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BY 1535 .B28 1922 

Bailey, Albert Edward, 1871- 

The use of art in religious 


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The Use of Art 
in Religious Education 

BY ^y^^ 


Professor of Religious Art and Archeeoiogy 
Boston University 



Copyright, 1922, by 

All Rights Reserved 

Printed in the United States of America 



cLlb. buck. 2234] 

c Watch folded front. 3 


chapter page 

Editor's Introduction 9 

Preface ii 

I. Art as the Handmaid of Religion 13^ 

The Antiquity of Religious Art. 
The Function of Art in Egypt. 
Greek Art Begins in Religion. 
Buddhist Art as Religious Propaganda. 
How Art Became Christian. 
Christianity the Saviour of Art. 
The Art of Europe. 
Present-day Art and Religion. 

II. The Function of Religious Art 27 / 

The Artist as Genius. 

The Artist as Visualizer. 

The Artist as Intellectual Interpreter. 

The Artist as Emotionalizer. 

The Artist as Revealer of Spiritual Values. 

The Artist as Ideal Builder. 

III. The Language of Art 34 y 

Art Speaks. 

(a) Linear. 

(b) Psychological. 

(c) By Emphasis. 

(d) Emotional Values of Composition. 


How to Read a Picture. 

IV. Pictures and Children 42 

Imagery ; its Nature and Sources. 

Enlarging One's Imagery. 

The Permanence of Childhood Imagery. 

How to Select Pictures for Children. 

The Picture-story Method. 

A Child's Use of the Picture Book. 


People of the Bible in Pictures. 

V. Pictures for Juniors 58 

The Passion for Reality. 



The Art Interests of Juniors. 

Realistic Art in Religious Teaching. 

Realistic Artists: James Tissot. ^ 

William Holman Hunt and Others. 

The Use of Photographs. 

Picture Journeys. 

The School Equipment. 

VI. The Hero in Art 68 

Training by Hero-worship. 

The Pictured Hero. 

The Hero Universal. 

A Hero from Mythology. 

A Heroine from Church History. 

Heroes from Mediaeval Legend. 

Heroines from History. 

Further Suggestions. 

VII. Art and the Adolescent: The Intellect 79 

The Dawning of Adolescence. 

The Interest in Belief. 

The Historic Use of Art as Religious Propaganda. 

Teaching Methods. 

The Apostles' Creed Interpreted by the Masters. 

VIII. Art and the Adolescent: The Emotions 90 

The Emotional Intensity of Adolescence. 
Art the Interpreter of Emotion. 
Art as an Aid to Worship. 
Art in the House of Worship. 
The Cultivation of Sympathy. 
— Emotional Aspects of Symbolism. 
Proper Art Environment. 
The Artist as Poet. 
List of Pictures. 

IX. JPersonal Religious Values in Art loi 

^ Soul Culture. 

^The Essence of ReUgion. 

^ Courage. 

Divine Contacts. 

List of Pictures. 

X. Social Religious Values no 

The Social Gospel. 

Human Need and Human Sympathy. 


Cooperation for the Common Good. 

Posters in the War. 




XI. Religion in Architecture 121 

Temple Relics the World Over. 

Church Buildings a Record of Christian History. 

The Roman Gift to Christianity. 

The Byzantine Development. 

The Byzantine Church as a Manual of Religion. 

The Romanesque Church. 


Varieties of Gothic. 

The Renaissance Church. 

XII. The Discovery and Use of Community Resources. . . 137 

A Community Survey of Art. 

Church Buildings. 


Other Public Buildings. 



Blanks for a Community Survey of Religious Art 145 

Picture List 154 


The Day of Judgment Frontispiece 


Fra Angelico: Christ as Pilgrim 31 

Monastery of San Marco, Florence. 

Mosaic: The Parting of Abraham and Lot 35 

Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, second 

Early Christian Sarcophagus 39 

Lateran Museum, Rome. 

The Escape from Doubting Castle 47 

Taken from Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, illustrated 
by the brothers Rhead, by permission of the pub- 
lishers, The Century Company. 

Sir Edw. J. Poynter: Joseph Presents Jacob to Pharaoh. . 61 

Lenepvue: The Vision of Joan of Arc 75 

The Pantheon, Paris. 

Unknown: The Church Militant and Triumphant 83 

Spanish Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence. 

Hacker: The Annunciation 91 

Tate Gallery, London. 

Debat-Ponsan: Christ on the Mountain 103 

"Love One Another." 

Louis Cabanes: The Crucified Ones (1919) 113 

Interior of the Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, 
Rome 123 

Trinity Church (Episcopal) 139 

Newton Center, Massachusetts. 


The use of art in religious education is not a luxury. 
It is a plain, everyday necessity. It is a means the use 
of which makes possible a larger measure of desirable 
religious growth "with the least waste of time and energy 
and the greatest satisfaction to all concerned." In the 
interest of economy and elSiciency it is recognized as an 
indispensable factor. 

The nature of religion is such that it cannot be taught 
by the use of methods which ignore the appeal to the 
emotions. In the actual process of teaching religion it is 
hazardous to draw any line of distinction between subject 
matter and method. Every argument in favor of the 
project method of teaching this subject is an argument 
in favor of using pictorial representations of experienced 
religion. The material as presented must appeal to the 
affective states of consciousness. While learning religion 
the pupil must be in a religious attitude. This attitude 
is most easily, naturally, and effectively assumed through 
unconscious sympathy with the central figures portrayed 
by the masters of religious art. It is because the pupils 
assume appropriate and learningful attitudes through its 
use that this method is so successful. 

The appearance of Professor Bailey's book marks an 
epoch in the history of method in teaching religion. 
This fact does not rest upon merely his strong and in- 
telligent advocacy of the use of art but, rather, upon his 



having formulated a comprehensive and pedagogically 
sound theory, the practical implications of which he has 
clearly pointed out. Pictures and statues have ever been 
used. Henceforth they will be used intelligently. Some 
pictures that have been used widely will lose their 
popularity while others will be created in order to meet 
this newly appreciated educational need. 

Norman E. Richardson. 



In order to get full value out of this book one needs 
to have access to a great variety of religious pictures, 
many more than it would be practical to include in this 
volume. The best collection of half-tone reproductions 
of works of art of all kinds is undoubtedly the University 
Prints. This list has to be supplemented as far as 
modem painting is concerned, particularly in the field of 
religious illustrations of lesser artistic value. 

Following are the addresses of the chief firms, together 
with the key letter used in the picture-list of this book. 
Catalogues are usually sent on request. 

U — University Prints, ii Boyd Street, Newton, 
Massachusetts. Catalogue numbers are 
printed in italic, thus: G481. 

B — George O. Brown & Co., Beverly, Massachusetts. 

P — Perry Pictures Co., Maiden, Massachusetts. 

UP — Union Press Series, 1816 Chestnut Street, Phila- 

For colored reproductions: 

Seeman Prints (at about forty cents), Rudolf 
Lesch, Agent, 13 West 42nd Street, New York. 
Medici Prints. The Medici Society, Boylston 
Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Ts — Tissot Pictures. New York Sunday School Com- 
mission, 73 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Reference will sometimes be made to books where re- 
productions may be found, as follows: 



Ba — Bailey: Art Studies in the Life of Christ (122 
illustrations, Pilgrim Press, 1916). 

FF — Fletcher and Fletcher: A History of Architecture 
(Batsford, 1905). 

A — Reinach: Apollo (Scribners, 1907). 

R — Raber: Die Bibel in der Kunst (100 reproduc- 
tions of modern masters) . 

L — The Lenox Collection of pictures of Christ. 
Public Library, New York City. 

S —Sparrow: The Bible in Art. (2 vols.) O.T. and 

T —Temple: The Gospels in Art. 

The author has arranged with the L. A. Bigelow Co., 
iiA Bromfield Street, Boston, Massachusetts, to supply 
free of charge information about sizes, styles and prices 
of rehgious pictures for framing. Many of the pictures 
mentioned in this book can be obtained in a variety 
of forms. In writing, give the artist's name, the title of 
the picture, the size and type preferred. 

The John H. Thurston Co., 50 Bromfield Street, 
Boston, Massachusetts, carries in stock lantern slides 
from all the University Print negatives, and all of the 
122 pictures in A. E. Bailey's Art Studies in the Life of 
Christ. He will obtain other pictures mentioned in this 
book where possible. 


Religion is man*s need for friendship struggling for 
expression. Art is man's expression striving consciously 
for beauty. When religion finds an expression that is 
beautiful, art has arrived. Thus stated — and the state- 
ments are true though not exhaustive — the relation of 
religion to art is seen to be that of cause and effect. 
Because man is rehgious he becomes an artist. And while 
it is not true to-day as it once was that all art is religious, 
it is always true that religion creates art. Art is the 
eldest daughter and most constant handmaid of religion. 

The antiquity of religious art. — The connection be- 
tween art and religion is as old as man. In the fierce 
struggle for existence, when nature was "red in tooth 
and claw," men felt their inability to cope unaided 
with the mysterious forces of the earth and air, with 
earthquake and lightning, with animals that were 
stronger and swifter than they. They therefore invoked 
the aid of supernatural forces. By a process of primitive 
thinking they evolved the notion of magic, a method of 
control by which the spirits that live in the ground or 
the water, in stones and trees and springs, could be com- 
pelled to serve them. 

The instrument of this compulsion was art. It was 
control of spiritual forces through imitations of the 
forms those forces sometimes assumed, and by using 
over these forms a formula or word of power; or it was 
by performing some significant act, usually with rhythmic 
motions accompanied by chanted words. These acts, 



words, things, manipulated by one who was wise in such 
matters, were sure to bring the result desired, whether 
it were success in hunting, bountiful crops, the destruc- 
tion of enemies, the cure of disease, or happy life after 
death. This is almost the sum total of primitive religion. 
Art is its outstanding characteristic and instrument. 

The function of art in Egypt. — While there is rea- 
son to suspect that the rude drawings of animals in the 
caves of preglacial men had all of them this magic, that 
is, religious use, we know that the earhest historic art 
was through and through religious. The art of Egypt is 
wholly magical. The pyramids, made in the shape of a 
tongue of flame, placed the Pharaoh who occupied it — a 
son of Re — in the keeping of the flaming sun-god — en- 
shrined him in the very symbol of his father. 

The yards of painted and sculptured scenes on the 
inner walls of the tomb of Ti were placed there not for 
our enjoyment, but to insure the immortality of the Ka 
of Ti by an unending procession of servants. They 
plowed and sowed, irrigated and harvested, bred cattle 
and slaughtered them, baked bread, brewed beer, picked 
lotus flowers and brought all to the door of the eternal 
dwelling-house of their master. 

The little scarabs that travelers bring from Egypt, 
beautiful glazed pottery beetles in green and blue and 
brown with delicate carving and mysterious symbols, are 
all magic: they place the name or the formula inscribed 
on them directly in the keeping of the god Kheper, who 
is sure to "keep that which is committed to him against 
that day" — the day of waking in the other world. 

The vast temples of Kamak and the Ramesseum were 
magic houses for Ammon and the soul of the deified 
Ramses. Even the statues which would seem to us' to 
be useful merely for adornment or for a memorial, are 


steeped in religion: they faithfully portray the deceased 
in order that his soul may still have a home if time and 
violence should destroy the body. Egyptian art was 
altogether a device to compel the gods to serve men. It 
was wholly religious. 

Greek art begins in religion. — ^The origin of drama 
in the service of Dionysius is well known. The plastic 
arts also took rise in the worship of the gods. Art gave 
to the sticks and stones in which the primitive deities 
dwelt, progressively a more and more human shape. 
Eyes were added that the deity might more easily see 
the worshiper and his gifts, ears that he might hear; and 
when legs were added later for the sake of perfectness, 
the statues were sometimes chained to their pedestals 
lest they run away! The sculptor's aim came finally to 
be to make his cult-statue very attractive to the god, a 
worthy embodiment of the deity; and in this endeavor 
the character of the god came to be more and more 
clearly defined in the artist's mind and more and more 
perfectly expressed in the statue by face and attitude 
and symbol; until at last Phidias was able to give us 
those marvelous creations in which the fatherly majesty 
of Zeus (the Olympian Zeus) and the practical, inspiring 
wisdom and good will of Athena (Athena Parthenos) 
reached their perfect expression. 

It was not until philosophy in the fourth century be- 
fore Christ destroyed faith in the old gods that sculptors 
dared to take liberties with their subjects, to subordinate 
the religious to the humanly beautiful, and at last to 
eliminate the religious altogether. Then Greek art be- 
came pagan and ended by becoming an instrument of 
vice in the hands of Roman sybarites. Before Praxiteles, 
Greek art was wholly or predominantly religious. 

Buddhist art as religious propaganda. — With the 


rise of Buddhistic art in the third century B. C. we leave 
the area of magic and enter the realm of symbolism. 
But art still remains wholly the servant of religion. Pure 
Vedic religion, out of which Buddhism sprang, refused 
to represent the deities in human form. When, therefore, 
Gautama Sakyamuni died and his followers sought to 
perpetuate his memory and his teachings, they adopted 
and filled with new meaning some of the most ancient 
symbols of the Vedic faith, besides creating new ones. 

Thus the stupa or architectural mound in which the 
relics of the master were enshrined was a wonderful as- 
semblage of religious suggestions. (See the Stupa or Tope 
at Sanchi.) It was planned on the basis of the cosmic 
cross, its four imitation gates facing the cardinal points. 
Its dome was in form an inverted blue lotus, symbol of 
the sky. Its reliquary at the summit of the dome exalted 
for men's adoration some relic of the master. Above 
it the pyramided Tee represented the succession of 
higher spiritual planes leading up to Nirvana. Around 
it the three bars of the sculptured rail stood for 
the three cardinal facts of religion, the Buddha, the 
Doctrine and the Order. The monumental gates that 
gave entrance to the inclosure spoke to all men in 
pictured story or in symbol, of the founder and the faith. 
There one could read the wondrous story of Gautama's 
incarnation, of his illumination, of his preaching the law, 
of his death and entrance into Para-Nirvana. There 
one might see his footsteps impressed in stone, the lotus 
flowers that sprang up under his tread, the Wheel of the 
Law in whose irrevocable turning all men are turned, the 
vacant chair where the Teacher once sat, the Bo-tree 
under whose shadow came the great enlightenment, the 
pictured stupa, the umbrella, the faithful horse, the 
circle and crescent and the countless Bodhisattvas who 


are treading the eightfold path toward Buddhahood. It 
was these symbols and this story that conquered the 
hearts of men. One can mark the triumphant march of 
Buddha through the East by the mileposts of its 
monuments, every monument a preacher and a piean of 

How art became Christian. — The Christian faith 
was born under a triple repression. Judaism, that 
furnished the first converts, had from the day of the 
second commandment been hostile to all plastic or pic- 
torial representation. In the minds of Gentile believers 
art was associated with the paganism and immorality of 
the Greeks and was therefore taboo. And before the 
new religion had become fully conscious of itself, Nero 
and his successors made confession of the new faith a 
dangerous matter. 

Small wonder that Christianity was driven to other 
modes of expression. The most that a Christian could 
do in the way of art was to inscribe the sepulchre of his 
dead with some mystic sign that would show to the 
brethren that a brother lay there, but would show to the 
world, nothing. In the catacombs we find only symbols, 
taken for the most part from heathen sources or the 
world of things: ^ a fish, a grapevine, a shepherd with a 
lamb on his shoulder, an Orpheus going down to Hades, 
a Jonah being swallowed by a whale — so simple and so 
inartistic were the beginnings of Christian art. 

Then as Christianity became more sure of itself and 
came out from underground, it seized upon the Roman 
arts of fresco and mosaic to adorn its places of worship.^ 
Still symbolic, it pictured forth its faith on apse and 
clerestory wall : the Logos appears to Moses in the burn- 

' See "Catacombs" in the index for illustrative materiaJ. 
* See references under Chap. XI. 


ing bush; the true church separates from Judaism in the 
person of Abraham parting from Lot and finally after 
Constantine exorcises forever the nightmare of persecu- 
tion, Christ enthroned is emblazoned in sparkling glass 
over the high altar, while processions of apostles, evan- 
geHsts, martyrs, angels, types and anti-types march 
boldly before the gaze of the worshiper. 

But art that embodies faith may also fight the battles 
of theology. Mosaic becomes polemic, fresco waxes 
valiant against the hosts of heresy. Church councils 
formulate not only creeds but canons of art; and the free, 
creating spirit that should have emotionalized and 
vivified the faith became the bond slave of orthodoxy. 
Patterns were stereotyped, figures and faces were stand- 
ardized, subjects were prescribed, symbols were com- 
manded. Yet art lived through the indignity, and lived 
the thrall of religion. In the Dark Ages there was no 
art but reUgious art. 

Christianity the saviour of art. — Because Roman art 
was thus linked with the new religion, and for this reason 
alone, it survived the deluge of the Barbarian. Alaric and 
Attila plundered Rome, law and order died, governments 
and rich patrons of art ceased, artists and artisans be- 
came bandits or turned to the humbler tasks of digging 
and cobbling. Nature "reeled back into the beast." 
Grass grew in the city streets, great buildings fell to ruin 
or were plundered of their marbles to feed the lime-kilns 
of their barbarous conquerors or became quarries to build 
the humble hovels of the poor. Even the memory of some 
of the arts perished, as perished all the higher expressions 
of the human spirit, literature in prose and verse, drama, 

By the year A. D. 900, in spite of the brief attempt of 
Charlemagne to rekindle the torch, Europe was culturally 


nonexistent. That art did not perish utterly from the 
earth was due entirely to Benedict and his monks. They 
not only redeemed the soil and, wherever their monas- 
teries took root, taught the peasants the arts of agricul- 
ture, but they rescued from extinction all the finer arts 
and systematically taught them to brother monks and 
lay members: the weaving and dyeing of cloth, tailoring, 
embroidery; the tanning of skins, making of vellum, 
hence the writing, illuminating and binding of manu- 
scripts; glass-blowing in all its forms, hence the wonderful 
windows of Chartres and York minster; masonry in 
brick and stone, hence the glories of Beauvais and Amiens; 
bronze casting and hammering, work in gold and silver, 
ivory, wood, gems, enameling and inlaying, hence the 
crucifixes and reliquaries, the robes and croziers and 
miters; sculpture in wood and stone, together with 
fresco and mosaic, hence the saints and angels and kings 
of Rheims, and the dull splendors of Saint Mark's, as 
well as the dreams and glories of San Marco and the 

The art of the twentieth century may flaunt its prodi- 
gal beauty in the face of religion and try to disown the 
past, but history will never allow us to forget that 
religion was not only her creator but her preserver. 

The art of Europe.— When the night of the bar- 
barian changed to dawn, when the human spirit at last 
awoke and began once more to create a spiritual world, 
it found the Christian Pope sitting on the throne of the 
Oesars. How the church became the inspirer and guide 
of architecture will be told in another place. (Chapter 
XL) And when men began to practice again the classic 
art of painting and to improve its technique, they found 
in the Church their great and only patron. Painting 
became the peculiar daughter of the Faith, born again in 


the bosom of the Church and dedicated wholly to her 

The long line of Italian masters — Cimabue, Giotto, 
Taddeo Gaddi, Simone Martini, Orcagna, Gentile da 
Fabriano, Fra Angelico, Masolino, Masaccio and the 
rest marched in the Church's train. All, even to the full 
tide of the Renaissance, to Da Vinci, Raphael and 
Michelangelo, were servants of this great Patron. 
Whether they painted for love of money, for love of fame, 
or for love of God, their work at first was wholly religious 
in theme and later it was usually religious. North of the 
Alps it was the same — the Van Eycks, van der Weyden, 
Justus of Ghent, van der Goes, Memling, or the German 
Wohlgemut, Schongauer, and Dtirer — these all painted 
the Faith, and the Church used their creations in prop- 
agating, nurturing, purifying and glorifying its own 
person. Blot out religious pictures from the galleries and 
churches of Europe, and what have we left? 

Present-day art and religion. — As life becomes com- 
plex, functions become differentiated. Once religion 
permeated all living — as it still does among primitive 
peoples; but now for the most part there is the realm of 
the religious and the realm of the secular. Once art 
expressed only religion and religion functioned only in 
the arts of ritual and the cults; now art is full grown 
and has cast off its leading strings; it follows its own 
desires into many realms. 

But art may still be the handmaid of religion, and 
often is. After the reaction against eighteenth-century 
rationalism there came to modern men a fresh spirit of 
romanticism, of mysticism, a fresh belief in the validity 
of the emotions to interpret truth, a fresh attempt to 
express in forms of beauty the essential truths of religion. 

In the Protestant North and West there grew a feeling 


that the thing that mattered in religion was not creed but 
spirit, not theology but life, not the doctrine of the in- 
carnation but the living Christ-child, not the dogma of 
the Atonement but the atoning Christ reconciling the 
world to God by his sacrificial life and love. When, 
therefore, modern art turns from its landscapes and its 
nudes and its experiments in light and composition to 
rehgious themes, it discards for the most part conven- 
tional ecclesiastical subjects and paints the spirit of the 
living Christ, either in its historic setting with the faith- 
fulness of scientific realism, or in some new and spiritually 
moving allegory where the historic Christ and the eternal 
Soul and the changing social order are all fused and 
emotionalized and reinterpreted. When the governments 
of the world during the Great War turned to art for help, 
art responded with creations in which at times one could 
scarcely distinguish patriotism from religion. Christ came 
to Flanders Fields as he once went to Calvary,^ and our 
hearts burned within us as we realized afresh the eternal 
presence of the Spirit in the painful evolution of hu- 
manity. Art is still a potent handmaid to faith. Religion 
still needs art. What God once joined together man 
should not put asunder. 

Prehistoric. Breasted: Ancient Times. 


Masero : 

Art in Egypt. 

Guide to the Cairo Museum (Eng. 


Egyptian Magic. 

Davies : 

"Anno Domi: 

Tomb of Nacht at Thebes. 

> See DoUman: 



India. Foucher: The Beginning of Buddhistic Art 

Havell : Ancient and Medieval Architecture 

in India (1915). 
Coomaraswamy : Arts and Crafts in India 
and Ceylon (19 13). 

Greece. E. O. Gardner: Religion and Art in Ancient 


Christianity. J. H. Parker: Photographs of Early Chris- 
tian Art (1879). 
Mrs. Anne Jameson : History of our Lord 

in Art (1864). 
L. von Sybel: Christliche An tike (1906). 
Vol. 2, end, fine plates of 
Christian sarcophagi. 
Reinach: Apollo (1907). 

Teaching Material 

The antiquity of religious art. — Look up some work 
on amulets. Make tracings of a few of the chief amulets 
found among primitive peoples and list their use. Why 
these particular objects? Visit, if possible, a museum 
with the purpose of discovering how much of primitive 
art had a religious significance. 

The function of art in Egypt. — Study the persons 
and objects on the walls of the Tomb of Ti (Saqqara, 
V Dyn) to identify the purpose of each action (University 

Make tracings of a few typical scarabs and their in- 
scriptions. Newberry: Scarabs. 

Make tracings of the decoration on the front of a 
mummy, and find, if possible, what the figures mean. 


Greek art begins in religion. — Make a comparative 
study of Athena Parthenos, University Prints A 97 ; the 
Olympian Zeus, A 487; and Hermes of Praxiteles, A 190. 

What ideals have the artists incarnated in their repre- 
sentations of God? Powers: The Message of Greek Art, 
pp. 130, 186-193, 218-223. 

Buddhist art as religious propaganda. — Look up 
the structure and meaning of a "Stupa" or "tope." 
Havell: Ancient and Mediceval Architecture of India. 

Make tracings of a few sculptures that embody Bud- 
dhistic beliefs or are symbols of their Saviour, and add 
brief descriptive comment. Foucher: The Beginnings of 
Buddhist Art. Plates i and 2, and pages 29-110. 

Collect pictures of the Buddhist remains of Sanchi, and 
Barhut (India), Anuradhapura (Ceylon) and Borobodur 

How art became Christian. — Make a list and trac- 
ings where possible of early Christian symbols from the 

Give full interpretation of one or more mosaic repre- 
sentations from early churches, for example, Santa M. 
Maggiore. See Richter and Taylor: The Golden Age of 
Classic Christian Art. Make tracing of one face, and 
color with crayon or water-color. 

Make tracing of one tribune arch or apse decoration to 
show the stereotyped Byzantine form, for example, 
University Prints, B-31, B-32, B-33, B-35. 

Christianity the saviour of art. — Report on the 
Monastery of Saint Gall, Switzerland. 

The art of Europe.— Select from the University 
Prints series one masterpiece of the religious art of the 
Renaissance (1300- 1600) from each country of Europe. 
At whose request and for what purpose was each of these 
pictures painted? 


Present-day art and religion. — Select from any 
source a nineteenth-century masterpiece of religious art 
from each country of Christendom. At whose request 
and for what purpose were these pictures painted? Com- 
pare the themes with those of the preceding selection. 
How has the emphasis in religion shifted? 


The Day of Judgment — Frontispiece 

This wonderful picture is taken from the Papyrus of Hunefer in 
the British Museum, an illustrated edition of the Book of the Dead 
dating about 1500 B.C. It records in dramatic fashion the scene in 
the judgment hall of Osiris when the deceased is summoned to give 
an account of the deeds done in the body (Matt. 25. 31-32; Rom. 2. 
2, 3, 5; Rom. 14. 10; 2 Cor. 5. 10; Heb. 9. 27; Rev. 20. 11-13). 

On the left Anubis, the jackal-headed mortuary god, leads Hunefer 
into the hall. The trepidation of his heart is pictured in the upper 
register where he kneels and makes supplication to the gods (Neh. 
13. 14). Before these witnesses Hunefer makes his declaration of 
innocence, mentioning by name the forty-two sins of which he is not 
guilty (Job 31. 5-40). These include murder, stealing, lying, deceit, 
false witness, slander, eaves-dropping, sexual impurity, adultery, 
trespass against the gods or the dead, as in blasphemy or stealing 
mortuary offerings.^ 

Before Hunefer now rise the great balances (Job 31. 5-6) that 
are to test his soul. They are surmounted by the head and symbol 
of the goddess of Truth. Anubis takes charge of the weighing. In 
one pan of the scales he places the heart of Hunefer, in shape of a 
tiny vase which is the Egyptian hieroglyphic for heart; in the other 
is a feather, the symbol and hieroglyph for truth or righteousness 
(Psa. 96. 13). The moment is tense. In some papyri, like the papy- 
rus of Ani, the deceased leans forward anxiously and recites this 
prayer: "O my heart, . . . rise not up against me as a witness. 
. . . Be not hostile to me before the master of the balances. 
. . . Let not my name be of evil odor with the court; speak no 
lie against me in the presence of the god" (King Richard III, v. iii, 

To add terror to the moment, the dread Eater of the Dead crouches 
near, with head of a crocodile, forequarters of a lion, and hind- 
quarters of a hippopotamus — an Egyptian Lucifer whose function is 
to devour the unjust soul (Matt. 25. 41; see also Dante's Lucifer, 
Inf., xxxiv. 37-67). Behind the scales stands Thoth, the recording 
angel, with tablet and stylus to record the verdict. "Hear ye this 
word in truth. I have judged the heart of Osiris Ani. His soul 
stands as a witness concerning him, his character is just by the 
great balances. Nb sin of his has been found." Then the gods of 
the judgment reply, "How good it is, this that comes forth from thy 
just mouth. Osiris Ani the justified witnesses. There is no sin of 
his, there is no evil of his with us. The Devouress shall not be given 
power over him. Let there be given him the bread that cometh 
forth before Osiris, the domain that abideth in the field of offerings, 
like the followers of Horus" (Rev. 21. 6). 

1 The contrary virtues were often displayed on tombstones: "I gave bread to the 
hungry, water to the thirsty, clothing to the naked, and a ferryboat to the boat- 
less. ... I was father to the orphan, husband to the widow, and a shelter to the 
shelterless." (Matt. 12. 36; i Pet. 4- Si Matt. 35. 34-36; James i. 37.) 


Being justified, therefore, Hunefer is led forward by Horus, the 
son of Osiris, who introduces him to Osiris (Matt. lo. 32; Rom. 8. 
31-34), saying: "I bring thee Osiris Hunefer. His righteous heart 
comes forth from the balances and he has no sin in the sight of any 
god or goddess. . . • Let there be given him the bread and 
beer that cometh forth before Osiris" (Rev. 3. 5, 21; Rev. 2. 7). 
Hunefer makes declaration of his innocence, presents a table of 
offerings, and is received into the kingdom of Osiris (Matt. 25. 34). 

The dwelling-place of Osiris is a shrine of fire guarded by a cornice 
of serpents. The throne is set by the stream in the other world 
(Rev. 22. i) out of which grows a huge lotus flower (Rev. 22. 2) 
bearing the four children of Horus. Behind him stand the two 
goddesses Isis and Nephthys, sisters of Osiris, who here assist him 
as they did at the time of his resurrection. Before the face of Osiris 
is the Horus Eye — the eye that Horus sacrificed in battle with the 
enemies of his father Osiris. It became for the Egyptians the symbol 
of all sacrifice, "the commonest and most revered symbol known to 
Egyptian religion." It will be interesting to compare all this imagery 
with that in Rev. i. 13-18; Rev. 4; Rev. 7. 13-17.^ 

According to this picture, what truths about morality were in 
vogue fifteen hundred years before Christ — What entitles one to 
eternal life? Who sets the standards? Who judges? Which of the 
sins mentioned in Hunefer's declaration of innocence are no longer 
regarded as sin? What assistance is given man in his moral struggle? 
Was it possible for man unassisted to win salvation? What rewards 
and punishments are promised? Does the conception of the De- 
vourer of Hearts imply the annihilation of the wicked? In what 
respects if any does Christian teaching differ from all this? Is salva- 
tion possible without struggle — by accepting a ready-made gift? 

Unfortunately, the moral development which these ideas de- 
manded was checked in time by the priests, who claimed the power 
to compel the gods by Magic to render a favorable verdict, and the 
Book of the Dead became finally "a magical agency for securing 
moral vindication in the hereafter irrespective of character." To 
what extent are the Catholic and Protestant doctrines of baptism and 
extreme unction parallel beliefs? 

State to yourself clearly what is meant in this twentieth century 
by the "Judgment," and how a favorable verdict may be obtained. 

1 The writer is indebted, and the reader is referred, to J. H. Breasted: Develop- 
ment of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt, Scribner, 1912, and A History of 
Egypt, Scribner, 191 2. 


In the last chapter we spoke of the relation of art to 
religion; in this we speak of the relation of the artist to 
his pubUc. 

The artist as genius. — In the first place it is well 
to observe that an artist is generally an unusual person. 
He is a man of especially sensitive organization, a man 
whose emotions are more readily excited and more 
strongly, than those of the ordinary workaday person; 
one also whose intellect is stronger, who sees more things 
and who sees more meanings in things than the average 
person. He is a man frequently of philosophic and 
poetic temperament, one who loves great generalizations 
and sees in particulars the operation of a cosmic law. 
It is legitimate to suppose, therefore, that when an artist 
works for a year or for a number of years on a great paint- 
ing he has something definite to impart, some idea or 
some emotion which he will not willingly let die. It is 
our task to find out just what such a creative genius can 
do for us, in what respect his service to art and to life 
is vital and just how we can appreciate him and his 

The artist as visualizer. — The artist first of all sees. 
This means that his quick eye can take in the details of 
an experience in vivid and definite fashion, exactly. 
When in his studio he seeks to recall that experience the 
imagery that arises in his mind is concrete and clean-cut. 
That is why he can draw and paint if necessary without 
the presence of the model. 



With us, however, it is different. We see partially and 
recall imperfectly. Our images are not sharp and clearly 
defined. Recollection with us is a procession of misty 
figures that readily slip into one another, that fade be- 
fore we can scrutinize them. This is particularly true of 
the imagery that arises when we read. Suppose, for 
example, one heard in church the story of the Annuncia- 
tion to Mary. What images would float before the mind? 
Could we see Mary in her home, see her attitude, her 
facial expression, read her thought and her emotion? 
Could we see the angel? Would he have wings or not? 
Would he stand or sit or fly? Very likely, unless our 
attention were called to it, we would think that we had 
had no imagery. 

Not so with the artist. He sees one thing and sees it 
definitely, and when he once puts his imagery upon 
canvas it becomes a servant to all men. They can now 
readily visualize the Annunciation because he has pic- 
tured it for them. When we hear read the story of Jesus 
in the Temple at twelve years of age probably nine people 
out of ten see Hofmann's picture. It is not too much to 
say, therefore, with Berenson that art is a visualization 
of the imagery of great minds. 

The artist as intellectual interpreter. — If an artist 
is something more than a painter, if he is a true seer, he 
sees into the meaning of experience. He sees a given 
incident as the outcome of forces which may have been 
operating for many years. He sees it as the dynamic of 
forces that are destined to shape the world's history. 
This insight gives a value to his work which is greater 
than its power to sharpen the definition of our imagery. 
It interprets history and life for us. It gives us the grand 
view, the vast generalization; it emphasizes values. 

Take, for example, Hohnan Hunt's "Finding of Christ 


in the Temple."^ From one point of view this is a mere 
incident in the life of the boy Jesus, significant chiefly 
because it tells of the early awakening of his religious 
consciousness. But Hunt has made it mean something 
more. He has pictured the elaborate Temple, the embodi- 
ment of a nation's pride, the home of a nation's ritual. 
He has pictured the doctors with their wealth and luxury 
and pride of learning and bigotry and blindness. He has 
put into the forefront the roll of the law, which is the 
Alpha and Omega of their faith, and he has put on the 
other side the bUnd beggar with outstretched hand, 
symbol of the needy world which they will not lift so 
much as a finger to save. Between these he has put the 
boy Christ with the Hght of dawning religion in his face, 
and he has showed us that it is this Boy with his belief 
in the indwelling Father that is to overthrow the proud 
ritualism of the past and create the religion of love and 
service of the future. 

In many another picture this will be found true. The 
artist has thought for us as well as seen for us; he has 
Mfted a curtain and showed us vistas of history and life, ^ 
and by so doing has shed meaning upon our own age and 
upon our personal problems. 

The artist as emotionalizer. — ^Artists not only 
see and understand; they feel. Indeed, feeling seems to 
be the mainspring out of which art flows. Ask any painter 
why he paints and he will tell you that he just has to. 
There is an inner urge that arises from his emotional 
reaction to experience. He feels the beauty of the morn- 
ing shadows and his heart will not rest until he has 
captured that beauty and made it available for all men. 
He feels the dramatic intensity of some movement in 
history or story and he must forthwith put it upon 

» Pot full interpretation see A. E. Bailey: Gospel in Art, Introduction. 


canvas so that we may feel it. And just here is a very 
wonderful thing, that an artist can reproduce in us, how- 
ever faintly, the emotions which he himself has had; 
that by a mixture of pigments or a combination of lines 
he can make another heart vibrate as his own has done 
and feel the thrill of beauty or of joy or of dramatic 
passion, of sympathy, of hate, of love. That he has 
succeeded in doing this no one can doubt for a moment 
who has stood in the presence of a great masterpiece. 
Whoever can forget his first view of the Taj Mahal or 
the long vistas of Cologne Cathedral, his first wonder at 
the ethereal beauty of Fra AngeHco or the full-flood 
glories of the great colorists of the Renaissance. All of 
these masterpieces have primarily an emotional value 
whether or not they convey to the intellect any definite 
message, and they always will have such a value as long 
as the human heart is keyed to beauty. 

The artist as revealer of spiritual values. — If the 
proper study of mankind is man, art does well to concern 
itself with the deep things of man^s spirit. What gives 
value to life is not riches nor power nor position, but 
transcendental things that cannot be seen or measured 
or valued in the market. What would life be without 
love or faith or heroism? So when we look for values in 
art we must certainly not overlook the greatest values. 
We will find that as we ponder upon life and go deeply 
into its meaning some artist has gone there before us and 
can meet us with his own understanding and evaluation. 

There is no finer study of the life of Christ than that 
which the great artists have given us. From Verrocchio's 
"Baptism" to Michelangelo's "Last Judgment" they 
have revealed to us a character more wonderful than any 
we have personally known, clothed indeed with the frail 
garb of humanity, but illuminated with the light of 


heaven. One cannot look into the eyes of Cornicelius' 
"Christ" without perceiving at once the true spiritual 
nature of his temptation and ours; or Zimmermann's 
''Christ and the Fishermen" without feeling the gracious 
patience of the Master teacher; or Keller's "Daughter 
of Jairus" without realizing what love incarnate must do; 
or Era Angelico's "Christ as Pilgrim" without realizing 
the mystic other-worldliness of the religion of the Middle 

These and countless other spiritual values become real ] I 
to us and emotionally powerful within us as we study the N^ 
revelations' of life which the Masters have left us, and as \ 
we study and feel, spiritual things become to us more^ 
real, more to be desired than fine gold. Seeing leads to 
feeling, to loving, to aspiring; and if we are still spiritually 
sensitive to higher living, the artist becomes to us both 
prophet and priest and his work becomes a sacrament. 

The artist as ideal builder. — If all these considera- 
tions are so, the artist may become for us a builder of 
ideals. He^ ^ds us blind and he l eaves^ us_.seeing. He J^ 
findsjisdull and he gives us light. He finds us apathetic 
and he uncovers the depths of feeling. He finds us think- 
ing that the outside of hfe is all there is to it and he 
leaves us with a certainty that the unseen and eternal 
are the only realities. 

And he has done this largely by suggestion. What he 
has portrayed is but a hint, but our quickened soul acting 
upon the definite suggestion of a single incident has 
flashed back to us glimpses of the infinite. He has given 
us but a single phase, but memory enables us to com- 
bine all phases into a whole, an imagined whole, an 
idealized whole, radiant with the Light that never was 
on sea or land, and yet in our better moments seen as 
entirely possible for us to attain. It is this ideal of life, 

Fra Angelica: Christ as Pilgrim 

Monastery of San Marco, Florence 

On the left, two Dominican monks come out from their monastery 
to greet a guest. The guest is Christ, clad in shirt of hair and carry- 
ing a pilgrim's staff. Note that the staff and the hands form a cross. 
What Scripture warrant for this picture has Fra Angelico? What 
does the hair shirt signify? What qualities in Jesus are suggested by 
the long strands of wavy hair and the part in the middle? At whom 
or what is Christ looking? Does he seem to be a purposeful man? 
Think of various occupations and professions of this twentieth cen- 
tury: into which of these would this Jesus fit? Is this Jesus capable 
of running an "Interchurch World Drive" or formulating principles 
for a "Disarmament Conference"? What aspect of religion does he 
exemplify? Is it a valuable aspect? Does Christianity present any 
other aspects? Why should Fra Angelico present this particular one? 
If you were to paint a picture of Christian hospitality, what would 
you put in it? If you were to paint a face of Christ, what quality 
would you emphasize? 


formed out of fragmentary visions and glimpses that art 
has given, that beckons us on to nobler living and makes 
us feel that the pursuit of spirituality, the achievement 
of the infinite and the impossible is precisely the vocation 
to which God has called us. 

**0 young Mariner, 
Down to the haven, 
Call your companions, 
Launch your vessel 
And crowd your canvas 
And, ere it vanishes 
Over the margin, 
After it, follow it, 
Follow the Gleam." 

Teaching Material 

The artist as genius. — For the sake of wondering at 
the genius of some artists read brief biographies of 
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, or Rubens 
in the "Masters of Art" series (Bates and Guild, Boston). 

The artist as visualizer. — Collect as many pictures 
of the Annunciation as convenient and examine them for 
the amount of definitely visualized detail they contain. 
Which artists excel in quantity and minuteness? What 
details would you include, and what postures and facial 
expressions would you give, if you were to paint "The 
Return of the Prodigal"? 

The artist as intellectual interpreter. — Discover the 
artist's intellectual message in one or more of the fol- 
lowing: Reference is to A. E. Bailey: Art Studies in the 
Life of Christ. 

Edwin Long: "Anno Domini," p. 60. 
Burne- Jones: "Star of Bethlehem," p. 57. 


Holman Hunt: "Shadow of the Cross," p. 66. 

" : "Light of the World," p. 90. 
Bloch: "Come unto Me," p. 82. 
Fra AngeHco: "The Transfiguration," p. 109. 

" " : "The Crucifixion," p. 153. 

Flandrin: "Christ Weeping over the City," p. 124. 

The artist as emotionalizer. — Recall and write down 
your feelings when first you saw some great work of art. 

Have the feelings changed in intensity or character, 
through subsequent visits, and in what respect? Name 
some of the qualities found in great sculpture, painting 
or architecture, that always produce an emotional re- 
action. Are any of these emotions religious? 

The artist as revealer of spiritual values. — Select 
one or two favorite pictures from the life of Christ, and 
write down the spiritual quaUties therein expressed. If 
you were to paint these scenes, what other values would 
you try to bring out? 

The artist as ideal builder. — In what respect, if 
any, have your ideals been elevated by a work of art? 

Have you ever received a definite impulse to higher 
living from such a source? 

Additional Reading 

A. E. Bailey: The Gospel in Art (Pilgrim Press, 1915). 
Read the exposition of half a dozen favorite pictures. 
How much does the exposition add to your appreciation, 
detract from it, or differ from your own ideas? 


Art, as previously hinted, is man's self-expression 
striving after beauty of form. Naturally, the aim of ex- 
pression is to make one's inner state known to another. 
A work of art is a message from the artist to the world, 
his attempt to say something so beautifully and there- 
fore so compellingly that all men will listen, and, having 
listened, will feel and understand. 

Art speaks. — ^Whatever else art is, then, it is certainly 
a kind of language. It is the means by which the thought 
and the emotion of a creative personality are conveyed 
to our spirits or revive in us a livelier consciousness of 
spiritual qualities and relationships. 

Tolstoy is of the opinion that art is not great unless it 
conveys its meaning at once and unerringly to the 
common man. The greatest art does convey some mes- 
sage to such a one, but the message of art is sometimes 
too intricate or too deep for immediate comprehension 
not only by the common man but by persons of greater 
learning and insight. Some great pictures are very 
difficult to understand. They need a cicerone^ or at least 
they need some knowledge of the technical language in 
which the artist speaks. In this way only can the mind 
be sure to grasp the artist's idea in its fullness, even 
though the heart may respond instinctively to its beauty 
and its power. 

The language of art has in its alphabet three letters, 
Composition, Color, and Symbolism. 

Composition. — Composition is the artist's way of 
putting things together effectively. The artist has one 



or at most two chief ideas to express, and by composition 
he leads our minds to discover what these are. There 
are three chief types of composition, as follows: 

(a) Linear, that is, composition by the use of leading 
lines. It is a well-known fact of psychology that the eye 
will follow strong sensations more readily than weak 
ones. If, therefore, there is a demarkation between light 
and shade the eye is inevitably attracted to that line 
and will follow it to its end. A succession of light spots 
will attract the eye from one to the other even across 
intervening darkness. These lines or spots form eye- 
paths, paths of least resistance along which the attention 
runs smoothly and unerringly to whatever lies at the end 
of the path. Now the skillful artist adjusts these eye- 
paths so that they lead from almost any extremity of the 
picture to the object that is at the focus of his thought. 
Let your eye wander where it will, it comes back with a 
sort of spiritual gravity to this center. 

Test yourself by one of a score of pictures. In the 
"Immaculate Conception" Murillo will lead your eye 
again and again to the hands of Mary folded across her 
breast, and when you see her face you will become aware 
that not it but the emotion of her heart blazoned thereon 
is the one experience the artist wishes you to understand. 
Look at Ciseri's dramatic piece of historic painting, 
"Ecce Homo." The lines of heads, the spirals on the 
column of victory, the shadows cast by the Temple, the 
vanishing lines of the perspective, all lead your eye to the 
pathetic figure of Christ exposed here by Pilate to the 
gaze of the mob. So in Merson's "Repose in Egypt": the 
true focus is the Child at the heart of the Sphinx far out 
from the center of the canvas. With a great artist "all 
roads lead to Rome." 

(b) Psychological. The use of centers of attention for 


Parting of Abraham and Lot 

Mosaic, Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome 

The group on the right is composed of Lot, his wife, servants and 
two little daughters. They move toward Sodom, seen in the distance. 
The group on the left consists of Abraham and Sarah, with their 
hands on the head of Isaac, the Child of Promise; they stand before 
a templelike house overshadowed by the oak of Mamre. Abraham 
and his group are evidently staying, Lot and his group are going; 
for the land has been given to Abraham and to his seed forever. 

The fact that when this incident actually took place (Gen. 13. 
1-12) Isaac had not been bom indicates that we have here not an 
illustration but a piece of teaching. It portrays the "shadow of good 
things to come." Isaac stands here for the promised offspring of 
Abraham, the People of (j'od who were to be countless as the stars 
of heaven. But this offspring must be understood as the spiritual 
seed of Abraham (Rom. 9. 6-8), who through Christ were to inherit 
the promises "even us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, 
but also from the Gentiles" (Rom. 9. 24). Lot voluntarily separated 
himself from his race and thereby forfeited his inheritance. He 
represents in this picture the descendants "according to the flesh," 
the Jewish people, who deliberately separated themselves from the 
"Promised Child" and so cut themselves off from participation in 
the promises. 

The picture represents, therefore, that historic movement by which 
the church ceased to be Jewish and became Gentile, a movement 
fraught with so much consequence to both parties. It is an anti- 
type, an allegory. 

Having perceived this fact, it only remains to consider whether the 
incident in Genesis was written solely or chiefly as an allegory and 
whether the hidden meaning is what the artist alleges it to be. An 
affirmative answer to these questions will lead to a discussion of the 
correctness in general of the allegorical interpretation of Scripture, 
as advocated by the early Christian Fathers and by Swedenborg, and 
of the present-day value of such interpretation. 


the figures in the picture. It is easily verifiable by experi- 
ment that attention attracts attention. One has only to 
stand on a street corner and gaze up into the air to as- 
semble in a brief time a curious crowd of upward gazers. 
Everybody wants to know what is the enthralling object 
of some one's attention. So in a picture, if the artist 
fixes the gaze of every one of his figures upon a certain 
point, our own eye turns automatically to the same 
objective. Knowing this law he would be a strange artist 
who should place his message somewhere else than at this 
focus of attention. In fact, of the two kinds of composi- 
tion, the psychological is much the more powerful. 
; Illustrations of this are plentiful. In Burne-Jones* 
"Star of Bethlehem'* the Wise Men all look down in- 
tently at the Httle Babe in the mother's arms; the angel 
with the star looks that way; Joseph looks there and 
Mary's face is turned in that direction even while she 
looks vaguely toward the gifts. This is clearly the story 
of a little Child and an offering made to him. 

Sometimes one finds two foci of attention, as in the 
picture of Rubens' ^'Christ in the house of Simon," with 
both linear and psychological eye-paths running to each 
focus. Christ is one of these foci. The curtain, his robe, 
the line of faces, the arms and dishes of the servants all 
lead to his face and on him are centered the eyes of 
several of the most prominent people in the picture. 
Simon, on the other hand, looks with dramatic intensity 
upon the kneeling figure of the Magdalene, and Christ 
with his hand down toward her looks full at Simon. The 
composition then reveals the whole theme of the picture : 
Christ, who is master of the scene, speaks to Simon about 
Mary. This is as clearly portrayed by the picture as if 
Rubens had spoken winged words. 

(c) By emphasis. This is a simple and common variety 


of composition. In using it the artist makes his important 
person prominent and subordinates the rest. He can do 
this by putting him in high light while the others are 
more obscure, or by making him large while others are 
small, or sharply defined while others are vague. 

One can observe frequently this variety of composition, 
as for example in Era Angelico's ''Crucifixion." There 
are no leading lines here, or, rather, the lines lead only to 
the border of the great fresco. But high above everyone 
in the very center of the picture rises the figure of Christ 
on the cross, strongly illuminated against the dark sky 
and further emphasized by a bright inscription over his 
head and the medallion of the pelican in the frame. It 
is the artist's way of reminding us, "And I, if I be lifted 
up, will draw all men unto me." 

(d) Emotional values of composition. Composition 
may serve also to enhance emotional values. In the 
hands of a skillful artist feeling may be intensified purely 
by line combinations. In Rubens' ''Crucifixion" the 
artist has conveyed a suggestion of struggle by the right- 
angle opposition of lines in every portion of the picture. 
In the "Cleansing of the Temple" Kirchbach has sug- 
gested the unconquerable power, the immovable stability 
of Christ, by the sloping lines that encompass his form, 
echoed in the slope of the white pylon in the background 
at the right. Thus Van Dyck, in the "Arrest of Jesus," 
shows his spiritual strength, firm as a rock to resist the 
shock of the oncoming wave of violence. So in von Uhde's 
"Ascension" one feels the onward and irrevocable move- 
ment of Christ up the mountain and beyond the moun- 
tain to the sky. 

One might well begin the study of a painting with its 
composition. Certainly such study comes well to the 
front of any consideration of the artist's message. With- 


out it one may quite miss the point which the artist 
meant us to see. 

Color. — Color has an emotional value in itself. Some 
colors are warm, some are stimulating, some are soporific 
or cold. Their juxtaposition may suggest harmony or 
discord. No audience can resist the witchery of a night 
scene when thrown by stereopticon on the curtain, even 
though the result is obtained by the uniform appHcation 
to the slide of a little blue dye. All this arises from 
the fact that nature and we have been evolved together 
and* that we all are tuned to respond to nature's jnost 
vivid characteristic^ — color. 

Unfortunately, most of the pictures that we know are 
in monochrome. They are photographs or half-tones 
representing the form of the original but not its color. 
We are therefore not in a position to appreciate the mes- 
sage which the artist has conveyed to us with his most 
potent word. If one has seen the original of Merson's 
"Repose in Egypt" he will recall the seductiveness of the 
violet night and the wondrous warmth of the orange light 
at Mary's breast. Or if he has seen Raphael's "Transfig- 
uration," he will not have failed to feel the harmony and 
peace of the glorious golden upper half and the jarring 
discords of the world of struggle at the foot of the mount. 

Besides its emotional value, color has also a symbolic 
value kndwn only to the initiated. The older artists were 
fairly consistent in their symbolic use of color. White, 
of course, always stood for purity, red for passion of some 
kind, usually love; blue for faith or hope. One needs a 
key to understand these things. The key is supplied 
more or less accurately by the various books on s)Tn- 
bolism found in our libraries. 

Symbolism. — Symbolism is a form of suggestion, 
\ primarily intellectual, by which the initiated can see in 


an object more than is actually portrayed. Art has/ 
always contained symbolic elements, and this for reasons 
implicit in the nature of man. Instinctively we love hints 
that set free the imagination, and we need hints where 
the nature of our thought can never be fully expressed; 
where there must be repression or disguise, or where the 
object has infinite aspects that never can be expressed by 
finite forms. 

Early Christian art in particular was symbolic, first, 
because of the necessity of maintaining a disguise under 
persecution and again because the particular spiritual 
messages it had to convey transcended the limits of repre- 
sentation. Who can paint the love of God, or the doc- 
trine of the Trinity, or the wonder of the indwelling 
Spirit or man's eternal quest of his highest good! These 
things must be hinted, suggested; they cannot be por- 

So also as the history of the church unrolls there are 
personages to be presented in art — apostles and saints 
and martyrs. Their characters must be shadowed forth 
or their service to the church and to mankind suggested. 
To be sure, one might put a label on each picture, but 
that is too simple and too inartistic a device. So John 
the Baptist is given the slender reed cross; the devil is 
given horns and a tail; Mary Magdalene, the vase and 
perhaps the skull for penitence; Saint Lawrence carries 
his gridiron; Saint Augustine his crosier; Saint Peter, his 
keys; the cross and the monogram represent Christ; the 
trefoil of circles raises our thoughts to the Trinity; the 
lily stands for purity; the dove for the Holy Spirit; wheat 
for the Bread of Life; and so on, through the long vistas 
of the centuries and the wide range of art. 

How to read a picture. — The directions can be 
briefly given thus: 


Early Christian Sarcophagus 
Lateran Museum, Rome 

Christian Sarcophagus. Lateran Museum, Rome 

Lower register, beginning on the left: i. A fisherman gives another 
a basket. 2. Sailors throw Jonah out of the ship. The "great fish" 
prepared to swallow Jonah. 3. The fish ejects Jonah. 4. To the 
right of the fish's tail, a small box (the Ark) from which Noah re- 
ceives the oHve branch brought by a dove. 5. Near the shore, fishes 
and a crab. On shore, a fisherman, his son and a goose. 

Upper register, beginning on the left: 6. Christ calling Lazarus 
from the tomb; Mary, Martha, and two disciples. 7. Over the ship's 
sail, God (or Christ) in the sun's disc. 8. Moses strikes the rock and 
brings forth water, which the Hebrews eagerly drink. An angel 
hovers above. 9. Three frightened men run away, knocking over two 
others — possibly depicting a pestilence in the wilderness. 10. Jonah 
asleep under his gourd- vine. 11. The Good Shepherd; two sheep 
look out from a fold. 

This is a combination of symbols expressive of the resurrection and 
salvation by the use of well-known antitypes in the Old Testament. 
The resurrection is indicated by 2, 3, 6; salvation by 4, 5, 8, 11. 
What special fitness have these symbols individually? Is there any 
Scripture warrant for such use? What is the function of Nos. i, 7, 
9, 10? 

How much information about the owner of this coffin would these 
pictures convey to a non-Christian? What do they tell us about the 
beliefs of early Christianity? If you were selecting Scripture incidents 
to express your own religion, what would you choose? 


I I. See what the picture contains. Look at every inch 
I of it, every corner. Let no detail escape. Shut your eyes 
'/ and see if you can still see it. If not, look once more. 
Note the people in it and read their faces. Make the 
imagery sharp so that hereafter at will you can recall it 
under any circumstances. This is an act of pure observa- 
tion and memory. 

2. Study the composition. Discover who the chief 
personages are. They probably embody the artist's 

3. Try to state to yourself what that message probably 
is and to feel its value. You may accomphsh the former 
perhaps by hard thinking and by a review of the story, 
if there is one, on which the picture is based. But try to 
reach his message also by feehng. This you may accom- 
plish by assuming either by bodily posture or in imagina- 
tion the actual position and facial expression of the chief 
characters in the picture. Then by a sure reflex the 
proper emotion and sometimes the proper idea will come 

y to you. You feel your way into the picture. You absorb 
\ it. You become it and it becomes you. Then you know 

I what the artist meant. 


Teaching Material 

Composition. — Examine any masterpiece to discover 
which of the three types of composition, or what com- 
bination of types the artist has employed. Does the 
meaning of the picture become any clearer when you 
have discovered? 

Emotional values of composition.— -Find the best 
example possible where composition has definitely intensi- 
fied the emotional value of the picture. 

Color. — If you have access to a museum, test various 
pictures for color emotions. Which pictures make you 


feel comfortable? Which ones irritate you? Which are 
warm, which cold? Which are bracing, which soporific? 
Do any of them give you an emotion that is associated 
usually with morality or religion? Get from the library 
a book on the symbolism of color and test any old master 
to see if his colors are appropriate to their wearers. 

Symbolism. — With the aid of some book on iconog- 
raphy, examine half a dozen religious pictures for their 
symbols or emblems : what persons are identified by this 
means? What doctrines are suggested? 

How to read a picture. — Practice recalling pictures: 
Select in your mind one with which you are familiar, and 
without consulting it, write down a list of all it contains. 
Add the artist's full name and the exact title of the 
picture. Compare now with the copy and check up the 

Practice stating to yourself, or to others, what a picture 
means to you. In a word, what is its message? What 
emotions or insights are inspired by it? 


Carl H. P. Thurston: The Art of Looking at Pictures 
(1916). Definite suggestions about what to look for in 
the great masters. 

Charles H. Coffin: How to Study Pictures. 

C. E. Clement: Christian Symbolism. 

E. A. Green: Saints and their Symbols. 


/ Pictures and children — who can separate them, and 
jwho would ! They were made for each other. A picture 
/draws a child like a magnet, and then taking the little 
;'one by the hand leads it through the dream-gate into 
other worlds. How the picture does it this chapter will 
endeavor to show. 

Imagery : its nature and sources. — A large part of 
childhood education consists in acquiring an adequate 
body of imagery. Long before a child can think his mind 
works. First in point of time comes the sensation — the 
awareness of contact with the outer world. After the 
sensation has passed something remains behind — a 
"brain path," a polarization of brain fiber, or some con- 
dition by whatever figure of speech it may be described — 
the function of which is to reproduce faintly the sensa- 
tion upon demand. This faint reproduction is called an 
Image. It is the form memory takes. It is the ghost of 
an experience. It is the mind stuff out of which genuine 
ideas are made, the concept in the process of formation. 
And every image carries with it a paenumbra, or halo, of 
feeling which is also the ghost of an original emotional 
experience. Before you can tell a story that a child will 
understand you must make sure that the child can sup- 
ply the necessary imagery, for without imagery there is 
no imagination. 

An illustration wiU make this clear. Suppose I say to 
a child: "Let me tell you a story. Once upon a time 
there was a little squirrel who lived in a hollow apple tree 



in a farmer's orchard. His house had a front door, a hall 
and two rooms. The front door came out just where two 
big limbs of the apple tree branched from the trunk. The 
hallway stood on end. It ran up and down, mostly down. 
The little rooms were at the bottom of it. In one room 
Mr. Squirrel slept; in the other room Mr. Squirrel 
stored his nuts." 

Most children will be able to image this story if they 
have had any experience with the country. They have 
seen apple trees, perhaps with holes in their trunks. They 
have seen squirrels and nuts. They live in a house and 
know about hallways and rooms. Their experience with 
these things has left behind appropriate imagery which 
can be called up by suggestion. Say "Squirrel" and the 
squirrel appears in their minds. Say "Apple tree" and 
they can see the limbs and trunk and perhaps smell the 
scent of the blossoms or even taste the luscious fruit. The 
story-teller is really a magician, a conjurer. With every 
noun he waves a wand or presses a button and the 
mechanism of the child's mind does the rest. The 
characters of the story appear, the action follows. The 
child operates in his own brain a little moving picture 
show and concentrates upon it his entire interest and 

Now let me tell you another story: "Once upon a time 
there was a dinosaur who lived on the top of a fl^che. 
He went out one morning and met an amoeba who said, 
*Let us go to the lair of the troglodyte and steal his num- 
melites!' So together they went to the troglodyte's lair. 
But the troglodyte jumped out upon them so that they 
were frightened and ran away and hid behind a stela 
where a scarabaeus ate them up." 

A child will not be able to film this story nor will a 
grown-up, for that matter, unless he has had an un- 


usually large experience with the dictionary. Everything 
is familiar in the story except the nouns, but the nouns 
are a great way beyond the experience of the child. 
Having had no experience, he has no ghost of an expe- 
rience; and no ghost, no moving-picture show; no imag- 
ination, no interest, no feeling — except one of being 

Enlarging one's imagery. — Now, if a child were de- 
pendent upon his own immediate environment for ex- 
perience and imagery, he would die of old age before he 
got an education. But the child's experience is supple- 
mented from the very first in the educational process by 
what might be called second-hand experience, the ex- 
perience of some one else reduced to visible form and 
brought to him. That visible form is usually art of 
however humble a variety. 

Through the pages of his picture books the child meets 
with his first lion, rhinoceros, Indian, ship, fairy. Through 
the story book he learns to recognize at sight George 
Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Roosevelt, John Alden 
and Priscilla, and a hundred other people whom he never 
saw, nor his parents ever saw, but who nevertheless are 
quite as real in his mind as Jack the Giant Killer, Hia- 
watha, or his mother. The primary function of pictures 
with little children is to enlarge experience, to place the 
world within their grasp, to furnish the stuff with which 
they must do a large part of their thinking for a number 
of years to come. 

The permanence of childhood imagery. — The 
beauty and sometimes the tragedy of it is that the images 
thus created stick long after the child is grown up when 
he uses for the most part the first-hand imagery derived 
from his own immediate contact with the world. The 
right suggestion will call up primitive images of his child- 


hood. The words "Pilgrim's Progress" call up in the 
writer's mind a certain green-covered book with large 
print, with a fierce picture of Apollyon, John Bunyan 
chained in a prison cell, valiant Mr. Greatheart, and at 
the end, the door into the side of the hill with an angel 
warming his hands in the light which streamed from some 
horrible depth below into which Ignorance had just been 
cast. It calls up the cane-seated chair on which the book 
rested and the httle hassock on which he sat before it on 
Sunday afternoon. Those images will never fade. They 
were put there years before any appreciation of the great 
English classic was his, and before any criticism of its 
individualistic theology cast doubts upon the realities 
which the great allegory purports to paint. 

This fact of the indelibility of childhood imagery places 
upon parents and teachers a great responsibility. It 
ought to make them think twice before they buy a 
picture book and examine not so much the stories — 
though these are important— but the illustrations. It 
should suggest also that the wise parent banish from the 
home as far as possible the Sunday supplement with its 
comic pictures and its society page, and welcome to the 
home only those publications that present the beauty of 
life, the great wholesome outdoors, men and women doing 
beautiful things, and fairies and other wonderful creatures 
whose function in life it is to help and not to harm. Thus 
only can we build in a child's mind a healthful imagery 
and attach to it emotional values that are worth per- 

How to select pictures for children. — In selecting 
pictures for children certain facts and principles should 
be borne in mind. 

I. Pictures should represent the child's natural inter- 
ests; that is, they should pertain to the world the child 


knows something about, and should illustrate action and 
embody emotions that the child can readily appreciate. 
In such pictures, the characters will be children with 
their mothers and fathers, and the pets or animals that 
children are likely to know about. If one must go 
beyond the realm of the child's experience, the pictures 
should contain elements that may be easily understood 
and assimilated. 

2. The pictures should illustrate a story. The child's 
main interest will not be the picture but the narrative 
based upon the characters in the picture. The picture 
'"furnishes merely the actors and the setting; the words 
must give life to these actors and must make them play 
their part. People in action are the proper theme. Mere 
portraits therefore are of no significance to a child, how- 
ever beautiful they may appear to adults. Mere land- 
scapes have no interest. But put the person into the 
landscape, tell the story of what he does in such a setting, 
and the picture at once becomes significant. There is at 
once a point of attention, a potent suggestion to the 
imagination. Such a dull picture as the Roman Forum 
becomes highly interesting to a six-year-old when he 
learns that the distant round building beyond the Arch 
of Titus is where Androcles did not get eaten by the lion. 
Rome and its famous arena come to life again with this 
magic hint. 

One must be careful with sensitively organized little 
people not to dwell upon scenes of blood. Unfortunately, 
many of the stirring incidents of the Old Testament have 
to do with battle and murder and sudden death, while 
the life of Christ is ushered in with the massacre of the 
innocents and ends with the horrors of the crucifixion. 
Pictures of these scenes have an uncanny fascination for 
children that may easily become morbid. While it may 


not be possible or desirable to avoid such pictures al- 
together, it is well to call attention to other features than 
the horrors — to the courage or nobility of the hero or the 
end to be attained. 

The Picture-story Method. — If one is dealing with 
a single child, it is desirable to let him hold the book or 
the picture himself. The physical contact seems to give , 
a sense of reality, or at least to satisfy a tactual instinct, t 
With a class the picture should be large enough to be) 
clearly seen by all. Go at once to the heart of the picture. 
Introduce the hero. Let him make his full impact. Then 
tell the story in such a way that the other personages inf 
the picture become actors and the backgrounds become 
essential to the narration. Give what went before the 
moment chosen by the illustrator, and if it seems neces- 
sary, what comes after. But, last of all, return to the 
central figure, the hero, so that the final and dominant 
impression shall be of him. Encourage questions. A 
child who asks questions is interested, while one who 
does not ask, may or may not be. Questions give the 
story-teller a chance to comment on details that might 
otherwise have been overlooked or to correct erroneous 
impressions. Be sure to give the child a chance, then or 
later, to tell the story back to you, or at least to answer I 
questions which will show whether your pupil has \ 
listened to good advantage. 

A child's use of the picture-book. — It is interesting 
to watch a child with a picture-book. Beginning perhaps 
as early as two years of age the child will sit on the floor 
and amuse himself, if he is well educated, by turning the 
leaves, naming the pictures and the personages or objects 
in the pictures, or telling to himself the stories that go 
with the pictures. As the child grows older the pictures 
become more and more suggestive of details. The nar- 

The Escape from Doubting Castle 

Taken from Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, illustrated by the 
brothers Rhead, by permission of the pubHshers, The Century 

The Escape from Doubting Castle 

Study the picture first for its details: the castle, the bare land- 
scape, the fruitless tree, the relative size of the giant and his prisoners, 
the dress of each, the claws and hairy arms of the giant, his eyes, his 
mouth, his club, the key, the speed of the escaping man. At the same 
time feel the emotional values of these details: the homesick feeling 
about such a land, the despair at being led into a castle so strong, 
from which no one could ever get out or be rescued, the fear that so 
huge a giant would inspire, his desperate attempt to keep going even 
after he has fallen, his rage (as well as his fit) as expressed by froth- 
ing at the mouth, the fear of Hopeful expressed by his looking back, 
the presence of mind of Christian in bringing all his armor away 
with him, and the sheer fun of fooling the old tyrant and getting 
away as expressed by the freedom with which Christian kicks his 
heels behind. You must imagine yourself to be the giant in order 
to imderstand how he feels, then imagine yourself to be Christian 
and Hopeful to feel how they feel. Then you are in a position to tell 
the story to a child, with this picture in his hands, adding to the 
clearness and emotional quality of your narrative by a skillful inter- 
weaving of the details here suggested. 


rative repeated by the child becomes fuller, until you 
hear him give back all the essentials of the story as he 
has heard it, usually in the very words he has heard it, 
the whole performance given with as much apparent 
delight as the child exhibited when the parent did the 
original telling. 

Listen to the five-year-old as he turns the wonderfully 
decorative pages of the Rhead Brothers' Pilgrim^s Pro- 
gress. "There is old Giant Despair. 'He is sitting on his 
castle looking for people trespassing on his grounds. 
Who is this I see, walking under my trees? It is Chris- 
tian and Hopeful. They must not walk on my grounds.' 
. . . This is Giant Despair creeping through the bushes. 
See the knife in his mouth. He is not making any noise. 
*Aha! I see them! They have walked on my grounds. 
Aha! you two rascals, wake up, here! What do you mean 
by walking on my grounds? You come along with me 
to my dungeon.' . . . And he goes to bed and says to 
his wife, Mrs. Diffidence: What shall I do with these 
sturdy rascals? They have walked on my grounds!' 
^Give them a good beating,' she says. . . . Here is Giant 
Despair going down into his dungeon. He has a great 
club. He is going to beat these two men for trespassing 
on his grounds. . . . 'What a fool I am,' quoth Christian, 
'to lie here in this dungeon. I have a key in my bosom 
called Promise. Come, let us get out before Giant Despair 
wakes up.' So he put in the key and opened the door, oh, 
so still; and he opened another door, oh, so still. But 
when he opened the great door of the castle it creaked 
and waked up Giant Despair. . . . Here is old Giant 
Despair tumbled down. He ran after his prisoners but 
he fell into one of his fits. In sunshiny weather he falls 
into fits. See his big club that has fallen out of his hand. 
Christian and Hopeful are running away, very glad to 


get out of the dungeon. They won't trespass any more 
on Giant Despair's grounds." 

Thus the little mind stores up pictures of things that 
at present he knows nothing about. He loves the adven- 
ture of it; he loves to be afraid of Giant Despair; he 
loves to find the key in his own bosom and to fool the old 
giant by getting out. He loves to see the fallen monster 
foaming at the mouth, his eyes bulging out, while friends 
Christian and Hopeful make good their escape. Years 
afterward when the evil days come and Giant Despair in 
reality catches him trespassing on his grounds, who knows"? 
but these old memories will come flocking back and that • 
Christian will again in good earnest pluck from his bosom 
the key called Promise and open the door into larger 

After-effects. — ^That pictures will do this for a person 
is more than a hope. It is the truth of experience. 
Pictures have not lost their primitive magic quality. They 
compress within their small compass sometimes an in- 
calculable amount of feeling and of power. And as sug- 
gestion calls them up all through later life they liberate 
within the consciousness sometimes just the dynamic 
that is necessary to move the will to action, to deter- 
mine the choice, to give the energizing emotion, to open 
a vista, to start a trend, and so in some degree to shape 

People of the Bible in pictures. — The chief per- 
sons of the Bible may become so real to a child through 
pictures that he will always thereafter reckon them 
among his personal acquaintances. The wise parent or 
teacher will, of course, attach to the picture the story it 
illustrates and will see that the child catches through 
sympathy the teller's own emotional reaction and moral 
judgment. It is not necessary with children to point the 


moral in so many words, but to tell the story with such 
feeling and emphasis that the desired attitude toward 
the persons and their acts shall be induced. 

Implicit in the first score of the pictures listed below 
are such teachings about Hf e as the following : God is the 
giver of life. Our duty is to obey God. Sin brings sorrow. 
Anger leads to wrongdoing. Life is a struggle with our 
lower nature. Envy, jealousy, conceit destroy love and 
lead to further trouble. Faithfulness to duty brings 
character and sometimes advancement. A call to service 
is a call from God. 

Partial List 

Adam and Eve Michelangelo: "Creation of Adam'' 
(Sistine Ceiling). 
Michelangelo: '^Temptation and Ex- 
pulsion" (Sistine Ceiling). 

Cain and Abel Bouguereau: 'The First Death.'' 
Cormon: "Cain and His Family." 

Noah Scott: "The Eve of the Deluge." 

G. Brion: "The End of the Deluge." 
Maclise: "Noah's Sacrifice." 

Abraham VonUhde:"The Lord Appears to 

^ VonUhde: "The Testing of Abra- 

Jacob Von Gebhardt : "Jacob Wrestling with 

the Angel." 
Penrose: "Jacob Wrestling." 


Joseph Tissot: ''Joseph and his Brothers" 

(two pictures) . 
F. M. Brown: 'The Coat of Many 

Harold Speed: "Joseph Interprets 

Pharaoh's Dream." 
E. J. Poynter: "Joseph Introducing 

Jacob to Pharaoh." 

Moses Delaroche: "Moses in the Bulrushes." 

^ E. J. Poynter: "They Made Their 

Lives Bitter." 
Botticelli: "Moses and the Daughters 

of Jethro." 
J. Swan: "The Burning Bush." 
H. Flandrin : "Moses and the Burning 

Hacker: "And There Was a Great 

Alma-Tadema : "The Lord Slays the 

E. Nonnand: "The Death of 

Pharaoh's First-born." 
S. Schneider: "The Egyptians Over- 
thrown in the Red Sea." 
Millais: "Victory, O Lord." 
Gerome: "Battle with the Amale- 

Rochegrasse: "Moses Breaking the 

Tables of Law." 
Von Uhde: "Raising the Brazen 

Michelangelo: "Moses" (statue). 


Samson J. P. Laurens: "Vision of Manoah." 

Bonnat: 'The Youth of Samson." 
Solomon: "Samson Bound." 


Ilja Repin: "Hannah's Prayer." 
Topham: "Hannah, Eli, and the In- 
fant Samuel." 
Reynolds: "The Infant Samuel." 
J. Sant: "The Infant Samuel." 


Calderon: "Ruth and Naomi." 
B ruck-La jos: "Ruth Gleaning." 
Ryland: "Ruth." 


Normand: "David and Saul." 
Israels: "David before Saul." 
Israels: "David and Goliath." 
Mme. Bouguereau: "David as Good 

Mme. Starr-Canziani: "David 

Brought Before Saul." 
Shields: "David." 
W. L. Taylor: "When I Consider Thy 

W. L. Taylor: "He Shall Give His 

Angels Charge." 


F. M. Brown: "Elijah Restoring the 

Widow's Son." 
Brozik: "Restoration of the Widow's 

Dicksee: "The Arrow of the Lord's 








Topham: **Naaman's Wife and the 
Captive Maid." 

Normand: "Esther Denouncing Ha- 

Riviere: "Daniel" (among the lions). 

Riviere: "Daniel's Answer to the 

Rochegrasse : "Madness of Nebuchad- 

Hacker: "Annunciation." 
Bulleid: "Annunciation." 
Beatrice Parsons: "Annunciation." 
Machetti: "Annunciation." 

Dagnan-Bouveret: "Madonna of the 

Dagnan-Bouveret : "The Madonna 

with the Infant Jesus." 

Walther Firle: "Holy Night." 

Van der Weyden: "Adoration of the 

Gentile da Fabriano: "Adoration of 

the Kings." 
Fellowes-Prynne : "The Desire of All 


Girardet: "Flight into Egypt." 
Meurisse-Franchomme : "Concert of 

Pape: 'Tight in Egypt." 
Long: "Anno Domini." 



Boy Christ W. L. Taylor: ^'The Boy Christ." 

Dagnan-Bouveret: "The Christ 

Breton: * 'The Divine Apprentice." 
Kowalski: ''The Childhood of Jesus." 
Millais: "Christ in the House of His 

Hunt: "Finding of Christ in the 

Zimmermann: "Boy Jesus in the 



Verrocchio: "The Baptism of Christ." 
F. du Mond: "The Baptism of 


Cornicelius : 

'The Temptation of 


Copping: "The Well at Sychar." 

Aubert: "Jesus Christ Healing the 

Hacker: "Christ and the Magdalene." 
Jacomb-Hood: "Raising of Jairus' 

H. O. Tanner: "Raising of Lazarus." 
B. Constant: "Raising of Lazarus." 
Morelli: "Jesus of Galilee." 


G. W. Joy: "The Merchantman and 
the Pearl of Great Price." 

Puvis de Chavannes: "The Prodigal 




J. M. Swan: 'The Prodigal Son." 
Burnand: "The Great Supper." 
Evelyn Pyke-Nott: "Justified Rather 
than the Other." 

Passion Week 

Raphael: "The Transfiguration." 
Prell: "Judas Receiving the Silver." 
Da Vinci: "The Last Supper." 
F. M. Brown: "Washing the Disciples' 

Bacon: "Jesus Christ at Gethsemane." 
Hofmann: "Gethsemane." 
Munkacsy: "Christ Before Pilate." 
Ciseri: "Ecce Homo." 
B. Constant: "Arrest of Jesus." 
Told: "Peter's Denial." 
Harrach: "Peter's Denial." 
Dollman: "Judas Iscariot." 
B. Constant: "Crucifixion." 
Ender: "Holy Women at the Tomb." 
Girardet: "Walk to Emmaus." 
Girardet: "Supper at Emmaus." 
Kiisthardt: "Peace Be Unto You." 
Hunt: "Light of the World." 
A. Abbey: "Jesus Stands at the 


John Baptist Puvis de Chavannes: "Beheading 

John the Baptist." 

Apostles A. van der Werff: "Descent of the 

Holy Ghost." 
Millais: "St. Stephen." 


Apostles Raphael: *'St. Peter's Deliverance 

from Prison." 
Michetti: ''Conversion of Saul." 
Copping: ' 'Paul on the Castle Stairs." 
J. Sant: "The Infant Timothy Un- 
folding the Scriptures." 
LeSueur: "St. Paul at Ephesus." 
Shields: "St. Paul at Rome." 
Long: "Diana or Christ." 

Note. — Many of these story-pictures will be found 
more useful in the Junior age. They are listed here for 
convenience of reference. Always use the best picture 
available when telling a story to children, whether or not 
they can appreciate all its details, its symbolism, its 
poetry. Use as much of the picture as they can assim- 

Teaching Material 

Imagery, its nature and sources. — Write out a 
complete description of some character in a story you 
have never seen pictured. This is a test for the sharpness 
of your imagery. 

Enlarging one's imagery. — Make a list of twenty 
things with which you are tolerably familiar and which 
you can definitely image, but which actually you have 
never seen. How in each case did you come by these 

The permanence of childhood imagery. — Make a 
short list of still vivid mental images created before you 
were five years old. How many of these are of book 
illustrations or other pictures? 

How to select pictures for children. — From your 
own experience make a list of pictures suited to children 


below nine years old. Mention some supposedly suitable 
ones that your experience has shown to be unsuitable. 
What is the objection to them? 

The picture-story method. — Try out the suggestions 
and report how they work. 

The child's use of a picture book. — Test a child 
who does not know how to read and see how fully he 
will tell a story by means of the illustrations. 

After-effects. — Have pictures ever been to you more 
than a source of pleasant reveries? 

People of the Bible in pictures. — Test a child with 
a series of pictures to see how many Bible characters he 
can identify. How much of the story of each picture can 
he give or how many of the details of the picture can 
he interpret? Report. 



j One of the sure symptoms of the arrival of boyhood 
! and girlhood, as distinct from childhood, is the waning of 
i the fairy-story interest. This symptom is less pronounced 
with girls than with boys, but with both alike the 
''hardening" process is going on. The mind is less fluid, 
less suggestible. Contact with the world is teaching the 
difference between fact and fancy, and growing experience 
is demanding less fancy and more fact. 
I The passion for reality. — The childhood request, 
/ "Tell me a story," now becomes 'Tell me a true story." 
When the status of the story as told is undefined, the 
question that caps the story usually is, "Was that a true 
story?" The demand, however, is less for a story that 
actually happened than for one that conceivably might 
have happened. The prince with the green feather in his 
hat who wakes the sleeping princess in the forest is no 
more acceptable than the mother bunnie who warns 
Cotton-tail not to go into Mr. McGregor's garden while 
she has gone to market. Both situations alike are now 
seen to be nonsense. It is more fun to own a real rabbit 
than to hear about Cotton-tail; more fun to have a hut 
in the woods and trap woodchucks than to hunt a 
princess in the imagination. The world has become a 
real world. There are truly men and women in it, boys 
and girls. There are real adventures to be dared, real 
fights to be won; and the hero of every story heard is 
the boy himself. 

This growing passion for reality is reflected and, of 
course, developed by the day-school curriculum. The 



story material becomes biographical and then historical, 
while for backgrounds there are no longer clouds and far- 
away forests but real places on the earth, and a map. 
Geography, as well as history, has arrived. The solid 
earth is beneath the feet, there are great mountains and 
a real ocean, there are lands beyond the sea with strange 
yet human people in them, and all these things call to 
the imagination with a resistless power. It is the world 
demanding to be known as well as the child demanding 
to know, for the child must become the man and must 
shape the world to its destiny. 

The art interests of juniors. — At first sight this 
rising tide of realism might seem to sweep all art aside. 
In one sense it does, for probably there is no period in 
the individual's development when the usual art-picture 
has less appeal. Pictures that represent other people's 
states of mind are not real to boys and girls. Pictured 
loves and hates, joys and sorrows and soul-experiences in 
general are largely beyond the realm of appreciation be- 
cause they are subjective realities. 

On the other hand, the picture that expresses what the 
boy or girl conceives to be a reality has a strong attrac- 
tion. Reality for the preadolescent is objective reality. 
A shipwreck is real, the place where Washington crossed 
the Delaware is real; Chateau-Thierry, Troy, Rome, 
Bunker Hill, the north pole are real. The art that con- 
cerns itself with such reahties has an immediate appeal 
and is a most useful adjunct to the history book and the 
story of adventure. Such art, however, is hardly art at 
all. It is rather a pictorial substitute for art, yet its 
function is precisely that of the imaginative art we have 
recommended for children, namely, to enlarge the expe- 
rience, to give a definite focus for the attention, and to 
create appropriate imagery for future use. 


Realistic art in religious teaching. — Perhaps the one 
baneful thing about most of our past teaching of rehgion 
is the note of unreaHty in it. Somehow there grows up 
in the minds of our children the idea that Jesus and 
David are all of a piece with Perseus and Jack the Giant 
Killer, and that all of the adventures recorded in the 
Bible school leaflets took place not only "way off" but 
up in the sky. This impression lasts into adolescence and 
sometimes into maturity, and may be one potent reason 
why so much of our rehgious life occupies a water-tight 
compartment quite unconnected with the real business 
of living. 

Jesus is not a myth, he was a man. If he was a man, 
he lived somewhere and at some time; he did things, he 
went to places, he talked and walked with men and 
women. Where did he live? What did he do? How did 
he look when he did it? and what did his companions 
look like? These are all legitimate questions in the 
mouths of boys and girls. The average teacher, through 
lack of knowledge, cannot answer these questions; the 
average religious picture does not answer them because 
of the ignorance of the artist or because of his preoccupa- 
tion with other values than objective ones. But the 
questions can be answered correctly by two types of 
pictures, one of which at least we shall have to classify 
as art — the work of certain nineteenth-century artists 
like Tissot, Hunt, Siemiradski and others — and actual 

Realistic artists. — James Tissot} Perhaps chief 
among the reaHsts who have painted bibhcal backgrounds 
is the French Tissot. The facts of his career can be found 
in any modern dictionary of art. The essential point, 

1 James Tissot: The Life of Jesus Christ (3 vols. The Werner Co., New York, 
1903; 365 compositions). 


however, is that he met with what might be tenned a 
conversion in Paris in the year 1885 and resolved hence- 
forth to devote his art to the service of Christ. He there- 
fore went to Palestine, lived and painted there for ten 
years, and brought back a wonderful series of paintings. 
His purpose was to make Christ a living reality, to place 
him in his own country and show him against the 
background of the mountains of Judaea and the hills of 
Galilee. The religious purpose which actuated him and 
which to a certain extent shows in his pictures redeems 
the art from being commonplace; in fact, at times Tissot 
almost startles us by his appreciation of spiritual values. 

But the chief worth of his pictures lies in their realism. 
From the wrinkled and twisted hills of the Judaean 
wilderness where John preached, to the Via Dolorosa and 
the rock of Calvary, he is presenting us with Palestine, 
pure and undefiled: the very contours of the land are 
there, the houses of stone, the rocky wheat-fields, the 
olive orchards, the many-colored men and women that 
singly and in groups thread its devious trails, and even 
the specific types of character that one meets to-day in 
the Holy Land. The Tissot pictures are almost a colored 
guidebook to Palestine, so comprehensively and so 
definitely has the artist selected his landscapes and his 
people. His work is therefore exceedingly valuable for 
purposes of instruction during the Junior age, for it cer- 
tainly does give a touch of reality to the Bible stories and 
creates an imagery, which is, all things considered, the 
most satisfactory that has yet been created. The land 
may have changed somewhat since Bible times, and the 
customs a good deal, but at least no one would mistake 
his pictures for anything else than Palestine. 

After his return to France Tissot was persuaded to 
illustrate the Old Testament in a similar way. This task 

Sir Edw. J. Poynter: Joseph Presents Jacob to Pharaoh 

Ask the sharp eyes in your class to discover the following: six 
lions, four cartouches (ovals containing the king's name), two kinds 
of fan, a fish pond, a harp. From a library get a book that explains 
the Egyptian language— for example. Dwellers on the Nile, Budge; 
and the lists of kings' names in Baedeker's guidebook to Egypt — and 
see if the class can find the meanings of any of the characters used 
in the decoration. 

The dramatic meeting of the old sheik and the young Pharaoh is 
staged in an open porch that fronts the courtyard of the palace. The 
screen wall that keeps out the curious eyes of the world is sculptured 
and painted to represent a hedge of lotus flowers, the buds and 
blossoms standing straight and tall in beautiful symmetry as the real 
ones do in the lake. The court is cooled by a pool of water, the marble 
edge of which appears behind Jacob's robe, and it is decorated and 
shaded by trees planted in pots. These are no doubt "almug" trees 
such as Solomon's navy brought from the ends of the earth. 

The details of decoration are those that are everywhere found on 
Egyptian temples and tombs. See the great pillars, with their bands 
of sculpture. The designs were first engraved in the stone; then the 
whole was covered with a thin coating of stucco and brilliantly 
painted. On the pillar behind Pharaoh you can see the blossoming 
lotus on the lower band, the symbols of immortal life on the third, 
the king's name and titles on the upper. The Egyptians were fond 
of decoration and used color more lavishly than we do. The chair in 
which the king sits is decorated with the hawk-head of Horus, the 
sun god. The hawk, with outspread wings, appears on one of the 
fans also. The painter thus reminds us that Pharaoh is a repre- 
sentative and descendant of the sun-god. About the platform on 
which the throne rests, stalks a procession of lions, symbols of the 
majesty of the king; while at the corner is the double cartouche 
containing his names. The canopy over the king's head is supported 
by two delicate and prettily decorated posts, which may be seen just 
beyond Joseph. 

Who is the center of interest? What kind of person is Pharaoh? 
Read the Bible story in Gen. 47. i-io, and tell what question Pharaoh 
has just asked? What is Jacob replying? Why should Jacob take 
hold of Joseph's shoulder? Why should Jacob be bold enough to 
look the great Pharaoh in the eye? Why should Jacob have blessed 
Pharaoh, and not Pharaoh Jacob? 


he began, using various sketches he had made while in 
Palestine, and before he died he had completed a large 
part of the Old Testament. Though for the personages 
he had to draw more upon his imagination than in the 
New Testament series, yet it is surprising to discover the 
amount of scholarship that went into the making of his 
historic backgrounds. His Egyptian scenes are particu- 
larly fine; evidently, he copied his types and his costumes 
from the monuments themselves. His pictures of the old 
Hebrew chiefs, of the Canaanites, and even of the 
antediluvians, are wonderfully vivid and serve to remind 
us that the Old Testament characters were still in the 
half-civilized stage. 

William Holman Hunt. — Hunt was also a reaHst 
who visited Palestine four times and who made it a 
matter of conscience to paint what he saw. His output 
is small compared with Tissot's but exceedingly illuminat- 
ing. In his '^Triumph of the Innocents" the background 
is the hills not far from Gaza, the donkey is a portrait, 
the carpenter's tools on Joseph's back were bought by the 
painter in Bethlehem, Mary's dress was a Bethlehem 
woman's costume. So in his "Shadow of the Cross" the 
tools in the carpenter's shop were all painted from the 
object, and even the jewels of the Magi are decorated 
with motifs from Persepohs and Antioch. 

There are many other artists of the nineteenth century 
whose backgrounds can be trusted. In some cases the 
painters went to Palestine, in others they studied photo- 
graphs or in other ways known to antiquarians and 
scholars possessed themselves of the necessary informa- 
tion. Their pictures are therefore doubly valuable. Not 
only do they interpret for us the human and religious 
values of the incident they portray, but they put the 
incident back into its correct environment. One has 


nothing to unlearn in such pictures, even though one 
visits Palestine. The following artists are substantially 
accurate in their backgrounds: 

Antonio Ciseri, Albert von Keller, 

F. V. du Mond, Edwin Long, 

Eugene Girardet, Elimar Piglhein, 

Arthur Hacker, Sir Edward Poynter, 

Ferdinand von Harrach, Hendrik Siemiradski, 
William Hole, W. L. Taylor. 

It is hardly necessary to add that no painter previous 
to the nineteenth century or previous to the middle of 
the nineteenth century has given us this historically 
accurate background. The old masters used their fancy 
or painted contemporary landscapes indiscriminately for 
backgrounds, for their chief interest was in the personages 
of the painting or in the truth to be expressed. Their 
emotions and thoughts are the values which their pictures 
embody. Realism in this geographical and historical 
sense is the gift of the nineteenth century. 

The use of photographs. — While photographs may 
not be regarded as works of art, it would be pedantic to 
omit some mention of them in this chapter. Photographs 
are an extremely valuable adjunct to teaching; but to 
be most completely valuable, photographs should be not 
merely looked at but studied. In preparation for teach- 
ing, a teacher should go over the various photographs 
with a magnifying glass in order to discover all the minute 
details that can possibly be of service in illustrating the 
story. Ideally the best method is to use not a photograph 
but a stereograph and, if possible, a stereograph that has 
been explained.^ 
The use of photographs in class is somewhat of a 

1 See the Underwood & Underwood series (send for catalogue, 417 Fifth 
Avenue, New York). 


problem. If one could have a stereopticon, pictures could 
be made the object of study by the entire class and all 
could see pretty well; but if one has only a single small 
photograph or stereograph, it is impossible for more than 
three or four to get anything like an adequate view of it. 
But given either a picture on the screen or several photo- 
graphs, a teacher would perhaps work out in detail 
something like this '? 

Position i6. A Samaritan Woman at JacoVs Well 

Do you see the mouth of the well? What is it made 
of? How wide is it? Does the stone look worn? How 
deep a well did you ever see? Was the water cold? Do 
you know how deep this one was? (About one hundred 
and twenty feet.) Is it as deep now? (About seventy- 
five now.) Why not? Do you suppose it is as narrow as 
this all the way down? (It is fifteen feet around, lower 
down.) What is that thing in the corner for? To whom 
does the jar belong? How does she carry it when empty? 
(On its side on her head.) How when full? Whose rope 
is this? Of what material is the bucket made? At what 
season of the year did Jesus come here? (John 4. 35.) 
Point to where he sat down. How far away was Sychar? 
Why do you think the woman came so far for water? Do 
you think she looked and dressed like the women you 
see there now? What impresses you about her costume? 
Point to where you think Jesus was when the disciples 
came back. When he pointed to the growing "harvest" 
in which direction did he point? Point that direction 

Picture journeys. — One workable device with pic- 
tures is to have the pupils construct picture journeys or 
illustrate narratives or parables. Suppose the lesson is on 

2 Abbreviated from William Byron Forbush: Illuminated Lessons in the Life of 
Jesus. Underwood and Underwood. 


the baptism of Jesus and the members of the class are 
asked to write in their own words a brief story. Such a 
narrative may be illustrated by a little map of the Jordan 
valley with the traditional site of the baptism indicated 
in red ink, by a picture of the Jordan valley, or by a 
picture of the Jordan at the traditional place of baptism ; 
and then by one or two pictures of the great artists, 
beginning perhaps with Giotto and ending with Tissot. 

It would naturally be a considerable task to select 
these pictures and some pupils would be more successful 
at it than others. Old magazines like the National Geo- 
graphic, old Sunday school quarterlies, old Bible story 
books the bindings of which are worn out or which are 
otherwise passe, or even the illustrated booklets of tourist 
companies will furnish material, while some of the picture 
companies mentioned in the Preface will sell reproduc- 
tions of the old masters and in some cases actual views 
of Palestine. To save expense, the class may well unite 
in the construction of a narrative of the life of Christ or 
of some other biblical character, in which the picture 
gleanings of all will be combined. 

The school equipment. — Every Bible school should 
invest enough money to give its teachers a working 
equipment of realistic pictures. Perhaps the most widely 
useful as well as the most expensive is a collection of good 
lantern sHdes. A set of one hundred well-chosen views is 
probably sufficient to cover the essential backgrounds of 
the stories usually taught in Bible school. Some par- 
ticular teacher should be charged with the duty of master- 
ing this collection, reading about it from all available 
sources, comparing pictures with printed descriptions, 
and so in a way becoming an authority on Palestinian 
backgrounds. Naturally, if such a one has visited Pales- 
tine, he is already in a position of power, but a fairly 


accurate knowledge of Palestine can be obtained merely 
from reading, especially using such books as the fol- 

1. George Adam Smith: Historical Geography of the 
Holy Land. Probably the best and certainly the most 
delightful geography book ever written for adults. 

2. George Adam Smith: Jertisalem (two volumes). 

3. Ellsworth Huntington: Palestine and Its Transfor- 

4. Laura Wild: Geographic Backgrounds for Biblical 

5. Elihu Grant: Peasantry of Palestine, 

6. Masterman: Studies in Galilee. 

7. Paton: Jerusalem in Bible Times. 

8. The Advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force ^ 
191 7-18 (London, Official Record, 1919. 6 shillings.) 

For list of pictures adapted to Junior grade stories, see 
under Chapter IV. 

Teaching Material 

The passion for reality. — According to your expe- 
rience, at what age do boys generally lose interest in 
fairy stories? At what age do girls? Make a list of 
stories found most useful at ten years. What elements 
in these stories differentiate them from the stories of 
the primary age? 

The art interests of juniors. — According to your 
experience, what pictures (by title) spontaneously inter- 
est boys and girls of twelve? What other pictures can be 
made interesting to them? Would fuller knowledge on 
your part enable you to use pictures more widely and 
effectively, or, in your judgment, should the picture 
method be omitted during this period? What exceptions 
to the statements made in this section would you take? 


Realistic art in religious teaching. — If your Bible 
school gives a biblical play or a pageant during the year, 
use Tissot's pictures as a source book for costumes and 
properties. Look up and report on a complete costume 
for some type of person in Palestine, for example: a 
shepherd, a farmer, a village woman, a village chief, a 
city boy or girl, a priest, a high priest, a Roman soldier. 
Use Tissot for a basis and try to verify your findings by 
consulting other artists and various articles in the biblical 
encyclopaedias. Elihu Grant's Peasantry of Palestine will 
be found useful. 

The use of photographs. — Choose a fairly detailed 
photograph of some scene in Palestine. Inform yourself 
about it from all possible sources, then make up a series 
of questions and comments on it similar to Forbush's. 

Picture journeys. — Try out with your class or by 
yourself a picture-journey or illustrated Bible narrative. 
What result? 

The school equipment. — Report on the equipment 
of your Bible school for teaching biblical geography and 


It is understood by educators and by parents generally 
that the Junior age is the habit-forming age. It is sup- 
posed that habits are formed largely by the repetition of 
the desirable act. When the brain paths have been worn 
with sufficient distinctness and depth the correct mental 
and physical reaction will take place without any further 
attention. This expresses some of the truth about habit- 
formation, especially about the formation of physical 
habits. But when it comes to the formation of habits 
of thought, spiritual attitudes, temperaments, something 
besides the repetition of an act is necessary. An ideal 
must enter in. The youth must see and love certain de- 
sirable ends in life, certain good things, certain noble 
people. These supply a motive for the practice of the act 
or attitude, until ideal and habit both together become 
a part of character. 

Training by hero-worship. — The most fruitful 
method of training a boy or girl in right thinking 
and right living is to utilize the so-called instinct of 
hero-worship — the ^'predilection for demonstrated great- 
ness." When this instinct is analyzed it is seen to 
rest upon the inherent tendency to identify oneself 
with the chief person talked about or admired. If 
it is a story that is being told, the hero becomes hero 
by virtue of enlisting the sympathy of the listener to 
such an extent that the listener becomes in imagination 
the hero himself. As the story progresses the listener 
passes through all the phases of reflection and judgment 



and feeling that the hero himself experiences. Does a 
difficulty present itself? The listener is puzzled in 
advance as the hero is about the proper method of pro- 
cedure. Has an act been performed by some other 
character in the story? Instantly judgment is passed 
upon it and the response frequently comes out spon- 
taneously from the listener, "That wasn't right." "He 
ought to be punished for that." "That is what I would 
have done." 

Imagination and sympathy are here enlarging the 
child's experience. Having felt with the hero, passed 
through trials and conquered with the hero, the child 
knows how good it is to be that sort of person, for he 
has now experienced the beatitude in his own high heart. 
The memory of that story becomes thereafter a constant 
incentive to high living, and, as many persons could 
testify, has come to the rescue of the boy at critical points 
in his own experience. This, of course, is the great 
justification of story-telling and the great argument why 
stories should be well told, powerfully told, and worth 
being told. 

The pictured hero. — Now just as the hearer by 
imagination and sympathy absorbs the personality of 
the recited hero, so the looker absorbs the pictured 
hero. There is this added advantage, however: with 
the story-picture the imagery produced is sharper than 
that which is aroused by the words of the story alone. 
It is therefore more easily recalled and more permanent. 
Moreover, with this sharpness and vividness there goes 
an enhanced feeling, provided only that when the story 
was originally presented the feeling values were called 
forth. It is therefore possible to teach morals, to incul- 
cate virtues, and strengthen habits just as surely and 
effectively — perhaps more effectively — by pictures than 


by the spoken word. Only the picture needs a skillful 
expositor as the story needs a skillful teller. 

The range of pictures presented by art for exploitation 
in this field is enormous. It covers the whole area of 
mythology and of history, it includes scenes from the Old 
and New Testaments, from church history, and from 
literature. Wherever great men have acted nobly there 
is a theme for the artist, and wherever artists have drawn 
vividly there is material for the teacher. 

The hero universal. — To be a hero one must embody 
certain virtues that are recognized and loved the world 
over. Because these virtues are broadly human they 
are found in all countries and in all religions. Gods may 
be heroes, in fact, they must be if the people who worship 
them are to find in them their ideals. For Carlyle, at 
least, Odin was the typical hero-god, one who called forth 
the admiration of men by his feats of strength. Horus 
was for the Egyptians a type of divine heroism and self- 
sacrifice, because he fought to avenge the death of his 
father Osiris, even losing an eye in the contest. Thence- 
forth the "Horus Eye," so frequently seen in Egyptian 
art, became one of the Egyptians' most sacred symbols. 
In the Hindu faith the god Siva stands for a similar ideal 
— he who drank the world poison in order that gods and 
men might live. 

Semi-divine creatures of all mythologies have lived in 
men's imaginations through the ages because they were 
heroes. The Greek Prometheus is the favorite type of 
one who in his endeavor to help men defies Fate (Breton 
Riviere). Of this heroic principle — self-sacrificing toil 
for others — there are many embodiments in history, 
literature, and art. From the Greek, Heracles, Odysseus, 
and most of the chiefs of the Iliad at some moment of 
their career; from the Hindu, Arjuna who did the great 


penance; from Buddhistic lore, the Buddha himself; 
from the Bible, Elijah and Paul; from the Middle Age, 
Roland, Arthur and many of his knights, and many a 
great and many a humble saint. A little research would 
extend the list indefinitely. 

Other virtues besides self-sacrifice are a part of the 
composite we call hero. There must be loyalty to some 
person or cause or principle greater than oneself; there 
must be courage under all circumstances; patience under 
undeserved and unescapable suffering; self-conquest; the 
resisting of temptation; tenacity of purpose when the 
purpose is good; in general, a "strength in right causes'* 
which, according to Professor Coe, is the essence of 
virtue itself. 

To find illustrations of the incarnation of all these 
aspects of heroism would lead us far afield. Yet the task 
would be a fascinating one and would serve to show us 
how widespread is virtue, how lovable, how noble, and 
also how frequently the hero has been the inspiration of 
art. No more rewarding study could be undertaken 
with groups of preadolescent boys and girls than heroism 
as it has been depicted by the great artists of all coun- 
tries through the centuries. 

A hero from mythology. — To take a sample from 
the realm of mythology: Turner has a powerful picture 
in the National Gallery, London, called "Odysseus De- 
riding Polyphemus." One has to hunt for both characters 
in the picture, for Polyphemus is so big and vague that 
one can hardly distinguish him from the mountain and 
the cloud, while Odysseus is so small that were it not 
for the leading lines of the composition and for the fact 
that his mantle is flaming red he would be quite undis- 
covered on the lofty stern of his ship. But in these two 
figures lies a part of the message of the epic. Polyphemus 


was huge and Odysseus was small. It had been a contest 
of bigness and brute force and savage inhospitality with 
littleness and sharpness of wit and devotion to com- 
panions. And now as the sun rises out of the 
sea, banishing the mists of the morning, arousing 
Zephyrus to fill the sails that the sailors are shak- 
ing out and tingeing with hope and courage the 
black night clouds that enshroud the ancient enemy, 
Odysseus sails out into a new day. The night is 
past, the danger is overcome, the enemy has been 
beaten and maimed; and the courage that did not 
shrink, the keen mind that did not fail in its resourceful- 
ness, and the stout heart that did not lose its faith in 
itself or its divine Friend are here victorious. You can 
almost hear the defiant shout of Odysseus as he turns 
and shakes his fist against the angry giant. ^'Cyclops! 
If ever mortal man asks you the story of the ugly blind- 
ing of your eye, say that Odysseus, the sacker of cities, 
made you blind." The picture is a wonderful embodi- 
ment of the Greek ideal of intellect and courage and 
devotion to companions out of which sprang the im- 
mortal history of Hellas. 

A heroine from church history. — Heroes may be 
found for all occasions. Is the question that of the Great 
Decision, when a boy or girl must take his stand for 
Christ or against him? Edwin Long has a picture to 
meet this crisis — ''Christ or Diana" — a picture that 
makes a powerful appeal to a boy or girl. On the one side 
the great Arena and the officials that represent the 
majesty of Rome; on the other the beautiful Christian 
girl who is asked merely to sprinkle a little salt upon the 
altar as an act of worship. Her soldier lover whispers in 
her ear urging her to do this simple thing, while the roar 
of the wild beasts waiting to be unshackled adds its 


argument of terror. It is a moment of indecision, as you 
can see by the face and eyes of the heroine. What would 
you do under these circumstances? What ought you to 
do? Will you love or despise the girl if she refuses to 
sprinkle the salt, and remains true to her Christian vows? 
. . . And here is my parallel case. What shall I do with 
this Man who is called Christ? 

Heroes from mediaeval legend. — There are scores 
of mediaeval legends that appeal powerfully to youth and 
that have been nobly illustrated by the masters. In the 
Boston Public Library Edwin Abbey has presented the 
"Grail Legend" with wonderful beauty and vividness. 
There are the chief personages of that glorious cycle that 
has enriched the imagination of boyhood ever since 
King Arthur's day. There is the vigil of Galahad as he 
watches his armor at the crypt of the nunnery while the 
sisters hold their great candles in silence behind him. 
There is the trial of the Siege Perilous when, in the pres- 
ence of the white-winged angel throng and all the knights 
of the Table Round, Merlin and the great king watch the 
youthful Galahad approach the seat of testing. There is 
that martial picture of all the knights of Arthur's table 
clad in full armor, each with his mystic standard on his 
lance, kneeling in the church while they consummate 
their vows to follow the Holy Grail. All the spirit of 
chivalry and romance is compressed in these masterful 
paintings; and whether the boyish ideal is Launcelot or 
Galahad or Arthur or Merlin, he can find here not only 
food for the imagination, but powerful stirrings of the 
spirit toward the knightly virtues which they embody: 

"To reverence the King as if he were 
Their conscience, and their conscience as their King, 
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, 
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, 


To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, 
To honor his own word as if his God's, 
To live sweet lives in purest chastity. 
To love one maiden only, cleave to her 
And worship her by years of noble deeds 
Until they won her." 

There is a beautiful picture by Brickdale that ought to 
appeal powerfully to Boy Scouts. It is the picture of 
"St. Christopher," a sort of glorified commentary on that 
article in the Scout Law "Do a good turn every day." 
Every boy knows the story of how Christopher vowed to 
serve the strongest man in all the world and was brought 
by progressive eliminations to serve at last the Christ by 
carrying pilgrims over the mountain stream that led to 
a shrine. One fearful night when Christopher was an old 
man came the call to carry a small lad over the raging 
torrent; and when the good man had brought his burden 
over after infinite pain and danger, and had "set the 
child down safely and gently, he looked upon him with 
astonishment and said, *Who art thou, child, that hath 
placed me in such extreme peril? Had I carried the whole 
world on my shoulders, the burden had not been heavier!* 
And the child replied, 'Wonder not, Christopher, for 
thou hast not only borne the world, but Him who made 
the world, upon thy shoulders. Me wouldst thou serve 
in this thy work of charity: and behold I have accepted 
thy service.' Then the miraculous child vanished." 

Even a boy can be led to appreciate the wonderful 
allegory of this picture, and the picture can glorify for 
him for many a day the humble deed of service cheerfully 
done for the sake of an ideal. 

Heroines from history. — For a good many years 
teachers have played up heroes for boys, but they have 
done a good deal less to discover heroines for girls. Girls 


are abject hero-worshipers; they worship with an in- 
tensity unknown to boys, and a ''crush" is one of the 
normal phenomena of their adolescence. Not all girls 
will choose heroines wisely — as who does? It is our 
privilege, therefore, to ignore with them the heroines of 
the mirror, the puff, the dance, the screen, and even of 
the woman's club and the professor's chair, and to 
magnify the heroines of true and lofty attainment, 
women who have devoted great gifts to some absorbing 
task and left their stamp upon the world. 

History furnishes many noble examples, from the 
Virgin Mary to Edith Cavell : great lovers and saints like 
Paula, Heloise, Saint Theresa; wonderful mothers like 
Monica, mother of Augustine; Blanche of Castile, mother 
of Saint Louis; Osburga, mother of Alfred the Great; 
Susanna, mother of the Wesleys; great rulers like the 
Empress Theodora and the Countess Matilda; angels of 
mercy like Florence Nightingale. 

One of the heroines best suited to the religious needs 
of adolescent girls is Joan of Arc, for she represents com- 
plete surrender to the divine Voice that calls to service. 
Pictures are abundant. Bastien-Lepage has presented 
her most appealingly as she stands under the "fairy tree," 
her soul intent on the call that meant for her such self- 
surrender and such heroism. Maillart^ has visualized for 
us the Voices as three beautiful angels. Wagrez^ pictures 
them as presenting to the shrinking maid a vision of 
herself in full armor. Doyen^ shows Joan kneeling to con- 
secrate herself and her arms to the great cause. Ingres^ 
shows her at the altar while her soldiers kneel behind 
her. Scherrer^ gives her entry into Orleans. Lenepvue^ 
shows a variety of incidents — the Voices, the storming of 
Orleans, the coronation at Rheims, the martyrdom. 

^ Photos, Braun et Cie., New York. 

Lenepviie: The Vision of Joan of Arc 
The Pantheon, Paris 

Lenepvue: The Vision of Joan of Arc. The Pantheon, Paris 

Joan stands under the "faery tree" in front of her home in Dom- 
reray. What details suggest her early environment? What does the 
distaff indicate of her character? What does the dropped spindle 
show? What is she looking at? Why are not the other people in the 
picture aware of what is going on? The upper left-hand spirit in the 
tree has a palm branch. Why? The one on the right has her hands 
folded in prayer or adoration. Why? The angel whispering in Joan's 
ear points forward with one hand and presents with the other a 
sword so that Joan can easily grasp it. Write out what the angel is 
saying. Read the account of this incident in Mark Twain : Personal 
Recollections of Joan of Arc, Chapters II and VI. (Not a humorous 
work.) Harper, 1898. 

Was Joan really called of heaven? From the modern psychological 
viewpoint, how would you explain her "voices"? Are the mediaeval 
and modem explanations antagonistic? Explain in both the religious 
and scientific way the call of Abraham, of Moses, of Isaiah, of Jesus 
at his baptism, Paul, Augustine, Saint Francis, John Bunyan, or the 
painter Tissot. Just what is "being called"? Were you ever "called"? 
Did anyone ever do a great work for humanity without being called? 
May one be called and yet fail to do a great work? 

What constitutes the real greatness of Joan? Is this form of great- 
ness beyond your reach? If you were convinced that all of your 
noble impulses were sent direct from heaven, what would be the 
consequences in your acts and character? Are they so sent? 


Even though the military ideal is as foreign to a modern 
girl as it was to Joan, the religious ideal that was the 
inspiration of her militancy is precisely what the twen- 
tieth century needs. The story of her call and surrender 
to the divine will, identical in essence with the call of 
Moses, Isaiah, Jesus and Paul, is to-day as powerful to 
shape the life of American girlhood as it ever was and 
still is in France. 

Further suggestions. — Many of the pictures listed 
below do not rise above the level of illustrations. Yet 
they strengthen the appeal of the story — help in the 
visualization and add to the emotional reaction. The 
following books will give references to further material 
in their respective fields: 

Julia Addison: Classic Myths in Art (Page. 1910. Illus.) 

Clara E. Clement: Heroines of the Bible in Art. (Page. 
1900. Illus.) 

Noble and Coomaraswamy: Myths of the Hindus and 
Buddhists (1914) : 

"The god Siva Drinking the World Poison,'^ pp. 314- 

"Arjuna's Penance," p. 166; also V. A. Smith: History 
of Fine Arts in India and Ceylon, pp. 220-221. 

"Yudhishthira and His Dog," pp. 210-216. 

"Death of Bhisma," pp. 191-196. 

"Hanuman the Monkey-God," pp. 21-22, 64, 72, 78. 

"Buddha Attaining Enlightenment," frontispiece. 

"Buddha as Mendicant," p. 276. 

"Rama and Sita," hero and heroine of the East Indian 
Epic, the Ramayana. These characters still mold the 
ideals of Indian boys and girls. For a condensed account, 
see pp. 23-117. For pictures, see pp. 122, 128, 166, 188, 
212, 220; also E. O. Martin: The Gods of India (1914), 
pp. 1 18-129. 


King Arthur and his Round Table: 

Edwin Abbey: The Quest of the Holy Grail. Boston 
Public Library. 

Illustrated editions. ^Le Morte D^ Arthur, by Sir 
Thomas Malory (4 vols.). The Medici Society, London. 
1901. Fine colored plates by W. Russell Flint (very 

Text and illustrations in black and white by Howard 
Pyle (Scribners) : 

"King Arthur and his Knights." 

"Champions of the Round Table." 

"Sir Launcelot and his Companions." 

"The Grail and the Passing of Arthur." 

Henry Gilbert: King Arthu/s Knights. Illustrated by 
Walter Crane (Stokes, 191 7). 

Sidney Lanier: The Boys' King Arthur . ^Illustrated 
by N. C. Wyeth (Scribners, 1919). 

John Bunyan: Pilgrim's Progress. Illustrated by the 
Rhead Bros. (The Century Co., 1898). 

Robin Hood. ^Illustrated by N. C. Wyeth (McKay, 

Peggy Webling: Saints and Their Stories. Illustrated 
by Gayley Robinson (Stokes, 1920). 

Nathaniel Hawthorne: Wonder Book. Illustrated by 
Maxfield Parrish (Duffield, 19 19). 

William Hole: Life of Jesus of Nazareth. 80 Pictures 
(Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 191 2). Descriptive 
prefaces by Archdeacon Wm. Sinclair and Professor 
George Adam Smith. 

Watts: Sir Galahad (Eton College Chapel). 

Puvis de Chavannes: History of Ste. Genivieve (Pan- 
theon, Paris). 

Brozik: The Condemnation of John Huss. 

* Especially fine. 


Teaching Material 

Training by hero-worship. — What heroes or hero- 
ines did you have as a child? In what ways did they 
influence your thinking or your conduct? List the heroes 
of the boys and girls with whom you have to do. 

The pictured hero. — Did you ever find any of your 
heroes represented in art? Take the list of heroes as- 
sembled under the previous section and discover by any 
means at your command which of them have been 
adequately presented by artists. 

The hero universaL — Add to your Hst of hero- 
stories a new series — say from India — and study any 
illustrations you can find, with a view to teaching by 
means of them. Try out the story at your first oppor- 
tunity, and report. Did you discover new virtues, or a 
new setting for old ones? 

A hero from mythology. — Find illustrations of your 
favorite mythological hero and work out a story based 

A heroine from church history. — Do the same with 
a striking heroine from church history. 

Heroes from mediaeval legend. — Do the same with 
a hero from mediaeval legend. 

Heroines from history. — Do the same with a heroine 
from history. 

Further suggestions. — Find out what history your 
young people are studying in school; look up any his- 
torical paintings that embody events in that history; in 
an "evening at home" have a session in which the artist 
may vivify the past for this group. Report on the result. 



There are many reasons why art should make a strong 
appeal to the adolescent. During these momentous years 
there is greater sensitivity and power to grasp the details 
of a picture; a marked increase of capacity to discover 
meanings — to feel; and a particular responsiveness to 
spiritual suggestion. Yet in spite of their new capacity 
to appreciate, it is unusual to find young people who are 
really interested in pictures. The cause lies in an almost 
entire lack of guidance. Nobody has taken it upon him- 
self to tell young people what to look for in a picture; 
or, rather, the books on art interpretation make less of 
the message of the artist and more of his technique — his 
mannerisms in expression. The next two chapters will 
show what aspects of religious art may be made in- 
telligible and helpful to adolescents. 

The dawning of adolescence. — Adolescence dawns 
much as the day dawns, slowly, almost imperceptibly, 
until at last with a rush up comes the sun. The instincts 
which come to the surface in adolescence have existed all 
along in embryo and some of them have been manifesting 
themselves with increasing force during the few years 
preceding the great change. But there is from thirteen 
to sLxteen a decided transformation which all teachers 
and parents recognize. 

The books of psychology and pedagogy are full of it. 
In briefest form one may say that in this period all of the 
instincts ripen to completeness. The associative ap- 



paratus in the brain and nervous centers now comes to 
full working capacity, and the reasoning faculties assert 
themselves with new power. These biologic changes are 
the signal for an intellectual renaissance. The mind is 
ready for the world and the mind proceeds to discover 
the world. And it discovers not only the external world 
as revealed by science but the inner world as revealed by 
philosophy and religion. 

Previous to this neither one has existed in the way of 
personal appreciation and grasp. The external world was 
what you saw every day, the internal world was what 
you felt. But now the external world becomes vastly 
larger and is perceived to be highly organized, to be, in 
fact, an organism, the nature of which it is the business 
of science to find out and to manipulate for human ends, 
while the inner world suddenly opens up to the personal 
consciousness with an intimacy and a meaning of which 
the mind and heart of childhood never even faintly 
dreamed. Adolescence is a great voyage of discovery, a 
great adventure. 

The interest in belief. — Childhood is not much con- 
cerned about beliefs. Many things are believed because 
people relate them, especially because parents relate 
them. The apparatus is not yet developed nor has ex- 
perience sufficiently accumulated to weigh evidence and 
to decide what is worthy of belief and what is not. But 
with adolescence comes this new power and this new 
instinct, the instinct to weigh, to accept, to reject. 
Especially is this true in matters of the spirit. Coincident 
with the personalizing of religion is the tendency to 
investigate religion and almost invariably the investiga- 
tion takes at first the form of rejection. "I do not 
believe it" is the usual way of announcing the fact that 
the subject is being thought about. 


This is a perfectly healthy process and should be rec- 
ognized as such by all teachers. Disbelief is a challenge 
to both teacher and pupil. To the pupil it is a challenge 
to prove his disbelief on grounds that an adult will 
accept. To the teacher it is a challenge to lead the youth 
into right belief, perhaps through the expedient of tem- 
porarily accepting negation and letting the youth see 
how it will work out in theory and in practice. But how- 
ever the situation is dealt with, the fact remains that the 
youth is under the necessity of establishing intellectual 
concepts in the field of ethics and religion. His intellec- 
tual salvation depends upon it. Some day he will be a 
man. He must know what he believes and be able to 
give a reason for the faith that is in him. 

Art is a most admirable instrument for teaching re- 
ligious truth. It is an instrument that has been used in 
the past by the church for the purpose of helping people 
to arrive at definite beliefs. It is not so used to-day, but 
it should be restored to its teaching function. 

The historic use of art as religious propaganda. — It 
is interesting to follow the course of dogmatic art through 
the Christian centuries. In the catacombs and other early 
Christian structures, art-forms were used largely to iden- 
tify persons as Christians. On the cofiins and grave 
stones were placed the mystic signs which the brethren 
could interpret but which were meaningless to others (see 
Chapter III, following page 39) . On the walls of churches 
there blazed in Later Byzantine times the symbols of 
orthodoxy. These forms of art are still useful as subjects 
of discussion. Does the mystic fish — the I-Ch-Th-U-S — 
still mean for us that Jesus Christ is God's Son, our 
Saviour? Does the vine with its branches and fruit stand 
for a vital religious experience? In what sense is Christ 
the Alpha and the Omega? Do three intertwined circles 


express anything vital in modern religious thought? Has 
the Lamb lost significance for the twentieth century or 
is there still truth in the sacrificial aspect of salvation? 
The ancient symbols may certainly become points of 
departure for a theological discussion of real import. 

There are other mediaeval expressions of creed which 
may well be examined by the inquiring mind. Why should 
there be such a continual exaltation of the Virgin Mary 
in religious art? Is she indeed the queen of heaven, as 
most artists have pictured her? Has she intercessory 
powers with Jesus which are greater than our own? What 
instinct in the human heart does she satisfy that no one 
else can? Is the mediaeval conception of the imminence 
of death a harmful one, and therefore should such 
pictures as those in the Campo Santo at Pisa and the 
various "Triumphs of Death" by mediaeval artists be 
exhibited to-day, or can they be justified? Such ideas 
evidently had a value for the mediaeval man, and such 
questions can be answered only by the weighing of 
spiritual values. If adolescents love to discuss, here is a 

Then there is the historic rivalry between the Fran- 
ciscans and the Dominicans, reflected in the art of the 
Middle Ages. Take, for example, the Church of Saint 
Francis at Assisi with its decorations by Orcagna, Giotto, 
and others. Is the conception of the Christian life there 
presented a true and valid one, with its emphasis on living 
the life rather than knowing the doctrine? Or, turning 
to the Spanish Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria 
Novella at Florence, shall we agree that the descent of 
the Holy Spirit as there pictured eventuated in doctrine 
on the one hand and the organization of the church on 
the other; that Saint Thomas Aquinas is the apex of 
Christian learning, and that the seven sciences of the 


Trivium and Quadrivium are the true materials of re- 
ligious education, or that the church is upheld by the 
militancy of the Dominicans while heaven is peopled 
with converts from heresy and irreligion chiefly by their 

We must recall too that art was summoned to serve 
the church at the period of its greatest degradation; when 
humanist Popes like Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Alexander 
IV, Julius II and Paul III were heathen at heart, as were 
most of their cardinals and the high officials of the 
hierarchy, yet sought to retain their hold upon the im- 
agination and the loyalty of the people by their munifi- 
cent public works, by chapels like the Sistine and 
churches like Saint Peter's, by the splendors of the 
Borgia apartments and the Stanze of Raphael in the 

And when finally the great schism came and northern 
Europe passed out from under the Pope's dominion to 
establish the Protestant faith, when the church in her 
desperation sought for some means of winning back or 
holding the affection of the common people, she again 
turned to art and in the Jesuit Counter-Reformation 
prescribed the dogmas art should present while she de- 
liberately appealed to the sympathy and the senti- 
mentality of mankind, even in melodramatic fashion, 
through the paintings of the Spanish Ribera, Zurbaran, 
and Murillo, the Italian Carlo Dolce and Guido Reni, and 
the Flemish Rubens. 

Teaching methods. — All these products of art are still 
valuable as teaching material, hut the teacher must, of 
course, know how to use the material. The picture must 
first of all be understood, its purpose and meaning must 
be uncovered and made plain, and then when the par- 
ticular dogma is recognized there properly follows the 

Unknown: The Church Militant and Triumphant 
Spanish Chapel, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence 

If possible, get a large photograph of this picture in order to see 
the details. The picture contains two sections: the upper, heaven; 
the lower, the earth. 

Heaven: At the top, Christ is enthroned in a rainbow and against 
the sun. He holds a book and keys. What do these signify? Below 
his feet is a lamb on an altar, on either side of which are the emblems 
of the four evangelists (angel, lion, ox, eagle). On both sides of 
Christ are groups of angels. The Virgin Mary is standing in the 
group on Christ's right hand. 

Below this upper heaven, on the left, is the heaven of the saved, 
the entrance to which is an arch. Within one recognizes various 
types of people, nuns, monks, martyrs and Old Testament worthies. 
At the door stands Saint Peter with his keys, assisted by two shining 
ones. Saved souls are going in. They are, however, very diminutive, 
to illustrate the Scripture, "Except ye become as little children, etc." 

Earth: The right central portions and all the lower register picture 
the earth. In front of Heaven's gate a Dominican monk is preaching 
and turning sinners from the paths of worldly pleasure. The pleasures 
are suggested by the boys who are climbing trees for their fruit, by 
the four large figures to the right holding a musical instrument, a 
falcon and an ape, and by the row of small dancing figures below. 
In the bottom row other monks, including Saint Dominic himself, are 
preaching and teaching, with such good effect that some of the 
listeners kneel in penitence while one of them tears up his heretical 
book. The animals that jump about in the lower margin are sheep, 
wolves springing upon them, and black and white dogs attacking the 
wolves. These last are Domini canes (Dominicans) "dogs of the 
Lord" whose special business it is to guard the sheep of the flock 
from heresy (Acts 20. 29). A group of rescued lambs may be seen 
lying at the feet of the Pope. 

The lower left half of the space is filled with a picture of the Cathe- 
dral of Florence, supporting which are various spiritual and temporal 
rulers: the Pope with cardinal and bishop and the lower ranks of the 
hierarchy and the church on the left ; the emperor with king and baron 
and the ranks of the laity — chiefly poets and artists — on the right. 

Consider the several items of teaching in this picture. What other ' 
**dogs of the Lord" are there besides Dominicans? Is the salvation 
the monks are preaching a salvation of the head or of the heart? 
Are the worldly pleasures here depicted sinful? What is really meant 
by "Except ye become as little children"? The nearness of the 
saved group to the cathedral would indicate some connection in the 
painter's thought. Is it true that to be in the church is the same as 
being saved? Is it true that the church owes its support chiefly to 
ecclesiastics, rulers, and monks? Has it ever been true? Write out 
a complete translation of this picture — for example, "Christ, who is 
the lamb slain from the foundation of the world, whose incarnation 
and atonement are related in the four Gospels, now has ascended 
into his glory in heaven, where he receives the homage of angels and 
men. He ofifers to all salvation through the Word," etc. How much 
of this statement of belief is true for you? 


discussion of the truth or value of the dogma. The dis- 
cussion brings out all kinds of ideas, some crude and 
some true. 

Such discussion is exceedingly valuable as a classroom 
method. But the discussion should lead somewhere, and 
it is the teacher's function gradually to eliminate the 
half-truths and errors, if he is capable of doing so, and to 
bring the class at last to full truth as we moderns see it. 
This process of thinking one's way through a mediaeval 
or Renaissance conception to a modern one wonderfully 
clarifies a person's ideas and leads not only to an under- 
standing of truth but to an appreciation of the long pro- 
cesses by which the human mind has reached the 

It will be found incidentally that there is a great deal 
of dogmatic material in Christian art. Almost everything 
that has been dogmatized about has been painted, from 
the triune nature of the Deity down to the most recent 
decisions of the church councils — the immaculate con- 
ception of the Virgin Mary and the infallibility of the 
Pope. But the emphasis, of course, had been put, through 
the ages, on the main articles of the Christian creed, on 
the incarnation and the atonement. Previous to the 
Reformation it would seem as if fully seventy-five per 
cent of all the paintings of Christendom exclusive of 
virgins and holy families is devoted to some aspect or 
other of these two primal doctrines. 

The Apostles' Creed interpreted by the masters. — 
For the purpose of opening up this general field it seems 
best to include in this chapter a list of pictures that are 
quite worthy of use in the discussion of doctrine. Nat- 
urally, there are many more pictures available. Only 
those in which the meaning is fairly clear have been 



"I believe in God, the Father almighty, Maker of 

heaven and earth." 
Expressive of fatherly function: 

Michelangelo (Sistine ceiling): "The Creation 
of Adam," "The Creation of Eve." 
Emphasizing the creative function: 
Michelangelo (Sistine ceiling) : "Creation of the 
Sun," "Creation of the Moon." 

II. "and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, Our Lord." 
Expressing his coordination with the Father: 

H. Van Eyck: "Adoration of the Lamb," central 

upper panel. 
Expressing his saving work: 

H. Van Eyck: "Adoration of the Lamb," main 


a, "Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost." 

Emphasizing the miraculous side of the event: 
Q Fra AngeHco : "The Annunciation" (San Marco) . 
Fra Filippo Lippi: "The Annunciation." 
Crivelli: "The Annunciation." 
Murillo: "Immaculate Conception." 
Emphasizing the human-spiritual side: 
Rossetti: "Ecce Ancilla Domini." 
Hacker: "The Annunciation." 

h. "Born of the Virgin Mary." 

Emphasizing the dogmatic side^ that is, the incarna- 
^ tion of the second Person of the Trinity: 

Van Der Goes: "Adoration of the Shepherds." 

Ghirlandaio: "Nativity." 

Van der Weyden: "Adoration of the Wise Men" 



Emphasizing the human side: 
r Von Uhde : "Nativity'' (Berlin National Gallery). 

Merson: "The Arrival at Bethlehem." 

Le Rolle: "Adoration of the Shepherds." 
Emphasizing the mystical and allegorical element: 

Burne- Jones: "The Nativity" (Birmingham 

Church Window). 

Burne- Jones: "The Star of Bethlehem." 

Edwin Long: "Anno Domini." 

Merson: "Repose in Egypt." 

Rape: "Light in Egypt." 

Millais: "Christ in the House of His Parents." 
Portraying the pomp and pageantry of the Renais- 

Gentile da Fabriano: "Adoration of the Elings." 

c. "Suffered under Pontius Pilate." 

Ciseri: "EcceHomo." 

Diirer: Little Passion Series. 

Munkacsy: "Christ Before Pilate." 

Schongauer: "Christ Before Pilate." 

Guido Reni: "Ecce Homo." 

Aertszen: "Journey to Calvary" (BerHn Gallery). 

Beraud: "Journey to Calvary" (Paris Salon, 


Max: "Veronica's Handkerchief." 

Thiersch: "Road to Calvary." 

Tiepolo: "Journey to Calvary." 

Tintoretto: "Journey to Calvary" (S. Rocco). 

d. "Was crucified." 

P Fra Angelico: "The Crucifixion" (San Marco). 

^ Bulldd: "The Crucifixion." 

Burne- Jones: "Crucifixion" (Window at Bir- 


Carri^re: "Christ on the Cross." 

Rubens: "The Crucifixion" (Antwerp Museum). 

Piglhein: "Mori tur in Deo." 

e. "dead and buried." 

Rubens: "Descent from the Cross." 
^ Van der Weyden: "Descent from the Cross" 

Titian: "The Pieta" (Academy, Venice). 
Ciseri: "The Entombment" (Locarno). 
Piglhein: "The Entombment" (Munich) 
Giotto: "The Pieta" (Arena Chapel). 

/. "He descended into Hell." 

Era Angelico: "Descent into Limbo." 
Skovgaard: "Descent into Limbo" (Zeitschrift 
fur bildener Kunst. 19:149). 

g. "On the third day he arose again from the dead." 
y Unknown : "The Resurrection" (Spanish Chapel, 
ji Florence). 

Ender: "Holy Women at the Tomb" (Molde). 

Giotto: "Resurrection" (Arena Chapel). 

Diirer: Greater and lesser Passion series. 

h. "He ascended into heaven and sitteth at the right 
hand of God the Father Almighty." 
Von Uhde: "Ascension." 
Durer: "Adoration of the Trinity" (Vienna). 
Luca della Robbia (relief) : "Ascension" (Cathe- 
dral, Florence). 

i. "From thence he shall come to judge the quick and 
the dead." 
Era Angelico: "Last Judgment" (San Marco, 


Unknown: "Last Judgment" (Campo Santo, 


Michelangelo: "Last Judgment" (Sistine Chapel, 


III. "I believe in the Holy Ghost." 

Sargent, J. S.: "The Trinity" (Boston Public 
Library) . 

Van der Werff : "Descent of the Spirit at Pente- 

IV. "The holy Catholic Church." 

Mosaic: Tribune Arch and Apse, S. Maria in 
Trastevere, Rome. 

Unknown: The Church Militant (Fresco, 
Spanish chapel, Florence). 

V. "The communion of saints." 

Hofmann: "The Omnipresence of Christ." 

VI. "The forgiveness of sins." 

Bume- Jones: The Tree of Life (mosaic, Ameri- 
can Church, Rome). 
Justus of Ghent: "Last Supper." 

VII. "The resurrection of the body and the life ever- 

See any "Last Judgment." 

Teaching Material 

The dawning of adolescence. — Test the various 
statements here made with data from your own expe- 
rience and observation. At what age did a given boy 
or girl show pleasure in mathematics, physics, politics, 
philosophy, debating, societies, dress, the opposite sex? 

The interest in belief. — At what age did you have 


your first religious doubts? Did you undergo a period of 
revolt, and at what age? Did you ever write out a creed 
for yourself, and at what age? What religious topics 
interested you most between the ages of sixteen and 
twenty? Were these relatively unimportant or funda- 
mental topics? 

The historic use of art as religious propaganda. — 
Make a list of the Christian symbols in and on your 
church. Do any of these express ideas that you hold? 
Are any of them at variance with your beliefs? See 
further directions under The Apostles' Creed. 

Teaching methods. — Select some picture from the list 
in this chapter, and on some Sunday when it is ap- 
propriate to the theme of the lesson, try it out with a 
full class discussion. Does the picture serve as a better 
point of departure than a mere statement would? Do 
the details of the picture challenge attention and discus- 
sion? Does the picture on the whole represent the doc- 
trine in the form we to-day hold? 

The Apostles' Creed interpreted by the masters. — 
From the list of pictures given in this section, and any 
others (see list in Bailey: Art Studies in the Life of Christ , 
pp. 23-36), select the one that best illustrates each 
article of the Creed. Are there other articles in your 
creed not found in the Apostles' Creed? Find an embodi- 
ment of these articles in art. 

Secure enough copies of the Sargent paintings^ in the 
Boston Public Library to supply your class, and discuss 
to what extent, if any, Sargent has misrepresented the 
facts of the Hebrew and the Christian religions. 

» J. S. Sargent: Judaism and Christianity. Reproduced poorly in the Handbook 
of the Boston PubUc Library, 35c. ^ 



It is not enough that an adolescent formulate his re- 
ligious beliefs. Indeed, they are not his beliefs at all if 
he merely formulate them. Ideas become beliefs when 
they have entered into the organized mental Hfe, have 
become emotionalized and have begun to operate through 
the will. The artist has found a means by which an idea 
may thus be invested with warmth and power. He 
incarnates the idea in a person and makes it beautiful. 
Then the heart of youth leaps toward it and appropriates 
it — provided only someone brings the youth and the 
masterpiece together. 

The emotional intensity of adolescence. — One of 
the outstanding characteristics of the adolescent period 
is emotional intensity. With the acquisition of full 
physical power comes the revelation of strong moods. 
Words, ideas, situations, arouse reverberations within, 
open vistas of feeling that seem to lead the soul out 
into large spaces and into the presence of ineffable 
glories and terrors. A new eye for beauty develops. 
Landscapes which were unnoticed in childhood now 
become significant, filled with wonder. The old pastures 
where the boy went berrying or drove the cows, in 
earlier days valued simply for their use, now are seen 
to be wonderful places. There are morning shadows, 
noonday silences, deep glens of coolness under the 
pines and hemlocks, strange rustling of mystic mes- 
sages in the leaves of the oak. It is not that these 



things never existed before, but they were never per- 
ceived before. The individual has developed a new 
apparatus for the detection and absorption of the 
world of emotion. 

It is, of course, a truism that the conversion period 
falls within the adolescent age, the period when God 
is seen to demand personal allegiance and when there 
is a definite choice to be made between a life of right- 
eousness and a life of sin. Or, if one has been brought 
up by the newer and better school, so that conversion ^ 
is hardly an appropriate term, there is still seen to be 
the need of commitment to the Christian ideal. That 
commitment is not only an intellectual but an emo- 
tional one, the consent of the whole being to the de- 
mands of the universe. The great compelling forces 
of this period in the religious realm are not intellectual 
but emotional. 

Art the interpreter of emotion. — Now it happens 
that art is the visible expression of emotion and that 
great art embodies an ideal. Art is therefore a uniquely \ 
fitting medium to guide and ennoble the emotions of 
youth. It is the emotional intensity of art that cap- 
tures people. If a picture does not make itself felt ■ 
at once, the average person will pass it by. But when 
once the individual is arrested by the emotional dynamic 
of the masterpiece, he pauses and reads its fuller mes- 
sage. To emotion he adds thought and thought leads 
him back again to a higher and truer emotion. ^ 

Art as an aid to worship. — Perception of this psy- 
chological and spiritual truth doubtless led the early 
church to adorn its places of worship with all the beauty- 
devices known to the age. In fact, so strongly was 
the faith in these objects rooted in experience that 
for one hundred and sixteen years, during the iconoclastic 

Hacker: The Annunciation 
Tate Gallery, London 

Hacker: The Annunciation 

A large part of the impression the original of this picture makes 
is lost in the half-tone. If one could only see the color! the ethereal 
blue of the angel's robe, the copper glow of the water pitcher, the 
dainty green of the grass, the radiance of the early spring irises, the 
strength of the Syrian sunlight flooding the white house walls till 
they gleam through the very body of the angel, and throwing a 
sheen upon the spotless and diaphanous robes of the Virgin. The 
color arrests one even in a gallery of preeminent color. But having 
been arrested, one finds shortly a deeper source of emotion, first in 
the intensity of the angel, who seems suddenly to have whirled down 
upon this daydreamer, then in the wondrous mystic shadows in 
Mary's eyes, shadows that veil her thought while they reveal her 
emotion. You begin to love this sweet girl, so young, so pure, stand- 
ing here in the midst of her task like one of the lilies in the garden. 
And then you realize that the straight clear stalk of lily the angel is 
holding beside her is nothing but a translation of your feeling about 
her. She is just that, though she knows it not, an opening flower 
with a heart of gold. What could man or God want more in a girl 
of sixteen? 


controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries, men 
defended with their Hves the right to make and use 
sacred images. 

Hence in the churches of the Eastern rite one finds 
to-day a multipHcity of icons, pictures of varying merit, 
yet all of them embellished with whatever would tend 
to call forth from the breast of the worshiper wonder 
and admiration, joy and worship. In the churches of 
the Western rite every altar has its altarpiece, the 
purpose of which is to fix the attention upon the person 
or the truth or the incident which the artist has me- 
morialized and by color and form to dramatize and 
emotionalize the same. 

Our Protestant churches have unfortunately broken 
with all this. Fear of idolatry on the part of our an- 
cestors led them to reject beauty from the house of 
the Lord. But to-day the call is clear to reintroduce 
art if for no other reason than to elevate and purify 
and discipline the emotions. One has only to sit for 
half an hour in the room in Dresden devoted to Raphael's 
''Sistine Madonna" in order to prove the truth just 
stated. Every visitor is hushed as he enters. The 
beauty and the mystery of the mother's face, the 
prophetic prescience on the face of the child, the sug- 
gestion of a sublime mystery to which the mother has 
surrendered herself but which she cannot wholly com- 
prehend, somehow catch and fascinate the spirit and 
lead it unwittingly to the very threshold of the house 
of prayer. 

Art in the house of worship. — The children of this 
world are wiser in their day and generation than the 
children of light. In every theatrical performance the 
emotional effects are calculated to a nicety. The 
appeal of costume, the enthrallment of color, the witch- 


ery of light and darkness are all counted upon to key 
the soul of the beholder to precisely that pitch of emo- 
tion which will enable it to perceive and receive the 
message of the actor, be the message good or bad. 
That is why the theater has such a tremendous appeal, 
why thousands go every night to see a play where 
dozens go to listen to the gospel. As the small boy 
said to his pietistic mother after his first experience 
at the theater, "Oh mother, if you'd only go to the 
theater once you'd never go to prayer meeting again 
as long as you live!" 

We must abandon our whitewashed walls, our sten- 
ciled frescos, our plain meetinghouse windows, the 
simplicity that passed with our ancestors for godliness, 
and revert again, at least in some measure, to those 
concomitants of worship that so enthralled Milton, 
"The long drawn aisle and fretted vault," "the storied 
windows richly dight. Casting a dim religious light." 
In such a church there is room for no mood except the 
mood of worship. The frivolities and thoughtlessness 
of life will be left outside. 

"Far off the noises of the world retreat; 

The loud vociferations of the street 

Become an indistinguishable roar. 

So as I enter here from day to day, 

And leave my burden at this minster gate, 
The tiimult of the world disconsolate 

To inarticulate murmurs dies away 
While the eternal ages watch and wait." 

The cultivation of sympathy. — Sympathy usually 
carries with it the wrong connotation. We limit its 
use almost exclusively to the expression of a fellow 
feeling for one who is in sorrow. As a matter of fact 


the word really means the act of sharing with another 
any emotion. This power it is worth our while to 
cultivate because it is the key of social understanding. 
It leads to all the virtues that are necessary for our 
highest usefulness in a world made up of people. 

Art gives us an opportunity for self discipline in this 
regard, also. We may practice feeling our way into 
the meaning of a picture — which implies the meaning 
of the human situation — and so discipHne ourselves 
for the understanding of situations in concrete hfe. 
Practice with a given picture. As you regard intently 
any figure on the canvas there is aroused in you almost 
automatically the emotion which that person exhibits. 
You unconsciously imagine yourself in his situation, 
with his pose and facial expression, and by a well- 
known law of psychology the appropriate feeling will 
come; in a flash you will understand what the artist 

Experiment with Keller's picture, "Raising of the 
Daughter of Jairus." Put yourself in Jairus's place 
and feel the anxiety, the reverence, and the awe with 
which he regards this act. Assume the position of the 
woman at the foot of the bier and feel her hopeless 
grief. Look out of the eyes of any of the hired mourn- 
ers and feel the uncanny fascination of seeing a corpse 
come to life. Be the sweet maiden and feel yourself 
faltering back mysteriously to life out of the land of 
a fading dream. Be Jesus, and realize with him the 
serene confidence of one who is doing the Father's 
will, and the joy of loving and helping people. 

Pictures are addressed primarily to the emotions. 
Learn, then, to understand them emotionally. 

Emotional aspects of symbolism. — It has been said 
in the previous chapter that symbols are distinctively 


intellectual in character. Yet they are not exclusively 
intellectual but may have at times an emotional con- 
tent, depending on the experience which the individual 
worshiper brings to them. One may pass the flag of 
his country a hundred times on the street and it will 
arouse no particular emotion, but let him catch sight 
of it in a foreign land, particularly in some time of 
storm and stress, or let him realize as he carries the 
little symbol in his hand that his life depends upon 
his identification for the moment with that emblem 
of his country's dignity and power; then he will under- 
stand how a mere piece of bunting may be surcharged 
with a tremendous emotional voltage. 

So it is with these heart symbols which have become 
conventional decorations in our church buildings. 
They stand upon the walls and in the windows, mean- 
ingless for the most part because no one attends to 
them. But there comes a time when a worshiper enters, 
bearing in his heart some great experience whether 
of sadness or of exaltation, and he suddenly catches 
sight of this commonplace design, the Lamb slain from 
the foundation of the world, the cross of Calvary, the 
anchor "sure and steadfast," and he suddenly realizes 
that that symbol was placed there for him and for 
this moment, that it sums up all that his unique expe- 
rience really means and links his individual life with 
the life and purpose of God himself. Henceforth that 
moment is transfigured in memory, for it has opened 
to the soul a new and deeper revelation of the meaning 
of the universe. 

Proper art environment. — While the adolescent 
may have these various types of emotional experience, 
he is usually unwilling to talk about them. We cannot 
make the emotional values of art the subject of dis- 


cussion except to a limited extent, but we may place 
before our young people the noblest examples we can 
find of emotionalized art in the hope that some day 
as the youth ripens to his full capacities the master- 
pieces may catch him and reveal to him his own deeper 

This is why we ought to scrutinize with such care 
the pictures that hang on the walls of our homes, our 
churches, and church schoolrooms, why the portrait 
of the beloved pastor that may be valuable for his 
own generation but meaningless for the next should 
give place to those works of permanent beauty that 
have proved their power to enrich and refine life for 
many generations. That is why modern artists in 
general should give place to the old masters, why the 
story picture should yield to the picture that interprets 
a mood or reveals a soul in action at some supreme 
moment. Place on the walls pictures of spiritual in- 
tensity that present aspects of eternal truth, that 
stimulate the imagination and so induce our young 
people to build within their own souls that supreme 
work of the imagination, the Christian ideal. 

The artist as poet. — In nineteenth-century pictures 
we are apt to find a subtle symbolism in which objects 
suggest memories and feelings so vague that at first 
we are not quite sure that the artist intended them, 
yet finally we come to feel that these emotions and 
memories are the real picture. A good illustration of 
this poetic suggestiveness is Merson's ''Repose in 
Egypt." The Bible does not say that Mary and Jesus 
ever rested in the arms of the sphinx; we are at once, 
then, in the realm of fancy. This is immemorial Egypt, 
the land of mystery — for there are the river, the desert, 
the sky and the sphinx; yet it is not Egypt — for the 


sphinx is not that of Kephren, neither is the landscape 
that of the Kephren's sphinx. Why is the night air 
so still? Why is the questioning face of the sphinx 
upturned to the moon in mute appeal? Why the broken 
beard and the drifted sand? Why the little child bathed 
with the mystical orange light, lying close against 
the heart of the inscrutable creature? 

As you ponder these questions there comes to your 
mind the sphinx of the (Edipus myth, with its riddle — 
the world-old question about man; and you recall 
also the sphinx-poem of Emerson. And as you ponder 
the mystery of man in the light of the suggestions 
in the picture, you begin to feel that the waiting night 
and the two infinities of the sky and the desert may 
be the mysteries that bound the frontiers of man's 
tiny life, the mysteries of the Whence and Whither, 
and that the riddle of man can be explained only as 
we understand what Merson has placed in the focus 
of this subtle composition — this little child in whom 
God and man have met. This whole picture is a sym- 
bol, a symbol not to be fully understood and explained 
to another, but a symbol to be dreamed about and felt. 

List of pictures, containing valuable emotional alle- 
gorical and symbolical elements: 
Alma-Tadema: "The Lord Slays the First-born." 
Bacon: '^Christ in Gethsemane." 
Bouguereau: "Compassion." 
Burne- Jones: "Morning of the Resurrection." 
Burne- Jones: "Nativity" (Window, Birmingham). 
Burne- Jones: "Crucifixion" (Window, Birmingham). 
Burne- Jones: "The Tree of Life" (Mosaic, American 

Church, Rome). 
Burne- Jones: "Star of Bethlehem." 
Burton, W. S.: "The World's Ingratitude." 


Carri^re: "Crucifixion." 

Constant, Benj.: "Arrest of Jesus on Mount of Olives." 

Cornicelius: "Temptation of Christ." 

Dagnan-Bouveret: "Madonna of the Shop." 

Dagnan-Bouveret: "Disciples at Emmaus." 

Da Vinci: "Last Supper." 

Da Vinci: "Study of the Head of Christ." 

Dietrich: "Christ Healing the Afflicted." 

Dollman: "Judas Iscariot." 

Ehrler, Max: "Angel of Mortality" (Psa. 90). 

Firle, W.: "Der Glaube." 

Gebhardt, von: "The Raising of Lazarus." 

Gerome: "Golgotha." 

Hacker: "Christ and the Magdalene." 

Hacker: "And There Was a Great Cry." 

Hunt, Holman: "Light of the World." 

Hunt, Holman: "Shadow of Death." 

Hunt, Holman: "Triumph of the Innocents." 

Jacomb-Hood: "Raising of Jairus's Daughter." 

Klinger, Max: "Christ on Olympus." 

Kowatski: "Childhood of Jesus." 

Kusthardt: "Peace Be Unto You." 

Max: "Jesus Christ" (Veronica's Handkerchief). 

Merson: "Arrival at Bethlehem." 

Merson: "Repose in Egypt." 

Meurisse-Franchomme : "Concert of Angels on the 

Road to Egypt." 
Meyer, Kunz: "Judas." 
Michetti: "Conversion of Saul." 
Morelli: "Christ Tempted in the Wilderness." 
Morris: "Repose in Flight." 
Murillo: "Immaculate Conception." 
Pape, F. L. M.: "Light in Egypt." 
Prell: "Corruption of Judas." 


Raphael: Face of Christ, detail of "Transfiguration." 

Reni, Guido: "Ecce Homo." 

Rochegrasse: "The Tables of the Law." 

Rodin: "Prodigal Son." 

Scheurenberg: "Mary Meets a Shepherd Boy." 

Skredsvig: "The Son of Man" (Christ as Norwegian 

Swan, J. M.: "Prodigal Son." 
Tanner, H. O.: "The Raising of Lazarus." 
Tissot: "Prodigal's Return." 
Von Uhde: "Easter Morning." 
Von Uhde: "Suffer Little Children." 
Von Uhde: "The Testing of Abraham." 
Watts: Series of Allegories in the Tate Gallery. 
Zimmermann: "Christus Consolator." 
Zimmermann: "The Boy Jesus in the Temple." 

Teaching Material 

The emotional intensity of adolescence. — Observe 
the emotional reactions of an adolescent and a grown-up 
in connection with the same experience. State the 

What influences conduct more strongly in the case 
of adolescents and grown-ups — reason or feeling? Ob- 
serve and report on some specific cases. 

Report on some specific case of the "emotional 
realization" of a familiar experience when you were 
an adolescent; or some instance in which you became 
aware for the first time of the presence of beauty, of 
any type. 

If you had a conversion experience, what aspect 
lives most strongly in your memory — changed ideas, 
changed determination, emotional intensity? 

Art the interpreter of emotion. The cultivation of 


sympathy. Emotional aspects of symbolism. — What 
pictures give you predominantly an emotional reaction? 
What symbols, if any, have given you one? What is 
your favorite picture, and why? 

Art as an aid to worship. Art in the house of 
worship. — What art elements in your church building 
are to you a conscious aid to the devotional spirit? 
Do you know of a building that is more conducive to 
worship? Report on any experience you may have 
had abroad with cathedrals, cathedral music, or pic- 
tures, that prove to you the value of art as a hand- 
maid of religion. Have you experienced the converse 
of this truth, namely, that bad art or no art is a hindrance 
to worship? Would the cause of true religion be helped 
or hindered if the gospel story, and sermons in general, 
should be presented by the dramatic method with all 
the accessories of scenery, lighting, and music? Name 
any plays you may have seen that left with you the 
impression of a religious experience. 

List of pictures. — Test for subtle suggestiveness, 
allegory, poetic insight, any of the pictures listed in 
this section, and try to write out your feelings and 
ideas about it. 


Religion is supposed to make men better. One reason 
why we are religious is that we may become richer in our 
per sonaH ties and readier to use our personalities to 
further the brotherhood of man. Self-culture as a de- 
liberate aim is justifiable, provided the enrichment is 
passed on in service. That art is a means of spiritual 
culture of the first value this chapter will endeavor to 

If it is true that the painter of a great picture is try- 
ing to express something — to convey emotion or an 
idea or an inspiration — it is also true that he is trying 
to express it to me personally. His message is not to 
people in general, it is to individuals; and for an in- 
dividual to get the message he must discover some 
spiritual relationship between the picture and his own 
soul. He must find in the picture some hint of his own 
half conscious longing, his own dimly discerned ideal. 
Religion is the same the world over. The essence of it 
is the recognition of a spiritual world within the world 
we see and the endeavor to put ourselves into rapport 
with it. To discover, therefore, the meaning of a 
spiritual work of art is to have our own soul-life 
strengthened by bringing some element of it more 
strongly into consciousness and by making its beauty 
more to be desired than fine gold. Art that embodies 
religious values is a veritable food for the soul. 


Soul culture. — Soul culture is achieved through med- 
itation on values.^ Worship might be defined to a 
large extent as an act of meditation, for worship at 
least demands reflection, the recognition that God is, 
that he is good and that specifically he has been good 
to me. And though worship is not consummated until 
by consent of the will the object of our reflection has 
become one with us, until there has taken place an 
"osmosis," or inletting of the personality of God to 
our own, yet the fact remains that the reflective part 
of the process is a necessary preliminary. 

Now, we can use no better method of arriving at 
an understanding of the nature of God and his rela- 
tion to us than to use the character and life of Jesus 
presented to us in art, for in so far as artists have por- 
trayed Jesus with correct insight they have revealed 
to us the character of God. "He that hath seen me 
hath seen the Father.'* 

Whether as a preliminary to worship, therefore, or in 
general as a method of soul culture, a serious study 
of pictures of Christ is a most valuable religious exer- 
cise. Studying him in his human relationships we 
may discover what attitude God takes toward us and 
what attitude he expects us to take toward him; and 
we may discover his ways of working in the human 
heart, contacts of the human with the divine. Learn- 
ing to recognize and understand these in the quiet of 
our chamber we become more sensitive to the divine 
approach in the everyday experiences of our own life 
and find in actual personal contacts the essence of 

The essence of religion. — Professor Hocking says, 

1 See Hocking: Meaning of God in Human Experience. Chapter XXIV: "Thought 

and Worship.'! Yale University Press. 


^'Religion calls on men not to accept certain truths 
but to love certain realities." Those realities are per- 
sons. Professor Lyman states the same truth in another 
way when he says, ''Religion is the practice of the 
most perfect personal relationships." 

Among the countless pictures of the life of Jesus 
one can find many that embody this teaching. Perhaps 
one of the simplest and best is Von Uhde's ''Suffer 
Little Children." In this picture Von Uhde has shown 
us the interior of a country schoolhouse. The teacher 
has abdicated his throne and stands modestly in the 
background while a greater Teacher has taken possession. 
Jesus sits in the chair. About him are grouped the 
children. In the background come parents with still 
others and with babes in arms. It is a wonderfully 
natural group, the children exhibiting all stages of 
bashfulness and self-consciousness. In the very focus 
and heart of the picture is a little fiaxon-haired four- 
year-old who stands just in front of Jesus, reaches out 
her little hand and looks up into his face. She is Von 
Uhde's message, his teaching that religion is untheolog- 
ical and unecclesiastical — it is simply human and per- 
sonal; and that love and trust are its two dominant 
moods, are, in fact, its essence. 

Raphael has a similar message in his "Transfigura- 
tion." If one analyzes the face of Christ, one discovers 
a most marvelous surrender of the will to the Father 
even in the face of imminent failure and tragic death. 
One sees there a living portrayal of the act of inletting 
"between the human spirit and the living tissue of the 
universe wherein it is eternally carried."^ 

Self-control. — A practical function of religion is to 

1 Hocking: The Meaning of God in Human Experience, page 23. Yale University 


Debat-Ponsan: Christ on the Mountain 

"Love One Another" 

A long valley runs from the far distance toward the spectator. On 
the right, the solitary figure of Christ stands on the mountainside; 
on the left are the two long lines of humanity, the conquerors and 
the conquered. No personalities or types can be recognized in the 
distance, but midway the line of conquerors is a group clad in mail. 
One knight has a Maltese cross on his breast, one a Greek or Latin 
cross on breastplate and banner. Who are these? On the extreme 
left sits the shadowy figure of the Pope, with heavy cope and the 
triple miter crowned by the cross. Why is he shadowy while the 
knights who are farther away are clear? Why is he placed highest 
and just opposite the figure of Jesus? In the nearer group of con- 
querors one recognizes the costume of a sixteenth-century common 
soldier. The man with the white tights and dark beard may be 
Francis I, the instigator of the Huguenot wars in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. What is his opinion of Jesus? The nearer one in black tights 
is evidently a French gentleman of the time of the Saint Bartholomew 
massacres, 1572. What does he think of Jesus' message? The nearest 
one in brocaded coat and long boots is a Cavalier of the age of 
Charles I and II of England. What prevents his hearing the message? 

Turning to the conquered, one recognizes in the foreground a 
Puritan, with square-toed shoes, his ankles chained and a Bible under 
his dead hand. The dead seem to belong mostly to the middle class. 
One boy is clad in a sheepskin and carries a slender cross like that 
of John the Baptist. Who can the girl be in the center of the picture, 
with hair and dress disheveled and hands bound? And why should 
a priest be praying over her? In the immediate foreground are burn- 
ing books. What are they and why should they be burned ? Suppose 
they are burned — what happens to the truth they contain? 

Evidently, the artist has tried to suggest the long and horrible 
procession of religious wars with which the church has stained its 
hands. What wars are indicated, what were the causes and what 
the results? Has Christianity been a failure? 

What does the pose of Jesus suggest? Can you put additional 
words into his mouth beyond those given in the title? Why doesn't 
Jesus do something? Has the picture come to be out of date? Com- 
pare and contrast it with Cabanes' picture following page 113. 


confer self-control upon the spirit. Now, self-control 
is secured in large part through a subconscious judg- 
ment of values, a recognition of what things are im- 
portant and what are not, through the acquirement 
of a perspective of Hfe and a quick perception of the 
other person's viewpoint. One does not get angry 
usually if one understands, and understanding usually 
arises from the previous practice of meditation. In 
secret we seek to understand, and our successive under- 
standings sink down into our subconscious personality 
and form the basis of action in those swift moments 
when there is no time for reflection. 

If we study various incidents in the hfe of Jesus, 
we will see how he has attained his self-control by 
habitually putting himself in hne with his Father's 
will. Each separate act then becomes the expression 
of eternal wisdom and faith and power. Take, for 
example, Geiger's ''Kiss of Betrayal." Here is a won- 
derful study of the opposition in the person of Jesus 
between the human instinct of repulsion at the embrace 
of a traitor and the perfect poise of soul which enables 
him to look squarely into the face of the betrayer and 
to say unmoved, ''Friend, wherefore art thou come?" 

Or see the character attributed to Jesus in Titian's 
"Tribute Money," where the wily Pharisee with sudden 
insistence is trying to hustle Jesus into an indiscreet 
and seditious speech. Observe the look of perfect 
comprehension and calm penetration on the face of 
Jesus. It is the face of one whose words are "founded 
upon a rock" and that rock his conscious union with 
the Father. 

Or note again the self-control of Jesus in moments 
of spiritual and physical suffering. Ciseri expresses 
the last in his famous "Ecce Homo" in which Jesus, 


crowned with thorns and bleeding, bound to a soldier, 
is exhibited to the howling mob in the courtyard of 
the Pnetorium. He is unmoved by all the shouting, 
by the presence of the Roman judge, by the cruel 
flogging, and the prospect of the cross. He has seen 
all this as God's will. His heart is fixed. 

Da Vinci's "Last Supper" is also a wonderful illus- 
tration of the Saviour's self-control. Christ sits in 
the center of confusion, himself unmoved by the spiritual 
shock he has just administered to his friends, surrender- 
ing himself for the moment to the bitterness of friend- 
ship betrayed, yet never casting even one reproachful 
look upon the startled betrayer. One cannot seriously 
consider these various presentations of spiritual poise 
without discovering a personal lesson and establishing 
a personal ideal. 

Courage. — Courage also arises from a true percep- 
tion of values, from knowing what to fear and what 
not to fear. It has its basis in the consciousness of 
being right. Courage and all similar virtues are merely 
strength in right causes, and it is the fact that the 
cause is right that gives the strength. Listen to Socrates 
as he faces the judges who were about to condemn 
him to death: "The post that a man has taken up 
because he thought it right himself or because his 
captain put him there, that post I believe he ought 
to hold in the face of every danger, caring no whit 
for death or any other peril in comparison with dis- 
grace. So it would be a strange part for me to have 
played, men of Athens, if I had done as I did under 
the leaders you chose for me at Potidaea, and Am- 
phipolis and Delium, standing my ground like anyone 
else, where they had posted me and facing death; 
and yet when God, as I thought and believe, had sent 


me to live the life of philosophy, if I were to fear death 
now or anything else whatever and desert my post, 
it would be very strange; and then, in truth one would 
have reason to bring me before the courts because 
I did not believe in the gods since I disobeyed the 
oracle and was afraid of death. ... If, therefore, you 
should say to me, 'Socrates, we will set you free, but 
on this condition, that you spend your time no longer 
in this search and follow wisdom no more. If you are 
found doing it again, you will be put to death !' I would 
answer you, *Men of Athens, I thank you and am 
grateful to you, but I must obey God rather than you, 
and while I have life and strength I will never cease 
to follow wisdom.' " 

If this was the basis of the courage of Socrates, how 
much more should we seek for it in the case of Jesus 
whose whole life was the expression of his consciousness 
of Sonship, "I do always the things that please him." 
The artists have now and then caught this spirit of 
courage. Kirchbach, in his "Cleansing of the Temple," 
shows us Jesus standing in the midst of the confusion 
he has wrought, himself not only unmoved and un- 
armed but embodying in his person all the strength 
of a divine champion of justice. 

Others besides Jesus show this trait. In the "Be- 
heading of John the Baptist," by Puvis de Chavannes, 
John kneels before us with his eyes wide open and 
his hands outspread. There are no fetters, no bandage 
on the eyes, not a tremor nor the slightest sign of recanta- 
tion. It is the form of a man who has done his duty 
and will never do anything else even though the scim- 
itar of a tyrant impends. Artists have shown us courage 
in still humbler spheres. In Lord Leighton's dramatic 
picture, "Rizpah," the heroine, guards the impaled 


bodies of her sons against the prowling creatures of 
the night; and Daniel in Briton Riviere's pictures 
looks the den of lions in the face or calmly turns his 
back upon them while he answers the cry of the king. 

Divine contacts. — One has only to keep one's eyes 
open to find everywhere in pictures evidences of the 
divine touch upon human life. These contacts take 
various forms. Sometimes they appear in consciousness 
as the call to duty, sometimes as the conscience which 
makes cowards of us all, sometimes as remorse, which 
is God's sign that sin has not yet killed the soul. We 
see it in the act of conversion when men turn to God, 
in communion and inspiration when they raise their 
hearts to him and feel the solicitation upward. We 
feel its touch in human forgiveness as when the father 
welcomes the returning prodigal with his embrace, 
or in those crowning words from the cross, "Father, 
forgive them." All these moments are witnesses to 
the ever-present, brooding spirit of God and to the 
kindred divinity in man's bosom that leaps up to meet it. 

List of pictures embodying personal religious values: — 
Abbey, A.: "Jacob Wrestling.'^ 
Abbey, A.: "Jael and Sisera." 
Abbey, A.: "Deborah." 
Abbey, A.: "Gideon." 
Anderson: "Neither Do I Condemn Thee." 
Armitage: "Remorse of Judas." 
Dietrich: "Christ's Call to the Sick and Weary." 
Dicksee: "The Arrow of the Lord's Victory." 
Dobson: "Raising the Widow's Son at Nain." 
Gebhardt, von: "Jacob Wrestling." 
Gerome: "Rizpah." 
Gerome: "Last Supper." 
Goodall: "By the Sea of Galilee." 


Hacker, A.: ^'Christ and the Magdalene." 
Harrach: 'Teter's Denial." 
Harrach: ^'Lovest Thou Me?" 
Israels, Josef: "David before Saul." 
Israels, Josef: "David and Goliath." 
Jacomb-Hood : "Raising Jairus's Daughter." 
Kirchbach: "Jesus the Friend of Children." 
Kowalski: "Childhood of Jesus." 
Leduc: "Temptation in the Desert." 
Liska: "Gethsemane." 
Meyer, Kunz: "Judas." 
Michetti: "Conversion of Saul." 
MorelK: "Jesus in Galilee." 
Parsons, Beatrice: "The Annunciation." 
Pauwels: "Ye Shall Seek Me and Find Me." 
Penrose, J. D.: "Jacob Wrestling." 
Pyke-Nott, Evelyn: "Justified Rather than the Other." 
Riviere: "Temptation in the Wilderness." 
Roederstein: "Suffer the Little Ones." 
Sant, J.: "Child Samuel." 
Sant, J.: "Infant Tmiothy." 
Schade: "The Children's Friend." 
Schmid: "Suffer Little Children." 
Seligmann: "Holy Family." 
Shields: "St. Paul at Rome." 
Siemiradski: "Christ and the Woman of Samaria." 
Swan, J. M.: "Prodigal Son." 
Swan, J. M.: "The Burning Bush." 
Swan, J. M.: "Cities of Refuge." 
Taylor, W. L.: "The Boy Christ." 
Todd, H.: "Peter's Denial." 
Von Uhde: "Testing of Abraham." 
Watts: "For He Had Great Possessions." 
See also pictures listed in Chapters VI, VIII, X. 


Teaching Material 

Soul culture. — Select some picture that seems to 
you to present divine characteristics in human form: 
for example, Zimmermann's "Christus Consolator," 
Tissot's "Prodigal's Return," Von Uhde's ''Easter 
Morning," Burne-Jones's "Tree of Life," Hacker's 
"Christ and the Magdalene" or Hunt's "Light of the 
World"; analyze it till you feel that you understand 
it, then contemplate it; try to realize the picture as 
God expressing himself through a human being. Some- 
how connect yourself in a personal way with the process. 
Could you call the result a religious experience? 

The essence of religion. — Take half a dozen pictures 
of the life of Christ. State to yourself what attitudes 
toward people Jesus is assuming. Are these attitudes 
demanded by the Christian religion? Imagine Jesus 
assuming a contrary attitude. Would he still be exempli- 
fying a Christian ideal? Name an ideally desirable 
human relationship that is not demanded by Chris- 
tianity. Name an attitude or relationship demanded 
by Christianity that would not be humanly ideal. 
What aspects has Christianity that ignore personal 
relationships — God being a person? 

Self-control. — Make a list of pictures, religious or 
secular, that exemplify the virtue of self-control. To 
what extent in the several pictures is this self-control 
based evidently on moral superiority? 

Courage. — List similarly pictures that illustrate cour- 
age. What in each case seems to be the source of courage? 

Divine contacts. — List similarly pictures that illus- 
trate divine contacts, and group them as suggested in 
the "Blanks for a Community Survey of Religious Art," 
p. 145. Add to these lists from time to time and use 
them in your teaching as you have opportunity. 


More and more clearly, the function of religious 
education is being understood in social terms. Religion 
undertakes to make better homes, better nations, better 
industrial and commercial institutions, better schools. 
To hasten the universal reign of God is man's religious 
task. One cannot be said to be properly trained, re- 
ligiously, who does not incarnate the spirit of unfeigned 
brotherliness, and who is unable to minister efficiently 
to social needs. 

The social gospeL — It is astonishing that it took 
the church two thousand years to discover fully that 
Christianity means ^'social good news." There is some 
cause for this slowness, to be sure, in the primitive 
conception of religion, namely, that religion has to do 
with the service of the gods. And yet when one con- 
siders the Jewish ancestry of the church it is surprising 
that men so quickly forgot the social implications of 
religion. Amos and Hosea, Isaiah and Micah certainly 
knew that religion had something to do with social 
relationships. Christ as the greatest of the prophets 
not only taught but practiced the same truths. But 
just as the religious hierarchy killed the prophets and 
stoned those that were sent unto them, so the Christian 
hierarchy has rejected through the centuries the social 
interpretation of Jesus's message and has reverted to 
the more primitive conception that religion is serving 

It is true that all through the centuries there have 



been sporadic prophets like Saint Francis of Assisi who 
have placed dogma below social living, but not until 
the end of the nineteenth century did the church in 
any large way rediscover the true gospel. 

Art, which is always the reflection of life, has like- 
wise failed to express social values until the present 
generation, having been content through the cen- 
turies to repeat the old traditional doctrines with 
wearisome reiteration. It is very significant that while 
there are annunciations by the hundred, nativities, 
adorations of Wise Men, passion-week pictures, cru- 
cifixions, descents into hell and resurrections, it is 
almost impossible to find adequate representations of 
the ministry of Jesus, those untheological acts of mercy, 
those simple, helpful, human relationships that con- 
stitute for us moderns the glory and divinity of his 
life. The social gospel does not exist in art until the 
nineteenth century. 

Human need and human sympathy. — The funda- 
mental reason why Christianity is a religion of help- 
fulness is because men need help. Life is full of poverty, 
of ignorance, of disease, discouragement, selfishness, 
failure, death. These facts have in themselves no 
religious value, no one likes to contemplate them in 
reality or in picture, and they are unhealthful objects 
of attention except as they point the way to salvation 
for those who are looking for eternal life. Our sym- 
pathies can never be profoundly stirred without some 
such contact with misery. To feel the world's need 
is to hear the world's call. 

Granted that the consciousness of suffering has 
nothing to do with religion, the outgoing of the human 
spirit to relieve suffering is a supreme manifestation 
of religion. Witness the entire ministry of Jesus. One 


may well study, therefore, the pictures that portray 
human nature in distress, especially if there is in the 
same picture a representation of some divine service, 
some act of sympathy, some cup of cold water, some 
piece of self-sacrifice. 

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries one finds 
an increased number of pictures in which the human 
need and the sympathy and help it calls forth are por- 
trayed vividly and movingly; pictures that show the 
instincts of friendship, pity, brotherhood, good-will, 
love in operation, not only to the salvation of the dis- 
tressed, but to the transformation of the giver. It is 
perhaps oftenest portrayed as the healing ministry 
of Jesus, either by direct representation or in the illus- 
tration of a parable, or by symbol. 

Examples. — One of the most popular pictures in 
the world is Hofmann's "Christ and the Rich Young 
Man." Here are two types of human need — one, the 
physical need of the blind and the lame and the sick 
to which Christ is calling the young man's attention, 
and the second is the need of the rich, the need for 
sympathy, for idealism, for self-sacrifice, for some 
iron in the will. And Christ is here performing his 
divine service of endeavoring to arouse the well-inten- 
tioned but unobservant and unheroic spirit of the 
young patrician until he shall turn all of his resources, 
both physical and spiritual, into the channels of human 

One sees this also in Von Gebhardt's picture of the 
same incident. Here the social implications of the 
gospel are more explicitly portrayed. Jesus is talking 
to a group of common folks, evidently peasants, upon 
the rich man's estate. There are laborers, both men 
and women, but also some who are not fit to work, 


and there are children whose rags are eloquent of pov- 
erty. The meeting place is an old stable. Into the 
midst of this scene comes the rich young man with 
his fine fur-trimmed robe. Half apologetically he 
interrupts with the question that is on his heart, namely, 
how he can be as well off in the other world as he is 
in this. A glance at the faces of the men reveals the 
feeling of social injustice that is in their hearts, and the 
face and gesture of Jesus shows us how he receives 
the question and with what surgeon's skill he diagnoses 
the blight and prescribes the remedy. 

It is all down in the Apocryphal Gospel of the He- 
brews, as old and as authentic as any of our Scriptures, 
"And the Lord said unto him, 'How can thou say, I 
have kept the law and the prophets, . . . love thy neigh- 
bor as thyself. . . . Behold, many of thy brethren, 
sons of Abraham, lie in dirty rags and die of hunger 
and thy house is full of many goods, and nothing comes 
out of it to them.' " Eternal life according to Jesus 
is the state of living the social gospel. 

Zimmermann has a powerful picture called "Christ 
and the Fishermen" in which Jesus's ministry is to the 
understanding of an old and religiously minded man, 
one who longs to be enlightened but who cannot over- 
come the wrong thinking of sixty years. The English 
Millais in the "Enemy Sowing Tares" pictures the 
human depravity that finds its delight in destroying 
what other men seek to create, while the French Millet 
in "The Sower" shows us the toiler whose one purpose 
is to enrich the world. 

The world's sin and need of repentance is pictured 
forth by Puvis de Chavannes in his appealing "Prod- 
igal Son" and by Rodin in his powerful statue of the 
same name, while the Father's love, in which alone is 


Cabanes: The Crucified Ones (19 19) 

Sub-title: "The Mission of Germany is to Crucify Humanity." 

Foreground: women and children sinking in a muddy, bloody 
pool; on the bank, women holding their dead children. 

Middle distance, right: a boy and two women crucified. Over 
one of them bends the misty figure of Jesus bearing his cross. 

Middle distance, left: Three guilty men are halted by supernat- 
ural beings. The central angel grasps Kaiser Wilhelm by the helmet 
and swings a sword aloft for the stroke. On the right a dark figure 
grasps the shuddering Emperor Franz Josef by the neck. On the 
left a light figure seizes the wrist of the German Crown Prince clad 
in the uniform of the Black Huzzars with the skull on the helmet, 
and shakes the sword loose from his grasp. Above, a fourth figure 
brandishes a pair of scales as if about to strike with them. To the 
right of this group, a German soldier is murdering a victim. 

Distance: on the right, the smoking towers of Rheims Cathedral 
and other ruins; on the left, the smoke and fire of a devastated land. 

Whom or what do the people on the crosses represent? To whom 
is the woman at the foot of the cross calling, and what is she saying? 
The three guilty ones are not looking at the beings in the air. Why? 
What do the sword and scales stand for? Why should the scales be 
used as a weapon? (Look up the meaning of the word "Nemesis," 
and note the use of the idea in literature, especially as illustrated in 
Shakespeare's Macbeth. See Moulton: Shakespeare as a Dramatic 
Artist, Chapter VI.) Why should Rheims Cathedral be inserted here? 
Why not a burning fortress or City Hall? Why should Jesus be here, 
and why should he bear his cross? What do his pose and facial 
expression indicate? Write down what he is probably saying. 

What is the real reason why Germany stopped fighting? Did God 
have anything to do with it, and how did his action or influence 
manifest itself? What, if anything, does this picture add to your 
conception of the meaning of the crucifixion? 


forgiveness and salvation, is given us by Tissot in "The 
Prodigal's Return." Social inequality, with its sug- 
gestion on the one hand of need and on the other of 
lack of sympathy and understanding, is pictured in 
Bonifazio's "Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus," 
while Burnand in his "Great Supper" shows us the 
virtue of noblesse oblige. 

Hofmann gives us several pictures of Christ healing 
the sick, and Zimmermann in his "Christ the Consoler" 
brings out the transformation wrought by sympathy 
and skill in the wretched home where despair and the 
shadow of death reign. All of these conditions are 
suggested in symbol by the Danish artist, Bloch, in 
"Come Unto Me," in which Christ is surrounded by 
figures that represent each of them an aspect of the 
world's need; and by Soord, in "The Good Shepherd," 
where the Shepherd rescuing the lost sheep from the 
dangers of the precipice, the night, and the eagles, 
sums up the tragedy and the joy of the deepest expe- 
riences of the soul. 

All through the centuries artists have painted for 
us the lives of the saints with the purpose, no doubt, 
of glorifying their subject, but with the result of show- 
ing usually that sainthood is won by devotion to the 
saint's fellow men who suffer. Sainthood is a by- 
product of a life of service. 

Cooperation for the common good. — In the twen- 
tieth century Christianity has so disguised itself that 
it is sometimes not recognized. Sainthood and piety 
were once associated with isolation, abstraction from 
the world of sin and evil, cell-piety exercised by 'spot- 
less nuns in the vigils of the night or by good brothers 
who expelled evil from their hearts by sheer force of 
will, though they had nothing to take its place but 


a vacuum. Though this ideal of Christianity still 
lingers in some parts of Christendom, there is no deny- 
ing the fact that a great deal of sainthood now passes 
current under another name. 

It is called "good citizenship," "playing the game," 
being "white," giving a "square deal." The social 
mind and the social heart are the particular fine flower- 
ing and fruitage of Christianity, and though many a 
man who shows these traits may repudiate the name 
of Christian and say, "When saw we thee sick and in 
prison," the fact remains that the Lord will claim him 
for his own. 

This is a new field for Christian art. The art of ancient 
days had a conception that Christ, the prophets and 
all the saints died for theology rather than for a social 
cause; but the art of the twentieth century is recog- 
nizing that the sacrifices demanded by one's community, 
by the church and the state are sacrifices for a social 
ideal and are therefore fruits of the Christian spirit. 
We have saints in overalls, saints in sack coats, saints 
in aprons or in khaki just as surely as we used to have 
saints surrounded by the fires of the inquisition or 
the lions of the arena. 

The public certainly recognized the truth of this 
ideal in the days of the Great War. Then it was preached 
from the pulpit and on the platform, in the newspapers 
and on the posters, that when one poured out time and 
treasure or sacrificed life for the ideals that our flag 
represents one was serving both humanity and God. 
There was a constant interchange and interfusion of 
the religious, the social and the patriotic ideal. The 
Man of Calvary became once more the great repre- 
sentative of mankind, and the fitting monument over 
the graves of our dead is the symbol of the cross. 


Posters in the war. — The humble poster that in 
prewar days called our attention to new brands of 
food and drink and to salable articles of every kind, 
became during the war a powerful instrument of propa- 
ganda and of morale. It first rose from common- 
placeness to something truly impassioned in Great 
Britain when the artists began to call for aid for the 
Belgian refugees and the Belgian Red Cross. In France 
all through the war the posters gripped men by their 
poignant appeal and deeply felt emotion, and even in 
Germ.any, while we cannot admire the ideals pre- 
sented, we cannot deny the power with which they 
presented the claims of Force to the allegiance of all 
good Germans. In all countries the posters were shot 
through with emotion and were used in unbelievable 
variety and quantity. The Imperial War Collection 
of England contains over twenty thousand specimens. 

It is impossible to turn the pages of any collection 
of war posters without feeling violent emotions. One 
is frequently stirred to the very depths as he realizes 
the tremendous principles that were at stake, the 
human suffering, the enormity of the crime of war, 
the heroism and the glory of self-sacrifice. Take, for 
example, the collection of war posters by Handie and 
Sabin (Black, 1920). Here are some of the powerful 

No. 2. Baron Partridge: "Take up the Sword of 
Justice," a British recruiting poster, based on the 
sinking of the Lusitania; the hands, emerging from 
the water, the wild impetuosity of the call of Justice. 

No. 2 1 . Auguste Roll (French) : "For Those Wounded 
by Tuberculosis," an appealing picture that shows the 
weariness of the battle for life and the patience of 
the nurse who ministers to the sufferer. 


No. 24. J. A. Fairre: ''Let Us Save Them," another 
tuberculosis poster, showing the seated figure of a 
sick man, the emaciated, suffering body, the burning 
spirit, hope, courage, and just the suggestion of the 
nurse's hands from behind, laid upon his shoulders. 
The particular poignancy of these last two lies in the 
well-established fact that the Hun fought with dis- 
ease germs as well as with gas and shrapnel. 

No. 26. G. Caper: "French Women During the 
War." In the center, a nursing mother and a little 
girl bringing her a letter from the front; on the left, 
the tired munition worker; on the right, a girl at the 
back-breaking work of the farm; in the background 
the stern-faced, armed bust of La France, an em- 
bodiment of the great cry of Verdun, "They shall 
not pass." 

No. 32. J. Adler : "They Too Are Doing Their Duty." 
A French war-loan poster, in which a bandaged soldier 
points with his thumb to the procession of men and 
women passing in money at the window. Above in 
the distance is a farmer sowing seed. 

No. 2>S' A. Levoux: "Subscribe for France Who 
Is Fighting and for that Little One Who Grows Bigger 
Every Day." A bearded soldier holds high his beau- 
tiful ten-year-old daughter. Below in the corner the 
wife nurses a little one — a suggestion that love and 
life and home are the unspeakably precious things for 
the preservation of which a man will risk life itself. 

No. 75. Raemaekers: "Neutral America and the 
Hun." A drunken, brutal butcher with spiked helmet, 
hands and apron dripping with blood, confronted by 
Uncle Sam, his hands in his pockets, his jaw set, his 
cigar at a defiant angle — a perfect picture of rising 
indignation that will soon burst all bounds. 


Raemaekers. — The great cartoonist of the war was 
undoubtedly this Dutchman, Raemaekers, "that fertile 
knight-errant for the sake of humanity who toiled 
with a pencil of flame against the outragers and op- 
pressors of prostrate Belgium" and who was "worth 
an invincible battalion to the Allies." So powerful 
was his delineation of the German policy of frightful- 
ness that the Kaiser set a price on his head. Even 
he had enough conscience to quiver under Raemaeker's 
thrusts. If one would learn the frightful lesson of the 
wickedness of this war, one has only to turn the pages 
of Raemaekers' "America in the War" (The Century 
Co., 1919). 

Following are a few of the outstanding numbers: 

Page 3. "The Stars and Stripes in the Service of 
Humanity," with the inscription, "We have no selfish 
ends to serve." Uncle Sam kneels and presents the 
American flag to the familiar group of the Pieta — the 
Virgin with the dead Christ in her lap. One must not 
fail to notice the identification here of the spirit and 
sacrifice of Christ with the ideal of the Allies. 

Page 5. "Columbia Embracing La France," with the 
inscription, "When I was a child it was you who 
saved me." 

Page II. "Belgium, 1918." The female figure of 
Belgium tied to a cross and watched by a leering Ger- 
man who carries a whip. Behind is a flaming city. 
The Roman guard adds a powerful suggestion, and 
fuses the scene with Calvary. 

Page 25. "Don't Stop, Old Chap; Keep It Up!" 
The devil, laughingly talking to the Kaiser. 

Page 35. "Wake up, America." A Canadian sol- 
dier crucified on a tree suddenly discovered by Columbia. 
Poem by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman. 


Page 57. "Will They Last, Father?" The Kaiser 
and the crown prince watch an hourglass through 
which drips the blood of the human sacrifice. 

Page 67. "Justice." On one side, Themis, Goddess 
of Justice, with her balances, and across the picture, 
Uncle Sam about to release the knife of the guillotine 
on the neck of the Kaiser. Comment by Professor 
Basil Guildersleeve. 

Page 69. "Another Peace Proposal." The Pope 
making overtures to the outraged Goddess of Justice. 
Comment by Henry D. Sedgwick, identifies the scene 
with Peter's denial of his Lord. 

Page 71. "The Fine American Spirit." Father and 
mother, standing under Old Glory on the porch, see 
their boys ride off for France. Poem by George Ed- 
ward Woodberry. 

Page loi. "Is It Nothing to You All Ye Who Pass 
By?" Uncle Sam pausing in wonder and pain before 
Christ on the cross. 

Page III. "Christmas, 191 7." Night, the manger 
and the Holy Family. Three kings (the Kaiser, Franz 
Josef, and the Sultan) with a black train of wolves 
looking at them from behind the forest trees. Com- 
ment by Henry Mills Alden. 

Page 157. "Sink Without a Trace." A pretended 
blind man (Sweden), giving a signal to an assassin 
(the Kaiser), behind a woodpile, that two children are 
just coming out of the schoolhouse. Poem by Herfort. 

One other illustration shows the constant tendency 
to identify Christ in some fashion with suffering hu- 
manity. Raemaekers' "Cultur" (The Century Co., 
191 7) contains a picture of Humanity torpedoed: 
a submarine is about to shell a boat, labeled "Hu- 
manity" with Christ standing in the bow. 


Whether history will agree with the judgment im- 
plied in these cartoons it is not pertinent to inquire. 
The fact remains that the artist passed judgment and 
powerfully proclaimed that judgment to the world. 
There was born anew in the heart of the Allies the 
feeling that Christ's message has chiefly to do with 
suffering humanity here and now regardless of any 
future life, and that the ideals he proclaimed of justice 
and brotherhood, good will and service and faithfulness 
to an ideal even unto death, are the great saving forces 
of mankind, the essential Christianity. 

Teaching Material 

The social gospel. — Take a Catalogue of the Uni- 
versity Prints. Star the subjects that deal with the 
everyday public ministry of Jesus, and with his parables. 
What per cent of all the pictures on the life of Jesus 
do these constitute? Examine samples of the starred 
group. Do they represent adequately the social gospel, 
or are they of the nature of illustrations? 

The human need. — Make a special study of the 
finest representations of Christ living his social gospel. 
How satisfactory an account of Christianity do these 
pictures constitute? Do you feel the need of additional 
elements to make the picture of Christianity perfect — 
pictures of the incarnation, the Passion, the resurrec- 
tion? Do you agree with the findings of Rauschen- 
busch in his Theology for the Social Gospel} 

Posters in the war. — Do you approve of the identi- 
fication of Christ with suffering humanity, as shown 
in the war posters? Justify your position. Make a 
detailed study of two or three war posters that seem 
to you best to express the truths of religion. 


One of the experiences that most impress a world- 
traveler is his constant discovery that the most con- 
spicuous relics of antiquity are all religious in origin 
and in use. In every country religious buildings seem 
to be the largest, the most pemianent and the most 
beautiful and as one goes back into antiquity such 
structures are practically the only ones that have 
survived the wreck of time. Men built for themselves 
houses of a day, but for the gods houses of eternity. 

Temple relics the world over. — The pyramids, the 
rock temples of Abu Simbel, the huge mortuary temples 
of the Ramesseum and Medinet Habu and the world- 
famous Karnak constitute the most impressive memorials 
that have come down to us from the ancient world. 

India is filled with the relics of great religions. From 
the little stone temples in Kashmir, that betray the 
influence of Alexander the Great, to the Buddhistic 
topes at Sanchi and the mountainous dagobars at 
Ceylon; from the Hindu rock caves at Ellora and the 
Dravidian towers of Madura to the delicately carved 
and wonderfully preserved Jain temples on the top 
of Mount Abu, and the mosques of Islam with their 
soaring domes and heaven-piercing minarets, the build- 
ings sacred to religion are everywhere in evidence and 
are the chief objectives of every traveler. Every re- 
ligion has contributed: whether the demon worship 
that sought to protect itself against the tidal bore 
by means of the Six Harmonies pagoda at Hang-Chow 



or the ancestor worship that inspired the wondrous 
flaming temples under the cryptomerias at Nikko, or 
the ancient sun worship that strewed the plains of 
Shinar with its Ziggurats or the esthetic cult of Divine 
Wisdom that has glorified its own genius in the Parthe- 
non. All faiths have built and built for the most part 
nobly and inspiringly. Building for human needs 
may have been necessary, but building for God has 
always been a passion. 

Church buildings a record of Christian history. — 
The Christian faith is no exception to the general rule. 
As soon as Christians began to meet they began to 
build. At first they naturally adapted other buildings 
to their uses, but before many generations the Chris- 
tian religion evolved its own ideals and styles and 
has maintained an ecclesiastical tradition down to the 
present. In the late Middle Ages when Europe was 
recovering from the deluge of the barbarians, build- 
ing became the chief material expression of the Chris- 
tian faith. Architecture was ranked among the sacred 
sciences and the architects arose almost exclusively 
from among the ranks of the clergy. The designers and 
builders of practically all the great abbeys and most 
of the cathedrals of Europe were monks. 

Knowledge of these facts adds tremendous interest 
to the study of church architecture whether by pic- 
tures or by first-hand contact. It becomes a fascination 
to trace the historical element in religious structures, 
to follow a given plan or design or bit of ornament 
back to its origin; for it helps us to realize from a new 
angle that our religion is not an extempore affair but 
has its roots in the past and that it has manifested 
itself historically in what might not too fancifully be 
called a pageant of church architecture. 


It is the purpose of this chapter to survey the chief 
Christian styles of buildings, to characterize briefly 
their main features, and to enable a layman to trace 
in a general way the origin of any religious structure 
he happens to meet. 

The Roman gift to Christianity. — Christianity de- 
veloped while Rome was an imperial government, a 
world power. Throughout the circle of the lands Ro- 
man law was the unifying influence, resting ultimately 
on the sanction of Roman arms. Legal procedure 
everywhere was uniform and the courts of law assem- 
bled in buildings that were characteristically Roman 
and that had been evolved through the exigencies of 
law for half a millennium. These law buildings which 
could be found in every city of consequence were called 
basilicas. They were rectangular in plan, had a cen- 
tral portion, or nave, flanked by two aisles, the nave 
being lighted by a row of windows above the aisles. 
At the upper portion of the nave was a big triumphal 
arch spanning the whole, behind which was a semi- 
circular recess containing a bench for the assessors 
and the throne for the praetor. At the center of the 
semicircle was an altar for libations to the gods. Lit- 
igants brought their cases to these buildings. They 
and their attorneys and the spectators could find stand- 
ing room in the main building while the judges and 
those particularly concerned occupied the raised por- 
tion, the exedra, or apse. 

The Christians found this building best suited of 
all the Roman structures for the purposes of their 
worship. The congregation filled the main portion of 
the building, the priest or pastor occupied the praetor's 
chair. As the Roman religion fell into decay not only 
did the early Christians take over these buildings 

Parish Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome 

This venerable church was first built by Pope Julius I about 340 
A.D., suffered mishaps of various kinds, was restored and added to 
several times through the Middle Ages, and was rebuilt in its pres- 
ent form under Pope Innocent II in 1148 A.D. 

The church is a basilica, the materials for which were taken largely 
from pagan buildings. The twenty-four columns of Egyptian granite 
with their heavy Ionic capitals some of them adorned with the heads 
of Roman and Egyptian deities, once graced the Isaeum or Roman 
temple erected to the Egyptian goddess Isis. What is the symbolic 
appropriateness of this fact? The brackets that support the cornice 
of the entablature are also ancient fragments. The beautiful mosaic 
pavement consists of sawed-up columns of verde antique, porphyry, 
etc., surrounded by geometric designs made of ancient fragments. 
There are more than one hundred churches with such pavements 
in Rome! 

Find the nave, the aisles, the tribune, the tribune arch, the apse, 
the clerestory. Note the position and form of the high altar. Ob- 
serve the ceiling richly carved and gilded. The mosaics are par- 
ticularly interesting, for they are rich in symbolism, but they cannot 
be studied in so small a print. They are in the apse and on the 
tribune arch. 

What advantages can you see in worshiping in such a church? 
What disadvantages from our modem standpoint? If you were 
designing a church, which of the features of this building would you 
retain ? 


but when they built churches of their own they fol- 
lowed the basilica plan. 

In general, therefore, a ''basilica" is a Christian 
church built on the Roman Law Court model. Its 
distinguishing feature is a rectangular plan, a nave, 
and two aisles, a triumphal arch and a round-headed 
apse. The architecture is essentially Roman; there 
are round columns with capitals on which rests either 
a straight architrave or arches that carry the weight 
of the clerestory wall. Mosaics adorn the arch and 
the apse. The Roman altar keeps its position but 
becomes a Christian altar. Examples: Santa Maria 
Maggiore and Saint Paul without the Walls, both in 
Rome; Saint Apollinare in Classe and Saint Apollinare 
Nuovo, both in Ravenna. This plan survived in the 
Romanesque style and has come down to our day. 

The Byzantine development. — The people of By- 
zantium or, as the city is now called, Constantinople, 
perfected a style of Christian architecture that united 
Roman and eastern elements. It represents the Greek 
spirit working on Asiatic lines. In the East, par- 
ticularly in Syria, the early Christians showed a prefer- 
ence for circular or polygonal buildings rather than 
for those of basilica form. 

The Greeks of Byzantium crowned such buildings with 
a dome and so gave us the chief characteristic of the 
Byzantine style. The dome was rather flat in pro- 
portion to its height and was placed approximately 
over the center of the building, its weight being borne 
by four huge arches. Pillars sometimes developed the 
ground plans along lines of nave and aisles and some- 
times created a cross, either Latin or Greek, within 
the square outer shell of the building. But whatever 
the plan, the dome and the great arches together with 


the peculiarly curved triangle — called a Pendentive — 
that unites the base of the dome and the sides of the 
supporting arches constitute what is distinctively the 
Byzantine style of architecture. 

In general, also, it may be noted that the walls of 
a Byzantine building are solid brick with almost no 
openings, and cased with marble on the inside. The 
roofs consist of vaultings of brick lined with mosaic. 
They are never wooden. The result is a very beautiful 
building at least when viewed from within. 

The Byzantine church as a manual of religion. — 
The Byzantine style was perfected during the period 
of theological controversy in the church councils. 
It was natural, therefore, that architects should be 
instructed to embody in their edifices the essential 
truths of religion as the orthodox conceived them. 
The entrance to Santa Sophia is a triple doorway in 
honor of the Trinity, each door itself being in triple 
form. The great dome that surmounts the vast area, 
with its rows of windows, best typifies the all-inclusive 
nature of God, at once the canopy and the illumination 
of the universe. This dome is supported by four great 
arches which represent the four evangelists by whose 
testimony the knowledge of the true God has come to 
the church. The pillars and the wonderful marble 
sheathing were fetched from the four corners of the 
earth, the spoils of heathen temples, like that of Diana 
at Ephesus or the Temple of the Sun at Baalbek. 

This is a visible token that the religion of Christ has 
conquered the world and that even the errors of man 
can be made to praise the true God. But the crown- 
ing work of teaching was assigned to the mosaicists. 
All the areas of the church, above the marble were 
wainscoting, made into a great illuminated manuscript 


in which the significant persons, acts, and doctrines of 
the faith were presented in undying colors. 

In Saint Mark's, Venice, we see this manuscript in 
completest form.^ Outside is the mosaic dedication of 
the church to Christ and to Saint Mark. Within the 
porch or atrium is the story of how God prepared the 
way for Christianity and foreshadowed it by the his- 
tory of the Hebrews. Here in successive domes are 
the Creation, the stories of Cain and Abel, the Deluge 
and Noah, the Tower of Babel, the histories of Abra- 
ham, Joseph, and Moses, with incidents of the wilder- 
ness wandering. 

Within the church itself the New Testament and 
scenes from church history are blazoned, together with 
figures of the Prophets who foretold Christ's coming. 
On upper wall, arch, lunette and dome are Christ, 
the Apostles, the four Evangelists, the Virgin, the story 
of the birth and infancy of our Lord, the Baptism, 
Temptation, beginning of the ministry at Nazareth, 
the Sermon on the Mount, the parable of the Two 
Debtors, Jesus at Jacob's Well, the call of Zacchaeus; 
miracle of the water turned to wine, cleansing the 
leper, healing the Syro-Phcenician's daughter, raising 
the widow's son, healing the paralytic, healing the 
man with the dropsy, the miraculous draught of fishes, 
cleansing the ten lepers, healing the centurion's servant, 
healing the woman with the issue of blood, multiplica- 
tion of the loaves and fishes, walking on the sea, healing 
the lame man at Bethesda, opening the eyes of the 
blind beggar, curing the demoniac of Gadara, healing 
Peter's mother-in-law, healing an infirm woman; the 
transfiguration, the woman accused of adultery, the 
triumphal, entry, cleansing the temple, the feet- washing, 

I A. Robertson: The Bible of St. Mark (Allen. 1898). 


the Last Supper, the agony in the garden, the betrayal, 
the road to Calvary, the crucifixion, Christ in hell, 
the resurrection, four appearances after resurrection, 
the ascension, Christ in Glory. After sixteen allegorical 
figures representing the Christian virtues, comes the 
descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, incidents from 
the Acts of the Apostles, and a series of illustrations 
of the book of Revelation, including the Last Judgment. 
Surely, this list is sufficient to justify Dr. Robertson's 
title to his wonderful description of this church. 

Examples of Byzantine style of architecture: 

Santa Sophia, Constantinople. 

Saint Mark's, Venice. 

Chapel of Columbia University, New York. 

Roman Catholic Cathedral of Westminster, London. 

The Romanesque Church. — The word ^'Roman- 
esque" covers various types of building based on Roman 
art up to the introduction of the pointed arch in the 
thirteenth century. The period when it flourished 
was the Dark Ages, when the art of old Rome had 
been destroyed by the barbarians and when buildings, 
if they were constructed at all, were made necessarily 
out of the fragments of former buildings dug out of 
the ground. Churches of this type are fortresslike, 
with ponderous walls and small openings; in general, a 
sober, dignified but inert mass that lacked the unity and 
grace of the old classic orders or the delicate equilibrium 
and the soaring aspiration of the Gothic. It typifies 
in a way the whole spirit of the church in the Middle 
Ages, a church that was on the defensive, that was 
solidly holding on until civilization once again was 

The external characteristics are easy to detect. 
Openings are round headed, that is, the Roman arch 


predominates. Even the solid walls are sometimes 
divided superficially into great arched panels like the 
expanses of a Roman aqueduct, and for ornament 
there are blind arcades which at a distance look like 
a section of lace and which run around the top of the 
wall or across a fagade. Always there are little panels 
with a round arch over the top; the portico is a sort 
of triumphal arch recessed in concentric fashion and 
ornamented with slender pillars standing in the angles. 

Each nation developed its own particular variety. 
, In Italy the best example is doubtless the cathedral 
of Pisa with its accompanying baptistry and leaning 
tower, in Germany the church at Aix-la-Chapelle or 
the Church of the Apostles at Cologne. The church 
ordinarily called Norman is in reality a Romanesque. 
Samples of this are found at Bayeux in Normandy, 
numbers are found in Sicily, once a seat of Norman 
power, and in such English cathedrals as Durham. 
Specimens are not wanting in our own country though 
for the most part the Romanesque style is not em- 
ployed exclusively. Perhaps the best example is Trinity 
Church, Boston. In general, one may say that arcades 
and round-headed openings are reminiscent of this 
phase of Christian building. 

Gothic. — The Gothic church is the religious structure 
par excellence. It reached its perfection first in North- 
ern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, at 
a time when the church had emerged from the lethargy 
and barbarity of the Middle Ages and was experiencing 
a revival of spirituality and power, the like of which 
Christendom had never before seen nor was destined 
to see again. The thirteenth century has been called 
the age of faith; that was because the church was ab- 
solutely dominant in the minds of men. 



Religion was the chief reason for being and the hand 
of the church was in every city and hamlet. Every- 
body was a member of the church by virtue of being 
born and baptized. To disregard the law of the church 
was at once heresy and treason. One could neither 
be born, be married, or be buried without the aid of 
the church and the keys of heaven and hell were in 
its keeping. All learning was in the hands of the ecclesi- 
astics; the arts were fostered by its grace, and while 
civil powers came and went, though barons might 
plunder and emperors conquer, the church was the 
one sure refuge and anchor, not alone to the soul but 
to the community. All of these facts can be read 
upon the walls of the great cathedrals. 

That the church was the dominant feature of society 
is reflected in the dominance of the cathedral over the 
city. No building could compare with it in size and 
dignity. But, better than that, it symbolized the 
united religious consciousness of the community, for 
the building itself was the gift of the workers. Though 
planned by some skillful monk and its construction 
supervised by the clerics, nevertheless the materials 
were given by the civil rulers, the trade guilds and 
the individuals of the community, even the humblest 
man and woman not being excepted from the general 
participation. Masons contributed their time and 
their skill, hewers of wood and drawers of water worked 
out their souls' salvation in humble tasks, and when 
the fabric was completed, when the sculptors had graven 
upon it the wondrous personages and scenes of the Bible 
and the history of the church, the finishing touches were 
added by the glass makers and the goldsmiths and the 
needleworkers who made possible the atmosphere and 
the glory of the mass. 


One might well call the cathedral the school of 
the Middle Ages. It was a school of trades in that 
through the years of its building it taught new genera- 
tions of workers how to build; it was an encyclopaedia 
of knowledge, for in its decorations were samples from 
the animal and vegetable kingdom, pictures of the 
seasons, types of labor, the heavens above and the 
earth beneath, all the arts and crafts and the truths 
by which men live and die; it was a school of beauty, 
for by living in the presence of this growing, living 
thing one learned to judge of less worth everything 
that lacked its beauty and its grandeur; it was a school 
of self-expression, for each man contributed what he 
could, and the wise master builder allowed free scope 
for various types of genius, as one can easily verify 
by examining the multifarious details of ornament, 
the bewildering variety of motif and style of such 
cathedrals as Lincoln and Chartres; it was a school 
of religion through its pictured representations of 
doctrines, from the Lamb slain before the foundation 
of the world, through antitype and type, through 
the annunciation to the blessed Virgin, through the 
hving and dying Christ down to the last trumpet, the 
gathering of the nations on the day of doom and the 
eternal heaven or hell that waits for each man. 

The substance of Gothic architecture is a principle 
of construction, it is the principle of distribution of 
thrusts and strains, of equilibrium of forces. The old 
solidity of the Romanesque gives place to lightness, 
almost airiness of structure; weights are distributed 
along definite lines and members so that not a stone 
is used more than is necessary to accomplish the results. 
Wall spaces shrink to mere buttresses and openings 
increase to vast window spaces. The arcades become 


a series of clustered shafts, bearing slender branches 
like those of the New England elni that spread over 
the vaulting and carry the weight of the roof, while 
the delicate clerestory walls are maintained against 
pressure by flying buttresses that sometimes look as 
dainty as spider webs. 

The total effect on the human spirit is one of eleva- 
tion. Whether one stands without and sees the stones 
aspire and climb into ornament and again aspire and 
climb until the very heavens seem to be reached, or 
whether one stands within among the soaring pillars 
of the nave, the impression is created that here at last 
is a temple worthy of the living God and capable of 
lifting the soul from earth to him. 

Here again the various countries have expressed 
racial characteristics in their particular development of 
the Gothic. In Germany the Gothic is less refined 
but it has straightforward strength; in Spain there is 
a mysterious gloom and a grotesque but realistic energy; 
in Italy Gothic is decorative; in England it is simple 
and grand. But in every country the same funda- 
mental characteristics appear, and these are easily 
recognized. Perhaps the one invariable sign of Gothic 
is the pointed arch and yet, as above stated, Gothic 
is essentially a principle of construction. 

Varieties of Gothic. — Since most churches in our 
day have elements of Gothic it is worth while to note 
the various varieties in common use. Most of them 
in our country have been derived from English 

(a) Early English. This is best typified by the 
cathedral of Salisbury, England. The style is simple, 
almost severe, and the windows are narrow and tall 
with an extremely pointed arch — lancet windows. 


(b) Decorative Gothic. As the name implies, this 
style is more ornate, the windows have become broader 
so that they have to be divided by stone mullions, 
and in the head of the window the stone takes the form 
of tracery, geometric or formal. A good example is 
York Minster. 

(c) Perpendicular. In this, the latest Gothic style, 
the windows are broader still, the arches extremely 
flat, and the mullions run straight up from the bottom 
of the window to the arch. Whatever other decora- 
tion the window may have, these perpendicular lines 
can be clearly traced and, in general, the units of sur- 
face on tower or wall are rectangular with the up and 
down lines dominant. Perhaps the best illustration in 
England is King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 

In our own country we seldom get an example of 
unmixed Gothic, yet every great city will doubtless pos- 
sess some specimen that is worthy of study. In New 
York the Catholic Cathedral of Saint Patrick, on 
Fifth Avenue, is an excellent example of decorative 
Gothic. The buildings of Union Theological Seminary, 
New York city, are reminiscent of the perpendicular 
style. Newton Center, Massachusetts, has a beau- 
tiful little example of the perpendicular in Trinity 
Episcopal Church. Most city churches, however, are 
built after the early Enghsh model. 

Churches built within the last twenty-five years in 
America show, as a rule, a revival of the stricter ecclesi- 
astical styles. Catholic churches are reverting to the 
Italian Romanesque, as one may see by the inspection 
of numerous examples in the suburbs of many of our 
Eastern cities. Suburban Protestant denominations 
are affecting the English country church, the charac- 
teristics of which are a big, square fiat- topped tower 


in front and broad transepts with large perpendicular 
windows. One of the best examples of the latter is 
Sage Chapel, Northfield Seminary, Massachusetts. 

References. — Fletcher and Fletcher: A History of 

Basilica, etc. 106-191. 

Byzantine 192-216. 

Romanesque 217-266. 

Gothic 267-277, 286-290. 

(English) 294-316. 

(French) 2>^2-t,%S' 

(Italian) 404-423. 
R. A. Cram: The Substance of Gothic. 

The Renaissance church. — One other type of church 
building obtained vogue from the sixteenth to the 
eighteenth centuries. It is known as the Renaissance. 
During the historic period called the Renaissance, the 
fifteenth century, the classic world was rediscovered 
and architects consequently set themselves to revive 
the architectural forms and especially the architectural 
decorations of classic Greece and Rome. In Italy the 
new style was used by the splendor-loving Popes of 
the sixteenth century, and by the Jesuits of the Counter- 
Reformation in the seventeenth. 

In England the Renaissance was coincident with the 
revolt from Rome. As a consequence Protestant 
churches that were built after the time of Eliza- 
beth took by preference the Renaissance form. Sir 
Christopher Wren was the chief apostle of this move- 
ment and Saint Paul's, London, is his masterpiece. 
The characteristics of this style are the use of the Roman 
portico with the gable end, Corinthian capitals, wall 
spaces divided by pilasters, with windows either round 


or flat-headed, usually with keystone prominent, and 
with the interior arcades making use of the round- 
headed arch and barrel vaultings. The larger churches 
frequently have a dome over the crossing. 

Naturally, the most conspicuous example of this 
type in the world is Saint Peter's, Rome; and the Italian 
cities contain many samples of either new or rebuilt 
churches in the Renaissance style, for example, Maria 
della Salute, Venice. Paris has an example of almost 
perfect imitation of the Greek in the Church of the 
Madeleine. In London, again, the great fire of 1666 
gave Sir Christopher Wren a chance to rebuild fifty 
or more parish churches, most of them in his charac- 
teristic Renaissance style. 

The period of colonization in America was con- 
temporary with this movement in England, with the 
result that almost all of our New England churches 
are modeled on Sir Christopher Wren. One learns 
to look for the classic characteristics and to enjoy the 
infinite variety of combination which our country 
architects and carpenters have devised. The out- 
standing characteristic of the New England church 
is the Greek porch with the two-story pillars and the 
pointed spire. Almost every ancient New England 
town can furnish an example. 

Teaching Material 

Temple relics the world over. — Make a list of the 
characteristic buildings that have survived from each 
of the chief non-Christian religions of the world. How 
do these compare in size, cost, beauty, and general 
impressiveness with church buildings in America? 
How do they compare with the office buildings in New 


York, Chicago, Seattle, San Francisco, Detroit, Phila- 
delphia? What does this study show you of the relative 
values placed on religion in ancient and modern times? 

The Roman gift to Christianity. — Make a study of 
the different basilicas until you can recognize at sight 
their characteristics. What churches that you are 
acquainted with in America show basilica influence? 

The Byzantine Development. — Make a similar 
study of Byzantine churches. 

The Byzantine church as a manual of religion. — 
As you have opportunity collect data about the use 
of mosaics in American churches. If there is a mosaic 
studio or factory near you, talk with the proprietor 
and find the sources of his designs; find also to what 
extent he is familiar with the old Byzantine rules for 
this branch of art. In your judgment, are mosaics 
destined to play a larger part than at present in church 
decoration? If you were planning a church, what 
designs in mosaic would you specify, and for what 
places in the building? 

The Romanesque church. — Make a study of the 
different types of Romanesque, particularly distinguish- 
ing the various national types. What Romanesque 
elements do you discover in any American churches? 

Gothic : varieties of Gothic. — Assemble pictures that 
show national types of Gothic, and others that give 
characteristic Gothic details of structure and decoration. 
What religious teachings do you find embodied in the 
sculptured decorations of cathedrals? (Study, for exam- 
ple, the details of Chartres, Amiens, Rheims, Lincoln, 
Bourges.) Identify Gothic elements in American 

The Renaissance church. — Assemble pictures of 
Renaissance churches, by countries, and learn to iden- 


tify national types. Also pictures of New England 
churches that embody Renaissance elements. 

Which of all these types seems to you most satis- 
factory to express the spirit of Christianity? In your 
judgment, can twentieth-century society ever produce 
a church building comparable to a thirteenth-century 
Gothic cathedral? Why? 




Religious art is embodied primarily in paintings 
which are possessed by the few or collected in gal- 
leries; in statues similariy owned and housed, or per- 
haps made more widely accessible in public parks; and 
in religious buildings — churches and parish houses. 
In past centuries these religious works were the only 
material available for study, and since those alone 
could profit by them who could personally go where 
they were, the message of art was limited in its range. 

But within the last half century, the inventive genius 
of man has come to the rescue. First engraving, then 
photography set free and gave wings to the products 
of artistry and architecture, so that great masterpieces 
of all kinds became fairly familiar to those who could 
afford to purchase the prints. Then other cheaper 
processes were discovered until to-day a penny or two 
will make one the owner of practically any work of 
art of value, whether of sculpture or painting, mosaic 
or architecture. Never was time so favorable for a 
great forward movement in religious art. The ma- 
terials are at hand. 

A community survey of art. — The community in 
which one lives is the first logical source of art material, 
and an art survey seems to be the most practical means 
of discovery. This survey may be undertaken by an 
individual, but in larger towns and cities it would 
more properly become the task of community coopera- 



tion through a voluntary committee or an interchurch 
committee or a class in a community school of religion. 
It would be advisable to hold a preliminary meeting 
or two in which blank forms to be used in such a survey 
might be created or discussed and explained, and the 
area of the survey divided among the members of 
the committee. With the idea of the survey well in 
mind and the work distributed, a very few afternoons 
would suffice to finish the task. Be careful to arrange 
beforehand with the pastors of churches to have the 
buildings opened at the hour of the expected visit. 
If two go together, as is advisable, the work in any 
given place may be subdivided, one taking the archi- 
tecture and symbolism, the other the pictures; or, 
better, both work together in order that one pair of 
eyes may supplement the other. It is astonishing how 
many details an untrained eye may miss. 

Church buildings. — Begin with church buildings, 
for they are themselves the first-hand creation of an 
artist. There, if anywhere in the community, you 
may find originality, or at least original combinations 
or uses of traditional material. It may be well to study 
the buildings in the following way: 

I. What historical type or what elements of historic 
types does the architecture embody? 

Our religious architecture is not a fresh twentieth- 
century creation. Its roots reach down into the past 
even as the roots of the faith it enthrones. It has been 
shaped by the needs of ritual, by national and by racial 
impulses, by environment and even by theology. So 
that as one stands before a given church, or within it, 
he may feel the spirit of past epochs and have a vision 
of the passage of the church through the ages of 


In Chapter XI we saw that the basilica reminds one 
of Roman law and its contribution, not only to church 
architecture but to church organization. The Byzantine 
suggests the age of church councils and creeds, when 
the Greek mind put its stamp for good or ill on the 
beliefs of men. Romanesque recalls the struggles of 
the church after the barbarian invasions when faith 
had to barricade itself in order to survive. The soar- 
ing Gothic speaks of the reign of conquering faith 
when the triumphant church of the thirteenth century 
reared temples to God that were an incarnation of the 
thought, aspiration, inspiration and resources of whole 
communities and nations. The Renaissance style 
embodied the newly refound delight in classic art. 
It speaks of the rebirth of the intellect and of the '^this- 
worldliness" that foreshadowed the destruction of 
Christian unity and the rise of Protestantism. In the 
colonial architecture that is the glory of so many of 
our New England towns, we see in its final form this 
recoil of Protestantism from mediaeval ecclesiasticism, 
in which men fled from the Pope and all his works 
into the arms of the heathen Athena. 

Thus the changing aspects of religion of the cen- 
turies have left their ripple-marks upon the church's 
structure, and our latter-day builders are emphasizing 
one or another aspect and recalling bits of the church's 
long history by their choice of form and plan and dec- 
oration. This is why we must record these archi- 
tectural facts in our survey and use them in our educa- 
tional processes. 

2. What symbols of our faith have been placed upon 
the walls? (For fuller treatment see Chapter VIII.) 

Our Puritan ancestry in their zeal to vitalize the 
spiritual side of religion either destroyed or shut their 

Trinity Church (Episcopal), Newton Center, Massachusetts 

George W. Chickering, Boston, Architect; Ralph Adams Cram, 
Consulting Architect 

This little gem of a parish church is a reminiscence of two greater 
structures in England. The main building is a simplification of 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, perhaps the most imposing extant 
example of collegiate perpendicular Gothic. The original has no 
transept. It is a long hall with glorious windows that occupy almost 
the entire wall space. The Newton Center replica in white lime- 
stone keeps the general proportions of the original, though, of course, 
on a smaller scale, and shows an almost complete elimination of 
ornament. Only the pinnacles and the two turrets on the facade 
burst into crockets as they ascend, suggesting the pentecostal flames 
of the Holy Spirit that rested upon the apostles. The windows of the 
clerestory, like their originals, occupy almost all the space between 
the buttresses. Their stone mullions divide the space harmoniously 
and preserve the ancient ecclesiastical symbolism by the repetition 
of the number three in panel and arch. The beautiful transept chapel 
is a simplified copy of the chantry chapel of Bishop Longland on the 
southeast side of Lincoln Cathedral. It preserves the satisfying pro- 
portions of the original, the battlements and the elegant tracery of 
the windows. The impression of the whole is that of simple beauty, 
full of grace and symmetry. 

Does this building suggest a church, or would you mistake it for 
an office building, a gymnasium or a theater? What is gained by 
having a churchly building for public worship? What is the probable 
effect of the building on the conduct and on the feelings of the chil- 
dren who attend here? Find passages in the Psalms that might 
express the feeling of the members of this parish toward their "House 
of God" (for example, in Psalms 84, 87, 93, 96, 122). What is gained 
in the way of sentiment when the beautiful ideas of ancient days are 
reproduced? What spiritual truth is suggested? If you had an 
ancient Etruscan gem, would you set it in the Etruscan style, or 
invent a novel design for it? What is the gem the architect is called 
upon to set, arid what principle should guide him? 


eyes to all the gracious forms in which their religion 
had for centuries expressed itself. Cromwell's soldiers 
smashed the stained cathedral windows, hurled down the 
organ pipes and substituted for the colorful and dig- 
nified service of the church, nasal psalm singing within 
four bare walls. Because of this narrow and vigorous 
emphasis upon other-worldliness, not a shred of art 
came over in the Mayflower. Colonial Puritanism 
was just a cold orthodoxy. 

It has taken us nearly three centuries to recover; 
but signs are at hand that religion is destined to re- 
clothe herself with beauty, with garments of praise 
and jewels of faith. Ancient symbols are beginning 
to reappear to remind us that we are the heirs of all 
the Christian ages, that truth is eternal, and that the 
faith we love has been the anchor and stay of millions 
before us. So while many of our older city churches 
and most of our country churches are still barren of 
all suggestions of religion, the newer churches are 
showing a rejuvenated interest in religious art. Crosses 
of various devices appear, doves and fish, monograms 
of Christ, Alphas and Omegas and even the apostles 
take their stand, sheltered in their canopied niches, 
wearing their appropriate heraldry as true knights of 
the cross. This is as it should be. 

Scrutinize the building carefully, inside and out, 
using the list of symbols in this book or in the survey 
forms. Thus will you gather up these precious frag- 
ments of the faith of Christendom and enable the 
teachers of religion to interpret them for our children. 
They are food for the intellect and the soul. 

3. What messages do the windows convey? 

The arts of the mosaicists and the painters upon 
glass are the most ancient in the service of the church. 


These artists also suffered in the Puritan revolt and 
are only now once more coming to their own. Chiefly 
is this true of glass. Gradually among churches, plain 
glass gave way to frosted or tinted panes, then to hideous 
geometric designs that furnished ''dim" but not "re- 
ligious" light, and now at last many of our churches 
glory in "storied windows richly dight" such as Milton 
loved. Study these windows in detail, identify their 
subject, discover their symbolism of form and color and 
determine to what extent they aid the development 
of the religious attitude in worship, or suggest inspiring 
vistas of thought for faith to wander in, for the object 
of all these arts is not to compel assent to a creed but 
to set free the heart for the worship of the historic 
Christ and the ever-living God. 

Pictures. — Having discovered the art material in 
the church edifice, turn next to the pictorial decoration 
of its various rooms, including the church-school room 
and the parish house. Omit the great number of photo- 
graphs of beloved pastors and deacons and turn to 
such photographs and other representations as illus- 
trate the truths of religion. List these by artists and 
by subjects; if you do not recognize either artist or 
theme, you can usually identify them by getting an 
illustrated catalogue of penny-print pictures. (See 

Note also whether these pictures are well placed, 
for if they are too high or too poorly lighted to be seen, 
they are valueless. A hint to the proper person may 
make these valueless pictures useful. Some church 
schools have collections of prints, usually in connection 
with the Beginners and Primary Departments, for 
use in teaching. List these also. Use your best judg- 
ment, however, and rule out all insipid pictures, those 


poor in workmanship and those which fail to qualify 
for rehgious value as indicated in the previous chapters. 

Other public buildings. — Our next resource is likely 
to be the day school. Fortunately, most of the world's 
great painters and artists served the church. Any 
exhibition, therefore, of the work of great artists is 
sure to contain something of religious value. Our 
modern school buildings are many of them veritable 
picture galleries in which may be seen in large sepia 
photographs some of the finest religious masterpieces 
of the world. List these. A personally conducted 
tour through the corridors of such a school is in itself 
the beginning of an education both in art and religion. 

Our public libraries are storehouses, too little drawn 
upon. Most Hbraries are fairly well stocked with 
photographs of old masters and of cathedrals; and 
many others have the poUcy of buying any standard 
subjects that a client may desire. Moreover, in the 
thousands of books on the shelves are no end of pic- 
tures of all kinds, patiently waiting until some stray 
hunter of pictures finds them. It might be possible 
to secure the cooperation of the Ubrary staft' — than 
whom there is no more generous class of public servant 
— in making a bibliography of all works on religious 
art, and listing valuable pictures in good books and 
bound volumes of magazines. Such a list catalogued 
by subject, either on the basis of Scripture incident 
or religious motive, or both, would be of the very great- 
est use to teachers of all grades. If interest were once 
aroused in this direction, it might mean a very liberal 
increase in the library resources in religious art year 
by year, to the immense benefit of the public. 

If a community is so fortunate as to have an art 
museum, list its works of religious art, its photographs 


and books as you did those of the schools and libraries. 
Occasionally a community is so fortunate as to have 
in its parks or squares some piece of statuary that has 
religious value. By all means list such subjects. 

Homes. — Numerically, the art objects in the homes 
of the community outweigh all other sources; but it 
is almost an impossible task to list this mass of material. 
If some citizen happens to own a genuine, original 
masterpiece, that fact is generally known and access 
to it is easily obtained. The author remembers with 
particular pleasure his visit with a large class of young 
ladies to the home of Dr. F. N. Kennedy, of Hyde 
Park, Massachusetts, to see Merson's ' 'Repose in 
Eg5rpt." But to discover lesser works is more difficult. 
It might be well to advertise the art survey in church 
calendars and even in newspapers, suggesting that if 
any people have especially fine or unusual works of 
religious art in their homes and were willing that they 
should be used in religious education, they might send 
a list to the undersigned. 

The results of this survey should be tabulated, class- 
ified, and evaluated by some skilled person; and then 
printed, if possible, and put in the hands of teachers 
of religion in the community. The task of the teacher 
is to utilize the material. How it may be utilized it 
has been the function of this book in part at least to 

Persons. — All of the community resources are of 
little avail for religious education unless some one 
uses them. Some one must discover, understand, love, 
and teach the art that now lies unnoticed and ineffective. 
Who shall do this discovering and this teaching? Nat- 
urally, those in the community who through training 
and opportunity have the knowledge, or at least suffi- 


dent cultural backgrounds, easily to acquire the 
knowledge necessary for this work. When first 
approached most people will say that they know too 
little about art. But technical knowledge is not nec- 
essary. The chief requisites are a desire to learn and 
to teach, a pair of sharp eyes, quick sympathy, and 
a willingness to spend enough time to do the job. 
Granted the desire, the other requisites can be ac- 
quired. The field is wide, the opportunity inviting, 
the service to be rendered is incalculable. Who will 
enter and possess the land? 


Form A 


I. Principles of Selection 

Objects of art have value for religious education 
only if they embody and emotionalize religious ideas. 
The fundamental ideas of Christianity are: 

a. God can and does come into direct contact with 

The human side of these contacts we call 
inspiration, the call of duty, Providence, con- 
science, remorse, conviction, conversion, com- 
munion, etc. 
h. Men need one another. 

Evidences of this truth are found in the 
instincts of friendship, love, brotherhood, pity, 
etc., and the facts of poverty, ignorance, disease, 
death, discouragement, selfishness, failure, and 
the saving influence of sympathy. 

c. Cooperation for the common good even to self- 

sacrifice is the Christian way of life. 

This principle finds embodiment in parental 
love and all kinds of altruism, and in loyalties 
to a principle, a cause, a country, a church. 

d. The Christian spirit has found expression in a 

visible church, which through the centuries 
has nourished the spiritual life of the world. 
We are all children of this spiritual mother. 


Memorials of this historic life are found in 
church buildings, specific personalities and 
events, doctrines, institutions, rituals, decora- 
tions, symbols. Knowledge of these memorials 
can be made to issue in reverence, worship, awe, 
tolerance, conviction, the sense of participation 
in a cosmic process, the duty to ''carry on." 
In making your survey, ask yourself this question : 
"Which of these ideas, principles, sentiments, feelings, 
are embodied in this particular work of art?" If you 
can find one or more, list the work as valuable; if not, 
pass it by. 

2. Possible Sources of Material. 
a. Church Buildings. See Form B. 
h. Museums, Art Galleries, Public Monuments. 
See Form D. 

Examine the antiquities, paintings, sculpture, 
and other collections or objects, and list what is 

c. Libraries. See Form D. 

Most libraries contain more or less art ma- 
terial, as photos of buildings, paintings and 
statues, or of historic places and characters. 
Many books and magazines also contain val- 
uable material. Enlist the interest and, if 
possible, the assistance of the library staff in 
digging out these resources. 

d. Church, Church School and Public School Collec- 

tions. See Forms C and D. 

What pictures are upon the walls of the 
auditorium, school rooms, chapel, parivSh house? 
What stock of illustrative material has the 
church school for use in the different depart- 
ments ? 

e. Private Collections or Individual Pieces. See 

Form D. 


Through notices in church calendars or local 
papers, individuals who have good material in 
their houses and who would be willing to have 
it used, may be induced to send in an inventory. 
Follow this with a personal inspection. 
/. It is possible for institutions and individuals 
to buy reproductions of works of art, usually at 
very reasonable prices. Consult the catalogues 
of art publishers. This material is not to be in- 
cluded in your survey, but should be borne in 
mind as a perpetual resource. 

II. PERSONS. See Form E. 

Material is of little value unless someone knows how 
to use it. The teacher is the crux of the problem of 
religious education. 

1. Find out by personal inquiry who are the college- 
trained men and women of the community, and which 
of these have had any instruction in art history or 

2. From the Woman's Club secretary find who have 
attended art courses in recent years. 

3. Has the community any art students, architects, 
or artists who have also an active interest in religion? 

4. Failing these, find people whose general culture 
and character are likely to make them successful as 
teachers of religion in art. 

5. By a conference of such people, try to induce 
as many of them as possible to undertake their own 
education in religious art, and suggest, if possible, ways 
by which this education may be promoted. If the com- 
munity has a school of religious education, see that 
religious art is introduced as a course of study, in order 
that in the near future a supply of teachers may be 

6. Is any person in the community now giving a 
course in religious art? If so, give full particulars. 


Form B 


Name of Church Location : Street 

City or Town State 

1. Material (wood, brick, concrete, stone). 

2. Plan (i) — ^use letters. 

3. Form of Windows and Doors (2) — use letters. 

4. How many stained glass windows? 

Pictorial or Decorative? 

5. Type of Architecture (3) — ^use letters. 

6. General effect (4) — use letters. 

7. Inscriptions (other than personal memorials). 

8. Symbolism: Indicate by a check mark. 

List of Symbols 

Symbols Position (5) Symbols Position 

Alpha and Omega I H S 

Anchor IC XC 

Angel Ivy 

Balance Keys 

Book Ladder 

Censer Lamb 

Chalice Lamb with Banner 

Circle Lamp 

Circles, three Lance 

Cross (6) Lily 

Cross and Crown Lion 

Crown Lion and Dragon or Serpent 

Dove Lion, winged 

Dragon Man, winged 

Eagle Monogram of Christ 

Fish Nails 

Grapes - Oak leaves 

Heart Orb crowned 


List of Symbols 
Symbols Position (5) Symbols Position 

Ox, win^^ed Star, 7 -pointed 

Palm branch Sun 

Passion flower Sword 

Pelican Tree and birds 

Quatrefoil Trefoil 

Reed Thorns, crown of 

Rose lYiangle 

Serjxint Triangles, three 

Shell Vine 

Ship Wheat 

Star, 5 -pointed Wreath 
Star, 6-pointed 

(i) A — Amphitheater; sloping floor, aisles radiating. 

B — Basilica; divided by fjillars into nave and aisles, an 

apse but no tran^x^pt. 
C — Cruciform; Greek or Latin cross, with projecting 

(2; S — Square top. 
R — Round top. 
P — Pointed top. 
C — Circnilar. 

(3) Which of these styles does it mainly follow : i . Classic 
Clike Greek temple). 2. Romanesque. 3. Domed 
Byzantine. 4. Italian. 5. Continental Gothic (tall, 
narrow; lancet windows;. 6. English Gothic 
(broader, low pointed doors and windows;. 7. Re- 
naissance. 8. Colonial. 9. Just plain "Meeting- 


(4) A — Ecclesiastical and Impressive. 

B — Appropriate but not Impressive. 
C — Coloriess or poverty-stricken. 

(5) For example, on altar, pulpit, organ, wall (fresco), 

window, carved dado, platform, furniture, pews, 
outside carving, etc. 

(6) Indicate by number the varieties found : 

I. Latin. 2. Greek. 3. Calvary. 4. Pattee (often 
called Maltese). 5. Flowering cross of any pattern. 
6. CrucifLx. 7. Gable cross with circle. 

Survey made by 





Form C 

Name of Church Location : Street 

City or Town State 




seen (2) 

Special Sig- 
nificance (3) 

Suited to what 
grade (4) 

(i) C— Color Print. (2) Yes or No. 
F — Fresco. 

H — Half-tone. (3) Which of the four aspects of 

P — Painting. religion as outHned in Form 

Ph — Photograph. A are presented with special 

S — Stained Glass. force? Indicate by letter: 

M — Mosaic. a. God and man in personal 


(4) Use letters: b. Human need. 

B — Beginners. c. Human cooperation. 

P — Primary. d. Visualizing and emotional- 

J — Junior. izing some person or 

S — Senior. teaching connected with 

A — ^Adult. Christianity. 

Survey made by 





Form D 

Books in home, public or school library relating to re- 
ligious art or containing religious pictures; Religious 
Pictures in home, public library, or school buildings; 
Statuary, Jewelry, Bric-a-brac, etc. Note the following 
specialties : 

1 . Museums. File catalogue and annual reports. 

2. Libraries (school, college, or public). Compile bibliog- 

raphies of books and magazine articles relating to 
religious art, and of photographs and other reproduc- 
tions that have a religious value. 

3. Monuments and Statuary in public places. List each 

piece that has religious value under the following 
heads: (a) artist, (6) subject, (c) material, {d) how 
acquired by the community, {e) name and address of 
personal donor, if living. 

4. Works of Religious Art, privately o-^med. List all 

original works as far as they can be discovered; also 
all especially fine reproductions of originals. Use the 
heads (a) artist, ib) subject, (c) medium, {d) owner, 
{e) address. 

5. Firms that manufacture and sell art goods. 
Use this form for purposes of evaluation: 


Where found 
owner, address 

Significance (i) 

Suited to 
what grade (2) 



(i) Which of the four aspects of rehgion as outlined in 
Form A are presented with special force? Indicate by- 
letter : a. God and man in personal contact, h. Human 
Need. c. Human cooperation, d. Visualizing and emo- 
tionalizing some person or teaching connected with 

(2) Use letters: B — Beginners. P — Primary. J — 
Juniors. S — Seniors. A — Adult. 

Survey made by 



Form E 


Training, qualifications 
and work done 

Survey made by, 




(Arranged Alphabetically by Places) 

Agra: Taj Mahal. P 191 5. 
Aix-la-Chapelle: Cathedral. \J.G48 1-482. 
Athens: Parthenon. U. G41-4J. 
Basilica plans: U. G124. 
Bayeux: Cathedral. U. G2j^. 
Boston: Trinity Church. B 119. 
Cambridge: King's College Chapel. U. Gj^j, 
Chartres: Cathedral. U. G268-2yj. 
Cologne: Church of the Apostles. U. G486. 

" : Cathedral. U. G268-273. 
Constantinople: Sancta Sophia. U. G110-115. 
Durham: Cathedral. U. G362-363. 
Gizeh: Pyramids. U. Mioj. 
Gothic: U. G48j-4g8 (German Gothic). 

" : U. G444, 446-44g (Spanish Gothic). 

" : U. G162-164, 152, 201-202, B404 (Italian 
Hangchow: Six Harmonies Pagoda. See "Asia/* May, 

1921, p. 418. 
Karnak: U. G18. 

Lincoln: Cathedral. U. Gj8j-j8g. 
London: Cathedral of Westminster. 

" : St. Paul's Cathedral. U. G427-428. 
Mesopotamia: Ziggurat. U. G28. 
Nikko: Mausoleum of leyasu. P 1899. 
Paris: Church of the Madeleine. P 1537. 
Pisa: Cathedral, Baptistry and Leaning Tower. U. 



Ravenna: St. Apollinare in Classe. P 1731. 

" : St. Apollinare in Nuovo. U. G122. 
Rome: Santa Maria Maggiore. FF. PI. 76. 

" : St. Paul without the walls. U. G128. 

" : Catacombs. U. B41-42. 

'' : St. Peter's. U. 6233-235. 
Saqqara: Tomb of Ti. U. Mi 10, 118. 
Salisbury: Cathedral. U. G404-406. 
Thebes: Medinet Habu. U. G22. 
Venice: St. Mark's Cathedral. U. Gig8-200, B34, B40, 

York: Minster. U. 641^-41^, 

Pictures and Statues 

(Arranged Alphabetically by Artists) 

Abbey, A.: Jacob Wrestling. R, 12. 
" " : Jael and Sisera. R, 30. 
" " : Deborah. R, 31. 
" " : Gideon. R, 32. 
" " : Jesus Stands at the Door. R, 99. 
Abbey, Edwin: Grail Legend (photos only). 
Aertszen: Journey to Calvary. L. 
Alma-Tadema: The Lord Slays the First-bom. R, 18. 
Anderson: ^'Neither Do I Condemn Thee." L. 
Angelico, Era: Christ as Pilgrim. U. Bug. 
" : Crucifixion. U. B122. 
" : Annunciation. U. B120. 
" : Descent into Limbo. Ba. 
" : Last Judgment. U. B116-118. 
Armitage: Remorse of Judas. Ba. 
Aubert: Jesus Christ Healing the Sick. S. N.T. I 149. 

Bacon: Christ in Gethsemane. Ba. 


Bastien-Lepage: Joan of Arc. U. Bi'/z. 

Beraud: Journey to Calvary (photo only). 

Bloch: "Come unto Me." P 3302. 

"Bonifazio, I.: Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. U. 

Bonnat: The Youth of Samson. S. O.T. 11. 48. 
Botticelli : Moses and the Daughters of Jethro. S. O.T. 

opp. 144. 
Bouguereau: Compassion. L. 

" : The First Death. P 570. 
Bouguereau, Mme. : David as Good Shepherd. Up. 

O.T. 39. 
Breton: The Divine Apprentice. L. 
Brickdale: St. Christopher (London Art Society). 
Brion: The End of the Deluge. S. O.T. 60. 
Brown, F. M.: The Coat of Many Colors. S. O.T. 
opp. 116. 
" " " : Elijah Restoring the Widow's Son. S. 

O.T. II. 108. 
" " " : Washing the Disciples' Feet. Ba. 
Brozik: Condemnation of John Huss. 
Brozik: Restoration of the Widow's Son. R, 48. 
Bruk-Lajos: Ruth Gleaning. S. O.T. II. 60. 
Bulleid: Crucifixion (photo only). 

" : Annunciation. S. O.T. III. 28. 
Burnand: Great Supper. Ba. 
Burne- Jones: Morning of the Resurrection. Ba. 

" " : Crucifixion (window). Bell: Sir Edw. 

Burne- Jones, p. 78. 
" " : Tree of Life (Mosaic, Rome). S. O.T. 


" '' : Star of Bethlehem. U. F143. 
" " : Nativity (window). Bell: op. cit. p. 78 bis. 
Burton, W. S.: The World's Ingratitude. T. 163. 


Calderon: Ruth and Naomi. Up. O.T. 31. 

Carri^re: Crucifixion. Ba. 

Catacombs: Frescoes in the Roman Catacombs. U. 

Ciseri: "Ecce Homo." B. 90. 

" : Entombment. Ba. 
Constant, B.: Raising of Lazarus. R, 81. 
" : Crucifixion. R, 88. 
" " : Arrest of Jesus. R, 85. 

Copping: The Well at Sychar. Up. N.T. 166. 

: Paul on the Castle Stairs. Up. N.T. 190. 
Cormon: Cain and His Family. S. O.T. 53. 
Cornicelius: Temptation of Christ. B. 861. 
Crivelli: Annunciation. U. B382. 

Dagnan-Bouveret: Madonna of the Shop. P. 613. 
" " : Madonna with the Infant Jesus. 

P. 609. 
" " : Disciples at Emmaus. L. 

" : The Christ Child. L. 
Da Vinci: Last Supper. U. C3-8. 

" " : Study of the Head of Christ. U. C9. 
Delaroche: Moses in the Bulrushes. S. O.T. 143. 
Dicksee: The Arrow of the Lord's Victory. R, 54. 
Dietrich: Christ's Call to the Sick and Weary. T. 136. 
Dobson: Raising the Widow's Son at Nain. T. 132. 
Dollman: Anno Domini (color print, New York). 

" : Judas Iscariot. T. 165. 
Du Mond : Baptism of Christ. L. 
Durer: Little Passion Series (See books of Durer's en- 
" : Greater Passion Series (ditto). 
" : Adoration of the Trinity. U. D403. 


Ehrler: Angel of Mortality. Up. O.T. 73. 
Ender: Holy Woman at the Tomb. P. 3330. 

Fellowes-Prynne: The Desire of All Nations. L. 
Firle: Holy Night. S. O.T. HI. 14. 

" : Der Glaube. L. 
Flandrin, H. : Moses and the Burning Bush. S. O.T. 149. 

Gebhardt, von : Christ and the Rich Young Man. Ba. 
" " : Raising of Lazarus. Ba. 

" " : Jacob Wrestling. S. O.T. frontispiece. 

Geiger: Kiss of Betrayal. P. 834. 

Gentile da Fabriano: Adoration of the Kings. U. Bji2. 
G^rome: Last Supper. R, 84. 

" : Battle with the Amalekites. R, 20. 

" : Golgotha. P. 3048. 

" : Rizpah. R, 45. 
Ghirlandaio: Nativity. U. B20^. 
Giotto: Frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua. U. B^y-yi. 

" : Frescoes in Church of St. Francis at Assisi. U. 

B53, 55-56' 
Girardet: Flight into Egypt. S. N.T. I. 94. 

" : Walk to Emmaus. Ba. 

" : Supper at Emmaus. S. N.T. 276. 
Goodall: By the Sea of Galilee. T. 129. 

Hacker, A.: Annunciation. T. 108. 

*' " : Christ and the Magdalene. L. 

" " : "And there was a great cry." Up. O.T. 14. 
Harrach, von: Peter's Denial. P. 3250. 

" : "Lovest Thou Me?" Up. N.T. 176. 
Hofmann: Omnipresence of Christ. P. 7973. 

" : Gethsemane. B. 401. 

" : Christ and the Rich Young Man. P. 802. 



Hunt, W. Holman: Finding of Christ in the Temple. 

P. 965- 
" " " : Triumph of the Innocents. Ba. 

" " " : Light of the World. U. F124. 

" " " : Shadow of Death. B. 1721. 

Israels, J. : David before Saul. R, 40. 
" " : David and Goliath. R, 41. 

Jacomb-Hood: Raising of Jairus' Daughter. T. 135. 
•»Joy, G. W. : The Merchantman and the Pearl of Great 

Price. S. N.T. I. 155. 
Justus of Ghent: Last Supper. U. D35. 

Keller, A.: Raising the Daughter of Jairus. B. 1839. 
Kirchbach: Cleansing the Temple. P. 3268. 
" : Jesus the Friend of Children. L. 
Klinger, M.: Christ on Olympus. L. 
Kowalski : Childhood of Jesus. L. 
Kiisthardt: "Peace Be unto You." L. 

Laurens, J. P.: Vision of Manoah. R, 35. 
Leduc: Temptation in the Desert. L. 
Lerolle: Adoration of the Shepherds. U. MEjj. 
Le Sueur: St. Paul at Ephesus. S. N.T. 11. 84. 
Lippi, Era Eilippo: Annunciation. U. 8154-155. 
Liska: Gethsemane. P. 3061. 
Long, Edwin: Diana or Christ. P. 3290. 
" : "Anno Domini." Ba. 

Maclise: Noah's Sacrifice. S. O.T. 63. 
Max: Jesus Christ (Veronica's Handkerchief). Ba. 
Merson: Repose in Egypt. B. 729. 
" : Arrival at Bethlehem. B. 730. 


Meurisse-Franchomme : Concert of Angels. L. 

Meyer, K.: Judas. L. 

Michelangelo: Last Judgment. V. €134-136. 

" : Sistine Ceiling. U. MCg, C105-128, 

" : Moses (statue). U. C451. 

Michetti: Conversion of Saul. R, 94. 

" : Annunciation. R, 68. 
Millais: Christ in the Home of his Parents. Ba. 

" : St. Stephen. S. N.T. II. 48. 

" : Enemy Sowing Tares. Ba. 

" : ^'Victory, Lord." Up. O.T. 17. 
Millet: The Sower. U. E108, 
Morelli: Christ Tempted in the Wilderness. L. 

" : Jesus in Galilee. R, 78. 
Morris: Shadow of the Cross. B. 1724. 
Mosaics: For a large variety of mosaic decorations, see 

U. B17-40. 
Munkacsy: Christ before Pilate. P. 831. 
Murillo: Immaculate Conception. U. E243, 
Normand, E.: Death of Pharaoh's First-born. S. O.T. 

" : David and Saul. Up. O.T. 38. 
" " : Esther Denouncing Haman. S. O.T. 
II. 132. 

Pape: Light in Egypt. T. 118. 

Pauwels: ''Ye shall seek Me and find Me." S. O.T. 

Parsons, Beatrice: Annunciation. L. 
Penrose, J. D.: Jacob Wrestling. Up. O.T. 7. 
Phideas: Olympian Zeus. U. A48y. 

" : Athena Parthenos. U. Agy. 
Piglhein: Entombment. Ba. 


Poynter, E. J.: Joseph Introducing Jacob to Pharaoh. 
Up. O.T. 9. 
u u . ujj^gy ^^^^ ^j^^jj. j.^gg bitter." Up. 

O.T. II. 
Praxiteles: Hermes at Olympia. U. Aigo. 
Prell: Judas Receiving the Silver. P. 6932. 
Puvis de Chavannes: Prodigal Son. Ba. 

" " " : History of Ste. Genevieve. U. 

Eij8-ijg, 14J. 
" " " : Beheading of John the Baptist. 

Pyke-Nott: "Justified rather than the other." L. 

Raphael: Sistine Madonna. U. Cig6. 

" : St. Peter's Deliverance from Prison. U. Ciy8. 
" : Transfiguration. U. C 200-201. 
" : Stanze (Vatican). U. C 160-16 j, lyi. 
Reni: "Ecce Homo." B. 634. 
Repin, I.: Hannah's Prayer. R, 38. 
Reynolds: The Infant Samuel. U. MF2. 
Riviere: Prometheus (photo). 

" : Daniel (among the lions). Up. O.T. 96. 
" : Temptation in the Wilderness. T. 124. 
" : Daniel's Answer to the King. S. O.T. III. 79. 
Robbia, Luca della: Ascension. U. B^^S. 
Rochegrasse: The Tables of the Law. R, 26. 

" : The Madness of Nebuchadnezzar. Up. 

O.T. 93. 
Rodin: Prodigal Son. Ba. 

Roederstein: ''Suffer the Little Ones." S. N.T. I. 122. 
Rossetti: Ecce Ancilla Domini. U. F126. 
Rubens: Christ in the House of Simon. Ba. 

" : Crucifixion. U. BiiS. 
Ryland: Ruth. S. O.T. 11. 62. 


Sant, J.: Child Samuel. Up. O.T. 35. 

" ^' : Infant Timothy. S. N.T. p. 80. 
Scheurenberg: Mary Meets a Shepherd Boy. L. 
Schmidt: Suffer Little Children. L. 
Schneider, S.: Egyptians Overthrown in the Red Sea. 

R, 19. 
Schode: Children's Friend. L. 
Scott: The Eve of the Deluge. S. O.T. 57. 
Seligmann: Holy Family. L. 
Shields: St. Paul in Rome. Up. N.T. 191. 

" : David. S. O.T. 11. 68. 
Siemiradski: Christ and the Woman of Samaria. L. 
Skredsvig: The Son of Man. L. 
Solomon: Samson Bound. S. O.T. II. 54. 
Soord: The Good Shepherd. Ba. 
Speed, H.: Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dream. S. 

O.T. 122. 
Starr-Canziani : David Brought Before Saul. Up. O.T. 40. 
Swan, J. M.: Cities of Refuge. R, 25. 

" " " : Prodigal Son. T. 146. 

" " '' : Burning Bush. R, 17. 

Tanner, H. O. : Raising of Lazarus. L. 
Taylor, W. L.: Boy Christ. Up. N.T. 141. 

" " : "When I Consider Thy Heavens." Up. 

O.T. 70. 
" " : ^'He shall give His Angels charge." Up. 
O.T. 74. 
Thiersch: The Cross Bearer. P. 3266. 
Tiepolo: Journey to Calvary. U. C4ig. 
Tissot: Prodigal's Return. Ba. 

" : Joseph and His Brothers. Ts. 
Titian: Tribute Money. U. C26g. 
" : The Entombment. U. C2yg. 


Told, H.: Peter's Denial. Up. N.T. 158. 
Topham: Hannah, Eli and the Infant Samuel. S. O.T. 
II. 64. 
" : Naaman's Wife and the Captive Maid. Up. 
O.T. 53. 
Turner: Odysseus Deriding Polyphemus. U. Fpj. 

Uhde, von: Ascension. Ba. 

: Raising the Brazen Serpent. R, 24. 

: Easter Morning. P. 838. 

: Suffer Little Children. Ba. 

: Testing of Abraham. Up. O.T. 6. 

: The Lord Appears to Abraham. R, 7. 
Unknown: Spanish Chapel Frescoes, Florence. U. Bioj- 


" : Campo Santo Frescoes, Pisa. U. Bg8-i02. 

Van der Goes: Adoration of the Shepherds: U. 047. 
VanderWerff: Descent of the Holy Ghost. S. N.T. 

IL 12. 
Van der Weyden: Adoration of the Magi. U. D20. 

" " " : Descent from the Cross. U. D24. 

Van Dyck: Arrest of Jesus. U. D161. 
Van Eyck, H. : Adoration of the Lamb. U. Di-8. 
Verrocchio: Baptism of Christ. U. Bigi. 

Watts: Allegories in the Tate Gallery. U. F 1 18-12 1. 
P. 940b, 940c, 94oe, 94of, 940J, 940k. 
" : "For he had great possessions." Ba. 
" : "Sir Galahad" (Eton College). P. 940. 

Zimmermann: Christ and the Fishermen. P. iioi. 
" : Christus Consolator. P. iioib. 

" : Boy Jesus in the Temple. L. 

«- r 

Date Due 






AP7 -5^ 





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