that it is a shade darker, it cannot be 
distinguished from the preceding. 

This species is, with very little doubt, the timber experimented 
upon in the Sydney Mint experiments under the name of " Red 
Ironbark." It is described as hard, close-grained, of great 
strength and durability, and valuable for ship-building, engineering 
works, etc. It is said, however, to be readily attacked by the 
white ant. The specimens came from Berrima, New South 
Wales, the tree was 30ft. to the fork, and 3oin. in diameter. 
Specific gravity, 1.167; value of E, 521,300; of S, 3951. In the 
same experiments the " Smooth-barked Ironbark," from Brisbane, 
must be from this species, as the wood displays no important 
differences from authenticated specimens. It is described as 
" A strong and durable timber, and well-adapted for building 
purposes, shingling, etc." The tree was 35ft. to the fork, and 
25in. in diameter. Specific gravity, 1.176; value of £,604.800; 
of 3,2898. 

Height, up to 200ft., but this is exceptional. 

Spencer's Gulf (South Australia), through Victoria and New 
South Wales to Southern Queensland. 

286. Eucalyptus longifolia, Link, (Syn. E. WoollsH, F.V.M.); 
N.O., INIyrtacese, B.FL, iii., 226. 

This tree commonly bears the names of " Woolly Butt" and " Bastard 
Box," but usually the former. 

This wood is in request for fuel, but is not much valued as a 
timber because of its gum-veins. When sound, it is sought after 
for wheelwrights' work. (Sir W. Macarthur.) Other authorities 
have referred to its durability for fences. Posts are said to have 
remained undecayed in the ground for twenty years. It is used 
for felloes, shafts, spokes, agricultural implements, house-building, 
■etc. Its specific gravity is 1.187, the weight of a cubic foot of 
dried wood being 68|lb. 

The following four samples are in the Technological Museum, 
They are all called "Woolly Butt ;" the first is from Victoria, the 
others from New South Wales : — 



TIMBERS. 477 

I. Very light colour; close in the grain; has gum veins ; 
works easily. 2. Called also "Bastard Box." Diameter, 2ft. 
Light red ; full of shakes ; a few gum-veins ; bad to work. (S. 
districts.) 3. Diameter, i5in. Dark red; fairly sound; good 
to work. (Shoalhaven.) 4. No. 24 (London, 1862); 89 (Paris, 
1855). " Gnaoulie " of the Illawarra aboriginals. Diameter, 36 to 
72in. ; height, roo to 150ft. " A very large and fine timber tree, 
its wood much prized for felloes of wheels and other work requiring 
strength and toughness." 

Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 100 to 130ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales, not much farther north than Port 
Jackson. 

287. Eucalyptus macrocarpa, Honk., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 
224. 

" Morrel." 

Some spokes of this wood were exhibited at the Intercolonial 
Exhibition of Melbourne, 1886. It is also used for shafts and 
such purposes. 

Western Australia. 

288. Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha, F.v.M., (Syn. E. acervuia, 

Miq.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 207. 

The ordinary " Stringybark " of Victoria and New South Wales. 
It is the "Ironbark" of the McAlister River (Victoria). It shares the 
Gippsland aboriginal name of "Yangoora " with E. capitellata. 

A tall tree. The wood is hard and mostly tinged with a 
deeper red-brownish colouration, but occurs also pale-coloured ; 
it is durable and easily fissile into fence-rails, shingles, and 
palings, and is very useful for all purposes for which rough split 
timber is required above ground ; it is also sawn into weather- 
boards and scantlings, and furnishes a fair fuel. The specific 
gravity of the seasoned wood is about 1.020, or 63ilbs. to the 
cubic foot. (Mueller.) A sample from the Monaro, New South 
Wales, is an excellent furniture wood, being, light, strong, and 
close-grained, and capable of a good polish. It is, however, 
chiefly used for fencing and wheelwrights' work in Southern New 



478 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



South Wales. A Victorian specimen in the Museum is figured in 
stripes of a yellow and brown colour, and is close-grained. 

I do not doubt that the following specimens (also in the 
Museum) belong to this species : — 

No. 48 (Lond., 1862); 124 (Paris, 1855), Camden "Stringy- 
bark;" called " Bour-rougne " by the Camden aboriginals. Dia- 
meter, 24 to 54in. ; height, 50 to looft. " A species yielding 
timber much prized for flooring-boards and house-carpentry, of 
considerable strength and durability ; differs from the stringybark 
of the coast." One sample is of a light-brown colour, and of a 
tough nature. It tears up a good deal under the plane. The 
second sample appears in no way altered or different to the first. 
It is part of a post placed in the ground in 181 5, and dug up in 
1861; certified to by the late Sir William Macarthur. 

Some specimens of this timber were tested by Mr. F. A. 
Campbell {Proc. R.S.^ Victoria, 1879) for tensile strength. His 
figures (lbs. per square in.) are 23,000, 23,400, and 20,000. An 
inferior piece broke at 11,700. The specimens broke with a very 
long fracture. 

It is probable that the "Stringybark"' timber tested by 
Captain Ward (Sydney Mint experiments, 1858) belongs to this 
species. It came from Singleton, New South Wales. Specific 
gravity, .937; value of E, 343900; of S, 1818, 
Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 

E. macrorrhyncha, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. 

The specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 







j=" 




Deflection. 


Total 


W) 


Specific Gravity. 




weight 




Q 








required 


03 






With 
the apparatus 


At the crisis 


to 
break each 




Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


weighing 


of breaking. 


piece. 


rt 




78olbs. 






> 






Inches. 


Inches. 


Pounds. 








•17 


.62 


2412 


1809 


.952 


.809 


•17 


.60 


2384 


1788 


1.060 


.901 



South Australia, Victoria and Southern New South Wales. 



TIMBERS. 479 

289. Eucalyptus maculata, Hook., (Syn. E. variegata, F.v.M. ; E. 

peltata, Benth.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FI., iii., 254 and 258. 

" Spotted Gum." 

There is great demand for this timber, which is used for ship- 
building, bridges, girders, naves of wheels, cart and buggy shafts, 
cubes for street paving, staves, shingles, and general building pur- 
poses, where a strong, close-grained, and durable timber is 
required. Baron Mueller, however, points out that it seems to 
vary in quality according to the locality in which it grows. It is 
the coarsest-grained timber of the Eucalypts, and the timber is 
very readily recognised. A sample of wood of this species from 
eastern New South Wales may be thus described : Dark yellow ; 
contains large gum-veins, and is inclined to split. The figure has 
a very pretty wavy appearance, which extends from the heart to 
the sap. Diameter, 2ft. 

The Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods points out that the Queens- 
land Government will not allow this timber to be used for 
telegraph poles. 

At the London International Exhibition of 1862, a piece of 
this timber from the hull of the steamer William IV. was 
exhibited. With the exception of some slight charring on the 
mere surface of the timber in the immediate vicinity of the boilers, 
the entire fabric of this vessel is as substantial and sound as when 
she was built in the year 1830. 

There is no doubt that the " Spotted Gum " timber of 
Captain Ward's Sydney Mint Experiments (1858) belongs to this 
species. Specific gravity, 1.035 5 value of E, 485,500 ; of S, 2006. 
There is also in the Museum a specimen originally labelled E. 
goniocalyx (Spotted Gum), a sample of which was tested in the 
Mint Experiments of 1861 (p. 12). It has a specific gravity of 
1. 17; value of E, 574,500; of S, 2604. It is stated to be a 
" timber of great strength and durability in dry situations, but not 
much prized." It came from Brisbane. It is a heavy timber, cross- 
grained, tough to work, brown, inclining to walnut, and with but 
little figure. The author has no doubt the timber is the produce of 
E. maculala, which is also vernacularly known as " Spotted Gum." 



480 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Diameter, 36 to 48in. (in parts of Southern New South Wales 
its diameter reaches to 6 or 8ft.); height, 100 to 150ft. 
Southern New South Wales to Central Queensland. 

290. Eucalyptus maculata, var. citriodora, Hook, f., (Syn. E. 

citriodora, Hook. f. ; E. melissiodora, Lindl.); N.O., Myr- 

taceae, B.Fl., iii., 257. 
The "Citron," or " Lemon-scented Gum," so called from the delicious 
odour of its leaves. An aboriginal name is " Urara," while another is 
" Kangar." 

Timber hard and durable, used for house-carpentry. (Hill.) 
It is used for studs, which, after twenty years, show no sign of 
decay ; it is furthermore liked for fences, as it splits well, also for 
the shafts of drays, as it is more pliable than most other Eucalyptus 
timber, and it is also used for wheels. (F. Kilner.) Captain 
E. W. Ward gives its specific gravity as .942, on an average of four 
experiments. Diameter, 18 to 34in. ; height, 40 to 70ft. 

Queensland. 

291. Eucalyptus marginata, Smith, (Syn. E. floribunda,Y{.MtgQ\; 
E. hypoleuca, Schau. ; E. Mahagoni, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myr- 
taceae, B.Fl., iii., 209. 

Universally known as "Jarrah." In Western Australia it also bears 
the name of " Mahogany," or " Bastard Mahogany." The aboriginal name 
is " Jerrile." 

(N.B. — Under E. dtversicolor will be found a table of com- 
parative experiments with that timber, E. marginata, E. gomphoce- 
phala, English Oak, and Indian Teak.) 

At the London International Exhibition of 1867 there were 
exhibited two piles of a bridge made of this timber, which had 

Foot Note. — In Brandis' Forest Flora of North-Il^est and Central India occurs the follow- 
ing passage: — " The Yarrah wood of Western Australia {E. rostrata, Schlecht) is a very 
strong and durable wood, but apt to crack and split unless thoroughly seasoned. It is said 
to resist white ants and the 'Teredo na-valis, and has been imported to India for railway- 
sleepers." Dr. Brandis has obviously confused Jarrah {E. marginata, Smith) with Yarrah 
{E. rostrata, Schlecht). I notice that Dr. ]. E. Taylor, in his book Our Island Continent, has 
fallen into the same error. It may just be mentioned that the word Jarrah, as an equiva- 
lent for the timber of E. marginata, is in universal use throughout Australia, while Yarrah 
(E. rostrata) is scarcely, if ever, used but bj' some interior aboriginals. 



TIMBERS. 4S1 

been exposed for seventeen years in water and sand, and of which 
the morticed ends were wholly untouched by any signs of decay ; 
also a noble burr of the same tree, five feet across and seven inches 
thick. There was also exhibited a pile ten feet long by six thick, 
that had formed part of a jetty built in 1832, and removed in 1861. 
Neither sap-wood nor heart-wood was injured by the Teredo,^ 
which had attempted in vain to bore into it. In the Western 
Australian Court at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886, there 
was shown a pile of Jarrah which had been between wind and tide 
for forty-two years. It is not perfectly impervious to the Teredo, it 
is true, but that pest had only got as far as the sap. 

" Open to air and weather, on wind and water-line, under the 
soil or submerged, it is not materially effected, remaining intact 
after nearly fifty years' trial. The choicest timber is obtained from 
the summit of the granite and ironstone ranges ; trees grown on 
sandy plains near the sea yield a timber of inferior quality, twisted, 
also shorter m the grain, and much less durable." (H. E, Victor.) 
"Without sheathing or other protection it has proved sound and 
enduring to an extent which appears to denote exemption from 
decay, so far as evidence can be obtained from observation 
of timber exposed for upwards of thirty years. I have recently 
taken up piles, which were driven for a whaling jetty in the 
year 1834 or 1835 ; the timber is small but perfectly free 
from boring marine mollusca, although the place is swarm- 
ing with Teredo. In the old jetty-work at the port of 
Fremantle, piles which had been driven for thirty years, 
and others only about one year, could scarcely be distinguished, 
'both being equally soimd ; large iron-bolts through them have 
entirely corroded away, leaving the holes clean and sound. Round 
piles with only their bark peeled oi¥, driven before seasoning, 
appear to stand as well as those which were squared and seasoned. 
Young, as well as matured, wood had effectually resisted the attack 
of boring sea-worms and Crustacea. A cargo-boat, upwards of 
twenty years old, exposed all the time, and as often high and dry 
as afloat, is as sound as when it was launched. Coasting craft, 

* The Tertdo na-valis bores wood below low-water mark. It always travels in the 
direction of the grain, unless it meets another teredo. 

2 I 



482 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

which had been more than ten years afloat without copper sheathing, 
are perfectly seaworthy, not a plank perforated, nor a butt end 
rotten. A sapling pole, which had been set up to mark a shoal 
near Fremantle,' sheathed with copper and guyed with iron chains, 
was found on inspection to be uninjured after twenty years' 
exposure ; a chip of it was taken from the water line with a pocket- 
knife, and it looked like cedar, but the copper-sheathing and iron 
chains had both perished. Land boundary posts, put in forty years 
since, show neither weathering nor rot, nor injury from Termites ; 
letters cut on them are still clean and sharp. This is the case 
also with slabs in the cemetery at Perth, bearing inscriptions dating 
as far back at 1834. Flooring of cottages, wet and dry according 
to the season, laid on the ground without joists, after twenty-five 
years shows no signs of decay on either side. As Jarrah has been 
the timber used throughout the colony of Western Australia since 
its foundation in 1829, there are numerous examples to refer to, 
proving its durability. Properly cut and properly dried, the 
material would prove in practice as durable as iron, and under 
some circumstances would outlive it. The time occupied in drying 
ought to be one month for every inch of thickness, if the timber is 
sawn or hewn; but if round it requires only to be banded at the 
ends to prevent splitting. In the forests any number of trees can 
be selected to suit particular purposes for which the timber may 
be required, either for round piles or squared logs, so also for 
railway-sleepers, while for furniture special selections would be 
necessary; in the latter case splendid specimens can be obtained 
exhibiting a ray of light across the grain with a variety of mottles 
and lines when polished highly to give a very pleasing effect, 
though the wood is too heavy for any but massive designs. Some 
of the protuberances from the trunks and branches are of an 
immense size, and furnish slabs rivalling in beauty the finest 
specimens of walnut or pollard-oak ; they require, however, a good 
deal of time in seasoning before they can be made up, after being 
cut into slabs ; it is not unusual to find such protuberances from 
6 to loft. in diameter. I have drawn attention more particularly 
to timber intended for heavy works, such as sea-facing, dock- 
lining, foundations, and bed-blocks for machinery. It is, however, 



TIMBERS. 483 

equally suitable for all building purposes, framing, quartering, 
weather-boarding, planking, flooring, ceilings, balusters, railings, 
and fencing ; it forms also durable cross-cut blocks for roadways 
and paths, easily laid and bedded in common sand. The specific 
gravity of the timber averages about 1.12 ; if well-dried, small 
scantlings will float in the sea, but when saturated will sink. 
Specimens direct from the mill weigh from 71 to 761b. per cubic 
foot." (Report of Clerk of Public Works, Fremantle, Western 
Australia.) 

The following additional remarks are taken from the same 
Report : — 

"The purposes to which Jarrah timber may be applied are 
innumerable; it fills the place where sal {Shorea robusta) and teak 
could not be admitted, as well as where they are used ; and as the 
material can be supplied at a price somewhat less than the timbers 
named, in the log, and at half their price in scantling, it should be 
employed where hitherto timber has been considered undesirable ; 
for instance in sea-facing. ... As a substitute for the 
roofing usually constructed in India, I believe shingling with 
Jarrah only requires to be known to be appreciated. At a distance 
these shingles might be mistaken for grey slates, they lie so close 
and regularly ; thin as they are, they make a remarkably cool 
roof, and when once set require little or no repairs for years. 
I have seen here, where many roofs are of this material, houses 
that have not cost £\ in roof repairs for 25 years. They are 
water-tight in the heaviest downpour, and are not shifted in a 
hurricane. Their lightness admits of a considerable saving in the 
roof-framing. The saw-bench room at the Rockingham Mills is 
32ft. span. The heaviest timbers are only 6x2, the rafters i8in. 
apart, and the principals 6ft. With all these advantages, the 
shingles do not readily catch fire ; burning charcoal thrown on 
them chars a hole, but does not inflame them. It is one of the 
most uninflammable timbers I am acquainted with. The shingles, 
as supplied from the mills are 24 x 4 x iin., weight less than ilb. 
each, are laid with an overlap of i6in., run about 450 to a square, 
are hung with French wire nails on sawn battens, the pitch of the 
roof being 45 degrees." 



484 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Professor Abel made an analysis of Jarrah timber, and as 
this analysis is often referred to in different pamphlets on the 
subject, I give it in exienso : — 

"In accordance with instructions received, I have made a 
qualitative analysis of certain specimens of Jarrah, with the view of 
obtaining from its chemical composition actual proof of the 
principle which renders the timber impervious to the action of dry 
rot, and proof against the action of Teredo navalis and the white 
ant. I find that the duramen contains from 16 to 20 per cent, of 
an astringent gum somewhat resembling the gum-kino of com- 
merce, sparingly soluble in alcohol, but completely so in boiling- 
distilled water. Upon further analysis, this gum was found 
to consist almost entirely of colouring matter and a highly astrin- 
gent vegetable acid, which may be called " Jarrah-tannic acid," 
inasmuch as it possesses some of the characteristics of tannic-acid,. 
together with other relations peculiar to itself. 

" I have failed to discover an alkaloid or organic base 
(although several different processes have been adopted), since, 
after the separation of the gum, albumen and colouring matter, 
I obtain nothing more than traces of saccharose and glucose with 
fatty matter, which in the present enquiry are of little or no im- 
portance. It is, therefore, evident that the active principle of the 
Jarrah is the powerfully astringent acid, which, uncombined with 
any base, is suspended in the gum, and thereby uniformly diffused 
throughout the tissues of the wood in a thin section, of which 
innumerable translucent particles of the gum may be seen by the 
aid of a small convex lens." 

Bearing in mind the almost unanimous opinion as to, the 
immunity of Jarrah from attacks by the Teredo navalis, one is 
inclined to think that the writer of the following (from Port 
Darwin) must have been mistaken as to the Eucalyptus timber of 
which the piles to which he refers were made : — 

" It would appear that the Jarrah is just as susceptible to the 
attacks of Cobra {Teredo navalis or ? Calobates sp.) in water as it 
is to those of white ants on shore. The Whampoa, on her 
southern trip, took down a piece cut from one of the trial piles of 
the jetty (Port Darwin), planted some months ago, which was 



TIMBERS. 485 

thoroughly perforated by the sea-worm." (Port Darwin corres- 
pondent of Tropical Agriculturalist^ Sept., 1885.) 

However, in regard to' the timber which formed the subject 
of the following report, it is not possible that any mistake such as 
hinted at in the previous case could have been made. 

In the year 1876 there was presented a "Report from the 
Engineer of the Auckland Harbour Board upon experiments 
he has made with Jarrah, to see whether it is really proof against 
the attacks of the Teredo (mollusc) which inhabit Auckland 
waters." I make the following extracts from the report (which is by 
Mr. D. E. Macdonald, A.M.I.C.E.) :— 

"On the 3rd July, 1874, I obtained two squared logs of 
Jarrah timber from Messrs. Danaher and Lanigan, contractors for 
the Mangere bridge. This structure spans the Manukau, and is 
erected on Jarrah piles specially selected by Mr. Danaher, who 
visited Western Australia for that purpose. One of these logs I 
had sawn into pieces of scantling, 6x3, and spiked to the totara 
piles of the Queen-street wharf. A few days since I had two of 
these pieces taken up, and found that although they had only been 
in the water for twenty-one months, the teredines were carrying on 
.their destructive operations. (Specimens submitted, Nos. i and 2.) 
I made an examination of the Jarrah used in the Mangere Bridge, 
and regret having to state that the piles and lower headstocks have 
been attacked by the teredo in the most determined manner, and 
from their large growth fear that it will be found necessary ere 
long to replace the whole of the piles. (Specimens No. A, B, C, 
were taken from No. i, 9, and 19 row or bay of piles. Specimen 
D was taken from a Jarrah 9x3 plank, found on the mud on the 
upper side of the bridge.) It is about two years since these piles 
were driven." 

On July 6th, 1880, Mr. Macdonald reports: — "With my 
report under date 29th March, 1876, I submitted specimens No. 
A, B, and C, of Jarrah timber taken from the piles of the Mangere 
Bridge, and stated ' that it will be found necessary ere long to 
replace the whole of the piles.' I have now to state that a contract 
has been let by the General Government for replacing the whole 
of the Jarrah piles with Totara." With this report Mr. Macdonald 



486 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

submitted pieces of the Jarrah piles which had been in use sixteen 
years, but he left them to speak for themselves, as the extent of 
the injury they suffered from the teredo- is not specified by him in 
the papers. 

The following lengthy account by Laslett of Jarrah is of 
deep interest, inasmuch as it has doubtless had considerable 
influence in forming the opinions of English officials and others as 
to the value of the timber. It must, however, be borne in mind 
that Laslett's account was published so long back as 1875, and 
that, on account of the Western Australian Government never 
losing an opportunity of bringing the merits of this timber before 
the world, far more data are now at our service for assessing its 
proper value. 

" It is of straight growth and very large dimensions, but 
unfortunately is liable to early decay in the centre. The sound 
trees, however, yield solid and useful timber of from 20 to 40ft. in 
length by 11 to 24in. square, while those with faulty centres 
furnish only indifferent squares of smaller sizes, or pieces un- 
equally sided, called flitches. 

" The wood is red in colour, hard, heavy, close in texture, 
slightly wavy in the grain, and with occasionally enough figure to 
give it value for ornamental purposes ; it works up quite smoothly, 
and takes a good polish. Cabinet-makers may, therefore, readily 
employ it for furniture, but for architectural, and other works where 
great strength is required, it should be used with caution, as the 
experiments prove it to be somewhat brittle in character. Some 
few years since a small supply of this wood was sent to Woolwich 
Dockyard, with the view to test its quality and fitness for employ- 
ment in ship-building, but the sample did not turn out well, owing 
to the want of care in the selection of the proper wood in the 
colony. The shipping officer sent only such small, squares as 
might have been produced from logs cut or quartered longitudin- 
ally, which left in each case one weak or shaky angle, instead of 
sending the full-sized compact square log representing all that the 
growth of the tree would give. It is just possible, however, that 
this was unavoidable, since it may be inferred from the nature of 
the conversions that the trees from which they were cut com- 



TIMBERS. 487 

menced to decay at the centre at or about mid-life, and they had 
become hollow at the root-end of the stem long before they 
arrived at maturity. This remarkable defect being characteristic 
of the Jarrah tree, it follows that no compact and solid square log 
beyond the medium size can be obtained of the full growth, and 
hence the conversion of the faulty trees is necessarily restricted to 
the dimensions of the flitches cut clear of the centre. One 
peculiarity was noticed in the sample referred to ; some of the 
logs had cavities or blisters, varying from one to several inches in 
length in the longitudinal direction of the woody layers, and 
spreading from i to 2 in. concentrically, which occurred like the 
cup-shake, at various distances from the pith, and at intervals of a 
few feet along the line of the trunk of the tree. These cavities 
were partially filled with a hard secretion of, resin or gum. From 
what has been stated respecting the Jarrah timber received at 
Woolwich, it will readily be supposed that the authorities there did 
not look upon it with favour, or with any desire to employ it for 
ship-building purposes. It therefore passed to some of the minor 
services of the yard, and it was while under conversion for these 
ordinary and inferior works that I took the opportunity of making 
the experiments which are given in detail in the tables to follow. 

It is a noticeable fact in connection with the experiments, that 
all the specimens tried proved deficient in strength and tenacity, 
by breaking off suddenly with a short fracture, under an average 
transverse strain of about 686ib. weight only, or about 171.51b. to 
the square inch of sectional area. Since the foregoing was pre- 
pared, I have seen some correspondence between the Home and 
Colonial Governments on the subject of Jarrah timber, and also 
between the Governor of Western Australia and the leading ship- 
builders and ship-owners, including Lloyd's surveyor at Fremantle, 
who had been severally asked to report upon the merits of the 
Jarrah, with a view to getting it recognised at Lloyd's. Most of 
the ship-builders and ship-owners have reported very favourably, 
and speak of it as a good description of wood. They say that 
when used with iron fastenings, neither material is in any way 
injured by the other, and also what is a little remarkable, that it 
bends well without steaming. In speaking of its merits, however. 



488 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

they nearly all do so under some reserve, such as insisting upon 
the felling being done at a certain time of the year ; getting it 
from some particular district, and so forth. Lloyd's agent at 
Fremantle, however, does not report quite so favourably of it ; 
indeed, he differs so widely from the rest, that perhaps it would be 
well to quote his report in extenso : — 

" In reply to your letter relative to the qualities of the Jarrah 
of this country as a ship-building timber, I consider it valuable 
wood for planking purposes as high as the wales, and I also 
consider it especially excellent wood for small craft which are not 
intended to be sheathed with metal, inasmuch as it resists the sea- 
worm better than almost any other wood, and is less liable to foul ; 
but I do not consider it suitable timber for top sides, or deck 
work, where it must necessarily be much exposed to the effects of 
the sun, it being, in such conditions, more than ordinarily subject 
to shrink and warp; and it is rather deficient in tenacity of fibre, 
so that in situations where eccentric or sudden bends occur it 
cannot generally be employed with advantage. It is probable you 
may have heard of the Honourable East India Company's pilot 
brig Salween, taking in a cargo of Jarrah at Bunbury. This ^yas 
supplied by Mr. W. Pearce Clifton, and the vessel was sent at my 
instance in order to a series of trials of the wood in the Kidderpore 
Dockyard. These trials I regret to say were not favourable to the 
character of the wood, and the result was that no further supply 
was ordered. When last at Calcutta, I obtained the sanction of 
the Government of Bengal to further tests of the wood, the greater 
portion of the Salween' s cargo being then still in store, but I am ' 
sorry to say that the result was not more favourable than before." 

The Clerk of Works at Fremantle, reporting summarily upon 
the opinions expressed by the ship-builders and others, says : — 
" The sound timber resists the attack of the Teredo navilis and 
white ant. On analysis by Professor Abel it was found to contain 
a pungent acid th.\t was fatal to life. The principle, however, was 
not found to be present in the unsound portion. Great care is 
therefore necessary in preparing wood for use by fiitching the log 
so as to cut all the defective portions of the heart out, and using 
only the perfectly sound timber. Much has been said about Jarrah 



TIMBERS. 489 

being subject to split when exported to India or England in log. It 
must be borne in mind that its density renders seasoning very slow, 
and that the inner portions of the larger trees are in a state of decay 
while the outer portions are in full vigour. A tree under these 
conditions, the inner portions comparatively dry, and the outer full 
•of sap, shipped at once to a hot climate like that of India, or to such 
a variable one as that of England, very naturally bursts from 
unequal shrinkage, being also exposed to very great changes of 
temperature. To obviate this peculiarity and apparent defect, let 
the Jarrah be fallen when the sap is at the lowest ebb, and 
ilitched as previously suggested." 

From the foregoing statements it will be seen that there is 
great diversity of opinion upon the merits of Jarrah timber, and 
time only will show whether, if imported, it will find favour with 
ship-builders and others in this country. 

"Some three or four years since (about 1871) the Western 
Australian Timber Company were busily engaged in the forests 
preparing a large quantity of Jarrah for exportation. The company 
professes, I believe, to select only the best trees, and to cut them 
at the proper season; the deliveries should, therefore, be of the very 
best sort the country produces. I have earnestly looked for sample 
•cargoes to arrive in the London Docks, but up to the present (1875) 
none of any importance has been reported." This does not remain 
true now. The price of the timber is frequently quoted in the 
hardwood list of the Timber Trades Journal, and especially 
■during the currency of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, the 
shipments of Jarrah to England have been numerous. 

A sample, sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, was 
tested by Mr. Allen Ransome. He reported as follows : — " It is 
beautifully marked, and somewhat resembles mahogany in colour. 
Railway sleepers, joinery, casks, spokes, and hammer handles 
were made from it. The planed and moulded specimens, unlike 
the Karri, which does not finish well, left the machines with a 
remarkably fine surface." 

Mr. R. C. Patterson states (Proc. Inst. C.E., Ivi., 39) that 
■certain Jarrah sleepers, after having been in the ground in the 
■South Australian railways for twelve years, were in as good condition 



490 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



as when they were first laid. The sleepers were 6ft. 6in. long. 
Sin. wide, and 4in. deep, and sawn, but not split from the log. 
The seat for the rail was adzed by machinery on the ground. 

TRANSVERSE EXPERIMENTS. 
(^Laslett.) 



Number 

of the 

specimen. 


Deflections. 


4J a 
"1 " u 




1 d 
|s 2 


? 


-^ ^ f*^ 

'■Z D.— 

I 


it's 

S " 


1^ 

E 

I5 


I 

2 

3 
4 

i 

6 


Inches. 
2.85 
3-25 
3-25 
3-50 
3-15 
3-25 


Inch. 
.10 

• 15 
.15 

• IS 
.10 

• IS 


Inches. 
4-5° 
4-50 
S.oo 
5.00 
4- 50 
4.7s 


Lb. 
743 
638 
661 
661 
726 
68s 


987 
1049 

977 
1039 
1006 
1002 


753 
608 

636 

722 
684 


Lb. 
185.7s 
159-50 
165.25 
165.25 
181.50 
171-25 


Total 


19.25 


.80 


28.25 


4114 


6060 


4080 


1028.50 


Average 3.21 


.133 


4-71 


685.66 


lOIO 


680 


171. 416 



Samples 7ft. long. Each piece broke short. 



TENSILE EXPERIMENTS. 
(Laslett.) 



Number of 
the specimen. 



Dimensions of 
each piece. 



Total 



Inches. 
j 2 X 2 X 30 I 



Specific 
Gravity. 



987 
1006 



1993 



Weight the piece 
broke with. 



Lbs. 
10.080 

13:44° 



23.520 



Direct cohesion 
on I square inch. 



Lbs. 
2,520 
3-360 



Average 



996 



11,760 



Vertical or Crushing Strain on Cubes of Two Inches. 



No. 9. 
Tons. 
12.875 


No. 10. 
Tons. 
13.000 


No. II. 
Tons. 
12.625 


No. 12. 
Tons. 
12.750 


No. 13. 
Tons. 
12-750 


No. 14. 
Tons. 
12.750 


Total. 
Tons. 

76.75 


Average. 
Tons. 
12.792 



Ditto on 

square inch. 

Tons. 

3.198 



296810. 



S = 1800. 



TIMBERS. 



491 



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w 


w 


rt 


M 


is- 


1— ( 


bo 
.S 




ri 


Z 


..n 


<i1 




»— ( 


aj 


c^ 


^ 







Ui 


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492 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

In an oflficial report it is stated that this Eucalypt covers an 
area of 14,000 square miles. 

Exceptional diameter, 10 or iift. ; average height, looft. 
exceptionally, 150ft. 

South Western Australia. 

292. Eucalyptus melanophloia, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., 

iii., 220. 

"Silver-leaved Ironbark," or "Ironbark." 

The Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods states that the wood of this 
species is not valued for any purpose, mainly because it is so small 
and stunted. 

New South Wales and Queensland. 

293. Eucalyptus melliodora, A. Cmm., (Syn. E. patent iflor a', 
Miq., no7i F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 210. 

The "Yellow Box" of N.S.W. and Victoria. "Yellow Jacket " of the 
interior, the inner-bark being of a yellowish colour. In parts of Victoria it 
goes by the name of " Red Gum." It is sometimes called " Honey-scented 
Gum," owing to the perfume of its flowers. By the aboriginals of Gippsland 
it is known as " Dargan," 

Timber hard, tough, durable, and close-grained ; used to 
some extent by engravers. An excellent shade tree. The timber 
is of a yellowish colour, and when dry is extremely hard, very 
durable both in water and under the ground, heavy, also of 
remarkable toughness, but difficult to work, and as a rule 
not fissile. It is much utilized for spokes, rollers, heavy 
framework, and for naves, cogs, and treenails, also for rougher 
kinds of work, such as telegraph and fence posts, rails and slabs. 
It cannot well be sawn into planks on account of the frequent 
occurrence of broad perpendicular slits or cracks intervening 
between the layers, and thus it is apt to shell concentrically. It is 
excellent for fuel. The specific gravity of fully-seasoned wood 
varies from about .965 to 1.125, or from 60 to jolb. per cubic 
foot. (Mueller.) Mr. Bauerlen, writing from Colombo, Candelo, 
New South Wales, says : " It is here considered the best timber all 
round, and is used for a variety of purposes, but does not, as far 
as I can learn, last long in the ground." 



TIMBERS. 



493 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E, melliodora, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 

strength, 

LW 


Specific gravity. 


With the 

Apparatus 

weighing 

ySolb. 


At the 
crisis of 
breaking. 


Air dried. 


Absolutely- 
dried. 


4BD2 


Inches. 
.06 
.08 


Inches. 
.58 
.63 


Pounds. 
2903 
2781 


2177 
2086 


1. 112 

1.040 


•947 
.876 



The three following samples in the Technological Museum 
are well authenticated. They are called " Yellow Box." 

I. Light in colour; close grain, and of a strong, tough nature. 
(Victoria.) 2. Rich dark brown. A well-seasoned log, showing a 
pretty figure ; works very well. Diameter, i5in. (Between Wagga 
Wagga and Narandera, N.S.W.) 3. Wood yellow, and sound; 
dresses well. Diameter, 15 in. (S. districts, N.S.W.) 

The author feels little hesitation in referring the two timbers 
which follow to this species : — 

I. No. 12 (London, 1862), 122 (Paris, 1855), labelled E. 
corymhosa in both catalogues — an obvious error. It is the " True," 
or " Yellow Box" of Camden, and " Bourrayero-gourroo " of the 
aboriginals. Diameter, 18 to 36in. ; height, 30 to 50ft. " A low, 
branching species of Eucalyptus, not very abundant ; timber of 
excellent quality." It is cross-grained, not good to work or dress, 
tough, and adapted for wheel-spokes. It is compact, moderately 
heavy, and has a beautiful wavy grain. 2. No! 34 (London, 
1862), 264 (Paris, 1855). " Yellow Gum," of Berrima. Diameter, 
24 to 40in. ; height, 40 to Soft. " Said to be a good timber." It 
is of a dark buff or pale brown colour, easy to work, shows gum- 
veins, but a good, useful timber. 

Diameter, 18 to 24in. ; height, 40 to 50ft. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

294. Eucalyptus micr0C0r7S,^.^'.^/.,N.O.,Myrtace3e,B.Fl.,iii., 2 1 2. 

In Queensland it is known as " Peppermint," the foliage being remark- 
ably rich in volatile oil. But its almost universal name is "Tallow Wood." 



494 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



North of Port Jackson it bears the name of " Turpentine Tree," and 
" Forest Mahogany." The aboriginals of the Richmond River (New Soath 
Wales) call it " Wangee." The aboriginals of the Brisbane River (Queens- 
land) call it " Tee." 

Timber strong and durable, under or above ground. Used 
lay wheelwrights for naves, felloes, and spokes ; also for flooring, 
e.g., in ball-rooms ; for this latter purpose it is selected on account 
of its greasy nature. This greasiness is most marked where it is 
fresh cut. The very large trees are generally hollow, but as a rule 
those under 3^ft. in diameter are sound. {General Report, 
Sydney lnlernatio7ial Exhihiiion, 1879.) Its colour is yellowish- 
brown or yellowish. 

The following logs from New South Wales are in the 
Technological Museum : — 

I. Full of shakes, dark yellow colour, not good to work, 
•cross-grained, inclined to wavy grain, heavy; diameter, 2ft. 
(Northern districts.) 2. Pale yellow colour, straight in the grain, 
and easy to work. Comparatively light in weight; diameter, I5in. 
(Macleay River.) 



"TALLOW WOOD" (E. microcorys), EXPERIMENTED 
UPON BY THE VICTORIAN TIMBER BOARD, 1884. 

The samples tested were each 7ft. in length by i|-in. square; 
the distance between the bearings was 6ft. ; and the weight was 
gradually applied in the centre until the sample broke. 



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TIMBERS. 495 

Diameter, 6 to 8ft. ; height, lOo to 120ft, 
Northern coast districts of New South Wales to Cleveland 
Bay (Queensland). 

295. Eucalyptus microtheca, F.v.M., (Syn. E. brevi/olia, F.v.M. ; 
E. brachypoda, B«nth., — name of species in B.Fl.) ; N.O., 
Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 223 (partly). 

Called "Bastard Box" in Western New South Wales, and "Black 
Box'' in Queensland. This is the "Flooded Box" of the country around 
the Gulf of Carpentaria. It is also called " Narrow-leaved Box " and 
" Dwarf Box." It has many aboriginal names. The following are some of 
them: — "Callaille" and " Yathoo," Murchison River (Western Australia)- 
"Targoon," Riverina (New South Wales); " Jimbul Kurleah," Cloncurry 
River, and otherparts of Northern Queensland; "Coolybah," or "Coolibar," 
Western Queensland and about the Darling, New South Wales ; " Goborra," 
or " Goborro," Western New South Wales ; " Koloneu," Queensland. 

This wood is reddish-brown or reddish (near the outside, 
however, the colour is grey), and remarkably hard, heavy and 
elastic. Mons. Thozet speaks of it with figures not unlike walnut, 
but darker, heavier, and closer grained. It is useful in buildino-, 
though perhaps too hard for cabinet-work. It is neither very much 
used nor valued. " Piles made of the young trees have been used 
with advantage for the construction of the Great Northern Railway 
of Queensland." (Thozet.) This and E. terminalis are the only 
Eucalypts in much of the western desert. 

Western and Northern Australia, also in the interior of Soulh 
Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. 

296. Eucalyptus Obliqua, L'Hir., (Syn. E. gigantea, Hook, f., 
E. falct/olia, Miq. (partly) ; E. nervosa, F.v.M. ; E. hetero- 
phylla, Miq.) ; N.O., Myrtace:», B.FL, iii., 204. 

A " Stringybark." It is called " Messmate" in Victoria because of its 
resemblance to E. macrorrhyncha. Other names are "Black Box " and 
" Ironbark Box," because the wood and bark are very like those of Iron- 
bark, especially in old trees. Formerly called "Woolgook," or " Wang- 
narra," by the Yarra (Victoria) aboriginals. 

This is a most useful tree for general purposes, although it is 
by no means the hardest of the Gums. It grows very quickly. 
Owing to the length and straightness of its stem, and the unusually 



496 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

fissile nature of the wood, which enables it to be easily worked, it 
is brought into more general use than the timber of most other 
Eucalypts. For ordinary works it is in great demand, and is 
extensively used for fencing rails, scantlings, boards, shingles, 
palings, rafters, posts and scaffolding-poles (J. E, Brown); but it 
has some tendency to warp or twist. The timber is light in 
appearance, weighs from 50 to 6o|lbs. per cubic foot of dry wood, 
therefore having a specific gravity of .809 to .990. It is said to be 
somewhat susceptible to dry rot. Its durability was, however, 
shown in pulling down the old courthouse at Hobart, when the 
timbers, forty years old, were found to be as sound as when 
put in. It also splits well, yielding palings 2oin. broad. Near 
the base the wood assumes a beautiful wavy figure, which is 
admirably adapted for furniture, and very ornamental. 

Following are brief descriptions of specimens of this timber, 
from rather small trees, in the Technological Museum. They are 
all from New South Wales, except the last, which is from Victoria : 

I. " Stringybark." Warm brown, inclined to shakes, splits 
very freely, diameter of tree, ift. 9in. 2. "Stringybark." Warm 
brown, free from gum-veins, difficult to \vork to obtain a quite 
even surface, moderately heavy, diameter 2ft. (Adelong). 3. 
" Messmate." Buff or light-brown, wavy grain, works fairly well ; 
a sound log, diameter, 2ft. 3in. (Southern district). 4. "Stringy- 
bark." Fairly sound and well-seasoned, light-brown, does not 
work easily, diameter loin. (Macleay River, sic.) 5. " Stringy- 
bark." Brown colour, full of gum-veins, coarse grain. 

This tree has been introduced extensively in India on the 
Nilgiris, and, on a smaller scale by way of experiment, in the 
Punjab, and in several places in the north-west Himalayas. 
(Brandis.) It has also been tried at Changa Manga, but has failed 
at Lucknow. (Gamble.) 

Specimens of this timber from Bullarook Forest, Victoria, were 
examined by Mr. F. A. Campbell {Proc. R.S. Vict., 1879.) His 
values of the tensile strength in pounds per square inch are 8500, 
8500, and 8200. They broke with a short fracture. The wood 
was well seasoned, clean, but not quite free from shakes. 
Mr. Campbell, however, remarks that this should not, however. 



TIMBERS. 



497 



affect its tensile strength to any extent. It was known locally as 
" Messmate." Rankin gives the following particulars in regard 
to the timber of E. gigantea (obliqua) : modulus of elasticity in 
pounds on square inch, 1,709,000; modulus of rupture, 13,000; 
weight, 541b. per cubic foot. 

Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. obliqua, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 
strength, 

LW 
3 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


Air.dried.^A^itT'' 


4BD^ 


Inches. 
.12 
.14 


Inches. 
.50 
.48 


Pounds. 
2053 
1776 


1540 
1332 


1.045 -867 

•935 783 



TASMANIAN " STRINGYBARK." fK ohliqua.) 
(Experiments by Mr. James Mitchell,* see p. 338.) 



^1 


Name of Wood, etc., 


Specific 


E, 
Value of 
Elasticity. 

L— '^^' 
ad2d 


1 

s. 

Value of 
Strength. 


Z a. 

X 


7ft. long and 2in. square. 


Gravity. 


S=J^ 






4ad2 


I 


Green piece, brown coloured, 7ft. long, ) 
2in. square j 


919 


9661075 


1856 


2 


Do. reversed grain 


919 


9305452 


1932 


3 


Do. white coloured 


798 


7556976 


1958 


4 


Do. do. 


866 


9313920 


T958 


5 


Seasoned upwards of 6 years 


925 


9506060 


2554 


6 


Do. do. 16 „ 


864 


:258356i 


2551 


7 


Do. do. 18 „ 


947 


13869273 


2514 


8 


Do. do. 20 ,. 


847 


9927863 


2564 


9 


Do. do. 20 „ 


838 


10281134 


2598 



* Attached to the results was the following note: — "The results are also given of a 
series of experiments on the Stringybark, a gum wood extensively used in this and the 
neighbouring colonies for house building and general purposes. The specimens 
experimented upon were chosen because their ages were vouched by the gentlemen who 
supplied them, and not on account of their being specially calculated to sustain great 
weights. Pieces could, I have no doubt, be found capable of bearing greater weights 
than any I have recorded." 

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Victoria. 



TIMBERS. /|99 

Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 100 to 150ft. Mr. James 
Mitchell {Proc. U.S., V.D. Land, 185 1) measured a tree of this 
species in Tasmania which, at four feet from the ground, was 
64ft. in girth. 

Southern coast districts New South Wales, but chiefly in 
Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. 

297. Eucalyptus OCCidentalis, Endl., including perhaps E. 
macrandra, F.v.M., (a species in B.Fl., iii., 235), and E. 
spathulata, Hook. ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 235. 

The " Flat-topped Yate." 

The timber is hard and strong, and is for that reason sought 
after by wheelwrights. (Muir.) It is probably as valuable as the 
timber of E. cornuta. (Mueller.) It is heavy and durable, and 
much used for posts, fence rails, fuel, etc. Height, 30 to Soft. 

South-western Australia. 

298. Eucalyptus OChrophloia, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacece, F.V.M., 
Fragm., xi., 36. 

Called " Yellow-jacket," from its yellowish bark. 

Wood of a brownish colour, hard, heavy, and close-grained. 
Height, about 50ft. 

Near the Warrego and Paroo Rivers, New South Wales and 
Queensland. 

299. Eucalyptus Odorata, Behr., (Syn. E. porosa, Miq. ; E. caju- 
putea, Miq.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 215. 

One of the " Peppermint trees." " Box " and " White Box" are names 
it possesses, and about St. Vincent's Gulf (South Australia) it is known as 
" Red Gum." 

This timber weighs from si.xty to seventy pounds per cubic 
foot. It is very hard, durable, yellowish-white, is considered of 
fair quality, has a tough fibre, and is used for such purposes as 
naves, felloes, rails, slabs, firewood, and fence posts. As a rule 
the tree is too small to be available for general sawing purposes. 



500 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

since it is almost invariably hollow, both in trunk and branches. 
(J. E. Brown.) A Victorian sample in the Technological Museum 
may be thus described : " Peppermint." Light brown colour, 
close, fine and straight in the grain. 

South Australia, Victoria and south-east New South Wales. 

300. Eucalyptus pallidifolia, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtace«, B.Fl., iii., 
236. 

The wood of this small tree is yellow near the bark, the rest 
red, hard, close-grained, and prettily mottled. 
Northern Australia. 

301. Eucalyptus paniculata, 'S'7«///z, (Syn. E. terminalis, Sieb. ; 
E. fasciculosa, F.v.M., including E. paniculaiayzx. fasciculosa, 
Benth.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 211. 

Occasionally called " Bloodwood." It is the " Red Ironbark " of the 
New South Wales coastal districts, and, because its wood is paler than that 
of its congeners, it is also known as " White Ironbark," or " She 
Ironbark." 

This wood is in good repute for durability. It is much used 
for posts for fencing, also for railway works, such as bridges, 
sleepers, carriages, etc. It is useful for large beams in buildings, 
stores for heavy goods, and for other purposes where great strength 
is required. Mr. George Hutchinson tells me that at Chiltern, 
Victoria, he has cut down one of these trees, split the timber, and 
as speedily as possible constructed a puddling machine. He 
states that it wears well and shrinks but little. A log in the Tech- 
nological Museum, from the northern districts of New South Wales, 
is of a light-brown colour, heavy, seasons fairly well, is good to 
dress, and is from a tree i8in. in diameter. Another sample was 
No. I, N.S.W. Cal. London Exh., 1862, and No. 83, Exh. Paris. 
1855. It is styled "White," or "Pale Ironbark," and aboriginal 
name at Illawarra, '' Barremma." Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 
80 to 1 20ft. . . . "The most valuable, perhaps, of all the 
Ironbarks, remarkable for its smooth, uniform outer bark, and its 
very hard, tough, inlocked, strong wood." It is of a dirty dark 



TIMBERS. 501 

brown colour, very good to work, and a heavy limber. Diameter, 
36 to 48in. ; height, 100 to 150ft. 

Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. 

302. Eucalyptus patens, Benth., N.O., Myrtaceas, B.Fl., iii., 247. 

A " Blackbutt." 

This timber is considered durable ; it is tough, and hence 
used for wheelwrights' work ; it does not split. (Mueller.) 
Diameter, up to 6ft. ; height, up to looft. 

South-western Australia. 

303. Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sieh., (Syn. E. coriacea, A. Cunn., 
(the species name in B.Fl.) ; E. plebophylla, F.v.M. ; E. 
submuUiplinervis, Miq. ; E. piperita, var. pauciflora, DC. ; 
and E. procera, Dehn., (perhaps); N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 
201. 

" White Gum." " Mountain White Gum " (of the Blue Mountains, 
New South Wales), "Swamp Gum," "Drooping Gum," and "Flooded 
Gum." It is occasionally called "Mountain Ash" and "Peppermint." 
In Tasmania it is known as " Weeping Gum." 

The wood, which is white in colour, is not of first-class 
quality, being rather soft and short-grained ; it is, however, often 
used for fencing purposes. (J. E. Brown.) It is easy to cut, and of 
a lighter colour than the timber from most Eucalypts ; it splits 
rarely, but it cannot readily be obtained in great lengths ; it is 
excellent for fuel, but cannot be used underground. (G. W. 
Robinson). 

The following two specimens are in the Technological 
Museum: i. ''Mountain White Gum." Warm brown colour, 
close in grain, split, and with a gum-vein (Victoria). 2. A sample, 
No. 33, London Exh. Cat., 1862, and No. 26^, Paris Exh. Cat., 
1855; is described "White Gum" of Berrima, "not of much value 
for timber, height of tree, 40 to 80ft. ; diameter, 24 to 4oin." It 
is of a yellow or buff colour, beautiful to work, straight in the 
grain, full of gum-veins, but looks exceptionally well under poHsh. 
Diameter, up to 4ft., with height of looft. 

Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 



502 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

304. Eucalyptus pilularis, 'Sra., (Syn. E. persid/oUa, DC; E. 
semicorticata, F.v.M.; E. omnia, Sieb.; E. incrassata,S\Qh.)\ 
N.O., Myrtacece, B.Fl., iii., 208. 

The •' Blackbutt," or " Great Blackbutt." From the great hardness of 
its wood it is often known as " Flintwood." It is a " Mountain Ash " of 
Illawarra (New South Wales), " Willow," or "White Top," of the country 
about Berrima (New South Wales). Sometimes it is called "Stringybark. 
By the aboriginals of South Queensland it is known as " Tcheergun," or 
" Toi." A New South Wales aboriginal name is " Benaroon." 

Furnishes excellent timber for house carpentry, or any pur- 
pose where strength and durability are required, e.g., bridge 
planking, ships' decks, paving cubes, etc. It can be used for 
telegraph poles and railway sleepers. (Woolls.) It is of a 
yellowish colour. Captain Ward, R.E., found the deflection of a 
sample of this timber from Berrima, N.S.W., to be i.35in., the 
material used being 4ft. long by 2in. square, loaded in the middle 
with a weight of 9801b., while the elasticity remained unimpaired, 
breaking under a weight of 12321b.; specific gravity, .990 (6ilb. 
14OZ. per cubic foot.) He spoke of it as a very strong timber, but 
warping and twisting when exposed to the sun, and requiring 
gradual seasoning off the ground. {Sydney Mint Expis., i86o.) 
Baron Mueller observes that this timber is not so well known as it 
ought to be. Its occasional liability to gum-veins has doubtless 
prejudiced it in popular favour. A slab in the Technological 
Museum, which has been seasoned over twenty-five years (having 
been exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862), 
has a weight which corresponds to 61 lb. 70Z. per cubic foot. The 
Rev. Dr. Woolls observes of this tree : " Though rapid in growth, 
it is one of the most valuable species in the county of Cumber- 
land, . . . and next to the White Ironbark {E. siderophloid); 
it is capable of enduring a greater crushing strain than any other 
Eucalypt." 

Following are some samples in the Technological Museum : 
I. "Blackbutt," or "Flintwood." Warm brown colour, close in 
the grain, and very strong; gum-veins. (Victoria.) 2. "Black- 
butt." Light coloured, but dirty; full of shakes, works fairly 



TIMBERS. 503 

well; diameter, 2ft. 3111. (Eastern N.S.W.) 3, " Blackbutt." 
Veiy light coloured for a gum, a sound piece of timber, well 
seasoned, dresses very well; diameter, i5in. (Shoalhaven, 
N.S.W.) 4. " Blackbutt." Dark brown, full of shakes, works 
fairly well; diameter, i8in. (N.S.W.) 5. The timber marked 
No. 31 in the N.S.W, timber list, London Exh., 1862, and No. 85, 
Paris Exh., 1855. " Mountain Ash," of Illawarra. "Willow," or 
White-top," of Berrima. Diameter, 24 to 48in. ; height, 50 to 
1 20ft. INIuch valued for rough purposes in districts where the 
better sorts of timber are not produced. It usually occupies 
rocky sites, and seems to form a link between the Ironbarks and 
the Gums. It is straight in the grain, moderately heavy, light 
reddish-brown, works fairly well, but is of a very gummy nature ; 
adapted for bent work. 

Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 100 to 150ft. 

Eastern Gippsland to Southern Queensland. 

305. Eucalyptus piperita? Smith, in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii., 286 
(partly) ; (Syn. E. acervula, Sieb.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., 
iii., 207. 

" White Stringybark" and " Peppermint." It also bears the names of 
"Blackbutt" and "Redwood." A variety growing in the Braidwood 
district (New South Wales) goes by the names of "Messmate" and 
" Almond-leaved Stringybark." 

This timber is durable ; it is known to have kept sound for 
40 years in damp soil ; it is used for posts, shingles, house 
building, etc., and also for rough indoor housework. A log in 
the Technological Museum is labelled "Redwood," or "Pepper- 
mint " (S. and W. Districts of N.S.W.) Timber red, a mass of 
shakes, works with difficulty; diameter, 2ft. 

In the Sydney Mint Experiments, i860, a sample of timber, 
"White Stringybark" {Eucalyptus sp.), {E. acervula in the M.S.), 
was experimented upon, which doubtless belongs to this species. 
It came from Berrima; specific gravity, .922; value of E, 351,600- 
of S, 2,268. 



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Locality 
Where 
Grown. 


1 Ranges 
near 
Fernshaw, 
Victoria. 


1 



TIMBERS. 



505 



Diameter, 24 to 36in. ; height, 80 to looft. 
Gippsland, New South Wales and Queensland. 

306. Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, F.v.M., 
Fragm., xi. 

This timber is sound, heavy, hard and durable, well adapted 
for sawing, but not easy to split. (Bailey.) 
Near Brisbane and in New South Wales. 

307. Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schau., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F!., 
iii,, 213. 

The " Red Box " of South-eastern Australia. Called also " Brown 
Box," "Grey Box," and "Bastard Box." "Poplar-leaved Gum" is 
another name, but it is most commonly known as " Lignum Vitse " because 
of its tough and hard wood. It is the " Den " of the Gippsland aboriginals. 

Great durability is attributed to this wood, though the stems 
often become hollow in age, and thus timber of large dimensions 
is not readily afforded. It is much sought after for cogs, naves 
and felloes ; it is also much in demand for slabs in mines, while 
for fuel it is unsurpassed. (Mueller.) Its great hardness is against 
its general use. A Victorian sample in this Museum may be 
described: "Red Box,"' of a brownish-red colour, fine in the grain, 
and very tough. 
Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 

E. polyanthema, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 

specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

Weight 

required 

to Break 

each 

piece. 


Value of 
Strength, 

LW 
S = 

4BD2 


Specific Gravity. l 

i 


With the 

Apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the 

crisis of 

Breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.10 

.08 


Inches. 
.56 

.58 


Pounds. 
3215 

3M5 


241 1 
2359 


1.248 
1. 214 


1 
i 

1.03 I 
I.OIO 



Height, occasionally up to 250ft. 
Victoria and New South Wales. 



506 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

338. Eucalyptus populifolia, Hook., (Syn. ^. populnea, F.v.M. ; 

and including E. largiflorens var, parviflora, Benth. ; E. 

platyphylla,Y.vM.); N.O., Myrtace^, B.Fl., iii., 214 and 
242. 

This tree is variously known as " White Box," " Red Box," " Poplar 
Box," and " Bimbil (or Bembil) Box." Called " Nankeen Gum " in 
Northern Australia, from the peculiar light-brown colour of the bark, 
and "White Gum" in Queensland. " Egolla " of the natives of 
Northern Queensland. 

The timber is hard, heavy, close-grained, and durable ; used 
for posts and building purposes, mauls and railway sleepers, etc., 
but at least fifty per cent, of the wood is unsound. It is of a grey 
or light brown colour, very tough and strong, hard to work, but is 
a handsome wood when polished. It is sometimes rather subject 
to gum-veins. A variety of this Eucalypt in Northern Queensland 
with enormous leaves, yields a very inferior wood, which, according 
to the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, is not used even for burning. 
Diameter, 24in. ; height, 50 to 60ft. 

New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. 

309. Eucalyptus punctata, DC, (Syn. E. Stuartiana var. longi- 
folia, Benth., (partly); E. tereticornisvia. brachycorys, Benth.); 
N.O., Myrtaceas, B.Fl., iii., 244. 

The tough bark of this tree earns for it the name of " Leather-jacket." 
In the neighbourhood of Twofold Bay it is called " Hickory " and "Tur- 
pentine." About the south-east coast it is often called " Grey Gum." Other 
vernacular names are " Red Gum," "Yellow Gum," and " Bastard Box." 

The wood is tough, pale reddish-brown, extremely durable, 
hard, close-grained, difficult to split, and in use for fence posts^ 
railway sleepers, wheelwrights' work, and many other building 
purposes, in ship-building, etc. It is durable underground, though 
not equal in value to Ironbark ; it affords also a superior fuel. 
(Mueller.) It is remarkable for its extreme hardness. (Woolls.) 

Following are particulars of two logs of small diameter in this- 
IMuseum : i. Yellow sap-wood, red heart- wood, sound and well 
seasoned; diameter ift. (Port Hacking.) 2. Rich brown, flawed 
with gum-veins, not good to work, seasons fairly well; diameter^ 
loin. (Macleay River.) 



TIMBERS. 507 

A tree called "Grey Gum" in the neighbourhood of Cam- 
bewarra,* New South Wales, has been pronounced by Baron 
Mueller to be of this species. It has a height of 40 to 50ft., and 
a diameter of 2ft. The bark is smooth, deciduous, and usually 
looks grey in large patches, hence the local name. The part of 
the trunk not occupied by patches of persistent bark is a dirty 
white, which dries to a dark reddish-buff, bark solid, and one inch 
in thickness. The timber is red, hard, and heavy, much 
resembling in those characteristics the " Red Ironbark " of the 
district (? E. paniculala), and by some bushmen considered equal 
to it, by others not much liked because (they say) the fibre is too 
short. Mr. Bauerlen tells me he has a cabinet specimen which is 
frequently pronounced to be " Ironbark " by people who have a 
good knowledge of Australian hardwoods. Height, about looft. 

New South Wales. 

310. Eucalyptus pyriformis, Turcz., {^yn. E. prjimos a, Tmcz.; 
E. erythrocalyx, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 226. 

Amongst the settlers at Fowler's Bay (South Australia) it is known as 
the " Ooldea Mallee," from the circumstance of its occurrence at Ooldea. 
(R. Tate, quoted by J. E. Brown.) 

A small tree, but the timber is hard, heavy, durable, and 
yellow-white in colour. (J. E. Brown.) 
Western and South Australia. 

311. Eucalyptus Raveretiana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaces, F.v.M., 

Fragm., x., 99. 

"Grey Gum," "Iron Gum," and "Thozet's Box;" also "Woolly- 
butt." 

The wood is durable, dark coloured, excessively hard, and 
valuable for underground piles and railway sleepers, and many 
other purposes ; it will resist the heaviest blow. (Bowman and 
Thozet.) Baron Mueller expresses the opinion that this will prove 
a useful species in wet tropical countries for the comparatively 
speedy production of a hardwood timber. It is of a dark drab 

* The most southern locality yet recorded for this species. 



508 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

colour, speckled with white, and it would be useful for cabinet- 
work. Attains a diameter of loft.; height, 300ft. 
Queensland. 

312. Eucalyptus redunca, Schau., i\nc\. E. xanthonema,Tnxcz.); 

N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 253. 
The colonists' name is " White Gum," that of the aboriginals " Wandoo." 

This tree furnishes a pale, hard, particularly tough, heavy and 

durable timber, prized for building purposes, various implements, 

and especially for wheelwrights' work, supplying the best shafts, 

cogs, naves, spokes, and felloes. The seasoned wood weighs 

about 7olb. per cubic foot. Mr. Allen Ransome examined a 

sample of this timber sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 

He reports: "It is very similar to Tuart {E. gofnphocephala). 

Felloes were shaped, and spokes were turned from it, the finish 

being, if anything, superior to that of Tuart." Height, up to 

1 20ft. 

Western Australia. 

31.3- Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith, (incl. E. spedabiUs, F.v.M.; 
E. pellita, F.v.M. ; E. Kirtoniana, F.v.M.; E. hemilampra, 
F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 245. 

The " Red," or " Forest Mahogany," of the neighbourhood of Sydney. 
These are bad names, as the wood bears no real resemblance to the true 
Mahogany. Because the product of this tree (or perhaps that of E. 
siderophloia) first brought Australian kino into medical notice, it is often in 
old books called " Botany Bay Gum-tree." Other names for it are " Red 
Gum," " Grey Gum," " Hickory," and it perpetuates the memory of an 
individual by being called " Jimmy Low." 

[It is not always possible to reconcile the statements which 
have been made in regard to the timber of E. restni/era, unfortu- 
nate confusion having arisen between this species and E. sidero- 
phloia (see p. 5 16), which has E. resini/era as one of its synonyms. 
In the colonies the usual equivalent for E. resinifera, Sm., is 
"Mahogany," and that for E. resini/era, A. Cunn. (siderophloia), 
" Ironbark."] 

This timber is much prized for strength and durability, and 
is used for piles, as it is said to resist the action of Cobra. (Hill.) 
It is used for ships' knees, shingles, posts, and general building 



TIMBERS. 509 

purposes ; it is not liable to shrink, and it lasts well underground. 
The Rev, Dr. Woolls speaks of its usefulness for fencing, beams, 
etc., and says that it is very durable. Rafters of this wood last for 
upwards of fifty years, as for instance in St, John's Church, 
Parramatta (erected in 1798), which were taken down in 1852, and 
found to be in a perfect state of preservation. But in speaking of 
lengthened tests, it must not be forgotten that British Oak, for 
instance, has remained intact, when used in buildings, for hundreds 
of years, and however certain in our mind we may be of the 
durability of such timbers as E. resifii/era, the period of their use 
has been but short up to the present. 

The description of the timber of the "Ironbark Tree" {E. 
resinifera), Laslett, Timber and Timber Trees, 199 et seq, refers to 
E. siderophloia, to which species it has been transferred in the 
present work, see p. 516. 

The following brief descriptions of small timbers in the 
Technological Museum allude to authentic specimens of E. 
resinifera, Smith. They are all from New South Wales. 
I, "Red Mahogany.'' Very dark red, difficult to work, a sound 
timber, hardly a trace of a shake, diameter, gin. (Milton, near 
Ulladulla). 2. "Mahogany." Light-brown, very heavy, seasons 
fairly well ; diameter, 2ft. (Eastern N.S.W.) 3. Dark red colour, 
exceedingly good to work, close, smooth grain, a heavy timber, 
very strong and durable. This specimen was taken from the roof 
in the Church at Parramatta [vide supra). No. 44, London Exh. 
Cat., 1862, No. 241, Paris Exh. Cat., 1855. Its ordinary name 
was "Mahogany," and the aboriginal name in Cumberland and 
Camden " Booah." Diameter, 36 to 6oin. ; height, 60 to 130ft. 
'* A noble timber tree, the wood prized for its strength and 
durability." 4. "A rare variety found at Appin; the timber 
apparently a good hard wood, No. 37, London, 254, Paris, may 
certainly be assigned to this species. It tears a little, and has a 
gum-vein, otherwise it cannot be distinguished from (3). 

Writing to me from Oporto, Portugal, Mr. W. C. Tait says: 
" This tree grows very well in this country. It is a hardier tree 
than E. globulus, standing both drought and cold better when 



510 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

young. I have planted most of the New South Wales Eucalypts ; 
many of them, however, are too tender for this climate when 
young, five or six degrees of frost killing them off, E. resinifera is 
an exception." It is, however, possible that E. siderophlota may 
be alluded to. Diameter, 20 to 3oin.; height, 80 to 120ft. 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

314. Eucalyptus robusta, SmUh, (Syn. E. rosirata, Cav. non 
Schlecht.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 228. 

This tree is known as "White," or "Swamp Mahogany," from the 
fact that it generally grows in swampy ground. It is also called " Brown 
Gum." Aboriginal names are as follows: — " Dadangba," Queensland 
(according to Leichhardt) ; " Gnorpin," " Kimbarra," Queensland; "Gunn- 
ung," Richmond River (New South Wales). 

This timber is much valued for shingles, wheelwrights' work, 
ship-building, and building purposes generally. As a timber for 
fuel, and where no great strength is required, this species is 
excellent, especially when we consider its adaptability to stagnant, 
swampy, or marshy places. It is reddish, difficult to split, and 
rather brittle ; is much used for round and square posts, joists, 
and sleepers, and is remarkable for its freedom from destructive 
insects, ascribable to the presence of kino-red. The specific 
gravity of air-dried wood is 1.098; absolutely dry, .889. Analysis 
gave 19 per cent, of kino-red. This is the largest percentage of 
kino-red hitherto observed in any wood, E. rosirata and E. mar- 
ginata ranking next with from 16 to 17 per cent. How far the 
presence of a greater or lesser quantity of this substance in 
Eucalyptus timber affects its durability remains to be proved ; 
certainly its predominance in the most lasting woods seems to point 
out its being the main factor in this respect. (Mueller.) Vide 
Prof. Abel's report on the wood of E. marginata, p. 484. Dr. Woolls 
speaks of the usefulness of this wood for mallets, rough 
furniture, and inside work, but states that it is not considered 
durable. A slab in the Technological Museum, which has been 
seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
■corresponds to 581b. 90Z. per cubic foot. 



TIMBERS. 511 

Following are descriptions of some New South Wales speci- 
mens of this timber: i. "Swamp Mahogany." Dark red, few 
gum-veins, seasons well, works easily; diameter, loin. (Macleay 
River.) 2. " Swamp Mahogany." Rich red colour, with a few 
lighter patches, few gum-veins, comparatively free from shakes ; 
inclined to corrugate in seasoning; diameter, 2ft. 3. "Brown 
Gum." Dark red, full of gum-veins, cross-grained, difficult to 
work; diameter, I Sin. (Sydney.) 4. " Stringybark," of Sydney 
Mint Experiments, i860. From Brisbane. Specific gravity, .977 ; 
value of E, 403,000; of S, 1680. "Suitable for building and 
other purposes, for which it is most prized." It is light brown, 
fairly straight in the grain, works free, clear of gum, is well 
adapted for shafts of carts and drays, and framework of the same. 
Diameter, 24 to 48in. ; height, 100 to T5oft. 

Coastal regions of New South Wales. 

315- Eucalyptus rostrata, SMecht., (Syn. E. longirostris, F.v.M.; 
E. acuminata, Hook. ; E. brachypoda, Turcz. non Benth. ; E. 
exserta, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 240. 

Commonly called " Red Gum." A "Flooded Gum" and " River Gum " 
of New South Wales and Queensland. Occasionally called " Blue Gum " 
about Sydney. In South Australia it is called " White Gum." Sometimes it 
is called " Forest Gum." It is the "Yellow-jacket" of the neighbourhood of 
Stanthorpe (Queensland). By the aboriginals of the Lower Murrumbidgee 
(New South Wales) it goes by the name of " Biall," while to those of the 
western interior it is known as " Yarrah." " Yarrah," however, according 
to Dr. Woolls, is a name applied by the aboriginals to almost any tree. 
In Western New South Wales it is called " Creek Gum," as it is always 
found near watercourses. 

This timber is highly valued for strength and durability, 
especially for piles and posts in damp ground ; it is used also for 
ship-building, railway sleepers, bridges, wharves, and numerous 
other purposes. This timber is exceedingly hard when dry, and 
therefore most difficult to work ; this limits its use for furniture, 

In the durability of its timber, perhaps, it has only a rival in 
E. mai'ginata (Jarrah), of Western Australia, resisting Teredo, 
Chelura, and Termites. When properly seasoned it is well adapted 



512 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

for heavy deck-framing, the beams and knees of vessels, and for 
planking above high-water mark. In Victoria it has been much 
used for railway sleepers, and various articles of furniture (Woolls), 
wheelwrights' work (especially felloes), engine buffers, etc. It 
should be 'steamed before it is worked for curving. The specific 
gravity ranges from .858 to 1.005, °^ ^^'^^ 532 to 62ilb. 
per cubic foot. A ton of the dry wood has yielded as much as 
4lb. of pearlash, or a^lb. of pure potash. (Mueller.) The air- 
dried wood of this species contained, according to one experiment, 
4.38 per cent, of kino-tannin, and 16.62 per cent, of kino-red ; 
the latter (allied to Phlobaphene) is soluble in alcohol, but not in 
water; the large percentage of these two substances in E.rostrata 
is only rivalled, as far as known, by that of the hardest kind of 
Jarrah [E. margmata). In Southern New South Wales it is 
invariably chosen for house blocks, and preferred for posts, etc., 
on account of its durability in damp ground. It is also used for 
slabs, rails, and wheelwrights' work. 

A sample of this timber, sent from Victoria to the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, was tested by Mr. Allen Ransome, who 
reported : " The sample sleeper sent for trial, though a hard 
specimen, was readily adzed and bored, and a plank passed 
through the planing machine gave fair results." 

Some Victorian specimens were examined for tensile strength 
by Mr. F. A. Campbell {Proc. R.S. Victoria, 1879). His results 
are 14,000 to 21,500, 16,200, and i5,70olbs. per square inch. 
" The last specimen was at a disadvantage, not being hung 
perfectly straight. They all broke with a long fracture." 

A variety of this tree is found in the extreme Western portion 
of New South Wales, Its average height is 30 to 40ft., and 
diameter, i to 2ft. Locally it is not considered of much use, 
except for firewood. But the limbs and branches make excellent 
charcoal; a charcoal-burner "prefers it to any other wood for the 
purpose," while a local blacksmith pronounces the product 
" excellent." Some specimens of this charcoal were sent to the 
INIuseum, and it is well-burnt, clean, and in every respect a good 
article. 



TIMBERS. 



513 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the wood of E. 
rosirata var. (Dark Red Gum), by Baron Mueller and J. G. 
Luehmann. The specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 
Strength, 

LW 
S = 

4BD- 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the 
crisis of 
breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.10 
.09 


Inches. 
.65 

.68 


Pounds. 

2539 
2417 


1904 
1813 


1.045 
.984 


.874 
.809 



E. rostrata var. (Pale Red Gum), 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break 

each 

piece. 


Value of 
Strength, 

LW 

~4BD2 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the 
crisis of 
breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.08 
.07 


Inches. 
.52 
.48 


Pounds. 
2781 
2712 


2086 1.008 
2034 .940 


.843 
.790 



Following are descriptions of some logs of this species in 
the Technological Museum: i, "Red Gum." Very dark red 
colour, curly and figured, looks well in cabinet-work (Victoria). 
2. "Red Gum." Rich colour, full of shakes, difficult to work; 
diameter, i4in. 3. "Red Gum." A sound log, few gum-veins, 
rich red colour, rather curled and interlocked, hard to work, but 
after much labour produces a beautiful face;' diameter, 2oin. 
This and the preceding are from between Wagga Wagga and 
Narandera, N.S.W. 4. "Red," or "Flooded Gum." Inclined 
to shakes ; shows a pretty curly grain over its entire longitudinal 
section; dark red, very difficult to work and dress; diameter, 2ft. 
(N.S.W.) 5. "Flooded Gum." Light bad colour, inclined to 
shakes and gum-veins, works fairly well ; diameter, 2ft. (Eastern 

2 L 



514 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

N.S.W.) 6. '' Red Gum." Very wavy grain, bright red, 
twisted mucli in drying, full of sliakes, very difficult to work ; this 
timber cannot be faced with a plane, but has to be finished off 
with a scraper ; diameter, 2ft. (Southern N.S.W.) 7. "Flooded 
Gum." Red, rather pretty wavy appearance ; comparatively light 
in weight. Called " Umbagga" by the blacks in Northern N.S.W. 
" Plentiful on the Clarence. This timber is extensively used for 
building purposes, such as scantling, battens, flooring boards, and 
for posts and rails, ships' planks, etc.; it is often 7ft. in diameter, 
with a stem, without knot or flaw, of from 70 to Soft, in length. 
Many trees yield from 6,000 to 8,000ft. of timber." (Cat. N.S. W. 
Timbers, London Exh., 1862.) 

Diameter, 6 to 8ft. ; height, looft. 

South Australia to Northern Queensland. 

316. Eucalyptus saligna, Smith, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 245. 
About the Brisbane River, and in New South Wales, it is variously 
known as " Grey Gum," " White Gum," " Blue Gum," and " Flooded 
Gum." The two latter are its common names about Sydney. Other New 
South Wales names for it are " Grey Box" and " Silky Gum." 

This timber is in good repute for rails for fencing and building 
purposes, as it does not readily take fire ; it is also both strong 
and durable. (Hill.) It is excellent for railway sleepers. " Accord- 
ing to Mr. Fawcett, the straightness of the stem renders it fit 
for spars, while Dr. WooUs calls the wood splendid, and states that 
it is largely used for ship-building ; other data pronounce it to be 
an. inferior wood, and this discrepancy may be reconciled by local 
diversities of the ground, from which particular trees were 
taken." (Mueller.) This wood is extensively used for building 
purposes, ships' planks, naves and felloes of wheels, qtc. (Woolls.) 
Mr. H. Deane informs me that what is considered to be a variety of 
this species possesses the names, at Tenterfield, New South Wales, 
. of " White," or " Silky Gum," on account of the satiny lustre or 
sheen of the bark. Grows well at Lucknow, India. (Gamble.) 

The following specimens of the normal species are in the 
Technological Museum : i. "Grey Gum." Full of shakes, very 
cross-grained, hard to work, warm brown, very heavy ; diameter, 



TIMBERS. 



515 



ift. 9in. (Northern N.S.W.) 2. No. 2.3, London Exh., 1862 ; 
.244, Paris Exh., 1855. "Grey Gum" and " Maandowie" 
{aboriginal), names in Cumberland and Camden ; diameter, 24 to 
48in. ; height, 60 to looft. " An excellent gum timber." It is of 
a brown colour, heavy, cross-grained, and difficult to season. 3, 
*' Red Gum," of Berrima. No. 37, London Exh., 1862 ; 268, Paris 
Exh., 1855. Diameter, 24 to 4oin. ; height, 40 to 80ft. " Said to 
produce good timber." Of warm red colour, and wavy appear- 
ance, close in the grain, and a splendid working timber. 

"BLUE GUM" {E. saligna), EXPERIMENTED UPON BY 
THE VICTORIAN TIMBER BOARD, 1884. 





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In the report of the Board this timber was described as E. 
boiryoides. Vide E. botryoides {supra), for an explanation as to 
the circumstances under which the confusion has arisen. 

Diameter, up to 7ft.; height, up to 100 or 120ft. 

New South Wales and Southern Queensland. 

317- Eucalyptus salubris, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, F.V.M., 

Fragm., x., 54. 
Called " Fluted Gum," or " Gimlet Gum," from the structure of the 
stem. 

This wood is tough, yet easy to work, and serves for poles, 
shafts, and a variety of implements, and also for rough wood- 
engraving. (Mueller.) Height, up to 120, and even 150ft. 

Western Australia. • 



5l6 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

318. Eucalyptus Setosa, Schauer, N.O., Myrtacese, B.FI., iii., 

254. 

The wood of this small or moderate-sized tree is of a dark 
brownish colour, subject to gum-veins, therefore only fit for using 
in the log; hard, strong, and durable. 

Near the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

319- Eucalyptus Siderophloia, Benth., (Syn. E. resini/era, 

A. Cunn., 7ton Smith.; E. persici/olia, DC; and prob. E. 

fibrosa, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtacese, B.FI., iii., 220. 

This is an " Ironbark," and it is sometimes called " Red Ironbark " 

and " Broad-leave'd Ironbark." It is the " Tanderoo " of the aboriginals of 

Southern Queensland. 

[The unfortunate confusion between this species and E. 
resini/era, Smith., has already been alluded to. See p. 508.] 

This timber has the highest reputation for strength and 
durability, and is used for large beams in stores for heavy goods, 
railway sleepers, and other purposes where great strength is required. 
It is also used for dray poles. Its extreme hardness renders it 
difficult to work. It is light-coloured and heavy. For spokes, the 
preference is given to it over almost all other kinds of wood, but 
the tree has become much more scarce than formerly. 

The following account of the timber, by Laslett, will be found 
in Timber and Timber Trees, under the heading of E. resinifera. 
The present species is intended : — 

" It yields timber of from 20 to 40ft. in length, by from 11 to 
16 or i8in. square. It was named "Ironbark" by some of the 
earliest Australian settlers, on account of the extreme hardness of 
its bark, but it might with equal reason have been called iron-wood. 
The wood is of a deep red colour, very hard, heavy, strong, 
extremely rigid, and rather difficult to work. It has a plain, straight 
grain, and the pores, which are very minute, are filled with a hard, 
white, brittle secretion. The tree is generally sound, but liable to 
the defect of both heart and star-shake, and on this account it is 
not usually very solid about the centre, consequently the timber 
cannot be employed with advantage except in stout planks or large 
.»;cantlings. It is used extensively in ship-building and engineering 



TIMBERS. 517 

works in Australia, and in England it is employed in the mercan- 
tile navy for beams, keelsons, and in many ways in the construction 
of ships, especially below the line of flotation, where a heavy 
material is not considered objectionable. For civil architecture, 
the ornamental and domestic arts, it is not, however, likely to be 
in much request, its extreme hardness and great weight precluding 
it from general use." 

Following are specimens of this timber in the Technological 
Museum : i. No. 4, London Cat., 1862 ; 137, Paris Cat., 
1855. "Broad-leaved Rough Ironbark " and "Terri-barri," names 
in Cumberland and Camden. Diameter, 24 to 48in. ; height, 80 
to 1 20ft. " From Appin, common in Cumberland ; one of the 
strongest and most durable of timbers." The Paris Cat. also 
states: "Rough-leaved, rough-barked Ironbark." "This tree has 
been proposed as their emblem by the colonists of New South 
Wales." Of a very dark red colour, very good to work, and even 
in grain. 2. "Ironbark of the Clarence;" "Algerega" of the 
aboriginals. "This well-known tree attains a very large size in 
the northern districts — upwards of looft. in height, and as much 
as 5ft. in diameter. Timber very highly valued for its unequalled 
strength and durability ; it is used for all kinds of fencing, shingles, 
beams, dray poles, plough beams, and various other purposes ; 
when properly seasoned it will not shrink." (^Cat. London Exh., 
1862.) It is of a dark brown colour, heavy, hard, and close in 
the grain. 3. The wood described in the Sydney Mint Experi- 
ments, i860, as " Rough-barked Ironbark, E. resiniferay is E. 
siderophloia. It came from Brisbane, and " is much prized for 
building and other purposes." Specific gravity, 1.15 ; value of 
E, 639,400 ; of S, 2962. It has a wavy grain, and is of a dark 
reddish-brown colour. It is tough, hard to work, and well adapted 
for the felloes of wheels of drays and carts of all sorts. It lasts 
well for piles in water and for posts. It is very heavy. 

Specimens of this timber from New South Wales were 
examined by Mr. F. A. Campbell (jP/w. U.S., Victoria, 1879), ^^ 
regards their tensile strength. His figures are 2 1,000 and 26,5001b. 
per square inch. " The grain is not at all uniform, being much 
twisted in parts." 



5i8 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



TRANSVERSE EXPERIMENTS. 
(Laslett.) 



Number of the 
Specimen. 


Deflections. 


■a 

is 
^l 

rt=Q 



2 


0. 


^8 
_ 

-I 


0"" 
S-2 


With the Appa- 
ratus Weighing 
3901b. 


tx-a 

ii 

< 




"35 til 
•C.5 
u^ 

< 


I 

2 

3 

4 


Inches. 

.85 
1. 00 

.90 
1. 00 


Inch. 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 


Inches. 
3-75 
3-50 
4-00 
4.00 


Pounds. 
1460 
1370 
1400 
1400 


1 163 
1 146 
1 142 
1116 


I2S5 
119s 
1226 
1254 


Pounds. 
365.0 
342.5 
350.0 
350.0 


Total 


3-75 


.0 


15-2S 


5630 


1 4567 


4930 


1407.S 


Average 


•94 


.0 


3.812 


1407-5 


1142 


1232 


351-9 


No. 1. — Wirj- fracture, i6in. in length. 
„ 2. — „ I2in. „ 
„ 3. — „ loin. 
„ 4. — Broke short to one-third depth, then splintery fracture, loin. in !e ngth. 



TENSILE EXPERIMENTS. 
(Laslett.) 



Number of ' Dimensions of 
Specimen. 1 each piece. 

1 


c -^ Weight 
Spec'hc 1 the piece 
S^a^'">- brokewith. 


Direct cohesion 

on 
1 Square Inch. 


5 
6 

7 


Inches. 
\ 2 X 2 X 30 j- 


1 142 
1146 
1 163 


Pounds. 

34,160 
26,880 
39,480 


Pounds. 
8,540 
6.720 
9,870 


Total 

1 




345 1 


100,520 


25,130 


Average 




1 150 


33.507 


8,377 


Vertical or Crushing Strain on Cubes of Two Inches. 


No. 8. 
Tons. 
18.500 


No. 9. 
Tons. . 
17.625 


No. 10. 
Tons. 
18.500 


No. II. 
Tons. 
19.000 


Total. 
Tons. 
73-625 


Average. 
Tons. 
18.406 


Ditto on 

I Square Inch. 

Tons. 

4-601, 


E = 960740. S = 3695. 



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520 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. siderophloia, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. 
The specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of 
strength, 
. LW 


Specific gravity. 


With the 

Apparatus 

weighing 

78olbs. 


At the 
crisis of 
breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


^' 4BD^ 


Inches. 
.02 
.02 


Inches. 

•63 
.56 


Pounds. 

3873 
3752 


2905 1-075 
2814 1. 129 


•936 

•953 



Diameter, 20 to 4oin. ; height, 70 to looft. 
Southern Queensland, south to Port Jackson. 



320. Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F.v.M., (Syn. E. virgata, Sieb., the 
species name in B.FL); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 202. 

Called " Cabbage Gum" in the Braidwood district (New South Wales); 
" Mountain Ash " about Berrima, Illawarra, and Twofold Bay (New South 
Wales). It is a " Stringybark." It is called " Gum-top" in Tasmania and 
at Wilson's Promontory (Victoria). It is "Ironbark" in Tasmania, and 
occasionally " Blackbutt." "It is the "Yowut" of the Gippsland abori- 
ginals. 

This timber is considered, in the Braidwood and Monaro 
districts, N.S.W., so soft and perishable for ordinary purposes that 
it is called "Cabbage Gum," but it is nevertheless very durable 
underground. (Bauerlen.) The trunk is sawn into good timber, 
and it is also used for posts and rails ; it is, amongst other pur- 
poses, recommended for shafts. It is hard, and when seasoned 
difficult to cut, but burns well even when fresh. (Mueller.) The 
wood is of superior quality, light, tough, and elastic ; is used for 
swingle-trees of buggies, ploughs, etc., but will not endure under- 
ground. (Howitt.) The testimony of Howitt and Bauerlen as to 
the durability of this timber is very conflicting. Howitt's observa- 
tions were made in Gippsland (Victoria), while those of Bauerlen 
were made near Braidwood (N.S.W.) Until more light is thrown 



TIMBERS. 521 

■on the subject one can only attribute the discrepancy to the 
different circumstances under which the trees are capable of 
growing, as remarked by Baron Mueller in regard to contradictory 
evidence respecting the durability of the wood of E. saligna {vide 
supra). I have received a letter from Mr. Bauerlen, to whom I 
had referred this for the third time for further enquiry. He says : 
" All my enquiries about the timber of E. Sieheriana result exactly 
in what I reported of it formerly. . . It is generally considered 
a first-rate firewood, by some even the very best; in fact, the choice 
lies here between it and E. slellulata." The following is additional 
-evidence as to the durability underground of the timber. The 
limber used in the Long Tunnel Mine (a damp mine), Walhalla, 
Gippsland, " consists chiefly of E. Sieheriana, E. capiteUata, E. 
obliqua, E. amygdalina, and E. viminalis. The first of these, 
E. Sieheriana, is by far the best ; it lasts many years." (Tisdall, 
Proc. R.S., Victoria, 1887, p. 43.) Used by wheelwrights for 
:spokes and naves of wheels. {^General Report, Sydney Exh., 
1879.) 

Following are 'some samples of this timber in the Techno- 
logical Museum : — 

I. "Mountain Ash." Light brown, full of shakes and 
^um-veins, difficult to work ; diameter 2ft. gin. (S. and W. dis- 
tricts, N.S.W.) 2. " Cabbage Gum." Reddish colour, rather 
coarse and cross-grained, very tough, moderately heavy, dresses 
fairly well on the end grain ; diameter, r to 2ft. ; height, 40 to 
50ft. (Delegate, N.S.W.) 3. " Cabbage Gum." Fairly good 
to work, but full of gum-veins, seasons badly; colour, buff; weight, 
light; does not dress well on the end grain; diameter, i to 2ft; 
height, 40 to 60ft. (Haydon's Bog, Delegate.) 4. "Mountain 
Ash." Light brown colour, gum-veins, tough, and light in weight; 
easy to work. (Victoria.) 

Mr. Allen Ramsome tested samples of this timber sent 
from New South Wales to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 
From the specimen submitted spokes were turned, casks 
made, and boards planed. " In all cases it proved an easy wood 
to work." 



522 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



"GUM TOP STRINGYBARK" (E. Sieheriana), EXPERI- 
MENTED UPON BY THE VICTORIAN TIMBER 

BOARD, 1884. 
The samples tested were each 7ft. in length by i-|ln. square ; 
the distance between the bearings was 6ft. ; and the weight was 
gradually applied in the centre until the sample broke. 





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Diameter, up to 5ft., with an exceptional height of 150ft. 
Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. 

321. Eucalyptus Staigeriana, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, in Bailey's 
Synop., Queensland Flora. (Muell. Cens., 3rd Annual 
Supplement, for 1885.) 

Called " Lemon-scented Ironbark/' owing to the fragrance of its leaves. 
A tree of medium size. Wood of a red colour, hard, and 
durable. 

Queensland. 

322. Eucalyptus Stellulata, (inch by A. Cunn. with E. striday 
and called E. jnicrophylla, which name was altered by G. Don 
to E. Cunninghami); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 200. 

The "Box," " White Gum," " Lead Gum," or " Green Gum " of East 
Gippsland, and New South Wales as far as the Blue Mountains. It is the 
" Olive-green Gum " of Leichhardt. In Gippsland it is known by the names 
of "Black Sallee" and "Muzzle-wood." " Sallee," or "Sally," and 
" Black Gum" are also names given to it in the Braidwood district. 

This wood is not valued. (Woolls.) It is used for fuel, and 
even for this purpose it is not of the first quality. Large areas on 



TIMBERS. 523 

the Monaro(N.S.W.) have almost no other timber but ^. Sieheriana 
and this species. The trunk of the latter does not there often 
extend to a greater height than 12ft. 

Following are samples in the Technological Museum : 
I. "Sally," or "Black Gum," very cross-grained, of a soapy 
nature, knotty ; of a flesh colour. Diameter, 2 to 3ft. ; height, 30 
to 50ft. (Haydon's Bog, Delegate, N.S.W.) 2. "Lead-coloured 
Gum" of Berrima, No. 35, London Cat., 1862; 266, Paris 
Cat., 1855. Diameter, 18 to 3oin. ; height, 30 to 40ft. "Of no 
value for timber, but excellent for fuel." 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

323- Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F.v.M., (Syn. E. persicifolia,W\(\. 

non Lodd.; E. Baueriana, 7ion Schauer. ; E.falcifolia, Miq. ; 

E. pulverulenta, Sims, is very closely allied to E. Stiuirtiana, 

and it is a question whether they ought not to be united) ; 

N.O., jNIyrtacese, B.FL, iii., 243 (partly). 
Frequently called " Turpentine Tree," or " Peppermint Tree." In 
Victoria it is known as "Apple Tree," "Apple-scented Gum," "White 
Gum," and " Mountain Ash." It is the " Woolly Butt" of the county of 
Camden (New South Wales). Occasionally it is known as " Stringybark." 
It is called " Box" about Stanthorpe (Queensland), "Tea Tree " at Frazer's 
Island (Queensland), and " Red Gum " in Tasmania. It is called " But-but "■ 
by the aboriginals of Gippsland. 

This timber is considered excellent for ships' planks; is hard,. 
and is said to be exceedingly durable underground, and difficult to 
burn. It is used for sleepers, and many other purposes. (Hill.) 
The wood is hard, but it does not split well. It is excellent for 
fence posts, though inferior to E. rostrata in this respect. It is 
sometimes employed for rough kinds of furniture, as it takes the 
polish well. 

The following samples of this timber are in the Technological 
Museum: i. "Apple," or "White Gum," sandy-brown colour, 
coarse in the grain, shaky. (Victoria.) 2. No. 15, Loridon Cat.y 
1862. "Box." Diameter, 24 to 48in.; height, 50 to 90ft. "Said 
to be good, but certainly not equal to the other varieties of box." 
This is doubtless from the rough-barked variety of E. Sttiartiana. 
It has a wavy brown colour, tears under the plane, and is adapted 



524 



AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 



for flooring-boards. 3. No. 32, London Cat., 1862; 142, Paris 
Exh., 1855. " Woolly Gum " of Berrima. Diameter, 24 to 48in. ; 
height, 40 to Soft. " A tree often of beautiful form, but the timber 
weak and worthless." It is of a light, warm, wavy red colour, good 
to work, but full of gum-veins, and obviously not of much value. 
This is the smooth-barked variety of E. Stuartiana. Diameter, 
24 to 4oin.; height, 60 to 90ft. 

This tree has succeeded admirably at Abbottabad, Punjab, 
India. (Gamble.) 

E.XPERIMENTS ON THE Tr.A.NSVERSE STRENGTH OF THE WoOD OF 

E. Siuariiatia, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 
weight 
required to 
break 
each 
piece. 


"So 

c 

(U 




Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

7801b. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


15 



a; 1 
> 


•* 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.12 

.14 


Inches. 

•54 

.56 


Pounds. 
2425 
2170 


1819 
1627 


I.OIO 

1. 00 1 


.850 
•834 



Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. 

324. Eucalyptus tereticornis, Smith, (Syn. E. subulatum, 
A. Cunn. ; Leptospermum umbellatum, Gaertn.) ; N.O., 
Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 241. 

Called " Red Gum," " Flooded Gum," " Grey Gum," " Blue Gum," 
"Slaty Gum" in New South Wales and Queensland. In Southern New 
South Wales it is often called " Mountain Gum." In Northern New South 
Wales it sometimes bears the misleading name of " Bastard Box." By the 
aboriginals of Northern New South Wales and Southern Queensland it is 
called " Mungurra," or " Mungara," and by the aboriginals of Central 
Queensland " Arangnulla." 

Timber used in fencing, building, plough beams, poles and 
shafts of drays, and also in ship-building; for railway ties, cart- 
wrights' work, telegraph poles, and largely for fencing, girders, etc., 
and forms a superior fuel. ■ It is heavy and close-grained, and very 
much like cedar in colour. 



TIMBERS. 525 

This tree has succeeded admirably at Abbottabad, Punjab, 
India. (Gamble.) Timber of this species is well represented in 
the Technological Museum. Following are specimens (all from 
N.S.W.) : I. "Slaty," or "Blue Gum." Light reddish-brown, 
easy to dress, has seasoned only fairly well ; diameter, g\r\. 
(Tomerong, near Shoalhaven.) 2. "Slaty," or "Blue Gum." 
Dark red, very few gum-veins, heavy, medium to work ; diameter, 
i8in. (Myall River, near Shoalhaven.) 3. "Grey Gum." Dark 
red, very heavy wood, full of gum-veins, difficult to season, 
very difficult to work; diameter, 1 5in. (Port Hacking.) 4. "Blue," 
or " Grey Gum." Fairly sound log, slight shakes; colour, reddish- 
brown; diameter, 2oin. (Clarence and Richmond.) 5. This 
is the species referred to by Sir William Macarthur in his 
Catalogue of Woods at the Paris Exhibition, 1855 (No. 92), and the 
London Exhibition of 1862 (No. 19), as the "Blue Gum of 
Camden." In the catalogues of both exhibitions the native name 
in the Illawarra is given at "Tdjetlat," or "Tjellat," and also 
" Barroul-goura," while in the latter catalogue the name is given as 
" Yarrah " at Camden. " A very valuable timber, harder, tougher, 
more inlocked in grain, and more durable than the last (which is 
E. botiyoides, vide supra), but not obtainable of nearly such large 
size; one of the most durable woods known; excellent for naves 
and felloes of wheels, and for work underground." (1855, 
Cat^j Diameter, 3 to 4ft. ; height, 80 to looft. It is of a 
dark red colour, wavy, has quite a sheen, and has stripes on 
the end grain. It is hard and inlocked in the grain, but 
works remarkably well. A sample of this timber was ex- 
perimented upon by Captain Fowke, R.E. (Paris, 1855). He 
found the specific gravity to be .843 (or weight of cubic foot, 
52.541b.), and S, 224. E is not given. 6. No. 20, London Exh., 
1862; 92(5, Paris Exh., 1855. "Blue Gum," from Appin. 
"Timber of excellent quality." Diameter, 3610 48in. ; height, 
80 to looft. Of a reddish-brown colour, heavy, very cross-grained, 
but of excellent quality. It works freer than No. 5, and is freer 
from grub-holes, otherwise they are much the same. 7. No. 21, 
London Exh., 1862. Same name and locality as No. 6. Of a 
dark red colour, with cross, curly grain; a heavy timber. 



526 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

8. No. 22, London Exh., 1862; 265, Paris Exh., 1855. "Blue 
Gum," of Berrima. Diameter, 2410 36in. ; height, 40 to 80ft. 
" Said to be good timber, but not to be compared with the other 
varieties of Blue Gum." Of a red colour, straight in the grain, and 
a splendid working timber. 9. No. 103, London Cat., 1862. 
" Grey Gum," of the Clarence, of a dark red colour, fairly good to 
work, a heavy timber, hard and durable, valuable for building 
purposes. 

Mr. Allen Rinsome tested a sample of this timber sent from 
New South Wales to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, on the 
planing and moulding machines, " and in all cases the results 
were very satisfactory." 

It is to be borne in mind that this Eucalypt is closely allied, 
botanically, to E. 7'ostrata, and the timbers of these two trees have 
much in common. Diameter, 18 to 36in. (exceptionally to 6ft.); 
height, 60 to 90ft., and exceptionally up to 150ft. 

Gippsland, New South Wales and Queensland. 

325- Eucalyptus terminalis, F.v.M., (Syn. E.polycarpa, F.V.M.); 

N.O., jNIyrtacese, B.FL, iii., 257. 

"Blood-wood." Called "Arang-mill" by the natives of the Dawson 
River, Queensland. 

This interior species is, as far as the flowers go, the same as 
the " Blood-wood " {E. corynnbosa) of the coast, but the bark is 
different, as it is far more brittle, and can scarcely be stripped in 
large pieces. The present species also yields but little kino, and 
that of obviously a different character to that yielded by E. 
corymb osa. 

Timber very red, used for building purposes, slabs, posts, 
joists, etc. It is not highly spoken of, but it is almost the only 
fairly large timber available in the districts in which it grows. 

South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and Northern 
Australia. 

326. Eucalyptus teSSelaris, F.v.M., (Syn. E. viminalis, Hook. ; 
E. Hookeri, F.v.M.) ; N.O., Myrtacese, B.FL, iii., 251. 
Commonly called " Moreton Bay Ash." By the aboriginals of the 
McDonnell Range (Central Australia) it is called " Ilumba," by those in 



TIMBERS. 527 

the vicinity of the Nogoa River (Queensland), " Corang." Another 
aboriginal name is "Carbeen." 

This timber is not hard, but tough ; it is excellent for building 
purposes. (Hill.) Comparing it with other Eucalypts it is not a 
durable timber; it is used for staves and flooring. It is of a dark 
brown colour, except near the bark. Accounts of this timber are 
conflicting. The Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods states that about 
Moreton Bay, Gympie, etc., the wood is not valued for any purpose 
whatever ; about Rockhampton, Mr. O'Shanesy says that the heart- 
wood is good enough, but the sap-wood soon decays ; about 
Townsville and Charters Towers the wood is highly esteemed, 
and employed for all useful purposes. Mr. Woods says the only 
way to account for these various statements is by supposing the 
warmer climate is its proper habitat. This is by no means the 
only Eucalyptus timber in regard to which statements from 
different localities are conflicting. {See E. Sieberiana.) 

Mr. G. Moore {Cat. N.S.W. Timbers, Paris E.xh., 1855) 
states that this tree indicates poor, sterile soil. He also states that 
the wood is of a perishable nature, though sometimes used in the 
erection of huts. Diameter, 14 to 2 4in. ; height, 30 to 60ft. 

Interior of South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland 
and Northern Australia. 



327. Eucalyptus viminalis, LabUL, (Syn. E. mannifera,k. Cunn.; 
E. diversi/olia, Bonpl. (the young state of E. sanialifolia , 
according to F.v.M.) ; E. persici/olia, Lodd. non DC. ; 
E. gramdaris, Sieb. ; E. pilularis, DC. non Smith ; E. 
patentiflora, F.v.M. non Miq. ; E. fabrorum, Schlecht. ; 
E. Gunnii, Miq. non Hook, f., inch E. dealbata, A. Cunn.) ; 
N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 239. 

The " White Gum," or " Swamp Gum " of Tasmania. About Sydney 
it is occasionally known as " Grey Gum." A manna exudes from the trunk, 
hence it is known as " Manna Gum." In Southern New South Wales it 
bears the name of " Ribbony Gum." In Western New South Wales it is 
known as " Blue Gum," and in various parts of the same colony as 
" Drooping Gum," " Weeping Gum," and " Woolly Butt." About the 



528 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

Ovens River (Victoria) it is known as " Box," and as " Peppermint Gum." 
In Victoria it is called " Binnap " by the aboriginals of the Yarra. 

The timber varies from a light colour to a dull brick colour ; 
that from straight stems is employed for shingles, rails, and also 
as rough building material. It is not so durable as the wood of 
many other species of Eucalyptus, but is stronger than that of 
E. amygdalina, and E. obliqua. (Mueller.) It is very dutable for 
underground work. In the extreme south of New South Wales 
it is used for a variety of purposes, including rails and wheel- 
wrights' work. The heart-wood is of no use, at least in that 
district, so that about a foot of the centre of the tree has generally 
to be left as useless. The Yarra (Victoria) aboriginals used to 
make Geeaus (flat shields) out of this wood. 

The Tasmanian wood of this species is said to afford the 
finest split stuff (for palings, shingles, etc.) in the world (Tenison- 
Woods), but Dr. Woolls says this wood is not much esteemed, 
probably with the meaning in Baron Mueller's remarks above, or 
because it is only fit to be used in the whole log, as it is apt to 
split, and is usually full of hollows containing gum. 

At the London International Exhibition of 1862, a magnifi- 
cent spar of this gum was shown from Tasmania. It was 230ft. 
long, and cut into loft. lengths. ' The specific gravity of this 
timber is about .685. A ton of dry wood yields about 3ilb. of 
crude potash, or iflb. of pure potash. (Mueller.) It has suc- 
ceeded admirably at Abbottabad, Punjab, India. (Gamble.) 

Following are brief descriptions of some timbers of this 
species in the Technological Museum : — 

I. " Manna Gum." Warm brown colour, and coarse in 
grain. (Victoria.) 2. " Ribbony Gum." Straight in the grain, 
easy to work, coarse in grain ; colour, buff ; diameter, 2 to 3ft. ; 
height, 60 to Soft. (Delegate, N.S.W.) 3. This is also from 
Delegate, but from a variety of the species, as it is quite different 
in every respect from the normal species, " Ribbony Gum." Flesh- 
coloured, moderately heavy, very straight in the grain, good to 
work, but requires careful seasoning ; diameter, 2 to 3ft ; height, 
60 to Soft. 4. No. 28, London Exh., 1S62 ; 108, Paris Exh., 



TIMBERS. 



529 



1855. "Flooded Gum" of Camden. Bentham, Flora Aus- 
tralieiisis, pronounces this particular sample to belong to this 
species. Diameter, 36 to 48in. ; height, 80 to looft. "A fine- 
looking, but comparatively worthless sort ; the timber weak, and 
not durable." It is of a yellowish, or exceedingly pale brown 
colour, beautiful to work, and straight in the grain. 

Following are the results of Mr. James Mitchell's experiments 
on samples of this wood from Tasmania {Papers and Procs., R.S., 
Van Diemen s Land, 1851). Each piece tested was 7ft. long and 
2in. square. Green piece : i. Specific gravity, .967; E, 7655760; 
S, 1806. 2. Specific gravity, 1.003; E, 9186912; S, 1968. A 
seasoned piece, " with a great portion of sap-wood," gave specific 
gravity .954; E, 10490860; and S, 2399, Mr. Mitchell called 
the timber " Ash," or " Swamp Gum." 



Experiments on the Transverse Strength of the Wood of 
E. vhninalts, by Baron Mueller and J. G. Luehmann. The 
specimens were 2ft. long and 2in. square. 



Deflection. 


Total 

weight 

required 

to 

break each 

piece. 


Value of strength, 

LW 
e 


Q 
D3 

1 


Specific Gravity. 


With 

the apparatus 

weighing 

ySolbs. 


At the crisis 
of breaking. 


Air-dried. 


Absolutely 
dried. 


Inches. 
.12 
.12 


Inches. 
.65 
.70 


Pounds. 
2384 
2195 


1788 
1646 


•954 
.916 


•797 
.761 



A slab of this wood in the Technological Museum, which has 
been seasoned over twenty-five years (having been exhibited at the 
London International Exhibition of 1862), has a weight which 
corresponds to 671b. 8oz. per cubic foot. 

Has been measured with a diameter of 17ft. at base, and a 
height of 320ft. Ordinarily it is a very large tree. 

South Australia, through Victoria to New South Wales and 
Tasmania. 
2 M 



530 AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS. 

328. Eucryphia Moorei, F.v.M., N.O., Saxifrageae, B.FL, ii., 447. 

"Acacia" of the colonists, as when not in flower the tree resembles 
some of the larger species of that genus. " Plum " of the Southern districts 
of New South Wales; sometimes called "Acacia Plum." Called also 
" White Sally." 

This timber is used for tlie framework of buggies in the Braid- 
wood district (New South Wales). It is a beautifully clear, 
moderately hard wood, of a warm, light brown colour, and free 
from knots. Some boards of it have been worked up under the 
writer's direction, and the carpenters speak in superlatives as to the 
facility with which it can be dressed. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

329. Eugenia COrmiflora, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacese, B.Fl., iii., 
284. 

Wood of a dark colour, close-grained and tough. The knobby 

inequalities noticeable on the bark of the plank-piece are the knots 

from which the flowers are produced year after year. {Cat. 

Queensla7td Timbers, Col. and Ind. Exh., 1886.) Height, 30 to 

40ft. 

Queensland. 

330. Eugenia