(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The useful plants of the island of Guam; with an introductory account of the physical features and natural history of the island, of the character and history of its people, and of their agriculture"

USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The United States National Herbarium, which was founded by the 
Smithsonian Institution, was transferred in the }^ear 1868 to the 
Department of Agriculture, and continued to be maintained b} T that 
Department until July 1, 1896, when it was returned to the official 
custody of the Smithsonian Institution. The Department of Agricul- 
ture, however, continued to publish the series of botanical reports 
entitled "Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium," begun 
in the year 1890, until, on July 1, 1902, the National Museum, in 
pursuance of an act of Congress, assumed responsibilit} T for the pub- 
lication. The first seven volumes of the series were issued by the 
Department of Agriculture. 

S. P. LANGLEY, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE I. 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



FROM THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL HERBARIUM 

VOLUME IX 



THE USEFUL PUNTS OF THE ISLAND OF GUAM 

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ACCOUNT OF THE 

PHYSICAL FEATURES AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE ISLAND, OF THE 

CHARACTER AND HISTORY OF ITS PEOPLE, AND 

OF THEIR AGRICULTURE 



By WILLIAM EDWIN SAFFORD 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE ' 
1905 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM: 
ISSUED APRIL 8, 1905. 



-Forestry. Ma fa r 



PREFACE. 



Mr. W. E. Safford, assistant botanist in the Department of Agri- 
culture, for several years availed himself of the opportunity afforded 
him as a lieutenant in the United States Navy to study and observe 
the useful plants of the Tropics. In addition to cruises in other parts 
of the world he visited, in 1886, 1887, 1894, and 1899, Upolu and 
Tutuila of the Samoan group, and Oahu of the Hawaiian group; and 
from August, 1899, to August, 1900, he acted as assistant governor of 
the island of Guam. This paper has been prepared by Mr. Safford 
through the recent elaboration of notes and observations made in those 
years. While presented under the title "The Useful Plants of Guam," 
it includes some reference, however brief, to every plant known to 
occur on that island, particular note being made of those which have 
been described from Guam by various writers as species new to sci- 
ence. It discusses the principal plants used for food, fiber, oil, starch, 
sugar, and forage in the Pacific tropical islands recently acquired by 
the United States, and gives their common names not only in Guam 
but in the Philippine Islands, Samoa, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. The 
method of cultivating and propagating the more important species is 
treated in considerable detail, as is the preparation of their derivative 
products, such as arrowroot, copra, and cacao. The publication will 
be useful to the rapidly increasing number of American travelers and 
officers who wish to have in language of as little technicality as possi- 
ble information about the economic plants of the world; and while the 
author does not lay claim to more than a report on the island of Guam, 
much of the information he gives is applicable throughout the Tropics. 

Besides consulting the original narratives of travelers, Mr. Safford 
took advantage of his exceptional opportunities to study the archives 
of Guam, and his account of the discovery, early history, and explo- 
rations of the island, together with its climate, ethnology, and eco- 
nomic conditions, will afford the most comprehensive and authentic 
picture of Guam thus far published. 

The technical names of the plants have been critically scrutinized 
by Mr. W. F. Wight, also assistant botanist in the Department of 

3G4008 3 



?KEFACE. 



Agriculture. IK '-task ; hai oseii a laborious one, far more laborious 
than the printed results suggest, but in the progress of the work its 
necessity has been ampty demonstrated. The result is a substantial 
basis for the uniform designation of economic tropical plants in accord- 
ance with the system now followed by American botanists. 

Mr. Saff'ord is indebted to Dr. Barton W. Evermann, of the Bureau 
of Fisheries, for photographs Nos. 1, 20, 22, and 44, taken by Dr. 
Alfred G. Ma} r er, of the Agassiz Expedition to the Tropical Pacific, 
while attached to the U. S. Eish Commission steamer Albatross; to 
Mr. William Bengough for photographs Nos. 2, 7, 8, 23, and 60, taken 
by him on the island of Guam in 1900; to Lieut. Commander J. E. 
Craven, U. S. Navy, for photograph No. 19; to Lieut. L. M. Nulton, 
U. S. Navy, for photographs on plate 21; to Dr. Harvey Whittaker, 
late of the U. S. Navy, for photograph No. 24; to Mr. B. J. Howard, 
of the Bureau of Chemistr} T , U. S. Department of Agriculture, for 
photographs on plates 9, 10 (fig. 1), 11, 12, and 13; to Mr. F. L. Lew- 
ton, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, for photograph No. 35, taken in Johore for the Government 
exhibit at Chicago; to Mr. Carl S. Scofield, of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, for photographs Nos. 5, 50, and 57, taken from herba- 
rium specimens from the island of Guam; to Mr. C. B. Doyle for 
photographs Nos. 3, 4, 10 (fig. 2), 31, 32, 38, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 49, 51, 52, 
53, 54, 56, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 68, from herbarium specimens, for No. 
15 from the seed collection, and No. 14 from cultivated specimens, 
taken under the supervision of the author, and No. 17 from specimens 
collected in Guam by Lieut. Franck Taylor Evans, U. S. Navy; to 
Messrs. O. F. Cook and Guy N. Collins for Nos. 6, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 
43, 44, 48, 55, 58, and 66, taken in Porto Rico, Nos. 27, 30, 36, 39, 
taken in Guatemala, and Nos. 28 and 67, taken in Mexico; and to Mr. 
Guy N. Collins for Nos. 16, 37, and 63, taken in the Hope Gardens, 
Kingston, Jamaica. He is also indebted to Mr. Charles M. Mansfield 
for photograph No. 69, taken from herbarium specimens sent to the 
author from Guam by Rev. Jose Palomo. 

Through the courtesy of Professor Willis L. Moore, Chief of the 
Weather Bureau, an account of the climatology of Guam is also pre- 
sented, the detailed study of which is the work of Dr. Cleveland 
Abbe, jr. 

FREDERICK V. COVILLE, 
Curator of the U. 8. National Herbarium. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 9 

Origin and purpose of the present work, and acknowledgments 9 

Geographical information 11 

Historical notices 12 

Discovery of Guam and its early history 12 

Magellan 12 

Dutch navigators 13 

Sailing routes in the Pacific 13 

Jesuit missionaries 13 

Conquest of the natives 15 

English pirates 16 

Dampier' s visit 17 

Woodes Rogers 19 

Anson 20 

De Pages 21 

Expulsion of the Jesuits 21 

Crozet's visit 23 

Scientific explorations of the island 25 

Malaspina expedition _ 25 

Romanzoff expedition 28 

Freycinet expedition 29 

Dumont d' Urville's two visits 30 

Extracts from the archives of Guam relating to its economic history. 32 

Francisco Ramon de Villalobos 33 

Pablo Perez 36 

Convict labor 38 

Felipe de la Corte 39 

Sociedad Agricola . . 40 

Summary 40 

Physical conditions of Guam 41 

Climate and rainfall 41 

Hydrography 44 

Physical geography 46 

Vegetation of the island 52 

Plant covering according to habitat 52 

Coral reefs 52 

Mangrove swamps 52 

Rivers 53 

The strand 53 

The inner beach 54 

The cliffs 54 

Forests 55 

Marshes 57 

Savannas 57 

Abandoned clearings 58 

Village environs 60 

Plants of special interest 61 

Unidentified trees and shrubs 61 

Groups which are not well known 62 

Guam types 63 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

Introduction Continued. Page. 
Vegetation of the Inland Continued. 
Plants of special interest Continued. 

Yams, bananas, and breadfruit 63 

Screwpines 64 

Banyans, mangroves, and epiphytes of the forest 65 

Plants that sleep 65 

Plants which seldom bloom 66 

Plants with extrafloral nectaries 66 

Plants with protective devices 68 

Cycas circinalis and its fecundation 71 

Dispersal of plants by oceanic currents 72 

Animals of the island 76 

Mammals 76 

Birds 78 

Reptiles 80 

Fishes 81 

General notes 81 

Alphabetical list of principal fishes 83 

Marine invertebrates 89 

Insects 90 

Scorpions, spiders, and centipedes 94 

The people 95 

Aboriginal inhabitants 95 

Physical characteristics 95 

Personal and domestic economy 96 

Useful arts 100 

Navigation 100 

Mental and moral characteristics 102 

Social institutions and customs 104 

Religion and superstitions 109 

Language 113 

Origin 116 

The modern, inhabitants 117 

Origin and language 117 

Physical characteristics 119 

Personal and domestic economy 123 

Useful arts 124 

Mental and moral characteristics 127 

Social institutions and customs 1 28 

Industrial system 131 

Statistics of population, commerce, etc 137 

Standards of measure 138 

Agriculture of the island 139 

Soils 139 

Indigenous and spontaneous economic plants 142 

Cultivated food and stimulant plants 143 

Textile and thatch plants 148 

Forage plants 150 

Weeds 151 

Animal pests 152 

Plant names ( - 152 

Literature 154 

Topical sketch 154 

Alphabetical list of works consulted or cited 160 

Descriptive catalogue of plants 170 

Index.. 405 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Facing page. 
PLATE I. View of Agana, the capital of Guam, showing raised platform of 

coralliferous limestone forming north half of island Frontispiece. 

II. The forest, showing epiphytal vegetation 55 

III. Davallia solida, an epiphytal fern 56 

IV. The great marsh fern, Acrostichum aureum 57 

V. Lycopodium cernuum, a characteristic plant of the savannas 57 

VI. Agati grandiflora, a leguminous tree with edible flowers and pods. . 60 
VII. The Agana. River, showing textile screwpine, breadfruit, and coco- 
nut 64 

VIII. View of the forest, showing Cycas cirdnalis, screwpine, and roots 

of giant banyan 65 

IX. Ridnus communis. Fig. 1. Marginal nectar glands. Fig 2. Cross 
section through petiole at base of leaf blade, showing extrafloral 

nectaries 66 

X. FIG. 1. Nectar gland on midrib of cotton leaf (Gossypium sp.). 

FIG. 2. ^Leaf of Parili tiliaceum, showing nectar gland 67 

XI. Raphides, or needle crystals of oxalate of lime, in taro leaf 69 

XII. Needle cells of taro, their ends projecting into vacuoles. 69 

XIII. Cells of taro discharging their needles 70 

XIV. Cycas cirdnalis, leaf and carpophyll bearing half-developed fruit . . 71 
XV. Sea beans, showing air spaces which give them buoyancy 73 

XVI. Morinda cilrifolia, flowers and fruit 74 

XVII. Stone adz and sling stones of aborigines 107 

XVIII. The government house at Agana 117 

XIX. House with thick walls of masonry and tiled roof 123 

XX. Typical native dwelling, with sides of bamboo and woven reeds 

and roof of coconut thatch 124 

XXI. FIG. 1. A modern oven. FIG. 2. Evaporating salt 127 

XXII. Road from Agana to Piti: Carabaos drawing an American wagon. . 134 

XXIII. Clearing the forest for planting 141 

XXIV. A Pacific island taro patch, Caladium colocasia 144 

XXV. Arrowroot, Maranta arundinacea 145 

XXVI. Root of the cassava plant, Manihot manihot 145 

XXVII. Breadfruit tree, Artocarpus communis, foliage and fruit 145 

XXVIII. Mango tree, Mangifera indica, in full fruit 146 

XXIX. Cashew, Anacardium ocddentale, half-grown fruit 147 

XXX. Coffee in full bloom 148 

XXXI. The coral bead vine, Abrus abrus 171 

XXXII. Angiopteris evecta 183 

XXXIII. The sour sop, Annona muricata, flowers and fruit 184 

XXXIV. The sugar apple, Annona squamosa 185 

XXXV. Betel-nut palms, Areca cathecu. 187 

XXXVI. Fertile breadfruit, Artocarpus communis, male and female inflores- 
cence, and young fruit 189 

7 



8 ILLUSTEATIONS. 

Facing page. 

PLATE XXXVII. Averrhoa carambola, inflorescence and foliage 193 

XXXVIII. Fruit of Barringtonia speciosa, a fish intoxicant 196 

XXXIX. The arnotto tree, Bixa orellana, foliage and fruit 199 

XL. Bruguiera gymnorhiza, the many-petaled mangrove 202 

XLI. Casuarina equisetifolia. Male inflorescence, female inflores- 
cence, and fruit 220 

XLII. Ceiba pentandra, the kapok tree. Leaf and pod 221 

XLIII. Cocos nucifera, the coconut tree, in bloom 232 

XLIV. Cocos nucifera, male flowers and female flower 233 

XL V. Coelococcus amicarum, the Caroline ivory-nut palm 244 

XLVI. The ivory nut, Coelococcus amicarum 244 

XL VII. Cydophorus adnascens, an epiphytal fern 253 

XL VIII. The wing-stemmed yam, Dioscorea alata 259 

XLIX. The spiny yam, Dioscorea spinosa 262 

L. Gleichenia dichotoma, a fern growing on the savannas 283 

LI. Guilandina crista, the nicker nut, pods and seeds 288 

LII. Heritiera littoralis, a strand tree, foliage and fruit 292 

LIU. Humala heterophylla, the Umata fern 295 

LI V. Intsia bijuga, the ipil tree 296 

LV. The physic nut, Jatropha curcas 301 

LVI. Lens phaseoloides, the snuffbox sea bean, pod and inflores- 
cence 308 

LVII. Lycopodium phlegmaria, an epiphytal clubmoss 313 

LVIII. Moringa moringa, the horse-radish tree - - 327 

LIX. OcJirocarpos obovalis, an important hard-wood tree 335 

LX. Pandanus fragrans, a screwpine growing in jungle 344 

LXI. Pariti liliaceum, the only source of cordage on the island . . . 346 

LXII. Phymatodes phymatodes, the oak-leaf fern 352 

LXIII. Piper betle, the betel pepper 354 

LXIV. Rhizophora mucronata, the four-petaled mangrove 364 

LXV. Stemmodontia canescens, a strand plant 377 

LXVI. Tamarindus indica, the tamarind. Foliage and fruit 383 

LXVII. Theobroma cacao, the chocolate plant. Inflorescence 387 

LXVIII. Tournefortia argentea, a characteristic strand shrub 390 

LXIX. Xiphagrostis floriduht, sword-grass. Spikelets and portion 

of leaf blade, magnified so as to show cutting teeth 399 

LXX. Map of the island of Guam 404 



THE USEFUL PLANTS OF THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 



By WILLIAM EDWIN SAPFOED. 



INTRODUCTION. 

ORIGIN AND PURPOSE OF THE PRESENT WORK, AND 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

During a series of cruises in the Pacific Ocean the routine of my 
official duties was pleasantly broken by frequent excursions on shore 
for the purpose of collecting material for the United States National 
Museum, as well as for recreation. While sitting in native huts and 
while wading upon coral reefs, traversing forests and climbing moun- 
tains, I interested myself in taking notes on the languages and customs 
of the natives, their arts, medicines, food materials and the manner of 
preparing them, and the origin of their dyes, paints, fibers for fishing 
nets and lines, materials for mat making and thatching, woods used 
in constructing their houses and canoes, and gums and resins used in 
calking. 

In attempting to identify many of the plants entering into their 
economy, I felt the need of some popular work containing the com- 
mon names of the more important species in various island groups, 
together with their descriptions and the uses to which they are applied 
in various parts of the world, the methods of their cultivation, and 
the processes of preparing the commercial staples which they yield. 
Some information of this nature may be derived from accounts of mis- 
sionaries, travelers, and explorers, but our ship's library was woefully 
lacking in such works, and much of the information contained in 
the books which were available was incomplete and untrustworthy. 
Works of a scientific nature, such as the Botany of the Challenger 
Expedition, though discussing the geographical distribution of strand 
plants and the means of their dissemination, I found to contain only 
lists of names which were useful in comparing island floras, but did 
not serve in any way to identify the plants in which I was interested. 
Others, like Seemann's Flora of Fiji, were too rare and expensive to 
be placed in the library of an ordinary man-of-war, and could be con- 
sulted only during visits to San Francisco or Honolulu. Moreover, 



10 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

though frequent mention is made of the uses of plants in this work, 
the descriptions are in Latin, and the book is not available to the 
average lay student. It occurred to me, therefore, that a popular 
work on the useful plants of Polynesia would be welcome, and I set 
out accordingly to gather together such information as I could for this 
purpose. Many of the plants with which I became familiar I encoun- 
tered on widely separated shores. Some of them I found bearing the 
same name on islands whose inhabitants have had no intercommunica- 
tion within historic times. These and kindred facts opened up an 
alluring field of ethnological inquiry as to the origin and dispersal of 
the inhabitants of the myriads of islands which dot the Pacific, a sub- 
ject upon which I shall enter in an initial way during the course of 
this work/' 

It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the valuable assistance 
I have received in the preparation of this work from Mr. Frederick 
V. Coville, Botanist of the United States Department of Agriculture; 
Mr. O. F. Cook, Mr. Guy N. Collins, and Mr. F. L. Lewton, of the 
office of tropical agriculture, and the late Mi'. Henry E. Baum. I am 
indebted to Mr. Carl S. Scotield and Mr. Thomas H. Kearney for aid 
and suggestions during its progress, and to Messrs. L/vster H. Dewey, 
Rodney H. True, and V. K. Chesnut for references relating to the 
fiber plants, medicinal plants, and poisonous plants included in my 
lists. Acknowledgments are also due to Dr. H. W. Wiley and Mr. B. J. 
Howard, of the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, for 
investigations as to the cause of the acridity of the taro plant and for 
fine micro-photographs showing the raphides, or needles of oxalate of 
lime, found in its leaves; also for beautiful representations of extra- 
floral nectaries of Ricinus and Gossypium. 

For notes on the agriculture of the island I am indebted to Don 
Justo Dungca and Don Antonio Martinez, citizens of Guam, and for 
botanical material forwarded to me since my departure from the island 
to Rev. Jose Palomo and Mr. Atanasio T. Perez. 

In the determination of flowering plants I have been assisted by Mr. 
E. S. Steele and Mr. Philip Do well, and of cryptogams by Mr. William 
L. Maxon, of the National Herbarium. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks to Mr. E. S. Steele and 
Mr. F. L. Lewton for their great assistance in preparing this work 
for publication and in helping me to correct the proof sheets. In 
submitting it I venture to express the hope that it may fill a want 
not only of travelers and students of botany, but also of settlers on 
tropical islands and in other warm regions of the globe; and I trust 
that it may be of some use to merchants and manufacturers seeking 
new sources of tropical staples and raw materials. 

See p. 116. 



SLAND AND PEOPLE. 11 

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION. 

Guam, the largest and most important of the group known as the 
Ladrones or Marianne Islands, is situated in the Pacific Ocean about 
1,200 miles east of the Philippines. The group forms a chain 420 
miles long, extending from latitude 20 30' north, longitude 143 4f>' 
east, to latitude 13 14' north, longitude 142 31' east. Beginning at 
the north, the names of the islands are Farallon de Pajaros, Las Urra- 
cas (Maug), Asuncion (Asomsom), Agrigan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, 
Sariguan, Anatahan, Farallon de Medinilla, Saipan, Tinian, Aguigan, 
Rota (Luta), and Guam or Guahan. a Guam is the only island belong- 
ing to the United States. The rest were sold by Spain to Germany at 
the close of the late war. The seat of the German Government is on 
the island of Saipan, where there is a colony of Caroline Islanders, 
besides a small population of Marianne natives. 

The islands are of volcanic origin and are fringed with coral reefs. 
In the southern members of the group there are no active volcanoes, 
but on several of the northern islands there are still a number of smok- 
ing craters. Guam and Samoa lie in corresponding latitudes on oppo- 
site sides of the equator, and their climates are much alike. Their 
flora and fauna have many features in common, and many of the plants 
used in the economy of the natives are the same. The inhabitants of 
the two groups, however, though both of the Oceanic race (allied to 
the Malayan), belong to different grand divisions of it and have 
distinct languages and few traditions in common. Guam is consider- 
ably larger than Tutuila, the most important of the Samoan Islands 
owned by the United States, though its chief port, San Luis de Apra, 
can not be compared with Pango-Pango, our naval station in the South 
Pacific, and perhaps the finest harbor in the world. The advantage 
of Guam as a station for repairs and supplies is evident, forming, as it 
does, a stopping place for vessels between Hawaii and the Philippines. 
Its strategic importance has been greatly enhanced since it has been 
made the landing place of the trans-Pacific cable, and the completion of 
the Panama Canal will make it still more valuable to our Government. 

The extreme length of the island from north -northeast to south- 
southwest is 29 statute miles. Its width is from 7 to 9 miles, narrow- 
ing at the middle to a neck only 4 miles across. On the northwest 
coast of this neck is situated Agana (Hagadna), the capital, a city of 
over 6,000 inhabitants. (PL LXX.) The entire population of the 
island, according to the census of 1901, was 9,676.^ 

For the pronunciation of vernacular names, see p. 170. 

&This indicates the number of actual residents on the island and does not include 
visitors nor the Government forces of the United States stationed there. 



12 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

HISTORICAL NOTICES. 
DISCOVERY OF GUAM AND ITS EARLY HISTORY. 

MAGELLAN. 

The island of Guam was discovered on March 6, 1521, by Magellan, 
after a passage of three months and twenty days from the strait which 
bears his name. An account of the privations and suffering of his 
crew, many of whom died on the way across the hitherto unexplored 
ocean, is graphically given by Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's historian. 
He describes how the expedition arrived at Guam with the crews 
suffering from scurvy and in a starving condition, having been com- 
pelled on the passage to eat rats and even the leather from off the 
standing rigging to keep soul and body together. In comparison 
with Magellan's feat of crossing the vast Pacific the first voyage of 
Columbus, from the Canary Islands to the West Indies, seems insig- 
nificant. The natives of Guam came out to meet the Spaniards in 
strange "flying praos" (canoes provided with outriggers and trian- 
gular sails of mats). The Spaniards had dropped anchor, furled their 
sails, and were about to land, when it was discovered that a small boat 
which rode astern of the flagship was missing. Suspecting the natives 
of having stolen it, Magellan himself went ashore at the head of a 
landing party of 40 armed men, burned 40 or 50 houses and many 
boats, and killed 7 or 8 natives, male and female. He then returned 
to his ship with the missing boat and immediately set sail, continuing 
his course to the westward. 

Before we went ashore [says Pigafetta] some of our people who were sick said to 
us that if we should kill any of the natives, whether man or woman, that we should 
bring on board their entrails, being persuaded that with the latter they would be 
cured. 

When we wounded some of those islanders with arrows, which entered their 
bodies, they tried to draw forth the arrow now in one way and now in another, in 
the meantime regarding it with great astonishment, and thus did they who were 
wounded in the breast, and they died of it, which did not fail to cause us compassion. 

Seeing us take our departure then, they followed us with more than a hundred 
boats for more than a league. They approached our ships, showing us fish and 
feigning to wish to give them to us, but when we were near they cast stones at us and 
fled. We passed under full sail among their boats, which, with greatest dexterity, 
avoided us. We saw among them some women who were weeping and tearing their 
hair, surely for their husbands killed by us. 

The natives did not fare much better at the hands of later visitors. 
Some of the early navigators enticed them on board and made slaves 
of them, so that they might man the pumps and keep the ships free 
from water. a They were spoken of as "infidels," to slay whom was no 
great sin; but if encounters took place between them and Europeans 
and a white man was killed, he was declared to have been murdered, 

See Narrative of the Loaisa Expedition, 1526, Burney, Chron. Hist., vol. 1, p. 217. 



EARLY NAVIGATORS. 13 

and his death was avenged by the burning of villages, boats, and boat- 
houses, and by killing men, women, and children." They were branded 
by their discoverers with the name of ladrones (thieves) for stealing a 
boat and some bits of iron. The early navigators themselves did not 
hesitate to steal husbands from their wives and fathers from their 
children. 

DUTCH NAVIGATORS. 

Among the Dutch who visited the island was Oliver van Noort, who 
touched at Guam in 1600 on his way from the South American coast 
to Manila. About 200 canoes came off to meet him, bringing fish, 
fruit, rice, fowls, and fresh water to exchange for iron. He was 
followed in 1616 by the Dutch admiral, Joris Spilbergen, in command 
of a fleet fitted out by the Dutch Company, which was on its way to 
the Moluccas by the westward route; and in 1625 by the Nassau fleet, 
organized in Holland against Peru, and commanded by Jacob 1'Here- 
mite. One hundred and fifty canoes came off to meet them, to traffic 
with coconuts and yams. The fleet watered at the island, and in 
exchange for iron procured rice, fowls, coconuts, yams, and bananas. 
Coconuts were observed in inexhaustible quantities; rice was culti- 
vated in many places, and the natives sold it b}^ weight in bales of 
seventy to eighty pounds each. The Hollanders considered it unsafe 
for their men to ramble about the island singly or unarmed. 

SAILING ROUTES IN THE PACIFIC. 

Guam was reckoned seventy days from New Spain, as Mexico was 
then called. After the founding of Manila regular traffic was estab- 
lished between the coast of Mexico and the Philippines. The first port 
selected as a place of departure on the Mexican coast was Navidad, but 
Acapulco was substituted later. The vessels would leave Mexico each 
year in February or March, shaping their course a little to the south- 
ward until they reached the latitude of Guam, when they would con- 
tinue due west until they reached that island. This season was chosen 
in order to avoid the westerly monsoon in the Philippines, which 
usually sets in about the middle of June. The vessels returned by 
a northerly route in order to avoid the trade winds and the adverse 
equatorial current. Both the Mariannes arid the Philippines were 
made dependencies of New Spain and were ruled by the viceroy residing 
at the City of Mexico. 

JESUIT MISSIONARIES. 

On his way from New Spain to the Philippines in one of the regular 
vessels, Padre Diego Luis Sanvitores, a Jesuit priest, touched at Guam 
and was moved to pity at the sight of the natives living in spiritual 

See. narrative of the expedition under Miguel Lopez Legazpi, which visited Guam 
in 1565, in Burney, Chron. Hist., vol. 1. 



14 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

darkness in the midst of an earthly paradise. An account of his life 
and martyrdom is given in an old vellum-covered book, a in which much 
interesting information may be found concerning the natives of Guam. 
In it, in contrast with the barbarous cruelty with which the natives had 
been treated by visiting Europeans, one may read of their kindness to 
shipwrecked sailors cast upon their shores, and of the cordial reception 
of Padre Sanvitores. They provided homes for him and his companions 
and built for them a church. All wished to be baptized forthwith, 
though the missionaries would at first baptize only the infants and 
dying persons; adults in good health had to be instructed in the Chris- 
tian doctrine before they could enjoy the privilege. 

In this book many wonderful occurrences are related stories of 
supernatural apparitions, of miraculous cures of men possessed of the 
devil, of lances, cast by the natives, suddenly arrested in mid-air, and 
of stones hurled from their slings crumbling harmlessly to dust; but 
it must not be forgotten that this was an age of marvels. The devil's 
influence in the affairs of everyday life was recognized throughout 
Christendom, and it is not surprising that it found its way to Guam. 
It was to the power of the evil one over the elements that the early 
missionaries attributed the adverse winds, which blew almost con- 
stantly to the westward and prevented ships from sailing directly to 
Guam from the Philippines. 

Sanvitores, "the Apostle of the Mariannes," was born in the city of 
Burgos, in northern Spain, November 12, 1627. The history of his 
life tells of his early boyhood, his call to the Society of Jesus and 
ordination, his work among the poor, his journe}^ to Mexico; his 
departure from Acapulco, April 5, 1662, for Manila; the impression 
made upon him by the natives of Guam, whom he saw on his passage 
across the Pacific; his efforts to be sent to them as a missionary, the 
refusal of his superiors at Manila to grant his request, the King's 
decree ordering the governor of the Philippines to furnish him with the 
means of reaching the Mariannes, the building of the ship San Diego 
at Cavite and his sailing therein to Acapulco, his appeal for aid to the 
viceroy of Mexico, his arrival at Guam, March 3, 1668, his emotion on 
seeing the islanders coming out to meet him, the kindness with which 
they welcomed him to their island, the zeal with which he pursued his 
work, the hardships which he had to endure, and his final martyrdom. 

The first serious stumbling block in the way of the missionaries was 
a Chinaman named Choco, living in the village of Paa, at the southern 
end of the island. This man had been shipwrecked about twenty years 
before their arrival, and had been kindly received by the natives.. He 
pointed out to the islanders that many children and old people had 
died immediately after having been baptized. He spoke slightingly 
of the padres, saying that the}^ were people despised and looked down 



Garcia, Vida y martyrio de Sanvitores, 1683. See List of works. 



WAR OF EXTERMINATION. 15 

upon by the Spaniards themselves, who for that reason had sent them 
into exile on this island; and he said that surely the water used in 
baptism was poisonous, though some of the more robust upon whom 
it was poured might resist its effects. As it was indeed true that 
many of those baptized had died shortly after the performance of the 
rite, and as the missionaries thought them happy in dying thus secure 
of salvation, it seemed to the natives that there might be truth in the 
Chinaman's charges. Henceforward, instead of receiving the mission- 
aries joyfully in their villages and retaining them as guests almost 
against their will, the natives greeted them with scowling faces, and, 
calling them murderers, threatened them with their spears. They no 
longer offered them breadfruit, as had been their custom, and mothers 
on their approach would catch up their infants and fly with them to 
the woods for safet} r ; or if the little ones were sick or dying, they 
would conceal them in their houses as best they could. a In their zeal 
the missionaries would often baptize children in spite of the threats of 
the fathers and the tears and prayers of the mothers. Moreover, they 
awakened the enmity of khemafcahnas, or wise men, whom they declared 
to be imposters; they assailed the liberty of the urritaos, or bachelors, 
by their efforts to abolish the " great houses " of the villages, in which 
they lived with unmarried women; they tried to change the marriage 
customs, according to which the parents received presents from the 
bridegrooms for their daughters; they tried to put an end to the invo- 
cation of the aniti, or spirits, and taught that it was wrong to venerate 
the relics of ancestors. 

Less than two years after the arrival of the missionaries in the 
islands, on January 29, 1670, a priest was killed on the island of 
Saipan for having baptized a child in spite of the protests of its 
parents; 6 and on April 2, 1672, in Guam, Padre Sanvitores met his 
death in the same way. 

CONQUEST OF THE NATIVES. 

A war of extermination now began, which lasted twenty-three years, 
suspended from time to time when the Spaniards found themselves 
too weak to continue it, but resumed at the arrival of each ship bring- 
ing reinforcements, no matter whether in the meantime peace with the 
natives had been declared or not. Often whole villages were punished 
for the act of a single man, and innocent natives who had committed 
no crime whatever were shot down wantonly/ 

Much did the evangelical ministers regret these excesses of the fervors of the new 
soldiers [says Padre Garcia], which, with the lack of experience and too great desire 
to make themselves feared, placed in jeopardy all Christianity; for the Indians 
retired from their villages to others more distant from Agadfia, and it was feared 
with reason that the whole island would form a confederation against the Spaniards 

Garcia, op. cit, p. 224. c Garcia, op. cit., pp. 446,447. 

b Garcia, op. cit., pp. 421^24. 



16 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

and padres as against homicides, who, the ones with baptism, as many natives already 
said, and the others with arms, came to take the lives of themselves and their chil- 
dren. Padre Solano; calling together the soldiers of the post, declared to them that 
though arms used in their proper time and season were the defense of that Chris- 
tianity, yet wielded intempestively they would be its destruction, since they would 
not only irritate with reason the Indians, but would become unworthy of the favor 
of the Lord, without which what could twenty or thirty men do against thirty thou- 
sand? For thus far only the barbarians' dread of firearms had protected the mission, 
and if this were lost the multitude could not be withstood. That they would lose 
this dread with their constant use, even at the price of injuries to themselves, and if 
they once rushed upon the arms they might seize them, and with these in their pos- 
session our defense would be converted into our injury. He charged the soldiers 
very particularly that in the southern part of the island, where the only villages 
were in which the missions were unhampered, they should abstain from all hostility, 
so as not to hinder the only harvest which at that season could be gleaned, and not 
to make enemies of those whom they now held as friends. The soldiers approved 
the discourse and promised to confine themselves within the limits of justice and 
prudence." 

It is not the province of these notes to give a detailed account of the 
uprisings of the natives and the methods taken by the various gov- 
ernors and military commanders to quell them. The yearly reports 
of the missionaries tell of the flight of the natives from island to 
island, pursued by their conquerors, whose arquebuses and arrows 
they resisted with their simple slings and spears as best they could, 
and of their reconcentration on the island of Guam, where they were 
stricken by an epidemic which almost exterminated them. 

Moreover [says one of these writers], & this diminution was caused greatly by the 
repugnance with which they bore a foreign yoke lovers ever of all the latitude 
which their primitive freedom permitted them and this burden weighed so heavily 
upon their haughtiness, laziness, and barbarity that some even sacrificed their lives 
in despair; and some women either purposely sterilized themselves or cast into the 
waters their new-born infants, believing them happy to die thus early, saved from 
the toils of a life gloomy, painful, and miserable. In all the dominions of Spain 
there is no nation more free from burdens, since they pay no tribute to the King a 
common custom in all nations nor do they give to the church the fees which are 
given throughout Christendom; but, as they see not what the rest surfer, they judge 
that subjection is the worst misery of the world. 

ENGLISH PIRATES. 

Two years after the publication of Padre Garcia's account of the 
island, on March 15, 1685, the English pirates, Eaton and Cowley, 
anchored at Guam. They found the governor, Don Damian Esplana, 
in a state of uneasiness owing to the hostile attitude of the natives, 
who, under a chief named Yura, had risen against the Spaniards less 
than a year before, had wounded the governor and killed several mis- 
sionaries and a number of soldiers. Cowley describes in his narrative 



a Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 447. 

^Murillo Velarde, Historia, Libro IV, 1749; Fray Juan de la Concepckm, Hist. 
Gen., Tomo VII, p. 348, 1788-92. 



D AMPLER. 17 

how the ship was received by the natives, who brought them "pota- 
toes, mananoes, coconuts, and plantains, selling them to us for old 
nails and old iron. But they being treacherous, we trusted them not; 
for we had always our small arms ready, and great guns loaden with 
round ball and cartridges. Sometimes we would have our deck full 
with these infidels; but we were always in arms, having our swords 
and pistols by our sides, with some Centinels standing abaft before 
them." Some of the Englishmen having gone fishing with the natives, 
the latter surrounded the boat by a seine, as though to draw it ashore 
together with its crew. The bucaneers in the boats being provided with 
firearms 

let go in amongst the thickest of them and killed a great many of their number, 
while the others, seeing their mates fall, ran away. Our other men which were on 
shoar meeting them, saluted them also by making Holes in their Hides. We took 
our Boat immediately thereupon, and went on board, most of our well men being 
on shoar, and seeing many of these Infidels' boats lie along our ship's side, did not 
know what design they might have on board [against] our sick men; but as it fell 
out, they were Boats which came from the governor, with more presents for our 
refreshment. * * * 

We took four of these infidels Prisoners, and brought them on board, binding 
their hands behind them; but they had not been long there, when three of them 
leaped over board into the sea, swimming away from the ship with their hands tied 
behind them. However, we sent the boat after them, and found a strong man at 
the first Blow could not penetrate their skins with a cutlace: One of them had 
received, in my judgment, 40 shots in his body before he died; and the last of the 
three that was killed, had swam a good English mile first, not only with his Hands 
behind him, as before, but also with his Arms pinion' d. 

The governor gave carte blanche to the pirates to kill as many 
natives as they pleased and even rewarded them with presents of hogs, 
pumpkins, green stuff, "potatoes," and rice; after which they saluted 
him with three guns and sailed away. a 

DAMPIER'S VISIT. 

The following year, on May 20, 1686, Captain Swan arrived at Guam, 
accompanied by Dampier, 6 who gives in the first volume of his voyages 
an excellent account of the island, its products, the inhabitants, and 
their wonderful canoes, which he "did believe to sail the best of any 
Boats in the World." 

Under the above date he writes as follows: 

At 4 a Clock, to our great Joy, we saw the Island Guam, at about 8 leagues dis- 
tance. It was well for Captain Swan that we got sight of it before our Provision was 
spent, of which we had but enough for 3 days more; for, as I was afterwards informed, 
the Men had contrived, first to kill Captain Swan and eat him when the Vituals was 
gone, and after him all of us who were accessary in promoting the undertaking this 
Voyage. This made Captain Swan say to me after our arrival at Guam, Ah! Dampier, 
you would Jtave made tJiem but a poor Meal; for I was as lean as the Captain was lusty 
and fleshy. 



Cowley's voyage, in Dampier's Voyages, vol. 4, 1729. 

6 A new Voyage Round the World, by Capt. William Dampier, vol. 1, p. 283, 1717. 
977305 2 



18 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Dampier's accurate descriptions of the breadfruit and the coconut 
are given further on, in the Alphabetical list of useful plants, under 
the headings Artocarpus communis and Cocos nuclfera. Of the bread- 
fruit he says: a 

I did never see of this Fruit any where but here. The Natives told us, that there 
is plenty of this Fruit growing on the rest of the Ladrone Islands; but I did never 
hear of it anywhere else. 

And of the coconuts he says: 6 

These at Guam grow in dry ground, are of a middle size, and I think the sweetest 
that I did ever taste. 

Dampier relates that when the natives were repulsed by the Span- 
iards in the recent uprising they destroyed the plantations and stock, 
and those implicated in the conspiracy then went to other islands. As 
for the remaining ones, if they were not actually concerned in that 
broil, yet their hearts were also bent against the Spaniards, for they 
offered to carry the Englishmen to the fort and assist them in the con- 
quest of the island; but Captain Swan was not for molesting the Span- 
iards here, as it was to his interest to use the island as a base for 
supplies. At this time there were at Guam only the governor, twenty 
or thirty Spanish soldiers, and two or three priests. 

Captain Swan detained a priest who came off to visit his ship, and 
requested him to write a letter to the governor stating that the English 
had come to the island not in any hostile manner, but as friends to 
purchase with their money what they wanted. He sent a present to 
the governor of 4 yards of scarlet cloth and a piece of silver and gold 
lace. The governor replied to the letter at once, complimenting Cap- 
tain Swan for his present and promising as much provision as he could 
possibly spare. 

As a token of his gratitude he sent a present of 6 Hogs of a small sort, most excel- 
lent Meat, the best I think that ever I eat [says Dampier] . They are fed with Coco- 
nuts, and their flesh is hard as Brisket Beef. They were doubtless of that breed in 
America which came originally from Spain. He sent also 12 Muskmelons, larger than 
ours in England, and as many Water-melons, both sorts here being a very excellent 
Fruit; and sent an order to the Indians that lived in a Village not far from our Ship, 
to bake every day as much of the Bread-fruit as we did desire, and to assist us in 
getting as many dry Coco-nuts as we would have; which they accordingly did, and 
brought off the Bread-fruit every day hot, as much as we could eat. After this the 
Governour sent every day a Canoa or two with Hogs and Fruit, and desired for the 
same Powder, Shot, and Arms; which was sent according to his request. * * * 

The 30th day of May, the Governour sent his last Present, which was some Hogs, 
a Jar of pickled Mangoes, a Jar of excellent pickled Fish, and a Jar of fine Rusk, or 
Bread of fine Wheat Flower, baked like Bisket, but not so hard. He sent besides, 6 
or 7 packs of Rice, desiring to be excused from sending any more Provision to us, 
saying he had no more on the Island that he could spare. He sent word also, that 
the West Monsoon was at hand, that therefore it behooved us to be jogging from 

A new Voyage Round the World, p. 297, 1717. 
&0p. cit., p. 296. 



ENGLISH PEIVATEEBS. 19 

hence, unless we were resolved to turn back to America again. Captain Swan returned 
him thanks for his kindness and advice, and took his leave; and the same day sent 
the Frier ashoar that was seized on our first arrival, and gave him a large Brass 
Clock, an Astrolabe, and a large Telescope; for which Present the Frier sent us 
aboard six Hogs, and a roasting Pig, 3 or 4 Bushels of Potatoes, and 50 pounds of 
Manila Tobacco. Then we prepared to be gone, being pretty well furnished with 
Provision to carry us to Mindanao, where we designed next to touch. We took 
aboard as many Coco-nuts as we could well stow, and we had a good stock of Rice, 
and about 50 Hogs in salt. a 

WOODES ROGERS. 

On March 11, 1710, the celebrated English privateer W codes Rogers 
arrived at Guam, accompanied by Alexander Selkirk, whom he had 
recently rescued from the island of Juan Fernandez, in the South 
Pacific. The English were in pretty bad condition. Their provisions 
were nearly exhausted, and many of them were sick and suffering from 
wounds received in battle with the Spaniards on the American coast. 
Rogers had with him a prize, Nuestra Senora de la Incarnation, the 
name of which he had changed to the Batchelor Frigate. He car- 
ried with him considerable booty in the form of money, jewels, and 
fabrics taken from the natives of Guayaquil and other Spanish- Ameri- 
can towns recently sacked by him, and among his prisoners were sev- 
eral officers of the recently captured prize. To the governor of Guam 
(Don Antonio Pimentel) Rogers and his associates wrote the following 
letter: 

SIR: We being Servants of her Majesty of Great Britain, and stopping at these 
Islands on our Way to the East Indies, will not molest the settlement; provided you 
deal fairly with us. We will pay for whatever Provisions and Refreshments you have 
to spare, in such manner as best agrees with your Conveniency, either in Money or 
any Necessaries you want. But if after this civil Request you deny us, and do not 
act like a Man of Honour, you may immediately expect such Military Treatment, as 
we are with ease able to give you. This we thought fit to confirm under our Hands, 
recommending to you our Friendship and kind Treatment, which we hope you'll 
esteem, and assure yourself we then shall be with the strictest Honour 

Your friends and humble Servants, 

W. ROGERS. 

S. COURTNEY. 

E. COOKE. 

To the Honourable GOVERNOR OF THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 
MARCH 23, 1709 (1710). 

As the governor had no adequate means of resisting the English, he 
supplied them with provisions. Courtesies were interchanged, the 
Spaniards entertaining the English on shore and accepting their invi- 
tation to entertainments on board the ships. Rogers presented to the 
governor two negro boys "dressed in liveries," 20 yards scarlet cloth- 
serge, and 6 pieces of cambric, "wh^ch he seemed wonderfully well 
pleased with." The ships were supplied with 60 hogs, 99 fowls, 24 

Op. cit., pp. 301-304. 



20 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

baskets of Indian corn, 14 bags of rice, 44 baskets of yams, and 800 
coconuts. Fourteen bullocks, described as "small and lean," were dis- 
tributed among the ships, and each ship was given 2 cows and calves. 
The English took receipts from the Spanish for their presents, and 
gave to them certificates "to show to any English that they had parted 
friendly." They sent ashore an old Spaniard whom they held as 
prisoner and got a receipt for him. 

In Woodes Rogers's Narrative he gives the population of the islands 
and various other data. Among the fruits were oranges, lemons, cit- 
rons, muskmelons, and watermelons, which were brought hither by 
the Spaniards. The orange trees were thriving well. Cattle were 
plenty, but were small and poor. Much indigo was seen growing wild 
and not utilized. Money was scarce. The 200 soldiers were paid once 
a year in mone} 7 brought from Manila, the ship bringing their pay 
carrying also clothing, sugar, rice, and liquors. These articles being 
sold on the island, the ship usually returned to Manila with most of 
the money she had brought. On this account the natives were plant- 
ing rice and making other improvements in their agriculture. The 
hogs were described as "the best pork in the world, because the} 7 are 
fed altogether on coconuts and breadfruit, which are plentiful here." 

The Spaniards were manying with the natives. The Indians are 
described as tall, strong, and dark-colored, the men wearing no cloth- 
ing but a breech clout and the women wearing little petticoats. The 
natives were skillful in slinging stones, which they made of clay, of 
an oval form, burning them till as hard as marble. They were such 
good marksmen that the Spaniards said they seldom missed hitting 
any mark, throwing a projectile with such force as to kill a man at a 
considerable distance. They also had lances, made of coconut wood. 
One of the flying praos of the natives was presented by the governor 
to Woodes Rogers, who gives a detailed description of it in his 
Narrative." 

The governor of Guam, Don Antonio Pimentel, was afterwards tried 
by the Spanish authorities for giving aid and comfort to the English. 
A copy of the proceedings now in the archives at Agana, dated 1720, 
is marked "Causa formada en virtud de Real provision a Don Juan 
Antonio Pimentel, Gobernador de estas islas Marianas, sobre la acogida 
y refresco que dio a los Piratas, que apresaron la Nao Almiranta 
Nuestra Senora de la Encarnacion de la carrera de Acapulco." 



Among the other travelers to visit the Marianne Islands was Anson, 
the famous circumnavigator, who stopped at Tinian for repairs in 
1742, the same year that he captured the treasure- laden galleon from 

See Woodes Kogers's Narrative, 1712. 



EXPULSION OF THE JESUITS, 21 

Acapulco, on which was found the chart containing, as far as is known, 
the first indication of the existence of the Hawaiian Islands/* Anson 
had been sent from England in 1740 to annoy the Spaniards in the 
South Seas. After having lost most of his men from scurvy, he 
crossed the Pacific in the only remaining ship out of his squadron of 
eight vessels, the Centurion. He found the island of Tinian nearly 
deserted and overrun with wild cattle and wild hogs. He gives a 
glowing account of the beauty of the island, but this was declared by 
Byron, who afterwards visited the island, to be overdrawn. 

DE PAGES. 

In 1768 Guam was visited by the French traveler, De Pages, who 
was a passenger on the galleon that brought Don Enrique de Olavide y 
Michelena. Don Enrique was about to begin a second term as gov- 
ernor of the Mariannes, relieving Don Jose de Soroa. In De Pages's 
narrative 6 he gives a vivid account of his trip from Acapulco to 
Guam, describing the conditions on board the galleon, the character 
of the passengers and cargo, the courses steered, and the weather 
encountered. At Guam he saw the breadfruit for the first time, and 
he speaks of the habit of betel chewing, to which the natives were 
addicted, describing the areca nut and the betel pepper. As an illus- 
tration of the isolated state of Guam, he states that it had been eight 
years since a vessel from Manila had touched at the island. 

EXPULSION OP THE JESUITS. 

A year after the arrival of Olavide the Jesuit missionaries were 
expelled from the Mariannes by the edict of the King of Spain, Carlos 
III, dated February 27, 1767. It was this King who joined France 
in sending assistance to the American colonies during their struggle 
for independence. The Jesuits had been in the islands for a century, 
and whatever may have been the harsh means by which they were 
established there, they had won the love and confidence of the natives, 
and were kind and just in their dealings with them, protecting them 
when necessary against acts of cruelty, injustice, and oppression on 
the part of the military authorities/ and never exacting services from 
them without due compensation. A school for the education of native 
children had been established shortly after the death of Padre Sanvi- 
tores under the name of "Colegio de San Juan de Letran," and had 
been endowed with a fund yielding 3,000 pesos a year by Maria Anna 

"See Lord Anson's Voyage Round the World, 1748. 

''De Pages, Travels Round the World (English translation), 1791. 

c Among the official papers in the archives at Agafia are the proceedings of several 
" residencias, " or courts of inquiry, held at Agafia for the trial of governors and 
officers composing their staff. In these trials the padres represented the interests of 
natives who might have cause for complaint against the authorities. 



22 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

of Austria, in whose honor the islands were named. The Jesuits 
taught not only the Christian doctrine and the elements of learning, 
but many useful arts as well. They also instructed the native youths 
in music, as is shown by the inventory of their effects and the testi- 
mony of travelers visiting the island shortly after their expulsion. 
They had several farms in flourishing condition, the finest of which 
was that of Tachogna, in the interior of Guam, between Agana and 
Pago. On this farm, called "San Ignacio de Tachogna," they had a 
fine herd of cattle, and elsewhere they had a stallion and a number of 
brood mares. They were in constant communication with missions 
of their order in other countries, receiving fabrics from New Spain as 
well as from China and Manila, spices from Ceylon, and tobacco from 
Mexico. Under their supervision the natives learned to cultivate 
maize, tobacco, cacao, sweet potatoes, and other plants brought from 
America, and in the inventories, besides a supply of garden imple- 
ments called "fosinos" (thrust hoes), new machetes for clearing the 
forest, and other implements, were found steel, iron, and blacksmith's 
tools, tan bark and vats for tanning, carpenters' tools, saws, crow- 
bars, pickaxes, paints, stones for grinding pigments, "metates" and 
u manos," like those of the Mexicans for converting maize into tor- 
tillas, and material and instruments for making ornaments for their 
altars. The 3 7 oung lieutenant of the armada who brought the order 
for their expulsion had been instructed to take away in his schooner 
the Jesuits, together with all their belongings. Realizing that this 
would be impossible, he made an official statement in writing to the 
governor, saying that his little schooner, with a single deck, could not 
accomplish the task; that it would require several two-decked vessels 
much larger than his own to take away all the belongings of the 
Fathers. Nevertheless, on November 2, 1769, the schooner Nuestra 
'Senora de Guadalupe, which had brought the decree of banishment, 
sailed awa} 7 from Guam, carrying the Fathers, together with as many 
of their personal effects as possible. Man} r of their papers were 
burned. In the inventory of their effects in the archives at Agana is 
a list of letters, copies of memorials, manuscript sermons, and books. 
Even the lay brother in the kitchen, who acted as procurador, had a 
library of his own. On the arrival of the decree the senior of the 
missionaries, Padre Xavier Stengel, was absent, having gone to the 
neighboring island of Rota to hear confessions and administer the 
annual communion to the natives. A canoe was sent to bring him. 
As one of the Fathers had died sometime before the arrival of the 
decree, it was necessary to carry back a certified statement of his death 
and burial to account for his not sailing with the others. 

After the Jesuits' departure the farms were neglected, the cattle, 
now the property of the Crown, ran wild, and many animals were 
killed by the natives, as may be seen in the records of trials in the 



ADMINISTRATION OF TOBIAS. 23 

archives. The spiritual administration of the islands was handed over 
to friars of the order of St. Augustine, who had come as passengers 
on the schooner bringing the decree. This religious order continued 
on the island until its seizure by the United States. 

CROZET' s VISIT. 

The next governor of the Mariannes, Don Mariano Tobias, has been 
immortalized by the Abbe Raynal in his Histoire et politique des etab- 
lissements et du commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes. Raynal 
hated the tyranny and injustice with which primitive nations were so 
often treated, and believed that the rights of individuals should be 
considered even though their skins might be brown and their clothing 
scant. He called attention to glaring acts of cruelty and oppression 
perpetrated by European nations upon the natives of newly colonized 
countries. In consequence of his bold accusations his book was 
condemned to be burned (May 29, 1781), and he was obliged to fly 
from France. 

An interesting account of the island during Tobias's administration 
is given by Crozet, who visited Guam September 27, 1772." Crozet 
was an officer of the expedition of the French navigator Marion- 
Dufresne, which left Mauritius on a voyage of discovery in the South 
Seas. On June 8, 1772, Marion was killed and eaten by natives of 
New Zealand by whom he and his men had been invited ashore to a 
feast. The Chevalier du Clesmeur, who commanded one of the vessels, 
left seeds of a number of useful plants at Guam. Among them were 
those of Cajan cajan, which has ever since been called "lenteja 
francesa" by the natives. Crozet describes the breadfruit tree, the 
manner of its propagation by cuttings, and the preparation of its fruit 
for food. He noticed that cattle are very fond of its leaves. He 
speaks of the edible chestnut-like seeds of the u dugdug," or fertile 
breadfruit, and mentions the principal fruits growing on the island. 
Guavas already formed thickets in open places. The indigenous capers 
growing near the sea attracted him by the beauty and fragrance of 
their flowers. They had already been transplanted to the Philippines. 
Provisions were so plentiful that it was not necessary to fish, though 
the French sailors caught some fresh-water fishes, including eels, in 
the streams of the island. These were held in less esteem by the 
natives than salt-water fish. Crozet says that Tobias had stimulated 
the natives to cultivate their fields, which they had neglected owing to 
the importation of breadstuff for the missionaries and garrison by the 
galleons from Mexico. He attributes the introduction of the cultiva- 
tion of maize, rice, sugar cane, and other useful plants to Tobias, who 
also planted avenues of coconut palms and breadfruit trees four deep 

Nouveau Voyage. See List of works. 



24 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

along the beach and around the town, making Agana an enchanting 
place. Crozet is undoubtedly wrong in his statement as to the intro- 
duction of many of these plants. It is certain that maize was culti- 
vated in Guam as early as 1676, nearly a hundred years before 
Tobias's time; for Padre Garcia states that the natives in that year 
destroyed the maize plantation, which was the principal sustenance of 
the missionaries and the soldiers." Rice and sugar cane were cultivated 
by the aborigines before the advent of the Spaniards. Many of the 
improvements attributed by Crozet to Tobias were due to the Jesuits, 
though it is undoubtedly true that he encouraged agriculture and other 
useful arts, and in all probability introduced domestic animals, as well 
as the deer which now overrun the island. What the Jesuits did for 
the island is shown by the documentary evidence left behind them. 
Crozet speaks of the use of cattle for draft animals, and sa} 7 s that 
then, as now, they were ridden like horses and that each family of 
natives had several riding beasts. 

La Perouse, who visited Manila in 1787, has given the following 
account of Tobias's subsequent misfortunes: 

I saw at Manila that virtuous and upright governor of the Ladrones, M. Tobias, 
who, unhappily for his repose, has been too much celebrated by Abbe Raynal. 
I saw him persecuted by the monks, who, representing him as a wretch desti- 
tute of piety, have alienated the affections of his wife, who has even demanded to be 
separated from him, that she might not live with a reputed reprobate, and all 
the fanatics have applauded her resolution. M. Tobias is the lieutenant-colonel of 
the regiment which forms the garrison of Manila, and is known to be the best officer 
in the country, yet the governor has ordered that his appointments, which are con- 
siderable, should be paid to this pious wife, leaving him only $26 a month for his 
own subsistence and that of his son. This brave soldier, reduced to desperation, was 
waiting for a proper opportunity to quit the colony in order to obtain justice. b 

It is interesting to read Crozet's description of Agana as it was in 
1872, six years before the rediscovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Cap- 
tain Cook. He gives the population as about 1,500 natives. 

There is a beautiful church, decorated according to the Spanish custom. The 
commandant's house is spacious and well built. The former residence of the 
Jesuits, now occupied by the St. Augustinian Brotherhood, is spacious and conve- 
nient, but the fine Jesuits' college, built for the education of the Indians, is not 
inhabited, their successors, the Augustinians, having removed the college to a build- 
ing near the convent. There is a barracks capable of lodging a garrison of 500 men, 
and there is the King's fine, large magazine. All these buildings are of brick and 
tile. The island of Guam is the only island in the vast extent of the South Sea, 
sprinkled as it is with innumerable islands, which has a European-built town, a 
church, fortifications, and a civilized population. 

On leaving Guam Crozet carried two plants of the breadfruit with 
him to the island of Mauritius. 

a Garcfa, Vida y martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 554, 1683. 

& La Perouse, Voyage Around the World, vol. 2, p. 285, 1807. 



THADDAEUS HAENKE. 25 

SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATIONS OF TTT'E ISLAND. 

MALASPINA EXPEDITION. 

In February, 1792, Guam was visited by Alessandro Malaspina, in 
command of the corvettes Atrevida and Deseubierta, which had been 
sent by Carlos IV, King of Spain, on a voyage of scientific investiga- 
tion. Attached to his expedition as naturalists were Thaddaeus Haenkc 
and Luis Nee, who were the first to make systematic botanical collec- 
tions on the island. They were also the first botanists to visit Cali- 
fornia, having the preceding year collected in the vicinity of San Diego 
and Monterey. a 

The story of Haenke's adventures while attempting to join Mala- 
spina is told both in the official narrative of the expedition and in the 
preface to Presl's Reliquiae Haenkeana?. Haenke was a Bohemian by 
birth. He received his botanical education from Jacquin, who for a 
time was professor of chemistry and botany in Vienna, and upon his 
recommendation was appointed botanist of the expedition by the King 
of Spain. Although he set out for Cadiz immediately on receiving 
his appointment, he reached that port only to find that the two cor- 
vettes had just set sail (July 30, 1789). Following them in the first 
vessel bound for Montevideo, he suffered shipwreck on one of the 
numerous shoals at the mouth of the Rio de Ja Plata, losing nearly all 
his books, papers, and effects. He succeeded in reaching shore, how- 
ever, with his Linnaeus and a collecting outfit, but he found that the 
expedition had already sailed. Knowing that it was to stop on the coast 
of Chile, he set out at once on foot, crossing the Pampas of Argentina 
and the Chilean cordillera of the Andes, collecting and drying plants 
on the way. 6 On reaching Santiago, Chile, to his great joy he found 
there Malaspina and a number of his officers, who had left their ships 
at anchor in the harbor of Valparaiso to pay an official visit to the 
capital. He immediately reported for duty and was assigned to the 
Descubierta. 

The expedition skirted the coasts of South America, Mexico, and 
North America as far as Port Mulgrave, which is situated in Yakutat 
Bay, southern Alaska. Their exploration of the latter region is com- 
memorated by the name of the celebrated Malaspina Glacier. Return- 
ing to Mexico, Haenke went alone on a collecting tour from Acapulco 
to Mexico City and back. Leaving Acapulco on December 21, 1791, 
the expedition .sailed for Guam, coming to anchor on February 12, 

a See Brewer, in Geological Survey of California, Botany, vol. 2, p. 553, 1880. 

b "Con un verdadero amor it las ciencias y particularmente a la botanica, conside- 
raba resarcidos en mucha parte los sufrimientos pasados, pues le habian deparado la 
casualidad de atravesar las Pampas 6 llanuras de Buenos Aires y las Cordilleras del 
Chile, logrando acopiar hasta 1,400 plantas, la mayor parte nuevas 6 no bien carac- 
terizadas." Official narrative, p. 86, 1885. 



26 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

1792, in the roadstead of Umata. Many of the crew were suffer- 
ing- from an epidemic caught at Acapulco. Haenke proceeded to 
Agafia and the northern part of the island, Nee to the hills near 
Umata, each making collections of plants. Don Antonio Pineda, who 
shortly afterwards lost his life in -the Philippines, occupied himself 
with the geology and zoology of the island. The governor, Lieut. 
Col. Don Jose Arlegui, offered them every facility for earning on 
their work. Don Juan Ravenet made sketches of a couple of the 
natives and of a native of the Caroline Islands, between which group 
and Guam a regular traffic had existed since 1788. The expedition set 
sail at daylight on the morning of February 24. A few plants were 
collected on Tinian, one of the northern islands, but the bulk of the 
collection from the Mariannes was made on the island of Guam. From 
Guam the expedition sailed for Cape Espiritu Santo, island of Samar, 
in the Philippine group. From the Philippines it proceeded to Botany 
Bay, and thence to the Society Islands. Returning to the Peruvian 
coast, the expedition received news of the French Revolution and of 
the declaration of war with France. The botanists separated. Nee 
left the Atrevida on the coast of Chile and proceeded overland, stop- 
ping at Talcahuano, Concepcion, and Santiago, and thence by way of 
the cordillera del Valle to Mendoza and over the pampas to Buenos 
Ay res. He rejoined the expedition May 10. 

Haenke crossed the Peruvian Andes to Tarma and visited the region 
about Huanuco, at the headwaters of the Rio Huallaga, a tributary of 
the Maranon. With the approval of the viceroy of Peru, it was decided 
that he should proceed across the continent to Buenos Ayres by way of 
Iluancavelica, Ayacucho, Cuzco, and Potosi (situated in what is now 
Bolivian territory), occupying himself on the way with botany, zoology, 
and mineralogy; and a soldier named Geronimo Arcangel was detailed 
to accompany him. Letters were received from him from Cuzco and 
Arequipa reporting the progress of his explorations and stating that 
he expected to reach Montevideo the early part of the following year. 
The expedition, however, was suddenly ordered home on account of 
the war, and Haenke remained in South America, collecting extensivety 
in the interior of what is now Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. In 1796 he 
established himself at Cochabamba, a city beautifully situated on the 
fertile plateau watered by the tributaries of the Rio Grande, now the 
chief agricultural and industrial center of Bolivia. Here he estab- 
lished a botanical garden, gave medical assistance to his neighbors, 
and occupied himself with the study of natural science, making 
repeated excursions throughout the territory of what is now Chile, 
Peru, and Bolivia. Alcide d'Orbign}^, in his paper on the genus' Vic- 
toria, tells of meeting in his travels in South America with a Spanish 
missionary, Padre Lacueva, who had accompanied Haenke on one of 
his expeditions. The padre related an incident which illustrates in a 



COLLECTIONS OF HAENKE AND NEE. 27 

most touching manner the enthusiasm which was characteristic of the 
collector and observer. While they were navigating the Rio Mamore 
in a canoe they discovered in a marsh bordering the river a plant so 
marvelously beautiful that Haenke fell upon his knees in worship, 
offering to the Author of so magnificent a creation a prayer of grateful 
homage. He insisted on stopping and camping at this place and left 
it with the greatest reluctance." This was about the year 1801. The 
plant was in all probability the magnificent water lily afterwards 
described as Victoria amazonica. 

Haenke looked forward to returning some day to Europe, but he 
was accidentally poisoned and died at Cochabama in 1817. Only a 
small proportion of his herbarium reached Europe, the greatest part 
having been sent by the authorities to Lima, where it was lost. About 
9,000 plants collected on the Malaspina expedition were sent, according 
to his wish, to the National Museum of Bohemia, at Prague. Others 
found their way to the Royal Garden at Madrid, with those of Nee. 
Duplicates of these were sent to the University of Prague and the Musee 
Palatin at Vienna, and about 700 species to the Royal Herbarium at 
Munich. It was upon the collections at Prague and the notes accom- 
panying them that the Reliquiae Haenkeanse of Presl was based. 6 

Nee, who reached Cadiz in 1794, took back with him 10,000 plants, 
nearly half of which were apparently new. His herbarium, together 
with descriptive notes and drawings, belong to the Royal Garden at 
Madrid. Many of his Guam plants were described in 1802 by Cava- 
nilles; c among them are a number of ferns as well as of flowering 
plants that have not since been recognized, and no careful comparison 
has been made between the types in Madrid and material from the 
Pacific in England. 

Notes of both Nee and Haenke are included in Malaspina's official 
narrative, lying in manuscript in the archives of the Madrid hydro- 
graphic office. Malaspina shortly after his return to Spain was thrown 
into prison, suspected of revolutionary designs. The Spanish Gov- 
ernment refused to publish his narrative, and when a map appeared 
embodying the results of his explorations his name was not allowed to 
appear upon it. Humboldt speaks of this great injustice with indig- 
nation. Malaspina was an Italian by birth. A sketch of his life is 
included in Amat di San Filipo's Biografia dei viaggiatori italiani, 
Rome, 1881. For a long time his manuscript history disappeared from 
view and investigations concerning it were made by the Societa Geo- 
grafica Italiana, the president of which, in his address of 1868 (Bolle- 
tino, 1868, pp. 73-74), announces its discovery in the archives of the 
hydrographic office at Madrid, and states that it is written in a great 

A. d'Orbigny, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 13, p. 55, 1840. 

& See List of works. 

c Cavanilles, Josef, Description, etc. See List of works. 



28 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

part by Malaspina's own hand. It is quite voluminous. A part of 
the narrative is said to have been published in the Anales Hidrograticos 
in 1871, but no such publication can be found in the official list. The 
narrative, much abridged, finally appeared in 1885, seventy-six }^ears 
after the death of the brave and unfortunate navigator. a For the 
most part it consists of bare statements of facts, resembling a log 
book, and has few descriptions and little detailed information concern- 
ing the countries visited. A satisfactory history of this important 
expedition still remains to be written. 



EOMANZOFF EXPEDITION. 



On the evening of November 21, 1817, the brig Rurik, fitted out at 
the expense of the' chancellor of the Russian Empire, Count Roman- 
zoff, for the purpose of scientific exploration, and commanded by 
Otto von Kotzebue, a lieutenant in the Russian navy, came to anchor 
in the harbor of San Luis de Apra. Attached to her were the botanist 
Adelbert von Chamisso; the naturalist Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz, 
and the artist Ludwig Choris. 

Owing to the shortness of the Iurik?8 stay at Guam it was not 
possible to make extensive collections. Chamisso, however, got much 
interesting and valuable information while on the island from the 
Sargento Mayor Don Luis de Torres. To botanists, Eschscholtz's 
name is chiefly associated with the beautiful " Calif ornian poppy" 
(Eschscholtzia), named in his honor by Chamisso. 

The narrative of the expedition was published by Kotzebue, under 
the title of ''A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Behring's 
Straits," etc/' This narrative, which embodies Chamisso's observa- 
tions, is filled with errors and misstatements. It was miserably " done 
into English" by a translator who "joined to a style at once bald and 
incorrect a deplorable ignorance of his subject; hence the work 
abounds in errors of the grossest kind."^ Chamisso, wishing to cor- 
rect them, made out a list of errata, but no attention whatever was 
paid to him. He accordingly published his notes and journal inde- 
pendentl} T , under the titles of " Bemerkungen und Ansichten," and 
"Tagebuch," in the former of which he gives comparative vocabu- 
laries of the languages of Guam, Yap, Ulea, and Radak.^ 

In these two works a most charming personality is revealed. Cha- 
misso's love of nature was equaled by his love for his fellow-man. He 
recognized the humanity in the simple brown-skinned natives of the 
remote islands of the Pacific, and did not consider them legitimate 

Novo y Colson, La vuelto al mundo, etc. See List of works. 

& See list of works. 

c Quarterly Review, vol. 26, p. 364, 1822. 

^Chamisso's gesammelte Werke. See List of works. 



CHAMIS80 AND ESCHSCHOITZ. 29 

victims of the selfish schemes of white adventurers. He was much 
moved by the sad havoc wrought by the Spaniards in the Marianne 
Islands, and repeated the story of persecution and cruelty accompany- 
ing the "reduction" of the natives as related by the Spaniards 
themselves. a 

From the statement published by Kotzebue that the natives of Guam 
had been exterminated by the Spaniards a wrong impression has gone 
abroad. The facts are presented under the head of u The modern 
inhabitants," below. 6 

The plants collected by the Romanzoff expedition were deposited in 
the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Duplicates were 
sent to the Hooker Herbarium, at Kew, England, and to the Univer- 
sity of Kiel, Germany. A number of the plants were described by 
Chamisso and Schlechtendal in the journal Linnaea, the series beginning 
with the first paper of the first volume/ In the introduction to this 
paper, Chamisso, in speaking of Eschscholtz, says, "Intimam insti- 
tuimus amicitiam nunquam obnubilandam, communiaque semper 
habuimus studia, labores, fructus;" and in his Tagebuch he describes 
him as a young doctor from Dorpat, a naturalist and entomologist, shy 
and retiring by nature, but true and noble as gold. Such tributes 
reflect the character of their author. 

FREYCINET EXPEDITION. 

A little more than a year after Chamisso's visit, on March 17, 1819, 
the French corvette Uranie, Louis de Freycinet commanding, arrived 
at Guam. With him were the botanist, Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, 
the zoologists Quoy and Gaimard, and an artist named Arago. A 
stay of several months allowed the naturalists to make extensive col- 
lections and observations on the island of Guam, and the islands of 
Rota and Tinian were also visited by them. On the return vo} 7 age 
the Uranie, while at the Falkland Islands, struck a rock and foundered. 
Gaudichaud's collections were almost ruined. The hold, in which his 
herbarium was stowed, was flooded, and the plants saturated with sea 
water. Only a collector can appreciate the feelings of Gaudichaud 
when, several days afterwards, he fished them up and spread them out 
to dry as best he could. The collections were taken to France in the 
Physicienne, and deposited in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, at 
Paris. An interesting account of the vegetation of Guam was given 

"Der fromme Missioniir Don Diego Luis de San Vitores landete auf Guajan im 
Jahre 1667; er begehrte den Volkern das Heil zu bringen, aber es folgten ihm Sol- 
daten und Geschiitz. Noch vor dem Schlusse des Jahrhunderts war das Werk voll- 
bracht, und diese Nation war nicht mehr. Pacificar nennen's die Spanier." Cha'^iseo, 
Bemerkungen und Ansichten, p. 90. 

& See p. 117. 

<-' De Plantis in Expeditione speculatoria Romanzoffiana observatis, etc. Liimtea, 
erster Band, Jahrgang, 1826, Berlin. 



30 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

by Gaudichaud in the Botany of the Freycinet Expedition," and the 
greater part of his observations are embodied in the narrative of the 
expedition published by Freycinet himself. 6 The zoology was pub- 
lished by Quo} r and Gaimard. A narrative of the expedition was 
published independently by the artist Jaqucs Arago, which abounds 
in exaggerations, scandalous stories, and unkind criticisms and ridi- 
cule of the people whose hospitality he had enjoyed. Its publication 
naturally offended the Spaniards, and the next expedition from France 
to visit the island met with a very different reception at the hands of 
the governor/ While waiting for supplies from Manila a survey of 
the island was made by M. Duperrey under the direction of Freycinet. 
Existing maps were corrected and several charts of small harbors 
were drawn. 

DUMONT D'URVILLE' s TWO VISITS. 

Dumont d'Urville made two visits to the island of Guam. On his 
first visit, in May, 1828, he came in command of the Astrolabe, which 
had been sent out on an exploring voyage with special instructions to 
look for traces of La Perouse. Attached to the Astrolabe were Lesson, 
as pharmacist and botanist, who assisted d'Urville in collecting plants, 
and Quoy and Gaimard, as zoologists, who were the first to collect 
specimens of the Guam reed- warbler, Acrocepkalus luscinia, the only 
true song bird of the island. A most interesting narrative of this 
expedition was written by Dumont d'LTrville himself, and the zoology 
was published by Quoy and Gaimard. d 

The Astrolabe anchored at Umata and was boarded by Jose Flores, 
alcalde of the village. He told the captain that he had seen the ships 
of Malaspina, who visited Guam in 1792, thirty-six years before. In 
the roadstead d'Urville saw two ships which had been captured by the 
Spaniards from the independents of Mexico and were now being taken 
to Manila. Three years before this there had been a mutiny on board 
some Spanish vessels lying at anchor in the roadstead of Umata. The 
squadron was commanded by Don Andres Garcia Camba, Caballero de 
Santiago, afterwards governor of the Philippines. General Camba 
had served in South America against the revolutionists and had been 
captured at the battle of Ayacucho, December 9, 1824, in which the 

Botanique du voyage autour du monde. See List of works. 

& Freycinet, Louis de: Voyage autour du monde. See List of works. 

tf Sanchez y Zayas, Mas Marianas, p. 230. See List of works. The author calls 
attention to the fact that Medinilla, the governor of Guam afthe time of the Uranie's 
visit, entertained the captain and all the French officers for eight months, giving 
them bed and board; but that his hospitality "was very poorly repaid, according to 
old French custom, as may be seen in the book written by Arago, draftsman of the 
expedition, a book which unfortunately has been translated into Spanish, although 
the narrative of the commanding officer has not been translated." 

^ Voyage de decouvertes de I' Astrolabe, 1833. 



JOHN ANDERSON. 81 

South American colonies won their final victory over Spain. On the 
1st of January, 1825, he sailed in command of a squadron composed 
of the ship Asia and the brigantines Aquiles and Constante, bound for 
the Philippines. The water of the squadron becoming scarce, they 
anchored in the roadstead of Umata and filled their casks. On the 
night of March 10, while weighing anchor, the crews suddenly rose, 
set fire to one of the vessels, maltreated the commanding officer, and 
drove him ashore, together with his officers and 100 loyal men. 
Ganga-Herrero, the governor of Guam, went on board and tried to 
restore discipline, but they put him ashore, hoisted the flag of the 
insurgent republics of America, and set sail for Peru to join the inde- 
pendents. The general, accompanied by his officers and loyal men, 
proceeded in a whaling vessel to Manila, where they arrived April 4, 
and were received with great hospitality by all classes of people." 

D'Urville states that Governor Ganga-Herrero was much regretted 
by the natives, whom he permitted to trade on their own account with 
vessels anchoring at the island. His successor, Medinilla, on the other 
hand, was universally disliked. He forbade all traffic with visiting 
vessels, monopolizing it for himself. Among the officials visiting the 
ship was the captain of the port, a Scotchman named John Anderson, 
who had come to the island with Freycinet. He had served tem- 
po rarity on the Uranie as chief quartermaster, and was allowed to 
remain in Guam at his own request. D'Urville describes him as a 
fine-looking man, well-behaved, and speaking French pretty well. 
Anderson knew Quo}^ and Gaimard, having been shipmates with them 
on the Uranie. He came to investigate the sickness on board, fearing 
that some contagious disease might be introduced into the island. He 
gave d'Urville information regarding the hydrography of the region. 
As an illustration of the conditions in Guam, he said that Medinilla, the 
governor, on his return from Manila had brought back more than 
60,000 pesos worth of goods of all kinds to sell to the natives of 
Guam, and that he conducted a very profitable business, since he per- 
mitted no competitors in trade. 

This monopoly [says d'Urville], which according to our ideas would not be very 
honorable on the part of a governor, does not cause surprise in the Mariannes. The 
governors have had this privilege from time immemorial. 

D'Urville attributed the lack of enterprise and progress on the island 
to the absurd laws and this disheartening monopoly. 

How should industry flourish? [he says]. The governor is the sole trader. He 
receives annually money for the salaries of the officers, which he sends back, giving 
them instead inferior goods at prices fixed by himself. 



This account is taken from the narrative of Dumont d'Urville, supplemented by 
the report made to the Queen Regent, inserted in the work "Los diez y seis meses 
de mando superior de Filipinas," por el Mariscal de Campo Don Andres Garcia 
Camba: Cadiz, 1839. 



32 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

On January 1, 1839, Dumont d'Urville, commanding the Astrolabe 
arid ZeUi 1 , paid his second visit to Guam. Attached to the expedition 
were Hombron and Jacquinot, as doctors and botanists, and Arago as 
artist. Two collections of plants were made on this expedition, the 
first by the above-named botanists, the second, including several new 
species of alga?, by Dumont d'Urville himself. Besides the official 
reports of this expedition a a narrative was written by Arago. & 

Hombron gave his collection of plants to M. Benjamin Delessert, 
whose herbarium was afterwards presented by one of his nieces to the 
city of Geneva, Switzerland. It has been placed in a building in the 
Botanical Garden of that city. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE ARCHIVES OF GUAM, RELATING TO ITS ECONOMIC 

HISTORY. 

At Agana, the capital of Guam, there are a number of letter books 
containing copies of the official communications of the governors of 
the Mariannes to their immediate superior, the captain-general of the 
Philippines. In these letters various questions are discussed at length 
regarding the policy which should be pursued to make the Marianne 
Islands self-supporting and profitable to Spain, and to make the 
natives prosperous and happy. Arguments are advanced in favor 
both of protection and of free trade with visiting vessels. Attempts 
were made to compel the natives to till the ground, and inducements 
were offered by tempting their self-interest. Causes for the failure of 
the population to increase were sought in the destruction of the crops 
b}^ hurricanes and pests, in the use of unwholesome or injurious food, 
and in the disinclination of the natives to work more than was neces- 
sary for their daily needs. Some of the governors greedily monopo- 
lized all trade, forcing the natives and the soldiers of the barracks 
to buy goods from them at prices arbitrarily fixed by themselves, 
and forbidding the natives to sell their products to the whalers who 
flocked to the islands. Others gave the natives free license to trade 
and entered into their daily life by cultivating farms of their own 
after the native fashion. Efforts were made to benefit the islands by 
decrees of the captains-general of the Philippines, to whose ears came 
stories of dishonest}^ and oppression on the part of the governors, and 
confidential subordinates were sent to the islands to see what could be 
done for their good. The following extracts, showing the efforts made 
in behalf of the islands and the natives, are taken from the archives 
at Agana. 

(l Voyage aii pole sud, etc., 1841-1854. See List of works. 

?> Arago, Jacques Etienne Victor. Voyage autour du monde, etc., 1843. See List of 
works. 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN 1830. 33 

FRANCISCO RAMON DE VILLALOBOS. 

On December 17, 1828, new regulations were issued by Don Mariano 
Ricafort, the captain-general of the Philippines, for the government 
of the Marianne Islands; and Don Francisco Ramon de Villalobos, 
captain in the royal corps of artillerj^, was sent thither to study the 
condition of affairs in that group, with a view of reporting upon them 
and making such suggestions as he might see fit for the improvement 
of the islands and the people. Instead of sending his correspondence 
through the governor, he communicated directly with the captain- 
general of the Philippines, as may be seen by his letter books in the 
archives at Agana. 

In the new regulations Article II provided for the absolute liberty 
of trade and for the abolishing of dues paid by vessels arriving at the 
islands. The object of this was to stimulate the application and the 
industry of the natives and inhabitants of the Marianne Islands, so 
that they might attain greater prosperity, even to such an extent, per- 
haps, as to become self-supporting. Villalobos belonged to that school 
of economists who believe "wealth" and "money" to be synonymous 
terms, estimating the wealth of a country by the amount of coin it 
contains, and holding that trade should be restrained in such a manner 
as to prevent money from being sent out of the country. He writes 
to the captain-general as follows: 

The lack of circulation of coin is the cause of the very small interior and exterior 
trade of this territory, which consists almost entirely in bartering certain goods for 
others, with the countless difficulties arising therefrom which caused the establish- 
ment of money by our remote ancestors. This same cause has prevented the natives 
from dedicating themselves exclusively to one branch of industry or trade, each 
family finding itself obliged to engage in all occupations according to its needs, with 
the consequent imperfection and scarcity resulting therefrom, and, finally, as it is 
not possible for a single person or family to procure for itself as many articles and 
resources as are necessary for its nourishment, clothing, and conveniences, these 
natives have lacked the advantages enjoyed by other countries, in which the free 
circulation of money secures for them everything needful. 

It is evident, then, in order that the Marianne Islands may issue from so sad a 
plight, it is indispensable that there should be in them an abundance of money, and 
as long as this is not the case, whether, as in the former system, little comes in and 
soon goes out, or whether great sums corne in and go out immediately, as will hap- 
pen in the present system, the >evil will always be the same or nearly the same. 

At present there are in the Marianne Islands no articles of export to attract the 
attention of the foreigner but some edibles or beverages made from the coconut 
palm. Freedom of trade once established, it would introduce many articles, and the 
few things produced by the country would not suffice to pay for them, so that the 
difference would have to be made good in money. From this it would follow that 
money paid for salaries would remain here only temporarily; the country would be 
merely a channel through which the money from the royal treasury would flow to 
foreign parts with no hope of its return. The Mariannes would be deprived of the 
spirit of agriculture and industry, which I think ought, in a certain degree, to come 
before commerce, and the islands would be no less poverty stricken than they have 
been up to the present time. 
977305 3 



34 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Don Francisco goes on to make the following suggestions: 

First, considering the impossibility of preventing the arrival of foreigners in these 
islands, they should be obliged to pay at least the established anchorage dues; second, 
industry and agriculture on the part of the natives should be fostered, obliging them, 
on their own account and for their own benefit, to engage in producing objects easy 
of exportation, such as dyewood, indigo, cotton, tortoise shell, mother-of-pearl, 
arrowroot, and beches de mer, and in the breeding of animals, the more extensive 
cultivation of land, and the production of wines, brandies, sugar, and other articles 
all in accordance with the regulations of good government which will not be hard 
to formulate according to the system in force in the Visayan Islands; third, the said 
freedom of trade will allow the natives to sell their goods, as will be seen; fourth, 
the royal treasury will continue to send half of the appropriation for the pay of the 
forces on the island in goods at prices as moderate as practicable; and fifth and last, 
if national or foreign vessels arrive with articles of commerce, they shall take away 
with them the equivalent of what they leave in the country in products of the island, 
and, if they do not wish the latter, they shall be sent away. 

He also suggests that the proceeds from the port dues be applied 
in part to the payment of premiums to persons who have most excelled 
in some branch of industry or agriculture or who have been of some 
benefit to the public. 

By these methods [says Villalobos ] , sustained with constancy and intelligence 
and favored by the docility and good disposition which I observe in the inhabitants 
of these islands, I believe that the day will really come in which the Marianas 
will have much money, many goods; that they may without difficulty be self-sup- 
porting, like other provinces; that ships will concur, and that all amplitude desired 
will be given to trade. 

Villalobos did much to benefit the people of Guam. In his official 
letters to his chief he reports, among other things, the segregation 
of lepers and provision for their care and comfort; the appointment 
of hunters to supply the leper hospital with fresh meat by killing 
wild hogs and cattle; his efforts to encourage commerce, so that Guam 
may derive profit, like the Hawaiian Islands, from the visiting 
whalers; the vaccination of the natives as a protection against small- 
pox; the reorganization of the urban militia; proposed reforms in the 
administration of the college for the education of native children; 
efforts to promote the cultivation of coffee, "which article may be the 
wealth of this country;" the condition of agriculture on the island; 
the preparation of the large marsh east of Agana for the cultivation 
of rice; the injuries to maize caused by rats and weevils, and the con- 
sequent restriction of its cultivation to amounts barely sufficient for 
the needs of each family; the substitution of taro and yams for maize, 
when the latter has been destroyed by hurricanes, and the use of 
plantains and bananas as food staples instead of bread; the cultivation 
of sweet potatoes for supplying visiting ships; the excellence of the 
pineapples and the use made of pineapple fiber; the fine quality of Guam 

a Letter book, January 18, 1830. 



CONDITIONS UNDER GOVERNOR VILLALOBOS. 35 

tobacco, and the means employed to keep the plants free from worms; 
the introduction of manila hemp and the failure to make it profitable; 
the cultivation of eggplants, red peppers, tomatoes, squashes, water- 
melons, muskmelons, and peanuts in the natives' gardens; the scarcity 
of sugar cane on the island; the importance of the coconut palm, and 
the manufacture from it of toddy, vinegar, yeast, brandy, oil, syrup, 
fiber, and thatch for houses; the importance of breadfruit, both sterile 
and fertile, as a food staple; the manufacture of fecula, like arrow- 
root, from nuts of ^federico" (Cycas circinalis); the yield of betel 
nuts from Areca palms, growing spontaneously on the islands; the 
manufacture of mats, hats, and lashings from the leaves of Pandanus; 
the scarcity of mango trees and sappan wood (used for dyeing); the 
abundance of achiote or arnotto (Bixa orellana), and the cultivation of 
the orange, lemon, lime, citron, bergamot, custard apple, tamarind, 
papaya, carambola, island arrowroot, and turmeric. He also reports 
on the wild and domestic animals, and states that on the neighboring 
islands of Saipan and Tinian there are thousands of cattle and swine 
roaming in the woods. a 

Villalobos erected a kiln for making pottery and tiles, paying the 
cost of it partly from his own pocket. He also made charts of the 
island at his own expense, and superintended in person the construc- 
tion of bridges and the repairing of roads, stimulating the workmen 
by fees and small gratuities. In consequence of mutinies and acts of 
insubordination on the part of crews of ships in the harbor, England 
proposed to establish a consulate either at Guam or in the Bonin Islands. 
Villalobos objected to this, saying that if there were an English consul 
at Guam questions might arise leading to international complications, 
which might perhaps result in the loss of the island. On the other 
hand, if a consulate were established in the Bonin Islands, the w r haling 
fleet would assemble there to the detriment of the natives of Guam, 
who derived much benefit from trading with the said vessels. He pro- 
posed that an arrangement be made whereby the British Government 
would authorize the governor of the Mariannes to act in settling cases 
of mutiny and the like. He also recommended the establishment of a 
store of marine supplies by either one of the two governments, and 
called attention to the immense advantages of the presence of many ships 
at Guam with liberty to trade with the islanders, the governor being 
prohibited from engaging in trade of any kind. Orders having been 
issued to collect import duties from the ships coming to Guam, Vil- 
lalobos informed the captain -general that it would be practically impos- 
sible to carry out the provisions of the decree. He stated that if 
guards were placed on board the ships, the cost of maintaining them 

Villalobos, manuscript report to the captain-general of the Philippines, dated 
November 16, 1831. 



36 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

would exceed the amount received for duties. If no guards were sta- 
tioned the duties would be only imaginary, on account of the bad faith 
of those who sold and their "lack of delicacy." Moreover, if it 
should come to light that a sale had been secretly made and the corre- 
sponding duties on the same be exacted from a foreign captain, his 
pride and insolence would be apt to compromise the dignity of the 
authorities beyond all bearable limits or bring about disagreeable con- 
sequences resembling perhaps an unhappy affair between the ex-Gov- 
ernor Ganga-Herrero and an English captain, Mr. Stavers, who, in 
1824, died from injuries received while resisting arrest. In view of 
these difficulties Villalobos on his own authority ventured to grant 
free trade between the visiting ships and the islanders. 

PABLO PEREZ. 

Don Pablo Perez began his service as governor of the Mariannes on 
September 8, 1848. Among the first reports forwarded by him to the 
captain-general were statistical tables regarding the population of the 
islands, a list of ships anchoring at Guam, a report of recent hurri- 
canes, the destruction of crops, and the resulting dearth of food, and a 
list of the useful woods of the island. He calls attention to the lack 
of laborers in Guam, especially of men skilled in mechanical trades, 
and begs that convicts be sent to the island, including mechanics of 
various kinds and husbandmen or tillers of the soil. He speaks of the 
presence of a few such men on the island who remained there after the 
expiration of their terms of imprisonment, and states that these were 
the only individuals skilled in the use of the plow, carpenter's tools, 
etc. He comments upon the inadequacy of the method practiced by 
the natives of cultivating the soil by means of the "fosino," or thrust- 
hoe/' in consequence of which " their harvests are small which might 
be large." Don Pablo found the roads and bridges in a deplorable 
state, owing to the effects of recent floods and hurricanes, and he 
reported that there was a lack of suitable tools for carrying on public 
works and of iron for making such tools. Following the hurricanes 
and floods there was an epidemic, caused probably by a dearth of nutri- 
tious food, and shortly after this the island was visited by a severe 
earthquake. In response to the report of this, supplies of rice, maize, 
and other food were sent to Guam from Manila, together with a relief 
fund raised by the young ladies and gentlemen of that city by means 
of theatrical performances for the benefit of the sufferers. Don Pablo 
acknowledges the receipt of these contributions as follows:* 

The governor of the Mariana Islands in the name of the inhabitants, who do not 
cease giving thanks to the Almighty for not having succumbed to a desolating epi- 
demic and the most horrible of earthquakes, which still continue, saw themselves 

See p. 144. 

& Manuscript copy of letter in the archives of Guam, dated October 10, 1849, 



RELIEF RECEIVED FROM MANILA. 37 

threatened anew by a devouring famine which threatened to put an end to their 
miserable existence. But Providence, which incessantly watches over those peoples 
who implore its aid, willed that the beneficent hand of our Superior Government, 
ever benevolent and philanthropic, should put a happy end to so much misfortune 
and unhappiness so great. 

What joy was ours on the 3d day of September, when there arrived at this port 
the frigate Union, bearer of most bounteous supplies of rice, maize, and other grains, 
at prices more moderate than have ever before been known in these possessions! It 
is impossible to describe the joy and animation of the people of this community, 
whose misery and poverty were increasing by a plague of worms which consumed as 
much rice, maize, and other seed as were sown in the months of July, August, and 
September; so that if succor had not arrived so opportunely the ruined crops could 
not have been replaced for lack of seed. Such was the scarcity that on the 29th of 
August, four days before the arrival of the said ship, the only remaining five cabanes 
of rice were put up at auction and sold at 5 pesos a caban. From this alone may 
be formed an idea of the great if not the total lack which was suffered here. Like 
one who suddenly recovers from a mortal illness to perfect health, so was the air of 
contentment and rejoicing which seized upon all souls in their most sincere gratitude 
to the author of so many and such great benefits. Nor was our gratitude less to those 
gentlemen who contributed the subscription in money of $675-4-5, which was dis- 
tributed among the poor of these islands on this the birthday of our adored Queen, 
Dona Isabella II (whom God save), in accordance with the directions of the 
Superior Government. 

Without elements, means, or resources whatever for manifesting our gratitude, I 
directed that on the 9th of the same month of September a mass of thanksgiving be 
celebrated by three priests, something very rarely seen in this city, with a sermon 
preached eloquently and eruditely, as is his custom, by Padre Fray Manuel Encarna- 
cion, the parish priest of the village of Agat, who, in speaking of the calamities suf- 
fered by these islands, made his hearers understand and exhorted them to the grati- 
tude due our Government, which so prodigally relieved our necessities, finishing the 
function with a solemn te deum, and displaying the most holy sacrament. All the 
people bowing down like those of Israel before His Divine Majesty, breathed forth 
their prayers and vows for the happiness of their benefactors. 

In order to give another proof of the sentiments of gratitude which filled us and to 
carry out in a certain way the beneficent ideas of our Government, which especially 
distinguish it, as is seen by the sublime acts which illustrate the pages of the history 
of our colonies, I decided to act as godfather to the first girl baby which might be 
born, and I gave to it the name of Isabella, in memory of our august Queen; and the 
lieutenant-governor acted in the same capacity for the first boy baby, which he called 
Narcissus, in memory of his excellency our captain-general, Count of Manila, who so 
justly rules these remote regions, each one of us giving to his godchild 50 pesos and 
an outfit of decent clothing, which event took place at 9 o'clock on the morning of 
the 16th of September, with the assistance of the authorities and of nearly all the 
population, so that these children may be living testimony of the remembrance of 
the generosity of our Sovereign and of your excellency, who knows so well how to 
act as the instrument of so many and such great acts, which history will record for 
the honor and the glory of the great Spanish nation. 

On August 10, 1851, the brigantine Clavelino arrived from the Phil- 
ippines bringing 65 convicts. They were in a miserable plight. On 
the voyage two of their number had died, and nearly half of the remain- 
der were afflicted with scurvy, virulent ulcers, or cutaneous diseases. 
No medicines were available for treating these poor people. They 



38 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

were handed over to a little Irish doctor named William E. George, 
who had acted as apothecary on a whaler and had been permitted to 
take up his residence in Guam; but his private supply of medicines 
was soon exhausted. Finally the board of directors of the hospital 
for lepers consented to furnish means out of their own fund for lint, 
bandages, and drugs to relieve the sufferers, asking the approval of 
their action by the captain-general. 

On September 1, the governor caused 51 of these convicts, all of 
whom were farmers by calling, to be distributed over the island, 
putting them under the charge of the most thrifty cultivators of the 
soil The principal one of these was the priest of Agat, Fray Manuel 
Encarnacion, to whom 18 of them were assigned. The governor 
issued a circular prescribing the conditions under which they were to 
be employed. The sick were to be kept at Agana under treatment. 
On the 1st of September there were 14 on the sick list and on October 
IT all had been put to work but 6. 



CONVICT LABOR. 



The governor apprehended no trouble in allowing the convicts to be 
scattered over the island so long as there were no ships in harbor, as 
there was no possible means for them to escape from the island. It 
was his intention to have them divided into gangs, placed under the 
surveillance of guards, and employed at as great a distance as possible 
from the port, as soon as the season for the whalers' visits should arrive. 
At these seasons there were often fifteen or twenty vessels in the 
harbor, and as most of them were short-handed, there would be great 
danger of their smuggling these people on board on the eve of sailing. 
Those convicts who should misbehave were to be punished by being 
placed in gangs under a guard and compelled to work in his sight. 
Those who might become sick or who were returned by their masters 
as unfit for work or as dangerous subjects, would have to be sup- 
ported by the Government. The governor asked the captain-general 
to authorize their subsistence from Government funds under the direct 
supervision of the governor. 

Scarcely a month had passed when the governor was informed that 
the convicts had entered into a conspiracy to rise against the authorities 
and take possession of the island. They were surprised by the guard, 
who fired upon them and charged bayonets. Their leader, Fortunato 
de los Angeles, "a villain from the Province of Cavite," was taken 
prisoner, one was killed, and two wounded. The rest scattered through 
the town and sought refuge in the woods. Before a week had passed 
all had been captured. The governor in his report to the captain - 
general says: 

I acknowledge that I was mistaken. Believing that men whom your excellency 
had pardoned from the punishment of death by your decree of the llth of last Jan- 
uary would live grateful of such a boon, I never dreamed that they would rise 
against the authorities and attempt to make us the victims of their ferocity. 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN 1856. 39 

The prisoners were sent back to Manila in the brigantme Clavelino, 
the same vessel which had brought them, in charge of Lieut. Jose 
Martinez, assisted by 12 privates and 2 corporals. Thus ended the 
attempt of Don Pablo to introduce convict labor into Guam. 

FELIPE DE LA CORTE. 

On May 16, 1855, Don Felipe de la Corte relieved Don Pablo Perez 
as governor of the Mariannes. During his administration Guam was 
visited by a terrible epidemic of smallpox, which lasted nine months 
and carried off two-fifths of the population. In a report upon 
economic conditions, dated June 19, 1856, Don Felipe says: 

For a long time the attention of the superior Government has been called to the 
slow progress of the population of these Marianne Islands, and the governors and 
special commissioners sent here have been directed to investigate the causes of this 
stationary condition of the population and even the decrease sometimes noticed in 
the number of inhabitants. * * * Some have thought to find the origin of this 
evil in the changeableness of the climate and the inconstancy of its seasons; others 
in the use of articles of food not very nutritious or perhaps injurious (nuts of 
Cycas), and others in the great number of rats, which destroy the abundant harvests. 

After a dissertation on the principles of political economy, "a 
science which teaches us by sure principles the means of bringing about 
the prosperity of a country and of ridding it of obje'cts opposed to its 
progress," Don Felipe goes on to say: 

It is not necessary to tire oneself in seeking other causes than that of poverty, 
which is the only thing that retards the progress of the population of the Marianne 
Islands. Other things to which it has been attributed are accidents. The use of 
hurtful food, poor clothing, and other things, far from being considered a cause, are 
in reality the effects of that poverty and the direct means through which it works 
for the speedy destruction of this unhappy portion of the human race. This pov- 
erty, the general and sole cause, has not, however, been perceived by many, because 
they could not believe that it could occur in the midst of a soil which produces 
abundant and varied fruits, in spite even of those plagues, and because they have 
confounded with wealth the occurrence here at all times of fruits growing spontane- 
ously which the natives use for food during the periods when more wholesome kinds 
are lacking. * * * The prosperity of a country depends, instead of upon the 
abundance of its spontaneous products, rather upon the wealth accumulated in it, 
and here precisely is the great defectand the origin of the evil in the Marianne Islands. 
In them, most excellent Sefior, nobody possesses anything, with very few exceptions. 
Here all live absolutely for the day, and domestic utensils, tools of laborers, lodgings, 
and everything absolutely everything is so mean, so little durable, and so incapa- 
ble of constituting wealth that all, or nearly all, could with solemnity declare at all 
hours that they are poor. * . * * To correct the evils upon which I here have 
touched, and to ameliorate the condition of these islanders, my predecessors, with 
laudable zeal, have reproduced without ceasing exhortations, orders, and decrees 
that they should plant and harvest wholesome and abundant fruits. But who would 
believe it? With fat harvests, of which the grain has sometimes even been burned 
for lack of consumers, poverty has continued and reached even to us; for not hav- 
ing sought the means of accumulating that wealth then superfluous, to fill out the 
dearth later in worse seasons, all has perished at the moment, and without object. 
And what is still worse, it has created in these natives the idea in good years as well 
as in bad, of large crops as well as of small, that they can not hope for a beneficial 



40 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

change. They have logically figured that it is futile to work for superfluous harvests 
which may have to be burned, consequently not relieving them in the periods of 
scarcity which are sure to come later; that it is better to work little than to work 
without result. On account of this they have been accused of possessing a lazy dis- 
position, which they are far from manifesting on occasions in which they clearly see 
the good results of their work. 

PRESERVATION OF MAIZE. To dispel so harmful a prejudice I have thought it of 
the greatest importance to inaugurate the first accumulation of wealth in the preser- 
vation of the article most important for the subsistence of these natives. This is 
maize, or Indian corn, which is harvested with the greatest ease and may be planted 
at three epochs of the year in such a way that three times as much as the amount 
necessary for consumption may be produced at each harvest if its cultivation be fol- 
lowed on a great scale and leaving out accidents. 

There is in contrast with this the experience which they have that with their small 
resources the most careful can scarcely make their supply of this grain last from har- 
vest to harvest, so that there are repeatedly seasons during which a great portion of 
the population, being without maize or even the other articles of food used here, 
finds itself forced to fall back onfederico [Cycas nuts] and other fruits and roots of 
the forest, which can not fail to do them injury either from their being essentially 
harmful or because the organic system of the native suffers from the repeated changes 
from one kind of diet to another. 

Anxious to root out an evil which I consider the greatest in these islands, and per- 
suaded that when this is once accomplished a new era will begin for their inhabit- 
ants, I have availed myself of the teachings pertaining to my profession, and I have 
thought that without prejudice to anyone and by means of light work of all there 
could be put into practice the ancient system practiced by Spain and other countries 
of preserving cereals in subterranean granaries, and, combining this idea with the 
beneficent institution of the public granaries of Spain and some places in the Indies, 
I published an order which I hope will meet with the approval of your excellency, 
assuring you that in taking this step I have been prompted by a fervid wish to ben- 
efit these natives. 

Don Felipe de la Corte wrote a most interesting account of these 
islands, which was published by the Spanish Government^ He was 
relieved at his own request by Don Francisco Moscoso y Lara on Jan- 
uary 28, 1866, after having served eleven years. 

SOCIEDAD AGRICOLA. 

During the administration of Governor Moscoso a society was 
formed under the title " Sociedad Agricola de la Concepcion." It was 
composed of the governor and several of the officials and leading citi- 
zens of the island. Laborers were introduced from Japan and efforts 
were made to develop the resources of the island. The project failed, 
however. Some of the Japanese died and the rest returned to Japan. 

SUMMARY. 

From the above extracts some idea may be gathered of the economic 
conditions on the island of Guam. The causes which have prevented 
the general prosperity- of the natives have been (1) the frequent hur- 

Memoria descriptiva. See List of works. 



SEASONS. 41 

ricanes, which destroyed the results of their labor; (2) the unwise 
course of certain governors in discouraging individual enterprise; (3) 
the absence of any effort to accumulate capital either in the form of 
money or of supplies. 

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF GUAM. 
CLIMATE AND RAINFALL. 

SEASONS. Though Guam lies within the Tropics, its climate is tem- 
pered throughout the greater part of the year by a brisk trade wind, 
blowing from the northeast and east. Its mountains are not high 
enough to cause marked differences in the distribution of rain on the 
island, and the island is not of sufficient extent to cause the daily alter- 
nating currents of air known as land and sea breezes. Generally 
speaking, the seasons conform in a measure with those of Manila, the 
least rain falling in the colder months or the period called winter 
(invierno) by the natives, and the greatest rainfall occurring in the 
warm months, which are called summer (verano) by the natives. The 
year may be divided into a rainy and a dry season, but this division 
does not correspond exactly to that based on temperature, for the 
period of maximum temperature precedes that of the greatest rainfall. 

During the winter months the wind blows briskly and steadily from 
the northeast and east. In June it becomes unsteady, veering to the 
east and southeast, and by September what is generally known as the 
u southwest monsoon" sets in. The climate is healthful in compari- 
son with other tropical countries, the only period when sickness may 
be expected being that of July and August, when the absence of the 
trade wind and the presence of moisture in the atmosphere causes 
the heat to appear greater than it is. 

The mean annual temperature is about 80 F., and the mean monthly 
temperature ranges from 78 F. in December, the coldest month, to 
82 F. in May and June, the hottest months. The highest absolute 
temperature recorded in 1902, 90 F., occurred in June and July, the 
lowest, 66 F., in December. 

Though the mean monthly temperature varies only 2 on either side 
of the mean annual temperature, yet the "winters" of Guam are so 
definitely marked that certain wasps which during the summer make 
their nests in the open fields among the bushes invade the houses of 
the people at that season and hibernate there. 

METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. The following tables, compiled from 
observations made at the naval station at Agana, the capital of Guam, 
show the temperature, rainfall, and prevailing winds for each month 
of the year 1902. They are taken from a report drawn up by Dr. 
Cleveland Abbe, jr., who, through the courtesy of Prof. Willis L. 



42 



USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 



Moore, Chief of the Weather Bureau, was detailed to examine and 
interpret the records forwarded to the United States Hydrographic 

Office: 

Temperature, 1902. 

[Degrees Fahrenheit and centigrade.] 



Month. 


Mean. 


Absolute. 


Mean daily 
range. 


F. 


C. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


January 


79 
80 
80 
81 

82 
82 
81 
81 
80 
80 
79 
78 


26.1 
26.7 
26.7 
27.2 
27.8 
27.8 
27.2 
27.2 
26.7 
26.7 
26.1 
25.6 


86 
86 
87 
87 
88 
90 
90 
88 
87 
88 
85 
85 


30.0 
30.0 
30.6 
30.6 
31.1 
32.2 
32.2 
31.1 
30.6 
31.1 
29.4 
29.4 


70 
71 
72 
73 
72 
73 
75 
74 
73 
70 
69 
66 


21.1 
21.7 
22.2 
22.8 
22.2 
22.8 
23.9 
23.3 
22.8 
21.1 
20.6 
18.9 


8 
8 
10 
8 
9 
10 
9 
. 9 
11 
10 
11 
9 


4.4 
4.4 
5.6 
4.4 
5.0 
5.6 
6.0 
5.0 
6.1 
5.6 
6.1 
5.0 


February 


March 


April .. 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September . 


October 


November 


December 


Annual maximum 


82 
78 


27.8 
25.6 


90 


32.2 






17 
3 


9.4 
1.7 


Annual minimum 


66 


18.9 


Mean 






80 


26.7 


87 


30.6 


72 


22.2 


9 


5.0 





Rainfall, 1902. 
[In inches and millimeters.] 



Month. 


Total. 


Percent- 
age of 
annual 
rainfall. 


Maximum in24 hours. 


Inches. 


Millime- 
ters. 


Inches. 


Millime- 
ters. 


January 


3.58 
7.30 
3.21 
3.87 
4.55 
7.14 
16.06 
19.72 
27.01 
9.63 
11.86 
2.53 


90.93 
185.42 
81.53 
98.04 
115. 57 
181. 36 
407. 92 
500.89 
686. 06 
244. 60 
301. 24 
64. 26 


3.1 
6.3 
2.8 
3.3 
3.9 
6.1 
13.8 
16.9 
23.2 
8.3 
10.2 
2.2 


1.01 
2.24 
.90 
.71 
.92 
2.92 
6.26 
4.72 
5.31 
2.81 
2.62 
.77 


25.65 
56.90 
22.86 
18.03 
23.37 
74.17 
159.00 
119. 89 
134.87 
71.37 
66.55 
19.56 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July. . 


August 


September.. 


October 


November 


December 


Sum . 


116. 46 
27.01 
2.53 


2, 958. 12 
686. 06 
64.26 


100.0 
23.2 
2.2 






Maximum 


6.26 


159.00 











Number of days with rain, and amounts, 1902. 



Month. 


More 
than a 
trace. 


More 
than 
0.10 
inch. 


More 
than 
0.50 
inch. 


More 
than 
1 inch. 


Month. 


More 
than a 
trace. 


More 
than 
0.10 
inch. 


More 
than 
0.50 
inch. 


More 
than 
1 inch. 


January 


18 


11 


2 


1 


September 


27 


26 


15 


8 


February 


21 


9 


4 


3 


October 


21 


12 


7 


3 


March 


16 


9 


2 





November . 


25 


17 


6 


4 


April . . 


19 


11 


3 


o 


December 


15 


9 


,1 





May 


22 


9 


3 


Q 












June 


25 


12 


4 


1 


Sum 


265 


165 


66 


29 


July... . 


28 


17 


7 


5 


Maximum 


28 


26 


15 


8 


August 


28 


23 


12 


4 




15 


9 


1 


o 























HURRICANES. 



43 



Directions of the wind, 1902. 



Month. 


North 
days. 


North- 
east 
days. 


East 
days. 


South- 
east 
days. 


South 
days. 


South- 
west 
days. 


West 
days. 


North- 
west 
days. 


Variable 
days. 


January 




16 5 


11 


2 5 


1 














12 


9 5 


6 5 












March 


5 


16 5 


12 5 


.5 


.5 


0.5 








April 




20 


8 


1 5 












May 




13 


14.5 


1.5 










2.0 






6 5 


17 


4 5 


1.0 








1 


July 




13.0 


5.5 


6.5 


4.0 


1.0 






1.0 


August 


1.5 


1.5 


2.5 


5.0 


6.5 


3.0 


3.5 


1.0 


6.5 












6.0 


16.5 


5 


2 5 




October 




4.0 


10.0 


3.0 


6.0 


1.0 


1.0 




6.0 




4 


6 


14.0 


.5 


3.0 




.5 




2 




2 


8 


21 


































Sum (days). 


8.0 


117.0 


125.0 


32.0 


28.0 


22. 


10.0 


3.5 


18.5 



STORMS. Hurricanes may visit the island at almost any season. 
According to available records they appear to have been most frequent 
during the months of April and November. The first one recorded 
occurred on the 8th of September, 1671, in the midst of a war between 
the Spaniards and the natives. It is described as " a typhoon, called 
4 baguio ' by the natives, the most furious which had been seen on the 
island, veering in a short time all round the compass, and causing 
injuries which it would take years to remedy, ruining nearly all the 
houses of Agana and the other towns of the island, especially those 
of the chief conspirators, as they have since confessed; tearing up 
breadfruit trees, together with palms and other plants with which they 
nourish themselves, leaving them in a condition without farms, without 
houses, and without food." Not even the church of the missionaries 
was spared, and one of the wizards of the natives declared that he was 
more powerful than the god of the Spaniards, since the hurricane had 
swept away their church and had not been able to injure his house. 

A violent hurricane laid waste the island on the night of August 10, 
1848. A description of the damages wrought by it may be found in 
a report of the Spanish governor, Don Pablo Perez, to the captain- 
general of the Philippines. Since the American occupation there have 
been several hard storms. The first occurred on May 26-27, 1900, the 
wind being accompanied by very heavy rainfall. Breadfruit, coco- 
nuts, coffee, and cacao were stripped from the trees and bushes; plan- 
tains and banana plants were torn to shreds, and many trees were 
snapped off or uprooted. In the southern part of the island fowls died 
from exposure. At the village of Sumai, on Orote Peninsula, the 
infirmary and wharf shed were demolished and several private houses 
were blown down. At Agat several dwellings were destroyed, 
together with the schoolhouse. At Merizo the rice fields were 
destroyed, and at Umata the corn was killed, the chapel unroofed, and 
several dwellings demolished. At Inalahan three bridges were car- 
ried away by swollen streams and the tribunal, rectory, and school- 



44 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

house unroofed. In the harbor of San Luis de Apra the U. S. S. 
Brutus was torn from her anchorage and blown upon the reef, with- 
out, however, suffering serious injury. 

On the 13th of November following occurred the hurricane which 
caused the loss of the U. S. S. Yosemite, which was lying at anchor 
in the harbor. This vessel was swept from her moorings and carried 
out to sea, where she foundered. Five of her crew were lost. The 
sea overflowed the lowlands and flooded the streets of Agaiia. Crops 
of all kinds were destroyed and most of the vegetation was stripped 
bare of foliage. Government buildings were injured and many native 
houses destroyed. Of the 255 deaths which occurred on the island 
during the year 1900, 34 were caused by the hurricane. This destruc- 
tion was followed, as is always the case, by a dearth of food. It 
caused our Government to expend nearly $10,000 for the relief of the 
natives, who received the proffered aid with expressions of deep grat- 
itude. a Among the most serious results of hurricanes of this nature 
is the stripping of coconut trees of their leaves. The inflorescence is 
formed in the axils of the older leaves and if these are injured the 
flower buds shrivel up and the tree fails to produce. During the year 
which followed the hurricane not one ounce of copra, which is prac- 
tically the only export of the island, was produced in Guam. Coffee 
and other shrubs and trees soon recover from the effects of a storm, 
and maize, tobacco, and rice may be replanted. Cacao, however, is 
often killed outright, and several years are necessary for new plants 
to begin to bear. 

The records for 1902 show that hurricanes passed near the island of 
Guam in May, July, September, and October. In examining the 
Philippine weather records Doctor Abbe was able to identify the 
stormy periods of Guam as days when typhoons must have passed 
close to the island. Many of the typhoons which sweep the Philip- 
pines apparently have their origin in the vicinity of- the Marianne 
Islands. Doctor Abbe has suggested in his report that a station be 
established on the island of Guam for meteorological observations, to 
be connected by telegraph with Manila. This could not fail to be of 
great benefit to vessels about to put to sea, giving warning of approach- 
ing blows and indicating what kind of weather is to be expected. 

HYDROGRAPHY. 

CONTOUR OF THE OCEAN'S BOTTOM. In taking soundings with a view 
to selecting a cable route across the Pacific the U. S. S. Nero found the 
ocean bed between Midway Island and Guam to be a great plain from 
3,100 to 3,200 fathoms deep, somewhat broken in places by submarine 
reefs and mountain ranges. The first thousand miles from Midway, 

"Annual Report of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1901, pp. 75-76. 



HYDEOGEAPHY. 45 

with the exception of a submarine mountain peak near Ocean Island, 
is entirely level. The remainder of the distance, though fairly level 
in general, is interspersed by a number of reefs and mountain ranges. 
On approaching the great submarine volcanic range running nearly 
north and south which forms the islands of the Marianne group, at a 
point a short distance east of Guam, this plain descends into an abyss, 
which is the deepest yet discovered in the world, lacking only 66 feet 
of a depth of 6 statute miles. The temperature at this depth was 
found to be 36 F. It was necessary to select for the cable a route 
around the northern limit of this depression, which has been christened 
the Nero Deep. Its southern limits are not yet known. 

Between Guam and the Philippines the bed of the ocean is less regu- 
lar than to the eastward. For the first 600 geographical miles the 
depth varies from 1,400 to 2,700 fathoms. The character of the bot- 
tom is described as undulating, but without definite ranges of hills or 
valleys. After this a low mountain range occurs which slopes to the 
westward down to a plain 3,000 to 3,500 fathoms deep, which reaches 
to the Philippines and has a bottom of soft mud and ooze. 

A route was also surveyed between Guam and Yokohama, Japan, to 
the westward of the Mariannes and to the eastward of the Bonin 
Islands. For the first 500 geographical miles a level plain 2,100 fath- 
oms deep was found. Then the Nero encountered a submarine moun- 
tain range which apparently connects that of the Marianne Islands 
with the range extending from the Bonin Islands to Japan. While 
crossing this range a submarine conical peak was discovered resem- 
bling Fujiyama in form. a 

OCEAN CURRENTS. The currents in the vicinity of the Marianne 
Islands are much affected by the prevailing winds. During the 
greater part of the year there is a drift to the westward or south- 
westward of 1 to 2 knots per hour. On the sandy beaches of the 
east coast of the island of Guam driftwood of American origin is often 
found, including huge logs of Oregon fir. From July to September, 
when the easterly winds are interrupted by the influence of the south- 
west monsoon, the drift is frequently to the northeast. 

TIDES. The rise of tides in the archipelago is generally less than 3 
feet. In the harbor of San Luis de Apra the rise and fall is 3 to 4 
feet. High water occurs there at the full and change of the moon at 
about seven hours after its meridian passage. The tides play an 
important role in the economy of vessels lying in the harbor, as the 
water on the reef is too shallow to permit boats of considerable size 
to land cargo at any time but that of high water, and it is not unusual 

See "Trans-Pacific submarine telegraph cable survey," in the Report of the Sec- 
retary of the Navy for 1900, pp. 299-302, from which the above information is 
derived. 



46 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

for a boat to stick upon the reef halfway between the ship and the 
shore. There is a crooked channel through which boats of small size 
may pass, and extensive dredging operations have been recommended 
in order to enlarge the harbor and clear a channel from the harbor to 
the shore, but the recommendations of the board have not yet been 
carried out. a 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

SURFACE AND CONTOUR. From a distance the island appears flat 
and even, but on approaching it the northern portion is seen to be a 
raised platform or plateau (PL I), with several low peaks rising from 
it in the north, and to the southward a low, rounded hill, which has 
received the vernacular name of "Tiyan" (belly). The southern half 
of the island is mountainous. The island is irregular in shape. It 
may be compared roughly to the shape of a human footprint (the 
right foot), with the heel north-northeast and the toe south-southwest 
(see map, PL LXX). The general plane of the northern half is not 
horizontal but shelving, with eastern and higher side bounded by 
steep cliffs. The east coast of the southern half is penetrated by a 
few small bays, none of which is capable of receiving a vessel. On 
the west coast of the northern part of the island there are a number 
of sandy bays fringed with coconut groves and separated from one 
another by as many rocky points. 

The east shore is constantly beaten by a heavy sea caused by the 
stiff trade winds which prevail during the greater part of the year. 
The adjacent sea is very deep, so that it is impossible for vessels to 
find anchorage there. The swell is even so great that it is dangerous 
at most times for boats to attempt to enter the small ports in the 
southern part, except at Hahahyan, at the extreme south, which is 
sheltered from easterly and northeasterly winds. On the west side 
of the island the sea is shallow enough in several places to permit 
vessels to anchor within a safe distance of the shore, except during a 
certain part of the summer, when winds from the southwest may be 
expected. The favorite anchorage of the early navigators was the 
roadstead of Umata (Humatag), where a good supply of fresh water 
was always to be secured without difficulty. Afterwards the bay of 
San Luis de Apra became used as a harbor, and is now the only port 
of the island in which large ships can find anchorage. The little 
harbor of Agana (Hagadna) can be entered only by vessels of the size 
of launches, and the anchorage in Agana Bay is not considered safe. 

In Alexander Agassiz's description of the island b he gives a detailed 
account of its shore line and the physical features of the island. The 

See Eeport of the Guam Survey Board to the Secretary of the Navy, July 25, 1901. 
6 The Coral Reefs of the Tropical Pacific, p. 366 et seq., 1903. 



RAISED PLATFORMS OF CORAL. 47 

Albatross encountered the east coast of Guam near Point Hanom. He 
found distinct coralliferous limestone terraces in the faces of the cliffs 
from Pago Bay north, marking the position of the former sea level, and 
in4icating the periods of rest during the elevation of the island; and 
when these are not distinct, lines of caverns along the vertical faces of 
the cliffs indicate the former lines of sea level. The cliffs of the 
northern part of the island vary from 300 to 500 feet in height. The 
lower part of their faces is riddled with crevasses, and at a higher 
level, probably on the face of the fourth or fifth terrace, there are 
numerous caverns. North of Point Anao some of the coralliferous 
limestones are stratified, dipping toward the sea; others, nearer the 
northern extremity of the island, show evidence of great disturbance, 
probably caused by the volcanic outbursts of Mount Santa Rosa. Mr. 
Agassiz found them to resemble those of similar limestone islands, 
such as Makatea, Nine, Eua, Vavau, and others of the Fiji group. 
Outside of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, Guam proved to be the largest 
island visited by the Albatross, composed in part of volcanic rocks and 
of elevated coralliferous limestone. At the northern end of the island, 
though there are five distinct terraces, these are concealed by the 
vegetation growing on the slopes. Talage ("Lookout") Bay,^ at the 
northern extremity of Guam, is an immense sandy flat, flanked by a 
comparatively broad reef platform full of "horseheads" and of 
"negroheads" of coral, which extends from Taga Point around the 
north extremity of the island and down the east coast, past Achae and 
Nigo points, to Ipapao. From the latter point the coast consists of a 
vertical cliff, with here and there a small stretch of sandy beach along 
the sea between projecting points until it reaches Tumhun Bay. Here 
the coral forms a great reef flat, which continues along the coast 
southward, past Hagadna Bay, as far as Apapa, or Cabras, island. To 
the south of Orote Peninsula, which projects 4 miles in a northwest- 
erly direction and forms the southern side of the bay of San Luis de 
Apra, a narrow reef flat juts out from the west coast at various 
promontories in the extension of spurs of volcanic slopes. At Maleso, 
or Merizo, Bay a broad reef flat projects, which forms the southwestern 
extremity of the island of Guam and extends eastward to Point 
Hahahyan, but not as far as Inalahan Bay, on the east coast. North 
of that bay the coast is edged by a narrow reef flat, which continues 
as far as Pago Ba} T . Along the east coast of the northern half of the 
island there is a narrow reef flat, bordering the precipitous shore from 
Hanom Point to Point Anao. 

The southern half of the island of Guam consists of what Mr. Agas- 

The name of this bay is improperly written on most charts "Taragay," a word 
with no significance. " Talage," (pronounced taldgay) the vernacular name, signi- 
fies " to look toward." It was the point from which the ancient Chamorros looked 
out for vessels coming from the northern islands. 



48 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

siz describes as "a volcanic massif which has burst through the coral - 
liferous limestone," and which at Mount Tengho reaches to a height 
of more than a thousand feet. The volcanic range to which it belongs 
has burst through the limestone near Agana and extends southward, 
parallel to the west coast, at a distance of about 1 or 2 miles from the 
shore. Its highest peak, called Humuyong-manglo (" Source-of-the- 
wind"), back of Umata, reaches a height of 390 meters. Considerable 
denudation has already taken place on the volcanic slopes, forming in 
the interior of the island a number of peaks, ridges, and pinnacles. 
On the western and southern sides of the volcanic mountains the lime- 
stone masses which once covered their sides have in great measure dis- 
appeared through disintegration, and the soft material covering the 
slopes is constantly being washed down their sides. Many of the val- 
leys form small canyons with very steep walls. 

The peninsula of Orote and Apapa Island are composed of elevated 
coralliferous limestone containing well-preserved fossils. These show 
no signs of metamorphism, as do those collected in the immediate 
vicinity of Mount Makahnag, where the limestone comes into contact 
with volcanic rock. The fossils are, however, highly calcified, and 
their hardness and the crystallization of the rocks would seem to indi- 
cate considerable age. 

THE HARBOR. The bay of San Luis de Apra is the only harbor for 
vessels. It is protected on the southwest by the promontory of Orote, 
on the east by the island of Guam itself, on the north by Apapa island 
and the adjoining reef of Luminan, which is awash at high water. 
From this reef a bank (Kalalang) extends to the southwestward toward 
Orote Point, terminating in two rocks which rise to within a few feet 
of the surface, leaving a narrow but deep channel, which serves as an 
entrance to the harbor. Apapa island consists entirely of elevated cor- 
alliferous limestone deeply pitted and honeycombed. The limestone 
mass is full of crevices, potholes, and funnels, covered with stalactites. 
The island does not rise more than 8 or 10 feet above high-water mark. 
The shore is undercut and the island furrowed by numerous gullies; 
it is full of caverns, crevices, and pits." 

As the harbor is much obstructed by coral reefs and is at a consid- 
erable distance from the seat of government of the island, a board of 
officers was sent to make a survey of it, with a view to its improve- 
ment, either by dredging or the construction of a breakwater along 
the reef, or both. It is intended to make it the site of a naval base 
and coaling depot of large capacity, as well as to serve as a commercial 
port. The board was directed to make recommendations as to the 
removal of reefs and other obstructions to navigation; to draw up 
plans for wharves, docks, storehouses, barracks, hospital, water sup- 

See Agassiz, op. cit., p. 370. 



SUGGESTED HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 49 

ply, and sewerage system; port defenses, fortifications, and maga- 
zines; and to lay out a town site, having in view the prospective 
increase in commercial importance of the port. The following extract 
is taken from the report of the board: 

The bay of San Luis de Apra has a deep anchoring ground, extending about 1 
mile north and south and about 2 miles east and west. It is broken, however, by 
several outlying reefs. It is protected except to the westward. Luminan Reef gives 
sufficient protection, but Kalalang Bank, with a depth of some 30 feet, does not, the 
swell making round the end of Luminan Reef even with the prevailing northeasterly 
wind. It would therefore be necessary, in order to thoroughly close the harbor 
against the ocean swell and storms, to build a breakwater along these banks, extend- 
ing from Luminan Reef to Spanish Rocks, leaving a deep entrance between Spanish 
Rocks and Orote Island 2,000 feet wide. 

The board did not recommend that such a breakwater should be built, 
on account, among other considerations, of its great cost and the 
uncertainty of the force of storms against a breakwater on this narrow 
bank with deep water so close to seaward. Even if such a breakwater 
were built, the proposal which had been made of utilizing some of the 
coral reefs in the harbor as sites for coal depots could not be followed 
out, as test borings made in these reefs showed that nearly all of them 
are formed, not of solid coral, but of coral sand interspersed with 
occasional coral heads, with growing coral of various kinds on the sur- 
face, so that they would make poor foundations for retaining walls. 

After duly considering various plans the board recommended that an 
opening 30 feet deep be dredged through the reef separating the deep 
water of the main harbor from an inner basin south of the old fort, 
Santa Cruz, and not far from the village of Sumai on Orote Peninsula; 
that this basin be enlarged by dredging, and the top of a small reef in 
the outer anchorage, near Cabras Island, be removed to a depth of 6 
fathoms; that the naval base and coaling station be established on Orote 
Peninsula, near Sumai, and be supplied with water brought from 
Paulana, a branch of the Atangtano River; that batteries be located on 
Orote Peninsula and Cabras Island with good military roads leading to 
them from the posts and boat landings; that the town site be established 
on the high land of Orote Peninsula, back of the naval station, and that 
commercial docks he constructed in places indicated by the board; and 
that a light-house be constructed on Orote Point with a light of the 
fourth order. The report of the board was published a and handed to 
the Naval and Commerce Committees of Congress. An appropriation 
of $150,000 for the improvement of the harbor of San Luis de Apra 
passed the Senate, but the House failed to concur and the measure was 
lost. The sum of $40,000 asked for the acquisition of land was granted 
by Congress. The retention of Guam as an American possession after 
its capture, as provided for in the peace protocol at the close of the Span- 

Report of the Guam Survey Board to the Secretary of the Navy, July 25, 1901. 
977305 4 



50 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

ish war, was for the express purpose of establishing a naval coal depot. 
With completion of the Panama canal this will undoubtedly become 
an important mercantile port of call. (See map, PL LXX.) 

EARTHQUAKES. Earthquakes are frequent, but not often violent. 
Among the most severe were those of April 14, 1825, January 25, 
1849, and September 22, 1902. Not long after that of 1849, which 
destroyed the church and the government house of Umata, a number 
of Caroline Islanders arrived at Guam in two canoes, stating that their 
islands had been swept by enormous waves, and begging the governor 
to allow them to take up their residence in the Marianne Islands. In 
the letter book of Don Pablo Perez, in the archives at Agana, a detailed 
account of this earthquake is given. The first shock was felt at 2:49 
p. m. It was followed by repeated shocks and trembling accompanied 
by a subterranean rumbling " which made the natives fear that a vol- 
cano was about to burst forth and blow them all to atoms." The 
earth was cracked open in many places, some houses were thrown down 
and others were injured; but the only life lost was that of a woman 
who happened to be in her rancho near the beach. She Avas carried 
away by one of the great waves which swept in from the ocean. Great 
masses of rocks fell from the cliffs. The shocks continued for several 
days in succession, and it was many days before the damages could be 
repaired. Sixteen whaling vessels lying at anchor in the harbor were 
uninjured. The captain of a whaling frigate which arrived shortly 
afterwards stated that he had felt the earthquake 1,000 miles to the 
eastward of the Mariannes. Since the American occupation of the 
island there have been a number of earthquakes, but the only one of 
serious importance was that of September 22, 1902. Governor 
Schroeder's account of this is almost a repetition of Don Pablo's 
report to the captain-general of the Philippines. 

The earthquake which occurred at 11.24 a. m. [says Governor Schroeder] is the 
severest of which there is any record. From the government house terrace, during 
its continuance, there could be seen clouds of dust rising suddenly from the different 
quarters of Agana as the masonry houses would fall. The earth opened here and 
there in small places, from which water would spout and subside, leaving a few 
round, apparently hollow pits, and innumerable fine cracks were observable every- 
where. A dull grinding roar preceded and accompanied the shaking of the earth; 
sure-footed bulls were tripped up and fell to their knees, while buildings rocked and 
swayed, water tanks were tossed over, and bells rung by the vibration. In other 
parts of the island fissures 1 to 2 feet wide were made, those of Piti emitting strong 
sulphurous fumes. 

Masses were dislodged in the mountains and hills, plowing down 
the slopes and completely blocking the road from Agana to Piti at 
three points. In the harbor of San Luis de Apra the collier Justin, 
anchored in 22 fathoms of water, was severely shaken. The disturb- 
ance of the white coral -mud bottom of the harbor was so great as to 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 1902, pp. 361-362. 



EXTINCT VOLCANOES. 51 

give a milky appearance to the sea for some distance around. A 
number of the masonry houses of Agana were destroyed, and those 
left standing were so badly injured as to be unfit for habitation. The 
old bell tower of masonry near the church, built in 1669, was seamed 
with large cracks. In the other towns of the island nearly all masonry 
houses, churches, and rectories were ruined. The collier Justin was 
sent the day after the disaster with an officer to the German island of 
Saipan, 120 miles to the northward, to ascertain the damage done and 
offer aid. They found no casualties, though the earthquake had also 
violently shaken the island. Fortunately the disaster occurred in the 
daytime, as did the hurricane of 1890, and the casualties included but 
one child killed and a few of the townspeople of Agana hurt. The 
total cost of repairs to government buildings was estimated at $22,100 
gold. 

A summary of the earthquake phenomena of 1902 is included in 
Doctor Abbe's report, published in Terrestrial 4 Magnetism and Atmos- 
pheric Electricity, 1904, page 81. 

EXTINCT VOLCANOES. All of the mountain peaks of Guam are 
undoubtedly of volcanic origin. In some of them the outlines of the 
craters may still be traced and the lava presents the same appearance 
as in recent volcanoes. a Surrounding the bases of the mountains are 
ancient coral reefs, the margins of which, in contact with the volcanic 
products, have in many places been converted into crystalline lime- 
stone, showing evidence of volcanic activity after the whole island 
had been raised from the sea. The heights of the principal mountains 
are approximately as follows: Santa Rosa 265 meters, Tiyan (Barri- 
gada) 205 meters, Makahnag 215 meters, Chachao 320 meters, Tengho 
310 meters, Ilicho (Humuyong-manglo) 390 meters, Sasalaguan (Hell 
mountain), at the southern end of the island, 340 meters. 

ANCIENT CORAL REEFS. The entire northern portion of the island is 
a raised coral platform penetrated in several places by the low volcanic 
peaks already referred to. On the west side of the island between the 
mesa and the sea several distinct flat terraces occur, showing succes- 
sive upheavals. During the recent earthquakes the general level of 
the whole island was raised. It would require only a very slight ele- 
vation to convert into dry land the very extensive reef flats along the 
west coast which are covered at high tide by only a few feet of water. 
The bottom between the shore and the barrier reef is perfectly level 
and covered with very fine sand resembling flour in consistency. 

MINERALS. With the exception of thin layers of iron-ore, no metal- 
yielding deposits occur on the island. An inferior lignite is found in 
one or two places. There is also a volcanic rock called homon, which 
is used for fire places, and a soft pale-green mineral called lauka which 

This is especially true of Santa Kosa, in the northern part of the island. 



52 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

is easily worked. In certain localities nodules of flint are found simi- 
lar to those from European chalk formations. 

RIVERS. In the northern portion of the island the ground is so 
porous that the water disappears as it falls. There are, however, a 
number of sink holes called lupog, and in the rainy season several 
small streams near the bases of the hills of Santa Rosa and Mataguag. 
Near the middle of the island about a mile and a half from Agana 
there is a fine large spring or lake (Matan-hanom) from which a 
copious supply of water issues all the year round. This, after 
slowly oozing through the great swamp called the " Cienaga," forms 
the Agana River, the channel of which has been artificially length- 
ened and turned for about a mile parallel to the coast before it 
reaches the sea. This is for the purpose of affording a laundry to the 
women of Agana. In the southern portion of the island there are a 
number of small streams on both sides, some of which lose themselves 
beneath the surface for a time and reappear, issuing from caverns. a 

VEGETATION OF THE ISLAND. 
PLANT COVERING ACCORDING TO HABITAT. 

CORAL REEFS. 

Among the algae growing on the reef the most conspicuous are the 
brown Padinas with fan-like fronds expanded like the tail of a strut- 
ting peacock, jointed Halimedas, like miniature Opuntias, and the 
feathery Caulerpa plwnaris. Another Caulerpa (C. davifera uvi- 
fera), green and succulent, looks as though it bore bunches of minia- 
ture grapes. Among the red algae are the more delicate Acanthophora 
orientalis, Corallopsis salicornia, with terete cartilaginous fronds, and 
Mastopliorcb lamourouxii, with dense foliaceous fronds, somewhat like 
Chondrus in form, and conspicuous fruit. From some of the gelati- 
nous species the natives make blancmange. Among the more delicate 
green forms are the woolly Rhizodonium tortuosum and the beau- 
tiful little Bryopsis plumosa. Near the mouths of rivers grow 
Enterorrwrpha dathrata and E. compressa, with narrow, linear, grass- 
like fronds. (See Algae, catalogue.) Among the marine flowering 
plants are Ilolodule uninervis, a plant resembling a fine eelgrass (Zos- 
tera), and Ilolophila ovata, belonging to the Vallisneriaceae, with a 
creeping rootstock and oval or linear-oblong petioled leaves. 

MANGROVE SWAMPS. 

At the mouths of many streams, where the water is brackish and 
the shores are muddy, are growths of mangroves and their allies, 

The principal cavern of this nature is that in the valley of the Talofofo River, 
about a mile from its mouth. 



RIVER AND STRAND VEGETATION. 53 

which form dense thickets and extend far out into the water at high 
tide. Among those which send down aerial roots into the mud are 
JRhizophora mucronata (PL LXIV) and Hruguiera gymnorhiza (PL 
XL), both of which have large, opposite, entire, smooth leaves, and 
fruit which germinates before dropping from the tree. They are easily 
distinguished, the former having a four-parted perianth and the latter 
having 10 to 14 calyx segments and petals. Associated with these are 
found red-flowered Lumnitzeras, small trees belonging to the Combre- 
taceae; Xylocarpus granatum (Carapa moluccensis), known in the 
East Indies as the "cannon-ball tree," on account of its hard, spherical 
fruits; and on adjacent firmer ground, Excoecaria agallocha, some- 
times called the ''milky mangrove" or the "blinding tree," the acrid 
juice of which is called "tigers milk" in the East Indies. 

RIVERS. 

Near the mouths of most of the rivers, where the water is brackish, 
are thickets of Nypa fruticans, a stemless palm with great pinnate 
leaves, which furnish the natives with excellent material for thatching 
their houses. Associated with it are large simply pinnate ferns, 
Acrostichum aureum (PI. IV), of wide distribution throughout the 
warmer regions of the globe, and growing submerged are species of 
Potamogeton and Ruppia maritima. There are also green, filamentous 
algae, including species of Conferva and Enteromorpha, and Ckara 
Jibrosa. Near the sources of some of the streams a small red alga 
(Tkorea gaudichaudii) is found growing to rocks. On the banks of the 
rivers near the sea beds of Pancratium littorale occur, together with a 
creeping aroid, Cocos nucifera, screw pines, and Pariti tiliaceum. 
Higher up the stream there are beds of reeds (Trichoon) and, on the 
open hillsides, the sword grass, Xipheagrostisfloridula. Where streams 
flow through shady forests several cordate-leaved aroids occur, together 
with a tree fern (Alsophila Jiaenkei) and the widely spread Angiop- 
teris evecta (PI. XXXIII). 

THE STRAND. 

The principal beach plant is Ipomoea pes-caprae, often called ' ' goats- 
foot convolvulus," from the shape of its leaves. Its long, prostrate 
stems form a carpet over the sand without twining or taking root, 
and bear large, rose-purple, funnel-shaped flowers. Associated with 
it is the leguminous Canavali obtusifolium^ with a similar habit of 
growth, and frequently Melastoma marianum, Vigna lutea, and Ilelio- 
tropium curassavicum. Among the beach shrubs are Lobelia Jcoenigii, 
with thick, glabrous leaves, and white, zygomorphous flowers; Tourne- 
fortia argentea (PL LXVI1I), a boraginaceous plant with fleshy leaves, 
covered with silky white hairs, and white, heliotrope-like flowers with 
dark anthers growing in scorpioid racemes; and Pern/phis acidula, a 



54 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

shrub with a dense habit of growth, small sessile leaves, and axillary 
flowers with 6-parted perianths. On the windward side of the island, 
and near the southern end on the leeward side, growing in the sandy 
beach at the very margin of the sea are groves of Casuarina eqidseti- 
folia (PL XLI), trees with tufts of linear, leafless, jointed branches 
resembling horsetails (Equisetum) and cone-like fruit. Among other 
beach plants are the composites Stemmodontia biflora, S. canescetix, 
Edipta, alba, the recently introduced Synedrella nodiflora, and the 
bidens-like Glossogyne tenuifolia; and in places there are mounds 
formed by Sesuvium portulacastrum, the "sea purslane," often asso- 
ciated with creeping grasses. Coconuts are abundant on the west 
coast of the island (PL I), but almost absent from the east coast. 



THE INNER BEACH. 



The principal trees forming the inner beach growth are Barring- 
tonia speciosa, Barringtonia racemosa, Terminalia catappa, Ileritiera 
littoralis, Pariti tiliaceum, Thespesia populnea, Ochrosia mariannensis* 
Hernandia peltata, Artocarpus communis, Calopliyllum inophyllum^ 
and Morinda citrifolia. Beneath their shade grow the white-flowered 
amaryllis ( Crinum asiaticum), the grasses, Stenotaphrum subulatum and 
Centotheca lappacea, and the shrubby Boerhaavia diffusa, Vitex trifolia, 
and Meibomia umbellata. Climbing on the trunks of trees are a num- 
ber of ferns, including Phymatodes phymatodes (PL LXII), with leath- 
ery lobed fronds, Cyclophorus adnascens, with small, linear-lanceolate, 
simple fronds, Davallia solida, with beautiful, glossy, divided fronds, 
and Humata heterophylld, with fertile fronds differing from the sterile 
in shape (PL LIII). In addition to the above-mentioned species there 
are a number of shrubs growing in the vicinity of the beach the 
beach plum (Ximenia americana), Clerodendron inermis, with white, 
honeysuckle-like flowers and exserted pink stamens; Acacia farne- 
siana, with globular, yellow heads of fragrant flowers; Leucaena glauca, 
with similar heads of white, inodorous flowers; and the custard apple, 
Annona reticulata, the only species of this genus which grows sponta- 
neously on the island. Twining among these shrubs are several 
species of Convolvulaceae, including Ipomoea choisiana and 7. marian- 
nensis, with purple flowers; the lavender-flowered "alalag" (Argyreia 
tiliaefolia), the flowers of which, called "abubo," are strung into gar- 
lands by the children; and Operculina peltata, which has white flowers. 



THE CLIFFS. 



On the promontory of Orote on the west coast, that of Kiroga on 
the east near Talofofo Bay, on the rocky island of Cabras, or Apapa, 
and on the edges of cliffs are usually found the following plants: Cor- 
migonus mariajinensis, a shrub or small tree belonging to the Rubi- 
aceae, with large, white, four-parted, trumpet-shaped flowers; Cycas 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE II. 




FOREST VEGETATION. 55 

circinalis, with glossy pinnate leaves resembling fronds of ferns; and 
Boehmeria tenacissima, which yields the celebrated "rhea" fiber, here 
growing in the form of a shrub or small tree. Besides these plants 
Intsia bijuga, a handsome leguminous tree, which yields the excellent 
ifil wood (PL LIV); Premna gaudichaudii, a verbenaceous tree called 
ahgau, with elder-like flowers and durable hard wood used in con- 
struction; and the interesting "nunu" (Ficus sp.), a banyan which 
sends down aerial roots like life-lines over the edge of the cliffs. 
Among the smaller plants growing on rocky slopes is Gynopogon torre- 
sianus, with glossy, myrtle- like leaves and the aromatic fragrance of 
the "maile" (Gynopogon olivaeformis) so dear to the Hawaiians. 



FORESTS. 



The forest vegetation of Guam (PL II) consists almost entirely of 
strand trees, epiphytal ferns, lianas, and a few undershrubs. The 
majority of the species are included in what Schimper has called the 
Barringtonia Formation. a The principal trees are the wild, fertile 
breadfruit, Artocarpus communis; the Indian almond, Terminalia 
catappa; jack-in-the-box, Hernandia peltata; the giant banyan (PL 
XII), called nunu by the natives (Ficus sp.); two other species of Ficus 
called u hodda" and "takete" or u taguete," the first with prop-like, 
aerial roots growing from the trunk near its base and with fruit 
resembling small, red crab apples and the second resembling the nunu, 
but with aerial roots from the trunk only and not from the limbs; Pan- 
danus fragrans ("kafo") (PL LX) and Pandanus dubius ("pahong"), 
two screw pines which differ from many of their congeners in not 
being found growing on the outer beach; Oalophyllum inophyllum, a 
handsome tree known in the East Indies as Alexandrian laurel, which 
yields the tough crossgrained wood of which the natives make their 
cart wheels; Barringtonia racemosa, which, unlike its congener, 
B. speciosa, leaves the coast and follows along the banks of the streams 
into the interior; Reritiera littoralis (PL LII), called in India the look- 
ing-glass tree, which furnishes the natives of Guam with tough wood 
for their plows and wheel spokes; and, among recently introduced 
trees, Canangium odoratum, the fragrant flowers of which are the 
source of the perfume known as ilangilang, Annona reticulata, the 
custard apple or bullock's heart, and Pithecolobium dulce, a leguminous 
tree known in the East Indies as the Manila tamarind, but which was 
brought from Mexico for the sake of its tannin-yielding bark and its 
edible pods. No truly indigenous palms occur, but Areca catheeu,the 
betel-nut palm, grows spontaneously in damp places; a small, slender- 
stemmed species allied to Areca, called "palma brava" by the natives, 
is gradually spreading over the island; and the Caroline Island "sago- 
palm," Coeloccocus amicarum, has been introduced sparingly. Those 

See Schimper, Die indomalayische Strandflora, p. 68, 1891. 



56 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

familiar with the forest vegetation of Eastern Polynesia will be struck 
by the absence from the forests of Guam of such genera as Freycinetia, 
Papyrius (Broussonetia), Urticastrum (Laportea), Myristica, Parinari, 
Bocoa (Inocarpus), Dysoxylum, Nyalelia (Aglaia), Macaranga, Bis- 
chofia, Aleurites, Omalanthus, Spondias, Rhus, Alphitonia, Melochia, 
Kleinhovia, Metrosideros, Maesa, and Diospyros. 

Among the climbing plants and epiphytes of the forest are Lens 
phaseoloides, the scimitar-pod sea bean (PI. LVI), whose enormous, 
scabbard-like legumes contain lenticular seeds (PI. XV) sometimes 
used for making snuffboxes; Stizolobium giganteum, often called 
" ox-eye" bean; a species of Calamus, with beautiful branching inflo- 
rescence of white flowers; Luisia teretifolia, an inconspicuous orchid, 
and the minute leafless Taeniophyllum fasciola; Dischidia puberula, 
an interesting asclepiad growing upon trees, with minute urceolate 
flowers and fleshy leaves; bird's-nest ferns (Neottopteris nidus), perched 
on the branches associated with broad ribbons of Ophioderma pendula, 
tufts of NepliTolepis acuta and JV. hirsutida, grass-like Vittaria elon- 
gata, and pendent tassels of Lycopodium phlegmaria (PI. LV1I); 
climbing leathe^-fronded Phymatodes phymatodes, lobed like oak 
leaves; Cyclophorus adnascens, with linear-lanceolate fronds; graceful 
Davallia solida (PL III), with glossy divided fronds, and the interest- 
ing Humata heterophylla (PL LIU), which takes its generic name from 
the village of Humatag, or Umata, on the west coast of this island, 
where it was first collected. 

Beneath the shade of the forest trees several undershrubs are 
usually found, including species of Icacorea, Piper, Peperomia, arid 
the creeping rubiaceous Carinta herbacea, with small white flowers 
and scarlet berries. On the edges of the woods and by roadsides are 
thickets of the spiny Guilandina crista, bearing the well-known gray, 
stony " nicker-nuts," the sharp recurved thorns of its branches catch- 
ing or scratching every animal which brushes against them (PL LI). 
Lemoncito thickets (Triphasia trifoliald) are also common, the bushes 
sprouting from the roots and bearing fragrant, white, jasmine-like 
flowers and scarlet berries resembling miniature oranges. Among the 
succulent plants are wild ginger (Zinziber zerumbet), turmeric (Cur- 
cuma longa), Canna indica, the Polynesian arrowroot (Tacca pinnati- 
fida), and the introduced Taetsia terminalis, a liliaceous plant with 
graceful tufts of red leaves. Besides the climbing and epiphytal ferns 
already mentioned there are many others growing on the ground, 
including Bel/visia spicata, Dryopteris dissecta, Dryopteris parasitica, 
Asplenium laserpitiifolium, A. nitidum, Microsoriwn irioides^'dnd sev- 
eral species of Pteris. No filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae) have been 
found on the island. The only tree fern of Guam thus far known is 
Alsophila haenkei, growing in damp places and often associated with 
Angiopteris evecta. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE III. 




DAVALLIA SOLIDA, AN EPIPHYTAL FERN COMMON IN THE FORESTS OF GUAM. 
NATURAL SIZE. 



Contr. Nat. Herb,, Vol. IX. 



PLATE IV. 




A MARSH FERN, ACROSTICHUM AUREUM. STERILE FROND AND A TERMINAL 
PINNA OF FERTILE FROND. NATURAL SIZE. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE V. 




LYCOPODIUM CERNUUM, A CHARACTERISTIC PLANT OF THE SAVANNAS. 
NATURAL SIZE. 



MAESH AND SAVANNA VEGETATION. 57 



MARSHES. 



The fresh- water marshes are usually overgrown with reeds (Trichoon 
roxburghii), associated with the great marsh fern (Acrostichum aureum) 
(PL IV), the climbing Lygodium scandens, and several coarse grasses 
and sedges. The only trees are Pariti tiliaceum and a euphorbiaceous 
tree called "alom," probably a species of Echinus. Growing about 
the margins of swamps are the small Bacopa monniera, a creeping 
wcrophulariaceous plant with blue flowers and the habit of growth of 
purslane; Ambulia indica and A. fragrans, with an aromatic, camphor- 
like odor; Centella asiatica, the Asiatic pennywort; Aeschynomene 
indica; a species of Polygonum; and the water fern (Ceratopteris 
gaudichaudii), which has edible fronds. Several large aroids occur 
both cultivated and growing spontaneously, among them the common 
taro (Caladium colocasia), the caulescent Alocasia indica, and Alocasia 
macrorhiza. The introduced abaka, or ' ' Manila hemp " (Musa textilis), 
grows in several places, but it is not now cultivated by the natives. 
At least two species of bamboo grow on the island, the most useful 
and durable of which (Bainbos llumeana) is armed with recurved 
spines and forms impenetrable thickets in several places. 



SAVANNAS. 



These are grassy upland regions almost devoid of trees and shrubs. 
They are characterized by a red clay-like soil and lack of drainage, 
and by the reappearance of beach plants and marsh plants which are 
absent from the forests. Xipheagrostis floridida, which covers large 
areas, is called " sword grass" by foreigners on account of the cutting 
scabrous edges of its leaves (PI. LXIX). It grows higher than a man's 
head and offers refuge for deer. Roofs thatched with this grass are 
more durable than those of coconut or of nipa palm leaves, but more 
work is necessary in their preparation and they are not common 
except in regions where coconuts and nipa palms are scarce. Other 
savanna plants are the bracken-like fern Gleichenia dichotoma (PI. L), 
Odontosoria retusa, Schizoloma ensifolium, Slechnii/m orientale, Pteris 
Maurita, Lycopodium cernuum (PL V), (the wawae iole, or "rats- 
foot" of the Hawaiians), and the little golden star grass Hypoxis 
aurea. The only tree is the ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), which 
also grows on the margin of the sea. Among other beach plants 
which reappear here are the shrubs Lobelia koenigii, Pemphis acidula, 
and Melastoma marianum; the composites Stemmodontia fiiflora, 
/ canescens, and the Bidens-like Glossogyne tenuifolia; also the 
grasses Dimeria chloridiformis, Stenotaphrum subulatum, and Cento- 
theca lappacea. The pretty little climbing marsh fern Lygodium 
scandens is common, and the lavender-flowered morning glory Ipomoea 
choisiana also occurs. 



58 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 



ABANDONED CLEARINGS. 



Abandoned clearings are usually overgrown either with common 
tropical weeds, thickets formed by hedge plants, plants once cultivated 
which have continued to grow, or indigenous species which usually 
grow on the edge of the forest or in open places. Among the tropi- 
cal weeds of wide distribution are Ackyranthes aspera, Waltheria 
indica, Asclepias curassavica, Abutilon indicum, 8ida rhombifolia, 
Sida acuta, Datura fastuosa, Physalis angulata, Physalis minima, 
and Heliotropium indicum; the composites Elepliantopus sealer, 
Elephantopus spicatus, Adenostemma viscosum, Ageratum conyzoides, 
Glossogyne tenuifolia, and Synedrella nodiflora; Euphorbia atoto, 
Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri, Oxalis corniculata, and the 
creeping, clover-like Meibomia triflora. Among the scrubby Leguini- 
nosae are Indigofera anil, Indigofera tinctoria, Crotalaria quinque- 
folia, Cassia tora, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia sophera, and the fine- 
leaved Cassia mimosoides. The principal hedge plants now forming 
thickets are the orange berry (Triphasia trifoliata}', the physic- 
nut (Jatropha curcas); sibucao, or sappan wood (Biancaea sappari); 
Leucaena glauca, called " tangantangan " in Guam, and ""lead tree "in 
the British West Indies; and the well-known opoponax, Acacia farne- 
siana, which bears yellow globular heads of fragrant flowers. 

Twining among these bushes are Abrus abrus (PL XXXII), which 
bears the tiny red-and-black seeds called crab's eyes; the spiny yam 
(Dioscorea spinosa) (PL XLIX), which often renders the thickets 
impenetrable; Cassythafiliformis, a leafless, wiry parasite, sometimes 
called laurel-dodder; and several Leguminosae, including the yam 
bean, or hikamas (Cacara erosa). Among the Convolvulaceae are sev- 
eral species of Ipomoea; Argyreia tiliaefolia, the flowers of which, 
called abubo, are strung into garlands by the children; and the white- 
flowered Operculina peltata. 

On the sites of abandoned gardens are found trees, shrubs, and 
herbaceous plants, both indigenous to the island and introduced, which 
the natives usually plant near their houses. Among them are Calo- 
phyllum inophyllum, breadfruit both seedless and sterile, coconuts, 
Terminalia catappa, Erythrina indica, Ceiba pentandra, Tamarin- 
dus indica, Anacardium occidentale, Cassia fistula, Crescentia alata, 
Pandanus tectorius, Pandanus dubius, Pandanus fragrans, Cycas 
circinalis, Annona reticulata, Canangium odoratum, Agave vivipara, 
Adenantfiera pavonina, Pithecolobium .dulce, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 
Pariti tiliaceum, Herpetica alata, and bunches of Job's tears ( Coix 
lachrymae-jobi) and of lemon grass (Andropogon nardus). ' Many of 
these are self -propagating. The introduced Canangium odoratum 
(ilangilang tree), which the natives plant for the sake of its fragrant 
flowers, is gradually spreading over the island through the medium of 
fruit pigeons. These birds are also fond of the fruit of the ink berry 



PLANTS OF ABANDONED CLEARINGS. 59 

(Oestrum pallidum), the lemoncito or orange berry (Triphasia trifo- 
liata), and the piod or beach plum (Ximenia americand), which they 
spread in the same wa}^. Pineapples continue to grow for years where 
they are planted, and in old garden spots are found plants of the intro- 
duced arrowroot (Maranta arundinaced) (PL XXV), the 'native arrow- 
root (gabgab), Taeca pinnatifida, turmeric, wild and cultivated ginger, 
and the cassava plant, or mandioca (Mcmihot manihot). Among the 
trees and shrubs which do not spread of their own accord in Guam are 
the tamarind, the cashew nut (Anacardium, occidentale), the tree which 
in Honolulu is called the "golden shower" (Cassia fistula], the pome- 
granate, the scarlet hibiscus, and the ornamental Phyllaureas, Aralias, 
and Acanthaceae of the gardens. It is interesting to note that of the 
three Annonas introduced into the island the custard apple or bullock's- 
heart (A. reticulatd) is the only species found wild, the soursop 
(A. muricata) (PI. XXXIV), and the sweet-sop or sugar apple (A. 
squamosa) (PL XXXV), growing only where planted. 

Among the plants which on account of their sterility must be planted 
by man are the textile screw pine or aggag (Pandanus tectorius}, 
only one sex of which grows on the island; the seedless breadfruit 
or lemae (Artocarpus cornmunis)', taro (Caladium colocasia) and yams 
(Dioscorea spp.), which are seldom known to produce seed; sweet 
potatoes, which are propagated by cuttings, and bananas and plan- 
tains, which are seedless and must be grown from root suckers. 
Young plants of Agave vivipara, which the natives call " lirio de palo " 
or the "tree lily," are often found growing in circles, with the dead 
mother plant at the center. 

Whole fields are overgrown with guava bushes, just as in the 
Hawaiian Islands and many other tropical countries; but the common 
lantana (Lantana camara) and the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica), 
which are pests in so many parts of the world, have, fortunately, not 
yet found their way to Guam. 

Among the plants which have escaped from gardens are the pretty 
blue pea (Clitoria ternated)', the crimson-flowered cypress vine (Qua- 
moclit quamoclit), which the natives call "angel's hair" (cabello del 
angel); Lochnera rosea, sometimes known as the Madagascar peri- 
winkle; the marvel of Peru, or four o'clock ( Mirabilis jalapa), and 
the touch-me-not or garden balsam (Impatiens balsamind). Tomatoes 
bearing small fruit, either oval or globular, are also found growing 
near abandoned gardens, and occasionally gourd vines (Lagenaria 
lagenaria) are seen bearing bottle-shaped fruit. 

On the edges of clearings, growing in partial shade, are two bur- 
bearing plants called "dadangse" (stickers) by the natives: Urena 
sinuata, a malvaceous shrub with five-lobed leaves and rose-purple 
flowers, and Triumfetta rhomboidea, belonging to the Tiliaceae, with 
simple leaves and inconspicuous yellow flowers. The fruit of both is 



60 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

armed with hooked prickles and catches upon the clothing of men and 
the fur of animals, so that these plants are common along roadsides. 
Other wayside plants are the species of Sida, already mentioned, which 
the natives call " escobilla" (broom) and gather fresh each day for 
sweeping out their houses. 

The commonest grasses are Andropogon aciculatus, Capriola dac- 
tylon, Centotheca lappaeea, Chaetochloa glauca aurea, Dactyloctenium 
aegyptiacum, Eleusine indica, Dimeria chloridiformis, Echinocldoa 
colona, Eragrostis pilosa, Eragrostis tenella, Isachne minutula, hchae- 
mum digitatum poly st achy um, Ischaemum chordatum, Panicum di- 
stachyum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, and Stenotaphrum sulmlatum. 
Associated with grasses are often found the creeping Comanelina 
benghalensis and Commelina nudiflora, and Zygomenes cristata, with 
scorpioid cymes of blue flowers inclosed in large falcate, inbricating 
bracts. 

Among the sedges are Carex densiflora, Carex fuirenoides, Cladium 
gaudichaudii, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis, several species of 
FiinbristyliS) Fairena umbellata, Eleocharis capitata, E. planta- 
ginoidea, Kyllinga monocephala, Mariscus albescens, and Hynchospora 
corymbosa. 



VILLAGE ENVIRONS. 



Besides the trees mentioned above as growing on the sites of aban- 
doned gardens many others are planted about the villages. Oranges, 
lemons, limes, citrons, shaddocks, and bergamots are common. In 
many gardens grow the pomegranate, atis, or sugar apple (Annona 
squamosd)', laguana or soursop (Annona muricata), papaya (Garica 
papaya} ; Bixa orellana, with burs resembling beechnuts and seed sur- 
rounded by a red coloring matter; coffee which yields abundant crops; 
bananas and plantains of several varieties; vines of betel pepper (Piper 
fietle) covering trees and walls; bushes of the fragrant henna, or " cina- 
momo " (Lawsonia inermis), which in Jamaica is called the mignonette 
tree; the oleander, crape myrtle, and scarlet hibiscus, planted for the 
sake of their flowers, and ornamental species of Phyllaurea, and of 
Acanthaceae and Araliaceae, planted for the sake of their foliage. 
Along the roadsides are fine mango trees; Melia .azedarach, the "pride 
of India," bearing clusters of lavender flowers with dark violet stamens; 
the horse-radish tree (Moringa moringa) (PL LVIII), here called 
"marunggai;" the silk-cotton tree (C&iba pentandra), called u algodon 
de Manila;" the leguminous Agati grandiflora, called "katurai" (PL 
VI), with edible flowers and seed pods; Poinciana pulcherrima, called 
"flower fence" in the British West Indies, bearing racemes' of beau- 
tiful red and yellow flowers; the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa), 
here called "talisai," a handsome tree with a straight trunk, whorls of 
horizontal branches, and large, glossy, deciduous leaves, which turn 
red before falling off. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX, 



PLATE VI. 




AGATI GRANDIFLORA, A LEGUMINOUS TREE WITH EDIBLE FLOWERS AND PODS. 

NATURAL SIZE. 



PLANTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 61 

Among the rarer trees are Delonix regia, the magnificent flam- 
boyant; the cabo-negro palm (Saguerus pinnatus)\ Coelococcus arnica- 
rum^ the ivory nut palm of the Caroline Islands (PI. XLV); the candle 
nut (Aleurites moluccana), called "kukui" in Hawaii, but here known 
by its Philippine name, "lumbang;" Pangium edule, called "pangi" 
in the Philippines and "rauel" or "rauwell" on the island of Yap; 
the jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba], here called u manzanas" (apples); 
and Sandoricum indicum, here called by the Malayan and Philippine 
name, " santol," the fruit of which has an acid pulp of fine flavor. Of 
the last species I know of but one tree, which grows on the ranch of 
Don Jose de Leon Guerrero in the district called Lalo. There are also 
one or two date palms, but they have not been known to fruit. The 
occurrence on the island of Oanarium commune has been recorded, but 
the writer has not seen this species. This is the tree called in Manila 
"brea blanca" (white pitch), which yields the valuable resin known in 
commerce as Manila "elemi" and the nuts called "pili," or Java 
almonds. Polynesian chestnuts (Bocoa edulis), avocados (Persea 
persea), Japanese loquats (Eriobotrya japonica), and navel oranges 
were introduced by the writer. All of them grew well at first, but the 
avocados were killed by a heavy rain, and it is not known whether the 
others are still living. Two trees of mandarin oranges grow in the 
garden of Don Jose Herrero in the district of San Ramon, Agana, 
and opposite his house is a vigorous sapodilla tree (Sapota zapotilla}. 
The mandarin trees bear very good fruit, but the sapodilla (here called 
"chica") has never borne. The durian (Durio zibethinus), the lanzon 
(Lansium domesticum}, so common in the Philippines, and the man- 
gosteen (Garcinia mangostana) do not occur on the island. Grapes 
and the edible fig (Ficus carica) have been introduced but do not 
thrive well. 

PLANTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 

UNIDENTIFIED TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Among the trees and shrubs of the island there are a number men- 
tioned by early collectors and by the Spanish governors in their ofticial 
reports which have not yet been identified. It is a well-known fact 
that many tropical forest trees yielding important commercial woods, 
resins, gums, balsams, and medicines are not yet known to science. 
This is in most cases owing to the difficulty of preparing good botan- 
ical specimens of such plants for the herbarium. In this connection 
Mr. O. F. Cook, of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
writes as follows: 

The size itself makes it difficult to observe a tree as a whole or to bring numerous 
individuals under the eye at once, as may be done with smaller plants. Moreover, 
trees can not be preserved as complete specimens, and only small fragments can be 
accommodated for ready reference in the herbarium. Nevertheless, the task may 



62 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

be said to be comparatively simple with the trees of temperate climates, where forests 
are comparatively open and frequently composed of only a few kinds of trees or, 
perhaps, of a single species. In the Tropics a natural forest of one species is practi- 
cally unknown; hundreds of kinds grow indiscriminately mixed together. Crowded 
together in tropical forests trees have nothing like the shapes or habits they would 
assume if standing alone. All are putting forth, as it were, their best efforts to grow 
tall and thus secure as much sunlight as possible. Their leaves and branches are 
inextricably confused, interlaced with climbing plants, and encumbered with para- 
sites and epiphytes. To cut down a particular tree may be impossible unless one is 
willing to clear a large neighboring area to permit it to fall. Unless the botanist 
finds a clearing his opportunities for securing even the desired fragments of brandies 
with leaves, flowers, and fruit may be extremely few. Hence, our knowledge of 
tropical trees is still in the early pioneer stages. a 

Among the trees mentioned by Gaudichaud under their vernacular 
names are the ifil, fago, aaban, chopag, chuti (tchiuti), seyafi (sidjiafi), 
kadela, langiti, hodda (odda), tagete (tagai'ti), nurm, hayun-lago; and 
in the list of woods forwarded by Governor Olive to the captain -gen- 
eral of the Philippines are agatelang, agaliyan-halomtano, aguanac, 
ahgao, alom, amahayan, angilao, aplokhating, brea, chosgo, faka, fago, 
fanog, gausale, guaguaot, gulos, hayunmananas, hayun-palaoan, lalaha, 
lalanyog, langiti, lana, lenaya, luluhut, makupa, mahlokhayu, mapunao, 
nimo, nolon, pacpac, palma brava, panago (or banalo), pengua, kelitae 
(or palaga-hilitae), sayafo (or seyafe), sumai, sumaclacla, umumo, } r oga. 
On\y a few of these trees have been identified. Good specimens of 
all are desirable for herbaria. 

Among the unidentified shrubs are several species which Gaudi- 
chaud referred to the genus Pavetta, called ,by the natives " utud," 
"otud" or "utug," "sesbu" or "sosbu," and "guaguabug." Another 
shrub not }^et determined, having a disgusting fetid odor and flowers 
growing in axillary and terminal umbels, is called by the natives 
"pau-dedo." 

GROUPS WHICH ARE NOT WELL KNOWN. 

Certain families of plants have not been well worked up, such as the 
Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Verbenaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. 
Among the first there are certain seaside shrubs allied to Cerbera 
referred to by Gaudichaud under the name of Rauwolfia and Plumiera. 
One of these is probably Ochrosia mariannensis, but the others are not 
yet known. Among the Rubiaceae are several small shrubs allied 
to the genus Ixora. Among the Verbenaceae the Guam plants belong- 
ing to the genera Premna and Vitex should be compared with series 
from other localities, and it is probable that there is a second species 
of Clerodendron, with bitter leaves, which has not yet been recorded. 
There are several species of Phyllanthus, Euphorbia, and Glochidion 
which have not yet been collected as well as a few Myrtaceae. 

Cook, Culture Central American Eubber Trees, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant 
Industry, Bull. 49, p. 18, 1903. 



PLANTS FIRST KNOWN FROM GUAM. 63 

Very little is known of the algae, and still less of the fungi, lichens, 
mosses, and hepatics of the island. 

'As in every part of the tropical world, there is much uncertainty 
about the various forms of cultivated yams, aroids, bananas, plantains, 
and breadfruit, and complete botanical specimens of these should be 
obtained, together with photographs of the growing plants, their 
flowers, fruits, and roots, and notes of the odor of the flowers and 
flavor of the fruit or roots. Similar work should be done on the screw 
pines of the island in order that careful comparisons may be made 
with the species and well-defined varieties from other parts of the 
world. Notes of particular methods of propagation, cultivation, and 
preparation for use are also valuable. The bamboos are not definitely 
known, and the entire genus Ficus, which includes the banyans, 
remains to be worked up. Special efforts should be made to get photo- 
graphs of flowering bamboos and aroids. 



GUAM TYPES. 



To the botanical collector the most desirable species are those which 
were first described from type specimens collected on this island. 
Some of these original types are in very poor condition or are incom- 
plete, lacking fruit or flowers or leaves from various parts of the 
plant or a representation of one of the sexes, and the identity of others 
is not well established, owing to the lack of a sufficient number to form 
a series for comparison with closely allied species from other locali- 
ties. The handsome caper growing on the rocky shores of the island 
(Capparis mariana Jacq.) is supposed to be a variety of Capparis 
spinosa,' a Claoxylon marianum Mull. Arg. is very closely allied to 
Claoxylon taitense of Tahiti; Ipomoea mariannensis, a plant which has 
never been figured, should be compared with the American Ipomoea 
triloba; the epiphytal fleshy -leaved Dischidia puberula should be com- 
pared with Dischidia benghalensis, for which it was first mistaken by 
Gaudichaud; the fragrant Gynopogon torresianus of Guam should be 
compared with the allied species from other Pacific islands; a series 
of specimens of Melastoma marianum should be secured for compari- 
son with the closely allied Melastoma denticulatum and M. malabatJi- 
rlcum of Polynesia and the East Indies. The Guam Pipers and 
Peperomias need further study, and the Guam types of species of 
Ochrosia, Cormigonus, Phyllanthus, Glochidion, Euphorbia, and the 
hispid-leaved, yellow-flowered Stemmodontia canescens should also be 
secured. 

YAMS, BANANAS, AND BREADFRUIT. 

Many distinct kinds of yams (Dioscorea), bananas (Musa), and 
breadfruit (Artocarpus) are recognized wherever these plants are cul- 

See Schumann, Flora deutschen ost-asiatischen Schutzgebietes, p. 201, 1888. 



64 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

tivated, but very little has been done to fix the species and varieties 
and to compare those growing- in different parts of the world. Yams 
are dioecious, and the flowers of many recognized varieties are imper- 
fectly known. In some cases the flowers of but a single sex have been 
described; in others the fruit has never been observed, and in others 
only the tubers are known. Sir Joseph Hooker, a who has done much 
to straighten out the Indian species, writes as follows: 

The species of Dioscorea are in a state of indescribable confusion, and I can not 
hope to have escaped errors in the determination and delimitation of the Indian 
ones, to which I have devoted much labor. The Roxburghian food-yielding species 
are for the most part indeterminable, and, except through a knowledge of them as 
cultivated in India, they can not be understood. No doubt some of the species 
described by me have other earlier names in the Malayan flora than I have given; 
but the Malayan species are even more loosely described than the Indian. The 
Wallichian collection is very complete, but the species are often mixed. 

What has been said of the Indian yams applies also to those of the 
Pacific islands, and is also true of the many varieties of Musa and 
Artocarpus. Nearly every collector gives a list of named varieties of 
Dioscorea, Musa, and Artocarpus in the vernacular of the various 
localities visited, but scarcely any attempt has been made to fix these 
varieties and to bring together the various kinds from different local- 
ities for comparison. These must be studied in the countries where 
they are found and should be represented in collections not only by 
series of botanical specimens of the flowers, fruit, leaves, and roots 
(in alcohol, when necessary), but by photographs of the fresh plants, 
including representations of the flowers, fruits, tubers, etc., of natural 
size or according to some definite scale of reduction or enlargement. In 
this way only will it be possible to bring together and compare species 
and varieties from India, Australia, the Malayan and Pacific islands, 
Africa, and America. 

SCREW PINES. 

The Pandanaceae are known no better than the yams. Some of them 
are propagated asexually for the sake of their textile leaves, and much 
confusion exists among the species. Very few have been described. 
Warburg has done much to delimit the species and varieties and clear 
up questions of synonymy, but there remains much more to be done. 
In his monograph of the Pandanaceae 6 Warburg mentions only one 
species, Pandanus dubius Spreng. (Honibronia edulis Gaudich.), as 
occurring in the Marianne Islands, and does not refer to the textile 
species with glaucous leaves (the aggak of the natives), which ha$ been 
cultivated in Guam from prehistoric times (PI. VII), nor the fragrant- 
fruited species with bright green leaves (kafo), which is one of the 
most common plants of the island (PL LX). As only one sex of the 

a Hooker, Flora British India, vol. 6, pp. 288-289, 1892. 

& Warburg, Pandanaceae, in Engler, Pflanzenreich, vol. 4, p. 9, 1900. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE VII. 




Contr. Nat. Herb , Vol. IX. 



PLATE VIII. 






: ; 



PLANTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. f)5 

textile species occurs on the island no fruit of course is produced by 
it. The importance of collecting the flowers and preserving them 
carefully in alcohol or formalin is evident, as well as the necessity of 
making photographs of the growing tree to show its habit, the char- 
acter of its bark, its method of branching, its fascicles of leaves, and 
the emergences on its stem and aerial roots. 

BANYANS, MANGROVES, AND EPIPHYTES OF THE FOREST. 

Of special interest on account of their method of germination and 
growth are the giant banyans (Flcus spp.) of the forest, the mangroves 
of the brackish estuaries, and certain epiphytal cryptogams and other 
plants. 

The banyans usually begin their existence upon other trees, sending 
down aerial roots which interlace and grow together, clasping the 
trunk of their host and eventually strangling it. They then lead an 
independent existence, their great spreading limbs sending down more 
roots, which are like pendent threads at first, but soon thicken after 
gaining a foothold in the earth, and serve as columns to support the 
great dome of foliage overhead, as well as to supply it with nourish- 
ment and moisture (PL VIII). 

The chief interest in the mangroves (Rhizophora and Bruguiera) lies 
in the fact that their fruit germinates while still attached to the tree, 
the spindle-shaped radicle perforating the apex of the fruit, elongating 
and hanging vertically downward. When the fruit falls the radicle 
sticks into the soft mud below, retaining an upright position, like a 
stake thrust into the ground, and resisting the current of the tide as 
it ebbs and flows. 

The forest epiphytes are not well known, owing to the difficulty in 
collecting them. Care should be taken to visit clearings where forest 
land is being prepared for planting. In such places good material can 
undoubtedly be collected. The most interesting epiphyte thus far col 
lee ted in Guam is Dischidia'puberula, which -belongs to a genus hav- 
ing some of their fleshy leaves modified into urn-like receptacles. 
These usually contain water, and the adventitious roots of the stem 
often creep into them, as if for nourishment or moisture. 



PLANTS THAT SLEEP. 



Among the Guam plants there are a number which exhibit in a 
marked degree the phenomenon known as " sleep movements," folding 
their leaves each night and opening them again at sunrise. Some of 
them (Acacia farnesiana and Altrus abrus, PL XXXII), are so sensi- 
tive to changes in the intensity of light that they go to sleep if the 
sky suddenly becomes overcast, and wake up when t-he sun reappears. 
Most of these plants are leguminous, but there is one remarkable 
977305 5 



66 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

example belonging to the Oxalidaceae. This is Averrhoa carambola, 
the " bilimbines" of the natives, a tree which yields a pellucid oval- 
shaped, five-angled fruit. (PI. XXXVII.) Its foliage is not only 
sensitive to light and darkness, sunshine and shade, but also to sudden 
mechanical shocks, the leaves bending and their leaflets folding very 
much as in the case of the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). Besides 
the above-mentioned plants are several species of Cassia, Caesalpinia, 
Erythrina indica and other Leguminosae; and, among the Euphor- 
biaceae, two or three species of Phyllanthus and Euphorbia. 



PLANTS WHICH SELDOM BLOOM. 



Many plants grow spontaneously on the island which in many other 
parts of the world are seen only in a state of cultivation. The plant 
\vhich produces the celebrated "rhea" fiber, Boehnteria tenacissima, 
which in cultivation is herbaceous and seldom flowers, grows spontane- 
ously in Guam in the form of a shrub or small tree, called in the island 
vernacular "amahayan." Species of Colocasia and Alocasia, which 
seldom bloom in cultivation, and which are classified according to their 
inflorescence, here appear to grow in a state of nature. Their soft, 
fleshy spathes should be collected and preserved in alcohol or formalin 
for comparison with species and varieties from other localities. Bam- 
boos also are among the plants which seldom flower. The species 
growing in Guam have not yet been identified with certaint}^ owing 
to the lack of good specimens of inflorescence. In cultivation all the 
plants here mentioned are propagated asexually, and are divided into 
a number of varieties. 



PLANTS WITH EXTRAFLORAL NECTARIES. 



There are perhaps few localities which offer better facilities for the 
observation of extrafloral nectaries. Here within a small area, grow- 
ing not in conservatories, but in a state of nature, may be observed a 
remarkably large number of plants having glands on the midribs, 
veins, petioles, or rachis of their leaves, or on the peduncles, pedicels, 
or sepals of their flowers. Among them are species of Cassia, Eryth- 
rina, and Acacia, with stalked disk or cup-like glands, and, belonging 
to the Euphorbiaceae, the candle-nut (Aleurites) and the well-known 
castor bean with well-marked nectaries at the junction of the blade 
and the petiole of the leaf. 

Eicinus commums is especially well provided with these nectar 
glands. They occur on the nodes of the stem, along the petioles of 
the leaves, and the serrations of the leaf blades (PI. IX, fig. 2), as well 
as at the base of the blade where it is joined by the petiole. At this 
point there are usually two nectaries, though there may be but one, 
or there may be three or four when the leaf has a greater number of 
lobes than usual. Many of the Euphorbiaceae are provided with extra- 



Contr. Nat. Herb , Vol. IX. 



PLATE IX. 




FIG. 1. MARGINAL NECTAR GLANDS OF RICINUS LEAF. ENLARGED 43 DIAMETERS. 




FIG. 2. CROSS SECTION THROUGH LARGE NECTAR GLANDS AT BASE OF RICINUS LEAF- 
BLADE. ENLARGED 30 DIAMETERS. 



Contr. Nat Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE X. 




FIG. 1. NECTAR GLAND IN LOWER SURFACE OF MIDRIB OF 
COTTON LEAF. ENLARGED 50 DIAMETERS. 




FIG. 2. VAGINATE NECTAR GLAND IN MIDRIB OF PARITI 
TILIACEUM. NATURAL SIZE. 



PLANTS WITH EXTRA FLORAL NECTARIES. 67 

+ 

floral nectar glands, which have been noticed by systematic as well 
as by physiological botanists (Baillon, Miiller Arg., Bentham and 
Hooker). They are found on the stipules of Jatropha multifida, and 
on the petiole at the base of the leaf blade of Aleurites moluccana. In 
a paper by Percy Groom on the extrafloral nectaries of the allied 
Aleurites cordata a these petiolar nectaries are described as follows: 

Each nectary is a green-stalked shallow basin, the concavity of which is tinted red. 
The secreting cells which line the basin form a single layer of palisade-like cells. 
The general cuticle is preserved over these, and the secretion emerges through splits 
in it. The main body of the basin is composed of an anastomosing system of con- 
ducting parenchyma and ground parenchyma. * * The secreting cells contain 
proteids, sugar, a red coloring matter (a compound of tannin?), tannin, but no 
starch. In the ground parenchyma starch, tannin, and crystals of calcic oxalate 
occur. The conducting parenchyma contains sugar, but no starch or crystals. 
* * * Darkening the nectaries of leaves on the plant or of excised leaves, or 
darkening the whole leaves, caused a gradual disappearance of the starch, but the 
nectaries continued to excrete for a time. 

The above description applies very nearly to the stipulary nectaries 
of Ricinus, a photograph of a cross section of which, made by Mr. 
B. J. Howard, of the United States Department of Agriculture, is 
shown in Plate IX, fig. 1. 

Among the Malvaceae growing in Guam several are provided with 
nectar glands on the underside of the midrib. These are most con- 
spicuous in Urena sinuata, occurring not only on the midrib, but some- 
times on the main lateral ribs of the palmate leaves. They also occur 
on all leaves of cotton (Gossypium sp.) and on the midrib of Pariti 
tiliaceum (PI. X, fig. 2), in the form of vaginate glands. A photo- 
graph of a cross section of the nectar gland of a cotton leaf, also made 
by Mr. Howard, is shown in Plate X, fig. 1. 

The sweet fluid secreted by these glands is eagerly sought by sugar- 
loving insects, and a number of authors maintain that the power of 
secreting it has been specially gained by plants for the sake of attract- 
ing ants and wasps, which will serve as defenders against caterpillars, 
leaf -cutting insects, or other enemies; but Darwin, 6 after a series of 
observations, could not see any reason to believe this to be so with the 
species observed by him, although the, fact that these glands are 
visited by insects for the sake of their nectar can be verified at any 
time of the day when the sun is shining, and these insects must serve 
as a protection for them. It is interesting to note that these glands 
may occur in one species and be absent from another closely allied to 
it of the same genus. Indeed, there are species in which the glands 
are present on some leaves and absent from others, and of their vari- 
ability we have alread} T spoken in connection with Ricinus and Urena. 

<i Annals of Botany, vol. 8, p. 228, 1894. 
&Cross and self fertilization, pp. 403, 404, 1877. 



68 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

On this account Delpino" argues that these glands ought not to be 
regarded as excretory, since if they were so, they would be more 
constant and would occur in every species. Their variability is 
especially noticeable in the genus Cassia, where the tiny cup-shaped 
nectaries may be found on the petioles of some species and the rachis 
of others, but are absent from both in others. If they performed some 
necssary function it is hard to believe that they would not occur in 
all the species. One thing is certain, they are more highly developed 
and more active in the young and tender leaves and about opening 
leaf buds than on the older and tougher leaves, which are less tempting 
to herbivorous animals, and more able to resist their attacks; and 
whatever may be the truth regarding the presence of these glands in 
general, Belt has shown conclusively 6 that the bull's-horn acacia of 
Central America (Acacia sphaerocephala) not only attracts stinging ants 
by its nectaries, but offers them as an additional attraction dainty food 
rich in oil and protoplasm in the form of small bodies at the end of the 
divisions of the compound leaflets, which the ants gather when ripe 
and carry to their homes in the stout hollow thorns of the plant itself. 
The fruit-like bodies do not ripen all at once, but successively, so that 
the ants are kept about the young leaf for some time after it unfolds, 
and Belt arrived at the conclusion that the ants are really kept by the 
acacia as a standing army, to protect its leaves from the attacks of 
herbivorous mammals and insects. In the same wa} 7 there is a succes- 
sion of active nectaries about the tender young leaf buds and flower 
clusters of Ricinus, which are constantly visited by wasps and ants; 
and the important part played by the nectar glands in the petioles of 
the cotton leaf (PL X) as an attraction to ants which serve to protect 
the plant from the boll weevil and other injurious insects has recently 
awakened great interest and has been turned to economic account/ 



PLANTS WITH PROTECTIVE DEVICES. 



Interesting examples of self -protection are offered by several plants 
growing in Guam, the most striking of which is that of the spiny yam, 
Dioscorea spinosa. This plant grows spontaneously on the island and 
in places forms impenetrably thickets. It takes its name not from the 
small prickles on the stem but from a mass of spines surrounding the 
base of the stem and serving as a protection to the starchy tubers 
below from hogs and other enemies. This species has often been con- 
fused with Dioscorea aculeata, the cultivated prickly yarn in Guam, 
called " nika," which it resembles in the form of its broad heart-shaped 

Rapporti tra insetti e tra nettarii estranuziali, p. 63, 1875. 

* Naturalist in Nicaragua, p. 218, 1874. 

"See Cook, An Enemy of the Cotton Boll Weevil, U. S. Dept. Agr., Kept. No. 78; 
also his Report on the habits of the kelep, or Guatemalan cotton-boll weevil ant, 
U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Bull. No. 49, 1904. 



Cor.tr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XI. 




FIQ. 1. RAPHIDES, OR NEEDLE-LIKE CRYSTALS OF OXALATE OF 
LIME IN LEAF-BLADE OF TARO PLANT (CALADIUM COLOCASIA). 
ENLARGED 100 DIAMETERS. 




FIG. 2. A SINGLE CAPSULE DISCHARGING ITS NEEDLES. ENLARGED 
200 DIAMETERS. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XII. 




FIQ. 1. NEEDLE CELL IN PETIOLE OF TARO LEAF. ENLARGED 
300 DIAMETERS. 




FIQ. 2. NEEDLE CELL IN BLADE OF TARO LEAF. ENLARGED 
300 DIAMETERS. 



ACRIDITY OF TARO LEAVES. 69 

leaves, with deep basal sinus, and in its prickly stem. (PI. XLIX.) 
It is very distinct, however, in having about its base the mass of 
spines referred to. They are wiry and branching, and have very 
much the appearance of sharp compound fishhooks. In reality they 
are lateral roots which differ from typical monocotyledonous roots in 
their hard woody structure and the absence of root caps. Mr. T. G. 
Hill and Mrs. W. G. Freeman, who made a study of the root structure 
of an allied species growing in Africa, found that "the lateral roots 
form the actual spines. They only exhibit normal root-structures at 
the extreme apex; elsewhere the phloem strands travel regularly 
throughout the whole area of the stele, while the xylem is more or less 
restricted to the central region. The hardness both of the main roots 
and the spines is due to the thickening and lignification of the con- 
junctive tissue of the stele. " a Whether or not these spines have been 
specially developed for the purpose of protecting the edible tuber may 
be questioned, but that they do protect it is certain. 

Among the principal food staples of Guam is the taro, Caladium 
colocasia, a plant of the Arum family. Both the land and water varie- 
ties (PI. XXIV) are found invariably to have their smooth, succulent, 
satiny leaves free from the ravages of snails, insects, or herbivorous 
animals. Cattle and chickens delight in nipping off the young leaves 
of bananas and plantains; deer often inflict serious injury on a young 
coconut plantation in a single night; breadfruit trees suffer from the 
attacks of all herbivorous animals, and must be protected from them 
fruit, leaves, and bark; and even tobacco will be devoured in the field 
by insect larvae unless it is carefully watched and attended. On chew- 
ing a small portion of a taro leaf, the cause of its saf ety from attack is 
at once apparent. The tongue, roof of the mouth, and lining of the 
throat seem to be pierced by a thousand tiny needles. The allied 
Alocasiae, plants also belonging to the Araceae, called "piga" by the 
natives of Guam, are so very acrid that the skin is sometimes stung 
by merely rubbing against one of their leaves. Not only is the root 
of the taro edible, but the tender } r oung leaves are eaten like spinach 
or asparagus. When not thoroughly cooked, however, they retain 
their acridity, and in Polynesia it is a common occurrence to expe- 
rience an intense inflammation or burning of the throat after a meal of 
savory taro tops cooked with cocoanut custard. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. H. W. Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture, a careful chem- 
ical and histological examination of fresh taro plants was made for me 
by Mr. Lyman F. Kebler and Mr. B. J. Howard. The result of their 
examination and experiments tends to corroborate the theory that the 
burning sensation experienced on chewing the leaves is not caused by 
an acrid fluid, but by minute needle-like crystals of calcium oxalate 

Annals of Botany, vol. 17, p. 413, 1903. 



70 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

(PI. XI) contained in their tissue. Many plants in which these crys- 
tals arc found are not acrid to the taste, but most of the Araceae, 
including our own Indian turnip, or jack-in- the-pulpit, are intensely 
so. In some plants the crystals are developed singly in a cell of the 
parenchyma; in other cases they are in the form of a radiating clus- 
ter, while in others, including several families of monocot3 r ledons, 
they form compact bundles, called raphides. These raphides are some- 
times found in a cell which can not be easily separated from the 
remaining tissue of the plant. In the genera Caladium and Alocasia 
they are inclosed in what appears to be an elongated transparent cap- 
sule filled with mucilage. These capsules, or cartridges, are situated 
in the partition wall between two vacuoles, their ends projecting into 
the adjacent vacuoles. (PI. XII.) When the vacuoles become filled 
with water by being crushed in chewing or when artificially macerated, 
the mucilage absorbs water through the capsule walls, increasing in 
volume so that it exerts such a pressure that the needles are ejected 
with considerable force from the capsule at one or both ends, where 
the cell wall is thinner than at the sides. 

While Mr. Howard was examining a section containing some of 
these raphides, the capsules absorbed water and began to discharge 
themselves by what appeared to be a series of explosions. a In PI. 
XI, fig. 1, is shown a section of taro leaf multiplied by 100 diam- 
eters, with the raphides in place. The thirsty mucilage, as it has been 
called by one author, 6 has absorbed a certain quantit}^ of water and 
some of the needles have been forced out. In tig. 2 is shown a single 
capsule discharging the needles at both ends, the distance to which 
they have been projected to the right showing that the force of the 
discharge was considerable. At every discharge the capsule recoiled 
like a gun which has been fired. In PL XII, fig. 1, is shown a cross 
section of the blade of a taro leaf magnified 300 diameters. This 
shows a capsule in place, with its ends projecting into adjacent empty 
vacuoles. Fig. 2 shows a similar cell in the tissue of the petiole. 
These capsules retain their power to absorb water and discharge 
their needles after the leaf has been thoroughly dried. They must be 
subjected to great heat to lose their activity; and when this is lost, as 
in cooking, the plant is no longer acrid. Sufficient heat is not always 
developed in boiling to effect the change. PI. XIII shows single 
capsules, or "bombs," as Doctor Wiley has called them, in fig. 1 just 
beginning to discharge its needles and in fig. 2 in full action. Doctor 
Wiley in his description says: 

I immediately took Mr. Howard's place at the microscope and saw for a period of 
five or ten minutes a most remarkable display. Continual discharges were made 
from this bomb, the ends of the arrows spreading out as they emerged in groups of 

"See Doctor Wiley's account in Science, July 24, 1903. 
&Turpin, Ann. des Sci. Nat, 2 serie, vol. 6, p. 18, 1836. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XIII. 




FIG. 1. CAPSULE OF TARO BEGINNING TO DISCHARGE 
NEEDLES. ENLARGED 300 DIAMETERS. 




FIG. 2. CAPSULE OF TARO WITH THE NEEDLES SHOOTING 
FORTH. ENLARGED 300 DIAMETERS. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XIV. 




CYCAS CIRCINALIS. LEAF AND CARPOPHYLL BEARING HALF-DEVELOPED FRUIT. 

NATURAL SIZE. 



CYCAS CIRCINALIS. 71 

from 4 to 10. As these groups were finally separated from the bombs they were 
discharged with considerable velocity into the ambient liquid, the bomb itself suf- 
fering a corresponding recoil. * * * The field of vision in the vicinity of the 
bornb became partially covered with these long crystals, but the supply within the 
bomb did not seem to diminish materially. There must have been hundreds of 
the arrows in one single spheroid. * * * If the plant is not thoroughly cooked 
its acrid qualities remain in some degree. If thoroughly cooked they are destroyed. 
It is interesting to note that in cases where the leaves are chewed, either fresh or 
dried, the stinging sensation is not perceived until a few moments afterward, and in 
many cases it is not until the taro has been eaten that the prickly sensation in the 
lining of the mouth and throat shows that it has not been thoroughly cooked. * * * 
Alocasia indica, a plant closely allied to the taro plant, is so acrid that the Pacific 
Islanders resort to it only in cases of great scarcity of food. The disagreeable effects 
caused by these plants seem to be confined to the temporary prickling sensation of 
the mouth and throat. They are undoubtedly nutritious and are held in high esteem 
by the natives. 

The role played by raphides in protecting plants from herbivorous 
animals has been discussed by Otto Kuntze, in the Heft zur Botanis- 
chen Zeitung, 1877, and by Ernst Stahl in the Jenaische Zeitscrif t fur 
Naturwissenshaft und Medicine, 1888. The phenomenon of the explo- 
sion or shooting forth of the needles was first noticed by Turpin in 
1836. He called the capsules containing them "biforines," errone- 
ously supposing them to be provided with an opening at each end. 

CYCAS CIRCINALIS AND ITS FECUNDATION. 

One of the most interesting plants growing in Guam is the "fadan," 
or "federiko" (Cycas circinalis), the nuts of which were a food 
staple of the aborigines before the discovery of the island. Its cylin- 
drical, scarred trunk, and stiff, pinnated, glossy leaves suggest ideal 
pictures of the forests of the Carboniferous age. (PL VIII.) Its 
nuts, poisonous when crude, but abounding in starch, are converted 
into a nutritious arrowroot, or sago, in several tropical countries. 
But its chief interest is in the structure of its inflorescence and the 
manner of its fructification. The group of plants to which it belongs 
occupies a place intermediate between the flowering plants and the 
cryptogams. Like the former, it has fruit with a large starchy endo- 
carp, but, as in the latter, fecundation is accomplished by means of 
spermatozoids and archegonia, corresponding to the male and female 
elements in animals. The male inflorescence is in the form of an 
erect cone consisting of modified staminal leaves which bear on the 
under surface globose pollen sacs corresponding to microsporangia. 
The female inflorescence consists of a tuft of spreading carpellary leaves 
having their margins coarsety notched. (PL XIV.) In the notches 
are situated the ovules, which are devoid of any protective covering. 
They correspond to macrosporangia. Pollination is effected by the 
wind. The pollen settles on the ovules and sends down a tube into 
the tissue of the nucellus. Archegonia are formed, egg cells develop, 



f2 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

and in the pollen tube are produced spermatozoids provided with 
minute movable cilia by which they are propelled. These are dis- 
charged over the archegonia and fecundate the egg. 

The fecundation of the allied Cyca8 revoluta of Japan has been 
studied by the Japanese botanist Ikeno; a that of Zamia floridana and 
Z. pumila of the southern United States by Dr. H. J. Webber, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. b Doctor Webber found 
the mature spermatozoids of Zamia to be the largest known to occur 
in any plant or animal. They are even visible to the naked eye. 
He kept them alive in sugar solutions and found their motion to be 
due mainly to the action of cilia. 

In fecundation the entire spermatozoid enters the egg cell, swimming in between 
the ruptured neck cells. Sometimes two or three spermatozoids enter the same egg, 
but only one is used in fecundation, the others perishing. On entering the upper 
part of the egg cytoplasm the nucleus escapes from the spermatozoid, being left 
slightly in rear of the active ciliferous band. The plasma membrane of the sper- 
matozoid entirely disappears, seeming to unite with the cytoplasm of the egg, and 
this allows the spermatozoid cytoplasm also to unite with the egg cytoplasm and 
leaves the nucleus free. The nucleus passes on to the egg nucleus, with which it 
unites. Fecundation thus consists of a fusion of two entire cells cytoplasm with 
cytoplasm and nucleus with nucleus. c 

With abundance of living material at hand, the study of Oycas 
circinalis along the lines followed by Ikeno and Webber could not fail 
to yield interesting and important results. 

DISPERSAL OF PLANTS BY OCEAN CURRENTS. 

On the sandy beaches which form a great part of the east coast of 
Guam there is always a line of drift, just above high-water mark, 
which is rich in seeds, fruits of various kinds, and driftwood brought 
by the great ocean current which sweeps across the Pacific from east 
to west. Sometimes the seeds and logs are riddled with teredo bor- 
ings or are covered with barnacles, but often they appear fresh and 
little worn by the erosion of the waves and sand. Many of the seeds 
are dead; some of them are alive and capable of germination. Not all 
the species which reach the island have gained foothold there. The 
fruits of plants growing in mudd} T estuaries or mangrove swamps, for 
instance, can not establish themselves on a clean sandy beach. 
Germinating fruits of Rhizophora and Bruguiera are frequently cast 
up only to die, and nuts of the nipa palm, though found in perfect 
condition, can establish themselves only near the mouths of streams 
where the water is brackish. Though coconuts are of frequent 

S. Ikeno, Untersuchungen uber die Entwickelung, etc. Jahrbiicher f iir wissensch. 
Botanik, 32, Heft 4, p. 557, 1898. See list of works. 

7; Webber, Herbert J., Spermatogenesis and fecundation of Zamia. U. S. Dept. 
Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 2, 1901. See list of works. 

cldem., p. 85. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XV. 







SEA BEANS, SHOWING AIR SPACES WHICH GIVE THEM BUOYANCY. SECTION OF POD 
AND SEEDS OF LENS PHASEOLOIDES HAVING AIR SPACE INCLOSED BETWEEN COTY- 
LEDONS. SEEDS OF GUILANDINA CRISTA WITH AIR SPACE BETWEEN THE KERNEL 
AND THE SHELL. 



DISPERSAL OF PLANTS BY OCEAN CUREENTS. 73 

occurrence in the drift, it is interesting to note that on the eastern, 
or weather, side of the island, where they are washed up, there is not 
a single coconut grove near the water's edge, while on the western, or 
lee, side, where groves have been planted, they grow so near the sea 
that their roots are often bared by the waves. It seems probable that 
coconuts grow in Guam only where they have been planted, except 
in cases where nuts which have fallen from trees of established groves 
have taken root. 

The seeds which occur in the drift owe their buoyancy to various 
causes. Many of the "sea beans" inclose an air space between their 
cotyledons; others have kernels which do not fill the stony, water-tight 
shells, but leave a space for air to keep them afloat; others have a 
separate air chamber; others have fibrous envelopes or husks com- 
posed of light tissue, and still others have woody or cork-like shells of 
low specific gravity. 

SEA BEANS ADAPTED FOR FLOATING. Among the hard ston}^ seeds 
of leguminous plants cast up on the shores of Guam are gray " nicker- 
nuts" (Guilandina crista), called " pakao " by the Guam natives; 
brown "horse-eye sea beans" (Stizolobium giganteum), with a con- 
spicuous black raphe encircling nearly three-quarters of the periphery 
of the seed, and the large flat "snuffbox beans" (Lens pliaseoloidea), 
called "bayog" or "badyog" in Guam and "cacoons" in the West 
Indies. These "sea beans," or their closely allied representatives 
growing in the West Indies, were figured as early as 1693 in an 
account of the objects cast up by the sea on the Orkney Islands by 
James Wallace, who knew nothing of their origin/' They were 
recognized at once by Hans Sloane as the seeds of plants he had 
seen growing in Jamaica and which he had included in his catalogue 
of Jamaica plants. Their occurrence on the shores where they were 
collected, so far removed from the place of their origin, suggested 
to Sloane the existence of the current which was afterwards known 
as the Gulf Stream. Sloane published a paper on the subject in the 
Philosophical Transactions of London in 1696, in which he for the 
first time offered to the world the true explanation of the means by 
which they were transported. 6 

"Cast up on the Shoar there are very oft those pretty Nutts, of which they use to 
make Snuff-boxes. There are four sorts of them, theiigures of which are set down." 
Description Orkney Islands, p. 14, 1693. 

& " How these several Beans should come to the Scotch Isles, and one of them to 
Ireland, seems very hard to determine. It is easy to conceive, that growing in 
Jamaica in the Woods, they may either fall from the Trees into the Eivers or be any 
other way conveyed by them into the Sea: it is likewise easie to believe, that being 
got to Sea, and floating in it in the neighbourhood of that island, they may be car- 
ried from thence by the Wind and Current, which meeting with a stop on the main 
continent of Am. is forced through the Gulph of Florida, or Canal of Bahama, going 
there constantly K. and into the N. American Sea; for the .... Sargasso grows on 



74 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Guilandina crista has gray polished round seeds of stony hard- 
ness, about the size of small marbles. When shaken, these seeds, or 
"nicker-nuts," give forth a rattling sound, owing to the fact that the 
kernel, consisting of two closely oppressed cotyledons, fits loosely in 
the shell, leaving a large air space, which gives buoyancy to the seeds. 
(PI. XV, tigs. 5, 6, 7.) 

The seeds of Lens phaseoloides (PL XV, figs. 2, 3, 4) do not rattle 
when shaken. Their kernels fill the shell completely, but inclosed 
between the two large cotyledons composing the kernel there is a 
large air space when the seeds are quite mature and dry. They are 
very light and float like bubbles on the surface of the sea. The seeds 
of Stizolobium are easily distinguished from those of Lens by their 
prominent raphe. Those of Lens have no raphe and are inclosed in 
an enormous woody, saber-shaped pod (PI. LVI), consisting of many 
distinct joints, with a strong wood}^ suture surrounding the whole 
legume. This suture is persistent and forms a sort of frame from 
which the inclosed joints may be removed separately. Each joint (PL 
XV, fig. 1) is in the form of a closed cell in which the bean fits loosely 
and rattles about when shaken. This plant owes its very wide distribu- 
tion to the buo} 7 ancy of its seed and its habit of growing near the sea. 
Great numbers of the seeds are thrown up each year by the Gulf 
Stream on the Azores, but the plant has not succeeded in establishing 
itself on those islands. Seeds collected there by Darwin were sent by 
him to Sir Joseph Hooker. They were planted at Kew and many of 
them germinated and grew to be fine plants, "showing that their 
immersion during a voyage of nearly 3,000 miles had not affected their 
vitality." 6 

MORINDA CITRIFOLIA. This plant (PL XVI), called "ladda," or 
u lada," by the natives of Guam, has seeds of unusual interest. Their 
buoyancy is insured by a distinct air cell. They are frequently found 
in the drift of tropical shores, and experiments have been made which 
demonstrate the great length of time they will float in salt water/ 



the rocks about Jamaica, and is carried by the Winds and Current (which for the 
most part go impetuously the same way) towards the coast of Florida, and thence 
into the Northern Am. Ocean, whereas I mention p. 4. of my Catal. it lyes very 
thick on the Surface of the Sea: But how they should come the rest of their Voyage 
I cannot tell, unless it be thought reasonable, that as Ships when they go South 
expect a trade Easterly Wind, so when they come North, they expect and generally 
find a Westerly Wind for at least two parts of three of the Year, so that the Beans 
being brought North by the Current from the Gulph of Florida, are put into these 
Westerly Winds way, and may be supposed by this means at last to arrive in Scot- 
land. Sloane, An Account of Four sorts of strange Beans, etc." Philosophical Trans- 
actions, vol. 19, pp. 299, 300, 1696. 

&.T. D. Hooker, Insular Floras, Gardeners' Chronicle, 1867, pp. 27, 51. 

C 8ee Schimper, Die indo-malayische Strandflora, p. 165, pi. vii, fig. 26, b and c, 
1891; also Guppy, The Dispersal of Plants, etc., Trans. Victoria Institute, vol. 27, p. 
267, 1890. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XVI. 




MORINDA CITRIFOLIA. FLOWERS AND FRUIT. NATURAL SlZE. 



DISPERSAL OF PLANTS BY OCEAN CURRENTS. 75 

FRUITS WITH BUOYANT HUSKS. In addition to the coconut, which 
is provided with a fibrous envelope, and is known to float for long 
periods of time in the sea without losing its vitality, there are found 
in the drift of Guam the fruits of Barringtonia speciosa, called ''put- 
ing" by the natives, and Ochrosia mariannensis, called " fago." Both 
of these fruits have fibrous husks, but that of the Barringtonia has a 
hard glossy surface, somewhat as in the case of the coconut, while the 
surface of the Ochrosia is soft and easily eroded. The fruits of this 
Barringtonia (PI. XXXVIII) are four-cornered and miter-shaped; 
"he natives crush them and use them as a fish intoxicant. Those of the 
Ochrosia are oval in shape, and, like the closely allied Cerbera fruits 
of Samoa and other tropical countries, are soon deprived of their pulpy 
parenchyma, and display the cushion of fiber inclosing the mesocarp. 
This owes its buoyancy to intercellular air spaces. It is elastic and 
serves to protect the seed from erosion and from the attacks of animals. 

MANGROVE FRUITS. Great numbers of these spindle-shaped young 
plants are continually carried by the tide from the estuaries into 
which they drop after having begun to germinate on the tree. The 
fruits of Rhizophora mncronata (PI. LXIV) are easily distinguished 
from those of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (PI. XL) by the four-parted 
persistent calyx, the calyx of Bruguiera consisting of many segments. 
Associated with them are found the seeds of the "red-flowered 
mangrove" (Lumnitzera littorea), called "fiana" in Guam; those of 
Krcoecaria agallocha, the "milky mangrove," or "blinding-tree," 
which grow in catkin-like spikes; and the keeled nuts of the "ufa" 
(Heritiera littoralis), the hard shell of which includes a very large 
air space (PL LII). 

LITTORAL TREES AND SHRUBS. Other seeds found in the drift are 
those of Pariti tiliaceum and Thespesia populnea, the "pago" and 
"kilulu" of the natives, both of which belong to the Malvaceae, and 
have cavities filled with air; the round nuts of Calophyllum inopliyl- 
Inm, called "daog;" the boat-shaped "almonds" of Terminalia catappa, 
called "talisai," often much eroded; the angular woody seeds of the 
"lalanyug" (Xylocarpus granatwti), and the ribbed fruit of the nipa 
palm (Nypa fruticans). Among the plants which grow on the edge of 
the sea, whose fruit drops into the water continually, are the shrubby 
Lobelia Jcoenigii and Tournefortia argcntea (PI. LXVIII), associated 
with the creeping "goats-foot convolvulus" (Ipomoea pes-caprae), the 
seeds of which contain air cavities, and the "Polynesian ironwood" 
(Casuariua equwetifolia), the cones of which (PI. XLI) are corky and 
buoyant and inclose seeds provided with wings which adapt them for 
transportation by the wind. The transparent wings of these seeds are 
stiffened by the persistent style. When a handful of them is thrown 
into the air they resemble a swarm of flying insects. Hundreds of 
these seeds, together with the queer-shaped Barringtonia fruits, are 



76 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

always to bo found germinating on the stretches of sandy beach along 
the southern portion of the east coast of the island. With Schimper 
as a guide, and the bench" t of the experiments of Guppy and of Treub. 
a student on the island of Guam would h'nd abundance of material 
and a most favorable opportunity for studying the seeds of the drift 
in the places where they have been deposited by the great trans- 
Pacific current, and where they could be observed in the process of 
germinating under absolutely natural conditions. 

ANIMALS OF THE ISLAND. 

MAMMALS. 

BATS. There are no indigenous quadrupeds in Guam. The only 
mammals in prehistoric times were two species of bats, the large fruit- 
eating Pteropus keraudreni Q. & G., or "flying fox," called "fanihi" 
by the natives, and a small insectivorous species, Emlxdlonura semicau- 
data Peale, called "payesyes." The fanihi flies about in the da} T time, 
flapping its wings slowly like a crow. It has a disagreeable musky 
odor, but this leaves it when the skin is removed, and the natives some- 
times eat it. The flesh is tough, but not unsavory. The principal 
fruits eaten by it are guavas, fertile breadfruit, the drupes of the 
fragrant screw pine, called "kaf6," and custard apples (Annona 
reticidata), which it has undoubtedly helped to spread over the island. 
This species occurs in Fiji, the Friendlv Islands, New Hebrides, and 
Pelew Islands. It very closely resembles the flying foxes of Samoa, 
which the natives of those islands call "pe'a," or "manu-langi" (bird 
of heaven). Emlcdlonura semicaudata, the insectivorous bat, is noc- 
turnal in its habits, and flutters about very much like our own common 
species. It remains in caves during the day and ventures forth at twi- 
light. It is very similar to, if not identical with, the "apa'au-vai" of 
the Samoans, and has been collected in Fiji and the New Hebrides. 

RATS AND MICE. The Norway or brown rat (Mus decumanus Pallas), 
called "chaka" by the natives, was probably introduced into the island 
through the agency of ships. It is veiy abundant and is a great pest, 
especially in plantations of maize and cacao. It also destroys young 
coconuts, ascending the trees and often making its nests there. The 
common mouse (Mus muscidus L.) has also been introduced. It appar- 
ently causes little harm. 

DEER. An introduced deer, Cervus mariannus Desm., overruns the 
island and causes great damage to maize, young coconut palms, and 
other crops of the natives. It was brought to the island by Don 
Mariano Tobias, who was governor of the Mariannes from 1771 to 
1771. Its flesh has a fine venison flavor, and it is a favorite food staple 
of the natives, who hunt the animal with dogs and guns, often burning 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 77 

great stretches of sword grass (Xipheagrostis floridula) in which it 
hides. These animals often make raids upon the garden patches of the 
natives, sometimes coming down into -the palace garden at night and 
eating the melons and other succulent vegetables cultivated there. 
During the rutting season the honking cries of the fighting bucks are 
heard at night, especially when the moon is full. 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Buffalo, cattle, horses, mules, pigs, goats, cats, 
and dogs have been introduced. The buffalo (Jftibalus bnffelus L.) are 
used for carrying burdens, drawing carts, and for plowing rice, just 
as in the Philippines. Their flesh is seldom eaten in Guam and their 
milk, which is of excellent quality and in some countries is an impor- 
tant food staple, is never used. They are very strong animals, but 
awkward and more difficult to manage than oxen. It is a common 
sight in Guam to see a small boy riding a buffalo bull. As the huge, 
ungainly, great-horned animal goes galloping along the road it sug- 
gests some monster of prehistoric times. Buffalo can not endure long 
periods of drought. They love to wallow in swamps and, if hot and 
dry, will sometimes lie down with their riders when crossing a marsh. 

Many of the Guam cattle bear a general resemblance to Jerseys in 
size and color, though their udders are much smaller. Both bulls and 
cows are used as steeds and for drawing carts. A foreigner is espe- 
cialty struck with the speed developed by some of these animals. It 
is a common sight to see a dainty smooth-skinned cow saddled and hal- 
tered trotting along as swiftly as a horse, with her calf galloping at 
her side. With the exception of a few herds of cattle and buffalo in 
the interior of the island, all animals in domestic use are kept tethered, 
to keep them away from the unfenced garden patches and cornfields 
of the natives. They are subject to the attacks of wood ticks (Acarina), 
so that they must be frequently examined. The natives rub their 
skins and curry them like horses. Sometimes a neglected animal dies 
in consequence of the attacks of these pests. 

Horses do not multiply on the island. Colts are born but do not 
thrive. Goats are not plentiful. Wild hogs roam the forests in the 
northern part of the island. They live on fallen wild breadfruit and 
various roots. It is interesting to note that they eat the exceedingly 
acrid rootstocks of the great Alocasia which grows wild in the forests 
(see p. 70). Hogs kept on ranches and fed on coconuts, breadfruit, 
and other vegetable substances are prized for food. The excellent 
flavor of the Guam pork was much praised by early navigators (see 
pp. 18 and 20). Dogs are pests in the villages. They are not well 
cared for, as a rule, and get their living by foraging. Cats have gone 
wild, and sometimes destroy the eggs of sitting hens and catch young 
c-liickens and turkeys. Dogs and cats are fed upon coconuts when 
other food is not available. 



78 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

BIRDS. a 

LAND BIRDS. The most beautiful bird on the island is the rose- 
crowned fruit dove (Ptilopus roseica/pillus Less.), called u tot-tot" 
by the natives, and closely resembling the " manu-tangi " of Samoa 
(P. fasciattis Peale). The general color of its plumage is green. Its 
head is capped with rose-purple and the lower surface is yellow and 
orange, Avith some purple on the breast. The sexes are similar. When 
it utters its mournful sobbing note it presses its bill against its breast 
and swells the back of its neck. Birds which were kept by the author 
in captivity would frequently cry out in the middle of the night. 
Their favorite food was the fruit of the ilangilang (Canangium odora- 
tum), Oestrum berries (called " tintan China"), and orange berries 
(Triphasia trifoliata). They also eat the plum-like fruit of Ximenia 
americana, called "pi'od" b}^ the natives. 

Another fruit dove is Phlegoenas xanthonura (Temm.), the female of 
which is smaller than the male and is of a uniform reddish-brown 
color, while the male has a white throat and olive-green reflections on 
its breast. Another dove, which was probably introduced from the 
Philippines, is Turtur dusswnieri (Temm.). It is quite common in the 
open stretches of the mesa and is called " paluman-halomtano," or 
"wild pigeon," by the natives. It is a graceful, dove-colored bird 
resembling the common turtle dove, to which it is closely allied. 
Another introduced bird is the beautiful little pigmy quail (Excal- 
f actor ia sinensis Gm.), called bengbeng by the natives, from the 
peculiar whirring noise it makes in flying. This little bird, which is 
only 5 inches long, is remarkable for the large size of its eggs. They 
are of a brownish color, sprinkled with deeper brownish dots, broadly 
ovate in form, and 1 inch through in their greatest diameter. 

The most remarkable bird of the Mariannes is a megapode (Megapo- 
dlus laperousl Quoy & Gaimard), which is called " sasengat," or u polio 
del monte." It is closety allied to if not identical with a megapode 
found in the Pelew Islands, and is of the same genus as the jungle- 
fowl or mound-builder of Australia (Megapodius tumulus). In the 
Marianne Islands the natives attract it by knocking stones together. 
These birds are remarkable for the thickness of their legs and the size 
of their feet. They have a habit of heaping up mounds of earth, 
decayed leaves, and rubbish in which they lay their eggs. They are 
of a brownish color with grayish head. On the head there is an area 
of naked skin of a reddish color. The bill and legs are yellow. The 
birds are about 9 inches long. They fly heavily. They are not known 
to occur in Guam, but were collected by M. Alfred Marche in 1887, 
1888, and 1889 on the islands of Rota, Saipan, Pagan, and Agrigan, 
belonging to this group. 



I am indebted to Dr. Charles W. Richmond for revising the scientific names of 
the birds in the following list, 



BIRDS. 79 

The only bird of prey of the group is the short-eared owl (Asio 
accipitrinus Pall.), called by the natives "momo," "mongino," or 
"inongo." Hartert doubts its occurrence as a resident of the Mari- 
anne Islands a but it is a bird well known to the natives. They describe 
it as having big eyes and a cat-like face, and say that it catches lizards. 
It has not been collected in Guam, but is said to be common on the 
island of Tinian. It was collected by the Freycinet expedition. 

TERRESTRIAL KINGFISHERS. One of the commonest birds in Guam 
is Halcyon cinnamominm Swains., called " sihig" by the natives. It 
is of a beautiful blue and tawny color, the female differing from the 
male in having white on the belly. This bird is allied to the u tio- 
tala" of Samoa (II. pealei Finsch & Hartl.). It feeds upon insects and 
lizards and is said to eat young birds and to pick out the eyes of 
young chickens. It utters a strident rattling note which is often 
heard in the middle of the night. An allied species, Halcyon albicilla 
(Dumont) occurs in the northern islands of the group. 

Other birds are the edible-nest swift, Collocalia fiieiphaga (Thunb.) 
called "yayaguag" by the natives and " golondrina" by the Span- 
iards, which in Guam makes nests of leaves stuck together with a secre- 
tion from the mouth very different from the typical nests used for 
food by the Chinese; the fan tailed fly-catcher, Rhipidura nraniae 
Oustalet, called " chichirika," or "chichirita," by the natives, a pretty 
little bird which follows one along the road and spreads its tail as 
though wishing to attract attention. Another little fly-catcher fre- 
quenting shady woods, Myiagra freycineti Oustalet, called "chiguan- 
guan;" the starling-like sali, Aplonis Jcitilitzi Finsch & Hartl., 
closely allied to the Samoan miti-uli (A. brevirostris}', a crow, Corvns 
Jcubaryi Reichenow, called "aga," which is fond of Terminalia nuts 
and does much damage to the maize crops of the natives; two honey 
eaters, the little red-and-black Myzomela rubratra (Less.), called 
" egigi," which frequents the blossoms of bananas, coconuts, and scarlet 
hibiscus, and the olive-green and yellow Zosterops consplcillata (Kitt- 
litz), called "nossak" by the natives. The only real song bird on the 
island is the ga-karriso, or ga-piao, a reed warbler which is well named 
Acrocepkalus luscinia (Quoy & Gaim.). It nests among the reeds of 
the large swamp near Agana, known as "la Cienaga," and has a song 
of exquisite sweetness. 

SHORE BIRDS. Among the shore birds are a peculiar bittern, Ar- 
detta sinensis (Gmel.), called "kakkag" by the natives; the common 
reef-heron of the Pacific, Demigretta sacra (Gm.), called "chuchuko," 
which is not rare but wary and hard to approach; two rails called 
"koko," Hypotaenidia owstoni Rothschild, and Poliolimnas cinereux 
(Vieill.), both of which are caught by the natives by means of snares 
laid in paths; the widely distributed water hen or gallinule, Gallinula 

"Novitates Zoologies, Vol. V, p. 68, 1898. 



80 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

chloropux Lath., called "pulatal" by the natives, excellent for food, 
and easily distinguished by a red shield on its forehead; three birds 
called " kalalang," the Pacific godwit, Limosalapponical>aueri(N&\im.), 
the Australian curlew, Numenius cyanopus Vieill., often seen on newly 
tilled fields, and the oriental whimbrel Nwnenius phaeapm variegatm 
(Scop.), somewhat smaller, usually seen at periods of migration; and 
the widely spread snipe, Gallinago megala Swinh. Among the shore 
birds called by the general name "dulili" are the gray and white 
Asiatic wandering tattler, Heteractitis 'hrevipes Vieill.; the bullhead 
or black-bellied plover, Squatarola squatarola (L.); the well-known 
Asiatic golden plover, Charadrius do-minicus fulvus (Gm.), very 
common on cultivated fields and along the shores of the island; the 
Mongolian sand dotterel, Aeyialitis mongolci (Pall.); and the common 
turnstone, Arcnaria interpres (L.), which may be easily distinguished 
from the rest by its bright yellow feet. A duck, Anas oustaleti Salv., 
called ngaanga by the natives, is peculiar to the Marianne islands. It 
is closely allied to species occurring in Hawaii and Samoa. 

SEA BIRDS. No gulls are found in the vicinity of the island. Nod- 
dies, Anous leucocapillm Gould and Anous stolidus (L. ), called " fahan," 
by the natives, are common. The beautiful snow-white tern, Gygis 
alba klttlitzl Hartert, called "change" by the natives breeds on the 
island in great numbers, not making a nest but laying its single white 
egg on the bare branch of a tree. The common booby Sula sula (L.), 
is common in the vicinity of the island. Great numbers of them may 
always be seen off the coast of Orote Peninsula, and the red-footed 
booby (Sida piscalrix L.) with white plumage, also occurs. They 
pursue flying fish, and dart into the water from great heights. The 
frigate bird, Fregata aquila (L.), called "payaaya" by the natives, is 
not rare, but is seldom seen near the shore of Guam. The tropic 
bird, Phaethon lepturus Daudin, nests on the northern islands of the 
group. a 

REPTILES.* 

There are few reptiles in Guam. The most conspicuous is a large 
lizard ( Varanus sp.) about -i feet long, of a black color speckled with 
lemon-yellow dots. The combination of these colors gives to the ani- 
mal a greenish appearance as it runs through the bushes. As in the 
Guam kingfisher or "sihig" we have a lizard-eating bird, so in this 
animal, called "hilitai" by the natives, we have a bird-eating lizard. 



"Students of ornithology are referred to the report of Quoy and Gainiard in the 
zoology of the Freycinet Expedition; Oustalet's "les mammiferes et les oiseaux des 
lies Mariannes;" Hartert "on the birds of the Marianne Islands;" and Scale's 
" Report of a mission to Guam." See list ( f works. 

& I am indebted to Dr. Leonard Stejneger, of the U. S. National Museum, for the 
names of the reptiles. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 81 

It is a great pest, frequently visiting the ranches of the natives, eat- 
ing the eggs of fowls and young chickens, and robbing birds' nests. 
It is a common thing on walking through the woods of the island to 
hear an outcry among the birds and to discover one of these creatures 
in the vicinity of a nest which he has just robbed. Several pigeons 
belonging to the author were caught and killed by hilitais, their 
wings having been clipped to prevent their flying away from a ranch 
to which they had been carried. These lizards are eaten by Filipinos 
living in Guam, but the natives look upon them with disgust. 

All houses of Guam are frequented by small lizards called 
"geckos." They are harmless creatures and are welcomed by the 
natives on account of their habit of catching insects. Their toes are 
so constructed as to enable them to run upside-down on the ceiling 
and rafters with great rapidity. At night they may be seen quite 
motionless lying in wait for moths and other insects which may be 
attracted into the houses by the light. Three or four often pursue 
the same insect, approaching it stealthily like cats after their prey. 
From time to time they utter a chattering noise, which has won for 
them the name of " island canary birds." 

In the woods is a pretty blue-tailed skink (Emoia cyanura Lesson), 
a small lizard with a tail the color of turquoise and with longitudinal 
bronze lines along the back. The only snake on the island is Typhlops 
hraminus (Daudin), a small species, with microscopic eyes and mouth 
and covered with minute scales. It is sometimes called " blind-worm," 
from its general resemblance to a large earthworm, and is found in 
damp places, under stones and logs. Turtles are common in the sea, 
but are seldom taken. 

FISHES. a 

GENERAL NOTES. 

The fishes of Guam have been collected by Quoy and Gaimard and 
Mr. Alvin Seale, of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Hawaii. 6 
Although the natives do not devote themselves to fishing so exten- 
sively now as was formerly the case, yet many of them have cast nets 
with which they catch small fish swimming in schools near the beach, 
and a few have traps and seines. The ancient custom of trawling for 
bonitos and flying fish has nearly died out, but the natives still resort 
occasionally to the method pursued by their ancestors of stupefying 
fish with the crushed fruit of Barrmgtonia speciosa, a narcotic widely 

I am indebted to Dr. Barton W. Evermann, of the U. S. Fish Commission, for 
revising the scientific names of the fishes and for reading the proof of the following 
list. 

6 See director's report for 1900, Honolulu, Hawaii, Bishop Museum Press, 1901, 
p. 61. 

977305 6 



82 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

used for this purpose in the islands of the Pacific. The fruit is 
pounded into a paste, inclosed in a bag, and kept over night. The 
time of an especially low tide is selected, and bags of the pounded 
fruit are taken out on the reef the next morning and sunk in certain 
deep holes in the reef. The fish soon appear at the surface, some of 
them lifeless, others attempting to swim, or faintly struggling with 
their ventral side uppermost. The natives scoop them up in nets, 
spear them, or jump overboard and catch them in their hands, some- 
times even diving for them. Nothing more striking could be imagined 
than the picture presented by the conglomeration of strange shapes 
and bright colors snake-like sea eels (Ophicthus, Muraena, and 
Echidna); voracious lizard-fishes (Sy nodus); gar-like hound-fishes 
(Tylosurus), with their jaws prolonged into a sharp beak; half-beaks 
(Hemiramphus), with the lower jaw projecting like an awl and the 
upper one having the appearance of being broken off; long-snouted 
trumpet-fishes (Fistularia); flounders (Platophryspavo)', porcupine-fish 
(Diodonhy strive), bristling with spines; mullets of several kinds (Mugil), 
highly esteemed as food-fishes; pike-like Sphyraenas; squirrel fishes 
(Holocentrus) of the brightest and most beautiful colors scarlet, rose- 
color and silver, and yellow and blue; surmullets (Upcneus and Pseud- 
npeH<nw) of various shades of yellow, marked with bluish lines from the 
eye to the snout; parrot-fishes (Scarus), with large scales, parrot-like 
beaks, and intense colors, some of them a deep greenish blue, others 
looking as though painted with blue and pink opaque colors; variega- 
ted Chaetodons, called " sea butterflies" by the natives; black-and- 
yellow banded banner-fish (Zanclus canescens)', trunkfishes (Ostracion), 
with horns and armor; gaily striped lancet fish (Teuthis lineatus) 
called Idyug; leopard-spotted groupers (Epinephelus hexagonatus), 
like the cabrillas of the Peruvian coast; cardinal-fishes (Apogon fascia- 
tn#) striped from head to tail with bands of black and flesh color; 
hideous-looking, warty toadfishes, "nufu" armed with poisonous 
spines, much dreaded by the natives; and a black fish (Monoceros mar- 
ginatm), with a spur on its forehead. 

As many young fish unfit for food arc destroyed by this process, 
the Spanish Government forbade this method of fishing; but since the 
American occupation of the island the practice has been revived. 

Jn the mangrove swamps when the tide is low hundreds of little 
fishes with protruding eyes may be seen hopping about in the mud and 
climbing among the roots of the Rhizophora and Bruguiera. These 
are the widely spread P&riophthalmus koelreuteri, belonging to a 
group of fishes interesting from the fact that their air-bladder has 
assumed in a measure the function of lungs, enabling the animal to 
breathe atmospheric air. 

Following I give a list of some of the Guam fishes arranged accord- 
ing to their vernacular names: 



FISHES. 83 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PRINCIPAL FISHES. 

Ababang ( ' ' Butterfly " ) . 

A name applied to several snort, flat fishes with conspicuous mark- 
ings, such as species of Chaetodon and Zanclus; also to the pretty little 
Tetradrachmum so abundant in tide pools on the coral reefs. Among 
these are Chaetodon ornatissimus (Solander), ornamented with black 
and yellow stripes. In Samoa allied species are called "tifitifi" 
("adorned"). 

Ababang gupalau. Zanclus canescens L. 

A beautiful harlequin, or banner-fish, with an elongated dorsal fin 
and black, yellow, and white transverse (vertical) bands. In Hawaii 
this species is called "kihikihi;" in Samoa "tifitifi." 

Ababang pintado. Tetradrachmum aruanum L. 

A beautiful and striking little fish, common in the tide pools of the 
reef, silvery and yellow, with black spots and bands. 

Agman, or Hagman. Muraena tile Ham. 

A sea eel, brownish; common. In Samoa allied species are called 
" pusi;" in Hawaii " puhi." 

Agman, or Hag-man, atulong. Muraena nigra Day. 

A dark-colored sea eel which lurks in holes in the coral-reef. 

Bayag, or Badyag. Fistularia depressa L. 
Trumpet-fish; trompetero (Spanish). 

Boca dulce. Polydactylus sexfilis Cuv. & Val. 

A fish with shark-like mouth and large eyes; steel-blue on back," 1 
whitish on rest of body. Edible. Called "barbudo"in Spanish. In 
Hawaii called " moi, or " moi Hi;" in Samoa allied species called " afa." 

Buha. Lutianus monostigma (Cuv. & Val.). 

Snapper; with a black spot on the lateral line under the anterior 
soft dorsal ra}^. 

Butele. Diodon hystrix L. 

Porcupine-fish. In Porto Rico called " guanabano," after the spiny- 
fruited sour sop (Annorta muricata}. In Samoa it is called "tautu;" 
in Hawaii it is regarded as poisonous, but is eaten after having been 
prepared with certain precautions. 

Chalag, or Chalak. Holocentrus spp. and Flammeo sammara (Forskal). 

A general name for squirrel-fishes. Ilolocentrus binolatuni, Q. & G. 
is of a beautiful rose-color with silver longitudinal stripes. Ilolocetitriw 
fmcostriatwi Scale is pinkish with longitudinal rows of black spots and 
a black spot on spinous part of dorsal fin; red on top of head. Tfolo- 
centru* diadema Lacep. is red with lighter longitudinal lines. These 
beautiful colors soon fade in alcohol. In Hawaii allied species are 
called u alaihi;" in Samoa " malau." 



84 USEB^UL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Dafa. Scarus cypho Scale. 

A parrot-fish; large scales and parrot-like beak; c&lor deep green- 
blue. 
Dariglon, or Danglun. Oslracion punctaius Bloch. 

A trunk-fish; body without ribs, inclosed by a hard carapax coin- 
posed of hexagonal plates; 2 horns in front and 2 in rear; black 
speckled with white. 

Fanihen-tasi ( ' ' sea-bat "). Stoasodon narinari (Euphr.). 

An eagle-ray, with pectoral fins developed like two broad wings, 
and a long flexible tail armed with a serrated spine. Color of upper 
surface blue spotted with white. 

Fomho, or Fdngho. Abudelduf spp. "Coral-fishes." 

Small and flat, resembling a sun -fish, usually with a dark transverse 
band on after part of the body near the tail. Abudelduf dick'd 
(Lienard) is livid pink with a black band on the posterior third of 
the body; caudal and pectoral fins yellowish white, dusky at the tip; 
remaining fins dusky. Abudelduf arnboinensis (Bleeker) has the 
caudal fin deeply forked with the lobes much produced; color brown- 
ish, lighter below; fins all washed with bluish except pectorals, which 
are white; deep brown spot at base and in axils of pectorals. 
Gadao. Epinephelus hexagonatus (Bloch). 

A "grouper" with leopard-like spots. Cabrilla (Spanish). 

Gadu. Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepede. 

Greenish with red stripes and dots on the head, 3 oblique lines from 
eye down sides of snout; each scale with red vertical lines; vertical 
fins green with light margins; ventrals green; pectorals yellow. Allied 
to the "poou" of Hawaii (C. hexagonatus Gunth.). 

Gadudog. Amphiprion spp. 

Am/phiprion bicinctus Riippell, has a cinnamon and black body with 
2 transverse bluish bands, 1 on cheek, and 1 on abdomen ; the first band 
of equal width with the eye and extending over the neck vertically 
down to the lower edge of the opercle; the other band extending down 
from the dorsal fin to the anal opening; caudal fin emarginate, upper 
lobe produced; color tawny. Amphiprion ephippium Bloch, is brown- 
ish black, lighter in front, with a blue band one and one-half times as 
wide as eye, extending from neck to eye, and down along the opercle 
and preopercle, ending in an acute angle on the subopercle; ventral 
and anal fins black; pectorals, caudal peduncle, and fin yellow. 

Gahga, or Gajga (Spanish orthog.). Parexocoetus and Cypselurus. Flying-fi^h* 

Guaguas, or Aguas. Mugil planiceps Cuv. & Val. Gray mullet. 

Color silvery with wash of yellow on body. Good food fish. 

Hag-man. See Agmau. Muraena spp. 



FISHES. 85 

Hagdnfa Oxymonacanthus longirostris Bleeker. 

A small file-fish; mouth like a turned-up beak; skin blue with orange 
spots. Collected June 14, 1900. 

Haluo. Carcharias melanoplerus Q. & G. 
A shark with dark-colored fins. 

Hamdktan. Zebrasoma guttatus Forster. 

A spotted lancet-fish. Body elevated, compressed, short; brownish 
speckled with round white dots; 2 bluish- white cross bands on the 
body and 1 on the shoulders, extending down on opercles; tail armed 
with spines; tail and ventral fins yellow; mouth like the snout of a 
sheep. This species occurs also in Hawaii. 

Hankut. Hemiramphus limbatus Cuv. & Val. Half-beak. 

Upper jaw short; lower jaw prolonged into a beak. In Samoa 
allied species are called u ise;" in Hawaii "ihe-ihe." 

Hasule. Anguilla sp. 

An eel living in fresh-water streams. Edible. 

Higum. Harpe axillaris (Bennett). 

A small-mouthed fish, belonging to the Labridae, the family which 
also includes the tatalun, gadu, and tatanung. The anterior half of 
the body is dark-colored, the posterior half of a livid salmon-color; 
caudal fin yellow; spinous dorsal fin brown; posterior half of soft 
dorsal and anal fins light yellowish; a deep black spot on the first 3 
dorsal spines; a black spot on base and in axil of pectoral fins. 

Hiting. Siganas hexagonata Giinther. 

Like a large sesyan (a little more than a foot long); dark purplish 
with yellowish hexagonal spots. Other species of Siganas are Siga- 
nas marmorata Q. & G., Siganas rostrata Cuv. & Val., which is 
bluish with indistinct markings of yellow spots and lines, and the 
"manahag," a fish which appears at intervals in great numbers and is 
preserved by the natives by drying. This name is probably applied 
to the young of the hiting or the sesyan, or perhaps of both. 

Hiyug or Hidyug. Teuthis lineatus Bloch. 

A beautiful surgeon-fish; body elevated, compressed; movable white 
spine on caudal peduncle; longitudinal stripes of yellow-black-blue- 
black-yellow extending back to root of caudal fin; blue line down 
middle of forehead, dividing and forming ring about mouth; other 
blue lines on each side of this. In Samoa this species is called 
"alongo." 

Hugupau. Monoceros garretti Seale. 

A black surgeon -fish, with two bony plates or keels on caudal 
peduncle, having a yellow base; caudal fin black with subterminal 
band of yellow and a marginal band of white; dorsal fin black with a 
submarginal line of white, which begins very narrow and widens 



86 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

posteriorly to half the width of the fin. It has a narrow margin of 
black above this, but it has no colored line at base of dorsal as in 
M. Lituratus. The name "hugiipau" is applied also to M. lituratus 
(Forst.), with the yellow coloring of the bases of the caudal plates 
intermingling, and with a colored line along the base of the dorsal fin. 
Another allied species, M. margmatusCuv. & Val.,is called "tataga." 

Kakaka. Lutianus fulvus ( Bloch) . 

A snapper; pinkish and yellowish, with dark tail and yellow pecto- 
rals and ventrals; dark spot at base of pectorals; upper part of dorsal 
black with narrow white margin, and narrow white margin on tail. 
In Samoa allied species called "mu-mea" and " tavai-uliuli " are 
sometimes poisonous. 

Laiguan. Mugil waigiensis Q. & G. 

Mullet; called '"lisa" by the Spanish. Head flat; scales large; body 
silvery with slight wash of yellow; darker above; pectorals dusky 
with lower margins yellowish. A favorite food fish. 

Lansi. Apogon fasciatus Q. & G. 

Small; livid flesh-color, striped longitudinally with black from head 
to tail. Abundant on reefs, associated with chretodons and other 
coral fishes. 

Loro. 

A name applied in Guam to species of Scarus, or parrot-fishes, and 
to the genus Gomphosus. Scarus celebricus Bloch is a beautiful species 
of a deep cobalt blue and pink color; scales large. Gomphosus tri- 
color Q. & G.: intense dark green and dark blue; snout elongated; 
a yellow marking as wide as orbit from lower part of pectoral axis to 
a little above a lateral line on shoulders; pectorals dusky with a deep 
blue band across posterior third; tail } T ellow, outer margin blue-green. 
Allied species ("panuhunuhu") are sometimes eaten raw by the 
Hawaiians. 

Maching. PenopMhalmus koelreuteri ( Pal las ) . 

Mangrove-hopper. A small, brown, flabby fish with livid flesh-color 
markings, its air bladder modified into a breathing organ. It leaves 
the water and hops about stones and on the mangrove roots and muddy 
bottom of salt-water mud flats. 

Mafuti. Lutianus bonhamensis Giinther. 

Pale greenish snapper with pinkish fins and tail, sometimes a black 
spot on sides; a favorite food fish; can be caught with a hook. Among 
other species of Lutianus, are the kakaka (L. fulvus), the buha 
(L. monostigma); L. bengalensis (with 4 blue-brown edged stripes 
along the side of the yellowish body) ; and L. erythropierus (yellowish 
white with wash of reddish brown; dorsal fin with a fine black margin). 



FISHES. 87 

Magahan. Scarus cerebricus (Bloch). 

A deep green-blue parrot-fish, with large scales and parrot-like 
beak; resembling the dafa (8. cypho), but smaller. 
Manahag. Siganas manahak Q. & G. 

Fish which appear at intervals in great numbers; dried and pre- 
served by natives. Probably the "young of Sigan-as marmorata Q. & 
G., and Siganas hexagonata Giinth. 

Nufu. Synanceia thersites Seale. 

A hideous toadfish with poisonous dorsal spines; brownish with 
mottlings of dark brown; covered with warts; mouth directed upward. 
Much dreaded by the natives, in Samoa an allied species is called 
*' nofu," or " ngofu." 

Pipupu. Perds cephalopunctatus Seale. 

A fish belonging to the Agonidae, or sea-poachers, marked with 
vertical, snake-like bands of brown. In spirits, upper surface green- 
ish, with 9 indistinct darker lines over the back; below axis the color 
is yellowish white with 9 greenish bands; the upper parts of these 
bands are all united by a narrow greenish line on the axis, extending 
from axis of pectoral to lower part of caudal fin; just above this line 
and alternating with green bands of lower half are 9 greenish spots 
with yellowish white margins from pectoral fin to caudal. 

Poldnon. Amanses sandivichensis Gray. (Susada, Spanish.) 

A black file-fish with yellowish fins; body elevated and compressed; 
teeth like those of a sheep; 4 spines each side of tail and 1 on back; 
youngest individuals without the spines on the tail. 
Pulan. Kuhlia rupestris (Lacepede. ). 

A dark silvery fish, bluish above. Lives in fresh-water streams. 
In Hawaii allied species are called "aholehole;" in Samoa "sesele." 

Piilus. Tylosurns giganteus Schlegel. 

A garfish; long beak. It is identical with the Hawaiian " au-au." 

Sagamelong. Myripristis murdjan (Forskal.). 

A squirrel-fish of a beautiful deep rose color; gill-openings and 
axillae of pectoral fins black; eyes large. In Hawaii this species is 
ca.led u u~u;" in Samoa allied species called u malau." 

Sagsag. 

A red fish with large eyes; probably a species of Holocentrus; 
edible. 

Salmonete. Vpeneus saffordi Seale. 

A fish belonging to the Mullidae, or surmullets, having 2 long bar- 
bules growing from throat extending back as far as base of ventral 
fins; scales large; pinkish yellow, with bright }^ellow fins; yellow 
stripe down side; saddle of bright yellow extending over the upper 
part of caudal peduncle and down the lateral line, with 2 distinct bluish 



88 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

lines from eye two-thirds of distance down sides of snout; iris bright 
yellow. The name salmonete is also applied to other Mullidae, or goat- 
fishes, one of which, Mulloides flavolineatus Lacep., has a yellowish 
stripe down the side and a dusky back. In Samoa allied species called 
"i'a-sina" (white fish); in Hawaii "weke." 

Sapisapi. Pempheris otaitensis (Cuv. & Val. ). 

A small fish of a beautiful glossy rose purple; eyes large; snout 
blunt; back straight; belly curved. Belongs to the Pempheridae. 

Sesiog 1 . Holocentrus unipunctatus Gimther. 

A squirrel-fish of a beautiful crimson color, with a number of lines of 
darker red. This color fades in spirits, the fish becoming a grayish 
white, except a small blotch of black between the first and second dor- 
sal spines near the base. 

Sesyan, Siyan, or Sidyan. Siganas marmorata (Q. & G.)- 

Blackish purple; mackerel-shaped; head and back covered with ver- 
miculated lines, which are wavy and longitudinal on sides. Belongs 
to the Teuthidae or lancet-fishes. Edible. The young are called 
"maiiahag." 

Sihig. Scolopsis lineatus Q. & G. 

Greenish and pink; head curved; eyes large; an indistinct line from 
snout to first dorsal spine; 2 distinct lines from above the orbit to 
sixth and seventh rays of soft dorsal; a third line wider anteriorly 
and more or less broken from upper third of eye to just abaft the after 
margin of the dorsal fin; a fourth line forms the boundary of the col- 
oring along the median line from eye to caudal; 6 to 7.50 inches long. 
The vernacular name taken from that of the Guam kingfisher, Halcyon 
cinnamominus Swainson, which is greenish 1)1 ue and cinnamon-colored. 
Tampat. Plntophrys pavo Q. & G. 

A flounder; good food fish. In Samoa allied species called "all." 

Tarakito. Carangus ascensionis ( Forster. ) . 

A pompano; silvery, with wash of yellow; pectorals yellow; dorsal 
and anal bluish (in spirits); a favorite food fish; caught by hook; usu- 
ally tiao used for bait. In Samoa and Hawaii allied species cafed 
"ulua." 

Tataga. Monoceros marginatus Cuv. & Val. 

A black fish with a spur on its forehead and two sharp bony plates 
on peduncle of tail; in younger specimens spur shorter; in youngest 
spur and tail plates absent; in spirits of a dirty olive, slightly lighter 
below. 
T&talun. Anampses coeruleopunctatus (Riippell). 

Brown, reddish on belly; bright blue spots and 8 to 10 blue lines 
marking the head; most of them radiating from the eye; pectorals 
yellow, their bases black; ventrals dusky, the first rays blue; caudal 
dusky, with numerous blue spots; dorsal and anal with 2 or 3 rows of 



FISHES. 89 

spots or lines. In Samoa allied species called "sungale;" in Hawaii 
"opule"or "hilu." 

Tatanung. Com ayyula Lacepede. 

Blackish; pectorals margined with yellow; opercular flap of a deep 
blue; prominent hump on nape of neck; teeth projecting curved for- 
ward; length, 13 inches. 

Tiao. 

Silvery, small; like small salmonete (Mullidae); a favorite food fish 
with flavor like smelt. 

ToriHo. Ostracion cornutus L. 

A curious small fish with hard carapax covering the body; 2 frontal 
spines resemble the horns of an ox, therefore the common name; also 
2 posterior spines. 

Ugupa amarilla. Holacanihus cyanotis Gunther. 

A short flat fish with a blunt head; yellow, with blue ring around 
the eye and a blue line down the posterior edge of the opercle. Fins 
yellow, dorsal, caudal, and anal with a marginal line of bluish black. 

MARINE INVERTEBRATES." 

Guam offers most favorable conditions for the study of marine 
invertebrates. On the western coast of the island there are broad 
fringing coral reefs and level platforms, covered even at high tide 
with only a few feet of water and at low water bare over considerable 
areas. Here a collector in a boat or wading, with his feet protected 
from the sharp spines of sea-urchins and the rough branches of the 
coral, can always get abundance of material. . When the reef is cov- 
ered with a foot of water and there is no breeze to ruffle the surface 
the bottom appears like a garden, the corals and marine annelids 
expanding like beautiful rayed composites. On the bottom lie fungia 
corals, like huge inverted mushrooms, with pale green tentacles 
expanding from their radiating laminae; indigo-blue, five-fingered star- 
fish; sea-urchins; and holothurians. Some of the latter creep about 
like huge brown slugs. If one attempts to pick them up they thrust 
one of their extremities between the branches of coral or into a crev- 
ice of the rock, and by forcing water to that part of the bod} 7 distend 
it and wedge it so tightly that it can not be removed without being 
torn in two. A long translucent holothurian (Synapta) moves through 
the water so rapidly that it is caught with difficult} 7 . When lifted 
from the water it hangs limp and helpless, like a skin full of water, 
its internal organs showing distinctly through the body wall. As 
soon as it is dropped back into its native element it makes off at a great 
speed and soon finds shelter in some hole in the reef. 

(t I am indebted to Miss Mary J. Rathbim, of the U. S. National Museum, for revis- 
ing the names of the crustaceans mentioned below. 



90 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Among the mollusks are a number of handsome olives, cones, and 
many small cowries which evidently feed upon the coral. There are 
also naked mollusks that protect themselves by spurting forth clouds 
of purple fluid. File-fishes, tetrodons, and other fishes are always 
seen nibbling at the coral. Sometimes a great sea porcupine makes 
for them, and off they all swim as though afraid for their lives. 

The natives eat many kinds of marine animals, but they do not 
depend upon the reef to the extent that the Samoans and Caroline 
Islanders do, having become essentially an agricultural people, and 
few of them find it to their advantage to neglect their fields for fish- 
ing. In former times several governors found it profitable to collect 
and dry certain kinds of holothurians, called u trepang," or u beches 
de mer," and ship them to Manila or Canton; but these animals are 
no longer sought in Guam, and are seldom eaten by the natives. 

Crabs of several kinds abound, most of them of wide distribution in 
the Pacific. Some of them( u alimasag") have shells brightly decorated 
with orange-red spots (Zosimiis aeneus (L.)), others are covered with 
spines, and others, when they fold in their claws, look like smooth, 
waterworn bowlders. Scrambling over rocks along the shore are 
Grapsus grapxm tcnuicrustatus (Herbst.), of a deep red color, speckled 
and striped with yellow. Spiny lobsters or crayfish (Panulirus), with 
long antennae and carapax covered with spines, abound at certain 
points along the coast; and in the fresh-water streams on the islands 
are delicate semi transparent prawns (Bithynis), which move about the 
pools in a stealthy ghostlike manner, and are almost invisible to the 
casual observer. Both the spiny lobsters and the prawns are valued 
as food. 

Among the land crabs is Cardisoma rotundum Q. & G., which bur- 
rows in the ground and does great damage to gardens. This is caught 
in traps made of bamboo by the natives. It visits the sea at regular 
intervals to deposit its eggs, going after nightfall in straight lines 
and climbing over all obstacles in its way. Among the hermit crabs 
are Aniculus amculus (Herbst.), with a red carapax ornamented with 
deep red spots, and Dardanus punctulatus (Olivier), prettily marked 
with blue ocelli with white centers. The most interesting of all the 
land crustaceans is the well-known Birgus latro (L.), or robber crab, 
called "ayuyu," which is kept in captivity by the natives and fattened 
on coconuts for the table. 

INSECTS. b 

The insects of Guam have never been systematically collected. Man}^ 
of those now occurring on the island have undoubtedly been introduced 

Chamisso, Tagebuch, p. 243. 

&I am indebted to Dr. W. H. Ashmead, of the U. S. National Museum, for the 
names of the insects mentioned. 



INSECTS. 91 

since the discovery. The butterflies are not especially striking to the 
casual observer. Among them is the widely spread tawny -colored 
milkweed butterfly, Anosia ple&ippus Fabr., which has found its way to 
Guam, together with the introduced Asdepias curassavica, on which 
its larva feeds. Both the plant and the insect, although of American 
origin, now occur on many islands of the Pacific Ocean. Among the 
night-flying lepidoptera there is a large sphinx moth (Protoparce celeus 
Hbrt.), the larva of which feeds on the tobacco plant and resembles 
very closely the tobacco worms of America. It is possible that this 
insect may have lived on the island before the introduction of tobacco, 
feeding upon some solanaceous plant, but it is probable that it came to 
Guam with the tobacco. Possibly its eggs were brought on dried 
leaves of the plant. Among the other pests introduced by the 
foreigner are clothes moths (Tinea pellionella L.). In the zoology of 
the Freycinet expedition several butterflies collected in Guam, includ- 
ing an Argynnis and two species of Dariai's, were described as new. 

Among the hymenoptera there are several interesting species of 
wasps and ants. One wasp, probably a species of Polistes (P. hebraem 
Fabr.?), is social in its habits. During the greater part of the year 
it frequents open fields, building its nests in bushes a foot or two 
from the ground, attaching them to a limb by a peduncle with the 
mouth of the cells pointed downward, and not covered by a papery 
wall, as in our hornets' nests. In these cells the eggs are laid and 
the larvse are fed. When about to undergo transformation the 
larvae spin a covering which seals up the cell. The males differ 
from the female in appearance and are stingless. Besides the males 
and perfect females there are workers. Both the females and the 
workers sting, but their sting is not very severe. These insects 
are very abundant all over the island, especially in abandoned clear- 
ings grown up to guavas and other low bushes. It is almost impos- 
sible to cross such a field without stirring up a nest or two, and 
one of the commonest occurrences on an excursion is to hear a loud 
outcry on the part of your guide, whose naked legs are covered 
with the stings of the "sasata-," as they are called. In revenge he 
usually finds a dry leaf of a coconut, which he converts into a torch 
and burns the nest. These wasps are not very pugnacious, and will 
only sting when they think their nest is attacked. After it has been 
burned they fly round and round the place without attempting to take 
vengeance. In the winter time (the month of December) they flock 
into houses in great numbers and settle upon some prominent point 
on the ceiling or on a chandelier, clinging together in masses like 
swarming bees. There they remain for a month or two in a state of 
torpidity. They are disagreeable guests, as they have a habit of drop- 
ping to the floor from time to time, and it is not unusual on getting out 
of bed in the morning to step on one of them, too stupid to fly but 



92 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

lively enough to sting. On one of the Government vessels, which had 
visited Guam in January, were found some of these wasps after her 
arrival in San Francisco. They had sought an asylum while she lay 
in the harbor of Apra, and remained hibernating during the return 
voyage of the vessel. Another species found on board was a solitary 
wasp, a species of Odynerus or an allied genus. The mother had made 
a series of mud-like cells in a pamphlet, which had remained rolled up, 
and in each cell she had deposited a small green caterpillar, the larva 
of one of the smaller moths of the island, laying an egg and sealing 
up the cell and then making another cell on top of it and repeating the 
operation. In Guam these cell-making wasps are very common. 
Every hole in the wall of a house is plastered up by them; rolled-up 
magazines or newspapers lying on the table, bamboos, empty car- 
tridge cases, even gun barrels everything which is tubular in shape 
is filled by their cells. Their sting stupefies the caterpillar, but does 
not kill it, and their larvre in eating their animal food are much more 
active than those of pollen-feeding species, turning their heads from 
side to side and living for some time after having been taken from 
their cells. 

Among the ants ("otdot," or "utdut") there is one (Solenopsis sp. ?) 
of which the workers are very small and sting severely. The females 
are considerably larger. These little creatures, when out on foraging 
expeditions, travel in lines and sting every animal that crosses their 
path. Sometimes young chickens are killed by them. They are com- 
mon in houses, and it is not unusual on turning in at night to find a 
line of them crossing the bed. In another species belonging to the 
same family (Myrmicidae), probably of the genus Pheidole, there is a 
form with enormously developed cubical heads and strong jaws, called 
""soldiers." It is very interesting to watch these insects swarm. They 
come out of the ground in great numbers. Both the males and females 
are winged. The females are very much larger than the males and the 
workers are smaller. The soldiers, which are very conspicuous, are 
sometimes called " workers major," and the common small-headed form 
"workers minor." Soon after swarming the sexes mate. They then 
lose their wings and establish new colonies. Another stinging ant, 
much larger and of a black color, is called u hating." 

Leaf -cutting ants, the pests of many tropical countries, are happity 
absent from Guam. Consequently, gardens do not need to be pro- 
tected from them, and the green turf and luxuriant herbage of the 
island offers a most pleasing contrast to the bare earth and canal- 
protected gardens of Central America and Brazil. 

The diptera are represented by several species of flies and at least 
two mosquitoes. It has been asserted that the early natives blamed 
the Spaniards for having introduced both flies and mosquitoes to 



INSECTS. 



93 



Guam. a This is probably false, since the vernacular names of these 
insects in Guam are etymologically identical with the names of the 
same insects through the greater part of Melanesia, Polynesia, and New 
Zealand, and have evidently the same origin as the modern Malayan. 



English. 


Guam. 


Melanesian. 


Samoan. 


Haw. 


Malayan. 


Maori. 


Fly. 
Mosquito. 


Lalo. 
ftamo. 


lango. 
namu. 


lango. 
namu. 


nalo. 


langau. 
namok. 


rigaro. 
waeroa. 


Louse. 


Huto. 


gutu. 


'utu. 


uku. 


kutu. 


kutu. 


Maggot. 


U16. 




ilo. 









The common Malay word for fly is "lala," yet "langau" is also 
used. In New Zealand either "ngaro" or "range" is used, and the 
first form is etymologically identical with the Hawaiian "nalo." Evi- 
dently the aborigines of Guam, in common with the inhabitants of 
most of the Pacific islands, were familiar with flies, mosquitoes, and 
lice before the arrival of the Spaniards. On the other hand, it is 
probable that fleas and bedbugs were introduced, as there are no Cha- 
morro words for these insects. In Samoa the flea is called "Fijian 
louse." In Codrington's comparative vocabulary of the Melanesian 
languages it is not given. It is interesting to note in this connection 
that in Hawaii, where the approximate date of the introduction of 
the mosquito is known, there is no Hawaiian name for it, and in New 
Zealand its name is of independent origin and is quite distinct from 
the common Malayan and Polynesian forms. 

Mosquitoes are very troublesome both day and night in Guam. The 
day-flying species avoids the sunlight, but makes life a burden in the 
shade. All Europeans sleep under mosquito nets, and the natives 
habitually make a smudge in their houses after dark to smoke out the 
night-flying species. This is effective if the lights in the house are 
first extinguished and not relighted. 

Fleas are not common; the climate is probably too damp for them 
to flourish. The author passed a year on the island without seeing 
either a flea or a bedbug. Neither do lice appear to be abundant. 
This may be owing to the habit of the natives of frequently washing 
the hair with soap oranges and bergamots. 

a Ces Europeans " veulent nous persuader qu'ils nous rendent heureux, et plusieurs 
d'entre nous sont assez aveugles pour lea en croire sur leur parole. Mais pourrions- 
nous avoir ces sentimens, si nous faisions reflexion qtie nous ne sommes accablez de 
miseres et de maladies, que depuis que ces etrangers sont venus nous desoler et 
troubler notre repos. Avant leur arrivee dans ces isles, scavions-nous ceque c'etoitque 
toutes ces insectes qui nous persecutent si cruel lenient? Connoissions-nous les rats, 
les souris, les mouches, les mosquites, et tous ces autres petits animaux, qui ne sont 
au monde que pour nous tourmenter? Voila les beaux pre"sens qu'ils nous ont faits, 
et que leurs machines flotantes nous ont apportez!" (Le Gobien, Charles. Histoire 
des isles Mariannes, nouvellement converties a la religion Chre"tienne, p. 141, Paris, 
1700.) 



94 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Among the Hemiptera besides lice there are plant lice of several 
kinds, large water bugs (Belostoma) in stagnant pools, and swarms of 
Ploteres, which skip over the surface of the water. Several varieties 
of roses have been introduced into Guam, but happily the rose aphis 
(Siphonophora) has not reached the island. 

Among the Neuroptera arc several handsome dragon flies, one of 
which is bright red. Termites, or " white ants, "called "anai" by the 
natives, are pests. They do great injury to books and furniture and 
to the woodwork of houses, often building covered galleries of mud 
along the walls of a room. In construction wood must be chosen 
which will resist the attacks of these insects. It is not an uncommon 
occurrence for a chair or table to collapse, and to find that it has been 
honeycombed by termites. Sometimes they form continuous galleries 
through a whole shelf of books or a pile of manuscript. These insects 
do not confine their attacks to dead wood; the} 7 attack living trees and 
are among the insects injurious to the cacao. a 

Among the Coleoptera may be mentioned the weevils, which destroy 
great quantities of corn, rice, and other farinaceous food. Grain must 
be thoroughly dried in the sun and then stowed in earthen jars for 
protection against these pests. 

The Orthoptera are represented by several species of grasshoppers, 
which furnish excellent food for chickens and turkeys, and which do 
not seem to cause much injury to the crops of the island. Mole crickets 
(Gryllotalpae) are very common. 

SCORPIONS, SPIDERS, AND CENTIPEDES. 

A small scorpion is common in Guam. Its sting is painful, but not 
dangerous. Among the spiders one of the most interesting is a large 
dark brown species, probably belonging to the Epeiridae, which car- 
ries about with it a white disk-shaped membranous case tilled with 
eggs. There are no tarantulas nor other dangerous spiders. Wood 
ticks (Acarina) are great pests and sometimes infest cattle to such an 
extent as to cause them to sicken and die. 

Centipedes, called "sajigao" by the natives, are common. They 
inflict a very, painful but not dangerous bite. They are usually found 
in damp places under stones or rotten wood, the mother often sur- 
rounded by a brood of brightly colored young, similar to her in form. 
Like spiders and crustaceans they cast their skins in growing. The 
jaws are modifications of a pair of legs. They are sharp, prehensile, 
and fang-like, and are perforated at the tip so as to inject their venom 
into the wound inflicted by them. Their body is flattened, so that they 
can force their way into small cracks, under stones ani beneath the 



See Banks, Report of the Philippine Commission, 1903 4 Pt. 2, p. 605, figs, 166 
to 169. 



ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 95 

loose bark of trees, in search of their insect prey. They are carnivo- 
rous and seize their victims with their pincer-like jaws, injecting their 
venom. They are very quick in their movements and tenacious of 
life. When one is cut in two each part makes off in an independent 
direction at full speed, but the posterior part does not get very far. 

THE PEOPLE. 

ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. a 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

The aborigines of Guam were described by the early navigators and 
missionaries as fine-looking, tall, robust, well built, and of better pro- 
portions than the Spaniards, though sometimes inclined to be corpulent, 
and as possessing u great strength fitting to their statures." They were 
of a brown color (un pardo bazo), lighter than the natives of the 
Philippine Islands and taller than they. Their hair was naturally jet 
black, but at the time of LegazpFs visit was bleached to a yellow color. 
At the time of the discovery the men wore it loose or coiled in a knot 
on the top of the head. Later they were described as shaving the head 
with the exception of a crest about a finger long, which they left on 
the crown. Some of the men were bearded. The women, too, were 
tall. They were handsome and graceful and fairer and more delicate 
than the men, and at the time of the discovery wore their hair so long 
that it touched the ground.* No mention is made of tatooing or of 
piercing the ears or nose. Both sexes anointed themselves Avith coco- 
nut oil. The natives were remarkably free from disease and ph3 7 sical 
defects, and many of them lived to an advanced age, a for among those 
alone who were baptized the first year of the mission there were more 
than 120 who were past the age of a hundred years; owing perhaps to 
their rugged constitutions, inured from their infancy to distempers 
which afterwards do not affect them, or to the uniformity and natural- 
ness (naturalidad) of their food without the artifice which gluttony has 
introduced to waste the life which it sustains, or to their occupations 
necessitating plenty of exercise without too great fatigue, or to the 
absence of vices and worries which are roses and thorns whose prick - 

The information regarding the aborigines of Guam is derived from the narratives 
of early navigators and from contemporary accounts of the Jesuit missionaries who 
first settled on the island. The most important of the former are Pigafetta's history 
of Magellan's voyage, the several narratives of Legazpi's expedition in the archives 
at Madrid, and those of Gaspar and Grijalva, who accompanied Legazpi. The latter 
were published at Madrid in 1685 by Padre Francisco Garcia, of the Society of Jesus, 
in his Vida y martyrio del venerable Padre Diego Luis de Sanvitores. (See List 
of works.) 

&Le donne son belle, di ligura svelta, piu delicate e bianche degli uomini, con 
capegli nerissimi sciolti e lunghi fino a terra. (Pigafetta, Primo viaggio intorno al 
globo terracqueo, p. 51, Milano, 1800. ) 



96 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

ing and piercing put an end to man or perhaps all of these causes 
combined contribute to the prolix age of these islanders. As they 
know few infirmities so the} 7 know few medicines, and cure themselves 
with a few herbs which necessity and experience have taught them to 
be possessed of some virtue. " a 

Both sexes were expert swimmers and were as much at ease in 
the water as on land. As they threw themselves into the sea and came 
bounding from wave to wave they reminded Pigafetta of dolphins. 
The men were good divers. Legazpi states that they would catch fish 
in their hands. The children accompanied their parents while fishing, 
and were so expert in the water that Garcia declared they appeared 
rather fish than human beings. 

PERSONAL AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

CLOTHING AND ORNAMENTS. The men went absolutely naked, not 
even wearing a breech clout. 6 The women wore fringes of grass or 
leaves hanging from a waistband and sometimes aprons called "tifi," c 
described by Pigafetta as narrow and of paper-like consistenc} 7 , and 
said by him to be made from the inner bark of a palm. d Pigafetta 
was certainly mistaken as to the origin of this bark. The natives of 
Guam were not tapa makers like the Polynesians. No description of 
bark cloth is now made by them, but within the memory of some of the 
people still living aprons were made of the inner bark of the breadfruit 
during a long interval between the visits of European vessels, when 
the supply of foreign cloth became exhausted. In other islands the 
bark of banyans (Ficus spp.) is also used for this purpose. In the 
narrative of Legazpi's expedition it is also stated that "palm-leaf" 
mats were used by the women for aprons, the rest of the body being 
left uncovered. The men wore hats or eye shades of pandanus leaves 
while fishing. 

On festive occasions the women adorned their heads with wreaths 
of flowers or beads and disks of tortoise shell pendant from a band of 
red spondylus shells, which " they prized as highly as Europeans prize 
pearls," also making belts with pendants of ,-mall coconuts, nicely 
fitted over skirts or fringes of roots of trees, thus completing their 
gala attire, "which resembled rather a cage than a dress." Their 

a Garcia vida y martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 197. 

& Relation of Legazpi. 

c Padre Garcia' s History. It is interesting to find this name for bark-cloth aprons 
in the dialects of Isabel and Florida islands, of the Solomon group, where it has 
been transferred by the natives to introduced foreign cloth, which is now called 
"tivi." (See Coddrington, The Melanesians, p. 321, 1891.) 

d " Vanno per esse ignude, se non che coprono le parti vergognose con una corteccia 
stretta e sottile quanto la carta, tratta dalla scorza interna che sta fra la corteccia il 
legno della palma." (Pigafetta, l^rimo viaggio intorno al globo terracqueo, p. 51.) 



HOUSES OF THE ABORIGINES. 97 

teeth were stained black for the sake of ornament and they bleached 
their hair "with divers washes." 

HOUSES. According to the testimony of early writers their houses 
were high and neatly made and better constructed than those of any 
aboriginal race hitherto discovered in the Indies. They were rectan- 
gular in shape, with walls and roofs of palm leaves curiously woven. 
They were made of coconut wood and palo maria (Calophyllum in- 
ophyllum) and were raised from the ground on wooden posts or pillars 
of stone. In one of the narratives of the Legazpi expedition it is said 
that some of the houses supported on stone pillars served as sleeping 
apartments; others built on the ground were used for cooking and 
other work. Besides these there were large buildings that served as 
storehouses for all in common, wherein the large boats and covered 
canoes were kept. "These were very spacious, broad, and high, and 
worth seeing."" As described by the missionaries some of the houses 
had four rooms or compartments with doors or curtains of mats, one 
serving as a sleeping room, another as a storeroom for fruits, a third 
for cooking, and a fourth as a workshop and boathouse.^ Gaspar and 
Grijalva described one boathouse near the watering place as being 
supported on strong stone pillars and sheltering four of the largest 
canoes of the natives. Many of these stone or masonry pillars are 
still standing arranged in double rows. They are called " latde" or 
" casas de los antiguos" by the natives, who regard them with super- 
stitious dread. Much has been made of the pillars on the island of 
Tinian, shaped like the rest in the form of a truncated pyramid and 
capped by hemispherical stones, but in all probability they are nothing 
more than the remains of large houses which served the same purposes 
as the "arsenals," described in the narratives of the Legazpi expedi- 
tion. These large houses may be compared with the kiala of Florida 
and Isabel islands in the Solomon group, one of which is described as 
100 feet long by 50 feet wide and 50 feet high. In these great houses 
"the large canoes are kept, men congregate and young men sleep, 
strangers are entertained," and in some islands the skulls of the dead, 
called "mangiti" (in all probability corresponding to the word 
"aniti" of the Chamorros) were suspended/' The dwelling houses of 
Guam also resembled those of Isabel and Florida islands, which differ 
from typical Melanesian houses in being raised on piles, and in their 
neater construction. They are excellent dwellings, square in shape, 
with the side walls and the floor formed of split bamboos flattened and 
interlaced and the roof thatched with coconut leaves. 

The houses were grouped in villages located either on the beach in 



Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, vol. 2, p. 113, 1903. 
& Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Ranvitores, p. 197, 1685. 
cCodrington, The Melanesians, p. 299, 1891. 
977305 7 



98 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

proximity to a good harbor, on the banks of a river for the sake of a 
constant supply of fresh water, or on a high and inaccessible hill, as 
in the case of Chuchugo, for the sake of security from attack. Those 
on the beach were composed of 50 to 150 houses, those in the interior of 
from 20 down to a half dozen. The principal town was Agadna, on 
the west coast of the island, where a fine river, having its source in a 
great spring called u Matan-hanom," emptied into the sea. In all the 
larger villages there was a " great house " frequented by the " urritao," 
or bachelors, in which unmarried men and women lived together. 

The houses contained little that could be called furniture. There 
were common floor mats, diagonally braided, and sleeping mats, some 
of very fine texture, made from the leaves of the textile Pandarms. 
The water vessels were not coconut shells, as in many Polynesian 
islands, but sections of large hollow bamboos, about 5 or 6 feet long, 
which were inclined against the wall. There were coarse bags of Pan- 
danus matting holding dried breadfruit, and every native carried a 
finely woven bag of the same material containing betel nut. Coarse 
baskets were made of fresh coconut leaves, as required, to be thrown 
away when dry and useless. Baskets of better construction were 
woven from strips of- bamboo (piao). In the. kitchen there was a hole 
in the ground and a pile of stones for an oven. 

FOOD. They subsisted principally on fruits, yams, taro, and fish. 
They ate coconuts prepared in various ways, sugar cane, bananas, 
plantains, and breadfruit. The last was in season only about four 
months of the year, but after it yams became mature. In the times 
of famine following hurricanes they resorted to the woods for u fadang," 
or nuts of Cycas circinalis, the poisonous properties of which they 
removed by soaking and repeatedly changing the water, after which the 
macerated starchy substance was ground in cavities of convenient 
stones and baked. For relishes they ate certain seaweeds, Terminalia 
nuts, and the kernels of Pandanus seeds. Pandanus drupes, which are 
an important food staple on many islands, did not enter into their 
domestic economy, and the widely spread ''Polynesian chestnut" 
(Bocoa edulis) was absent from the island. They had neither sweet 
potatoes nor maize until after the discovery; nor did the yam bean 
(Cacara) occur on the island. Rice was cultivated by them and 
sold to visiting ships. They regarded it as a luxury and kept it for 
their feasts. They did not practice cannibalism. Indeed the early 
navigators said that they could not be induced to eat meat of any kind. 
Although they had pigs at a very early date it is probable that these 
were introduced after the discovery. They also had fowls and kept 
doves in captivity, but we have no evidence that the} T ate them. They 
could not be induced to eat eels, ,and spoke disparagingly of some of 
the earl} 7 missionaries for eating them. The creamy juice expressed 
from the grated meat of ripe cocoanuts entered into the composition 



FOOD OF THE ABORIGINES. 99 

of several of their dishes. As was nearly the universal custom 
throughout the tropical Pacific, they cooked in pits in the earth in 
which they built fires and heated stones, covering their food with 
hot stones and leaves somewhat after the manner of a New England 
clambake. Cooking in this manner they called "chahan." To cook 
on the embers they called "peha." Few articles of their food could 
be eaten raw. Fish called "manahag"" were caught in great quanti- 
ties at certain periods, dried in the sun, and stored for future con- 
sumption. Breadfruit was cut into thin slices and dried. It could be 
kept for a long time and eaten during the season when the fresh fruit 
was lacking. The dried slices could be eaten without further prepara- 
tion, or they could be prepared in various ways for food. At their 
feasts a sort of broth or stew was made of rice. Taro was not made 
into poi, as in the Hawaiian Islands. 

They did not eat to excess nor did they use wine or other intoxicat- 
ing liquor. It was not until the Spaniards brought Filipinos to Guam 
that the natives learned to ferment tuba from the sap of the coconut 
and to distill it into aguardiente. Water was their only beverage 6 
besides the milk of unripe coconuts. 

NARCOTICS. The custom of betel chewing was universal, and has 
survived to the present day. Around a fragment of the nut of the 
betel palm (Areca cathecu) is wrapped a fresh leaf of betel pepper 
(Piper betle) and a pinch of lime burned from coral rock is added. This 
stains the saliva red and discolors the teeth. An aromatic fragrance 
is imparted to the breath, which is not disagreeable. Kava, an infu- 
sion of the root of Piper methysticum, of wide use throughout the 
greater part of the Pacific islands was, unknown to them. 

FIRE. It was asserted by the early missionaries that the aborigines 
of Guam were ignorant of fire before the advent of the Spaniards/ 

See list of fishes, p. 83. 

& "Their drink is water," says one of the early missionaries, "and consequently 
their most usual infirmity is hydropsy." Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, 
p. 198, 1685. 

c This statement was first made by Garcia, who says: "It need not be asked 
whether they had any knowledge of letters, science, or art concerning those who 
were ignorant of one of the elements and knew not that there was fire in the world 
until they saw it kindled by the Spaniards in the shipwreck of the year 1638." 
(Garcia, note b , p. 198.) The assertion was probably made in consequence of the 
yarns of some of the shipwrecked sailors, who also recounted a number of miraculous 
happenings. Using Padre Garcia' s statement as a theme, Pere Charles le Gobien, 
repeats it with elaborate variations, though he does not give his authority for his 
information. Having read Pigafetta's narrative of Magellan's expedition, Le Gobien 
dates back their introduction to fire to the time of his discovery of the island, when 
he caused a number of houses and boats to be burned. " What is most astonishing." 
says Le Gobien, "and what one will find hard to believe, is that they had never 
seen fire. This element so necessary was entirely unknown to them. They knew 
neither the use of it nor its qualities; and never were they more surprised than when 



100 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

The statement has been frequently repeated n and Pigafetta erro- 
neously cited as authority for it. That it is not true is evident when 
one considers that their principal food staples could not be eaten 
uncooked. Moreover, they had words pertaining to h're in their 
vernacular, many of which were of etymological identity with similar 
terms in other islands of the Pacific. Among these were guafi (fire), 
apo (ashes), aso (smoke), tuno (roast), manila (flame), pinigan (live 
coal), songge (burn, v. t.), hanon (burn, v. intr.), sotne (boil), and 
other words. They must have possessed these words in prehistoric 
times. Not one of them is derived from the Spanish; all are allied to 
corresponding words in Malayan and Pacific languages. 

USEFUL AKTS. 

The natives made excellent houses and were skillful canoe builders. 
They furnished themselves with spears and slings for fighting, stone 
adzes or gouges for working in wood (PI. XVII), and lines, hooks, 
and nets for fishing, and they planted and cultivated their gardens and 
rice fields. The}^ were not wood carvers nor engravers, nor did they 
possess the art of weaving by looms, as did the Caroline Islanders, the 
natives of Santa Cruz, and some of the Philippine tribes. Their mats 
they braided diagonally after the manner of the Polynesians and 
Melanesians. The men made the houses and boats, the women braided 
the mats for beds and for boat sails. Pottery was unknown. Fish 
were caught by hooks from the shore (etupog) or by trawling from 
canoes under sail. They were also speared on the reef, attracted by 
torches (sulo) and caught with a net at night (gade). stupefied by sink- 
ing narcotics in holes in the reef, and trapped in pounds of bamboo 
wickerwork (guigao). Fishhooks (hagiiet) were made of mother-of- 
pearl and tortoise shell. 



Their wonderful "flying praos " were the admiration of all the early 
navigators. Descriptions of them were given by Pigafetta (1521), 



they saw it for the first time when Magellan landed in one of their islands, where 
he burned about 50 houses in order to punish these islanders for the trouble they 
had caused him. They regarded the fire at first as a kind of animal, w r hich attached 
itself to the wood, upon which it fed. The first who approached it too closely hav- 
ing burned themselves, made the others afraid of it, and only dared look upon it 
afterwards from a distance for fear said they of being bitten by it, and lest this 
terrible animal might wound them by its violent breath, for this was the idea they 
first formed of the flame and the heat. This frivolous fear did not last. They saw 
their mistake, and they became accustomed in a short time to see the fire and to use 
it as we do." (Charles leGobien, Histoire des Isles Marianes, nouvellement conver- 
ties a la religion Chretienne, etc., p. 44, Paris, 1700.) 

See Letourneau, Charles, La sociologie d'apres 1' ethnographic, p. 566, Paris, 1892; 
Goguet, A.-Y., De 1'origine des lois, 6 me Edition, I, p. 89, 1758; Raynal's Indies, 
vol. 3, p. 381, 1788. See also Plutarch: " Aqmine an ignis sit utilior," in Plutarch's 
works (vol. 2, p. 955, Frankfort, 1620), which probably suggested to Pere le Gobien 
his graphic description. 



BOATS OF THE ABRtGltfEfc. ' 101 



Dampier (1686), Woodcs Rogers (17ro)/ AfWrt (Ms},' kilfr' 'Crozet 
(1772). Dampier's description is as follows: a 

The natives are very ingenious beyond any people in making boats, or "proes," 
as they are called in the East-Indies, and therein they take great delight. These 
are built sharp at both ends. The bottom is of one piece, made like the bottom of a 
little canoa, very neatly dug and left of a good substance. This bottom part is 
instead of a keel. It is about 26 or 28 foot long. The under part of this keel is made 
round, but inclining to a wedge and smooth, and the upper part is almost flat, hav- 
ing a very gentle hollow, and is about a foot broad. From hence both sides of the 
boat are carried up to about 5 foot high with narrow plank, not above 4 or 5 inches 
broad, and each end of the boat turns up round very prettily. But what is very 
singular, one side of the boat is made perpendicular, like a wall, while the other side 
is rounding, made as other vessels are, with a pretty full belly. Just in the middle 
it is about 4 or 5 foot broad aloft, or more, according to the length of the boat. 
The mast stands exactly in the middle, with a long yard that peeps up and down 
like a mi/zen-yard. One end of it reacheth down to the end or head of the boat, 
where it is placed in a notch that is made there purposely to receive it and keep it 
fast. The other end hangs over the stern. To this yard the sail is fastened. At the 
foot of the sail there is another small yard to keep the sail out square and to roll up 
the sail 011 when it blows hard; for it serves instead of a reef to take up the sail to 
what degree they please, according to the strength of the wind. Along the belly 
side of the boat, parallel with it, at about 6 or 7 foot distant, lies another small boat, 
or canoa, being a log of very light wood, almost as long as the great boat, but not so 
wide, being not above a foot and an half wide at the upper part and very sharp like 
a wedge at each end. And there are two bamboes of about 8 or 10 foot long and as 
big as ones leg placed over the great boat's side, one near each end of it, and reach- 
ing about 6 or 7 foot from the side of the boat, by the help of which the little boat is 
made firm and contiguous to the other. These are generally called by the Dutch 
and by the English from them " outlay ers." & The use of them is to keep the great 
boat upright from oversetting * * * and the vessel having a head at each end, 
so as to sail with either of them foremost (indifferently) they need not tack, or go 
about, as all our vessels do, but each end of the boat serves either for head or stern 
as they please. When they ply to the windward and are minded to go about he 
that steers bears away a little from the wind, by which means the stern comes to the 
wind, which is now become the head only by shifting the end of the yard. This 
boat is steered with a broad paddle instead of a rudder. 

I have been the more particular in describing these boats, because I do believe they 
sail the best of any boats in the world. I did here for my own satisfiaction try the 
swiftness of one of them. Sailing by our log, we had 12 knots on our reel, and she 
run it all out before the half-minute glass was half out; which, if it had been no 
more, is after the rate of 12 mile an hour; but I do believe she would have run 24 
mile an hour. It was very pleasant to see the little boat running along so swift by 
the other's side. 

The native Indians are no less dextrous in managing than in building these boats. 
By report they will go hence to another of the Ladrone Islands about 30 leagues off 
and there do their business and return again in less than 12 hours. I was told that 
one of these boats was sent -express to Manila, which is about 400 leagues, and per- 
formed the voyage in 4 days time. There are of these proes, or boats, used in many 
places of the East-Indies, but with a belly [curve] and a little boat [outrigger] on 
each side. Only at Mindanao I ^saw one like these, with the belly and little boat 
only on one side and the other flat, but not so neatly built. 



New voyage, pp. 298 to 300, 1717. &Or "outriggers." 



102 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

An son", Who* in his narrative 'gives a figure of a flying prao of Guam, 
differs from Dumpier in correctly stating that the flat side is always 
kept to the leeward and the outrigger to the windward. He describes 
the outrigger as a log fashioned in the shape of a small boat and made 
hollow, the sail made of matting, and the mast, yard, and thwartship 
pieces connecting the outrigger, of bamboo. In his figure, however, 
the sail is shown incorrectly. It should be of lateen or triangular 
shape with the upper yardarm projecting well aft beyond the stern/' 

Besides the large praos they had small canoes, which were very 
swift, light, and pretty, ""for they painted them with a coating made 
of red earth from the island of Guam, mixed with lime, with coconut 
oil as a medium, which beautified them greatly." 6 Pigafetta, in speaking 
of their canoes, says that they were all painted; some black and others 
red. They had paddles of the form of bakers' shovels, which could be 
used either for steering or propelling the canoes. 

MENTAL AND MORAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

In counting they used a decimal system, the names of the numerals 
corresponding with those of Malay o- Polynesian languages. Different 
forms of numerals were used in counting living and dead objects, and 
in expressing measurements/ 

They were a happy, careless people, fond of festivities, dancing, 
singing, story telling, and contests of strength and skill, yet suffi- 
ciently industrious to cultivate their fields and garden patches, build 
excellent houses for their families, braid mats of fine texture, and con- 
struct canoes which were the admiration of all the early navigators. 
They were much given to buffoonery, mockery, playing tricks, jest- 
ing, mimicry, and ridicule, offering in this respect a striking contrast 
to the undemonstrative Malayans. Legazpi, who visited the island 
in 1565, speaks of the loud laughter of those who surrounded his ship,;. 
In selling rice to passing ships they would often increase the weight 
and bulk of the packages by stones and leaves. " For each nail," says 
Legazpi, "they gave measures of rice containing half a fanega, d morc 
or less." When straw and stones at the bottom of the packages were 
discovered by the Spaniards, the natives seemed to regard the decep- 
tion as a huge joke; they "clapped their hands in glee and laughed 
long and loud, going from that vessel to another and playing the same 
trick. Then again they would take nails and ity without giving any- 
thing in return." On the other hand, the Spaniards gave them in 
exchange for rice and fruits the most valuable possessions of the 

See Anson, Voyage Round the World, p. 340, 1748. 
& Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 198, 1683. 

c For numeral system and calendar of the aborigines, see Safford, W. E., Tho 
Chamorro language of Guam, Amer. Anthrop., n. s., vol. 6, pp. 95-104, 1904. 
d A fanega is about 1.6 bushels. 



ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 103 

islanders such worthless things as the face cards from old packs of 
playing cards, bits of cloth which the Spaniards pretended to value, 
putting them first about their own necks and laughing to see the gul- 
lible natives imitate them in doing the same. Legazpi says that these 
natives were well named ladrones (thieves). They would not board 
his ships, though he invited them to do so, "showing them much love 
and affection and looking upon them as friends." This is easily 
accounted for by the treatment the natives had met with at the hands 
of the Loaisa expedition (1526), which, when ready to depart from 
Guam, allured 11 of the islanders on board by deceitful means and 
carried them away for the purpose of making them work the ship's 
pumps. 

That they were naturally kind and generous is shown by their treat- 
ment of shipwrecked sailors cast upon their shores and their reception 
of the early missionaries who founded the first colony on the island. 
These missionaries complained that they could not make the natives 
take life seriously, saying that what they promised one minute they 
forgot the next. On the other hand, the missionaries spoke of the 
remarkable intelligence shown by the children in learning the Christian 
doctrine, the moderation of the natives in eating, and the absence of 
intoxicants. Their sense of hospitality was very marked. Women 
were treated with consideration, and had greater authority than in 
almost any other land hitherto known. It is certain that the natives 
distinguished between right and wrong. An upright man was called 
"tunas," or "straight," and the abstract quality of right or rectitude 
was called "tininas," or "straightness." A bad man was called 
"abale," which signifies evil or immoral, in distinction from the word 
"tailaye," which has more the sense of "worthless" and is also 
applied to things. 

"As to their customs," says Padre Garcia, "I feel called upon to 
say that although they have been called 'ladrones,' on account of the 
pilfering of a few pieces of iron from our ships, they do not deserve 
the name, for though they leave open their houses it is very seldom 
that anything is missed." They were very courteous on meeting or 
in passing before one another, saying "ati adingmo," which signified 
"let me kiss your feet." A traveler in passing by their houses was 
always invited to stop and partake of food. One of the first mani- 
festations of ill will on the part of the natives toward the early 
missionaries was their discontinuance of this courtesy/' It was also 
customary to offer betel nut and leaves of betel pepper to visitors. It 
was considered a mark of politeness to take the hand of another and 
gently pass it across the breast. They held poetry in high esteem and 
regarded their poets as men of supernatural endowments. 6 They were 

Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 224, 1683. &Idem., p. 198. 



104 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

inordinately vain, considering themselves to be men of the greatest 
genius and wisdom in the world, in comparison with whom all other 
nations were contemptible,. They attached great importance to caste, 
and had sharply defined lines between families of high, low, and middle 
extraction. This led the early fathers to imagine that they must be 
descendants of some polite nation. "Thus it is seen," says Padre 
Garcia, "how Pride, banished from Heaven, dwells in all parts of the 
earth, going in some nations clothed and in others naked."" Under 
no consideration could a Chamorri, or noble, marry a girl of common 
caste, though she might be rich and he poor. In ancient times it was 
even customary for kinsmen to kill a noble who for love or for gain 
should disgrace his family by such a marriage. People of low caste were 
not permitted to eat or drink in the houses of nobles or even to come 
near them. If they wished to communicate with them, they must do so 
from a distance. This custom was especially marked among the nobles 
living at Agana, where, on account of the excellence of the water and 
for other advantages of the site, lived the nobles of the highest rank. 
They were regarded by all the rest of the island with fear and respect. 
In this town there were 53 houses in which the nobility lived. The 
rest, about a hundred and tifty, belonging to the common people, 
occupied a position apart and were not considered as a part of the 
town or of the court. The prejudice of caste was one of the first 
difficulties encountered by the early missionaries. The chiefs did not 
consider it seemly that people of low caste should share with them the 
benefits of baptism, saying that so noble an institution as the fathers 
taught them to regard it should be enjoyed only by the nobility and 
not b} T plebeians; and, indeed, the fathers had great difficulty in over- 
coming the fear of the common people, so firmly rooted was their 
feeling of abasement in the presence of their betters/ 



SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND CUSTOMS. 



MARRIAGE. Though more than one wife was permitted, yet a man 
had, as a rule, only one. Marriage between relatives was strictly 
forbidden. The wife was essentially the head of the family. Adultery 
on the part of a man was punished in various manners. Sometimes 
the injured wife would call together the other women of the village, 
and putting on their husbands' hats and arming themselves with spears, 
they would go to the house of the adulterer, destroy his growing crops, 
and, making a demonstration as though about to spear him, they would 
drive him from his house. At other times the injured wife would 
punish her husband by deserting him, whereupon her relations' 
would assemble at his house and carry away all the property, leaving 

Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 199, 1683. &Idem., p. 219. 



MARRIAGE CUSTOMS OF ABORIGINES. 105 

him without even a spear or a mat to sleep upon nothing but the mere 
shell of the house. Sometimes they would ev r en demolish the house 
itself. If a woman was unfaithful the husband might kill the adulterer, 
but the wife would receive no punishment/' 

Divorce was frequent and might take place for any cause of discon- 
tent on the part of either the husband or the wife. The most frequent 
cause was jealousy. In all cases the children accompanied the mother, 
and should she remarry they looked upon her new husband as a father. 

CONCUBINAGE. It was customary for the urritaos, or bachelors, to 
live in a "great house," often in companionship with young women 
whom they purchased from their parents or hired for a certain time. 
This did not injure the chances of either for marriage. As in other 
islands of the Pacific where a similar custom prevailed, it is probable 
that the girls obtained from their families in this wa\ T came from other 
villages, and not from that in which they were to live. Certainly 
degrees of relationship were respected in such cases as scrupulously as 
in marriage. Sexual relations between kindred were considered 
infamous. After marriage, fidelity was expected and as a rule was 
observed on the part of both husband and wife. 

In cases of true marriage presents were also made by the groom to 
the father of the bride. A disregard for the marriage customs of the 
natives on the part of the early missionaries was one of the causes of 
complaint of the natives and finally led to bloodshed and war.* In 
1676, the first regularly appointed governor, Don Francisco Irisari y 
Vivar, shortly after his arrival in Guam, wishing to punish the village 
of Talisai for the pride of its inhabitants, who had remained away 
from the fiesta of Corpus Cristi, celebrated by the missionaries with 
processions, dances, and contests of the children in reciting the cate- 
chism, marched upon it during the night, and at daybreak fired upon 
the unsuspecting inhabitants; several of them were killed and others 
escaped to the woods badly wounded. The house of the urritaos was 
burned and three babies were carried to the mission and baptized. 
Shortly afterwards several marriages were solemnized by*the padres 
between girls educated at the mission schools and Spanish soldiers. 
In the school at the village of Orote there was a young girl who 
wished to marry a Spaniard. Padre Sebastian de Monroy, the mis- 
sionary stationed at that village, performed the ceremony secretlv, 
without the consent or knowledge of the girl's parents. While the 
party were still in the church the bride's father came in a great rage 
protesting against the marriage of his daughter with the Spaniard, 
and attacked both the bridegroom and the priest. The newly wedded 
couple were sent for safety to Agana, and the padre, to console the 

Garcia, Vida y Marty rio de Sanvitores, 1683, p. 202. &Idem., p. 534. 



106 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

enraged father, told him to calm himself, that he would not be a loser 
in consequence of the marriage as the padre would give him as much 
as he could have gotten for his daughter if he had sold her to an urri- 
tao. This only made matters worse and finally led to the burning of 
the entire mission and the assassination of the padre and all of his com- 
panions. 

PROPERTY. The nobles owned entailed estates of coconut groves, 
banana plantations, and other choice lands. These were not inherited 
by a man's son at his death, but by his brother or nephew (probably 
by the son of his sister, as in many other islands of the Pacific), who 
on coming into possession of the property changed his name and took 
that of the founder or most illustrious ancestor of the family. The 
children belonged essentially to the mother. They inherited the 
property of their mother's brothers. A man did not dare to dispose 
of any property of his family, except, perhaps, a canoe, knife, spear, 
or fishing tackle made by himself or land reclaimed by him from the 
bush. Tortoise shell was used for money. 

GOVERNMENT. They had no king nor defined code of laws, nor was 
there a ruler for the island in general nor for any village. The nobles 
of each village formed a kind of council or assembly, which, however, 
had no real authorit} r over the rest; but everybody did pretty much 
what he pleased, unless prevented from doing so by some one stronger 
than himself. The head of each family was the father or eldest rela- 
tive, but his authority was so limited as to call for little respect on the 
part of the sons, who obeyed it only when forced to do so. Children 
were seldom chastised by their parents. Offenses were punished by 
war if they were against a community, or b}^ private revenge if they 
were against an individual. Owing to this lack of organization no 
community felt itself responsible for the misconduct of one of its 
members. When hostages were taken by the Spaniards to insure 
good treatment of their people ashore, or to exact certain promises 
from the natives, the immediate family of the hostage alone seemed 
to feel responsibility or concern for him. The rest continued as 
before; nor could they understand the justice of the Spaniards' burn- 
ing whole villages and many boats for the act of a single individual, 
who might or might not belong to the village or be allied to the 
owners of the boats. 

WARFARE. Their weapons were slings and spears. Bows and 
arrows were unknown to them, nor had they swords, war clubs, or 
shields. They relied upon their quickness and agility to protect them 
from the blows of their adversaries. Their spears were of wood with 
points either of wood hardened by fire, or made of the shin bones of 
men or of the bones of fishes. They had no throwing sticks. The 
bone spearheads were barbed and had three or four blades or points 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XVII, 






STONE ADZ AND SLING STONES OF ABORIGINES OF THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 
NATURAL SIZE. 



WARFAEE OF THE ABORIGINES. 107 

which readily broke off. They were supposed by the Spaniards to be 
deadly poisonous. The wounds inflicted by them often caused death; 
but, as in the case of the weapons of natives of other Pacific islands 
reputed to be poisonous, it is probable that their virtue was attributed 
by the natives to some supernatural influence of the dead man from 
whose body the bones were taken, and the frequent deaths were due 
to lockjaw or blood poisoning from natural causes. The sling stones 
were of oval shape, fashioned out of stone or made of some sort of 
clay and baked. (PI. XVII.) These were thrown with remarkable 
force and precision, as far, states one observer, as an arquebus can 
shoot, and with such swiftness as to embed themselves in the trunks 
of trees. The natives practiced with these weapons from their earliest 
childhood and consequently became very skillful in their use. 

They carried on a primitive kind of warfare, "being easily roused 
and easily quieted, slow to attack and quick to flee." A village 
would prepare for war with another village with great bustle but 
without a leader or any sort of organization or discipline. After war 
had been declared the two parties would often be two or three da}^s in 
the field without making an attack, each watching the movements of 
the other. After engaging they very soon made peace; for a party 
considered itself vanquished if one or two or three of its men were 
killed, and ambassadors were sent to the other with offerings of 
tortoise shell, which was the sign of surrender. The victors would 
then celebrate their victory with satirical songs, vaunting their valor 
and scoffing at the vanquished. In their fights with the Spaniards 
they sometimes resorted to fire, burning the vegetation adjacent to 
the fort of the enemy and hurling flaming darts upon the thatched 
roofs of their buildings. They often selected inaccessible places for 
their villages for the sake of security, and in wars with the Spaniards 
constructed trenches in which they protected themselves, carrying 
with them the sacred skulls of their ancestors to counteract the power 
of the crucifixes of their opponents. They also strewed the roads and 
passes with sharp spines (puas) to serve as caltrops. The use of these 
and the manner of constructing intrenchments they may have learned 
from the Spaniards themselves. 

SPOKTS. One of their favorite sports was sailing in their wonder- 
ful canoes, wives accompanying their husbands and vying with them 
in swimming and diving. As already noted, they were fond of gayety 
and festivities and took great delight in jokes and buffoonery. The 
men united together to dance and had contests of spear throwing, run- 
ning, jumping, wrestling, and exercising their strength in various 
ways. In the midst of their sports they would recount with great 
peals of laughter their myths and fables and refresh themselves and 
their guests with cakes made of rice, fish, fruits, and a kind of gruel 



108 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

made of rice and grated coconut. The women had their special 
feasts, dressing themselves in gala attire and decorating their persons 
with flowers and bright shells and beads. They arranged themselves 
in a ring of twelve or thirteen, remaining stationary, singing in verse 
their stories and traditions in perfect time and in three-part harmony 
"treble, contralto, and falsetto" accompanied at times by one of the 
chief men, who assist at these festivities, carrying the tenor. The 
words were accompanied by movements of the hands, with which 
they sounded rattles or castanets made of shells, all in such perfect 
time and with movements of the body and gestures fitting so well with 
the words as to call forth no little admiration for their aptitude for 
learning things to which they apply themselves." 

BURIAL CEREMONIES. At funerals the demonstrations of grief were 
very extravagant, accompanied by much weeping, fasting, and sound- 
ing on shell trumpets. The wailing continued a week or longer, 
according to the affection and esteem in which the deceased was held. 
The people assembled, dolefully chanting, around a mound which they 
raised over the grave, or near it, decorated with flowers, palms, shells, 
and other things esteemed by them/' The mother of the deceased 
usually cut off some hair as a souvenir of her grief, recording the 
nights that had passed since his death by knots in a cord worn around 
her neck. These demonstrations were greater on the occasion of a high 
chief's or Chamorri's death and at the death of a matron of distinction, 
for in addition to the ordinarv manifestations of prief thev would 

*/ to / 

cover the streets with garlands of palms, erect arches and other devices 
expressive of mourning, destroy coconut trees, burn houses, break 
up boats, and raise before their houses the tattered sails as a sign of 
their grief and sorrow, and to their songs they added elegies no less 
eloquent than sorrowful, which grief would teach to the rudest and 
most barbarous among them, exclaiming with many tears, that thence- 
forth life would not be worth living, he being gone who was the life, 
of all, the sun of their nobility, the moon which lighted them in 
the night of their ignorance, the star of all their deeds of prowess, 
the valor of their battles, the honor of their race, of their village, of 

O ? 

their land; and thus they would continue far into the night, praising 
the deceased, whose tomb they crowned with paddles as a symbol of 
one celebrated as a fisherman, or with spears as a device for the brave, 
or with both paddles and spears if he were both a brave warrior and 
an expert fisherman/ 



Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, pp. 200-201, 1683. 

& Chiefs were sometimes buried under buildings called " great houses" (debajo de 
unas casas que Hainan grandes.) (Garcia, p. 220.) 

c The recitation or chanting of elegies was called taitai, a word which is now used 
for the verbs "to read" and "to pray." The corresponding nouns "prayer" and 
"lecture" are called tinaitai. 



ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 109 



RELIGION AND SUPERSTITIONS. 



ANIMISM. They believed in the immortality of the soul, which 
they called "ante." At the death of a person they put upon the head 
of the corpse a little basket, u as though inviting the spirit to make 
its home in that basket in place of the body it leaves, or in order that 
it may have a nesting place when it shall come from the other life to 
pay them a visit from the place of its sojourn. " a The souls of those 
who died a violent death were supposed to go to Sasalaguan, or the 
dwelling place of Chayfi, who heats them in a forge and beats them 
incessantly. Those dying a natural death were supposed to descend 
to a paradise in the underworld, where there are bananas, coconuts, 
sugar cane, and other fruits of the earth. In determining the future 
destiny of the soul good and evil conduct apparently had no part. 
The souls of the dead, especially of ancestors, were looked upon as 
demons (aniti) and venerated. 

The spirits of the dead, like the lares of the Romans, were regarded 
as natural protectors. They were called aniti, and were thought to 
be powerful for evil if not duly respected and propitiated. In times 
of distress the} 7 were called upon and their aid was invoked to keep 
away evil and to bring good luck to those for whom prayers were 
offered. The natives held the aniti in dread, and they sometimes paid 
them homage for self -protection; "for," says Padre Garcia, "the 
devil, in order in some fashion to retain this respect and servile fear, 
is wont to appear to them in the form of their fathers and ancestors 
and to terrify them and maltreat them." They had no temples, sacri- 
fices, idols, nor defined creed. 6 They had, however, certain supersti- 
tions, especially in connection with their fisheries, during which they 
kept profound silence and practiced great abstinence for fear or for 
flattery of the aniti, lest they punish them by driving away the fish or 
visit them in dreams to frighten them, which the natives really believed 
they had the power to do. These aniti, it thus appears, were of an 
unkindly disposition rather than beneficent, and may be considered 
rather as demons than as divinities. To this day there is among the 
natives a superstitious dread of the aniti, who are supposed to dwell in 
the forest. Sometimes benighted travelers going through the bush 
are seized by the throat or scratched with sharp claws; sometimes 
stones are hurled by unseen hands, and sometimes in solitary places by 
the shore a headless figure ma3 r be seen sitting motionless fishing in 
the sea. The aniti are supposed to lurk among the many trunks of 
the nunu or banyan tree (.Ficus sp.) and haunt the sites of ancient 
houses (casas do los antiguas). 6 ' 

Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 205, 1683. 
b Idem., p. 204. 
c See p. 97. 



110 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

A similar belief is still found among certain native tribes of the 
Philippines, who have -the same name for the spirits of their ancestors. 
Semper, in speaking of the religious faith of the Iraya and Catalangan 
tribes inhabiting the western part of Isabela, northern Luzon, near 
the seventeenth parallel of latitude, says: 

The faith of both tribes, however, has, in spite of manifold variations, so much of 
similarity that we may feel safe in assuming in the few recognizable traces, which are 
also common to all the remaining wild tribes of the land, that we see the remains of 
a religious faith as it may have prevailed in the purely Malayan period before the 
arrival of the Mahometans. Besides a few pairs of gods, concerning whose relations 
and attributes I was not able to become quite clear, they venerate quite particu- 
larly the souls of their ancestors, which they place in the rank of their lesser gods 
under the name of "anito." They are house gods, true lares and penates. Here 
stands in a corner of the house interior a kind of jar, which would have in itself 
nothing striking about it, but it is easily to be seen that the members of the family 
treat this corner with great reverence. In the jar one of their anitos has its seat, 
The space under the house, which ordinarily serves also as a place of burial, is con- 
secrated through various signs to other anitos; likewise the small spot before the 
ladder, which is in front of the entrance and beneath the overhanging roof of the 
house; the hut in which the forges are; and above all certain places before the house 
which are distinguished by altars resembling little houses. Moreover, the harvest 
is consecrated to their anitos, to whom the first fruits are offered in great general 
feasts/' 

MYTHS. In accounting for the creation of the world they say that 
Puritan, a very ingenious being, who lived in an imaginary place 
before the creation of heaven and earth, as he was about to die, called 
to his sister, born like himself Avithout father or mother, and gave 
directions for the disposal of his body. He transferred to her all his 
powers, so that at his death she should make of his breast and back the 
sky and the earth; of his eyes the sun and the moon; of his eyebrows 
the rainbow, and so on with the rest of his body; not without some 
analogy to the less and greater world, like that which poets make dailv, 
and this they took not symbolically, but literally, as scripture and gos- 
pel, singing it in certain verses, which they knew by heart. Yet with 
all this, no sort of formal worship, invocation, or prayer was offered 
to Puntan or his sister to indicate that they were regarded as divini- 
ties. Other myths and ancient fables and stories of the feats of their 
ancestors were related and sung in their feasts by those who took pride 
in their learning, vying with one another as to who could recite the 
most couplets. 6 

In accounting for the origin of man, they said that everything in the 
world was derived from a certain earth on the island of Guam, which 
first became human, then a stone, which gave birth to all men. From 
this island they were scattered all over the world, and as they separated 



a Semper, Die Philippinen und ihre Bewohner, p. 56, 1869. 
6 Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 203-204, 1683. 



ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. Ill 

from the people and place of their origin they forgot their language. 
On this account the people of other nations knew no language and 
talked like fools without understanding one another nor knowing what 
they said. Thus they attributed to the ignorance of the foreigners 
their own inability to understand a language strange to their ears. a 

The particular spot from which the first men originated was a rock 
situated on the west coast of the southern portion of the island, at a 
place called Fuuna, a short distance north of Umatag. It rose 6 or 8 
fathoms from the sea. From its summit vessels going and coming 
could be seen at a great distance. It was washed by the sea on three 
sides, on which it was inaccessible; on the east-southeast, at the point 
where it connected with the mainland, it could be easily fortified. On 
this rock the missionaries established themselves and built a church, 
which they dedicated to San Jose, and the} 7 soon succeeded in convinc- 
ing the people of the falsity of the myth concerning Fuuna, the 
alleged mother of the human race. 6 

SORCERERS. Their priests, called makahna, were supposed to have 
the power of communication with the spirits of the dead, to cause 
sickness and bring health, to produce rain and bring good luck in fish- 
ing. To accomplish a desired object they invoked the favor of the 
deceased, whose skulls, inclosed in baskets, were kept in the dwellings 
of their descendants. At the time of the arrival of the early mission- 
aries some of the natives showed veneration for the bones and skulls 
of their ancestors, and represented their images on the bark of trees 
and in carvings of wood. Garcia attributed this custom to the influ- 
ence of a Chinaman who had been shipwrecked on the island and who 
had gained ascendency over the natives. He was probably wrong in 
this, since he compared the makahnas with Indian bonzes, who carried 
on the worship of the devil for their own interests. After describing 
the veneration or worship of the aniti, he says: 

This is the most that the devil has been able to obtain from these poor Marianos; 
not temples, nor sacrifices, nor idols, nor profession of any sect whatever a condi- 
tion of affairs which greatly facilitates the introduction of the faith; for it is easier to 
introduce a religion where none exists than to abolish one and introduce another. 

The makahnas naturalh 7 opposed with all their might the introduc- 
tion of Christianity and put every possible obstacle in the way of the 
missionaries, who tried to bring them into disrepute, and each party 
declared that the other were charlatans and impostors. 6 ' In their excess 
of zeal to overthrow the religious practices of the islanders some of 
the missionaries adopted radical measures. Padre Luis de Medina, 
"in order to root out once for all the superstition of these Marianos," 

a Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores, p. 203, 1683. 
& Idem., p. 468-469. 
p. 204. 



112 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 



when he baptized them took awa}^ from them their " idols " or figures of 
their ancestors, to which they paid certain veneration, and burned them, 
"in order that by the light from these tires they might see more clearly 
the truth of our holy faith." On his first visit to Guam he caused a 
goodly pile of these little idols (idolillos) to be burned before the holy 
cross on the day of its triumph, July If), 1668, and for this victory 
which the cross gained over the devil he named the village, which before 
was called Pigpug (Pegpog), "The Triumph of the Cross." He made 
them bury the skulls of their ancestors in order that they might be 
considered people of God." By his zeal there were established on 
the island of Guam the customs and Christian ceremonies of solemn 
masses, sermons, processions, offices of holy week, and the other prin- 
cipal feasts of the year, according to the capacity of the villages. Thus 
he availed himself of all the means and attractions possible to win the 
love of the Marianos for the Christian faith. In order that they might 
go the more willingly to mass and to school for instruction in the doc- 
trine, he gave them some slight presents, so that not only the people of 
the village of Agana but many others of outlying villages flocked to 
him. At Christmas he made an altar of the nativity, arid people from 
nearly all the villages of the island came, attracted by curiosity, and he 
allowed them to see it on the condition that they should say the creed, 
the commandments, the act of contrition, and other prayers; and the 
same father testifies that he reaped much fruit from the Christmas 
ceremony. On the death of Kipuha, the chief who received them on 
the island, the father determined to give him a solemn funeral; he con- 
quered many difficulties in order to bury the dead chief in the church, 
going for him to his house with a trumpet arid the banner of San 
Ignacio and San Francisco Xavier, and he said his vigil (wake) and 
chanted mass and caused to be performed for him the ceremonies 
which were wont to be performed for one of the Societ}^ of Jesus, 
which pleased the people of Agana, who at first were opposed to the 
new manner of burial, so that they now asked whether when the} r 
should die they would be buried in the same way/' 

SUPERSTITIONS. The natives took care to spit when no one was 
looking, and they would not spit near the house of another nor in the 
morning, which seemed to be connected with some superstitious fear/ 
This superstition was probably of the same nature as that of other- 
islands of the Pacific and of the East Indies, where it is feared that 
some evil charm can be worked upon a person by one getting possession 



See also Garcia, Vida y Marty rio de Sanvitores, p. 221, 1683. Some of the natives 
resented the desecration of the bones and images of their ancestors, threatening to' 
kill the fathers and their assistants with their spears; but this did not deter them 
from burning the images amid the jeers of other natives, who did not share in their 
veneration. 

&Idem., p. 408,409. 

'Idem., p. 198. 



ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 113 

of his spittle, a bit of his hair, nails, refuse of his food, or othea* thing 
intimately connected with him. a 



LANGUAGE. 



The language spoken by the natives of Guam is called the Chamorro. 
It belongs to the great Malayan family, which includes the languages 
spoken by the aborigines of Malaysia, portions of Cambodia, the Pacific 
Islands from Formosa and Hawaii to New Zealand and Easter Island, 
and the great island of Madagascar, situated in the Indian Ocean, on 
the coast of Africa. Some idea of the vast area over which this group 
of languages extends may be formed when it is borne in mind that 
Formosa and Hawaii are on the border of the North Temperate Zone, 
and New Zealand and Easter Island are wholly within the South Temper- 
ate Zone, and that the language extends in longitude from Madagascar 
across the great Indian and Pacific oceans to Easter Island, its eastern 
limit, the longitude of which is east of the meridian of Salt Lake City 
in the State of Utah. 

On examining the vocabularies of the various languages included in 
this widely spread family a wonderful correspondence will be found 
in the names of many common objects, such as fire and water, earth 
and sky, fish and fowl, many parts of the body, the personal pronouns, 
and the numerals. 

In addition to these are the names of a number of useful plants and 
trees. 

All of these languages have certain characteristic features in common, 
such as the absence of a copulative verb, two forms of the plural of 
the first personal pronoun, one including, the other excluding the 
person addressed. Thus the adjective "sick" may be regarded as a 
verb "to be sick," and the noun "father" may be considered as a verb 
u to be a father," each of them requiring only a simple subject to 
declare a fact. 

The languages of the family naturally group themselves into two 
great divisions. The first, which is characterized by simple verbal 
forms and separate possessive pronouns, together with attributive 
adjectives preceding or following their nouns without an intermediate 
ligation, or ligature, to connect them, includes the languages of Poly- 
nesia proper, viz, the Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, Rarotongan, Tahitian, 
Easter Island, and the Maori of New Zealand. The second is character- 
ized by the addition of prefixes, suffixes, and infixes to the verb, together 
with reduplication, to express the various tenses and numbers, and to 
distinguish transitive verbs with a definite object from intransitive 
verbs, so that the original root or primitive word is often difficult to 
detect at first sight. Possession is indicated by appending possessive 

In the Hawaiian Islands the high chiefs made use of spittoons, which were care- 
fully carried out to sea and emptied. 
977305 8 



114 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

particles to the noun, which become united enclitically to it, as " tata-ho," 
my father; "tata-mo," thy father; "tata-na," his father; "tata-ta," our 
father (including the person addressed); G6 tatan-mame" (excluding the 
person addressed), etc. To this division belongs the Chamorro lan- 
guage of Guam. 

One feature of the Chamorro language, which has led to much con- 
fusion in the various vocabularies of that language appearing in the 
reports of scientific expeditions, is the modification of tonic vowels of 
nouns and adjectives when immediately following the definite article. 
Thus "a" (like 'Si 1 ' in father) becomes "a" (very much like "a" in 
hat), "o" becomes "e," and "u" becomes "i." We have "lane," 
man, but "i lahe," the man; guma, house, but " i gima," the house; 
"loka na guma," high house, but "i leka na guma," or "i gima na 
loka," the high house. It also possesses the characteristic, common to 
the group to which it belongs, of uniting an attributive adjective to 
its noun by means of a ligature ("na") as shown in the preceding 
example." The plural of a few nouns is formed by reduplication of the 
tonic syllable, the plural of all adjectives and a certain class of nouns 
is formed by prefixing the particle "man" to the word; as "mauleg 
i lithe," good is the man; "manmauleg i lalahe," good are the men; 
"aniti," ghost, "mananiti," ghosts." The plural of most nouns, 
however, is indicated by placing after them the word "siha," which 
is the plural of the third personal pronoun, as "guma siha" houses. 

For a more complete account of the Chamorro language of Guam 
the reader is referred to a series of papers b} T the author in the Amer- 
ican Anthropologist, new series, volumes 5, 6, and 7, 1903-5. 

In the two following tables a number of Guam words are compared 
with corresponding words in the Polynesian, Philippine, and Malaysian 
languages. In the column of Philippine names "T." indicates the 
Tagalog language; " V.," the Visayan; "I.," the llocano, and "P.," 
the Pampago. In the column of Polynesian names "8." stands for 
Samoa, "H." for Hawaii, and "N. Z." for New Zealand. The words 
given in these tables are selected from among a great number which 
do not show such close correspondence. It would be misleading to 
give the impression that the Chamorro language bears a very close 
resemblance to the Polynesian dialects or that it may be considered 
a Philippine dialect. Certain words, it is true, are closely allied to 
both the Polynesian and Philippine names for the same thing, but on 
the other hand there are words much more nearly like the primitive 
Malayan than either the Philippine or Polynesian forms, and in no 
one language of the Philippine Archipelago is there a close corre- 
spondence either in the vocabulary or in the verbal forms with those 
of the Chamorro. 

This feature will be seen in many Philippine plant names. The ligation is in 
some cases shortened to an n or ng added to the noun; as chotdan layo (foreign 
banana), and kamoting kahoi (tree sweet-potato), cassava plant. 



LANGUAGE OF ABORIGINES. 

Words with Polynesian and Malayan affinities. a 



115 



English. 


Guam. 


Malaysia. 


Philippines. 


Polynesia. 


Breasts. 


sus6. 


susu. 


susu (T.). 


susu (S.). 


Cocoanut. 


niyog. 


nior. 


niog(T.). 


niu (S.). 


Dead. 


matai. 


mati. 


patai (T.). 


mate (N. Z.). 


Drink. 


gin em. 


minum. 


inum (T.). 


inu. 


Ear. 


talanga. 


telinga. 


tainga (T.). 


talinga. 


Eye. 


mata. 


mata. 


mata. 


mata. 


Face. 


mata. 


muka. 


ropa. 


mata. 


Feather. 


pulu. 


bulu. 


bulbul (P.). 


fulu (S.). 


Few. 


dididi. 


sadikit. 


didiot (V.). 


itiiti (S.). 


Fire. 
Fish. 


guafi. 
guihan. 


api. 
ikan. 


hisda (T.'). 


afi (S.). 
i'a (S.). 


Fly. 


lalo. 


lalat. 


lango (P.). 


lango (S.). 


Fowl. 


manog. 


manok. 


manok. 


manu (S.). 


He. 


guiya. 


iya. 


siy& (T.). 


ia. 


Head. 


ulo. 


ulu. 


ulo (T.). 


ulu (S.). 


Hear. 


hurigog. 


dengar. 


dun fe -og(V.). 


longo (S.). 


I. 


guaho. 


aku. 


ak6. 


a'u (S.). 


Louse. 


hutu. 


kutu. 


kutu. 


'utu (S.). 


Mosquito. 


namo. 


niamok. 


yamuk (P.). 


namu (S.). 


Moss. 


lumut. 


lumut. 


limut (T.). 


limu. 


My. 


-ko, -ho. 


-ku. 


-ko. 


to-ku (N.Z.). 


Our (inclusive). 
Our (exclusive). 


-ta. 
-mami. 


kita. 
kami. 


-ta (V.). 
-amo (V.). 


lo ta-tou. 
lo ma-tou. 


Rain. 


uchan. 


hujan. 


ulan (T.). 


ua. 


Road. 


chalan. 


jalan. 


dalan (V.). 


ala. 


Sea. 


tasi. 


tasi. 


dagat. 


tai. 


Sky. 


larigit. 


langit. 


langit. 


langi. 


Smoke. 


asu. 


asap. 


asuk (P.). 


asu (S.). 


Star. 


pution. 


bituy. 


bituin. 


fetii (S.). 


Stone. 


achu. 


batu. 


batu. 


fatu (S.). 


Sugarcane. 


tupo. 


tebu. 


tubu. 


tolo (S.). 


Tooth. 


nifen. 


nifin. 


iigipin (T.). 


nifo (S.). 


We (inclusive). 


hita. 


kita. 


kita. 


ta-tou (S.). 


We (exclusive). 


name. 


kami. 


kami. 


ma-tou (S.). 


Weep. 


tangis. 


tangis. 


tangis. 


tangi (S.). 


What. 


hafa. 


apa. 


ano. 


aha (N.Z.). 


Wind. 


mariglo. 


ahgin. 


hangin. 


matangi (S.). 


Wing. 
Wood. 


papa, 
hayu. 


kepak. 
kayu. 


pakpak (P.). 
kahoi. 


pakau (N. Z.). 
rakau (N. Z.). 



Guam words unlike the Polynesian. 



English. 


Guam. 


Malaysia. 


Philippines. 


Polynesia. 


Ashes. 


apu. 


habu. 


dapo (T.). 


lefulefu (S.). 


Bad. 


chat. 


jahat. 


dautan (V.). 


kino (N.Z.). 


Belly. 
Big. 


tiyan. 
darigkulo. 


tiyan. 
besa.r. 


tian (T.). 
dakkil (I.). 


manava (S.). 
nui, tetere (N.Z.). 


Black. 


atulong. 


itam. 


mat u ling (P-)- 


uliuli (S.). 


Bone. 


tolang. 


tulang. 


tolang (I.). 


ivi (S.). 


Bridge. 
Day. 


tolai. 
haane. 


titi. 
hari. 


tulai (T.). 
aldao (I.). 


ala-niu (S.). 
la(S.). 


Earth. 


tano. 


tanah. 


lup& (T.). 


whenua (N.Z.). 


Fear. 


maanao. 


takut. 


tatakut (T.). 


mata'u (S.). 


Foot. 


adeng. 


kaki. 


saka (I.). 


vae (S.). 


Fruit. 


tinegcha. 


bua. 


bunga. 


fua (S.). 


Hair. 


gapun-ulo 


rambut. 


buh6k. 


lau-ulu (S.). 


Hand. 


kanai. 


tangan. 


kamai (T.). 


lima. 


Hot. 


maipe. 


panas. 


mapali (P.). 


vevela (S.). 


House. 


guma, 


rum ah. 


bale (P.). 


fale (S.). 


Kill. 


puno. 


bunoh. 


patai (V.). 


whaka-mate (N.Z.). 


Lightning. 


lamia. 


kilat. 


kilat (V.). 


uila (S.). 


Male. 


lahi. 


laki-laki. 


lalaki. ' 


tane. 


Man (person). 
Moon. 


taotao. 
pul an. 


orang. 
bulan. 


tao (T.). 
buan (T.). 


tangata. 
masina. 


Mouth. 


pachod 


mulut. 


baba (V.). 


waha (N.Z.). 


Night. 
Not. 


pueiige. 
ti. 


malam. 
bukan. 


befigi (P.). 
di (T.). 


po(N.Z.). 
fe (S.). 


Nose. 
Parent. 


guiing. 

saina. 


hidong. 
ibu-papa. 


ilong (T.), 
matua (P.). 


isu (S.). 
matua (N.Z.). 


Pig. 


babue. 


babi. 


babui (T.). 


poaka (N.Z.). 


Rat. 


chaka. 


tikus. 


daga (T.). 


kiore (N.Z.). 


Rice (unhulled). 


fai. 


padi. 


palai. 




River. 


sadog. 


sungei. 


ilog (T.). 


wai (N.Z.). 


Roof. 


atuf. 


bum bong. 


atop (V.). 


tapatu (N.Z.). 


Sail. 


layag. 


layar. 


layag (T.). 


la (S.). 



For the rules of pronunciation see p. 170. 



116 



USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM, 

Guam words unlike the Polynesian Continued. 



English. 


Guam. 


Malaysia. 


Philippines. 


Polynesia. 


Skin. 
Sleep. 
Spear. 


lasas. 
maigo. 
togcha. 


kulit. 
tidor. 
tombak. 


balat (T.). 
tolog (V.). 
tandus. 


kiri(N.Z.). 

moe. 
tao(N.Z.). 


Spittle. 


tola. 


tohula. 


lura, 


kuha (H.). 


Sun. 


atdao. 


mata-hari. 


aldao (I.). 


la. 


Sweet. 
Swim. 


mamis. 
nango. 


manis. 
berenang. 


matamis (T.). 
langoi (T.). 


ono (H.). 
kau (N.Z.). 


Taro. 


sune. 


keladi. 


gabi, gabe. 


talo (8.). 


Great taro. 


piga. 


bia. 


biga (T.). 


ape (S.). 


Tomorrow. 
Tongue. 


agupa. 
hula. 


esok. 
liday. 


bukas (T.). 
dila (T.). 


apopo (N.Z.). 
alelo (S.). 


Water. 


iianom. 


ayer. 


danum (P.). 


vai. 


White. 


apaka. 


putih. 


maputi. 


tea(N.Z.). 


Woman. 


palaoan. 


perampua:i. 


babel (T.). 


fafine (S.). 


Yam. 


dago. 


ubi. 


ubi. 


ufi. 


Yesterday. 


iiigap. 


kalmann. 


kahapun. 


ananafi (S.). 


You (pi.). 


hamyo. 


kamu. 


kay6 (T.). 


koutou (N.Z.). 


Your. 


-miyo. 


-mu. 


ninyo (T.). 


tokoutou(N.Z.). 



ORIGIN. 



Of the common origin of the aborigines of Guam with those of Poly- 
nesia, the Philippines, and many of the islands of the Malay Archi- 
pelago there can be no doubt. This is shown especially by their 
language, their arts, social organization, and superstitions, as well as 
by the physical appearance of the natives themselves. It is not prob- 
able that the population was purely Malayan; there is evidence of 
certain affinities with the Melanesians or Papuans. These may have 
been the result of conquest or of the amalgamation of Melanesians 
settling upon the island. Certain customs of the ancient Chamorros 
were very similar to those still existing on some of the islands of 
Melanesia, such as the living together of the bachelors in great houses 
and the prevalence of the custom of concubinage before marriage. 
An affinity with the natives of many of the islands known as Micro- 
nesia is also undoubted, but this is much more remote. Unlike the 
Melanesians and Papuans, the ancient Chamorros were ignorant of the 
manufacture of pottery and of the use of the bow and arrow in war- 
fare, nor did they possess the art of carving in wood. Their canoes 
were without other ornamentation than painted designs of red and 
black. Unlike the Micronesians, they were ignorant of the art of 
weaving with looms. Their mats were plaited or braided diagonally 
like those of the true Polynesians. In their art of fire making and 
cooking they resembled the latter, and their canoes, provided with out- 
riggers and pointed at both ends, were of the general shape of those 
found in the Eastern Pacific. In their use of slings for fighting they 
resembled the aborigines of many Pacific islands, and their adzes or 
gouges of stone were scarcely to be distinguished from those of many 
Melanesian and Polynesian tribes. 

The elaborate system of forming derivative words from verbal roots 
by the use of prefixes, suffixes, and infixes joined enclitically to the 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XVIII. 




ORIGIN OF THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 117 

primitive word, as well as the use of possessive particles appended 
to the name of the object possessed, and the sharp distinction between 
transitive verbs having a definite object from intransitive verbs and 
verbs of which the object is not definitely specified are features of their 
language which at once separate them from the Polynesians of the East- 
ern Pacific and ally them with the inhabitants of % the Malay Archipelago, 
the Philippines, and Madagascar. Their use of the betel pepper and 
areca nut as narcotics instead of kava pepper is another feature connect- 
ing them with the Philippine Islanders and the Malayans, and their 
possession of rice in prehistoric times bearing the same name as in the 
Malay Archipelago and Madagascar is another bond between them and 
the inhabitants of these islands. On the other hand, they did not pos- 
sess the paper mulberry, which is so important in the economy of the 
natives of the Eastern Pacific islands as the source of bark cloth or 
tapa. Other trees of importance in the economy of the true Polyne- 
sians which were absent from Guam are the candle nut (Al&uritea moluc- 
cana) and the Polynesian "chestnut" (Bocoa edulis). 

From a consideration of these features in the language, customs, and 
arts of the aboriginal inhabitants of Guam it is evident that they did 
not accompany the settlers of Polynesia in their exodus from the 
region of their common origin, but that they remained united or in 
communication with the ancestors of the inhabitants of the Philippines, 
Madagascar, Malaysia, and certain districts of Cambodia until after 
the evolution of the grammatical features which are common to their 
languages and the introduction of rice as a food staple. And it is 
probable that they did not leave the cradle of the race until after the 
adoption of the habit of betel chewing, which was introduced from 
India long after the departure eastward of the settlers of eastern Poly- 
nesia, who took with them yams, taro, sugar cane, and coconuts from 
their former home. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 

ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE. 



Assertions have been repeatedly made that the Chamorros, as the 
Marianne Islanders are called, no longer exist as a separate people; a 
that "at the present day not one of the original race survives, and 
that the islands are peopled chiefly b}^ Tagals and Bisayans from the 
Philippines, with a few Caroline Islanders, and numerous half-breeds, 
but also by the mixed descendants of natives of South American 
tribes." 6 It is also asserted that the present inhabitants are able to 
speak Spanish, which is gradually supplanting the native language, 
"a Micronesian dialect nearly allied to that used by the Tagals of the 



Coutts Trotter in Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 16, p. 256, 1883. 
& This remarkable statement is made by Guillemard, in Stanford's Compendium 
of Geography and Travel (new issue), Australasia, vol. 2, p. 554, 1894. 



118 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Philippines." 05 In the classification of the Indo-Pacific races of man, 
by 8. J. Whitmee, the natives of the Marianne Islands are not even 
mentioned. 6 In Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary c 
(1891) two distinct sets of references are given to words of the Chamorro 
language, evidently compiled from separate vocabularies, neither of 
which have the words properly spelled. Thus, under the word for 
stone the Chamorro word "achu" is cited as "Guaham, ashou; Cha- 
mori, atju," as though these were two languages; and no mention is 
made of the resemblance of the Chamorro "guafi" to the Polynesian 
"all" (fire), "guihan" to "ika" (fish), "uchan" to "ua" (rain), 
"chalan" to "ala" (path), though the corresponding Malayan words 
"api," "ikan," "hujan," and "jalan" are cited. 

As a matter of fact the Chamorro language is not a Micronesian 
dialect, nor is it closely similar to that used by the Tagals of the 
Philippines. One need only compare the words given in the preced- 
ing lists with Micronesian vocabularies to be convinced of this fact, 
and to note the difference between the Chamorro "guma" (house) and 
the Tagalo "bahai," the Chamorro "hanom" (water) and the Tagalo 
"tu big," the Chamorrro "palaoan" (woman) and the Tagalo "babai," 
and the dissimilarity between tbe corresponding verbs, prepositions, 
adverbs, and adjectives of the two languages. 

Pure-blooded Chamorros are no longer found on the island, it is 
true, but in every native family of Guam the Chamorro language is 
the medium of communication, d and though the men of the original 
stock were nearly all killed off by the Spaniards in their efforts to 
"reduce" them, yet many of the women were married to Spanish, 
Mexican, and Philippine soldiers brought by the Spaniards to the 
island to assist in the conquest, as well as to mariners of Great Britain 
and France who settled in the island. Few foreign women have found 
their way to Guam, and it was from their Chamorro mothers that the 
children learned to talk. Thus the Chamorro language has survived, 
though it has become modified by the introduction of many Spanish 
words and idioms, just as the Hawaiian and Maori languages have been 
influenced by the English, and the Tahitian and Malagassy by the 
French. The entire system of numeration has been replaced by the 
Spanish. The Spanish indefinite article "un" has been adopted, as 
well as the prepositions "para" (for), "con" (with), and a number of 
other words. It should be noted, however, that where Spanish nouns, 
adjectives, and verbs have entered the language they are made to con- 
form with the grammatical features of the Chamorro; thus the plural 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 14, p. 200, 1882. 
& Idem. , vol. 19, pp. 422-128, 1885. 
< Under Whatu, p. 61 7. 

d See Safford, Natives of the Island of Guam, American Anthropologist, n. s., vol. 
4, p. 194, 1902. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS, 119 

of " santos," saint, becomes ''manantos;" the dual of "parientes" 
becomes " pumarientes," two relatives of each other; and from the 
Spanish verb "sentir" are derived the reduplicated form "siesienta" 
and "unsiesienteha," "thou dost indeed feel," or "thou art truly 
feeling." 

The various races have amalgamated thoroughly. Among the prin- 
cipal families on the island are found the names of Anderson, 05 Robert, 
Wilson, and Millechamp, as well as those of Torres, Palomo, Martinez, 
Cruz, Perez, Herrero, and others of Spanish and Mexican origin, 
names all prominent in the archives of the island. In these archives 
are copies of official orders of the captain-general of the Philippines 
directing that all foreigners be sent away from Guam and, in reply, 
petitions from a number of worthy men stating that the} 7 had adopted 
this little island for their home and begging the cap tain -general that 
they might be allowed to remain with their wives and little ones. 
Some of them even went to Manila and were granted permission to 
return, becoming useful members of the community and rendering 
great assistance to the governor as interpreters, captains of the port, 
and pilots. Many of their descendents inherit their sterling qualities, 
but are true Chamorros in language, in manners, and in heart. 

As for the Caroline islanders, their entire colony has been sent to 
the German islands of the group. They never intermarried with the 
Chamorros, but retained their own language and customs, living like 
savages in small huts with only a few leaves spread upon the ground 
to serve as a floor and bed, subsisting on fish, wild yams, and fruits, 
and resisting all attempts to christianize them. There are no records 
of people of South American origin having settled in Guam, but in the 
northern islands of the group the census of 1902, taken by the German 
authorities, shows that there are 15 persons of American origin, 
recorded as ''Chilians, Peruvians, and Mexicans." 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

The natives of Guam are, as a rule, of good physique and pleasing 
appearance. Owing to their mixed blood their complexion varies from 
the white of a Caucasian to the brown of a Malay. Most of them have 
glossy black hair, which is either straight or slightly curly. It is 
worn short by the men and long by the women, either braided, coiled, 
or dressed after the styles prevailing in Manila. 

DISEASES. The remarkable freedom from disease of the aborigines 
at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards has already been noted. 6 
Shortly afterward, however, a kind of leprosy made its appearance on 
the island, introduced very probably by Filipino convicts who were 
brought in 1680 from Manila to assist, together with soldiers from 

Descendents of a Scotchman who came to Guam with Freycinet; see p. 31. 
& Garcia, Vida y Martyrio de Sanvitores p. 197, 1683. 



120 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Mexico, in the "reduction" of the natives. Dampier, describing the 
natives of Guam in 1686, says: 

The Natives of this Island are strong-bodied, large-limb'd, and well-shap'd. They 
are Copper-coloured, like other Indians: their hair is black and long, their eyes 
meanly proportioned; they have pretty high Noses; their Lips are pretty full, and 
their teeth indifferent white. They are long visaged, and stern of countenance; yet 
we found them to be affable and courteous. They are many of them troubled with 
a kind of Leprosie. This distemper is very common at Mindanao: therefore I shall 
speak more of it in my next Chapter. They of Guam are otherwise very healthy, 
especially in the dry season: but in the wet season, which conies in June, and holds 
till October, the air is more thick and unwholsome; which occasions Fevers: but the 
Ilains are not violent nor lasting. For the Island lies so far Westerly from the Phil- 
ippine Islands, or any other Land, that the Westerly Winds do seldom blow so far; 
and when they do, they do not last long: but the Easterly Winds do constantly blow 
here, which are dry and healthy; and this island is found to be very healthful, as 
we were informed while we lay by it." 

In his description of the "sort of Leprosie" observed on the island 
of Guam and in Mindanao, Dampier says: 

This Distemper runs with a dry Scurf all over their Bodies, and causeth great itch- 
ing in those that have it, making them frequently scratch and scrub themselves, 
which raiseth the outer skin in small whitish flakes, like the scales of little Fish, 
when they are raised on end with a Knife. This makes their skin extraordinary 
rough, and in some you shall see broad white spots in several parts of their Body. 
I judge such have had it, but are cured; for their skins were smooth, and -I did not 
perceive them to scrub themselves: yet I have learnt from their own mouths that these 
spots were from this Distemper. Whether they use any means to cure themselves, 
or whether it goes away of it self, I know not: but I did not perceive that they 
made any great matter of it, for they did never refrain [from] any company for it; 
none of our People caught it of them, for we were afraid of it, and kept off. & 

The disease described by Dampier, though possibly one of the forms 
knowns as "lepra," was certainly not Lepra anaesthesiaca, a later 
introduction, which is characterized by absence of sensibility of the 
surface, comparative smoothness of the skin, and ulceration and loss of 
the fingers and toes. The latter disease is not nearly so prevalent on 
the island as it was at the time of the visit of Freycinet, and it is 
constantly decreasing. One reason for this may be the change from a 
fish diet to one almost entirely vegetable, with occasional indulgence 
of beef, venison, pork, and fowls; as it is a well-known fact that a fish 
diet renders every symptom of the disease worse. During the inter- 
regnum which followed the seizure of .the island by the United States, 
all but one of the patients in the leper hospital at Asan escaped and 
were cared for by relatives in various parts of the island. A leper 
colony was established by Governor Seaton Schroeder on the shore of 
Tumhum Bay, and the few natives suffering from leprosy have been 
segregated there. The}^ are attended by nurses and are treated by the 
naval medical officers stationed on the island. 



Dampier, New Voyage, 6th ed., vol. 1, pp. 297-298, 1717. 
&Idem., p. 334. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 121 

Several cases of ichthyosis have been noted by our doctors, all of 
them congenital. In this disease the skin of the patient has the ap- 
pearance of being* composed of small scales like those of fishes. 
Though the disease is apparently incurable, the patients do not appear 
to suffer and their general health is good. Among other skin diseases 
is that known in the Eastern Tropics as " dhobie itch " (Tinea circinata), 
a kind of ringworm which, if unchecked, spreads over the skin in 
large areas. This was very common among our own men. A good 
remedy for skin diseases is the "ringworm shrub" (Herpetica alata], 
introduced into Guam and the Philippines from Mexico, and called 
by the natives "acapulco." Another excellent remedy is an ointment 
made of 4 per cent of chrysarobin with vaseline. Chrysarobin, known 
also as u goa powder," is obtained from the longitudinal canals and inter- 
spaces of the wood of Ahdira araroba, a Brazilian tree belonging to 
the Leguminosae. 

The most prevalent disease among the natives is hereditary syphilis. 
During the first years of the American occupation of the island no 
primary or secondary cases were observed. The. most frequent symp- 
toms of this disease are ulcers and hard lumps on various parts of the 
body and destructive joint and bone lesions. It is not uncommon for 
a young man or woman, or even a little child, of apparently fine phy- 
sique to be afflicted with an ulcer in the palate or nose, which often 
spreads over the face and sometimes destroys the eyes. Syphilis, like 
leprosy, was probably introduced into Guam by diseased convicts and 
laborers, some of whom were Chinese, sent to the island from the 
Philippines at the request of some of the early governors. One 
governor's report, to which reference has already been made, describes 
the condition of some of the convict laborers sent to Guam, who were 
afflicted with scurvy and skin diseases and foul ulcers. After under- 
going medical treatment for a short time they were distributed over 
the island. a It is probable that many others previously sent, of whose 
importation we have no record, were also diseased in like manner, 
and that little or no effort was made on the part of the authorities to 
prevent the contagion from spreading. 

On the arrival of the Americans at Guam, the natives flocked by 
scores to our medical officers for treatment. In the report of the 
Surgeon-General of the Navy for 1900, attention is called to the extra- 
ordinary success attending the treatment of hereditary syphilis, nearly 
every case of which responded immediately to potassium iodide or to 
mercury, administered either in large or in small doses. 

Another source of disease was the frequent visits of whaling vessels 
and the establishment on the island of a hospital for the treatment of 

"Llegaron 21 enfermos, imos escorbutados y otros con llagas y enfermedades 
cutaneas." (Don Pablo Perez, letter to the captain-general of the Philippines, ined., 
October 17, 1851.) 



122 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

diseased seamen. It was sometimes impossible for those in charge of 
the hospital to keep the patients under control, and their disorderly 
behavior caused much worry to the Spanish officials. 

Among the man}^ wise and benevolent acts which characterized the 
administration of Governor Schroeder was the establishment of a civil 
hospital. The corner stone was laid by Mrs. Schroeder on the 10th of 
June, 1900, and the building was dedicated by the Reverend Father 
Jose Palomo." One of the principal causes of the stationary condition 
of the population, as shown by the census of the island, was the death 
of new-born infants and of women in childbirth. A school for the 
instruction of mid wives was accordingly established, and all women on 
the island employed in this capacity were obliged to undergo a course 
of instruction before receiving license to continue their profession. 

The doctors reported typhoid fever to be endemic. Diseases of the 
eye were not very common, though several cases of conjunctivitis and 
iritis were treated. Malaria is apparently absent, though mosqui s 
abound. Among the parasitic diseases are tapeworm and lumbricjid 
worms. In one year 17 deaths from the latter were reported, and in 
the preceding year 5 cases of the former were successfully treated. 
Tuberculosis exists on the island, but is not widely spread. 

It is not strange that the early inhabitants complained tha* the 
Spaniards brought curses to their islands without bringing remedies 
for their cure. The last serious epidemic was that of smallpox brought 
from Manila in March, 1856, by the schooner E. L. Frost, and lasting 
until the following November. More than two-fifths of the popula- 
tion perished, and in some cases whole villages were wiped out of 
existence. 

In the summer of 1899 the Spanish transport Elcano brought to t A e 
island a disease thought at first to be cerebro-spinal meningitis, but 
afterwards believed to be anterior poliomyelitis. In some respects 
it resembled beriberi, but it was not attended with dropsical symp- 
toms. The victims, all adults, were suddenly stricken when in appar- 
ently perfect health. Frequently death ensued in three or four days. 
If the victim survived, paralysis either in the arms or legs was sure to 
follow, and the muscles of the afflicted parts became atrophied.'' The 
disease was chiefly confined to the village of Sumai, on the shore of 
the harbor of Apra. It would be interesting to know whether this 
epidemic could be traced to the importation of moldy or damaged rice, 
which in Japan and the Philippines is supposed to be the cause of 
beriberi. 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 1901, p. 82. 
^ Alfred G. Grunwell, assistant surgeon, U. S. Navy, in Report of the Surgeon- 
General of the Navy for 1900, pp. 224-227. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol 



PLATE XIX. 




THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 123 



PERSONAL AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



DRESS. The natives dress very much after the manner of the 
people of Manila. The men wear cotton trousers, and shirts outside of 
the trousers, either white or of some striped material. Some of them 
wear white jackets which fit closely about the neck, fastened with 
buttons or silver studs. They wear either imported hats of straw or 
felt, or hats of pandanus woven on the island. When fishing on the 
reef or when at work on their ranchos many of them content themselves 
with a breechcloth and a straw hat. They wear shoes, slippers, or 
sandals, or, if engaged in work which does not require the feet to 
be protected, go barefooted. As is the case in Japan and at Manila it 
is the custom while sitting in the house to slip off the shoes. At 
church the women usually take them off and kneel upon them. 

The ordinary dress of the women is an ample skirt of print or 
bright-colored gingham with a short chemisette of thin white material, 
cut low in the neck and provided with wide flowing sleeves. Stockings 
are worn by few except on feast days and Sundays. Women of the 
better class follow the Manila fashions and wear garments of more 
costly materials. Some of them have begun to wear corsets. A few 
wear European hats; the remainder go bareheaded or content them- 
selves with handkerchiefs tied over the head. Nearly all of them 
wear kerchiefs across the bosom and a rosary about the neck. Some 
of the native costumes are very prettily ornamented with lace or 
embroidery, and the handkerchiefs are often of fine texture, with a 
colored border. It is considered unseemly for the older women to 
wear bright colors or fancy laces. Flowers are scarcely at all worn 
by the natives, but that they have a love for beauty is shown by the 
decorated altars in their houses and the bright-colored foliage plants 
and flowers in their gardens. 

DWELLINGS. With the exception of a few families living in ran- 
cherias, the natives live in villages and go to their fincas, or country 
places, for the purpose of feeding and watering their stock or for cul- 
tivating their fields. The town houses are well constructed. They 
are raised from the ground on substantial, durable posts (PI. XX), 
or built of masonry with a basement or "bodega" which is used as a 
storeroom or cellar (PL XIX). Some of them are surrounded by bal- 
conies, inclosed by shutters or by windows with translucent Placuna 
shells for panes. The roofs are either of thatch or tile, the best thatch 
being that made of the leaflets of the nipa palm. Many of the houses 
are provided with vegetable gardens in which dome-shaped ovens may 
be seen. Under the eaves, so as to catch the drippings from the roof, 
are rows of bright-colored Phyllaurea and variegated Acanthaceae. 
Ornamental Araliaceae are also planted, some with finely divided leaves 
(NotJiopanax fruticoswn), others with leaves shaped like saucers (N. 



124 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

cochleatum), and others prettily variegated with white (Aralia guil- 
foylei). Besides fruit trees, such as lemons, limes, pomegranates, 
soursops, and sugar apples, there are shrubs, vines, and trees prized 
for the fragrance of their flowers such as Lawsonia, Telosma (Pergu- 
laria), and ilangilang. 

Ranches vary in size from simple huts, intended for the temporary 
shelter of one or two persons attending to adjoining patches of culti- 
vation, to well-built permanent dwellings large enough for a whole 
family. A plat of ground after having been cultivated for four or live 
years is often abandoned and allowed to lie fallow a few years. Under 
these conditions it would not pay to erect permanent habitations on 
the mesa. The usual form of a small rancho is that of a shed with 
walls of woven reeds, coconut leaves, or split bamboos and a coconut- 
thatched roof with eaves projecting sufficiently to keep the rain from 
coming in through the cracks. Half the hut is taken up by a plat- 
form of split bamboo, raised about 2 feet from the ground. This is the 
family bed. Beneath it are penned up each night the youngest broods 
of chickens with their mothers, to protect them from rats, cats, and 
lizards. The larger fowls fly to the spreading limbs of a neighboring 
tree (the site for a rancho is always selected near a suitable roosting 
tree), or upon the ridge of the roof, or perhaps on some convenient 
perch in the hut itself, where there are always four or five setting hens 
in baskets hung on the posts. Sometimes the whole family remains 
at the rancho during the week, returning to town on Saturday so that 
their owners may be ready for early mass the next morning. On Sat- 
urday evening a procession of ox carts a mile long may be seen en 
route to the capital. 

They have little furniture. In homes of the better sort are usually 
found tables and benches of ifil wood, cane-bottomed beds, a few chairs, 
and almost invariably an altar with the image of a saint enshrined 
above it, before which a light of cocoanut oil is kept burning. A few 
homes have handsome beds, tables, and chairs from the Philippines 
left behind by Spanish officials. Homes of the poorer kinds are desti- 
tute of bedsteads or tables, the natives sleeping and sometimes eating 
from mats on the floor. 

USEFUL ARTS. 

Though it may be said that all the natives of Guam are essentially 
farmers, yet many of them show decided aptitude for various kinds 
of handiwork. In Agana there are excellent blacksmiths, silversmiths, 
carpenters, cabinetmakers, tanners, and shoemakers, and fairly, good 
masons. In other parts of the island there are men skilled in lime 
and charcoal burning. A number of the women are adepts at weaving 
mats and hats of excellent quality from pandanus leaves; men twist 
string and make nets of pineapple fiber and ropes from hibiscus bark, 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XX. 




THE MODEKN INHABITANTS. 125 

and everybody knows how to prepare coconut leaves for thatching 
and pandanus leaves for lashing together the parts of a house or rancho. 
Some of the natives are remarkably versatile, being called upon to 
practice various callings, as occasion may require. One of the Spanish 
governors, who elsewhere speaks somewhat disparagingly of the 
Chamorros, writes as follows: 

The late master armorer of the post, Don Vicente Pangelinan, worked with greater 
or less perfection as armorer, locksmith, blacksmith, wood carver, cabinetmaker, 
carpenter, silversmith, lathe turner. He was well fitted to perform clerical work, 
having been employed as clerk in the treasury, assisting with the local accounts as 
well as with the college fund in cases of urgency; speaks and writes Spanish fairly 
well and speaks English, and remaining after all these accomplishments a person of 
simple life and modest bearing. 

The successor and son-in-law of Don Vicente, the present armorer, 
also works as gunsmith, locksmith, blacksmith, silversmith, turner, 
carver, inlayer, clock repairer, and tortoise-shell worker. He is also 
a thrifty rice grower, and attends personally to his plantations. One 
of the most interesting sights is to see him take a condemned musket 
and convert a portion of its barrel into a knife blade, welding in the 
steel spring for the edge and fitting to it a handle of buffalo horn 
inlaid with mosaic designs of silver, mother-of-pearl, or tortoise shell. 
All of this he does with most primitive appliances. With equal skill 
and apparent pleasure in his work he converts an old piece of iron 
into a fosino or scuffle hoe or into a plowpoint. The husband of one 
of Don Vicente's granddaughters is the principal silversmith of the 
island. He makes spoons, forks, ladles, cups, or bowls well shaped 
and finely finished, and he imitates models furnished him remarkably 
well, melting up worn coin and silver pesos for his material. 

The principal cabinetmaker, a Filipino by birth, is also a rice 
planter. He makes beautiful wardrobes of i til wood, carving them in 
designs of his own invention and finishing them beautifully. Not 
many chairs are made in Guam, as the natives prefer benches or 
settees. 1 c dinary tables, bencL and other furniture bear a 
close resemblance to the forms now popular in the United States 
known as " mission furniture." Canopies for beds and tops of ward- 
robes are often carved, and show Philippine influence, the forms 
resembling those used by the Malayan people. The beds are usually 
provided with woven bottoms of rattan, like our cane-bottom chairs. 
There are men in Guam who make these bottoms, but they get their 
"behuko," as they call the rattan, from the Philippines. 

Boards for the sides of houses and for floors are sawed by hand 
with large two-handled ripsaws, the logs being inclined against a 
raised platform, so that one man may stand on a stage above and the 
other on the ground. Serviceable carts are made with tough elastic 



126 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

shafts and with solid wooden wheels of Calophyllum wood, which are 
inclosed in iron tires usually made from old gun barrels. 

Leather of excellent quality is made from the hides of cattle and buf- 
falo and from deerskins. The principal tan bark used is that of Pithe- 
colobium dulce, a leguminous tree of Mexican origin. Shoes are com- 
monly made without heels, after the Philippine fashion, the uppers of 
yellow deerskin, ornamented with red leather, and the soles of cow skin 
or buffalo hide. Very good shoes are also made after European styles. 
Ordinarily while working on their farms the people wear sandals, for 
making which a piece of sole leather is kept on band in each f amity. 
Each individual cuts sandals to the shape of his foot, as he may require 
them, securing them by thongs passing backward on each side of the 
foot from between the first and second toes. 

As a rule, the masonry work on the island, chiefly stone walls and 
the basements of houses, is substantial but crude. In squaring the 
stones and in laying them horizontal the mason frequently depends 
upon his eye, though he may have both square and level at home. The 
result is, as may well be imagined, that frequently the corners of 
buildings supposed to be square are by no means right angles, and 
stone steps and terraces intended to be horizontal are far from it. On 
having his attention called to such defects the workman may excuse 
himself by saying, "Ay, senor, I am not a master mason. I didn't 
know you were so particular about having it square. I'll go home and 
get my level and square; or will you send your boy to borrow Don 
Juan's?" 

The source of both the stone and the mortar used for building is 
chiefly coral rock. Coral fresh from the reef is not used, as it contains 
salt and remains moist for a long time, and the mortar it yields is also 
salty, with a tendency to remain soft and sticky. Coral hummocks 
for building are taken from the reef and allowed to weather for a long- 
time, and the best of lime is burnt from coral rock and limestone of 
the ancient reefs composing the greater portion of the island. 

PREPARATION OF FOOD. The principal food staples of the natives 
are maize, rice, breadfruit, yams, taro, sweet potatoes, leguminous 
pods and seeds, and several species of Cucurbitaceae. They often eat 
fish of various kinds, venison, pork, and chicken, and less frequently 
beef. Wild ducks (Anas oustaleti) are highly esteemed. The sport 
of trawling under sail for bonito and other game fish has died out, and 
fish are caught only in tide pools and with cast nets along the beach. 
Most of the cooking is done in kitchens adjacent to the dwellings, 
raised like the latter from the ground and connected by means of a 
bridge or a solid terrace of masonry filled in with earth. In the 
kitchen there is a raised shelf at the end opposite the direction of 
the prevailing wind covered with earth which is retained by raised 
slabs along the edge. Stones are arranged in pairs at certain dis- 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXI, 




FIG. 1 . A MODERN OVEN, ISLAND OF GUAM. 




FIG. 2. EVAPORATING SALT FROM SEA WATER. 



THE MODEKN INHABITANTS. 127 

tances apart to rest the cooking utensils upon, high enough to admit 
of fagots under the pots, gridirons, and frying pans. The cooking 
of the present day is very much after the manner of that in Mexico. 
The excavated ovens of the aborigines are little used except on 
ranches, and baking is done in dome-shape ovens of masonry which 
were probably introduced from Mexico. (PI. XXI, fig. 1.) Bread 
and breadfruit are baked. Yams and taro are baked or boiled or first 
boiled and then baked in ashes. Venison and beef are fried or broiled, 
and fish is cooked in various ways. Coconut oil, when fresh, is used 
in cooking and is a good substitute for lard and butter. Coconut 
custard, expressed from the grated meat of ripe coconuts, is used in 
various combinations, giving a pleasant rich flavor to the dishes into 
which it enters. Arrowroot of Tacca pinnatifida is used for certain 
sweetmeats, and preserves or dulces are made of soursops, citrons, and 
fruits of various kinds. Maize is made into a paste and baked in the 
form of tortillas, after the Mexican fashion. Tender leaves of taro 
and other greens are used in place of spinach and asparagus. Coffee 
and chocolate are ground upon the stone used for making tortillas. 

Bread of excellent quality is made from imported wheat flour, fer- 
menting coconut sap being used to leaven it. This sap, when boiled 
fresh, is converted into sweet s}<rup and brown sugar. When the fer- 
mentation is allowed to continue it yields vinegar of excellent quality. 
Salt is evaporated from sea water in iron kettles. (PL XXI, fig. 2.) 
Nearly every native is addicted to the use of tobacco and to the habit 
of betel chewing. Fermenting tuba (coconut sap) is a refreshing 
drink like cider, and is the common beverage of laborers. Formerly 
a kind of rum called aguardiente, or " agua^vente," was distilled from 
it on the island. The distillation of this liquor is no longer permitted. 
The use of opium is unknown. 



MENTAL AND MORAL CHARACTERISTICS. 



Though the natives of Guam are naturally intelligent and quick to 
learn, little has been done for their education, and many of them are 
illiterate. The college of San Juan de Letran was founded by Queen 
Maria Anna of Austria, widow of Philip IV, who settled upon it 
an annual endowment of 3,000 pesos. Through misappropriation a'nd 
dishonesty the annual income of the college gradually dwindled to 
about 1,000 pesos. The greater part of this was absorbed by the 
rector, who was usually the priest stationed at Agana, and by the 
running expenses of the school, which were the subsistence and wages 
paid to janitor, porter, steward, doctor, and the lighting of the building. 
A head herdsman was employed with two assistants to look out for the 
cattle belonging to the school. All of these men were paid salaries, 
so that there remained for actual expenses of instruction only 192 
pesos a year, 98 pesos of which were paid to the head master, 48 pesos 



128 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

to his assistant, and 48 pesos for the minor expenses attending the 
education of "poor children." 

The education dispensed was of the most elementary nature. At 
times it consisted of a course in "music and primary letters" and in 
giving 1 to a few boys sufficient instruction to serve as acolytes for the 
priests. Many of the governors disapproved of the higher education 
of the natives. Don Francisco Villalobos suggested to the captain- 
general that the college be abolished and that the funds be applied to 
"general education, to repairs and ornaments of the churches, and to 
the improvement of government buildings and priests' residences on 
the island." He also recommended that the schoolhouse be converted 
into an inn or guest house for the entertainment of strangers, and that 
the fixed income therefrom be applied to government purposes. 

The mipils, it was asserted, were injured rather than benefited by 
their ect ^cation and rendered unfit for future usefulness. On entering 
t,h-3 college they soon forgot the misery and poverty of their homes, 
and during their stay of five or six years became accustomed to good 
food, clothing, and lodging, without learning any trade by which they 
might afterwards earn a living and without forming habits of industryc 
The discipline was declared to be bad, and everything tended to make 
the students incompetent to earn their living, discontented with their 
lot, and, the more quick-witted among them, thorns in the side of the 
governor, who was often obliged to impose "correctional punish- 
ments" upon them. a 

Another governor, Don Felipe de la Corte, recommended that the 
education of the natives be limited to the merest rudiments, to avoid 
their acquiring a superficial knowledge of the more advanced branches 
of learning, which would lead to pretensions on their part to be men 
of education. Such persons, he declared, gave more trouble to the 
authorities than any other class and were a disturbing element among 
the natives. In spite of Don Felipe's recommendation the captain- 
general at Manila did not see fit to divert the fund from its original 
object. 

From these and other extracts from the archives it is easily seen 
that the Spanish governors of the island of Guam discouraged the 
higher education of the natives not because they thought them inca- 
pable of receiving it, but because they believed they would be more 
tractable if they remained ignorant. 



SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND CUSTOMS. 



MARRIAGE. The natives marry at a comparatively early age, and 
the young couple, though they may continue to live with the family 
of the bride or of the groom in the town residence, usually enter into 

Don Francisco Villalobos, letters to the captain-general of the Philippines, inedited, 
November 16, 1831, and February 9, 1833. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 129 

possession of property which the parents of both have been gradually 
accumulating for their benefit. A would-be purchaser of a plantation 
of young coconuts or perhaps of some lumber observed lying under 
a house will probably meet with a refusal, the owner saying that he 
has cleared ttnd planted the cocal for little Juan or Maria, or that 
he is accumulating a number of good posts so that Pedro may have a 
house of his own when he marries. Old bachelors and unmarried 
women are not common in Guam. Most families have several chil- 
dren, differing in this respect from the Samoans, where there are. 
often only one or two, or where many of the women are barren. 
But before the American occupation the laws of the island did not per- 
mit divorce and remarriage, so that new alliances which might be 
formed by those who had separated could not be legalized. In con- 
sequence of this such unlegalized alliances have been held up as 
examples of the shocking immorality of the island, whereas, in reality, 
in most cases observed by the writer they were to all intents and pur- 
poses marriages in which the husband and wife were mutually faith- 
ful and the children in all cases well cared for. At the time of the 
American occupation prostitution was almost unknown on the island, 
though there were many cases of couples living together without hav- 
ing been married by the church or civil authorities. These alliances 
were looked down upon by the more respectable element, but as a rule 
illegitimacy was not considered a serious misfortune, and an unmarried 
mother was treated with pitying kindness by her neighbors. 

RELATIONS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. The carefulness of 
parents to provide for their children has already been referred to. 
There are perhaps few countries in the world where greater attention 
is paid to the establishing of a young couple in life, though of course in 
Guam their wants are comparatively few on account of the simplicity 
of their surroundings and their mode of living. One of the most 
striking features to a stranger is the conscientious way in which ille- 
gitimate children are provided for. While registrar of property on 
the island, the writer was struck in many cases by the earnest desire 
of fathers to secure legal titles for their illegitimate children to houses 
and plantations especially prepared for them, and the records show 
that some of the best estates on the island were the creation of unmar- 
ried parents for their children. On their part sons and daughters 
show the greatest respect and affection for their parents, recognizing 
their authority as long as they live. It is not unusual for a man or 
woman of 40 or 50 years to ask permission of his parents before engag- 
ing in a business transaction, and the spectacle of old women, aban- 
doned and forgotten by their children, acting as water carriers, etc., 
so common in Samoa and among our Indian tribes, is unknown in 
Guam. Parents are tenderly cared for in their old age, treated with 
deference even when in their dotage, and depart this life accompanied 
977305 9 



130 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

by the prayers of all their family, all of whom leave their occupations 
and come from the most distant parts of the island to be with them 
during their last moments. One of the most touching examples of 
filial piety witnessed by the- writer was the case of a middle-aged mar- 
ried man who had been sued by his sister for the possession of some 
property. He made a clear, manly, straightforward statement to the 
court, but when his old mother testified against him he burst into 
tears, saying he could not contradict her because she was his mother, 
though it was found afterwards that the old lady had been influenced 
by her daughter to testify falsely. 

RESPECT FOR THE LAWS. In referring to the law-abiding spirit of 
the natives Governor Schroeder writes as follows: 

I have had occasion at various times to note and to mention to the Department 
that many little actions on the part of the natives of the island indicate a friendly 
feeling for the American Government, its flag, and its representatives here. This 
feeling is quite unmistakable and will, I hope, become well founded. * ' * * It is 
hoped that in time one prime difficulty will be removed, vi/, the dread by this 
peaceable and law-abiding people of complaining and testifying against those who 
maltreat them. To preserve law and order among the people themselves is a matter 
of no difficulty; the little company of [native] insular artillery, which forms the 
constabulary, although inefficiently armed, is an excellent body of respectful and 
reliable soldiers, with whose support alone there could be no hesitation in under- 
taking the government of the island. 

FEASTS AND CEREMONIES. On the evening before a wedding, fan- 
dangos, or dancing parties, are given at the homes of both the bride and 
groom. Refreshments are served and betel nuts and cigars are passed 
to the guests. The guests attend both entertainments, going in parties 
from one house to the other. The music for dancing is furnished 
either by a violin and guitar, an accordion, or a piano, if there be one. 
Waltzes and square dances are performed, and occasional!} 7 a Spanish 
"fandango." The wedding is solemnized in the church the next 
morning at early mass, and there is always a wedding breakfast, to 
which the family and special friends of the bride and groom are 
invited. 

The usual church feasts are celebrated, especially those of Corpus 
Christi and of holy week. The ceremonies at funerals are very 
impressive. It is customary for all the relatives and friends of a dying 
person to assemble at the house, which is often too small to hold them. 
The custom of offering refreshments, betel nuts, and cigars recalls the 
death-bed scenes of the olden time described in the history of England 
and other European countries, when it was not unusual for thrifty 
persons in making their wills to ask that there should be no expendi- 
ture for spirits at their funeral. Though there is usually great 

Schroeder, Seaton, commander, U. S. Navy, Report of the Governor of Guam, 
July 8, 1901, in Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 1901, part 1, 
pp. 82-83. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 131 

demonstration of grief for the dead, yet the family is soon comforted, 
tirmly believing in the immortality of the soul and of the ultimate 
happiness of the .departed. The body is accompanied to the church 
and to the cemetery by the men, who go on foot, the women remaining 
at home. As a rule the coffin is carried by four bearers, four others 
walking behind them to relieve them. At the cemetery the body is 
either placed in a boveda, or vault, the entrance to which is closed fiy 
a stone and sealed with mortar, or it is buried in consecrated ground. 
Usually the niche in the boveda is rented for a certain period of time, 
at the expiration of which the bones are removed and buried. 

SPORTS AND PASTIMES. Sunday is observed by all as a holiday. 
Nearly everybody attends mass in the morning. Before the arrival 
of the Americans it was customary to have cockfights in the after- 
noon, and the government received a regular income for its share of 
the receipts of the cockpit. Sunday cockfights were abolished by 
a general order of the governor, and thus a check was given to the 
passion of gambling, which with some of the natives amounted to a 
vice. The natives have no other sports except hunting for deer with 
dogs and guns. The boys amuse themselves with various games of 
Philippine origin. Kiteflying is popular, especially in the trade-wind 
season. In this sport some of them are experts, causing their kites to 
fight one another in the air, like fighting cocks. 



INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM. 



MANNER OF SECURING LIVELIHOOD. The people of Guam are essen- 
tially agricultural. There are few masters and few servants on the 
island. As a rule the farms are not too extensive to be cultivated by 
the family, all of whom, even the little children, lend a hand. Often 
the owners of neighboring farms work together in communal fashion, 
one day on A's corn, the next on B's, and so on, laughing, singing, and 
skylarking at their work, and stopping whenever they feel so inclined 
to take a drink of tuba from a bamboo vessel hanging to a neighbor- 
ing coconut tree. Each does his share without constraint, nor will he 
indulge so freely in tuba as to incapacitate himself for work; for 
experience has taught the necessity of temperance, and everyone must 
do his share if the services v,re to be reciprocal. In the evening they 
separate, each going to his own rancho to feed his bullock, pigs, and 
chickens. After a good supper they lie down for the night on a 
pandanus mat spread over an elastic platform of split bamboo. 

None of the natives depends for his livelihood on his handiwork or 
on trade alone. There are men who can make shoes, tan leather, and 
cut stone for building purposes; but such a thing as a Chamorro 
shoemaker, tanner, stone mason, or merchant, who supports his family 
by his trade is unknown. In the midst of building a stone wall the 
man who has consented to help do the work will probably say: " Excuse 
me, Senor, but I must go to my rancho for three or four days; the 



132 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

weeds tire getting ahead of my corn." And when lime is needed, the 
native to whom one is directed may say: "After I have finished 
gathering my coconuts for copra I will get my boys to cut wood and 
gather limestone to make a kiln. Never fear, Senor, you shall have 
your lime within six weeks." On one occasion a blacksmith was 
delayed two weeks in making a plow, owing to the fact that tho man 
from whom he got his charcoal had been so busy supplying visiting 
vessels with fruits and vegetables that he could not find time to burn it. 

ABSENCE OF POVERTY. The result of this condition of society is 
that when a father dies the wife and children are not left destitute, 
as would be the case if they depended on the results of his handiwork 
alone. The crops continue to ripen and are gathered in due time by 
the family; the weeds and worms are kept out of the tobacco; the 
coffee bushes bend each }^ear under their weight of berries; the coco- 
nuts, as usual, yield their annual dividend. Indeed, in most cases the 
annual income in provisions is amply sufficient to keep the family 
supplied with its simple clothing, some flour and rice brought by the 
traders from Japan or America to exchange for copra, and perhaps a 
few delicacies, a ribbon or two, or a kerchief to go over the head, and 
a new saint to place in the little alcove of the side room, where the 
light is always kept burning. 

ABSENCE OF WEALTH. Very few of the natives have accumulated 
money or property of value. Some of them own fine coconut groves, 
rice fields, and coffee plantations, and a few own small herds of cattle 
and buffalo. At first sight it seems an impossibility that poverty 
should exist where food can be produced in such abundance; and 
indeed were it not for the frequent hurricanes which sweep the islands 
there would be little necessity for accumulating capital. In spite of 
the dearth of food which invariably follows hurricanes, the majority 
of natives are not inclined to cultivate larger crops than are absolutely 
necessary for the immediate subsistence of their families. They say 
that corn and rice will become moldy and spoil, or will be infested by 
weevils if kept a long time, and that all their extra labor in planting 
and reaping will be lost. This demonstrates the necessity for capital, 
and capital not in perishable rice and corn, but in the shape of good 
indestructible and divisible money having intrinsic value. In this 
way surplus food could be converted into money at the end of a good 
harvest and reconverted into food (imported rice or flour or tinned 
meats) in times of scarcity. As it is, when crops are ruined and the 
natives see starvation staring them in the face, the traders will not 
furnish them with supplies in return for the superfluous rosaries and 
trinkets they have accepted in exchange for their copra and other 
marketable products, and they have to go to the woods for cycas nuts 
and wild yams in order to keep themselves alive until succor comes 
from abroad. 



THE MODERN INHABITANTS. 133 

PEONAGE. Before the arrival of the Americans in Guam it was the 
practice of certain enterprising citizens of the island to encourage the 
natives to go into debt, advancing them goods or money for the use 
of their families or for the payment of funeral expenses and masses 
for the dead, in order to engage in advance as much copra as possible 
or to secure labor for their fields. As a rule very poor wages 
were paid; the employer by managing to make further advances from 
time to time increased rather than diminished the debt and kept the 
debtor in continuous servitude. A written contract was always drawn 
up before the first loan would be advanced, by means of which the 
debtor promised to work for his creditor until his indebtedness should 
be canceled/' Shortly after the American occupation complaints were 
received by our officials that certain servants had "escaped," and atten- 
tion was called to the system by which improvident or unfortunate 
natives were virtually made slaves, having sold themselves into bond- 
age. By order of the governor all contracts binding natives to labor 
in consideration for mone}^ advanced to them were declared void and 
the natives were permitted to work where they could get the best 
price for their labor, and to pay their creditors in money. Barter, or 
exchange of produce for imported goods, was also forbidden; so that 
the natives were not obliged to accept articles of which they really 
had no need, but were paid in money, and thus might begin to accumu- 
late capital to serve them in time of necessity. Not only was this a 
benefit in itself, but it allowed them to spend their money where they 
could do so to the best advantage, whereas under the old order they 
were obliged to accept what the traders, to whom they had mortgaged 
their crops, chose to give them. 

LABOR. The natives of Guam have often been accused of laziness 
because they will not voluntarily raise large crops nor work as day 
laborers for others. Don Felipe de la Corte, one of the wisest and 
best of the Spanish governors, says, however, it does not follow 
because they did not cheerfully obey orders to plant excessively large 
crops for the benefit of others that they are naturally indolent. Not- 
withstanding the fact that they had at times produced more food than 
could possibly be consumed, there was no provision for storing it, 
and when hurricanes laid waste their fields they found themselves as 
before, without resources, and consequently they thought it was better 
for them "to work little than to work in vain. Owing to this they 
are accused of laziness, which they are far from manifesting when 
they clearly see the good accomplished by their labor." 

Governor Schroeder, in his official report to the Navy Department, 

says: ' 
***, 

In the study of this question [exploitation of the unoccupied public land] account 
must be taken of a noticeable trait of the Chamorro character, viz, the pride and 

"See Phint World, vol. 7, p. 2(>, 1904. 



134 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

happiness in the possession of land, which results in the community being composed 
of a large number of small landowners. The effect of this is, of course, to minimize 
the amount of labor that can be hired, with the direct consequence that large holders 
are rare and that application of capital would be handicapped by the dearth of labor. 
While this seems to offer something of a barrier to material productiveness, it is a 
very wholesome trait, which it is to be hoped will hold its own against outside 
influences. 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Transportation is effected by boats as 
well as by means of oxen, cows, and buffaloes. (PL XXII.) Owing 
to the difficulties met with in crossing the mountainous interior of the 
southern portion of the island, especially in the rainy season, when the 
roads are slippery and dangerous, transportation from the vicinity of 
Inalahan, on the east coast, to Agana, on the west coast, is often car- 
ried on in boats, the small bay of Hahahyan, at the southern end of the 
island, being used as a landing place for that region. This bay can be 
entered only by boats of moderate size. The journey from Agana to 
Merizo is also much easier by sea than by land, and boats are used 
whenever articles of considerable bulk are to be transported between 
the two points. 

There are only three good roads on the island. The best is that 
leading from Punta Piti. the landing place of the port to Agana, the 
capital, which continues northward to Apurguan, the site of the late 
village of Maria Cristina, inhabited by Caroline Islanders. This fol- 
lows the west coast of the island throughout its entire extent and is 
almost level. Another road leads from the landing place at Apra, on 
the south shore of the harbor of San Luis, to the village of Agat, and 
from this road there is a third branching off to the village of Sumai, 
on the peninsula of Orote. 

There is a road across the island at its narrowest part, from Agaiia 
to Pago, which can be traversed only on foot or on the backs of ani- 
mals. During the administration of Don Pablo Perez, who made use 
of convict labor to carry on the public works of the island, this road 
was for the first time made passable for carts, which fact is duly 
recorded on a tablet in a small shed erected on the crest of a hill about 
halfway across the island. Now it is impossible for a cart to cross 
the island by means of this road, and in the rainy season parts of it 
are so boggy that it is almost impassable with pack animals. The 
road from Punta Piti to Agat, which passes around the margin of the 
harbor of San Luis, is so bad in places that it is frequently impassable 
on horseback. For crossing boggy places and passing muddy fords 
oxen and buffaloes are found to be much more efficient steeds than 
horses on account of their natural propensity for wading. From 
Agat to Merizo, the village at the southern extremity of the island, 
the road is interrupted in several places by abrupt headlands, which 
must either be rounded by entering the sea or crossed by very steep 

Governor Schroeder's report, in Keport of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 
1901, pp. 82-83. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXII. 




EOADS ON THE ISLAND. 185 

paths. From Mcrizo to Inalahan, around the southern end of the 
island, several marshy places intervene, so that cart traffic between 
these villages is impossible. Going northward along* the east coast, 
from Inalahan to Pago, the road encounters the mouths of several 
rivers, two of which must be crossed on rafts or "balsas," composed 
of several layers of large bamboos. There is a trail crossing the 
island from Inalahan to Apra, which in many places is precipitous and 
is slipper}^ and dangerous where the soil is of heavy red clay devoid 
of vegetation. Where this trail descends to cross a river the path has 
become so deeply worn that its vertical sides are as high as a horse's 
head. 

The road leading from Agana to the fine agricultural districts of Yigo, 
Santa Rosa, Mataguag, Mogfog, and Finaguayog may be traversed by 
carts, but it is far from good. As Governor Schroeder has said in his 
official report a on the economic conditions in Guam, "Lack of good 
means of transportation is one of the chief drawbacks to the develop- 
ment of the island." In speaking of the most important agricultural 
and grazing region, which lies to the eastward and northward of Agana, 
Governor Schroeder expresses the opinion that good cart roads, capable 
of withstanding the heavy and frequent rains, would probably lead to 
the acquisition of more public land by private persons. 

Individual efforts [he says] should be encouraged fully as much as collective 
cooperation, affecting, as it does, the entire community, and to this end it is proposed 
to lay out one arterial route, tapping in general plan, the middle of the region, and 
build a good road there as soon as may be. The country being flat, no difficulties 
should exist beyond having, in some parts, to carry the material for roadbed and 
surface some distance. With this thoroughfare created in place of the present mis- 
erable boggy trail, it is believed that the present and future owners of neighboring 
ranches will build small roads leading to it, and that agriculture will receive an 
impulse. This proposed road will be some 15 miles in length. The cost of an entirely 
new road there is estimated at about 45,000 pesos, but a few short stretches of rock 
here and there will diminish the cost. The expenditure of 30,000 pesos, spread 
over two years, should produce very useful results. Later on, in after years, per- 
haps, cart-road communication should be established between towns on the south- 
east and southwest coasts and the harbor of San Luis de Apra and Piti. This will 
best be done by a shore-line road around the south end and up the west coast. In 
many parts this will require causeways to be built in the water around high project- 
ing points, which now have to be climbed; but as the water is very shallow this 
work should not be as expensive as would first appear, and as the shore is protected 
from the sea by a barrier reef it would not be liable to injury by the sea except 
during hurricanes of unusual violence. A limited amount of attention could be 
profitably given to the present bull paths or trails across the mountainous interior of 
the island, but I am convinced that for the purpose of traffic on any useful scale 
direct routes over the mountains would best be eschewed in favor of the shore-line 
route. 

Each able-bodied native is required to contribute ten days each year 
to work on the roads of the island, or in lieu of this to pay a personal 
tax of $8. A tax of 1 per cent was levied on all real estate, but during 

In Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 1901, part 1, pp. 82, 83. 



136 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

the past year, in consequence of the poor financial condition of the 
natives, half of this has been remitted. The proceeds of this tax go 
for the benefit of the schools and roads of the island, and the natives 
do not complain of the taxation. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS. From a letter recently received from one 
of the most intelligent and enterprising of the residents of the island 
the information in the following three paragraphs is taken: 

Government employees receive salaries twenty times greater than 
under the administration of the Spaniards. Simple laborers receive 
more than a dollar a day (silver) and carpenters and masons $3 a day. 
Servants will not work for less wages than 20 pesos (silver) a month. 
Notwithstanding these high rates money is by no means plentiful in 
the island. Employees of the island government are paid from the 
island funds. In cases where work is performed for the naval author- 
ities they are paid from federal funds, but these cases are rare. The 
only money coming to the people from the outside, in addition to that 
paid in wages to servants and laundresses, is what they receive 
from visiting ships and officers stationed on the island for fruit, 
eggs, and fowls. No other money is brought to the island; for 
copra, the only article of export, is paid for in clothing, sugar, flour, 
rice, candles, and kerosene. On the other hand, the Japanese and 
American trading companies collect all the money of the island and 
send it home. 

In March, 190, rice was $25 per sack; flour, $13 per barrel of 100 
pounds; corn, 37i cents a gantaf chickens, $1.25 apiece; eggs, 6i 
cents each; meat, 25 cents a pound. The result is that the natives are 
compelled to depend more and more upon the island products for their 
subsistence. 

In the civil hospital the sick are cared for by medical officers of the 
Navy, and medicines are dispensed free of charge to all those need- 
ing them. A number of marriages have taken place between Ameri- 
cans employed by the government and native women. Most of these 
marriages have proved happy, but there are several cases in which 
American marines have abandoned their native wives and left the 
island at the expiration of the term of their enlistment. The natives 
are very anxious for the establishment of a civil government on the 
island, citizenship for themselves, and public schools for their chil- 
dren. A supply of pure drinking water is sorely needed in Agaiia, 
where all the wells are polluted, and a system of sewers is necessary 
for the health of natives and officials. 

STATISTICS OF COMMERCE, POPULATION, ETC. 

FOREIGN COMMERCE. From the report published by the United 
States Treasury Department for the year ending June 30, 1903, the 
following information is taken: 

"See Measures, p. 189. 



STATISTICS. 



137 



The principal imports are lumber, cotton fabrics, flour, rice, sugar, 
kerosene, candles, and distilled spirits. The lumber comes principally 
from the United States; the cotton fabrics from Japan, the United 
States, the Caroline Islands (probably of German manufacture), and 
the Philippines; the flour from the United States and Japan; the rice 
from Hongkong and Japan; the sugar from the United States, Japan, 
and Hawaii; the kerosene from the United States and Japan; the 
majority of candles from Japan; and the distilled liquors from Hawaii, 
the United States, Japan, and the Philippines. 

The only export is copra, or dried coconut meat. Of this the 
greater part is shipped to Japan, the rest to the United States. Dur- 
ing the year 1903 money in the form of specie was sent from Guam to 
Japan amounting to $18,550. The amount sent to the United States 
is not recorded. 

POPULATION OF GUAM. A census of the island of Guam was taken 
in August, 1901, in obedience to the orders of Governor Schroeder, 
with the following results: 

TABLE I. Population according to villages. 



Villages. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Agana and its dependent villages 


3,216 


3,616 


6,832 


Agat (village proper) 


397 


446 


843 


Agat (district of Sumai) .... 


331 


365 


696 


Merizo (village proper) 


237 


279 


616 


Merizo (district of Umatag) 


123 


126 


249 


Inalahan 


262 


278 


540 










Total 


4 566 


5 110 


9 676 











NOTE. In this table are included only the residents of the island, not those here temporarily, nor 
the United States forces and employees of the naval station. 

TABLE II. Population according to nationality. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Subjects of the United States: 
Citizens of the island. . . 


4,539 


5,091 


9,630 


Citizens of the United States 


6 


8 


14 










Total 


4,545 


5,099 


9,644 


Foreigners: 
Spaniards 


6 


8 


14 


Italians 


o 


2 


2 


Japanese 


12 


1 


13 


Chinese. 


3 


o 


3 










Total 


21 


11 


32 










Re'sume': 
Subjects of the United States 


4,545 


5,099 


9,644 


Foreigners . . . . . 


21 


' ll 


32 










Total 


4,566 


5 110 


9,676 











USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 
TABLE ITT. Population with reference to place of birth. 



Place of birth. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Island of Guam .. . 


4,460 


5,079 


9, 539 


Other islands of the group 


15 




'2'' 


Philippines 


56 


9 


65 


United States 


5 


7 


12 


Hawaiian Islands -. 







2 


Other countries 


30 


6 


30 










Total 


4,566 


5,110 


9,676 











TABLE IV. Educational statistics. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Approxi- 
mate per 
cent. 




2 203 


1 236 


3 439 


46 


Able to read and to sign name . 


40 


30 


70 


1 




665 


1 775 


2 440 


3'>-i 


Able to sign name only 


11 


6 


16 


i 


Absolutely illiterate (over 7 years old) 


541 


965 


1,506 


20| 












Total number above the age of 7 years 


3, 460 


4,011 


7,471 


100 


Number of children younger than 7 years 


1 106 


1 099 


2 205 














Total population 


4 566 


5 110 


9 676 
















NOTE. From the above table it will also be seen that only 15j per cent of the males and 24 per cent 
of the females who have passed the age of 7 years are absolutely illiterate. 

POPULATION OF THE REMAINING ISLANDS OF THE GROUP. Only 
seven of the northern islands now known as the "German Mariannes," 
are inhabited. The population is divided as follows, according to 
a census taken in April, 1902 : a 



Rota (or Luta) 490 

Tinian 95 

Saipan 1, 631 

Sarigan (or Sariguan) 8 

Alamagan 8 



Pagan .. 
Agrigan . 



137 
32 



Total 2, 401 



This population inhabits 626 square kilometers, so that the people 
are distributed according to the proportion of 3.8 to each square kilo- 
meter. According to nationality the population is divided as follows: 



Native Chamorros and Caroline Is- 
landers 2,357 

Malayans 3 

Japanese 18 



Chilians, Peruvians, and Mexicans. 
Spaniards 

Germans.. 



15 
3 

7 



STANDARDS OF MEASURE. 



Land is measured in Guam according to the metric system, 1 hectare 
being equal to 2.471 acres. 

"Fitzner, Rudolph, "Die Bevolkerung der deutschen Siidseekolonien," in 
Globus, vol. 84, p. 21. (July 9, 1903.) 



UNITS OF MEASURE. 139 

The measurements of weight and capacity are those formerly used 
in the Philippines. They are gradually being replaced by the metric 
system. I am indebted to Mr. Louis A. Fischer, of the United States 
Bureau of Standards, for correcting the following tables. 

Linear measure. 

I braza = 1.672 meters 2 varas =65.82 inches. 
1 vara =836.00 millimeters = 3 pies =32.9 inches. 
1 pie . =278.70 millimeters =12 pulgadas=10.97 inches. 
1 pulgada= 23.22 millimeters =12 lineas = .91 inch. 

Measures of capacity. 

DRY MEASURE. 

1 kabanorcavan=25gantas =99.90 liters=2. 75 U. S. bushels =11 pecks. 
1 ganta = 8 chupas = 3.99 liters= .44 U. S. peck = 3.52 quarts. 

1 chupa = 4 apatanes= .499 liter = .44 U.S. quart = .88 pint. 

Liquid measure. 

1 tinaha=16 gantas =63.84 liters=14.02 gallons. 
1 ganta = 8 chupas = 3.99 liters = 3.52 quarts. 
1 chupa = 3 copas = .499 liter = .88 pint. 

Measures of weight. 

1 quintal = 4 arrobas =46.012 kilograms=101.44 pounds. 

1 arroba =25 libras =11.503 kilograms = 25.36 pounds. 

1 libra = 2 marcos = .460 kilogram = 16.23 ounces. 

1 marco = 8 onzas = .230 kilogram = 8.12 ounces. 

1 onza =16 adarmes =28.758 grams = 1.02 ounces. 

1 picul =10 chinantas=62.550 kilograms=137.9 pounds. 

1 chinanta=10 cates = 6.255 kilograms= 13.79 pounds. 

1 catty =16 taels = .626 kilogram = 1.38 pounds. 

1 tael =39.094 grams = 1.38 ounces. 

A kaban of cacao weighs 38.6 kilograms. 
A kaban of rice weighs 60.272 kilograms. 

AGRICULTURE OF THE ISLAND. 

SOILS. O 

THE STRAND. The beaches are composed of fine coral sand and are 
especially well adapted to coconut plantations. Specimens of this 
soil examined by the Bureau of Soils, United States Department of 
Agriculture, were found to contain considerable organic matter, though 
not of such a nature as to be readily decomposed, and for this reason 
it might be well to apply manure to it. Considerable organic matter 
is constantly being added to the stretches of beach in the form of 
decaying vegetation and animal matter from fragments of fresh coral 
and shellfish cast up by the sea and dispersed by the wind. From 
prehistoric times extensive coconut groves have been continuously 
growing along the west coast of the island without apparent exhaus- 

. I am indebted to Mr. Milton Whitney, chief of the Bureau of Soils, for much of 
the following information. 



140 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

tion of the soil. On the east coast, which is exposed almost constantly 
to stiff winds from the eastward, no coconut groves occur, and almost 
the only tree found growing near the waters edge is the Polynesian 
ironwood, Oasuarina eqidsetifolia. At a short distance from the 
beach, however, in places more sheltered from the wind, fine coconuts 
are produced. Bananas, plantains, eggplants, peanuts, garden vegeta- 
bles, and several kinds of fruit trees are grown by the natives along the 
beach, and great breadfruit trees and mangoes are also found growing 
in what appears to be nearly pure sand. Near Agana great stretches 
of sandy beach are covered with beds of seaside daffodils (Pancratium 
littorale), and the outer strand is carpeted with the goats-foot convol- 
vulus (Ipoiiwea pe8-caprae) and several leguminous plants. These 
must all contribute humus to the soil and serve to increase its fertilit} T . 

MARSHES. Marshes of sufficient elevation to admit of drainage are 
planted in rice. Where the water is stagnant and the soil is sour rice 
can not be grown. Several attempts have been made to cultivate the 
large swamp, or u cienaga," near Agaiia, but they have not as yet 
proved successful. This swamp is but a foot or two above the level 
of high tide. It was once a lagoon and from its general level a few 
hillocks rise like islands, which are covered with coconuts and shrub- 
bery. Patches of the cienaga are cleared each year of the reeds which 
cover it (Trichoon) and are planted in taro, and in a number of places 
along the margin are groves of cocoanuts. Near Matan-hanom, at the 
upper end of the cienaga are small plantations of cacao and thrifty 
abaka, or "manila hemp" plants. The latter grow without care and 
are not utilized. Swamp land is plowed with the aid of buffaloes. It 
is divided b} 7 low mud banks into fields of moderate size. It contains 
considerable organic matter from the rice stalks, which are turned 
under after the crop has been harvested. 

In the southern portion of the island there are a number of low, 
damp tracts of land at the mouths of streams. The soil covering them 
is deep and black, and has evidently been deposited by slowly-flowing 
currents. Where this land has been allowed to lie idle it becomes 
solidified like adobe, and in the dry season is crossed in every direc- 
tion by deep cracks. Such an area may be seen in a tract on the west 
side of the Maso River, near Tepungan, which was formerly the prop- 
erty of the Sociedad Agricola de la Concepcion. With proper irriga- 
tion there is no reason why it should not be made to yield good returns. 
Other low-lying tracts are planted in sugar cane, but this industry has 
nearly died out in Guam. Fine tillable tracts lie near the mouths 
of the Asan, Sasa, Laguas, Aguada, Guatali, and Atantano rivers, 
and on the east side of the island near Inalahan. 

INTERIOR VALLEYS. In low-lying interior valleys, sheltered from 
the winds which constantly sweep the island, are a number of fertile 
tracts. On the east side of the island the valley of the Talofofo River 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXIII. 




SOILS. 141 

is especially rich. During the rainy season it is for the most part 
flooded, but in December it becomes sufficiently dry to admit of cul- 
tivation, and yields a harvest of corn at a time when corn can not be 
grown on higher and drier land. In the northern part of the island 
the regions known as Santa Rosa, Mataguag, and Yigo are famous 
for the excellence of their products. These regions have been less 
cultivated than those in the center and south of the island, owing to 
the fact that there are no sources of water supply for man or animals 
with the exception of one or two small streams in the immediate 
vicinity of Mataguag and Santa Rosa, where the platform of porous 
coralliferous limestone is pierced by volcanic outcrops. An analysis 
of the best soils of this part of the island shows that they consist 
largely of heavy reddish clay, and are comparatively rich in nitrates. 
Where the land is uncultivated it is covered with forest growth. 
When the forest is cleared (PL XXIII) it is first planted in land taro, 
bananas, and plantains, and when the stumps are burned and the land 
sufficiently clean coconuts, cacao, and coffee are planted. Oranges of 
excellent quality are produced in the Yigo and Santa Rosa districts, 
and in sheltered places fine cacao is successfully grown. The coffee 
of these districts is also of excellent quality. The determination of 
the water soluble plant food constituents in these soils, which was 
made by the Bureau of Soils, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, shows that they compare very favorably with tropical soils in 
general. All are relatively high in lime, due to their coral origin. 
The amounts of potassium in the samples examined are large as com- 
pared with the soils of the United States, and the large amount of 
nitrates in the Yigo and Mataguag soils is especially noteworthy, 
characterizing them as very productive. 

THE MESA. The northern half of the island consists almost entirely 
of a raised platform of coralliferous limestone called the "mesa" or 
"meseta." Its surface is covered with a layer of soil often only a few 
inches in depth, of a reddish color from the presence of oxide of iron 
in the decomposing coral of which it largely consists. Beneath the 
superficial layer the subsoil is of rotten coral, and beneath this is a solid 
mass of the hard coral composing the ancient reef, cemented together 
by carbonate of lime formed by the action of water upon the oxidized 
surface limestone. Where the meseta has been cultivated for a long 
time its productive power is small, and the natives declare it to be 
"cansada," or tired. Much of the mesa produces excellent tobacco, 
sweet potatoes, and maize, though no effort is apparently made to fer- 
tilize it artificially. Abandoned tracts on the mesa soon become over- 
grown with scrubby bushes, including cassia, indigo, sappan wood, 
and other leguminous plants. The natives understand the economy of 
allowing them to lie fallow for a period of time sufficient for the 
undergrowth to form a thicket, and in selecting a tract for planting 



142 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

they are guided by the richness of the growth of bushes, which they 
ure careful to burn upon the site. The leguminous shrubs undoubt- 
edly act as nitrogen storers. Peanuts could be cultivated with advan- 
tage for this purpose, and would be useful as a crop to alternate with 
maize and tobacco. 

SAVANNAS. On the higher parts of the island there are stretches of 
land almost bare or covered with sword grass, called "neti" (Xipha- 
grostis floridulci), a few weedy labiates, and a sprinkling of ironwood 
trees (Casnarina equisetifolia). The boundary between the savannas 
and the wooded region is very sharply marked. All savannas are 
characterized by absence of drainage. The soil is a red clay, which 
becomes sticky and paint-like when wet, so that during the rainy season 
the roads across the savannas in the southern portion of the island 
become dangerously slippery and impassable. An analysis of savanna 
soil showed it to be almost devoid of organic matter, free from gravel 
and coarse sand, and consisting almost entirely of clay and silt. 
Although it is rather low in nitrates it is possible that this deficiency 
might be remedied by cultivation and the application of manure. 
Though the amount of water-soluble phosphate contained by it is lower 
than in the soils examined from other parts of the island, yet, accord- 
ing to the report of the Bureau of Soils, it is as large as that in many 
productive soils of the United States, and it is quite possible that some 
savanna grass good for forage may be found to replace the coarse, 
sharp-leaved ncti, which is of little economic value except for thatching. 

CASCAJO, OK GKAVEL. The subsoil of the mesa and the cliffs forming 
the sides of the plateau consist in man}^ places almost entirely of coral 
gravel. This is excellent road material and the streets of Agana are 
formed of it. When first removed it is soft and crumbling, but it 
becomes hard and compact on exposure to the air. It consists largely 
of calcium carbonate. Similar material is used in the Philippines for 
road building, but it does not stand heavy travel for a long time 
and must be renewed at intervals. According to the report of the 
Bureau of Soils, material of this kind gradually decomposes into a red 
clay exceedingly high in iron compounds, and when organic material is 
present frequently becomes converted into black waxy fertile soils 
resembling, in many respects, the adobe soils of the southwestern 
United States. 

INDIGENOUS AND SPONTANEOUS ECONOMIC PLANTS. 

Among the plants growing without cultivation on the island are 
Cycas circinalis, the nuts or seeds of which furnish the natives with 
food in times of famine; the wild fertile breadfruit (Artocarpus 
communw), having edible chestnut-like seeds; wild yams (Dioscorea 
spjnosa), which in places form impenetrable thickets; the betel-nut 
palm (Areca cathecu), which is abundant in some of the rich valleys in 



AGRICULTUEE. 143 

the southern part of the island; and Par it i tillacenm, which furnishes 
the natives with cordage. Besides these a number of plants of minor 
importance have escaped from cultivation and are spreading over the 
island, such as the guava, the bullock's heart, the orange berry, Pithe- 
colobiuni dulce, which yields fine tan bark, and Biancaea sappan, which 
is important as a dyewood. 



CULTIVATED FOOD AND STIMULANT PLANTS. 



GARDEN PLANTS. In addition to their small farms nearly all the 
natives of Guam have a town house. Adjacent to many of these are 
gardens in which grow perennial eggplants, red peppers, bananas, 
plantains, various kinds of beans, squashes, gourds, watermelons, 
melons, peanuts, tomatoes of a small and inferior kind, balsam pears, 
mustard, and perhaps yams and a few vines of betel pepper. Among 
the fruit trees in gardens the most common are lemons, limes, the 
sugar apple, and the soursop. Pomegranates are grown more for orna- 
ment than for use, although a very refreshing drink is made from the 
acidulous pulp surrounding their seed. In some of the gardens giant 
taro (Alocasia) is grown for the sake of its leaves, which are used 
instead of paper for wrapping up meat and fish. Banana and plantain 
leaves deprived of their stiff midrib are used for the same purpose, 
and for cordage strings are stripped from their stem, or the leaves of 
the textile Pandanus are used, a plant of which is sometimes grown 
in the garden for convenience. Radishes, onions, garlic, and lettuce 
are sometimes planted, but they do not thrive. (See under Gardens 
in catalogue. 

CEREALS. The only cereals cultivated in Guam are rice and maize. 
The natives cultivated rice in considerable quantities before the dis- 
covery. It was among the supplies furnished to Magellan and 
Lcgazpi. The Dutch navigators, who came after them in 1600 and 
1621, complained that the bales were increased in weight by the addi- 
tion of sand and stones. These bales weighed on an average from TO 
to 80 pounds. 

At present not sufficient rice is grown on the island for the use of 
the natives, though there are several localities well suited for its cul- 
ture. The methods followed are very much like those of the Filipinos. 
Buffaloes are used for plowing. The plow is of wood with an iron 
point, usually fashioned by the blacksmith of Guam out of an old gun 
barrel. It has but one handle. Many of the best rice growers on the 
island within recent years have been Filipinos. At present rice is 
imported from Japan, Manila, and the United States. This would not 
be necessary if a little greater effort were made on the part of the 
planters. As a rule, they plant only enough for their own use and do 
not lay by a surplus. The result is that when the crop is ruined by a 
hurricane or a drought, which not infrequently happens, there is a 



144 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

dearth of rice on the island. One reason for the small size of the crops 
is the difficulty of obtaining labor. Nearly everybody has a ranch of 
his own, and prefers to reap all the benefits of his own labor rather 
than to share them with an employer. 

Maize was introduced from Mexico at a very early date, 05 and soon 
became the principal food staple of the early missionaries and the 
soldiers sent to assist them in the conquest of the islands. With maize 
came the Mexican metate and mano, a low inclined stone slab supported 
on three legs on which tortillas are prepared, and a stone rolling pin, 
cylindrical in shape with the ends slightly tapering. 

Maize is now the most important crop. On the higher land it is 
planted at the beginning of the rainy season. In the lowland, as in 
the valley of the Talofofo River, it is planted at the beginning of the 
dry season. As soon as it is harvested it is shelled and spread out on 
mats in the streets to dry in the sun. Then it is stored in earthen jars 
as a protection against dampness and against rats and weevils. In 
places where the soil is deep enough the land is prepared for maize by 
plowing. On the higher land the weeds and bushes are cleared, dried, 
spread over the field, and burned. This process serves to kill many 
weeds and at the same time to fertilize the land. The only instrument 
of cultivation used in such places is the fosino, or scuffle hoe, which 
consists of a wide transverse blade, placed T-like on the end of a long 
slender handle, the stem of the T being a hollow socket into which the 
end of the handle fits tightly. This is thrust ahead of the laborer, and 
serves to clear away bushes and to cut the weeds. After the corn is 
once planted, the surface is easily kept clear of weeds with the fosino, 
the natives usually covering at one thrust a space of 6 feet in length 
and the width of the blade. The use of this implement is universal. 
Even the women are adepts, and tiny f osinos are made for the little 
children. 

EDIBLE BOOTS. Among the edible roots of the island are taro 
(Caladium colocasia) and yams (Dioscorea spp.), both of which are 
cultivated by the natives and are a resource for them during the 
periods of famine, which usually follow hurricanes. Taro is cultivated 
either in swamps (PL XXIV) or in newly cleared ground. Certain 
varieties, the best of which has purplish stems and is called Visayan 
taro, " sunin visaya," are grown on hillsides and are of fine consistency 
and flavor. The closely allied Alocasia indica and A. macrorrhiza are 
not so commonly cultivated, but grow wild in many places. They are. 
very acrid and are only eaten in cases of necessity. 

The cultivated yams are probably varieties of Dioscorea alata, D. 
sativa, and D. aculeata. Closely allied to the last is the wild gado 
or nika cimarron (Dioscorea spinosa), which forms thickets in many 

^See p. 24, 



Contr Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXIV. 



Cfl 




Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXV. 




ARROWROOT IMARANTA ARUNDINACEA). NATURAL SIZE. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXVI. 




ROOTS OF THE CASSAVA PLANT (MANIHOT MANIHOT). NATURAL SIZE. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXVII. 




BREADFRUIT TREE (ARTOCARPUS COM MUNIS), SHOWING FOLIAGE, INFLORESCENCE, AND 

IMMATURE FRUIT. 



FRUITS. 145 

places on the island. Yams are more difficult to cultivate than taro, 
and are therefore not planted so commonly by the natives. 

Sweet potatoes are far superior to the best varieties of yams and of 
taro. The natives grow them principally to supply visiting ships. 
Several varieties occur in Guam. Unlike the yams and taro, which 
grew on the island before the discovery, sweet potatoes were intro- 
duced by the Spaniards. One variety was brought from the island of 
Agrigan, where it had been introduced by settlers from the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Among other plants with starch-bearing roots are the indigenous 
Tacca pinnatifida, or Polynesian arrowroot; the true arrowroot 
(Maranta arundinacea, PI. XXV); and the mandioc plant (Manihot 
manihot, PL XXVI), which yields cassava and tapioca. 

STARCHY FRUITS. The principal starchy fruits are those of the 
sterile breadfruit (Artocarpm communis, PI. XXVII), called "lemae" 
or "rima" by the natives, and the well-known plantain (Musa para- 
disiaca). Of the plantain there are several varieties. The fruit difl'ers 
from that of the banana in being starchy instead of sweet, and it must 
be cooked before eating. When baked it has somewhat the taste and 
consistency of a potato, but is inferior to it in flavor. 

As both the breadfruit and plantain are seedless they must be prop- 
agated by suckers. This i,s readily done with both plants. They 
both grow with little care and produce abundantly in Guam. As the 
breadfruit is in season only during certain months of the year, some of 
the natives lay in a store of it for the rest of the year by slicing it and 
drying or toasting it in ovens, making a kind of biscuit of it which 
they call " biscocho de lemae." If kept dry this will last indefinitely 
and may be eaten either without further preparation or cooked in 
various ways. It is fine food for taking on a journey, as it is light and 
conveniently carried. 

Squashes and pumpkins are grown, but they do not occupy a promi- 
nent place in the economy of the natives. 

The nuts of the Oycas circinaliH, called "fadan" by the Chamorros 
and "federiko" by the Filipinos, yield a nutritious starch. As these 
nuts are poisonous in their crude condition, there has been considerable 
prejudice against them on the part of some of the Spanish governors 
of the island. In other countries, however, a fine sago, or arrowroot, 
is made from them, which is declared to be superior to that made from 
the pith of sago palms. 

It is remarkable that the "Polynesian chestnut" (Bocoa edulis), so 
widely spread over the Pacific, is not included in the Guam flora. 

TREE FRUITS. The principal fruits are oranges, bananas, mangoes 
(PI. XXVIII), and sugar apples (Annona squammosd), all of which are 
of fine quality. In the vicinity of Agat and the harbor of San Luis de 
977305 10 



146 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Apra there are inferior varieties of oranges, but in the districts of 
Santa Rosa and Yigo, in the northern part of the island, and in Yona, 
on the eastern coast, the oranges are excellent. 

Lemons and limes produce continuously in great quantities all the 
year round. Among the introduced Annonaceae the sour sop (A. inuri- 
cata) is used for making jellies and preserves, and the bullock's heart 
(A., reticulata) is eaten as a fruit, but it is inferior to the sugar 
apple above mentioned. Citrons, pomelos, shaddocks, and bergamots 
are abundant. Averr/toa cartwnbola, improperly called "bilimbines" 
by the natives of Guam and the Filipinos, bears a translucent oblong 
fruit with the cross section of a five-pointed star, which has a pleasant 
acidulous flavor. Guavas grow spontaneously and produce abundantly. 
Little use is made of the fruit, however, owing to the scarcity of 
sugar on the island. Among introduced trees are the cashew (Ana- 
cardiuin occidentale, PL XXIX) and the tamarind (Taiiiarindus 
indica, PI. LXVI), neither of which have spread upon the island, but 
which are found only near villages or on the sites of ranches either in 
cultivation or abandoned. 

COFFEE AND CACAO. Coffee and cacao have been introduced and 
thrive well in Guam. Coffee receives little care. It will grow in 
various situations and in almost any soil, and yields abundant harvests. 
Often most of the houses of a village, as at Sinahana, are seen sur- 
rounded by coffee bushes, and the fresh seeds sprout spontaneously 
beneath the parent plant or if thrown upon the surface of the soilin a 
shad} 7 place. There are no large plantations in the island, each family 
planting enough only for its own consumption. The berries are 
gathered, pulped, and hulled by hand. 

The cultivation of cacao is more difficult. The plants are very 
tender. They have a long taproot which is easily broken, and the 
plants do not bear transplanting well. They are very sensative to 
violent winds, and must be planted in sheltered valleys. Both coffee 
and cacao must be protected from the sun when very young. The use 
of shade trees is not necessary in Guam, though, in starting a cacao 
or coffee plantation, the intervening space between the rows of plants 
is usually planted in bananas, which yield fruit and at the same time 
serve to protect the tender young plants from the sun. 

NARCOTICS. The principal narcotics cultivated on the island are the 
betel palm and the betel pepper, which grew on the island before the 
discovery, and tobacco, which was introduced by the Spaniards from 
America. The betel palm, although frequently planted by the natives, 
also grows spontaneously. Thousands of young plants may be seen 
in the rich valleys of the southern part of the island where seeds have 
fallen from the palms. The betel pepper is a vine with glossy green 
leaves closely resembling the common black pepper (Piper nigrum). 
It occurs only in a state of cultivation, but requires little care, the 



Con+r. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXVIII. 




MANGO TREE (MANGIFERA INDICA) IN FULL FRUIT. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXIX, 




CASHEW (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALS). FOLIAGE AND HALF-GROWN FRUIT. 
NATURAL SIZE. 



OIL- YIELDING PLANTS. 147 

natives propagating it very easily from cuttings and allowing it to 
creep upon stone walls and to climb over trees. (See Plates XXXV 
and LXIII.) 

Toddy, or tuba, is a fermented drink made from the sap of the 
coconut. Before the arrival of the Filipinos brought by the early 
Spaniards to assist in the conquest of the islands the use of tuba was 
unknown. Until the arrival of the Americans an inferior brandy was 
distilled from fermented tuba, but its manufacture has been prohibited. 

Nearly every family on the island has its tobacco patch, each raising 
barelv enough for its own consumption. The seeds are germinated in 
nurseries and transplanted to spots near the plantations, where they 
are kept shaded by canopies of muslin, and then are set out in fields, 
each plant shaded by the segment of a coconut leaf. All hands assist 
in its cultivation parents, children, and grandparents and it requires 
constant attention and no little effort in fighting against weeds and 
tobacco worms to make the crop a success. 

OIL- YIELDING PLANTS. The coconut is the principal source from 
which the natives derive oil. Coconut oil is used for cooking, light- 
ing, and anointing. In taking the place of lard fresh coconut oil 
imparts an agreeable flavor to many articles of diet. Nearly every 
house on the island has its patron saint enshrined in a niche or side 
room, with a light of coconut oil burning before it. The oil is con- 
tained in a goblet half filled with water, which keeps the glass cool. 
The wick is supported on a float. Oil used for massaging the body 
(a custom which Guam shares with many Pacific islands) and for 
anointing the hair is often perfumed with flowers of various kinds 
(p. 210). Dried coconut meat, or " copra," is exported from the island. 
Most of it is used for oil which enters into the manufacture of candles 
and soaps, and is an ingredient of a number of medicines. Among 
other oil yielding plants are the castor bean (Ricmus communis), the 
physic nut (Jatropha curcas), and the the candle nut (Aleurites moluc- 
cana), which has been sparingly introduced. These plants are all 
members of the Euphorbia family. Their nuts and oil are drastic 
purgatives if taken in quantity, and are poisonous if taken in too great 
doses. The candle nut, called "kukui" in Hawaii and "lama" in 
Samoa, derives its name from the custom of the ancient Polynesians 
of stringing the roasted kernels on the rib of a coconut leaflet, the 
tip of which is set on fire and burns like a candle, the flame consuming 
the oily kernels as it descends. At all luaus, or native feasts, in the 
Hawaiian Islands, chopped kukui kernels mixed with seaweed form 
an indispensable dish, which takes the place of a relish. In many 
tropical countries illuminating and lubricating oils are made from the 
castor bean and the physic nut, and both of these oils are important 
medicines. 

An oil like that derived from the almond may be obtained from the 
nuts of Terminalla catappa. The seeds of Morinya morinya are the 



148 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

source of the ben oil of commerce, which is much prized as a lubricant 
by watch makers and is sometimes used in the West Indies as a salad 
oil. Dilo oil is derived from the fruit of Cdlophyllum inophyllum, 
and peanuts and sesame are well known oil -yielding plants. An 
acrid, oily liquid called "cardol" has been derived from the shells of 
cashew nuts (Anacardium occidental^). It is used to varnish furni- 
ture and books as a protection against white ants and other pests. 
These oils are not prepared by the natives of Guam. 



TEXTILE AND THATCH PLANTS. 



FIBER PLANTS. Among the monocotyledons yielding fiber are the 
coconut (Cocos nucifera), from the husks of which is derived the coir 
which is twisted and braided into cords and sennit; the pineapple 
(Ananas ananas), the leaves of which yield a beautiful, fine, silky 
fiber, which the natives of Guam twist into thread for making the 
finer fish nets; the abaka, or manila hemp (Musa textilis), introduced 
from the Philippines, and growing without care on the part of the 
natives, but not utilized by them on account of the labor and skill 
necessary to extract its fiber; and a species of Agave, called "lirio de 
palo," evidently introduced from Mexico, the leaves of which yield an 
excellent fiber, which in Guam is utilized only for wrapping cigars. 
In addition to these, a palm called " cabo negro" has been introduced 
from the Philippines. This species, which is known to commerce as 
the " gomuto," is Saguerus pinnatm. Its stem when young is entirely 
covered with sheaths of fallen leaves and black, horsehair-like fibers, 
which issue in great abundance from their margins. As the tree 
increases in age these drop off, leaving a columnar stem or trunk. In 
the Malay Archipelago the thickest fibers are used by the natives as 
styles for writing on leaves of other palms. The finest fibers are 
known in Eastern commerce as gomuto or ejoo fiber, and are much 
used for making strong cordage, particularly for cables and standing 
rigging of vessels, whence the name u cabo negro," or "black rope" is 
given it in the Philippines. The ropes made of this fiber are not pliable 
enough for running rigging or for fine cordage. The fibers need no 
preparation but spinning or twisting. Cabo negro ropes are said to 
be more durable than any other kind when subjected to repeated wet- 
ting. At the base of the leaves there is a woolly material suitable for 
calking the seams of vessels. The species grows well in Guam, but 
on account of the abundance of other fibers it is not utilized by the 
natives. 

Among the dicotyledons the principal fiber plants belong to the 
Malvaceae, Tiliaceae, Urticaceae, and Moraceae. The chief of all is 
Pariti tiliacenm, a tree widely spread over the tropical regions of the 
world, from the inner bark of which ropes and twine are twisted. Its 
use for this purpose is so extensive in Guam that there is scarcely a 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXX. 



^5Bs^ 

^& : ^4** * 
^r,'-Xfirv* 






COFFEE IN FULL BLOOM. 



FIBER PLANTS. 149 

family which does not possess a rope-making apparatus similar to the 
simpler forms of those used in rope walks elsewhere. Ori the east 
coast of Guam, in traveling from Pago to the southern extremity of 
the island, it is necessary to cross the mouths of several rivers. Balsas, 
composed of several layers of bamboo, are used for this purpose. The 
cables by means of which they are pulled across are made from the 
fiber of Pariti tiliaceum. Though this fiber is not easily worn out in 
its natural condition, its strength and durability are increased by the 
application of tar, such as that used on board ship. Among other 
members of the mallow family are several species of Sida, called 
"escobilla" by the natives. They grow without cultivation on the 
island, in waste places and along the roadsides. They yield a good, 
strong fiber, but on account of the abundance of other material the 
natives do not use it. Allied to these in general appearance and use 
are several species of Tiliaceae, including Triumfetta procumbens, 
which is called "masigsig" by the natives, allied to the species which 
produce the jute of commerce, so extensively used in the manufacture 
of gunny sacks, matting, and carpets. They are not, however, utilized 
in Guam. 

The principal member of the Urticaceae, or Nettle family, is the 
celebrated rhea fiber plant (Boehmeria tenacissima). In Guam it 
grows to the height of a shrub or small tree, though in many other 
parts of the world it is herbaceous. Though allied to the nettles in 
appearance and inflorescence, it is not armed with stinging hairs. 
The closely related Boehmeria nivea, which yields the China "grass 
cloth" fiber, is a plant of temperate regions, the lower surface of the 
leaves being covered with white down, like felt. The leaves of the 
Guam plant, though pale beneath, are not coated with felt. This 
plant, though of great importance in other parts of the world and 
growing in Guam rankly and without care, is in this island not 
utilized at all, except for medicine. 

The last species I shall mention is the principal member of the 
Moraceae, the breadfruit tree (Artocarpus communis). In addition to 
its importance as yielding the principal staple of food, excellent wood, 
fodder for animals, and a gum suitable for paying the seams of canoes 
and for use as a medium in mixing paints, it yields a tough leathery 
bark, which in the olden times was made by the natives into aprons or 
breechcloths. 

Tapa cloth, which is made from it in other islands of the Pacific, was 
apparently not made by the aboriginal inhabitants of Guam. The 
paper mulberry, Papyrius (Broussonetia) papyriferus, the tapa plant 
so widely spread throughout Polynesia, does not occur in Guam. 

MAT AND HAT PLANTS. At least four species of pandanus occur in 
Guam, two of which, called "pahong" and u kafo" by the natives, are 
widely spread in the forests, and furnish food to the fruit-eating bats 



150 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

and wild rats. The third species furnishes leaves which, when young 
and tender, are cooked with vegetables as a flavoring. The fourth spe- 
cies is called "aggag." Its leaves are remarkably strong and pliable. 
They are used for lashing together the parts of a house or hut and foi- 
st ring; and when divided into narrow ribbons they are braided into 
hats, sleeping mats, mats upon which corn and other seed are dried, 
and bags for holding corn and rice. Only one sex of this plant occurs 
in Guam. It is propagated by cuttings, limbs when cut off taking- 
root readily in almost any kind of soil. The leaves of the other spe- 
cies are inferior and are scarcely at all used. 

A coarse kind of mat is made b}^ weaving or wattling the stems of a 
reed which grows in marshy places (Trichoon roxburghii}* called " kar- 
riso" by the natives. These mats are often used to cover the walls 
of lightly constructed houses and are sometimes coated with a kind of 
clay. 

THATCH PLANTS. The majority of houses in Guam are thatched with 
coconut leaves, but those of the better class with the leaves of Nyjxi 
fruiicam, an interesting trunkless palm introduced from the Philip- 
pines, which has established itself at the mouth of every stream of 
importance in the island. When there is a dearth of coconuts and 
nipa, sword-grass, or u neti" (Xipliagrostis floridulci), is used. 

Coconut leaves to be used for thatching are gathered, dried and split 
down the midrib, the two halves being placed together in reverse 
direction and the leaflets interwoven diagonally. Women are usually 
employed in this work. Leaves thus prepared are lashed to the frame- 
work of the roof with strips of pandanus leaves, beginning at the 
eaves and ending at the ridgepole, the leaves being placed so close 
together that they form a thick imbricating thatch. Coconut thatch 
is not very durable. As a rule it lasts only three or four years. 

In preparing the leaves of the nipa palm the leaflets are detached 
from the midrib or rachis, cured by drying, and attached to reeds in 
the form of a f ringe. These are laid on the timbers of the roof frame 
in the same way as the coconut leaves, but closer together. Neti is 
prepared in the same way. The thatch thus formed is more homo- 
geneous, compact, waterproof, and durable than the former. 



FORAGE PLANTS. 



As garden patches are not inclosed, cattle, horses, buffalo, and pigs 
can not be allowed to run at large. They are kept tethered and conse- 
quently require. to be cared for, fed, and watered. Often the avail- 
able pasturage in the vicinity of a town or village is exhausted and it 
is necessary to take the animals a considerable distance before a good 
grazing place can be found. Usually forage is gathered and brought 
to the animals. Besides several species of grasses the best forage plant 
is the breadfruit (Ai'tocarpus communis)^ great quantities of the leaves 



FORAGE PLANTS. 151 

of which arc gathered for this purpose. The branches of several 
leguminous shrubs and of Morinya rnorinya are much relished by 
cattle, and the plants of the cultivated Phaseolits munyo and of peanuts 
form excellent forage. Attempts have .been made to cultivate alfalfa 
(Medicago sativa), but this plant evidently flourishes best in dry cli- 
mates where irrigation is practiced. It does not thrive in Guam. The 
nearest approach to clover on the island is the tiny Meibomia tri- 
flora, which grows close to the ground and forms a thick sward in 
places where the grass does not crowd it out. 

Cattle and hogs are very fond of the fruit of Artocarpus communis. 
After hurricanes, when the ground becomes covered with breadfruit, 
hogs eat great quantities of it and become very fat. The sweet pods 
of Pithecolobium dulce are also eaten by animals. Prosopis juliflora, 
which is an important forage tree in the Hawaiian Islands, has not yet 
become established in Guam. Cattle and horses feed upon its foliage 
as well as upon its pods, and there is no reason why it should not 
thrive on the island. 

Among the grasses the most nutritious is Bermuda grass ( Capriola 
dactylon), called " grama" by the natives. It grows luxuriantly in 
the sandy soil of the lowlands. Dactyloctenium aeyyptiacum and 
Eleusine indica are edible, but coarse and not much relished by horses. 
Stalks of green maize and the leaves of ripe maize are excellent for 
food. Many of the coarser grasses growing in damp places which 
horses and cattle will not eat are eaten by buffaloes. Reeds (Trichoon 
roxburyhii) are often collected for fodder, and are especially relished 
by buffaloes. They are rather coarse when old for cattle, but the 
young shoots are eaten by them. 

Among the plants elsewhere reputed to be injurious to animals is 
Leucaena ylauca, an introduced shrub, which is veiy common in the 
Bahama Islands. Mr. L. H. Dewey, of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, while on the island of New Providence was shown 
horses, without manes or tails, which had lost them, it was declared, 
as the effect of eating this plant. 



WEEDS. 



The number of tropical weeds which have found their way to Guam 
is remarkable. In waste places, along the roadsides, on the borders 
of rice fields, and among growing vegetables," nearly all the weeds are 
of species widely spread over the warmer regions of the world. 
Some of them, like the malvaceous Urena and tiliaceous Triumfetta 
have prickly, bur-like fruits with hooked spines; others like the milk- 
weed (Asclepias curassavica) have silky pappus attached to the seed, 
which provides for their dispersal by the wind. There are also com- 
posites (Glossogyne) with retrorsely scabrid bristles attached to their 
achenes, and marsh plants with seeds which readily adhere to the feet 



152 USEFUL PLANTS OP GUAM. 

or feathers of birds. These peculiarities undoubtedly account for the 
wide dissemination of many of the weeds. Many of the marsh birds 
and shore birds visiting- Guam are migratory, and it is very probable 
that they have brought with them seeds or fruits from other regions. 
It is pleasant to note the absence of the troublesome sensitive plant 
(Mimosa pudica) and the Lantana camara from the flora of Guam. 
Other shrubby plants of wide distribution occur in Guam, however, 
especially the guava, the two common species of indigo, Leucaena 
glauca, and several American species of Cassia. Nearly all the com- 
posites on the iwland are introduced weeds, belonging to the genera Ver- 
nonia, Elephantopus, Adenostemma, Ageratum, Eclipta, Glossogyne, 
and Synedrella. 

ANIMAL PESTS. 

The most serious injury to growing crops is caused by the deer, 
which overrun the island. They often destroy whole fields of corn, 
garden patches, and tender young coconut plants, approaching 
villages by night and eating watermelons, squashes, and other succu- 
lent fruits on the vines. Rats occur in great numbers and attack 
many vegetable products, especially corn and cacao, and flying foxes 
cause considerable damage to certain fruits. Weevils get* into the 
gathered corn and rice, which must be kept in earthen jars well closed 
as a protection against them; termites destroy living trees as well 
as dead wood; and tobacco patches are infested with the larva? of a 
sphinx moth. Few garden patches are inclosed by hedges or fences, 
so that serious injury is often caused by hogs and cattle running at 
large. Horses and cows are especially fond of the foliage of the 
breadfruit, diid will injure young trees if unprotected. Among the 
staple food plants there are fewer diseases and insect pests than in most 
tropical countries. 

PLANT NAMES. 

CLASSES OF NAMES. The common names of Guam plants may be 
classified under three heads: First, vernacular names applied to plants 
which grew in the island before the discoveiy, such as "fai" (rice), 
" pugua" (betel nut); second, East Indian and American names of plants 
which have been introduced since the discovery, such as "maiigga" 
(mango), "kamote" (sweet potato); arid a third class including names 
applied by the natives to plants brought to the island either from other 
parts of the Pacific or from more remote regions, as "baston de San 
Jose" (St. Joseph's staff), applied to Taet&ici tcrminalis, the "ti," 
or u ki," of Polynesia, and "cadena de amor" (chain of love), applied 
to the Mexican Antigonon leptopus on account of its racemes of rose- 
colored heart-like flowers. 

ORIGIN OF PLANTS INDICATED BY THEIR VERNACULAR NAMES. It is 
easy to trace the names of most of the plants introduced since the 



VERNACULAR NAMES OF PLANTS. 153 

discovery. In most cases they are identical with the common name 
applied to them in the regions from which they have been directly 
obtained, or have been somewhat modified to correspond with the 
genius of the language spoken by the natives of their new environment. 
Of greater interest to the student of ethnology and of the origin of 
cultivated plants is a comparison of the common names of plants dis- 
seminated in prehistoric times throughout the entire range of their 
cultivation. From such a comparison it has been possible to determine 
the origin of a number of the more common food staples, such as 
sugar cane, the coconut, the winged yam (Dioscorea alata), the common 
names of which are etymologically identical from the eastern limits of 
Polynesia throughout the islands of the Pacific, the Philippine Islands, 
and the Malay Archipelago. Some names extend even to the continent 
of Asia and to the island of Madagascar, on the edge of Africa. That 
most of these plants have been spread through human agency is evi- 
dent from the fact that they do not grow spontaneous!} 7 , but need the 
help of man for their propagation. Some of them even, such as the 
banana, plantain, breadfruit, sugar cane, yams, and taro, seldom pro- 
duce seed and are propagated asexually by means of cuttings, off- 
shoots, or tubers. 

In addition to garden products a number of trees bear the same or 
similar names in many groups of islands, such as Barringtonia speciosa, 
Intsia bijiiga, and Pariti tiliacewn^ all of economic value to the natives. 
This is especially striking when we consider that some of these plants 
have the same names on islands so remote that their inhabitants have 
had no intercommunication within historic times. We have some light 
upon the method by which the more important plants were spread in 
the traditions of the Hawaiians, which tell of voyages to distant island 
groups for the purpose of obtaining breadfruit and other useful plants. 

Some of the widely spread species bear one name throughout the 
islands of eastern Polynesia, but are known by a different name in the 
islands of the western Pacific and of the Maiay Archipelago. Among 
these are the breadfruit, screw pine, kava pepper, taro, and ironwood 
(Casuarina equiseti folia}. In a few cases a name is applied, not to the 
same plant, but to a plant more or less similar. Thus the name " gabo " 
is applied in the Philippines to the taro plant (Caladium colocasia)', in 
Samoa, Rarotonga, Tahiti, Hawaii, and Easter Island to a species of 
Alocasia (kape, or 'ape); and in the Caroline Islands to a yam (kap) 
all plants having starchy, edible roots. The Philippine name for Alo- 
casia (biga), which becomes "piga" in Guam, reappears in Fiji as 
" via." The etymological identity of these words is undoubted, for the 
changes which the consonants undergo follow the same law in many 
other words. 

On the island of Guam several important plants were cultivated by 
the aborigines which were unknown in eastern Polynesia such as rice, 



154 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

the betel pepper, and the areca palm. These are undoubtedly of 
Malayan origin and bear Malayan names. They probably found their 
way to the Malayan islands after the departure of the people who 
spread over the eastern Pacific islands, but before the separation of 
the settlers of Guam from the parent stock. It is interesting to note 
that the Guam name for rice (fae, or fai) is more closely allied to the 
Java name (bai) than to the Philippine (palai). Besides rice, the betel 
pepper, and the areca palm the natives of Guam took with them a 
textile screw pine (Pandanus tectorius), which has to be propagated by 
cuttings, as only one sex occurs on the island, and it consequently 
does not fruit. On the other hand, the eastern Polynesians took with 
them a number of plants unknown to the ancient Chamorros, such as 
the paper mulberry, the kava pepper, the candle nut, and the so-called 
chestnut of Polynesia (Bocoa edulis), all of which are of East Indian 
origin. 

ENDEMIC NAMES. One of the most striking facts connected with 
Guam plant names is the occurrence of some which are, as far as can 
be ascertained, quite different from those of any other region. Such 
are the names of the several forms of yam (nika and dago), bananas 
and plantains (chotda), Cycas (fadang), bamboo (piao), and the various 
species of screw pine (aggag, pahong, kafo). The name for breadfruit 
(lemae) bears no resemblance to that used by the Polynesians (ulu), 
and the name for the taro plant (suni), which I have been unable to 
find elsewhere in the Pacific or the Philippines, I believe to be identi- 
fied with "sunge," or "songe," its name in the islands of Madagascar 
and Reunion. 

LITERATURE. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A list of books in the Library of Congress relating to Samoa and 
Guam, with references to periodicals, was compiled under the direction 
of Mr. A. P. C. Griffin and published in 1901. A second list, with 
important additions on the Marianne Islands, was published two years 
later under the same auspices, forming a part of the Bibliography of 
the Philippine Islands (pp. 138-14-1), Washington, 1903. 

EARLY VOYAGES. 

MAGELLAN. Pigafetta's narrative of Magellan's voyage, containing 
an account of the discovery of Guam, was published in Italian at 
Milan in 1800. The best English translation is that published in vol. 
52 of the Hakluyt Society publications. A critical account of the 
editions of this work is given in Winsor's Narrative and Critical His- 
tory of America, vol. 2, pp. 613-617. Herrera's Historia general de 
los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas i tierra firme del mar ocean o 



<> I am indebted to Dr. Ainsworth R. Spofford for reading the proof of the following 
notes and list of works consulted. 



LITERATURE. 155 

gives an account of the voyage evidently drawn from contemporary 
information. Various documents relating to the voyage are repro- 
duced in English in Blair and Robertson, vol. 1. 

LOAISA. Andres de Urdaneta's account of the expedition of Loaisa, 
which visited Guam in September, 1526, is given in Navarrete's 
Coleccion de viages, vol. 5. An abridgment of it appears in Medina's 
Coleccion de documentos ineditos, vol. 3, and an English translation 
in Burney's Chronological History, vol. 1, p. 217. 

LEGAZPI. Accounts of the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, 
which visited Guam in January and Februan^, 1565, are given in 
Gaspar de San Agustin's Conquista de las Philipinas, lib. 1, cap. 17, 
Madrid, 1698, and in Juan de Grijalva's Cronica de la Orden de n. p. s. 
Augustin en las provincias de Nueva Espana. Burney's Chronological 
History, vol. 1, contains a narrative in English, translated from Gas- 
par and Grijalva's accounts. 

CAVENDISH. The narrative of the voyage of Thomas Cavendish, 
the English freebooter, who touched at Guam in January, 1588, is 
given in Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. 3, 1837, and Burney's Chronological 
History, vol. 1, pp. 64-94. 

VAN NOORT. An account of the visit of the Dutch navigator, 
Oliver van Noort, in September, 1600, is given in the Abbe Prevost's 
Histoire general e des voyages, vol. 10, taken from the narrative of 
the voyage published in French at Amsterdam in 1602. An account 
of the voyage in English is given in Purchas, His Pilgrimes, vol. 1, 
book 2, pp. 71-78. 

SPILBERGHEN. The narrative of the voyage of Joris van Spil- 
berghen, who touched at Guam January 23, 1616, is given in Miroir 
Cost et West Indical, published in French at Amsterdam in 1621. 

NASSAU FLEET. The account of the visit of this fleet in 1625 is 
given in the Journael van de Nassausche Vloot, Amsterdam, 1626. 

COWLEY. The account of the pirates Cowley and Eaton's visit to 
Guam in March, 1685, is published in Dampier's Voyages, vol. 4. 

DAMPIER. The account of Dampier's visit to Guam in 1686 is given 
in A New Voyage Round the World, by Capt. William Dampier, 
vol. 1. 

WOODES ROGERS. The account of the visit of this celebrated free- 
booter to Guam in 1710 is given in Woodes Rogers' Narrative. 

ANSON. No book ever met with more favorable reception than 
Lord Anson's Voyage Round the World, which, though printed under 
the name of his chaplain, Richard Walter, was composed by Benjamin 
Robbins, under the inspection of Anson himself. During his visit to 
the group, in 1742, Anson gleaned much interesting information 
regarding the island of Guam, its inhabitants, and its products. His 
geographical, hydrographic, and botanical descriptions are remarkably 
accurate and exceedingly interesting, though his picture of the island 
of Tinian is perhaps a little too highly colored. 



156 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

DE PAGES. For an account of the visit of Captain De Pages to 
Guam in 1768, see his Travels Round the World in the Years 1767- 
1771, English translation; see also his second voyage, 1788-90, in 
Nouveau Voyage autour du Monde, vol. 2, p. 47. 

CROZET. For an account of the visit in 1772 of the fleet which had 
been fitted out at Mauritius by Captain Marion, see Crozet's Nouveau 
voyage a la Mer du Sud, commence sous les ordres de Marion. 

SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITIONS. 

MALASPINA. For the narrative of Malaspina's expedition, which 
visited Guam in February, 1792, see the introduction to Presl's Reli- 
quiae Haenkeanae, Prague, 1825-1830; also Novo y Colson's La vuelta 
ul mundo por las corbetas Descubierta y Atrevida al mando del Capitan 
de Navio Don Alejandro Malaspina, desde 1789 a 1794. 

KOTZEBUE. The best account of Kotzebue's expedition, which vis- 
ited Guam in November, 1817, is that of Adelbert Chamisso, published 
in his Bemerkungen und Ansichten and his Tagebuch. See reprint 
in Chamisso's complete works, 4 vols. Kotzebue's own narrative is 
unreliable. 

FREYCINET. The narrative of voyage of the Uranie, which visited 
Guam in 1819, was written by Freycinet himself, the botany by Gau- 
dichaud, and the zoology by Quoy and Gaimard. See Voyage autour 
du monde entrepris par ordre du Roi, execute sur les corvettes de 
S. M. PUranie et la Physicienne. 

DUMONT D'URVILLE. The accounts of Dumont d'Urville's two vis- 
its to the island, in 1828 as commanding officer of the Astrolabe and in 
1839 in command of the Astrolabe and Zelee, are given in the narra- 
tives of the two expeditions, Voyage de decouvertes de PAstrolabe, 
Paris, 1830, and Voyage au Pole Sud et dans POceanie sur les cor- 
vettes PAstrolabe et la Zelee, Paris, 1841-1854. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Among the most important works describing the island of Guam 
may be mentioned Dampier's Voyages and Freycinet's Narrative, to 
which references have already been made, and the following works: 
Don Felipe de la Corte's Memoria descriptiva e historica de las Islas 
Marianas, Madrid, 1875; Islas Marianas: Viaje de la corbeta de guerra 
Narvaez desde Manila a dichas islas, por Don Eugenio Sanchez y Zayas, 
Teniente de Navio, in Anuario de la Direccion de Hidrografia, 1865; 
and Islas Marianas, por Francisco Olive y Garcia, Teniente Coronel, 
ex-Gobernador Politico Militar, Manila, 1887. A description of the 
island was also given in a paper by the author published in the Ameri- 
can Anthropologist, n. s., vol. 4, 1902, and afterwards republished in 
the Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for 1902. 
See also the description of Alexander Agassiz in his coral reefs of the 
Tropical Pacific, 1903. 



LITERATURE. 157 

HISTORY. 

The most important historical work relating to the island is Garcia's 
Vida y martyrio de el venerable Padre Diego Luis de Sanvitores (see 
below). This work was dedicated by the author to the Excelentisima 
Senora Doiia Maria de Guadalupe, Duchess of Aveyro y Maqueda, 
Duchess of Arcos, since it was by her generosity that its publication 
was rendered possible. It is made up almost entirely from the annual 
reports of the Jesuit missionaries living on the island of Guam and was 
published very shortly after the events it records. It forms the basis 
of all subsequent histories. 

In the year 1700 there appeared at Paris a little book entitled " His- 
toire des isles Marianes, nouvellement converties a la religion Chre- 
tienne; et de la mort glorieuse des premiers missionaires qui y ont 
preche la Foy," par le Pere Charles le Gobien, de la Compagnie de 
Jesus. The greater part of this work is almost a literal translation of 
the preceding, though in the introduction the name of Padre Garcia 
is not mentioned. Pere le Gobien continued the narrative from 1681 
to 1694. In conformity with the decrees of Pope Urban VIII, and of 
other sovereign pontiffs, Pere le Gobien protests at the beginning of 
the work that he does not pretend to attribute the title of saint, 
apostle, or martyr to the apostolic men of whom he speaks in the his- 
tory. In his work he has used on several occasions simple statements 
of Padre Garcia as themes for elaborate variations, giving speeches of 
natives in the form of direct discourse and sometimes exaggerating in 
a most misleading manner, as in his account of the sensations of the 
natives of Guam when first beholding fire. rt 

In Bur ney's Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South 
Sea or Pacific Ocean, to which reference has already been made, 
there is a resume of the principal works referring to the Marianne 
Islands. Burney's work is most interesting and is characterized by a 
broad humanity and sympathy for the simple natives of the islands of 
which he writes and hatred for injustice and oppression. 

Don Luis de Ibanez y Garcia, in his Historia de las Islas Marianas. 
1886, repeats the historical information given by Pere le Gobien. His 
account of the social institutions, religion, and superstitions of the 
aboriginal inhabitants (chap. 10, p. 73), has nothing to do with the 
natives of Guam, who were ignorant of the gods, the bloody sacrifices, 
and disgusting practices of which he speaks. He tells of crocodiles, 
hogs, and other animals, which were unknown in Guam, and relates 
myths which he had evidently gleaned from some of the Philippine 
tribes. 



a See pp. 99, 100, above. 



158 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

LANGUAGE. 

A grammar of the language of Guam, of which three parts have 
already appeared, is now in process of publication in the American 
Anthropologist. See u The Chamorro language of Guam," by William 
Edwin Satford, in vols. 5, 6, and 7 (1903-5) of that journal. 

See also the u Christian Doctrine" entitled "Devocion a San Fran- 
cisco de Borja, patron de Rota," etc., by Padre Aniceto Ibanez del 
Carmen, agustino recoleto y antiguo cura y vicario en Marianas. In 
this little work the creed, prayers, and instructions are printed in Span- 
ish and Chamorro in parallel columns. A small Spanish-Chamorro 
dictionary by the same author was published in Manila in 1865, also a 
text book for teaching Spanish grammar to the children of the Mari- 
anne Islands. This work is entitled " Gramdtica Chamorra" but it 
is simply a translation of a grammar written by Luis Mata y Araujo, 
and is dedicated to the schools of the Mariannes for the purpose of 
teaching Spanish to the native children. It does not in the least treat 
of the grammar of the Chamorro language. As far as is known to 
the author, no grammar of the Chamorro language has hitherto been 
published. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

In addition to the publications of the scientific expeditions already 
referred to, attention is called to the following works: 

Les mammiferes et les oiseaux des iles Mariannes, par M. E. Oustalet, 
published in the Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
troisieme serie, tomes 6 et 7, 1895-96. 

On the Birds of the Marianne Islands, by Ernest Hartert, in Novita- 
tes Zoologies, vol. 5, 1898. 

Report of a Mission to Guam, containing a list of Guam birds and 
fishes collected by Mr. Alvin Seale, together with descriptions of new 
species, published in the Report of the Director of the Bernice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History for 1900. 
Honolulu, 1901. 

BOTANY. 

PACIFIC ISLAND FLORAS. The principal works relating to the vege- 
tation of islands in the Pacific Ocean are Schumann und Lauterbach's 
Flora der deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Sudsee; Karl Schumann's 
Flora der deutschen ost-asiatischen Schutzgebiete (Engler's Jahrb., 
vol. 9, 1887); Thomas Powell, On Various Samoan Plants and Their 
Vernacular Names (Seemann's Journ. of Botany, vol. 6, 1868); 
F. Reinecke's Flora der Samoa-Inseln (Engler's Jahrb., vols. 23 and 
25, 1897 and 1898); Luerssen's Fame der Samoa-Inseln and Filices 
Gracffeanae, in Mittheilungen aus der Botanik, I, 1874; Seemann's 
Flora Vitiensis; Hillebrand's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands; Drake 



BOTANICAL LITERATURE. 159 

del Castillo's Flore de la Polynesie francaise; Doctor Guppy's Solomon 
Islands and their Natives; Warburg, Beitrage zur Kenntniss der 
papuanischen Flora (Engler's Jahrh., vol. 13, 1890). In addition to 
these may be mentioned the publications of results of the scientific 
expeditions of Malaspina, Romanzoff, Freycinet, and Dumont d'Urville, 
already referred to, and the botany of the Challenger expedition. 

OTHER TROPICAL FLORAS. Since many of the plants of Guam are 
of wide distribution in the Tropics, it is interesting to compare its 
flora with those of other tropical countries. The principal works 
used for comparison have been Padre Blanco's Flora de Filipinas; 
Hooker's Flora of British India; Trimen's Handbook of the Flora of 
Ceylon; Miquel's Flora van Nederlandsch Indie; Grisebach's Flora of 
the British West Indian Islands; Seemann's Flora of the Isthmus of 
Panama, in the Botany of the Voyage of the Herald; Urban's Sym- 
bolae Antillanae; Pittier's Primitiae florae costaricensis; and the Flore 
phanerogam ique des Antilles francaises (Guadeloupe et Martinique), 
par le R. P. Duss (in Annales de FInstitut Colonial de Marseille). 
Many of the botanical descriptions included in the Descriptive 
catalogue of plants have been taken directly from Padre Blanco, 
Hooker, and Trimen, and a few from Hillebrand, Grisebach, and 
Seemann. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. The following are the 
more important works consulted: Grisebach's Geographische Ver- 
breitung and Vegetation der Erde; Schimper's Pflanzen-Geographie 
and Indomalayische Strandflora; Treub's Notice sur la nouvelle flore de 
Krakatau; Haberlandt's Botanische Tropenreise; Darwin's Voyage of 
the Beagle; Warming's Okologische Pflanzengeographie (German edi- 
tion); De Candolle's Origin of Cultivated Plants; and Wallace's Island 
Life. The attention of those interested in the dispersal of plants by 
ocean currents is called to the works of Hemsley and Guppy, given in 
the list below, and the works of Treub and Schimper, already cited. 

SYSTEMATIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY. Englcr and Prantl's 
Natiirliche Pflanzenf amilien ; Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, und Schim- 
per's Lehrbuch der Botanik; Haberlandt's Pflanzenanatomie; Coulter's 
plant structure; Delpino's Rapporti tra insetti e tra nettarii estranuziali; 
and Darwin's Power of Movement in Plants and Effects of Cross and 
Self Fertilization, are among the principal works consulted. 

TROPICAL AGRICULTURE AND ECONOMIC PRODUCTS. 

Among the most important works on tropical agriculture consulted 
are Firminger's Manual of Gardening foi 1 Bengal and Upper India; 
Simmonds's Tropical Agriculture; Nicholls's Text-book of Tropical 
Agriculture; Dybowski's Traite pratique de cultures tropicales; Sade- 
beck's Kulturgewachse der deutschen Kolonien und ihre Erzeugnisse; 
Semler's Tropische Agrikultur; Poulet's Livre du Colon. Of those 



160 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

perhaps the most useful to an English-speaking colonist is the work of 
Nicholls. A translation has been made of it into Spanish by Prof. H. 
Pittier and published at San Juan de Costa Rica in 1901. 

In addition to these are Cook and Collins's Useful Plants of Porto 
Kico; Reinecke's "Samoa;" Wohltmann's Pflanzung und Siedlung auf 
Samoa; Pere Sebire's Plantes utiles du Senegal; Mueller's Select Extra- 
tropical Plants; Maiden's Useful Native Plants of Australia; and Major 
Drury's Useful Plants of India. 

More comprehensive works are Watt's Dictionary of the Economic 
Products of India; Spons' Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Man- 
ufactures, and Raw Commercial Products; and Wiesner's Rohstoffe 
des Pflanzenreiches. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED. 

The following is a list of the more important works, journals, 
reports, and other publications which have been consulted in the 
preparation of the Useful Plants of the Island of Guam. 

ABBE, CLEVELAND, Jr. Earthquake records from Agafia, Island of Guam, 1892-1903. 

Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, June, 1904, p. 81. 
AGASSIZ, ALEXANDER. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the 

tropical Pacific, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by the U. S. Fish Commission 

steamer Albatross, from August, 1899, to March, 1900. IV. The coral reefs of 

the tropical Pacific. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- 
vard College. Vol. 28, Guam, p. 366; pis. 194-198, 232, 233, fig. 4. Cambridge, 

1903. 
AGRICULTURAL AND BOTANICAL BULLETINS, JOURNALS, AND REVIEWS. 

Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States. Singapore, 
1891 to date. 

Annales de 1'Institut colonial de Marseille. Macon, France, 1893 to date. 

Bulletin agricole de la Martinique. St. Pierre, Martinique. 

Bulletin economique de PIndo-Chine. Hanoi, French Indo-China. 

Bulletin de la Societe" d' Etudes coloniales. Brussels, 1894 to date. 

Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica, 1887-1902. 
From Jan., 1903, title reads Bull, of the Dept. of Agr., Jamaica. 

Journal d'agriculture tropicale. Paris, 1901-date. 

Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. London, 1887 to date. 

The Plant World. Washington, D. C., 1897 to date. 

Revue des cultures coloniales. Paris, 1897 to date. 

Per Tropenpflanzer. Berlin, 1897 to date: 

Tropical Agriculturist, Colombo, Ceylon, 1881 to date. 

AVest Indian Bulletin. Barbados, West Indies, 1899 to date. 
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN. Useful plants of Japan. Tokyo, 1895. 
AHERN, GEORGE P. Compilation of notes on the most important timber-tree species 

of the Philippine Islands. Forestry bureau, Manila, P. L, 1901. 
AHERN, GEORGE P. Special report of Capt. George P. Ahern, Ninth U. S. Infantry, 

in charge of forestry bureau, Philippine Islands, from April, 1900, to July 30, 

1901. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901. 
AMAT DI SAN FILIPO, PIETRO. Biografia dei viaggiatori italiani, p. 526. Alessandro 

Malaspina, 1754-1809. Roma, 1881. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 161 

ANDES, Louis E. Vegetable fats and oils. Translated by Charles Salter. London, 

1897. 
ANSON, GEORGE. A voyage round the world in the years 1740-1744. Compiled 

* * * by Richard Walter (pseud.). London, 1748. (Guam, pp. 337-339.) 
ARAGO, JACQUES. Narrative of a voyage round the world. Translated from the 

French. 2 v. in 1. London, 1823. 

BAILEY, L. H. Cyclopedia of American horticulture. New York, 1900-1902. 
BAKER, J. G. Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles. London, 1877. 
BALTET, CHARLES. L'art de greffer. Paris, 1892. 
BANKS, CHARLES S. A preliminary report on insects of the cacao. Report of the 

Philippine Commission, 1903. Part 2, p. 597. Washington, 1904. 
BARON, R. Notes on the economic plants of Madagascar. Kew Bull, of Misc. Inf., 

1890, pp. 203 et seq. 

BAUM, H. E. The breadfruit, by Henry E. Baum, together with a biographical 
sketch of the author by W. E. Safford. Reprinted from the Plant World, vols. 
6 and 7, 1903-4. Washington, H. L. McQueen. 1904. 
BELT, THOMAS. The naturalist in Nicaragua. London, 1874. 
BENTHAM, G. Flora hongkongensis, with supplement. London, 1861-1872. 
BENTHAM, G. Flora australiensis. London, 1863-1878. 
BETCHE, E. Vegetationskizze der Marschalls Inseln. Wittmack's Gartenzeitung, 

v. 3, pp. 133-134. 1884. 

BLAIR, HELEN, and ROBERTSON, JAMES ALEXANDER. The Philippine Islands, 1493- 
1903. Official documents, narratives of missionaries, and historical works. The 
original sources of our knowledge of the islands and their inhabitants. Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1903. 

BLANCO, MANUEL. Flora de Filipinas. ed. 1, Manila, 1837. Gran edition . . . 
bajo la direction cientifica del P. Fr. A. Naves, text, 4 v., pis., 2 v. Manila, 
1877-1880. 

BLASDALE, WALTER C. A description of some Chinese vegetable food materials and 
their nutritive and economic value. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Office of Experiment 
Stations, Bull. No. 68, 1899. 
BONAVIA, EMANUEL. The cultivated oranges and lemons of India and Ceylon. 2 v., 

text and pis. London, 1890. 
BRADFORD, R. B. Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, United States 

Navy, for 1902. In Report of the Secretary of the Navy for 1902. 
BREWER, WILLIAM H. Geological survey of California. Botany, v. 2, 1880. 
BRUHL, J. W. Die Pflanzen-Alkaloide Braunschweig. 1900. 

BURNEY, JAMES. A chronological history of the discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific 
Ocean. London, 1803-1817. Vol. 1 contains narratives of the Loaisa expedition 
and of that under Legazpi. 

CAVANILLES, JOSEF. Description de las plantas que Don Josef Cavanilles demostr6 
en las Lecciones publicas del ano 1801, precedida de los principios elenientales 
de la botanica. Madrid en la Imprenta Real, ano 1802. 

CHAMISSO, ADELBERT. Chamisso's gesammelte Werke, in 4 Biinden, mit biogra- 
phischer Einleitung, herausgegeben von Max Koch. Dritter Band: Reise um 
die Welt. ErsterTeil: Tagebuch. Vierter Band : Reise um die Welt. Zweiter 
Teil: Bemerkungen und Ansichten. Stuttgart. Verlag der I. G. Cotta'schen 
Buchhandlung. 

CHAMISSO, ADELBERTUH, et SCHLECHTENDAL, DIEDERICUS. De plantis in expeditione 
speculatoria Roman/offiana observatis, etc. Linnaea Bde. 1 to 10. Berlin, 1826 
to 1836. 

CHAPMAN, A. W. Flora of the Southern States. 2. ed. New York, 1883. 
CHORIS, Louis. Voyage pittoresque autour du monde, avec des portraits des sauvages 
d'Amerique, d'Asie, d'Afrique ... F. Paris, Didot, 1822, 
977305 11 



162 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

CODRINGTON, R. H. The Melanesians. Studies in their anthropology and folk-lore. 

Oxford, 1891. 
COLLINS, G. N. The mango in Porto Rico. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bureau of Plant 

Industry, Bull. No. 28. Washington, 1903. 
COLMEIRO, MIGUEL. La botanica y los botanicos de la peninsula hispano-lusitana. 

Madrid, 1858. 
CONCEPCION, JUAN DE LA. Historia General de Philipinas. (Vol. VII contains a 

map of Guam and one of Saipan.) 1788-1892. 
COOK, O. F. Shade in coffee culture. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Division of Botany, Bull. 

No. 25. Washington, 1901. 
COOK, 0. F. A synopsis of the palms of Porto Rico. Bull. Torr. Botanical Club, 

v. 28, p. 528. (October, 1891.) 
COOK, 0. F. Agriculture in the tropical islands of the United States. Yearbook, 

U. S. Dept. of Agr., for 1901. Washington, 1901. 

COOK, O. F. The American origin of agriculture. Popular Science Monthly, Octo- 
ber, 1902, pp. 492 et seq. 
COOK, O. F. Origin and distribution of the cocoa palm. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., vol. 

7, no. 2. Washington, 1902. 
COOK, O. F. The culture of the Central American rubber tree. U. S. Dept. of 

Agr., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 49. Washington, 1903. 
COOK, O. F. Report on the habits of the Kelep, or Guatemalan cotton-boll weevil 

ant. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bureau of Entomology, Bull. No. 49, 1904. 
COOK, 0. F., and COLLINS, G. N. Economic plants of Porto Rico. Contr. U. S. Nat. 

Herb., vol. 8, pt. 2. Washington, 1903. 
COULTER, JOHN M. Plant structures. New York, 1900. 
COULTER, JOHN M., and CHAMBERLAIN, C. J. Morphology of spermatophytes. New 

York, 1901. 
COVILLE, FREDERICK V. Some additions to our vegetable dietary. Yearbook, U. S. 

Dept. of Agr. for 1895, p. 205. 
COWLEY, CAPT. . Voyage around the globe. Dampier's voyages, v. 4. London, 

1729. 
CROZET, . Nouveau voyage a la Mer du Sud, commence sous les ordres de 

Marion. Paris, 1783. 
DAMPIER, WILLIAM, Captain, Royal Navy. A new voyage round the world. 6. ed. 

cor. London, 1717. 4 v. 

DANA, JAMES D. Corals and coral islands. New York, 1872. 
DARWIN, C. A naturalist's voyage. 1845. 
DARWIN C. On the action of sea water on the germination of seeds. Jour. Linn. 

Soc. Lond., v. 1, pp. 130-140, 1857. 

DARWIN, C. Power of movement in plants. New York, 1895. 
DARWIN, C. The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom. 

New York, 1877. 

DE CANDOLLE, ALPHONSE. Origin of cultivated plants. New York, 1885. 
DE CANDOLLE, ALPHONSE. Geographic botanique raisonnee, ou Exposition des faits 

principaux et de lois concernant la distribution geographique des plantes de 

1'epoque actuelle. 2 v. Paris, 1855. 
DELPINO, FEDERICO. Rapporti tra insetti e tra nettarii estranuziali in alcune piarite. 

Soc. ital. di Sci. nat., atti 18, p. 63, 1875. 

DEWAR, J. GUMMING. Voyage of the Nyanza. R. N. Y. C., London, 1892. 
DODGE, C. R. Catalogue of the useful fibre plants of the world. U. S. Dept. Agr., 

Fibre Invest. Rep. No. 9, 1897. 

DRAKE DEL CASTILLO, EMMANUEL. Flore de la Polynesie Francaise. Paris, 1892. 
DRURY, HEBER. The useful plants of India. Madras, 1858. 
DUMONT D'URVILLE, J. Voyage de decouvertes de L> Astrolabe, execute par ordre du 

roi pendant les annees, 1826, 1827, 1828, et 1829. 12 v. Paris, 1830. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 168 

DUMONT D'URVILLE, J. Voyage au Pole Sud et dans 1'Oceanie sur les corvettes 

L' Astrolabe et La r /Me. Paris, 1841-1854. 
Duss, K. P. Flore phanerogamique des Antilles Fran(;aises. Annales de PInstitut 

colonial de Marseille, 1897. 
DUVEL, J. W. T. The vitality and germination of seeds. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bur. 

Plant Industry, Bull. 58, 1904. 
DYHOWSKI, J. Traite pratique de cultures tropicales par J. Dybowski. Paris, 

1902. 
ELLIS, WILLIAM. Polynesian researches during a residence of nearly eight years in 

the Society and Sandwich islands. 4 v. London, 1859. 
ENDLICHER, STEPHEN. Bemerkungen iiber die Flora derSiidseeinseln. Annalen des 

Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte, v. 1., pp. 129-186, 1836. 
ENGLER & PRANTL. Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig, 1887-1901. 
ESCHSCHOLTZ, JoHANN FRiEDRiCH. Histoire naturelle d'un voyage autour du monde, 

fait avec le Capitaine de Kotzebue, 1823-1826. Moscou, Soc. nat., Bull. 1, 1829, 

pp. 19-24. 

FEATHERMAN, A. Social history of the races of mankind. London, 1885-1891. 
FIRMINGER, T. A. C. Manual of, gardening for Bengal and upper India. Ed. 4. 

Calcutta, 1890. , 

FITZNER, RUDOLPH. Die Bevolkerung der deutschen Siidseekolonien. Globus, 

v. 84, p. 21, 1903. 
FORBES, H. O. A naturalist's wanderings in the eastern archipelago. Ed. 2. 

London, 1885. 

FORSTER, J. G. A. Florulrc insularum australium prodromus. Goettingse, 1786. 
FORSTEK, J. G. A. De plantis esculentis insularum oceani australis commentatio 

botanica. Berolini, 1786. 
FORSTER, J. R. and J. G. A. Characteres generum plantarum, quas ad insulas maris 

australis collegerunt, descripserunt, delinearunt. * * * Londini, 1776. 
FREYCINET, L. DE. Voyage autour du monde entrepris par ordre du roi, execute sur 

les corvettes de S. M. L' Uranie et La Physicienne pendant les annees, 1817, 1818, 

1819 et 1820. Paris, 1825. Partie historique et nautique redigee par M. de 

Freycinet. 
GARCIA, FRANCISCO. Vida y martyrio del Venerable Padre Diego Luis de Sanvi- 

tores de la Compaiiia de Jesus, primer apostol de las islas Marianas, y,sucesos 

de estas islas desde el aiio de 1668 asta el de 1681. Madrid, 1683. 
GASPAR DE SAN AGUSTIN. Conquista de las Philipinas. Madrid, 1698. 
GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRE, CHARLES. Botanique du voyage autour du monde, fait par 

ordre du roi sur les corvettes U Uranie et La Physicienne pendant les annees 

1817-20 par M. Louis Freycinet. Paris, 1826. 

GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRE, CHARLES. Biographical sketch. See Pascallet. 
GIES, WILLIAM J. On the nutritive value and some of the economic uses of the 

cocoanut. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Garden, v. 3, p. 169, 1892. See also Kirkwood and 

Gies. 

GILL, WILLIAM WYATT. Life in the southern isles. London, 1876. 
GILMORE, JOHN W. Preliminary report on the commercial fibers of the Philippines. 

Bur. Agr. (Philippines), Farmers' Bull. No. 4, Manila, 1903. 
GOGUET, A.-Y. De 1'origine des loix, des arts, et des sciences; et de leurs progres 

chez les anciens peuples. Paris, 1758. 

GRAY, ASA. Manual of the botany of the northern United States. 6th ed., 1889. 
GBIJALVA, JUAN DE. Cronica de la orden de n. p. s. Augustin en las provincias de 

la Nueva Espaiia, en quatro edades, desde el ano de 1533 hasta el de 1592. Mex- 
ico City, 1624. 

GRISEBACH, A. H. R. Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London, 1864. 
GRISEBACH, A. H. R. Die geographische Verbreitung der Pflanzen-Westindiens, 

Gottingen, 1865. 



164 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

GRISEBACH, A. H. R. Die Vegetation der Erde nach ihrer klimatischen Anordnung. 
Leipzig, 1872. 

GUAM SURVEY BOARD. Report to the Secretary of the Navy, July 25, 1901. Wash- 
ington, 1902. (This board was appointed to make detailed surveys and investi- 
gations and to report on the improvements of the harbor of San Luis de Apra. 
Among the maps published with the report is one of the harbor of San Luis de 
Apra and one of the shore line and road from Piti to Agafia. ) 

GUILLEMIN, J. B. A. Zephrytis taitensis. Enumeration den plantes decouvertes 
par les voyageurs dans les isles de la Societe, principalement dans celle de Taiti. 
Ann. d. Sci. nat, de Paris, II, Botan., tome 6, p. 297, 1836; tome 7, pp. 177, 
241, 349. 1837. 

GUPPY, H. B. The dispersal of plants as illustrated by the flora of the Keeling or 
Cocos- Islands. Trans. Victoria Inst, v. 24. 1890-91. 

GUPPY, H. B. Fruits from the crops of pigeons. Jour. & Proc. Roy. Soc., New 
South Wales, v. 17, p. 226. 1883. 

GUPPY, H. B. The gizzard contents of some oceanic birds. Nature, v. 26, p. 12, 
1882. 

GUPPY, H. B. The Solomon Islands and their natives. London, 1887. 

HABERLANDT, N G. Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie. II. Auflage. 1896. 

HABERLANDT, G. Eine botanische Tropenreise. Leipzig, 3893. 

HACKETT, FRANK W. Annual report of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. In 
Report of the Secretary of the Navy for 1901, p. 75. 

HAENKE, THADD^EUS. See Presl and Novo y Colson. 

HARTERT, ERNEST. On the birds of the Marianne Islands. Novitates zoologicse, 
v. 5, 1898. 

HEMSLEY, W. B. I. Report on the present state of knowledge of various insular 
floras, etc. II. Report on the botany of the Bermudas and various islands of the 
Atlantic and Southern oceans. Ill, IV. Report on the botany of Juan Fernan- 
dez, the southeastern Moluccas, and the Admiralty Islands. Appendix: On the 
dispersal of plants by ocean currents and birds. In Report of the scientific 
results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Botany, 
v. 1, 1885. 

HEUZE, GUSTAVE. Les plantes alimentaires des pays chauds et des colonies. Paris, 
1899. 

HEUZE, GUSTAVE. Les Plantes industrielles. Ed. 3. Paris, 1895. 

HICKS, G. H. Oil-producing seeds. Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agr., Washington, 1895, 
p. 185. 

HILLEBRAND, WM. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. London, New York, and Heidel- 
berg, 1888. 

HOMBRON, JACQUES BERNARD. See Lasegue, Antoine. 

HOOKER, J. D. Handbook of the New Zealand flora. London, 1864-1867. 

HOOKER, J. D. Insular floras. Gardeners' Chronicle, 1867, pp. 27, 51. 

HOOKER, J. D. Flora of British India. 7 v. London, 1872-1897. 

HOOKER, W. J., and WALKER- ARNOTT, G. A. The botany of Captain Beechey's 
voyage. London, 1841. 

IBANEZ DEL CARMEN, ANICETO. Diccionario espanol-chamorro que dedica d las 
escuelas marianas el P. Fr. Aniceto Ibdnez del Carmen, cura pdrroco de Agana. 
Manila, 1865. 

IBANEZ DEL CARMEN, ANICETO. Gramdtica chamorra que, traducido literalmente de 
la que escrib'io D. Luis Mata y Araujo, dedica d las escuelas de Marianas con el 
fin de que los ninos aprendan el castellano el P. Fr. Aniceto Ibdnez del Carmen, 
cura pdrroco de Agana. Ano 1864. Manila, 1865. 

IBANEZ DEL CABMEN, ANICETO. Devotion d San Francisco de Borja, patron de Rota: 
esplicacion de los santos sacramentos y modo de recibirlos dignamente: devo- 



BIBLIOGEAPHY. 165 

IBANEZ DEL CARMEN, ANICETO Continued. 

cion a. San Dimas el buen ladron, Patron de Merizo, y doctrina esplicada. 

Escrito por el Padre Fr. Aniceto IMilez del Carmen, Agustino Recoleto &c. 

Manila, 1887. 

IBANEZ Y GARCIA, Luis DE. Historia de las islas Marianas. Granada, 1886. 
IKENO, S. Untersuchungen tiber die Entwickelung der Geschlechtsorgane und den 

Vorgang der Befruchtung bei Cycas revoluta. Jahrbiicher fiir wissenschaftlicho 

Botanik, v. 32, Heft 4, p. 557, 1898. 

IRISH, H. C. A revision of the genus Capsicum. Ninth Ann. Rep. Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden, p. 53, 1898. 

JAGOR, F. Reisen in den Philippinen. Berlin, 1873. 
JUMELLE, HENRI. Les cultures coloniales. Plantes alimentaires. Paris, 1901. 

Plantes industrielles et medicinal es. Paris, 1901. 

JUNGHUHN, F. Java, seine Gestalt, Pflanzendecke und innere Bauart. Leipzig, 1852. 
KEATE, GEORGE. An account of the Pelew Islands situated in the western Pacific 

Ocean. Ed. 2. London, 1788. 

KERNER VON MARILAUN, ANTON. Pflanzenleben. 2 v. Leipzig, 1890-91. 
KERNER VON MARILAUN, ANTON. Die Schutzmittel der Bluthen gegen unberufene 

Giiste. Wien, 1876. 
KILMER, F. B. The story of the papaw. Amer. Jour. Pharmacy, v. 75, pp. 272, 

336, 383, 1901. 
KIRKWOOD, J. E., and GIES, W. J. Chemical studies of the cocoanut, with some notes 

on the changes during germination. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, v. 29, pp. 321 ff., 

1902. 
KIRTIKAR, K. R. Poisonous plants of Bombay. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., v. 15, 

p. 56, 1903. 
KITTLITZ, F. H. v. Vier und zwanzig Vegetationsansichten von Kustenliindern und 

Inseln des stillen Oceans. Siegen und Wiesbaden, 1844. 
KOTZEBUE, OTTO VON. Voyage of discovery into the South Sea and Behring's Straits, 

for the purpose of exploring a northeast passage, in the years 1815-1818, in the 

ship Kurick. Translated by H. E. Lloyd. 3 v. London, 1821. 
KUNKEL, A. J. Handbuch der Toxikologie. Jena, 1899-1901. 
KUNTZE, OTTO. Die Schutzmittel der Pflanzen gegen Thiere und Wetterungunst und 

die Frage voni salzfreien Urmeer. Leipzig, Arthur Felix, 1877. 
KURZ, SULPIZ. Forest flora of British Burmah. Calcutta, 1877. 
LA BILLARDIERE, J. G. Sertum austro-caledonicum. Paris, 1824-25. 
LA CORTE, FELIPE DE. Memoria descriptiva e historica de las Islas Marianas. 

Boletm del Ministerio de Ultramar, 1875. Madrid, Imprenta Nacional, 1875. 
LA GRAVIERE, JEAN PIERRE EDMOND JURIEN DE. Voyage en Chine et dans les iners 

et archipels de cet Empire. Pendant les annees 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850. Paris, 

1854. 
LA PEROUSE, JEAN FRANCOIS DE GALAUP. Voyage round the world during the years 

1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, by La Pe>ouse. London, 1807. 
LASEGUE, ANTOINE. Muse"e botanique de M. Benjamin Delessert. Paris, 1845. 
LE GOBIEN, CHARLES. Histoire des isles Marianes. Paris, 1700. 
LESSON, A. See Dumont d'Urville. 
LINDLEY, JOHN, and MOORE, THOMAS. The treasury of botany. New impression. 

London, New York, and Bombay, 1899. 

LISTOE, S. Cocoa butter in the Netherlands. U. S. Consular Report, October 15, 1902. 
LUERSSEN, CHR. Die Fame der Samoa-Inseln, in Schenck und Luerssen's Mitthei- 

lungen aus der Botanik, v. 1, p. 345. Leipzig, 1874. 
LUERSSEN, CHR. Filices Grseffeana* Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Farnflora der Viti-, 

Samoa-, Tonga-, und Ellice's Inseln. Ibid., p. 57. 



166 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

LYON, WILLIAM S. The cocoanut with reference to its products and cultivation in 

the Philippines. Bur. of Agr. (Philippines), Bull. No. 8. Manila, 1903. 
MAIDEN, JOSEPH HENRY. The useful native plants of Australia. London and Sydney, 

1889. 

MALASPINA, ALESSANDRO. See Novo y Colson. 
MARCHE, ALFRED. Eapport general sur une mission aux lies Mariannes. Archives 

des missions, 1891. 

MARCHE, ALFRED. Mon voyage aux lies Mariannes. Societe de geographic de Mar- 
seille, v. 14, pp. 22-30, 1890. 
MARCITE, ALFRED. Note de voyage sur les lies Mariannes. Societe de geographic 

commerciale de Havre, Bull., v. 15, pp. 49-61, 65-96, 1898-99. 
MERC A DO, IGNACIO DE. Libro de medicinas de esta tierra y declaraciones de las 

virtudes de los arboles y plantas que estan en estas islas Filipinas. Compuesto 

por el P. Predicador Fr. Ignacio de Mercado, Filipense del orden de San Agustin. 

Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, vol. 4, 1880. 
MERRILL, ELMER D. A dictionary of the plant names of the Philippine Islands. 

Manila, 1903. 
MERTENS, F. K. Notices (botaniques) sur les iles Carolines. (Luetke, Voyage, v. 3.) 

Paris, 1836. 

MIQUEL, F. A. W. Flora Indire Batavise. 3 v. in 4. Amsterdam, 1855-1859. 
MIQUEL, F. A. W. Systema Piperacearum. Rotterdam, 1843-44. 
MONTERO Y YIDAL, JOSE. El Archipielago Filipino y las Marianas, Carolinas y 

Palaos. Madrid, 1886. 

MORGA, ANTONIO DE. Svcesos de las islas Philipinas. Mexico, 1609. 
MOSELEY, H. N. Notes of a naturalist on the Challenger. London, 1879. 
MOSELEY, H. N. Notes on plants collected and observed on the Admiralty Islands. 

Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond., v. 15, p. 73, 1876. 

MOSELEY, II. N. Notes on the various plants made use of as food and as imple- 
ments, clothing, etc., by the natives of the Admiralty Islands. Jour. Linn. Soc. 

Lond., v. 15, 1876. 

MUELLER, FERDINAND VON. Select extratropical plants. Melbourne, 1891. 
MURILLO VELARDE, PEDRO. Historia de la provincia de Philipinas, de la Compania de 

Jesvs, desde el ano 1616 hasta 1716. Libro 4. Manila, 1749. 
NAUDIN, CHARLES. Melastomacearum quae in Museo Paris continentur monogr. des- 

cript. tentamen. Ann. sci. nat., Ill, v. 12-18. 
NAUMANN, F. C. Ueber den Vegetationscharakter der Inseln des Neu-Britannischen 

Archipels und der Insel Bougainville. Engler's Jahrb., v. 6, p. 422, 1885. 
NEE, Luis. Del abaca (Musa textilis). Anal, de ciencias naturales, v. 4. Madrid, 

July, 1801. 

NEE, Luis., Del buyo (Piper betle}. Ibid., v. 6. October, 1803. 
NEE, Luis. See also Cavanilles and Novo y Colson. 
NEISH, JAMES. Leuscher's method of preparing banana flour. Jour. Jamaica Agr. 

Soc., v. 7, p. 439, 1903. 

NICHOLLS, II . A. A. A text-book of tropical agriculture. London, 1897. 
Novo Y COLSON, PEDRO DE. La vuelto al mundo por las corbetas Descubierta y 

Atrevidaal mando del Capitan de Navio Don Alejandro Malaspina, desde 1789 

d 1794. Publicado con uiia introduction en 1885 por el Teniente de Navio Don 

Pedro de Novo y Colson. Madrid, 1885. 
OLIVE Y GARCIA, FRANCISCO. Islas Marianas, Manila, 1887. 
D'ORBIGNY, ALCIDE. Sur les especes du genre Victoria. Ann. sci. nat., II, v. 13, p. 

55, 1840. 

OUDEXAMPSEN, J. Bydrage tot de Kennis van Melia azedarach L. Utrecht, 1902. 
OUSTALET, E. A. Les mammiferes et les oiseaux des iles Mariannes. Nouvelles 

archives du Museum d'histoire naturelle de Paris, III, v. 7, 8, 1895, 1896. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 167 

PAGES, PIERRE MARIE FRANCOIS DE. Travels round the world in the years 1767, 
1768, 1769, 1770, 1771. Translated from the French. 3 v., 8. London, 1791-92. 

PAGES (P. M. F. de). Nouveau voyage autourdu monde en 1788-90. 3 v. Paris, 1797. 

PASCALLET, E. Notice biographique sur M. Gaudichaud-Beaupre. Paris, 1844. 

PEREZ, PABLO. Official letters to the captain-general of the Philippines. In the 
Guam Archives (MSS.). 

PIGAFETTA, FRANCESCO ANTONIO. Primo viaggio intorno al globo terracqueo. 
Milano, 1800. 

PITTIER, H. Primitive Florae Costaricensis, vol. 2 and 3. San Jose de Costa Rica, 
1898 to 1901. 

PITTIER, H. Manual de agricultura tropical, por H. A. Alford Nicholls. (Transla- 
tion. ) San Jose de Costa Rica, 1901. 

POULET, GEORGES. Le livre du Colon. Paris, 1899. 

POWELL, THOMAS. On various Samoan plants and their vernacular names. See- 
man's Jour, of Bot., v. 6, pp. 278, 342, 355, 1868. 

PRATT, GEORGE. Grammar and dictionary of the Samoan language. Ed. 3. Lon- 
don, 1893. 

PRESL, KAREL B. Reliquiae Haenkeame, seu descriptiones et icones plantarum, 
quas in America meridional! et boreali, in insulas Philippinis et Marianis col- 
legit Thaddseus Haenke. Prague, 1825-1830. 

QUOY, JEAN RENE CONSTANT, and GAIMARD, JOSEPH PAUL. Notice sur les mainmi- 
feres et les oiseaux des iles Timor, Rawak, Boni, Vaigiou, Guam, Rota et Tinian. 
Ann. sci. nat., v. 6, pp. 138-150, 1825. 

QUOY, JEAN RENE CONSTANT, and GAIMARD, JOSEPH PAUL. See also Dumont d' Urville. 

RAMIREZ, JOSE. Sinonomia vulgar y cientifica de las plantas Mexicanas arreglada 
por el Dr. Jose Ramirez * * * con la colaboracion del Sr. Gabriel V. Alcocer. 
Mexico, 1902. 

RAYNAL, ABBE. Philosophical and political history of the Indies, p. 379, vol. 3. 
London, 1788. 

REINECKE, F. Die Flora der Samoa Inseln. Engler's Bot. Jahrb., v. 23, 24, 1897, 
1898. 

REINECKE, F. Samoa. Verlag von Wilhelm Siisserott, Berlin, 1902. 

RICHARDSON and WATTS. Chemical technology. Ed. 2, v. 1, pt. 3. London, 1863. 

ROGERS, WOODES. Woodes Rogers' s narrative. London, 1712. 

ROLF, R. A. On the flora of the Philippine Islands and its probable derivation. 
Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot., v. 21. 

ROXBURGH, WILLIAM. Flora indica; or description of Indian plants. 3 v. 

SADEBECK, RICHARD. Die Kulturgewiichse der deutschen Kolonien und ihre Erzeug- 
nisse. Jena, 1899. 

SAFFORD, W. E. Guam and its people. Am. Anthr., n. s., v. 4, p. 707. 1902. . 

SAFFORD, W. E. Extracts from the note-book of a naturalist on the island of Guam. 
The Plant World, v. 4, 5, 6, Washington, 1902-1904. 

R AFFORD, W. E. The birds of the Marianne Islands and their vernacular names. 
The Osprey, n. s., v. 1, 1902. 

SAFFORD, W. E. The Chamorro language of Guam. Am. Anthr., v. 5, 6, and 7, 1903-5. 

SANCHEZ Y ZAYAS, EUGEXIO. Islas Marianas. Viaje de la corbeta de guerra Ndrvaez 
desde Manila tl dichas islas. Anuario de la Direccion de hidrografia, pt. 4, p. 
230, 1865. 

SAUVALLE, FRANCISCO ADOLFO. Flora cubana. 1873. 

SCHERZER, KARL VON. Narrative of the circumnavigation of the globe by the Aus- 
trian frigate Novara. London, 1861-1863. 

SCHIMPER, A. F. W. Die indo-malayische Strandflora. Jena, 1891. 

SCHIMPER, A. F. W. Pflanzen- Geographic auf physiologischer Grundlage. 1898. 

SCHROEDER, SEATON. Report of the governor of Guam for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1901. Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the year 1901, pp. 81 ff. 



168 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

SCHULZE, L. F. M. Fiihrer auf Java. Leipzig, 1890. 

SCHUMANN, K. und HOLLKUNG, M. Die Flora von Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. Berlin, 

1889. 

SCHUMANN, K. Musaceae. Engler's Das Pflanzenreich, 1. Heft, v. 4, p. 45. Leip- 
zig, 1900. 
SCHUMANN, K. Die Flora der deutschen ost-asiatisehen Schutzgebiete. Engler's 

Jahrb., v. 9, pp. 186-223, 1887. 
SCHUMANN, KARL, und LAUTERBACH, KARL. Die Flora der deutschen Schutzgebiete 

in der Siidsee. Leipzig, 1901. 
SEALE, ALVIN. Report of a mission to Guam. Occasional papers of the Bernice 

Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History, v. 1, 

No. 3. Director's Report for 1900. Honolulu, 1901. 
SEBIRE, A. Les plantes utiles de Senegal. Paris, 1899. 
SECRETARY OF THE [U. S.] NAVY. Trans-Pacific submarine telegraph cable survey. 

In Annual Report for 1900, pp. 299-302. 
SECRETARY OF THE [U. S.] NAVY. Report of Guam survey board to the Secretary of 

the Navy, July 25, 1901. Washington, 1902. 
SEEMANN, B. Flora vitiensis. London, 1865-1873. 
SEEMANN, B. Flora of the Isthmus of Panama, in the Botany oi the Voyage of 

H. M. S. Herald. London, 1852 to 1857. 

SEMLER, HEINRICII. Die tropische Agrikultur. 2 v. ' Wismar, 1897-1900. 
SEMPER, CARL. Die Philippinen und ihre Bewohner. Wiirzburg, 1869. 
SEMPER, CARL. Die Palau Inseln im Stillen Ocean. Leipzig, 1873. 
SHORTT, JOHN. A monograph on the cocoanut palm, or Cocos nucifera. Madras, 

1888. 

SIMONDS, P. L. Tropical agriculture. London and New York, 1877. 
SKINNER, ROBERT P. Copra products of Marseilles. U. S. Consular report, October 

18, 1902. 
SLOANE, HANS. An account of four sorts of strange beans, frequently cast on shoar 

on the Orkney Isles. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. of London, v. 19, p. 298, 1696. 
SMITH, FREDERICK PORTER. Contributions toward the materia medica and natural 

history of China. Shanghai and London, 1871. 

SOLMS-LAUBACH. Monographia Pandanacearum. Linnsea, v. 2, 1878. 
SPON, E. and F. N. Spons' encyclopedia of the industrial arts, manufactures, and 

raw commercial products; edited by Charles G. Warnford Lock. London, 1882. 
STAHL, ERNST. Pflanzen und Schnecken; eine biologische Studie iiber die Schutz- 

mittel der Pflanzen gegen Schneckenfrass. Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwis- 

senschaft und Medicine, v. 22, pp. 640-656, 1888. 
STAIR, J. B. Old Samoa. London, 1897. 

STRASBURGER, NOLL, SCHIMPER, und SCHENCK. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Jena, 1898. 
TCHIHATCHEFF, P. DE. lies oceaniques. La vegetation du globe par A. Grisebach, 

traduit de 1'Allemand, v. 2, pp. 747-883. Paris, 1878. 
THOMSON, SIR W., and MURRAY, J. Report on the scientific results of the voyage of 

H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876, etc. v. 1. Botany by W. B. 

Hemsley. London, 1885. 

TRACY, S. M/ Cassava. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Farmers' Bull. No. 167, 1903. 
TRACY, S. M. Mississippi Bull. No. 39, 1896. 
TRACY, W. W., JR. A list of American varieties of peppers. U. S. Dept. of Agr., 

Bur. PL Ind. Bull. No. 6, 1902. 
TREGEAR, EDWARD. The Maori-Polynesian comparative dictionary. Wellington, 

New Zealand, 1891. 
TREUB, M. Notice sur la nouvelle Flore de Krakatau. Annales du Jardin Botanique 

de Buitenzorg, v. 7, 1888. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 169 

TRIMEN, HENRY. A handbook of the flora of Ceylon. 5 v. London, 1893-1900. 
TURPIN, P. J. F. Observations sur les biforines, organes nouveaux situs's entre les 

vesicules du tissu cellulaire des feuilles . . . des Aroi'dees. Ann. des Sci. Nat., 

II, v. 6, p. 5, pi. 1-5, 1836. 
UNITED STATES DISPENSATORY. By Dr. George B. Wood and Dr. Franklin Bache. 

Ed. 18, thoroughly revised and largely rewritten by H. C. Wood, M. D., LL. D.; 

Joseph P. Remington, Ph. M., F. C. S., and Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph. D., F. C. S. 

Philadelphia, 1899. 
UNITED STATES HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. Meteorological records (hourly) taken at 

the U. S. naval station, island of Guam (MSS.). 
URBAN, IGNATIUS. Symbolae Antillanse seu fundamenta florae Indies Occideiitalis. 

1898 to date. 

VARIGNY, H. DE. L'e"tude de M. Guppy. Revue scientifique, March 28, 1891. 
VILLALOBOS, FRANCISCO RAMON DE. Official letters to the captain-general of the 

Philippines. Guam Archives (MSS.). 

WALLACE, A. R. The Malay Archipelago. New York, 1869. 
WALLACE, A. R. Island life, or the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and 

floras. New York, 1881. 

WALLACE, A. R. Tropical nature, and other essays. London, 1878. 
WALLACE, JAMES. A description of the Orkney Islands. 1693. 
WARBURG, 0. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der papuanischen Flora. Engler's Jahrb., 

v. 13, 1890-91. 

WARBURG, O. Pandanaceae. Engler's Pflanzenreich, v. 4, p. 9. Leipzig, 1900. 
WARBURG, O. Ueber Verbreitung, Systematik und Verwerthung der polynesischen 

Steinnuss-Palmen. Berichte der Deutschen-botanischen Gesellschaft, v. 14, p. 

133, 1896. 
WARBURG, O. Das Pflanzenkleid und die Nutzpflar. zen von Neu-Guinea. Bibliothek 

der Liinderkunde 5/6, Krieger, U., New Guinea; pp. 36-72. 

WARMING, E. Okologische Pflanzengeographie. German edition. Berlin, 1896. 
WATT, GEORGE. A dictionary of the economic products of India. Calcutta, 1885- 

1893. 
WEBBER, HERBERT J. Spermatogenesis and fecundation of Zamia. U. S. Dept. of 

Agr., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 2, 1901. 
WEBER, R. A. Raphides the cause of the acridity of certain plants. Jour. Amer. 

Chem. Soc., September, 1891, p. 215. 

WIESNER, JULIUS. Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches. 2 v. Leipzig, 1900-1903. 
WIGHT, R. Icones plantarum Indise Orientalis, or figures of Indian plants. Madras, 

1840-56. 
WILDEMAN, E. DE. Melia Azedarach. Revue des cultures coloniales, v. 13, p. 75, 

1903. 

WILDEMAN, E. DE. Les plantes tropicales de grande culture. Brussels, 1902. 
WILEY, H. W. The manufacture of starch from potatoes and cassava. U. S. Dept. 

of Agr., Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 58, 1900. 

WILEY, H. W. Crystals of oxalate of lime in plants. Science, July 24, 1903. 
WILLIAMS, D. On the farina of Tacca pinnatifida. Pharm. Jour, and Trans., v. 6, 

p. 383, 1846-47. 

WINKLER, E. Real Lexikon. 2 v. Leipzig, 1840, 1842. 
WINTOX, A. L. The anatomy of the fruit of Cocos nudfera. Amer. Jour. Sci., I\ r , 

v. 12, p. 265, 1901. 
WOHLTMANN, F. Pflanzung und Siedlung auf Samoa. Erkundungsbericht von Prof. 

Dr. F. Wohltmann, Kaiserlicher Geheimer Regierungsrat an das Kolonial- 

Wirtschaftliche Komitee zu Berlin. Beihefte zum Tropenpflanzer. Berlin, 

Jan., 1904. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF PLANTS. 

In the following- catalogue the Guam names and those of the Hawaiian 
and Samoan Islands are taken chiefly from the manuscript notes of the 
author. His list of the vernacular names of the plants growing in 
Guam is supplemented by the lists of several Spanish governors of the 
island in official reports to the cap tain -general of the Philippines, 
copies of which were found in the archives of Agana, and also by the 
names cited by Chamisso and Gaudichaud in the reports of the botany 
of the expeditions to which they were attached. The list of Hawaiian 
names is supplemented b}^ a number taken from Hillebrand's Flora of 
the Hawaiian Islands, and that of the Samoan names from Rev. Thomas 
Powell's list of Samoan plants and their vernacular names published 
in Seemann's Journal of Botany, 1868, and Rev. George Pratt's 
Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, 1893. The Philip- 
pine names have been taken from Padre Blanco's Flora de Filipinas and 
Padre Mercado's Libro de Medicinas, supplemented by Mr. Merrill's 
Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands, 1903; the 
Fijian names from Seemann's Flora Vitiensis; the Tahitian names 
from Drake del Castillo's Flore de la Polynesie Francaise; the Mexican 
names from Dr. Edward Palmer's manuscript notes and from Dr. Jose 
Ramirez's Sinonomia vulgar y cientifica de las Plantas Mexicanas, 
1902; the Panama names from Seemann's Flora of the Isthmus of 
Panama, published in the Botany of the Voyage of the Herald, 1852 
to 1857; and the Porto Rico names from Cook and Collins's Economic 
plants of Porto Rico, supplemented by the first part of Urban's Flora 
Portoricensis, in Symbolae Antillanae, 1903. 

The Guam names are pronounced in general according to the conti- 
nental method, the vowels having more or less resemblance to those 
of the German and Italian languages, and the consonants being like 
those of the English. It must be observed, however, that g is always 
hard, as in the English word "go," except in the combination fig; h 
is always aspirated, even at the end of a syllable, very much like the 
German ch in u ach" ("ahgao," the name of a tree, is pronounced 
"ahh-gao"); n is like the Spanish letter in the word " canon," or ni 
in the English word u onion;" fig is like; ng in the English word 
"song" (not like ng in "finger"); y is always -a consonant, pro- 
nounced like the English letter j ("hayo" or "hayu" (wood), corre- 
sponding to the Malayan "kayu," is pronounced "hajyu"). The 
Chamorro vowels e and i are frequently confused by the natives, as 
in the name for taro, "sune" or "suni;" and the same is true of u 
170 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXI. 




THE CORAL-BEAD VINE (ABRUS ABRUS). FOLIAGE AND OPEN PODS, SHOWING 
SEEDS. NATURAL SIZE. 



PRONUNCIATION OF GUAM NAMES. 171 

..*. 

and o, as may be/ seen in the name for sugar cane, written "tupu" by 
some authorities and " tupo" by others. The diphthong ai pronounced 
like the English i is also frequently confused with ae, the name for 
bread fruit being written either " lemae" or " lemai." The circumflex 
accent placed over a vowel indicates that it is pronounced gutturally. 
For a more complete account of the language of the island the reader 
is referred to The Chamorro Language of Guam, by William Edwin 
Saft'ord. Reprinted from the American Anthropologist, new series, 
vols. 5, 6, and 7. 1903, 1904, and 1905. 

In Samoan names the apostrophe (') before a vowel or between 
vowels marks the position of an original Polynesian k, and is indicated 
in speaking by a break in the continuity of the vowel sound. Thus 
the Tongan ' ' kava " (Piper methyst-icurn) and "muka,"an adjective 
applied to tender young leaves, become in Samoan "'ava" and 
"mu'a;" and the Tongan "faki," signifying "to break off fruit from 
a bunch," becomes in Samoa "fa'i," the name for " banana." 

P^xcept where otherwise indicated in the text, the matter given 
under "references," including the critical notes, is the work of Mr. 
W. F. Wight, and the authorship of the new names is therefore to be 
accredited to him. 

Aaban or Aabang- (Guam). 

A species of Eugenia, the hard, close-grained, durable wood of which is much used 
in construction on the island of Guam. 
Abaca or Abaka (Philippines). See Musa textilis. 
Abas (Guam). 

Local name, derived from the Spanish "guayaba," for the guava (Psidium 
guajava). 

Abelmoschus esculentus. OKRA. OCHRA. 

Family Malvaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Gumbo (Louisiana); Guingambo (Porto Rico); Quingombo 

(Mexico); Quimbombo (Spanish); Saju (Panama). 

An annual plant, indigenous to the West Indies, but introduced in cultivation 
into all tropical and subtropical countries. Stems hairy; leaves alternate, cordate, 
toothed, 3 to 5-lobed, scabrous on both sides, on long petioles; pedicels axillary, 
shorter than the petiole; calyx surrounded by an involucel of 9 to 12 linear decidu- 
ous leaves; petals yellow, with reddish claws; capsule oblong-lanceolate, hairy, 
5-celled; cells many-seeded. 

The young green mucilaginous capsules are used for thickening soup and are pickled 
like capers. Like many other Malvaceae, the plant yields a strong, silky fiber, and 
this is used in certain parts of India in the manufacture of cordage, sacking, and paper. 
See Okra, under Gardens. 
REFERENCES: 

Abelmoschus esculentus (L. ) Moench, Meth. 617. 1794. 
Hibiscus esculentus L. Sp. PI. 2: 696. 1753. 

Abrus abrus. CORAL-BEAD VINE. PLATE xxxi. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kolales halom-tano (Guam); Sagasaga (Philippines) ; Matamata- 
moso (Samoa); Pepitio (Tahiti); Peronia (Porto Rico) ; Wild licorice (India); 
Indian licorice (Australia); Crabs-eye seeds (West Indies); Jequirity (Brazil). 



172 USEFUL PLANTS OF 

A twining vine with alternate, abruptly pinnate leaves; leaflets small, linear-oval, 
obtuse at apex and base, in 8 to 20 pairs; flowers pale purple to white, in axillary 
racemes; legumes oblong, compressed, containing 4 to 6 hard, glossy, scarlet seeds 
marked with a black spot. 

Very common in thickets throughout the island. Like many other leguminous 
plants it is very sensitive to changes in the intensity of light, the leaflets hanging 
down vertically at night, as though asleep, and rising with the dawn. These move- 
ments are also caused in a measure by the overclouding and clearing of the sky. 
When ripe the pods burst open, displaying the pretty, bright-colored seeds, which 
are very conspicuous in the tangled undergrowth of the forest. The plant is of wide 
distribution in the Tropics. It has evidently been introduced into Guam, where the 
native name "kolales " (also applied to Adenantherapavonina) is the Chamorro pronun- 
ciation of the Spanish ' ' corales, ' ' signifying strings of corals or beads. ' ' Halom-tano ' ' 
signifies " in-land " that is to say, "growing in the forest " an adjective specifying 
many plants to distinguish them from allied species growing in cultivation or on 
the seashore. 

In India the seeds are used by jewelers and druggists as weights, each seed weigh- 
ing almost exactly one grain. The plant derived its former specific name "preca- 
torius" from the fact that rosaries are made of the seeds. The Germans call them 
" Paternostererbse. " In many tropical countries they are made into necklaces, 
bracelets, and other ornaments. 

The seeds, known in pharmacy as jequirity beans, contain two proteid poisons, 
which are almost identical in their physiological and toxic properties with those found 
in snakes' venom, though less powerful in their effects. a In India the seeds are 
ground to powder in a mortar, into which the natives dip the points of their daggers, 
and the wounds inflicted by daggers thus prepared cause death. When a small 
quantity of the powdered seeds is introduced beneath the skin fatal results follow; 
less than 2 grains of the powder administered in this way to cattle cause death within 
48 hours. One of these poisons, called "abrin," is a tox-albumen. It is easily 
decomposed by heat, and in Egypt the seeds are sometimes cooked and eaten when 
food is scarce,- though they are very hard and indigestible. The root has been used 
as a substitute for licorice. 
REFERENCES: 

Abrus abrns (L. ) 

Glycine alms L. Sp. PI. 2: 753. 1753. 
Abrus precatorius L. Syst. ed. 12. 472. 1767. 
Abrus precatorius. Same as Abrus abrus. 
Abubo (Guam). See Argyreia tiliaefolia. 

Abutilon indicuxn. INDIAN MALLOW. 

Family Malvaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Malbas, Matbas, Malva (Guam); Cuacuacohan, Tabing, Yam- 
pong (Philippines). 

A low shrub with soft velvety leaves and orange-colored flowers, introduced into 
Guam and now common in waste places. Leaves cordate, somewhat lobed, unequally 
toothed or entire; calyx 5-cleft, without a leafy involucel; pedicels longer than tha 
petioles, jointed near the flower; capsules truncate, carpels 11 to 20, acute, truncate 
or shortly beaked. 

The plant is of wide tropical distribution. It yields a fairly good fiber, whidi 
might be used for cordage. Its leaves contain mucilage, and are used in India in the 
same manner as those of the marsh mallow in Europe. The seeds are laxative, and 
in India the root is used as a remedy in leprosy. 
REFERENCES: 

Abutilon indicant (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. 54. 1826. 
Sida indica L. Cent. PI. 2: 26. 1756; Amoen. Acad. 4: 324. 1759. 



8ee Kunkel, A. J., Handbuch der Toxikologie, p. 993, 1901. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 173 

Acacia farnesiana. SWEET ACACIA. 

Family Mimosaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Aromo (Guam, Philippines, and Spanish America); Black 
Thorn (British West Indies); Opoponax (southern United States); Huisache 
(Texas); Cassie (France). 

A shrub or small tree bearing yellow globular heads of fragrant flowers, and bipin- 
nate leaves. Pinnae 4 to 8 pairs; leaflets small, narrow-linear, 10 to 25 pairs; 
peduncles 2 or 3 in the older axils; pods almost cylindrical, indehiscent, at length 
turgid and pulpy. The leaves are peculiarly sensitive to changes of weather. When 
a cloud obscures the sun the opposite leaflets close together and so remain until the 
aky brightens. They also close at night, the plant appearing to sleep until the 
sun rises. The petioles have stipulary thorns, with a gland above the base and 
another usually between the uppermost pinnae. 

This species is widely distributed in the Tropics and in warm temperate regions. 
It has established itself in Egypt, India, Australia, Hawaii, the Philippines, and 
tropical Africa. It is common in the West Indies, and is spread from the Gulf 
region of the United States to the Pampas of Uruguay and Argentina. 

It yields a gum similar to that of the closely allied Acacia scorpioides, which 
the natives of Guam sometimes use in the same way as the gum arabic. In south- 
ern France it is grown for perfumery, its flowers being known in commerce as cassie 
flowers. In Hawaii and on the Central American coast its perfume is often borne 
by the land breeze to vessels more than a mile from the shore. In some parts of 
India the bark and the pods, called "babla," are used as dyestuffs and for tanning. 
Its hard, rose-colored wood is of considerable value. 
REFERENCES: 

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Sp. PL 4 2 : 1083. 1805. 
Mimosa farnesiana ~L. Sp. PI. 1:521. 1753. 
Acacia glauca. Same as Leucaena glauca. 
Acacia, hedge. See Leucaena glauca. 
Acacia leucbcephala. Same as Leucaena ylauca. 

Acalypha indica. INDIAN MERCURY. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 

LOQAL NAMES. Bugos (Philippines); Mookto-joori (Bengal). 
A low, herbaceous, nettle-like weed growing in waste places and in crevices of 
stone walls, easily distinguished by the cup-shaped involucre which surrounds the 
small greenish flowers. Leaves ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, acuminate, serrated, on 
long petioles; spikes axillary, male flowers above, female below; stamens 8 to 16, 
styles 3, capsules of 3 carpels, each one-seeded. 

In India the root of this plant bruised in hot water is used as a cathartic and a 
decoction of its leaves as a laxative. The leaves mixed with salt are applied exter- 
nally in scabies. 
REFERENCES: 

Acalypha indica L. Sp. PI. 2: 1003. 1753. 

Acanthaceae. ACANTHUS FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by two ornamental shrubs, introduced from 
the Philippines the well-known " caricature plant, " Graptophyllum pictum, and an 
Eranthernum with dark-purple foliage. Both are common in gardens, and are often 
planted by the natives in a row under the eaves of their houses, so that they may 
be watered by the drippings from the roof. 
Acanthophora orientalis. See under Algn\ 

a Acacia scorpioides (L.) W. F. Wight; Mimosa scorpioides L. Sp. PI. 1:521. 1753; 
Mimosa arabica Lain. Encyc. 1: 19. 1783; Acacia arabica Wild. Sp. PI. 4 2 : 1085. 1805. 



174 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Acapulco (Guam). 

Vernacular name for Herpetica alata, a plant introduced into the Philippines and 
Guam from Mexico. 

Achiote or Achote (Spanish). See Bixa orellana. 
Achiotl (Mexico). See Bixa orellana. 
Achras sapota. See Sapota zapotilla. 
Achuete (Philippines). See Bixa orellana. 
Aclmgan (Guam). 

Vernacular name for a coarse swamp grass. Only carabaos will eat it. 
Achyranthes aspera. PRICKLY CHAFF-FLOWER. 

Family Amaranthaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Chichitun(Guam); Saromo (Philippines); Lautefe-ule (Samoa). 
A shrubby weed growing to the height of 3 feet, with slender elongated spikes 
of purplish-green flowers, which are at length re flexed and appressed to the axis; 
flowers cartilaginous; bracts at first soft, but soon becoming rigid and prickle- 
like; capsules 5-seeded, reddish; stems downy, inclined to be 4-angled; leaves 
opposite, ovate or rounded, abruptly attenuate at the base, pubescent. 

A species widely spread throughout the warmer regions of the globe. In Guam 
it is a troublesome weed; the vernacular name, signifying "tick," is given on account 
of the property the fruit has of sticking to the clothing. In Samoa it is thought by 
the natives to have healing properties, and is called " circumcision plant." In India 
the leaves taken fresh and rubbed to a pulp are applied externally to the stings of 
scorpions. A decoction of them is used as a diuretic, and the seeds are used as a 
remedy for hydrophobia and snake bites. 
REFERENCES: 

Achyranthes aspera L. Sp. PL 1: 204. 1753. 

Acrostichum aureum. MARSH FERN. PLATE iv. 

Family Polypodiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Langayao (Guam); Lau sa'ato (Samoa); Lagolo (Philippines). 
A large, robust, pinnatisect fern growing in marshy places, with 'smooth, leathery 
fronds, the upper segments of which bear the sori on the under surface and the 
lower of which are sterile; veins forming a network; midrib almost excurrent. 

This species is of wide distribution in the Tropics. In Guam it is common in the 
large marsh near Agana called la Cienaga. In Fiji its fronds, together with the leaves 
of Parinari laurinum, were formerly used for thatching the temples of the aborigines. 
It occurs in the West Indies and in southern Florida. 
REFERENCES: 

Acrostichum aureum L. Sp. PI. 1068. 1753. 

Acrostichum spicatum. Same as Belvisia spicata. See Ferns. 
Adelfa (Spanish). See Nerium oleander. 

Adenanthera pavonina. . CORAL-BEAN TREE. 

Family Mimosaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Kolales, KuMlis (Guam); Bahay, Casay (Philippines); La'au 

lopd (Samoa); Redwood, Red sandalwood (India). 

A handsome deciduous tree with spreading branches and bipinnate leaves, bear- 
ing pods of glossy, scarlet, biconvex seeds. Pinnae 2 to 6 pairs; leaflets 6 to 12 pairs, 
oval, obtuse, glabrous; flowers in racemes, numerous, small, white and yellow 
mixed, fragrant; calyx 4 or 5-toothed; stamens 8 to 10; pods linear, somewhat 
curved, bivalved, 10 to 12-seeded. 

The tree is a native of the East Indies, where the jewelers use the seeds for 
weights, each weighing almost exactly 4 grains. The heartwood of the larger trees 
is of a deep red color. It is hard and durable and in India is sometimes used as a 
substitute for red sandalwood. It yields a dye, which the Brahmins of India use for 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 175 

marking their foreheads. It has long been growing in Guam, and is pretty well 
distributed over the island. Its vernacular name is an imitation of the Spanish 
"corales" (coral beads), and is likewise applied to the smaller-seeded Abrus abrus. 
REFERENCES: 

Adenanthera pavonina L. Sp. PI. 1: 384. 1753. 
Adenostemma viscosum. 
Family Asteraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Bulak mamik (Philippines); Vaianu (Tahiti). 
A herbaceous pubescent composite resembling a white-flowered Ageratum, often 
viscous, with heads of flowers in panicles or corymbs. Leaves opposite, or the upper 
alternate, varying in shape from linear to broadly ovate, serrate; involucre cam- 
panulate, bracts many, narrow, herbaceous, receptacle flat; corollas all equal, tubu- 
lar, regular; tube short, limb campanulate, 5-toothed; anthers truncate with a 
glandular tip, base obtuse; style branches elongate, dilated above; achenes obtuse, 
5-ribbed, glandular. A cosmopolitan herbaceous weed. It was collected on the 
island of Guam by Chamisso. 
REFERENCES: 

Adenostemma viscosum Forst. Char. Gen. 90. t. 45. 1776. 
Aeschynomene indica. INDIAN JOINT VETCH. 

Family Fabaceae. 

A plant growing in marshy places, with papilionaceous flowers and pinnately com- 
pound leaves. Stems herbaceous, erect; leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets sensitive, small, 
linear, 15 to 20 pairs, smooth; stipules semisagittate; racemes axillary, the pedicels 
with 2 bracteoles below the calyx; peduncles few-flowered; pods smooth, linear, 
compressed, transversely jointed, one seed in each joint. 

This plant is closely allied to Indian " shola " (Aeschynomene aspera), the stems of 
which yield the pith used in making helmets. From it are also made artificial 
flowers, models of temples, and various toys. In Guam there are a number of small 
images of saints very cleverly carved from pith, evidently obtained from this or an 
allied plant. 

REFERENCES: 

Aeschynomene indica L. Sp. PI. 2: 713. 1753. 
Afzelia bijuga. Same as Intsia bijuga. 
Aga (Guam). The ripe fruit of plantains and bananas. 
Agaliya (Guam). See Ricinus communis. 
Agar-agar (Ceylon). See Algc^e: Gracilaria confervoides. 
Agatelang or Agatilon (Guam). See Eugenia spp. 

Agati grandiflora. PLATE vi. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Katurai (Guam); Caturai, Katudai, Guuay-gauay (Philippines). 

A small introduced tree, bearing large edible, white, papilionaceous flowers and 

long sickle-shaped pods. Leaves long, narrow, and abruptly pinnate, with very 

numerous, linear-oblong, obtuse, mucronate leaflets ; calyx shallowly 2-lipped; corolla 

7.5 to 10 cm. in length; pod 30 cm. or more long, with thickened sutures. 

Frequently planted near the houses of the natives and along the roadsides. The 
flowers and green pods are eaten as a salad or potherb. They are said to be laxative. 
The bark is astringent and is used in India as a remedy in smallpox. The leaves 
and young shoots are sometimes gathered as fodder for cattle. 
REFERENCES: 

Agati grandiflora (L.) Desv. Journ. Bot. 1:120. L4./.6. 1813. 
Robinia grandiflora L. Sp. PI. 2: 722. 1753. 
Aeschynomene grandiflora L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2:1060. 1763, 
Sesban grandiflorus Poir. Encyc. 7; 127, 1806, 



176 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Agave vivipara. MAGUEY. 

Family Amaryllidaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Lirio de Palo (Guam); Maguay, Maguey (Philippines); Teo- 

metl (Mexico). 

An Agave of Mexican origin, now spread in the Philippines and India, bearing 
bulbs which sprout before falling to the ground. It has been introduced into Guam, 
where it is called by the natives the "tree lily." The leaves resemble those of Agave 
americana, but have few spines on the margin. The flower scape grows to the height 
of 4.5 meters. From the leaves the natives get a fiber with which they wrtip their 
cigars. In the Philippines it is sometimes used for making violin strings, a and in 
India it is used for cordage and twine. 
REFERENCES: 
Agave vivipara L. Sp. PL 1: 323. 1753. 

Agboy (Philippines). See Mussaenda frondosa. 

Ageratum conyzoides. GOATWEED. 

Family Asteraceae. 

A low, weedy, pubescent composite with terminal corymbs of blue or white 
flowers forming small discoid heads. Leaves ovate, on hispid petioles, obtuse, cre- 
nate, truncate or cordate at the base. 

It is of American origin, but is now widely spread throughout the Pacific and has 
found its way to many tropical countries. It yields a vegetable proximate principle 
known as "coumarin," which is also found in the allied genus Eupatorium. 
REFERENCES: 

Ageratum conyzoides L. Sp. PL 2: 839. 1753. 

Aggag, Aggak, or Akgak (Guam). See Pandanaceae and Pandanus tectorius. 
Agho (Philippines). See Leucaena glauca. 
Agono (Philippines). See Casuarina equisetifolia. 

Agsom or Apson (Guam). 

Vernacular name, signifying "sour," applied to Oxalis corniculata, and (improperly) 
to Meibomia triflora. This confusion of two plants under one name may be compared 
with that in case of the name shamrock among the Irish, which is sometimes applied 
to an Oxalis, sometimes to a Trifolium. The resemblance in both cases is chiefly in 
the trifoliolate leaves. 

Aguanak (Guam). 

The name of a tree not identified, mentioned by Governor Olive y Garcia in a 
report to the Captain-General of the Philippines as yielding strong wood used in the 
construction of houses. 

Aguardiente (Spanish). See Cocos nucifera. 
Ahgao or Ajgao (Guam). See Premna gaudichaudii. 
Ahgap (Guam). Same as Ahgao. 
Ahonholi (Guam). See Sesamum orientale. 
Ahos (Guam). See Allium sativum. 

Aizoaceae. CARPET-WEED FAMILY. 

The only representative of this family in Guam is the seaside purslane, Sesuvium 
portulacastrum. 

Aji (Spanish). See Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens. 
Kew Bulletin, 1893, p. 80. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 177 

Ajo (Spanish). See A Ilium sativum. 
Ajonjoli (Spanish). See Sesamum orientale. 
Akankan dangkulo (Guam). See Stizolobium giganteum. 
Akankan kalatun (Guam). See Stizolobium pruriens. 
Akankan-tasi (Guam). See Canavali obtusifolium. 
Alacran, flor del (Panama). See Hdiotropium indicmn. 
Alaihai-tasi (Guam). See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Alalag (Guam). See Argyreia tiliaefolia. 
Alalag-tasi (Guam). See Ipom,oea pes-caprae. 
Alambrillo (Spanish). 

Name in Guam for a climbing fern, Lygodium scandens. 

Alangilang- (Philippines). See Canangium odoratum; also called "ilangilang." 
Alangltngit ( Philippines) . See Ehretia microphylla. 
Alapasotes (Philippines). See Chenopodium ambrosioides. 
Albahaca (Spanish). See Ocimum basilicum and 0. canum. 
Albahaca morada (Spanish). See Ocimum sanctum. 
Alcaparro (Spanish) . See Capparis mariana. 

Aleurites moluccana. CANDLENUT TREE. 

Family Euphorhiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lumbang, Raguar (Guam); Lumbang, Capili (Philippines); 
Kukui (Hawaii); Lama (Samoa); Kaguar (Caroline Islands); Akhrot (Bengal). 

A handsome tree with spreading branches, alternate, lobed, pubescent leaves of a 
pale color, rounded or cordate at the base, with two glands at the top of the petiole. 
Flowers small, white, in terminal lax cymes; fruit fleshy, coriaceous, globose, with 
4 shallow furrows; seeds one or two, rugose, gibbous. 

The candlenut tree is widely spread over Polynesia, a great part of Malaysia, and 
the Philippine Islands. It is remarkable that it has not established itself in Guam. 
Only a few specimens grow on the island, which are called either by the Philippine 
name "lumbang," or the Caroline Island name "raguar." The natives say the nuts 
were brought here from the Caroline Islands. They have not come into use in Guam. 

Throughout Polynesia the nuts, strung on cocoanut-leaflet ribs, served the natives 
for candles to light their houses. In Hawaii they are roasted, chopped up, mixed 
with seaweed, and served at native feasts as a relish. They yield an oil which is 
very fluid, of an amber color, without smell, insoluble in alcohol, readily saponifiable, 
and quickly drying. This oil is a mild cathartic, acting in the same manner as 
castor oil, but causing no nausea nor griping, and having the further advantage of a 
nutty flavor and of being more prompt in its effects. (Journ. de Pharm. 3e ser., 
vol. 24, p. 228. 1853. ) 
REFERENCES: 

Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. Sp. PL 4 1 : 590. 1805. 
Jatroptia moluccana L. Sp. PI. 2:1006. 1753. 
Aleurites triloba. Same as A. moluccana. 
Alfalfa. See Medicago saliva. 

Algse. SEAWEEDS. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lumut (Guam, Malay Archipelago); Lumot (Philippines); Limu 

(Samoa, Hawaii); Rinm (Tahiti, Mangaia). 

Among the edible seaweeds growing on the shores of Guam are the gelatinous 

Gracilaria confervoides (L.) J. Ag. and the peppery Caulerpa clavifera (Turn.) Ag. 

The first, called in Guam by the Philippine name "gulaman," is gathered by the 

natives and bleached in the sun. It is used for making jellies and blancmange in the 

977305 12 



178 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

same way as the Irish moss or carrageen (Chondrus crispus). The natives cook it 
with milk or with water, adding to it the juice of fruits to give it an agreeable 
flavor, and then cool it in molds. In Ceylon it is an article of commerce and is one 
of the seaweeds called " agar-agar." It is also known commercially as Ceylon moss. 

Cnulerpa davifera is used as a condiment in the same way as the pepper dulse of 
Scotland (Laurencia pinnatifida] . It is sometimes eaten with vinegar as a salad. 
Both of these seaweeds are of wide distribution. In Samoa also Caulerpa davifera, 
called " limu fuafua," is a common article of diet. It is also used by the natives of 
many other Pacific islands. It is said to be the favorite food of sea turtles. In India 
and Ceylon Gracilaria confervoides is one of the seaweeds used medicinally, especially 
for pectoral affections. In Tasmania it is used for making jelly, and is ranked in 
nutritive value with Chondrus crispus. a 

In Hawaii many seaweeds are used as articles of food. The favorite of the* 
Hawaiians is the limu-lipoa (Dictyopteris plagiogramma Montague). This is even 
celebrated in the songs of the natives, who describe the breath of their maidens as 
perfumed with the limu-lipoa, though to a novice the odor of this alga is anything 
but agreeable. 

Gracilaria confervoides and Gracilaria lichenoides (L. ) J. Ag. are of wide distribution 
in the Pacific and Indian oceans. They belong to the Rhodophyceae, or red algse, 
which include, among other species growing on the shores of Guam, Acanthophora 
orientalis J. Ag., and Corallopsis salicornia Grev. (Sphaerococcus salicornia C. Ag. ). 
Among the Corallinaceae occurs Mastophora lamourouxii (Dene.) Harv. (described 
by Agardh as Zonaria rosea], the typical form of which was collected in Guam by 
Gaudichaud, and the variety macromrpa. Montr, by Dumont d'Urville. 

Algge are also found on the surface and in the rivers of the island. In the rainy 
season (August and September) the ground is covered in places with dark-green 
jelly-like masses of Nostoc commune Ag. and Brachytrichia quoyi Born. & Flah. In 
the Agafia River Gaudichaud collected Chara fibrosa Ag. and Conferva funicularis Ag. , 
and in the Pago River Thorea guadichaudii Ag., a delicate plant belonging to the 
Rhodophyceae. 

In the Agafia River, near its mouth, where the water becomes brackish, occur the 
green, ulva-like Enteromorpha dathrata (Roth.) Ag. and E. compressa (L.) Grev. 
These also grow on the sea beach. Other green algae growing in the sea are 
Rhizoclinum tortuosum fastigiatum Ag., allied to Cladophora, Caulerpa davifera, 
already mentioned as a favorite condiment of the South Sea Islanders, Caulerpa 
plumaris (Forsk.) Ag. and Caulerpa freycinetii Ag. The latter have creeping stems 
resembling those of flowering plants in general appearance, with colorless rhizoids 
and branched fronds abounding in chlorophyl. One of the most interesting and 
graceful species is the widely spread Bryopsis plumosa Grev., the minute thallus of 
which, though branching like a feather, consists of a single cell. Its branches sub- 
divide into miniature leaf-like processes, and are finally separated from the original 
cell by transverse walls. The gametes, by means of which it is reproduced, both 
male and female, are provided with movable cilia. Of a very different habit is 
Ifalimeda papyracea intricata Ag., which resembles a miniature cactus (Opuntia^ 
with broad flattened joints. Growing on the coral reef is the common " peacock's 
tail," Padina pavonia (L. ), a brown alga with thin, papery, fan-shaped fronds marked 
by concentric zones; and with it Freycinet collected a second species, Padina com- 
mersonii Bory., which also occurs on the shores of Japan and of Florida. 

Associated with the algse are several flowering plants, including Potamogeton natans 
and P. zizii, growing in the Agafia River; Halophila ovalis, growing in brackish 
marshes; and the grass-like Halodule uninervis, like a miniature Zostera, growing in 
the sea. 



Maiden, Useful Plants Australia, p, 33, 1389. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 179 

Algodon (Spanish) or Atgodon (Guam). See Gossypium barbadense. 

Alg-odon de Manila (Guam). See Ceiba pentandra. 

Algodoncillo (Porto Rico). See Asclepias curassavica. 

Algodonero (Spanish). See Gossypium arboreum. 

Alhucema (Cuba). See Mesosphaerum pectinatum. 

Aligbangon (Philippines). See Cnmmelina benghalensis and Commelina nudiflora. 

Alimodias (Philippines). See Coijc lacryma-jobi. 

Alipata (Philippines). See Excoecaria agallocha. 

Alligator pear. See Persea persea. 

The cultivation of this plant, though many times attempted, has never been suc- 
cessful on the island of Guam. 
Allium cepa. ONION. 

Family Liliaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Seboyas (Guam); Cebolla (Spanish); Ceboya, Lasona (Philip- 
pines). 

Onions are frequently planted in Guam, but they do not thrive well. Only very 
small bulbs are produced, but these are much relished by the natives. 

REFERENCES: 

Allium cepa L. Sp. PI. 1 : 300. 1753. 
Allium sativum. GARLIC. 

LOCAL NAMES. Ahos (Guam); Ajo (Spanish); Bawang, Ganda (Philippines). 
Garlic is cultivated perhaps more extensively than onions, though the conditions 
on the island are scarcely more favorable to it than to them. It is a favorite ingre- 
dient in many dishes of the Chamorros. 

REFERENCES: 

Allium sativum L. Sp. PL 1 : 296. 1753. 
Almendra (Spanish). 

The fruit of Terminalia catappa. 
Almendro (Spanish). See Terminalia catappa. 
Almond, Indian. See Terminalia catappa. 
Almond, Java. See Canarium indicum. 
Almond, Malabar. See Terminalia catappa. 
Aloalo-sina (Samoa). See Mussaenda frondosa. 
Aloalo-tai (Samoa). See Clerodendron inerme. 
Alocasia indica. GIANT TARO. ACRID TARO. 

Family Araceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Piga (Guam); Biga (Philippines); Via, Dranu (Fiji); Ape, 

Ta'amu ( Samoa) , 

This great arum, which is closely allied to, if not identical with, the following 
species, is so acrid that its juice will blister the skin. It differs from the common 
taro (Caladium colocasia) in having a trunk as well as corm, which is edible. It is a 
huge plant, growing in marshy places, with very large ovate-cordate, bright-green 
leaves and an inflorescence consisting of a convolute spathe inclosing a spadix which 
bears female flowers (ovaries) at its base, male flowers (stamens) higher up, and 
neutral organs in the interval, and ends in a thickened barren portion called the 
appendage. The appendage- is marked with reticulated furrows, which distinguish 
this genus from Caladium, in which the appendage is smooth. The flowers have a 
disagreeable odor. 

In Guam there are several varieties of Alocasia recognized, which may be referred 
either to this or to the following species, three of which are called "piga." Two 
other allied varieties are called "papao," and a third is called " baba." 



180 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

The natives eat piga only in times of scarcity of food. The fleshy trunks must be 
thoroughly roasted to destroy their acridity. (See p. 69. ) 
REFERENCES: 

Alocasia indica (Lour.) Schott, Oestr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 410. 1854. 
Arum indicum Lour. Fl. Cochin. 2: 536. 1790. 

Alocasia macrorrhiza. GIANT TARO. ACRID TARO. 

LOCAL NAMES. Piga (Guam); Biga (Philippines); Ape, Ta'amu (Samoa); Kape 

(Rarotonga, Easter Island ); Ape (Tahiti); Apii, Ape (Hawaii). 
Similar to the preceding, but with sagittate ovate leaves, the broadly ovate obtuse 
basal lobes or auricles distinct to the petiole, the stout nerves prominent above and 
below, the midrib very broad and conspicuous; flowers with pale greenish yellow 
spathes, emitting a strong, disagreeable odor; appendix at the end of spadix obtuse, 
reticulate; berries at base of spadix red when ripe. Very acrid, but, like the preceding 
species, a food staple in times of scarcity. The Polynesian name of this plant is in 
the Philippines applied to the common taro (Caladium colocasia]. See p. 153. 
REFERENCES: 

Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott in Schott & Eiidl. Melet. 18. 1832. 
Arum macrorrldzum L. Sp. PL 2:965. 1753. 
Alom or alum (Guam). See Echinus sp. 
Alsophila haenkei. See Tree ferns. 
Alverja (Spanish). See Pisum sativum. 

Amahadyan or amahayan (Guam). See Boehmeria tenacissima. 
Amaranth, edible. See Amaranthus oleraceus. 

Amaranthaceae. AMARANTH FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the cultivated Gomphrena globosa and the 
following species of Amaranthus: 

Amaranthus oleraceus. EDIBLE AMARANTH. 

Family Amaranthaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Halom (Philippines) ; Bledos blancos (Spanish). 
A glabrous, succulent, weedy plant, growing in waste places, and cultivated as a pot 
herb in India, China, and other places in the Tropics. Leaves long-petioled, ovate, 
oblong, or rounded; flowers small, green, growing in axillary clusters and terminal 
spikes; sepals 3, linear-oblong, stamens 2 or 3; fruit an ovoid utricle, or bladder-like 
pericarp containing 1 seed, not bursting open. ' First collected in Guam by Gaudi- 
chaud. The young and tender shoots are cooked like spinach. 
REFERENCES: 

Amaranthus oleraceus L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 2:1403. 1763. 

Amaranthus spinosus. SPINY PIGWEED. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kuletes, Kiletes (Guam, Philippines); Quelite (Mexico); Zepi- 

nard piquant, Epinard rouge (French Antilles). 

A glabrous weed with rigid stipular spines at each node of the stem. Stems stout, 
rigid, sometimes red; leaves long-petioled, ovate, rhombic, or rhombic-lanceolate; 
flowers in axillary clusters and in long spikes, stamens 5, sepals 5, equaling the awned 
bracts; utricle thin, wrinkled, splitting open transversely, the top opening like a lid. 
This plant is of wide tropical distribution. When young it is often used as a pot 
herb, but it is not cultivated. 
REFERENCES: 

Amaranthus spinosus L. Sp. PL 2: 991. 1753. 
Amaranthus viridis. GREEN PIGWEED. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kuletes, Kiletes (Guam, Philippines); Eaea mata (Tahiti). 
A glabrous weed resembling the preceding, but without spines on the stem. Leaves 
witn Jong petioles, tip rounded or notched, base truncate or cuneate; flower clusters 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 181 

very small, green, in axillary and terminal panicled slender spikes; bracts usually 
shorter than the 3 sepals and utricle; stamens 2 or 3; utricle acute, indehiscent. 

This is the species most commonly cultivated in India. The tender succulent 
tops of the young stems and -branches are cooked as a substitute for asparagus. The 
various forms growing wild in Guam are not much esteemed, but, like asparagus, 
would doubtless be improved by cultivation. 

Widely spread in the Tropics, growing as a weed in waste places, not cultivated in 
Guam, but like the preceding species used as a pot herb when young and tender. 
REFERENCES: 

Amaranthus viridis L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1405. 1763. 
Amargosa (Spanish). See Momordica charantia. 

Amaryllidaceae. AMARYLLIS FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the indigenous Crinum asiaticum; by 
Hypoxis aurea, which grows upon the savannas; and by the introduced tuberose 
(Polianthes tuberosa), the pretty pink-flowered Atamosco rosea, and the white spider 
lily, or " seashore daffodil" (Pancratium littorale). 
Ambulia fragrans. 

Family Scrophulariaceae. 

LOCAL NAMESS. Gege, Guegue, Gege sensonyan (Guam). 

A small, procumbent, very fragrant plant growing in marshy places and stagnant 
pools near the coast. Leaves sessile, oblong, lanceolate, serrate, with rounded sub- 
amplexicaul bases; calyx smooth, 5-parted, with lanceolate-subulate segments; struc- 
ture of the flower similar to the preceding species; corolla scarcely longer than the 
calyx. 

This plant is much esteemed by the natives for its aromatic fragrance. It is spread 
among the islands of the Pacific and in the Malay Archipelago, and occurs in north 
Australia. Gandichaud was the first to collect it in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Ambulia fragrans (Forst. f.) Drake, Fl. Polyn. Franc. 140. 1892. 
Ruellia fragrans Forst. f. Prod. 44. 1786. 

Limnophila serrata Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 448. t. 57. f. 2. 1826. 
Ambulia indica. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gege, Guegue (Guam); Inata (Philippines). 

A low, glabrous, aromatic plant growing in swamps and on the edges of rice fields. 
The leaves may be either all whorled and pinnatifid, 6 to 19 mm. long, or in wetter 
places there may be a few emersed opposite entire ones at the top of the stem and 
numerous multifid ones at its base; flowers axillary, solitary, pedicelled, rarely sub- 
racemose, the pedicels longer than the calyx; calyx 5-parted, hemispheric in fruit, the 
lobes equal, ovate, acuminate, not striate; corolla-tube cylindric, upper lip the outer 
in the bud, suberect; lower lip spreading, 3-fid; stamens 4, didynamous, included; 
style deflexed at the tip, stigma shortly 2-lamellate; fruit a capsule, seeds numerous, 
small, angular, truncate, reticulate. 

This plant is esteemed by the natives for its aromatic odor, which somewhat 
resembles turpentine. It was first collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. It is found 
in India, the Malay Archipelago, China, Australia, and tropical Africa. 
REFERENCES : 
Ambulia indica (L. ). 
Hottonia indica L. Syst. ed. 10. 919. 1759. 
lAmnophila gratioloides R. Br. Prod. 442. 1810. 
Amiga de noche (Guam). See Polianthes tuberosa. 
Amigos (Philippines). See Lycopodium cernuum. 
Amir ay (Philippines). See Boehmeria tenacissima. 



182 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Ammannia coccinea. 

Family Lythraeeae. 

An annual erect glabrous herb growing in damp places, with 4-angled stem and 
narrowly linear, opposite leaves, which are obtusely cordate-auriculate and dilated 
at the somewhat clasping base, entire, 2 to 8 cm. long, 2 to 6 mm. wide, flowers 
small, nearly axillary, 1 to 5 in each axil, sessile; calyx campanulate, with 8 ribs or 
nerves; petals 4, purple, deciduous, style elongated, very slender; stamens 4 to 8, 
inserted on the calyx-tube; ovary nearly globular, bursting irregularly. 

Collected in Guam by Lesson, who accompanied Dumont d'Urville on the Astro- 
labe as naturalist. It occurs also in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. 

REFERENCES: 

Ammannia coccinea, Rottb. PI. Hort. Univ. (Havn.) Programm. Desc. 7. 1773. 
Ammannia octandra Cham. & Sehlecht. Same as A. coccinea. 
Ampalea (Philippines). See Momordica charantia. 
Amor seco (Spanish). See Gomphrena globosa. 
Amores secos (Philippines, Guam). See Andropogon acicidatus. 
Amot-tomag-a or Amot-tumag-a (Guam). See Cassia sophera. 
Anacardiaceae. CASHEW FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the introduced Anacardium occidentals and 
Mangifera in diet i . 
Anacardium occidentale. CASHEW. PLATE xxix. 

Family Anacardiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kasue, Kasoy (Guam); Casoy, Kasoe, Balubad, Bol-logo (Philip- 
pines); Maranon (Mexico, Cuba, Panama); Pajuil (Porto Rico). 
A spreading tree with simple, oval, entire leaves, rounded or emarginate at the 
top, bearing a peculiar fruit, which consists of the enlarged, fleshy peduncle bearing 
a kidney-shaped nut. The peduncle is pear-shaped, of a yellow or reddish color, 
astringent when green, but when thoroughly ripe pleasantly acid and edible. The 
nut is oily and its shell very acrid. When roasted it is edible, the kernel acquiring 
a pleasant milky flavor. In roasting, the eyes arid face should not be exposed to 
the caustic fumes which rise from the shell. A yellowish oil of a sweet flavor may 
be expressed from the kernel. The trunk and branches on being abraded yield a 
transparent gum obnoxious to insects. An acrid oily liquid derived from the shell 
is used to protect books and furniture from the attacks of insects, and in the 
Andaman Islands to preserve fishing lines. This tree, which is of great economic 
importance in tropical America, is not much esteemed by the natives of Guam. 
They sometimes eat the fruit and roast the nuts, but neither can be called a food 
staple of the island. Although introduced more than a century ago, it has not spread 
upon the island and is found only near the houses of natives, where it has been 
planted, or on the sites of abandoned ranches. 

REFERENCES : 

Anacardium occidentale L. Sp. PI. 1: 383. 1753. 

Anagalide azul (Spanish). See Commelina benghalensis and C. nudiflora. 
Ananas (Spanish). See Ananas ananas. 
Ananas ananas. PINEAPPLE. 

Family Bromeliaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Pina (Guam, Philippines); Pina, Ananas (Spanish); MatzatU 

(Mexico). 

A plant with rigid sword-shaped leaves, having the edges armed with spines, and 
bearing the well-known fruit. The flowers have a 6-cleft perianth, with 6 stamens 
band 1 style. The ripe head consists of the thickened rachis, in which the flesh 
erries are imbedded, and the fleshy persistent bracts. The plant produces a singely 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXII. 




ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 183 

shaft 60 to 120 cm. high. On the top of the head, or pineapple, a rosette of stiff 
leaves is borne. The same stalk does not bear a second time, but a new shoot may 
arise and bear another. The species is propagated from the suckers or by removing 
the crown and planting it in sand. This should be done during the rainy season. 
The adventitious sprouts of the stump of the fruit will also yield a growth of young 
plants if the stump be planted and kept moist. 

In Guam pineapples of excellent quality are produced. When once established 
the plants continue to reproduce for years, though frequent replanting and change 
of soil is recommended. Patches of pineapples are often found growing on the sites 
of abandoned ranches. The first ripens in May and June. 

The leaf yields a fine silky fiber, which in the Philippine Islands is woven into 
beautiful gauzy fabrics. In Guam it is twisted by hand and made into the finer 
kinds of cast nets for fishing. Sometimes single fibers are used by the natives in 
lieu of thread for sewing or for wrapping cigars. 
REFERENCES: 

Ananas ananas (L.) Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 466. 1880-1883, as Ananassa ananas. 
Bromelia ananas L. Sp. PL 1 : 285. 1753. 
Ananas sativus Schult. Syst. 7 2 : 1283. 1830. 
Auanassa sativa. Same as Ananas ananas. 
Anaoso (Samoa). See Guilandina crista. 
Andropogon acicularis. Same as Andropogon aciculatus. 

Andropogon aciculatus. AWNED BEARDGRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Amores secos (Philippines, Guam); Piipii (Hawaii). 
A grass with spikelets occurring in pairs, at each node of a jointed hairy rachis, one 
sessile and perfect, the other with a pedicel; stem creeping and branching below, 
leaves short, sheaths terete, panicle very narrow, callus very long, acicular. 

Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. Common on the island and furnishing good 
pasture, but disagreeable on account of its adherent awns. It is widely spread in 
Polynesia, Australia, India, and China. In the Philippines the straw is used for 
making hats and mats. 
REFERENCES: 

Andropogon aciculatus Retz. Obs. 5: 22. 1789. 
Andropogon chloridiformis. Same as Dimeria chloridiformis. 
Andropogon nardus. LEMON-GRASS. 

LOCAL NAMES. Junquillo oloroso (Spanish); Tanglad (Philippines). 
A fragrant, lemon-scented grass, said to have been introduced into Guam from the 
Caroline Islands. In Guam the natives plant it near their houses, where it grows in 
tufts to the height of 90 to 120 cm. 

It yields an essential oil, which is used in perfumery, and is known as "oil of 
verbena" or "citronella." It is also applied externally as a stimulant in rheumatic 
affections. In India a sort of tea is made of the fresh young leaves, and the white 
center of the succulent sterns is used to impart a flavor to curries. The grass is too 
coarse to be eaten by cattle except when young. 
REFERENCES: 

Andropogon nardus L. Sp. PI. 2: 1046. 1753. 
Angilao (Guam). See Grewia multiflora. 

Angiopteris evecta. GIANT FERN. PLATE xxxn. 

Family Marattiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Nase, Fa'angjise (Samoa). 

A fern-like plant with enormous fronds and a fleshy stem 1 to 2 meters high, growing 
in damp situations. It is distinguished by having the sporangia inclosed in capsules, 



184 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

which open by a slit down the side. Leaves 2 to 5 meters long, mostly bipinnate, with 
swollen rachises; leaflets 10 to 30 cm. long, 1.5 to 4 cm. wide, the margin entire or 
slightly toothed. 

This species is common on many Polynesian islands. It grows in the Philippines, 
India, Japan, Madagascar, and Queensland. It is easily propagated by the fleshy 
scales at the base of each frond, each scale containing at least two dormant buds. Jn 
Samoa the name by which the natives distinguish it is also applied to Marattia 
fraxinea, an allied species with the same habit of growth. 

EEFERENCES: 
Angiopteris evecta (Forst. ) Hoffm. Com. Goett. 12:29. t. 5. (ex Luerssen in 

Schenck & Luerssen, Mittheilungen aus der Botanik 1 : 257. 1874. 
Polypodium evectum Forst. Prod. 81. 1786. 
Ango (Samoa). See Curcuma longa. 
Anilao ( Guam ) . See Grewia multijiora. 
Anilis (Guam ) . See Indigo/era anil and J. tinctoria. 
Anis hinojo (Philippines, Guam). See Foeniculum foeniculum. 
Annatto. See Bixa orellana. 
Annona muricata. SOURSOP. PLATE xxxm. 

Family Annonaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Laguand (Guam); Guanabano (Philippines, Mexico, Peru). 
A small tree bearing large oblong or conical, dark green fruit having a rough spiny 
skin and filled with soft white juicy acid pulp. The leaves are elliptical, pointed, 
glossy above and rusty beneath, becoming glabrous; young growth scurfy-pubescent; 
flower with six petals, the three outer ones acute, greenish, the three inner ones more 
conspicuous, obtuse, yellow or red; pistils many, each with one erect ovule, uniting 
to form the fleshy fruit or syncarpium. 

In Guam this species is not so commonly cultivated as the sugar apple ( A. squamosa) . 
It has a pleasant acid flavor. The natives make jelly of it and preserve the fruit. 
In the East Indies it is used for flavoring ice cream and puddings. It is of American 
origin and was introduced into Guam at least a century ago. The vernacular name, 
laguand, is probably derived from La Guanabana, the Spanish-American name of 
the fruit. 

REFERENCES: 

Annona muricata L. Sp. PL 1: 536. 1753. 
Annona reticulata. BULLOCK'S HEART. CUSTARD-APPLE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Anonas (Guam, Philippines); Corazon (Porto Rico). 
A tree of -American origin, 4 to 8 meters high, bearing a smooth, heart-shaped 
fruit with small depressions on the surface, yellowish before maturity and often 
becoming a deep red at length, which gives to it its appropriate English name. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblong and pointed, glabrous above and rough, at length becom- 
ing smooth beneath; flowers with the three exterior petals oblong-linear and keeled 
on the inside, acute, greenish., with purple spots at the base; inner petals minute; 
pistils many, united into the fleshy syncarpium (multiple fruit). 

In Guam this species has established itself more fully than the others of the genus. 
It is found growing wild in the woods and along roadsides. The fruit is long in 
ripening, the plant yielding but one crop a year, while ripe fruit of the sour-sop and 
sugar-apple can be found during most months of the year. The flavor of the fruit 
of Annona reticulata growing in Guam is not nearly so good as that of the other 
species. It is sweet but insipid, and the pulp has a tallow-like consistency. The 
natives do not esteem it highly, but it is a favorite food of the "fanihi," or fruit- 
eating bat of the island (Pteropus keraudreni). 

REFERENCES: 
Annona reticulata L. Sp. PL 1: 537. 1753. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXIII. 




THE SOURSOP (ANNONA MURICATA). FLOWERS AND FRUIT. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXIV. 




THE SUGAR APPLE, OR SWEETSOP (ANNONA SQUAMOSAI. FOLIAGE AND FRUIT. 

NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 185 

Annona squamosa. SUGAR-APPLE. SWEETSOP. PLATE xxxiv. 

LOCAL NAMES. Atis (Guam, Philippines); Annona blanca (Mexico); Ata 
(Hindu); Sweetsop (British West Indies). 

A shrub or small tree of American origin, the fruit of which is tuberculate, each 
carpel forming a protuberance, egg- shaped or of the form of an artichoke or a short 
pine cone, 7.5 to 10 cm. in diameter; yellowish green, frequently covered with a 
whitish or glaucous bluish bloom; pulp very sweet, creamy yellow and custard-like, 
inclosing smooth black or dark -brown seeds, and of an agreeable flavor; leaves thin, 
glaucous, oblong-ovate, very sparsely hairy on both sides, but often becoming 
smooth, flowers with the three outer petals oblong-linear and blunt, keeled on the 
inner side, greenish; pistils many, united to form the fleshy fruit. 

This is the favorite custard apple of the natives of Guam. It is found planted by 
nearly every house. It does not grow wild like A. reticulata. It loses its leaves 
in the dry season, putting forth flowers and leaves when the first rains fall, and 
bearing a succession of crops of fruit during most months of the year. The fruit 
becomes very soft when ripe, often bursting open on the tree, when it is greedily 
eaten by ants. These insects do not attack it as long as the surface remains unbroken. 
It is eaten uncooked, the soursop (^4. muricata) being the only species utilized by 
the natives for jelly and preserves. The best of the Annonas, Annona cherimolia, a 
fruit very highly esteemed in South America, does not grow in Guam. Attempts to 
introduce it into Java and many other tropical countries have met with failure. 
Annonaceae. CUSTARD-APPLE FAMILY. 

This family, which includes the "pawpaw" (Asimina triloba) of the United States, 
is represented in Guam by the ilangilang tree (Canangium odoratum) and the above 
species of Annona. 
REFERENCES: 

Annona squamosa L. Sp. PI. 1 : 537. 1753. 
Anonas (Guam). See Annona reticulala. 
Antidote lily. See Crinum asiaticum. 

Antigonon leptopus. MEXICAN CREEPER. 

Family Polygonaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Cadena de amor (Guam); Coralillo (Cuba); Coamecate, Hierba 
de Santa Rosa (Mexico). 

A creeper with clusters of rose-colored flowers. Stem slender, glabrous, or nearly so; 
leaves alternate, entire, cordate and acuminate or hastate-ovate; flowers in racemes, 
which end in branching tendrils; sepals 5, rose-colored and petal-like, the two interior 
ones narrower; stamens 8; styles 3; ovary 5-angled. 

Cultivated in the gardens of Guam, but not common. It takes its pretty and 
appropriate local name ( "the chain of love" ) from the form of its flowers, which look 
like miniature hearts of coral. 
REFERENCES: 

Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 308. t. 69. 1841. 
Antipole (Philippines). See Artocarpus communis (seeded). 
Antrophyum. See Ferns. 
Aoa (Samoa) . See Ficus sp. 
Apasotes ( Philippines ) . 

The name used in Guam for "Mexican tea," Chenopodium ambrosioides, which is 
grown in many of the gardens of the natives. Also called " alapasotes. " 
Ape (Polynesia). See Alocasia indica and A. macrorrhiza. 
Apiaceae. CARROT FAMILY. 

The only representative in Guam of this family is Centella asiatica. 



186 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Apii (Hawaii). See Alocasia macrorrhiza . 
Apium petroselinum. Same as Petroselinum petroselinum. 
Aphloghating 1 or Aplokhating (Guam). See Psychotria mariana. 
Aplog- (Guam.) 

The local name for a small coconut in which water has begun to form. 
Apocynaceae. DOGBANE FAMILY. 

Among the indigenous Apocynaceae growing in Guam are Ochrosia mariannennift, 
a tree with glossy leaves, milky sap, and yellow wood, and the Guam "nanago" 
(Gynopogon torresianus) , a plant allied to the " maile" of Hawaii, with fragrant glossy 
leaves and small white flowers. Among the cultivated plants are the common ole- 
ander (Nerium oleander], here called "adelfa," and the common pink periwinkle, 
Loclmerarosea. It is surprising to note the absence of such common plants as Plumeria 
alba and Cerbera thevetia, which occur in tropical gardens all over the world. 
Apson (Guam). See Agsom. 
Araceae. See Alocasia and Caladium. 

Arachis hypogaea. ^EANUT. EARTHNUT. GROUNDNUT. 

Family Fabaceae 

LOCAL NAMES. Kakahuate, Kakaguate (Guam); Cacahuate, Tlalcacahuatl (Mex- 
ico); Mani (Panama, Peru, Chile, Philippines); Katjang-tana (Java). 

A low plant which bears the well-known peanut. Leaves abruptly pinnate, with 
two pairs of leaflets and no tendril; flowers yellow, 5 to 7 together in the 
axils of the leaves. After the plant has finished flowering and the pods begin to 
lengthen the pedicels force them into the earth, where they ripen their seeds. 

Commonly cultivated in Guam, where it thrives, but never planted on an exten- 
sive scale. Between Agafia, the capital, and Punta Piti, the landing place in the 
harbor of Apra, the road is bordered with small patches of this plant at several 
points, where it has been planted by the inhabitants of neighboring houses. It 
grows readily and with little care in the sandy soil, and the nuts are of good quality. 
It could be cultivated more generally and would be a benefit to the soil if planted in 
rotation with maize and sweet potatoes. 
REFERENCES: 

Arachis hypogaea L. Sp. PL 2: 741. 1753. 
Arak. 

Spirits distilled from the fermented sap of the coconut; in Guam called "aguar- 
d i en te . " See Cocos nudfera . 

Aralia guilfoylei. GUILFOYLE'S ARALIA. 

Family Araliaceae. 

A handsome ornamental shrub with variegated pinnate leaves. Leaflets 8 to 7, 
ovate or oblong, irregularly cut on the edges or obscurely lobed, margined with 
white, and sometimes splashed with gray; stem spotted, erect. A native of the New 
Hebrides, but now widely spread throughout the Tropics. In Honolulu beautiful 
hedges are made of it. In the Hope Gardens in the island of Jamaica it is used as a 
wind-break for the nursery." In Guam it is planted near many of the natives' 
houses, associated with species of Panax, Graptophyllum, Phyllaurea, and a dark 
purple Eranthemum. 
REFERENCES: 

Aralia guilfoylei Cogn. & March. PL Ornem. 2: t. 58. 1874 (ex Ind; Kew.). 
Aralia tripinnata Blanco. Same as Panax fruticosum. 
Araliaceae. ARALIA FAMILY. 

No indigenous Araliaceae occur in Guam. The family is represented on the island 
by several ornamental shrubs brought from the Philippines and commonly planted 



See Bull. Botan. Dept. Jamaica, 1895, p. 47. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXV. 




BETEL-NUT PALMS (ARECA CATHECU). 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 187 

near the houses of the natives. Among them are Aralia guilfoylei, Noihopanax fruti- 
cosum, and Nothopanax cochleatum. 

Ararao, Araro, Araru (Philippines). See Maranta arundinacea. 
Arbol del fueg-o (Philippines, Guam). See Delonrx regia. 
Ardisia. Same as Icacorea. 

Areca cathecu. BETELNUT. PLATE xxxv. 

Family Phoenicaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Pugua (Guam); Ptia (Banda); Puah, Buah (Amboina); Puak, 
Poak (Ceylon); Boa (Duke of York Island, Solomon Group); Bue (New 
Britain); Boa(Bali); Bua(Pelew Islands); Boiiga, Bunga, Luyos (Philippines); 
Gua, Gooa (Bengal); Pinang (Modern Malay). 

A palm introduced into Guam in prehistoric times, but not indigenous on the 
island, and planted, by the natives for the sake of its aromatic seeds, which are gen- 
erally called '"betel nuts." The trunk is tall and slender and ringed; leaves glabrous, 
pinnate, the segments narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, plicate, with margins recurved 
at the base, the upper ones confluent and bifid or truncate and many-parted; rachis 
3-sided, the upper face acute, the back convex, the base and petiole concave; 
sheaths elongated; spadix with spreading branches at length pendent; spathes sev- 
eral, papery, the lowest complete, the upper ones bract-like; flowers white and very 
fragrant; fruit a one-seeded, orange-colored drupe or nut about the size of a small 
hen's egg, with outer fibrous husk, astringent, pungent, and aromatic, with a flavor 
and consistency somewhat like that of a nutmeg. It hangs in long bunches below 
the dark -green leaves. 

In Guam this species is found in abundance growing in damp woods and along the 
margins of streams. The nut is held in great esteem by the natives, who chew it 
together with the leaf of the betel pepper ( Piper betle), a plant having properties akin 
to those of Piper metliysticum, the kava plant of Polynesia. 

The nut is divided and a piece of it is wrapped in the pepper leaf, together with a 
pinch of quicklime. It imparts a red color to the saliva, so that the lips and teeth 
appear to be covered with blood and in time become blackened. It injures the teeth 
and sometimes almost destroys them. Children begin to chew it at an early age. 
Old men and women are frequently seen with their teeth reduced from its habitual 
use to mere blackened snags. The odor imparted by it to the breath is aromatic 
and not disagreeable unless tobacco be mixed with it, a custom practiced by some 
natives, but not a common one. The nut is called either " pugua," or by its Taga- 
log name "boriga;" the leaf is called "pupulu," or by the Visayan name "buyo," 
and the packet made up for chewing is called "mamao." 

In Guam betel chewing is a matter of etiquette at all wedding assemblies, fandan- 
gos, and funerals. Nuts deprived of their fibrous envelopes, fresh pepper leaves, and 
quicklime, together with cigars, are passed around to the assembled guests. 

According to Jahns, arecaine, the active principle of the areca nut, is a powerful 
agent for destroying tapeworms, resembling in its action pelletierine, an aromatic, 
oily alkaloid obtained from the bark of the pomegranate. Like nicotine it is poison- 
ous, half a grain sufficing to kill a rabbit in a few moments. It influences the respi- 
ration as well as the heart, causes tetanic convulsions, and has an extraordinary 
influence in increasing intestinal peristalsis. Locally applied or when given internally 
it contracts the pupils." In India the nut has long been used as a vermifuge, the 
dose being a teaspoonful of the freshly grated kernel. Throughout the Malay Archi- 
pelago the nut is of great commercial importance. 
KEFERENCES: 
Areca cathecu L. Sp. PI. 2: 1189. 1753. (Often written Areca catechu.) 

See Alkaloide der Arekanuss, in Bruhl's Pflanzen-Alkaloide, p. 33, 1900. 



188 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Arecaceae. PALM FAMILY. 

Among the palms growing in Guam are Areca cathecu, Saguerus pinnatus, ( 'ocos 
nucifera, Xypa fniticans, the recently introduced Coelococcus amicarum and Phoenix 
ducti/lifera, and a small, slender-stemmed palm with pinnate leaves called " palnia 
brava." 

Arenga saccharifera. Same as Saguerus pinnatus. 

Argyreia tiliaefolia. LINDEN-LEAVED MORNING-GLORY. 

Family Convolvulaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Alulag, Abubo (Guam) ; Bululacao (Philippines) ; Pilikai 

(Hawaii). 

A stout, climbing morning-glory with pale purple flowers, woody stem, and cor- 
date or reniform leaves. Corolla large, funnel-shaped; style single, bearing 2 globose 
stigmas; fruit a leathery capsule, not bursting open like that of an Ipomoea; sepals 
coriaceous, silky-pubescent; young shoots canescent; leaves glabrate with age, 6 to 
7.5 cm. long and as much or more in breadth. 

A common plant in the thickets of Guam. Unlike other members of its family it 
does not bloom continuously, but flowers in the month of November. The flowers 
do not wither like many morning-glories, but remain open all day. The natives call 
them "abubo," a different name from that applied to the plant itself. The children 
string them on strings and sticks, and are very fond of them as ornaments. The 
species is found in India and the Philippines. It has been introduced into the 
Hawaiian Islands, where it has escaped from cultivation and established itself. 
REFERENCES: 

Argyreia tiliaefolia (Desr.) Wight, Ic. 4 2 : 12. 1. 1358. 1850. 
Convolvulus tiliaefolius Desr. in Lam. Encyc. 3: 544. 1789. 
Rivea tiliaefolia Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6: 407. 1833. 
Arimay (Philippines). See Boehmeria tenacissima. 
Aristolochia elegans. 

Family Aristolochiaceae. 

A pretty flowering species cultivated in a few gardens of Guam. Slender and 
glabrous, the flowers borne on the pendulous young wood; leaves long-stalked, 
reniform-cordate, with wide sinus and rounded basal lobes, the rib obtuse; flowers 
solitary, long-stalked, the tube yellow-green, the flaring limb cordate-circular, purple 
and white blotched, white on the exterior, the eye yellow. 

Introduced into Guam by the chief of staff of the last Spanish governor, Don Juan 
Marina. 

REFERENCES: 

Aristolochia elegans Mast, Gard. Chron. II. 24: 301. 1885. 
Arnotto or Arnatto. See Bixa orellana. 
Aromo. See Acacia farnesiana. 
Arong-ay (Philippines). See Moringa moringa. 
Aroru, Aruru (Guam). See Maranta arundinacea. 
Arrowroot, East Indian. See Tacca pinnalifida. 
Arrowroot, Polynesian. See Tacca pinnatiftda. 

Artemisia vulg-aris. MUGWORT. WORMWOOD. 

Family Asteraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Hierbade Santa Maria, Yerbade Santa Maria (Guam, Philippines). 
A composite with aromatic, pinnatifid leaves, the lower petioled, the upper sessile, 
dark green on upper surface, white beneath; flowers in small discoid greenish heads 
arranged in panicled spikes, involucre oblong, bell-shaped. Planted in gardens and 
pots by the natives, who use it medicinally. 
REFERENCES: 
Artemisia vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 2:848. 1753. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXVI. 




THE FERTILE BREADFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS), SHOWING MALE AND FEMALE 
INFLORESCENCES, IMMATURE FRUIT, AND LEAF BRACT. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 189 

Artocarpus communis. BREADFRUIT. PLATES vn, xxvn, xxxvi. 

Family Moraceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Seed lass variety: Lemae, Lemai, Lemay, Rima (Guam); Rima, 

Colo, Kolo (Philippines); 'Ulu (Samoa, Hawaii); Uto (Fiji). Arbol del pan 

(Spanish). Seeded variety: Dugdug, Dogdog (Guam); Breadnut (Burma); 

Tipolo, Antipolo (Philippines); 'Ulu-ma'a (Samoa); Uto-sore (Fiji); Bulia 

(Solomon Islands). 

A handsome tree, with viscid, milky juice, broad-lobed or digitate leaves, and 
gently curving limbs, bearing the celebrated breadfruit. This fruit is oval or spheroid 
in shape, about the size of a child's head or of a melon. It is formed by the female 
flowers, which are very numerous, and are grouped in a prickly head upon a spongy 
receptacle. In the fertile typical form the fruit is covered with short hard projec- 
tions, but in the cultivated breadfruit, which is seedless, it is much smoother and 
reticulated. The male flowers grow in dense, yellow, club-shaped catkins. The 
leaves are very large, leathery, ovate, wedge-shaped and entire at the base, the upper 
part 3 to 9-lobed or pinnatifid, dark green and glossy, and paler beneath. The fruit 
is at first green, becoming brownish when imperfectly ripe and yellow when fully 
so. It contains a somewhat fibrous pulp, pure white at first, but becoming yellow at 
maturity. It is attached to the small branches of the tree by a short, thick stalk, 
and hangs either singly or in clusters of two or three together. 

It is eaten before it becomes ripe, while the pulp is still white and mealy, of a 
consistency intermediate between new bread and sweet potatoes. In Guam it was 
formerly cooked after the manner of most Pacific island aborigines, by means of 
heated stones in a hole in the earth, layers of the stones, breadfruit, and green leaves 
alternating. It is still sometimes cooked in this way on ranches; but the usual way 
of cooking it is to boil it or to bake it in ovens; or it is cut in slices and fried like 
potatoes. The last method is the one usually preferred by foreigners. The fruit 
baked or boiled is rather tasteless by itself, but with salt and butter or with gravy it 
is a palatable as well as a nutritious article of diet. Ovens w T ere introduced into 
Guam by the Mexican soldiers who were brought by the Spaniards to assist in the 
" reduction " of the natives. They are of masonry and of the typical dome shape of 
the ovens so common in Mexico. A kind of biscuit is made by slicing the fruit 
into moderately thin sections after having cooked it, and drying the slices either in 
the sun or in ovens. Thus prepared it will last from one breadfruit season to another. 
The dried slices may be eaten either as they are or toasted, or ground up and cooked 
in various ways. The Caroline Islanders, a colony of whom lived until recently on 
the island of Guam, follow a custom widely spread in the Pacific of preserving bread- 
fruit in pits, where it ferments and is converted into a mass resembling new cheese, 
in which state it gives forth a very disagreeable odor. The fermented paste is made 
into cakes and baked, and is then palatable and nutritious. This method of pre- 
serving breadfruit is also followed by the Samoans, who call the cakes "masi," a 
name now applied by them to ship biscuit and crackers. In Rarotonga the fer- 
mented paste is called " mai." 

The tree yields other products of economic value, such as native cloth or tapa, from 
the fibrous inner bark of young trees and branches, and a kind of glue and calking 
material obtained from the viscid milky juice, which exudes copiously from incisions 
made in the stem. Bark cloth is no longer made in Guam. It is recorded that dur- 
ing an interval of eleven years, when no ship visited the island and there was a 
scarcity of woven fabrics, a number of women made petticoats from the breadfruit 
bark. In Pigafetta's account of the discovery of the group by Magellan he says: 
" The women also go naked, except that they cover their nature with a thin bark, 
pliable like paper, which grows between the tree and the bark of the palm." Now 
the paper mulberry (Papi/rius papyriferux) , the most common tapa-cloth plant of 
the Pacific islands, does not grow in Guam. There is no palm to w r hich Pigafetta's 
description could apply, and it is quite probable that the "thin bark, pliable like 



190 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

paper, growing between the tree and the bark" was that of the breadfruit, though 
it may possibly have been that of the nunu, or banyan. 

Besides using the latex in calking boats, the natives of Guam find it, when fresh 
and viscid, an excellent medium for mixing paint, and it is a good sizing for white- 
wash. The usual pigments were a red ferruginous earth and lampblack made by 
burning cocoanut shells. The Caroline Islanders still use it with various pigments for 
painting their canoes, and it resists the action of water pretty well, though for this 
purpose it is inferior to oil. 

The wood is of fine yellow color. It is not very hard, but it has the virtue of 
resisting the white ant, and if kept dry it is durable. In Guam it is used for cup- 
boards, shelving, furniture, and for partitions between rooms. It is also used for 
canoes, but as these are not w r ell cared for by the natives and moisture injures the 
wood, they do not last very long. In Samoa the framework of the roofs of all the 
best houses is made of the curved limbs of the breadfruit, beautifully rounded and 
scarped together and wrapped at the joints with coconut sennit. 

Dugdug, the "breadnut," or seeded variety of the breadfruit, grows everywhere 
in Guam in the woods, on rocky cliffs, and in low, sandy soil. It is the chief source 
of timber and of gum, the seedless lemae being too valuable as a fruit tree to be used 
generally for these articles. The fruit of the dugdug is inferior to that of the lemae, 
than which it is softer and more sweetish. It is seldom eaten, but its seeds, called 
"nangka" (the name in the Philippines for Arlocarpus integrifolia, the "jack-fruit"), 
are rich in oil and are relished by the natives They are eaten roasted or boiled and 
are much like chestnuts. 

'Lemae, being sterile, is propagated from the shoots which spring up around the 
base of the trunk. They readily take root. The dugdug is grown from the -seed, 
though it occurs in such abundance on the island that it is not much planted. There 
are a number of varieties of breadfruit recognized by the natives. The species grows 
so readily that it might prove profitable to plant it for the manufacture of starch or 
"arrowroot" from the fruit. 

Horses and cattle are very fond of the leaves and bark, so that young trees must 
be protected from them. When pasture is scarce breadfruit leaves are gathered and 
fed to stock; and the fruit is so abundant that it is fed to cattle, horses, and pigs. 

The breadfruit season begins in June and lasts for about five months. This accounts 
for the fact that Pigafetta and several other early navigators who visited Guam 
during the time of the year when it was out of season fail to mention it among the 
fruits which they obtained from the islanders. Magellan visited the island in March, 
Legaspi in January, and the Nassau fleet also in January. In the narrative of the 
latter expedition the cultivation of rice is mentioned (see quotation under Oryza 
saliva], and a food staple so important as breadfruit would surely have been men- 
tioned had it come within the notice of the Dutch. 

The first to record the breadfruit as a food staple of the Marianne Islands was 
Dampier, who has given the following accurate description of it in his New Voyage 
Round the World: 

The Bread-fruit (as we call it) grows on a large Tree, as big and as high as our 
largest Apple-Trees. It hath a spreading head full of branches, and dark leaves. 
The fruit grows on the boughs like Apples: It is as big as a Penny-loaf, when Wheat 
is at'five shillings the Bushel. It is of a round shape, and hath a thick tough rind. 
When the fruit is ripe, it is yellow and soft; and the taste is sweet and pleasant. 
The Natives of this Island use'it for Bread: they gather it when full grown, while it 
is green and hard; then they bake it in an Oven, which scorcheth the rind and 
makes it black: but they scrape off the outside black crust, and there remains a ten- 
der thin crust, and the inside is soft, tender and white, like the crumb of a Penny 
Loaf. There is neither seed nor stone in the inside, but all is of a pure substance 
like Bread: it must be eaten new, for if it is kept above 24 hours, it becomes dry, 
and eats harsh and choaky; but 'tis very pleasant before it is too stale. This fruit 
lasts in season 8 months in the year; during which time the Natives eat no other 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 191 

sort of food of Bread kind. I did never see of this Fruit any where but here. The 
Natives told us, that there is plenty of this Fruit growing on the rest of the Ladrone 
Islands; and I did never hear of any of it any where else. a 

REFERENCES: 

Artocarpus communis Forst. Char. Gen. 102. 1776. 
Artocarpus incisa L. f. Suppl. 411. 1781. 
Artocarpus incisa. Same as Artocarpus communis. 

Arum, Egyptian (Italy). See Caladium colocasia- in Guam called "suni." 
Arundo bambos. See under Bambos. 
Arundo tecta. Same as Trichoon roxburgh'd. 
Arung-ay (Philippines). See Moringa moringa. 
Aruru (Guam). See Maranla arundinacea. 
Asaua (Samoa). See Gleichenia dichotoma. 

Asclepiadaceae. MILKWEED FAMILY. 

This family is represented- in Guam by Dischidia puberula, a climber peculiar to 
the island, the widely diffused Asclepias curassavica, and the fragrant " mil leguas" 
(Telosma odoralissima] , a garden climber of Chinese origin. 

Asclepias curassavica. CURASAO MILKWEED. 

Family Asclepiadaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Asuncion (Guam); Rosa de Francia (Philippines); Algodoncillo 
(Porto Rico); Wild ipecac (Hawaii) Blood flower (Jamaica); Chocholloxin 
(Maya of Mexico). 

A handsome milkweed, with orange-scarlet flowers, growing erect in solitary, lateral 
umbels. Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, tapering at both ends; stem somewhat 
downy, simple, sometimes a little branched, growing from 30 to 90 cm. high. 

The plant is of American origin, but has found its way to almost all tropical coun- 
tries. It is very common in Guam, growing in open fields which were formerly 
cultivated. Its root possesses emetic properties, and the expressed juice of its leaves 
is used as a remedy for intestinal worms. 
REFERENCES: 

Asclepias curassavica L. Sp. PI. 1: 215. 1753. 
Ash Pumpkin (Ceylon). See Benincasa cerifera. 
Asisio (Philippines). See Physalis angulata and P. minima. 
Asng-od (Guam). See Zinziber zingiber. 
Asn&od halom-tano (Guam) . See Zinziber zerumbet. 
Aspidium. See Ferns. 

Aspidium dissectum and A. parasiticum. Same as Dryopteris dissecta and D. 

parasitica. See Fern*. 
Asplenium. See Ferns. 

Asplenium cultratum Gaud. Same as Asplenium falcatum. See Ferns. 
Asplenium nidus. Same as Neottopteris nidus. See Ferns. 
Asteraceae. ASTER FAMILY. 

Among the representatives of this family are Vernonia villosa and V. cinerea, Ele- 
phantopus scaber and E. spicatus, Adenostemma viscosum, Ageratum conyzoides, Eclipta 
alhn, Stemmodontia canesccns, Slemmodontia biflora, Artemisia vulgaris ("hierba de 
Santa Maria"), Synedrdla nodijiora, Glossogyne tenuifolia, and Chrysanthemum indicum 
("manzanilla"). 



See also Baum, The Breadfruit, reprinted from The Plant World, vols. 6 and 7. 
Washington, 1904. 



192 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Asthma herb. See Euphorbia piluUfera. 

Asuncion (Guam). See Asclepias curassavica. 

Ata (Hindu). See Annona squamosa. 

Atamosco rosea. ZEPHYR LILY. 

Family Amaryllidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nardo (Guam); Fairy lily (United States). 

A bulbous plant of tropical American origin, with solitary 6-parted rose-colored 
flowers. Bulb globose, 7.6 to 10 cm. thick; leaves linear, contemporaneous with the 
flower; perianth regular, about 2.5 cm. long and 4 cm. broad; spathe 2-fid at the 
tip; anthers versatile; ovary stalked, ovules many, superimposed; seeds black, flat; 
stigma 3-fid. 

A beautiful flower, cultivated widely. I found it escaped, growing in the Plaza de 
Magallanes, Agana, and transplanted it to my garden, where it bloomed monthly. 

REFERENCES: 

Atamosco rosea (Lindl.) Greene, Pitt, 3:188. 1897. 
Zephyranthes rosea Lindl. Bot. Reg. 10: t. 821. 1824. 
Atbahakat (Guam). See Ocimurn basilicum and 0. canum. 
Ateate (Samoa). See Stemmodonlia biflora. 
Atgodon (Guam). See Gossypium arboreum and G. barbadense. 
Atgodon de Manila. See Ceiba pentandra. 
Atis (Guam, Philippines). See Annona squamosa. 
Atis-aniti (Guam). See Meibomia gangetica. 
Atole (Guam, Mexico, Cuba). 

A gruel made by boiling pounded maize. In Peru it is called "mazamorra." 
Atoto (Tahiti). See Euphorbia atoto. 
Auricularia auricula-judae. See under Fungi. 
'Aute (Samoa). See Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
'Ava-pui (Samoa). See Zinziber zerumbet. 
Averrhoa caranibola. CARAMHOLA. PLATE xxxvn. 

Family Oxalidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. -^Bilimbines (Guam); Carambola, Balimbing (Philippines); Coro-, 

mandel gooseberry (India); Kumurunga (Bengal). 

A small tree bearing an oval, angular, translucent, edible fruit. Leaves alternate, 
odd-pinnate, with 4 or 5 pairs of leaflets; leaflets alternate, ovate-acuminate, entire, 
stalked; flowers fragrant, small, ribes-like, rose-purple or magenta, growing in 
crowded clusters, which give to the tree a showy appearance when in full bloom; 
racemes growing from the bark of young and old branches (caulifloral), or from the 
axils of the leaves; petals 5; stamens usually 10, only 5 of them with anthers. The 
fruit has a thin, yellow, smooth skin. It is longitudinally ribbed or angled, so that 
a cross section has the shape of a three, four, or five-angled star. It contains a clear 
watery pulp, astringent when green and tasting like sorrel or green gooseberries, but 
pleasantly acid when ripe, or even sweet, with an agreeable fruity flavor, and a strong 
perfume like that of a quince. The leaves and younger branches are irritable, clos- 
ing and drooping somewhat like those of the sensitive mimosas and oxalids when 
the tree is shaken or suddenly shocked. The leaves are affected by light very much 
like those of many acacias, which close and apparently go to sleep when the sun 
disappears and awake when it shines again. The tree is readily propagated from the 
seed. It is long-lived and a constant bearer. In Guam it produces several crops a 
year. It grows near dwellings, on the sites of abandoned ranches, and by roadsides, 
but it is not abundant. The natives make preserves of it, but these are somewhat 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXVII. 




AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA. INFLORESCENCE AND FOLIAGE. NATURAL SlZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 193 

tough. When strained the pulp yields a fine jelly. Foreigners are warned against 
eating the uncooked fruit, the natives declaring that it will cause hiccoughs. Tarts 
made of it have very much the flavor of rhubarb. The natives do not appear to 
value the fruit very highly, but this may be owing to the scarcity of sugar, a large 
proportion of which is necessary for making jelly and preserves, and to the abun- 
dance of other fruits equally good or better. In India the unripe fruit is used in 
dyeing, the acid acting probably as a mordant. The juice removes iron rust from 
linen. The dried fruit is antiscorbutic and, together with the leaves and root, is used 
as a remedy in fevers. 

The tree was introduced into Guam many years ago. Gaudichaud mentions it, 
together with the allied Averrhoa bilimbi L. , a species in which the clustered, caulifloral, 
pendant fruit is smaller and not angled, and the leaves have smaller and more 
numerous leaflets. The latter species is no longer found on the island; it has 
probably died out since Gaudichaud' s visit. 
REFERENCES: 

Averrhoa carambola L. Sp. PI. 1: 428. 1753. 
Awned beard grass. See Andropogon aciculatm. 
Azafran (Spanish) . See Curcuma longa. 
Azucena (Guam). See Polianthes tuberosa. 
Baba (Guam). 

A plant belonging to the Arum family, with heart-shaped leaves 2 to 2.5 meters 
long and reddish stems; probably a species of Alocasia. 
Bacao, Bacauan, or Bakawan (Philippines). See Rhizophora mucronata and Bru- 

guiera gymnorhiza. 

Bacopa monniera. WATER HYSSOP. 

Family Scrophulariaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Graciola (Cuba). 

A small, creeping, glabrous plant with rather thick, entire leaves and a pale biue 
or nearly white flower growing in moist situations. Leaves obovate or oblong, entire 
or crenate, without prominent veins; flowers few, on pedicels usually rather longer 
than the leaves, with 2 small bracteoles under the calyx; calyx divided to the base 
into 5 distinct sepals, the outer one oval, the others ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate; 
corolla-tube scarcely so long as the calyx, the 5 lobes spreading, broad, as long as the 
tube, the 2 upper ones rather smaller and less deeply separated than the others; 
capsule ovid, shorter than the calyx, opening loculicidally in 2 valves, which at 
length separate from the dissepiment and sometimes split into two. 

Common in Guam, especially in the cienaga, near Agana. In India it is used 
medicinally by the Hindoos, who consider it to be aperient and a stimulant for the 
secretion of urine. 
REFERENCES: 

Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettst. in Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 4 3b : 77. 1891. 
Gratiola monnieria L. Cent. PI. 2: n. 120. 1756; Amoen. Acad. 4: 306. 1759. 
Monniera brownei Pers. Syn. 2: 166. 1807. 
Herpestis monnieria H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 366. 1817. 
Badyog (Guam). The seeds of the snuff-box sea-bean. See Lens phaseoloides. 
Bahama grass. See Capriola dactylon. 
Bahay ( Philippines ) . See A denanthera pavonina. 
Bakao, Bakawan, or Bakawan (Philippines). See Rhizophora mucronata and 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza. 

Balangigan (Philippines). See Guettarda speciosa 
977305 13 



194 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Balanophora sp. 

Family Balanophoraceae. 

A low, fleshy, leafless parasitic plant of an orange-scarlet color devoid of chloro- 
phyll growing on the roots of other plants, and shaped when young like an asparagus 
sprout. The whole plant is waxy and translucent. The flowers are unisexual and 
are closely crowded together. The male flowers have a regular perianth, but the 
female flowers have none. The latter consist of a one-celled ovary having a single 
ovule and a long style. It resembles a species growing in the Fiji Islands, but the 
latter is pale yellow instead of reddish-orange. 
Balasbas (Philippines). See GraptopJiyllum pictum. 
Balatong (Philippines). See Phaseolus mungo. 
Balatong aso (Philippines). See Cassia occidentals, 
Baliacag ( Visayan) . See Dioscorea aculeata and D. saliva. 
Balibago (Philippines). See Pariti tiliaceum; in the Guam vernacular called 

"pago." 

Balimbing (Philippines). See Averrhoa carambola. 
Baliskug- (Visayan). See Clerodendron inerme. 
Baliti (Philippines) . See Ficus sp. 
Balloon vine. See Cardiospernum halicacabum. 
Balokbalok (Philippines). See Lobelia koenigii. 
Balogo ( Visayan ) . See Lens phaseoloides. 
Balones (Philippines). See Lens phaseoloides. 
Balonggai (Visayan). See Moringa moringa. 
Balsam, Garden. See Impatiens balsamina. 
Balsam-pear. See Momordica charantia. 
Balsamina (Spanish) . See Momordica charantia. 
Balubad (Philippines). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Balunggai (Philippines). See Moringa moringa. 
Bamboo. See Bambos blumeana and Bambos sp. 

Bambos blumeana. THORNY BAMBOO. 

Family Poaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Piao tituka, Piao lahe (Guam); Canayang tinic (Philippines); 
Cafia espinas, Cafia macho (Spanish). 

A handsome bamboo armed with sharp recurved spines, forming impenetrable 
thickets in moist places, and often attaining the height of 50 feet. Stems growing 
in clumps; hard, smooth, glossy green when growing, walls thick, nodes not promi- 
nent; flowers produced at long intervals, the plants dying after the seeds have 
matured. 

This plant was introduced from the Philippines. It is much stronger and more 
durable than the common spineless piao, and is used by the natives in building 
houses (Plate XX), ranches, and inclosures. Fresh canes stuck in the ground often 
take root. Large canes cut into lengths of 6 to 8 feet with the septa removed are 
used as water vessels (see Plate II; young carabao loaded with bamboo vessels filled 
with water), and single joints are used as flower pots and for collecting the sap of 
the coconut, as described under Cocos nucifera. The stem split into slats about an 
inch wide is used for making platforms in farmhouses, upon which the natives 
sleep, and also for inclosures under these platforms for the protection of 
chickens from rats, cats, and lizards. 
EEFERENCES: 
Sambos blumeana Schult. f. Syst. 7 2 : 1343. 1830, as Bambasa blumeana. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 195 

Bambos sp.? SMOOTH BAMBOO. 

LOCAL NAMES. Piao, Piao palaoan (Guam); Cana hembra (Spanish). 
A large bamboo without spines; stems growing to 4 inches or more in diameter; 
branches numerous. Inferior to the preceding in hardness and durability, and sub- 
ject to the attacks of insects. The canes are used for water vessels, fences, frame 
poles for ranches and houses, and when split into widths of an inch or more they are 
used for floors and sleeping platforms in the poorer kinds of houses and in ranches. 
Troughs for collecting water from roofs and drinking troughs for fowls are made by 
splitting the canes and removing the septa. The identity of this plant has not been 
established. It may possibly be a species of Schizostachyum. Gaudichaud, in the 
report of the botany of the Freycinet expedition mentions Bambos bambos Wight 
(Anmdo bambos L., Bambusa arundinacea Willd. ) as occurring on the island, but this 
is probably a mistake. The vernacular name signifies " female bamboo," to distin- 
guish it from the species armed with spines. The durability of both species is 
increased by soaking the split canes in water for a w r eek or two and then drying 
them thoroughly. They are springy and elastic. Platforms of them with mats 
spread over them make very comfortable beds. 

Bambusa. See Bambos. 

Baiiago (Guam). See Jasminum marianum. 

Banalo (Philippines). See Cordia subcordata. 

Banana. See Musa paradisiaca. 

Bangcdang bondok (Philippines) . See Pandanus dubius. 

Bangil (Visayan). See Sophora tomentosa. 

Bantigui (Philippines). See Pemphis addula. 

Banyan. See Ficus sp. 

Baong (Philippines). See Dioscorea sativa. 

Barbados pride. See Poindana pulcherrima. 

Barringtonia butonica. Same as Barringtonia speciosa. 

Barringtonia racemosa. 

LOCAL NAMES. Langaasag, Langasat, Langat (Guam); Potat (Philippines); 
Putat (Malay); Du'ra (Andamans) ; Samutra-pullum (India). 

A tree having pendant racemes of flowers; petals 4, white or rose-tinted; calyx 2 
or 3-cleft; filaments of the stamens longer than the petals; style long; fruit ovate, 
bluntly 4-angled, smooth, brownish-red; leaves oblong, acuminate, wedge-shaped at 
the base, crenate or obscurely serrate. 

This species is common in Guam near the sea and along the banks of streams. It 
is not utilized by the natives. In India, however, according to Major Drury, the 
seed is used as a fish intoxicant, and the powdered fruit is applied externally in com- 
bination with other remedies for sore throat and cutaneous eruptions. 

From the seed of an allied species of the Malay Peninsula, called " putat gajah " 
by the natives, a starchy food is derived which is eaten by certain tribes. The ker- 
nels of the seeds are grated on a piece of thorny stem of a rattan (Calamus). Water 
is added and a milky juice is squeezed out of the pulp, resembling the milk expressed 
from grated coconut. This milky liquid is allowed to stand in boat-shaped dishes 
made of palm sheaths. A starchy substance is deposited and the water carefully 
drawn off. The deposit is made into cakes, which are roasted and eaten. If eaten 
with out having been washed the gratings cause sickness. The name "putat," applied 

See Ridley, H. N. Barringtonia seed as a Sakai food, Agricultural Bull, of the 
Straits and Federated Malay States, vol. 2, p. 165, 1903, 



196 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

to all species of Barringtonia, is undoubtedly of the same origin as the Guam, Philip- 
pine, and Polynesian names for species of the same genus. 
REFERENCES: 
Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Roxb. Hort. Beng. 52. 1814 (ex Ind. Kew. ) ; Fl. 

Ind. 2: 634.1832. 

Eugenia racemosa L. Sp. PL 1: 471. 1753. 

Barringtonia speciosa. FUTU. PLATE xxxvm. 

Family Lecythidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Puting (Guam); Putat (Malay); Botong (Philippines); Futu 
(Samoa, Tonga); Hutu, Hudu, Fudu (Tahiti); Vutu(Fiji); Utu(Rarotonga); 
Hutum (Amboiifa); Dod-da (Andaman Islands). 

A handsome glabrous tree, with dark, glossy, entire, wedge-shaped, oblong, obtuse, 
coriaceous leaves, and conspicuous flowers having 4 white petals and a dense tuft 
or brush of crimson-tipped stamens; style very long and slender; fruit in the form 
of a 4-sided pyramid, about 3 inches across the middle, consisting when dry of a 
hard, smooth case containing solid fibrous matter and 1 seed. 

This species is widely spread in the Pacific, but does not occur in the Hawaiian 
Islands. It is found in the Malay Archipelago, the Andaman Islands, and Ceylon. 
The fruits are buoyant, and, as the tree grows down to the very edge of the sea, 
they often fall into the water and are carried by currents and cast upon other shores. 
In Samoa I have seen seeds left in depressions on a newly formed reef sending forth 
vigorous sprouts and shoots. The futu and the goat's foot convolvulus were there 
the pioneer settlers on the new territory. 

In Guam this tree is very abundant. In places on the east shore between Pago 
and Talofofo one can scarcely walk without stepping on the fallen fruit or crushing 
the young plants. The natives use the fruit when dry as floats for their nets, and 
the fresh fruit for stupefying fish. The use of the seeds of this plant as a fish 
intoxicant is widely spread in Polynesia and the East Indies. 
REFERENCES: 

Barringtonia speciosa Forst. Char. Gen. 76. L 38. 1776. 
Bartramia. See Mosses. 

Barubatones ( Visayan). See Kyllinga monocephala. 
Baseng (Philippines). See Zinziber zingiber. 
Basengbaseng (Philippines). See Sida rhombifolia. 
Basil. See Ocimum canum and 0. sanctum. 
Basil, sweet. See Ocimum basilicum. 
Basora prieta (Porto Rico ) . See Waltheria americana. 
Basote (Porto Rico). See Chenopodium ambrosioides. 
Bastard currant. See Ehretia microphylla. 
Baston-de-San-Jose (Guam). See Taetsia terminalis. 
Batao (Philippines). See Dolichos lablab. 
Batobatonis (Tagalog). See Euphorbia hirta. 
Batunes (Guam). See Mesosphaerum capitatum. 
Bauhinia sp. 

Family Caesalpiniaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Flor de mariposa (Guam) . 

A shrub or small tree with beautiful, large, variegated, red-and-yellow flowers, 
somewhat like those of Bauhinia variegata. Introduced into Guam and cultivated 
by a few natives in their gardens as an ornamental plant. 

0Seep. 81, 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 




FRUIT OF BARRINGTONIA SPECIOSA, A FISH INTOXICANT. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 197 

A second species growing on the hillside above San Ramon on the left-hand side 
of the road leading to Sinahana is of very recent introduction. It has large ill- 
smelling flowers of pale sulphur-yellow which resemble the figure of Bauhinia blancoi 
in Blanco' s Flora de Filipinas. 

Baumea mariscoides Gaudich. Same as Cladium gaudichaudii. 
Bayabas (Philippines). See Psidium guajava. 
Bayag cambing (Tagalog). See Guilandina crista. 
Bayog or Bayogo (Guam; Philippines). 

The seeds of Lens phaseoloides. 

Bayog cabayo (Philippines). See Dioscorea sativa. 
Bead tree, Syrian. See Melia azedarach. 
Beak rush. See Rynchospora corymbosa. 
Bean family. See Fabaceae. 
Beans: 

Chinese asparagus. See Vigna sinensis. 

Coral. See Adenanthera pavonina. 

Egyptian kidney. See Dolichos lablab. 

Goa. See Botor tetragonoloba. 

Horse. See Canavali ensiforme. 

Horse-eye. See Stizolobium pruriens and S. giganteum. 

Hyacinth. See Dolichos lablab. 

Lima. See Gardens. 

Match-box. See Lens phaseoloides. 

Molucca. See Guilandina crista. 

Ox-eye. See Stizolobium pruriens and S. giganteum. 

Queensland. See Lens phaseoloides. 

Sea. See Stizolobium pruriens, S. giganteum, Lens phaseoloides, and Guilandina 
crista. 

Seaside. See Canavali obtusifolium and Vigna lutea. 

Snuffbox. See Lens phaseoloides. 

Sword. See Canavali ensiforme. 

Turnip. See Cacara erosa. 

Yam. See Cacara erosa. 

Beardgrass, awned. See Andropogon aciculatus. 
Bearwood (Australia). See Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Beet. See Gardens. 

Behuko halom-tano (Guam). See Calamus sp. 
Bejuco (Spanish). 

General name for climbing or twining plant. In the Philippines and in Guam it 
is specially applied to species of climbing palms (Calamus). 
Bejuco cimarron (Spanish). See Calamus sp. 
Bejuco de vaca (Porto Rico). See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Bell pepper. See Capsicum annuum grossum. 
Belvisia spicata. See under Ferns. 
Ben oil. See Moringa moringa. 

Benincasa cerifera. WAX GOURD. 

Family Cucurbitaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Kondot, Condor (Guam); Kondol (Philippines); Calabaza 

blanca (Spanish); Ash pumpkin (Ceylon). 
A gourd with oblong, white, waxy fruit, growing on a vine, like a muskmelon; 



198 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

hairy, with heart-shaped lobed leaves and yellow flowers, the male flowers with 
long stalks, the female almost stalkless. Cultivated in the gardens of Guam for the 
fruit, which is cooked as a vegetable and also as a "dulce." 
REFERENCES: 

Benincasa cerifera Savi, Bibl. Ital. 9: 158. 1818 (ex Ind. Kew.). 
Benne. See Sesamum orienlale. 
Berbena (Guam). See Ifeliotropium indicum. 
Berengena (Spanish). See Solanum melongena. 
Berenghenas (Guam). See Solanum melongena. 
Bergamot. See Citrus aurantium bergamia. 
Bermuda grass. See Capriola dactylon. 
Beta vulgaris (the common beet). See Gardens. 
Betel leaf. See Piper belle. 
Betelnut. See Areca cathecu. 
Betel pepper. See Piper belle. 

Biancaea sappan. SAPPAN. 

LOCAL NAMES. Sibukao, Sibucao (Guam and Philippines); Palo del Brazil 
(Spanish). 

A thorny shrub or small tree with racemes of showy yellow flowers. Leaves 
abruptly bipinnate; pinnae 20 to 24; spines on rachis of leaves at base of pinnae and 
stipulary spines at base of petioles; leaflets 20 to 30, small oblong, very oblique; 
stamens woolly; pods short, broad (7.5 to 10 cm. long by 4 cm. broad), oblique, 
woody, with recurved beak at the upper angle, 3 or 4 seeded. 

This species was introduced into Guam at least a century ago. It grows readily 
on the island, and boundary hedges composed of it have spread into thickets in many 
places. Its heartwood yields a fine red dye, which is extensively used in India, and 
it is exported from Ceylon. The bark and the root are also used for dyeing. The 
wood is an astringent and contains tannic and gallic acids. It is used medicinally in 
India. In Guam the natives make little use of it, as it requires considerable labor to 
separate the heart from the rest of the wood. It could be grown with success on the 
island, as it spreads there of its own accord and requires little or no attention. Owing 
to the ease with which it grows and its thick habit of growth, it is used for defining 
the boundaries of land. The wood takes a fine polish and does not warp nor crack. 

In preparing the wood for dyeing it is cut into chips, which are pounded and boiled 
for several hours in water. It yields a red color, which is intensified by alkalies. 
For dyeing cotton tannin and alum are used as mordants, for wool a mixture of alum 
and cream of tartar. In India it is combined with indigo to produce a purple dye 
and with turmeric and sulphate of iron to produce a rich maroon. A dye is extracted 
from the bark of the trunk and roots by boiling, and the pods are used, like those 
of several other allied species, together with the protosulphate of iron, to make an 
ink or black dye. 
REFERENCES: 

Biancaea sappan (L.) Todaro, Hort. Bot. Pan. 1: 3. 1876. 
Caesalpinia sappan L. Sp. PI. 1 : 381. 1753. 

The type of the Linnsean genus Caesalpinia, to which this species was referred by 
Linnaeus, and by nearly all authors since his time, is C. brasiliensis L. Sp. PL ed. 1. 
1 : 380. 1753, so far as it relates to the species of Plumier, from whom Linnaeus adopted 
the genus with a slight modification in the spelling of the name. It is not, however, 
Caesalpinia brasiliensis L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1: 544. 1762, which is an unarmed tree and 
does not belong to the same genus as Plumier' s species, but under the specific name 
linnaei has in part usually been referred to Peltophorum. Neither should the original 
Caesalpinia brasiliensis, though named C. crista by Linnaeus Sp. PL ed. 2. 1 : 544. 1762, 
be confused with C. crista L. Sp. Pi. ed. 1. 1: 380. 1753, which is Guilandina crista 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XXXIX. 




THE ARNOTTO TREE (BIXA ORELLANAJ. FOLIAGE AND FRUIT. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 199 

(L.) Small. The synonomy of these much-confused species seems to have been first 
made clear by Urban Symb. 2: 269-285. 1900. Caesalpinia brasiliensis, however, does 
not appear to be congeneric with the species known as Caesalpinia sappan, and the 
name published by Todaro for the group 4 o which the latter species does belong is 
accordingly adopted. W. F. W. 
Bidens tenuifolia. See Glossogyne tenuifolia. 
Biga (Philippines). See Alocasia indica and A. macrorrhiza. 
Bikkia mariannensis. See Cormigonus mariannensis. 
Bilang-bilang- (Philippines). See Sesuvium portulacastrum. 
Bilimbines (Guam). See Averrhoa carambola. 
Bird pepper. See Cap&icum frutescens; in Guam called "doni." 
Bird's-nest fern. See Neottopteris nidus under Ferns; in Guam called "galak." 
Bitanhol, Bitaog (Philippines). See Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Bitogo (Philippines). See Cycas circinalis. 

Bixa orellana. ARNOTTO. PLATE xxxix. 

Family Bixaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Achiote, Achuete (Guam, Philippines); Achote (Spanish); 
Achiotl (Mexico); Loa (Samoa). 

A small tree bearing prickly capsules containing seeds surrounded by a red pulp, 
which yields the well-known arnotto of commerce. Leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, 
entire or angular, smooth on both surfaces. 

Arnotto is prepared by macerating the pods in boiling water, removing the seeds, 
and leaving the pulp to settle. The water is then poured off and the residuum, which 
is of a bright yellow or orange color, is used as a dyestuff. In Guam it is sometimes 
put in soup and rice. The Caroline Islanders use it to paint their bodies, together 
with turmeric. It is sometimes used in the same way by the Samoans. 

The chief uses to which arnotto is applied are for dyeing silk and cotton orange- 
yellow, and for coloring cheese and butter. The color imparted to fabrics, however, 
is not lasting. 
REFERENCES: 

Bixa orellana L. Sp. PI. 1: 512. 1753. 
Black fibre palm. See Saguerus pinnatus. 
Black thorn (British West Indies). See Acacia farnesiana. 
Bledos blancos (Spanish). See Amaranthus oleraceus. 
Blind-your-eyes (Australia). See Excoecaria agallocha. 
Blinding tree. See Excoecaria agallocha. 
Blood flower (Jamaica). See Asclepias curassavica. 
Blue pea. See Clitoria ternatea. 

Bocoa edulis. POLYNESIAN CHESTNUT. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. If (N. Guinea); Ivi (Fiji); Ifi (Samoa); I'i (Samoa); Cayam, 

Kayam (Cebu); Mape (Tahiti); Marrap (Ponape); Marefa (Mortlocks). 
A tree bearing an edible kidney-shaped fruit, recently introduced into Guam from 
the Caroline Islands, but not yet bearing. In Polynesia and in some of the Malayan 
Islands its fruit is an important food staple. The tree grows to a great size, often 
towering above the general level of the forest. When young the trunk is nearly cyl- 
indrical. It later becomes fluted, as though surrounded by adherent columns, which 
when older develop into radiating buttresses, like great planks. In Samoa it is one 
of the most striking features of the forest. Leaves oblong, leathery, feather- veined, 
short-petioled, with small stipules; flowers inconspicuous, in loose axillary spikes, 
white or yellowish, very fragrant; calyx tubular or somewhat bell-shaped, irregularly 



200 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

2 or 3-lobed, divisions rounded; petals 5, united at the base together with the sta- 
mens into a tube; ovary nearly sessile; style very short; stigma oblique; pod short- 
stemmed, obovate, curved, hard, drupe-like, one-seeded. 

In Polynesia the seed is eaten cooked when not quite ripe, and tastes much like 

a chestnut. In some islands it is preserved, like the breadfruit, in pits, where it is 

left to ferment. In Samoa it is a staple food for several months of the year. The 

bark of the tree is astringent. The wood is perishable and is of little economic value. 

REFERENCES: 

Bocoa edulis (Forst.) Baill. Adansonia 9: 237. 1868-70. 
Inocarpus edulis Forst. Char. Gen. 66. t. 33. 1776. 
Boehmeria candolleaua Gaudich. Same as Pipturus argenteus. 
Boehmeria paniculata. Same as /Schychowskya ruderalis. 

Boehmeria tenacissima. RHEA. 

Family Urticaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Amahayan, Amahadyan (Guam); Labnis, Arimay, Amiray 

(Philippines); Oramai (Ponape); Lafai (Solomon Islands). 

A shrub or small tree with alternate, broadly ovate, acuminate, 3-nerved leaves, 
green above, white beneath, with dentate margins. Flowers minute, green, monoe- 
cious, in axillary panicles, with numerous sessile flower-heads along the entire length 
of the branches of the inflorescence; male flowers in the axils of the lower leaves; 
perianth 4-partite; stamens 4, opposite the perianth lobes; female flowers in the axils 
of the upper leaves; perianth gamophyllous, tubular, hairy, 4-dentate at the contracted 
mouth; style much exserted, hairy; ovary inclosed completely by the perianth; 
stigma papillose, on one side of the style; achene inclosed in the perianth, the peri- 
carp crustaceous. 

This plant is indigenous to the island. It differs from the allied Boehmeria nivea 
in its more robust habit of growth, in its larger leaves, the lower surface of which is 
white, but not covered with the thick felt-like coating of that species, and in being 
shrubby instead of ^herbaceous. It was collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, who 
described it as having "feuilles tomenteuses et argentees au-dessous, " and growing 
near the seashore; a but he confused its vernacular name, "amahayan" with that of 
an allied plant called " sayiafi," having ovate, cordate, acuminate leaves, the petioles 
and lower surface of veins being covered with reddish pubescence, while the veins 
of the amahayan are smooth. 

This species is figured by Wight. & The form growing in Guam has leaves more 
finely serrate on the margin than in his figure. 

Boehmeria nivea is essentially a plant of temperate climates, and yields the "ramie" 
fiber from which "China grass cloth" is made. The name "rhea" should be con- 
fined to the fiber obtained from the tropical species. In Guam the plant is not 
utilized by the natives for textile purposes, but they use the bark as a remedy in 
certain diseases. An interesting account of the methods of cultivation and of 
extracting the fiber of Boehmeria nivea is given by Charles Richards Dodge in his 
catalogue of the Useful Fibre Plants of the World, c 

To be suitable for fiber purposes the stems should be unbranched. The trees 
or shrubs growing alone branch freely. In cultivation they should be planted close 
together, so as to throw up straight shoots, as in the case of hemp. 
REFERENCES: 

Boehmeria tenacissima Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 500. 1826. 
Urtica tenacissima Roxb. Hort. Beng. 67. 1814 (ex Ind. Kew.); Fl. Ind. 3: 

590. 1832. 
Boehmeria nivea tenacissima (Roxb.) Miq. Fl. Ind. Bot. I 2 : 253. 1859. 

Narrative of Freycinet's Expedition, 1825. 

& Icones, vol. 2, pi. 688, 1842. 

c Report No. 9, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1897. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 201 

Boerhaavia diffusa. GLUEWEED. 

Family Nyctaginaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Dafau, Dafao (Guam); Mata-pavo, Pega-pollo (Spanish). 

A troublesome weed widely spread in the Tropics, diffusely branched, with white 
or reddish minute flowers growing in heads, which are arranged in terminal or 
axillary panicles. Leaves linear, ovate, oblong, or rounded, obtuse or acute, the 
base rounded or cordate; flowers jointed on the pedicel; bracteoles small; perianth 
tubular, limb funnel-shaped, 5-lobed; stamens 1 to 5, exserted; ovary oblique, 
stipitate; stigma peltate; fruit 5-ribbed, viscid, top rounded. 

In some parts of India this plant is used as a pot herb. It is fed to hogs and cattle, 
and is thought to increase the supply of milk. The root is used medicinally, and is 
recommended as a remedy for dropsy and asthma. The very viscid perianth tube 
containing the fruit readily adheres to other objects and detaches itself from the 
plant. Small insects are caught by the secretion, and young chickens and turkeys 
sometimes die in consequence of their eyes becoming sealed up by the sticky fruits. & 
REFERENCES: 

Boerhaavia diffusa L. Sp. PI. 1 : 3. 1753. 
Boerhaavia glutinosa, B. mutabilis, B. procumbens, B. repens. Same as 

Boerhaavia diffusa. 

Bokabok (Philippines). See Lobelia koenigii. 
Bollogo (llocos). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Bolobotones (Philippines). See Kyllinga monocephcda. 
Bolot (Philippines). See Dioscorea fasdculata. 
Bombacaceae. BOMBAX FAMILY. 

The only representative of this family in Guam is the silk cotton tree, Ceiba pen- 
tandra. 

Bombax orientale, B. pentandrum. Same as Ceiba penlandra. 
Bonga (Philippines). See Areca catheea. 
Boraginaceae. BORAGE FAMILY. 

In Guam this family is represented by the kou tree or banalo (Cordia subcordata), 
Tournefortia argentea (called "hunig" by the natives), Ehretia microphylla, ancLtwo 
or three species of Heliotropium. 
Borona (Philippines). See Zea mays. 
Bordt (Philippines). See Dioscorea fasdculata. 
Bosbdron (Philippines). See Lobelia koenigii. 
Botoncillo (Guam). See Kyllinga monocephala. 
Botong (Philippines). See Barringtonia speclosa. 

Botor tetragonoloba. FOUR-WINGED BEAN. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Seguidillas (Guam); Camaluson, Seguidillas, Calamismis, Pal- 
lam, Pallang (Philippines); Goa Bean. 

A twining herbaceous bean bearing edible pods having four longitudinal wings. 
Roots tuberous; leavesS-foliate, stipellate; stipules attached above the base, lanceolate 
each way from the insertion; leaflets large,, broad, ovate, acute, glabrous, the base 
subdeltoid; racemes few-flowered, flowers rather large, lilac; peduncles 7.5 to 15 cm. 
long; pedicels geminate, as long as the calyx; bracteoles ovate, small; calyx 12 mm. 
long, glabrous, teeth shorter than the tube, the two upper connate, the side-teeth 
oblong, the lowest shorter, deltoid; corolla much exserted, the petals equal in length; 

Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vol. 1, p. 485, 1899. 
b Trimen, Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon, vol. 3, p. 390, 1895. 



202 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

keel much incurved, but not beaked; stamens monadelphous, the upper free below; 
style long, much recurved, flattened laterally, densely bearded round the terminal 
stigma; pod 15 to 22.5 cm. long, square, with a distinct longitudinal wing at each 
angle, distinctly partitioned between the roundish seeds; wings thin, rufflelike, 
usually much crisped and toothed. 

The green pods of this plant are eaten in Guam as a vegetable. -They are tender, 
free from stringiness, and of excellent flavor. The tuberous root is edible, but is not 
utilized in Guam. Common in the gardens of the natives, twining along fences. In 
India the pods are used in pickles and the seeds are eaten. 
REFERENCES: 

Botor tetragonoloba (Stickman) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 162. 1891. 
Dolichos tetragonolobus Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad. 4: 132. 1759. 
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus DC. Prod. 2: 403. 1825. 
Bottlegourd. See Lagenaria lagenaria. 
Bowstring hemp. See Cordyline zeylanica. 
Brachytrichia quoyi. See under Algse. 
Brassica juncea. INDIAN MUSTARD. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mostaza (Spanish). 

A yellow-flowered crucifer, cultivated in Guam and also growing wild; with pale- 
green leaves, smooth or slightly pubescent and somewhat glaucous. Lower leaves 
long-petioled, toothed or pinnatifid, upper ones sessile or nearly so, but not clasping 
the stem, lanceolate or linear, commonly entire, much smaller; seed pods with a 
conical awl-like tip, containing no seed. 

This species is a native of Asia, but is now widely diffused. See Mustard under 
Gardens. 

REFERENCES: 

Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 6: 609. 1859. 
Sinapis juncea L. Sp. PI. 2: 668. 1753. 
Brassica napa. Turnips will not grow in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Brassica napa L. Sp. PI. 2: 666. 1753. 
Brassica oleracea. The Cabbage. See Gardens. 
REFERENCES: 

Brassica oleracea L. Sp. PI. 2: 667. 1753. 

Brassicaceae. MUSTARD FAMILY. 

In addition to the preceding species of Brassica, there is a kind of cress, probably 
a species of Cardamine, growing spontaneously in Guam. 
Brea blanca (Guam, Philippines). See Canarium indicum. 
Breadfruit. See Artocarpus communis. 
Breadnut (Burma). 

The fertile variety of the breadfruit, in Guam called "dugdug." See Artocarpus 
communis. 
Bromeliaceae. PINEAPPLE FAMILY. 

The only representative of this family in Guam is the pineapple, Ananas ananas. 
Broomweed ("Escobilla," Spanish). 

A name applied to several species of Sida and Triumfetta. 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza. MANY-PETALED MANGROVE. PLATE XL. 

Family Rhizophoraceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Mangle macho (Guam) ; Bacao, Bacauan bakawan (Philippines); 

Taka-tsuku, Kure-tsuku (Japan). 

A glabrous tree growing to a height of 12 or 15 meters, with short, prop-like sup- 
porting roots growing from the trunk near the base. The leaves are opposite, glossy, 



Corrtr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XL. 




BRUGUIERA GYMNORHIZA, THE MANY-PETALED MANGROVE. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 203 

leathery, oblong and slightly acuminate, with entire margins and stipules which soon 
drop off; flowers axillary, about 1 inch in diameter, peduncles 1-flowered, calyx 
10 to 14-cleft, bell-shaped, without bracts, growing attached to the base of the ovary, 
lobes linear, acuminate, erect, about 18 mm. in length, equaling the tube in fruit; 
petals 10 to 14, oblong, 2-lobed, with 2 to 4 bristles on each lobe and 1 in the notch; 
stamens many, embraced by the petals and springing elastically from them when 
mature; ovary 3 or 4 celled; style filiform; stigma 2 to 4 lobed, minute, fruit top- 
shaped, leathery, crowned with the calyx limb; radicle spindle-shaped, with 
about 6 prominent angles, obtuse at the apex, perforating the apex of the fruit and 
germinating while the fruit still adheres to the tree, then descending from the tree 
into the mud. 

This species is common in Guam, growing in the swamps at the mouths of nearly 
all streams; especially abundant near Atantano and along the southern shores of the 
island. Its heartwood is very heavy, hard, and of a dark-red color. In India it is 
used for posts, piles, planks, and furniture. The sapwood is lighter and softer and 
reddish white. The astringent bark is used in India for tanning and in dyeing black. 
In Japan a reddish brown dye is obtained from it. 

This is the handsomest of all the mangroves and is widely spread on tropical shores 
of the Pacific and Indian oceans. In Japan it grows on the coasts of Satsuma. 
REFERENCES: 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza Lam. Encyc. Tableau 2: 517. t.397. 1793. 
Bruja (Mexico). See Bryophyllum calycinum. 

Bryophyllum pinnatum. WITCH LEAF. LIFEPLANT. 

Family Crassulaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Siempre-viva (Spanish, Guam) ; Prodigiosa, Hoja de bruja (Cuba) ; 
Bruja (Mexico) ; Lifeplant (British W. Indies). 

A singular plant with simple or pinnate fleshy leaves which have the peculiarity 
of producing buds on their margins which send forth roots and sprouts and thus pro- 
duce new plants. Leaflets 3 to 5, ovate, with crenate margins. When the leaf is cut 
off or drops to the ground the buds form in the indentations between the crenations, 
and in a short time new plants appear all around the margin. The flowers are pen- 
dulous, growing in terminal compound panicles; calyx bladder-like when growing, 
at length oblong bell-shaped, 4-cleft; corolla tube somewhat 4-cornered, the lobes of 
its limb ovate or somewhat triangular; at the base of the carpels a number of gland- 
like, compressed scales; carpels on very short stalks. Flowers reddish or purplish 
green, spotted with white. 

The plant is supposed to be a native of the Moluccas, Madagascar, and Mauritius. 
It is now widely spread in the Tropics. In Guam it is common by the roadsides, 
especially along the road leading up the hill from San Antonio east of Agana. 

The leaves, slightly scorched, are used as poultices for wounds and ulcers. They are 
considered to be disinfectant. - 
REFERENCES: 
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) S. Kurtz, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 40 2 : 52. 1871 

(ex Ind. Kew.). 

Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Encyc. 2: 141. 1786. 
Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. Parad. Lond. t.3. 1805. 
Bryopsis plumosa. See under Algx. 
Bua (Pelew Islands). See Areca cathecu. 
Bubui (Tagalog). See Ceiba pentandra. 
Bubui gubat (Tagalog). See Thespesia populnea. 
Buena vista (Guam, Philippines). 

A name sometimes applied to the ornamental, bright-colored Phyllaurea variegata. 
Buenas tardes (Panama). See Mirabills jalapa. 



204 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Bug-os (Philippines). See Acalypha indica. 

Bukike (Guam). See Clitorm tematea; also called the "queen's cloak" (capade la 

reina). 

Bulak (Philippines). Vernacular for all cottons (Gossypium spp. ). 
Bulakan (Philippines). See Thespesia populnea. 
Bullock's heart. See Annona reticulata. 
Bululacao (Philippines). See Argyreia tiliaefolia. 
Bunga (Philippines). See Areca cathecu. 
Buntot capon (Philippines). A fern, Asplenium falcatum. 
Burgrass. See Centotheca lappacea. 

Burweed. See the species of Triumf etta ; also Urena sinuata. 
Butabuta (Philippines). See Excoecaria agallocha. 
Button sedge. See Kyllinga monocephala. 
Buyo (Philippines). See Piper belle. 
Caballero (Guam). See Poinciana pulcherrima. 
Cabbage. See Gardens. 
Cabello del angel (Spanish). 

A name applied in Guam to the cypress vine, Quarnoclit quamoclit. 
Cabinet woods. 

Among the trees furnishing wood suitable for cabinetwork may be mentioned the 
following: Adenanthera pavonina, Artocarpus communis, Barringtonia speciosa, Bru- 
guiera gymnorhiza, Calophyllum inophyllum, Eugenia sp. ("adbang"), Heritiera lit- 
toralis, Intsia bijuga, Melia azedarach, Ochrocarpus obovalis, Ochrosia mariannensis, 
Premna gaudichaudii, Terminalia catappa, Thespesia populnea. 
Cabo negro (Spanish). See Saguerus pinnatus. 
Cacahuate or Cacaguate (Guam). 

Local name for the peanut, Arachis hypogaea. 
Cacao (Spanish). See Theobroma cacao. 

Cacara erosa. YAM-BEAN. TURNIP-BEAN. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Hikamas (Guam); Jicama, Cazotl (Mexico); Kamas, Ticamas, 
Hicamas, Sincamas (Philippines); Jicama dulce (Cuba); Ahipa, Ashipa (South 
America) ; Fan ko (China). 

A climbing herbaceous plant, with trifoliolate leaves and a turnip-like root. Leaf- 
lets large, stipellate, membranous, deltoid-ovate, angular, toothed, pubescent beneath 
or glabrescent; flowers bluish or purplish, in long lax racemes with fascicled pedi- 
cels, the lower nodes often prolonged into short branches; bracts and bracteoles 
bristle-like, caducous; calyx 2-lipped, the upper lip emarginate, the lower deeply 
3-toothed; corolla much exserted, wings semilunate with a long projection at the 
base, the petals subequal; keel obtuse; stamens diadelphous (1 and 9), filaments 
alternately shorter; style with a crenulate nectarial ring around the base, spirally 
incurved at the apex, almost as in thePhaseoli; stigma large, round, oblique; legume 
linear, turgid, compressed, laterally contracted between the seeds, of a dark-brown 
color, sparsely hairy; seeds nearly circular, flat, smooth. 

This plant, which both in Guam and the Philippines bears its Mexican name, was 
probably brought from Mexico. It is now common in the woods, climbing among 
the bushes and trees and twining about everything with which it comes in contact. 
The young root is much like a turnip in shape and consistency, and is easily peeled 
like a turnip. It is usually eaten raw, and may be prepared with oil and vinegar 
in the form of a salad. According to Dr. Edward Palmer it is extensively cultivated 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 205 

in Mexico, where the natives pinch off the blossoms and seed pods, giving as a reason 
that if the seeds are allowed to mature the roots are not good. In Mexico the roots 
are much eaten raw, but are also pickled, boiled in soup, and cooked as a vegetable. 
As they come from the ground they are crisp, sweet, juicy, and of a nutty flavor. 
They are nourishing and at the same time quench the thirst, so that they are much 
liked by travelers. One way of preparing the raw roots is to cut them in thin slices 
and sprinkle sugar over them. They may also be boiled and prepared with batter in 
the form of fritters, and in Mexico they are often minced or grated, and with the 
addition of sugar, milk, and eggs, and a few fig leaves for flavoring, made into 
puddings. 

The identity of the Mexican, Guam, and Philippine plants seems certain. Other 
forms of Cacara, which, like the present species, have been referred by authors to 
C. erosa, differ very much in the shape and size of the root. The Fijian species, iden- 
tified by Seemann as Pachyrhizus trilobus DC., has roots 6 to 8 feet in length and the 
thickness of a man's thigh. Roots of Cacara bought in the Chinese market of San 
Francisco, and referred to C. erosa, were analyzed by Mr. Walter C. Hlasdale and 
were found to contain an abundance of nutritive materials. Besides a large percent- 
age of starch, considerable cane sugar was found, as well as protein. Long-continued 
boiling of these roots failed to render them tender. Their principal use by the Chi- 
nese of San Francisco is for the preparation of starch, which is said to be of a superior 
quality. As far as could be learned, the Chinese obtain their comparatively large 
supply of roots entirely from Canton. & From this description it is evident that the 
roots imported into San Francisco by the Chinese have very different properties from 
the crisp, succulent tubers of Mexico and Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Cacara erosa (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 165. 1891. 

Dolichos erosus L. Sp. PI. 2 : 726. 1753. 

Dolichos bulbosus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1021. 1763. 

Pachyrhizus angulatus Rich. ; DC. Prod. 2 : 402. 1825. 

Pachyrhizus bulbosus Kurz, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 45 2 : 246. 1876. 
Cactus. 

There is no indigenous plant on the island belonging to the cactus family. The 
only introduced species which has established itself is a prickly pear, for which see 
Opuntia sp. 
Cadena de amor (Guam). 

"Chain of love," the name applied to Antigonon leptopus, probably on account of 
the rose-colored heart-shaped flowers. 
Cadillo pata-de-perro (Porto Rico). See Urena sinuata. 
Cadios, Cadius (Philippines). See Cajan cajan. 
Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. Same as Guilandina crista. 
Caesalpinia crista L. Same as Guilandina crista. 
Caesalpinia pulcherrima. See Poniciana pulcherrima. 
Caesalpinia sappan. See Biancaea sappan. 

Caesalpiniaceae. CAESALPINIA FAMILY. 

Representatives of this family growing in Guam are Intsia bijuga, Cassia occidentalis, 
C. sophera, C. tora, Herpetica alata, Guilandina crista, Poinciana pulcherrima, Delonix 
regia, and Biancaea sappan. 
Caf6, Caffi (Guam). See Pandanus fragrans. 

Seemann, Flora Vitiensis, p. 63, 1865. 

6 Blasdale, Some Chinese vegetable food materials, U. S. Dept. Agr., Off. Exp. Sta., 
Bull. No. 68, 1899, 



206 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Caguios (Philippines). See Cajan cajan. 

Cahel (Mexico, Philippines). See Citrus aurantium and C. aurantium sinensis. 
Cahet, Kahet (Guam). See Citrus aurantium sinensis. 
Cahuas (Mexico). See Capsicum annuum. 

Cajan cajan. PIGEON PEA. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Lenteha fransesa (Guam); Cadios, Kad-yos, Cadius, Caguios 

(Philippines); Dhal, Dhol (India); Gandul (Porto Rico). 

An erect shrub with 3-foliolate leaves on slender gray silky branchlets; leaflets 
oblong-lanceolate, entire, subcoriaceous, thinly silky above, densely so beneath; stip- 
ules minute, lanceolate; flowers yellow, or the standard veined with red, growing in 
sparsely flowered racemes, often forming a terminal panicle; pod 5 to 7.5 cm. long, 
finely downy, tipped with the lower half of the style. 

This plant grows spontaneously in the Sudan, and is cultivated in India, Mada- 
gascar, New South Wales, Jamaica, Malabar, Brazil, and other warm countries. 
The seeds are nutritious and are eaten either green or dry, like peas. The plant will 
live several years, and in good soil begins bearing the first year. It was introduced 
into Guam in 1772 by the French ship Castries, whence its local name, which signi- 
fies " French lentil." It is planted at the beginning of the rainy season. 
REFERENCES: 

Cajan cajan (L.) Millsp. Field Col. Mus. Bot. Ser. 2: 53. 1900. 
Cytisus cajan L. Sp. PI. 2: 739. 1753. 
Cajanus indicus Spreng. Syst. 3 : 248. 1826. 
Cajanus indicus Spreng. See Cajan cajan. 

Cajel, Kahel (Philippines) or Kahet (Guam). See Citrus aurantium and C. auran- 
tium sinensis. 

Calabash tree. See Crescentia alata. 
Calabaza amarilla (Spanish). See Cucurbita maxima. 
Calabaza blanca (Spanish). See Benincasa cerifcra. 
Calabaza vinatera (Spanish). See Lagenaria lagenaria. 

Caladium colocasia. TARO. PLATE xxvi. 

Family Araceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Suni, Sune (Guam); Songe ( Madagascar, Reunion); Gabi, Gave, 
Dagmai (Philippines); Talas, Taloes (Sunda) ; Talo, Taro, Kalo (Polynesia); 
Tao (Marquesas); Chaua (Carolines); Yautia (Porto Rico); Quequeste (Mex- 
ico); Oto (Panama) ; Eddo, Tania, Coco (British West Indies) ; Tadala, Gahala 
(Singapore); Kachu (India, Bengal); Culcas, Kolkus, Qolkas (Egypt); Egyp- 
tian Arum (Italy); To-no-imo, Aka-imo, Midsu-imo (Japan). 

A succulent plant with edible, starchy, tuberous rootstock, cultivated in nearly all 
tropical countries of the world. Leaves large, very stoutly peltately petioled, ovate- 
cordate or hastate, with a triangular basal sinus; spathe stoutly peduncled, persistent, 
mouth constricted, limb long, narrow, lanceolate; spadix shorter than the spathe, 
stipitate, terminal appendage variable, cylindric or subulate, or lacking; male and 
female inflorescences distant, male above the female with interposed flat neuters, male 
of densely packed cubical anthers or groups of anthers, with immersed cells opening 
by terminal slits; female of crowded, globose, 1-celled ovaries; stigma pulvinate; 
ovules many, orthotropous; berries obconic or oblong; seeds oblong, furrowed, endo- 
sperm copious, embryo axile. 

Several varieties of taro are cultivated in Guam, some of which were growing on 
the island before its discovery. The petioles are stout, 90 to 120 cm. long, green or 
violet; peduncles solitary or clustered and connate, much shorter than the petioles; 
spathe 20 to 45 cm. long, caudate-acuminate, erect, pale yellow; female inflorescence 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 207 

as long as that of the neutral staminodes, male inflorescence longer. Like the sweet 
potato, ginger, and many other plants propagated by cuttings or suckers for the sake 
of their roots, the taro seldom flowers. 

In one variety growing in wet places many suckers are sent out from the base of 
the stem, and the leaves and petioles are more or less purple; in another variety, 
growing in the cienaga, or swamps, the petioles are green; in a third they are red- 
dish. The favorite variety, planted in newly cleared land and on hillsides, has a 
purplish area at the junction of the petiole with the blade. It is called " suni Visaya." 
The natives recognize at least eight varieties of suni. The large-leafed, coarser, cau- 
lescent plants called "piga" are varieties of Alocasia, a genus which is distinguished 
from Caladium in having the terminal appendage of the spadix marked with reticulate 
furrows, and having few and basal ovules, while those of Caladium are many and 
parietal. 

Suni was one of the principal food staples of the aboriginal inhabitants of Guam. 
Not only are the farinaceous tuberous rootstocks eaten, but also the young, tender 
leaves, which, when cooked, taste somewhat like asparagus. All parts, but especially 
the leaves, are extremely acrid, owing to the presence of sharp needle-like crystals 
of oxalate of calcium, called raphides (see Pis. XI, XII, and XIII), and to destroy 
this quality both leaves and rootstock must be thoroughly cooked. 

When the crop of taro is gathered the tops of the rootstocks are cut off and 
replanted at once. They quickly take root and mature in about a year. Taro is 
cooked in various ways in Guam, but is never made into poi (fermented paste) as in 
Hawaii. Land taro, together with bananas and plantains, is the first thing to be 
planted in newly cleared ground. The climate of Guam seems to be admirably 
suited to its cultivation. Taro is a food staple in all island groups in the Pacific and 
in many other parts of the tropical world. In Samoa many savory dishes are pre- 
pared with both the rootstock and the young leaves of taro combined with the rich, 
creamy juice expressed from grated kernels of ripe coconuts, as well as with other 
ingredients. 

The roots are characterized by a high percentage of carbohydrates, of which starch 
is the most important, and by a low percentage of fat, protein, and crude fiber. 
They have the consistency of a sweet potato, and a microscopical examination shows 
that the starch of which they are principally composed is in the form of very small 
grains. The crude protein of an albuminoid nature is in somewhat greater propor- 
tion than that found in the potato. Though offering no especial advantage over 
other farinaceous roots, taro is a very good substitute for them, and Europeans living 
in the Tropics soon acquire a taste for it, though at first it strikes them as insipid. 
In Hawaii taro prepared in the form of poi is very popular with the white residents. 
Taro is imported into the United States from Canton and the Hawaiian Islands, and 
is sold in large quantities in the Chinese markets of San Francisco. It is successfully 
grown in southern California, but it there requires an abunclant artificial supply of 
water. The Florida Experiment Station has also succeeded in growing it, and reports 
satisfactory results. & In tropical countries where potatoes can not be grown and where 
the cultivation of yams is attended with care and labor, taro in its various forms is a 
great blessing to the inhabitants. It grows almost spontaneously both in swamps 
and on dry land, and it yields an abundance of wholesome, nutritious food, which, 
with the occasional addition of meat, legumes, or other nitrogenous foods to supply 
protein, is quite sufficient to sustain life. 

It is interesting to note that the Guam name of this plant reappears in Madagascar 

For full account see p. 69, above. 

&See Blasdale, Chinese vegetable food materials, Bull. No. 68, U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Off. Exper. Stations, pp. 13 to 15, 1899. Also, Florida Exper. Station Report, 1896, 
p. 9. 



208 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

in the form of "songe," while its Philippine name is applied in Fiji, Samoa, and 
Rarotonga to the allied genus Alocasia. 
REFERENCES: 

Caladium colocasia (L. ). 
Arum colocasia L. Sp. PI. 2: 965. 1753. 

Colocasia antiquorum Schott in Schott & Endl. Meletem. 1 : 18. 1832. 
The genus Caladium established by Ventenat, Description des plantes nouvellesetpeu 
connues, cultivees dans le jardin de J. M. Gels, t. 30. 1800, and Roemer, Archiv fur die 
Botanik, 2:347. 1799-1801, is adopted from the Caladium of Rumph, Herbarium 
Amboinense, 5:313-318. 1747. The only species mentioned in common by the two 
authors is Caladium esculentum, which should therefore be considered as the type of the 
genus; and since this species is congeneric with, or, indeed, is sometimes considered 
merely a variety of Caladium colocasia, Caladium is restored as the correct name of the 
genus. The combination Caladium colocasia, cited in the Index Kewensis as having 
been published in Robert Wight's Icones for a different species, I find not to have 
been published there, and it is therefore a valid name in its present use. 

The name Colocasia, on the other hand, even though Caladium was not to be 
applied to this genus, would be an untenable name, for it was proposed by Necker 
in 1790 for a genus the identity of which does not appear to have been definitely 
established, and again by Link in 1795 for still a different group. Either of these 
proposed uses would invalidate the application of the name as published by Schott 
in 1832. W. F. W. 

Caladium esculentum. See Caladium colocasia. 
Calamasa (Guam). Same as Kalamasa. 
Calambit (Philippines). See Guilandina crista. 
Calamismis (Philippines). See Botor tetragonoloba. 

Calamus sp. RATTAN. 

Family Phoenicaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Behuko halom-tano (Guam); Bejuco cimarron (Spanish). 
An indigenous climbing palm growing in Guam, of little economic value. An 
attempt was made to introduce the chair rattans, but it was unsuccessful. 
Calophyllum inophyllum. PALO MARIA. 

Family Clusiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Daog or Daok (Guam); Dangkalan, Dinkalin, Bitaog, Bitanhol, 
Tamauian (Philippines); Palo Maria, Palo de Santa Maria (Spanish); Tamanu 
(Rarotonga, Tahiti) ; Fetau (Samoa) ; Dilo ( Fiji) ; Kamanu or Kamani (Hawaii); 
Foraha (Madagascar); Domba (Ceylon); Alexandrian Laurel (India). 
A tree usually growing near the shore. Leaves opposite, shining, coriaceous, with 
innumerable parallel veins at right angles to the midrib, oblong or obovate-oblong, 
obtuse or emarginate; flowers polygamous, in axillary or terminal racemes, pure 
white, fragrant; sepals 4; petals 4, rarely 6 to 8, like the inner sepals; stamens numer- 
ous, filaments in 4 bundles; ovary globose, stipitate; style much exceeding the stamens; 
stigma peltate, lobed; fruit 2.5 cm. in diameter, globose, smooth, yellow, pulpy. 

This tree is widely spread throughout Polynesia and occurs on the tropical shores 
of Asia, Africa, and Australia. It is often planted near habitations and is valued for 
its wood, for an aromatic gum which exudes from incisions made in its trunk and 
limbs, and for a medicinal oil obtained from its nuts. Seeds of this species were 
among those collected by Doctor Guppy in the Solomon Islands in the drift of the 
beach, having probably been carried there by ocean currents. 

When the leaves are put in water an oil rises to the surface. This is used in some 
parts of India as a remedy for sore eyes. In southern Polynesia and India the dark 
green fragrant oil expressed from the nuts, called dilo oil or domba oil, is used as a 
lamp oil and is an external remedy for bruises and rheumatic pains. The resi'n 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 209 

yielded by the trunk is one of the tacamahac gums of commerce; it is agreeably aro- 
matic, and is used as a scent by the Tahitians. It is of a yellowish-green color and 
is soluble in alcohol. 

Its wood is hard, strong, and cross-grained, and very hard to split. In Guam it is 
used for the solid wheels of the carts drawn by bullocks and carabao. It is durable 
in water, but is so rigid that it can not be bent. In Samoa it is much used for build- 
ing large canoes. Its strong crooked branches furnish excellent knees for boats, and 
are used also for stem and stern posts. 
REFERENCES: 

Calophyllum inophyllum L. Sp. PI. 1 : 513. 1753. 
Caltrops. See Tribulus cistoides. 
Calysaccion obovale. See Ochrocarpus obovalis. 
Camachile or Kamachiles (Guam). See Pithecolobium dulce. 
Camaluson (Philippines). See Botor tetragonoloba. 
Camantigui (Philippines). See Impatiens balsamina. 
Camatis (Philippines). See Lycopersicon lycopersicum. 
Cambustera (Cuba). See Quamodit quamodit. 
Camomile, false. See Chrysanthemum indicum. 
Camote (Spanish) or Kamute (Guam). See Ipomoea batatas. 
Camoting cahoi (Tagalog). See Manihot manihot. 
Cam.ph.ire. See Lawsonia inermis. 
Cana (Spanish). See Bambos and Trichoon roxburghii. 
Cana espinas, Cana macho. See Bambos blumeana. 
Cana de aziicar. See Saccharum officinarum. 
Cana dulce. See Saccharum officinarum. 
Canafistula (Spanish). See Cassia fistula. 
Cana hembra (Spanish). See Bambos sp. 
Cana-pistola (Philippines). See Cassia fistula. 
Cananga odorata. See Canangium odoratum. 

Canangium odoratum. ILANGILANG. YLANGYLANG. 

Family Anonaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alangilang (Guam, Philippines); Moso / oi (Samoa); Moto-oi 
(Rarotonga). 

A tree bearing a profusion of greenish yellow fragrant flowers, with long, fringe- 
like petals, from which the perfume "ilangilang" is made. Leaves alternate, simple, 
entire, ovate-oblong, finely acuminate, puberulous beneath; sepals 3; petals 6, in 
two series, narrowly linear; stamens many, linear, borne at the base of the ovary, 
the connective produced into a lanceolate, acute process; ovaries many; style oblong; 
ripe carpels about 12, ovoid or obovoid, black, 6 to 12-seeded. 

Bark of tree smooth, ashy; trunk straight normally, but in Guam often twisted 
out of shape by hurricanes. Its wood is soft and white, and not very durable, but 
in Samoa the natives make small canoes of it, and the Malayans hollow out the 
trunks into drums or tomtoms. In Guam straight trunks of sufficient size for canoes 
are never found. 

This tree is found in Java, the Philippines, and in many islands of the Pacific. It is 
widely cultivated in the Tropics. Its introduction into Guam is comparatively recent; 
but the fruit-eating pigeons are spreading it gradually over the island. The natives 
sometimes use its flowers to perfume coconut oil. In Samoa it is very highly 
esteemed. Its fringe-like flowers are there strung into wreaths and garlands by the 
natives, together with the drupes of Pandanus and the scarlet fruit of Capsicum. 
977305 14 



210 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Ilangilang trees may be readily propagated either by cuttings or seeds. These 
should be planted in orchards or groves 8 meters apart. They thrive well on most 
tropical islands and countries with warm, moist climates. About the third year the 
flowers appear. They bloom continuously, so that flowers and fruit may be always 
found on the same tree. 

From the flowers a pleasantly scented volatile oil is derived, known in commerce 
as the oil of ilangilang. In the Philippines and the East Indies this is sometimes 
adulterated with an oil extracted from the flowers of Michelia champaca. Ilangilang 
oil is obtained by steam distillation. In this process steam is generated in a small 
boiler and passed into a closed vessel containing the flowers. The mixed water and 
oil vapor as it leaves this vessel is condensed, and the oil separated from the water 
by decantation. In the Philippines German distillers have obtained it in the ratio 
of about 25 grams from 5 kilograms of flowers (0.5 per cent). It finds a ready 
market in Paris, Nice, and Grasse, and is used also by perfumers in London, Leipzig, 
Berlin, and Frankfort. The best quality of oil is perfectly clear and very fragrant. 
The second quality is yellowish and turbid. A perfume is also derived from the 
blossoms by the method known as enfleurage, as with jasmines and other fragrant 
flowers. By this process the fragrant oil is absorbed by refined fats, butter, or oil 
spread over trays, on the surface of which the flowers are sprinkled. These are 
changed at frequent intervals and the fat " worked " so as to present a fresh surface 
each time to the new flowers laid upon it. Finally it is scraped off the tray, melted, 
strained, and poured into jars in the form of a pomade. When oil is used in this 
process layers of cotton are steeped in it, spread upon trays, and the flowers sprinkled 
over the surface, after which the oil is pressed out. Care should be taken to use 
fresh oil. Coconut oil is liable to become rancid very soon. 

The method used by the natives to extract the perfume is very simple. The 
flowers are put into coconut oil and allowed to remain there for a short time, after 
which they are removed and replaced by fresh ones. The process is hastened by 
heating the oil. To avoid excessive heat the vessel used for the process is partly 
filled with water and the oil poured upon it. This prevents the temperature rising 
above that of boiling water, and the lower specific gravity of the oil keeps it separate 
from the water. The "Macassar oil" of commerce is coconut oil, in which Ilangilang 
blossoms have been digested together with those of Michelia champaca. a 

Ilangilang oil is becoming an important article of export from the Philippines. 

From the commercial monthly summary, published by the Bureau of Insular Affairs 

(May, 1904), it appears that the amount exported is steadily increasing. For the 

eleven months ending May, 1902, its value was $67,178; 1903, $90,289; 1904, $96,472. 

REFERENCES: 

Canangium odoratum (Lam.). 

Uvaria odorata Lam. Encyc. 1 : 595. 1783. 

Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thorn. Fl. Ind. 1: 130. 1855. 

Cananga was proposed for a different genus by Aublet in 1775, and can not there- 
fore be used as a valid name for the above genus. Baillon recognized this fact, and 
proposed Canangium, without, however, giving the species; but since there is no 
other name available it is adopted here. 

Canarium indicum. JAVA ALMOND. 

Family Balsameaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Brea blanca (Guam, Philippines); Pili (Philippines). 

A large tree yielding an aromatic resin known in commerce as Manila elemi. 
Leaves alternate, odd pinnate; leaflets 7 to 9, ovate or oblong elliptical, acuminate, 
glabrous; flowers in terminal puberulous panicles. Drupe ellipsoidal, subtrigonous, 

Spons' Encyclopedia, vol. 2, p. 1422, 1882. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 211 

with a hard, bony stone, which is trigonous or three-lobed, terminating at each end 
in a sharp point. The stone or nut is called "pili," or almond, in the Philippines. 

This tree has been sparingly introduced into Guam. In his Islas Marianas ( Manila, 
1887) Don Francisco Olive y Garcia gives a catalogue of the trees growing on the 
island and mentions a single specimen of brea. This, however, is important, since it 
shows that the climate and soil of Guam are suitable for its propagation. 
REFERENCES: 

Canarium indicum Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad. 4:143. 1759. 
Canarium commune L. Mant. 1 : 127. 1767. 

Canavali ensiforme. SWORD BEAN. SABRE BEAN. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Akankan (Guam); Palang-palang (Philippines); Horsebean 

(Jamaica); Jack bean (Brit. W. Indies). 

A twining creeper; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets cordate-ovate, ovate-oblong, 
or ovate, rather acute; flowers in axillary racemes, the peduncles and racemes each 
7.5 to 15 cm. long; corolla purplish or white, papilionaceous, more than twice as long 
as the calyx; calyx deep, the limb 2-lipped, the upper lip projecting, entire or 
emarginate, the lower shortly 3- toothed; pod 15 to 25 cm. long, linear-oblong, 
flattish, with a distinct rib on each valve near the upper suture, 8 to 12 seeded; 
seeds white, ovoid-oblong, subcompressed. 

Common in thickets and hedges everywhere in the Tropics. In Guam the racemes 
of purple flowers are conspicuous by the roadsides. The vernacular name Akankan 
signifies "molar teeth," from the appearance of the seeds. In some countries it is 
cultivated for the sake of its long esculent pods, the white-flowered and white-seeded 
varieties being considered the best for this purpose. It is a perennial. Though the 
pods are coarse in appearance, when sliced and boiled they are tender and scarcely 
inferior to French beans. The mature beans roasted and ground have been used in 
Texas as a substitute for cpffee. They are indigestible unless deprived of their outer 
skin. Experiments have proved these beans to be unsuitable for stock food. & 
REFERENCES : 

Canavali ensiforme (L.) DC. Prod. 2: 404. 1825, as Canavalia ensiformis. 
Dolichos ensiformis L. Sp. PL 2: 725. 1753. 

Canavali obtusifolium. SEASIDE BEAN. 

LOCAL NAMES. Akankan-tasi (Guam); Palang-palang (Philippines); Mata de 

la Play a (Porto Rico); Mata de Costa (Cuba). 

A glabrous perennial creeper; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets thicker than those 
of the preceding species, obovate, obtuse, or sometimes emarginate; racemes few- 
flowered, usually overtopping the leaves; flowers in axillary racemes, corolla pur- 
plish; pod oblong, few-seeded, 10 to 12.5 cm. long; seeds usually chestnut-colored, 
opaque, ovoid, subcompressed. 

A strand plant widely distributed on tropical shores. In Guam, as in most places, 
it is associated with the goafs-foot convolvulus (Ipomoea pes-caprae). It is useful as 
a binder of loose sand. 
REFERENCES: 

Canavali obtusifolium (Lam.) DC. Prod. 2:404. 1825, as Canavalia ensiformis. 
Dolichos ohtusifolius Lam. Encyc. 2: 295. 1786. 
Canavalia. See Canavali. 
Cancion (Guam). 

A young coconut having a sweetish, edible rind. 
Candlenut. See Aleurites moluccana. 

a Firminger, Man. Gardening for Bengal, ed. 4, p. 156. 

& Lloyd and Moore. Feeding for beef. Mississippi Bull. , No, 39, p. 166, Aug., 1896. 



212 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Canna indica. CANNA. INDIAN SHOT. 

Family Cannaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mango halom-tano (Guam); Fana-manu (Samoa); Aliipoe 
(Hawaii); Cana de cuentas, Coyol (Mexico): Blumenrohr (German); Balisier 
dePInde (French). 

A well-known plant cultivated all over the world for ornamental purposes and 
growing without cultivation in most tropical countries. Stem erect, about 90 to 120 
cm. high; leaves large, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, clasping the stem; flowers red; 
sepals 3, imbricate; petals 3, narrow, subequal, with recurved tips; staminodes 3, 
longer than the petals; ovary 3-celled, the cells with many ovules; style linear, flat, 
growing together below with the staminodial whorl, free above; stigma apical, often 
decurrent on one side; capsule warty; seeds round, black, very hard. 

In India the seed are sometimes used for shot and are made into necklaces and 
other ornaments: They yield a purple dye, but it is not permanent. An allied 
species, Canna edulis, is cultivated in the West Indies for the sake of the starch 
derived from its fleshy rhizomes. In Colombia starch is obtained from Canna indica, 
but it is not so good as that of Canna edulis. 
REFERENCES: 

Canna indica, L. Sp. PI. 1 : 1. 1753. 

Cannon-ball tree. See Xylocarpus granatum. 
Capa de la reina (Guam). 

The blue pea or "queen's cloak." See Clitoria ternatea. 
Capayo (Philippines). See Carica papaya. 
Caper. See Capparis mariana. 
Capili (Philippines). See Aleurites moluccana. 
Capoc (Philippines). See Ceiba pentandra; the silk-cotton tree. 
Capparidaceae. CAPER FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by Cleome viscosa and Capparis mariana. 

Capparis mariana. MARIANNE CAPER. 

Family Capparidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alcaparro (Spanish, Guam); Alcaparro de Marianas (Philip- 
pines). 

A shrub growing near the sea, with large, white, fragrant flowers, and large edible 
seed capsules. Trunk and limbs rough, covered with small protuberances, but not 
thorny; leaves alternate, subreniform, obtuse, emarginate, smooth, soft, and rather 
fleshy; petioles short; flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, long-pedicelled ; sta- 
mens numerous; fruit elongate, 6-ribbed; seeds many, embedded in pulp. 

This plant is abundant on the island. The natives make very good pickles of the 
unripe capsules. It has been introduced into the Philippines, where it is known as 
the "caper of the Marianne Islands." The flowers are sometimes pink. It appears 
from the archives at Agana that some of the early governors of Guam exported the 
fruit in considerable quantities, employing the natives to gather it. 
REFERENCES: 

Capparis mariana Jacq. Ilort. Schoenbr. 1 : 57. t. 109. 1797. 
Capparis spinosa mariana K. Schu. Engler's Jahrb. 9: 201. 1887. 

Capriola dactylon. BERMUDA GRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Grama (Guam, Cuba); Manienie (Hawaii); Mati (Rarotonga); 

Doorba-grass, Doob-grass (Bengal); Bahama grass (West Indies). 
A grass with prostrate stems, widely creeping and forming matted tufts with short 
ascending branches. Leaves short, subulate, glaucous; ligule hairy; spikelets minute, 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 213 

/ 

.1-flowered, 1 or 2-seriate, in 3 to 6 digitate slender unilateral spikes, not jointed at the 
base; grain laterally compressed. 

This plant is distributed throughout all warm countries. In India it is an impor- 
tant forage plant and is much used for lawns. On account of its usefulness and beauty 
the Hindoos have celebrated it in their writings, and the native Hawaiians hold it 
in great esteem. It thrives where scarcely any other grass will grow, even in poor 
soil shaded by trees. It is useful in binding down the sand near the sea, and on the 
low sandy soil of Agana, the capital of Guam, it forms beautiful soft turf. When 
once established in cultivated fields it is hard to eradicate. In India the young 
leaves are eaten by the natives and a cooling drink is made of the roots. 

It is readily propagated by cuttings. When required for lawns a sufficient quantity 
can easily be collected from the roadside and waste places. The ground is dug and 
leveled and the rootstocks cut into small pieces set out at intervals of about 30 centi- 
meters. The plat should be watered until the grass has established itself. 

"A more expeditious and very successful plan of laying down a lawn is to pull up 
a quantity of grass by the roots, chop it tolerably line, mix it well in a compost of 
mud of about the consistency of mortar, and spread it out thinly over the piece of 
ground where the lawn is required. In a few days the grass will spring up with 
great regularity over the plat." In establishing a pasture the grass should be 
planted at intervals of 50 centimeters in rows one meter apart. 
REFERENCES: 

Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 764. 1891. 
Panicum dactylon L. Sp. PI. 1 : 58. 1753. 
Cynodon dactylon Pers. Syn. 1:85. 1805. 

Capsicum annuum. RED PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

Family Solanaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Chile (Philippines); Cahvias, Chile (Mexico); 

Aji (Spanish America). 

A plant of tropical American origin, but escaped from cultivation in many tropical 
countries of the Old World, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem 
branching, glabrous or nearly so; leaves ovate or subelliptical, entire, acuminate; 
flowers white or greenish white, solitary, or sometimes in twos or threes; corolla 
rotate, usually 5-lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers dehiscing 
longitudinally; ovary originally 2 or 3-celled; fruit a juiceless berry or pod, extremely 
variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the 
seeds and pericarp. Many varieties occur in cultivation. & Among the forms usually 
assigned to this species are Capsicum annuum grossum, the bell pepper, and Capsicum 
annuum cerasiforme, the cherry pepper. c 
REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum L. Sp. PI. 1: 188. 1753. 

Capsicum annuum cerasiforme. CHERRY PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

A low, shrubby plant; leaves of medium size, ovate or oblong, acuminate; calyx 
seated on base of fruit; corolla large, spreading; fruit spherical, somewhat heart- 
shaped, or slightly elongated; flesh firm, very pungent. Of recent introduction on 
the island. 

REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum cerasiforme (Mill.) H. C. Irish, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: 92. 

1898. 
Capsicum cerasiforme Mill. Gard. Diet. no. 5. 1768. 

Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1896, p. 30. 

&See Irish, Rev. genus Capsicum, Ninth Ann. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard., p. 53, 1898. 
^See Tracy, W. W., Jr. A list of American varieties of peppers, U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Bureau PL Industry, Bull. No. 6, 1902. 



214 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Capsicum annuum grossum. BELL PEPPER. 

LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Chile ancho (Mexico); Chile de Castilla (Philip- 
pines). 

This plant has long been cultivated in Guam. Its flesh is not pungent, and the 
natives frequently prepare it for the table by. stuffing it with minced meat and then 
cooking it. It grows here almost like a shrub to the height of 90 cm., and bears 
prolifically. Fruit oblong or truncate, about 10 cm. long by 4 cm. in diameter, often 
lobed and usually with a basal depression. Cultivated in every garden on the island. 
REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum grossum (L. ) Sendt. Mart. Fl. Bras. 10: 147. 1846. 
Capsicum grossum L. Mant. 1:47. 1767. 
Capsicum baccatum. Same as Capsicum frutescens baccatum; see under Capsicum 

frutescens. 
Capsicum frutescens. SPUR PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Aji (Spanish). 

A shrubby perennial, 90 to 180 cm. high, with prominently angled or somewhat 
channeled stem and branches; leaves broadly ovate, acuminate; peduncles slender, 
often in pairs, usually longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, embracing the base of 
the fruit; fruit red, obtuse or oblong-acuminate, very acrid. It is possible that the 
original form from which this plant has developed through cultivation is that known 
as Capsicum minimum Roxb., to which, according to Engler, the allied varieties revert 
when left to themselves. The bird pepper (Capsicum frutescens baccatum} has round 
or ovate fruit about 6 mm. in diameter. In the Philippines it is called " ch'ileng 
bundok." 

REFERENCES: 

Capsicum frutescens L. Sp. PI. 1: 189. 1753. 
Capsicum grossum. Same as Capsicum annuum grossum. 
Capulao (Philippines). See Herpeiica alata. 
Carambola. See Averrhoa carambola. 
Carapa moluccensis. Same as Xylocarpus granatum. 

Cardiospermum halicacabum. BALLOON VINE. 

Family Sapindaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Farolitos, Bombillas (Spanish). 

A climbing herb, with wiry stem and branches, and alternate biternate leaves; leaf- 
lets coarsely dentate; flowers irregular, polygamo-dioecious, in axillary racemes, 
white, very small; lowest pair of pedicels developed into spiral tendrils; sepals 4, 
concave, the two outer ones small; petals 4, in pairs, the 2 greater lateral ones usually 
adhering to the sepals; stamens 8, excentric; ovary 3-celled; style short, trifid; 
ovules solitary; fruit an inflated, broadly pear-shaped capsule. 

This plant is widely distributed throughout the Tropics. Its root given in decoc- 
tion is said to be aperient. On the Malabar coast the leaves are administered in 
pulmonary complaints. In the Moluccas the leaves are cooked as a vegetable. 
It was collected by Gaudichaud on the island of Rota. 
REFERENCES: 

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Sp. PI. 1: 366. 1753. 
Carex densinora. SEDGE. 

Family Cyperaceae. 

A sedge with numerous dense, lanceolate spikelets, arranged in a branching, 
bracted spike; spikelets androgynous, staminate above, pistillate below; scales tipped 
with a bristle, the female nearly round, the male ovate-lanceolate, bristles rough; 
ovary inclosed in an oblong, compressed, striate perigynium, contracted at the top, 
with a small bidentate opening through which protrudes the 2-cleft style; perigyn- 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 215 

ium rough-edged, longer than the scaly bract; culm (stem) 3-sided, the sides chan- 
neled (triquetrous), smooth, shorter than the rough-edged broad leaves. 

This species was described by Presl from specimens collected by Haenke in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Carex densiflora Presl, Rel. Haenk. 3: 204. 1828. 

Carex fuirenoides. SEDGE. 

A sedge with androgynous spikelets; male flowers with 3 stamens, female flow- 
ers with 3 styles; panicles spike-like, axillary and terminal, solitary, with long 
peduncles, clusters numerous; spikelets oblong-cylindrical, pistillate below, stami- 
nate above; scales many-nerved, male ovate-oblong, mucronate-subaristate, dark- 
hyaline, female scales ovate-subrotund, with rounded apex, aristulate, veined, 
.smooth, dark-hyaline; perigynia obovate-oblong, with attenuated beaks, slightly 
curved, ribbed, dark-brown, smooth, twice the length of the scale; beak rough on 
the upper margin, bidentate at the orifice. Immature achene obovate-oblong, tri- 
gonal, terminated by the persistent thickish base of the style. 

This species was described by Gaudichaud from specimens collected in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Carex fuirenoides Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 412. 1826. 

Carica papaya. PAPAW. 

Family Caricaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Papaya (Spanish); Lechoso (Mexico); Papai, Maneo, Mamerio 
(Brazil); Mamon (Paraguay); Papaya, Kapayo, Capayo (Philippines); Esi 
tane (male), Esi fafine (female) (Samoa). 

A tree suggesting a palm in its habit of growth, bearing a crown of large palmately- 
lobed, long-stalked leaves on a slender, straight, fleshy trunk, which is normally 
un branched. It is usually dioecious, the staminate (male) and the pistillate (female) 
flowers being borne on separate trees, the former funnel-shaped having 10 anthers 
inserted on the throat of the corolla; the latter larger, 5-petaled, with one pistil 
bearing a 5-rayed stigma. Occasionally trees are found with hermaphrodite flow- 
ers. All parts of the plant abound in milky juice, or latex, which has remarkable 
pepsin-like digestive properties. The melon-shaped fruit grows from the axils 
of the lower leaves, the normal fruit from the female flowers being sessile, while 
that from the hermaphrodite flowers is borne on long pedicels. The milky juice 
from the unripe fruit when rubbed on meat has the property of making it tender. 
By experiment it has been found that this juice is more efficacious than pepsin in 
dissolving albumen and muscular fibre. From the half-ripe fruits a proteolytic 
ferment has been derived which differs from pepsin in that its action on proteids 
goes on in neutral or alkaline solutions as well as in acid solutions. 

From the seeds of the papaw a glucoside called caricin has been obtained; from 
the leaves an alkaloid called carpaine, the physiological action of which is similar 
to that of digitalis, a heart depressant. In commerce there are a number of prepara- 
tions claiming to be the ferment of the papaw, sold under the name of papain, 
papayotin, caroid, papoid, etc. On examination of several of these substances they 
were found by Mr. F. B. Kilmer to be merely the dried and powdered latex of the 
papaw, bearing the same relation to the true separated ferment as the dried mucous 
membrane of the stomach might bear to purified pepsin. A series of experiments 
was carried on by Mr. Kilmer demonstrating beyond a doubt the digestive properties 
of the true papaw ferments. 

Papaws are very easily grown. They spring up spontaneously in open places and 
clearings in the forest, especially where the undergrowth has been burned, from seeds 
dropped by birds. The tree grows rapidly, the leaves falling off as the trunk shoots 



See Kilmer, The Story of the Papaw, American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 73, pp. 
272, 336, and 383, 1901. 



216 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

upward leaving the trunk marked regularly with scars. The leaf-Htems are hol- 
low, and in Guam are often used as trumpets by the natives, some of whom are 
skillful in sounding military bugle calls upon them. The root is turnip-shaped, the 
lower part extending deep into the earth seeking moisture and giving stability to 
the tree. The wood is soft, white, and, spongy, and decays rapidly. It is useless. 
The trunk of a tree can be cut through by a single stroke of a machete. Before 
ripening the fruits are green. On reaching maturity they become yellow and squash- 
like. They may be eaten either with salt or sugar. To a novice they are inferior 
in flavor to a musk melon. They vary in size and shape. Those growing in Guam 
are small and inferior to the varieties cultivated in countries where they are used as 
a food-staple. They contain a great number of dark-brown seeds, w r hich turn black 
in drying and have a mustard-like pungent flavor. The fruit developes so rapidly 
that buds of flowers and ripe fruits are often seen on a tree at the same time. 

The papaw is a native of tropical America, but it has become established through- 
out the entire tropical world. In Guam it appears spontaneously in waste places. 
Little attention is given to it by the natives. Though they eat it if other kinds of 
fruit be scarce, they do not appear to esteem it as an article of food. 
REFERENCES: 

Carica papaya L. Sp. PI. 2: 1036. 1753. 

Caricature plant. See Graptophyllum pictum. 

Carinta herbacea. GROUNDBERRY. 

Family Rubiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Bejuco guara (Cuba); Naunau, Matamata-Aitu (Samoa); Kapu- 

kapu (Rarotonga); Karinta kali (Malay Archipelago). 

A small, slender, creeping, perennial herb, bearing red, fleshy berries, somewhat 
like those of the partridge berry (Mitchella repens). Leaves long-petioled, more or 
less pubescent, orbicular, deeply cordate, stipules interpetiolar, ovate, obtuse; 
flowers small, white, growing in 1 to 6-flowered peduncled umbels; bracts linear, 
lanceolate; calyx tube obovoid, segments 5 to 7, slender, herbaceous, persistent; 
corolla salver-shaped, glabrous, throat hairy, lobes 4 to 7, valvate in bud; stamens 
4 to 7, inserted on the corolla tube, included; stigma 2-fid; ovary 2-celled, the cells 
1-ovuled; ovules erect; berry a fleshy drupe, with 2 plano-convex pyrenes; seeds 
plano-convex, not grooved ventrally. 

This plant is widely distributed in the Tropics. It is common in the woods of 
Samoa, Fiji, and other islands of the Pacific, in the Andaman Islands, Malay Archi- 
pelago, Ceylon, South China, and in tropical America. It is said to possess medicinal 
properties similar to those of the allied Evea ipecacuanha a of New Granada and 
Brazil, but of inferior quality. b 
REFERENCES: 

Carinta herbacea (Jacq.). 

Psychotria herbacea Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. 
Geophila reniformis Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 136. 1825. 

Geophila was first proposed in 1803 for a genus of Liliaceae and is therefore not 
available for the rubiaceous genus so named by Don. Carinta is an adaptation of 
the Malayan name of this plant, Karinta kali. 

Carmona heterophylla Cav. Same as Ehretia microphylla. 
Carrizo (Spanish). See Trichoon roxburghii. 

<*> Evea ipecacuanha (Brot. ) Callicocca ipecacuanha Brot. Trans. Linn. Soc. 6: 137. 
t. 11. 1802. Uragoga ipecacuanha (Brot.) Baill. Hist. PI. 7: 281. 1880. 

*> Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vol. 3, p. 488, 1890. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 217 

Caryophyllus malaccensis. MALAY APPLE. 

Family Myrtaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Macupa, Makupa (Philippines and Guam); Kavika (Fiji); 
Nomi-fi'afi'a (Samoa); Ahia (Tahiti); Ohia (Hawaii). 

A tree of medium size, bearing a profusion of white, purple, or red flowers, with 
tufts of stamens of the same color as the corolla. These are followed by an abun- 
dance of fruit having a fragrant, apple-like odor and a delicate flavor. Leaves large, 
glossy, ovate, elliptic or obovate-oblong, attenuate at each end; inflorescence cen- 
tripetal with solitary axillary flowers, or in short racemes (leafless branches), or 
centrifugal in dense terminal cymes; calyx globose or more or less elongate, pro- 
duced beyond the ovary, with 4 or rarely 5 rounded lobes; petals 4, rarely 5; stamens 
many; ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-celled, with several ovules in each cell; style filiform, 
stigma small; fruit nearly round, crowned by the scar of the calyx lobes; seed usu- 
ally 1. 

This tree occurs on nearly all the larger islands of the tropical Pacific and in the 
Malay Archipelago. It has been introduced into Guam comparatively recently and 
is by no means common. In Hawaii, Samoa, and Fiji it is very highly esteemed by 
the natives, more for its beauty than for its fruit. The ancient Hawaiians made their 
idols of its wood, and the tree figures in the myths of the Fijians. The etymological 
identity of the Fijian, Samoan, Tahitian, and Hawaiian names of this tree is interest- 
ing, indicating, as it does, an acquaintance with it before the separation of the various 
divisions of the Polynesians or its introduction from one group of islands to the 
others, together with its name. 
REFERENCES: 

Caryophyllus malaccensis (L. ). 

Eugenia malaccensis L. Sp. PI. 1 : 470. 1753. 

Jambosa malaccensis DC. Prod. 3 : 286. 1 828. 

The genus Uaryophyllus was published by Linnaeus in 1753 with a single species, 
C. aromaticus, which has since been referred to Jambos Adanson, or Jambosa, as 
written by many authors. Adanson' s name, however, is of later date, and must 
therefore be displaced by the Linnsean name of the genus. 
Casay (Philippines). See Adenanthera pavonina. 
Cascabeles (Spanish). See Crotalaria quinquefolia. 
Cashew. See Anacardium occidentale. 
Casoy (Philippines). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Cassava. See Manihot manihot. 
Cassia alata. Same as Herpetica alata. 
Cassia angustissima Lam. Same as Cassia mimosoides. 
Cassia esculenta Roxb. Same as Cassia sophera. 

Cassia fistula. PUDDING-PIPE TREE. 

Family Caesalpiniaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Canafistula (Guam, Philippines, Mexico) ; Canapistola (Philip- 
pines); Golden shower (Hawaii). 

A tree with smooth, ashy-gray bark, bearing long, pendent, lax racemes of golden- 
yellow flowers, followed by very long, woody, cylindrical pods. Leaves large, even- 
pinnate, the leaflets in 4 to 8 pairs, ovate-acuminate, 5 to 15 cm. long; calyx tube 
very short; sepals 5, obtuse; petals 5, veined, imbricated, obovate, shortly clawed, 
nearly equal; stamens 10; pod black or dark brown, 30 to 60 cm. long, containing 
one-seeded compartments, marked with three longitudinal shining furrows, two of 
them close together and the third opposite them, marking the sutures; seed reddish 
brown, glossy, flattish, ovate, embedded in a blackish-brown sweet pulp; odor 



218 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

resembling that of prunes. When the wind blows the pendulous pods strike 
together and make a rattling noise. 

This tree is said to be a native of upper Egypt and India, whence it has been 
introduced into nearly all tropical countries. It has been growing in Guam at least 
a century, but, like the tamarind, does not reproduce itself here spontaneously. 
The wood is hard and heavy, but the natives do not utilize it. It is found growing 
in many places on the sites of abandoned ranches. In Honolulu it is one of the 
principal shade trees and is highly prized for the beauty of its flowers. 

The pulp is a valuable laxative, and is much used in medicine. It is apt to 
become sour if long exposed to the air, or moldy if kept in a damp place. It is 
extracted from the pods by bruising them and then boiling them in water, after 
which the decoction is evaporated. It may be obtained from fresh pods by opening 
them at the sutures and removing the pulp with a spatula. The pulp has a sweet, 
mucilaginous taste. It contains sugar, gum, a substance analogous to tannin, a color- 
ing matter soluble in ether, traces of a principle resembling gluten, and a little water. 
It may be advantageously given in small doses in cases of habitual costiveness 
(4 to 8 gm.-), and in doses of one or two ounces (30 to 60 gm. ) it acts as a purgative." 
REFERENCES: 

Casxia fistula L. Sp. PL 1 : 377. 1753. 

Cassia mimosoides. TEA SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. K6bo-cha, Nemu-cha, Ichinen-cha (Japan). 

A low diffuse perennial, with slender, shrubby, finely downy branches. Leaves 
resembling those of the sensitive plant, 2.5 to 7.5 cm. long, with a solitary sessile 
gland on the rachis below the leaflets; leaflets 60 to 100, linear, rigidly coriaceous, 
3 to 3.5 mm. long, obliquely mucronate, with the midrib close to the upper 
border; stipules large, linear-subulate, persistent; flowers yellow, 1 or 2 in the axils 
of the leaves on short pedicels; sepals lanceolate-acuminate, bristly; corolla little 
exserted; stamens 10, alternately longer and shorter; pod strap-shaped, flat, dehis- 
cent, 3.5 to 5 cm. long by 3.5 mm. broad, nearly straight, glabrescent or finely downy; 
septa more or less oblique. 

In Japan, where it grows both wild and in cultivation, the young stem and leaves 
are cut and dried as a substitute for tea. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia mimosoides L. Sp. PL 1 : 379. 1753. 

Cassia occidentalis. COFFEE SENNA. NEGRO COFFEE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mumutun sable (Guam); Balatong aso (Philippines); Frijo- 
lillo (Panama); Hierba hedionda (Cuba); Hedionda (Porto Rico); Bantamare 
(Senegal); Herbe puante (French). 

A glabrous, ill-smelling weed, 60 to 90 cm. high, with abruptly pinnate leaves, hav- 
ing a single large ovate gland just above the base of the petiole. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, 
without glands between them, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, rounded at the base, 
acute, 2.5 to 7.5 cm. long, glabrous on both sides, or finely pubescent; flowers yellow, 
pedicelled; racemes short, closely crowded, axillary; stamens 10, the upper 3 imper- 
fect; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse, glabrous; pod x linear, glabrous, 10 to 12.5 cm. long 
by 2.5 to 7.5 cm. broad, somewhat curved, its margins thickened. 

This plant is of wide distribution in the Tropics, and in the warmer temperate 
regions of the globe. It was introduced into Guam more than a century ago, and is 
common in abandoned clearings, in waste places, and along the beach. 

The seeds, sometimes called " negro coffee," are used in some parts of the world as 
a substitute for coffee and are said to be a febrifuge. In Senegambia an infusion of 
the roasted seeds having an agreeable flavor not unlike coffee is used by the natives. 
This plant has been used as a remedy for stomach troubles, nervous asthma, and 



United States Dispensatory, p. 341, 1899. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 219 

typhoid fever. The root is especially active, and the leaves are used medicinally 
in many countries, especially in Dahomey, Africa, where they are one of the 
most important drugs used in the hospitals in the treatment of certain fevers. a They 
are purgative and antiherpetic. Large quantities are received annually at Bordeaux 
and Marseille. In 1897 nearly 100 tons of the seed was imported into Europe. In 
1898 the value of the export from Senegal amounted to 1,000 francs. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia occidentalis L. Sp. PI. 1: 377. 1753. 

Cassia sensitiva Roxb. Same as Cassia mimosoides. 

Cassia sophera. EDIBLE SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. Amot-tumaga, Amot-tomaga (Guam). 

A plant resembling Cassia occidentalis, but of a more shrubby habit, and with more 
numerous, smaller, narrower leaflets and shorter, broader, more turgid pods. Leaf 
with a single large gland placed just above the base of the petiole; leaflets 6 to 12 pairs, 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, without glands between them; flowers yellow, 
racemes terminal or axillary, few-flowered; stamens 10, the upper 3 imperfect; pods 
glabrous, many-seeded, linear, turgid; suture keeled; seeds horizontal, with cellular 
partitions. 

The leaves are variable in shape and size. A common variety in Guam has the 
leaves smaller and more obtuse than the typical form. The single gland on the 
petiole and the size and shape of the leaves will serve to distinguish this species 
from the others on the island. 

Widely spread in the Tropics. In India the leaves are eaten by natives in their 
curries. An infusion of the bark has been given as a remedy for diabetes; and the 
bruised leaves and bark of the root, powdered and mixed with honey, are applied 
externally in ringworm and ulcers. As in the case of C. occidentalin, the smell of 
the plant is disagreeable. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia sophera L. Sp. PI. 1: 379. 1753. 

Cassia tora. Low SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mumutun adamelon, Mumutun palaoan (Guam). 

An annual glabrous undershrub, with even pinnate leaves. Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, a 
gland on the rachis between the lowest pair, and sometimes between the next pair, 
but never between the uppermost; stipules linear-subulate, at length deciduous; leaf- 
lets thin, obovate, obtuse; flowers yellow, small, in pairs or in short axillary few- 
flowered racemes; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse; stamens 10, the anthers of the upper 
3 imperfect; pod linear, very slender, strongly curved, 15 to 2.5 cm. long by 6 
mm. wide, membranous, the sutures very broad, the seeds flattened in the same 
direction as the pod. 

Of world-wide distribution in the Tropics. In Guam it has been a common weed 
for more than a century. The leaves are mucilaginous and ill smelling. They are 
said to be aperient. In India they are fried in castor oil and applied to ulcers. 
The root, rubbed with lime juice, is a remedy for ringworm. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia tora L. Sp. PI. 1 : 376. 1753. 

Cassytha filiformis. WIRE VINE. DODDER LAUREL. 

Family Lauraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mayagas (Guam); Devil's' guts (Australia). 

A leafless, wiry, twining parasitic plant with the habit of Cuscuta, very common 
in thickets, adhering to branches of other plants by means of small protuberances or 

aWildeman, Les Plantes Tropicales de Grande Culture, p. 72-73 (Brussels, 1902). 



220 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

suckers. Flowers small, white, remote, in small spikes; perianth with 3 inner equal 
obovate lobes and 3 outer minute ones; fertile stamens 9, the 3 inner ones with 2 
glands at the base, the filaments of the 3 outer ones petal-like, of the 6 others filiform; 
fruit round, one-seeded, inclosed by the perianth and crowned by its lobes; ovary 
free, style short, stigma depressed. 

REFERENCES: 

Cassytha filiformis L. Sp. Pi". 1: 35. 1753. 
Casta (Philippines). See Jatropha curcas. 
Castor-bean. See Ricinus communis. 
Casuarina equisetifolia. POLYNESIAN IRON WOOD. PLATE XLI. 

Family Casuarinaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gago (Guam); Agoho (Philippines); Toa (Samoa, Rarotonga); 

Aito (Tahiti); Swamp oak, She-oak, Beef-wood (Australia). 

A leafless tree with drooping branches, somewhat like a pine in general appear- 
ance. Branches 6 to 8-angled or terete, jointed like the stems of an Equisetum, with 
6 to 8 sheath teeth at the joints. The genus to which the plant belongs, though 
formerly classed with the conifers, is now recognized as the only known genus of a 
distinct family. The flowers are unisexual, the staminate in cylindrical terminal 
spikes and the pistillate in dense heads borne in the axils and ripening into a cone, 
which is corky and buoyant and incloses winged seeds (see p. 75). 

The wood is heavy, strong, and very hard, of a red color when fresh, but turning 
a dark brown with age. It is excellent for fuel. In Samoa the natives make spears 
and war clubs of it. In Guam it is scarcely at all utilized, as it is hard to work. In 
the Hawaiian Islands it has been planted along the sea beach and grows rapidly and 
readily. It loves sandy soil, and will grow in brackish localities. The natives of 
Samoa prize it so highly that they often plant it near their dwellings. There a large 
tree is seldom seen, and the young trees are straight and spindling. At Waikiki, 
near Honolulu, there is a beautiful avenue of it, planted within comparatively recent 
time. There the trees grow straight. In Guam it is abundant along sandy beaches, 
especially on the east shore of the island. It also grows on the high "sabanas," 
where it is usually the only tree, but it never grows within the forest. All the Guam 
trees have twisted and gnarled trunks, from the effect of hurricanes. 

The species is of wide tropical distribution. It is indigenous in Australia, on the 
Malayan Islands, and on the east side of the Bay of Bengal, and occurs on many 
islands of the Pacific, extending eastward to the Marquesas and northward to the 
Mariannes. It is cultivated in many warm countries, including the Hawaiian Islands, 
southern Florida, California, and Uruguay. 

REFERENCES: 

Casuarina equisetifolia Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad.4: 143. 1759. 
Casue (Guam). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Cathartocarpus fistula Pers. Same as Casvia fistula. 
Cator (Philippines). See Jatropha curcas. 
Caturai (Guam, Philippines) . See Agati grandiflora. 
Cauayang tinic (Philippines). See Bambos blumeana 
Caudolejeunia. See under Hepaticse. 
Caulerpa. See under Algse. 
Cay am (Cebu). See Bocoa edulis. 

Cayenne pepper. See Capsicum annuum cerasiforme and C. frutescens. 
Ceanothus asiaticus. Same as Colubrina asiatica. 
Cebolla (Spanish). See Allium cepa. 
Cebolla halom-tano (Guam). An orchid, Luisia teretifolia. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 209 

yielded by the trunk is one of the tacamahac gums of commerce; it is agreeably aro- 
matic, and is used as a scent by the Tahitians. It is of a yellowish-green color and 
is soluble in alcohol. 

Its wood is hard, strong, and cross-grained, and very hard to split. In Guam it is 
used for the solid wheels of the carts drawn by bullocks and carabao. It is durable 
in water, but is so rigid that it can not be bent. In Samoa it is much used for build- 
ing large canoes. Its strong crooked branches furnish excellent knees for boats, and 
are used also for stem and stern posts. 
REFERENCES: 

Calophyllum inophyllum L. Sp. PL 1 : 513. 1753. 
Caltrops. See Tribulus cistoides. 
Calysaccion obovale. See Ochrocarpus obovalis. 
Camachile or Kamachiles (Guam). See Pithecolobium dulce. 
Camaluson (Philippines). See Botor tetragonoloba. 
Camantigui (Philippines). See Impatiens balsamina. 
Camatis (Philippines). See Lycopersicon lycopersicum. 
Cambustera (Cuba). See Quamoclit quamoclil. 
Camomile, false. See Chrysanthemum indicum. 
Camote (Spanish) or Kamute (Guam). See Ipomoea batatas. 
Camoting calioi (Tagalog). See Manihot manihot. 
Camphire. See Lawsonia inermis. 
Cana (Spanish). See Bambos and Trichoon roxburghii. 
Cana espinas, Cana macho. See Bambos blumeana. 
Cana de azucar. See Saccharum officinariun. 
Cana dulce. See Saccharum officinarum. 
Canafistula (Spanish). See Cassia fistula. 
Cana hembra (Spanish). See Bambos sp. 
Cana-pistola (Philippines). See Cassia fistula. 
Cananga odorata. See Canangium odoratum. 

Canangium odoratum. ILANGILANG. YLANGYLANG. 

Family Anonaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alangilang (Guam, Philippines); Moso'oi (Samoa); Moto-oi 
(Raro tonga). 

A tree bearing a profusion of greenish yellow fragrant flowers, with long, fringe- 
like petals, from which the perfume ' ' ilangilang " is made. Leaves alternate, simple, 
entire, ovate-oblong, finely acuminate, puberulous beneath; sepals 3; petals 6, in 
two series, narrowly linear; stamens many, linear, borne at the base of the ovary, 
the connective produced into a lanceolate, acute process; ovaries many; style oblong; 
ripe carpels about 12, ovoid or obovoid, black, 6 to 12-seeded. 

Bark of tree smooth, ashy; trunk straight normally, but in Guam often twisted 
out of shape by hurricanes. Its wood is soft and white, and not very durable, but 
in Samoa the natives make small canoes of it, and the Malayans hollow out the 
trunks into drums or tomtoms. In Guam straight trunks of sufficient size for canoes 
are never found. 

This tree is found in Java, the Philippines, and in many islands of the Pacific. It is 
widely cultivated in the Tropics. Its introduction into Guam is comparatively recent; 
but the fruit-eating pigeons are spreading it gradually over the island. The natives 
sometimes use its flowers to perfume coconut oil. In Samoa it is very highly 
esteemed. Its fringe-like flowers are there strung into wreaths and garlands by the 
natives, together with the drupes of Pandanus and the scarlet fruit of Capsicum. 
977305 14 



210 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Ilangilang trees may be readily propagated either by cuttings or seeds. These 
should be planted in orchards or groves 8 meters apart. They thrive well on most 
tropical islands and countries with warm, moist climates. About the third year the 
flowers appear. They bloom continuously, so that flowers and fruit may be always 
found on the same tree. 

From the flowers a pleasantly scented volatile oil is derived, known in commerce 
as the oil of ilangilang. In the Philippines and the East Indies this is sometimes 
adulterated with an oil extracted from the flowers of Michelia champaca. Ilangilang 
oil is obtained by steam distillation. In this process steam is generated in a small 
boiler and passed into a closed vessel containing the flowers. The mixed water and 
oil vapor as it leaves this vessel is condensed, and the oil separated from the water 
by decantation. In the Philippines German distillers have obtained it in the ratio 
of about 25 grams from 5 kilograms of flowers (0.5 per cent). It finds a ready 
market in Paris, Nice, and Grasse, and is used also by perfumers in London, Leipzig, 
Berlin, and Frankfort. The best quality of oil is perfectly clear and very fragrant. 
The second quality is yellowish and turbid. A perfume is also derived from the 
blossoms by the method known as enfleurage, as with jasmines and other fragrant 
flowers. By this process the fragrant oil is absorbed by refined fats, butter, or oil 
spread over trays, on the surface of which the flowers are sprinkled. These are 
changed at frequent intervals and the fat " worked " so as to present a fresh surface 
each time to the new flowers laid upon it. Finally it is scraped off the tray, melted, 
strained, and poured into jars in the form of a pomade. When oil is used in this 
process layers of cotton are steeped in it, spread upon trays, and the flowers sprinkled 
over the surface, after w T hich the oil is pressed out. Care should be taken to use 
fresh oil. Coconut oil is liable to become rancid very soon. 

The method used by the natives to extract the perfume is very simple. The 
flowers are put into coconut oil and allowed to remain there for a short time, after 
which they are removed and replaced by fresh ones. The process is hastened by 
heating the oil. To avoid excessive heat the vessel used for the process is partly 
filled with water and the oil poured upon it. This prevents the temperature rising 
above that of boiling water, and the lower specific gravity of the oil keeps it separate 
from the water. The ' ' Macassar oil ' ' of commerce is coconut oil, in which Ilangilang 
blossoms have been digested together with those of Michelia champaca. ' 

Ilangilang oil is becoming an important article of export from the Philippines. 

From the commercial monthly summary, published by the Bureau of Insular Affairs 

(May, 1904), it appears that the amount exported is steadily increasing. For the 

eleven months ending May, 1902, its value was $67,178; 1903, $90,289; 1904, $96,472. 

REFERENCES: 

Canangium odoratum (Lam.). 

Uvaria odorata Lam. Encyc. 1 : 595. 1783. 

Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thorn. Fl. Ind. 1 : 130. 1855. 

Cananga was proposed for a different genus by Aublet in 1775, and can not there- 
fore be used as a valid name for the above genus. Baillon recognized this fact, and 
proposed Canangium, without, however, giving the species; but since there is no 
other name available it is adopted here. 

Canarium indicum. JAVA ALMOND. 

Family Balsameaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Brea blanca (Guam, Philippines); Pili (Philippines). 

A large tree yielding an aromatic resin known in commerce as Manila elemi. 
Leaves alternate, odd pinnate; leaflets 7 to 9, ovate or oblong elliptical, acuminate, 
glabrous; flowers in terminal puberulous panicles. Drupe ellipsoidal, subtrigonous, 

Spans' Encyclopedia, vol. 2, p. 1422, 1882. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 211 

with a hard, bony stone, which is trigonous or three-lobed, terminating at each end 
in a sharp point. The stone or nut is called "pili," or almond, in the Philippines. 

This tree has been sparingly introduced into Guam. In his Islas Marianas ( Manila, 
1887) Don Francisco Olive y Garcia gives a catalogue of the trees growing on the 
island and mentions a single specimen of brea. This, however, is important, since it 
shows that the climate and soil of Guam are suitable for its propagation. 
REFERENCES: 

Canarium indicum Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad. 4:143. 1759. 
Canarium commune L. Mant. 1 : 127. 1767. 

Canavali ensiforme. SWORD BEAN. SABRE BEAN. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Akankan (Guam); Palang-palang (Philippines); Horsebean 

(Jamaica); Jack bean (Brit. W. Indies). 

A twining creeper; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets cordate-ovate, ovate-oblong, 
or ovate, rather acute; flowers in axillary racemes, the peduncles and racemes each 
7.5 to 15cm. long; corolla purplish or white, papilionaceous, more than twice as long 
as the calyx; calyx deep, the limb 2-lipped, the upper lip projecting, entire or 
emarginate, the lower shortly 3-toothed; pod 15 to 25 cm. long, linear-oblong, 
flattish, with a distinct rib on each valve near the upper suture, 8 to 12 seeded; 
seeds white, ovoid-oblong, subcompressed. 

Common in thickets and hedges everywhere in the Tropics. In Guam the racemes 
of purple flowers are conspicuous by the roadsides. The vernacular name Akankan 
signifies " molar teeth," from the appearance of the seeds. In some countries it is 
cultivated for the sake of its long esculent pods, the white-flowered and white-seeded 
varieties being considered the best for this purpose. It is a perennial. Though the 
pods are coarse in appearance, when sliced and boiled they are tender and scarcely 
inferior to French beans. a The mature beans roasted and ground have been used in 
Texas as a substitute for coffee. They are indigestible unless deprived of their outer 
skin. Experiments have proved these beans to be unsuitable for stock food. & 
REFERENCES: 

Canavali ensiforme (L.) DC. Prod. 2: 404. 1825, as Canavalia ensiformls. 
Dolichos ensiformis L. Sp. PI. 2: 725. 1753. 

Canavali obtusifolium. SEASIDE BEAN. 

LOCAL NAMES. Akankan-tasi (Guam); Palang-palang (Philippines); Mata de 

la Playa (Porto Rico); Mata de Costa (Cuba). 

A glabrous perennial creeper; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets thicker than those 
of the preceding species, obovate, obtuse, or sometimes emarginate; racemes few- 
flowered, usually overtopping the leaves; flowers in axillary racemes, corolla pur- 
plish; pod oblong, few-seeded, 10 to 12.5 cm. long; seeds usually chestnut-colored, 
opaque, ovoid, subcompressed. 

A strand plant widely distributed on tropical shores. In Guam, as in most places, 
it is associated with the goat's-foot convolvulus (Ipomoea pes-caprae). It is useful as 
a binder of loose sand. 
REFERENCES: 

Canavali obtusifolium (Lam.) DC. Prod. 2:404. 1825, as Canavalia ensiformis. 
Dolichos oblusifolius Lam. Encyc. 2: 295. 1786. 
Canavalia. See Canavali. 
Cancion (Guam). 

A young coconut having a sweetish, edible rind. 
Candlenut. See Aleurites moluccana. 

Firminger, Man. Gardening for Bengal, ed. 4, p. 156. 

& Lloyd and Moore. Feeding for beef. Mississippi Bull. , No, 39, p. 166, Aug. , 1896. 



212 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Canna indica. CANNA. INDIAN SHOT. 

Family Cannaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mango halom-tano (Guam); Fana-manu (Samoa); Aliipoe 
(Hawaii); Cana de cuentas, Coyol (Mexico): Blumenrohr (German); Balisier 
del'Inde (French). 

A well-known plant cultivated all over the world for ornamental purposes and 
growing without cultivation in most tropical countries. Stem erect, about 90 to 120 
cm. high; leaves large, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, clasping the stem; flowers red; 
sepals 3, imbricate; petals 3, narrow, subequal, with recurved tips; staminodes 3, 
longer than the petals; ovary 3-celled, the cells with many ovules; style linear, flat, 
growing together below w,ith the staminodial whorl, free above; stigma apical, often 
decurrent on one side; capsule warty; seeds round, black, very hard. 

In India the seed are sometimes used for shot and are made into necklaces and 
other ornaments: They yield a purple dye, but it is not permanent. An allied 
species, Canna edulis, is cultivated in the West Indies for the sake of the starch 
derived from its fleshy rhizomes. In Colombia starch is obtained from Canna indica, 
but it is not so good as that of Canna edulis. 
REFERENCES: 

Canna indica, L. Sp. PI. 1:1. 1753. 

Cannon-ball tree. See Xylocarpus granatum. 
Capa de la reina (Guam). 

The blue pea or "queen's cloak." See Clitoria ternatea. 
Capayo (Philippines). See Carica papaya. 
Caper. See Capparis mariana. 
Capili (Philippines). See Aleurites moluccana. 
Capoc (Philippines). See Ceiba pentandra; the silk-cotton tree. 
Capparidaceae. CAPER FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by Cleome viscosa and Capparis mariana. 

Capparis mariana. MARIANNE CAPER. 

Family Capparidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alcaparro (Spanish, Guam); Alcaparro de Marianas (Philip- 
pines). 

A shrub growing near the sea, with large, white, fragrant flowers, and large edible 
seed capsules. Trunk and limbs rough, covered with small protuberances, but not 
thorny; leaves alternate, subreniform, obtuse, emarginate, smooth, soft, and rather 
fleshy; petioles short; flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, long-pedicelled; sta- 
mens numerous; fruit elongate, 6-ribbed; seeds many, embedded in pulp. 

This plant is abundant on the island. The natives make very good pickles of the 
unripe capsules. It has been introduced into the Philippines, where it is known as 
the "caper of the Marianne Islands." The flowers are sometimes pink. It appears 
from the archives at Agafia that some of the early governors of Guam exported the 
fruit in considerable quantities, employing the natives to gather it. 
REFERENCES: 

Capparis mariana Jacq. Ilort. Schoenbr. 1 : 57. t. 109. 1797. 
Capparis spinosa mariana K. Schu. Engler's Jahrb. 9: 201. 1887. 

Capriola dactylon. BERMUDA GRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Grama (Guam, Cuba); Manfeme (Hawaii); Mati (Rarotonga); 

Doorba-grass, Doob-grass (Bengal); Bahama grass (West Indies). 
A grass with prostrate stems, widely creeping and forming matted tufts with short 
ascending branches. Leaves short, subulate, glaucous; ligule hairy; spikelets minute, 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 213 

1-flowered, 1 or 2-seriate, in 3 to 6 digitate slender unilateral spikes, not jointed at the 
base; grain laterally compressed. 

This plant is distributed throughout all warm countries. In India it is an impor- 
tant forage plant and is much used for lawns. On account of its usefulness and beauty 
the Hindoos have celebrated it in their writings, and the native Hawaiians hold it 
in great esteem. It thrives where scarcely any other grass will grow, even in poor 
soil shaded by trees. It is useful in binding down the sand near the sea, and on the 
low sandy soil of Agaiia, the capital of Guam, it forms beautiful soft turf. When 
once established in cultivated fields it is hard to eradicate. In India the young 
leaves are eaten by the natives and a cooling drink is made of the roots. 

It is readily propagated by cuttings. When required for lawns a sufficient quantity 
can easily be collected from the roadside and waste places. The ground is dug and 
leveled and the rootstocks cut into small pieces set out at intervals of about 30 centi- 
meters. The plat should be watered until the grass has established itself. 

"A more expeditious and very successful plan of laying down a lawn is to pull up 
a quantity of grass by the roots, chop it tolerably fine, mix it well in a compost of 
mud of about the consistency of mortar, and spread it out thinly over the piece of 
ground where the lawn is required. In a few days the grass will spring up with 
great regularity over the plat." In establishing a pasture the grass should be 
planted at intervals of 50 centimeters in rows one meter apart. 
REFERENCES: 

Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 764. 1891. 
Panicum dactylon L. Sp. PI. 1 : 58. 1753. 
Cynodon dactylon Pers. Syn. 1 : 85. 1805. 

Capsicum animum. RED PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

Family Solanaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Chile (Philippines); Cahiias, Chile (Mexico); 

Aji (Spanish America). 

A plant of tropical American origin, but escaped from cultivation in many tropical 
countries of the Old World, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem 
branching, glabrous or nearly so; leaves ovate or subelliptical, entire, acuminate; 
flowers white or greenish white, solitary, or sometimes in twos or threes; corolla 
rotate, usually 5-lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers dehiscing 
longitudinally; ovary originally 2 or 3-celled; fruit a juiceless berry or pod, extremely 
variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the 
seeds and pericarp. Many varieties occur in cultivation. & Among the forms usually 
assigned to this species are Capsicum annuum grossum, the bell pepper, and Capsicum 
annuum cerasi/orme, the cherry pepper. c 
REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum L. Sp. PI. 1 : 188. 1753. 

Capsicum annuum cerasif or me. CHERRY PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

A low, shrubby plant; leaves of medium size, ovate or oblong, acuminate; calyx 
seated on base of fruit; corolla large, spreading; fruit spherical, somewhat heart- 
shaped, or slightly elongated; flesh firm, very pungent. Of recent introduction on 
the island. 

REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum cerasif orme (Mill.) H. C. Irish, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: 92. 

1898. 
Capsicum cerasiforme Mill. Gard. Diet. no. 5. 1768. 

a Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1896, p. 30. 

6 See Irish, Rev. genus Capsicum, Ninth Ann. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard., p. 53, 1898. 
cSee Tracy, W. W., Jr. A list of American varieties of peppers, U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Bureau PL Industry, Bull. No. 6, 1902. 



214 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Capsicum annuum grossum. BELL PEPPER. 

LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Chile ancho (Mexico); Chile de Castilla (Philip- 
pines). 

This plant has long been cultivated in Guam. Its flesh is not pungent, and the 
natives frequently prepare it for the table by stuffing it with minced meat and then 
cooking it. It grows here almost like a shrub to the height of 90 cm., and bears 
prolifically. Fruit oblong or truncate, about 10 cm. long by 4 cm. in diameter, often 
lobed and usually with a basal depression. Cultivated in every garden on the island. 
REFERENCES: 

Capsicum annuum grossum (L. ) Sendt. Mart. Fl. Bras. 10: 147. 1846. 
Capsicum grossum L. Mant. 1 : 47. 1767. 
Capsicum baccatum. Same as Capsicum frutescens baccatum; see under Capsicum 

frutescens. 
Capsicum frutescens. SPUR PEPPER. CAYENNE PEPPER. 

LOCAL NAMES. Doni (Guam); Aji (Spanish). 

A shrubby perennial, 90 to 180 cm. high, with prominently angled or somewhat 
channeled stem and branches; leaves broadly ovate, acuminate; peduncles slender, 
often in pairs, usually longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, embracing the base of 
the fruit; fruit red, obtuse or oblong-acuminate, very acrid. It is possible that the 
original form from which this plant has developed through cultivation is that known 
as Capsicum minimum Roxb., to which, according to Engler, the allied varieties revert 
when left to themselves. The bird pepper (Capsicum frutescens baccatum) has round 
or ovate fruit about 6 mm. in diameter. In the Philippines it is called "chileng 
bundok." 

REFERENCES : 

Capsicum frutescens L. Sp. PI. 1: 189. 1753. 
Capsicum grossum. Same as Capsicum annuum grossum. 
Capulao (Philippines). See Herpetica alata. 
Carambola. See Averrhoa carambola. 
Carapa moluccensis. Same as. Xylocarpus granatum. 

Cardiospermum halicacabum. BALLOON VINE. 

Family Sapindaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Farolitos, Bombillas (Spanish). 

A climbing herb, with wiry stem and branches, and alternate biternate leaves; leaf- 
lets coarsely dentate; flowers irregular, polygamo-dioecious, in axillary racemes, 
white, very small; lowest pair of pedicels developed into spiral- tendrils; sepals 4, 
concave, the two outer ones small; petals 4, in pairs, the 2 greater lateral ones usually 
adhering to the sepals; stamens 8, excentric; ovary 3-celled; style short, trifid; 
ovules solitary; fruit an inflated, broadly pear-shaped capsule. 

This plant is widely distributed throughout the Tropics. Its root given in decoc- 
tion is said to be aperient. On the Malabar coast the leaves are administered in 
pulmonary complaints. In the Moluccas the leaves are cooked as a vegetable. 
It was collected by Gaudichaud on the island of Rota. 
REFERENCES: 

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Sp. PI. 1: 366. 1753. 
Carex densinora. SEDGE. 

Family Cyperaceae. 

A sedge with numerous dense, lanceolate spikelets, arranged in a branching, 
bracted spike; spikelets androgynous, staminate above, pistillate below; scales tipped 
with a bristle, the female nearly round, the male ovate-lanceolate, bristles rough; 
ovary inclosed in an oblong, compressed, striate perigynium, contracted at the top, 
with a small bidentate opening through which protrudes the 2-cleft style; perigyn- 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 215 

ium rough-edged, longer than the scaly bract; culm (stem) 3-sided, the sides chan- 
neled (triquetrous), smooth, shorter than the rough-edged broad leaves. 
This species was described by Presl from specimens collected by Haenke in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Carex demiflora Presl, Rel. Haenk. 3: 204. 1828. 

Carex fuirenoides. SEDGE. 

A sedge with androgynous spikelets; male flowers with 3 stamens, female flow- 
ers with 3 styles; panicles spike-like, axillary and terminal, solitary, with long 
peduncles, clusters numerous; spikelets oblong-cylindrical, pistillate below, stami- 
nate above; scales many-nerved, male ovate-oblong, mucronate-subaristate, dark- 
hyaline, female scales ovate-subrotund, with rounded apex, aristulate, veined, 
smooth, dark-hyaline; perigynia obovate-oblong, with attenuated beaks, slightly 
curved, ribbed, dark-brown, smooth, twice the length of the scale; beak rough on 
the upper margin, bidentate at the orifice. Immature achene obovate-oblong, tri- 
gonal, terminated by the persistent thickish base of the style. 

This species was described by Gaudichaud from specimens collected in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Carex fuirenoides Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 412. 1826. 

Carica papaya. PAPAW. 

Family Caricaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Papaya (Spanish); Lechoso (Mexico); Papai, Maneo, Mamerio 
(Brazil); Mamon (Paraguay); Papaya, Kapayo, Capayo (Philippines); Esi 
tane (male), Esi fafine (female) (Samoa). 

A tree suggesting a palm in its habit of growth, bearing a crown of large palmately- 
lobed, long-stalked leaves on a slender, straight, fleshy trunk, which is normally 
unbranched. It is usually dioecious, the staminate (male) and the pistillate (female) 
flowers being borne on separate trees, the former funnel-shaped having 10 anthers 
inserted on the throat of the corolla; the latter larger, 5-petaled, with one pistil 
bearing a 5-rayed stigma. Occasionally trees are found with hermaphrodite flow- 
ers. All parts of the plant abound in milky juice, or latex, which has remarkable 
pepsin-like digestive properties. The melon-shaped fruit grows from the axils 
of the lower leaves, the normal fruit from the female flowers being sessile, while 
that from the hermaphrodite flowers is borne on long pedicels. The milky juice 
from the unripe fruit when rubbed on meat has the property of making it tender. 
By experiment it has been found that this juice is more efficacious than pepsin in 
dissolving albumen and muscular fibre. From the half-ripe fruits a proteolytic 
ferment has been derived which differs from pepsin in that its action on proteids 
goes on in neutral or alkaline solutions as well as in acid solutions. 

From the seeds of the papaw a glucoside called caricin has been obtained; from 
the leaves an alkaloid called carpaine, the physiological action of which is similar 
to that of digitalis, a heart depressant. In commerce there are a number of prepara- 
tions claiming to be the ferment of the papaw, sold under the name of papain, 
papayotin, caroid, papoid, etc. On examination of several of these substances they 
were found by Mr. F. B. Kilmer to be merely the dried and powdered latex of the 
papaw, bearing the same relation to the true separated ferment as the dried mucous 
membrane of the stomach might bear to purified pepsin. A series of experiments 
was carried on by Mr. Kilmer demonstrating beyond a doubt the digestive properties 
of the true papaw ferments. 

Papaws are very easily grown. They spring up spontaneously in open places and 
clearings in the forest, especially where the undergrowth has been burned, from seeds 
dropped by birds. The tree grows rapidly, the leaves falling off as the trunk shoots 



a See Kilmer, The Story of the Papaw, American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 73, pp. 
272, 336, and 383, 1901. 



216 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

upward leaving the trunk marked regularly with scars. The leaf-sterns are hol- 
low, and in Guam are often used as trumpets by the natives, some of whom are 
skillful in sounding military bugle calls upon them. The root is turnip-shaped, the 
lower part extending deep into the earth seeking moisture and giving stability to 
the tree. The wood is soft, white, and, spongy, and decays rapidly. It is useless. 
The trunk of a tree can be cut through by a single stroke of a machete. Before 
ripening the fruits are green. On reaching maturity they become yellow and squash- 
like. They may be eaten either with salt or sugar. To a novice they are inferior 
in flavor to a musk melon. They vary in size and shape. Those growing in Guam 
are small and inferior to the varieties cultivated in countries where they are used as 
a food-staple. They contain a great number of dark-brown seeds, which turn black 
in drying and have a mustard-like pungent flavor. The fruit developes so rapidly 
that buds of flowers and ripe fruits are often seen on a tree at the same time. 

The papaw is a native of tropical America, but it has become established through- 
out the entire tropical world. In Guam it appears spontaneously in waste places. 
Little attention is given to it by the natives. Though they eat it if other kinds of 
fruit be scarce, they do not appear to esteem it as an article of food. 
REFERENCES: 

Carica papaya L. Sp. PI. 2: 1036. 1753. 

Caricature plant. See Graptophyllum pictum. 

Garinta herbacea. GROUNDBERRY. 

Family Rubiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Bejuco guara (Cuba); Naunau, Matamata-Aitu (Samoa); Kapu- 

kapu (Rarotonga); Karinta kali (Malay Archipelago). 

A small, slender, creeping, perennial herb, bearing red, fleshy berries, somewhat 
like those of the partridge berry (Mitchella repens). Leaves long-petioled, more or 
less pubescent, orbicular, deeply cordate, stipules interpetiolar, ovate, obtuse; 
flowers small, white, growing in 1 to 6-flowered peduncled umbels; bracts linear, 
lanceolate; calyx tube obovoid, segments 5 to 7, slender, herbaceous, persistent; 
corolla salver-shaped, glabrous, throat hairy, lobes 4 to 7, valvate in bud ; stamens 
4 to 7, inserted on the corolla tube, included; stigma 2-fid; ovary 2-celled, the cells 
1-ovuled; ovules erect; berry a fleshy drupe, with 2 plano-convex pyrenes; seeds 
plano-convex, not grooved ventrally. 

This plant is widely distributed in the Tropics. It is common in the woods of 
Samoa, Fiji, and other islands of the Pacific, in the Andaman Islands, Malay Archi- 
pelago, Ceyjon, South China, and in tropical America. It is said to possess medicinal 
properties similar to those of the allied Evea ipecacuanha of New Granada and 
Brazil, but of inferior quality. 6 
REFERENCES: 

Carinta herbacea (Jacq.). 

Psychotria herbacea Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. 
Geophila reniformis Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 136. 1825. 

Geophila was first proposed in 1803 for a genus of Liliaceae and is therefore not 
available for the rubiaceous genus so named by Don. Carinta is an adaptation of 
the Malayan name of this plant, Karinta kali. 

Carmona heterophylla Cav. Same as Ehretia microphylla. 
Carrizo (Spanish). See Trichoon roxburghii. 

Evea ipecacuanha (Brot. ) Callicocca ipecacuanha Brot. Trans. Linn. Soc. 6: 137. 
t. 11. 1802. Uragoga ipecacuanha (Brot.) Baill. Hist. PL 7: 281. 1880. 

6 Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vol. 3, p. 488, 1890. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 217 

Caryophyllus malaccensis. MALAY APPLE. 

Family Myrtaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Macupa, Makupa (Philippines and Guam); Kavika (Fiji); 
Nonu-fi'afi'a (Samoa); Ahia (Tahiti); Ohia (Hawaii). 

A tree of medium size, bearing a profusion of white,, purple, or red flowers, with 
tufts of stamens of the same color as the corolla. These are followed by an abun- 
dance of fruit having a fragrant, apple-like odor and a delicate flavor. Leaves large, 
glossy, ovate, elliptic or obovate-oblong, attenuate at each end; inflorescence cen- 
tripetal with solitary axillary flowers, or in short racemes (leafless branches), or 
centrifugal in dense terminal cymes; calyx globose or more or less elongate, pro- 
duced beyond the ovary, with 4 or rarely 5 rounded lobes; petals 4, rarely 5; stamens 
many; ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-celled, with several ovules in each cell; style filiform, 
stigma small; fruit nearly round, crowned by the scar of the calyx lobes; seed usu- 
ally 1. 

This tree occurs on nearly all the larger islands of the tropical Pacific and in the 
Malay Archipelago. It has been introduced into Guam comparatively recently and 
is by no means common. In Hawaii, Samoa, and Fiji it is very highly esteemed by 
the natives, more for its beauty than for its fruit. The ancient Hawaiians made their 
idols of its wood, and the tree figures in the myths of the Fijians. The etymological 
identity of the Fijian, Samoan, Tahitian, and Hawaiian names of this tree is interest- 
ing, indicating, as it does, an acquaintance with it before the separation of the various 
divisions of the Polynesians or its introduction from one group of islands to the 
others, together with its name. 
REFERENCES: 

Caryophyllus malaccensis (L. ). 

Eugenia malaccensis L. Sp. PI. 1 : 470. 1753. 

Jambosa malaccensis DC. Prod. 3 : 286. 1 828. 

The genus Caryophyllus was published by Linnaeus in 1753 with a single species, 
C. aromaticus, which has since been referred to Jambos Adanson, or Jambosa, as 
written by many authors. Adanson' s name, however, is of later date, and must 
therefore be displaced by the Linnsean name of the genus. 
Casay (Philippines). See Adenanthera pavonina. 
Cascabeles (Spanish). See Crotalaria quinquefolia. 
Cashew. See Anacardium occidentale. 
Casoy (Philippines). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Cassava. See Manihot manihoL 
Cassia alata. Same as Herpetica alata. 
Cassia angustissima Lam. Same as Cassia mimosoides. 
Cassia esculenta Roxb. Same as Cassia sophera. 

Cassia fistula. PUDDING-PIPE TREE. 

Family Caesalpiniaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Canafistula (Guam, Philippines, Mexico); Cafiapistola (Philip- 
pines); Golden shower (Hawaii). 

A tree with smooth, ashy-gray bark, bearing long, pendent, lax racemes of golden- 
yellow flowers, followed by very long, woody, cylindrical pods. Leaves large, even- 
pinnate, the leaflets in 4 to 8 pairs, ovate-acuminate, 5 to 15 cm. long; calyx tube 
very short; sepals 5, obtuse; petals 5, veined, imbricated, obovate, shortly clawed, 
nearly equal; stamens 10; pod black or dark brown, 30 to 60 cm. long, containing 
one-seeded compartments, marked with three longitudinal shining furrows, two of 
them close together and the third opposite them, marking the sutures; seed reddish 
brown, glossy, flattish, ovate, embedded in a blackish-brown sweet pulp; odor 



218 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

resembling that of prunes. When the wind blows the pendulous pods strike 
together and make a rattling noise. 

This tree is said to be a native of upper Egypt and India, whence it has been 
introduced into nearly all tropical countries. It has been growing in Guam at least 
a century, but, like the tamarind, does not reproduce itself here spontaneously. 
The wood is hard and heavy, but the natives do not utilize it. It is found growing 
in many places on the sites of abandoned ranches. In Honolulu it is one of the. 
principal shade trees and is highly prized for the beauty of its flowers. 

The pulp is a valuable laxative, and is much used in medicine. It is apt to 
become sour if long exposed to the air, or moldy if kept in a damp place. It is 
extracted from the pods by bruising them and then boiling them in water, after 
which the decoction is evaporated. It may be obtained from fresh pods by opening 
them at the sutures and removing the pulp with a spatula. The pulp has a sweet, 
mucilaginous taste. It contains sugar, gum, a substance analogous to tannin, a color- 
ing matter soluble in ether, traces of a principle resembling gluten, and a little water. 
It may be advantageously given in small doses in cases of habitual costiveness 
(4 to 8 gm. ), and in doses of one or two ounces (30 to 60 gm. ) it acts as a purgative." 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia fistula L. Sp. PI. 1: 377. 1753. 

Cassia mimosoides. TEA SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kdbo-cha, Nemu-cha, Ichinen-cha (Japan). 

A low diffuse perennial, with slender, shrubby, finely downy branches. Leaves 
resembling those of the sensitive plant, 2.5 to 7.5 cm. long, with a solitary sessile 
gland on the rachis below the leaflets; leaflets 60 to 100, linear, rigidly coriaceous, 
3 to 3.5 mm. long, obliquely mucronate, with the midrib close to the upper 
border; stipules large, linear-subulate, persistent; flowers yellow, 1 or 2 in the axils 
of the leaves on short pedicels; sepals lanceolate-acuminate, bristly; corolla little 
exserted; stamens 10, alternately longer and shorter; pod strap-shaped, flat, dehis- 
cent, 3.5 to 5 cm. long by 3.5 mm. broad, nearly straight, glabrescent or finely downy; 
septa more or less oblique. 

In Japan, where it grows both wild and in cultivation, the young stem and leaves 
are cut and dried as a substitute for tea. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia mimosoides L. Sp. PI. 1: 379. 1753. 

Cassia occidentalis. COFFEE SENNA. NEGRO COFFEE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mumutim sable (Guam); Balatorig aso (Philippines); Frijo- 
lillo (Panama); Hierba hedionda (Cuba); Hedionda (Porto Rico); Bantamare 
(Senegal); Herbe puante (French). 

A glabrous, ill-smelling weed, 60 to 90 cm. high, with abruptly pinnate leaves, hav- 
ing a single large ovate gland just above the base of the petiole. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, 
without glands between them, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, rounded at the base, 
acute, 2.5 to 7.5 cm. long, glabrous on both sides, or finely pubescent; flowers yellow, 
pedicelled; racemes short, closely crowded, axillary; stamens 10, the upper 3 imper- 
fect; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse, glabrous; pod linear, glabrous, 10 to 12.5 cm. long 
by 2.5 to 7.5 cm. broad, somewhat curved, its margins thickened. 

This plant is of wide distribution in the Tropics, and in the warmer temperate 
regions of the globe. It was introduced into Guam more than a century ago, and is 
common in abandoned clearings, in waste places, and along the beach. 

The seeds, sometimes called "negro coffee," are used in some parts of the world as 
a substitute for coffee and are said to be a febrifuge. In Senegambia an infusion of 
the roasted seeds having an agreeable flavor not unlike coffee is used by the natives. 
This plant has been used as a remedy for stomach troubles, nervous asthma, and 

United States Dispensatory, p. 341, 1899. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 219 

typhoid fever. The root is especially active, and the leaves are used medicinally 
in many countries, especially in Dahomey, Africa, where they are one of the 
most important drugs used in the hospitals in the treatment of certain fevers." They 
are purgative and antiherpetic. Large quantities are received annually at Bordeaux 
and Marseille. In 1897 nearly 100 tons of the seed was imported into Europe. In 
1898 the value of the export from Senegal amounted to 1,000 francs. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia occidentalis L. Sp. PI. 1: 377. 1753. 

Cassia sensitiva Roxb. Same as Cassia mimosoides. 

Cassia sophera. EDIBLE SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. Amot-tumaga, Amot-tomaga (Guam). 

A plant resembling Cassia occidentatis, but of a more shrubby habit, and with more 
numerous, smaller, narrower leaflets and shorter, broader, more turgid pods. Leaf 
with a single large gland placed just above the base of the petiole; leaflets 6 to 12 pairs, 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, without glands between them; flowers yellow, 
racemes terminal or axillary, few-flowered; stamens 10, the upper 3 imperfect; pods 
glabrous, many-seeded, linear, turgid; suture keeled; seeds horizontal, with cellular 
partitions. 

The leaves are variable in shape and size. A common variety in Guam has the 
leaves smaller and more obtuse than the typical form. The single gland on the 
petiole and the size and shape of the leaves will serve to distinguish this species 
from the others on the island. 

Widely spread in the Tropics. In India the leaves are eaten by natives in their 
curries. An infusion of the bark has been given as a remedy for diabetes; and the 
bruised leaves and bark of the root, powdered and mixed with honey, are applied 
externally in ringworm and ulcers. As in the case of C. occidentals, the smell of 
the plant is disagreeable. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia sophera L. Sp. PI. 1: 379. 1753. 

Cassia tora. Low SENNA. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mumutun adamelon, Mumutun palaoan (Guam). 

An annual glabrous undershrub, with even pinnate leaves. Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, a 
gland on the rachis between the lowest pair, and sometimes between the next pair, 
but never between the uppermost; stipules linear-subulate, at length deciduous; leaf- 
lets thin, obovate, obtuse; flowers yellow, small, in pairs or in short axillary few- 
flowered racemes; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse; stamens 10, the anthers of the upper 
3 imperfect; pod linear, very slender, strongly curved, 15 to 2.5 cm. long by 6 
mm. wide, membranous, the sutures very broad, the seeds flattened in the same 
direction as the pod. 

Of world-wide distribution in the Tropics. In Guam it has been a common weed 
for more than a century. The leaves are mucilaginous and ill smelling. They are 
said to be aperient. In India they are fried in castor oil and applied to ulcers. 
The root, rubbed with lime juice, is a remedy for ringworm. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassia tora L. Sp. PI. 1 : 376. 1753. 

Cassytha filiformis. WIRE VINE. DODDER LAUREL. 

Family Lauraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mayagas (Guam); Devil's guts (Australia). 

A leafless, wiry, twining parasitic plant with the habit of Cuscuta, very common 
in thickets, adhering to branches of other plants by means of small protuberances or 

Wildeman, Les Plantes Tropicales de Grande Culture, p. 72-73 (Brussels, 1902). 



220 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

suckers. Flowers small, white, remote, in small spikes; perianth with 3 inner equal 
obovate lobes and 3 outer minute ones; fertile stamens 9, the 3 inner ones with 2 
glands at the base, the filaments of the 3 outer ones petal-like, of the 6 others filiform ; 
fruit round, one-seeded, inclosed by the perianth and crowned by its lobes; ovary 
free, style short, stigma depressed. 
REFERENCES: 

Cassytha filiformis L. Sp. PI. 1: 35. 1753. 
Casta (Philippines). See Jatropha curcas. 
Castor-bean. See Ricinus communis. 

Casuarina equisetifolia. POLYNESIAN IRONWOOD. PLATE XLI. 

Family Casuarinaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gago (Guam); Agoho (Philippines); Toa (Samoa, Rarotonga); 
Aito (Tahiti); Swamp oak, She-oak, Beef-wood (Australia). 

A leafless tree with drooping branches, somewhat like a pine in general appear- 
ance. Branches 6 to 8-angled or terete, jointed like the stems of an Equisetum, with 
6 to 8 sheath teeth at the joints. The genus to which the plant belongs, though 
formerly classed with the conifers, is now recognized as the only known genus of a 
distinct family. The flowers are unisexual, the staminate in cylindrical terminal 
spikes and the pistillate in dense heads borne in the axils and ripening into a cone, 
which is corky and buoyant and incloses winged seeds (see p. 75). 

The wood is heavy, strong, and very hard, of a red color when fresh, but turning 
a dark brown with age. It is excellent for fuel. In Samoa the natives make spears 
and war clubs of it. In Guam it is scarcely at all utilized, as it is hard to work. In 
the Hawaiian Islands it has been planted along the sea beach and grows rapidly and 
readily. It loves sandy soil, and will grow in brackish localities. The natives of 
Samoa prize it so highly that they often plant it near their dwellings. There a large 
tree is seldom seen, and the young trees are straight and spindling. At Waikiki, 
near Honolulu, there is a beautiful avenue of it, planted within comparatively recent 
time. There the trees grow straight. In Guam it is abundant along sandy beaches, 
especially on the east shore of the island. It also grows on the high "sabanas," 
where it is usually the only tree, but it never grows within the forest. All the Guam 
trees have twisted and gnarled trunks, from the effect of hurricanes. 

The species is of wide tropical distribution. It is indigenous in Australia, on the 
Malayan Islands, and on the east side of the Bay of Bengal, and occurs on many 
islands of the Pacific, extending eastward to the Marquesas and northward to the 
Mariannes. It is cultivated in many warm countries, including the Hawaiian Islands, 
southern Florida, California, and Uruguay. 
REFERENCES: 

Casuarina equisetifolia Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad.4: 143. 1759. 

Casue (Guam) . See Anacardium occidentale. 

Cathartocarpus fistula Pers. Same as Cass'ia fistula. 

Cator (Philippines). See Jatropha curcas. 

Caturai (Guam, Philippines) . See Agati grandiflora. 

Cauayang- tinic (Philippines). See Sambos blumeana 

Caudolejeunia. See under Hepaticse. 

Caulerpa. See under Algse. 

Cay am (Cebu). See Bocoa edulis. 

Cayenne pepper. See Capsicum annuum cerasiforme and C. frutescens. 

Ceanothus asiaticus. Same as Colubrina asiatica. 

Cebolla (Spanish). See Attium cepa. 

Cebolla halom-tano (Guam). An orchid, Luisia teretifolia. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLI. 




CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA. MALE INFLORESCENCE, FEMALE INFLORESCENCE. AND 
FRUIT. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



Contr. Nat Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLII. 



%* 



<A I 






CEIBA PENTANDRA, THE KAPOK TREE. LEAF AND OPENED POD, SHOWING 
COTTON-LIKE FLOSS. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 221 

Ceboya (Philippines). See Allium cepa and Gardens. 
Ceiba casearia. Same as Ceiba pentandra. 

Ceiba pentandra. KAPOK. PLATE XLII. 

Family Bombacaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Algodon de Manila (Spanish); Atgodon de Manila (Guam); 

Doldol, Capoc, Kapok, Bubui (Philippines); Kapok (Java); Imbul, Pulun- 

imbul (Ceylon); Ceiba (Cuba, Central America); Silk-cotton tree (Brit. W. 

Indies). 

A tall tree with a straight trunk, prickly when young, with whorls of horizontal 
branches, palmately compound, deciduous leaves, and mallow-like flowers appearing 
before the leaves, followed by pods containing silky floss. Leaflets 5 to 8, lanceolate, 
cuspidate, entire or serrulate toward the point, glaucous beneath; petioles as long as 
or longer than the leaflets; stipules small, deciduous; petals 5, united at the base; 
stamens in 5 bundles; filaments joined at the base, each bearing 2 versatile anfrac- 
tuose anthers; style crowned with a 5 or 6-cleft stigma; capsule cucumber-shaped, 
woody when mature, 5-celled, 5-valved; cells many-seeded; seeds embedded in the 
flossy down. 

The color of the flowers of this species varies. In Guam they are white, yellowish 
within; in the West Indies there is a variety with rose-colored flowers. There is 
some difference between trees growing in the East Indies and in the West Indies, 
and some botanists have regarded them as distinct species. The trunks of the young 
trees of both are armed with stout, sharp protuberances; but in the West Indian tree 
they are often swollen or ventricose in shape, while those of the East Indies are 
straight and tapering. No difference, however, can be discovered in herbarium 
specimens great enough to warrant their being separated. u 

A common tree in Guam, growing near ranches and along the roadside, sometimes 
used for marking the boundary between adjacent fa^ms. In Java the trees are 
grown along the roadsides for telephone poles. The wood is soft and white and is 
not utilized on the island. The silky floss can not be spun. In Guam it is used for 
stuffing cushions and pillows. It is brittle, elastic, and very inflammable. In India 
it is used in the manufacture of fireworks. In commerce it is known as "kapok," 
and was first brought to notice by the Dutch, who drew their supply from Java. It 
is now used in upholstery, and has the virtue of not becoming matted. 
REFERENCES: 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Fruct. 2: 244. L 133. f. 1. 1791. 

Bombax pentandrum L. Sp. PI. 1: 511. 1753. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. Prod. 1: 479. 1824. 
Cenchrus lappaceus. Same as Centotheca lappacea. 
Cenizo (Spanish). See Chenopodium album. 

Centella asiatica. INDIAN PENNYWORT. 

Family Apiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Yahon-yahon (Philippines); Tono (Samoa); Yerba de clavo 

(Porto Rico); Ovate-leaved marsh pennywort (United States). 

A perennial herb closely allied to Hydrocotyle, with prostrate stems, rooting and 

sending up tufts of long-petioled leaves at the nodes, together with 1 to 3 long-rayed 

umbellets of small white flowers, the true umbel sessile. Leaves not peltate, ovate, 

rather thick, rounded at apex, broadly cordate at base, repand-dentate; pedicels 

much shorter than the leaves; umbellets capitate, 2 to 4-flowered, subtended by 2 

ovate bracts; flowers pink, nearly sessile; fruit prominently ribbed and reticulated. 

A plant growing in wet shady places, widely spread in warm countries. In India 

For the synonymy of this species see Notes on Ceiba, by James Britten and 
Edmund G. Baker, Journal of Botany, April, 1896. 



222 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

the leaves, which are bitter, are toasted and given in infusion to children in bowel 
complaints and fevers, and they are applied as a remedy for bruises to check 
inflammation. On the Malabar coast the plant is one of the remedies for leprosy, 
for which it is said to be an excellent specific. a In southern Africa and in India it 
is used as an alterative to purify the blood. It is said to be of value in syphilitic and 
scrofulous affections. 
REFERENCES: 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 287. 1879. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica L. Sp. PL 1 : 234. 1753. 
Centotheca lappacea. BURGRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 

A tall perennial grass, with broadly lanceolate tessellately nerved leaves and a 
branched woody rootstock. S pikelets 1 or 2-flowered, secund on the long branches of 
a lax subsimple panicle, not jointed on the very short pedicels; rachilla jointed at 
the base of and between the flowering glumes; glumes 5, the empty pair oblong- 
ovate, keeled, 3 to 5-nerved, persistent; flowering glumes oblong, acute, dorsally 
rounded, 7-nerved, naked or the upper bearing above the middle soft, erect,-at length 
deflexed, tuberculate-based spines; palea shorter than the glume, its keels ciliolate; 
lodicules none; stamens 2 or 3, anthers short; styles free; grain ovoid, acute, terete, 
free. The leaves of this grass are 10 to 25 cm. long by about 3 cm. broad, many- 
nerved, glabrous or sparsely hairy, midrib oblique, sheath glabrous or hairy, ligule 
short, lacerate; panicle 20 to 25 cm. long and broad, branches smooth; spikelets 3.5 
to 6 mm. long, green; rachilla scaberulous; palese often decurrent on the rachilla 
below the glume. The upper palea is rather firm, very sharply 2-keeled, and even 
at the time of flowering bow-shaped and bent outward. 

The species is of wide tropical distribution. It grows near the beach and in damp 
upland regions. It is an excellent fodder grass. It is common in central India and 
southward to Malacca, in the Andaman Islands and Ceylon, China, tropical Africa, 
and the Philippines. In the Pacific it has been collected in Samoa, Admiralty 
Islands, and the Caroline group. 
REFERENCES: 

Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810. 
Cenchrus lappaceus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1488. 1763. 
Ceratopteris g-audichaudii. Same as Ceratopteris thalictroides. 
Ceratopteris thalictroides. WATER FERN. 

LOCAL NAMES. Umug sensonyan (Guam); Midsu warabi (Japan). 
An aquatic fern with divided fronds, eaten in Guam as a salad and in Japan as a 
pot herb. The divisions of the fertile fronds are linear and much narrower than 
those of the sterile ones. 
REFERENCES: 

Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brogn. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1821:186, pi [1]. 

1821. 

Acrostichum thalictroides L. Sp. PL 2: 1070. 1753. 

Oestrum nocturnum. NIGHT-BLOOMING OESTRUM. 

Family Solanaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Dama de noche (Guam and Philippines); Galan de noche 

(Cuba). 

A glabrous shrub with greenish yellow tubular flowers which are very fragrant at 
night. Leaves alternate, entire, ovate or ovate-oblong, with a rather blunt point; 
racemes cymose, peduncled, exceeding the petiole; inferior pedicels often as long as 
the calyx; calyx 5-dentate, about one-third as long as the corolla-tube; teeth ovate, 
roundish, or deltoid; corolla-tube clavate, gradually tapering, glabrous; lobes ovate. 



"Drury, Useful Plants, India, p. 257. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 223 

blunt; stamens 5, included, inserted above the middle of the corolla-tube; filaments 
longer than the anthers, puberulous below, entire, or bearing a tooth above the base; 
berry ovoid-oblong. 

The odor of the flowers is very penetrating. At a distance it resembles that of 
valerian, but at close range it is rank and overpowering, whence the name Cestrum 
foetidissimum applied to this species by Jacquin. This plant is of West Indian origin; 
it is widely cultivated in the Tropics. It was introduced into Guam many years ago 
from the Philippines. A large bush of it grows on each side of the door of the 
church at Agana, the odor from which at night is diffused over the greater part of 
the city. 

REFERENCES : 

Cestrum nocturnum L. Sp. PL 1 : 191. 1753. 
Cestrum pallidum. INKBERRY. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tintaii-China, i. e., " Chinese-ink berry" (Guam). 
A glabrous shrub 1.5 to 2.5 meters high. Branches terete; leaves alternate, ellip- 
tical-oblong or oblong-ovate, blunt-pointed, petiolate, green above, paler beneath, 
glabrous, 5 to 10 cm. long by 3.5 cm. broad; racemes cymose, with rather long 
peduncles, axillary and terminal; flowers nearly sessile, small, about 12 mm. long; 
corolla tubular, clavate, the lobes very short, rounded, recurved; stamens 5 or 6, 
included, alternating with the corolla lobes, inserted near the throat, filaments 
usually about as long as the anthers; pistil 1, style long and slender, slightly 
exserted, stigma capitate; berry ovoid, fleshy, about the size of a poke berry, filled 
with purple juice, few-seeded; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth short and 
rounded, ciliolate. 

I am not quite certain as to the identity of this plant. It corresponds very closely 
with the description given by Grisebach of Cestrum pallidum Lam. In Guam the 
flowers are white. They are day-blooming and have a slight fragrance of C. noctur- 
num. In DeCandolle's Prodromus it is stated that the berries are poisonous, but 
this is probably a mistake, since they are an important article of food for the pigeons 
and other fruit-eating birds of Guam, by means of which the plant has been spread 
all over the island. It is of comparatively recent introduction. None of the early 
collectors mention it. The berries of the allied Cestrum lanatum of Mexico yield a 
black dye. 

REFERENCES: 

Cestrum pallidum Lam. Encyc. 1: 688. 1783. 
Ceylon moss. See Gracilaria confervoides under Algse. 
Cha. The name in Guam for tea. 

Cha cimarron (Philippines). See Ehretia microphylla. 
Chaca (Guam), Nephrolepis acuta. See under Ferns. 
Chaetochloa glauca aurea. GOLDEN FOXTAIL. 

Family Poaceae. 

A pale-green, erect, annual grass, having a simple, dense, cylindrical, spike-like 
panicle. Spikelets articulated on very short pedicels, 1 or 2 flowered, ovate; glumes 
awnless; first empty glume short; flowering glume and palea obtuse, finally hard 
and shining or tranversely wrinkled; numerous involucral bristles under each 
spikelet. A cosmopolitan grass with flat leaves scabrous on the edges and often ciliate 
with a few long hairs, common in waste places and in the borders of cultivation; 
good for fodder. Collected in Guam by Lesson. 
REFERENCES: 

Chaetochloa glauca aurea (Hochst.). 
Setaria aurea Hochst. A. Br. Flora. 24: 276. 1841. 

Setaria glauca aurea K. Sch. in K. Sch. & Laut., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. in 
der Siidsee 180. 1901. 

Grisebach, Flora of the British West Indies, p. 443, 1864. 



224 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Chagua (Guam). 

General name for " plant" in the vernacular of the island. 
Chaguan humatag (Guam). A sedge, Cyperus rotundus. 
Chaguan lemae (Guam). 

A sedge, Kyllinga monocephala; so called from the fancied resemblance of its heads 
to miniature breadfruits (lemae). 
Chaguan-tais. See Halodule uninervis. 
Chara (Guam). Sea purslane, Sesuvium portulacastrum. 
Chara ftbrosa. See Algx. 
Charcoal. 

The principal trees which furnish wood for making charcoal are the lemoncito 
( Triphasia trifoliata) , the mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata), the adban ( Eugenia sp. ), 
and an unidentified tree abundant on Orote Peninsula called " laldhag." 
Chavica betle. Same as Piper betle. 

Chenopodiaceae. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the two following species: 

Chenopodium album. LAMBS-QUARTERS. 

Family Chenopodiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Cenizo (Spanish); Quelites (Mexico); Kiletes (Guam). 
An erect herbaceous weed, with rhombic-ovate or lanceolate, dentate, sinuate, or 
lobed leaves; flowers small, green, sessile; spikes terminal or axillary, often panicled; 
calyx segments usually inclosing the utricle, strongly keeled in fruit; seed horizontal, 
black, shining, firmly attached to the pericarp; embryo a complete ring. 

Spread over the world in temperate and tropical regions, in Guam growing in 
waste places. The young shoots are cooked like spinach. 
REFERENCES: 

Chenopodium album L. Sp. PI. 1 : 219. 1753. 

Chenopodium ambrosioides. MEXICAN TEA. 

Family Chenopodiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Apasotes, Alapasotes, Pasotes (Guam, Philippines); Basote 
(Porto Rico); Epazote, Yepazotl (Mexico); Ambrosine, The du Mexique 

(France). 

An erect puberulous, aromatic plant. Stem angled; leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse, sinuately toothed, the upper ones entire; 
flowers minute, in slender axillary clusters and terminal simple or panicled spikes; 
sepals inclosing the utricle; seed horizontal, smooth, shining, the margin obtuse. 

A species probably of Mexican origin, now widely spread over the warmer regions 
of the world. In Mexico a kind of tea is made of it. In France it is cultivated and 
is known as "the du Mexique." In Guam it is found in many gardens together 
with manzanilla ( Chrysanthemum indicum), hierba de Santa Maria (Artemisia vulgaris) , 
an is (Foeniculum foeniculum), and hierba buena (Mentha arvensis). 
REFERENCES: 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Sp. PI. 1 : 219. 1753. 

Cherry pepper. See Capsicum annuum cerasiforme. 

Chestnut, Polynesian. See Bocoa edulis. 

Chichitun (Guam) . Local name for Achyranthes aspera. 

Chico (Guam, Philippines). Local name for the sapodilla (Sapota zapotilld). 

Chile or Sile (Philippines). See Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens. 

China dulce (Porto Rico). See Citrus aurantium sinensis. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 221 

Ceboya (Philippines). See Allium cepa and Gardens. 
Ceiba casearia. Same as Ceiba pentandra. 

Ceiba pentandra. KAPOK. PLATE XLII. 

Family Bombacaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Algodon de Manila (Spanish); Atgodon de Manila (Guam); 

Doldol, Capoc, Kapok, Bubui (Philippines); Kapok (Java); Imbul, Pulun- 

imbul (Ceylon); Ceiba (Cuba, Central America); Silk-cotton tree (Brit. W. 

Indies). 

A tall tree with a straight trunk, prickly when young, with whorls of horizontal 
branches, palmately compound, deciduous leaves, and mallow-like flowers appearing 
before the leaves, followed by pods containing silky floss. Leaflets 5 to 8, lanceolate, 
cuspidate, entire or serrulate toward the point, glaucous beneath; petioles as long as 
or longer than the leaflets; stipules small, deciduous; petals 5, united at the base; 
stamens in 5 bundles; filaments joined at the base, each bearing 2 versatile anfrac- 
tuose anthers; style crowned with a 5 or 6-cleft stigma; capsule cucumber-shaped, 
woody when mature, 5-celled, 5-valved; cells many-seeded; seeds embedded in the 
flossy down. 

The color of the flowers of this species varies. In Guam they are white, yellowish 
within; in the West Indies there is a variety with rose-colored flowers. There is 
some difference between trees growing in the East Indies and in the West Indies, 
and some botanists have regarded them as distinct species. The trunks of the young 
trees of both are armed with stout, sharp protuberances; but in the West Indian tree 
they are often swollen or ventricose in shape, while those of the East Indies are 
straight and tapering. No difference, however, can be discovered in herbarium 
specimens great enough to warrant their being separated. 

A common tree in Guam, growing near ranches and along the roadside, sometimes 
used for marking the boundary between adjacent farms. In Java the trees are 
grown along the roadsides for telephone poles. The wood is soft and white and is 
not utilized on the island. The silky floss can not be spun. In Guam it is used for 
stuffing cushions and pillows. It is brittle, elastic, and very inflammable. In India 
it is used in the manufacture of fireworks. In commerce it is known as "kapok," 
and was first brought to notice by the Dutch, who drew their supply from Java. It 
is now used in upholstery, and has the virtue of not becoming matted. 
REFERENCES: 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Fruct. 2: 244. i. 133. f. 2.1791. 

Bombax pentandrum L. Sp. PI. 1: 511. 1753. 

Eriodendron an/racluosum DC. Prod. 1 : 479. 1824. 
Cenchrus lappaceus. Same as Centotlieca lappacea. 
Cenizo (Spanish). See Chenopodium album. 

Centella asiatica. INDIAN PENNYWORT. 

Family Apiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Yahon-yahon (Philippines); Tono (Samoa); Yerba de clavo 

(Porto Rico); Ovate-leaved marsh pennywort (United States). 

A perennial herb closely allied to Hydrocotyle, with prostrate steins, rooting and 

sending up tufts of long-petioled leaves at the nodes, together with 1 to 3 long-rayed 

umbellets of small white flowers, the true umbel sessile. Leaves not peltate, ovate, 

rather thick, rounded at apex, broadly cordate at base, repand-dentate; pedicels 

much shorter than the leaves; umbellets capitate, 2 to 4-flowered, subtended by 2 

ovate bracts; flowers pink, nearly sessile; fruit prominently ribbed and reticulated. 

A plant growing in wet shady places, widely spread in warm countries. In India 

For the synonymy of this species see Notes on Ceiba, by James Britten and 
Edmund G. Baker, Journal of Botany, April, 1896. 



222 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

the leaves, which are bitter, are toasted and given in infusion to children in bowel 
complaints and fevers, and they are applied as a remedy for bruises to check 
inflammation. On the Malabar coast the plant is one of the remedies for leprosy, 
for which it is said to be an excellent specific/* In southern Africa and in India it 
is used as an alterative to purify the blood. It is said to be of value in syphilitic and 
scrofulous affections. 
REFERENCES: 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 287. 1879. 
Hydrocotyk asiatica L. Sp. PL 1 : 234. 1753. 
Centotheca lappacea. BURGRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 

A tall perennial grass, with broadly lanceolate tessellately nerved leaves and a 
branched woody rootstock. Spikelets 1 or 2-flowered, secund on the long branches of 
a lax subsimple panicle, not jointed on the very short pedicels; rachilla jointed at 
the base of and between the flowering glumes; glumes 5, the empty pair oblong- 
ovate, keeled, 3 to 5-nerved, persistent; flowering glumes oblong, acute, dorsally 
rounded, 7-nerved, naked or the upper bearing above the middle soft, erect, at length 
deflexed, tuberculate-based spines; palea shorter than the glume, its keels ciliolate; 
lodicules none; stamens 2 or 3, anthers short; styles free; grain ovoid, acute, terete, 
free. The leaves of this grass are 10 to 25 cm. long by about 3 cm. broad, many- 
nerved, glabrous or sparsely hairy, midrib oblique, sheath glabrous or hairy, ligule 
short, lacerate; panicle 20 to 25 cm. long and broad, branches smooth; spikelets 3.5 
to 6 mm. long, green; rachilla scaberulous; palese often decurrent on the rachilla 
below the glume. The upper palea is rather firm, very sharply 2-keeled, and even 
at the time of flowering bow-shaped and bent outward. 

The species is of wide tropical distribution. It grows near the beach and in damp 
upland regions. It is an excellent fodder grass. It is common in central India and 
southward to Malacca, in the Andaman Islands and Ceylon, China, tropical Africa, 
and the Philippines. In the Pacific it has been collected in Samoa, Admiralty 
Islands, and the Caroline group. 
REFERENCES: 

Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810. 
Cenchrus lappaceus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1488. 1763. 
Ceratopteris gaudichaudii. Same as Ceratopteris thalictroides. 
Ceratopteris thalictroides. WATER FERN. 

LOCAL NAMES. Umug sensonyan (Guam); Midsu warabi (Japan). 
An aquatic fern with divided fronds, eaten in Guam as a salad and in Japan as a 
pot herb. The divisions of the fertile fronds are linear and much narrower than 
those of the sterile ones. 
REFERENCES: 

Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brogn. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1821:186, pi. [1]. 

1821. 

Acrostichum thalictroides L. Sp. PL 2: 1070. 1753. 

Oestrum nocturnuxn. NIGHT-BLOOMING CESTRUM. 

Family Solanaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Dama de noche (Guam and Philippines); Galan de noche 

(Cuba). 

A glabrous shrub with greenish yellow tubular flowers which are very fragrant at 
night. Leaves alternate, entire, ovate or ovate-oblong, with a rather blunt point; 
racemes cymose, peduncled, exceeding the petiole; inferior pedicels often as long as 
the calyx; calyx 5-dentate, about one-third as long as the corolla-tube; teeth ovate, 
roundish, or deltoid; corolla-tube clavate, gradually tapering, glabrous; lobes ovate, 

Drury, Useful Plants, India, p. 257. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 223 

blunt; stamens 5, included, inserted above the middle of the corolla-tube; filaments 
longer than the anthers, puberulous below, entire, or bearing a tooth above the base; 
berry ovoid-oblong. 

The odor of the flowers is very penetrating. At a distance it resembles that of 
valerian, but at close range it is rank and overpowering, whence the name Cestrum 
foetidissimum applied to this species by Jacquin. This plant is of West Indian origin; 
it is widely cultivated in the Tropics. It was introduced into Guam many years ago 
from the Philippines. A large bush of it grows on each side of the door of the 
church at Agana, the odor from which at night is diffused over the greater part of 
the city. 

REFERENCES : 

Cestrum nocturnum L. Sp. PL 1: 191. 1753. 
Cestrum pallidum. INKBERRY. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tintan-China, i. e., " Chinese-ink berry " (Guam). 
A glabrous shrub 1.5 to 2.5 meters high. Branches terete; leaves alternate, ellip- 
tical-oblong or oblong-ovate, blunt-pointed, petidlate, green above, paler beneath, 
glabrous, 5 to 10 cm. long by 3.5 cm. broad; racemes cymose, with rather long 
peduncles, axillary and terminal; flowers nearly sessile, small, about 12 mm. long; 
corolla tubular, clavate, the lobes very short, rounded, recurved; stamens 5 or 6, 
included, alternating with the corolla lobes, inserted near the throat, filaments 
usually about as long as the anthers; pistil 1, style long and slender, slightly 
exserted, stigma capitate; berry ovoid, fleshy, about the size of a poke berry, filled 
with purple juice, few-seeded; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth short and 
rounded, ciliolate. 

I am not quite certain as to the identity of this plant. It corresponds very closely 
with the description given by Grisebach of Cestrum pallidum Lam. In Guam the 
flowers are white. They are day-blooming and have a slight fragrance of C. noctur- 
num. . In DeCandolle's Prodromus it is stated that the berries are poisonous, but 
this is probably a mistake, since they are an important article of food for the pigeons 
and other fruit-eating birds of Guam, by means of which the plant has been spread 
all over the island. It is of comparatively recent introduction. None of the early 
collectors mention it. The berries of the allied Cestrum lanatum of Mexico yield a 
black dye. 

REFERENCES: 

Cestrum pallidum Lam. Encyc. 1: 688. 1783. 
Ceylon moss. See Gracilaria confervoides under Algae. 
Cha. The name in Guam for tea. 

Cha cimarron (Philippines). See Ehretia microphylla. 
Chaca (Guam), Nephrolepis acuta. See under Ferns. 
Chaetochloa glauca aurea. GOLDEN FOXTAIL. 

Family Poaceae. 

A pale-green, erect, annual grass, having a simple, dense, cylindrical, spike-like 
panicle. Spikelets articulated on very short pedicels, 1 or 2 flowered, ovate; glumes 
awnless; first empty glume short; flowering glume and palea obtuse, finally hard 
and shining or tranversely wrinkled; numerous involucral bristles under each 
spikelet. A cosmopolitan grass with flat leaves scabrous on the edges and often ciliate 
with a few long hairs, common in waste places and in the borders of cultivation; 
good for fodder. Collected in Guam by Lesson. 
REFERENCES: 

Chaetochloa glauca aurea (Hochst. ). 
Setaria aurea Hochst. A. Br. Flora. 24: 276. 1841. 

Setaria glauca aurea K. Sch. in K. Sch. & Laut, Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. in 
der Siidsee 180. 1901. 

Grisebach, Flora of the British West Indies, p. 443, 1864. 



224 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Chag-ua (Guam). 

General name for "plant" in the vernacular of the island. 
Chaguan humatag- (Guam) . A sedge, Cyperus rotundus. 
Chaguan lemae (Guam). 

A sedge, Kyllinga monocephala; so called from the fancied resemblance of its heads 
to miniature breadfruits (lemae). 
Chaguan-tais. See Halodule uninervis. 
Chara (Guam). Sea purslane, Sesuvium portutacastrum. 
Chara fibrosa. See Algse. 
Charcoal. 

The principal trees which furnish wood for making charcoal are the lemoncito 
( Triphasia trifoliata) , the mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata), the adban ( Eugenia sp. ), 
and an unidentified tree abundant on Orote Peninsula called " laldhag." 
Chavica be tie. Same as Piper betle. 

Chenopodiaceae. GOOSEPOOT FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the two following species: 

Chenopodium album. LAMBS-QUARTERS. 

Family Chenopodiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Cenizo (Spanish); Quelites (Mexico); Kiletes (Guam). 
An erect herbaceous weed, with rhombic-ovate or lanceolate, dentate, sinuate, or 
lobed leaves; flowers small, green, sessile; spikes terminal or axillary, often panicled; 
calyx segments usually inclosing the utricle, strongly keeled in fruit; seed horizontal, 
black, shining, firmly attached to the pericarp; embryo a complete ring. 

Spread over the world in temperate and tropical regions, in Guam growing in 
waste places. The young shoots are cooked like spinach. 
REFERENCES: 

Chenopodium album L. Sp. PI. 1 : 219. 1753. 

Chenopodium ambrosioides. MEXICAN TEA. 

Family Chenopodiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Apasotes, Alapasotes, Pasotes (Guam, Philippines); Basote 
(Porto Rico); Epazote, Yepazotl (Mexico); Ambrosine, The du Mexique 

(France). 

An erect puberulous, aromatic plant. Stem angled; leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse, sinuately toothed, the upper ones entire; 
flowers minute, in slender axillary clusters and terminal simple or panicled spikes; 
sepals inclosing the utricle; seed horizontal, smooth, shining, the margin obtuse. 

A species probably of Mexican origin, now widely spread over the warmer regions 
of the world. In Mexico a kind of tea is made of it. In France it is cultivated and 
is known as " the du Mexique." In Guam it is found in many gardens together 
with manzanilla ( Chrysanthemum indicum), hierba de Santa Maria (Artemisia vulgaris) , 
an is (Foeniculum foeniculum), and hierba buena (Mentha arvensis). 
REFERENCES: 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Sp. PI. 1 : 219. 1753. 

Cherry pepper. See Capsicum annuum cerasiforme. 

Chestnut, Polynesian. See Bocoa edulw. 

Chichitun (Guam). Local name for Achyranthes aspera. 

Chico (Guam, Philippines). Local name for the sapodilla (Sapota zapotilla)* 

Chile or Sile (Philippines) . See Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens. 

China dulce (Porto Rico). See Citrus aurantium sinensis. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 225 

China-berry tree. See Melia azedarach. 

Chinese-ink berry. See Oestrum pallidum. 

Chocolate, chocolate bean or nut, chocolate tree. See Tfieobroma cacao. 

Chopag (Guam). 

One of the principal timber trees of the island, Ochrocarpus obovalis. 
Chosg-6 or Chosg-u (Guam) . 

A small-sized euphorbiaceous tree, Glochidion marianum, yielding very strong wood 
which is used by the natives of Guam for making cart shafts. 
Chotda (Guam). 

Vernacular name for banana plant or green banana; the ripe fruit is called " aga." 
Chrysanthemum indicum. INDIAN CHRYSANTHEMUM. FALSE CAMOMILE. 

Family Asteraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Manzanilla (Guam, Philippines); Rosa de Japon (Philippines); 
Giil-daoonde, Gul daudi (Hindustan). 

This well-known cultivated plant is used medicinally by the natives of Guam, who, 
like the Filipinos, erroneously apply to it the Spanish name for camomile. It is a 
perennial composite with alternate, divided leaves and blooms during the cold season. 
Involucre hemispherical, composed of imbricated scales 'which are membranous at 
the edges; receptacle naked; pappus none. It was described by Padre Blanco in the 
first edition of his Flora de Filipinas (p. 631) under the name of matricaria 
chamomilla. 

The flowers in the form of an infusion are used as a remedy for intermittent fevers, 
and are valued by women as a remedy for hysteria and monthly irregularities. 
REFERENCES: 

Chrysanthemum indicum L. Sp. PI. 2: 889. 1753. 

Chry sodium aureum. Same as Acrostichum aureum. See under Ferns. 
Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Same as Andropogon aciculatus. 
Chupa (Guam). The vernacular name for tobacco. 
Chuti or Chiute (Guam). 

A shrub or small tree, having white gamopetalous flowers, referred by Gaudichaud 
to the Apocynaceae. Not identified. 
Cidra (Spanish). 

The Citron. See Citrus medica. The name is also sometimes incorrectly applied to 
large, thick-skinned, citron-like shaddocks (Citrus decumana). 
Cinamomo (Guam, Philippines). The henna bush, Lawsonia inermis. 
Citron. See Citrus medica. 
Citronella oil. See Andropogon nardus. 
Citrullus citrullus. See Gardens. 
Citrus. ORANGES. CITRONS. LEMONS. LIMES. 

The existing classification of the fruits belonging to the genus Citrus is far from 
satisfactory. So many intergrading varieties of oranges, citrons, lemons, limes, pome- 
los, shaddocks, and their allies occur that it is difficult to delimit them and impossible 
to determine their origin. Thus the lemon, lime, and citron are by some authors con- 
sidered distinct species and by others subspecies or varieties of the same species 
(Citrus medica L. ). They are very different from one another and grow perfectly 
true to seed; so that, if they are simply varieties of the same species, they have 
probably developed under widely different conditions and in regions remote from 
one another. The cultivated forms of the true citron closely resemble the shaddock 
in their thick rind, while the acid lime, which is spherical in shape and smooth- 
skinned more nearly approaches the orange, differing radically from the lemon 
which resembles the typical citron in its oblong shape and in having a nipple at the 
977305 15 



226 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

apex of the fruit. The acid lime (a fruit very distinct from the sweet lime, C. 
limetta W. & A. ) has been referred by Engler to Citrus hystrix DC. , while Roxburgh 
classifies it together with the sour lemons of India under the general name Citrus 
acida. 

Whatever may be the correct botanical names of the forms of this genus, it is cer- 
tain that the following fruits grow on the island of Guam: 

1. The wild orange, with saponaceous leaves and fruit, identical with the indig- 
enous " moli " of Samoa and Fiji. See Citrus aurantium saponacea. 

2. The cultivated sweet orange. See Citrus aurantium sinensis. 

3. The fragrant bergamot, which grows spontaneously on the island. See Citrus 
bergamia. 

4. The tangerine orange, sparingly cultivated. See Citrus nobilis. 

5. The citron, the thick rind of which is preserved by the natives. See Citrus 
medica. 

6. The lemon, of oval shape, and terminating in a nipple, called "limon real" by 
the natives of Guam. See Citrus medica limon. 

7. The acid lime, small, spherical, with a thin, smooth skin, called ''limon " by the 
natives of Guam. See Citrus hystrix acida. 

8. The shaddock, which often grows to a great size. See Citrus decumana. 
For the citrus-like shrub called "lemoncito" see Triphasia trifoliata. 

Citrus aurantium saponacea Safford, subsp. nov. SOAP ORANGE. 

Family Rutaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kaliei, Kahet (Guam); Kahel, Cahel, Cajel (Philippines); 
Naranjo agrio, Naranjo cimarron (Spanish); Moli, Moli-vao (Samoa); Moli, 
Moli-kurukuru (Fiji). 

The wild orange of Guam is identical with the " rnoli " of Fiji and Samoa, and, as 
in those island groups, it is apparently indigenous or of prehistoric introduction. It 
is not edible. The saponaceous fruit is used by the natives of Guam not only for 
washing the hair, as in several other Pacific islands, but also as a substitute for soap 
in washing clothing. The macerated leaves also form a lather with water. They 
are fragrant, and may be used, as in Fiji, for washing the hair. Seemann & desig- 
nates this orange as Citrus vulgaris Risso, and says that it is called the "bitter or 
Seville orange " by the white settlers. It can not, however, be identical with the 
cultivated variety known under this name, which is identified with Citrus bigaradia 
Duhamel, and called by Engler c the subspecies amara of Citrus aurantium L. 
That recognized form, the pomeranze of the Germans, is the source of orange marma- 
lade and of the fragrant Neroli oil, so extensively used in perfumery. In noting the 
distribution of the subspecies amara Engler does not mention the islands of the 
Pacific Ocean; and in Schumann and Lauterbach d the species is not mentioned, 
though the authors are careful to note other plants occurring in the Marianne 
Islands, and they could not fail to know of the occurrence of an indigenous orange 
identical with that recorded by Seemann from Fiji and by Reinecke from Samoa. e 

The petioles of this wild orange are usually broadly winged and the leaves are 
aromatic. The fruit has very much the appearance of the cultivated sweet orange. 

Flora Indica, vol. 3, p. 391, 1832. 

& Flora Vitiensis, p. 32, 1865 to 1873. 

c Nat. Pflanzenfamilien Teil 3, abt. 4, p, 198, 1896. 

d Flora der deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Siidsee, 1901. 

Citrus vulgaris Risso. Miichtige Baume im Busch der Berge, Fruchte mit fester, 
gelber Schale, die nach dem abfallen austrocknen und steinhart werden. Der Baum 
scheint auf den Inseln, wie auch auf Viti heimisch da er auf alien Inseln bis hoch in 
die Berge hinaufsteigt. Der ausgepresste Fruchtsaft, sowie die macerirte Blatter, 
schaumen beim Reiben und werden als Kopfwaschwasser, sowie besonders zum 
Auswaschen des Kalkes aus den Haaren, von den Eingeborenen viel benutzt. 
(F. Reinecke, Die Flora der Samoa-Inseln, Engler' s Jahrb., vol. 25, pp. 642-3, 1898.) 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 227 

It is of a light yellow color when ripe, and the skin hardens and becomes shell-like 
on drying. 

In Guam it is a common sight to see scores of women and girls standing waist deep 
in the river with an oblong shallow wooden tray (batea) before them either afloat 
or resting on a rock. On this tray the linen is spread, rubbed with orange pulp, and 
vigorously scrubbed with a corncob. Often the entire surface of the river where the 
current is sluggish is covered with decaying oranges. In Samoa the name for the 
wild orange, "moli," has been applied to soap, and the introduced sweet oranges are 
distinguished as "moli-'aina," or "edible moli." 

Citrus aurantium sinensis. SWEET ORANGE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Cahet, Kahet (Guam); Cahe"l, Kahel, Dalandan (Philippines); 
Cajel (Mexico); Moli-'aina (Samoa) ; Moli in Tahiti (Fiji); China dulce (Porto 
Rico); Naranjo chino, Naranjo dulce (Spanish); Naranghi (Hindustan). 

An introduced fruit tree. Young shoots and leaves glabrous; spines axillary, soli- 
tary; leaves alternate, 1-foliolate, coriaceous, persistent, leaflet elliptic or ovate, 
acute, obtuse, or acuminate; petiole often broadly winged, especially in young 
shoots; flowers white, sweet scented; ovary many-celled; style simple, stout decidu- 
ous; stigma capitate; ovules 4 to 8 in each cell; stamens 20 to 60, inserted round a 
large disk, filaments variously connate; fruit globose, pulp sweet, yellow, or some- 
times red. 

Nearly all the orange trees in Guam are seedlings. The fruit usually supplied to 
visiting ships, grown in the vicinity of Agat and Sumay, is inferior. Good varie- 
ties are produced in Mataguak, Yigo, and Finaguayog, in the northern portion of the 
island, and in Yona, on the highland near the east coast. They are apparently free 
from disease and insect pests. Navel oranges were imported by the writer from Cal- 
ifornia, and were left by him in a thriving condition. The climate and the calcare- 
ous soil of the island seem to be very favorable for all varieties of citrus fruits. 
Oranges are easily propagated by cuttings or by layers, but the most satisfactory 
method is by budding. For this purpose seedlings of lemons or bitter oranges, which 
grow spontaneously -on the island and are free from disease, may be used for stocks. 
They should be about a year old. February and March appear to be the best months 
for this purpose in countries with a climate like that of Guam.^ Two crops of 
oranges are usually produced each year. The blossoms of the first crop appear in 
February, and the fruit is fully ripe the first part of November. The tree again flow- 
ers at the beginning of the rainy season, in midsummer, and the fruit is ripe in 
March and April. Systematic orange culture has never been attempted on the island, 
but nearly every native has a tree or two on his ranch. There is now a ready market 
for all the good oranges that are grown. More extensive cultivation of this fruit 
would surely be profitable and would require little care and labor. 
REFERENCES : 

Citrus aurantium sinensis L. Sp. PL 2: 783. 1753. 
Citrus sinensis Pers. Syn. 2 : 74. 1807. 

Citrus bergamia. BERGAMOT. 

LOCAL NAMES. Limon china (Guam). 

In Guam this variety grows to the size of an apple tree. Its fruit is somewhat 
smaller than that of the sweet orange, and has a smooth, pale yellow rind and acidu- 
lous pulp. The entire plant, leaves, rind, and pulp have the agreeable aroma of 
citronella. The leaves have winged petioles and are oblong in form, acute or obtuse. 
The flowers are white, very fragrant, and are smaller than those of the sweet orange. 

The rind of the fruit is the source of the oil known in commerce as bergamot, 
which is so much used in the manufacture of perfumery. It is obtained by mechan- 

Journal of the Agro-Hort. Society, vol. 14, p. 199, quoted in Firminger's Manual 
of Gardening for Bengal and Upper India, p. 231, 1890. 



228 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

ical means with an instrument called the ccuelle a piques. This is formed like a saucer, 
the bottom of which is covered with sharp projections and is deepened at its center 
into a tube, so that it has the shape of a funnel with its tube closed at the end. The 
peel is held in the hand and rubbed over the pins, by which the oil vessels of the 
entire surface are punctured; the liberated oil collects in the tube, and is emptied 
from time to time into another vessel, where it may be. easily separated from the 
liquid accompanying it. 

In Guam the natives use the fruit only as a hair wash. It does not produce a 
lather like the bitter orange, but cleanses the hair, which is afterwards washed thor- 
oughly with water, and imparts to it a pleasant fragrance. The tree has spread all 
over the island and is common along the roadsides and at the edge of the woods. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus bergamia Wight & Am. Prod. 98. 1834. 

Citrus aurantium bergamia Duham. Arb. ed. nov. 7: 98. t. 26. f. 3. 1819. 
Citrus decuxnana. SHADDOCK. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lalanha, Lalangha (Guam); Moli tonga (Samoa); Lucban, 
Lulsa (Philippines); Pompelmoes (Dutch); Pomplemousse (French); Pum- 
melo (Brit. India). 

The shaddock may possibly be a variety of the orange & instead of a distinct species. 
It grows to the size of a tree. Young shoots pubescent; leaflets large, ovate-oblong, 
frequently emarginate and pubescent beneath; petiole broadly winged; flowers 
large, white; fruit large, pale yellow, globose or pyriforrn; rind thick; pulp pale, 
yellow-pink or red, usually sweet, sometimes acid, the vesicles distinct, easily sepa- 
rable from one another. 

In Guam several varieties of shaddocks are to be found, varying in size and shape 
and in the color of the pulp. The natives make little or no use of them. They are 
eaten by Europeans, but their flavor is not especially good. Some of the varieties 
have a very thick skin like that of the citron, and are called "cidra," or "setla" 
by the natives. One variety has pink pulp. They are all inferior to the thin- 
skinned forms sold in our markets as "grape-fruit" and "pomelos," which do not 
occur in Guam. This fruit owes its common English name to Captain Shaddock, 
who introduced it into the West Indies from China. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus decumana (L. ) Murr. Syst. ed. 13. 580. 1774. 
Citrus aurantium grandis L. Sp. PI. 2: 738. 1753. 
Citrus aurantium decumana L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1101. 1763. 

Citrus hystrix acida. LIME. 

LOCAL NAMES. Limon (Guam); Dalayap (Philippines); Tipolo (Samoa); Lima 
(Ceylon); Lemon Nipis (Malayan). 

A shrub or small tree with elliptic-oblong or oval leaflet, petiole winged, many 
times shorter than the leaflet; flowers white, fragrant, often 4-petaled; fruit usually 
small, globose or ovoid, yellow, with pale, sour pulp. Considered by Hooker c to be 
a variety of Citrus medica, and by Engler^ to be a subspecies of C. hystrix. In Guam 
the fruit is small and always globose, never having the terminal nipple characteristic 
of the lemons on the island. 

The lime is especially well adapted for hedges. It grows readily either from seed 
or from cuttings. It sends up stout vertical shoots from the roots and forms dense 
thickets if left undisturbed. It produces continuously in Guam, the bushes bearing 
both flowers and fruit at the same time The fruit is the principal source of the well- 
known lime juice of commerce. In Guam it is very common. The natives use it 

See Sppns' Encyclopaedia, p. 1457, 1882. 

&Bonavia, Cultivated Oranges and Lemons, p. 223, 1890. 

c Flora, British India, vol. i, p. 515, 1872. 

d Engler und Prantl, Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Theil 3, Abt. 4, p. 200, 1897. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 229 

for flavoring some of their dishes, squeezing a little of the juice on beef and venison, 
and sometimes scraping off the outer rind and preserving the fruit in sirup. The 
fruit is well suited to pickling. A pleasant drink is made of it with sugar and water, 
and a bit of the fresh aromatic peeling, squeezed so as to expel the oil, is a fine addi- 
tion to an American "cocktail." 

Lime juice is considered a valuable refrigerant, tonic, and antiscorbutic. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus hystrix acida (Roxb.) Engler in Engler & Prantl. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 

3 4 : 200. 1896. 

Citrus adda Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3 : 390. 1832. 

Citrus medica. CITRON. 

LOCAL NAMES. Setlas (Guam); Cidro (Spanish); Citronnier (French); Moli- 

'ovi'ovia, Moli-apatupatu (Samoa). 

A shrub or small tree flowering and fruiting almost continuously throughout the 
year; young shoots glabrous, purplish; leaflet glabrous, oblong; petiole winged or 
not, short; flowers sometimes unisexual, numerous, petals sometimes pinkish; fruit 
large, oblong or obovoid, terminal nipple obtuse; rind usually warty, thick, tender, 
aromatic; pulp scanty, subacid. 

The fruit of this plant, called "setlas" by theChamorros in imitation of the Span- 
ish "cidra," is not much used on the island. Sometimes, however, the rind is pre- 
served in sirup, when it has the taste of the ordinary citron of commerce. In 
preparing it the outer surface is first scraped and the inner pulpy core removed. 

This species takes its botanical name from ancient Media, where it was described as 
abundant three centuries before the Christian era. Perfumes are yielded both by the 
flowers and by the rind of the fruit, the former, resembling neroli, by distillation, 
and the latter, known as cedrat, both by distillation and by expression after the 
manner of bergamot. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus medica L. Sp. PL 2: 782. 1753. 
Citrus medica limon. LEMON. 

LOCAL NAMES. Limon real (Guam). 

A small tree with glabrous young branches; leaflet ovate, petiole margined or 
winged; flowers white tinged with reddish, fragrant; fruit medium-sized, ovoid with 
nipple at the end; pulp abundant, acid. 

This fruit is valuable for its acid juice and for the oil obtained from its rind, known 
as the "essence of lemon." The latter may be obtained by scraping and pressing or 
by distillation. The former, together with lime juice, is the source of citric acid. 
Lemon oil is of a pale yellow color, fragrant, and aromatic. It is used for flavoring 
and in the manufacture of perfumery, especially of eau de Cologne. 

In Guam lemons are abundant and of excellent quality. They grow almost spon- 
taneously, sending up shoots from the roots, and forming excellent, dense hedges. 
If left to themselves they grow into impenetrable thickets. They flower and bear 
continuously throughout the year, great quantities of them falling to the ground and 
going to waste. They are not used much by the natives except for lemonade and 
for seasoning meats. The fresh peel, like that of limes, is squeezed into " cocktails" 
for the sake of the aromatic flavor of the oil. Like the citron the rind is sometimes 
scraped and the fruit preserved in syrup. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus limon (L. ) Risso, Ann. Mus. Par. 20:201, 1813, as Citrus limonum. 
Citrus medica limon L. Sp. PL 2 : 782. 1753. 
Citrus nobilis. TANGERINE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kahel na dikiki (Guam). 

A moderate-sized tree introduced recently into Guam. It has small fruit of a red- 
dish-orange color, spherical in shape and flattened on the top. The skin is very thin 



230 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

and is easily separated from the pulp. The pulp is reddish and of a peculiar odor 
which is shared by the rind and leaf. The leaves are small and usually pointed. 

Several trees are now growing in the garden of Don Jose Herrero in San Ramon, 
near the southern edge of Agana. The fruit, though not equal to the best tangerines 
of our markets, has a good flavor. 
REFERENCES: 

Citrus nobilis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 2: 466. 1790. 
Citrus vulgar is Seem an. See Citrus aurantium. 
Cladiuxn g-audichaudii. TWIG-RUSH. 

Family Cyperaceae. 

A leafy sedge with compressed two-edged culms; leaves (equitant) straddling, in 
two vertical ranks, linear, sword-shaped, rigid; peduncles bearing many spikelets, 
growing from the axils of the upper leaves in threes or more; panicle much branched; 
spikelets solitary, one-flowered; glumes few, disposed nearly in two vertical ranks, 
keeled, boat-shaped; hypogynous bristles or scales wanting; stamens 3, exserted; 
style 3-cleft, conically thickened at the base, silky-hirsute; achene sessile, bony, 
obovate-elliptical, obscurely 3-angled, beaked with the persistent silky-hirsute base 
of the style. 

This species was described by Gaudichaud from a specimen collected by him in 
in the Marianne Islands in 1819. He says that it closely resembles in habit " Vin- 
ccntia angustifolia," of Hawaii, and the structure of the spike scarcely differs from 
that of Gahnia. 
REFERENCES: 

Cladium gaudichaudii, 

Baumea mariscoides Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 417. 1826. 

Cladium mariscoides Villar in Blanco, Fl. Philipp. ed. 3. 4: Nov. App. 309. 

1880. 

The genus Baumea has been merged by Hooker into that of Cladium on account 
of the affinities of certain Australian species with that genus. Hillebrand, writing 
on the Hawaiian species, thinks that Baumea and Vincentia might well be joined, 
but that both ought to stand apart from Cladium. The treatment here followed, 
however, is that of Hooker and other recent authors, but the transfer of Baumea 
mariscoides to Cladium necessitates a change in the specific name in order not to con- 
flict with the name of another plant, Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. 

Cladium mariscoides F. Villar. Same as Cladium gaudichaudii. 

Claoxylon marianum. CLAOXYLON. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Panao (Guam). 

A handsome tree having loose axillary racemes of small dioecious flowers, followed 
by 3-coccous capsules. Branches rather stout, terete, smooth, densely leafy; leaves 
alternate, petioles firm, glabrous, 2 to 3 times shorter than the blade (3 to 5.5 cm.); 
blade membranous, opaque, olivaceous, scaberrulous, when young sparingly ap- 
pressed-pu bescent and dark violet, oblong-elliptical, shortly cuspidate-acuminate or 
somewhat obtuse, with the base acute or subobtuse (8 to 16 cm. long, 4 to 9 cm. 
broad), margin distantly and obtusely denticulate, secondary nerves 7 to 10 on each 
side of the midrib, transverse veins broadly reticulate, the smaller ones not conspicu- 
ous; inflorescence sparingly appressed-pubescent, of a waxy texture, bluish-green; 
racemes of moderate length, with fascicles growing from axils of bracts; male flowers 
with about 25 stamens, filaments distinct, anthers rather broad, 2-celled, erect, adnate 
to the top of the filament; pistillode absent; perianth divisions normally 3, valvate 
in bud; female flowers with perianth divisions petal -like; ovary 3-celled, styles 3, 
free at the base, not bifid, lacerately stigmatose. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 231 

This tree was first described from specimens collected by Gaudichaud in Guam. 
It closely resembles the manono, or anei, of Tahiti (Claoxylon ta'itense). 
REFERENCES: 

Claoxylon marianum Muell. Arg. in DC. Prod. 15 2 : 783. 1866. 
Clavellina (Porto Rico). See Poinciana pulcherrima. 

Cleome viscosa. SPIDER-FLOWER. 

Family Capparidaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Mongos paloma (Guam). 

A common weed with clammy stems, 3 to 5-foliolate leaves, and yellow 4-petaled 
flowers, widely spread in the Tropics. Stems covered with simple viscid-glandular 
hairs; leaflets ovate or obovate, equaling or shorter than the petioles, upper ones 
usually subsessile; flowers racemed, long-pediceled; sepals 4; petals imbricate in the 
bud, reflexed; stamens 12 to 20, sessile on disk; ovary sessile with a short gynophore; 
style short or wanting; capsule glandular-pubescent, 5 to 8.5 cm. long, striate, nar- 
rowed to the tip, the two valves separating from the seed-bearing placentas; seeds 
small, granular. 

The seeds are sold in the bazaars of India, where they are used by the natives in 
their curries. They are also used medicinally, powdered and mixed with sugar, to 
expel intestinal worms, and externally as a rubefacient in the form of a poultice, 
bruised with vinegar, lime juice, or hot water, for the same purposes as a mustard 
plaster. The whole plant has a sharp taste not unlike mustard and in some parts of 
India is known as "wild mustard." It is sometimes eaten boiled with red peppers 
and salt. 

In Guam the natives call it "pigeon pea," from its resemblance to Phaseolus mungo. 
It was first collected on the island by Lesson, botanist of the Astrolabe, in 1828. 
REFERENCES: 

Cleome viscosa L. Sp. PL 2: 672. 1753. 

Clerodendrum inerme. SEASIDE CLERODENDRON. 

Family Verbenaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lodiigao (Guam); Baliskug (Visayan); Aloalo-tai (Samoa). 
A branching, often rambling, evergeen shrub, common near the coast, bearing 
clusters of white, tubular, honeysuckle-like flowers with exserted stamens. Leaves 
opposite, rarely ternate, obovate or elliptic, subobtuse, entire, glabrate; cymes axil- 
lary with small linear bracts; calyx campanulate, minutely 5-toothed, in fruit some- 
what enlarged, subtruncate, closely embracing the base of the drupe; corolla white, 
tube long and slender, limb 5-fid, lobes oblong; stamens 4, anthers long-exserted, 
filaments usually reddish; ovary imperfectly 4-celled, 4-ovuled; drupe separating 
into 4 woody nutlets; seeds oblong. 

This plant is widely spread in the Western Pacific, the Malay Archipelago, the 
Andaman Islands, India, Ceylon, and tropical Australia. Its Samoan name signifies 
"seaside Prerrma." The wood, the root, and the leaves are bitter, and are used by 
the natives of Guam, the Philippines, and Samoa as a remedy for intermittent fevers. 
The leaves, made into poultices, applied to swellings, prevent suppuration. 

A second species or variety of Clerodendrum is found in Guam with narrower 
leaves, possibly Clerodendrum nereifolium Wall. The leaves of this plant are pre- 
ferred by the natives to the above as a febrifuge. 
REFERENCES: 

Clerodendrum inerme Gaertn. Fruct. 1 : 271. 1788. 
Climbing- plants. 
GROWING WITHOUT CULTIVATION: 

Abrus abrus. Kolalis halom-tano, coral-pea vine, common in thickets. 
Argyreia tiliaefolia. Aldlag (plant), Abubo (flower), twining among bushes, 
a lavender-flowered morning-glory. 



232 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Climbing plants Continued. 

Cacara erosa. Hikama, the yam bean, a leguminous plant having an edible tuber. 

Calamus sp. Behuko halom-tano, a climbing palm, like the rattan of commerce, 
but not utilized. 

Canavali ensiforme. Akankan, sword-bean, a forest climber. 

Gassy tha filiformis. Mayagas, a wiry leafless parasite, common in thickets. 

Clitoria ternatea. Bukike, Capa de la reina, the blue pea. 

Cyclophorus adnascens. A climbing fern with small, simple, entire fronds. 

Davallia solida. Pugua machena, a fern with finely divided glossy fronds, climb- 
ing on tree trunks. 

Dioscorea spinosa. Gado, a wild yam, armed with wiry branching thorns, form- 
ing impenetrable thickets. 

Dischidia puberula. An asclepiad, growing on forest trees. 

Guilandina crista. Pakao, Unas de gato, a rambling leguminous shrub, profusely 
branching, armed with recurved thorns. 

Humata heterophylla. A fern with simple fronds, the sterile entire, linear- 
lanceolate, the fertile pinnately lobed. 

Ipomoea spp. Several species abundant, twining in thickets. 

Lens phaseoloid.es. Gage (plant), bayog (seed), a giant climbing leguminous 
plant, common in forest. 

Lygodium scandens. Alambrillo, a delicate fern with wiry stems, common in 

^ marshes, twining about reeds and Acrostichum aureum. 

Operculina peltata. A morning-glory with peltate leaves, twining among under- 
growth. 

Phymatodes phymatodes. A climbing fern with large, leathery, lobed fronds, 
growing on tree trunks, walls, and tiled roofs. 

Quamoclit quamoclit. Cabello del angel, scarlet-flowered cypress vine; escaped 
from cultivation, but well established on the island. 

Stizolobium giganteum. Sea-bean, a leguminous climber with papilionaceous 
flowers and brown pods. 

PLANTED IN GARDENS: 

Antig-onon leptopus. Cadena de amor, an ornamental plant with rose-colored 

flowers growing in racemes. 
Botor tetragonoloba. Seguidillas, a leguminous plant with edible pods, which 

appear to be adorned with four longitudinal frills. 
Cucurbita spp. Kalamasas, gourds and squashes. 
Dioscorea spp. Dago, Nika, edible yams. 
Dolichos spp. Edible Fabaceae. 
!Lagenaria lagenaria. Tagoa, the bottle gourd. 
Momordica charantia. Balsamina, the balsam pear. 
Piper betle. Pupulo, the betel pepper, leaves chewed with Areca nut and lime 

by the natives. 
Telosma odoratissima. Mil leguas, a very fragrant asclepiad. 

Clitoria ternatea. BLUE PEA. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Bukike (Guam); Calocanting (Philippines); Capa de la Reina 

(Spanish); Bejuco de Conchitas (Porto Rico). 

A twining leguminous plant with pinnate leaves and large showy deep-blue flow- 
ers. Stems slender, downy; petioles short, leaflets 5 to 7, ovate or oblong, obtuse, 
subcoriaceous; stipules minute, linear; flowers solitary, bracteoles large, roundish; 
calyx tubular, 5-fid, lobes lanceolate, half as long as the tube; standard of the corolla 
bright blue, with orange center; pod linear, pubescent, 6 to 10-seeded. 

A plant widely distributed throughout the Tropics, common in the hedgerows of 
both the East and West Indies. It has established itself in Guam and is found near 
the sites of abandoned ranches. It bears transplanting, flowers profusely, and is one 
ot the most showy plants of the garden. The seeds were first taken to England from 
the island of Ternate, one of the Moluccas, from which its specific name is taken. 
The powdered ripe seeds act as an aperient and the root as a powerful cathartic. 
REFERENCES: 

Clitoria ternatea L. Sp. L. 2: 753. 1753. 
Club-rushes. General name for species of Fimbristylis. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLIII. 




COCOS NUCIFERA, THE COCONUT, INFLORESCENCE, SHOWING UNOPENED, HORN- 
LIKE SPATHE AND BRANCHING SPADIX. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX 




FEMALE FLOWER AND MALE FLOWERS OF THE COCONUT PALM (Cocos NUCIFERA). 

NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 233 

Clusiaceae. BALSAM-TREE FAMILY. 

Representatives of this family growing in Guam are Ochrocarpus obovalis and Calo- 
phyllum inophyllum. 
Coconut palm. See Cocos nucifera. 

Cocos nucifera. COCONUT. PLATES XLIII, XLIV. 

Family Phoenicaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Niyog (Guam); Niog (Philippines); Nior, Nyor, Kalapa (Malay 
Archipelago); Niu (Polynesia); Coco (Spanish); Kokospalme (German). 

A pinnate-leaved palm with a straight or curved trunk marked with ring-like leaf 
scars, which are not prominent, and rising from an inclined swollen base. Inflo- 
rescence a branching spadix, inclosed at first in a cylindrical sheath or spathe (PI. 
XLIII) which splits longitudinally; branches of the inflorescence not subtended by 
additional spathes; flowers monoecious, the branches of the spadix bearing through- 
out the greater part of their length numerous small male flowers and near their base 
usually a single female flower much larger than the male (PI. XLIV); male flowers 
3-petaled and 3-sepaled, with 6 stamens united at the base, and a rudimentary pistil 
or small central point; female flowers 6-petaled, usually accompanied by two adja- 
cent male flowers; ovary 3-celled, but usually 2 of the cells becoming abortive; fruit 
more or less triangular, consisting of a hard endocarp (shell) perforated by three 
foramina, inclosing an endosperm (the kernel or "meat"), which is rich in oil and is 
covered by a thin, brown, closely adhering testa. The endosperm when young is of 
the consistency of the albumen of a soft-boiled egg and surrounds an opalescent fluid 
composed principally of water and sugar. As it grows older it becomes firmer and 
finally assumes a hard and almost horny consistency, the inclosed water thickening 
and becoming gradually absorbed. Outside of the shell there is a thick, fibrous meso- 
carp (husk), which yields the "coir" of commerce, the surface of which is covered 
with a smooth, thin, hard, tough epicarp. 

In germinating, the inner end of the embryo, an extension of the cotyledon, is 
developed into a special absorbing organ (the "apple"). From the outer end of the 
embryo, situated below one of the openings at the apex of the shell, grow the plu- 
mule and the roots. The specialized cotyledon at first attacks and proceeds to digest 
the part of the kernel adjacent to the embryo. It continues to grow until it fills the 
entire cavity of the nut, the kernel of which becomes soft. The roots push forth 
and enter the soil before the kernel is totally absorbed, and finally the union between 
the young plant and the cotyledon is broken and it begins an independent existence. 
The function performed by the husk is protective. It is of low specific gravity and 
keeps the nut afloat if it falls into the sea, so that the nut may be transported from 
shore to shore by ocean currents. 

As shown by Cook, the coconut is, in all probability, of American origin, 6 but it 
became widely distributed throughout the warmer regions of the Pacific, the Malay 
Archipelago, and the East Indies in prehistoric times. c It is of very wide distribu- 
tion in the Tropics. It flourishes best near the seashore and requires plenty of sun- 
shine and free circulation of air. Dense plantations of coconuts have been growing 
for centuries in the same spots on the coast of Guam (PI. I), while groves planted in 
the interior sooner or later exhaust the soil and become spindling and unproductive. 
These seaside groves yield abundantly; and while good results are obtained from 
plantations in the interior, yet the soil will not continue to produce there indefinitely 

"See Winton, anatomy of the fruit of the Cocos nucifera, Am. Journ. Sci., ser. 4, 
vol. 12, p. 265, 1901. 

&Cook, origin and distribution of the Cocoa palm,ppntr. Nat. Herb., vol. 7, p. 257,1901. 

c Another interesting example of the wide dissemination of a plant belonging to an 
American genus is that of Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, all save one of whose congeners 
are indigenous to the Andes, but which occurs in the Hawaiian Islands, Pitcairn, 
Rarotonga, the Bonin Islands, and the Liu-kiu group, near Formosa. 



234 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

unless artificially manured, and in such places renewals of old groves are unprofita- 
ble unless there is plenty of vacant space and the planter is prepared to devote several 
years to improvement of the soil. 

The first accurate description of the coconut was published by Dampier, from 
observations made by him in Guam in 1686. At the time of the discovery of the 
island, Magellan noted the occurrence of "cocchi," the oil of which, together with 
that of "giongioli," was used by the natives to anoint their bodies and their hair. 
(Pigafetta's Narrative.) Dampier compared the coconut palm with the "cabbage 
tree" (probably Roystonea oleracea) in its general appearance. He speaks of the 
large groves growing on the west coast of the island, and gives the following quaint 
description, which is marvelous for its accuracy: 

The Nut or Fruit grows at the head of the Tree, among the Branches and Clusters, 
10 to 12 in a Cluster. The Branch to which they grow is about the bigness of a Man's 
Arm, and as long, running small towards the end. It is of a yellow colour, full of 
Knots and very tough. The Nut is generally bigger than a Man's Head. The outer 
Rind is nearly two Inches thick, before you come to the Shell; the Shell it self is 
black, thick, and very hard. The Kernel in some Nuts is very thick, sticking to the 
inside of the Shell clear round, leaving a hollow in the middle of it, which contains 
about a Pint, more or less, according to the bigness of the Nut, for some are much 
bigger than others. 

This Cavity is full of sweet, delicate, wholesome and refreshing Water. While 
the Nut is growing, all the inside is full of this Water, without any Kernel at all; 
but as the Nut grows towards its Maturity, the Kernel begins to gather and settle 
round on the inside of the Shell, and is soft like Cream; and as the Nut ripens, it 
increaseth in substance and becomes hard. The ripe Kernel is sweet enough, but 
very hard to digest, therefore seldom eaten, unless by strangers, who know not the 
effects of it; but while it is young and soft like Pap, some Men will eat it, scraping 
it out with a Spoon, after they have drunk the Water that was within it. I like the 
Water best when the Nut is almost ripe, for it is then sweetest and briskest. 

When the Nuts are ripe and gathered, the outside Rind becomes of a brown rusty 
colour; so that one would think that they were dead and dry; yet they will sprout 
out like Onions, after they have been hanging in the Sun 3 or 4 Months, or thrown 
about in a House or Ship, and if planted afterwards in the Earth, they will grow up 
to a Tree. Before they thus sprout out, there is a small spungy round knob grows 
in the inside, which we call an Apple. This at first is no bigger than the top of 
ones finger, but increaseth daily, sucking up the Water till it is grown so big as to 
fill up the Cavity of the Coco-nut, and then it begins to sprout forth. By this time 
the Nut that was hard, begins to grow oily and soft, thereby giving passage to the 
Sprout that springs from the Apple, which Nature hath so contrived, that it points 
to the hole in the Shell, (of which there are three, till it grows ripe, just where it's 
fastened by its stalk to the Tree; but one of these holes remains open, even when it 
is ripe) through which it creeps and spreads forth its Branches [leaves]. You may 
let these teeming Nuts sprout out a foot and a half or two foot high before you plant 
them, for they will grow a great while like an Onion out of their own Substance. 

After describing at length the products obtainable from the sap, the kernel of the 
nut, the fiber of the husk, and the shell, Dampier concludes: 

I have been the longer on this subject, to give the Reader a particular Account of 
the use and profit of a Vegetable, which is possibly of all others the most generally 
serviceable to the conveniencies, as well as to the necessities of humane Life. Yet 
this Tree, that is of such great use, and esteemed so much in the East-Indies, is scarce 
regarded in the West-Indies, for want of the knowledge of the benefit which it may 
produce. And 'tis partly for the sake of my Country-men, in our American Planta- 
tions, that I have spoken so largely of it. For the hot Climates there are a very 
proper soil for it; and indeed it is so hardy, both in raising it, and when grown, that 
it will thrive as well in dry sandy ground as in rich land. I have found them grow- 
ing very well in low sandy Islands (on the West of Sumatra) that are over-flowed 
with the Sea every Spring-tide; and though the Nuts there are not very big, yet this 
is no loss, for the Kernel is thick and sweet; and the Milk, or Water, in the inside 
is more pleasant and sweet than of the Nuts that grow in rich ground, which are 
commonly large indeed, but not very sweet. These at Guam grow in dry ground, 
are of middle size, and I think the sweetest that I did ever taste. 6 

See Lyon, The cocoanut, etc., Bureau of Agr. [Philippines], Bull. No. 8, 1903. 
& Dampier, A New Voyage Round the World, ed. 6, pp. 291-296, 1717. 



COCOS NUCIFEBA. 235 

In the vernacular of the island a different name is applied to the coconut for every 
stage of its development: 

Niyog 1 , etymologically identical with its name throughout Polynesia, is its general 

designation. 

Dadig-, a young coconut the size of a betel nut. 
Aplog 1 , a young coconut in which water has begun to form. 
Manna, a coconut full of water fit for drinking, called by the Spaniards "coco- 

mudo." 

Mason, a coconut not quite ripe. 
Gafo, a coconut perfectly ripe. 
Pontan, a coconut which has fallen to the ground. 
Nagao, a coconut in which the water has become entirely absorbed. 
Jaigiie, or Haig-ue, a coconut which has sprouted (pronounced very much like 

"highway"). 
Cancidn, a variety of which the young nut has a sweet edible rind. 

From experiments conducted by Kirkwood and Gies it was found that the fresh 
meat contains 35 to 40 per cent of oil, 10 per cent of carbohydrate, only 3 per cent of 
proteid, 1 per cent of inorganic matter, and nearly 50 per cent of water. The chief 
constituent of the "milk" of the central cavity, aside from water (of which there is 
95 per cent), is sugar. 

The meat of the ripe coconut, though agreeable to the taste, is seldom eaten by 
the Pacific islanders. It is fed to domestic animals of all kinds, even to cats and 
dogs, and is very fattening. In Guam it is rasped or grated and fed to chickens, but 
they do not lay so well when living upon a coconut diet as when fed with corn. 
From the grated meat a rich custard, or "cream," is expressed, which is extensively 
used throughout Polynesia as an ingredient for native dishes. One of the most savory 
of these, in which it is cooked with tender young leaves of Caladium colocasia, is in 
Samoa called "palu-sami." This cream contains much oil, as well as carbohydrate 
and proteid, and is consequently very nourishing as well as pleasant to the taste. In 
Guam the natives combine it with rice in various forms, and sometimes prepare it 
like a simple custard. It makes an excellent broth when boiled with a fowl or with 
other meat, and in the early days of long voyages nuts were carried to sea and used 
by the sailors for making rice-milk, a dish which they had learned from the natives 
to prepare. 6 

The water contained in the central cavity, though " sweetest and briskest" when 
the nut is almost ripe, as described by Dampier, is at that stage unwholesome, and 
can be drunk only sparingly, as it is strongly diuretic and is apt to produce an irrita- 
tion of the bladder and urethra. The milk of young nuts, on the contrary, is harm- 
less. On some islands it is the only beverage of the natives. From personal experience 
the writer can testify to its refreshing, grateful properties, and to a continued use of 
it throughout his stay in the island without disagreeable consequences of any kind. 
On the other hand, a number of cases came under his observation of the evil effects 
of drinking the milk of ripe coconuts. Immoderate use of the fruit is said to cause 
rheumatic and other diseases, c This applies, in all probability, to the ripe nut, 
which the writer has never seen used as a food staple. The soft pulp of the young 
nuts, which furnish the natives with drink, is very delicate and is eaten like blanc- 
mange, with sugar and cream. The principal way of preparing the meat of the ripe 
nut for food is to grate it and combine it with sugar for sweetmeats and with custard 
for making cakes and other kinds of pastry. Another use to which the natives of Guam 
apply the meat of the coconut is the fattening of the "robber crab" (Birgus latro), 
which they keep in captivity *until fit for the table. It has often been asserted that 
this singular animal climbs trees in quest of coconuts, detaches them with his claws, 

Chemical Studies of theCocoanut, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 29, pp. 321 ff., 1902. 
&Dainpier, A New Voyage Round the World, p. 294. 

c Gies, Nutritive value and uses of the cocoanut, Journ. N. Y. Bot.Gard., vol. 3, p. 
169, 1892. 



236 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

letting them drop to the ground, and 'then proceeds to tear off the husk and open 
them. On making inquiries among the natives, I was unable to find anyone who 
had seen an "ayuyu" climb a tree, but was told that the animal feeds upon nuts 
which have already fallen. It can not open a nut unassisted, but if an opening has 
been started it will succeed in getting at the kernel. Crab hunters carry coconuts 
to the sites frequented by the "ayuyu," and, after having made an incipient opening 
in each nut, leave it as bait. A crab soon discovers it, and is caught while engaged 
in opening it. 

The primitive way of making coconut oil is to rasp the fresh or dry kernel into a 
pulp, macerate it in a little water, place it in bags, and subject it to pressure. The 
expressed juice is cooked and the clear oil which collects on the surface is skimmed 
off. The kernel may be boiled before it is rasped or grated. In Guam the rasp used 
consists of a flat iron blade set in a wooden footstool. The best oil is prepared from 
fresh kernels and is used in cooking. It is at first odorless, and with a slight flavor 
which is agreeable to the taste. It soon turns rancid, however, and in this condition 
is unfit for food. Coconut oil is perfumed by macerating in it the blossoms of the 
ilangilang (Canangium odoratum) or other fragrant flowers or substances. In the 
South Seas the natives, though preferring fresh and perfumed oil for anointing the 
head and body, do not hesitate to make use of rancid oil for these purposes. In 
Samoa certain kinds of tapa, or bark cloth, are always treated with oil before they 
are suitable for wearing as clothing, so that to those who have cruised among the 
islands of the Pacific the smell of rancid coconut oil always brings to the mind 
visions of brown-skinned natives and thatch-roofed huts nestling beneath groves of 
coconut palms. 

The natives of Guam still use coconut oil for anointing the hair; but with the 
custom of wearing clothes that of anointing the body has died out, and the oil is 
used only for massaging the body in case of sickness. Though the use of petroleum 
is now general on the island, coconut oil is still sometimes used for illuminating. 
Until recently certain people paid their taxes partly in oil, which was used for light- 
ing the tribunal. Nearly every house on the island has its little shrine, where before 
the patron saint a lamp of coconut oil is always kept burning. This lamp consists 
of an ordinary drinking glass half filled with water, upon which the oil is poured. A 
wick projecting from a float is fed by the oil, and the water keeps the glass cool. 

In many of the Pacific islands the shell and the fiber of the husk play an impor- 
tant part in the daily economy of the inhabitants. In Samoa coconut shells are the 
only water vessels of the natives, and are used as vessels for oil. The open eye serves 
as an orifice, and a small grommet is passed through the other two eyes by which 
the nut is suspended, To remove the kernel, the natives, after having poured out 
the water through the open eye, immerse the nut in the sea, where the kernel soon 
putrefies and is eaten up by marine animals. It is then thoroughly cleansed and the 
outside is frequently polished. Both in Samoa and Hawaii the shells are made into 
cups, in which kava is served. a These are often highly polished and become lined 
with a beautiful pearly enamel from the deposit gradually made by the kava. In 
many islands the natives also make spoons, dishes, beads, and finger rings of coco- 
nut shell, and use broken shells for keeping up the fires in their houses by night. 
In Guam the shells are not much used, joints of bamboo taking their place as water 
vessels. No use is made of the fiber in Guam, while in Samoa it is used universally 
to lash together the framework of native houses and the parts of canoes. At every 
council in Samoa the chiefs may be seen sitting in a large circle, each one engaged in 
braiding sinnet of coconut fiber; and it is only necessary to refer to a dictionary of 
the Samoan language to realize how important a part is played by "afa," as the sin- 
net is called, in the economy of the natives. Thus we have the word used to signify 

An infusion of the roots of the kava pepper (Piper methysticum) . 



COCOS NUCIFEEA. 237 

"to be fit only for plaiting sinnet," as applied to a rainy day; "to be neither too 
old nor too young," as applied to coconuts fit for making sinnet; "afa-afai," a verb 
signifying ' ' to wind sinnet around the handle of a weapon to prevent it from slipping; ' ' 
"afa-pala," "sinnet stained black by steeping it in the black mud of a swamp;" 
' ' af ata ai, " " a large roll of sinnet. " In every native house of Samoa there are large 
rolls of sinnet, and these are used in part as currency in paying a housebuilder, a 
canoe maker, or a tatooer for his work. Together with their fine mats they may be 
said to constitute the capital of the Samoans. In Guam in place of coconut sinnet 
the natives use the leaves of the "aggag" (Pandanus tectorius) for lashing together 
the framework of their houses, fences, and the like. 

TODDY. 

The custom of making a fermented drink from the sap of the coconut palm, of 
which the Polynesians are ignorant, was introduced into Guam by the Filipinos 
brought by the Spaniards to assist in reducing the natives. Before the arrival of the 
Spaniards the aborigines had no intoxicating drink. The spathe of the young 
inflorescence is wrapped with strips of the green leaf to prevent its bursting and 
allowing the branches of the spadix to spread. The tip of the flower cluster is then 
sliced off with a sharp knife and gently curved, so that the sap may bleed into 
the joint of bamboo hung to receive it. This sap is collected at regular intervals, 
usually every morning and evening, and poured into a large bamboo, all of the septa 
but the lowest of which have been removed. The sap flows most freely at night. 
When the flow of sap becomes reduced owing to the healing of the wound, another 
thin slice is cut off the tip, and the flow of the sap begins afresh. Toddy, or 
"tuba," as this liquid is called in Guam, is very much like cider in taste and con- 
sistency. At first it is sweet and may be converted into sirup or sugar by boiling, 
but it soon begins to ferment and acquires a sharp taste, somewhat like hard cider, 
which is very agreeable if the receptacle has been kept thoroughly clean and free 
from insects. The natives, however, are apt to be careless and do not cleanse the 
bamboos each time they are emptied, so that the tuba is apt to have an offensive 
odor and flavor from putrefying organic matter. Care is taken in gathering the 
tuba not to spill it on the leaves and flower clusters of the tree, as this invites the 
attacks of insects. In some countries it is customary to coat the inner surface of the 
receptacles with whitewash of lime to prevent fermentation if the tuba is intended 
for sugar making. If tuba is desired for drinking purposes, the bamboo receptacles 
should be scalded out daily. The natives of Guam use fermenting tuba for yeast in 
making bread. This is made from imported wheat flour, and is snowy white and 
light. If the fermentation goes on unchecked the tuba is converted into vinegar, 
which is of an excellent quality. Under the usual conditions after having fermented 
four hours, tuba contains sufficient alcohol to be intoxicating. 

AGUARDIENTE. 

From the fermented liquid a kind of rum is distilled, called "aguayente" (aguar- 
diente) by the natives of Guam and "arak" in the East Indies. The distilling of 
aguayente was the only industry in Guam up to the time of the American occupation. 
It has been prohibited by an official order on account of its evil effects upon our men. 
By double distillation almost pure alcohol was obtained. Good aguayente compares 
very favorably with Mexican mescal, and tuba is far more agreeable to the taste of 
the uninitiated than pulque, the fermented sap of Agave. Aguayente was seldom 
drunk to excess by the natives of Guam, but according to Padre Blanco its immoder- 
ate use by the Filipinos caused great harm, resulting in sleeplessness, loss of appetite, 
premature old age, extraordinary obesity, and diseases resembling dropsy and scurvy 

<* Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, ed. 3, p. 65, 1893. 



238 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM.' 

Some of those who are addicted to it lose their intellectual faculties, are seized with 
trembling, or become stupid, absent-minded, or even insane. a 

SUGAR. In making sugar the fresh tuba is poured into kettles, beneath which afire 
is kept burning, dried fronds, husks, and shells of coconuts being used for fuel, as 
well as mangrove and other hard woods. The sap soon turns brown and becomes 
thicker and thicker, until it assumes a semiviscid consistency, forming what is in the 
East Indies known as " jaggery "a kind of coarse, moist, brown sugar. If the jag- 
gery is allowed to drain in baskets the more fluid part will drain into pans placed to 
receive it, in the form of sirup or molasses. The remaining sugar is dried and the 
lumps broken up. In this form, combined with grated coconut meat, it can be made 
into sweetmeats. Coconut sugar is not made so extensively in Guam at the present 
time as formerly, before copra was in such great demand; but there are natives who 
still make it rather than buy imported sugar from the stores, and many families use 
the sirup ("almibar de tuba dulce") in their daily economy. 

LEAVES. 

The roofs in the majority of houses in Guam (PI. xx) are thatched with coconut 
leaves (higae). These are split down the midrib, the two halves placed together 
end for end, and the leaflets braided diagonally. Long mats are woven (pupung) to 
cover the ridge of the roof, and secured in place by wooden pins passing through 
them below the ridgepole and projecting on each side. The higae are thoroughly 
dried before being lashed to the roof timbers. The pupung are put on green. 
Coconut thatch is not so durable as that of the nipa palm; a roof of coconut leaves 
lasting but four years, while one of nipa will last from ten to twelve. Neti thatch 
lasts even longer. 6 In Samoa the sides of the houses are inclosed by coarse Venetian 
blinds made of coconut-leaf mats, which may be triced up or lowered at will. In 
Guam the walls of the houses are stationary and are sometimes composed of woven 
reeds (saguale) of Trichoon roxburghii (PI. XX), which are also used for ceilings and 
partitions. Coconut leaves are not sufficiently durable for this purpose. Baskets 
made of them are only serviceable when fresh, becoming dry and brittle in a few 
days. The whole leaves are used to keep the thatch from blowing in windy weather, 
by tying the tips together and allowing the heavy petioles to hang suspended over 
the ridge. In Samoa, though the houses of the natives are thatched with wild sugar 
cane, coconut leaves are always used for the side mats. 

The ribs of the leaflets are slender, strong, and somewhat elastic. They are fre- 
quently tied in bunches and used as brooms for sweeping about the fireplaces and 
ovens, and in Samoa are used as forks in eating. Indeed, in those islands the word 
" tua-niu " (coconut leaflet rib) is applied to forks in general, and is also used for 
wire and as the name of certain pinnate ferns which have a slender stiff midrib. 
Skewers, knitting needles, and toothpicks are also made of tua-niu, and in the early 
days the oily kernels of the nuts of Aleuriles moluccana were strung on them, like 
pieces of meat on a brochette, and served the Samoans and other Polynesians as can- 
dles. On many of the Pacific islands tua-niu, neatly smoothed and pointed, were 
made into combs both for use and for ornament. 

Throughout Polynesia dry coconut leaves are used as torches. It is a common 
occurrence when a boat is attempting a landing by night for the natives on shore to 
indicate the passage through the reef by holding up a burning coconut leaf; and on 
making a trip over a stony or difficult path after dark the traveler is preceded by a 
guide with a supply of these leaves, one after another of which he lights, as may be 
necessary. The natives of Guam often use these improvised torches for burning 
wasps' nests, with which the thickets of the island are infested. 

Blanco, Flora de Filipinas. Gran Edicion, vol. 3, p. 122, 1879. 
& See Nypa fruticans and Xipheagrostis floridula. 



COCOS NUCIFERA. 239 

ROOT, CABBAGE, ETC. 

In some countries the root is occasionally used instead of Areca nut by betel 
chewers, but in Guam, where the betel-palm grows spontaneously, there is never 
a dearth of nuts. The terminal bud, or "cabbage," like that of many other palms, 
is edible; but as the removal of the bud kills the tree, the natives of Guam indulge 
themselves in eating it only on occasions of festivity, when they prepare it as a 
kind of cabbage or raw salad. They either select for this purpose a tree which is 
comparatively sterile or one which too closely crowds a neighbor. The flowers of 
the coconut are frequented by several insectivorous birds, especially by "egige" 
(Myzomela rubratra), a pretty little red and black honey eater, with a slender, 
curved beak and a cleft, brush-tipped tongue. When the tree dies its crown is a 
favorite nesting place for the Guam starling, Aplonis kittlitzi, a bird with glossy black 
plumage, called "sali" by the natives. This bird also frequents the flowering 
spathes in quest of insects. 

WOOD. 

In many islands of Polynesia the strong elastic trunks of old coconut palms are 
used to bridge streams. For this purpose usually sterile trees are used. In com- 
merce the wood is known under the name of " porcupine wood." It is hard, hand- 
some, and durable, and is used for many purposes, for furniture, cabinetwork, 
walking sticks, and especially for veneering. In Guam the wood is used only for 
burning in limekilns. 

COPRA. 

From a commercial point of view the coconut is the most important product of 
Polynesia. Its dried meat, called "copra" or "coprac," is the only article of export 
from Guam. From this island the greater part goes to Japan. A hundred trees may 
be expected under favorable conditions to yield from 25 to 30 quintals per year. For 
every ounce of it there is a ready market, and traders vie with one another to secure 
their crops from the natives by advancing them goods or money beforehand. The 
current price is 4 pesos per quintal (102 English pounds). The nuts when fully ripe 
are split open and allowed to dry for a short while. Then the kernel is cut out and 
dried in the sun either on mats or on raised platforms. It is easily transported on 
the backs of animals or in carts and shipped in bulk by the traders. There are two 
regular harvests of copra per year, the principal one of which is in April, May, or 
June. If cocoanut oil were manufactured by the natives, great difficulty would 
attend its transportation, as the only receptacles on the island are bamboo joints and 
"tinajas," or earthenware jars, from Japan and China. There is not a cooper on 
the island, and the leakiness of barrels containing oil is proverbial. Another reason 
for transporting the product of the nut in the form of copra is the economic value of 
the refuse remaining after the oil is extracted. 

For a description of the methods followed in Samoa in cultivating the coconut on 
an extensive scale and of preparing copra by means of drying apparatus, so that it 
remains perfectly white, assumes a hard, brittle consistency, and is free from ran- 
cidity, the reader is referred to Doctor Reinecke's work on Samoa, & extracts from 
which have been published in the Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale in 1903 and 1904. 

PRODUCTS. 

Copra is used extensively in France, Germany, Spain, and England, chiefly in 
soap making, but also in the manufacture of certain food products resembling butter. 
This "cocoa butter," or " cocoaline," should not be confounded with the "cocoa 

See Shortt, Monograph on the Cocoanut Palm, 1888. 
&See list of works. 



240 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

butter" made from cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, which is also 
an important commercial product. The process of manufacture of coconut butter 
has been kept secret. The main difficulties to overcome were the tendency to ran- 
cidity of the fat and its liquid consistency. The credit for carrying on experiments 
which finally led to success is due to the firm of Rocca, Tassy & de Roux, of Mar- 
seille, who have also erected a plant in Hamburg. Magnan Freres have more 
recently succeeded in making a satisfactory butter by independent experiments, and 
some German houses are now doing the same thing. 

"The effort to extract an edible grease from an oil produced upon so vast a scale 
and formerly available only for the manufacture of soap gave promise of valuable 
returns if successful; and that this promise was not delusive may be judged from the 
circumstance that the factory of Rocca, Tassy & de Roux, which produced 25 tons 
of butter per month in 1900, now (1902) turns out 600 tons per month. * * * The 
butter is not at all a by-product of the manipulation of the oil, as in the factory of 
Messrs. Rocca, Tassy & de Roux, 7,200 tons of butter are obtained from 8,000 tons of 
oil per annum in a year of maximum results. The butter is styled ' vegetaline ' and 
'cocoaline,' the greater demand being for the former. The first named melts at 
26 C. and the latter at 31 C., being by that fact better suited for warm climates. 
* * * The activity of the manufacturers in trying to establish their private marks 
and in advertising their product as one of pure copra oil proves that the main object is 
to serve the constantly increasing public demand for comestible vegetable greases. "& 

In the United States the principal manufacturers of food products from coconut 
oil are the India Refining Company, of Philadelphia. They have a process by which 
the rancidity of the oil is eliminated, so that it is sweet, neutral, and adapted for fam- 
ily use and for manufacturing purposes by bakers, confectioners, and perfumers. 
One brand, called "kokoreka," consists of the stearin of the coconut oil, having 
a melting point of about 27.3 C. This is used by manufacturing confectioners in 
combination with or in place of cacao butter. A lighter brand, called "ko-nut," 
is used for baking and domestic purposes in place of butter and lard. It has a 
melting point of about 23 C. Specimens of these products, submitted to the Bureau 
of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture for analysis, proved to be remarkably 
free from fatty acids, the "ko-nut" containing 0.13 per cent and "kokoreka," the 
harder substance, only 0.04 per cent. The material from which this company manu- 
factures its products is East Indian coconut oil. Though they are prepared to press 
oil from copra itself and have a perfectly equipped oil mill, it lies idle for want of 
material. There is no reason why America should not offer a market for all the 
copra produced in Guam, the Philippines, and Samoa. In a letter from Albin Garrett, 
president of the India Refining Company, he says: 

When we consider results of the development of the coconut industry in the 
island of Ceylon, with an area of 25,000 square miles and a production of coconut 
products of 76,210,370 pounds in 1893, and risen to 206,035,384 pounds in 1903 a 
period of ten years, it would seem that, with American methods and enterprise intro- 
duced into the Philippines, with 41,000 square miles of territory in the island of 
Luzon alone and 116,000 in the group, with a very enormous coast line, which is 
what counts in coconut production, a great field is open there for development. As 
we believe this city is the largest market in the world for manila hemp and has the 
only plant for handling copra in this country, it would seem that the lines will open 
if the button could be prqperly touched. 

In consequence of tests made by Dr. Theodor Ternes, of the Royal Imperial 
Hospital of Vienna, an official report was made, stating that coconut butter meets 
all hygienic requirements; that it is superior to animal fat and butter; that it is 

See Listoe, Cocoa Butter in the Netherlands; and Skinner, Copra Products at 
Marseille; Advance Sheets of Consular Reports, October 15, 1902. 

& Official Report of U. S. Consul-General Robert P. Skinner, September 18, 1902. 



COCO8 NUCIFERA. 241 

easily digested and is particularly well adapted for the use of patients suffering from 
impaired digestion. ' 

The copra industry is becoming more important year by year. Thus far very 
little copra has found its way to the United States, but coconut oil is imported for 
various purposes, especially for soap making. The chief sources of coconut oil in 
this country are Ceylon and the Madras Presidency, India, especially the district of 
Cochin, where it is the principal product. Soap made from coconut oil is more 
soluble in salt water than that made from other oils or fats, and is consequently 
much used on seagoing vessels. One objectionable feature of soaps made from this 
oil is the disagreeable rancid odor which they usually leave on the skin after wash- 
ing with them. The most serious difficulty encountered by soap makers is the elim- 
ination of fatty acids contained in it. To remove these the oil is heated with lye, an 
emulsion is made, and the oil extracted from the mixture by means of a separator 
and receiver. & Coconut oil alone is not usually employed in soap making, but is 
added to other oils for the purpose of producing quickly solidifying soaps containing 
a large proportion of water, c 

FIBER. 

Coir, or the fiber of the husk of the coconut, is another product of commercial 
importance. It is imported into England and America in the form of coir yarn, coir 
fiber, .coir rope, and bristle fiber, and is used principally in manufacturing matting 
and brushes.^ In Guam no effort is made to utilize it, and hundreds of tons go to 
waste each year. Fiber suitable for cordage must be taken from husks or nuts not 
yet thoroughly ripe, but the coarser, harder fiber of ripe nuts could be used for 
brushes. In Samoa, where the fiber plays so important a part in the economy of 
the natives, a particular variety ('ena, or niu afa) occurs having long nuts with fiber 
especially adapted for making sinnet (afa). This variety is rare, and is highly 
valued by the natives. e The sources of the best coir of commerce are the Laccadive 
Islands and the neighboring district of Cochin, on the Malabar coast of British India. 
This coir is known commercially as Cochin or Madras coir. The primitive way of 
preparing the fiber is to soak the husks thoroughly in salt water, beat them with 
heavy wooden mallets, rub them between the hands, and remove the coir by hand. 
It is then twisted by hand into two-stranded yarns./ This process has been replaced 
in many districts by improved methods, in which the fiber is extracted from the 
husk, either wet or dry, by means of machines. The husks are crushed in a mill, con- 
sisting of two adjustable fluted iron rollers. The pressure here exerted flattens them 
and prepares them for the "breaking down," or extraction of the fiber, performed 
in an "extractor" composed essentially of a drum or cylinder whose periphery is 
coated with steel teeth that catch in the fiber and tear it from the husk. The 
machine is covered with a wooden case to prevent the fiber being scattered. It is 
then "willowed" or cleaned, graded, and baled for shipment. 

PRODUCTION. 

Nearly every family of Guam has its coconut plantation. The best sites are the 
lowlands, especially the sandy beaches of the west shore. The principal coconut 

Kew Bulletin, No. 46, p. 235, 1890. 

&See Andes, Vegetable Fats and Oils, trans., pp. 203 and 244, fig. 76, 1897. 

^See Richardson and Watts, Chemical Technology, ed. 2, vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 683, 1863. 

<*See monthly circulars of Ide & Christie, fiber, esparto, and general produce 
brokers, 72 Mark lane, London, E. C., in which prices are quoted together with 
statistics regarding importations, etc. 

See Powell, Thomas, On various Samoan plants and their vernacular names, See- 
mann's Journal of Botany, vol. 6, p. 282, 1868. 

/ Watt, Economic Products of India, vol. 2, pp. 428-429, 1889. 
Encyclopaedia, vol. 1, p. 940, 1882. 

977305 16 



242 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

planters on the island are the Western Commercial Company, having its plantation 
in the district of Upe, in the northern part of the island (10,000 to 12,000 trees); Don 
Vicente Herrero, in Orunao, Retiyan, and Lalo (7,000 to 8,000 trees); the Japanese 
Oyama, in Hilaan (6,000 to 7,000 trees); Don Luis Torres, alias Cortez, in Goknga 
and Lupog (5,000 to 6,000 trees), and Don Jose" Duenas Evarista, in Sinagoso (6,000 
to 7,000 trees). There are also good plantations in the district of Yofia and in the 
vicinity of Agat. Though coconuts do not thrive in swampy places as a rule, yet 
there are good plantations near San Antonio, across the river from Agana, and near 
Punta Piti, where the trees grow on hummocks almost on a level with the water's 
surface when the rivers are unobstructed. Coconuts are fond of sunshine and ocean 
breezes; but it is evident that they can not stand exposure to repeated hurricanes, 
from the fact that on the fine stretches of sandy beach along the east or windward 
coast of the southern portion of the island not a coconut tree is found, while near 
by, in more sheltered sites of Pago and the valleys of Ilig and Talofofo, fine groves 
are met with. Great damage to the coconuts of the island is caused by baguios, or 
hurricanes. Both ripe and green fruits are whipped off and the leaves are destroyed. 
It is from the axils of the petioles of the old leaves that the young flower clusters 
issue; and when the leaves are killed these become aborted and it takes at least two 
years for the tree to recover. During the year which followed the hurricane of 
1900 not a single ton of copra was exported from Guam." 

All enterprising natives on the island are now planting coconut trees, as there is a 
ready sale for all the copra that can be produced. Clearings are made in the forest, 
the undergrowth removed, and the tree trunks gradually gotten rid of with the aid 
of fire. (PI. XXIII.) This requires hard work, and few white men coming to the 
island are either able or willing to clear land for themselves. Land taro and bananas 
may then be planted until the stumps are removed, after which coconuts are planted 
in regular rows. As the natives have plantations of their own they naturally prefer 
to work for themselves rather than for another; so that it is almost impossible to 
obtain laborers on the island. Moreover, the natives will not part with a coconut 
grove in good bearing condition or a thriving young plantation at any price. A 
fairly good yield for a coconut palm is 25 to 30 pounds of copra a year, though there 
are many trees on the island which produce double this amount. In the process of 
clearing, taro, yams, and bananas are often planted in the new ground. The nuts 
selected for seed are taken neither from very young nor very old trees, but from 
trees at least 15 years old. Many of the natives pay no attention to seed selec- 
tion, but plant sprouting nuts indiscriminately; others, however, realize the advan- 
tage which results from planting seed taken from trees yielding the greatest 
amount of copra. The tendency is to plant large nuts; but these may have been 
produced by young trees or trees bearing few nuts and yielding less copra than trees 
bearing nuts of smaller size. Nuts selected for seed should be lowered to the ground, 
not thrown down or dropped. Nursery planting is not practiced in Guam. The 
ripe nuts are simply collected in piles in the shade of trees or in the corners of inclo- 
sures and left to sprout, without further care. When the sprouts are about 60 cm. 
high they are ready for permanent planting. If the roots have in the meantime 
penetrated the ground and are broken off in removing the nuts, they should be 
neatly cut off with a sharp knife, so as not to leave ragged ends. 

It is the practice in Guam to plant coconuts in rows 5 to 6 meters apart, but this 
is too close. From 7 to 10 meters is a good distance. Holes about 60 cm. deep are first 
dug, and they are sometimes arranged so that the holes in one row will be opposite 
the intervals of the next. On some plantations coffee, cacao, or bananas are planted 
between the rows, but this custom is not recommended. The evil effects of crowd- 

a See official report of Governor Seaton Schroeder to the Secretary of the Navy, 
1901. 



COCOS NUOIFEKA. 243 

ing are shown on the plantation of Dona Rufina Quitugua, in the district of Mata- 
guag, while the benefits resulting from plenty of room and of cultivation of the 
ground. are shown in that of Manuel Matanane, in the district of Yigo, where origi- 
nally rows of cacao were planted alternately with those of coconuts. The cacao did 
not thrive and was removed, but the coconuts grew with remarkable rapidity. 
The natives say that the trees are too far apart, but the fact that many of them 
began to bear when 3 years old, while in other good localities they do not bear until 
4, 5, or 6 years old, speaks for itself. On the mesa, or table-land, coconut trees fre- 
quently are 8 to 10 years, or even 15 years, old before they begin to bear. In Yigo 
and Santa Rosa they begin to bear usually when 5 or 6 years old, and in Yona when 
7 or 8 years. A coconut palm is in its best bearing condition from the age of ]0 
years on. It will continue to bear until 80 years old. Catch crops may be planted 
between the rows while the trees are young. These are far less exhausting than the 
weeds which would otherwise cover the ground, and the soil is benefited by the cul- 
tivation, especially if nitrogen-storing leguminous crops are grown. The common 
practice in Guam is to keep off the weeds from an area about 6 feet in radius about 
the trees by means of a thrust-hoe (fusino or fozifio), and throughout the rest of the 
plantation to cut the undergrowth from time to time with a machete. Attention is 
called by Lyon to the excellent methods of coconut cultivation practiced by the 
German colonists in German East Africa and in the South Pacific islands and by 
the French in Congo and Madagascar, who practice modern orchard methods. Mr. 
Lyon recommends planting coconuts at distances of not less than 9 meters, and, in 
good soils, preferably 9.5 meters. The former distance will allow for 123 and the 
latter for 111 trees to the hectare. He recommends annual plowing of the planta- 
tion and the cultivation of green manures and crops to keep up the fertility of the 
land. In Guam plowing is impracticable in many localities, owing to the thinness 
of the soil covering the coral substratum; and the prevailing system of keeping the 
plantations clear of weeds by means of the thrust hoe, by which the roots can not 
possibly be injured, seems to be a good one. Manuring is never practiced in Guam, 
and it is to this fact that the absence of the beetles which, in their larval stage, are- 
so injurious to coconuts in other countries, should be attributed. 

The boundaries between plantations on the island of Guam are usually indicated 
by lines of coconut trees, either single or double. It is the common practice to cut 
notches in the trunks to facilitate climbing. This practice is condemned by many 
writers, but in Guam the trees do not appear to be injured thereby. Sometimes a 
hole is cut near the base of the trunk to serve as a water reservoir. This seems to 
cause decay and should not be permitted. As a rule the natives do not plant coco- 
nut trees near their dwellings for fear of accidents during hurricanes. Every family 
selects one or two trees for a supply of toddy, and many of them keep small groves 
to furnish thatch for their houses, which must be renewed at intervals of about three 
years. The extraction of tuba does not injure the trees in any way, but the cutting 
of leaves causes injuries from which it takes years to recover. The inflorescence 
which forms in the axils of old leaves becomes aborted when these leaves are cut off. 
Young plantations are frequently injured by the deer with which the island abounds, 
and care must be taken to prevent cattle from entering them. To keep out the deer 
the natives simply inclose a field with a ribbon of pariti bark (P. tiliaceum), through 
which they say the deer will not pass. Coconut trees are free from disease in Guam, 
and very little harm is done to them by insects. 
REFERENCES: 

Cocos nudfera L. Sp. PI. 2: 1188. 1753. 
Codiaeum variegatum. See Phyllaurea variegata. 

Lyon, The cocoanut, etc. Bureau of Agr. [Philippines], Bull. No. 8, 1903. 



244 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Coelococcus amicarum. CAROLINE IVORY-NUT PALM. PLATE XLV. 

Family Phoenicaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Och (Ponape); Palma de Marfil (Spanish); Steinnuss-palme 

(German). 

A pinnate-leaved palm introduced into Guam from the Caroline Islands. The 
nuts are of an ivory-like texture and are exported from the Carolines to Germany 
for button making. The spheroid fruit, about 7 centimeters long and 8 centimeters 
in diameter, has a reddish brown, glossy, scaly shell. (PI. XL VI.) The surface of 
the seed is glossy, black, and thickly striped, but not furrowed. The allied species 
of the Solomon Islands ( C. solomonensis) has a straw-colored shell, and that of C. vitiensis 
of Fiji, which is not used in the arts, is yellow. The inflorescence of this genus has 
not yet been described. In some of the Solomon Islands the natives prepare sago 
from the pith of the species growing there. It is said to keep well and not to be 
injured by salt water, so that it is a valuable food staple to take with them on their 
canoe voyages. 

REFERENCES: 

Coelococcus amicarum (Wendl. ). 
Sagus amicarum Wendl. Bot. Zeit. 36: 115. 1878. 
Coelococcus carolinensis Dingl. Bot. Centralbl. 32: 349. 1887. 
Coenogonium. See Lichenes. 
Coffea arabica. COFFEE. PLATE xxx. 

Family Rubiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Kafe (Guam); Kahaua (Mindanao, Lolo, Philippines). 
A shrub w r ith glossy green leaves, fragrant, white, jasmine-like flowers and red 
berries, like small cherries, which contain two seeds, commonly called coffee. The 
leaves are opposite, rarely in threes, about 15 cm. long by 6.5 cm. broad, with wavy 
edges, and a long narrow point; flowers of short duration, with the fragrance of a 
tuberose, in dense clusters at the bases of the leaves; calyx tube short, limb 5-parted, 
persistent; corolla tubular, limb salver-shaped, 5-parted; stamens 5, fixed around the 
top of the tube and protruding beyond it; ovary 2-celled; style filiform, smooth, 
2-cleft; ovules 1 in each cell, peltately attached to the septum of the cell; seeds 
plano-convex, grooved ventrally. 

In Guam coffee is one of the commonest plants, growing about most of the dwell- 
ing houses as lilac bushes grow in America, and nearly every family has its cultivated 
patch The climate and soil of the island seem well adapted to it, and it produces fruit 
abundantly from the level of the sea to the tops of some of the highest hills. Plants 
are obtained by planting seed at a depth of about 4 cm. in beds, or by taking up seed- 
ling plants from under cultivated trees, where the seeds readily germinate without 
attention. They are easily transplanted, differing in this respect from the seed- 
lings of cacao, which are often killed in transplanting. Seeds fresh from the pulp 
should be planted in the sementeras (nurseries) about 8 cm. apart, in rows. In 
preparing the ground it is thoroughly pulverized and dry brush is burned over it 
shortly after the weeds begin to sprout. This saves a great deal of subsequent weed- 
ing. Little watering is necessary in Guam. In transplanting crowding is avoided. 
The plants are set out in straight rows at a distance of from 1.5 to 2.5 m. apart. On 
hillsides they may be closer, about 1.5 by 1.5 m. Coffee trees planted too close 
together lose the use of their lower branches, which become interlaced and shade 
one another, so that only the top branches continue to grow and bear fruit. If the 
coffee is planted in newly cleared land the brush is either left to decay between the 
rows or burned. In places where the soil is shallow above the coral rock, holes are 
made and filled with good earth brought from the forest. The best time for trans- 
om See Sadebeck, Die Kulturgewachse, etc., pp. 16 to 19, figs. 10, A, B, C, 1899; 
Guppy, Solomon Islands, p. 82, 1887; Warburg, Berichte der Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., 
1896, p. 133. 



Contr. Nat Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLV. 




COELOCOCCUS AMICARUM, THE CAROLINE ISLAND IVORY NUT PALM. 



Contr, Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLVI. 




THE IVORY NUT (COELOCOCCUS AMICARUM). SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 245 

planting is at the beginning of the rainy season. In moving them the roots should 
not be exposed to the sun. The plants are shaded at first by sections of coconut leaves 
stuck in the ground in a slanting direction. If rains are not sufficiently frequent after 
planting, the plants are watered every evening. In Guam it is not usual to plant 
shade trees to protect coffee. Sometimes the young plants are shaded by alternating 
rows of bananas, which easily take root and grow quickly. These are cut down when 
the plants are well established, as the mature coffee plant is a sun lover and becomes 
spindling in the shade. Catch crops of taro or maize may also be planted for the 
first two years. As with other plants, the weeds must be kept down. They are 
allowed to lie on the ground and rot, so as to enrich it. Weeding is accomplished 
by the fosifio, or thrust-hoe, an expert weeder being able to cover an area 1.5 m. 
long and the width of his hoe at every thrust. In order that the trees may not grow 
too tall for convenience in gathering the berries, they are topped after reaching a 
suitable height. This causes them to spread out their branches and offers a smaller 
target for the heavy winds which sometimes prevail. The plants are kept free from 
shoots or suckers sprouting out from their stems, which are removed when young. 

In Guam coffee seems to be remarkably free from disease. The berries are some- 
times eaten by rats, which infest the island; but these animals are not so injurious 
to coffee as they are to cacao, of which they are immoderately fond. 

As soon as the berries are ripe they are gathered. In Guam the whole family 
turns out to pick berries, and there is more or less jollification, as on the occasion of 
a picnic. The removing of the flesh from the seed or pulping is accomplished by 
hand, and the sticky, mucilaginous material surrounding the seeds is removed by 
washing, after which the coffee is spread out on mats to dry in the sun. In this 
condition it is covered with a thin membrane or hull, which can be removed at will 
by pounding in large wooden mortars with \vooden pestles. The coffee should be 
thoroughly dry before attempting to take off this hull. The chaff is gotten rid of by 
winnowing, which consists in pouring the seed from one receptacle to another in a 
current of wind. 

Enough coffee is not produced in Guam for exportation; indeed, there is scarcely 

enough for the use of the natives, all of whom are coffee drinkers. The product is 

of excellent quality. In preparing it the beans are roasted, as with us, and ground 

on a stone "metate" with a cylindrical "mano," like a tapering rolling-pin of stone. 

REFERENCES: 

Coffea arabica L. Sp. PL 1: 172. 1753. 
Coffea liberica. LIBERIAN COFFEE. 

A few plants of Liberian coffee were introduced quite recently into Guam from the 
Honolulu botanical garden. When I left the island several of them were in a thriv- 
ing condition on a ranch near Sinahafia. 
REFERENCES: 

Coffea liberica Hiern, Trans. Linn. Soc. II. 1: 171. t. 24. 1876. 
Coffee, negro. See Cassia ocddentalis. 
Coffee senna. See Cassia ocddentalis. 
Cogon (Philippines). See under Xipheagrostis floridula. 

Coix lacryma-jobi. JOB'S TEARS. 

Family Poaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lagrinas de San Pedro (Spanish); Alimodias (Philippines); 
Tomugi, Judsu-dama (Japan); Maniumiu, Samasama (Samoa); Acayacoyotl 
(Mexico); Camandula (Porto Rico). 

This grass, which furnishes the seeds known as "Job's tears," is common in 
Guam. The seeds are very hard, smooth, glossy, and of a gray color. They are 

For a history of coffee and its culture see Nicholls, Tropical Agriculture, p. 91, 



246 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

strung into rosaries and, according to Padre Blanco, yield a nutritions flour, which 
is fed to convalescents. In Japan they are pounded in a mortar and cleaned and 
used as meal and mochi. An infusion of the parched and ground grains, called 
1 ' kosen ' ' by the Japanese, is used instead of tea. & 

KEFERENCES: 

Colx lacryma-jobi L. Sp. PI. 2: 972. 1753. 
Colales or Kulalis (Guam). See Adenanthera pavonina. 
Colales (Kulalis) halom-tano (Guam). See Abrus abrus. 
Cold or Kolo ( Philippines) . See Artocarpus communis. 
Colocasia antiquorum. See Caladium colocasia. 
Colubrina asiatica. 

Family Rhamnaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gasoso (Guam); Kabatiti, Uatitik (Philippines); Fisoa (Samoa); 

Vuso levu (Fiji: "much-foam"); Tutu (Tahiti). 

A glabrous shrub with alternate leaves and axillary clusters of small greenish flow- 
ers having a fleshy disk in the calyx tube, suggesting the genus Euonymus or Cean- 
othus. Leaves 5 cm. long by 2.5 cm. wide, ovate, subacuminate, crenate-serrate, 
glabrous, membranous, 3-nerved at the base, the midrib pinnately branched; flowers 
growing in very short axillary cymes; calyx 5-parted, tube hemispherical; petals 5, 
clawed, springing from the margin of the disk, hooded; stamens 5; disk fleshy, 
filling the calyx tube; ovary sunk in the disk and confluent with it, 3-celled,the cells 
1-seeded, tardily dehiscent. 

This plant is widely spread in Polynesia and is found in India, Ceylon, Java, Bor- 
neo, New Guinea, Australia, and southwest Africa. In Samoa and inFiji the leaves 
are used for washing. They form a lather in water like soap. The vernacular 
name in Fiji signifies "much lather" or "big foam." The special use to which it 
is devoted in Samoa is the cleansing and bleaching of the white shaggy mats which 
the natives make of the fiber of an urticaceous plant, Cypholophus macrocephalus. 
The natives of Guam do not make use of it except for medicine, nor is it included by 
Watt in his list of the useful plants of India. 

REFERENCES: 

Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Ann. Sc. Nat. I. 10: 369. 1827. 
Ceanothus asiaticus L. Sp. PI. 1: 196. 1753. 

Combretaceae. MYROBALAN FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the Malabar almond ( Terminalia calappa) 
and the red-flowered mangrove (Lumnitzera llttorea). 
Coxnmelinaceae. 

To this family belong Commelina benghalensis and Commelina nudiftora, creeping 
plants with small 3-petaled blue flowers from spathe-like bracts, and Zygomenes cris- 
tata, with scorpioid cymes of blue flowers inclosed in large falcate, imbricating bracts. 
Commelina benghalensis. DEWFLOWER. DAYFLOWER. 

Family Commelinaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Anagalide azul (Spanish); Aligbangon (Philippines). 
A pubescent plant with stems 60 to 90 cm. long, dichotomously branched from the 
base upward, creeping and rooting below; leaves short- petioled, 2.5 to 7.5 cm. by 

1 to 3.5 cm., ovate or oblong, obtuse, pubescent or villous on both surfaces, unequal 
at base, cordate, rounded, or cuneate, the veins subparallel, 7 to 11 pairs; inflores- 
cence inclosed in a spathe; spathes 1 to 3 together, short-peduncled, funnel-shaped 
or top-shaped, auricled on one side, pubescent or hirsute; upper cyme branched, 

2 or 3-flowered, lower 1 or 2-flowered or without flowers; sepals 3, small, oblong, 



o Flora de Filipinas, 689. 1837. 

& Agriculture Society of Japan, Useful Plants of Japan, p. 5. 1895. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 247 

pubescent; petals 3, two large, orbicular or transversely oblong, clawed, the third 
smaller, subsessile; stamens 3, hypogynous, filaments slender, naked; anthers oblong, 
one larger than the others; staminodes 2 or 3, like the stamens, but with deformed 
cruciform anthers; ovary 3-celled, 2 cells 2-ovuled, one 1-ovuled; capsule 6 mm. 
long, hidden in the spathe by the decurving of the pedicel after flowering, pyriform, 
membranous, 5-seeded; seeds oblong, closely pitted. 

Common, growing among grass; flowers bright blue, emerging from the spathe 
one by one. Widely spread in tropical Asia and Africa. Called in the Philippines 
by the Spanish name "anagdlide azul." 
REFERENCES: 

Commelina benghalenms L. Sp. PL 1 :41. 1753. 

Commelina nudiflora. DEWFLOWER. DAYFLOWER. 

LOCAL NAMES. Anagalide azul (Spanish); Aligbangon (Philippines). 

Similar to the preceding, but with the flower spathes ovate or ovate-lanceolate and 
acute; branches prostrate or subscandent, rooting at the rather distant nodes, tips 
ascending; leaves 3.5 to 7.5 by 1 to 1.5 cm.; sessile, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, glabrous or puberulous, ciliate, sheath 1 to 2.5 cm. long, loose, 
glabrous; spathes glabrous or pubescent, base cordate, lobes rounded; cymes 1 to 
few-flowered, shortly pedicelled; flowers 1 to 1.5 cm. broad; two larger petals orbicular 
or cordate, third petal smaller subsessile; ovary 3-celled; capsule 6 mm. long, 
broadly oblong, acuminate, coriaceous, 5-seeded; seeds oblong-cylindric, tubercled 
and reticulate brown. 

A low weed growing in damp places among the grass; good forage; flowers of a 
bright cobalt blue. 
REFERENCES: 

Commelina nudiflora L. Sp. PL 1: 41. 1753. 
Compositae. See A steraceae. 
Condol or Condor (Guam). 

Local name for the wax gourd, Benincasa cerifera. 
Condol (Philippines). 

Name applied to several kinds of squash (Cucurbita). 
Conferva. See under Algse. 
Convolvulaceae: MORNING-GLORY FAMILY. 

Among the Convolvulaceae growing on the island of Guam are the indigenous 
" alalag" (Argyreia tiliaefolia) , the lavender-colored flowers of which, called " abubo," 
are strung into necklaces by children ; Ipomoea choi&iana, a trailing plant with deeply 
cordate, denticulate leaves and purple flowers, growing on the strand and reappearing 
in the upper sabanas; Ipomoea pes-caprae, the "goafs-foot convolvulus," a plant with 
purple flowers and fleshy leaves notched at the apex growing on sandy beaches; 
Ipomoea mariannensis, with purple flowers; the "fofgu," with blue flowers, which 
turn purple in drying (Ipomoea congesta and Pharbitis hederacea), and the white- 
flowered Operculina peltata. Among the introduced species are several varieties of 
the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) from Hawaii and from tropical America, and the 
common cypress vine (Quamoclit quamoclit), called by the natives "angel's hair'-' 
(cabello del angel), which has escaped from cultivation and grows in open places. 
Convolvulus batatas L. Same as Ipomoea batatas. 
Convolvulus coeruleus Spreng. Same as Pharbitis hederacea. 
Convolvulus congestus Spreng. Same as Ipomoea congesta. 
Convolvulus denticulatus Desr. Same as Ipomoea choisiana. 
Convolvulus hederaceus L. Same as Pharbitis hederacea. 
Convolvulus mariannensis Gaud. Same as Ipomoea mariannensis. 



248 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Convolvulus nil L. Same as Pharbitis hederacea. 

Convolvulus maritimus Desr. Same as Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Convolvulus peltatus L. Same as Operculina peltata. 

Convolvulus pes-caprae L. Same as Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Convolvulus tiliaefolius Desr. Same as Argyreia liliaefolia. 

Convolvulus trilobatus Gaud. Same as Ipomoea congesta and Ipomoea mariannensis. 

Coquillo (Panama). See Jatropha curcas. 

Coraceae. See under Lichenes. 

Coral plant. See Jatropha mullifida. 

Coral tree, East Indian. See Erythrina indica. 

Coral-bead vine. See Abrus abnis. 

Coral-bean tree. See Adenanthera pavonina. 

Coralillo (Cuba). See Antigonon leptopus. 

Corallopsis. See under Algte. 

Corazon (Porto Rico). See Annona reticulata. 

Corchorus. BROOMWEED. 

Family Tiliaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Masigsig lahe (Guam). 

Corchorus tomentosus, a plant of Japanese origin, was included in Gaudichaud's list 
of Guam plants, but the name probably refers to Triumfetta tomentosa, or some allied 
species of that genus. Corchorus differs from Triumfetta in having its fruit in the 
form of a 2 to 5-celled capsule, the fruit of Triumfetta being indehiscent and spiny. 
Flowers 1 to 3 together, small, yellow, opposite the leaves; sepals 5, distinct; petals 
5, distinct; stamens numerous, distinct; ovary 2 to 5-celled, with numerous ovules; 
capsule loculicidal, 2 to 5-valved, with numerous seeds. C. acutangulus, having the 
capsule elongated, glabrous, strongly 3- winged and 6-angled, leaves ovate, rounded 
at base, acute, serrate, the 2 lowest teeth often prolonged into filiform tails, is a wide- 
spread tropical weed, found in the Solomon Islands and, possibly, in Guam. C. tor- 
resianus, collected by Gaudichaud on Rota, the island next to Guam, is not further 
known, and may prove to be identical with some other species. 
Cordia subcordata. Kou. 

Family Boraginaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Banalo (Philippines); Kou (Hawaiian Islands); Tou (Tahiti, 
Rarotonga, Marquesas); Nawanawa (Fiji); Tauanave (Samoa); Ikoik 
(Carolines). 

A tree growing near the coast with large ovate leaves and orange or reddish 
funnel-shaped flowers. Leaves alternate, petioled, 7.5 to 15 cm. long, obscurely 
3-nerved, base rounded or subcordate, glabrous; flowers in short terminal and lateral 
few-flowered corymbs, nearly glabrous, polygamous; hermaphrodite corymbs fewer- 
flowered than the male; calyx 12.5 mm. long, 3 to 6-parted, the teeth short, triangu- 
lar, villous within; corolla tube 1.5 cm. long, 5 to 7-lobed, one lobe external, the 
lobes 15 mm. long, rounded; stamens usually 6; anthers shortly exserted; ovary 
4-celled, glabrous; style terminal, long, 2-parted, its branches again 2-parted, linear- 
spathulate; cells 1-ovuled; fruit an ellipsoid, acute, usually 1-seeded drupe, 2.5 cm. 
long; seed coarsely muricate, subspinose. 

Not common in Guam, several trees growing near the village of Agat. In Hawaii 
it is called "kou," etymologically the same as "tou" of Tahiti. The wood is rather 
soft, but durable. It is much prized by the natives of Hawaii, who make of it cups 
and poi calabashes, showing wavy bands of light and dark color when polished. The 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 249 

species ranges from the East Indies, Zanzibar, and Madagascar across the Pacific to 
Hawaii. Doctor Hillebrand thinks that its distribution throughout Polynesia has 
been due to human agency. a 
REFERENCES: 

Cordia subcordata Lam. Illustr. 1 : 421. no. 1899. 1791. 

Cordyline hyacinthoides. BOW-STRING HEMP. 

Family Liliaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tigre (Guam, Philippines) 

A stemless plant with succulent, thick, fibrous, sword-shaped leaves, having a 
sheathing base and a straight spine at the apex. It takes its local name from the 
variegated coloration of the leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish- white, disposed 
in the form of a raceme rising from the center. 

The leaves yield an excellent, soft, silky, elastic fiber, from which in ancient times 
the Hindus made their bowstrings. In Guam the plant is cultivated for ornament, 
many of the natives having it growing in their gardens and in pots, but not other- 
wise utilized. In Manila a double line of it borders the walk approaching the palace. 
REFERENCES: 

Cordyline hyacinthoides ( L. ) 
Aloe hyacinthoides L. Sp. PI. 1 : 321. 1753. 
Aloe hyacinthoides zeylanica L. Sp. PI. 1: 321. 1753. 
Aletris hyacinthoides zeylanica L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1: 456. 1762. 
Sanseviera zeylanica Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 159. 1799. 

The earliest post-Linnsean use of the name Cordyline was by Adanson, Fam. PL 
2: 54, 543. 1763, who gives Royen as the authority for the name, but apparently does 
not use it in the same sense in which it was employed by that author. Royen 
included in his genus Cordyline two species of the Linnsean genus Yucca and a third 
cited by Linnaeus under the latter' s Asparagus draco, while the specific references 
given by Adanson, "Katukapel, H. M. 11: t. 42, Aloe Comm. H. 2. L 20, 26, Pluk. 
t. 256. f. 5., and Lin. Sp. 321. No. 4.," are associable by citation with the species 
named by Linnaeus Aloe hyacinthoides, or with one of its subspecies. The modern 
use of the name, however, appears to be in the sense in which it was mentioned by 
Jussieu, Gen. PL 41. 1789, and does not include any of the species included in it by 
either Royen or Adanson. " Cordyline" is accordingly here used as the name of the 
genus for which it was first properly published after 1753. W. F. WIGHT. 
Cordyline terminalis Kunth. See Taetsia terminalis. 
Corkwood. See Parili tiliaceum. 

Cormigonus mariannensis. TORCHWOOD. 

Family Rubiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Gausdli (Guam). 

A small tree growing in rocky places, and especially abundant on the Peninsula of 
Orote and the island of Apapa, bearing a profusion of white trumpet-shaped flowers, 
appearing from a distance somewhat like morning-glories, but 4-parted. The wood 
ignites easily and is used for torches. 
REFERENCES: 

Cormigonus mariannense ( Brongn. ) 

Bikkia mariannensis Brongn. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 13: 42. 1866. 
The name Cormigonus Raf. 1820 is several years earlier than Bikkia. 
Coromandel gooseberry. See Averrhoa carambola. 
Cotorrera (Porto Rico). See Heliotropum indicum. 
Cotorrera de la play a (Porto Rico). See Heliotropum curassavicum. 
Cotton. See Gossypium arboreum and G. barbadense. 



Flora, Hawaiian Islands, p. 321, 1888. 



250 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Cotton-tree, silk. See Ceiba pentandra. 
Cowhage or Cowitch plant. See Stizolobium pruriens. 
Cowpea, twining (United States). See Vigna sinensis. 
Crab's-eye seeds (West Indies). See Abrus abrus. 

Cracca mariana. GOAT'S-RUE. 

Family Fabaceae. 

An undershrub. Stem erect, terete, villous; leaves pinnate, with 4 pairs of leaflets, 
sessile; leaflets oblong, smooth above, silky-silvery beneath; stipules lanceolate, 
elongate, hairy; axillary flowers close together, subsessile, the terminal ones sub- 
racemose; pods narrow, upright, velvety-hairy, 10 to 12-seeded. Type specimen 
from Marianne Islands, its leaflets nearly 5 cm. long by 8 to 12 mm. wide. Flowers 
not observed. 
REFERENCES: 

Cracca mariana (DC.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 175. 1891. 
Tephrosia mariana DC. Prod. 2: 253. 1825. 

Crape myrtle. See Lagerstroemia indica. 

Crescentia alata. CROSSLEAF. CALABASH TREE. 

Family Bignoniaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Hikara (Guam); Jicara (Spanish, Mexico); Hojacruz (Manila); 

Xicali (Aztec). 

A small tree with many wide-spreading branches and trifoliolate leaves with 
winged petiole, bearing gourd-like fruit upon the trunk and larger limbs. Branches 
angled, without thorns; leaves growing in threes from the axil, the middle one peti- 
olate, 3-foliate, the lateral ones simple, smaller, sessile; petiole of the 3-foliolate leaf 
broadly winged, forming together with the 3 leaflets a cross-shaped leaf; leaflets 
linear-lanceolate or cuneate with crenate apex, membranous, sometimes 4 or 5 from 
end of petiole, but these probably abnormal; bark thin, greenish; flowers develop- 
ing from buds on the trunk and the older limbs and branches, the tree therefore 
" cauliflorous,"^ as in the case of Theobroma cacao and Averrhoa carambola. Flowers 
large, fleshy, purplish, usually solitary, with a very short pedicel; calyx 2-parted, 
deciduous; corolla campanulate, open-mouthed, tube curved, with a fold in the 
throat; limb unequally 5-parted; stamens 4, didymous; ovary 1-celled, stigma 2- 
lamellate; fruit globose, hard, indehiscent, many-seeded, in Guam about 10 cm. in 
diameter. 

This species, first described from Acapulco, Mexico, has been introduced into the 
Philippines and Guam. It was described by Padre Blanco as Crescentia trifolia. *> 
"They call it 'cross-leaf (hoja de cruz)," he says, "because the three leaflets with 
the winged petiole form a cross." Its spreading branches form good perches for 
fowls, and in building a rancho a site is often selected near one of these trees, so that 
it may serve for this purpose. The fruit is too small to serve as calabashes, and it is 
not used in Guam. 

REFERENCES: 

Qrescentia alataH. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 158. 1818. 

Crescentia trifolia Blanco. Same as Crescentia alata. 

a Cauliflorie, d. h. Bliithenbildung am alten Holze in den immerfeuchten trop- 
ischen Wiildern nicht selten. Sie kommt dadurch zu Stande, dass ruhende axilliire 
Knospen sich nach mehreren bis vielen Jahren weiter entwickeln und die Rinde 
durchbrechend, ihre Bliithen frei entfalten. (Schimper, Pflanzen-geographie auf 
physiologischer Grundlage, p. 360, 1898.) 

& Blanco, Flora de Filipinas, 489-490, 1837. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 251 

Crinum asiaticum. ANTIDOTE LILY. 

Family Amaryllidaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Piga-palayi (Guam): Bakong (Philippines); Lautalatalo, Lau- 
tamatama (Samoa). 

A lily-like plant with large white flowers and linear-lanceolate leaves, growing in 
sandy places near the sea. Bulb large, narrowed into a neck which is clothed with 
old leaf sheaths; leaves 90 to 150 cm. long and 12.5 to 20 cm. wide, shortly acumi- 
nate, flat, narrowed into the sheathing base; flower scapes rising from the axils of 
the old leaves, 45 to 90 cm. long, compressed; bracts 2, spathiform, papery; bracte- 
oles filiform; flowers growing in umbels of 10 to 50, fragrant at night; pedicels 
short; perianth tube 7.5 to 10 cm. long, cylindric, slender, the segments linear, 
recurved; filaments slender; anthers reddish; fruit subglobose, beaked by fleshy 
base of perianth, usually 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded. A widely spread strand plant. 
The large spongy, tuber-like seed of this species was collected in the drift on the 
strand of one of the Solomon Islands by Doctor Guppy, having evidently been 
carried there by ocean currents. 

The bulb is bruised and the expressed juice used as an emetic. In some countries 
the bulb is chewed as an antidote for wounds of poisoned arrows and poisonous rep- 
tiles, and also as a remedy for sickness caused by eating poisonous fish. 
REFERENCES: 

Crinum asiaticum L. Sp. PI. 1 : 292. 1753. 
Crossleaf. See Crescentia alata. 

Crotalaria quinquefolia. RATTLEBOX. RATTLEPOD. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Cascabeles (Guam, Spanish). 

An erect annual plant with 3-foliate or 5-foliate leaves, yellow flowers, and inflated 
many-seeded pods. Leaflets subsessile, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long, oblong-linear, tapering 
to base, obtuse, thin, glabrous; flowers in very lax terminal racemes, bracts small, 
lanceolate, acuminate; calyx glabrous, segments narrowly triangular, acute; petals 
about twice the length of the calyx; pod oblong, glabrous, distinctly stalked, 30 to 
40-seeded. - 

A common weed in Guam. Widely distributed in the Tropics. 
REFERENCES: 

Crotalaria quinquefolia L. Sp. PI. 2: 716. 1753. 
Croton, variegated. See Phyllaurea variegata. 
Cruciferae. See Brassicaceae. 

Cuacuacohan (Philippines). See Abutilon indicum. 
Cucumber. See Gardens. 
Cucumis melo. Muskmelon. See Gardens. 
Cucumis sativus. See Gardens. 
Cucurbita cerifera. Same as Benincasa cerifera. 
Cucurbita lagenaria L. Same as Lagenaria lagenaria. 

Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo. Squashes and pumpkins. See under Gardens. 
Cucurbitaceae. GOURD FAMILY. 

Among the representatives of this family growing in Guam are Momordica charan- 
tia, Citrullus citrullus, Cucumis melo, C. satiwis, Lagenaria lagenaria, Cucurbita maxima, 
C. pepo, and Benincasa cerifera. 
Culasi or Kulasi (Philippines). See Lumnitzera littorea. 

"See Winkler, Real Lexikon, vol. 1, p. 425, 1840. 



252 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Cundeamar (Porto Rico) . See Momordica charantia. 
Curcas purgans Medic. Same as Jatropha curcas. 

Curcuma longa. TURMERIC PLANT. 

Family Zinziberaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mango (Guam); Arigo (Samoa) ; Thango (Fiji); Olena (Hawaii); 
Dilao (Philippines); Ukon, Kyo-6 (Japan); Azafran (Spanish); Yuquillo 
(Porto Rico). 

A ginger-like, monocotyledonous plant, with long-petioled oblong leaves, rising 
from a fascicle of tuber-like roots, which differ in form, some being globose, others 
long and narrow. The ripe tubers yield the turmeric of commerce. Rootstocks 
perennial, stems annual; flowers in compound spikes with concave bracts; calyx 
tubular, 3-toothed; tube of corolla dilated above, with 5 of its lobes equal, middle 
one of inner row enlarged to a spreading lip; filament petaloid, 3-lobed at top, with 
a 2-spurred anther on the middle lobe; ovary 3-celled, many-ovuled; style filiform; 
stigma 2-lipped, the lips ciliate; capsule globose, membranous, finally 3-valved. 
Flower spikes crowned by a coma of enlarged pink bracts; flower bracts pale gieen, 
ovate; flowers pale yellow; leafy tuft 1.2 to 1.5 meters high. 

This plant is widely spread in Polynesia. It grows wild in Guam, but is little 
used by the natives. In Fiji, Samoa, and other groups the natives used it to paint 
their bodies, and in Samoa it is used to paint siapo or bark cloth. In Japan its roots 
are collected in autumn and a yellow dye (turmeric) prepared from them. They are 
also used medicinally. 

REFERENCES: 

Curcuma longa L. Sp. PI. 1 : 2. 1753. 
Custard-apple. See the species of Annona. 
Custard-apple family. See Annonaceae. 
Cyanopus pubescens. Same as Vernonia villosa. 
Cyanotis cristata. See Zygomenes cristata. 

Cyathea mariana Gaudich. Same as Alsophila haenkei See under Ferns. 
Cycadaceae. CYCAD FAMILY. 

The only representative of this family in Guam is Cycas circinalis. For the method 
of fecundation of the Cycads see p. 71. 
Cycas circinalis. EAST INDIAN CYCAS. PLATES vm, xiv. 

Family Cycadaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Fadan, Fadang (Guam); Federico (Spanish); Bitogo, Pitogo, 

Patubo, (Philippines); Madu (Ceylon). 

A low palm-like tree, with cylindrical trunk and a crown of glossy, fern-like, stiff, 
thick, pinnate leaves, bearing nuts which in their crude state are poisonous, but after 
having been macerated in water and cooked are used for food. Trunk clothed with 
the compacted woody bases of petioles, usually simple but often branching when the 
head has been cut off, or several new trunks springing up from the stump of an old 
one which has been cut down, sometimes the trunk bifurcated; besides the true 
leaves, modified leaves in the form of simple, short, sessile, subulate, woolly pro- 
phylla; true leaves 1.5 to 2.5 meters long, long-petioled; pinnules alternate, 25 to 30 
cm. long and quite narrow, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, subfalcate, midrib stout 
beneath, bright green, glabrous; petiole with short, deflexed spines near the base; 
inflorescence dioecious; the male inflorescence growing in the form of erect, woolly 
cones consisting of scales bearing globose pollen sacs on their under surface, the cone 
shortly ped uncled and tipped with an upcurved spine; female inflorescence in the 
center of the crown of leaves, consisting of a tuft of spreading, buff, woolly, pinnately- 
notched leaves (carpophylls), in the notches of whose margins the naked or uncov- 
ered ovules are placed; carpophylls about 30 cm. long; ovules 3 to 5 pairs, borne 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLVII. 




CYCLOPHORUS ADNASCENS, AN EPIPHYTAL FERN. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 253 

above the middle; seeds about the size of an English walnut, testa thinly fleshy, 
crustaceous within; endosperm copious, fleshy and farinaceous; embryo small, axile. 

The cycads belong to a group of plants wonderfully interesting on account of the 
position they occupy intermediate between the flowering plants and cryptogams. 

An account of their remarkable mode of fecundation has already been given. 

Both the fruit and the starchy pith of the trunks of many Cycadaceae are utilized 
for food. In Japan and in the Moluccas sago is obtained from the pith of Cycas 
revoluta and from that of Cycas cirdnalis; plants of the genus Encephalartos yield the 
" caff re-bread " of Africa; Dioon edule produces the "cabeza de chamal" of Mexico; 
in Central America, Florida, and the West Indies a kind of arrowroot is prepared 
irom species of Zamia, and in Australia the nuts of Cycas media and of several species 
of Macrozamia are eaten after having been pounded, macerated for several days in 
water, an4 roasted. A gum resembling tragacanth exudes from wounds in Cycas 
drdnalis&tid other Cycadaceae. 

In Guam the seeds of Cycas cirdnalis, called "fadang" or "fadan" in the vernacu- 
lar of the island, and "bitogo" or "federico" by the Filipinos and Spaniards, were an 
important food staple of the aboriginal inhabitants. As in other members of the 
family the trunk contains sago, but in Guam this has never been utilized. As pre- 
pared now by the natives, the endocarp of the seed is either grated or broken into 
small pieces and soaked for several days in water, which must be changed from time 
to time. When fresh the seeds are so poisonous that the water in which they are 
steeped is fatal to chickens if drunk by them. The poisonous principle contained in 
the seeds has not yet been ascertained. After having been thoroughly soaked the 
fadang is dried in the sun and put aside for use. In preparing it for food the natives 
grind it on a stone slab (metate) with a cylindrical stone rolling-pin (mano), mix it 
with water, make it into a thin cake, and bake it on a slab or griddle, like a tortilla 
of maize. If eaten continuously for any length of time it is injurious. The natives 
now resort to it only when maize is scarce, or in times of famine following hurricanes, 
when almost all other fruits are destroyed. In the old letter books at Agana I find 
copies of reports of several Spanish governors to the captain-general of the Philip- 
pines, in which they complain of the unwholesomeness of this food and the injurious 
effects it has upon the natives. As far as my personal experience goes it is palatable 
and not injurious if eaten occasionally and in small quantities, although it is inferior 
to maize in every respect. Starch is sometimes made of the seed, but this is not 
very white and has a disagreeable odor. It is good for paste, however, and is avoided 
by insects. These seeds are used as food in the southern islands of the Philippine 
group, and the bracts and fruit are an excellent vulnerary. 

Cycas cirdnalis is abundant in the woods of Guam, especially in rocky places. On 
the shores of Orote Peninsula, at the entrance to the bay of San Luis de Apra, the 
beautiful fern-like crests of this plant are distinctly visible to those on board ships 
entering the harbor and lend a peculiar charm to the landscape. Though usually 
only 1.2 to 1.5 meters high, the trunks reach the height of three meters in certain 
localities. On the promontory of As Kiroga, near Talofofo, the growth of Cycas 
trees, with their cylindrical scarred trunks and luxuriant fronds, strongly recall ideal 
pictures of the vegetation of the Carboniferous age, in which the Cycadaceae formed 
so important a part. 
REFERENCES: 

Cycas cirdnalis L. Sp. PI. 2: 1188. 1753. 

Cyclophorus adnascens. CREEPING FERN. PLATE XLVII. 

Family Polypodiaceae. 

A creeping fern, with small, simple fronds, usually found growing on the trunks of 
trees. Rhizome firm, but slender, the scales linear, deciduous; fronds dimorphous, 

Page 71. 



254 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

the sterile ones elliptical or spathulate, blunt, the fertile ones longer and narrower; 
texture coriaceous; upper surface naked, lower thinly coated with whitish tomentum 
in the sterile but more densely in the fertile part beneath; veins hidden; sori small, 
bright reddish brown, immersed, occupying the whole of the contracted upper part 
of the frond. 

This species is spread throughout the islands of the Pacific Ocean. It is also found 
in India, Ceylon, and the Mascaren Isles. 
REFERENCES: 

Cydophorus adnascens (Sw. ) Desv. Berl. Mag. v. 300 (ex Luerssen). 

Polypodium adnascens Sw. Syn. Fil. 25, 222. tab. 2. f. 2. 1806. 
Cymbidium triste Willd. Same as Luisia teretifolia. 
Cynodon dactylon Pers. Same as Capriola dactylon. 

Cyperaceae. SEDGES. 

The following members of this family are known from Guam: Carex densiflora, 
Carex fuirenoides, Cladium gaudichaudii ', Cyperus diffbrmis, Cyperus pennatus, Cyperus 
rotundus, Eleocharis capitata, Eleocharis plantaginoidea, Fimbristylis complanata, Fim- 
bristylis diphylla, Fimbristylis globulosa, Fimbristylis miliacea, Fimbristylis puberula, 
Fimbristylis spathacea, Fuirena umbellata, Kyllinga monocephala, Kyttinga monocephala 
subtriceps, Rynchospora corymbosa. 
Cyperus difformis. 
Family Cyperaceae. 

A glabrous annual sedge often growing in rice fields; stem 10 to 50 cm. high, acutely 
3-angled at the top; leaves usually somewhat shorter than the stem; spikes arranged 
in umbelled heads, the umbel either simple, compound, or reduced to one head, the 
rays up to 5 cm. long, sometimes longer; bracts 5 to 25 cm. long, lowest often sub- 
erect (umbel lateral); spikes globose, 8 to 12 mm. in diameter; spikelets very small, 
linear-oblong, most densely crowded; glumes close-packed, concave, very obtuse, 
straw-colored, sides more or less red; stamens 1, rarely 2; anther small, oblong; nut 
subsessile, subequally trigonous, pale brown; style shorter than the nut; stigmas 3, 
linear, short. 
REFERENCES: 

Cyperus difformis L. Cent. PI. 2: 6. 1756; Amoen. Acad. 4: 302. 1759. 

Cyperus hexastachyos. Same as Cyperus rotundus. 

Cyperus pennatus. 

A sedge collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, with compound umbels of cylin- 
drical sessile spikes. Stems 60 to 90 cm. high; leaves longer than stem. 
REFERENCES: 

Cyperus pennatus Lam. 111. 1: 144. 1791. 

Mariscus albescens Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 415. 1826. 

Cyperus rotundus. NUTGRASS. 

LOCAL NAMES. Chaguan Humatag (Guam); Mootha, Mutha (India); Hama- 

sage (Japan). 

A sedge growing in sandy places, with aromatic tuberous rootstock, having the 
odor and taste of camphor. Very common in Guam, often growing in the yards of 
Agana with grasses and near the shore. It is a most troublesome weed in garden 
patches. In Japan its roots are collected in the winter, dried, and used for medi- 
cine. 

REFERENCES: 

Cyperus rotundus L. Sp. PL 1 : 45. 1753. 

Cypress vine. See Quamoclit quamodit. 
Cytisus cajan. Same as Cajan cajan. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 255 

Dabdap (Philippines, Malay Archipelago). See Erythrina indica. 
Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum. GOOSE GRASS. 

Family Poaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Salai maya (Philippines). 

An annual grass spread throughout the warmer regions of the globe. Leaves 
distichous, flat, acute, ciliate; sheaths compressed; spikes digitate; spikelets at 
right angles to the rachis of the spikes; glumes rigid, cuspidate, glabrous, the lower- 
most ovate, the second broadly ovate, obliquely cuspidately awned as are the follow- 
ing, the cusps recurved; palese very broad, bifid, the keels hispid; grain globose, 
very rough, the pericarp evanescent. 

Common in Guam, growing in damp sandy places. A coarse-looking grass rising 
above the general level of the "grama" (Capriola dactylon), with which it is asso- 
ciated, together with Eleusine indica. In the Philippines the vernacular name signi- 
fies "sparrow's nest." 
KEFERENCES: 

Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum (L.) Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 1029. 1809. 
Cynosurus aegyptius L. Sp. PI. 1 : 72. 1753. 
Dadangsi or Dadanse (Guam). 

Vernacular name signifying "bur" or something which sticks to something else; 
applied to Triumfetta rhomboidea, T. pilosa, and Urena sinuata, all of which have 
prickly fruit with hooked spines. 

Dadig (Guam) . Vernacular name for a small coconut of the size of a betel nut. 
Dafau, Dafao (Guam). See Boerhaavia diffusa. 
Daffodil, seaside. See Pancratium littorale. 
Dagmai (Philippines). See Caladium colocasia. 
Dago (Guam). Vernacular name for one class of yams. See Dioscorea, D. alata, 

D. glabra, and D. sativa. 

Dalandan (Philippines). See Citrus aurantium sinensis. 

Dalayap (Philippines). See Citrus hystrix acida. 

Dalima (Philippines) . See Punica granatum. 

Dalinga or Dalingag (Philippines) . See Dioscorea fasciculata. 

Dalisay (Philippines) . See Terminalia catappa. 

Daltonia. See Neckera, under Mosses. 

Dama de noche (Spanish) . See Oestrum nocturnum. 

Dampalit (Philippines). See Sesuvium portulacastrum. 

Dangkalan, Dinkalin (Philippines). See Calophyllum inophyllum. 

Dao (Philippines). See Zinziber zerumbet. 

Daog or Daok (Guam). Vernacular name for Calophyllum inophyllum. 

Daphne. 

To this genus Freycinet referred a plant used by the. natives for making a sort of 
noose to aid them in climbing trees, called "gapit atayake." 
Date palm. See Phoenix dactylifera. 
Date palm, wild. See Phoenix sylvestris. 

Datura fastuosa. THORNAPPLE. 

Family Solanaceae. 

A rank tropical plant growing in waste places, very much like the common D. stra- 
monium, but with larger flowers and pods not regularly dehiscent. Its leaves are 
ovate, entire or deeply toothed, and smooth; corolla purple or white, limb shortly 
5 or 6-toothed. 



256 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Common about Agana, both the white-flowered and purple-flowered varieties. 
The leaves and seeds are sedative and narcotic. In India the seeds are often used as 
a poison. 

EEFERENCES: 

Datura fastuosa L. Syst. ed. 2. 932. 1759. 
Davallia heterophylla. See Humata heterophylla. 

Davallia solida. GLOSSY FERN. PLATE in. 

Family Polypodiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Pugua machena (Guam). 

A graceful fern, with glossy, divided fronds, climbing the trunks of forest trees and 
growing upon their limbs, associated with Polypodium phymatodes, Cydophorus 
adnascens, and Nephrolepis spp. Rhizome stout, densely clothed with fibers; stipe 
slender, strong, erect; fronds deltoid, tripinnatifid; apex with a moderately broad 
undivided center; segments ovate-rhomboidal, deeply toothed, narrow and sharper 
in fertile frond; veins uniform; texture coriaceous; sori nearly or quite marginal; 
indusium semicylindrical. 

This species is widely spread throughout Polynesia, the Philippines, and the Malay 
Peninsula. It has also been collected in Java. 
REFERENCES: 

Davallia solida Sw. Syn. Fil. 132, 375, 1806. 
Trichomanes solidum Forst. f. Prod. n. 475. 1786. 
Dayflower. See Commelina. 

Delonix regia. FLAME TREE. 

Family Caesalpiniaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Arbol del fuego (Philippines, Guam); Flamboyant; Peacock 

flower. 

A rapid-growing tree with broad top and wide-spreading branches. Leaves grace- 
fully bipinnate, 30 to 60 cm. long with 10 to 20 pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 
numerous small oval leaflets; flowers large, in large racemes, bright scarlet, the 
upper petal striped with yellow; calyx-segments valvate; petals 5, clawed, obovate; 
stamens 10, free, exserted; pod flat, strap-like, 15 to 60 cm. long. 

This handsome ornamental tree is a native of Madagascar. It has become widely 
spread, and is now found in all tropical countries. It yields a yellowish or reddish 
brown mucilaginous gum containing oxalate of lime. It is not yet well established 
in Guam. 

REFERENCES: 

Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. Fl. Tellur. 2: 92. 1836. 
Poindana regia Boj. in Hook. Bot. Mag. 56: t. 2884- 1829. 
Desmodium australe. Same as Meibomia umbellata. 
Desmodium gangeticum. Same as Meibomia gangetica. 
Desmodium triflorum. Same as Meibomia triflora. 
Desmodium umbellatum. Same as Meibomia umbellata. 
Detergents, or plants used for cleaning. 

Citrus aurantium saponacea (fruit used for washing clothes and for the hair). 
Citrus bergamia (fruit used for washing the hair). 
Colubrina asiatica (leaves used in Samoa and Fiji). 
Lens phaseoloides (crushed stems saponaceous, used for washing). 

Devil's guts. See Cassylha filiformis. 
Dewflower. See Commelina. 
Dianella ensifolia. 

Family Liliaceae. 

A plant with leafy stem and cymose panicles of small flowers. Leaves rigid, 
distichous, linear-lanceolate, the bases equitant or overlapping, the sheaths acutely 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 257 

angled; flowers nodding; pedicels short, slender, rigid, jointed at the top, panicle 
1 to 2 feet long, cuneiform; bracts spathaceous; flowers odorless; perianth white, 
greenish, or bluish, the segments 6 to 8 mm. long, the 3 inner reflexed; .anthers 
linear, 2-porous; filaments much thickened at the top; anthers basifixed between the 
lobes, reflexed; ovary 3-celled; style filiform, stigma minute; berry blue; seeds few, 
testa black, shining. A plant widely spread in tropical Asia, Madagascar, Australia, 
and Polynesia. Collected in Guam by Haenke. 
REFERENCES: 

Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. in Red. Lil. 1. 1. 1802. 

Dracaena ensifolia L. Mant. 1: 63. 1767. 

Dianella nemorosa Lam. Encyc. 2: 276. 1786. 
Dianella nemorosa. Same as Dianella ensifolia. 
Dictyonema. See under Lichenes. 
Dilang- usa (Philippines). See Elephantopus spicatus. 
Dilao (Philippines). See Curcuma longa. 
Dimeria chloridiformis. 

Family Poaceae. 

A grass growing in damp places. Spikelets 1-flowered, almost sessile, inserted 
singly in the alternate notches of slender unilateral spikes, which are either solitary 
or more frequently 2 or 3 together on a terminal peduncle; rachis not articulate; fre- 
quently a tuft of short hairs under each spikelet; glumes 4, 2 outer empty ones 
keeled, linear, rigid, not awned; the third empty, smaller, thin, hyaline, terminal 
glume with a slender awn twisted at the base and bent back at or below the middle; 
styles distinct; grain free, narrow, inclosed in the outer glumes. A slender branch- 
ing annual with narrow ciliate leaves. Collected in Guam by Haenke. 
REFERENCES: 

Dimeria chloridiformis (Gaudich.) K. Sch. & Laut. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. in 
der Siidsee 165. 1901. 

Andropogon chloridiformis Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 412. 1826. 

Dimeria pilosissima Trin. Mem. Acad. Petersb. VI. 2: 336. 1833. 
Dimeria pilosissima. Same as Dimeria chloridiformis. 

Dioscorea. YAMS. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nika, Dago, Gado (Guam); Torigo, Ubi, Tugui (Philippines); 

Alu (Hindustan); Kelengu (Malayan). 

Yams formed one of the principal staples of food of the aborigines of Guam. They 
were among the provisions supplied to the early navigators visiting the group, many 
of whom designated them as "batatas," which has led some writers to the supposi- 
tion that sweet potatoes were growing on the island before the discovery. Sweet 
potatoes, however, have no vernacular name in Guam. They are called "kamutes," 
a corruption of "camote,'' the name under which they are known to the Mexicans 
and the Spanish Americans of the Pacific coast of America. The natives divide the 
yams into two classes, which they call "nika" and "dago," respectively, the former 
having orbicular,, acuminate, deeply cordate leaves, and the latter sagittate leaves. 
The leaves are sometimes quite variable, however, on the same plant, and much con- 
fusion exists in the classification of the various species and varieties, & so that it is 
impossible to determine the species with any degree of accuracy. Gaudichaud, the 
botanist of Freycinet's expedition, counted seven kinds of "dago" and four of 
"nika." He referred the dago to Dioscorea alata, for the varieties of which the 
native names are such as "manila yam, bat yam, lizard yam, devil yam (not edible)," 
etc. The varieties of nika bear a general resemblance to D. aculeata L. 

Presl, Reliquiae Haenkeana, fasc. 4, p. 235, L 38, 1830. 
&See Hooker, Flora Brit. Ind., vol. 6, pp. 288, 296, 1894. 

977305 17 



258 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

One thing is certain, the spiny wild yam called " gado" or "nikacimarron," which 
forms dense thickets in the forests of Guam and furnishes the natives with food in 
the periods of famine which follow hurricanes, is not the Dioscorea aculeata of Lin- 
naeus, as was supposed by Gaudichaud. D. aculeata L. is very probably the species 
described under that name by Seemann, a plant cultivated by the Fijians, in the 
description of which Seemann does not mention branching sharp spiny processes 
about the base of the stem, such as characterize the spiny yam of this island and 
which are features of the Dioscorea aculeata of Roxburgh. According to Hooker, 
Roxburgh's Dioscorea aculeata is identical with D. spinosa Roxb., & the description 
of which corresponds to our gado. 

The typical nika of Guam resembles D. aculeata L., and corresponds very closely 
with D. fasciculata lutescens, as described by Padre Blanco. c Some of the varieties 
seem identical with D. papuana Warb. 

In the list of yams given by Schumann and Lauterbach as occurring in the Bismark 
Archipelago and Kaiser Wilhelmsland, on the coast of New Guinea, are Dioscorea 
glabra Roxb.; D. papuana Warb., perhaps the most extensively cultivated species; 
D. pentaphylla L., growing on the edge of the forests; D. saliva L., which " produces 
great tubers," growing in the woods, occurring also, according to Finsch, in Ponape, 
Kuschai, and Ualan, of the Caroline Group; and D. alata, which is cultivated.^ 

According to Hooker, a part of Linnaeus' description of Dioscorea sativa e applies to 
D. spinosa Roxb., to w r hich should also be referred D. aculeata Roxb., D. tiliaefolia 
Kunth, and D. lanata Balf. Linnaeus' true D. sativa is a glabrous plant, the stem 
terete, bulbiferous, the leaves broadly ovate-cordate, acuminate, cuspidate; and to it 
should be referred D. bulbifera R. Br./ D. glabra is quite glabrous, with very variable, 
long-petioled, opposite, caudate-acuminate leaves, the youngest acute at the base, 
the older truncate or deeply cordate, the lobes sometimes 2.5 cm. long, incurved 
and overlapping, orbicular, ovate-oblong, or hastate, strongly 7 to 9-nerved, and 
reticulate, subglaucous beneath. In the face of so many conflicting authorities it 
is hard to decide as to the species or recognized varieties cultivated in Guam. A 
thorough study of the yams of this island is especially desirable, since most of the 
varieties were cultivated by the natives before the discovery, ff 

The species of Dioscorea can not be understood from herbarium specimens alone. 
The food-yielding varieties must be studied in the localities where they are cultivated, 
and should be represented in herbaria by photographs of the growing plants, together 
with their tubers, and, if possible, by typical tubers of each variety preserved in 
formalin or some other liquid. It is only in this way that specimens from Polynesia, 
India, the Malay Archipelago, Africa, Australia, and America can be compared. 

Plants belonging to the genus Dioscorea are herbaceous perennials with fleshy 
tuberous roots and twining stems, which, as a rule, die down each year, allowing 
the plant to rest through the dry season. Leaves having several longitudinal veins, 
either entire, lobed, or digitately 3 to 5 foliolate, the petiole often angular and 
twisted at the base. Flowers small or minute, panicled, racemose, or spicate, rarely 
bisexual, the perianth superior, 6-cleft. Male flowers with the perianth tubular or 
urn-shaped, its lobes shortly spreading. Stamens inserted at the base of the perianth 
or on its lobes, 3 or 6, or 3 perfect stamens and 3 staminodes, the filaments incurved 
or recurved, the anthers small, globose, oblong or didymous, or with the cells on 

Flora Indica, vol. 3, p. 800, 1832. 

t> Ex Wallich, Catalogue, No. 5703, A, B, C, D, E, F. 

c Flora de Filipinas, ed. gran, vol. 4. p. 260, 1880. 

^ Schumann und Lauterbach, Flora deutschen Schutzgebiete, pp. 223-224, 190L 

Species Plantarum, ed. 1, vol. 2, p. 1033, 1753. 

/Prodromus Flora Novas Hollandise, p. 294, 1810. 

9 One of the first Jesuit missionaries to visit the island was killed by a native in 
consequence of a misunderstanding over some "nika" roots which the native failed 
to deliver as he had promised. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLVIII. 




THE WING-STEMMED YAM (DIOSCOREA ALATA). LEAVES AND IMMATURE TUBER. 

NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 259 

branches of the filament, an imperfect pistil (pistillode) present or lacking. Female 
flowers with a perianth like that of the male, but smaller, imperfect stamens, or 
staminodes, 3 or 6, or lacking. Ovary 3-angled or 3-ribbed, 3-celled; styles 3, very 
short, the stigmas entire or 2-parted, recurved; ovules 2, superposed in each cell, 
pendulous. Fruit a berry or 3-valved capsule. 

Dioscorea aculeata. GUINEA YAM. PRICKLY YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nika (Guam); Baliacag (Philippines) ; Kattukelangu (Malabar); 
Hoei'-trobong (Java); Kummara-baddu (Teloogoo). 

Stem aculeate, terete; leaves alternate, cordate, acuminate, 7to9-nerved, transverse 
veins stibsimple; male spikes panieled. 

This brief description corresponds with some of the varieties of the "nika" culti- 
vated in Guam. Seemann attributes to it the yam called by the Fijians "kawai," 
which is in common cultivation on most of the islands of the group, and which 
differs from the wild spiny yam called " tivoli" (D. nummularia?) in having alternate 
instead of opposite leaves, and lacking the wiry spines about the base of the stem. 
Hooker identifies with it Rheede's "kattu kelengu." To this species also was 
assigned by Warburg the common cultivated yam of the Papuans, which he after- 
wards found to differ from Linnaeus' description in having simple male inflorescences 
and sessile flowers; also in the broad, relatively not deep sinus of the base of the 
leaf, and which he afterwards described as Dioscorea papuana. 6 Warburg further 
remarks that the species D. aculeata is so insufficiently and badly described, that 
perhaps a series of species is included within it. c 
REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea aculeata L. Sp. PI. 2: 1033. 1753. 

Dioscorea aculeata Roxb. (not L. ). Same as Dioscorea spinosa Roxb. 
Dioscorea alata. WHITE YAM. SQUARE-STEMMED YAM. PLATE XLVIII. 

LOCAL NAMES. Dago (Guam) ; Ubi, Ube (Philippines, Java, Malay Archipelago) ; 
Uvi (Fiji, New Zealand); Ovi, Oviala (Madagascar); Ufi (Samoa); Uhi 
(Tahiti); Ui-parai (Rarotonga); Heei'-prataen (Java); Hoei'-lie lien (Sunda); 
Kap (Caroline Islands); S^ame (Panama). 

A cultivated yam having a 4-angled or 4- winged climbing stem without prickles. 
Roots very large; stem stout, often tuberiferous; leaves mostly opposite, varying 
from orbicular and deeply cordate to hastately ovate, 5 to 7-nerved; male flowers in 
slender fascicled spikes, very much as in D. sativa; female flowers in much stiffer 
spikes; sepals narrowly oblong or lanceolate, subvalvate; capsule broader than long, 
25 to 37 mm. in diameter, very broadly obcordate, coriaceous; carpels rounded; 
seeds orbicular, broadly winged all round. 

The natives of Guam distinguish a number of varieties all of which are known as 
"dago," with roots of different sizes and shapes, varying in color from white to pur- 
ple and differing in time of maturity. Yams are left in the ground for a short while 
after the vine has turned yellow and died down. The tops of the tubers are then cut 
off with the vines attached and buried in the ground, piling the earth up around the 
base of the vine. After several weeks another yam is produced which contains a 
number of eyes or buds. This is cut up into pieces each having an eye from which the 
new plant grows. Yams are usually planted in small hillocks arranged in a large cir- 
cle, sometimes with a tree or high pole at the center. In each hill a slender pole is 
thrust and inclined toward the center of the circle, the poles forming the shape of an 
Indian tent, or all are inclined against the central tree. The ground is kept free 

Flora Vitiensis, p. 308, 1865-73. 

&O. Warburg, Beitriige zur kenntniss der papuanischen Flora, Engler's Botanische 
Jahrbiicher, Bd. 13, pp. 273-274. 1891. 
c See Dioscorea papuana below. 



260 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

from weeds and is hilled up from time to time around the base of the plants. In 
about eight or nine months the yams are ready for digging. They are dug and stored 
by the natives, who pick them over from time to time, taking out any that show signs 
of decay, so that the rest may not be affected by them. In the meantime the heads 
are forming new eyes and the ground is prepared for the new crop. As the cultivation 
of yams requires more labor and attention on the part of the natives than that of taro, 
they are not so extensively planted as the latter. They are very nutritious; more so, 
it is claimed, than the common potato. a They are eaten either baked or boiled, and in 
many of the Pacific islands are combined with the rich creamy juice expressed from 
the meat of the coconut to form dumplings of various kinds. In the days when 
whaling vessels visited Guam in great numbers great quantities of yams and sweet 
potatoes were supplied to them in exchange for codfish, salt meat, sugar, flour, and 
textile fabrics. 

REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea alata L. Sp.'Pl. 2: 1033. 1753. 

Dioscorea bulbifera P. Br. (not L.). Same as Dioscorea, sativa. 
Dioscorea fasciculata. KIDNEY YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nika? (Guam); Soosni-aloo ( Beng. ) ; Bolot, Borot, Togui, Tugui, 

Daliriga or Dalingag (Philippines). 

Tubers pendulous; stems annual, twining, round; prickles stipulary; leaves alter- 
nate, round, cordate, 5-nerved. Cultivated to a considerable extent in the vicinity 
of Calcutta, not only for food, but to make starch from the roots. 

Root consisting of many tubers, about the size and shape of a pullet's egg, connected 
by slender filaments to the base of the stems, covered with a pretty smooth, light- 
colored, thin integument; internally they are white; stems several, about as thick as 
a pack thread, twining, round, smooth, except here and there a small prickle, and 
always two at the insertion of each leaf; these I call the stipules. Leaves alternate, 
long-petioled, round-cordate, entire, pointed, from 3 to 7-nerved, venose, slightly 
villous. I have not met with the flowers of either sex. & 

To this species is assigned, in the last edition of the Flora de Filipinas, Padre Blan- 
co's earlier D. tugui, called "togui" by the Filipinos, which in the first edition he 
describes as follows: c 

Male. Root with many tubers; stem climbing, somewhat angled, hairy and 
prickly; leaves alternate, broadly cordate, abruptly acuminate, concave, somewhat 
hairy beneath, and with 7 prominent nerves; petioles very long, minutely and 
sparsely prickly; flowers in axillary spikes; 2-bracteolate, unisexual; perianth 6-cleft, 
in 2 series, the 3 inner divisions narrower; the 3 outer ones fleshy and hairy without; 
corolla absent; stamens 6, of equal length; pistillode prominently 3-lobed. In some 
plants 3 bifid styles are seen; fruit not observed. 

These plants, which are cultivated, are climbers, on which account the Indians 
place stakes so that they may climb upon them. Their root, which is the part most 
valued in them, forms many tubers, some of which reach 5 in. or more in thickness. 
This root is not poisonous, nor needs any anterior preparation to be eaten boiled or 
fried in olive oil or lard. The flavor is very good, and on that account it is more 
esteemed than the sweet potato. Blooms in May and June. 
REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea fasciculata Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3: 801. 1832. 

Dioscorea fasciculata lutescens. YELLOW YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nika (Guam); Toguing polo (Philippines). 

This variety has the root as in the preceding species, only it differs in the color, 
which inclines to yellow. Stem with a greater number of prickles; leaves mostly 
heart-shaped, the new ones approaching the shape of a kidney, full of wool, espe- 
cially beneath; petioles very long and with 2 prickles at the base. Used like the 
preceding, but the root not so savory; found everywhere.^ 

Nicholls, Tropical Agriculture, p. 284, 1897. 
& Roxburgh, Flora Indica, vol. 3, p. 801, 1832. 
Flora de Filipinas, p. 800, 1837. 
* Blanco, Flora de Filipinas, ed. 1, p. 801, 1837. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 201 

One variety of nika cultivated in Guam very closely corresponds with this descrip- 
tion. The species is very close to D. papuana of Warburg. Hooker was unable to 
identify any of the Indian yams examined by hini with D. fasdculata Roxb. 
REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea fasdculata lutescens Fernandez- Villar, Blanco Fl. Philipp. 4: Nov. 
App. 280. 1880. 

Dioscorea glabra. CHINESE YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Dago (Guam). 

Quite glabrous. Stems stout, somewhat flattened; leaves opposite, long-petioled, 
extremely variable, 7.5 to 20 cm. long by 2.5 to 11 cm. broad, caudate-acuminate, 
orbicular, ovate-oblong, or hastate, strongly 7 to 9-nerved and reticulate, the youngest 
acute at the base, the older truncate or deeply cordate, the lobes sometimes 2.5 cm. 
long, incurved and overlapping, subglaucous beneath ; margins not thickened or carti- 
laginous; petiole 2.5 to 8 cm. long; male spikes 2.5 cm. long, rarely longer, spreading; 
flowers scattered, rather large, globosely 8-lobed, often coarsely dotted; sepals ovate- 
oblong, petals cuneately obovate; pistillode minute; capsule 3.7 cm. in diameter, 
very variable in shape, subquadrate, broadly obcuneate or obcordate, retuse at the 
tip and base, valves very thin; seeds irregularly orbicular. 

A plant occurring in the Bismarck Archipelago and Kaiser Wilhelmsland, near the 
coast of New Guinea, the Philippine Islands, and the Malay Peninsula. It is probable 
that some of the varieties of the dago of Guam should be referred to this species. 
REFERENCES: 
Dioscorea glabra Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3 : 804. 1832. 

Dioscorea papuana. PAPUAN YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nika ? (Guam). 
The following is a translation of Warburg's description and discussion of this 

species: 

Stems climbing, terete, finely ferruginous-villous, sparsely prickly, the prickles 
commonly erect, small; leaves long-petioled (the petiole angled, pubescent), broadly 
cordate, with the sinus at the base deep and very broad, the apex shortly acuminate, 
above smooth, below lighter-colored, sparsely whitish-hairy, 7 to 11-costate, with the 
basal costae commonly bifid or trifid; male racemes simple, axillary, many-flowered, 
as long as the leaf or longer, the peduncle pubescent, the bracts small, acutely ovate, 
hairy; flowers solitary, subsessile, campanulate, hairy without, the lobes 6, subequal, 
obtusely ovate, longer than tube; stamens 6, glabrous, shorter than the divisions of 
the perianth, the filaments attached to the base of the divisions, the anthers all 
fertile, introrse; rudiment of the style (pistillode) smooth, short, irregularly sub- 
pyramidal. 

The petioles are 5 to 6 cm. long, the leaves themselves 7 to 8 cm. long and 9 to 
10 cm. broad. The prickles differ very much in length. They are sometimes trian- 
gular and sometimes slender; at the base of the leaf there are prickles almost twice 
as long, somewhat curved. The male inflorescences vary between 10 and 40 cm., 
but are never branched; the bracts are 1.5 mm., the perianth nearly 3 mm. long, the 
style scarcely perceptible. 

This hitherto overlooked species stands very near to D. aculeata L., but differs 
above all in the simple male inflorescences and the sessile blossoms; also, the broad, 
relatively not deep sinus of the base of the leaf is noteworthy. 

The plant grows wild on Little Key. I also found sterile branches evidently of 
the same species in Ceram-Laut and Hatzfeldhafen. 

This is probably the species of yam which is chiefly cultivated there by the natives, 
and which, together with Colocasia antiquorum [Caladium colocasia], even to the pres- 
ent day represents the most important cultivated plant of Papuasia. As I held the 
above plant to be D. aculeala, I unfortunately did not take care to procure for myself 
female flowers and fruit; nor do I remember to have seen the plant in bloom, as the 
yam planting of the year had just begun; it is of great importance, in the future, to 

Flora Brit. Ind., vol. 6, p. 296, 1894. 



262 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

take note of it. In connection with this it is remarked that the D. aculeata L. is 
described so insufficiently and badly that perhaps a series of species is included 
within it. a 

REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea papuana Warb. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 13: 273. 1891. 

Dioscorea sativa. ROUND-STEMMED YAM. NEGRO YAM. COMMON YAM. 

LOCAL NAMES. Dago (Guam); Bayog cabayo, Baorig, Baliacag (Philippines); 
Hoi (Tahiti, Hawaii); Oi (Rarotonga); Pua-hoi (Marquesas); Hoei-oepas 
(Sunda); Kaile (Fiji). 

Closely allied to D. alata, but with round instead of 4-winged stems. Quite gla- 
brous; stem sometimes prickly below, bulbiferous, slender, green or purple; tubers 
large, variable in form, white or yellowish within, soon decaying when taken from 
the ground; leaves opposite or alternate, very variable in size, sometimes attaining 
35 cm. in length and breadth, membranous, dark green, usually very deeply cordate, 
but sometimes with only a shallow, broad sinus, acuminate, cuspidate, or caudate, 
7 to 9-costate; male spikes slender, panicled, almost capillary, 2.5 to 10 cm. long; 
flowers crowded or scattered, very variable in size, green or purplish; sepals narrow, 
linear or linear-lanceolate, 2.5 to 6 mm. long, fleshy; petals rather narrower; fila- 
ments much shorter than the perianth; anthers minute, didymous; pistillode3-lobed; 
female spikes axillary, solitary, or fascicled, 10 to 25 cm. long, pendulous; flowers 3 
to 6 mm. long; sepals as in the male; capsule quadrately oblong, 16 to 25 mm. by 8 to 
13 mm. long, membranous; seeds with abroad basal wing. This species is regarded 
by Hooker and by Bentham as the true D. sativa of Linnaeus. The capsule is rather 
broader upward, the top truncate or abruptly acute, the base truncate or subcordate. 
REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea sativa L. Sp. PI. 2: 1033. 1753. 

Dioscorea spinosa. SPINY YAM. WILD YAM. PLATE XLIX. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gado, Nika cimarron (Guam); Turigo Torigo (Philippines); 
Mou-aloo (Calcutta). 

Tubers very large; base of stem beset with long woody, rigid fibers, bearing lateral 
spines 12 mm. long;& glabrous or tomentose; stem round, very spinous at the base; 
leaves orbicular-cordate or reniform-cordate, 20 cm. long and broad; acuminate or 
cuspidate, 5 to 7-nerved, rather membranous, basal lobes rounded; male flowers in 
simple or nearly simple axillary spikes, 15 to 45 cm. long, distant or in distant 
clusters; flowers 3 mm. in diameter, often in very dense cymules, sessile or shortly 
pediceled; bracteoles very broad; perianth lobes remote from the large oblong 
pistillode; sepals broadly oblong or orbicular; stamens 6, all having anthers; anthers 
large; female raceme rather short; capsule broader than long, 2.5 cm. in diameter, 
broadly obcordate. 

To this species should be referred D. aculeata of Roxburgh (not L.). Linnaeus' s 
species of that name is Rheede's "kattu kelangu," which has panicled male spikes. 
In Fiji a thorny yarn, called "tivoli" by the natives, grows in the woods, which 
Seemann considers to be D. nummularia Larn.c This plant differs from D. aculeata, 
according to Seemann, in having opposite instead of alternate leaves. The base of 
its stem is spiny; leaves ovate or oval, scarious-mucronate, with the base subcordate 
or rather rotundate, 5-nerved, glaucescent below; spikes axillary; wings of the cap- 
sule hemispherical. Hooker does not recognize D. nummularia among the Indian 
yams. 

The gado, or spiny yam, is very abundant in Guam. Its vernacular name is iden- 
tical with the Malayan ' ' gadong ' ' , applied to D. hirsuta. It is the only species growing 

Warburg, Beitriige zur Kenntniss der papuanischen Flora, Engler's Botanische 
Jahrbiicher, Bd. 13, pp. 273, 274, 1891. 
6 See p. 68. 

., vol 3, p. 231, 1789. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE XLIX. 




THE SPINY YAM (DIOSCOREA SPINOSA). LEAVES AND FLOWER SPIKE. 
NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 263 

wild, forming dense matted thickets, under which the deer often make paths impas- 
sable to man. Like the Bengal wild yam described by Roxburgh ( mou-aloo) , its roots 
are white, and are dug up in the woods during the cool season, for it is not cultivated; 
and as the wild yam of Bengal resembles in habit the cultivated species, LHoscorea 
fasciculala Roxb., so does the gado, or nika cimarron of Guam resemble the culti- 
vated nika. In December the leaves turn yellow, then brown, and then fall off, at 
which time the tubers are ready for digging. These weigh about 2 pounds, and are 
in shape like a sweet potato, but have little fibers growing from them. They are 
more solid and sweeter than cultivated yams. 

As considerable work is necessary to dig the wild yam, the Guam people do not 
eat it when there is enough of other food. The Caroline Islanders, however, who 
until recently have been living on the island of Guam, and who are in no sense an 
agricultural people, resorted to the forest habitually for it, and often brought it to 
the houses of the Chamorros to exchange for other things. After the severe hurri- 
canes, which sweep the island from time to time, the natives are obliged to resort 
to the woods for food, and are fortunate to find a good reserve of gado, fadang nuts 
(Ci/cas circinalis), Caladium, and Alocasia. Yams form an important food staple in 
November, after the breadfruit has gone and before the sweet potatoes are ready 
for digging. 

REFERENCES: 

Dioscorea spinosa Roxb.; Wall. Cat. n. 5103. 1828 (ex Index Kew.), without 
description. 

This name appears to be untenable for the above species, but in the present state 
of our knowledge of the genus it is impossible to give the correct name. 
Dioscoreaceae. YAM FAMILY. 

This family is represented only by the genus Dioscorea (which see). 
Diplazium nitidum. Same as Asplenium nitidum. See Ferns. 
Dischidia bengalensis. Same as Dischidia puberula. 
Dischidia puberula. 

Family Asclepiadaceae. 

A herbaceous plant climbing over the trees of the forest. Leaves ovate, acute, 
short-petioled, opposite, thick, fleshy, glaucous; flowers very small, growing in 
axillary umbels; calyx 5-parted; corolla urceolate, 5-parted, the divisions obtuse, 
pilose; stamens 5, connate, anthers with a membranous tip, pollen masses 1 in each 
cell, compressed, pendulous coronal processes adnate to stamens, erect, bifid above; 
flowers on a short peduncle in twos or threes; divisions of staminal crown subreni- 
form at apex. 

This species was described from specimens collected in Guam by Gaudichaud in 
1819. 

REFERENCES: 

Dischidia puberula Decne. in DC. Prod. 8: 631. 1844. 
Distreptus spicatus. Same as Elephantopus spicatus. 
Dodder laurel. See Cassytha filiformis. 

Dodonaea viscosa. SWITCH-SORREL. 

Family Sapindaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Lampuaye (Guam); Alipata (Philippines); Lala-vao, Torigo-vao 

(Samoa); Apiri (Tahiti); Aalii (Hawaii); Ake (Rarotunga). 

A shrub or small tree, with numerous erect, twiggy branches, the bark longitudi- 
nally cracked and striate, young parts scurfy-puberulous. Leaves simple, nearly ses- 
sile, 5 to 9 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, very tapering at base, subacute or obtuse, 
entire, the margin often slightly revolute, glabrous, more or less viscid, with a shining 
resinous exudation; flowers small, polygamous or dioecious, on long, slender pedicels, 



264 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

nodding, in lax axillary panicles shorter than the leaves; sepals 5, distinct, ovate, 
acute, glabrous; petals lacking; stamens generally 8, filaments very short, inserted 
outside disk; anthers oblong-linear, very large; disk very small; ovary pilose, 3-celled, 
with 2 ovules in each cell; style very long, conspicuous; fruit a trigonous winged 
capsule over 12 mm. long, the angles with a broad, membranous, veined, rounded 
wing, glabrous, viscid with resin, orange-brown; seed black. 

A seacoast plant of wide tropical distribution, growing in rocky places and in open 
waste ground in patches. Flowers yellowish. The leaves have a sour-bitter taste 
and are said to have febrifugal properties. The plant is good for hedges. The wood 
ignites readily and is used for fuel. 

REFERENCES: 

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 19. 1760. 
Dogbane family. See Apocynaceae. 
Dog-dog (Guam). See Artocarpus communis. 
Dog's-foot bur-weed. See Urena sinuata. 
Dolichos bulbosus. Same as Cacara erosa. 
Dolichos catjang. Same as Vigna sinensis. 
Dolichos ensiformis. Same as Canavali ensiforme. 
Dolichos giganteus. See Stizolobium giganteum. 
Dolichos lablab. HYACINTH BEAN. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Batao (Philippines); Frijoles caballeros (Porto Rico); Sim 

(India); Pien-tau (China). 

A twining plant cultivated in Guam for the sake of its pods, which are eaten green. 
Leaves pinnately trifoliolate; leaflets broadly ovate, as broad as long, entire, acute; 
stipules lanceolate; flowers in axillary racemes; calyx tube campanulate, teeth short, 
deltoid; bracteoles oblong, sometimes as long as the calyx; corolla commonly purple, 
but in some varieties white or red, with a narrow, beaked keel, which is not spirally 
twisted; pedicels short; stamens diadelphous; ovary nearly sessile, many-ovuled; 
legume flat, broad, curved, tipped with the hooked persistent base of the style; seeds 
longitudinally oval, usually dark brown or white with a conspicuous white hilum, 
not usually eaten when ripe. 

The green pods are dressed and cooked after the manner of French string beans. 
The red-flowered variety is much esteemed by the natives of India. The stems and 
ripe seeds are eaten with relish by cattle. In Guam, where so much forage is 
gathered for cattle, this plant would be useful to alternate with corn and would at 
the same time be valuable as a nitrogen storer. It grows commonly by the native 
houses, running along the garden fences in company with Botor tetragonoloba. 

REFERENCES: 

Dolichos lablab L. Sp. PL 2: 725. 1753. 
Dolichos sinensis. Same as Vigna sinensis. 
Dolichos tetragonolobus. See Botor tetragonoloba. 

Doni ( Guam ) . General name for red pepper. See Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens. 
Dracaena terminalis. See Taetsia terminalis. 
Dugdug (Guam). See Artocarpus communis. 
Dranu (Fiji). See Alocasia indica. 
Dryopteris. See under Ferns. 

Dye plants. 

Acacia farnesiana. A decoction of the pods with salts of iron yields a black dye, 
used in Mexico for ink. 

Averrhoa carambola. Unripe fruits astringent, used as an acid in dyeing, prob- 
ably as a mordant. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 265 

Dye plants Continued. 

Bixa orellana. Pulp surrounding seeds reddish orange; prepared for market it 
is called arnatto or annatto; used for coloring cheese and butter, and sometimes 
for dyeing silk, but it is not permanent. In Guam the natives put it in soup and 
with rice. 

Biancaea sappan. Bark, wood, and roots yield yellow and red dye; red inten- 
sified by alkalies; pods with protosulphate of iron yield a black dye. Sometimes 
used by natives of Guam for dyeing, but supplanted by introduced aniline dyes. 

Casuarina equisetifolia. Bark yields a dye, reddish alone, blue-black with salts 
of iron; in some countries used to dye fishing nets. 

Curcuma longa. Old rhizomes may be used for dyeing yellow without mordants; 
color deepened to reddish orange by alkalies, with carbonate of soda bright yel- 
low, with indigo green; color not lasting. 

Indig-ofera anil and Indigofera tinctoria. Abundant on island in abandoned 
fields, but not utilized. 

Intsia bijuga. Fresh wood yields a brown dye; not utilized. 

Lawsonia alba. The "henna" of the Egyptians. Leaves yield a red stain for 
nails and hair. Not used in Guam. 

Morinda citrifolia. Wood, small roots, and root bark. 

Ochrocarpus obovalis. Heartwood of tree yields a red dye. 

Pithecolobium dulce. Bark yields a yellow dye. 

Rhizophora mucronata. Bark yields a brown dye. 

Tamarindus indica. Leaves yield a red dye; flowers and fruit acid, acting as a 
mordant. 

Terminalia catappa. Bark and leaves yield a black dye with salts of iron; in 
some parts of India used to blacken teeth and make ink. 

Thespesia populnea. Bark and wood yield a red coloring matter; capsules and 
flowers a yellow dye; little used. 

Dyeweed. See Eclipta alba. 

Earthnut. See Arachis hypogaea. 

Echinochloa colona. JUNGLE RICE. 

Family Poaceae. 

An annual grass, often growing as a weed in cultivated places, closely allied to the 
common barnyard or cockspur grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) . Stem erect or decum- 
bent, rather slender, leaves flat, narrowly linear, smooth or scaberulous; spikelets 
in 3 rows, globose or ovoid, acute, crowded on the under surface of the racemed 
spikes; raceme contracted; spikes 5 to 12, distant, suberect or appressed, 2.5 to 3.5 
cm. long, usually distant, rachis pilose; glumes and lower palea hispid on the nerves, 
pointed; fertile flower barely pointed. 

The typical form of this grass differs from E. crus-galli, but there is a gradual tran- 
sition from one to the other. It is widely distributed throughout the warmer regions 
of the world. It is found in the United States in Virginia, Florida, Texas, and 
southern California. It was first collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. The type 
locality is East Indian. The cultivated form yields a grain which forms a food staple 
in many parts of northern India. A paste, or mush, is made of it, called "bat" or 
"phat," and eaten with milk. This preparation constitutes the chief food of the 
natives of some districts. It is an excellent fodder grass, both before and after it 
has flowered, the abundant grain adding to its nutritive value. 

REFERENCES: 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 209. 1833. 
Panicum colonum L. Syst. ed. 10. 870. 1759. 
Echinus sp. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alom, Alum (Guam). 

A tree growing in marshy or damp places, with linden-like leaves. Flowers small, 
monoecious, apetalous, greenish, the males clustered, the female solitary in the 
bracts; male flower with globose or ovoid calyx, 3 to 5-parted; stamens 20 or more, 

a Watt, Economic Products of India, vol. 6, pt. 1, pp. 7, 8, 1892. 



266 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

crowded on a central receptacle; anther cells globose, attached by a connective; 
pistillode minute or wanting; female flowers with 2 to 4-celled ovary; styles free or 
growing together below; ovules 1 in each cell; fruit a capsule. Leaves lobed like 
those of a Vitis or of an Acer. 

The wood of this tree is soft and is used in Guam for making shoe lasts. The 
vernacular name is applied in the Philippines to another species of Mallotus. 
The present species is possibly E. tiliaefolius (Mallotus tiliaefolius (Lam. ) Muell. Arg. ), 
which extends from southern Asia to the Fiji Islands. In Guam it is used medicinally. 
Eclipta alba. DYEWEED. 

Family Asteraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tinta-tinta (Philippines). 

A branching annual composite with inconspicuous white flowers, usually pros- 
trate or creeping, sometimes ascending or erect, 1 foot long or more, sprinkled with 
closely appressed short, stiff hairs; leaves shortly petiolate, from nearly ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate or almost linear, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, coarsely toothed or nearly 
entire; peduncles in the upper axils solitary or two together, very variable in 
length, bearing a single flower head about 6 mm. in diameter; involucre of about 2 
rows of ovate, obtuse, herbaceous bracts; scales of chaffy receptacle narrowly linear; 
ray florets female, small, shortly ligulate, narrow, white; disk florets hermaphro- 
dite, usually fertile, tubular, 4-toothed; achenes of the disk with thick, almost corky 
margins, the pappus either quite abortive or reduced to a border of 4 minute obtuse 
teeth, conspicuous chiefly at the time of flowering. 

This plant is widely spread in the Tropics. In India a bluish-black dye is 
obtained from the juice of its leaves, and in some places it is used for tattooing. In 
Ceylon it is employed as an alterative medicine by the natives. It was first col- 
lected in Guam by Chamisso (1817) and afterwards by Lesson, the botanist accom- 
panying Dumont D'Urville in the Astrolabe. It is found growing in wet places. 

REFERENCES: 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. PI. Jav. Rar. 528. 1848. 
Verbesina alba L. Sp. PL 2: 902. 1753. 
Eclipta erecta L. Mant. 2: 286. 1771. 
Eclipta erecta. See Eclipta alba. 
Eclipta prostrata. Same as Eclipta alba. 
Eddoes. See Caladium colocasia. 
Edible senna. See Cassia sophera. 
Egg-plant. See Solanum melongena. 
Egyptian privet. See Lawsonia inermis. 
Ehretia buxifolia. Same as Ehretia microphylla. 
Ehretia microphylla. BASTARD CURRANT. 

Family Boraginaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Cha cimarron, Alangitngit (Philippines). 

A bush 90 to 120 cm. high, branches very numerous, slender, divaricate, the bark 
reddish brown, cracked; leaves small, 6 to 25 mm. long, very numerous, sessile, fas- 
ciculate on suppressed branchlets, obovate-cuneate, acute at base, truncate with a 
few obtuse crenatures at apex, otherwise entire, slightly rough above with short 
bristly hairs (with a white spot round each when dry), shining and polished, paler 
beneath with conspicuous venation; flowers solitary or two together, on very short 
pubescent, pedicels, axillary; calyx hairy, 5-parted, segments oblong-spathulate, 
acute, leafy; corolla campanulate-rotate, 6 to 9 mm. in diameter, lobes 5, ovate, 
subacute, spreading or recurved; stamens 5, erect, exserted, inserted on corolla tube; 
ovary 2-celled with 2 ovules in each cell; styles 2, longer than stamens, undivided; 
drupe small, 6 mm. long, globose, apiculate, shining, scarlet, pyrene 4-celled. Flowers 
white. Collected in Guam by Luis Nee, 1792. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 267 

In India the root is used as a remedy for syphilis. The Mohammedans regard it 
as an antidote to vegetable poisons. In Leyte and other Visayan Provinces of the 
Philippines the natives drink an infusion of the leaves and call the plant " wild tea" 
(cha cimarron). 
REFERENCES: 

Ehretia microphylla Lam. Tabl. Encyc. 1 : 425. 1791. 
Cordia retusa Vahl, Symb. 2: 42. 1791. 
Ehretia buxifolia Roxb. PI. Corom. 1 : 42. t. 57. 1795. 
Elatostema pedunculatum. STRAWBERRY-NETTLE. 

Family Urticaceae. 

An herbaceous plant or undershrub growing on rocks or trunks of dead trees. 
Leaves of two forms differing greatly in size, alternate, arranged in two rows, a large 
leaf on one side with a small leaf on the opposite side; the large leaves lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, oblique, feather- veined, acuminate, acute at the base, entire or 
obscurely sinuate-serrate at the tip; the small leaves bract-like, subsessile, lanceo- 
late; stipules axillary; male flowers in cymes, with peduncles 1 to 2 cm. long; female 
flowers sessile, crowded in heads; heads white at first, growing to the size of a small 
strawberry, and turning red on ripening. First collected on the island of Guam 
by Gaudichaud. 
REFERENCES: 

Elatostema pedunculatum Forst. Char. Gen. 105. t. 53. 1776. 
Procris pedunculata (Forst.) Wedcl. in DC. Prod. 16 l : 191. 1869. 
This is Forster's first species and the one he figured, and should therefore be 
taken as the type of the genus. Procris was proposed as a name for this genus in 
1789. 

Elder, wild. See Premna gaudichaudii. 
Elemi, Manila. See Canarium indicum. 

Eleocharis atropurpurea Presl. Same as Eleocharis capitata. 
Elocharis capitata. SPIKE-RUSH. 

Family Cyperaceae. 

An annual sedge with fibrous roots, growing in moist places. Culms densely 
tufted, nearly terete, almost filiform; leaves reduced to sheaths; upper sheath trun- 
cate, 1 toothed; spikelet solitary, ovoid, much thicker than the culm, many-flowered, 
not subtended by an involucre; scales concave, spirally imbricated all around, 
broadly ovate, obtuse, firm, brown with a greenish midvein, narrowly scarious- 
margined, persistent; stamens mostly 2; style 2-cleft; bristles 5 to 8, slender, down- 
wardly hispid, as long as the achene; achene obovate, jet black, smooth, shining, 
nearly .1 mm. long; base of style persistent on summit of achene, forming a tubercle; 
tubercle depressed, apiculate, constricted at the base, very much shorter than the 
achene. 

Collected by Haenke in Guam. 
REFERENCES: 

Eleocharis capitata (L.) R. Br. Prod. 225. 1810. 
Scirpus capitatus L. Sp. PI. 1 : 48. 1753. 

Eleocharis plantaginoidea. SPIKE-RUSH. 

LOCAL NAMES. Uchagalahe(Guam); Boru-pun( Ceylon); Harefo( Madagascar). 
A glabrous, leafless sedge. Stems simple, erect, without nodes; sheaths few, cylin- 
drical, truncate or with a small unilateral subapical tooth, barren leaf-like stems 
often present; inflorescence a single terminal spikelet; glumes imbricated on all 
sides, obtuse; lowest "bract" (not always empty) not longer than the spikelet; 
lowest flower nut-bearing, perfect; many succeeding glumes, usually nut-bearing, 

Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfamilien, Teil 3, Abt. 1, p. 109, fig. 79, 1894. 



268 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

upper tabescent; hypogynous bristles 5 to 8, rarely fewer; stamens 1 to 3, anterior; 
anthers linear-oblong, not crested; style linear, as long as nut, 2 or 3-fid; style base 
dilated, constricted, or apparently articulated on nut, but usually persistent. Nut 
obovoid, plano-convex (when style is bifid), or trigonous (when style is trifid). 

The stem is robust, terete, transversely septate when dry, spikelet dark straw- 
colored, hardly wider than stem, elongated, many-flowered. Plant stoloniferous, 
stolons long, 4 mm. in diameter; stems 30 to 90 cm. high, slender; sheaths mem- 
branous, soon torn. 

In Ceylon sleeping mats are made of the culms of this species, specimens of which 
are preserved in the Kew Museum. In Madagascar the natives braid them into 
mats, baskets, and hats. 
REFERENCES: 

Eleocharis plantaginoidea ( Rottb. ) . 

Sdrpus plantaginoides Rottb. Desc. et Ic. PI. 45. t.15. f.2. 1773. 
Scirpus plantagineus Retz. Obs. 5: 14. 1789. 
Eleocharis plantaginea R. Br. Prod. 224. 1810. 

Elephantopus scaber. BLUE ELEPHANT'S-FOOT. 

Family Asteraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lengua de vaca (Porto Rico); Erva da Collegio (Brazil). 
A stiff hairy herb, 30 to 90 cm. high, with wrinkled, crenate, cuneate radical 
leaves. Stem dichotomously branching; cauline leaves lanceolate, floral ones broadly 
cordate, acuminate, canescent; heads very numerous, sessile, closely packed, form- 
ing a large flat-topped terminal inflorescence nearly 2.5 cm. wide, and surrounded 
at the base with 3 large, stiff, broadly ovate, conduplicate, leafy bracts; involucral 
bracts 8, in two rows, linear, acuminate, the outer ones half as long as the inner 
and scarious, flowers exserted; corolla tube long, very slender, lobes widely spread- 
ing; style very much exserted, tapering, pubescent, its branches recurved; achene 
truncate, nearly glabrous. 

Widely distributed in the Tropics. Introduced into Guam. Flowers bright pale 
violet; a small amplexicaul acute leaf at each bifurcation of the scabrous flowering 
stem. Used as a remedy for asthenic fever. 
REFERENCES: 

Elephantopus scaber L. Sp. PI. 2: 814. 1753. 
Elephantopus spicatus. WHITE ELEPHANT'S-FOOT. 

LOCAL NAMES. Dilang usa, Habal (Philippines). 

A branched, rigid, perennial herb of American origin, but now widely spread in 
the Tropics. Glomerules 2 or 3-bracteate, in interrupted, spreading, compound spikes; 
flowers white; heads few-flowered, discoid, 1 to 3 in a glomerule; pappus 1 -serial, 
unequal, with several of the stouter bristles bent upward and downward below the 
summit. The inferior leaves are spathulate-oblong, variable in breadth, subentire or 
crenate; superior leaves lanceolate; heads long-linear, 3 or 4-flowered. 

A common, troublesome weed, growing usually by roadsides and in waste places. 
Collected in Guam by Chamisso. 
REFERENCES: 

Elephantopus spicatus Aubl. PL Gui. 2: 808. 1775. 
Eleusine aegyptiaca. Same as Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum. 

Eleusine indica. YARD GRASS. 

Family Pocaeae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Umog (Guam); Pata de gallina (Cuba). 

A tufted grass with flat leaves and digitate spikes at the summit of the culm. 
Spikelets several-flowered, sessile, closely imbricated in two rows on one side of the 

Baron, Economic plants of Madagascar, Kew Bull., vol. 45, p. 211, 1890. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 269 



rachis, which is not extended beyond them; flowers perfect or the upper staminate; 
scales compressed, minutely keeled, scabrous on the keel, the 2 lower empty, the 
others subtending flowers or the upper empty; stamens 3; styles distinct; stigmas 
plumose; grain loosely inclosed in the scale and palet. 

Common in Guam, growing in sandy places, associated with Dactyloctenium aegyp- 
tiacum and Capriola dadylon. A grass distributed widely in the tropical and temper- 
ate regions of the world. Common in North America. 
REFERENCES: 

Eleusine indica Gaertn. Fruct. 1 : 8. 1788. 
Enredadera (Spanish). 

A general name for climbers. See Climbing plants. 
Entada pursaetha. Same as Lens phaseoloides. 
Entada scandens. See Lens phaseoloides. 
Enter omorpha. See Algse. 
Eperua decandra. Same as Intsia bijuga. 
Epidendruxn fasciola. Same as Taeniophyllum fasdola. 
Epidendrum triste. Same as Luisia teretifolia. 

Epiphytal plants: 
Cyclophorus adnascens. A climbing fern, with small simple, linear-lanceolate 

fronds. 

Davallia solida. A climbing fern, with glossy green divided fronds. 
Dischidia puberula. An asclepiad, with small fleshy leaves. 
Humata heterophylla. A creeping fern. 
Luisia teretifolia. An orchid with inconspicuous flowers. 
Lycopodium phlegrnaria. Growing in graceful pendent tassels. 
Neottopteris nidus. The bird's-nest fern. 

Nephrolepis acuta. A fern with long, slender, simply pinnate fronds. 
Ophiodermis pendulum. Hanging like ribbons from the branches. 
Piper sp.?. A pepper called "pod pod" by the natives, mentioned by Gaudichaud. 
Phymatodes phymatodes. A climbing fern, with leathery, lobed fronds, like an 

oak leaf. 

Taeniophyllum fasciola. An orchid. 
Vittaria elongata. Ribbon fern growing in grass-like tufts. 

Eragrostis. 

A genus of grasses distinguished by having the inflorescence in compound or 
decompound panicles, spikelets 4 to 10-flowered; glumes imbricated in two ranks, 
the upper reflexed, with the edges turned back; stamens 2 or 3; styles 2, with 
feathery stigmas; seeds loose, 2-horned, not furrowed. Three species have been 
collected in Guam: Eragrostis pilosa, E. tenella, and E. plumosa, the last regarded by 
Hooker as a variety of the preceding species. a See under Grasses. 
Eranthemum sp. See under Acanthacese. 
Erianthus floridulus. Same as Xipheagrostis floridalus. 
Eriodendron anfractuosum. Same as Ceiba pentandra. 
Erythrina indica. EAST INDIAN CORAL TREE. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gabgab, Gapgap, or Gaogao (Guam); Dapdap (Philippines, 

Malay Archipelago); Gatae, Ngatae (Rarotonga, Samoa); Pinon (Cuba). 
A moderate-sized, quick-growing tree with straight trunk, which is usually armed 
with prickles when young, pinnately trifoliolate leaves and dense racemes of large 
scarlet blossoms; leaflets membranous, glabrous, the end one round-cuspidate, trun- 
cate, or broadly rhomboidal at the base; calyx oblique, spathaceous, minutely 
5-toothed at the very tip, finally split to the base down the back; petals very unequal, 

"See Flora Brit. Ind. vol. 7, pp. 315, 323, 1897, where these species are described. 



270 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

standard much exserted and exceeding the keel and wings; wings and keel subequal, 
not more than half as long as the calyx; upper stamen free down nearly to the base, 
anthers uniform; ovary stalked, many-ovuled; style incurved, beardless; stigma 
capitate; pod linear, contracted at intervals. 

In Guam the light soft wood of this tree is used for making troughs. Stakes 
thrust into the ground readily take root, so that the natives use them for making 
inclosures about their gardens. 

In Samoa the natives often use the wood for the outriggers of their canoes, and, 
when dead and dry, for keeping fire in their houses, as it will smolder a long time 
without going out. 

In India an ointment is made by boiling the leaves with ripe coconut, which is 
applied to venereal buboes and pains in the joints. The leaves are fed to cattle, and, 
when young and tender, are eaten in curry. 

In Samoa and in other islands of the Pacific the natives reckon the change of sea- 
sons by the flowering of this tree. 
REFERENCES: 

Erythrina indica Lam. Encyc. 2: 391. 1786. 
Escoba (Central America). See Sida rhombifolia. 
Escobang-haba (Philippines). See Sida rhombifolia and S. acuta. 
Escobilla (Guam) . See Sida rhombifolia and S. acuta. 
Escobilla papagu (Guam). See Sida glomerata. 
Esi (Samoa). See Carica papaya. 
Esi fafine (Samoa). The female papaya. 
Esi tune (Samoa) . The male papaya. 
Eugenia spp.? 

To this genus were referred two plants collected by Gaudichaud in Guam: A tree 
called by the natives "aaban," or "aabang," with fine-grained hard wood, yielding 
logs 30 cm. in diameter and 4.5 in. long; and "agatilon," or "agatelang," the 
wood of which is strong and is used in the construction of houses and ranches. 
Neither of these trees has been identified. 
Eugenia malaccensis. Same as Caryophyttus malaccensis. 
Eulalia. See under Xiphagrostis. 

Euphorbia atoto. SPUKGE. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Atoto (Tahiti). 

A dwarf shrub of wide tropical distribution, in the Pacific extending eastward to 
Tahiti and northward to the Marianne Islands. Stem shrubby, usually prostrate or 
decumbent, stout, much-branched, glabrous and shining, thickened at nodes; leaves 
opposite, shortly petiolate, 18 to 25 mm. long, oval or oblong-oval, obtuse at both 
ends, entire, glabrous, the upper ones not imbricating; flower heads axillary or in 
small terminal cymes, stalked; flowers monoecious, small, numerous, without a peri- 
anth, many male and one female arranged in a common perianth-like involucre, with 
glands at the mouth, these with very narrow appendages; male flower, stamen 1, 
pediceled; female flower, ovary pediceled, 3-celled with one ovule in each cell; 
styles 3; capsule glabrous, of 3 nutlets separating from a central axis, and each split- 
ting both ventrally and dorsally; capsule glabrous; seed smooth. 

Usually growing near the shore. 
REFERENCES: 

Euphorbia atoto Forst. f. Prod. 36. 1786. 
Euphorbia gaudichaudii. GAUDICHAUD'S SPUKGE. 

The entire plant (under the lens) crisply velvety ; stem erect, usually simple; leaves 
petiolate, subcordate at the base, linear-lanceolate or linear, rather acute, sharply 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 271 

denticulate; stipules small, reddish, linear; cymes in the uppermost axils and ter- 
minal, subsessile, corymbose-capitate, dense; involucre sparsely hairy without, 
densely hairy within; lobes triangular-lanceolate; glands substipitate, orbiculate, 
with a white obovate-oblong appendage much wider than themselves; style bifid, 
young capsule hairy. 

Type specimen, collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, in the herbarium of De Candolle. 
Stem 30 cm. high; leaves 18 mm,, long, 8 to 10 mm. wide; branches of the cymes 
provided with linear leaves. The plant is rarely smooth. It is closely allied to 
Euphorbia sinensis (Euphorbia serrulata Reinw. not Thuill.), but its involucre is 
smaller than in that species. 
REFERENCES: 

Euphorbia gaudichaudii Boiss. Cent. Euph. 7. 1860. 
Euphorbia hirta. ASTHMA HERB. 

LOCAL NAMES. Golondrina (Guam); Batabotonis (Philippines). 
An annual hispid weed with acute leaves, minute flowers, and small round fruit. 
Stem 15 to 30 cm. high, decumbent, ascending or erect, cylindrical, rather stout, with 
more or less copious spreading, crisped, bristly hair; leaves opposite, 18 to 37 mm. 
long, on very short petioles, lanceolate-oblong, very unequal-sided, acute or subacute, 
serrate, sparingly hairy on both surfaces, pale glaucous, sometimes pinkish, with promi- 
nent veins beneath; stipules pectinate, soon falling; flower heads minute, numerous, 
shortly stalked, crowded in small rounded pedunculate axillary cymes; involucre very 
small, glands obscure or absent; capsule minute, adpressed-hairy, the lobes keeled; 
seeds ovoid-trigonous, transversely wrinkled, bright light brown. 

Common in cultivated ground and in waste places. Flowers greenish, blooming 
constantly. A plant widely spread in the Tropics. It has been used as a remedy for 
bronchitis and asthma, and in Australia it is known as " Queensland asthma herb." 
REFERENCES: 

Euphorbia hirta L. Sp. PI. 1: 454. 1753. 
Euphorbia pilulif era L. Sp. PI. 1: 454. 1753. 
Euphorbia hirta has place priority. 
Euphorbia pilulifera. Same as Euphorbia hirta. 

Euphorbiaceae. SPURGE FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by the genera Glochidion, Phyllanthus, 
Echinus, Acalypha, Ricinus, Aleurites, Jatropha, Manihot, Phyllaurea, Excoecaria, 
and Euphorbia. 

Excoecaria agallocha. BLINDING TREE. MILKY MANGROVE. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Buta-buta, Alipata (Philippines); Siak (Visayan); Sinu-gaga 

(Fiji); River poisonous tree, Blind-your-eyes (Australia). 

An evergreen tree with glossy, oblong leaves, spikes of small green flowers and 
acrid, milky sap, growing in mangrove swamps or near the seabeach. Flowers usu- 
ally monoecious, the female flowers, few in number, growing at the base of the spikes; 
both sexes without disk or petals; calyx 3-parted; male flowers without rudimentary 
ovary; stamens 2 or 3, anthers free; female flowers with 3-celled ovary; style undi- 
vided; floral bracts densely imbricated. 

When the tree is cut or bruised the milky juice flows copiously from the wound 
and soon hardens like rubber. It is so acrid that it will blister the skin and is almost 
blinding if it gets into the eyes. The smoke of the burning wood is also very irritat- 
ing; in Fiji it is thought to be a remedy for leprosy. The wood is white, soft, and 
spongy. In India fishing floats are sometimes made from the roots. 
REFERENCES: 

Excoecaria agallocha Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad. 4: 122. 1759. 
Excoecaria cammettia. Same as Excoecaria agallocha. 



272 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Fabaceae. BEAN FAMILY. 

Among the species growing in Guam included in this family of- leguminous plants 
are the following: 

Abrus abrus. Kolales halom-tano, coral-bead vine. 

Aeschynomene indica. Indian joint- vetch. 

Agati grandiflora. Katurai. 

Arachis hypogaea. Kakaguate, peanut. 

Bocoa edulis. Polynesian chestnut, recently introduced. 

Botor tetragonoloba. Seguidillas. 

Cacara erosa. Hicamas, turnip bean. 

Cajan cajan. Pigeon pea. 

Canavali ensiforme. Akankan, sword-bean. 

Canavali obtusifolium. Akankan- tasi, seaside bean. 

Clitoria ternatea. Capa de la reina, blue pea. 

Cracca mariana. Marianne goat's-rue. 

Crotalaria quinquefolia. Cascabeles, rattle-box. 

Dolichos lablab. Hyacinth bean. 

Erythrina indica. Gabgab, coral tree. 

Indigofera anil. Anilis, indigo. 

Indigofera tinctoria. Anilis, indigo. 

Meibomia gangetica. Atis-aniti. 

Meibomia triflora. Agsom. 

Meibomia umbellata. Palaga hilitai. 

Phaseolus lunatus inamoenus. Habas, lima bean. 

Phaseolus mungo. Moriggos, gram. 

Sophora tomentosa. Sea-coast laburnum. 

Stizolobium pruriens. Cowhage. 

Stizolobium giganteum. Ox-eye or horse-eye sea-bean. 

Vigna lutea. Yellow-flowered seaside bean. 

Vigna sinensis. Chinese asparagus bean, twining cowpea. 

Fabronia. 'See Bartramia under Mosses. 
Faca or Faka (Guam). 

A leguminous tree, not identified, with large bipinnate leaves; wood used in the 
construction of small boats. 

Fadan or Fadang (Guam). See Cycas cirdnalis. 
Fae, Fai, Faai, or Farai (Guam). See Oryza saliva. 
Fago (Guam). See Ochrosia mariannensis. 
Fa'i (Samoa). See Musa paradisiaca. 
Fairy lily (United States). See Atamosco rosea. 
Fala (Samoa). See Pandanus tectorius. 
False camomile. See Chrysanthemum indicum. 
False elder. See Premna gaudichaudii and P. mariannarum. 
False sandalwood. See Ximenia americana. 
Fala (Samoa). See Nothopanax fruticosum. 
Fan-flower. See Lobelia koenigii. 
Fangu (Samoa). See Lagenaria lagenaria. 
Fanog (Guam). 

A tree growing in Guam mentioned by Governor Olive in his report to the captain- 
general of the Philippines. Not identified. 
Farolitos (Spanish). See Cardiospermum halicacabum. 
Fau (Samoa). See Pariti tiliaceum; in Hawaii called "hau." 
Fau-songa (Samoa). See Pipturus argenteus. 
Fau-ut a ( Samoa ) . See Mussaenda frondosa. 
Federico (Spanish). See Cycas circinalis. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 273 

Fence and hedge plants. 

The following are the most common plants used in Guam for inclosing garden 
patches. Large fields and plantations are seldom inclosed, but are defined by rows 
of coconuts, or by lines of physic nut bushes (Jalropha curcas) or textile screw-pines 
(Pandanus tectorius) . A prickly pear (Opuntia) and an Agave have been intro- 
duced, but they have not established themselves. On the other hand, the orange 
berry (Triphasia trifoliata), sappan wood (Biancaea sappan}, and the lead tree (Leu- 
caena glauca ) have in places spread into thickets. Lawsonia alba, the Egyptian privet, 
or henna, a favorite hedge plant in some countries, grows well in Guam, but the 
natives do not use it for hedges. See under Gardens. 

Acacia farnesiana. Aromo; used occasionally. 

Agati grandiflora. Sometimes used; large flowers and long legumes edible; in 

Guam called ' ' katiirai. " ( PI. VI. ) 

Bambusa sp. Piao; if placed in the ground green, the stems root at the nodes. 
Biancaea sappan. Sibukao; often used. 
Citrus hystrix acida. The lime (called "limon"); often used, forms dense 

hedges; always full of fruit. 
Citrus medica limon. The lemon (called "limonreal"); fine for hedges; always 

full of fruit. 
Erythrina indica. The coral tree (called "gabgab"); green stakes root readily; 

flowers bright red. 
Jatropha curcas. Physic nut (called in Guam "tubatuba"); very often used; 

green branches root readily. (PL LV. ) 
Leucaena glauca. The acacia-like lead bush, or lead tree (called in Guam "tan- 

gantangan" ); one of the commonest hedge plants; cattle will not eat it. 
Pithecolobium dulce. Kamachiles; pods eaten by cattle, bark used for tanning. 
Triphasia trifoliata. Orange berry (in Guam called ' ' lernoncito " ) ; forms dense, 

thorny hedges. 

Fennel. See Foeniculum foeniculum. 
Ferns. 

Among the true ferns, or Filicales, the Ceratopteridaceae are represented by the 
widely spread aquatic Ceratopteris thalictroides(L.) Brogn., the fronds of which in Japan 
are eaten as a pot herb; the Schizaeaceae by the climbing marsh fern Lygodium scan- 
dens Swartz, called also alambrillo, or wire fern, which reappears on the undrained, 
treeless, savanna lands, and Lygodium circinatum (Burm. ) Swartz, the stems of which 
are braided by the Filipinos into hats; the Gleicheniaceae by Gleichenia dichotoma 
(Hook.), (PI. L) (see in place); and the Cyatheaceae, or tree-ferns, by Alsophila 
haenkei Presl, which grows along the banks of streams in the forests. In the family 
Polypodiaceae the Acrosticheae are represented by the great simply pinnate marsh 
fern Acrostichum aureum L. ( ' ' lagrigayao " ) (PI. IV) and by Belvisia spicata (L. ) 
Mirbel, a species with simple fronds, on the contracted apex of which the spores are 
borne; the Vittarieae by the simple-fronded, plantain-like Antrophyum plantagineum 
Kaulf., and by Vittaria elongata Swartz, which grows like tufts of grass on the limbs 
and trunks of trees; the Polypodieae by the climbing Phymatodes phymatodes (L. ) 
Maxon (PI. LXIII), called " kahlau" or " kahlao," with fronds like huge lobed oak 
leaves, Cydophorus adnascens (Sw.) Desv. (PL XLVII) , also climbing, but with small 
linear-lanceolate or linear fronds, and Microsorium irioides (Lam.) Fee., a terrestrial 
species with large broadly linear or sword-shaped fronds dotted with sori on the back; 
the Pterideae by Pteris marginata Bory, Pteris quadriaurita Retz., and Pteris biaurita L. ; 
tne Asplenieae by Blechnum orientale L., Asplenium falcatum Lam., A. laserpitiifolium 
Lam., A. monanthemum L., A. nitidum Sw., and the great epiphytal " bird' s-nest fern," 
Neottopteris nidus (L.) J. Sm., in Guam called "galak" or "galag," the sword-like 
simple fronds of which are called " sables" by the Filipinos; the Dryopterideae by 
Dryopteris dissecta (Forst.) Kuntze, and D. parasitica (L. ) Kuntze; and the Davallieae 
by Odontosoria retusa (Cav.) J. Sm. and Schizoloma ensifolium (Sw. ) J. Sm., which 
grow on the savannas, the epiphytal Nephrolepis acuta (Sw. ) Presl and the closely 
allied N. hirsutula (Sw. ) Presl, the long, narrow, simply pinnate fronds of which 
977305 18 



274 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

hang in graceful tufts from the limbs of forest trees, the curious climbing Humata 
heterophylla (Sin.) J. Sm. (PL LIII), with simple sterile fronds and prettily lobed 
and crenated fertile ones, and the glossy, divided Davallia solida Swartz (known as 
pugua machena) (PL III), which also climbs the trunks of forest trees and perches 
upon the limbs, associated with the species of Nephrolepis and with Phymatodes 
phymatodes (L.) Maxon. 

No Hymenophyllaceae have been observed in the Marianne Islands. 

Fern allies. 

The Ophioglossales are represented in Guam by Ophioderma pendula (L.) Presl, an 
epiphytal species which hangs from the limbs of forest trees like broad green ribbons, 
by the natives called "leston." The only representative of the Marattiales recorded 
from the island is Angiopteris evecta Hoffm. (PL XXXIII), which grows in the 
woods in damp places, usually on the margins of streams. 

The Lycopodiales are represented by the epiphytal Lycopodium phlegmaria and the 
terrestrial L. cernuum. No Selaginella has been collected nor have any Equisetales 
or Salviniales been found on the island. 

Fetau (Samoa). See Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Fever-nut. See Guilandina crista. 
Fiafiatuli (Samoa). See Portulaca quadrifida. 

Fianiti (Guam). 

A climbing plant with slender, pliable stems, used for lashing together the frame- 
work of houses; not identified. 

Fiber plants. 

Among the fiber-yielding plants growing in Guam are the following; those 
marked with an asterisk (*) are the most important: 

Abutilon indicum. Stem yields a fiber suitable for cordage; not utilized in 
Guam. 

Agave vivipara?. Called by the natives "lirio de palo" or "tree-lily;" leaf 
fiber used to wrap cigars and for thread. 

* Ananas ananas. The pineapple; leaf fiber, twisted by hand, used for fine fish- 
ing nets. 

Annona spp. Custard-apples; bark of young twigs tough, resembling that of the 
allied "papaw" of North America (Asimina triloba}; fiber utilized in the West 
Indies, but not in Guam. The strips of bark of Annona reticulata, which grows 
wild on the island, are used for temporary lashings. 

*Artocarpus communis. The breadfruit; bark tough and leathery; inner bark 
utilized in several islands of Polynesia, and probably by the aborigines of Guam, 
for making bark cloth. 

Areca cathecu. Betel-nut palm; in some countries the flower sheath used for 
caps and dishes and the leaf sheath for cups and bags; in Ceylon strong and 
durable water vessels made of it; not utilized for these purposes in Guam. 

Bambusa spp. The shoots yield a fiber of which the Chinese make paper; in sev- 
eral countries matting is made of the split stems; not utilized in Guam for fiber. 

*Boehmeria tenacissima. The rhea plant, called "amahadyan" by the natives 
of Guam; grows wild in rocky places; not utilized by the natives for fiber. 

Ceiba pentandra. Kapok tree; the flossy down surrounding the seeds used for 
stuffing pillows and cushions. 

*Cocos nucifera. The fiber of the husk, called "coir" in commerce, so much 
used for sennit and cordage by the Samoans and other Pacific Islanders, is little 
used in Guam, enormous quantities which could be utilized going to waste each 
year. 

Erythrina indica. Called "gabgab" by the natives; bark yields a fiber suitable 
for cordage; not utilized in Guam. 

Gossypium spp. Cotton was introduced about 1866 by the Sociedad Agricola de 
la Conception, and laborers were brought from Japan to cultivate it, but the proj- 
ect proved a failure. It is now found in places by the wayside growing as a weed. 



DESCEIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 275 

Fiber plants Continued. 

Lygodium scandens. Called ' ' alambrillo " (Spanish for "wire") by the natives; 
in some countries the glossy, wiry stipe is split and woven into hats, mats, etc. ; 
not utilized in Guam. 

Musa paradisiaca and Musa sapientum. Bananas and plantains yield a fiber 
which has been used in making cordage and textiles. In Guam the natives 
when in need of a string frequently peel off a strip from the stalk or petiole of 
the leaf of a banana plant, which is very strong and pliable. The Caroline 
Islanders weave fine strips from the petiole into the mats which the women 
wear for aprons. 

*Musa textilis. Abaca, or "manila hemp;" introduced into Guam about 1866 by 
the Sociedad Agricola de la Concepcion; clumps of it still growing at the upper 
end of the Cienega, but the natives have never learned how to extract the fiber. 

*Nypa fruticans. A stemless palm with giant pinnate leaves growing on the 
edge of brackish water; introduced into Guam as thatching material. In some 
countries excellent mats are made of the leaves. 

* Pandanus tectorius. The " aggag " of the natives; hats, bags, and mats of very 

fine quality are made of its leaves, out of which the aborigines also made the 
triangular sails for their wonderful "flying praos." Only one sex of this plant 
grows on the island. The leaves are glaucous and are very tough. Branches 
readily take root wherever they may happen to be placed. The leaves stripped 
of the spiny median keel are used for lashing together the framework of houses, 
taking the place of the coconut sennit so much used by the Polynesians. 

* Pariti tiliaceum. The chief source of cordage in the island. 

Saguerus pinnatus. Cabo-negro palm; yields a strong black fiber;- not utilized 

in Guam, where it is of recent introduction. 
Sida rhombifolia. Called "escobilla" by the natives; yields a fiber suitable for 

cordage, but utilized by the natives of Guam only for brooms for sweeping their 

houses. 
Taetsia terminalis. Leaves yield a fiber; stripped into shreds they are used as 

fringe-like skirts by the Samoans; in Guam, where the plant was introduced 

about a century ago, the plant is not utilized. The natives call it "Baston de 

San Jose," or St. Joseph's wand. 

Thespesia populnea. Called " kilulu" by the natives; yields a bast-fiber. 
Trichoon roxburghii. A marsh reed called "karriso" by the natives, growing 

in the Cienega and in other wet places; woven into mats by the natives for 

ceilings, partitions, and sides of houses, and often covered with a coat of lime 

or mud. 

Ficus sp. BANYAN. PLATE vin. 

Family Moraceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nunu(Guam); Nonok, Lonok, Baliti( Philippines); Aoa (Samoa; 
Rarotonga; Tahiti); Aio (Caroline Islands). 

Among the species of Ficus indigenous to Guam is a giant banyan, belonging to 
the section Urostigma and allied to Ficus indica, Ficus benghalensis, and Ficus religiom. 
Like its allies, the Guam species usually begins its life as an epiphyte from seeds 
dropped by birds on the limbs of other trees. It sends down snake-like, aerial roots, 
which embrace the host and ultimately strangle it. After entering the ground the 
roots enlarge into what looks like a compound trunk. The branches also send down 
roots, at first thread-like and swinging, but at last entering the ground and becoming, 
thick supporting props, so that a single tree often resembles a dense grove. 

These trees were considered by the ancient Chamorros sacred to the aniti, or spir- 
its of the departed, and they are still regarded with superstitious dread by the natives. 
It is interesting to note that the Tahitians and Samoans have the same superstitious 
awe of the allied aoa trees of their islands, which in ancient times were sacred to 
the aitu, or wood spirits. Even at the present time few natives of Guam will linger 
near a nunu tree after dark. 

The latex of the nunu is astringent, and is used for stopping the flow of blood. The 
wood is useless. 
Ficus spp. WILD FIGS. 

Two other species of Ficus are called "hoda," or "hodda," and "tagete," or 
"takete." The hodda has prop-like branching aerial roots, growing from near the base 



276 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

of the trunk into the ground, and berries, like small red crab apples in appearance, 
but fibrous within, like the fruit of a rose. These berries are much relished by the 
starling-like sali. The tagete, or taguete, as it is written by the Spaniards, is some- 
what like the nunu, but its large aerial roots grow exclusively from the trunk. The 
wood of both is used for fuel. 

Ficus carica. FIG. 

LOCAL NAMES. Higo (Spanish). 

The edible fig grows in Guam, but for some reason it does not thrive well and is 
not abundant. It sheds its leaves in the cold season. It is interesting to note that 
in Bengal, where the climate resembles that of Guam, its culture has not met with 
success. 

REFERENCES: 

Ficus carica L. Sp. PL 2: 1059. 1753. 
Fig- See Ficus carica. 
Filices. See Ferns. 
Fimbr istylis . 

A genus of Cyperaceae, usually known as " club-rushes." Leaves all toward the 
base of the stem, narrowly linear or filiform, rarely reduced to sheaths; inflorescence 
terminal, umbelled or capitate, bracteate, the bracts long or short; spikelets terete, 
angular, or compressed, many-flowered; glumes imbricated all around the rachilla, 
or the lower distichous, very rarely all distichous, glabrous, very rarely pubescent, 
deciduous, lower 1 to 3, and sometimes the upper empty; flowers bisexual without 
bristles; stamens 1 to 3; filaments flat; anthers linear, obtuse, acute or tipped with 
a subulate process; nut obovoid, biconvex or trigonous, very rarely cylindric; style 
long, flattened or slender, deciduous with its dilated base, leaving no scar on the 
nut; stigmas 2 in the biconvex nuts, 3 in the trigonous, usually filiform and elon- 
gate. This genus embraces many tropical species. The following have been collected 
on the island of Guam. 

Fimbristylis affinis. Same as Fimbristylis diphylla. 
Fimbristylis complanata. 

A sedge growing in low moist places to a height of 2 or 3 feet, with a leafy stem 
and a decompound effuse umbel of compressed spikelets. Rootstock small, hard, 
creeping, leafy, wiry; stem flattened, 2-edged, deeply furrowed and ribbed, quite 
smooth; leaves very many, crowded round the base of the stem, and shorter than it, 
erect, flat, linear, coriaceous, tip obliquely narrowed, obtuse or subacute, margins 
scaberulous, sheath coriaceous; branches of umbel bearing many small, shortly pedi- 
celled, brown spikelets; bracts one-half as long as the umbel, one leaf-like, erect, the 
rest subulate; spikelets oblong or ovoid-oblong, few-flowered, lower glumes more or 
less distichous, lowest narrower, subulate or cuspidate, empty, rachilla short, wings 
deciduous; glumes oblong, obtuse, mucronate, sides appressed together; stamens 3, 
anthers very long, obtuse; nut stipitate, 3-gonous, minutely warted, pale; style 
twice as long as nut, slender, glabrous, base conical, stigmas usually 3, long. 

A plant widely distributed throughout the warmer regions of the globe, 
REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 292. 1827. 
Scirpus complanatus Retz. Obs. 5 : 14. 1789. 
Isolepis complanata Roem. & Schult. Syst. 2: 119. 1817. 
Fimbristylis diphylla. 

Collected by Haenke, Gaudichaud, and Lesson. Stigmas 2; spikelets umbelled or 
capitate, glabrous; glumes mucronate; leaves many. 
REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl, Enum. 2: 289. 1806. 
Scirpus diphyllus Retz. Obs. 5: 15. 1789. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 277 

Fimbristylis globulosa. 

A perennial having 3 stigmas, the spikelets terete or polygonal (not 2-sided), the 
leaves either lacking or very minute. 
REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis globulosa (Eetz.) Kunth, Enum. PL 2: 231. 1837. 
Scirpus globulosus Retz. 6: 19. 1791. 

Fimbristylis gloxnerata. Same as Fimbristylis spathacea. 
Fimbristylis littoralis. Same as Fimbristylis miliacea. 
Fimbristylis marianna. Same as Fimbristylis diphylla. 
Fimbristylis miliacea. 

An annual with 3 stigmas, the spikelets terete or polygonal (not 2-sided), the style 
glabrous. 

REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl, Enum. 2: 287. 1806. 
Scirpus miliaceus L. Syst. ed. 10. 868. 1759. 
Fimbristylis puberula. Collected by Gaudichaud. 
REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl, Enum. 2: 289. 1806. 
Scirpus puberulus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 31. 1803. 
Fimbristylis spathacea. 

Collected by Haenke. Stigmas 2; similar to F. diphylla, but the glumes with a 
rounded hyaline tip. 
REFERENCES: 

Fimbristylis spathacea Roth, Nov. PL Sp. 24. 1821. 
Fimbristylis torresiana. Same as Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Fimbristylis wightiana. Same as Fimbristylis spathacea. 
Fish, poison. See Barringtonia speciosa. 
Fiso (Samoa). See Xiphagrostis floridulus. 
Fisoa (Samoa). See Colubrina asiatica. 
Flamboyant. See Delonix regia. 
Flame tree. See Delonix regia. 

Fleurya interrupta. Same as Schychowskya interrupta. 
Fleurya ruderalis. See Schychowskya ruderalis. 
Flor de Mariposa (Guam.) Same as Bauhinia. 
Flower-fence. See Poindana pulcherrima. 

Foeniculum foeniculum. FENNEL. 

Family Apiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Anis hinoho (Guam); Anis hinojo, Haras (Philippines). 
An aromatic herb often planted in gardens of the natives. Leaves 3 or 4-pinnate, 
finely dissected; leaflets divided into linear segments. Bracts wanting; petals yellow, 
emarginate; fruit oblong or ellipsoid, not laterally compressed; carpels half-terete, 
ridges prominent, subequal; carpophore 2-parted. Seed somewhat dorsally com- 
pressed, inner face slightly concave. A widely distributed plant, cultivated in India, 
the Philippines, and many other tropical and temperate countries. The anise-like 
seeds have a sweet taste. They yield by distillation an aromatic volatile oil resembling 
oil of anise. 

REFERENCES: 

Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 837. 1880-83. 
Anethum foeniculum L. Sp. PL 1: 263. 1753. 
Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn. Fruct. 1 : 105. t. 23. f. 5. 1788. 



278 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Foeniculum vulgare. Same as Foeniculum foeniculum. 
Fofg-u (Guam). 

See Pharbitis hederacea, Ipomoea mariannensis, and /. 
Fomes. See under Fungi. 
Forage plants. See page 150. 
Four-o'clock. See Mirabilis jalapa. 
Foxtail, golden. See ChaetocMoa glauca aurea. 
Frijoles caballeros (Porto Rico). See Dol'tchos lablab. 
Frijolillo (Panama.) See Cassia occidentalis. 
Frullania. See Hepaticx. 
Fuefue-tai (Samoa). See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Fuirena umbellata. SEDGE. 

Family Cyperaceae. 

A sedge, growing in damp places, belonging to the tribe Scirpeae, with dark-brown, 
dense clusters of sessile spikelets and leafy triangular stems, which are glabrous 
except at the tomentose inflorescence. Plant perennial; rootstock hard, stoloniferous 
or shortly creeping with filiform root fibers; stolons hardening into rhizomes, clothed 
with ovate-lanceolate striate scales: stem 30 to 120 cm. tall, stout or slender, ribbed; 
leaves variable, 15 to 30 cm. long, up to 14 mm. broad, linear-lanceolate, obtusely 
acuminate, 3 to 5-veined, glabrous or ciliate toward the base, margins smooth or 
nearly so, sheaths long, closed, mouth with a ciliolate brown ligule; spikelets 5 to 8 
mm. long, ovoid or oblong, sessile, crowded in simple or compound, axillary, 
peduncled and terminal, sometimes subpanicled clusters 12 to 25 mm. in diameter, 
dark brown, the peduncle tomentose or villous, rachilla slender; bracts under the 
clusters short, cuspidate; glumes closely imbricated, at length deciduous, 3 mm. 
long, membranous, broadly obovoid, retuse or 2-lobed, glabrous or puberulous and 
ciliate, keel stout, of 3 veins meeting in a stout scabrid cusp half as long as the 
glume; scales obovate-quadrate, upper margin thickened, cuspidate; stamens 3, 
anthers rather stout, apiculate; nut 1.5 to 2 mm. long, stipitate, trapezoidal, trigonous, 
long-beaked, the angles acute, obscurely 3-ribbed dorsally, smooth, pale; style as 
long as the nut. 

A plant of wide distribution in moist tropical regious. Growing in Guam in 
swampy places and on the borders of rice fields. Collected here by Haenke and 
Lesson. 

REFERENCES: 

Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Desc. et Ic. PI. 70. t. 19. f. 3. 1773. 

Fungi. 

Very little is known of the Fungi of Guam. Among the few species collected by 
Gaudichaud on the island are Auricularia auricula-judae (L. ) Schrot, belonging 
to the Auriculariaceae; Fomes scabrosus (Pers. ) Fr., Poll/poms kamphoeveneri Fr. 
(P. mariannus Pers.), Polystictus sanguineus (L.) Mey., P. xanthopus Fr. (P. saccatus 
Pers. ), belonging to the Polyporaceae; and Schizophyllum alneum (L. ) Schrot., belong- 
ing to the Agaricaceae. From the results of observations on other islands it is certain 
that a collector of Fungi would have a fine field in the Marianne Islands. Fungi 
abound everywhere, on the ground, on decaying wood, on tree trunks, on the leaves 
of water plants, grasses, and forest trees, and upon rotting fruit. Some of them 
are like great solid masses of gingerbread, others are as delicate as coral, and others 
appear as microscopic rusts, molds, or mildew. One of the most -common is 
brightly luminous in the dark. 
Futu (Samoa, Tonga). See Barringtonla spedosa. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 279 

* 
Gabgab, Gapgap, or Gaogao (Guam). 

Vernacular name for a tree, Erythrina indica, and for Tacca pinnatijida, the Poly- 
nesian arrowroot. 

Gabi (Philippines). See Caladium colocasia. 
Gado (Guam). See Dioscorea spinosa. 
Gafau (Guam). See Melastorna marianum. 
Gafo (Guam). Local name for a fully ripe coconut. 
Gadye or Gaye (Guam). See Lens phaseoloides. 
Gafus (Guam). See Medinilla rosea. 
Gago (Guam). See Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Galag or Galak (Guam). 

The bird's-nest fern, Neottopteris nidus. 
Gallito ( Panama. ) See Poinciana pulcherrima. 
Gamot sa buni (Philippines). See Herpetica alata. 
Ganda (Philippines). See Attium sativum. 
Gandul (Porto Rico). See Cajan cajan. 
Gaogao (Guam). See Gabgab. 
Gaogao uclian (Guam). A species of Phyllanthus. 

Gardens. 

Settlers in trop'ical islands are apt to be disappointed in their first attempts at hor- 
ticulture. Many take with them a supply of seeds of vegetables and fruits which 
gnw in temperate regions, and plant them only to find that the seed fail to germi- 
nate, or that the plants, though apparently thriving, fail to produce fruit. The 
caises of disappointment in many cases are the loss of vitality of the seeds and 
nrt planting at the proper time of the year. There are, however, certain plants 
wiich require a cool temperature and can not possibly be propagated in a tropical 
clinate at the level of the sea. Thus it is useless to expect Irish potatoes or cauli- 
flcwer to grow, and apples, pears, plums, and quinces are out of the question. 

A.11 tomatoes, introduced eggplants, and beans should be planted toward the end of 
tbe rainy season or at the beginning of the dry season, say November or December. 
Introduced watermelons, muskmelons, pumpkins, and squashes should be planted 
ater the dry season has set in, and watered if necessary. The red peppers, Legu- 
mnosae growing naturally in the Tropics, bananas, plantains, and the perennial 
eggplant found in the island of Guam may be planted in the rainy season, which is 
ak) the time for transplanting cacao, coffee, orange, and other trees, for setting out 
lodges, and planting maize on the uplands. 

During the summer months the rainfall is sometimes so excessive that the surface 

the land remains inundated for a day or two, so that such plants as squashes, 
nelons, tomatoes, and lima beans are killed outright. Provisions should be made 
f<r drainage. During the rainy months the atmosphere is frequently saturated with 

1 oisture and all organic substances, including living succulent plants, are subject to 
ecay. Tomatoes planted by the writer at the beginning of the rainy season grew 
r ell at first, but the fruit rotted while still green, and melons planted at the same 
ime were attacked by some fungus disease and failed to reach maturity. 

Certain plants appear to thrive best if planted first in boxes raised from the earth 
tnd protected from insects. Beets, collards, and lettuce should be planted in this 
vay, and set out in the garden when they have four or six leaves. Tobacco is 
invariably planted first in sementeras (seed beds), then transferred to larger beds, 
shaded with muslin or branches, where the individual plants have room to grow, and 
finally set out in the fields. Plants with a taproot, like radishes and beets, must be 



280 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

transplanted while very small. To prepare the ground for a garden it is cleared of 
brush and weeds. When new weeds begin to spring up the dry brush is spread over 
the surface and burned, which kills the young seedlings and at the same time 
enriches the ground with the ashes. 

The only implement used by the natives, a scuffle or thrust hoe, called "fusino," 
or " fozino," is well adapted for clearing the ground and keeping it free from weeds. 
It consists of a broad transverse blade provided with a socket into which a long 
handle is fitted. The iron part is T-shaped, with the socket in the stem of the T and 
with one arm of the letter longer than the other. In Guam it is usually made by 
the village blacksmith from a musket barrel an almost literal example of beating 
"swords into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks " a practice which was 
undoubtedly carried out among primitive people in more than one region of the 
world. All the natives men, women, and children are skilled in the use of this 
tool. 

Many plants will grow in almost pure sand; others require the ground to be 
enriched. For manure cow dung is best. The soil is also benefited by turning 
under weeds, by planting velvet beans and othor nitrogen-gleaning leguminous 
plants, which may either be fed to cattle or turned under as green manure. An 
occasional crop of peanuts is recommended, which may be utilized either as forage 
for animals or as food for man. Wood ashes are alw r ays available, and are recorr.- 
mended for the sake of the potash they contain. Nitrate of soda, if it can be obtainec, 
makes an excellent fertilizer; but care must be taken not to apply it too strong; 
half an ounce to a gallon of water is recommended for potted plants and one ounce 
per gallon for garden patches. 

Hedges are the most economical inclosures. They may be made of lemoncito, 
lime, lemon, physic nut, or lead tree. The lemon, lime, and lemoncito grow densely, 
sending up sprouts from their roots. They have the advantage of yielding frui , 
but they need to be trimmed and held in check. The physic nut and Leucaera 
take root readily when freshly cut stakes are thrust into the ground. Both ais 
poisonous and are immune from attacks of animals. Henna is also recomrnendec. 
It grows readily from cuttings; but the odor of its flowers, though delightful from a, 
distance, is too rank at close range to be agreeable. For surrounding large gardei 
patches remote from dwellings sappan wood and lemoncito are recommended. 

Among the animal pests which infest gardens are white ants, mole crickets, and h 
some localities land crabs, which are herbivorous. The field adjacent to the palact 
at Agaiia is riddled with their burrows. Insects are held in check by the use a 
scalding water. Crabs are often caught by the natives in traps of bamboo placed it 
the entrance to their burrows. 

In the climate of Guam seeds are apt to die if left unprotected for any length of time 
Ordinary garden seeds should be thoroughly dried before storing and should be kep 
in glass jars or tin cans sealed with paraffin or soldered. The same precaution 
should be taken in the transportation of seeds. Corn, onion seed, and seed of lettuo 
sent from the United States to Manila in paper wrappers w r ere found to be quite deac 
after having been kept for a few months; and the failure of the seed of lettuce 
onions, and of several other vegetables brought by us to Guam may have been owin^ 
to carelessness in packing. On the other hand, certain seeds must be kept fresh, as 
they lose their vitality in drying. This is true of the mango, avocado, mangosteen, 
and many other tropical fruits, the seeds of which are usually packed for transporta- 
tion in moist charcoal, to prevent drying and the attacks of fungus. 

The vegetables available for cultivation in Guam and their proper treatment are 
shown in the following list: 

Artichokes. Not successfully grown in Guam. When planted they grow coarse 
and weedy. 

SeeDuvel, The Vitality and germination of seeds, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau Plant 
Industry Bull. No. 58. 1904. 



GARDENS. 281 

Asparagus. Can not be cultivated in Guam. As a substitute the young shoots 
of Chenopodium album and of Amaranthus viridis are eaten. 

Beans. Lima beans will grow, but they do not thrive well. Introduced 
varieties should be planted at the beginning of the dry season. The purple- 
flowered Dolichos lablab grows in nearly every garden, together with an interest- 
ing bean called "seguidillas" (Botor lelragonoloba) , the pods of which are winged 
with four longitudinal frills and are eaten when green. They are tender and 
succulent and are free from stringiness. Another bean, Vigna sinensis, which 
furnishes long, succulent pods, is found growing in nearly every garden. The 
pods are quite tender when young and are cooked like string beans. The mature 
seeds are edible, but are inferior to those of the common phaseolus, or French 
bean, which is also sometimes cultivated on the island. The yam-bean, Cacara 
erosa, a plant of Mexican origin, is cultivated chiefly for the sake of its sweetish, 
turnip-like roots, which may be eaten either raw, made into salad, cooked as a 
vegetable, or grated and made into puddings. For list of bean species see Beans. 

Beets. The climate of Guam is too moist and warm to be favorable to beet culture. 
They can, however, be grown. It is recommended to plant the seed in pans and 
transplant them into beds when the plants have four leaves. They should be 
planted at the beginning of the cold season. There are several distinct types. 
One, with the root of a whitish color and cylindrical form, is called "acelga." 
Another, of a deep red color and turnip-shaped, or fusiform, is called "remo- 
lacha." The tops may be eaten as a pot herb. 

Cabbage. Can not be cultivated. As a substitute several kinds of mustard are 
now grown from seed from Japan brought to Guam by the little schooners of the 
Japanese commercial company which has established a store at Agana. All 
attempts to grow cauliflower have proven failures. Georgia collards are recom- 
mended. Tender seedlings of crucifers are subject to the attacks of termites and 
other insects. Attempts should be made to grow them in pans supported on 
benches with their legs standing in water.' When they have four or six leaves 
they can be transplanted. 

Carrots. Attempts to cultivate carrots have failed. 

Celery. Will not grow. 

Chick peas. Grow well. 

Cress. There is a species of Nasturtium or Cardamine which grows spontane- 
ously. It has the taste of the common water cress and makes an excellent salad. 
Peppergrass (Lepidium sativum] may be cultivated. The seed should be sown 
at the end of the rainy season in shallow pans filled with good light soil. 

Cucumbers. A variety of Cacumis sativus grows spontaneously in waste places. 
The natives usually eat it cooked. Attempts to grow plants from American seed 
have proved failures. They germinate, but soon sicken and die. Introduced 
seed should be planted at the beginning of the dry season. 

Eggplant. This is one of the most important garden vegetables of Guam. The 
fruit is large, of a dark purple color, and of excellent quality. The plants grow 
vigorously and with little care, almost like the common Datura. It is usually 
prepared for the table by stuffing it with chopped meat and roasting it. It is 
called by its Spanish name "berenhena." 

Garlic. Grown with difficulty and only in small quantities. 

Grams or " Monggos." Grow well. They form the principal pulse-crop of the 
natives. 

Grapes. Only a few vines grow on the island. It would be well to introduce 
varieties from the low regions of Peru and Mexico. 

Ground Cherry. Physalis angulata grows spontaneously; the fruit is eaten 
uncooked as a salad or in the form of sweet preserves. 

Horse-radish. Will not grow. 

Lentils. Do not thrive. 

Lettuce. Grown with great difficulty. Seed subject to the attacks of insects. 
Should be sown in pans and transplanted when four leaves have developed. See 
Lactuca saliva. 

Melons. A melon of quality inferior to our own grows spontaneously on the 
island. Seeds of cantelpupes or muskmelons brought from the United States 
germinated, but the fruit did not reach maturity. To insure the best results 
they should be planted late in the dry season and watered. 

Mustard. Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, is cultivated in Guam and has 
escaped in many places. The young leaves are used for "golae," or greens, and 
take the place of spinach and cabbage. They are also good for salad. Large- 
leaved varieties from Japanese seed are grown by some of the natives. The 
leaves are not amplexicaul, the lower ones are stalked and often lyrate or pinna- 



282 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

tifid, the margin often hispid when young, upper leaves nearly sessile, linear- 
lanceolate; flowers bright yellow, small; pods slender, 1 or 2 inches long, beak 
about one-third the length of the pod. This plant is largely cultivated in trop- 
ical countries and takes the place of black mustard. In Bengal the seed is of 
commercial importance as a source of oil used for food. Mustard should be 
planted at the beginning of the dry season (November). 

Okra. Grows fairly well in Guam. It should be planted at the beginning of the 
rainy season. The green mucilaginous pods are used in soups and are also cut 
into slices and fried. 

Onions. The onions grown by the natives are small and rank. Attempts to 
introduce varieties grown in the United States have not been successful. Seed 
kept for any length of time should be thoroughly dried and protected from 
moisture in air-tight jars. It will not retain its vitality long; seeds brought to 
Guam from San Francisco and kept for three months were found to be quite 
dead. Onions should be obtained from visiting ships and planted for seed at 
the end of the rainy season. When the seed matures it should be gathered, 
dried, and stored in bottles sealed with paraffin, to be planted the following 
October, November, or December. If trouble is experienced when planting the 
seed in the garden, sow it in seed pans and transplant. The introduction of 
Bermuda onions is recommended. 

Parsley. The natives of Guam esteem parsley very highly and often have a few 
plants growing in pots, like flowers, pinching off a few leaves from time to time 
as they may be needed. It does not succeed well when sown in the garden. It 
should be planted in seed pans, sheltered from the sun and heavy rains, and 
planted out in a shaded bed when about 3 inches high. The transplanting 
should take place immediately after a good rain, and the plants should be watered 
frequently until they are well established. 

Parsnips. Will not grow. 

Peas (guisantes). Grow with difficulty; seldom mature. They should be 
planted at the beginning of the dry season. 

Peanuts (kakhuates. ). Common in gardens; grow well and need little care. 

Pepper, black. Will grow, but is not cultivated by the natives; grew in my gar- 
den by the side of the betel pepper, which it closely resembles. 

Pepper, red. Several kinds cultivated in the gardens; called by the vernacular 
name "doni." The favorite variety, a large "bell-pepper," often stuffed with 
meat and roasted; a smaller variety with pungent pods used for seasoning. All 
of them flourish and grow with little care; sometimes found in waste places. 

Potatoes, Irish. Will not grow. 

Potatoes, sweet. Several varieties are cultivated. They grow well. The natives 
seldom eat them, but sell them to passing ships, contenting themselves with 
yams and taro. 

Pumpkins and squashes (calamasa, kalamasa, kalabasa). Several kinds 
of Cucurbita are grown, including varieties of C. maxima and C. pepo. Benincasa 
cerifera, often called the " wax gourd," and known in Guam as "kondot," is one 
of the principal cucurbitaceous plants. All should be planted after the begin- 
ning of the dry season and watered if necessary. 

Radishes. Grow pretty well; best varieties from Japanese seed; some of them 
grow quite large. 

Rhubarb. Will not grow on the island. 

Sesame. Grows well. 

Spinach. Does not grow on the island; but its place is taken in a measure by 
CJienopodium album, which is eaten as golae or greens. A species of Amaranthus is 
also eaten in the same way. The tender young leaves of taro are also cooked 
like spinach. 

Sweet corn. Can not be cultivated. 

Taro. Grown extensively in marshy places, on dry hillsides, and on newly- 
cleared land. See Caladium colocasia and Alocasia macrorrhiza. 

Tomatoes. Two varieties of small size grow with little or no cultivation. Seed 
from the United States planted in my garden grew well, but the fruit decayed 
before it reached maturity and was attacked by the larva of some lepidopterous 
insect. Tomatoes should be planted at the beginning of the dry season. 

Turnips. Do not grow on the island. 

Velvet beans. May be grown to renovate the soil. They should be fed green 
to cattle. 

Watermelons. These should be planted at the end of the rainy season. Too 
much moisture is apt to make the fruit decay before ripening, and the vines may 
be killed outright by a heavy rain which floods the surface of the garden. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX 



PLATE L. 




GLEICHENIA DICHOTOMA, A FERN GROWING ON THE SAVANNAS. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 283 

Yams (Dioscorea spp.). Several varieties are cultivated by the natives; one 
species grows wild. They are planted in April, the soil having been previously 
dug deeply. The crop will be ready about December. The maturity of the 
tubers is indicated by the turning yellow of the leaves. Yams are left in the 
ground, to be dug as required for use. They will not keep like sweet potatoes, 
and are therefore not suitable for taking on long voyages. For methods of 
propagation see undei; Dioscorea alata. 

Yam-beans. Grow readily. 

Garlic. See Gardens. 

Gasoso (Guam). See Colubrina asiatica. 

Gatae or Ngatae (Rarotonga, Samoa). See Erythrina indica. 

Gauay (Philippines). See Lycopodium cernuum. 

Ganayganay (Philippines). See Agatl grandiftora. 

Gausali ( Guam ) . See Cormigonus mariannensis. 

Gavo (Philippines). See Caladium colocasia. 

Gaye, Gadye, or Gayi (Guam). See Lens phaseoloides. 

Gege (Guam). See Ambulia indica and A. fragrans. 

Geophila reniformis. See Carinta herbacea. 

Gingelly, Gingelly oil. See Sesamum orientate; in Guam called "ajonjoli" or 

"ahonholi." 

Ginger. See Zinziber zingiber. . 
Ginger, wild. Zinziber zerum.bet. 
Gingili. See Sesamum orientale. 
Gleichenia dichotoma. SAVANNA FERN. PLATE L. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mana (Guam); Asaua (Samoa). 

A fern growing on the sabanas, or upland, grassy regions. In some islands of 
Malanesia the wiry stipes are split and braided into baskets and into armb.mc's or 
other ornaments. In places where the sabanas have been burned over the stiff, erect 
stipes project a few inches above the surface, and often cause wounds in the feet of 
the natives, even when the latter are protected by leather sandals. 

REFERENCES: 

Gleichenia dichotoma Hook. Sp. Fil. 1: 12. 1846. 
Globe amaranth. See Gomphrena globosa. 
Glochidion marianum. CHOSGO. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Chosgo, Chosgu (Guam). 

A smooth evergreen shrubby plant with alternate, oblong-elliptic, entire, shortly 
petioled leaves arranged in two rows, closely veined beneath and shortly pointed at 
each end. Flowers small in axillary clusters, shortly pedicelled, apetalous, without 
disk scales or glands; calyx of both sexes of 2 large and 3 minute sepals, that of the 
female flower larger than that of the male; male flower without pistillode; anthers 
3, growing together in an oblong sessile column; female flower with 5-celled, globose, 
smooth ovary; styles growing together in an elongated, subcylindrical column, grad- 
ually narrowing from the base to the apex, 3 or 4 times as long as the ovary, the 
apex shortly 5-toothed; capsule depressed globular, finally 5-lobed. This species 
has also been collected in Samoa and in the Aru Islands. a Its wood is fine-grained 
and very strong, and is used by the natives for cart shafts. 

The type specimen of this species is from the island of Guam, where it was col- 
lected in 1819 by Gaudichaud. It was described by Miiller of Aargau, first in Lin- 

a Warburg, Beitriige sur Kenntniss der Papuanische Flora, Engler'g Bot. Jahrb., 
vol. 13, p. 355, 1890-91. 



284 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

naea a and afterwards in Flora, 6 where he placed the genus under Phyllanthus and 
changed the name of the plant to Phyllanthus gaudichaudii, so as not to confuse it 
with P. marianus, c a valid species. 

I follow Hooker in recognizing the validity of the genus Glochidion.^ 
REFERENCES: 

Glochidion marianum Muell. Arg. Linnaea 32: 65. 1863 
Glossogyne tenuifolia. SPANISH NEEDLES. 

Family Asteraceae. 

A perennial, glabrous co.mposite closely resembling Bidens, but having pistillate 
ray flowers instead of sterile ones. Stock tufted, sometimes almost woody, with erect 
dichotomous stems, 15 to 30 cm. high and often almost leafless, or sometimes elongated 
decumbent, and leafy at the base; leaves alternate, chiefly radical, or nearly so, the 
lowest sometimes cuneate and 3-lobed, all the others pinnately divided into 5 or 7 
stiff linear segments, either entire or 2 or 3-lobed; flower heads small, on long slen- 
der terminal peduncles; involucre campanulate, not 2 lines long, the bracts few, in 
about 2 row r s, narrow and nearly equal; receptacle chaffy; ray florets pistillate, small, 
yellow, spreading, ligulate, fertile, or sometimes wanting; disk florets tubular, her- 
maphrodite, 4 or 5 toothed; anthers obtuse at the base; style branches ending in 
subulate points; achenes linear, flattened, striate, with 3 or more ribs on each face, 
crowned by 2 erect or slightly diverging awns. 

This plant is common along the roadsides. A preparation made from the root of 
the very closely allied Glossogyne pinnatifida is used in India as an application for 
scorpion stings. 
REFERENCES: 

Glossogyne tenuifolia (Labill.) Cass. Diet. Sc. Nat. 51: 475. 1827. 
Bidens tenuifolia Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. 44. t. 45. 1824. 
Glueweed. See Boerhaavia diffusa. 
Goafs-foot convolvulus. See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Goatweed. See Ageratum conyzoides. 
Goat's-rue. See Cracca mariana. 
Gogo (Guam). See Lens phaseoloides. 
Gogong bakai (Visaya). See Lens phaseoloides. 
Golae (Guam) . 

The vernacular name for greens or leafy esculents (Spanish "verdura"). See 
Pot herbs. 

Goldenshower (Hawaii). See Cassia fistula. 
Golondrina (Guam). See Euphorbia hirta. 

Gomphrena globosa. GLOBE AMARANTH. 

Family Amaranthaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Amor seco (Spanish). 

In general cultivation; occasionally found in waste places, escaped from cultivation. 
REFERENCES: 

Gomphrena globosa L. Sp. PL 1: 224. 1753. 
Gomuto palm. See Saguerus pinnatus. 
Goodeniaceae. GOODENIA FAMILY. 

The only representative of this family in Guam is Lobelia koenigii. 
Goosefoot, white. See Chenopodium album. 
Goose grass. See Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum. 

a Vol. 32, p. 65, 1863. cLinnsea, vol. 32, p. 17, 1863. 

& Vol. 48, p. 379, 1865. d Flora of British India, vol. 5, p. 306, 1890. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 285 

Gossypium arboreum. TREE COTTON. 

Family Malvaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Atgodon (Guam); Algodonero (Spanish); Bulak iiga Visaya 

(Philippines). 

A shrub or low tree with purple pilose branches and palmately lobed leaves. 
Leaves with a nectar gland near the base of the midrib on the lower surface; lobes 
5 to 7, linear-oblong, mucronate, contracted at the base; stipules sword-shaped; 
flowers purple, rarely white; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, jointed; bracteoles 
cordate, ovate, acute; sepals 5, leafy; petals 5, spreading; staminal tube as in Hibis- 
cus, anther-bearing throughout its whole length; ovary 5-celled; style clavate, 
5-grooved at the apex, with 5 stigmas; ovules many in each cell; capsule about 2.5 
cm. long, oblong-pointed; seeds free, covered with white wool overlying a dense 
green down. 

An introduced plant sometimes planted near houses, but never cultivated for its 
cotton. 

REFERENCES: 

Gossypium arboreum L. Sp. PL 2: 693. 1753. 
Gossypium barbadense. SEA-ISLAND COTTON. 

LOCAL NAMES. Atgodon (Guam); Algodon (Spanish); Bulak Pernambuco or 

Fernambuco (Philippines); Vavai (Tahiti). 

A shrub or tall herb, the herbaceous portions of which are nearly smooth and are 
sprinkled with black dots, the branches purplish; leaves usually 1-glandular (see 
illustration of gland, PL X), cordate, deeply 3 to 5-lobed; lobes oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate; bracteoles very large, deeply gashed; petals spreading, convolute, yellow, 
with a crimson spot; capsule oval, acuminate; seeds black, covered with easily sep- 
arable white or brownish wool. 

This introduced plant is the species which furnishes the American varieties known 
as Bourbon, New Orleans, and Sea-island cotton. 

The natives of Guam are ignorant of spinning and weaving. They utilize cotton 
only for stuffing pillows and cushions. In 1866 an agricultural company called "La 
Sociedad Agricola de la Concepcion" attempted the cultivation of cotton, together 
with that of abaka (Musa textilis), sugar, and rice. Though these products grew 
well, the company failed for lack of labor. 

REFERENCES: 

Gossypium barbadense L. Sp. PL 2: 693. 1753. 
Gourd, bottle. See Lagenaria lagenaria. 
Gourd, wax. See Benincasa cerifera. 
Gourd-tree. See Crescentia alata. 
Gracilaria. See Algx. 
Graciola. See Bacopa monniera. 
Gram, green. See Phaseolus mungo. 
Grama. See Capriola dactylon. 
Gramineae. See Grasses. 
Granada. See Punica granatum. 

Granatum littoreum. Same as Xylocarpus granatum. 
Grape. See Gardens. 

Graptophyllum hortense. Same as Graptophyllum pictum. 
Graptophyllum pictum. CARICATURE PLANT. 

Family Acanthaceae^ 

LOCAL NAMES. San Francisco (Guam); Balasbas, Sariisa, Lovas (Philippines). 

o See p. 40. 



286 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

A variegated-leaved shrub quite common in gardens and often planted in rows 
near the houses, so as to receive the drippings from the thatched roofs. Leaves 
glabrous, petioled, opposite, ovate-lanceolate or broadly elliptic, narrowed at both ends, 
entire, usually variegated with white irregular patches, which frequently resemble a 
profile of the human face; flowers crimson, pedicelled, clustered in terminal thyrses, 
with very small, narrow, curved bracts and bracteoles, calyx small, sub-5-partite; 
segments equal, linear-lanceolate, corolla tube curved; limb 2-lipped, upper lip 
shortly 2-fid, lower 3-lobed; stamens 2, with 2 minute staminodes; anthers oblong, 
2-celled; cells parallel, without points; ovary with 4 ovules; style filiform, scarcely 
bifid; capsule oblong, hard, contracted into a long stalk; seeds usually 2, orbicular 
or subquadrate, flat, lacunose-rugose. 

This plant is probably a native of Java, but has been spread widely and is found 
in gardens in nearly all tropical countries. There are varieties having the leaves 
of a dark-claret color and other with green leaves. In some parts of India the 
natives use the leaves as soap. 
REFERENCES: 

Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. Notul. 4: 139. 1854. 
Justida picta L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1 : 21. 1762. 

Graptophyllum hortense Nees in Wall. PI. As. Ear. 3 : 102. 1882. 
Grasses. 

Andropog-on aciculatus. Awned beardgrass. A species widely spread in the 
Tropics; good pasture, but disagreeable on account of its adherent spikelets and 
awns. 

Andropogon nardus. Lemon grass. A fragrant, lemon-scented grass, planted 
by the natives near their houses; said to have been introduced into the island 
fnom the Carolines. 

Bambos bluxneana. Thorny bamboo. A handsome species, with hard, durable 
stalks, which resist the attacks of insects; used by the natives for making inclos- 
ures, and in the construction of their houses and ranchos; also as water vessels 
and receptacles for cocoanut sap. 

Bambos sp. An unarmed bamboo, called by Gaudichaud B. arnndinacea, possi- 
bly a species of Schizostachyum; inferior to the preceding in strength and dura- 
bility; subject to the attacks of insects. 
Capriola dactylon. The well-known Bermuda grass, common in the lawns 

about the houses of the natives; grows well and without care in sandy soil. 
Centotheca lappacea. A broad-leaved robust grass, known as bur grass, grow- 
ing near the sea and in damp upland regions; good fodder for cattle; found also 
in Samoa, the Caroline Islands, Philippines, Andaman Islands, and the East 
Indies. 
Chaetochloa glauca aurea. Golden foxtail. A grass with its inflorescence in 

spike-like clusters. 
Coix lachryma-jobi. Job's tears. Seeds hard, stony; sometimes strung into 

necklaces or rosaries. 

Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum. Goose grass. Growing in yards and waste 
places; a coarse grass with creeping habit of growth; naturalized in the United 
States. 

Dimeria cliloridiformis. A grass with ciliate leaves growing in damp places. 
Echinochloa colona. Jungle rice. A grass allied to our barnyard grass (E. crus- 

galli), but with awnless scales. 

Eleusine indica. Yard grass; a tufted grass with flat leaves and digitate spikes 
at the summit of the culm; common in yards; naturalized in the United States. 
In Guam called "umog." 

Eragrostis pilosa. A grass with erect, tufted, slender-branched culms; common 
in yards and damp places; naturalized from Europe in the United States; eaten 
by buffaloes and cattle. 
Eragrostis plumosa. A slender annual grass common in sandy soils and often 

found in yards of natives; eaten by buffaloes and cattle. 

Eragrostis tenella. An annual grass with stiff, rather brittle, flowering stems, 
and capillary branches bearing minute spikelets, which are often tinged, when 
mature, with red; often found in cultivated fields; eaten by cattle; possibly 
identical with the preceding. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 287 

Grasses Continued. 

Isachne minutula. A small grass allied to the Panicums, with its inflorescence 
an open pyramidal panicle with slender branches; spikelets small, obtuse, con- 
tinuous with the pedicel, articulate above the 2 sterile glumes, 2-flowered. 

Ischaemum digitatum polystachyum. A grass growing in damp places with 
inflorescence of 3 to several digitate spikes; branches and pedicels shortly and 
rigidly ciliate on the external angle. 

Ischaemum chordatum. A grass with spreading culms 60 to 120 cm. high, with 
sessile lanceolate leaves and with 3 to 6 subdigitate spikes. 

Oryza sativa. Rice. Introduced before the discovery of this island by Euro- 
peans. 

Panicuxn gaudichaudii. An erect grass growing in tufts with undivided culms, 
flat leaves, and a fascicle of spikes. 

Panicum distachyum. A decumbent or creeping grass with the stems rooting 
at lower nodes; eaten by cattle. 

Paspalum scrobiculatum. Kodp millet. An erect or ascending annual grass, 
bearing a grain which, after special treatment, is eaten by the poor in India. 

Trichoon roxburghii. The common reed. Abundant in the swamps. 

Sacch.aru.xn officinaruni. Sugar cane. Introduced into the island and cultivated 
before the discovery. 

Stenotaphrum subulatum. Shore grass. A creeping strand grass valuable for 
lawns and for forage. 

Xiphagrostis floridula. Sword grass, "nete" or "neti." A stiff, erect, peren- 
nial reed-like grass, covering large areas called "sabanas." The leaves have 
cutting edges, owing to the presence of minute sharp teeth along their margins. 
For uses, etc. , see Xiphagrostis floridula. 

Zea mays. Maize or Indian corn. Introduced from Mexico; now the principal 
food staple of the island. 

Greens. See Pol herbs. 

Grewia guazumaefolia. . Same as Grewia multiflora. 

Grewia multiflora. 

Family Tiliaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Arigilao, Anilao (Guam). 

A shrub or small tree with slender, sparingly hairy branches, and distichous leaves 
variable in shape and size. Leaves shortly petioled, glabrescent, usually lanceolate, 
glandular-serrate, the apex sometimes acuminate, the base 3-nerved; petiole pilose; 
stipules linear-subulate; peduncles half the length of the leaves, pilose; pedicles 
dilated upward; peduncles axillary, 3-flowered; flower-buds oblong-clavate, petals 5, 
entire, half the length of the sepals; stamens many on a raised torus; ovary 2 to 
4-celled; drupe fleshy, the size of a small pea, didymous, purplish, glabrescent; stones 
1 -seeded. 

In the Philippines the name Arigilao is applied to the allied Columbia anilao 
Blanco. The fruit of Columbia is in the form of 3 to 5-winged nutlets. The flowers 
resemble those of Grewia as to the stamens, 5 distinct sepals, and petals glandular at 
the base. 

REFERENCES: 

Grewia multiflora Juss. Ann. Mus. Par. 4: 89. t. 47. f. 1, 1804. 

Groundberry. See Carinta herbacea. 
Ground-cherry. See Physalis angulata and P. minima. 
Groundnut. See Arachis hypogaea. 
Guaguaot (Guam). 

A tree, not identified, the wood of which is used in the construction of houses and 
is said to be proof against the attacks of insects. 
Gumachil, or Guamachi (Mex. ). See Pithecolobium duke. 
Guanabano (Spanish America and Philippines). See Annona muricata. 



^88 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Guava. See Ptddium guqjava. 

Guayaba, guayava (Spanish). See Psidium guajava; in Guam called "abas." 

Guegue (Guam). See Ambulia indica and A. fragrans. 

Guettarda speciosa. ZEBRA WOOD. 

Family Rubiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Balarigigan (Philippines); Zebrawood, Tambari-barisa (Mada- 
gascar); Buabua (Fiji); Puapua (Samoa). 

A small evergreen tree with fragrant white, jasmine-like flowers, growing near the 
seabeach. Branchlets stout, short; petioles, leaves beneath, and usually the inflo- 
resence pubescent; leaves opposite or 3 in a whorl, with ovate, pubescent, deciduous 
stipules between the petioles, broadly obovate, 12 to 25 cm. long by 10 to 18 cm. broad, 
tip acute, obtuse, or rounded, the base obtuse or cordate, petiole 3.5 cm. long; cymes 
usually from the axils of fallen leaves, long-peduncled, with spreading dichotomous 
few-flowered branches; calyx velvety, truncate limb deciduous; corolla imbricate, 
3.5 cm. long, softly pubescent; limb 2.5 cm. in diameter, segments 4 to 9, obovate; 
stamens 4 to 9, inserted in the mouth of the corolla, subsessile; drupe woody, globose 
or depressed; endocarp 4 to 9-celled, with as many grooves and angles, perforated at 
the top opposite the cells; cells curved, 1-seeded. 

A plant of wide distribution in the Pacific and on the tropical shores of Australia, 
India, and Eastern Africa. In Samoa and Fiji the natives string the fragrant flowers 
into necklaces. In India a perfume is extracted from them. They bloom in the 
evening and drop to the ground before morning. 

It is interesting to note that the seeds of this species are among those collected by 
Doctor Guppy in the drift on the beach of islands in the Solomon group. Its wide 
distribution on tropical shores is evidently the result of the fact that the seeds are 
carried by ocean currents. 
REFERENCES: 

Guettarda speciosa L. Sp. PL 2: 991. 1753. 

Guilandina bonducella. Same as Gnilandina crista. 

Guilandina crista. MOLUCCA BEAN. NICKERNUT. PLATE LI. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Pacao, Pakao (Guam); Unasdegato (Spanish); Guacalote prieto 
(Cuba); Anaoso (Samoa); Tataramoa (Rarotonga); Kakalaioa (Hawaii); 
Bayag cambing, Calambit (Philippines). 

A shrub with climbing or loosely spreading branches, armed with numerous scat- 
tered sharp, recurved prickles, especially on the petiole and rachis of the leaves, 
pubescent or villous in all its parts. Leaves abruptly bipinnate; common petiole 30 
to 45 cm. long, pinnae in 4 to 6 distant pairs, spreading nearly at right angles, each 
10 to 15 cm. long; leaflets 5 to 8 pairs to each pinna, oblong, often mucronate, 2 to 2.5 
cm. long; stipules deciduous; racemes 10 to 15 cm. long, simple or branched in the 
upper axils; flowers shortly pedicellate and crowded in the upper part; bracts with 
a long recurved point, deciduous; calyx about 4 lines long; sepals united at the base 
into a short tube lined by the disk, bearing at its margin the petals and stamens; 
petals 5, ob lanceolate, yellow, little exserted; stamens 10, free; ovary sessile, with 2 
ovules; pods in crowded clusters, short-stalked, broadly ovate-oblong, 5 to 7.5 cm. 
long, coriaceous, covered with very sharp prickles; seeds, mostly 2, large, of a bluish- 
gray or lead color, smooth, glossy, nearly round and very hard. The cotyledons are 
closely appressed and do not fill the shell, but leave an air space w r hich gives buoy- 
ancy to the seed. (See PL XV. ) 



The Rarotongan name signifies "cockspur;" the Hawaiian name " thorny." 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE LI. 




GUILANDINA CRISTA, THE NlCKER NUT. PODS AND SEEDS. NATURAL SlZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 289 

The bitter kernels of the seeds are used as a remedy for malarial fevers; from which 
fact the seeds are sometimes called ' ' fever nuts. ' ' 
REFERENCES: 

Guilandina crisla (L.) Small, Fl. Southeastern U. S. 591. 1904. 
Caesalpinia crista L. Sp. PI. 1 : 380. 1753. 
Guilandina bonduc L. Sp. PI. 1 : 381. 1753. 
Guilandina bonducella L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1 : 545. 1762. 

Guingambo (Porto Rico). See Abelmoschus esculentus. 

Gum and resin plants. 
Acacia farnesiana. Aromo; yields a gum like that of gum arabic, used by the 

natives as a mucilage 
Anacardium occidentale. Kasue; yields "cashew gum," used as a varnish to 

guard against attacks of insects. 
Artocarpus communis. Breadfruit; yields a milky latex, used as a sizing for 

whitewash and a medium for mixing paint; becomes stiff on exposure to air, 

and is used for paying seams of canoes and troughs. 
Calophyllum inophyllum. Palo maria; the source of a resin, sometimes called 

tacamahac, soluble in spirits. 
Ochrocarpus obovalis. Chopag; yields a resin somewhat like that of the palo 

maria, to which it is closely related. 

Ochrosia mariannensis. Yellow- wood; yields a latex like rubber; not utilized 
in Guam. 

Gulaman (Guam, Philippines). See Gracilaria confervoides, under Algse. 

Gulos (Guam). 

An unidentified tree. Leaves abruptly pinnate, the leaflets in two pairs, the ter- 
minal pair much the larger; fruit eaten by bats (Pteropus keraudreni) ; seeds edible, 
said to be somewhat like almonds. Tree common on the east coast near Pago. 

Gumbo (Louisiana). See Abelmoschus esculentus. 
Gumamela (Guam). See Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Guttiferae. See Clusiaceae. 

Gynopogon torresianus. MAILE. 

Family Apocynaceae. 
LOCAL NAME. Nanago (Guam). 

A low glabrous evergreen shrub with aromatic, glossy leaves arranged in whorls 
of three or four. Leaves elliptical or narrowly obovate, obtuse, subemarginate, cori- 
aceous, tapering to the base, short-petioled or nearly sessile; flowers small, salver- 
shaped, white, in axillary clusters with the peduncle exceeding the short petiole; 
peduncle usually 2- flowered; calyx 5-parted; corolla tube cylindrical, slightly 
swollen around the anthers and the throat usually somewhat dilated; lobes 5, 
spreading, contorted in the bud, the throat without scales; stamens 5, inserted in 
the tube, alternating with the corolla lobes; anthers erect, turned inwards, 2-celled, 
inclosed in the tube; ovary of 2 distinct carpels, united by a single style; ovules few 
in each carpel, in 2 rows; fruit an elliptical or nearly round drupe or berry. 

This species was collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, who obtained only imperfect 
specimens of it. Leaves 24 to 36 mm. long, 10 to 20 mm. wide; lateral veins close 
together, rather distinct; petioles 2 to 4 mm. long. In specimens collected by the 
writei many ot the leaves were sessile. Common on rocky cliffs, especially on the 
promontory between Asan and Tepungan, at the base of which the road passes 
along the edge of the sea. The plant has the coumarin-like fragrance of the allied 
species in Hawaii and Samoa, which are called matte or lau-maile by the natives of 
those islands. In Hawaii Gynopogon ohvaeforme is highly esteemed. It is made 
into garlands by the natives and its fragrance is celebrated in their songs. Its spe- 
977305 19 



290 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

cific name was given it by Gaudichaud in honor of Don Luis de Torres, sarjento- 
mayor at the time of De Freycinet's visit to the island. 
REFERENCES: 

Gynopogon torresianus (Gaudich.) K. Sch. & Laut. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgebiete. 

in der Siidsee 504. 1901. 

Alyxia torresiana Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 451. 1826. 
Habal (Philippines). See Elephantopus spicatus. 
Habas (Spanish, frorn/a&, Latin). See Phaseolus lunatus inamoenus. 
Haigiie (Guam). A coconut which has sprouted. 
Hala ( Hawaii ) . See Pandanus tectorius. 
Halimedia. See under Algse. 
Halodule uninervis. 

Family Potamogetonaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Chaguan-tasi. 

A plant somewhat resembling eelgrass (Zostera) in miniature, growing in salt 
water. It is dioecious; the flowers, arranged in pairs, have no perianth; the pistil- 
late ones reduced to an ovary with a short style and a long, thread-like stigma; the 
staminate consisting of two anthers growing together along their backs, with two 
parallel cells opening outwards by longitudinal slits. 

This genus is closely allied to Cymodocea, but differs in having the male flowers 
at slightly different heights on the flower stem and in having one instead of two 
stigmas. The fruits are roundish-oval and scarcely appressed; leaves narrowly 
linear, with distinct midrib and two marginal veins and without definite finer vena- 
tion, the margins each prolonged into a tooth at the apex, between which the apex 
of the leaf projects. 
REFERENCES: 

Halodule uninervis (Forsk.) Boiss. Fl. Orient. 5: 24.1884. 
Zostera uninerva Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 157. 1775. 
Diplanthera tridentata Steinheil, Anna!. Sc. Nat. II. 9: 98. t. 4- f- B. 1838. 
Haloxn (Philippines). See Amaranthus oleraceus. 
Halophila ovata. Same as Halophila ovalis. 
Halophila ovalis. 

Family Vallisneriaceae. 

A plant growing in the sea, often near low- water mark or deeper, and at the mouths 
of streams. Stems creeping and rooting under water, having at each node a pair of 
ovai or oblong-elliptical, thin, feather-veined leaves with entire margins and long 
petioles; at the base of the petioles 2 broad, thin, colorless, hyaline scales, within 
which are the ovate sessile involucres or double spathes inclosing the flowers; male 
flowers on pedicels emerging from the involucre; perianth of 3 segments; anthers 3, 
sessile, alternating with the segments, erect, 2-celled, the cells opening outward; 
pollen confervoid; female flowers without perianth, sessile within the involucre; 
ovary single, tapering into a filiform style with a short stigma, either entire or 
divided into 3 to 5 filiform segments; ovules several, erect, attached to the sides of 
the cavity; fruit membranous, opening irregularly; seeds nearly globular; with a 
thin testa. 

This species was first collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. It is often washed up on 
the beach with algae. 
REFERENCES: 

Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. Fl. Tasm. 2: 45. 1860. 
Caulinia ovalis R. Br. Prod. 339. 1810. 
Halophila ovata Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. 430. L 40. /. 1. 1826. 

a Bot. Freycinet Exp. 430, 1826. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 291 

Handaramai (Guam). See Pipturus argenteus. 

Haplachne pilosissima Presl. Same as Dimcria chloridiformis. 

Haras (Philippines). See Foeniculum foeniculum. 

Hasmin (Guam). See Jasminum grandiflorum. 

Hasmin dikike (Guam). See Jasminum officinale. 

Hayo or Hayu (Guam). Vernacular word for tree or wood (Malayan "Kayu"). 

Hayun-lago (Guam). 

The name of an introduced tree, mentioned by Freycinet, signifying "foreign 
wood;" not identified, but evidently belonging to the Fabaceae. 

Hayun-mananas (Guam). 

A tree given in the list of woods forwarded by Governor Olive y Garcia to the 
captain-general of the Philippines; not identified. 

Hayun-palaoan (Guam). 

Name of a tree in Olive's list, signifying "female tree" or "shewood;" used in 
house building; not identified. 
Hedge acacia. See Leucaena glauca. 
Hedge plants. See Fence and hedge plants. 
Hedionda (Porto Rico). See Cassia occidentalis. 
Hediondilla ( Porto Rico) . See Leucaena glauca. 
Hedysarum diphyHum L. Same as Zornia diphylla. 
Hedysarum gangeticum L. Same as Meibomia gangetica. 
Hedysarum trinorum L. Same as Meibomia triflora. 
Hedysarum umbellatum L. Same as Meibomia umbellata. 
Heleocharis. A modified spelling of Eleocharis. 
Heliotrope, cultivated. See Heliotropium peruvianum. 
Heliotrope, Indian. See Heliotropium indicum. 
Heliotrope, beach. See Heliotropium curassavicum. 

Heliotropium curassavicum. BEACH HELIOTROPE. 

Family Boraginaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Hunig-tasi (Guam); Cotorrerade la Playa( Porto Rico); Alacran- 

cillo de Play a (Cuba). 

A much-branched, prostrate, glabrous, and glaucous perennial, often somewhat 
succulent, spreading sometimes to 60 or 90 cm. Leaves linear-oblanceolate or oblong, 
usually obtuse and narrowed into a short petiole, or the upper sessile, rarely obovate, 
rather thick, inconspicuously veined; scorpioid spikes dense, bractless, mostly in 
pairs; flowers sessile, calyx segments acute; corolla white with a yellow eye, or 
changing to blue; stigma umbrella-shaped; anthers acuminate; fruit globose. 
A common weed on sandy seashores. 
REFERENCES: 
Heliotropium curassavicum L. Sp. PI. 1:130. 1753. 

Heliotropium indicum. SCORPION WEED. 

LOCAL NAMES. Berbena (Guam); Cotorrera (Porto Rico); Trompa de elefante 

(Manila); Alacrancillo (Cuba, Mexico); Flor del alacran (Panama). 
An annual, hirsute, herbaceous weed with dense, elongate, scorpioid spikes of small 
blue flowers. Stems 15 to 45 cm. long; leaves alternate or subopposite, 2.5 to 10 cm. 
long; petioled, ovate, subserrate, more or less woolly; spikes 2.5 to 20cm. long; sepals 
linear; corolla tube narrow-cylindric; lobes small, round, crenate; stigma conoid- 
linear; fruit 3.5 mm. long, ovoid, ribbed, soon separating into 2 miter-like nutlety, 
each nutlet with 2 cavities in addition to the seed-bearing cells. 



292 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Collected in Guam by Chamisso and by Lesson. In Bombay the leaves are used 
as a local application to boils, sores, and the stings of insects and reptiles. 
REFERENCES: 

Hdiotropium indicum L. Sp. PL 1: 130. 1753. 

Heliotropium peruvianum. HELIOTROPE. 

The cultivated heliotrope, common in the gardens of the natives. 
REFERENCES: 

Heliotropium peruvianum L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1:187. 1762. 

Hemionites plantaginea Cav. Same as Antrophyum plantagineum. See under Perm. 
Hemp, bowstring. See Cordyline hyacinthoides. 
Hemp, Manila. See Musa textilis. 
Henna. See Lawsonia inermis. 

Hepaticae. LIVERWORTS. 

The liverworts of Guam have never been systematically collected. Among those 
hitherto recorded from the island are Hygrolejeunea sordida (Nees) Schiffn., growing 
on damp tree trunks, Caudolejeunea recurvistipula (Gottsche) Schiffn., and Fruttania 
gaudichaudii Nees & Mart., belonging to the Jungermanniaceae. Fruttania nodujosa 
(R. Bl. & N.) Nees& was collected by the writer. It is a widely distributed species 
in the eastern Tropics. 

Heritiera littoralis. LOOKING-GLASS TREE. PLATE LII. 

Family Sterculiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Ufa, Hufa(Guam); Chaiping, Chaping(Ponape); Pipilusu (Sol- 
omon Islands); Looking-glass tree (India). 

A tree growing near the sea, especially in the vicinity of mangrove swamps. Leaves 
very shortly petiolate, oval or oblong, the larger ones 20 by 10 cm., but often much 
smaller, entire, feather- veined, coriaceous, glabrous above, silvery underneath with 
a close scaly tomentum; flowers small, numerous, unisexual, in loose tomentose, 
panicles in the upper axils much shorter than the leaves; calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft, 
about 4 mm. long; petals none; in the male flowers staminal column slender, bearing 
on the outside below the summit a ring of 5 anthers with parallel cells, shorter than 
the calyx; in the female flowers, carpels of the ovary 5, nearly distinct, 1-ovuled; 
style short, with 5 rather thick stigmas; fruit carpels sessile, ovoid, 5 to 7.5 cm. 
long, thick, and almost woody, with a slight projecting inner edge, and a strong, 
projecting, almost winged keel along the outer edge; seeds without albumen, 
cotyledons very thick, the radicle next the hilum. 

The wood is durable, hard, and tough. In Guam it is used for spokes of wheels, 
knees of boats, and especially for plows. The seeds of this tree were among those 
collected by Doctor Guppy in the drift on the beach of some of the islands of the 
Solomon group, evidently transported by ocean currents from other shores. The 
East Indian name, "looking-glass tree," comes from the silver-like appearance of the 
lower surface of the leaves. 
REFERENCES: 

Heritiera littoralis Dryand. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 546. 1789. 

Hernandia peltata. JACK-IN-THE-BOX. 

Family Hernandiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Nonag, Nonak (Guam); Puka (Rarotonga); Pu'a (Samoa); 
Buka (Tonga); Yevuyevu (Fiji); Tia nina (Tahiti); Koli (Solomon Islands); 
Kolongkolong (Philippines). 

See Schumann und Lauterbach, Flora deutsch. Schutzgeb. in der Siidsee, pp. 75 
and 76, 1901. 

* Determined by Dr. A. W. Evans. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE Lll. 




HERITIERA LITTORALIS, A STRAND TREE. FOLIAGE AND FRUIT. NATURAL SIZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 293 

A tree with peltate, ovate, acuminate leaves, bearing fruit inclosed in an inflated, 
globular involucel, having a circular orifice, which gives to it its Samoan name, 
signifying "iris" (of the eye). Leaves on long petioles marked with a red or a 
white area at the point of attachment of the petiole, which is near the base, 5 to 
9-nerved and remotely feather-veined, the larger ones nearly 30 cm. long, the upper 
ones much smaller; flowers unisexual, in panicles shorter than the leaves, almost 
clustered on the branches, one terminal female between two males within a whorl of 

4 bracts, and sometimes one or two males lower down with a small bract under each 
pedicel; perianth-segments in two rows, slightly pubescent, in the male flowers 3 in 
each row, almost petal-like, veined, about two lines long; stamens 3, shorter than 
the segments, with short filaments; female flowers with a cup-shaped, entire, trun- 
cate involucel a little below the ovary, 3 mm. long at the time of flowering, but soon 
enlarged and growing over the ovary or perianth tube; perianth tube of female 
flowers from the first completely adnate to the fleshy ovary, the segments 4 in each 
row, the outer ones ovate, the inner ones narrow; glands or staminodia 4, large and 
nearly globular, opposite the outer perianth segments; style short, thick, with a 
dilated irregularly lobed stigma, the whole style deciduous with the perianth lobes; 
fruit completely inclosed in the involucel, which has become inflated, globular, 
smooth, and fleshy, above 3.5 cm. in diameter with a circular entire orifice of about 
12 mm. in diameter; fruit about 2.5 cm. in diameter marked with eight broad raised 
longitudinal ribs, with a raised terminal umbo; seed very hard, about 19 mm. in 
diameter; embryo divided into 4 or 5 thick fleshy lobes. 

The wood is very light and soft and takes fire readily from a flint and steel. It 
has been used in Guam for making canoes, but they soon become water-logged and 
useless if unpainted and left exposed to the weather. The bark, seed, and young 
leaves are slightly purgative, and the juice of the leaves is a depilatory, destroying 
hair without pain." Distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia, and east- 
ward in the Pacific as far as Tahiti. 

REFERENCES: 

Hernandia peltata Meissn. in DC. Prod. 15 1 : 263. 1864. 
Hernandia sonora Endlicher, not L. Same as H. peltata. 
Herpestis monnier a. Same as Bacopa monniera. 
Herpetica alata. RINGWORM BUSH. 

Family Caesalpiniaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Acapulco (Guam); Capulao, Gamot sa buni (Philippines); Lau- 
reno (Panama); Guacamaya francesa (Cuba); Talantala (Porto Rico); Taratana 
(Mexico). 

A shrub 2 to 3 meters high with terminal racemes of showy yellow floweVs. 
Branches thick, finely downy; leaves devoid of glands, subsessile, abruptly pinnate, 
30 to 60 cm. long; stipules deltoid, persistent; leaflets 6 to 14 pairs, oblong, obtuse, 

5 to 15 cm. long, minutely mucronate, rigidly subcoriaceous, glabrous or obscurely 
downy beneath, broadly rounded, oblique at the base; rachis narrowly winged on 
each side of the face; racemes peduncled, 15 to 30 cm. long; bracts large, membra- 
nous, caducous; corolla yellow, distinctly veined; stamens very unequal; pod mem- 
branous, with a broad wing down the middle of each valve; straight, glabrous, 10 to 
20 cm. long by 12 to 14 mm. broad; seeds 50 or more. 

This shrub was introduced into Guam from Acapulco, whence it takes its local 
name. Its leaves are used by the natives as a remedy for skin diseases, and espe- 
cially for ringworm. 
REFERENCES: 

Herpetica alata (L.) Raf. Sylva Tellur. 123. 1838. 
Cassia alata L. Sp. PI. 1: 378. 1753. 



"Watt, Economic Products of India, vol. 4, p. 225, 1890. 



294 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Hialoa (Hawaii). See Waltheria americana. 

Hibiscus esculentus. Same as Abelmoschus esculentus. 

Hibiscus mutabilis. CHANGEABLE ROSE-MALLOW. 

Family Malvaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mapola (Guam); Amistad (Mexico); Maravilla (Porto Rico). 
A shrub or small tree which has flowers that change in color, almost white in the 
morning and red at night. Leaves downy, cordate, 5-angled, 10 cm. in diameter, 
petiole 7.5 cm.; peduncles axillary, nearly as long as the leaf, jointed near the top; 
bracts shorter than the calyx; flowers 7.5 to 10 cm. in diameter; sepals ovate-lance- 
olate, connate below the middle; capsule depressed-globose, hairy; seeds reniform, 
hispid. 

Planted in many gardens in Guam. The bark yields a strong fiber, but this has 
never been used for cordage. 

REFERENCES: 

Hibiscus mutabilis L. Sp. PI. 2: 694. 1753. 
Hibiscus populneus. Same as Thespesia populnea. 
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. SCARLET ROSE-MALLOW. 

LOCAL NAMES. Gumamela (Guam); Tapuranga (Philippines); Kaute (Raro- 

tonga); Aute (Samoa); Shoe-flower (India); Fu-sang (China). 
An ornamental shrub planted by the natives near their houses. In Guam only 
the crimson-flowered varieties, single and double, are found. Leaves ovate, acumi- 
nate, entire at the base, coarsely toothed at the apex, nearly glabrous; stipules 
sword-shaped; peduncles axillary, as long as or longer than the adjoining leaf; 
bracteoles 6 or 7, linear, half the length of the bell-shaped calyx; sepals lanceolate, 
connate below the middle; staminal tube exceeding the corolla; capsule rounded; 
many-seeded. Seldom seeds in cultivation. 

In India the flowers are used to black shoes, and paper colored with the petals is 
used in the place of litmus for testing. The plant is easily propagated by cuttings. 
These should be removed with a piece of the old wood adhering, placed in water 
until roots begin to make their appearance, and then planted. In this way it is pos- 
sible to have a fine hedge under way in a very short time, which begins to bloom 
immediately if flowering twigs have been selected for cuttings. 

REFERENCES: 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Sp. PI. 2: 694. 1753. 
Hibiscus tiliaceus. Same as Pariti tiliaceum. 
Hierba buena (Spanish). See Mentha arvensis. 
Hierba de polio (Spanish). See Portulaca quadrifida. 
Hierba de Santa Rosa (Mexico). See Antigonon leptopus. 
Higo (Spanish). See Ficus carica. 
Hikamas (Guam). See Cacara erosa. 
Hikara (Guam). See Crescentia alata. 
Hinaxamai (Philippines). See under Pipturus argenteus. 
Hinegsa (Guam). See under Oryza saliva. 
Hoda or Hodda (Guam). See Ficus spp. 
Hog-weed. See Boerhaavia diffusa. 
Hoja de bouja (Cuba). See Bryophyllum pinnatum. 
Hombronia edulis. Same as Pandanus dubius. 
Horse bean. See Canavali ensiforme. 
Horse-radish tree. See Moringa moringa. 
Huamachil (Mexico). See Pithecolobium dulce. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE Llll. 




HUMATA HETEROPHYLLA, THE UMATA FERN. NATURAL SlZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 295 

Hufa (Guam). See Heritiera littoralis. 

Huisache (Texas). See Acacia farnesiana. 

Humata heterophylla. UMATA PERN. PLATE LIII. 

Family Polypodiaceae. 

A creeping fern with dimorphous fronds, the sterile ones ovate-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, entire or slightly lobed at the base, the fertile ones narrower, deeply 
sinuate-pinnatifid, the lobes coarsely crenate; sori 2 to 10 to a lobe; involucre 
ample, coriaceous, suborbicular or reniform, attached by a broad base, the apex 
and sides free. This genus was founded by Cavanilles on specimens collected by 
Ne'e, who visited Guam in company with Haenke with the Malaspina expedition. 
It was named for the village of Humata (or Humdtag), now called Uinata, on the 
west coast of the island south of the peninsula of Orote. 
REFERENCES: 

Humata heterophylla (Sm.) J. Sm. Hook. Journ. 3: 416. 1841. 
Davallia heterophylla Sm. Act. Taur. 5 : 415. 1793. 
Humata pinnatifida Cav. Prael. no. 679, 1801. 
Humata pinnatifida. Same as Humata heterophylla. 
Hunig or Hunik (Guam). See Tournefortia argentea. 
Hunig-tasi (Guam). See Heliotropium curassavicum. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica L. Same as Centella asiatica. 
Hygrolejeunea. See Hepaticx. 

Hyxnenocallis littoralis. Same as Pancratium littorale. 
Hypnuxn. See Mosses. 
Hypoxis aurea. GOLDEN STAR-GRASS. 

Family Amaryllidaceae. 

A small hairy plant with grass-like leaves and yellow, star-like flowers. Eootstock 
tuberous; leaves radical, narrowly linear; scape filiform, hairy, with one or two 
flowers; bracts setaceous; perianth rotate, 6-parted, yellow within, sessile on the top 
of the ovary, persistent; ovary and perianth lobes externally hairy, 3 outer lobes 
green on the back; flowers dioecious; stamens 6 on the base of the segments, fila- 
ments short, anthers sagittate; ovary clavate; capsule at length 3-valved, crowned 
with the erect perianth-lobes; seeds black, tuberculate. 

Common in Guam on the treeless sabanas, especially on Mount Makahna near 
Fonte, back of Agana. 

The species is widely spread in the Philippines, India, Java, China, and Japan. 
REFERENCES: 
Hypoxis aurea Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 200. 1790. 

Hyptis capitata. Same as Mesosphaerum capitatum. 
Hyptis pectinata Poit. Same as Mesosphaerum pectinatum. 

Icacorea sp. 

Family Myrsinaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Otot, Otud, Utud, Utug (Guam). 

A low shrub with simple, alternate, lanceolate leaves, bearing racemes of small, 
red, globose berries of a pleasant acid flavor like that of tamarinds. The berry con- 
tains a single hard globose seed, flattened at the base, with its envelope covered with 
longitudinal or radiating striations. 

The berries have a pleasant acid flavor like barberries. Birds are fond of them, 
but they are not usually eaten by the natives. 

If (New Guinea), Ifi (Samoa). See Bocoa edulis. 
Ifi-lele (Samoa). See Intsia bijuga. 



296 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Ifil or Ifit (Guam). Intsia bijuga; in the Philippines called "ipil." 
I'i (Samoa). See Oxalis corniculata. 

Ilangilang (Guam, Philippines). See Canangium odoratum. 
Illuminating oils. 

The following plants yield oils used for lighting: Aleurites moluccana, CalophyUum 
inophyllum, Cocos nudfera, Jatropha curcas. Ricinus communis, Sesamum orientate, 
Xylocarpus granatum, 
Impatiens balsamina. GARDEN BALSAM. 

Family Impatientaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Belen (Mexico); Sulangga, Camantigui (Philippines); Touch- 
me-not (United States). 

This well-known garden plant is found in most gardens of Guam, and in places 
has escaped from cultivation. In the Philippines, according to Mercado, the women 
and girls make use of it to dye their finger nails. In Chamba, northern India, the 
seeds are eaten by the native, and an oil is expressed from them which is used as 
food and also for burning. 

REFERENCES: 

Impatiens bateamina L. Sp. PI. 2: 938. 1753. 
Imumu (Guam). Name of a poisonous tree; not identified. 
Indian almond. See Terminalia catappa. 
Indian corn. See Zea mays. 
Indian joint-vetch. See Aeschynomene indica. 
Indian licorice. See Abrus abrus. 
Indian mallow. See Abutilon indicum. 
Indian mercury. See Acalypha indica. 
Indian mulberry. See Morinda dtrifolia. 
Indian pennywort. See Centella asiatica. 
Indian shot. See Canna indica, 
Indigo. See Indigofera anil and /. tinctoria. 
Indigofera anil. INDIGO. 

Family Fabaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Anilis (Guam); Anil (Spanish); Tagum (Philippines). 
Low shrub very common in abandoned clearings, slightly pubescent with odd 
pinnate leaves and axillary sessile racemes of many small greenish purplish flowers. 
Stipules awl-shaped; calyx lobes triangular; standard roundish; keel spurred; leaf- 
lets 3 to 7 pairs, spathulate-oblong; pod oblong-linear, cylindrical, not torulose, 
much thickened along the dorsal line, 3 to 6-seeded. 

This, like the next, is a well-known dye plant, introduced into the island more 
than a century ago. 

REFERENCES: 

Indigofera anil L. Mant. 2: 272. 1771. 
Indigofera tinctoria. INDIGO. 

LOCAL NAMES. Aftilis (Guam); Anil (Spanish); Tagum (Philippines). 
Low shrub like the last and in similar places. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, oval or obovate- 
oblong; pods many-seeded, slightly torulose or swollen at intervals, and somewhat 
thickened along the line of dehiacence. 
Like the last, a dye plant introduced long ago. Neither is utilized by the natives. 

REFERENCES: 

Indigofera tinctoria L. Sp. PI. 2: 751. 1753. 
Inga dulcis. Same as PithecoloUum dulce. 



Contr. Nat, Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE LIV. 




INTSIA BIJUGA, THE |PIL TREE. NATURAL SlZE. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 297 

Inifut or Inifuk (Guam). 

Vernacular name of a purplish grass, which sticks to the clothing. 
Inkberry. See Cestrum pallidum. 
Inocarpus edulis. Same as Bocoa edulis. 

Intsia bijuga. IPIL. PLATK LTV. 

Family Fabaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Ipil (Philippines); Ifil, Ifit (Guam); Ifi-lele (Samoa); Vesi 

(Fiji). 

The most important timber tree of Guam. Leaves abruptly pinnate; leaflets 2 
pairs (rarely 1 pair), obliquely oblong, glabrous, inclined to be leathery; flowers in 
a dense terminal corymbose panicle; calyx-tube cylindrical; sepals 4; corolla consist- 
ing of one developed petal, which is exserted and is round in form, with a long claw; 
fertile stamens 3, sterile 7; filaments more than 2.5 cm. long, anthers small; pod 
rigid, flat, oblong, opening with difficulty; seeds 1 to 5. 

The heartwood of this tree is very hard and heavy, but not elastic. It is cross- 
grained and hard to work. It is very durable and is used for the posts of the best 
houses. The pillars of the church of Agana are the trunks of ifil trees cut very near 
the site of the building. At first the wood is yellowish, then it turns rust-color, and 
assumes a dark color with time, resembling that of black walnut. Although of 
rather coarse grain, it takes a very fine polish. Nearly all the better houses of the 
island have tables and settees made of it, and even floors, which are kept beautifully 
polished by rubbing them with grated coconut wrapped in a cloth, through which the 
oil oozes. The wood has the virtue of resisting the attacks of termites or white ants. 
Trunks 9 meters long and 1 meter in diameter are sometimes found, but they usually 
vary from 2.5 to 5 meters in length and from 30 to 60 cm. in diameter. Houses 
made of. newly sawn ifil are not whitewashed or painted until the wood has had 
time to dry and season, on account of the brown coloring matter, which discolors the 
surface. When old the wood becomes so hard that holes must be bored in it for 
nails. The trees are becoming scarce in the vicinity of Agana, but are still compara- 
tively abundant in the forests of the northern part of the island. 
REFERENCES: 

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 192. 1891. 

Afzelia bijuga Gray, U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 467. 1854, not Afzeliam bijuga 
Spreng. 1827. 

Macrolobiumbijugum Colebr. Trans. Linn. Soc. 12: 359. 1818. 
Ipecac, wild (Hawaii). See Asclepias curassavica. 
Ipil (Philippines). See Intsia bijuga. 

Ipomoea batatas. SWEET POTATO. 

Family Convolvulaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Camotic (Mexican); Camote (Spanish); Kamote, Kamute 

(Guam); Kumara (Rarotonga, New Zealand); 'Umala (Samoa and other 

Polynesian groups); Uala (Hawaii); Cumar (Quichuas of Ecuador); Ubi- 

castela (Malayan). 

There are several varieties of sweet potato growing in Guam, differing from one 
another in shape, color, and quality of the root, and in the shape of the leaves. One 
of these was brought to the islands from Hawaii and is still called by the natives 
"kamutes de Guahii" (Oahu). Some of the earliest navigators mention "batatas" 
among the supplies received from the natives of Guam, but it is certain that they 
applied this name to the yam. In picturing the privations of the first missionaries 
in establishing themselves in Guam, Padre Francisco Garcia mentions that they wer 
obliged to eat certain roots like sweet potatoes, but without the flavor of theCamotes 
of Mexico. Sweet potatoes were introduced, however, at a very early date by the 



298 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Jesuits. They were much more to the taste of Europeans than the yams of the 
island and were among the supplies most prized by the whalers visiting the island. 
The natives seldom grew them for their own use, but contented themselves with 
yams, exchanging the sweet potatoes for fabrics and other things brought by the 
ships. 

Sweet potatoes grow very well in Guam. They are among the crops which will 
thrive on the high land or "mesa" in places where the soil is too much exhausted 
("cansado") for other things. 
REFERENCES: 

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. Encyc. 6: 14. 1804. 
Convolvulus batatas L. Sp. PI. 1 : 154. 1753. 
Ipomoea biloba. Same as Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Ipomoea choisiana. PURPLE MORNING-GLORY. 

LOCAL NAMES. Pipa (Rarotonga); Tanga-mimi (Samoa). 

Stems trailing, somewhat twining; leaves variable, not fleshy, 2 to 7 cm. long, 
cordate or hastate at the base, acute or obtuse, mucronate, entire or more or less 
dentate, or deeply 3 or 5-lobed, glabrous; petiole usually longer than the leaves; 
flowers rather large, purple, on rather long glabrous pedicels, solitary or 2 or 3 from 
a short common peduncle; bracts inconspicuous; sepals 7 mm. long, obovate-oblong, 
obtuse, mucronate, glabrous; corolla widely funnel-shaped; limb 3.5 cm. in diame- 
ter, lobes apiculate; ovary 2-celled; capsule globose, glabrous; seeds smooth. 

A tropical seashore plant of wide distribution. First observed in Guam by 
Gaudichaud. 
REFERENCES: 

Ipomoea choisiana. 

Convolvulus denticulatus Desrouss. in Lam. Encyc. 3 : 540. 17.89. 

Ipomoea denticulata Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6: 467. 1833, not R. Br. 

1810. 

The binomial published by Choisy is preoccupied by the Ipomoea denticulata of 
Robert Brown, and the specific name is therefore untenable, even though it be of 
earlier date in combination with a different generic name. 

Ipomoea congesta. ISLAND MORNING-GLORY. 

Family Convolvulaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Fofgu (Guam); Koali, Koali awahia (Hawaii); Wa wuti (Fiji). 
A stout twining plant, with cordate, acuminate leaves and azure blue flowers, 
turning purple or reddish on drying. Lower part of stem woody, leaves with broad 
rounded sinus at the base and auricles, 7.5 to 11 cm. long, when young silky pubes- 
cent on both faces; petioles 5 to 10 cm. long; peduncles bearing 2 or more flowers; 
sepals herbaceous, acuminate; corolla tubular-campanulate, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, ciliate 
at the bottom of the tube, as are also the bases of the style and stamens; stamens 
one-half as long as the corolla; style as long as the stamens, the stigma entire, 
globose; ovary supported by a campanulate disk; capsule globose, about the size of 
a small cherry, splitting into halves, the two seeds dark brown, glabrous. 

The leaves of this plant are sometimes 3-lobed and the apex less acuminate than 
in the typical form. It grows on the island of Apapa, in the harbor of Apra, and 
was referred to by Freycinet as Convolvulus trilobatus. It climbs among thickets. 
The root is a powerful cathartic. 

It was first collected in Guam by Gaudichaud. It occurs in Hawaii, Fiji, Tonga, 
Samoa, Tanna, Norfolk Island, and on the east coast of Australia. 
REFERENCES: 

Ipomoea congesta R. Br. Prod. 485. 1810. 
Ipomoea denticulata. Same as Ipomoea cJioisiana. 
Ipomoea insularis Steud. Same as Ipomoea congesta. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 299 

Ipomoea littoralis Thw. Same as Ipomoea choisiana. 

Ipomoea mariannensis. MARIANNE MORNING-GLORY. 

LOCAL NAMES. Fofgu (Guam); Tugui-tuguian (Philippines). 
Smooth, striate, prostrate-trailing plant. Leaves cordate-acuminate, sometimes 
entire, sometimes 3-lobed or trifid, dark-colored, acutely mucronulate, 12 to 25 
mm. long, the auricles obtuse, entire or lobed; median lobe dilated at the base; 
peduncles 3 or 4-flowered, longer than the petioles; sepals lanceolate, very acute, 
ciliate-hirsute, 4 to 6 mm. long; corolla tubular, scarcely 3 times as long as the calyx; 
capsule hairy. Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud and described from his specimen 
in the herbarium of the Paris Museum by Choisy. 
REFERENCES: 

Ipomoea mariannensis Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6: 468. 1833. 
Ipomoea maritima R. Br. Same as Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Ipomoea pes-caprae. GOAT'S-FOOT CONVOLVULUS. 

Family Convolvulaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Alalag-tasi, Alaihai-tasi (Guam); Lambayong, Lagairai, Katang- 
katang (Philippines); Lawere (Fiji); Pohuehue (Hawaii); Pohue ( Rarotonga ) ; 
Fuefue-tai (Samoa); Bejuco de vaca (Porto Rico); Boniato de Playa (Cuba). 
A common tropical strand plant, growing on sandy beaches in most warm 
countries. Stem very long, fleshy, smooth, prostrate, not twining nor rooting; 
leaves long-petioled, rounded, notched at the apex or deeply 2-lobed, subcoriaceous, 
glabrous, the venation conspicuous, pellucid, the midrib terminating in a mucro 
between the 2 lobes, the petiole 5 to 10 cm. long, erect, glabrous, with 2 glandular 
spots at the summit; peduncles axillary, erect, 1 to 3-flowered; flower very large; 
bracts lanceolate, soon falling; sepals broadly oval or oblong, subacute; corolla 
widely funnel-shaped, 7.5 cm. in diameter, bright rose-purple, ever-blooming; fila- 
ments dilated and hairy at the base; capsule 2-celled, cells 2-seeded; seeds covered 
with dark-brown pubescence. 

An important sand-binding plant. The root is large, long, and covered with a 
thick brown bark. It contains starch and is used medicinally. The whole plant is 
mucilaginous. In India the leaves are applied externally in rheumatism and colic, 
and the juice is given as a diuretic in dropsy. a The Fijians use the scorched leaves 
for calking the seams of canoes. 
REFERENCES: 

Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) Roth, Nov. Sp. PI. 109. 1821. 
Convolvulus pes-caprae L. Sp. PI. 1: 159. 1753. 
Ipomoea biloba Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 44. 1775. 
Ipomoea quamoclit L. Same as Quamoclit quamoclit. 
Ironweed. See Vernonia. 

Ironwood, Polynesian. See Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Isachne minutula. See Grasses. 

Ischaemum chordatum and I. digitatum polystachyum. See Grasses. 
Ivory-nut Palm of the Caroline Islands. See Coelococcus amicarum. 
Jacinto (Panama). See Melia azedarach. 
Jack-in-the-box. See Hernandia peltata. 
Jaigtte or Haigue (Guam). (Pronounced very much like the English word 

"highway.") 

A coconut which has begun to grow. 
Jamaica mignonette tree. See Lawsonia inermis. 

Drury, Useful Plants of India, p. 266, 1858. 



300 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Jasmine. See Jasminum, all species. 

Jasminum grandiflorum. SPANISH JASMINE. 

Family Oleaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Hasmm (Guam); Jasmin (Spanish); Jasmin de olor (Mexico). 
A glabrous shrub with drooping angular branches and very fragrant white flowers. 
Leaves odd-pinnate, leaflets 2 or 3 pairs, rhomboid-oblong, elliptic, or round-elliptic, 
usually ending in a small point; calyx teeth linear, about 6 mm. long, rarely half as 
long as the corolla tube; corolla star-shaped, lobes sometimes attaining 12 mm. 
Common in Guam gardens. 

The flowers of this plant are the source of a very highly esteemed extract which 
enters into many manufactured perfumes. In India a medicinal scented oil is pre- 
pared from them, which is applied externally, and is said to be ''cooling." The 
leaves are chewed as a remedy for ulceration of the mucous membrane of the mouth. 
REFERENCES: 

Jasminum grandiflorum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1:9. 1762. 
Jasminum marianum. MARIANNE JASMINE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Panago, Banago (Guam); Silisfli, Laioklaiok (Philippines). 
A shrub or small tree with terete branches. Leaves unifoliolate, opposite, feather- 
veined, elliptical, acuminate at the apex, petiole articulate below the middle with 
the base persistent; flowers in terminal trichotomous corymbs; calyx teeth 5 or 6, 
awl-shaped, as long as the tube; corolla with the tube 4 times as long as the calyx, 
lobes linear-lanceolate. First collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, who applies to it 
the vernacular name "banago;" probably identical with "panago" of Governor 
Olive's list, the wood of which, he says, is used for making plows and outriggers of 
canoes. The tube of the corolla is 8 to 10 mm. long, lobes 6 to 8 mm. long. 
REFERENCES: 

Jasminum marianum DC. Prod. 8: 307. 1844. 
Jasminum officinale. COMMON JASMINE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Hasmm dikike (Guam); Jasmin bianco (Spanish). 
A slender shrub requiring support, bearing small white fragrant flowers. Glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves opposite, odd-pinnate; leaflet 2 or 3 pairs, rhomboid-oblong, 
acute, the terminal leaflet the longest; flowers 2 to 10, in terminal more or less leafy 
clusters; calyx teeth linear, long; corolla lobes 8 by 6 mm. 

Common in the gardens of the natives, and highly esteemed for the fragrance of 
the flowers. These yield a fragrant oil similar to that of the preceding species and 
used for the same purposes. The root is a remedy for ringworm. 
REFERENCES: 

Jasminum officinale L. Sp. PI. 1: 7. 1753. 

Jasminum sambac. ARABIAN JASMINE. 

LOCAL NAMES. Sampagita (Guam); Sampagas (Philippines); Gran duque 

(Mexico). 

A climbing shrub with angular pubescent branches and very fragrant white flowers. 
Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, with a single shining leaflet, the petiole short 
and abruptly curved upward, elliptic or broadly ovate, entire, either rounded at the 
apex or prominently acute; flowers in clusters of 3 to 12, white, often turning pur- 
plish on drying; calyx lobes linear and prominent, usually hirsute on edges; lobes 
of corolla oblong or orbicular, tube 12 mm. long, corolla often double. 

A fragrant oil is obtained from the flowers of this plant by the enfleurage process, 
i. e., by forming alternate layers of fat and flowers. The fat absorbes the odor and 
after standing for some time is melted at as low a temperature as possible and 
strained. Coconut oil may be scented in the same way by steeping cotton cloths in 
the oil and alternating them with layers of the flowers. In India crushed Sesamum 
seeds are used instead of fat or oil. 



Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol. IX. 



PLATE LV. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 301 

Poultices made of the flowers applied over the mammae suppress the secretion of 
milk. 

REFERENCES: 

Jasminum sambac (L.) [Soland. in] Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 8.1789. 
Nyctanthes sambac L. Sp. PL 1 : 6. 1753. 

Jatropha curcas. PHYSIC NUT. PLATE LV. 

Family Euphorbiaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tubatuba (Guam); Tuba, Casta, Tavatava, Cator, Kator (Philip- 
pines); Tartago (Porto Rico); Pinonbotija (Cuba); Puavai (Samoa); Avellanes 
purgantes, Sangregado (Mexico); Coquillo (Panama). 

An introduced evergreen shrub or small tree, very much used in Guam, the Philip- 
pines, Samoa, and other tropical countries for hedges or fences. Leaves smooth, 
broad-cordate, entire or 5-angled, long-petioled ; panicles terminal or from the 
axils of the leaves, cymose, many-flowered, the male flowers at the extremities of 
the ramifications on short articulated pedicels, the female flowers in the forks with 
pedicels not articulated, flowers yellow or greenish; calyx with 5 sepals, which are 
often petaloid; petals 5, cohering as far as the middle; corolla tube of male flower 
hairy within; stamens many; perianth of female flower similar to that of male; 
o vary 2 to 4-celled ; sty les cohering below, 2-fid; ovules 1 in each cell; capsule divided 
into 2-valved cocci; seeds very oily. 

The branches of this shrub take root very quickly when stuck in the ground. For 
this reason and from the fact that cattle will not eat the leaves it is a favorite hedge 
plant in many tropical countries. The seeds, though agreeable to the taste, are 
purgative, and, if eaten in considerable quantities, poisonous. The taste is very much 
like that of beechnuts. They are more drastic than the seeds of the allied castor-oil 
plant and milder than croton-oil seeds. The oil is used in the Philippines and in 
India for illuminating. Padre Blanco says it lasts longer than cocoanut oil used for 
this purpose. The viscid juice of the plant, when beaten, foams like soapsuds. 
Children often blow bubbles of it with a joint of bamboo. On evaporation it yields 
a reddish-brown resin. The juice is applied to wounds and ulcers. It prevents 
bleeding by forming a film like that of collodion. A decoction of the leaves is used 
as a wash in eczema and for ulcers. In the Philippines the plant is sometimes used 
for stupefying fish; hence, according to Padre Blanco, its vernacular name "tuba," 
signifying liquor which intoxicates; but for this purpose it is inferior to Barringtonia 
speciosa. 

The oil has been used in England for soap making, as a lubricant, and as a medium 
for mixing paint. The Chinese boil the oil with oxide of iron and use the prepara- 
tion for varnishing boxes. a 
REFERENCES: 

Jatropha curcas L. Sp. PI. 2: 1006. 1753. 
Jatropha manihot. Same as Manihot manihot. 
Jatropha moluccana. Same as Aleurites moluccana. 

Jatropha multifida. CORAL PLANT. 

LOCAL NAMES. Mana (Philippines). 

An introduced ornamental plant with umbel-like clusters of scarlet flowers and 
palmately divided orbicular leaves, Leaves long-petioled, the divisions pinnatifid; 
stipules many-parted, the divisions bristly. Cultivated in many gardens of the 
natives. 

REFERENCES: 
Jatropha multifida L. Sp. PL 2: 1006. 1753. 

Drury, Useful Plants of India, p. 277, 1858. See also Kirtikar, Journ. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Society, vol. 15, p. 56, 1903. 



302 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Java almond tree. See Canarium indicum. 
Jayi (Guam) . See Lens phaseoloides. 
Jequirity beans. See Abrus abrus. 
Jicama (Spanish ) . See Cacara erosa. 
Jicara (Spanish). See Crescentia alata. 
Job's tears. See Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Joga. See Yoga. 

Jujube tree. See Zizyphus jujuba. 
Jungle rice. See Echinochloa colona. 
Junig (Spanish). See Tournefortia argentea. 
Junquillo Oloroso (Spanish). See Andropogon nardus. 
Justicia picta L. Same as Graptophyllum pictum. 
Kabaikabai (Philippines). See Sophora tomentosa. 
Kabatiti (Philippines). See Colubrina asiatica. 
Kadius or Kad-yos (Philippines). See Cajan cajan. 
Kafo, Kafok, or Kafu (Guam). See Pandanus and J\ fragrans. 
Kahana (Philippines). See Coffea arabica. 

Kahel or Kahet (Guam). See Citrus aurantium and C. anrantium sinensis. 
Kahlau or Kahlao (Guam). See Phymatodes phymatodes. 
Kakaguate, Kakahuate (Guam). See Arachis hypogaea. 
Kakao (Guam). See Theobroma cacao. 
Kalabasang pula (Philippines). 
A red or orange squash, according to Padre Blanco, Cucurbita maxima. 

Kalamasa (Guam). 

The general name in Guam for the various forms of pumpkins and squashes 
(Cucurbita spp. ) . See under Gardens. 

Kalamismis or Kamaluson (Philippines). See Rotor tctragonoloba. 
Kalubai (Philippines). See Lagenaria lagenaria. 
Kalumpag-sa-lati (Philippines.) See Xylocarpus granatum. 
Kamachiles (Guam). 

A name derived from the Mexican "guamachil," applied in Guam to Pithecolobium 
dulce. 

Kamalindo (Guam). See Tamarindus indica. 

Kamani, Kamanu (Hawaii). See Calophyllum inophyllumc 

Kamas (Philippines). See Cacara erosa. 

Kamote or Kamute (Guam). 

A name of Mexican origin used in Guam for the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), 
which was introduced from Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands. 

Kamoting-kahoi (Philippines). See Manihot manihot. 
Kamuku nanofe (Guam). See Taeniophyllum fasdola. 
Kansion (Guam). 
Vernacular name for a young coconut having a sweet edible rind. 

Kape (Easter Island, Rarotonga). See Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Kapok (Philippines, Java). See Ceiba pentandra. 
Karampalit (Philippines). See Sesuvium portulacastrum. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 303 

Karriso (Guam). See Trichoon roxburghii. 
Kasoi (Philippines). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Kasoy, Kasue (Guam). See Anacardium occidentale. 
Katang-katang' (Philippines). See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Katjang (Malayan). 

General name in the Malay Archipelago for beans and other leguminous plants, 
the origin of the name " cajan" and "cat Jang." 
Katj ang-t ana (Java ) . 

"Ground-bean," a name applied to the peanut, Arachis hypogaea. 
Kator (Philippines). See Jatropha curcas. 
Katudai (Philippines). See Agati grandiflora. 
Katurai (Guam, Philippines). See Agati grandiflora. 
Kau ni alewa (Fiji.) See Sophora tomentosa. 
Kauai (Philippines). See Sophora tomentosa. 
Kelites, Kiletes, or Kuletes (Mexico, Guam). 

A general name for pigweeds and other pot herbs growing spontaneously, applied 
especially to plants of the genera Amaranthus and Chenopodium. See under Pot 
herbs. 

Ki (Hawaii). See Taetsia terminalis. 
Kilulu (Guam). See Thespcsia populnea. 
Kodo millet. See Paspalum scrobiculatum. 

Kolales or Kulalis (Guam). The coral-bean tree, Adenanthera pavonina. 
Kolales halom-tano (Guam). 

" Wild or inland coral." The coral-bead vine (Abms abrus). 
Kolo (Philippines). See Artocarpus communis. 
Kolongkolong- (Philippines). See Hernandia peltata. 
Kondol (Philippines). See Benincasa cerifera. 
Kondor or Kondot (Guam). 

The local name for Benincasa cerifera, the wax gourd. 

Kou (Hawaii). See Cordia subcordata. 
Kukui (Hawaii). See Aleurites moluccana. 
Kulasi (Philippines). 
The red-flowered mangrove, Lumnitzera littorea. 

Kyllinga monocephala. BUTTON SEDGE, 

Family Cyperaceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Chaguan lemae, Botoncillo (Guam); Bolobotones, Barubatones 

(Philippines); Kaluja (Hawaii). 

A sedge with a single globose, compact head, creeping rhizome, and aromatic roots; 

involucre 3-leaved. Common in low grassy places in Guam. Its native name comes 

from the resemblance of its head to a miniature breadfruit (lemae). The natives 

say it is used for medicine. It is widely spread throughout the Tropics of the world. 

REFERENCES: 

Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. Desc. et Ic. 13. t. 4. /. 4. 1773. 
La'au-lopa (Samoa). See Adenanthera pavonina. 
Lablab cultratus DC. Same as Dolichos lablab. 
Lablab vulg-aris Savi. See Dolichos lablab. 
Labnis (Philippines). See Boehmeria tenacissima. 



304 USEFUL PLANTS OF* GUAM. 

Laburnum, seacoast. See Sophora tomentosa. 

Lactuca sativa. LETTUCE. 

Family Cichoriaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Lechuga (Spanish); Ghisa, Chishana (Japan;. 
This plant is difficult to grow in Guam. Seed brought from the United States was 
repeatedly planted, but without success. In Bengal, where the climatic conditions 
are very similar to those of Guam, the seed is sown at the beginning of October. It 
sometimes remains in the ground a month or two before all of it germinates. As it 
is liable to be destroyed by insects it should be sown in large shallow seed pans, 
supported on flower pots standing in vessels of water. The soil is kept moist and 
shaded by muslin or by an inverted pan of the same size as that containing the 
earth. Firminger recommends that the plants be pricked out when four leaves have 
formed and planted in beds at about eight or ten inches apart. "If two or three 
plants be reserved and allowed to run to seed, the seed thus saved may be sown 
almost immediately and a supply of plants secured which, if grown in a spot tolerably 
sheltered from the sun and excessive wet, will come into use during the hot and 
rain seasons. " a In Guam the best plants grown thus far have been Japanese varie- 
ties. These are upright in shape and are sometimes cooked as pot herbs. They 
grow to the height of 3 feet. & 
REFERENCES: 

Lactuca sativa L. Sp. PI. 2: 795. 1753. 
Lada, Ladda (Guam). See Morinda dtrifolia. 
Lagairai ( Philippines) . See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Lagenaria lagenaria. BOTTLE GOURD. 

Family Cucurbitaceae. 

LOCAL NAMES. Tagoa (Guam); Calabaza vinatera (Spanish); Vango (Fiji); 
Opo, Upo, Opu, Sicoi, Tabayag, Kalubai (Philippines); Fangu (Samoa; 
Futuna); c Ipu (Hawaii); Hue (Tahiti); Ue (Rarotonga); Kapop kapop, 
Kabo Kabole (German New Guinea); Kaddii (India); Laoki-kudu (Bengal); 
Labo (Macassar); Diya labu (Ceylon); Hu-lu (China); Acocote, Alacate 
(Mexico); Marimbo (Porto Rico). 

This well-known and widely spread plant has been cultivated in Guam from time 
immemorial. It is easily distinguishable from other gourds by its white flowers. 
The hard mature shell is used as a dipper or bottle, the green fruit cut into strips as 
a vegetable, and the seeds as medicine. 

The plant is annual and is planted in June. It often springs up spontaneously and 
may be seen climbing over walls and the roofs of native dwellings. Unless seasoned 
well the fruit is insipid. It acts as a laxative and is likely to purge if eaten in any 
quantity. 

REFERENCES: 

Lagenaria lagenaria (L.) Cockerell, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 19: 95. 1892. 
Cucurbita lagenaria L. Sp. PI. 2: 1010. 1753. 
Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 3 1 : 16. 1825. 
Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Same as Lagenaria lagenaria. 

a Firminger, Manual of Gardening for Bengal, etc., ed. 4, p. 172, 1890. 

& Useful Plants of Japan, p. 13, 1895. 

cThe Samoan name "fangu," identical with the Fijian "vango," is applied to 
gourds used to hold oil and also to all bottles and jugs. The same word is thus used 
in the island of Futuna. In Samoa "me," identical with the Tahitian "hue" and 
the Rarotongan "ue," is used generally to designate all creeping plants, whether 
Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae, or Convolvulaceae. In Samoa "ipu," identical with 
the Hawaiian "ipu," is the word for "cup," which may be made of a gourd, of 
coconut shell, or of tin or porcelain. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 305 

Lagerstroemia indica. CRAPE MYRTLE. 

Family Lythraceae. 
LOCAL NAMES. Melindres (Guam; Philippines); Astronomica (Mexico). 

This shrub is cultivated in many gardens of Guam for the sake of its beautiful rose- 
colored flowers. It is widely spread throughout the Tropics and the warmer temperate 
regions of the globe. 
EEFERENCES: 

Lagerstroemia indica L. Syst. ed. 10. 1076. 1759. 
Lagngayao (Guam). See Acrostichum aureum. 
Lagrimas de San Pedro (Spanish). See Coix lacryma-jobi. 
Laguana (Guam). 

The vernacular name for the sour-sop, Annona muricata, called in Central and 
South America la guandvana. 
Lag-un (Guam). See Operculina peltata. 
Laguncularia coccinea Gaud. Same as Lumnitzera littorea. 
Laguncularia haenkei Endl. Same as Lamnitzera pedicellate. 
Laguncularia purpurea Gaud. Same as Lumnitzera littorea. 
Lagundi (Guam, PHilippines). See Vitex negundo and V. trifolia. 
Laiok Iai6k (Philippines). See Jasminum marianum. 
Lala (Samoa) . See Meibomia umbettata. 
Lalahag or Lalaha (Guam). 

The name of a small tree not identified, especially abundant on Orote Peninsula, 
and used by the natives for making charcoal. Wood white, brittle, and course- 
grained. 
Lalarigha or Lalanha (Guam). 

The shaddock, Citrus decumana. 

Lalanyug or Lalanyog (Guam). See Xylocarpus granatum. 
Lala-vao (Samoa). See Dodonaea viscosa. 
Lama (Samoa). See Aleurites moluccana. 
Lama-pap alangi (Samoa). See Ricinus communis. 
Lambayong (Philippines). See Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Lamb's-quarters. See Chenopodium album. 
Lampuage (Guam). See Dodonaea viscosa. 
Lana (Guam). 

An unidentified tree with fine-grained, yellow wood, which is sometimes used for 
making handles of tools. 
Lan&aasag, Langasat, or Lan|rat (Guam). 

Vernacular names for Barringtonia racemosa. 
Langis (Philippines). See Sesamum indicum. 
Langiti (Guam). 

An unidentified tree, the wood of which is used in the construction of houses and 
for making furniture. Referred by Gaudichaud to the genus Rauwoltia. Probably 
Ochrosia mariannensis. 

Langn&ayao (Guam). See Acrostichum aureum under Ferns. 
Lansina (Philippines). See Ricinus communis. 
Las-ag-a (Guam). See Stenotaphrum subulatum. 
Lasona ( Philippines) . See Allium cepa and Gardens. 
Lau-fala (Samoa). See Pandanus tectorius. 
977305 20 



306 USEFUL PLANTS OF GUAM. 

Lau-hala (Hawaii). See Pandanus tectorius. 

Laumapapa (Samoa). The bird's-nest fern, Neottopteris nidus. See under Ferns. 

Lauraceae. LAUREL FAMILY. 

This family is represented in Guam by Cassytha filiformis. 
Laureno (Panama). See Herpetica alata. 
Lausa'ato (Samoa). Acrostichum aureum. See under Ferns. 
Lautalatalo (Samoa). See Crinum asiaticum. 
Lau tefe-ule (Samoa). See Achyranthes aspera. 
Lawns and lawn making. 

In Guam the best grass for lawns is the introduced Bermuda grass ( Capriola dac- 
tylon). Another grass, Slenotaphrum subulatum, which is indigenous and grows 
either on the sandy seashore, on the edge of the forest, and even in the shade, is 
also good. It has creeping rootstocks and a prostrate creeping habit of growth, and 
never becomes coarse or hard. Both of thes