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Full text of "The ground-water resources of Ontario County, New York"

STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


The Ground-Water Resources of 
Ontario County, New York 



 


By 
FREDERICK K. MACK 
and 
RALPH E. DIGMAN 


Geologists I U. S. Geological Survey 


.. 
. 


Prepared by the 
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with the 


NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


BULLETIN GW-48 
ALBANY. N. Y. 


1962 




STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


The Ground-Water Resources of 
Ontario County, New York 


By 
FREDERICK K. MACK 
and 
RALPH E. DIGMAN 


Geologists I U. S. Geological Survey 


Prepared by the 
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with the 


NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


BULLETIN GW-48 
ALBANY, N. Y. 


1962 



STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


Harold G. Wilm....................................Conservation Commissioner 


J. Burch McMorran............................Superintendent of Public Works 


Louis J. Lefkowitz.........................................Attorney General 


Herman E. Hilleboe, M. D. ...........................Commissioner of Health 


Don J. Wickham......................Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets 


Keith S. McHugh....................................Commissioner of Commerce 


John C. Thompson.........................................Executive Engineer 


UNITED STATES 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 


Stewart L. Udall, Secretary 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


Thomas B. Nolan....................................................Director 


Luna B. Leopold....................................Chief Hydraulic Engineer 


O. Milton Hackett................................Chief, Ground Water Branch 


Ralph C. Heath...........................................District Geologist 



Abstract.............. 
Introduction.......... 
Purpose and scope.. 
Methods of investig 
Authorship......... 
Well-location syste 
Previous investigat 
Acknowledgments.... 
Geography............. 
Location and extent 
Culture............ 
Topography......... 
Drainage........... 
C lima te. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Geology............... 
Geologic history... 
Rock units......... 
Structure.......... 
Bedrock topography. 
Ground water.......... 
Principles and defi 
Occurrence......... 
Consolidated roc 
Unconsolidated d 
Water levels....... 
Water-bearing units 
Conso 1 i da ted roc 
Lower shale a 
Limestone aqu 
Upper shale a 
Sandstone aqu 
Unconsolidated d 
Coa rse -g ra i ne 
Fine -g ra i ne d 
Ti 11 . . . . . . . . . 
Quality of water... 
Chemical quality 
Related to us 
Related to ge 
Related to co 
Temperature.... . 
Utilization of grou 
Construction of 
Springs......... 
Water supplies.. 
Publ ic suppl i 
Industrial su 
Farm and dome 
Summary and conclusion 
Selected references... 


CONTENTS 


... ..... ...... .... .... ... ............. ..... 


..... ....... ......... ......... ..... ........ 


............. .... ............. ... ... ....... 
tion....................................... 


. ........ ..... ...... ......... ... ........... 


.. ........ .... ...... ....................... 


on s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


.......... ........... .... ... ....... ..... ... 


. ............ ................. ........ ..... 


. ..... ............. .... ...... ... ....... .... 


. ..... ... ....... ... .... ....... .... ... ... ... 


...... .............. .... ...... ..... ... ..... 


... ............ ... ... ....... ......... ... ... 


....... ......... ...... ...... ... .... ........ 


................. .......... ...... ....... ... 


... .............. ..... .......... ........... 


...... ... ..... ...... ........ ............... 


.... ........... ..... ..... ..... ...... .... ... 


.......... ..... .......... ........ ..... ..... 


.............. ....... ............ ....... ... 
i t ions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


.. .... .......... ........... .......... ... ... 


5... ...... ........ ... ... ........ ........... 
pos i ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


.... .......... ............... ... ........... 


.... ........ ........... .... ........ ..... ... 


s......................................... . 
uifer...................................... 
fer. . . . . . . . .. ... . ...... . .. ... .. .. .. . . .. . . .. 
u i fe r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
fer........................................ 
pos i ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
stratified deposits....................... 
tratified deposits......................... 


......... ......... ...... ............. ...... 


.... ... ....... ...... ... ....... ............. 


............. ....... .......... ... ....... ... 


... ........ ......... ........... ....... ..... 
1 ogy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
struction and pumping of wells............. 


... .................... .... ................ 
d wa te r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
115...... ... ........................ ...... 


. ... .......... ............... ... ........... 


.................... ....... ................ 


s......................................... . 
plies...................................... 
tic supplies............................... 


....... .................... ................ 


.... .... ......... ..... .......... ........... 


iii 


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ILLUSTRATIONS 


Page 


Plate 1. Map of Ontario County, New Yor
 showing location 
of selected wells, test ho1es, and springs.... 


(I n pocket) 


2. Map and cross sections of the bedrock of Ontario 
County showing generalized water-bearing 
units and selected formation contacts......... 


(I n pocket) 


3. Map of Ontario County showing areal distribution 
of surficial deposits......................... 


(I n pocket) 


Figure 1. Map of New York, exclusive of Long Island, showing 
location of Ontario County and status of ground- 
water investigations.................................. 3 


2. Graphs showing monthly precipitation at Bristo1 
Springs and temperature and precipitation at 
Geneva Experiment Station, Hemlock, and 
Shortsvi11e........................................... 9 


3. Map of Ontario County showing the topography of the 
bedrock surface....................................... facing 16 


4. Map of the Fishers area showing topography of the 
bedrock surface....................................... 17 


5. Graphs showing water-level fluctuations in observation 
well Ot 900 and precipitation at Canandaigua.......... 24 
6. Map of Ontario County showing dissolved solids 
content, total hardness, noncarbonate hardness, 
and iron content of ground water and surface 
water; distribution of sampling points; and 
outcrop areas of bedrock aquifers..................... facing 38 


7. Graphs showing the bicarbonate, sulfate, and 
chloride content and the hardness of water 
from the water-bearing units of Ontario County........ 42 


8. Graphs showing the chemical character of nine 
ground-water samples and one surface-water 
samp Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 


iv 



TABLES 


Page 


Table I. Age and de cription of bedrock formations............. 13 


2. Character, 
of the w 


and hydrologic properties 
units.......................... 


19 


3. 


h, and water level of wells drawing from 
e-grained unconsolidated deposits and 
the bedr ck units................................... 


21 


5. Chemical a alyses of water from selected ground- 
water an surface-water sources..................... 34 


4. Chemical c position of bedrock....................... 26 


6. Constituen s commonly found in ground water........... 40 


7. Summary of chemical analyses of water from ground- 
water an surface-water sources in Ontario County... 43 


8. 


r supplies in Ontario County utilizing 
te r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 


9. Drillers' ogs of selected wells and test holes in 
Ontario ounty...................................... 54 


10. Records of selected wells and test holes in 
Ontario ounty...................................... 64 


11. Records of selected springs in Ontario County......... 97 


v 




GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ONTARIO COUNTY, NEW YORK 


By 


Frederick K. Mack and Ralph E. Digman 


ABSTRACT 


Ontario County has an area of 649 square miles and its population in 
1950 was 60,172. The northern part of the county is located in the Ontario 
Lake Plain and the southern part is located in the Finger Lakes region. 


Ground-water supplies are obtained from both the bedrock and the 
unconsolidated deposits of the county. The productive bedrock consists of 
sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age, which range in thickness from about 
4,000 feet in the northern part of the county to about 9,000 feet in the 
southern part. Those rocks which actually crop out in the county consist 
of about 3,000 feet of shale, sandstone, limestone, and dolomite of Silurian 
and Devonian age. The outstanding structural features of the bedrock are a 
regional dip toward the south, gentle localized folding, and jointing. 


On the basis of their water-bearing characteristics the bedrock 
formations have been grouped into four units. The northernmost and, there- 
fore, the oldest of the units is the Camillus shale of the Salina group, 
termed the lower shale aquifer, which has a thickness of about 500 feet. 
The average yield of individual wells in this unit is 20 gpm (gallons per 
minute). The water is of two types, one high in sulfate with an average 
dissolved solids content of about 1,800 ppm (parts per million), and the 
other high in bicarbonate with an average dissolved solids content of 
500 ppm. The next oldest unit, which crops out just south of the Camillus, 
is termed the limestone aquifer and is composed of the Bertie limestone, 
the Cobleskill dolomite, and the Onondaga limestone, and has a thickness of 
about 170 feet. Yields of individual wells tapping this unit average 22 gpm. 
The water is principally of the bicarbonate type and has a dissolved solids 
content averaging about 650 ppm. The third water-bearing unit includes the 
limestone and shale sequence (Marcellus shale of the Hamilton group to the 
Hatch shale member of the West Falls formation). It crops out in a broad 
east-west belt in the central part of the county and has a thickness of 
about 1,500 feet. The average yield of wells tapping this unit is 6 gpm. 
Water from the unit is of the bicarbonate type and has an average dissolved 
solids content of about 500 ppm. The youngest and southernmost sandstone 
aquifer includes the shale, siltstone, and sandstone sequence from the 
Grimes siltstone member of the West Falls formation to the Dunkirk shale 
member of the Perrysburg formation and has a thickness of about 1,000 feet. 
Yields from this unit average 6 gpm and range from 1 to 15 gpm. The one 
analysis available of water from this unit shows the water to be the bicar- 
bonate type with a dissolved solids content of 232 ppm. 


The bedrock is overlain in nearly all parts of the county by a layer 
of unconsolidated deposits, which range in thickness from less than a foot 
to more than 300 feet. The unconsolidated deposits are nearly all of 
Pleistocene age. They consist of unstratified materials (till) laid down 
by glacial ice, and of both fine- and coarse-grained stratified sediments 


- 1 - 



deposited either by glacial melt waters or by streams flowing into glacial 
lakes from upland areas. Till, which occurs in practically all parts of the 
county, and the fine-grained stratified deposits, which occur mainly in the 
northern part, are capable of yielding a few hundred gallons of water per 
day to large-diameter wells dug several feet below the minimum level of the 
water table. The coarse-grained stratified deposits underlie many of the 
low-lying areas, mainly in the northern part of the county. Although these 
deposits are presently relatively undeveloped, they are potentially the most 
productive deposits of the county. In the area underlain by the Camillus, 
the unconsolidated deposits yield water of both the sulfate type and the 
bicarbonate type. In the remainder of the county, the deposits yield water 
of the bicarbonate type. 


Ground water is the principal source of supply for farms, rural homes, 
small industries, and several villages. The total use of ground water in 
1957 is estimated to have ranged from 3,000,000 gpd (gallons per day) in the 
winter to 5,000,000 gpd in the summer. In some areas only small supplies 
can be obtained, and in other areas the ground water is not of usable 
quality; but the overall supply of water is not only adequate for present 
demands but also is capable of supporting substantially larger demands in 
the future. 


INTRODUCTION 


Purpose and Scope 


A program of ground-water investigations was begun in upstate New York 
in 1945 by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York 
Water Resources Commission (formerly Water Power and Control Commission). 
The purpose of the program is to appraise the ground-water resources of the 
State on an area by area basis. The fundamental objectives of the program 
are to determine (I) the source, occurrence, quantity, and quality of the 
ground water, (2) the character of the water-bearing materials, and (3) the 
factors affecting the development of additional ground-water supplies. The 
study of the ground-water resources of Ontario County was begun in 1947 as a 
part of this statewide program. The index map (fig. I) shows Ontario County 
and other areas in which similar investigations have been and are being made. 
Reports already published are listed on the back cover of this report. 


The importance of ground water in Ontario County is demonstrated by the 
fact that most farms, rural homes, some industries, and, with the exception 
of the municipalities of Canandaigua, Geneva, and Rushville, all public 
water supply systems obtain water from wells or springs. The building of 
new homes and the development of additional industries will doubtless result 
in a continuing increase in the use of ground water. 


Methods of Investigation 


The work on which this report is based consisted of the following 
phases: 


1. Collection of information on the location, depth, diameter, 
yield, and other pertinent features of approximately 1,300 
wells and test holes. Similar data were collected for 49 
springs. 


- 2 - 



N 
! 


2. 


Field examination of the bedrock and surficial deposits of 
the county in order to become familiar with the formations 
underlying the area and to supplement existing geologic 
maps. 


3. 


Collection and analysis of water samples from wells and 
springs for the determination of chemical characteristics. 


4. 


Continuous measurement of the water level in an observation 
well to determine the magnitude of seasonal and other 
fluctuations. 


5. 


Seismic studies to determine the thickness of unconsolidated 
deposits in the northwestern part of the county where well 
data were not adequate. 


6. 


Compilation of data on the use of ground water. 


REPORT 


6W - WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 
GROUND-WATER BULLETIN 
CIR- U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CIRCULAR 


SCALE 
10 0 10 20 30 40 MILES 
I I I I I I 


Figure 1.--Map of New York, exclusive of Long Island, 
showing location of Ontario County 
and status of ground-water investigations. 


- 3 - 



Authorship 


Host of the well records used in the preparation of this report were 
col1ected by Harry D. Wilson during the fall of 1947, the summer of 1948, 
and the spring of 1954. Using the we11 records collected in 1947 and 1948 
and geologic data col1ected in the field during the summer of 1949, Ra1ph 
E. Digman had nearly completed a manuscript at the time of his death in 
December 1953. Much of the information contained in Digman1s manuscript 
was integrated with data that were collected later by Frederick K. Hack and 
used in the preparation of this report. 


The fieldwork on which the report is based, was done under the super- 
vision of E. S. Asselstine, formerly ge010gist in charge of the A1bany 
office. The preparation of the report was under the direct supervision of 
R. C. Heath, and under the general supervision of G. C. Taylor, Jr. 


Water samples collected as a part of the investigation were analyzed 
in the 1aboratories of the New York State Department of Health, Albany, N. Y., 
and the Quality of Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey. 


Well-Location System 


The locations of wells and springs for which records are contained in 
this report are shown in plate I. The wells and springs are arbitrarily 
numbered in the order in which the records were collected, beginning with 
Ot I. As an aid in locating we11s on maps of New York State, latitude Jines 
have been numbered at 15-minute intervals from north to south, beginning 
with III" for paralle1 45 0 00 1 and ending with "17" for paral1el 41 0 00". 
Simi1arly, longitude lines at 15-minute intervals have been lettered consec- 
utively from west to east, beginning with "A" for meridian 79 0 45 1 , and 
ending with Ill" for meridian 73 0 30 1 . The coordinate letters and numbers 
used to locate wells in Ontario County are shown on the well location map 
(pl. I). Intersections of the coordinates form points from which wells and 
springs can be located by distance and direction. For example, well Ot I 
(9L, 8.5S, 0.4E) can be found by locating the point where lines "9" and "L II 
cross and measuring 8.5 miles south and 0.4 mile east. The coordinates, 
distances, and directions for each well and spring location are shown in 
the tables of well and spring records, tables 10 and 11. The "Ot" has been 
omitted in each well and spring number in plate I because all are in Ontario 
County. 


Previous Investigations 


This is the first report concerned with the ground-water resources of 
Ontario County. However, investigations of the ground-water resources of 
Monroe County (Leggette, Gould, and Dollen, 1935), Wayne County (Griswold, 
1951), and Seneca County (Hozola, 1951), which are adjacent to Ontario 
County, included some data on the water-bearing properties of the geologic 
formations in the county. 


Haps showing the bedrock geology of either the entire county or parts 
of it have been prepared by several geologists working in the area. Among 


- 4 - 



these are maps of the entire county by Clarke (1885), the town of Naples 
by Luther (1898), the Canandaigua and Naples quadrangles by Clarke and 
Luther (1904), the Geneva and Ovid quadrangles by Luther (1909), the Honeoye 
and Wayland quadrangles by Luther (1911), the Clyde quadrangle by Gillette 
(1940), and the southern half of the Phelps quadrangle by D. R. Pefley 11. 


Detailed investigations of the stratigraphy of the bedrock formations 
underlying the county are described in reports on the Hamilton group by 
Cooper (1930), Tully limestone by Trainer (1932), Tully limestone by Cooper 
and Williams (1935), Genesee group by Grossman (1944), Wiscoy sandstone by 
Pepper and de Witt (1950), Onondaga limestone by Oliver (1954), West Falls 
formation by Pepper, de Witt, and Colton (1956), Naples group by R. G. 
Sutton 1/, the Sonyea formation by Colton and de Witt (1958), and the 
Genesee, Sonyea, and part of the West Falls formation by de Witt and 
Colton (1959). 


Papers describing the structure of the rocks in the county have been 
prepared by Williams (1883), Fox (1932), Wedel (1932), Bradley and Pepper 
(1938), Richardson (1941), and Kreidler (1957). 


Preglacial drainage and Pleistocene history of the area have been 
described by Grabau (1908) and Fairchild (1904, 1909, 1910, 1926, and 1935). 
Soils of the county have been described and mapped in a general way in a 
report by Carr and others (1912) and in detail in a report by Pearson and 
Cline (1958). 


Acknowledgments 


The New York State Department of Public Works, Bureau of Soil 
Mechanics, made seismic surveys of the depth to bedrock at 36 sites in the 
county and aided materially in the establishment of the observation well at 
Manchester (Ot 900). It also furnished the results of test-drilling 
programs which were carried out by the State during the construction of the 
New York State Thruway to obtain water for restaurants and to determine 
foundation conditions for bridges. 


The New York State Department of Health furnished approximately 100 
water analyses, most of which were made specifically for the investigation. 


J. G. Broughton, State geologist, and other geologists of the 
Geological Survey, New York State Museum and Science Service, provided 
valuable assistance and advice regarding the geology of the area. 


Wilbur Secor, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
Service (Sodus Office), and the personnel of the Canandaigua office of the 
Soil Conservation Service furnished information pertaining to the soils of 
Ontario County. 


11 1956, Geology of the Stanley and Rushville quadrangles: Unpublished 
master1s thesis at the University of Rochester. 


11 1956, Stratigraphy of the Naples group, (Late Devonian), in 
Western New York: Unpublished doctor1s thesis at Johns Hopkins University. 


- 5 - 



Among the many well-drilling contractors who aided in the investigation 
by furnishing data on water wells are Walter Putnam, Paul Gardner, Lawrence 
Keith, Donald Rigby, Theodore Hall, Nelson Comstock, and Thomas Dempsey. 


Thanks are due to the many county and village officials who furnished 
information regarding public water supplies. Appreciation is also expressed 
to the land owners and other individuals who furnished data regarding their 
water supplies. 


Reports of previous investigations were used extensively in the prepa- 
ration of this report. 


GEOGRAPHY 


Location and Extent 


Ontario County is located in the Ontario Lake Plain and Finger Lakes 
region of New York about half way between the geographic center and the 
western boundary of the State (fig. I). It is bordered on the north by 
Monroe and Wayne Counties, on the east by Seneca County, on the south by 
Yates and Steuben Counties, and on the west by Livingston and Monroe 
Counties. The county covers an area of 649 square miles (415,360 acres). 
It is irregular in outline but roughly resembles a short-handled meat cleaver 
with the handle extended southward and the cutting edge to the east. The 
county extends 32 miles in its greatest east-west dimension and approximately 
the same distance in its greatest north-south dimension. It is divided into 
16 towns. The county seat is Canandaigua. 


Culture 
According to the New York State Department of Commerce (1957), the 
estimated population of Ontario County as of July I, 1957, was 66,143, an 
increase of 10 percent over the 60,172 enumerated in the 1950 U. S. Census. 
The county is predominantly a rural area as shown by the following breakdown 
of the county's population in 1950: urban, 25,476; rural nonfarm, 22,623; 
and rural farm, 12,073. All but two of the urban communities in the county, 
Geneva (estimated population in 1957, 18,494) and Canandaigua (population in 
1957, 9,042 1/), have fewer than 2,000 residents each. 


Most of the industries in Ontario County are centered in Geneva and 
Canandaigua. The principal industries produce fabricated metal products, 
nonelectrical machinery, and food products. 


In 1954 three-quarters of the county's land area was divided into 2,370 
farms and was devoted to agriculture. Sales of products from these farms 
during 1954 totaled $15,900,000, of which $8,600,000 was derived from sales 
of livestock and livestock products and $7,300,000 was derived from sale of 
crops. 


The New York State Thruway and U. S. Highway 20 (New York Route 5), two 
of New York State's principal east-west lines of transportation, cross the 
northern part of the county. The New York State Barge Canal serves Ontario 
County at Port Gibson at the northern boundary of the county. Railroads 
serve the more populous areas. 


1/ From special census in 1957. 


- 6 - 



Topog raphy 


The surface of Ontario County, as may be seen in plate I, is relatively 
irregular; however, it may be divided into two relatively distinct areas on 
the basis of local relief. The smaller of these areas, the southwestern 
part of the county, is characterized by high, smoothly rounded hills 
elongated in a north-south direction and by steep-sided U-shaped valleys. 
Most of the hills are capped by sands
one or siltstone of Late Devonian 
age. Some of the steepest hillsides rise 1,000 feet in elevation in a 
horizontal distance of 2,000 feet. The maximum relief in this part of 
Ontario County is about 1,570 feet, the lowest altitude being 688 feet at 
the surface of Canandaigua Lake and the highest altitude being 2,240 feet 
at the top of Gannett Hill. Individual hills rise as much as 1,300 feet 
above the floors of adjacent valleys. Canandaigua Lake, Canadice Lake, and 
Honeoye Lake, three of the we II-known "Fi nger Lakes' l of New York, are in 
this area. 


The remainder of the county, encompassing the central and northern 
parts, is relatively flat and the surface slopes gently toward the north. 
This area is marked by numerous low and rounded or irregularly-shaped hills. 
Host of these hills are composed of unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene 
age. The low rounded hills, most of which are oriented in a north-south 
direction, are termed drumlins. Drumlins are particularly abundant in the 
area immediately west of the northern end of Canandaigua Lake and in a belt 
along the northern boundary of the county. The irregularly-shaped hills 
which are characteristic of the northwestern and northeastern corners of 
the county were formed as kames or deltas during the melting of the ice 
sheets that invaded the area in Pleistocene time. One of the outstanding 
topographic features of the northern part of the county is the irregular 
lowland that extends from Victor eastward to the county line north of Geneva. 


Drainage 


With the exception of a small area of less than 2 square miles in the 
southwestern part of the Town of Naples, all of Ontario County is drained 
by streams of the Finger Lakes-Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River drainage 
system. 


Approximately 75 percent of the county is in the Oswego River basin, 
approximately 22 percent is in the Genesee River basin, and approximately 
3 percent is in the Irondoquoit Creek basin. The remainder of the county, 
less than 0.3 percent, drains southward to Chesapeake Bay through the 
Cohocton-Chemung-Susquehanna system. Principal streams of the county are 
Honeoye Creek, Mud Creek, Ganargua Creek, Canandaigua Outlet, and Flint 
Creek. Much of the flow of Canandaigua Outlet is derived from Canandaigua 
Lake and much of the flow of Honeoye Creek is derived from Hemlock, Honeoye, 
and Canadice Lakes. 


The Surface Water Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation 
with the New York State Department of Public Works and other State and 
Federal agencies, measures the flow of streams and the fluctuations of the 
level of several lakes throughout the State. These measurements are 
published annually in water-supply papers of the U. S. Geological Survey. 


- 7 - 



Climate 


Graphs of data collected by the U. S. Weather Bureau from 4 stations 
in or near Ontario County are plotted in figure 2. In general, the differences 
in climate from one part of the county to another are minor. The precipitation 
is generally higher in the summer than in the winter. The average annual 
temperature is about 48 0 F, and the growing season averages about 160 days. 


The greatest difference in climate is reflected in the average annual 
precipitation which ranges from a high of about 35 inches at Bristol Springs 
to a low of about 30 inches at Shortsville. The higher precipitation at 
Bristol Springs is probably due, at least in part, to the higher altitude of 
the station. 


GEOLOGY 


Two major types of rock occur at or near the surface in Ontario County-- 
(1) consolidated sedimentary rock (generally referred to in this report as 
bedrock) of Paleozoic age and (2) unconsolidated surficial deposits of glacial 
or alluvial origin and of Pleistocene or Recent age. The consolidated 
Paleozoic rocks underlie the entire area and are overlain in most places by 
the unconsolidated deposits. The consolidated rocks are underlain by igneous 
and/or metamorphic rocks (basement rocks) of Precambrian age. 


The total thickness of the rocks of Paleozoic age underlying Ontario 
County ranges from about 4,000 feet in the northern part of the county to 
about 9,000 feet in the southern part. The total thickness of these rocks 
which crop out within the county is approximately 3,000 feet. The Paleozoic 
rocks consist of layers of sandstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite. 
Except for jointing and a gentle tilting of the formations toward the south, 
these beds have been disturbed relatively little since they were deposited. 
Because of the dip to the south, younger rocks are exposed progressively 
southward. The areal distribution of the principal bedrock units is shown 
in plate 2. 


The unconsolidated deposits were laid down either directly or indirectly 
from the continental ice sheets that invaded the area in Pleistocene time. 
These deposits are variable in thickness. They are absent at bedrock outcrops 
but are as much as 300 feet in the area north of Fishers. Their average 
thickness in the county is probably on the order of 50 feet. The unconsoli- 
dated deposits may be subdivided into three distinctive types on the basis 
of the grain size, range in the grain size of the component particles, and 
the presence or absence of stratification. These are (I) till, an unstrat- 
ified mixture of rock particles ranging in size from clay to boulders; 
(2) coarse-grained deposits (deltas, kames, and glacial outwash deposits), 
stratified materials consisting of layers of graded particles ranging in 
size from fine sand to cobbles; and (3) fine-grained deposits (lake-bottom 
sediments), stratified materials consisting of particles ranging in size 
from clay through fine sand. 


Plate 3 is a map showing the areal extent of the different types of 
unconsolidated deposits. 


- 8 - 



t N :------.--L----I 
I I 
I I 
,\--' SHORTSVILLE # i 
I I 
.,.c.,,[ __ _ _'
 .<V
 
\r It"" 

, e SPRINGS 
--, 
i I 
I__
 


Mop of Ontario County 
showing locations of 
selected weather stations 


Scale 

 


IOMILES 


BRISTOL SPRINGS 


12 


::: 10 

 
c 


c 
o 
;: 
o 

 4 

 
a: 2 


HEMLOCK 
e Highest recorded temperatures, by months (1999-19521 
A Lowest recorded temperotures, by months (1998-19521 


100 

 
'" 75 
.. 
.. 
.,. 
.. 
.., 
.: 
.; 50 
::> 
0 
.. 
a. 
E 25 
.. 

 
0 


or 
€I '1I<:>'j,'..-r-' T '
 €I 


 1 ......._. I . 
..;::'11. I ........,.- 1 1 l---. 
 

?
'>V'-,
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-o"

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j

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« A A '''K
. 
.-LL.
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. 
'-L.% A A' 


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o 


o 


o 


o 


(!) 


A 


A I 
I I_ Average l

o: 


 season 
I 
1 


A 


'" 
.. 
.s:;; 
o 
C 


-25 


c 6 


c 
o 
2 
Q. 
'2 2 
ct 


o 


GENEVA EXPERIMENT STATION 


c!) Highest recorded temperatures, by months (1994-19521 
A Lowest recorded temperatures, (!) 
by months (1994-1952) r 
. E> E> 
€I 
(!) 
€I 


f'T'r 
:>:>' . 
,,? ,'?;
-. 
 


#{ <:>J-.-L.I"i 'I 
.
.

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. 
, 
I/

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._.


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.-L.;r.
 A A
' 
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 A . 


100 


o 


(!) 


7511. 
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.. 
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.. 
.., 
50': 
( 
25 
 

 


€I 


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€I 


A 


A 


o 


A 


I . Avera G e 
; ;
I: : s season ..I 


A 


A 


-25 


A 


'" 
.. 
.s:;; 
9
 
c 
6g- 
a 
4
 
'2 
2ct 


n um I-I 
Average annual temperature is 49.3 F and average annual precipitation 
is 32.87 Inches. Altitude Is 615 feet above mean sea level. 


o 


SHORTSVILLE 
e Hlghesl recorded temperatures,by months (1999-19371 
A Lowest recorded temperatures, by months (1899-19371 
€I 


€I 


€I 


100 


€I 


(!) 


(!) 


€I 


(!) 


€I 


\'1I 1'
'1' €I 75
 




'-' I '" €I::: 

')r fr. 
Q
I'
 I' ''-J''. ; 

O


,



 .
.
 .., 

'" 

?f - A ,,''\j-''''J 50.
 
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 A'o !"'" E 
-'I'
'
' A A 
.
: 
 
.--=./+- . A +-- 25 E 
.-L.X A . 
 


@ 


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A 


I' Average 1 5

: 
sg season 
I 


A 


o 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


-25 


'" 
.. 

 
c 

- 
2 
'0.. 

 
a: 


J F M AM J J AS 0 N D 
Average annual temperature Is 46. r.F CUld average antlual precipitation Is 
30.14 Inches. Altitude Is 660 feel above mean sea level. 


Fig u re 


2.--Graphs showing monthly precipitation at Bristol Springs 
and temperature and precipitation at Geneva Experiment 
Station, Hemlock, and Shortsvil1e. 


- 9 - 



Geologic History 


During and since Precambrian time, the Ontario County area has passed 
through many successive stages of erosion and deposition. Generally 
deposition occurred when the area was submerged. and erosion, when the land 
surface emerged. Very little direct evidence remains of the periods of 
erosion, but many of the sediments which accumulated during the periods of 
deposition are present in the area and indicate the character of the 
environment which existed during those times. 


Rocks of Precambrian age (basement rocks) underlying Ontario County are 
the oldest rocks in the county and so deeply buried beneath younger rocks 
that little is known about their character or about the conditions at the 
time of their formation. Hiller (1924, p. 33) has indicated that during a 
part of Precambrian time, most, if not all of New York State was covered 
by "a great expanse of ocean water." Doubtless, the existence of this ocean 
was only one of many major events which affected the area in Precambrian 
time. 


Uncertainty exists as to whether or not any deposition of sediments 
occurred in Ontario County during Cambrian time, the beginning period of 
the Paleozoic era. Evidence from other parts of the State indicates that 
erosion rather than deposition was the dominant activity during most of that 
pe r i od . 


The county was submerged and received sediments during a part of the 
Ordovician period. According to Hiller (1924, p. 46), all of New York State, 
except the Adirondack area, was submerged under the Ordovician sea. Several 
deep wells in the county, drilled for gas and salt (Kreidler, 1957, p. 31-35), 
have reached the Queenston shale of Ordovician age. In general, the 
Ordovician sea was shallow and is believed to have covered most of the central 
and eastern parts of the country. The area emerged from the sea and erosion 
commenced at the end of Ordovician time. 


Deposition commenced again early in the Silurian period and continued, 
with the exception of one relatively short break, until after the sediments 
comprising the Salina group had accumulated. (The formations mentioned in 
this account of the geologic history are listed in table I.) The sequence 
of events which occurred from the beginning of deposition of the Camillus 
shale of the Salina group (the oldest rock unit cropping out in the county) 
until the end of the Silurian period included: 


I. Deposition, in a shallow highly saline sea, of the layers of 
halite (common salt), gypsum, anhydrite, clay, and limy mud which now 
comprise the Camillus shale. At the end of Camillus time, a substantial 
reduction in the concentration of the mineral constituents in the sea 
water terminated the deposition of the salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. 


2. Deposition of the layers of silt and limy mud, which now 
comprise the Bertie limestone of the Salina group. 


3. Temporary emergence of the area from the sea, erosion of the 
land surface during a relatively brief interval, and then resubmergence 
of the area. 


- 10 - 



4. Deposition of the layers of si1t, clay, and limy mud which 
comprise the Cobleskill dolomite. 


Erosion was the dominant activity in the area during Early Devonian 
time. However, deposition commenced again by Middle Devonian time and 
continued with only minor breaks until all of the Devonian sediments now 
found in the county had been deposited. The lithology of these sediments 
indicates that the sequence of events during that time included: 


I. A long period of stable conditions during which great thick- 
nesses of a relatively pure calcareous ooze (now the Onondaga lime- 
stone) were deposited in the area. 


2. Deposition of a thick layer of limy mud (now the shales of 
the Hamilton group) over the ooze. 


3. Erosion for a relatively brief period and then resubmergence 
beneath the sea. 


4. Deposition of a relatively thin and pure layer of calcareous 
ooze (now the Tully limestone) at least in the eastern part of the 
county. 


5. Erosion for a relatively brief period and then resubmergence 
beneath the sea. 


6. Deposition of layers of clay and some limy muds (now the 
shales and limestones of the Genesee formation) over the Hamilton 
sediments of the western part of the county and over the Tully 
sediments in the eastern part of the county. 


7. Deposition of layers of clay and silt (now the rocks of the 
Sonyea formation) over the Genesee sediments. 


8. Deposition of the sediments that were to make up the rocks 
of the West Fal1s formation and Wiscoy sandstone. These, like those 
of other Upper Devonian rocks, were 1aid down in a cycle of deposition 
which included black mud as the first sediment, brown and dark-gray 
muds next, and finally silty mud, silt, and fine sand. The lower of 
the two cycles include the Rhinestreet shale member, the Hatch shale 
member, and the Grimes siltstone member; the upper two cycles include 
the Gardeau shale member, the West Hill member, and the Nunda sandstone 
member. The Wiscoy sandstone represents the last phase of the cycle. 


9. Deposition of the muds and silts of the Dunkirk shale member 
of the Perrysburg formation represents the start of a new cycle. 


Intermittent erosion and deposition probably continued in the general 
area during the remaining periods of the Paleozoic era, although no known 
consolidated rocks younger than the Devonian have been preserved in the 
county. large-scale crustal movements in eastern North America, termed 
the Appalachian Revolution, marked the closing of the Paleozoic era. The 
tilting and gentle folding of the Paleozoic rocks in Ontario County probably 
occurred at this time. 


- 11 - 



Throughout the Mesozoic era, the forces of weathering and degradation 
gradually reduced the region to a nearly flat plain or peneplain. During 
the Cenozoic era the region was uplifted once again and streams began 
eroding with renewed vigor. The uplifted peneplain was gradually dissected 
and major streams developed a pattern of north-south-trending valleys. 
Later continental glaciation modified the pre-Pleistocene drainage, in some 
cases to a considerable degree. 


During Pleistocene time, continental ice sheets centered in eastern 
Canada advanced across nearly all of New York. In the vicinity of Ontario 
County, the ice was thick enough to cover the highest hills. As it advanced, 
the ice sheet smoothed and rounded hills, deepened valleys, and deposited a 
layer of unsorted debris (till) which rests upon the consolidated rock 
formations in most parts of the county. As the ice melted away, deposits 
of stratified sand and gravel were formed in the valleys by melt
ater 
streams flowing from the ice and layers of clay and silt were deposited in 
the bottoms of the glacial lakes that formed in some valley areas. At the 
close of the Pleistocene epoch, the topography of Ontario County appeared 
much as it does today. 


During Recent time, some erosion has occurred in the highland areas; 
small bodies of clay, silt, and sand have been deposited on the flood plains 
of the larger streams; and clay and silt have been deposited in the bottoms 
of I a ke s . 


Rock Units 


Each bedrock formation cropping out in Ontario County has been studied, 
named, and described in detail by geologists working in the region. Table I 
is a list of these rock units arranged according to age. The table also 
contains a description of the lithology of each unit and a column which shows 
the grouping of the formations into four water-bearing units. Further dis- 
cussion of the stratigraphy and lithology of these water-bearing units is 
given in the section entitled "Ground Water. 11 


Structure 


The rocks cropping out in Ontario County have been affected very little 
by crustal movements. The outstanding structural features of the bedrock 
formations are (I) a regional dip toward the south, (2) gentle folds, and 
(3) joints. These features were probably developed during the Appalachian 
Revolution which affected all of eastern North America near the close of the 
Paleozoic era. 


The geologic map (pl. 2) shows that the rock units of the county crop 
out along east
est bands. The rocks have an east
est strike and dip 
southward from 40 to 60 feet per mile. Because the rocks dip to the south 
and the land surface rises in that direction, progressively younger rocks 
are exposed at the surface from north to south. For the same reasons, it 
is generally true that the depth to any given formation increases as the 
distance south of the area of outcrop increases. 


The gentle localized folding, which has been mapped by Bradley and 
Pepper (1938), is reflected by the variations in the dip of the beds in 


- 12 - 



System Series GrouD FormatiDn 
Perrysburg 
forma t i Dn 
Wi scoy 
sands tone 


c: 
III 
c: 
o 
> 
GI 
C 


L. 
GI 
a. 
a. 
=:I 


GI 
" 
" 
:E 


West Falls 
formation 


S on yea 
fDrmation 


Genesee 
forma t i on 


Tully 
1 imestone 


c: 
B 


Moscow 
shale 


E 
III 
:r: 


Table I.--Age and descri ption of bedrock formations 


Membe r 
Dunki rk 
shale 


Nunda 
sandstone 


West Hill 


Ga rdeau 
shale 


Grimes 
si I tstOne 


Hatch shale 


Rhinestreet 
shale 
Cashaqua 
shale 
Rock Stream 
s i 1 tstone 


Pu I teney 
shale 


Middlesex 
shale 


West River 
shale 


Genundewa 
limestone 


Penn Van 
shale 


Geneseo 
shale 


T ( hickn 7 ss 
feet J 
100 


Character of material 
Siltstone and shale 


200 


Sandstone, greenish-gray, soft. Includes 
many beds of darker shale. 
Siltstone cDntaining fine sand in places, 
light 'greenish-gray to light bluish- 
gray. Shaly in lower part. Beds thin 
to massive. Massive beds weather into 
large, curved slabs. 
Siltstone and silty shale; gray; contains 
layers of nDdules in places. Silty 
shale is very dark gray and petrol ifer- 
ous in some areas. 
Shale, medium-gray, silty in places. In- 
cludes beds of siltstone, black shaly 
concretions, and some gray mud rock. 
Si 1 tstone, I ight-gray, in lenticular beds 
I inch to 6 feet thick. Beds are 
massive, crossbedded, or even-bedded. 
Small amounts of shale are interbedded 
with the siltstone in the middle third. 
Shale, dark-gray, si 1 ty. Includes some 
beds of black shale and many layers of 
even-bedded to crossbedded s i 1 ts tOne. 
Clayey limestone and calcareDus silt- 
stone concretions are present, mainly in 
the lower part. 
Shale, brownish-black, fissile, petrol if- 
erous, and generally unfossiliferous. 
Shale, calcareous, greenish-gray, studded 
wi th nodules of limestone. 
Siltstone, quartz, medium-gray, very silty 
gray shale, and very silty gray mud 
rock. 
Shale, dark-gray, wi th many intercalated 
thin layers of black shale and some thin 
beds of s i 1 ts tOne. 
Shale, black, bituminous, massive in fresh 
exposures, fissile upon weathering. 
Fossils scarce. 
Shale, interbedded dark-gray and black 
beds. Thin siltstone beds occur at 
several intervals within this formation 
in the eastern part of the county. The 
dark-gray shales are irregularly bedded 
and calcareous. The black shales are 
fissile and resemble the Marcellus black 
shales. 
Limestone, dark-to I ight-brown or gray, in 
layers from 2 to 10 inches thick and 
separated by layers of dark-gray or 
black shale. Some layers are flat and 
flaggy; others are concretionary and 
nodular. The fossi I St y l iol ina 
fissurella is abundant. Useful as a 
stratigraphic marker. 
Shale, dark-gray, and mud rock containing 
thin beds of black shale, many layers of 
nodu I a r limes tone, and ca I ca reous nodu I es. 
Shale, black, bituminous, similar in 
appearance to the Marcellus but almost 
devoid of fossils. Includes some inter- 
bedded limes tOne I aye rs. Lenses of 
fossiliferous pyrite and marcasite as 
much as 7 inches thick and I inch to 10 
feet long separate the Genesee formation 
from the underlying Moscow shale where 
the Tully is absent west of Canandaigua 
Lake. 
Limestone, black when fresh and light 
bluish-gray when weathered, hard, dense, 
and fine textured. Thickest on eastern 
border of county and pinches out in 
central part. Where present, it serves 
as a good stratigraphic marker. 
Shale, dark-gray, soft, calcareous. 
Lighter in color and more fossi I iferous 
than other formations of the Hami 1 ton 
group. 


200 


180 


350 


50 


340 


20 


90 


80 


50 


60 


130 


15 


60 


45 


7 


125 


13 - 


Wa ter-bea ring un it and 
approximate thickness 
(see table 2) 


Sands tone 


aqui fer 


1,000 feet 


Upper 


shale 


aquifer 


1,500 feet 



System Series Group 


c 
"' 
c 
o 
> 
G) 
c 


c 
"' 
.... 
::s 


G) 
"'C 
"'C 
X 


Ta'Jle I.--Age and descri ption of bedrock formations (Continued) 


Fo rma t i on 
Mas cow 
sha Ie 


Ludlowvi lIe 
shale 


c 
B 


°e 
"' 
:J: 


Skaneateles 
shale 


Marcellus 
shale 


Onondaga 
limes tOne 


Cobleski II 
dolomi te 


Be r tie 
limes tone 


"' 
c 



 


Cami Ilus 
shale 


Membe r 
Menteth 
limes tone 


Ti chenor 
limes tone 


Centerfield 
limes tOne 


Stafford 
limes tone 


Th i cknes s 
( fee t) 
I 


Character of material 
Limestone, medium-gray, irregularly lami- 
na ted wi th th in a rg i 11 aceous bands. 
55 Shale, bluish and brittle. This part of 
the forma t i on has been ca II ed the Deep 
Run member by G. A. Cooper (1930). 


65 


Limestone, resistant to weathering. Forms 
waterfalls in many of the ravines near 
the northern part of Canandaigua Lake. 
Shale, I ight-to dark-blue and gray. In- 
cludes several thin layers of limestone. 
Called Wanakah shale member by Cooper 
( 1930) . 
Shale, black. Called Ledyard member by 
Cooper (1930). 
Limestone, coral-rich. Includes several 
layers of shale. 
Shale, dark-qray to black. Similar to 
Marcellus but has a somewhat higher 
ca 1 c i um-ca rbona te con ten t . 
Limestone, dark-gray when fresh and 
brownish gray when weathered, massive, 
fine-grained, argi Ilaceous. 
Shale, black when fresh and gray when 
weathered, fossiliferous. Includes some 
thin, calcareous layers and many large 
calcareous concretions. Includes 
Ca rd iff sha I e of New York S ta te Museum 
Reports. 
Limestone, very dark qray when fresh, 
bluish-gray when weathered, and dense 
textured. Layers are from 6 inches to 3 
feet in thickness and are convnonly sepa- 
rated by thin layers of finely laminated 
shale. The Onondaga contains an abun- 
dance of silicified fossils and several 
layers contain nodules of dark chert 
(flint). The chert and silicified 
fossils, being more resistant to weath- 
ering than the rest of the rock, usually 
stand out above the weathered surface of 
the I imestone. The upper part of the 
formation is free of chert as is a 
thinner coral-rich layer near the base. 
A I ayer of sands tOne severa I inches 
thi ck, whi ch occurs at the base of the 
Onondaga, was Once cons i dered to be the 
Oriskany sandstone but it has since been 
shown to be the basal, Springvale ZOne 
of the Onondaga I imestone (Chadwick, 
1919, p. 42). 
Dolomite, gray and thin-bedded in top half 
of formation. Shale and impure, dark- 
blue I imestone in lower half of forma- 
tion. Difficult to distinguish from 
underlying Bertie I imestone in most 
outcrops. 
Limestone, shaly, drab Or gray. Includes 
SOme layers of dolomi tee Particularly 
well known for fossil eurypterids. 
Shale, I ight-gray. Includes beds of 
dolomi tic I imestone near top, layers of 
gypsum and anhydrite in upper part, and 
layers of salt (NaCI) in the lower part. 
The gypsum, anhydr i te, and sa I t have been 
removed from surface exposures by 
weatheri ng. 


65 


20 


225 


2/3 


60 


100 


20 


50 


500 


14 - 


Water-bearing uni t and 
approximate thickness 
(see table 2) 


Upper 


shale 


aqui fer 


1,500 feet 


Limes tone 


aquifer 


1]0 feet 


Lowe r 


shale 


aquifer 


500 feet 



many of the larger outcrops of the county. The gentle folding of the rocks 
may be observed in a few exposures, such as those along Flint Creek, near 
the southern boundary of the village of Phelps; along Rocky Run, a stream 
about one mile southwest of Clifton Springs; and along Tannery Creek about 
one mile southeast of the village of Naples. 


Joints are fractures or partings which interrupt the physical con- 
tinuityof rock masses. They generally result from stresses set up in the 
crust of the earth by tension or shear forces. The rocks underlying 
Ontario County disgla y a fairly consistent joint pattern in which two sets, 
one oriented N. 40 W. and the other N. 75 0 E.,are most prominent. The 
spacing between adjacent joints varies from a few inches to several feet 
and is not uniform for anyone formation. However, the joints are more 
closely spaced in the shales than in the limestones and sandstones. Joints 
and other openings tend to close up with increased depth because of the 
increased pressure of overlying earth materials. 


Bedrock Topography 


The approximate altitude of the top of bedrock in Ontario County is 
shown in figure 3. Data on which the figure is based were obtained from 
bedrock outcrops, wells, test holes, lake surveys, and seismic studies. 
Due to the lack of detailed data, the contours on the map are generalized 
and therefore do not reflect minor irregularities in the bedrock surface. 


As may be seen in figure 3, the topography of the bedrock in the 
southwestern quarter of the county differs considerably from the topography 
of the bedrock in the remainder of the county. The bedrock surface in the 
southwestern part is characterized by several high hills which are separated 
from one another by deep valleys whereas the bedrock surface in the remainder 
of the county is relatively flat and slopes gently toward the north in 
most places. 


Three of the valleys in the southwestern part of the county are 
occupied by lakes of the Finger Lakes group (Canandaigua Lake, Canadice 
Lake, and Hemlock Lake). Most of the bedrock hills in this area are 
elongated in a north-south direction and are steep-sided on all but the 
north slope which is relatively gentle. The maximum known altitude of the 
bedrock surface is about 2,120 feet above sea level at well Ot 761 on 
Worden Hill 6 miles sbutheast of the village of Honeoye. The minimum 
altitude of the bedrock surface is some value smaller than 415 feet - the 
lowest altitude yet measured for the bottom of Canandaigua Lake. Maximum 
relief of the bedrock surface in this part of the county is thus over 
1,700 feet. The thickness of unconsolidated deposits underlying 
Canandaigua Lake is not known. In his discussion of the preglacial drain- 
age of the Genesee River, Fairchild (1935, p. 167) suggested that the 
altitude of the rock floor in the valley that extends southwestward from 
the village of Naples is less than 200 feet. Data from wells Ot 743 and 
Ot 784 (table 10) indicate the altitude of the rock floor is probably at 
least 700 feet and may be as much as I ,000 feet. 


In the central and northern parts of the county, the bedrock surface 
is relatively flat, with a gentle slope to the north. A small valley has 
been cut into the relatively flat surface of the bedrock in the Fishers 


- 15 - 



area in the northwestern part of the county (fig. 3 and 4). As the valley 
is now filled with glacial debris, it was undoubtedly formed during or 
before Pleistocene time. The altitude of the top of bedrock in the bottom 
of the valley is about 250 feet above sea level. A map included in a report 
on the ground-water resources of Monroe County (Leggette, Gould, and Dollen, 
1935) indicates that the abandoned valley of the Irondogenesee River (pre- 
glacial Genesee River) passes through the Fishers area. Fairchild (1935, 
p. 167 and 169), using this map and data from wells in other parts of the 
region as a basis, stated that glacial drift with a minimum thickness of 715 
feet underlies the Fishers area. The well, test-hole, and seismic data 
presented in figure 4 shows that the thickness of drift in this valley is 
less than 200 feet in most places, but may reach a maximum thickness of 400 
feet. 


Figure 3 shows also that a low north-south trending trough has been cut 
in the bedrock along the eastern margin of the county north of Geneva. 
Possibly this is a segment of the channel of the main stream which, according 
to Fairchild (1935, p. 160), drained central New York in preglacial time. 


GROUND WATER 


Ground water in Ontario County occurs in both the unconsolidated 
deposits and in the bedrock. Information about the occurrence and avail- 
ability of ground water in the county was obtained from the records of 1,130 
wells, 170 test holes, and 49 springs. Information about the quality of 
ground water was obtained from the analyses of 101 water samples. The 
records for 767 wells, 34 test holes, and 49 springs on which data are re- 
latively complete, are given in tables 10 and 11. 


Principles and Definitions 


Water that occurs in pore spaces or other openings in rocks is termed 
subsurface water. Such water occurs both in the zone of saturation and in 
the zone of aeration. The plane of separation between these zones is known 
as the water table. The zone of saturation lies below the water table and 
in this zone all interconnected openings are filled with water. Water with- 
in the zone of saturation is called ground water. The zone of aeration lies 
above the water table and contains air and other gases, in addition to water. 


Nearly all subsurface water is derived from precipitation. One inch of 
precipitation on an area of I square mile provides 17 million gallons of 
water. Thus, with an average annual precipitation of about 32 inches, the 
total precipitation on the 649 square miles of Ontario County is about 353 
billion gallons. However, as most of the precipitation runs off the surface 
of the land to streams or is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation 
and transpiration, only a small part reaches the zone of saturation. Among 
the factors determining the amount of water that is absorbed by the ground 
are the following: (1) the porosity and permeability of the surficial 
materials, (2) the slope of the land, (3) the amount and kind of vegetal 
cover, and (4) the intensity and amount of precipitation. Thus, rain falling 
at a slow, steady rate on dry, permeable, flat ground results in more in- 
filtration than rain falling at a rapid rate on moist, steep, relatively 
impermeable ground. 


- 16 - 



Area shown In tjreater 
I detail In fltjure 4 
 


------..--- 
\ ;/- 
'-........ 


77°15
_____ 10' 
" ----- PO';+Glb: \ 
'....____________ I 
-- --500---_______ _____
 
1.....- _ _ _ 


C)!i' 


2.' 


7
0' 

r 


--500--------' 
r- 
__J 
C':::'-;::' - -" 


600 


#Manchester 


,------ 
'7 
\ 
\ 


1 rr -- j 
/ \.--....... 
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EXPLAN AT ION 


---/000- 


40' 
20' 


Altitude of bedrock surface in feet above mean sea level. 
Contour interval 200 feet south af latitude 42° 50'N and 
100 feet north of latitude 42°50'N. Alternate contours north 
of latitude 42° 50' N shown as dashed lines. 


(4851 
Altitude of lake bottom In feet above mean sea level (from 
Birge and Juday, 1914). Does not represent top of bedrock 
surface. 


SCALE 


I \'2 0 


4 MILES 


..' 


Figure 3.-- Map of Ontario County showing the topography of the bedrock surface. 




EXPLANATION 
o Well that penetrates bedrock 
. Well or test hole that bottoms in unconsolidated 
deposi ts 
x Seismic shot point used by N. Y. State Bureau. 
of Soil Mechanics 
Ot563 Number assi
ned to well or test hole In table 10 

 Altitude of bottom of well or test hole 
490 Altitude of top of bedrock 
-_ Contour line on top of bedrock 

 Bedrock outcrop 
o 0.5 
I . 


Monroe --1 County 
Onta rio ,- county- 
I 
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Figure 4.--Map of the Fishers area showing topography of the 
bedrock surface. 


- 17 - 



Once water reaches the zone of saturation it begins to move laterally 
under the influence of gravity toward points of discharge, such as springs, 
wells, lakes, or streams. Water thus in transit may occur under either 
water-table or artesian conditions. Where ground water partially fills a 
permeable bed, its surface is free to rise and fall. Such water is uncon- 
fined and is said to be under water-table conditions. Where the water 
completely fills a permeable bed that is overlain by a relatively impermeable 
bed, its surface is not free to rise above the base of the confining bed and 
it is said to be under artesian conditions. Water under artesian conditions 
is not necessarily under sufficient pressure to rise above the land surface. 


A formation in the zone of saturation that is sufficiently permeable to 
transmit water in usable quantities to wells or springs is called an aquifer. 
Areas in which aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas. Areas in 
which water is lost by natural seepage from aquifers are called discharge 
areas. 


The quantity of water stored in an aquifer depends on the porosity, or 
percentage of the total volume that is occupied by pores and other openings. 
The rate at which water moves in aquifers, and the rate at which it may be 
withdrawn through wells or discharged by springs is controlled by the 
permeability, or the capacity of the rock to transmit water. 


Occurrence 


On the basis of the types of openings in which the ground water occurs, 
the geologic formations in Ontario County may be divided into two groups: 
(I) consolidated rocks of Paleozoic age and (2) unconsolidated deposits of 
Pleistocene and Recent age. In the unconsolidated deposits, most of the 
openings consist of pore spaces between the constituent grains. In the 
consolidated rocks, on the other hand, the intergranular openings are 
extremely small and most of the ground water occurs in bedding planes, joints, 
and other fractures which have developed since the rocks were consolidated. 
The porosity differs markedly between the consolidated rocks and the uncon- 
solidated deposits. The openings developed along bedding planes, joints, and 
other fractures in the consolidated rocks occupy a relatively small propor- 
tion of the total volume of the rock. Thus, the porosity of most of these 
rocks is probably less than 5 percent. In the unconsolidated deposits, how- 
ever, openings exist between the constituent grains and, depending on the 
degree of sorting, may occupy 30 percent or more of the total volume of the 
deposit. 


The permeability of both the consolidated rocks and the unconsolidated 
deposits also ranges widely. Thus, those parts of the consolidated rocks in 
which the joints and other cracks are relatively closely spaced have a much 
higher permeability than those parts in which joints and cracks are widely 
spaced. Similarly, those unconsolidated deposits which are composed of well 
sorted, coarse-grained material, such as stratified sand and gravel, have a 
much higher permeability than unsorted deposits composed of particles ranging 
in size from clay to boulders, such as till. 


The thickness, character, and water-bearing properties of the Gonsoli- 
dated rocks and unconsolidated deposits underlying Ontario County are 
summarized in table 2. Most of the information in this table and in the 


- 18 - 




 


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following discussion of the occurrence of water is based on the records of 
wells and springs listed in tables 10 and 11. The locations of wells and 
springs for which records are included in this report are shown in plate I. 


Consolidated Rocks 


The conso 1 i da ted rocks, a I so ca 11 ed "bed rock", a re an i mportan t sou rce of 
water in the county because they underlie the entire area and because they 
will generally yield sufficient water to supply domestic, farm, and other 
relatively small needs. The consolidated rocks consist of shale, sandstone, 
limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. 


In upland areas, where bedrock crops out or is covered only by a thin 
veneer of unconsolidated deposits, water is generally under water-table 
conditions. Water-table conditions prevail also at shallow depth in the 
bedrock in those lowland areas where the bedrock is overlain by relatively 
permeable unconsolidated deposits. On the other hand, artesian conditions 
occur in both upland and lowland areas where the bedrock is overlain by 
relatively impermeable deposits such as till or lake-bottom sediments, or 
where the joints and other openings in the upper part of the bedrock are 
filled with impermeable material. 


As may be seen in table 3, the yields of 356 wells tapping bedrock for- 
mations in Ontario County range from 0.5 to 300 gpm and average 12 gpm. The 
yields of individual wells tapping bedrock depend on several factors. The 
most important are the characteristics of joints and other openings, the 
permeability and thickness of overlying unconsolidated deposits, and the 
topographic position. 


Because the openings along joints and bedding planes provide the prin- 
cipal channels for the movement of water in the bedrock of Ontario County, 
the yields of wells tapping the bedrock are determined largely by the 
spacing, continuity, and dimensions of the openings. The spacing of these 
openings is irregular, ranging from a few inches to many feet. The width 
of the openings is generally less than 0.1 inch but in some limestones and 
other soluble rocks, joints and bedding planes have been enlarged consider- 
ably by solution processes. Openings in bedrock tend to become smaller with 
depth because of the increased pressure of overlying earth materials. Thus, 
joints below a depth of a few hundred feet are generally effectively closed. 


As may be seen in table 3, the average yield of wells tapping rocks 
which are relatively soluble - rocks of the lower shale aquifer and the 
limestone aquifer - is about 20 gpm. On the other hand, the average yield of 
the wells tapping the less soluble formations- the rocks of the upper shale 
aquifer and the sandstone aquifer - is 6 gpm. Sustained yields from wells 
tapping bedrock which is overlain by more than 15 feet of highly-permeable 
deposits may be expected to be much larger than yields from similar wells 
tapping bedrock which is not overlain by unconsolidated deposits or is over- 
lain by relatively impermeable deposits. 


The effect of topography on the yield of wells is difficult to differ- 
entiate from the effects of other factors. However, because the bedrock in 
valleys is recharged not only from precipitation falling on the valleys but 
by ground water percolating to the valleys from adjoining hills, the yields 


- 20 - 



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- 21 - 


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of bedrock wells in valleys tend to be greater than the yield of those on 
hills. 


Many of the bedrock formations of Ontario County are hydrologically 
similar. Because of this similarity and in order to facilitate description 
and comparison of the consolidated rocks, all of the formations have been 
grouped into four units: the lower shale aquifer, the limestone aquifer, 
the upper shale aquifer, and the sandstone aquifer. Each of these is 
described in the section entitled 'IWater-bearing Units." 


Unconsolidated Deposits 


Unconsolidated deposits cover the bedrock almost everywhere in Ontario 
County. (See plate 3.) Water in these deposits occurs principally in the 
pore spaces between constituent grains and the quantity of water which a 
deposit can yiela to wells is dependent on the size of the pores and degree 
of interconnection between pores. Where the pores are small or not connected, 
little or no water can be transmitted by the deposit. 


Water in most of the unconsolidated deposits of the county is under 
water-table conditions. However, there are some parts of the county where 
sand and gravel is overlain by clay or other relatively impermeable material 
and in such places the water in the deposits is commonly under artesian 
conditions. 


The materials which compose most of the unconsolidated deposits were 
derived from rock formations that crop out to the north - the direction from 
which the ice sheets advanced - and were transported to their present 
positions either by glacial ice, melt water from the ice sheet, or a combi- 
nation of the two. Therefore, the materials comprising the unconsolidated 
deposits can, in a gross manner, be related with rock formations occurring 
to the north. 


Because they were deposited by widely differing geologic processes, the 
unconsolidated deposits differ considerably in grain size and in degree of 
sorting. Using these characteristics, the unconsolidated deposits of the 
county have been subdivided into three general types: (1) coarse-grained 
stratified deposits, (2) fine-grained stratified deposits, and (3) till. 
Each of these types is described separately in the section entitled "Water- 
bearing Units." 


Water Levels 


Ground-water levels in Ontario County differ from one location to 
another in the same aquifer and from aquifer to aquifer in the same location. 
The average static water level for 529 wells in Ontario County is 26 feet 
below land surface. The lowest reported water level is 200 feet below land 
surface (in well Ot 937, drilled at the top of a hill composed principally 
of sand and gravel) and the highest with respect to land surface was 9.3 feet 
above land surface (in well Ot 900 which penetrates the Camillus shale of the 
Salina group in a lowland area). 


Ground-water levels in individual wells fluctuate almost continuously in 
response to changes in the rates of recharge to and discharge from the par- 


- 22 - 



ticular water-bearing unit tapped by the well. The changes in water level 
during any period indicate the net change in the amount of ground water 
stored in aquifers in much the same manner as changes in water levels in 
surface reservoirs indicate net changes in surface-water storage. Water 
levels rise when rain or water derived from melting snow percolates down- 
ward to the zone of saturation. Discharge of ground water through springs, 
seepage into streams, evapotranspiration, and pumping of wells reduce the 
amount of water stored in the ground, resulting in a decline in water 
levels. In addition to fluctuations caused by changes in the amount of 
water stored in an aquifer, water levels in certain artesian wells also 
fluctuate in response to changes in barometric pressure, to earthquakes, 
and to other forces. 


In order to observe the extent to which water levels in Ontario County 
fluctuate in response to changes in the rates of recharge and discharge and 
to other factors, records of the water-level fluctuations in well Ot 900 
have been collected since May 1955. This well is 6 inches in diameter, 
139 feet deep, and is cased through II feet of unconsolidated material to 
the top of the Camillus shale of the Salina group. The record for this 
well for the period May 1955 to May 1960 is shown graphically in figure 5. 
The water in the Camillus shale at the site of the well is under artesian 
conditions as indicated by the fact that the water level is above land 
surface. As there is no pumpage from the Camillus in the vicinity of the 
well, all fluctuations of the water level in this well are due to natural 
causes. It may be seen from figure 5, part A, that the dominant feature 
is an annual fluctuation of about 3 feet. During each 12-month period of 
record, the water level is generally highest during the spring of each 
year and lowest in the fall. The declining portion of the annual fluctu- 
ation corresponds to the growing season. (See figure 5, part B.) During 
the growing season much of the precipitation, which in other seasons would 
percolate to the zone of saturation, fails to reach the water table 
because the water is either evaporated at the land surface or is transpired 
by plants drawing from the zone of aeration. As may be seen in figure 5, 
part A, the rising phase of the annual fluctuation usually commences in the 
fall of each year, shortly after the end of the growing season when the 
amount of water lost by evapotranspiration decreases and the amount of 
water recharging the aquifer increases. Water levels usually follow a 
rising trend until spring. Figure 5, part A, also shows that some high 
water levels reflect heavy precipitation. For example, the rise of the 
water level in October and November 1955 reflects the exceptionally high 
precipitation during October. Likewise, the high water levels of June and 
July 1958 reflect the exceptionally high precipitation during those two 
months. 


Figure 5, part C, which is a tracing from the original recorder chart, 
shows that the water level in well Ot 900 fluctuates almost constantly. 
The fluctuations appear to be due to two different causes: changes. in 
storage in the aquifer, and changes in atmospheric pressure. The general 
decline of the water level during the period shown was a part of the 
seasonal decline. The semi-daily fluctuations are probably caused primarily 
by daily variations in atmospheric pressure. The temporary drop in the 
water level of about 0.2 foot, from the 17th through the 19th of September, 

s probably caused by a high-pressure atmospheric mass which is known to 
have passed through the area at the time. The small amount of precipitation 
recorded during this period had no apparent effect on the water level. 


- 23 - 



A 
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15 16 17 
September 1957 
Hydrograph showing the continuous fluctuation of the water level due to minor fluctuations caused largely by changes in atmospheric 
pressure superimposed on the seasonal downward trend. 


18 


19 


20 


2' 


Figure 5.--Graphs showing water-1evel f1uctuations in observation 
well Ot 900 and precipitation at Canandaigua. Well 
Ot 900, which is at New York State Thruway Interchange 
No. 43 near Manchester, taps water under artesian 
conditions in the Cami11us sha1e of the Salina group. 


- 24 - 



Water-bearing Units 


Consolidated Rocks 


Lower shale aquifer 


The Camil1us shale of the Salina group is termed the lower shale 
aquifer in this report. (See table 1.) The outcrop area of the Camil1us 
shale is predominantly a rural area but because of its proximity to the 
New York State Thruway it is likely to become highly developed in the 
future. Thus, it may be expected that the use of ground water will increase 
as the area develops. Data collected in the course of this investigation 
indicate that relatively large quantities of water are available from some 
parts of the Camillus. However, the quality of the water is commonly so 
poor that it is not suitable for many purposes. 


Geologic characteristics .--The Camil1us shale of the Salina group is 
the o ld est roc k that crops out at the land surface in Ontario County. It 
underlies the entire county, but its area of outcrop, which is the area in 
which most wells taking water from it are located, is confined to an east- 
west belt from 1 to 5 miles wide along the northern boundary of the county. 
(See plate 2.) 


The Camillus shale, as used in this report, refers to the rock sequence 
overlying the Vernon shale of the Salina group, which consists of a few 
hundred feet of red and green shales, and underlying the Bertie limestone. 
According to this usage, all beds of salt, gypsum, and anhydrite in the 
Salina group in Ontario County are in the Cami11us shale. 


In most parts of the county, the Camil1us is about 500 feet thick. 
However, erosion has reduced the thickness by several hundred feet in the 
area of outcrop. 


The Camil1us is predominantly a light-colored shale containing beds of 
dolomitic limestone near the top. The chemical composition of a sample of 
this shale is given in table 4. Layers of common salt (NaCI), gypsum, and 
anhydrite occur in unweathered parts of the Camillus but have been removed 
by leaching from surface exposures. Two layers of salt, one 35 feet thick 
and the other 15 feet thick were penetrated by well Ot 494 (table 9) in the 
central part of the county. Salt is being mined presently from the Camillus 
in several parts of central New York. Gypsum occurs in the upper part of 
the formation and has been mined from time to time by surface methods in the 
area of outcrop in the town of Phelps and Victor. A layer of gypsum which 
occurs from 104 to 110 feet below land surface has been mined by underground 
methods in an area about 1.5 miles northeast of the village of Victor. The 
chemical analysis of a sample of "run-of-the-mine" gypsum taken from a mine 
in the Camil1us about 15 miles west of Ontario County (at Garbutt, Monroe 
County) is given in table 4. 


Hydrologic characteristics .--Water probably enters the Camil1us shale 
both b y di rect rec ha rge t h roug h the overlying unconsolidated deposits in its 
area of outcrop and by percolation downward from overlying formations in the 
central and southern parts of the county. Yields of 23 wells in the 
Camillus average about 20 gpm and range from 0.5 to 128 gpm. The Camil1us 


- 25 - 



Table 4.-- Chemical composition of bedrock 
(Percent by weight) 


Lower shale aquifer Limestone Upper shale aquifer Sandstone 
aquifer aquifer 
L- 
 
Q) L- L- 
-S 
 Q) 
 
.a Q) e 
Q) 
 
 E -S 0 

 e 
 e .- 
Q) 
 IU 0 0 
 .... 
oS:: Q. Q) "Z .- ! 

 IU Q. 1/1 ::I .! .... 
oS:: ::I IU Q) 0 IU ! 
 Q) L- 
1/1 0 Ole .! L- oS:: IU - 0 
E L- IU 0 01 1/1.... L- os::.... L- IU........ 
::I 1/1.... 01 ".... -.... L- o 0 1/1 0 0 oS:: 0 
1/1 ::I 0 e III -oe .... .... 1/1 
 
Q. - IU g 
 
 0 Q) IU 
>- - e .... > Q) ::I IU ::I iU 
CI 's .- C.- - a: Q) CT Q) IU 
Determination - - 's III IU >- Q) I&. 
IU IU " Q) oS:: e " 
u en ::I IU .... e III 0 L- .... 
...J ::c: III Q) IU en IU III 
Q) CI U CI :f 
::3 
Si0 2 2.93 54.5 14.85 28.1 63.5 60.6 57.8 
AI203 1.92 12.9 7.18 8.7 16.5 16.8 19.4 
Fe203 1.10 4.8 1.57 3.2 5.3 6.7 6.6 
HgO 8.29 6.3 1.95 1.7 1.9 2.8 2.5 
CaO 26.27 5.8 40.23 28.7 0.6 1.0 2.0 
Ti02 -- 0.6 -- 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.0 
Na20 -- 0.9 -- 1.3 1.9 1.0 0.8 
K2 0 -- 0.7 -- 1.7 3.6 2.9 4.2 
Igni tion -- 11.3 -- 26.4 7.6 6.4 5.9 
loss 
CO 2 11.02 -- 33.76 -- -- -- -- 
Alkal is -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Water 14.87 -- -- -- -- -- -- 
S03 33.83 -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Total 100.23 97.8 99.54 100.2 101.7 99.2 100.2 


!J "Run-of-the-rnine" gypsum from Garbutt, Monroe County; George E. Willcomb, analyst (Newland and 
Leighton, 1910, p. 60). 
11 Camillus shale of Salina group from roadside 3 miles north of LeRoy, Genesee County, on State 
Highway 19, 20 miles west of Ontario County (New York State Dept. of Commerce, 1951, p. 348). 
II Onondaga limestone from quarry of G. J. Fisher, Waterloo, Seneca County, 5 miles east of Geneva 
(Ries, 1901, p. 819). 

 Ludlowville (?) shale of Hamilton group from along stream at intersection of U. S. Highway 20 and 
State Highway 36 in Genesee County about 15 miles west of Ontario County (New York State Dept. 
of Commerce, 1951, p. 348). 
2/ West River shale member of Genesee formation or Middlesex shale member of Sonyea formation from 
point near State Highway 364, 3.5 miles south of Gorham (New York State Dept. of Commerce, 1951, 
p. 348). 


21 Cashaqua shale member of Sonyea formation from exposure 6 miles north of Naples on State 
Highway 21, Granger Point (New York State Dept. of Commerce, 1951, p. 348). 
11 Gardeau shale member of West Falls formation from 0.2 mile north of Strykersville, Wyoming County, 
40 mi les west of Ontario County (New York State Dept. of Commerce, 1951, p. 348).. 


- 26 - 



aquifer and the limestone aquifer have the highest yields of any of the 
bedrock units in the county. (See table 3.) The depths of wells drawing 
from the Camil1us average about 78 feet and range from 26 to 200 feet. 
Relatively large yields are available because the joints and bedding planes 
have been widened substantially by the dissolving action of ground water. 
Thus, the most productive parts of the Camil1us may be expected to be those 
closest to the land surface where the ground water has been most effective 
in enlarging joints and other openings by solution. 


Chemical character of the water .--At least two types of water, sulfate 
water and bicarbonate water, occur in the Camil1us. The su1fate type has 
been in contact with and dissolved a part of the gypsum or anhydrite con- 
tained in the Camil1us, whereas the bicarbonate type probably has contacted 
only those parts of the Camil1us from which the gypsum and anhydrite have 
been removed by s01ution. 


Much of the sulfate water is so highly mineralized that it is unsuitable 
for many uses. The dissolved solids content of 4 samples averaged 1,800 ppm 
and ranged from 858 to 2,360 ppm. Ana1yses indicate that it is generally 
more highly mineralized, has a higher hardness, and contains more sulfate 
than other ground water in the county. Most of the hardness of the sulfate 
water is of the noncarbonate 'type. Some sulfate water has a dark appearance 
and is accompanied by the odor-producing gas, hydrogen sulfide. The term 
lib 1 ack su 1 fur water ll has been app lied I oca 11 y to such water. The graph for 
well Ot 542 in figure 8 shows the chemical character of what is believed to 
be a typical sample of the sulfate water. 


The bicarbonate-type water from the Camillus, although hard, has a 
relatively low mineral content when compared with the sulfate water. The 
dissolved solids content of water from wells Ot 109 and 531, two wells 
yielding bicarbonate-type water, is 604 ppm and 443 ppm respectively. The 
hardness of water from the same wells is 440 ppm and 420 ppm respectively, 
and is mainly of the carbonate type. 


Limestone aquifer 


The Bertie limestone of the Salina group, the Cobleskill dolomite, and 
the Onondaga limestone, are treated in this report as a single unit because 
they are all carbonate rocks and apparently act as a single hydrologic unit. 
The outcrop area of the limestone aquifer is fairly heavily populated (the 
villages of Victor, Shortsvil1e, Manchester, and Phelps are located in or 
close to it) and this area is likely to become much more highly developed 
in the future because of its nearness to the New York State Thruway. Data 
collected in the course of this investigation indicate that water of usab1e 
quality and in moderate quantity may be obtained from parts of the area of 
outcrop of the limestone aquifer and that water in small quantity may be 
obtained in all parts of the area of outcrop. 


Geologic characteristics .--The limestone aquifer directly overlies the 
Camtl l us s h a l e o f t h e S a li na group in Ontario County. The area of outcrop 
forms an east-west belt from 2 to 5 miles wide across the northern part of 
the county. Rocks of the limestone aquifer crop out at the land surface, 
in the channels of several streams, and in some road cuts. A thickness of 
nearly 100 feet is exposed in a quarry (the Oaks Corners quarry of The 


- 27 - 



General Crushed Stone Co.) 4 miles northwest of Geneva. South of its area of 
outcrop, the limestone aquifer is overlain by the Marcellus shale of the 
Hamilton group, the oldest formation in the upper shale aquifer. 


The total thickness of the limestone aquifer is about 170 feet. The 
base of the unit consists of the Bertie limestone of the Salina group, a 
layer about 50 feet thick, consisting of shaly limestone and some layers of 
dolomite. The Bertie limestone is overlain by the Cobleskill dolomite, a 
layer about 20 feet thick and consisting of interbedded layers of dark shale, 
impure limestone, and thin beds of gray dolomite. The upper 100 feet of the 
unit consists of the Onondaga limestone, a dark, dense-textured limestone, 
containing several layers of chert nodules. A chemical analysis of a sample 
of the Onondaga limestone is given in table 4. 


Hfdrologic characteristics .--Recharge to the limestone aquifer is 
proba b y d er i ve d f rom (I) prec i pitation in the area of outcrop, (2) water 
percolating downward from overlying formations in the area south of the area 
of outcrop, and (3) water percolating upward from underlying formations. As 
is the case with all other bedrock aquifers in the county, water in the lime- 
stone aquifer occurs primarily in joints and other openings. However, because 
the rocks of the limestone aquifer are primarily carbonates which are soluble 
in water containing carbon dioxide, many of the joints and cracks have been 
widened by solution processes. The yields of wells drawing from the lime- 
stone aquifer average 22 gpm and range from 0.5 to 300 gpm. Well Ot 1014, 
which derives its water from this unit, is reported to have been test pumped 
at a rate of 300 gpm for 48 hours. Two other wells tapping the aquifer, 
Ot 221 and Ot 222, supply wells for the village of Shortsville
 are reported 
to be capable of yielding over 100 gpm each when pumped separately. The 
depths of 79 wells drawing from the limestone aquifer average 65 feet and 
range from 18 to 286 feet. 


Chemical character of the water .--AI1 samples of water from the lime- 
stone aquifer were of the bicarbonate type. The graph for Ot 222 in figure 
8, shows the chemical character of what is believed to be a typical sample of 
the water. The dissolved solids content of 7 samples averaged 648 ppm and 
ranged from 285 to 1,100 ppm. The hardness of 8 samples averaged 400 ppm 
and ranged from 260 to 560 ppm. The hardness is generally of the carbonate 
type although some samples have a relatively high noncarbonate hardness. 


Upper shale aquifer 


The geologic units comprising the upper shale aquifer are treated here 
as a single unit because they are composed almost entirely of shales and 
because they are believed to act more or less as one hydrologic unit. 


The area of outcrop of the upper shale aquifer is predominantly a rural 
area devoted to farming although the city of Canandaigua and several small 
villages are located in it. Water can be obtained from the aquifer in 
quantity sufficient to supply the requirements of individual residences and 
small farms. Some canning factories located in the area of outcrop have 
been unable to develop adequate supplies. Water from the upper shale aquifer 
is generally of good quality. 


- 28 - 



Geologic characteristics .--The outcrop area of the upper shale aquifer 
includes more than half of the county, covering an area about 12 miles wide 
in the north-south direction and extending across the full width of the 
county in the east-west direction. (See plate 2.) The aquifer consists of 
approximately 1.500 feet of shale and widely-spaced thin beds of limestone. 
As may be seen in the description of the various geologic units in table I, 
the shale beds comprising the upper shale aquifer differ from one another 
in color, hardness, fissility, and mineral composition. The shale in the 
lower part tends to be more calcareous than the shale in the upper part. 
Table 4 contains chemical analyses of rock samples from the Ludlowville 
shale of the Hamilton group, the West Ri'ver shale member of the Genesee 
formation, and the Cashaqua shale member of the Sonyea formation. 


Hydrologic characteristics .--Most of the water recharging the upper 
shale aquifer is probably received directly from precipitation on the area 
of outcrop. As with the other bedrock aquifers, most of the water occurs 
in joints, bedding planes, and other fractures. However, as these shales 
are relatively insoluble when compared with the gypsum of the lower shale 
aquifer and the carbonate beds of the limestone aquifer, the openings in 
the upper shale aquifer are probably no larger now than they were when 
first developed. Also, as these shales are much weaker structurally than 
the more massive beds of the limestone aquifer, they are more easily com- 
pressed by the weight of overlying formations. For this reason, most 
openings are probably too small to transmit significant quantities of water 
at depths greater than a few hundred feet. The yields of 212 wells drawing 
from the upper shale aquifer average 6 gpm and range from 0.2 to 40 gpm. 
The depths of 245 wells drawing from this unit average 100 feet and range 
from 12 to 338 feet. 


Chemical character of the water .--The water from the upper shale 
aquifer is of the bicarbonate type. Calcium and magnesium are the predom- 
inant cations in water from most parts of this unit but, as may be seen 
from the bar graph for well Ot 263 in figure 8, sodium is the predominant 
cation in water from other parts. The dissolved solids content in 17 
samples averaged 497 ppm and ranged from 246 to 1 ,050 ppm. Twelve of the 
samples had no noncarbonate hardness and the noncarbonate hardness of the 
other five ranged from 10 to 157 ppm. (See figure 7.) The Iron content 
was more than 0.3 ppm in 14 of the samples. Some wells drawing from this 
unit yield water containing hydrogen sulfide gas. 


Sandstone aquifer 


Most of the area of outcrop of the sandstone aquifer in Ontario County, 
approximately 80 square miles, is sparsely populated. For this reason, 
relatively little ground water is used in the area. However, water of good 
quality and in quantities adequate to supply the needs of small farms and 
individual residences can generally be obtained from this unit. 


Geologic characteristics .--The sandstone aquifer is the youngest bed- 
rock aquifer in Ontario County and consi.sts mainly of interbedded layers of 
siltstone, shale, and some sandstone. It underlies the higher hills in the 
southwestern part of the county. (See plate 2.) The aquifer differs from 
the underlying unit in that the beds of the sandstone aquifer are, on the 
whole, more coarse-grained and less calcareous than those of the upper 


- 29 - 



shale aquifer. A chemical analysis of a sample of rock taken from a shaly 
section (Gardeau shale member of the West Falls formation) of the sandstone 
aquifer is given in table 4. 


Hydrologic characteristics .--Most of the water recharging the sandstone 
in Ontario County falls as precipitation on the area of outcrop. Host of 
the water occurs in joints and bedding planes; however, as these rocks are 
relatively insoluble when compared with the rocks of the lower shale aquifer 
and the limestone aquifer, the openings in the sandstone aquifer are probably 
no larger now than they were when first developed. 


The yields of wells drawing from the sandstone aquifer average 6 gpm 
and range from I to 15 gpm. The depth of wells drawing from this unit 
average about 100 feet and range from 65 to 200 feet. 
Chemical character of the water .--Only one analysis of water (from well 
Ot 763 ) from the sandstone aquifer in Ontario County is available. This 
analysis shows water of the bicarbonate type, having a relatively high car- 
bonate hardness, no noncarbonate hardness, and a dissolved solids content of 
232 ppm. 


Unconsolidated Deposits 


Coarse-grained stratified deposits 


The coarse-grained unconsolidated deposits in Ontario County are poten- 
tially the most productive water-bearing deposits in the county, though 
relatively undeveloped at the present time (1959). 


Geologic characteristics .--Most of the coarse-grained stratified de- 
posits were laid down during Pleistocene time in scattered areas in the low- 
lands and valleys either by melt water flowing from glacial ice or by water 
flowing from upland areas Into glacial lakes. In several areas, the deposits 
are interbedded with - or overlain by - layers of finer-grained material. 
Because the particles comprising the deposits were laid down by relatively 
swift moving water, they are usually larger than silt in size, fairly well 
rounded, and well sorted. Individual layers containing particles which have 
a uniform grain size, range from less than an inch to many feet in thickness. 
Many of the individual beds have steep angles of dip while others are hori- 
zontal. The lateral extent of individual beds differs from one deposit to 
another, ranging from lenses only a few feet wide in places to at least 
several hundred feet wide in other places. Coarse-grained deposits are 
commonly as much as 30 to 40 feet thick and in places are as much as 200 feet 
thick. In a few localities, the coarse-grained deposits are so strongly 
cemented by calcium carbonate that they cannot be excavated with power 
shovels. 


The coarse-grained deposits occur both at the surface, as may be seen 
in plate 3, and buried beneath a surficial cover of fine-grained materials. 
Coarse-grained deposits comprise the surface layer in approximately 15 per- 
cent of the county. The portion of the county underlain by buried coarse- 
grained deposits is unknown but is probably at least several percent. 
Specific areas in which coarse-grained materials form the most extensive 
surficial deposits are (1) the low areas between drumlins north of State 


- 30 - 



Highway 96 in the northern part of the county and (2) much of the towns of 
Victor and West Bloomfield. 


The coarse-grained deposits in the area north of State Highway 96 were 
deposited around the drumlins as glacial outwash by water issuing from the 
melting ice sheet when the ice was located a short distance to the north. 
The thickness of these deposits is controlled to a large extent by the topo- 
graphy of the surface upon which they were laid down. In general, they 
range in thickness from a feather edge on the side of drumlins to as much as 
50 feet in the lowlands between drumlins. Because many of these deposits 
were used as sources of sand and gravel during the construction of the New 
York State Thruwa
 they are now exposed at many places. The most extensive 
excavations have been made by the Ontario Sand and Gravel Co., Inc., in an 
area along State Highway 96 about 0.7 mile west of State Highway 14. 


The extensive surficial deposit of coarse-grained materials in the 
towns of Victor and West Bloomfield has a typical "kame and kettl
' topo- 
graphy consisting of hills which are low, irregularly shaped, and steep 
side
and of valleys which are narrow and poorly developed in places and 
which are relatively broad, flat bottomed, and marked by shallow closed 
depressions in other places. As the bedrock surface in this area is rela- 
tively flat, thickness of the coarse-grained deposits is greatest in those 
areas now topographically high and least in low areas. Considerable sand 
and gravel has also been obtained from this area for use in road building. 
The most extensive excavations are those worked by the Hoadley Sand and 
Gravel Company about 2.5 miles southwest of Victor. 


Other surficial deposits of coarse-grained material are scattered 
throughout the county. Of these, the deposits in the town of Naples and 
the deposit near the village of Gorham are the largest. 


In many areas coarse-grained stratified deposits are buried beneath 
the fine-grained stratified deposits shown in plate 3. Underlying coarse- 
grained deposits are known to occur in (1) the town of West Bloomfield 
(record for well Ot 398), (2) the vicinity of the village of Honeoye (log 
for well Ot 889), (3) the city of Geneva and several square miles to the 
north (log for well Ot 3), (4) the vicinity of Canandaigua (log for well 
Ot 1075), and (5) a valley area (Berby Hollow) about 7 miles north of 
Naples (log for well Ot 1112). 


Hydrologic characteristics .--In areas where coarse-grained stratified 
deposits form the surface layer, water is usually under water-table con- 
ditions and much of the water recharging the deposits is received directly 
as precipitation. In areas where coarse-grained deposits occur below the 
water table and are overlain by fine-grained deposits, water is usually 
under artesian conditions and the deposits are recharged either by direct 
percolation in areas of outcrop or by percolation through the overlying 
fine-grained deposits. 


As mentioned earlier, most of the water in unconsolidated deposits 
occurs in the pore spaces between constituent grains. Because the pore 
spaces are relatively large in the coarse-grained deposits, the permeability 
of these deposits is generally much higher than the permeability of the 
other water-bearing materials - both bedrock and unconsolidated - in the 
county. 


- 31 - 



Coarse-grained stratified deposits in low-lying flat areas usually are 
situated better, with respect to sources of recharge and for the retention 
of the water they receive, than coarse-grained stratified deposits in high 
sloping areas. In a low-lying flat area, a coarse-grained stratified deposit 
may intercept water moving from upland areas, require a longer period to 
drain because of the small hydrologic gradient in lowland areas, and at some 
periods may receive recharge from nearby streams or lakes when the water 
level in the deposit is lowered by pumping. Coarse-grained stratified 
deposits on hillsides, on the other hand, discharge water, in many cases 
nearly as fast as it is received. 


The yields of 150 wells drawing from the coarse-grained deposits average 
21 gpm and range from 0.5 to 500 gpm. It is probable that the values for 
maximum and average yield would be considerably higher if there had been a 
need for larger quantities of water and if the wells had been fully developed. 
Of the 150 wells for which yields were reported, less than 10 were screened. 
The other wells were drilled and cased to layers coarse grained enough to 
yield the quantity of water needed by the owner, in most cases from 5 to 
10 gpm. 


Chemical character of the water .--Two types of water, one high in 
sulfate and the other high in bicarbonate, occur in the coarse-grained 
deposits of Ontario County. The sulfate type occurs only in those deposits 
in the area of outcrop of the Camillus shale of the Salina group, and although 
it is similar in composition to the sulfate water in the Camillus unit, it 
probably has a somewhat lower content of dissolved solids. The content of 
dissolved solids in 6 samples of this water averaged 1,743 ppm and ranged 
from 928 to 2,560 ppm. The hardness of 7 samples averaged 1,305 ppm and 
ranged from 692 to I ,760 ppm. Most of the hardness is of the noncarbonate 
type. The graph for well Ot 874 in figure 8 shows the chemical character of 
a more or less typical sample of the sulfate water from the coarse-grained 
deposits. 


The bicarbonate water occurs both in the deposits located on the area 
of outcrop of the Camillus shale and in the deposits lying on bedrock units 
younger than the Camillus. The content of dissolved solids in 9 samples 
averaged 389 ppm and ranged from 278 to 620 ppm. The total hardness of 23 
samples averaged 314 ppm and ranged from 188 to 490 ppm. Most of the hard- 
ness is of the carbonate type. (See figure 7.) The graphs for springs 
Ot 29Sp and Ot 39Sp in figure 8 show the chemical character of what are 
believed to be typical samples of this water. 


Fine-grained stratified deposits 


The fine-grained deposits of Ontario County are poor sources of water 
because they have a low permeability and, thus, will yield only small quan- 
tities of water to large-diameter wells. Their importance lies in the fact 
that they act as confining beds which retard the vertical movement of water. 


Most of the fine-grained deposits in Ontario County were deposited during 
Pleistocene time in the quiet waters of glacial lakes which were impounded 
between the ice to the north and the uplands to the south. Most of the 
valleys and much of the lowland in the northern part of the county were occu- 
pied by such lakes during the waning stages of glaciation. The fine-grained 


- 32 - 



deposits in these areas consist of well-sorted layers of fine sand, silt, 
and clay. 


As shown in plate 3, the most extensive deposits of fine-grained 
sediments are located in an irregular, discontinuous east-west band across 
the northern part of the county. Fine-grained deposits also occur in the 
valley of Flint Creek south of Gorham, in the valley of Mud Creek several 
miles north and south of Bristol Center, in the vicinity of Naples, and in 
several other smaller areas scattered throughout the county. 


It must be emphasized that although these deposits yield little 
water, they are commonly underlain by more-permeable water-bearing mate- 
rials which will yield small to moderate quantities of water. 
ee data 
for wells Ot 3, Ot 909, Ot 1031, and Ot 1074 in tables 9 and 10.) 


Ti 11 


Till consists of earth debris deposited directly by the ice sheets 
during Pleistocene time, either during their advance or at the time of 
melting. Thus, it is chiefly unsorted material whose predominant charac- 
teristic is a wide range in grain size of its constituent particles. How- 
ever, in a few places, thin lenses of sand or sand and gravel occur within 
the till. As may be seen in plate 3, till is the most extensive surface 
deposit in the county. Furthermore, it probably underlies many of the 
stratified deposits in the northern part of the county and therefore has a 
much greater extent than that indicated by the map of surficial deposits. 


Drumlins, oval shaped hills consisting mainly of till deposited under 
moving ice, are prominent features in the northern part of the county. 
Drumlins in the county range in length from 0.5 to 1.5 miles and range in 
width from a few hundred feet to more than 0.3 mile. The direction of the 
long axes of the drumlins is approximately north-south. The height of many 
of the drumlins exceeds 100 feet. Till in the areas between drumlins and in 
th
 other parts of the county is generally less than 50 feet thick. 


Because till consists of an unsorted mixture of particles ranging in 
size from clay to boulders, it has a low permeability. Water in usable 
quantities can generally be obtained from till only from large-diameter 
wells which provide a large area for the infiltration of water and a large 
volume for the storage of water between periods of use. The yield of most 
wells drawing from till is generally only a few hundred gallons a day. 
However, where the wells in till penetrate a sand lens or other permeable 
zone, the yield may be as much as I to 2 gpm. 


Quality of Water 


One of the most important considerations in the development of a water 
supply is the quality of water available at the site with respect to its 
intended use. Where the water is not entirely suitable, the treatment 
necessary to make the water usable becomes an additional consideration. 
Analyses showing the chemical composition of the water available in Ontario 
County are shown in table 5. This table contains 109 analyses of water 
samples from 64 wells, 8 springs, and 8 surface-water sources. Figure 6 is 
a map showing the location, both geographical and with respect to the type 


- 33 - 



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EXPLANATION 


Bar graphs 


Sampling point locations 


U' 
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I 
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2000 1 
 _DiSSOlved solids 
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:: - Hardness (noncarbonate) as calcium carbonate 
;1000 (Actucl values shown wh8re less than 10 ppm) 

 500 
IL 
o '
3- Well or spring number (prefix Ot omitted). 
. '\ Surfoce woter sources designated with 
"--- capitol letters. 
Iron content (ppm) 


+ Stream or lake 


Source of ground water 


. Unconsolidated deposits 
t) Unconsolidoted deposits 
and bedrock 


o Bedrock 
o No record 


Horlzonto I Ie a I e 


4 Mil.. 


Figure 6.-- Map of Ontario County showing dissolved solids content, total hardness, noncarbonate hardness, and iron content of 
ground water and surface water; distribution of sampling points; and outcrop areas of bedrock aquifers. 




of underlying bedrock, of each source and some chemical characteristics of 
water from each source. Sixteen of the analyses show the concentrations of 
all the constituents and characteristics commonly determined in water 
analyses. The remaining 93 analyses are less complete, showing only a few 
of the significant constituents and characteristics. Analyses of surface- 
water samples are included to permit comparison between chemical quality of 
ground waters and surface waters. It will be noted from such a comparison 
that surface water generally has a lower mineral content than ground water. 


In all tables and maps, results are expressed in parts per million 
unless otherwise indicated. A part per million (ppm) is a unit weight of 
a constituent in a million unit weights of solution. For example, a water 
sample having an iron content of I ppm has an iron content equivalent to 
I pound of iron dissolved in a million pounds of solution. 


Chemical Quality 


Related to use 


More than 50 constituents and characteristics of water may be 
determined in a water analysis. However, it is customary to make determi- 
nations for only those constituents and characteristics considered to be 
essential to the particular problem at hand. Determinations are commonly 
made for the following constituents of natural waters: silica, iron, 
manganese, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, 
sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate. The sources of these constit- 
uents and the significance of each constituent to the user of the water 
are listed in table 6. Other characteristics of water that are often 
reported in chemical analyses (but not included in table 6) are dissolved 
solids, hardness, alkalinity, pH, specific conductance, color, and turbidity. 


Dissolved solids .--ln general, the value determined for the dissolved 
solids in a sample indicates the approximate quantity of substances in 
solution, although the values reported may include some organic matter and 
water of crystallization and exclude gases such as carbon dioxide which 
escape during heating. The United States Public Health Service (1946) rec- 
ommends that the dissolved solids of water supplies used on interstate 
carriers not exceed 500 ppm,although a supply containing as much as 1,000 
ppm is acceptable where a better supply i"s not available. The average 
concentration of dissolved solids in samples from 50 wells and springs in 
Ontario County is 780 ppm and the range is from 232 ppm to 2,560 ppm. In 
general, the content of dissolved solids in ground water from sources north 
of the area of outcrop of the upper shale aquifer (fig. 6) is considerably 
more than 500 ppm,whereas the average content of dissolved solids in ground 
water from the remainder of the county is less than 500 ppm. 


Hardness .--Hardness is that property of water attributed to the 
presence of alkal ine earth elements. This group of elements includes 
calcium, magnesium, strontium,and barium. Of the group, only calcium and 
magnesium commonly occur in natural waters in more than trace quantities. 
Hardness of water is indicated by the soap consuming tendency of water. 
Soap will not lather until the hardness producing elements (alkaline earths) 
either have been neutralized or precipitated as insoluble salts of the 
fatty acids. 


- 39 - 



Table 6.--Constltuents commonly found In ground water 


U. S. Public 
Health Limits 
Cons t i tuen t Source Significance (ppm) 1/ 
Si I ica ( Si 02) The s i1 i ca te ml nera Is present in Deposited from heated water as ----- 
n,ea r I y a I I formations. hard scale in pipes and boilers. 
Iron (Fe) The common iron-bearing minerals, More than 0.3 ppm is objectionable 0.3 
such as pyrite, marcasite, and because it oxidizes to form a (Iron and 
hemat i te, present I n mos t reddish-brown precipitate when manganese 
formations. exposed to air. This precipi- together) 
ta te s ta i ns I aund ry and 
utens i Is. It also imparts a 
disagreeable taste to the water 
and favors the growth of iron 
bacteria. 
Manganese (Mn) Manganese-bearing minerals in Causes brown to black stain. 
metamorphic and sedimentary 
rocks. Not as abundant as the 
iron-bearing minerals. 
Ca t ci um ( Ca ) Anorthi te, pyroxenes, amphiboles, ----- 
sands tone, limestone, dolomite, Cause most of the hardness and 
and gypsum. scale-forming properties 
of water. 
Magnesium (Mg) Limestone and dolomite. 125 
Sodium (Na) and Connate water, salt deposits, Presence of large amounts of ----- 
potass I um (K) feldspar, industrial brines and sodium ion in irrigation waters 
sewage. degrades the soil. 
B I ca rbona te (HC0 3 ) Results from reaction between In combination with calcium and ----- 
and carbon dioxide in water and magnesium forms carbonate hard- 
ca rbona te ( C0 3) carbonate minerals such as cal- ness; decomposes on application 
ci te (limestone) and dolomite. of heat with attendant formation 
of scale and release of corro- 
sive carbon dioxide gas. 
Sulfate ( S0 4) Gypsum, sodium sulfate, and other Sulfates of calcium and magnesium 250 
minerals; common in some in- form hard scale. 
dustrial wastes from oxidation 
of sulfides. 
Chlori de (eJ) Occurs, at teast in sma I I amounts, Major anion of most brines in the 250 
i n nea r I y a II so I I sand rocks; United States. Abnormal amounts 
connate water, salt deposits, and in water supplies may indicate 
sewage; in human and animal pollution by human or animal 
excreta. wastes. 
Fluoride (F) In minute amounts In various min- About 1.0 ppm believed to be help- 1.5 
erals of widespread occurrence. ful in reducing incidence of 
Calcium fluoride (fluorite). tooth decay in children. Be- 
lieved to cause mottled enamel 
of teeth at higher concentra- 
t ions. Often i den t i f I es wa te r 
from deep strata. 
Ni trate (N0 3 ) Decayed organic matter, sewage, Forty-fi ve PP" or more reported to ----- 
fertilizers, nitrates in soil. produce methemoglobinemia in 
infants
. May Indicate 
pol I ution. 


1/ 


United States Public Health Service, 1946, Drinking water standards: 
Public Health Repts., v. 61, p. 371-384. 


y 


Maxey, K. F., 1950, Report on the relation of nitrate concentrations in well waters 
to the occurrence of methemoglobinemia: Natl. Research Council, Bull. Sanitary 
Eng., p. 265, App. D. 


- 40 - 



Carbonate hardness, also referred to as bicarbonate and temporary 
hardness, represents the hardness attributed to the bicarbonates of the 
alkaline earth elements. Heating converts bicarbonate to carbonates and 
results in the precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates in boilers 
and other heat-exchange equipment. 


Noncarbonate hardness, also referred to as sulfate hardness and 
permanent hardness, represents the hardness attributed to the sulfates, 
chlorides, and/or nitrates of the alkaline earth elements. Figure 7 shows 
the total hardness as well as the carbonate and noncarbonate hardness of 
water from each of the water-bearing units in the county. 


In this report, waters ranging in hardness from 0 to 50 ppm are con- 
sidered soft, those between 51 and 100 ppm are medium hard, those between 
101 and 200 ppm are hard, and those above 200 ppm are considered very hard. 
Of the 72 wells and springs from which water samples were collected, only 
1 source (well Ot 832) yields water which is soft, no source yields water 
which is medium hard, 7 sources yield water which is hard, and 64 sources 
yield water which is very hard. 


As may be seen in figure 7 and table 7, the carbonate hardness of 
water is much the same in all water-bearing units of the county, averaging 
about 250 ppm and ranging from 14 to 461 ppm for all ground water samples 
from the county. However, as may be seen in figure 7 and table 7, the non- 
carbonate hardness of most of the water from the Camillus and from much of 
the unconsolidated deposits overlying the Camillus is higher than it is 
from the other units. For example, the noncarbonate hardness of 12 samples 
from the Camillus averaged 1,340 ppm and ranged from 67 to 2,700 ppm, 
whereas the noncarbonate hardness of samples from the other water-bearing 
units in the county averaged about 60 ppm and ranged from 0 to 247 ppm. 


Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) .--The corrosive characteristics of a 
water are re l ated to t h e h y d rogen-ion concentration, which is usually ex- 
pressed in terms of pH. Water is generally progressively more active 
toward metal as the pH decreases below 7, the neutral point. However, at 
high pH values, the activity toward some metals may also accelerate. The 
pH values lower than 7 indicate acidic characteristics and those higher 
than 7 indicate alkaline characteristics. Of the 72 wells and springs from 
which water samples were collected, only 4 sources yield water with pH 
values lower than 7.0 and the remaining 68 sources yield water with pH 
values ranging from 7.0 to 8.3. 


Hydrogen sulfide .--Hydrogen sulfide gas causes water in which it is 
disso l ve d to h ave a d isagreeable taste, the objectionable odor of "rotten 
eggs", and commonly causes water to be corrosive. Although no analyses 
giving hydrogen sulfide content in ground water from Ontario County are 
available, the odor has been noted in many wells and springs. (See remarks 
column of tables 10 and 11.) Hydrogen sulfide gas usually can be removed 
from water by aeration. 


Flammable gas .--Flammable gas (probably methane) is yielded with the 
water f rom severa l wells drilled in the county. It constitutes a fire and 
explosion hazard if allowed to accumulate in confined spaces. 


- 41 - 



Bicarbonate 


A N ION S 
Sulfate 


Chloride 


3500 F3il 

 
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Total 


3000 


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Figure 7.--Graphs showing the bicarbonate, sulfate, and 
chloride content and the hardness of water 
from the water-bearing units of Ontario County. 


- 42 - 



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Related to geology 


The chemical composition of ground water in Ontario County depends 
mainly on the chemical composition of the earth materials through which the 
water percolates and on the length of time the water is in contact with the 
material. The relatively large difference between the chemical composition 
of water from the northern part of the county, the area of outcrop of the 
lower shale aquifer, and water from the remainder of the count
 is due pri- 
marily to differences in the composition of the water-bearing units. Water 
from the lower shale aquife
 (which consists of the Camillus shale of the 
Salina group) usually contains relatively large amounts of calcium sulfate 
(fig. 8) because this unit contains large amounts of gypsum and anhydrite. 
Waters from the limestone, upper shale, and sandstone aquifers contain 
calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate as their principal constit- 
uents (fig. 8) because the principal soluble minerals contained by these 
units or the unconsolidated deposits overlying them are of the carbonate 
type. It may be observed from figure 6 that 6 of the 21 analyses of water 
from the lower shale aquifer contain more carbonate hardness than noncar- 
bonate hardness. These analyses doubtless reflect the fact that the water 
had percolated only through unconsolidated deposits or the upper part of 
the aquifer, from which the gypsum has been largely removed. 


The mineralization of ground water tends to increase with depth in most 
areas. This is true because water at depth has had more time in contact 
with soluble minerals in earth materials during its movement downward than 
shallower water which generally has had relatively little time in contact 
with soluble earth material. 


Related to construction and pumping of wells 


As the mineralization of ground water tends to increase with depth in 
most areas, particularly in the area of outcrop of the lower shale aquifer, 
it is desirable that wells be (1) drilled no deeper than absolutely necessary 
to obtain the required quantity of water, (2) pumped at as law a rate as 
possible, and (3) pumped only when necessary. The mineralization of the 
water in several wells owned by the New York State Thruway Authority in the 
area of outcrop of the lower shale aquifer has increased since the wells 
have been in operation. Such increases doubtless result from an upward 
movement of mineralized water from the lower zones of the unit in response 
to the drawdowns produced by the pumping. It is probable that the mineral- 
ization of the water would decrease, at least in some cases, if pumping rates 
were reduced. 


Temperature 


The temperature of ground water is generally wi thin a few degrees ,of 
the mean annual air temperature which is about 48°F at Geneva. The ground- 
water temperature fluctuates more widely near the land surface than at depth. 
Temperature measurements for water in 85 wells in the county are included in 
the remarks column of table 10. The average of these measurements is 50.3 0 F, 
the warmest water measured was 56°F, and the coolest was 46 o F. As a result 
of its relatively law summer temperature, ground water is widely used for 
cooling purposes. 


- 44 - 



EXPLANATION 


16 


o 


Sodium 
and 
potassium 


36 


32 


12
 
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28 


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aquifer 


Figure 8.--Graphs showing the chemical character of nine ground-water 
samples and one surface-water sample. 


Utilization of Ground Water 


Construction of Wells 


Several types of wells are used to obtain ground-water supplies in 
Ontario County. The type of well used is dependent upon such factors as 
depth to the aquifer, character of the aquifer and overlying material, 
desired yield, and cost of construction. The principal types of wells are 
classified as dug, driven, or drilled. The drilled well is the type best 
suited for the development of aquifers consisting of consolidated rock and 
it is usually the best for development of supplies from deeply buried un- 
consolidated materials. 


Most ground-water supplies in Ontario County are obtained from either 
dug or drilled wells. Dug wells are used for many water supplies in rural 
areas because they are cheap and do not require skilled labor and expensive 
equipment for construction. The large diameter of such wells (average is 
about 3 feet) is advantageous in glacial till because of the large infil- 
tration area and the large volume of water that is available for immediate 
use. It is difficult to extend dug wells more than a few feet below the 
water table. As a consequence, many dug wells go dry during prolonged 


- 45 - 



droughts because the water table declines below the bottom of the well. Be- 
cause the yield of many dug wells is inadequate to supply the present large 
domestic requirements of many homes and farms, dug wells are gradually being 
replaced with drilled wells. Most drilled wells in Ontario County are 
constructed by the cable-tool method, also known as the percussion or churn- 
drill method. This method involves the excavation of a hole by the per- 
cussion and cutting action of a chisel-edged drilling bit which is alter- 
nately raised and dropped. The formation through which the hole is drilled 
is broken into small fragments that become churned and mixed into a sludge. 
At intervals the sludge is removed from the hole with either a bailer or a 
sand pump. Drilled wells are generally cased through the section of uncon- 
solidated deposits penetrated by the well and are uncased in bedrock. Many 
drilled wells taking water from sand and gravel deposits in Ontario County 
have been completed by merely drilling and casing to a layer whose permeabil- 
ity is great enough to supply the required amount of water through the open 
end of the casing. This type of construction is feasible only where geologic 
and hydrologic conditions are favorable and where only a small percentage of 
the maximum potential yield of the aquifer is required. In order to with- 
draw the maximum amount of water from a sand or gravel deposit, it is 
necessary to set a screen of the proper length, diameter, and slot size for 
the deposit. A properly selected screen prevents the movement of earth 
materials into the well but provides openings through which water enters the 
well. As yet, screens have been used in only a few wells in Ontario County. 


Springs 


Springs, places where ground water discharges naturally at the land 
surface, are relatively abundant in the county. Data on the yield and other 
features of 49 springs in Ontario County are presented in table II. Some 
springs occur where water flows to the surface from permeable material 
simply because the land surface extends down to the water table, some occur 
on slopes where water flows to the surface from permeable material overlying 
less permeable material that retards the downward percolation of the ground 
water and thus deflects it to the surface, and some flow from joints or 
other fractures in rock. 


The yields of the springs in the county range from less than I gpm from 
small seeps to over 200 gpm from spring Ot 39Sp. The villages of Victor, 
Phelps, Clifton Springs, Naples, Holcomb, and East Bloomfield and many farms 
and individual residences in Ontario County use springs as the sources for 
their water supplies. A sanitarium in the village of Clifton Springs, with 
accommodations for 400 guests, has utilized the water from the sulfur springs 
located there for more than 60 years. 


Water Supplies 


Industry, private home owners, and farmers are the largest consumers of 
ground water in the county. Data from the "Use" column of table 10 indicates 
that approximately 90 percent of the wells in the county are used to supply 
the needs on farms and of non-farm rural residents. The total amount of 
ground water used in Ontario County during 1957 is estimated to have varied 
from approximately 3,000,000 gpd (gallons per day) during the winter months 
when the demands by industry were lowest to about 5,000,000 gpd during the 
summer months when the demand for water by sand and gravel producers and 
food processors was greatest. 


- 46 - 



Public supplies 


The public water supply systems of nine of the larger villages of the 
county use ground water. Table 8 presents the data available for each of 
these systems. Together they supply a total of between 1,000,000 gpd and 
1,250,000 gpd to a total of approximately 10,000 people and a few small 
industries. The two largest communities of the county, Geneva and Canan- 
daigua, obtain their water from Seneca lake and Canandaigua Lake respec- 
tively. 


Industrial supplies 


As most of the industries in Ontario County are located in the cities 
of Geneva and Canandaigua, the bulk of the water used by industries is 
surface water purchased from the city water systems. However, several food 
processing plants and two large sand and gravel companies in rural areas 
use ground water obtained either from private systems or small public 
supplies. It is estimated that as much as 1,800,000 gpd are used for the 
washing of sand and gravel and that about 700,000 gpd are used in the food 
processing plants. However, these industries are seasonal and although 
they may use as much as 2,500,000 gpd of ground water during the summer 
months, they use relatively little in the winter season. 


Farm and domestic supplies 


Approximately 30,000 people in Ontario County rely on water from 
privately owned wells and springs to supply their domestic needs. It is 
estimated that between 1,000,000 gpd and I ,500,000 gpd are used to satisfy 
this demand. In addition it is estimated that farm livestock consume an 
additional 500,000 gpd of ground water. 


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 


Both the consolidated bedrock and the unconsolidated deposits which 
overlie the bedrock are sources of ground water in Ontario County. The 
quantity and quality of water available from any of these sources depends 
in large part on the thickness, lateral extent, permeability, topographic 
setting, lithology, and location (with respect to the water table and to 
sources of recharge) of the aquifer. 


Bedrock underlying the county has yielded as much as 300 gpm to 
individual wells but the average yield of 356 wells tapping it is 12 gpm. 
The bedrock has been divided, on the basis of hydrologic characteristics, 
into four water-bearing units. In the lower shale aquifer, the northern- 
most and therefore the oldest of the four units, the average yield of wells 
is about 20 gpm. The water from the unit is relatively highly mineralized. 
The average yield of wells in the limestone aquifer, the second oldest 
unit, is about 22 gpm and the water is of fairly good quality. The upper 
shale aquifer, the next oldest unit, yields relatively small amounts of 
water (an average of 6 gpm), and although the water is hard and locally 
high in iron, it is generally of usable quality. The sandstone aquifer, 
the youngest bedrock unit, also yields relatively small quantities of 
water (the average yield of wells is 6 gpm), but the quality of the water 
is probably better than that of water from the other bedrock aquifers. 


- 47 - 



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..... 0 0 .s::. Q.) a. .j..I 0 0 .0 .- o
- 
 0 

 ..... ..... U I) U Qj 
 ..... co- Q.) a. :J C 
11\ 0 C C a. 0 U "tJ ..... 
 .j..I a. co 
co co 0 
 co .s::. .s::. Q) III Q.) co :J ..... III 
Z U 
 x x Z Q.. VI ::> III 1)- .j..I :J III III I) 
co Q) co Q.) 0 

 ..... ..... 
 
 
 ..... ..... 
 I%) VI :3 0:: ° 
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 
Q.) Q.) Q.) Q.) Q.) Q.) Q.) I) Q) 
 
 
 :;:, 
 
C'I C'I C'I C'I C'I C'I C'I C'I C'I 
co co co co co co co co co 
::> ::> ::> ::> ::> ::> ::> ::::- ::> 
- 48 - 



Unconsolidated deposits, mostly Pleistocene in age and ranging in 
thickness from less than a foot to more than 300 feet,overlie the bedrock 
in nearly all parts of the county. They have been classified as (I) till, 
(2) fine-grained stratifi
d deposits, and (3) coarse-grained stratified 
deposits. Till is the surficial deposit in most highland areas of the 
county and it probably underlies unconsolidated stratified deposits in 
many of the lowland areas. The fine-grained stratified deposits form the 
surficial layer in many parts of the northern lowland area of the county 
and in some of the valleys in the southern and central areas. In most 
areas the till and the fine-grained stratified deposits yield only a few 
hundred gallons of water per day to large-diameter wells. The coarse- 
grained stratified deposits are fairly extensive in the low-lying areas in 
the northern part of the county and occur in several other scattered areas. 
In 1959 they were the source of water used by more than 200 farms and rural 
homes in the area and were adequate for considerable additional development. 


Thus, availability of ground water in Ontario County may be summarized 
as follows: (I) amounts adequate to supply farms and rural homes can be 
obtained in any part of the county, (2) amounts up to several hundred 
gallons per minute may be obtained from individual wells drawing from some 
parts of the lower shale aquifer, the limestone aquifer and the coarse- 
grained stratified deposits. 


- 49 - 



SELECTED REFERENCES 


Alling, H. l., 1928, The geology and origin of the Silurian salt of New York 
State: New York State Mus. Bull. 275. 


Birge, E. A., and Juday, C., 1914, A limnological study of the Finger lakes 
of New York: U. S. Bur. of Fisheries Bull., v. 32, p. 527-609. 


Bradley, W. H., and Pepper, J. F., 1938, Structure and gas possibilities of 
the Oriskany sandstone in Steuben, Yates, and parts of the adjacent 
counties. New York: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 899-A. 


Carr, M. E., and others, 1912, Soil survey of Ontario County, New York: 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 


Chadwick, G. H., 1917, Lake deposits and evolution of the lower Irondequoit 
valley: Rochester Acad. Sci. Proc., v. 5, p. 123-160. 


1919, Phelps quadrangle, in Clarke, J. M., 1919, Fourteenth report of 
the director of the State Museum and Science Department: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 207-208, p. 42-43. 


Clarke, J. M., 1885, Brief outline of the geological succession in Ontario 
County, New York: New York State Geologists 4th Ann. Rept. (for the 
year 1884), Assembly Doc. 161, p. 9-22. 


Clarke, J. M., and luther, D. D., 1904, Stratigraphic and paleontologic map 
of Canandaigua and Naples quadrangles: New York State Mus. Bull. 63. 


Colton, G. W., and de Witt, W., Jr., 1958, Stratigraphy of the Sonyea 
formation of late Devonian age in western and west-central New York: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Oil and Gas Inv. Chart OC-54. 


Cooper, G. A., 1930, Stratigraphy of the Hamilton group: Am. Jour. Sci., 
v. 1 9, no. 3, p. II 6 -1 34, 214 - 236 . 


Cooper, G. A., and Willi',ams, J. S., 1935, Tully formation of New York: 
Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 46, no. 5, p. 781-868. 


de Witt, W., Jr., and Colton, G. W., 1959, Revised correlations of lower 
Upper Devonian rocks in western and central New York: Am. Assoc. 
Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 43, no. 12, p. 2810-2828. 


Fairchild, H. L., 1904, Direction of preglacial stream flow in central 
New York: Am. Geologist, v. 33, p. 43-45. 


1909, Glacial waters in central New York: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 127. 


1910, Drainage evolution in central New York: Geol. Soc. America 
Bull., v. 20, p. 668-670. 


- 50 - 



SELECTED REFERENCES (Continued) 


1926, The Dansville valley and drainage history of western New York: 
Rochester Acad. Sci. Proc., v. 6, no. 7, p. 217-242. 


1935, Genesee valley hydrography and drainage: Rochester Acad. Sci. 
Proc., v. 7, no. 6, p. 157-189. 


Fox, I. W., 1932, Geology of part of the Finger lakes region, New York: 
Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 16, p. 675-690. 


Gillette, Tracy, 1940, Geology of the Clyde and Sodus Bay quadrangles, New 
York: New York State Mus. Bull. 320. 


Grabau, A. W., 1908, Preglacial drainage in centra1-western New York: 
Science, v. 28, p. 527-534. 


Griswold, R. E., 1951, The ground-water resources of Wayne County, New York: 
New York Water Power and Control Comm. Bull. GW-29. 


Grossman, I. G., and Yarger, L. B., 1953, Water resources of the Rochester 
area. New York: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 246. 


Grossman, W. L., 1944, Stratigraphy of the Genesee group of New York: 
Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 55, no. 1, p. 41-75. 


Hoffmeister, J. E., 1941, Results to date of exploration for ground water 
in the buried Genesee valley: Econ. Geology, v. 36, p. 112-113. 


Hopkins, C. G., and lozier, W. S., 1935, Report on obtaining a supplementary 
source of water supply for the city of Rochester: 32 p. (mimeo.), 
Rochester, New York. 


Kreidler, W. L., 1957, Occurrence of Silurian salt in New York State: 
New York State Mus. Bull. 361. 


leggette, R. M., Gould, l. 0., and Dollen, B. H., 1935, Ground-water 
resources of Monroe County, New York: Monroe County Regional Plan. Board. 


luther, D. D., 1898, The stratigraphic position of the Portage sandstones 
in the Naples valley and the adjoining region: New York State Mus. 
Ann. Rept. 49 (for the year 1895), v. 2, p. 223-236. 


1909, Geology of the Geneva-Ovid quadrangles: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 128. 


1911, Geology of the Honeoye-Wayland quadrangles: New York State 
Mus. Bull. 152. 


- 51 - 



SELECTED REFERENCES (Continued) 


Meinzer, O. E., 1923, Outline of ground-water hydrology: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Water-Supply Paper 4 9 4 . 


Miller, W. J., 1924, The geological history of New York State: New York 
State Mus. Bull. 255. 


Mozola, A. J., 1951, The ground-water resources of Seneca County, New York: 
New York Water Power and Control Comm. Bull. GW-26. 


Newland, D. H., and Leighton, Henry, 1910, Gypsum deposits of New York: 
New York State Mus. Bull. 143, p. 60. 


1920, History of the gypsum industry in New York: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 697, p. 187-217. 


New York State Dept. of Commerce, 1951, The clays and shales of New York 
State , p. 348. 


1957, Business fact book for the Rochester area: p. 9. 


01 iver, W. A., 1954, Stratigraphy of the Onondaga I imestone in central New 
York: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 65, no. 7, p. 621-652. 


Pearson, C. S., and Cline, M. G., 1958, Soil survey of Ontario and Yates 
Counties. New York: U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Sere 1949, no. 5. 


Pepper, J. F., and de Witt, W., Jr., 1950, Stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian 
Wiscoy sandstone and the equivalent Hanover shale in western and central 
New York: U. S. Geol. Survey Oil and Gas Inv. (Prelim.) Chart 37. 


Pepper, J. F., de Witt, W., Jr., and Colton, G. W., 1956, Stratigraphy of 
the Late Devonian West Falls formation in western and west-central New 
York: U. S. Geol. Survey Oil and Gas Inv. Chart OC-55. 


Richardson, G. B., 1941, Geologic structure and occurrence of gas in part 
of southwestern New York: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 899-B. 


Ries, Heinrich, 1900, Clays of New York: New York State Mus. Bull. 35. 


1901, Lime and cement industries of New York State: New York State 
Mus. Bull. 44, p. 819. 


Trainer, D. W., Jr., 1932, The Tully limestone of central New York: New York 
State Mus. Bull. 291. 


u. S. Public Health Service, 1946, Drinking water standards: Public Health 
Re p t s., v. 6 I, p. 371 - 384 . 


- 52 - 



SELECTED REFERENCES (Continued) 


Wedel, A. D., 1932, Geologic structures of the Devonian strata of 
south-central New York: New York State Mus. Bull. 294. 


Williams, S. G., 1883, Dip of the rocks of central New York: Am. Jour. 
Sci., v. 26, p. 303-305. 


- 53 - 



Table 9.--Dri I lers' logs of selected wel Is and test holes in Ontario County 


(Location coordinates are explained in section, ''Wel1-Location System". Information in 
parenthesis was added by the author. Formation names were determined from geologic 
maps. Other data for each well or test hole are found in table 10.) 
Pa rt I. --Logs of we lis 


Ot 3: 9L, 8.55, 1.5E; drilled by N. Comstock 
C I a y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Qu i cksand and clay.................... 30 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Bou I de rs. . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Ha rdpan. ... ........................... 31 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 4 


Ot 9: 9L, 5.85, 0.2E; dri lied by N. Comstock 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
Sand and bou I de rs . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . 10 
Limes tone, loose (Onondaga limes tone) . 10 
Limes tone, ha rd (Onondaga limes tone) . . 3 


Ot II: 9L, 4.6S, 0.7E; drilled by Gardner 
Drillers 
Sand, coa rse. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
Qu i c ks an d. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
G rave I, coa rse.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 8 


Ot 13: 9L, 5.55, 1.IE; drilled by Barney 
Mo ravec 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Clay and sand........................ 141 


Ot 20: 9K, 3.25, 12.IE; drilled by Barney 
Moravec 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Sand and clay........................ I 0 
Sand and bou I de rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Limestone (Salina group)............. 13 


Ot 55: 9L, 9.0S, 0.7E; drilled by Gardner 
Drillers 
F i I I; crus hed stone.................. 0 
Clay, red............................ I 3 
Clay and g rave I . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . 6 
Gravel, fine......................... 4 
Sand, black.......................... 4 
G rave I, fine......................... I 


Ot 146: 9K, 9.4N, 10.4E; drilled by Gardner 
Dri Ilers 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Grave I, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. 29 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Sand, fine, yellow.................. 12 
G rave I, med i um. . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
Sand, gray.......................... 20 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
Gravel, fine, and sand.............. 30 
Sand, fine.......................... 20 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
Sha I e I edge (bou I de r?) . .. . .. . . . . . . . . I 
G rave I, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 16 
Shale, blue (Skaneateles shale)..... 23 


Ot 151: 9K, 9.85, 7.8E; drilled by Gardner 
Drillers 
Soi I ........ . ...... ................. 2 
Ha rd pa n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
Sha Ie, brown........................ 113 


Ot 178: 9K, 12.95, 10.4E; drilled by Gardner 
Dri Ilers 
No record (drilled in dug wel1)..... 25 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 28 


Ot 184: 9J, 1I.5S, II.IE; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Soi I .......... ...................... 8 
Clay with stones, blue.............. 50 
Grave I, coarse...................... 2 
Sha Ie, black........................ II 


Thick- 
ness 
( feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 


20 
50 
80 
100 
131 
135 


Ot 186: 9K, 3.85, 4.2E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Sand, red........................... I 5 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 13 


Ot 188: 9K, 3.95, 1.6E; dri lied by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Sand wi th clay, red................. 6 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 21 


7 
17 
27 
30 


Ot 203: 9K, 7.95, 8.7E; drilled by N. 
Corns tock 
Soi I ........... .... ..... .. ..... ..... 5 
Sha Ie, sof t. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . 25 
Sha Ie, ha rd. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . 254 
Sha Ie, black........................ I 


10 
12 
42 
60 


Ot 222: 9K, 2.4S, 1.2E; dri lied by Cranston 
and Son 
Sand, g rave I, and clay.............. 7 
Limestone, crevi ced and shattered... 9 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 54 


20 
30 
171 


Ot 223: 9K, 2.4S, 1.2E; dri lied by p. J. Didas 
Sand, gravel, and cobbles........... 19 
Limestone, creviced and shattered... 4 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 59 


20 
30 
40 
50 
80 
93 


Ot 235: 9J, 12.3S, 8.6E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Soi I .............. ..... ............. 3 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
Sha Ie, gray (Wes t Ri ve r sha I e member 
of Genesee formation)............. II 


2 
15 
21 
25 
29 
30 


Ot 246: 9J, 6.75, 12.IE; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, some sand, red................ 25 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 32 
Shale, black........................ 61 


Ot 248: 9J, 11.25, 12.4E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
Shale, black (Ludlowville shale).... 35 


I 
30 
50 
62 
70 
90 
115 
145 
165 
173 
174 
190 
213 


Ot 249: 9J, 11.5S, 12.2E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Clay, blue, some boulders........... 16 
Sand, fine, and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 34 


Ot 300: 9J, 9.05, 12.8E; drilled by Gardner 
Dri Ilers 
Ha rdpan. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
G rave I, mad J um. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 


2 
27 
140 


Ot 301: 9J, 6.35, 10.2E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 


Ot 307: 9J, 1.85, 12.5E; drilled by Gardner 
Dri lIers 
Boulders, sand, and gravel.......... 7 
Limestone, gray (Salina group)...... 23 
Limes tone, brown (Sa Ii na group)..... 5 


25 
57 
85 


Ot 312: 9K, 0.35, 9.8E; drilled by Gardner 
Dri Ilers 
Sand and g rave I . . . . .. . > .. . . .. . .. . .. . 15 
Ha rdpan. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 25 
Sand. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Shale, black (Salina group)......... 8 


8 
58 
60 
71 


- 54 - 


Thi ck- 
ness 
( feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 


15 
28 


2 
8 
29 


5 
30 
284 
285 


7 
16 
70 


19 
23 
82 


3 
15 
26 


25 
85 
117 
178 


8 
32 
67 


6 
22 
156 


5 
35 


2 
19 


7 
30 
35 


15 
40 
42 
50 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes In Ontario Count y 
Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Ot 318: 


9J, 1.7S, 7.5E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone (Cob I eskl II dol oml te). .... 


Ot 324: 


9J, 10.IS, 10.8E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
So I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, s I It, and stones.............. 
C I a y, brown......................... 
Gravel and clay..................... 
Clay, blue, and gravel, fine........ 
Sand, red and wh I te. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, black......................... 


Ot 380: 


9J, 4.7S, 0.7E: driller unknown 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Open space.......................... 
Sand, fine, black................... 
Clay, wh I te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 400: 


9K, 3.6S, 1.3E; drl lied by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red........................... 
Clay and g rave I . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 
Limes tone. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 
Gravel (1); water-bearing zone...... 


Ot 441: 


9J, 0.5S, 11.3E; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Huck. ................... ..... ... .... 
Limes tone. ha rd . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, gray..................... 
Limes tone, ha rd, black.............. 


Ot 442: 


9K, 2.4N, 1.2E: dri lied by Donald 
Rigby 
No record (drilled In dug well)..... 
Ha rdpan and bou I ders................ 
Clay, ve ry sof t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 444: 


9K, 1.7N, 0.7E; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Sol I ..... .. ............. . ......... .. 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Clay, some sand, very loose......... 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, some fine g rave I . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Sand, coa rse. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
9J, 15.0S, 12.2E: drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bou I ders.. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I and clay..................... 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Sha Ie, da rk-brown. .. ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Sha Ie, black........................ 


Ot 447: 


Ot 488: 


9J, 11.4S, 4.8E; drilled by Weaver 
B ros . 
Clay and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . ... . ... .. .. .. .. . . .. 
Limestone, brown; water-bearing zone 
Sha Ie, brown and black.............. 
FI i nt (Onondaga limestone).......... 
San d stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
L i IDe stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, brown........................ 
Limes tone and s ha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone, permeable; water level 
dec I I ned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, blue......................... 
Sha Ie, red.......................... 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Sha Ie, red.......................... 


Thi ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


2 
26 
2 


2 
13 
25 
50 
3 
19 
I 


100 
80 
10 
10 
6 


I 
14 
17 
12 
I 


10 
90 
50 
50 


25 
55 
4 
91 


8 
4 
6 
8 
17 
6 
I 


27 
6 
21 
21 
25 
85 
55 


65 
13 
17 
455 
110 
15 
260 
35 
30 
75 
40 
10 
10 
15 


100 
180 
190 
200 
206 


10 
100 
150 
200 


25 
80 
84 
175 


27 
33 
54 
75 
100 
185 
240 


65 
78 
95 
550 
660 
675 
935 
970 
1,000 


1,075 
1,115 
1,125 
1,135 
1,150 


Ot 488: 


2 
28 
30 


2 
15 
40 
90 
93 
112 
113 


1 
15 
32 
44 
45 


Ot 490: 


Ot 493: 


Ot 494: 


8 
12 
18 
26 
43 
49 
50 


- 55 - 


9J, 11.4S, 4.8E (continued) 
L I me stone, ha rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha 1 e, gray, crumb I y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, hard, gray................... 
Sha 1 e, ha rd, red.................... 
Sha 1 e, gray, crumb I y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, red, crumb I y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, gray, crumbly.. ........... ... 
Limes tone and s ha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown, and I imestone: yielded 
ga s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, brown; yielded gas............ 
L i rnes tone, brown.................... 
Limes tone, pi nk..................... 
Sha Ie, red.......................... 
Limes tone, broken................... 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, sandy.................... 
Sha Ie, g ray and red................. 
L I roes tone, gray..................... 
Sandstone; yielded gas.............. 
Sands tone. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, red.............,............ 


9J, 11.6S, 2.4E; drilled by Weaver 
B ros . 
Sol I................................ 
G rave I . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, black........................ 


9J, 11.9S, 2.9E; drilled by Weaver 
B ros . 
Sol I................................ 
Grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale (Cashaqua shale member of 
Sonyea forma t Ion) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


9J, 12.8S, 2.9E: drl lied by Weaver 
Bros. 
Cashaqua shale member of Sonyea 
formation to top of Onondaga 
I I mes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
FI I nt (Onondaga I I mes tone).......... 
Sands tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
FI In t. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 
Sands tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
L i rnes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sands tone. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, sandy.................... 
Sha Ie. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone, sandy; yields sal t water. 
Sands tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sa I t (I n Cam I II us s ha Ie) . .. . ... . .. .. 
Limes tone, sandy.................... 
Sha Ie, blue......................... 
Sha Ie, red (Vernon sha I e)........... 
L i rnes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, sandy........................ 
Limes tone. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, sandy................ ........ 
Sha Ie, blue......................... 
Sa It................................ 
Sha Ie. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, sandy, red................... 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Sha Ie, red.......................... 
L i illeS tone. brown.................... 
L i IDeS tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, da rk. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . 
Limestone, gray.......... ........... 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, red.......................... 
Limes tone. gray..................... 
Sands tone; y i e I ded gas.............. 
Sha Ie, sandy........................ 


Thick- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
(feet) 


2 
13 
25 
20 
15 
25 
37 
38 
35 
50 
60 
10 
60 
60 
25 
225 
75 
110 
17 
98 
14 
11 


1,152 
1,165 
1,190 
1,210 
1,225 
1,250 
1,287 
1,325 


1,360 
1,410 
1,470 
1,480 
1,540 
1,600 
1,625 
1,850 
1,925 
2,035 
2,052 
2,150 
2,164 
2,175 


I 
27 
I 


I 
28 
29 


2 
20 
16 


2 
22 
38 
47 


9 


1,070 
100 
5 
15 
47 
13 
15 
245 
10 
20 
60 
35 
35 
40 
15 
3 
22 
3 
22 
155 
15 
55 
35 
65 
20 
40 
10 
225 
85 
25 
47 
14 
36 
14 
110 
19 


1,070 
1,170 
1,175 
1,190 
1,237 
1,250 
1,265 
1,510 
1,520 
1,540 
1,600 
1,635 
1,670 
1,710 
1,725 
1,728 
1,750 
1,753 
1,775 
1,930 
1,945 
2,000 
2,035 
2,100 
2,120 
2,160 
2,170 
2,395 
2,480 
2,505 
2,552 
2,566 
2,602 
2,616 
2,726 
2,745 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario Count y 
Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Ot 495: 9J, 15.IS, 2.IE; drilled by Weaver 
Bros. 
So I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, some stones, white............ 
Shale, black (Cashaqua shale member 
of Son yea formation).............. 


Ot 503: 10J, 10.8N, 2.6W; drilled by Weaver 
B ros . 
Sol I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quicksand, gravel, and boulders..... 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 534: 9J, 5.IS, 9.7E; drilled by Barney 
Moravec 
Unconsolidated material............. 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
L i rnes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 558: 9K, 1.5N, 10.4W; drilled by Floyd 
Van I ngen 
Sol I ........ ............ ... .. . ...... 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and qu I cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, da rk. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 628: 9J, 1I.4S, 8.4E; drilled by Wil1iam 
Putnam 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 640: 9J, 14.4S, 9.5E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Sand and clay, red.................. 
Clay, blue.......................... 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 


Ot 642: 9J, 12.8S, 12.2E; drl lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
Soi I ................. ............... 
CI ay, some sand..................... 
Gravel and clay, blue 
Grave 1, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, blue, some g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, black......................... 
CI ay, blue.......................... 
Sand, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 648: 9K, 14.6S, 10.IE; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Soil, black......................... 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, black........................ 
Limes tone. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 
Sha Ie, brown........................ 


Ot 666: 9J, 6.7S, 1.8E; drl lied by Gardner 
Dr! Ilers 
Sol I ................................ 
Clay, ye II ow. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan and boul ders................ 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 744: 10J, 8.0S, 5.7E; drilled by L. Keith 
Sol I................................ 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, soft with several hard inter- 
bedded layers (Cashaqua shale 
membe r of Sonyea fo rma t i on) .. .. . . . 


Ot 762: 10J, 7.3S, 4.IE; drilled by L. Keith 
Sand, gravel, and quicksand......... 
Sand, med I um. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Th I ck- 
ness 
(feet) 


Depth 
(fee t) 


5 
15 
45 
30 


4 
56 
55 
2 


29 
II 
3 
57 
10 


6 
14 
130 
23 


8 
27 
170 


10 
10 
99 


I 
9 
20 
2 
28 
8 
32 
14 


10 
28 
37 
8 
27 
23 


I 
10 
188 
3 
17 
I 


142 


60 
6 


5 
20 
65 
95 


Ot 764: 10J, 4.8S, 4.2E; drilled by L. Keith 
Sol I ................................ 3 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
Sha Ie, sof t. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . 48 


4 
60 
115 
117 


Ot 765: 9J, 8.5S, I.OE; drl lied by Gardner 
Dri Ilers 
Sol I................................ I 
Clay, trace of gravel............... 19 
Sand and g rave I .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10 
Clay, t race of g rave I . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . 20 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Sand and g rave I, t race of c1 ay. .... . 30 
Clay, t race of g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 15 
Clay, trace of gravel............... 20 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
G rave I, t race of clay............... II 
Shale, loose........................ 30 
Sha Ie, brown........................ 24 


29 
40 
43 
100 
110 


6 
20 
150 
173 


Ot 767: 9J, 9.7S, 12.6E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Clay, sandy......................... 10 
Clay, blue, some boulders........... 15 
Gravel and sand, black.............. 20 


8 
35 
205 


Ot 777: 10J, 4.8S, 3.0E; drilled by L. Keith 
Loam, sandy......................... I 5 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
G rave I and clay..................... 30 
Clay, sof t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Grave I and sand..................... 10 
Sand, fine.......................... 7 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 3 
G rave I, med i um. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 


10 
20 
119 


Ot 782: 10J, 1I.9S, 2.0E; drilled by L. Keith 
So I 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
Qu I cksand. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 6 
G rave I, fine........................ 8 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
G rave I, med I um. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


I 
10 
30 
32 
60 
68 
100 
114 


Ot 784: 10J, 8.6S, 6.0E; drilled by S. Keith 
Mud and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
Shale, soft, light, some water...... 423 
Shale, gray, gas pocket at 650 ft... 314 
Limes tone, ha rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
Sha Ie, brown........................ II 5 
Limes tone, ha rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
Shale, dark-brown................... 30 
Shale, I ight-brown, gas at 934 ft... 22 
Shale, dark-brown................... 238 
Shale, gas at 1,210 ft (Marcellus 
sha I e)...... .... ................. . 45 
Limes tone (Onondaga I I mes tone) . . . . . . 1 


10 
38 
75 
83 
110 
133 


Ot 822: 9K, 5.8S, 0.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
CI ay, red........................... 13 
Clay, blue, and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
Sha Ie, blue......................... 74 


I 
11 
199 
202 
219 
220 


Ot 824: 9K, 0.7S, 5.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
CI ay, some sand, red................ 20 
G rave I and clay, blue............... 24 
CI ay, some sand, red................ 9 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Limestone wi th gypsum (Salina group) 3 


3 
8 


150 


Ot 838: 9K, 6.9S, 11.3E; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Sol I ......... ..... ......... .. ....... 3 
Hardpan...... .................... .. . 32 
Shale, soft, crumbly, brown......... 12 
Sha Ie, firm......................... 83 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 45 


60 
66 


- 56 - 


Thick- 
ness 
( fee t) 


Depth 
(feet) 


3 
35 
60 
108 


I 
20 
30 
50 
55 
85 
105 
120 
140 
150 
161 
191 
215 


10 
25 
45 


15 
25 
55 
85 
95 
102 
105 
108 


2 
26 
32 
40 
44 
45 


13 
436 
750 
775 
890 
900 
930 
952 
1,190 


1,235 
1 


13 
32 
56 
130 


20 
44 
53 
54 
57 


3 
35 
47 
130 
175 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario County 


Ot 841: 9J, 2.35, 12.9E: drilled by Cranston 
and Son 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red........................... 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Sand, fine.......................... 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 842: 9K, 14.25, 5.6E; dri Iled by Barney 
Moravec 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Muck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . ... . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 


Ot 846: 9J, 6.2S, 10.2E: dri lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red........................... 
Clay, sand, and gravel (till)....... 
Shale, black (Skaneateles shale).... 


Ot 847: 9J, 0.55, 3.IE; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, some sand..................... 
Clay, sand, and g rave I (t i 11 ) . . . . . . . 
Limestone (Salina group)............ 


Ot 870: 9J, 1.5N, 3.0E: dri lied by F. C. 
Ewart 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, ha rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gumbo, blue......................... 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1 t coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 871: 9J, O.ON, 1.5E; drilled by F. C. 
Ewart 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 880 9J, 2.65, 4.!If: drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Soi I ................................ 
CI ay, red, some sand................ 
Clay, s t icky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine.......................... 
C I a y, blue.......................... 
Limes tone, ha rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 883: 9J, 3.3S, 4.5E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, gravel, and boulders.......... 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red........................... 
Grave 1 t SOllIe sand................... 
Limes tone (Onondaga limes tone) .. ... . 


Ot 884: 9J, 2.65, 5.2E; dri lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
CI ay, some sand..................... 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 886: 9J, 4.35, 7.IE: drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red........................... 
Clay, blue, and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale (Marcellus shale)............. 
Limes tone (Onondaga I imes tone)...... 


Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Thi ck- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
( feet) 


I 
14 
4 
5 
3 


4 
2 
14 
2 
9 


10 
41 
10 


6 
10 
29 
28 


24 
40 
50 
30 
44 
5 


12 
14 
9 


10 
20 
30 
12 
12 
74 


82 
14 
50 
2 
27 


55 
3 


45 
30 
55 
IS 


- 57 - 


Th i ck- 
ness 
(fee t) 


I 
IS 
19 
24 
27 


Ot 889: 10J, 3.0N, 0.6W: drilled by Cranston 
and Son 
Topso i I . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Clay, sand, and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 9 
Clay, some shale, gravel, firm....... 9 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Clay, blue, and fine sand (contains 
pieces of logs and pine cones).... II 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
Clay, blue, firm.................... 2 


4 
6 
20 
22 
31 


Ot 900: 9K, 1.75, I.OE: drilled by Stewart 
Bros. 
Ti II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Sand t rned i um. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, gray, and some I ayers of 
gypsum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 110 
Sands tone. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
No reco rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 


10 
51 
61 


Ot 901: 9J, 2.9S, 9.3E: drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 14 
Limestone, hard (Onondaga limestone) 17 


6 
16 
45 
73 


Ot 909: 9J, 5.2S, II.OE; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red........................... 22 
Clay, blue.......................... 35 
G rave I and clay..................... 4 
Sand t coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 


24 
64 
114 
144 
188 
193 


Ot 912: 9J, 5.35, 10.OE: drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Soi I................................ 2 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Clay, blue, and stoneS.............. 24 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 80 


12 
26 
35 


Ot 922: 9J, 8.5S, 5.7E: drilled by L. Ward 
Soi I................ ................ 3 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
Sha I e bou I de r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
G rave I, fine........................ I 


10 
30 
60 
72 
84 
158 


Ot 929: 9J, 8.0S, 4.6E: drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Soi I................................ 2 
Clay and 9 rave I . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . 16 
CI ay, blue.......................... 4 
Shale, gray (Ludlowville shale)..... 28 


82 
96 
146 
148 
175 


Ot 934: 9J, 2.95, 3.5E: drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Clay, red........................... 53 
Clay and stones..................... 10 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 4 


55 
58 


Ot 935: 9J, 3.25, 1.6E: drilled by L. Ward 
Soi I ................................ 10 
Clay and sand....................... 80 
Sand, coarse to fine................ 10 
Sand, coa rse, some fine............. 81 


45 
75 
130 
145 


Ot 940: 9J, 10.35, 12.6E: dri lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay and boulders................... 27 
Sha Ie, gray......................... 39 
Sha Ie, black........................ 32 


Ot 946: 10J, 4.75, 0.6E; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I .......... ............ .......... 
G rave I, sand, and s i 1 t. .. . . . . . . . . . .. 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1 t fine........................ 


Depth 
(feet) 


I 
10 
19 
21 


32 
41 
43 


5 
10 
120 
130 
139 


14 
31 


22 
57 
61 
62 


2 
8 
32 
38 
118 


3 
23 
26 
27 
28 


2 
18 
22 
50 


53 
63 
67 


10 
90 
100 
181 


27 
66 
98 


3 
5 
72 
11 


3 
8 
80 
91 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario Count y 
Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Ot 947: 10J, 1.4S, 7.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Clay, blue.......................... 40 
Sha 1 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 


Ot 951: 9J, 16.05, 8.9E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, blue, and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 
5 ha Ie, gray......................... 19 
Sha Ie, black........................ 70 
Ot 962: 9J, 12.65, 8.8E; drilled by L. Keith 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Clay and stones..................... 25 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Shale (West River shale member of 
Genesee formation)................ 20 


Ot 965: 9K, 6.25, 12.2E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . .. . .. . . . ... . . . . .. 251- 
Limestone ledge (boulder?).......... t 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


Ot 966: 9K, 8.25, 11.3E; dri lied by T. Hall 
So II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 
Shale, soft, brown (Skaneateles 
s ha I e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 


Ot 968: 9L, 4.6S, 0.3E; drilled by T. Hall 
No record (drilled In dug well)..... 18 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 


Ot 970: 9K, 3.75, 12.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 
Sand, coa rse, and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 


Ot 972: 9L, 1.5S, 1.2E; drilled by T. Hall 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
';;and. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 


Ot 973: 9L, 4.2S, 1.8E; drl lied by T. Hall 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30 
Clay, some sand..................... 80 
Hardpan............................. 5 
Limestone (Cobleskill dolomite)..... 5 
Ot 974: 9L, 4.3S, 1.9E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 113 
Ha rd pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Sha Ie, brown........................ I 2 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 


Ot 976: 9L, 5.65, 1.2E; drilled by T. Hall 
So I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 19 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Sand, fine.......................... I 5 
Sand, coa rs e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 


Ot 977: 9K, 2.3S, 12.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
Fill; grave I. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 4 
Sand, ye II 011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 
Sand, gray.......................... 18 
G rave I, fine........................ 5 


Ot 978: 9K, 2.3S, 12.5E; drilled by T. Hall 
Soi I..... ........... .......... ...... I 
Clay. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . 9 
Sand, ye II 011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Sand, gray.......................... 19 
Sand, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 5 


Th I ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


40 
170 


Ot 982: 9K, 2.7S, 7.5E; drilled by T. Hall 
So I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone (Onondaga limestone)...... 


23 
42 
112 


Ot 985: 9L, 5.25, O.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, ye II 011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red........................... 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


30 
55 
62 
64 
84 


Ot 986: 9L, 6.75, 0.2E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand and clay....................... 
Limes tone, ha rd (Onondaga limes tone) 


Ot 988: 9J, 3.85, 8.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Gravel, boulders, and clay (till)... 
Shale, black (Marcellus shale)...... 
Limes tone (Onondaga limes tone)...... 


10 
351- 
36 
37 


Ot 991: 9K, 3.25, O.IE; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1 " . . . . " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " 


I 
65 
76 


Ot 992: 9K, O.IN, 2.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha 1 e, brown........................ 
L i rnes tone" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " 


18 
38 
50 
66 


Ot 993: 9K, 4.25, 1.3E; drilled by T. Hall 
So I I . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay............................... . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sands tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


20 
66 
69 


I 
10 
22 
27 
40 


Ot 994: 9K, 3.95, 3.3E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
No record (drilled in dug well)........ 
Sand, red........................... 
Limes tone (Onondaga limes tone)...... 


Ot 999: 9K, 2.75, 4.5E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, hard..................... 


30 
110 
115 
120 


Ot 1001: 9K, 6.05, 0.5E; dri lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
CI ay, red.......................... 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie (Skaneate les shal e).......... 


113 
123 
135 
170 


Ot 1002: 9K, 6.05, 0.5E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay and bou I de rs. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . 
Grave 1 " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " 


I 
20 
40 
55 
75 


Ot 1008: 9J, 8.25, 7.IE; drilled by L. Keith 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and bou I de rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, ha rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale (Skaneateles shale).......... 


I 
5 
20 
38 
43 


Ot 1019: 9K, 1.85, 7.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


I 
10 
30 
49 
54 


Ot 1028: 9J, 6.75, 3.4E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red.......................... 
Clay, gray......................... 
Grave I and sand.................... 


- 58 - 


Thi ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


I 
34 
7 


I 
35 
42 


I 
24 
40 
15 
7 


1 
25 
65 
80 
87 


18 
64 


18 
82 


25 
7 
20 


25 
32 
52 


6 
14 
6 


6 
20 
26 


15 
8 
47 


15 
23 
70 


I 
4 
5 
20 
24 
16 


I 
5 
10 
30 
54 
70 


16 
8 
6 


16 
24 
30 


12 
17 
I 
I 


12 
29 
30 
31 


12 
3 
50 


12 
15 
65 


35 
II 


35 
46 


3 
67 
37 
78 


3 
70 
107 
185 


43 
2 


43 
45 


6 
16 
I 


6 
22 
23 



Tab I e 9. --Drl II ers I logs of sel ec:ted we II sand tes t hol es In Ontari 0 Count y 
Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Th I c:k- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Ot 1029: 9J, 6.6S, 1.7E; drilled by L. Keith 
Sol I . ..... ......................... 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 1030: 9J, 4.95, 0.4E; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I............................... 
Sand, fine......................... 
Clay and boulders.................. 
Clay, fine......................... 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 1031: 9J, 5.0S, 1.6E; drilled by L. Keith 
No rec:ord {drilled in dug wel!).... 
Clay.............................. . 
Qu i c:ks and. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 1032: 10J. 10.8N, 0.9W; dri lied by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 


Ot 1035: 10J, 10.7N, 2.9W; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Sol I ..... .......................... 4 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 


Ot 1037: 10J, 10.2N, I. OW; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, some sand.................... 60 
Sand and 9 rave I. red............... 122 
Clay, blue......................... 8 
Qu i c:ksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 


Ot 1039: 9K, 5.85, 0.7E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Soi I .... ..... . ........ .... .... ..... I 
Clay, red.......................... II 
Clay, blue, and stone.............. 25 
G rave I and sand.................... 2 


Ot 1050: 9K, 11.25, 4.2E; drilled by L. Keith 
Sol I............................... 3 
Gravel, sand, and silt............. 4 
Sou I de rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Sha Ie, gray........................ 87 
Limestone or hard shale............ 35 
Sha Ie, ha rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 


Ot 1052: 9K, 13.75, 6.2E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 5 
Ha rdpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Limestone {Tully limestone)........ 6 
Sha Ie (Mosc:ow sha I e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 
9K, 13.85, 5.9E i . drilled by L. Keith 
No rec:o rd (d r I I ed i n dug we II ). . . . 
Gravel, sand t and silt...(......... 
Shale, gray Mosc:ow shale/......... 


Ot 1053: 


Ot 1054: 9K, 14.05, 5.9E; drilled by T. Hall 
Sand, ye II ow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ot 1055: 9K, 14.9S, 6.4E; drilled by L. Keith 
No rec:ord (drilled in dug well).... 40 
Sand and gravel.................... 20 
Shale (Geneseo shale member of 
Genesee fo rma t I on) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 


Ot 1056: 9K, 15.55, 6.DE; drilled by L. Keith 
Soil............................... 3 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Shale, dark-brown.................. 15 
Sha Ie, gray........................ 68 
Ot 1057: 9K, 13.IS, 7.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
Soi I............................... 
Ha rd pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, brown....................... 


5 
65 
10 
2 


3 
27 
55 
45 
I 


12 
43 
35 
6 
2 


10 
16 
36 


8 
39 


I 
24 
15 


Th I c:k- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


5 
70 
80 
82 


Ot 1059: 9K, 13.IS, 7.IE; drilled by T. Hall 
Soi I .... .... . . . ..... ............... 
Ha rdpan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown {Ludlowville shale)... 


3 
30 
85 
130 
131 


Ot 1067: 9L, 16.55, 1.2E; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Gravel, some sand and silt......... 
San d, fine......................... 
Grave 1, coa rse. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, fine, and sand............. 
Gravel with shale fragments........ 
Sha Ie. b I ac:k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, gray........................ 


12 
55 
90 
96 
98 


Ot 1068: 9L, 13.8S, 1.2E; drl lied by T. Hall 
Ha rd pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ha rd pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and 9 rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


20 
95 


Ot 1069: 9K, 11.9S, 6.4E; drilled by Donald 
Rigby 
Grave I, some s i I t and sand......... 
Grave 1, c:emen ted............. ..... . 
Sand, coa rse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, c:emen ted. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 


4 
56 
70 


Ot 1073: 9J, 8.75, 10.6E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red.......................... 
Clay, blue, and stone.............. 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


60 
182 
190 
202 
209 


Ot 1074: 9J, 8.75, 10.6E; drilled by W. C. 
Putnam 
Clay, red.......................... 
CI ay, blue, and stone.............. 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


I 
12 
37 
39 


Ot 1075: 9J, 8.85, 10.5E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Boulders, sand, and silt........... 12 
Clay, blue......................... 31 
Sand and 9 rave I, red............... 7 


3 
7 
13 
100 
135 
139 


Ot 1078: 9J, 12.6S, 10.8E; drilled by W. C. 
Pu tnam 
Soi I............................... I 
Clay, blue......................... 8 
Shale, gray {Ludlowville shale).... 19 
Shale {Ludlowville shale).......... 36 


15 
35 
41 
125 


Ot 1080: 9J, 12.85, 10.6E; drilled by L. Keith 
Sol I............................... 4 
Sha Ie, gray........................ 6 
Sha Ie, brown....................... 75 
Sha Ie, gray........................ 23 
Ot 1091: 10J, 8.7S, 6.3E; drilled by L. Keith 
Clay. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 
Sha Ie. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 


10 
26 
62 


Ot 1094: 10J, 10.25, 4.4E; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I............................... 3 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
Clay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34 
Sand, fine......................... I 


8 
47 


40 
60 


Ot 1097: 10J, 7.0S, I.IE; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I .... ..... ...................... 3 
Gravel........ . .................... 18 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
Qu I c:ksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . I 


88 


3 
38 
50 
55 
70 
138 


Ot 1107: 10J, 2.25, 4.0E; drilled by L. Keith 
Clay. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . 10 
Qu I c:ksand. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . II 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 


I 
25 
40 


59 - 


I 
17 
82 


I 
18 
100 


10 
6 
8 
14 
12 
30 
16 


10 
16 
24 
38 
50 
80 
96 


3 
87 
10 
5 


3 
90 
100 
105 


70 
20 
2 
18 


70 
90 
92 
110 


10 
49 
I 


10 
59 
60 


10 
26 
I 


10 
36 
37 


12 
43 
50 


I 

 
2€ 
6
 


". 
10 
85 
IOS 


22 
122 


3 
12 
46 
47 


3 
21 
25 
36 
37 


10 
21 
23 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario County 


Part I.--Logs of wells (Continued) 


Ot 1109: 10J, 1.0S, 3.2Ej drilled by L. Keith 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
No record.......................... 9 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
No record.......................... 5 
Sand, fine......................... I 5 
CI ay. .. .... .. .... . .... . . ... . . . . .. .. 7 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


Ot 1110: 10J, 1.2S, 3.IE; drilled by L. Keith 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
No record.......................... 20 
Quicksand, brown................... 15 
Quicksand, gray.................... 14 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


Ot 1111: 10J, 1.7S, 3.SEj drilled by L. Keith 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
G rave I and so i 1. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 22 
CI ay.. .. . . ... . . . . . . ....... .. ... ... . 24 
San d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


Ot 1112: 10J, 1.8S, 3.5E; drilled by L. Keith 
So i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
G rave I and so i 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 


o t 11 I 3 : I OJ, 2. 3 S, 3. 9E; d r i I I ed by L. Ke i t h 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
Clay and qu i c ksand. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 38 
Grave I. . . .. . . ... . ... ..... .. .... .. .. 18 
Shale (Hatch shale member of West 
Falls formation)................. 17 


Ot 1114: lOJ, 2.5S, 3.9E; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I............................... 2 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 8 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 


Ot 1115: 10J, 2.IS, 3.7E; drilled by L. Keith 
Soi I ............................... 3 
Clay and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 
Gravel, fine and medium............ I 


Ot 1126: 9J, 0.5N, 3.4E; drilled by Stewart 
Bros. 
Sand, silt, and coarse grave!...... 13 
Ha rdpan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
Sand, silt, clay and gravel; water- 
bea ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
G rave I, fine, some s i It, clay, and 
sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, some fine gravel, clay, 
and s i It, red.................... 32 
Clay and silt, red................. 5 
Clay and silt, red, trace of gravel 10 
Gravel, fine, sand, si I t, and clay. 10 
Sand, fine, s i It, and clay......... 20 
Gravel, boulders, sand, silt, and 
clay, gray....................... 
Shale, dark-gray (Sal ina group to 
200 ft).................... ...... 35 
Shale, dolomitic; some gypsum, 
da rk - red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
Shale, dolomitic, some gypsum...... 10 
Sha Ie, do I om i tic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 


Thick- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
(f ee t) 


3 
12 
20 
25 
40 
47 
48 


Ot 1127: 9J, O.IS, 4.3Ej drilled by Stewart 
B ros . 
Sand, sit t, and clay, some gravel, 
da rk- brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Sand, silt, and clay, light-brown.. 5 
Sand, silt, and clay, gray......... 20 
Gravel; yielded 18 gpm............. 5 
Sand, fine, and s i It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Gravel; yielded 25 gpm............. 12 
Sand, fine, and s i It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
Sand, fine, some gravel............ 10 
Clay and si I t, few grave! particles 24 
Hardpan, boulders, clay, and silt.. 18 
Shale, dark-gray (Sal ina group to 
200 ft).......................... 7 
Sha Ie. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Shale with gypsum.................. 15 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 
Shale with gypsum.................. 15 
Sha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Shale with gypsum.................. 10 
S ha Ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 


10 
30 
45 
59 
60 


3 
25 
49 
50 


3 
29 
59 
60 


Ot 1128: 9K, I.9S, 3.5E; drilled by Stewart 
Bros. 
Si I t, some clay, trace of fine sand 
and fine rounded grave I, brown... 
G rave I, fine, rounded, some s i It, 
trace of fine sand and clay, dry, 
soft, nonplastic, brown.......... 8 
Bou I de r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Gravel, fine, some si I t and clay, 
trace of fine sand, moist, hard, 
nonplastic, brown................ 
Gravel, fine, trace of clay and 
silt............................. 8 
Limestone, gray (Salina group)..... 22 


45 
52 
90 
108 


125 


2 
20 
52 


Ot 1129: 9K, 1.9S, 3.5Ej drilled by Stewart 
Bros. 
S i It, t race of clay and fine 
rounded g rave I, dry, sof t, brown. 
G rave I, fine, rounded, t race of 
clay and s i It, dry, brown........ 
Gravel, fine, some silt and clay, 
dry, gray........................ 
G rave I, fine, some s i I t and clay, 
mo is, t , gray...................... II 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 
Li mes tone con ta i n i ng some gypsum, 
fractured (Salina group)........ 73 


3 
24 
25 


13 
16 


20 


23 


Ot 1130: 9K, I.9S, 3.9E; drilled by Stewart 
Bros. 
Si I t, trace of clay and fine gravel, 
dry, brown....................... 
G rave I, fine, some clay and s i It, 
dry, brown....................... 
Gravel, coarse to fine, some silt, 
t race of c1 ay, dry, brown........ I 5 
Limestone containing gypsum, and 
layers of mud or crushed rock 
(Sa I i na group)................... 26 


55 
60 
70 
80 
100 


105 
140 
176 
180 
190 
200 


- 60 - 


Thick- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
(feet) 


10 
15 
35 
40 
45 
57 
60 
70 
94 
112 


119 
125 
140 
155 
170 
180 
190 
200 


13 
15 


20 


28 
50 


10 


15 
26 
27 


100 


10 


25 


51 



Table 9.--Dri Ilers t logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario County 


Part 2.--Logs of test holes 
(All test holes in this part were drilled by the New York State Department of Public Works) 


Ot 1134: 9J, I.IN, 1.4E; Thruway bridge at 
Fishers Road 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, silt, and clay, 
slightly moist, mottled brown.... 
Sand, ve ry fine, s i 1 t, mo is t, brown 
Sand, fine, silt, and clay in 
a 1 te rna t i ng I aye rs, mo i s t, brown. 
Sand, fine, and silt, moist, brown. 
Sand, medium, and silt, saturated, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, s i It, and clay in 
alternating layers, wet, brown... 
Sand, fine, moist, dark-brown...... 
Sand, fine, silt, and clay in 
alternating layers, wet, dark- 
brown....... ..................... 
Sand, med i urn, 1 i tt 1 e s i 1 t, we t, 
gray............................ . 
Sand, fine, silt, and clay in 
alternating layers, wet, gray.... 


Ot 1138: 9J, 1.IN, 1.5E; Thruway bridge at 
New York Central R. R. 
T opso i 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, and s i It, brown........ 
Sand, fine, light-brown............ 
Silt, some clay, brown............. 
Sand, fine, and silt, brown........ 
Sand, fine, and silt alternating 
with thin layers of red clay..... 
Sand, fine, some s i 1 t, brown....... 
Sand, brown........................ 
Sand, medium, some silt, brown..... 
Silt. fine sand, and clay, gray.... 
Sand, fine, gray................... 
Sand, fine, and s i 1 t, gray......... 
Sand, med i urn to coa rse, some 
g rave I, gray..................... 
Sand, fine, gray................... 
Sand, fine to med i urn, gray......... 
Sand, fine, gray................... 
Sand, fine to med i um, gray......... 


Ot 1139: 9J, 1.IN, 1.7E; Thruway bridge over 
I rondoquo i t Cree k 
Sand, silt, and gravel, brown...... 
Sand, very fine, silt muck, 
da rk-g ray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, some gravel, saturated, 
brown. ....... .................... 
Sand, fine to medium, some gravel, 
saturated, brown. ....... ...... ... 
Sand, fine, silt, trace of clay, 
we t, red -b rown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, and s i It, brown........ 
Sand, very fine, silt, and trace of 
clay, da rk -b rown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, very fine, saturated, brown.. 


Ot 1143: 9J, I.IN, 1.8E; Thruway crossing at 
Log Cab inRoad 
Gravel, sand, and silL............ 
Bou I de r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave I, sand, an d s i It. . . .. . . . . . .. . 
Bou I de rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, sand, and s i It. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bou I de rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, sand, and s i 1 t. . .. . . . . .. . . . 
Bou I de rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, sand, and s i 1 t. . . . . . .. . . . . . 


Thick- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
(feet) 


9 
1 


2 
2 


9 
2 


10 


10 


2 
3 
4 
5 
3 
4 
5 
3 
9 
11 
3 
15 
4 
10 
7 
5 
4 


4 


11 


24 


3 
12 


4 
9 


15 
1 
2 
2 
7 
3' 
5 
2 
3 


10 
II 


Ot 1148: 9J, 0.6N, 3.IE; Thruway bridge at 
Interchange No. 45 
Topsoil, sand, some silL.......... 
Silt, some sand, brown............. 
Sand. some s i It, t race of grave 1 , 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, some sand, trace of gravel, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, some si 1 t, trace of gravel, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Si 1 t, some sand, and gravel, 
compac t, brown................... 
S i 1 t, some sand and grave 1, hard 
and dense, dark-brown............ 


13 
15 
18 


27 
29 


39 


Ot 1157: 9J, 0.5N, 3.3E; Thruway bridge at 
Willow Road 
Topsoil, sand and gravel........... 
Gravel, some sand, loose, moist, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay loam, some gravel, dense, gray 


41 


51 


2 
5 
9 
14 
17 


Ot 1163: 9J, 0.2S, 6.IE; Thruway bridge over 
Brbwnville Road 
T opso i 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to med i um, compac t , 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel, coarse, loose, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to medium, and gravel, 
brown........................... . 
Sand, fine, brown.................. 
Sand, fine, some silt and gravel, 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and silt, gray................ 
Sand, fine to coa rse, some grave 1 , 
com pac t, gray.................... 
Sand, fine, and s i 1 t, gray......... 
Sand, si 1 t, and clay, some gravel, 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
S i I t and fine sand, some g rave I , 
g ra y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


21 
26 
29 
38 
49 
52 
67 
71 
81 
88 
93 
97 


Ot 1164: 9J, 0.3S, 6.4E; Thruway bridge over 
Gana rgua Cree k 
Sand, fine, silt, and clay, mottled 
Sand, very fine, and silt, gray.... 
Sand, coarse, and si I t, some gravel 
and organic matter, dark-brown... 
Sand, fine, shaley, and silt, 
da rk-b rown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to coarse, and si I t, 
some 0 rgan i c ma t te r, gray........ 
Shale, disintegrated, fine sand and 
silt, gray (Salina group)........ 
Sand, fine, and silt, dark-brown... 
Shale, soft, and silt in alter- 
nating layers, brown-gray, 
(Sa I i na g roup to 45 ft).......... 
Shale, soft, dark-gray (Sal ina 
group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone and gypsum in alternating 
I aye rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


18 


42 
45 
57 
61 
70 


15 
16 
18 
20 
27 
30 
35 
37 
40 


- 61 


Thick- 
ness 
(fee t) 


Depth 
(fee t) 


2 
9 


2 
11 


17 


28 


12 


40 
45 
46 


53 


14 
13 


15 
28 


2 


4 


6 


II 
12 


3 
4 


15 
19 


II 
3 


30 
33 
36 
37 


4 


3 
10 


12 


4 


16 
17 
19 
20 


9 


29 


2 


31 
45 


14 



Table 9.--Drillers' logs of selected wells and test holes in Ontario Count y 
Part 2.--Logs of test holes (Continued) 


Ot 1169: 9J, 0.3S, 6.7E; Thruway crossing at 
Crowley Road 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, very fine, and silt, some 
grave 1, brown.................... 14 
Clay and si It, dark-red............ 5 
Clay, red.......................... I 
Sand, fine, si I t, disintegrated 
roc k, gray....................... 4 
Rock, disintegrated, fine sand and 
s i It, mot tIed, gray.............. 2 
Sand, very fine, and silt, light- 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock wi th gypsum (Sa I i na group).... 
Open space......................... 
Rock and silt, dark-gray (Salina 
group to 43 ft).................. 3 
Rock, dark-gray.................... 6 


Ot 1177: 9J, 0.9S, 7.0E; Bridge on New York 
Highway 332 over Lehigh Valley R. R. 
Fi II ...................... ......... 
Sand, fine, s i It, stones, some 
g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, s i It, and g rave I, gray....... 
Rock, soft, compact, gray (Sal ina 
group to 33 ft).................. 
Rock, gray, disintegrated, consist- 
ing of alternating hard and soft 
I aye rS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gypsum, gray, a I ternat i ng wi th 
I aye rs of wh i te gypsum 1/16 inch 
thi ck............................ 13 


Ot 1181: 9J, 0.45, 7.9E; Thruway bridge over 
Pumpki n Hook Road 
S i It, t race of sand and g rave I . . . . . 
Shale, disintegrated (Sal ina group 
to 23 f t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Limes tone, sof t, some s i It. . . . . . . . . 9 
Limes tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 


Ot 1189: 9J, 0.5S, 8.8E; Thruway bridge over 
Farmi ng ton Road 
T opso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, trace of sand and shaly 
g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 
Shale, disintegrated (Salina group 
to 24 f t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
Limestone, shaly................... 9 


Ot 1191: 9J, 1.3S, 11.5E: Thruway bridge over 
Blacksmi th Corners Road 
Fi II ... ............................ I 
Silt, some sand and grave!......... 5 
Silt, some sand, trace of grave!... 6 
Shale, disintegrated (Sal ina group 
to 26 f t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
Limes tone, s ha I y .................. 6 


Ot 1196: 9K, 1.4S, 0.8E; Thruway bridge at 
I nterchange No. 43 
Silt and sand, some gravel, brown.. I 
Gravel, some sand and silt, gray... 7 
Shale, disintegrated, dark-gray 
(Salina group to 24 ft).......... 6 
Limes tone, sha I y. ........ .. .. ..... . 10 


Ot 1197: 9K, 1.5S, 1.3E: Thruway crossing at 
N. Y. State Highway 21 
Sand, some s i It, and g rave I . . . . . . . . 
Si I t, some sand, trace of shaly 
g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Shale, disintegrated (Salina group 
to 33 ft)......................... I 2 
Limestone, shaly................... 10 


Ot 1199: 9K, 1.6S, 1.8E; Thruway bridge over 
Cananda i gua Ou tIe t 
Sand, some gravel and silt, gray... 10 
Shale, disintegrated, gray (Sal ina 
group to 22 ft).................. 7 
Limes tone, sha I y. ..... . . ... ... . . ... 5 


Th i ck- 
ness 
(feet) 


Depth 
(fee t) 


15 
20 
21 


Ot 1209: 9K, 1.7S, 3.5E; Thruway bridge over 
Cananda i gua Out let 
T opso iI, brown..................... 
Silt, some sand, brown............. 
S i It, some sand, trace of g rave I 
and clay, plastic, brown......... 
Sand and g rave I, some s i It, brown.. 
Shale, disintegrated, gray (Salina 
group to 27 ft).................. 
Limes tone, sha I y........ . ........ .. 


25 
27 
30 
33 
34 
37 
43 


Ot 1213: 9K, 1.7S, 3.6E: Thruway crossing at 
Port Gibson Road 
Sand, some silt and gravel......... 
Sand, some gravel and silt......... 
Limestone, shaly (Sa I ina group).... 


Ot 1228: 9K, I. 9S, 4. 7E: Thruway bri dge over 
Fall Brook 
T opso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave I, sand, and s i It, brown and 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, sha I y, sof t.... .... . ... . 
Gravel and sand, trace of silt, 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, some sand, trace of gravel, 
red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone, shaly, soft (Salina 
group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
S i It, some sand, t race of g rave I . . . 
Limestone, shaly, soft (Sal ina 
g rou p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Ot 1235: 9K, 1.8S, 5.5E; Thruway crossing at 
Kenda II Road 
Fi II............................... 
Silt, some sand, trace of gravel... 
Shale, disintegrated (Sal ina group 
to 36 f t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone, sha I y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


8 
10 


13 


20 


33 


3 
12 
23 


11 


Ot 1245: 9K, 2.0S, 8.6E; Thruway bridge at 
Pennsylvania R. R. 
T opso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, some sand, trace of gravel... 
Limestone, broken, trace of sand 
and silt (Cobleskill dolomite to 
17 ft)........................... 
limestone, shaly................... 


15 
24 


I 
6 
12 


Ot 1249: 9K, 2.2S, 9.0E; Thruway bridge over 
N. Y. State H:ghway 88 
Si It, some sand, trace of gravel... 
S i It, some sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . 
Sha Ie, soft (Cob I eski II dol omi te to 
26 f t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limes tone. sha I y. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 


20 
26 


Ot 1251: 9K, 2.3S, 9.7E; Thruway bridge over 
Cananda i gua Ou tie t 
T opso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, some sand, trace of gravel, 
and vegetable matter, black...... 
Silt, some shaly gravel and sand, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, some sand and shaly gravel... 
Limestone, shaly (Salina group).... 


I 
8 


14 
24 


II 


Ot 1260: 9K, 2.3S, 9.9E; Thruway crossing at 
Marb I etown Road 
S i It, some sand, t race of g rave I . . . 
S i It, some sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, shaly, some sand and silt.. 
S i It, some sand, t race of sha I y 
g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, shaly, some sand and silt.. 
Si I t, some sand and shaly gravel... 
Limestone, shaly (Sal ina group).... 


23 
33 


10 


17 
22 


- 62 - 


Thick- 
ness 
( fee t) 


Depth 
(fee t) 


2 
4 


2 
6 
9 
10 


12 
5 


22 
27 


6 
10 
5 


6 
16 
21 


12 
3 


13 
16 
19 


4 


23 
25 
26 


2 
I 


4 


30 


11 
9 


11 
20 


II 
5 


31 
36 


t 
4i 


1 
"2 
5 


2 
10 


7 
17 


6 
2 


6 
8 


I 
17 


9 
26 


9 
5 
4 
9 


10 


15 
19 
28 


6 
9 
7 
4 
5 
17 
4 


6 
15 
22 


26 
31 
48 
52 



Table 9.--Dri Ilers I logs of se I ec ted wells and test holes in Ontario Coun ty 
Part 2. --Logs of test holes (Continued) 
Thick- Th i ck- 
ness Depth ness Depth 
(feet) (fee t) (fee t) ( feet) 
Ot 1263: 9K, 2.7S, 10. 7E; Thruway croSS I ng Ot 1286: 9L, 3.2S, \. 3E; Thruway cross i ng at 
at Gifford Road N. Y. Cent ra I R. R. , Fall Brook 
Fi 1\, sand and grave \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 Branch 
Si It, some sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 19 Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
SI It, some sand, t race of gravel.. . 4 23 Si It, trace of sand and gravel, 
Si 1 t and sand, some shaly gravel... 2 25 brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 
Si It, some sand, trace of shaly S i It, trace of sand and clay, brown 6 12 
g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 31 Si It, some sand and gravel, brown. . 4 16 
Shale, disintegrated (Sa I ina group S i It, some sand, b rown. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 38 
to 48 ft)....................... . 4 35 Si It and sand, some gravel, gray.. . 14 52 
Limestone, shaly, seamy. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 45 
Shale, d is i n teq ra ted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 48 Ot 1288: 9L, 9.1 S, I .2E; Geneva, on U. S. 
Highway 20 at Cas t \ e Creek 
Ot 1264: 9K, 3.0S, 12.2E; Thruway crossing Bou I ders and washed sand. . .. .. . .. . . 3 3 
at Pre-Empt ion Road Sand, trace of s i I t and g rave I . . . . . 40 43 
Sand, some si It.............. ...... 10 10 S i It, trace of clay, sand, and 
Si It, some sand, t race of gravel.. . 13 23 gravel, p I as tic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 78 
Si It, trace of sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 25 Gravel and sand, some s i It, hard, 
Si It, some sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . 5 30 dense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 91 
Gravel, some sand and silL........ 31 61 
Shale, di sin teg rated (Salina group Ot 1289: 9L, 9.4S, I.OE; u. S. Hi ghway 20 at 
to 80 ft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 78 Geneva boat basin 
Limestone, shaly, sof t. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 80 Si 1 t, trace of sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 
Si It, some sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 16 
Ot 1272: 9L, 3.2S, O. 5E; Thruway bridge over S i It, trace of clay and sand, 
Cananda i g ua Out \ e t p I as tic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 97 
T opso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I Si It, some sand and grave I . . . . . . . . . 5 102 
Si It, some sand, gray and brown... . 5 6 
Sand, some gravel and s i It, gray.. . 30 36 Ot 1290: 9K, 8.6S, O.IW; B ridge on U. S. 
Si It, sand, and gravel, gray. . . . . . . II 47 Highway 20 over Cananda i gua 
Shale, soft (Sal ina group)......... 8 55 Out let 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ot 1273: 9L, 3.2S, 0.9E; Thruway b ridge at Sand, some silt, trace of vege tab I e 
Interchange No. 42 matter, mottled, brown. ...... .... 4 
Muck, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Si It, trace of sand, g rave I and 
Gravel, some sand and s i It, brown. . 12 clay, dense, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 
Sand, some gravel, trace of s i It, S i It, some sand and grave I, med i urn 
brown........................... . 15 plastic, re d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 29 
Sand, trace of s i I t and gravel, Si It, some sand and gravel, corn- 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 19 pact, gray-brown. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 13 42 
Sand, trace of s i It, brown........ . 8 27 
Si It, trace of sand, brown......... 13 40 Ot 1296: 9K, 9.0S, 0.5E; B ridge on U. S. 
Si It, some sand, trace of gravel, Hi ghway 20 over Fall Creek 
gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I 
Si I t, some sand and gravel, hard, Shale, d is i n teg rated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 
dense, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 51 Shale (Ludlowvi 11 e sha I e) . .. . . . .... 10 19 
Limestone, shaly wi th seams (Sal ina 
group).......................... . 56 
Ot 1278: 9L, 3.2S, 1.2E; Thruway crossing at 
N. Y. State Hi ghway 14 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Si It, trace of sand, gravel, and 
clay, red-brown...... ............ 4 
Si It, some sand, trace of grave I, 
brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 16 
Sand, some s i It, trace of g rave I , 
brown........... ................. 13 29 
S i It, some sand, t race of gravel, 
brown........................... . 7 36 
Sand, some s i It, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 40 
Sand, some s i It, brown.... .. ... .. . . 12 52 


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REPORTS DEALING WITH GROUND-WATER CONDITIONS IN NEW YORK 
PUBLISHED IY THE NEW YORK STATE WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 
AND PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


BULLETINS: 
-GW- 1. WITHDRAWAL 01' GROUND WATER ON LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; D. G. Thompson and R. M. Leggette 1936. 
"GW- 2 ENGINEERING REPORT ON THE WATER SVPPLIES 01' LoNG ISLAND; Russell Suter, 1937. 
-GW- 3. RECORD OF WELLS IN KINGS COUNTY, N. Y.; R. M. Leggette and others. 1937. 
-OW- 4. RECORD OF WELLe IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y.; R. M. Leggette and others. 1938. 
-GW- o. RECORD 01' WICLLSIN NASSAl1 COUNTY, N. Y.; R. M. Leggette and others. 1938. 
-GW. 6. RECORD OF WELLS IN QUEENS COUNTY, N. Y.; R. M. Leggette and others. 1938. 
-GW- 7. REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY 01' KINGS AND QUEENS COUNTIES, LoNG ISLAND; -Homer Sanford. 
1938. 
GW- 8. RECORD OF WELLS IN KINGS COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1; R. M. Leggette and M. L. Brashears, Jr. 1944. 
GW- 9. RECORD 01' WELLS IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1; C. M. Roberts and M. L. Brashears, Jr. 1945. 
GW-I0. RECORD OF WELLS IN NASSAU COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1; C. M. Roberts and M. L. Brashears, Jr. 1946. 
-GW-H. RECORD OF WELLS IN QUEENS COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1; C. M. Roberts and Marion C. Jaster. 1947. 
-GW-12. THE WATER TABLE IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PARTS OF LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; C. E. Jacob. 1945. 
-GW-13. THE CONFIGURATION OF THE ROCK FLOOR IN WESTERN LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; Wallace De Laguna and M. L. 
Brashears, Jr. 1948. 
GW-14. CORRELATION OF GROUNo.W ATER LEVELS AND PRECIPITATION ON LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; C. E. Jacob. 1945. 
-GW-IS. PROGRESS REPORT ON GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE SoUTHWESTERN PART OF BROOME COUNTY, N. Y.; 
R. H. Brown and J. G. Ferris. 1946. 
-GW-I6. PBOGRESS REpORT ON GROUNn.WATER CONDITIONS IN THE CoRTLAND QUADRANGLE, N. Y.; E. S. Auelatine. 
1946. 
-GW-17. GEOLOGIC CoRRELATION OF LoGS OF WELLS IN KINGS CoUNTY, N. Y.; WalJace De Laguna. 1948. 
GW-18. MAPPING OF GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND AQUII'ERS OF LoNG IsLAND, N. Y.; Russell Suter, Wallace De Laguna, 
and N. M. Perlmutter. 1949. . 
:GW-19. GEOLOGIC ATLAS OF LoNG isLAND. 1950. (Consists of large-scale reproductions of maps in GW-18, available 
through speda) purchase). 
GW-20. THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ALBANY COUNTY, N. Y., Theodore Arnow. 1949. 
GW-21. TUE GROUNn.WATER RESOURCES OF RENSSELAER CoUNTY, N. Y.; R. V. Cushman. 1950. 
GW-22. THE GROUND-WATER ItESOURCES OF SCHOHARIE CoUNTY, N. Y.; Jean M. Berdan. 1950. 
GW-23. THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF MONTGOMERY CoUNTY, N. Y.; R. M. Jeffords. 1950. 
GW-24. THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF FULTON CoUNTY, N. Y.; Theodore Arnow. 1950. 
GW-25. THE GROUND-WATER REsoURCES OF COLUMBIA COUNTY, N. Y.; Theodore Arnow. 1951. 
GW-26. THE GROUNo.WATER RESOURCES OF SENECArCOUNTY, N. Y.; A. J. Mozola. 1951. 
-GW-27. THE WATER TABLE IN LONG IsLAND, N. Y., IN JANUARY, 1951; N. J. Lueczyneki and A. J. Johnson. 1952. 
*GW-28. WITHDRAWAL OF GROUND WATER ON LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; A. H. Johnson and othen. 1952. 
GW-29. THE GROUNo.WATER RESOURCES OF WAYNE CoUNTY, N. Y.; R. E. Griswold. 1951. 
GW-30. THE GaoUND-W ATER RESOURCES OF SCHENEcrADY COUNTY, N. Y.; E. S. Simpson. 1952. 
GW..al. RECORDS OF WELLS IN SUFFOLK CoUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 2; A. H. Johnson and others. 1952. 
GW-32. GROUND WATER IN BRONX, NEW YORK, AND RICHMOND CoUNTIES WITH SUMMARY DATA ON KINGS AND QUEENS 
COUNTIES, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y.; N. M. Perlmutter and Theodore Arnow. 1953. 
GW-33. THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF WASHINGTON CoUNTY, N. Y.; R. V. Cushman. 1953. 
GW-34. THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF GREENE CoUNTY, N. Y.; Jean M. Berdan. 1954. 
OW-3S. THE GROUND WATER RESOURCES OF WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. Y., PART 1, RECORDS OJ' WZLLS AND TZST 
HOLES; E. S. Asselstine and I. G. Grossman. 1955. 
GW..a6. SALINE W ATERB IN NEW YORK STATE; N. J. Lusczynski, J. J. Geraghty, E. S. Asselstine, and I. G. Gr08llman. 
1956. 
GW-37. THE GROUND WATER RESOURCES OF PUTNAM CoUNTY, N. Y.; I. G. Grossman. 1957. 
OW-38. CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE OF WATER FROM WELLS IN SUFFOLK CoUNTY, LoNG ISLAND, 
N. Y., 1928-53; J. F. Hoffman and S. J. Spiegel. 1958. 
GW-39. RECORD 01' WELLS IN NASSAU CoUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 2; Staff, Long Island Office, Water Power and 
Control Commission. 1958. 
GW-40. THE GRoUND-WATER RESOURCES OF CHEMUNG COUNTY, N. Y.; W. S. Wetterhall. 1959. 
GW-41. GBOUND-WATER LEVELS AND RELATED HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM SELECTED OBSERVATION WELLS IN NA88AU 
CoUNTY, LoNG ISLAND, N. Y.; by John Isbister. 1959. 
OW-42. GEOLOGY AND GROUNn.W ATER RESOURCES OF RoCKLAND CoUNTY, 
. Y.; by N. M. Perlmutter. 1969. 
GW.4
 GROUNn-WATER RESOURCES OF DUTCHESS COUNTY, N. Y., by E. T. Simmons, I. G. Grossman, :tnll R. C. 
Heath, 1961. 
GW-44. GRoUND-WATER LEVELS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO GROUND-WATER PROBLEMS IN SUFFOLK COUNTY. 
LONG ISLAND, N. Y., by]. F. Hoffman and E. R. Lubke. 1961. 
GW.4S HYDROLOGY OF THE SHALLOW GROUND-WATER RESERVOIP. OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHOLD, SUFFOLK COUN1Y, 
N. Y., by J. F. Hoffman, 1961. 
GW-46 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SULLIVAN COUNTY, N. Y., by Julian Soren, 1961. 
G\V-47. GROUND-\VATER RESOURCES OF THE MASSENA-'VADDINGTON ARI
:\, ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY, N. Y.. by F. 'V. 
Trainer and E. H. Salvas, 1962. 
GW-48. GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ONTARIO COUNTY, N. Y., by F. K. Mack and R. E. Digman, 1962" 
.An asterisk (.. J indicates that the report is out of print, but such reports are available for consultation in certain libraries"