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Full text of "U S Marine Corps Biographical Dictionary"

.5 



63-25165 



reference 
collection 
book 



kansas city 
public library 
kansas city, 
missouri 




KANSAS CITY. MO PUBUCUBRMIV 




U.S. Marine Corps 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



U. S. Marine Corps 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



The Corps' Fighting Men What They Did Where They Served 



by Karl Schuon 



FRANKLIN WATTS, INC. 
575 Lexington Avenue, New York 22 




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

WHEN PLACES and dates lie buried in dusty archives or hide illusively in 
myriad file cabinets at Headquarters Marine Corps, an author and his re- 
searchers would be helpless without those who guard such records of 
the past, ensuring that no Marine will be lost to the ages for lack of bio- 
graphical material. 

For their patient, cheerful, and untiring assistance in making this work 
possible, sincere gratitude and thanks are due to Miss Manell P. Brice, 
Division of Information, HQMC; Mr. Michael O'Quinlivan, Mrs. Clara 
Miller, and Mrs. Mickey McLain, Records and Research Section, HQMC; 
and to Mrs. Virginia P. White, Miss Ethyl F. Schurman, and Miss Wanda 
L. Graves, Decorations and Medals Branch, HQMC. 

Finally, a vote of gratitude is due Gy.Sgt. Arthur J. McGowan whose 
research on this volume was invaluable. 



First Printing 

Copyright 1963 by Franklin Watts, Inc. 
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 63-16921 
Printed in the United States of America 



PREFACE 



COMPILING a biographical dictionary is a serious editorial responsibility, 
and those who undertake it must exercise the best possible objectivity. 
But unavoidably, the author of such a work together with those he 
must necessarily work with is faced with many differences of opinion 
concerning which names shall be included and which shall not and for 
what reasons. In the present volume the task was far from easy, and 
certain criteria had to be determined in planning it. 

First, it was decided to include the current Marine Corps generals who 
were on active duty when this work was assembled. These men are 
today's leaders of the Corps. Unquestionably, their individual careers are 
indicative of the priceless experience gained in command responsibilities. 
Every general's detailed biography is therefore included. 

Second, there came the largest group of Marines by far an extremely 
important group. These were the Marines who won the nation's highest 
award the Medal of Honor. The list was long. The names spanned the 
many years of Marine Corps history. The battles in which these highest 
awards were won covered the globe. Each individual name was carefully 
researched and all the information that was available was duly included 
in the entry. In some cases only the name, rank, and a brief citation re- 
mained to remind historians that some gallant Marine crossed a river and 
demolished a fort, captured a flag, or as so often in World War II 
gave his life to save a comrade. But, famous or forgotten, the Medal of 
Honor winners are all in the pages of this book. 

Third, no biographical dictionary of the U.S. Marine Corps would be 
complete without sketches of the lives of the Commandants. From Samuel 
Nicholas to David Shoup their biographies in themselves form a historic 
pattern of the development of America's 61ite force-in-readiness. 

Then, having fully covered the generals, the Medal of Honor winners, 
and the Commandants, there remained the most difficult part of the job 
choosing the well-known or colorful Marines who did not necessarily 
fall under the above categories. Again a far from easy task. 

This done, the resulting list was checked with every Marine qualified 
to help add to, or delete, from it. Of course, the list did not diminish; it 
grew daily, for the famous and the fabulous were legion. 

Finally and reluctantly space limitations dictated a cutoff point. 
The Chesty Pullers, John Quicks, Lou Diamonds, Dan Dalys, John 
Glenns, and Herman Hannekens are here but, unavoidably, a gunny's top 
colonel and a colonel's top gunny may be missing from the roster. Only 
a library of many shelves could include them all. Anyway, future editions 



and revisions of this dictionary will serve to correct whatever faults it may 
contain, update what needs updating, and add to the roster of those who 
make Corps history and tradition. 



KARL A. SCHUON 



WASHINGTON, D.C. 
JUNE 1963 



vl 



CONTENTS 



Acknowledgments 

Preface 

Key to Abbreviations Used in this Work 

U.S. MARINE CORPS BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

Appendix A: Commandants of the U.S. Marine Corps 
Appendix B: U.S. Marine Corps Chronology of Combat 
Actions in World War II 



iv 



vii 



251 



252 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK 



AEF American Expeditionary Force 
Bn. Battalion 
CG Commanding General 
CMC Commandant of the 

Marine Corps 
CO Commanding Officer 
Co, Company 
Det. Detachment 
FMF (Atlantic or Pacific) - Fleet 

Marine Force 
HQ Headquarters 
HQMC Headquarters Marine Corps 
KIA - Killed in Action 
MAD Marine Aviation Detachment 
MAG Marine Aircraft Group 
Mar. Brig, Marine Brigade 
Mar. Div, Marine Division 
MAW Marine Aircraft Wing 
MB Marine Barracks 



MCAS Marine Corps Air Station 

MCB Marine Corps Base 

MCR Marine Corps Reserve 

MCRD Marine Corps Recruit Depot 

MCS Marine Corps Schools (Quantico) 

MIA Missing in Action 

MLR Main Line of Resistance 

NAS - Naval Air Station 

Plat. - Platoon 

POW - Prisoner of War 

Prov, Provisional 

Recon. Reconnaissance 

Reinf . Reinforced 

ROTC - Reserve Officer s Training Corps 

R&R - Rest & Rehabilitation 

VMF - Marine Fighter Squadron 

WWI- World War I 

WWII -World War II 



vii 



U.S. Marine Corps 

DICTIONARY 



A 



ABRELL, Charles Gene, Corporal, Medal 
of Honor: b. Terre Haute, Ind, Aug. 12, 
1931; d. KIA, Hwachon, Korea, June 10, 
1951. Charles Abrell, the 14th Marine to 
receive the Medal of Honor for Korean 
fighting, attended public schools in Las 
Vegas, Nev., before enlisting in the Ma- 
rine Corps on Aug. 17, 1948 at the age of 
17. Following recruit training at Parris 
Island, S.C., he was assigned to Camp 
Lejeune, N.C., and also served aboard 
the USS Noble before going to Korea 
with the 1st Mar, Div. He was in action 
at Inchon, Seoul, Wonsan, Chosin Reser- 
voir, and Hanghum, before the assault on 
a hill near Hwachon in which he was 
killed. His citation reads, in part: ". . . Al- 
though previously wounded by enemy 
hand grenade fragments, he proceeded 
to carry out a bold, single-handed attack 
against the enemy bunker Sustaining 
two additional wounds as he stormed 
toward the emplacement, he resolutely 
pulled the pin from a grenade clutched 
in his hand and hurled himself bodily 
into the bunker with the live missile still 
in his grasp. Fatally wounded in the re- 
sulting explosion which killed the entire 
enemy gun crew within the stronghold, 
Cpl, Abrell, by his valiant spirit of self- 
sacrifice in the face of certain death, 
served to inspire all his comrades and 
contributed directly to the success of his 
platoon in attaining its objective, , , ." 

ADAMS, John Mapes. Sergeant, Medal 
of Honor: b. Haverhill, Mass., Get 11, 

1871, Sgt Adams' citation reads, in part; 
"... in the presence of the enemy during 
the battle near Tientsin^ China, July 13, 
1900, he distinguished himself by meri- 
torious conduct. . . /' 



ADRIANCE, Harry Chapman. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Oswego, N.Y., Oct. 
27, 1864. Cpl. Adriance's citation reads, 
in part: "... in the presence of the ene- 
my during the battle near Tientsin, 
China, July 13, 1900, he distinguished 
himself by meritorious conduct. . . ." 

AGERHOLM, Harold Christ. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Racine, Wis., 
Jan. 29, 1925; d. KIA, Saipan, Marianas 
Islands, July 7, 1944. After attending Ra- 
cine public schools, Agerholm joined the 
Marine Corps Reserve on July 16, 1942, 
and received his recruit training at San 
Diego, Calif. On completion of his boot 
training, he was ordered to the 10th Ma- 
rines, 2nd Mar. Div. The outfit embarked 
for New Zealand on Nov. 3, 1942, where 
it underwent training at Wellington for 
11 months, In Nov. 1943, Agerholm par- 
ticipated in the bitter fighting at Betio 
Is,, Tarawa Atoll, then went to Hawaii 
where he trained with his battalion for 
the forthcoming operation at Saipan. He 
landed on Saipan three days after D-Day. 
With the battle raging for three weeks, 
the enemy launched a frantic counter- 
attack on July 7, 1944, and a neighboring 
battalion was overrun. For his conspicu- 
ous gallantry on that day, he was awarded 
the Medal of Honor. His citation reads, 
in part: TP.F.C. Agerholm volunteered to 
assist in the efforts to check the hostile 
attack and evacuate our wounded, Locat- 
ing and appropriating an abandoned am- 
bulance jeep, he repeatedly made perilous 
trips under heavy rifle and mortar fire, 
and singlehandedly loaded and evacuated 
approximately forty-five casualties, work- 
ing tirelessly and with utter disregard for 
his own safety. Despite intense, persistent 



ALLEN 

enemy fire, he ran out to aid two men 
whom he believed to be wounded Ma- 
rines but was himself mortally wounded 
by a Japanese sniper while carrying out 
his hazardous mission." On June 20, 1946, 
at Boston, Mass, the USS Agerholm, a 
new destroyer, was commissioned 
named for the young Marine hero. 

ALLEN, Chester Robinson. Major Gen- 
eral. Quartermaster General of the Ma- 
rine Corps (1963): b. Somerville, Tenn., 
Feb. 6, 1905. Chester Allen attended 
school in Auburndale and Lakeland, Fla., 
prior to his graduation from the Univer- 
sity of Florida in 1929. A member of the 
ROTC in college, he was appointed a 
Marine second lieutenant July 25, 1929, 
and was enrolled in the Basic School for 
Marine Corps officers at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard. While attending the Basic 
School and serving there as a company 
officer, Lt. Allen was a tackle on the All- 
Marine Corps football team of 1930. He 
also played the same position on the Ma- 
rine team at Parris Island, S.C., in 1931. 
From June 1932, to July 1934, he served 
with the Marine Detachment aboard the 
USS Nevada. During the next two years, 
he was stationed at the Marine Barracks, 
Bremerton, Wash. In March 1935, he was 
promoted to first lieutenant. He captained 
the Bremerton Marine Rifle and Pistol 
Team, which won the San Diego Trophy 
Match in March 1936, In Aug. 1936, Lt. 
Allen entered the Company Officers' 
Course at Quantico, Va. After complet- 
ing the course, he was promoted to cap- 
tain in Aug. 1937, and embarked with 
the 6th 'Marine Regiment for China. The 
following year he was detached to the 
4th Marines, 2nd Marine Brigade, in 
Shanghai. Allen served there an special 
duty with the Marine Detachment at the 
American Embassy in Peiping in connec- 
tion with Asiatic Division Rifle and Pistol 



ALLEN 

Competitions, and later as Officer in 
Charge, 4th Marines Rifle and Pistol 
Team, On his return from China in Aug. 
1940, he was stationed at the Marine 
Barracks, San Diego, Calif., as Chief 
Range Officer. He joined the 2nd Barrage 
Balloon Squadron at Parris Island, S.C., 
in Nov. 1941, and in Jan. 1942, was pro- 
moted to major. He accompanied the 
squadron to Samoa in Apr. 1942, and was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel in Aug. 
1942. He returned to the States the fol- 
lowing month, In Feb. 1943, following 
temporary duty at HQMC, Washington, 
D.C., Lt. Col. Allen was assigned to the 
Marine Corps Depot of Supplies, San 
Francisco, Calif., as Chief of the Ord- 
nance Division. He was promoted to col- 
onel in Aug, 1945. The following year, he 
joined the 2nd Mar. Div. and served with 
that organization in the occupation of 
Japan. He moved to Pearl Harbor in July 
1946, to begin a one-year tour of duty 
with HQ, Service Command, FMF, Pa- 
cific, as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4. 
After his return from Pearl Harbor in 
Aug. 1947, he served for four years as 
Commanding Officer of the Barstow An- 
nex, Marine Corps Depot of Supplies, 
Barstow, Calif. Ordered to Korea in Je 
1951, Allen earned the Legion of Merit 
with Combat *V while serving as Supply 
Officer, 1st Mar. Div. He remained in 
Korea until May 1952, when he returned 
to the States to serve as Supply Officer, 
Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, 
Calif. In July 1954, he was transferred to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., where he 
headed the Operations Branch of the 
Supply Department. In Feb. 1955, he 
was promoted to brigadier general and 
assumed duties as Executive Officer of 
the Supply Department and Head of the 
Supply Branch. Gen. Allen served as As- 
sistant Quartermaster Ger>eral of the Ma- 
rine Corps from Sept. 1957, until Mar. 



ANDERSON 



ANDERSON 



1959, when he was named Director, 
Marksmanship Training Division. In 
Sept. 1959, he resumed his former post 
as Assistant Quartermaster General of the 
Marine Corps. He served in this capacity 
until Jan. 1, 1960, when he was named 
Quartermaster General of the Marine 
Corps and promoted to major general. 

ANDERSON, Norman Jacob. Brigadier 
General. Combat aviator in both WWII 
and Korea. Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 
HQMC (1963): b. Manitowoc, Wis., 
Feb. 7, 1913. After graduation from Glen- 
dale, Calif., High School, he attended the 
University of California at Los Angeles 
where he was a member of the ROTC 
unit, and graduated in 1934 with a Bache- 
lor of Arts degree in history. In Jan. 1936, 
he was appointed an aviation cadet in 
the Marine Corps Reserve and the fol- 
lowing month was assigned active duty 
as a student naval aviator at Pensacola, 
Fla, He was designated a naval aviator 
Feb. 26, 1937, and subsequently was as- 
signed to aviation duty at Quantico, Va, 
and again at Pensacola. While at Quan- 
tico he was appointed a Marine Reserve 
second lieutenant. In Apr. 1940, when his 
active duty period expired, Lt. Anderson 
joined American Airlines as a pilot, A 
year before WWII broke out, he re- 
quested reassignment to active duty and 
returned to Pensacola as an instructor. 
He was integrated in the regular Marine 
Corps on Feb. 25, 1941, as a first lieuten- 
ant. When WWII began, he was serving 
as Aide to the CG of the 1st MAW. He 
was promoted to captain in Feb. 1942, 
and to major in Aug. 1942, Ordered over- 
seas, he sowed as pilot and Assistant 
Group Operations Officer with MAWG 
25 in the Solomons from Aug. 1942, to 
Sept. 1943. Later, Anderson flew more 
than 100 bombing missions as CO, Marine 
Bombing Squadron 423 in the Bismarck 



Archipelago and Philippines campaigns 
from Feb. 1944, to Sept. 1945. For hero- 
ism and distinguished service during this 
period, he was awarded three Distin- 
guished Flying Crosses and seven Air 
Medals. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in March 1944. Following the 
war, Lt. Col. Anderson returned to the 
United States, and served until Feb. 1947 
at the Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, 
Calif., as Executive Officer, Air Base 
Group 2, and Commander, Aircraft En- 
gineering Squadron 21, respectively. As- 
signed next to Marine Corps Schools, 
Quantico, he completed the Junior Course 
in Aug. 1947, then served for two years 
as Chief, Air Section, Junior School. In 
Sept. 1949, he returned to El Toro as 
Executive Officer of MAG-33, and the 
following Mar. became Deputy Group 
Commander. With the outbreak of hos- 
tilities in Korea, Lt. Col. Anderson em- 
barked in Aug. 1950 with his group for 
the western Pacific. As Deputy Group 
Commander, MAG-33, and as a pilot in 
Marine Fighting Squadron 323, based 
aboard the USS Badoeng Strait, he earned 
the Silver Star Medal, his fourth Distin- 
guished Flying Cross, and his eighth 
through tenth Air Medals. The citation 
for the Silver Star Medal awarded him 
for gallantry in action on Aug. 17, 1950, 
during the Pusan Perimeter fighting, 
states in part; "Organizing and leading a 
well-planned aerial attack against an 
enemy-held bridgehead across the Nak- 
tong River, south of Taegu, Korea, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Anderson succeeded in 
clearing the area for later occupation by 
Marine ground forces. When advancing 
Marine troops became pinned down by 
intense gunfire from enemy positions 
along a ridge line, he daringly marked 
out enemy targets for his aerial attack 
group despite the defiladed and camou- 
flaged nature of the hostile positions 



ANDERSON 



APPLETON 



which necessitated the execution of ex- 
tremely low passes directly over fire- 
spurting enemy guns. After the bombs 
and rockets of his aerial group were ex- 
pended, he led his flight in bold strafing 
attacks against a cornered and desperately 
fighting enemy in support of advancing 
Marine troops," Lt. Col. Anderson was 
assigned to the Pacific Fleet Evaluation 
Group in Mar. 1951. While serving in 
this capacity, he was promoted to colonel 
in Dec. 1951, and the following June re- 
turned to the States. In Aug. 1952, Col. 
Anderson entered the National War Col- 
lege at Washington, D.C. Upon gradua- 
tion in June 1953, he was ordered to head 
the Air Section, Tactics and Techniques 
Board, Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, 
Va. for three years. In June 1956, he was 
assigned to HQMC and served as Chief 
of the Policy Analysis Division until June 
1959. In Sept., after six weeks of inten- 
sive flying with the Jet Transition Train- 
ing Unit at Olathe, Kan., he reported to 
the 1st MAW in the Far East. In Dec. 
1959, Col. Anderson assumed command of 
MAG 11, Atsugi, Japan which, during the 
succeeding 12 months, operated at various 
times from airfields and aircraft carriers 
throughout the western Pacific as part 
of the Marine Corps mobile ready forces. 
Reporting again to the National War Col- 
lege in Jan. 1961, for special staff work, 
Col. Anderson, in May, was assigned to a 
board convened to examine the organiza- 
tion of HQMC. In Aug. 1961, he became 
Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff (G-3), 
HQMC. He was promoted to his present 
rank of brigadier general on Nov. 1, 1961. 
In May 1962, upon the reorganization of 
the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff 
(Plans), Gen. Anderson was designated 
as the Assistant to the Deputy Chief of 
Staff ( Plans ) for Joint Matters. He served 
in this capacity until July 1962, when he 
became Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 
HQMC. 



ANDERSON, Richard Beatty. Private 
First Class. Medal of Honor: b. Tacoma, 
Wash., June 26, 1921; d. KIA, Roi Island, 
Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, Feb. 
1, 1944. Before enlisting in the Marine 
Corps on July 6, 1942, he graduated from 
Sequim High School and worked for 11 
months in the Richmond shipyards in 
Richmond, Calif. Completing recruit 
training at San Diego, Anderson went to 
Camp Elliott, San Diego, for Infantry 
Training. Shortly thereafter he joined 
Co. E, 2nd Bn., 23rd Marines and, with 
this unit, he sailed for the Marshalls in 
Jan. 1944. On Roi Island, as a member 
of the invasion force, while on a sniper 
hunt, he chose a shell hole in the center 
of the Roi airfield as a vantage point from 
which to attack Japanese positions. In 
the shell crater, also occupied by three 
buddies, Anderson was preparing to 
throw a grenade at an enemy position 
when it slipped from his hand and rolled 
toward his comrades. Realizing that there 
would be insufficient time to retrieve the 
armed weapon and throw it, he hurled 
himself on the sputtering grenade and 
took the full impact of the explosion on 
his own body, thereby sacrificing himself 
for the lives of his friends. Seriously in- 
jured, the 22-year-old Marine with 
"Death Before Dishonor** tattooed on his 
arm was evacuated to a ship where he 
died of his wounds. He was buried at sea 
with full military honors. For his selfless 
act of heroism he was posthumously 
awarded the Medal of Honor, 

APPLETON, Edwin Nelson. Corporal 
Medal of Honor; b Brooklyn, N.Y., Aug. 
29, 1876. Cpl Appleton's citation reads, 
in part: . . , in action against the enemy 
at Tientsin, China, June 20, 1900, cross- 
ing the river in a small boat while under 
heavy enemy fire, he assisted in destroy- 
ing buildings occupied by the enemy w 



B 



BAILEY, Kenneth Dillon. Major. Medal 
of Honor: b. Pawnee, Okla., Oct. 21, 1910; 
d. KIA, Guadalcanal, Sept. 13, 1942. 
Bailey received his second lieutenant's 
commission on July 1, 1935, and joined 
the 5th Marines at Quantico, Va. Ma- 
neuvers at San Diego and in the Carib- 
bean preceded his assignment aboard the 
USS Pennsylvania as Detachment and 
Battery Officer. He became a first lieu- 
tenant on Jan. 19, 1939, while serving 
aboard the vessel. A short tour of duty 
as Range Officer at Quantico followed. 
Then he was off to the Recruit Depot at 
Parris Island where he served as Assis- 
tant Training Officer. The major was or- 
dered to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in Dec. 

1940, where he joined the 1st Mar, Brig. 
He was promoted to captain in Mar. 

1941. At Quantico in June 1941, he joined 
the 5th Marines as a company com- 
mander. In Feb. 1942, his unit was re- 
designated the 1st Mar* Raider Bn. The 
unit was ordered to San Diego, Calif, in 
Apr, 1942, and, on the last day of that 
month, it reached Tutuila, Samoa, He 
was promoted to major on May 8, 1942, 
prior to the assault on Tulagi. Bailey 
made the bloody landing, then moved on 
with his unit to Guadalcanal, where he 
lost his life in the bitter fighting. His ci- 
tation reads, in part, ". . . for extraordinary 
courage and heroic conduct as Com- 
manding Officer of a Marine Raider com- 
pany during the Japanese attack on 
Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, on Sep- 
tember 1243, 1942. With great resource- 
fulness, he stemmed a retreat against 
great odds, reorganized his troops, gen- 
erally improved the position of our forces, 
and repeatedly led his troops in fierce 
hand-to-hand combat for a period of 10 
hours despite a severe head wound. His 



great personal valor, while exposed to 
constant and merciless enemy fire, and 
his indomitable fighting spirit inspired 
his troops to heights of heroic endeavor 
which enabled them to repulse the enemy 
and hold Henderson Field. He gallantly 
gave up his life in the service of his 
country." 

BARBER, William Earl. Lieutenant Col- 
onel. Medal of Honor: b. Dehart, Ky., 
Nov. 30, 1919. William Barber enlisted 
in the Marine Corps on Mar. 13, 1940. 
Completing boot camp at Parris Is., S.C. 
in May 1940, he remained there until 
Oct. 1941, when he entered parachute 
training at NAS, Lakehurst, N.J. He was 
a parachute instructor at Lakehurst, San 
Diego, Calif, and Camp Lejeune, N.C. 
from Mar. 1942 until June 1943, then 
entered the Officer Candidates' Class at 
Quantico. He was commissioned a second 
lieutenant on Aug. 11, 1943. After further 
instruction at Quantico until Oct. 1943, 
Lt. Barber was assigned for three months 
to parachute duty at San Diego. He 
joined the 26th Mar. Regt, 5th Mar. Div. 
at Camp Pendleton in Jan. 1944 as a pla- 
toon commander, and sailed with the reg- 
iment for Hawaii in Aug. 1944. In Jan. 
1945, he sailed for Iwo Jima, where he 
fought with the regiment until Mar. 1945. 
The following month he was promoted 
to first lieutenant. Barber again served 
in Hawaii from Apr. to Sept. 1945, when 
he was ordered to occupation duty at 
Sasebo, Japan. Returning to San Diego 
in Jan. 1946, he served there briefly be- 
fore he was assigned to recruiting duty 
at Milwaukee, Wis. That Nov. he was 
made a company commander at Camp 
Lejeune. In Sept. 1947, he was appointed 
Inspector-Instructor of the Marine Corps 



iA R BE R 



B A StilR 



Reserve's Co. D, 6th Infantry Bn. at Al- 
toona, Pa. Following his promotion to 
captain in Aug. 1949, he was assigned 
to the MB at the Philadelphia Navy Yard 
the following month. In Oct. 1950, Capt. 
Barber was ordered to Korea where he 
took part in the Chosin Reservoir cam- 
paign during which he earned the Medal 
of Honor. His citation reads, in part: 
"... as CO of Co. F, 2nd Bn., 7th Ma- 
rines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.) in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
from Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, 1950. Assigned 
to defend a three mile mountain pass 
along the division's main supply line and 
commanding the only route of approach 
in the march from Yudam-ni to Hagaru- 
ri, Capt. Barber took position with his 
battle-weary troops and, before nightfall, 
had dug in and set up a defense along 
the- frozen, snow covered hillside. When 
a force of estimated regimental strength 
savagely attacked during the night, in- 
flicting heavy casualties, and finally sur- 
rounding his position following a bitterly 
fought seven hour conflict, Capt. Barber, 
after repulsing the enemy, gave assurance 
that he could hold if supplied by air 
drops. He requested permission to stand 
fast when orders were received by radio 
to fight his way back to a relieving force 
after two reinforcing units had been 
driven back under fierce resistance in 
their attempts to reach the isolated 
troops. Aware that leaving the position 
would sever contact with the 8000 Ma- 
rines trapped at Yudam-ni and jeopardize 
their chances of joining the 3000 more 
awaiting their arrival in Hagaru-ri for 
the continued drive to the sea, he chose 
to risk loss of his command rather than 
sacrifice more men if the enemy seized 
control and forced a renewed battle to 
regain the position, or abandon his many 
wounded who were unable to walk. Al- 
though severely wounded in the leg on 



the early morning of the 29th, Capt. 
Barber continued to maintain personal 
control, often moving up and down the 
lines on a stretcher to direct the defense 
and consistently encouraging and inspir- 
ing his men to supreme efforts despite the 
staggering opposition. Waging desperate 
battle throughout five days and six nights 
of repeated onslaughts launched by the 
fanatical aggressors, he and his heroic 
command accounted for approximately 
1000 enemy dead in this epic stand in 
bitter sub-zero weather, and when the 
company was relieved, only 82 of his 
original 220 men were able to walk away 
from the position so valiantly defended 
against insuperable odds . . ." Because of 
his wound, Barber was evacuated on 
Dec. 5 and hospitalized in Yokosuka, 
Japan, until his return to the States in 
Mar. 1951, That Apr. he was assigned 
as a company commander and, later, Ex- 
ecutive Officer of the 1st Recruit Training 
Bn. at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, 
San Diego. While stationed in San Diego, 
he was promoted to major in July 1952, 
In Aug. 1953, Maj, Barber entered the 
Infantry School, Fort Banning, Ga., and 
upon graduation in Mar, 1954, was as- 
sighed as S~3, 2nd Bn., 2nd Marines, 
Camp Lejeune. In May 1956, he em- 
barked for Thailand where he served as 
Assistant Naval Attach^ and Assistant 
Naval Attach< for Air at the American 
Embassy in Bangkok from June 1956 
through Aug. 1958, He then returned to 
the States and served as an instructor 
and, later, Assistant Chief Instructor of 
the Junior School, MGS, Quantico. He 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Apr. 1960, and remained at Quantico un- 
til June 1962. Again ordered overseas, Lt. 
Col. Barber joined the 3rd Mar, Div. on 
Okinawa in July 1962 as CO of the Re- 
connaissance Battalion. 



A R N E TT 



BARNETT 




Barnett 

BARNETT, George, Major General. 12th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps, and 
the first to serve under the policy of a 
four-year term. Appointed to his first 
term on Feb. 2$, 1914, but retained be- 
cause of the exigencies of WWI until 
June 30, 1920. As CMC of the Corps he 
guided it through its rapid expansion and 
demobilization after WWI: b. Lancaster, 
Wis., Dec. 9, 1859; d. Washington, D.C., 
Apr, 27, 1930, George Barnett graduated 
from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1881, 
and went to sea as a cadet-midshipman. 
He was commissioned a Marine second 
lieutenant July 1, 1883, After serving 
briefly at the Brooklyn, N.Y., and Mare 
Island, Calif., Navy Yards he was as- 
signed in July 1884, to the USS Pinta. He 
was attached to that ship until Aug. 1887, 



when he was ordered to the Navy Yard, 
Washington, D. C. In Apr. 1888, he en- 
tered the torpedo school at Newport, 
R.I, returning to Washington in Aug. 
of the same year. After brief tours of duty 
at the Washington Navy Yard and the 
Marine Barracks, Washington, he joined 
the Marine Detachment of the USS Iro- 
quois in May 1889. Barnett returned to 
the Washington Navy Yard in May 1892. 
He was temporarily detached to the Ma- 
rine Guard at the Columbian Exposition 
in Chicago from May to Dec. 1893, and 
completed his Washington tour in Mar. 
1896, when he was ordered to the Ma- 
rine Barracks, Portsmouth, N.H. In June 
1896, he joined the Marine Detachment 
of the USS Vermont, and in Nov. 1897, 
was ordered to the USS San Francisco. 
In Apr. 1898, he was given command of 
the Marine Detachment of the USS View 
Orleans, serving aboard that ship through- 
out the Spanish-American War and par- 
ticipating in the shelling of Spanish forts 
at Santiago, Cuba, He was transferred to 
the USS Chicago in Nov. 1898. Barnett 
returned to Washington in Apr. 1901, 
served several months at HQMC, and in 
July of that year began a three-month 
tour of duty at Newport, R.I. In Oct. 

1901, he was given command of the re- 
cruiting districts of western New Jersey, 
Delaware and Pennsylvania, with head- 
quarters at Philadelphia. In Sept. 1902, 
he assumed command of a battalion of 
Marines sent to Panama to protect the 
railroad across the Isthmus. He returned 
to Washington with the battalion in Dec. 

1902, and in Jan. 1903, accompanied it 
to Cavite, Philippine Islands, to join the 
1st Mar. Brig, there. In July 1903, he was 
named Fleet Marine Officer of the Asi- 
atic Fleet and commander of the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS Kentucky, 
He took command of the 1st Mar. Brig, 
at Cavite in Dec. 1904, returned to Wash- 



BARNETT 

ington in May 1905, and two months later 
assumed command of the Marine Bar- 
racks, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. 
From June to Sept. 1906, he was stationed 
at the Naval War College, Newport, R.I. 
Barnett was again given command of an 
expeditionary battalion in Sept. 1906, and 
accompanied the battalion to Havana, 
where it became part of the Cuban Army 
of Pacification. The expeditionary force 
was soon expanded to a regiment, which 
he also commanded. The regiment was 
sent to Cienfuegos, and occupied a large 
part of that island. When the U. S. Army 
relieved his unit in Nov. 1906, General 
Barnett returned to Washington, resum- 
ing his command of the Marine Barracks 
at the Washington Navy Yard. In Nov. 
1907, he began a brief tour of duty at 
HQMC, and in Jan. 1908, was ordered 
to China to command the Marine De- 
tachment at the U.S. Legation in Peking. 
Upon his return to the States in Oct. 
1910; he was given command of the 
Marine Barracks, Philadelphia. His tour 
of duty at Philadelphia was interrupted 
three times by temporary expeditionary 
duty to settle domestic disturbances in 
Cuba, He commanded the 1st Mar. Regt. 
in Cuba from Mar. to June 1911, from 
May to Aug. 1912, and from Feb. to May 

1913. In Dec. 1913, he was given the 
additional command of the 1st Advance 
Base Brig., with which he participated in 
the Atlantic Fleet maneuvers at Puerto 
Rico in Jan. and Feb. 1914. Upon his re- 
turn from Puerto Rico, Gen. Barnett re- 
ported to HQMC in Washington and 
accepted his appointment as Comman- 
dant. Before the entry of the United 
States into WWI, he sent expeditionary 
forces to capture Vera Cruz, Mexico in 

1914, and to settle domestic disturbances 
in Haiti in 1915 and the Dominican Re- 
public in 1916. In Oct. 1920, Gen. Barnett 
became the first CG of the Department 



B ASI ION E 



of the Pacific, serving in that capacity 
until his retirement on Dec. 9, 1923, at 
the age limit of 64. He died Apr. 27, 1930. 




Basibne 

BASILONE, John, "Manila John/' Gun- 
nery Sergeant. Awarded the Medal of 
Honor for outstanding heroism at Guad- 
alcanal: b. Buffalo, N.Y., Nov. 4, 1916; 
d. KIA, Iwo Jima, D-Day, Feb. 19, 1945. 
Attended parochial school at Raritan, 
N.J., then enlisted in the U.S. Army and 
was ordered to Manila which, later dur- 
ing WWII, gave him his famous nick- 
name, "Manila John." In July, 1940, he 
enlisted in the Marine Corps. After duty 
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Quantico, 
Va.; Parris Island, S.C.; and Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C., he shipped out for the Solo- 
mons, At Guadalcanal, where he was 
serving with the 1st Bn., 7th Marines, 1st 



@ A S I LO N E 



B ATTI I I 



Div., he used a machine gun and a pistol 
to pile up 38 Japanese bodies in front of 
his emplacement and win his nation's 
highest military decoration. The citation 
accompanying his Medal of Honor states: 
"... while serving with the 1st Bn. 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div., in the Lunga 
Area, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on 
Oct. 24 and 25, 1942. While the enemy 
was hammering at the Marines* defensive 
positions, Sgt. Basilone, in charge of two 
sections of heavy machine guns, fought 
valiantly to check the savage and deter- 
mined assault. In a fierce frontal attack 
with the Japanese blasting his guns with 
grenades and mortar fire, one of Sgt. 
Basilone's sections, with its gun crews, 
was put out of action, leaving only two 
men able to carry on. Moving an extra 
gun into position, he placed it in action, 
then, under continual fire, repaired an- 
other and personally manned it, gallantly 
holding his line until replacements ar- 
rived. A little later, with ammunition 
critically low and the supply lines cut 
off, Sgt. Basilone, at great risk of his life 
and in the face of continued enemy at- 
tack, battled his way through hostile 
lines with urgently needed shells for his 
gunners, thereby contributing in a large 
measure to the virtual annihilation of 
a Japanese regiment/* At Iwo Jima, 
Sgt, Basilone again distinguished himself, 
singlehandedly destroying a Japanese 
blockhouse while braving smashing bom- 
bardment of enemy heavy caliber fire, 
For his exploit he was posthumously 
awarded the Navy Cross. While at Iwo 
Jima he was attached to the 1st Bn., 27th 
Marines, 5th Mar, Div. Following WWII 
Basilone's remains were reinterred in the 
Arlington National Cemetery, In July, 
1949, the USS Basilone, a destroyer, was 
commissioned in his honor at the Boston 
Naval Shipyard, 



BATTELL, William Putnam. Major Gen- 
eral. Assistant Quartermaster General, 
HQMC, (1963): b. Mediapolis, Iowa, 
Dec. 26, 1906. Gen. Battell attended Iowa 
State College prior to enlisting in the 
Marine Corps in Apr. 1927. After com- 
pleting radio school and serving as an 
instructor at the Naval Radio Materiel 
School, Anacostia, Md., he was selected 
for Officers* Candidate School in July, 

1929. He was commissioned a second 
lieutenant on Jan. 31, 1930, at Quantico, 
Va. After brief duty at the Marine Bar- 
racks, Norfolk Navy Yard, Battell entered 
Basic School at Philadelphia, Pa., in Aug. 

1930. On completing the course in June 

1931, he was assigned to the Marine Bar- 
racks, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., 
prior to sailing for China duty. In May 

1932, he joined the Marine Detachment 
in Peiping, China, and on his return to 
the States in Nov. 1932, was stationed at 
Mare Island, Calif. In July, 1933, he be- 
gan a year's duty aboard the USS Sara- 
toga, and the following July was assigned 
communications duty at the MCB, San 
Diego, Calif. He was transferred to Quan- 
tico in Jan. 1935, and promoted to first 
lieutenant. In Sept. he entered the Army 
Signal School at Fort Monmouth, N.J. He 
completed the course in June 1936, then 
served a year a^s an instructor in the 
Basic School, Philadelphia. In July 1937, 
he returned to Quantico, and was pro- 
moted to captain. In May 1938, Capt. 
Battell began another tour of sea duty, 
serving as Detachment Commanding Of- 
ficer aboard the USS Arkansas and USS 
New York successively. In July 1939, he 
reported to the Depot of Supplies at 
Philadelphia, as Signal Supply Officer, 
remaining there until Sept. 1941. That 
month he was assigned to the Radio Di- 
vision, Bureau of Ships, Navy Depart- 
ment, Washington, D.C., to serve as 
Head of the Marine Corps Installation 



BAUER 



B A O E R 



and Maintenance Group, until Feb. 1944. 
He was promoted to major in Jan. 1942, 
and to lieutenant colonel in Aug. 1942. 
Reporting to FMF, Pacific, in early 1944, 
Lt. Col Battell saw duty in the Pacific 
area as Signal Supply Officer, Service 
Command. For service in this capacity, 
in support of the Marianas, Palau, and 
Iwo Jima operations, he received the 
Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V." In 
Oct. 1946, shortly after his return to the 
States, he was based at the San Francisco 
Depot of Supplies, where he served al- 
most five years. He was promoted to 
colonel in Mar. 1948. Following his de- 
tachment from the Depot of Supplies in 
Aug. 1951, Col. Battell was enrolled at 
the Naval War College, Newport, R.I., 
and completed the course in June 1952. 
During the next two years, he served as 
Supply Officer at the Marine Corps 
Schools, Quantico, until Sept. 1954. That 
Oct. he moved to the MCB, Camp Pen- 
dleton, as Base Supply Officer. In Dec, 
1955, he joined the 3rd Mar. Div. in 
Japan as CO of the 3rd Service Regt, He 
was assigned to HQMC in Dec. 1956. 
Upon his promotion to brigadier general 
in Jan. 1957, Gen. Battell assumed duty 
as Director, Materiel Division, Supply 
Department. Following this assignment, 
he served as CG of the Marine Corps 
Supply Center, Albany, Ga., from July 
1958, through Sept. 1962. He was pro- 
moted to major general in Aug. 1962. He 
assumed his present assignment as Assis- 
tant Quartermaster General of the Ma- 
rine Corps in Oct. 1962. 

BAUER, Harold William. Lieutenant 
Colonel. Medal of Honor: b. Woodruff, 
Kans., Nov. 20, 1908; d. MIA, vicinity 
Russell Is, Nov. 14, 1942. Harold Bauer 
entered the Naval Academy from Ne- 
braska in 1926; and after graduation in 
1930, he was appointed a Marine second 



lieutenant. Following his commissioning, 
Lt. Bauer attended the Officers' Basic 
School at Quantico, Va. He was then as- 
signed as a company officer with the 1st 
Bn., 6th Marines at Quantico after com- 
pleting the basic school there. He was 
later assigned to NAS at Pensacola, Fla., 
in Dec. 1934 where he won his wings 
as a Marine aviator in Feb. 1936. Bauer 
was transferred to NAS, San Diego, 
Calif, in June 1940 where he served as 
squadron officer of a fighter squadron. 
While stationed at San Diego, he partici- 
pated in carrier group exercises on the 
USS Lexington and USS Saratoga. When 
the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Col. 
Bauer was sent to Midway for duty as a 
squadron commander. He was transferred 
to Hawaii in Feb. 1942, and then was 
ordered to the south Pacific where he 
took command of Marine Fighter Squad- 
ron 212. On Sept. 28, 1942, Bauer's 
squadron was attacked by a superior 
force of Japanese planes and, undaunted 
by the odds, he engaged the enemy and 
shot down one of their bombers. Again 
attacking a superior force on Oct. 3, 
Bauer shot down four of the enemy and 
left a fifth badly damaged. While leading 
a reinforcement flight on Oct. 16 from 
Espirito Santo to Guadalcanal 600 miles 
away, the colonel was about to land at 
Henderson Field when he noticed a 
squadron of Japanese planes attacking 
the USS McFarland off shore. Although 
the long flight from Espirito Santo had 
almost exhausted his fuel and he knew 
no friendly planes were able to assist 
him, he immediately proceeded alone to 
attack the enemy and succeeded in de- 
stroying four of them before lack of gaso- 
line forced him to return to Henderson 
Field, Col Bauer was forced to ditch his 
plane over water on Nov. 14 ? after down- 
ing two of the enemy in an attack 100 
miles off Guadalcanal. He was last seen 



10 



1 A G H 



BAU SE Li. 



in the water in his Mae West and did 
not appear to be seriously hurt. Days of 
intense searching by planes and Russell 
Is. natives failed to locate any further 
trace of him. The squadron under the 
colonel's command at Guadalcanal was 
officially credited with 92 Japanese 
planes and helping to sink two of their 
destroyers. Col. Bauer's citation reads, in 
part: " . . . as squadron commander of 
Marine Fighter Squadron 212 in the 
south Pacific during the period of May 
10 to Nov. 14, 1942. . . . His intrepid fight- 
ing spirit and distinctive ability as a 
leader and an airman exemplified in his 
splendid record of combat achievement, 
were vital factors in the successful opera- 
tions in the south Pacific Area," 

BAUGH, William Bernard. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. McKinney, 
Ky., July 7, 1930; d. KIA, en route from 
Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri, Korea, Nov. 29, 
1950. P.F.C. Baugh's citation reads, in 
part: w . . . while serving as a member of 
an Anti-Tank Assault Squad attached to 
Co. G, 3rd Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
( Reinf . ) , during a night time enemy at- 
tack on a motorized column en route 
from Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri, Korea, on 
Nov. 29, 1950. Acting instantly when a 
hostile hand grenade landed in his truck 
as he and his squad prepared to alight 
and assist in the repulse of an enemy 
force delivering intense automatic weap- 
ons and grenade fire from deeply en- 
trenched and well-concealed roadside 
positions, P.F.C. Baugh quickly shouted 
a warning to the other men in the vehicle 
and, unmindful of his own personal safe- 
ty, hurled himself upon the deadly mis- 
sile, thereby saving his comrades from 
serious injury or possible death. . . . w 

BAUSELL, Lewis Kenneth. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Pulaski, Va., Apr. 17, 
1924; d, KIA, Peleliu, Sept. 18, 1944. 



Bausell enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Dec. 15, 1941, and was sent to Parris 
Island for recruit training. At Guadal- 
canal he went ashore with the initial 
landing and fought there for four months 
before sailing for Melbourne, Australia. In 
the spring of 1943, he embarked for New 
Guinea. Serving with the 5th Marines, 
1st Mar. Div., he prepared for the next 
campaign and made the Cape Glouces- 
ter, New Britain, landing three days 
after the original invasion. With the con- 
clusion of that campaign, the Division 
returned to Pavuvu Is. for rest and re- 
habilitation. The next chore for the 5th 
Marines was the Peleliu landing on Sept. 
15, 1944. They were the left flank regi- 
ment on the division front. In the first 
hour of action, the assault waves fought 
their way 100 yards inland to the top of 
a small coral ridge, one of dozens on the 
island. Bausell was in a squad assigned 
to clean out one of the many Japanese 
infested caves which honeycombed the 
ridge. On one side of the cave, a Marine 
second lieutenant and several of his men 
were using a flame thrower to drive the 
enemy out through the other side where 
Bausell and several others waited with 
rifles ready. Two men stood at the en- 
trance, firing into the cave. A Japanese 
charged out holding a grenade against 
his body and lunged toward the little 
band of Marines. The grenade exploded, 
injuring several Marines and killing the 
enemy soldier, Another Japanese came 
to the exit and was shot. Then a third 
appeared and hurled a grenade into the 
group. Bausell threw himself upon it, 
taking the full impact of its explosion. 
Evacuated to a hospital ship, 20-year-old 
Cpl. Bausell died of his wounds three 
days later on Sept. 18, 1944. On Nov. 19, 
1945, at Bath, Maine, a new destroyer, 
the USS Bausell, was christened by the 
corporal's mother. 



11 



BE A RSS 

BEARSS, Hiram Iddings. Brigadier Gen- 
eral (Retired), Medal of Honor: b. Peru, 
Ind., Apr. 13, 1875; d. Aug. 26, 1938. 
During his distinguished career, Hiram 
Bearss served in the Philippine Is. from 
Dec. 1899 to May 1902, and during this 
period he served with Maj. Waller's bat- 
talion in Samar from Oct. 1901 to Mar. 
1902; in Panama from Dec. 1903 to Mar. 
1904; in Cuba in Feb., Mar. and Apr., 
1913; in Mexico from Apr. to Aug. 1914, 
during which period he participated in 
the occupation of the city of Vera Cruz 
and the engagement incident thereto; 
and in Santo Domingo from June 1916 
to May 1917. He was awarded the Medal 
of Honor on Mar. 13, 1934, for "extra- 
ordinary heroism and eminent and con- 
spicuous conduct in battle at the junction 
of the Cadacan and Sojoton Rivers, 
Samar, P.I., Nov. 17, 1901. Capt. Bearss, 
second in command of the columns upon 
their uniting ashore in the Sohoton re- 
gion, made a surprise attack on the forti- 
fied cliffs and completely routed the 
enemy, killing 30 and capturing and de- 
stroying the powder magazine, 40 lan- 
tacas (guns), rice, food, and cuartels. 
Due to his courage, intelligence, discrim- 
ination and zeal, he successfully led his 
men up the cliffs by means of bamboo 
ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs 
were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in 
the nature of pumice, and were honey- 
combed with caves. Tons of rocks were 
suspended in platforms held in position 
by vine cables in readiness to be precipi- 
tated upon people below. After driving 
the insurgents from their position which 
was almost impregnable, being covered 
with numerous trails lined with poisoned 
spears, pits, etc., he led his men across 
the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite 
side, and destroyed the camps there. He 
and the men under his command over- 
came incredible difficulties and dangers 



i i A K SS 

in destroying positions which, according 
to reports from old prisoners, had taken 
three years to perfect, were held as a 
final rallying point, and were never be- 
fore penetrated by white troops. Capt. 
Bearss also rendered distinguished pub- 
lic service in the presence of the enemy 
at Quinapundan River, Samar, P.L, on Jan. 
19, 1902." During WWI, Bearss served 
with distinction in various capacities. He 
arrived in France Aug. 20, 1917, and was 
in command of the Marine Base Detach- 
ment, 5th Regt, until Sept. 7, 1917; then 
first commander of Base Section No. 2 
(Headquarters at Bordeaux) serving in 
this capacity from Sept. 8 to Oct. 25, 

1917. He was relieved from this assign- 
ment at his own request and was 
assigned command of the 5th Mar. 
Regt., serving from Oct. 30 ? 1917 to 
Dec. 31, 1917; then second in com- 
mand of the 5th Regt. from Jan, 1, 1918 
to Feb, 26, 1918, when he was temporar- 
ily assigned to command of a battalion 
of the 9th Infantry. He commanded the 
3rd Bn., 9th Infantry in the Toulon- 
Troyon sector southeast of the city of 
Verdun, France. He was detailed to duty 
at 2nd Div, HQ on May 1, 1918, During 
his tour of duty at Div. HQ he was 
Assistant Provost Marshal and CO of HQ 
Troop and APO 710. He was relieved 
from this duty on June 13, 1918, and 
assigned to the 6th Regt., Marine Corps, 
as second in command. On Aug. 24, 

1918, he was assigned to the 26th Div, 
for duty as a regimental commander. He 
commanded the 102nd Infantry Regiment 
from Aug. 26, 1918 to Oct. 14, 1918, Oct. 
25, 1918 to Nov. 8, 1918, and Nov. 24, 
1918 to Dec, 7, 1918. He commanded 
the 51st Infantry Brig., 26th Div. Oct. 
15-24, 1918 and Nov. 9-23, 1918. His tour 
of service with the 26th Div. included 
the Rupt sector (Lorraine), the St.- 
Mihiel operation, the Troyon sector 



SER&CILEY 



BERKELEY 



(Lorraine) and the Meuse-Argonne oper- 
ation. In the St-Mihiel action, he com- 
manded the leading elements of the 51st 
Brig, in a bold and successful march 
southeast from the Rupt sectpr, through 
Dommartin-la-Montagne, the Grande 
Tranch^e de Calonne, Vigneulles-les- 
Hattonchatel and established contact 
with the 1st Div. which was advancing 
from the south, thus completing the re- 
duction of the St.-Mihiel salient. He was 
placed on the retired list as a colonel, 
Nov. 22, 1919, having been found per- 
manently incapacitated for active service 
by a Marine Retiring Board because of 
physical disability incident to his service, 
and was advanced to the rank of briga- 
dier general on Jan. 16, 1936. 

BERKELEY, James Phillips. Major Gen- 
eral: b. Portsmouth, Va., July 1, 1907. 
James Berkeley attended school at Shep- 
herdstown, W. Va., and Severn Prepara- 
tory School. He enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Mar. 1, 1927, and served in 
Nicaragua from Jan. to Dec. 1928. After 
nearly three years as an enlisted man, he 
was commissioned a Marine second lieu- 
tenant on Jan. 31, 1930, at the Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D.C. He was 
then ordered to the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard, where he served as a company of- 
ficer at the MB and completed Basic 
School in June 1931, Following gradua- 
tion he served at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 
Va,, before sailing for China in Apr. 1932, 
for duty with the Marine Detachment at 
the American Embassy, Peiping. He re- 
turned to the States in Dec, 1935, while 
serving as a battalion communications of- 
ficer with the 6th Mar. Regt. at San 
Diego, Calif. In May 1935, Lt Berkeley 
reported to Quantico, Va., where he 
headed the communications platoons of 
the Fleet Marine Force and the 1st Mar. 
Brig. Detached from Quantico in Aug. 



1936, he entered the Army Signal School 
at Fort Monmouth, N.J. On completing 
the course in June 1937, he returned to 
the 1st Brig, and was promoted to cap- 
tain. Berkeley headed the 1st Brigade's 
communications platoon until Apr. 1938, 
then served as Brigade Communications 
Officer until Mar. 1939, when he left 
Quantico to take command of the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS Wichita. 
Returning from sea duty in June 1941, 
he was named Communications Officer 
of the MCB at Quantico. He was serving 
in this post when WWII broke out. In 
Jan. 1942, he was promoted to major. In 
Mar. 1942, Maj. Berkeley was ordered 
to HQMC, Washington, D.C., to serve 
as Assistant Officer in Charge of the Com- 
munications Section, Division of Plans 
and Policies. He was promoted to lieu- 
tenant colonel in Aug. 1942. While at- 
tached to that section, he accompanied 
the Commandant of the Marine Corps on 
an inspection tour of Guadalcanal and 
other South Pacific areas in Oct. and Nov. 
1942. He also made an observation tour 
of the United Kingdom, Africa, and Italy 
from Aug. to Oct. 1943. He was an ob- 
server with the 46th British Inf. Div. at 
the Salerno landing, Sept. 9, 1943, In 
Nov. 1943, he reported to Camp Pendle- 
ton, Calif., where he commanded the 
Field Signal Battalion prior to becoming 
Signal Officer of the 5th Mar. Div. in 
Feb. 1944, Sailing again for the Pacific 
area that Aug., Lt, Col Berkeley served 
as 5th Div, Signal Officer in Hawaii and 
at Iwo Jima. He also served as Executive 
Officer of the 27th Marines, 5th Mar. 
Div,, at Iwo Jima in Mar, 1945, and in 
Hawaii during the following two months. 
In July 1945, he was named Signal Of- 
ficer of the 5th Amphibious Corps, serv- 
ing in that capacity in Hawaii and Japan. 
He was promoted to colonel the follow- 
ing month. He then served as officer in 



13 



BERKELEY 



BERKELEY 



charge of the disposition of enemy ma- 
terial from Oct. to Dec. 1945, and then 
as commander of the 6th Marines, 2nd 
Mar. Div., from Jan. to Mar. 1946. Berke- 
ley returned from Japan in Apr. 1946, 
and the following month was named As- 
sistant to the Navy Secretary of the Joint 
Army-Navy Secretariat, Office of the Sec- 
retary of the Navy, Washington, D.C. 
He remained with that organization until 
Jan. 1947. In Feb. 1947, Col. Berkeley 
sailed for Buenos Aires to serve as Am- 
phibious Warfare Advisor to the Argen- 
tine Naval War College and as an advisor 
to the Argentine Marine Corps. He re- 
turned to the States in May 1949, and, 
after brief service with the Troop Train- 
ing Unit, Atlantic, at Little Creek, Va., 
entered the Armed Forces Staff College 
at Norfolk in Aug. 1949. Completing that 
course in Jan. 1950, he reported the fol- 
lowing month to the Naval War College 
at Newport, R.I., where he served as a 
staff member, and later as Assistant Head 
and Head of the Department of Strategy 
and Tactics. He left Newport in May 
1953, to serve in Washington for the next 
year as CO of the Marine Barracks and 
Director of the Marine Corps Institute. 
He embarked for Korea in June 1954, to 
become Chief of Staff of the 1st Mar. 
Div, and returned with the division to 
Camp Pendleton the following spring. In 
July 1955, he was promoted to brigadier 
general and began three years' duty as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l (Personnel), 
at HQMC. He was promoted to the rank 
of major general in July 1958, on assum- 
ing duties as CG, Department of the Pa- 
cific, in San Francisco, Calif. Following 
this assignment, Gen. Berkeley served as 
CG, 2nd Mar. Div., FMF, at Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C., from Nov. 1959, until Oct. 
1961. In Nov. 1961, he assumed the du- 
ties of CG, MCB, Camp Lejeune. 




Berkeley 

BERKELEY, Randolph Carter. Major 
General. Medal of Honor: b. Staunton, 
Va., Jan. 9, 1875; cl U. S. Naval Hospital, 
Beaufort, S.C., Jan. 31, 1960. In Staun- 
ton, Va., Randolph Berkeley attended 
grade and high school Ho graduated 
from Potomac Academy at Alexandria, 
Va., in 1891, and was appointed a Ma- 
rine second lieutenant on Aug. 8, 1898, 
for service during the Spanish-American 
War. He was stationed at the Navy Yard, 
Washington, D.C,, until he was honor- 
ably discharged on Jan. 9, 1899. lie re- 
turned to the Corps in Apr. 1899, and 
was appointed a first lieutenant In addi- 
tion to his service at posts in the United 
States, the general served on a variety of 
assignments at sea and abroad. He served 
aboard the USS Oregon from Oct. 1899, 
to Mar. 1901; in the Philippines from 



14 



BERKELEY 



BERRY 



Apr. to June 1901; aboard the USS Hel- 
ena from July 1901, to Aug. 1902; on ex- 
peditionary duty in Cuba in Sept. and 
Oct. 1906; aboard the USS Kentucky as 
commander of its Marine Detachment 
from Dec. 1907, to Nov. 1908; and in the 
Philippines and China from Dec. 1908, 
to Oct. 1910. Berkeley then took com- 
mand of the 1st Bn., 2nd Advanced Base 
Regiment, in Dec. 1913, at Pensacola, 
Fla., and sailed with it for Vera Cruz in 
Mar. 1914. Berkeley, then a major, was 
commanding the 1st Bn. of the 2nd Ad- 
vanced Base Regiment when he took 
part in the action for which he earned the 
nation's highest decoration on Apr. 21-22, 
1914. Relations between the United States 
and the Huerta government of Mexico had 
been strained for some time, and a land- 
ing force of Marines and sailors was or- 
dered ashore at Vera Cruz after a Huerta 
officer had arrested several U.S. Naval 
personnel at Tampico. The 2nd Regt. 
was the first ashore, meeting resistance 
from Mexican troops about noon on Apr. 
21. The citation for his Medal of Honor 
describes General Berkeley's part in the 
action as follows ; "For distinguished con- 
duct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 
Apr. 21 and 22, 1914, was eminent and 
conspicuous in command of his battalion; 
was in the fighting of both days, and 
exhibited courage and skill in leading his 
men through action. His cool judgment 
and courage and his skill in handling his 
men in encountering and overcoming the 
machine-gun and rifle fire down Cinco 
do Mayo and parallel streets accounts for 
the small percentage of the losses of Ma- 
rines under his command." He returned 
to the States in Dec, 1914, and was sta- 
tioned at Philadelphia until June 1915, 
when he sailed for Guam to command 
the Marine Barracks. Returning from 
Guam in Nov. 1917, he served at the 
Marine Barracks, New York, N.Y., and 



Charleston, S.C., during the next two 
years. Gen. Berkeley was again ordered 
to expeditionary duty in Oct. 1919, serv- 
ing for two years with the 1st Provisional 
Brig. Marines in Haiti. After he returned 
from that country in Nov. 1921, he served 
at New York, N.Y., and Norfolk and 
Quantico, Va. He completed the Field 
Officers' Course at Quantico in Aug. 1925, 
and a year of study at the Army War 
College, Washington, D.C. in June 1926. 
Returning to Quantico, he served as a 
commander of the 1st Mar. Regt. He 
served in that capacity for the next two 
years, except for the period from May to 
Aug. 1927, when he was commanding 
the llth Mar. Regt. in Nicaragua. The 
general was ordered to Nicaragua again 
in May 1928, serving there for a year as 
Chief of Staff of the 2nd Mar. Brig, After 
his return to the States in Apr. 1929, he 
commanded the Marine Barracks at the 
Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va. He 
served in that capacity until Aug. 1930, 
when he was ordered to Quantico, Va. 
There he commanded the Marine Corps 
Schools until Nov. 1931, when he was 
again ordered to Nicaragua this time 
as commander of the 2nd Mar. Brig, He 
returned to the States in Jan. 1933, and 
from then until May 1936, commanded 
the MB at Parris Island, S.C. He was 
then ordered to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C., where he was President of the 
Marine Corps Examining and Retiring 
Boards until Dec. 1938. He reached the 
statutory retirement age in Jan. 1939, and 
was placed on the retired list the follow- 
ing month as a major general. Following 
his retirement, Gen. Berkeley lived in 
Beaufort and Port Royal, until his death 
at the U.S. Naval Hospital, Beaufort. 
He was buried in Arlington National 
Cemetery on Feb. 4, 1960. 

BERRY, Charles Joseph. Corporal. Medal 



15 



BERRY 



i I L I 



of Honor: b. Lorain, Ohio, July 10, 1923; 
d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Mar. 3, 1945. Follow- 
ing graduation from Lorain High School, 
young Berry enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Cleveland, Ohio, and was sent to Par- 
ris Is, for recruit training. From boot 
camp he was transferred to Quantico, 
Va., then to New River, N.C., for para- 
chute instruction. On June 2, 1942, now 
a qualified parachutist, Berry was pro- 
moted to private first class. He sailed 
from San Diego in Mar, 1943, for New 
Caledonia where he served with the First 
Parachute Bn. In Sept. 1943, the outfit 
left New Caledonia for the Solomon Is. 
In Nov. 1943, he landed at Bougainville, 
and during that campaign took part in 
the raid at Koairi Beach and in the Em- 
press Augusta Bay action. Prior to re- 
turning to the States in Feb. 1944, he 
spent a short time at Guadalcanal. Fol- 
lowing his arrival at Camp Elliott, San 
Diego, he joined the newly organized 5th 
Mar. Div. in early 1944, and in July de- 
parted for the Hawaiian Islands with his 
unit. He was advanced to corporal on 
July 22, 1944. Berry landed on Iwo Jima 
on D-Day, Feb. 19, 1945, and was killed 
in action on Mar. 3, 1945. His citation 
reads, in part, "Stationed in the front 
lines, Cpl, Berry manned his weapon 
with alert readiness as he maintained a 
constant vigil with other members of his 
gun crew during the hazardous night 
hours. When infiltrating Japanese sol- 
diers launched a surprise attack shortly 
after midnight in an attempt to overrun 
his position, he engaged in a pitched 
hand grenade duel, returning the dan- 
gerous weapons with prompt and deadly 
accuracy until an enemy grenade landed 
in the foxhole. Determined to save his 
comrades, he unhesitatingly chose to sac- 
rifice himself and immediately dived on 
the deadly missile, absorbing the shat- 
tering violence of the exploding charge 



in his own body and protecting the oth- 
ers from serious injury. Stouthearted and 
indomitable, Cpl. Berry fearlessly yielded 
his own life that his fellow Marines might 
carry on the relentless battle against a 
ruthless enemy. . . ." 




Biddle 

BIDDLE, Anthony J, DrcxcL Colonel 
Internationally known swordsman and 
distinguished master of jujitsu, bayonet, 
and knife fighting. Served with the Ma- 
rine Corps in two world wars, training 
Marines in the art of hand-to-hand com- 
bat: b. Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 1, 1874; 
d. Syosset, NX, May 27, 1948, Two of 
the oldest Philadelphia families were 
combined in the name Anthony J . Drexel 
Biddle. Young Tony began his education 
by attending first grade in Spain whore 
he later developed an interest in knife 



16 



B 1 D B I i 

fighting. He became amateur heavy- 
weight champion of Spain and, although 
of medium height and weighing less 
than 175 pounds, he held his own in 
sparring contests with many of the heavy- 
weight champions including John L. Sul- 
livan. Prior to WWI he startled Philadel- 
phia society by taking a job as a reporter 
in the waterfront district, and later by 
building a boxing ring in his back yard 
so he could box with champions "just 
for the fun of it." At the outbreak of 
WWI, he organized the Philadelphia 
Military Training Corps, a private cor- 
poration of 1600 subscribers which in 
1917 had 12,000 men in training, Early in 
1917, he quietly enlisted in the Marine 
Corps as a private and in Mar, of that 
same year was commissioned a captain 
in the Marine Corps Reserve. In June 
1917, he went to Port Royal, S,C. for 
basic instruction. Following a tour of 
duty with the AEF in France he was 
ordered to the MB, Quantico, Va. Ap- 
pointed a major in Dec. 1918, he was 
later transferred to the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard. Ho was relieved from active 
duty in July 1919. Col. Biddle traveled 
extensively during the years following 
the war, and boxed with Kid McCoy, 
and "Philadelphia JacV O'Brien, He 
fought an exhibition match with Georges 
Carpentier, an event which required po- 
lice to keep the throngs of spectators 
orderly, It was Tony Bidcllc who first 
taught Gene Tunney, later heavyweight 
champion of the world, how to box while 
he was a private at Quantico during 
WWI. In Doc. 1926, at his own request, 
Bicldle was recalled to active duty with 
the Marine Corps. Ordetecl to report to 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard, he trained 
exhibition combat teams invited to ap- 
pear at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial. 
lie not only taught these teams, but en- 
gaged in the hand-to-hand fighting per- 



BIDDLE 



sonally. In Sept. 1928, again at his own 
request, he was ordered to report to the 
Basic School, Philadelphia, where he 
taught newly commissioned officers hand- 
to-hand combat. Between trips abroad 
and on this continent, he interspersed 
his periods of active duty with various 
special assignments. He taught agents of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation the 
art of jujitsu. Following the Philadelphia 
Sesquicentennial he also shared his 
knowledge of jujitsu with that city's po- 
lice force. He was appointed lieutenant 
colonel in the Marine Corps Reserve in 
Oct. 1934, shortly after reporting for one 
of his active duty periods. In June 1937, 
he was assigned to duty with the 5th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Brig., FMF, at Quan- 
tico. Following the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor, Col. Biddle requested ac- 
tive duty with his Corps - although he 
retired in 1938 and was now 67 years 
of age. He was ordered to Quantico and 
taught bayonet fighting primarily in 
training camps on both the east and west 
coasts. Col. Biddle died on May 27, 1948. 

BIDDLE, William P. Major General, 
llth Commandant of the Marine Corps: 
b. Philadelphia, Pa., Dec, 15, 1853; d. 
Nice, France, 1923. Bicldle was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the Corps 
in June 1875, and after short tours of 
duty in Washington, New York, and 
Philadelphia, he made the first of his 
many tours of sea duty. After three years 
aboard the USS Hartford and Powhatan, 
he again went ashore for duty at Phila- 
delphia and New York. He returned to 
sea duty on the Kearsarge in Mar. 1882, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant two 
years later. With a break of fewer than 
three years at the same domestic stations 
as his previous shore duty, he again 
went to sea for three years on board the 
Swatara. He returned to Philadelphia for 



17 



B B D D L E 



B I N N E Y 



duty in Feb. 1891, where he was ad- 
vanced to captain three years later. Bid- 
die resumed sea duty aboard the Balti- 
more in June 1895 and was shortly after- 
ward transferred to the Olympic, on 
which ship he served during the Spanish- 
American War. Biddle was with Admiral 
Dewey at the Battle of Manila Bay. Soon 
after the close of the war, he returned 
to Philadelphia for duty, but was soon 
called to join the 4th Bn. of Marines, or- 
ganized for duty in the Far East. With 
that battalion he arrived in China to take 
part in the famous relief expedition to 
Peking in 1900, After the Boxer Rebel- 
lion, Biddle was transferred with his bat- 
talion to the 1st Brig, of Marines, Philip- 
pine Is. where he served for more than 
two years. He then returned to the States 
for duty at HQMC, Washington, D.C, 
He was advanced to lieutenant colonel 
on Mar. 23, 1903 and in Dec. of that 
year he was ordered to Panama in com- 
mand of the battalion of Marines on the 
Dixie, which arrived in time to partici- 
pate in affairs when the independence of 
that country was declared. He returned 
to the States soon afterward, however, 
and served for short tours of duty in 
Philadelphia and at HQMC. He was pro- 
moted to colonel in Feb. 1905 and dur- 
ing the following year returned to the 
Philippine Is. where he commanded the 
1st Brig, of Marines for approximately 
two years. He reported for duty at 
HQMC in May 1908, and was soon as- 
signed command of an expeditionary 
brigade, organized in Philadelphia, for 
service in- Panama to reinforce the troops 
protecting the construction of the Pana- 
ma Canal, and for potential duty in Nica- 
ragua. Biddle returned to HQ in Apr. 
1910, where he continued to serve the 
remainder of his active duty. During the 
closing months of Gen. Elliott's term as 
Commandant, Gen. Biddle acted as 



Commandant of the Marine Corps most 
of the time. He was chosen as Comman- 
dant of the Corps on Feb. 3, 1911. His 
tour of duty as the llth Commandant 
was a comparatively short, quiet, and un- 
eventful one. He concerned himself pri- 
marily with the routine affairs of the 
Marine Corps. Under his tenure, several 
minor expeditions took place, including 
the first intervention in Nicaragua. Fol- 
lowing approximately three years in office, 
Gen. Bicldle applied for retirement on 
the ground of having completed more 
than thirty years" service, and he was re- 
tired on Feb. 24, 1914. He was recalled 
to active duty during WWI and served 
primarily on court-martial duty in San 
Diego, Calif. 

BINDER, Richard. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. in Germany, July 26, 1839. Sgt. 
Binder won the Medal of Honor while 
aboard the USS Ticonderoga, as captain 
of a gun during the assault on Fort 
Fisher. He was cited for performing his 
duties with skill and courage during the 
first two days of battle, and on Jan. 13, 
1865, "he remained steadfast as the 
Ticonderoga maintained a well-placed 
fire upon the batteries on shore, and 
thereafter, as she materially lessened the 
power on the mound which had been 
turned upon our assaulting columns. . . ." 

BINNEY, Arthur Fremont. Major Gen- 
eral: b. Big Rapids, Mich., Nov. 25, 1905. 
After completing high school, Arthur 
Binney entered the U.S. Naval Academy 
at Annapolis. On June 7, 1928, he gradu- 
ated and was commissioned a Marine 
second lieutenant. He remained at the 
Academy until Aug. 1928, then completed 
Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard in June 1929. After preliminary 
flight training at the Naval Air Station, 
Hampton Roads, Va,, and at Quantico, 



18 



B I IN N I Y 



B I N N E Y 



Va., he began his final training at Pen- 
sacola, Fla,, in Nov. 1929. He was desig- 
nated a Naval Aviator July 1, 1930, and 
the following month was assigned avia- 
tion duty at Quantico. In May 1931, Lt. 
Binney sailed for Nicaragua where he 
served as Communications Officer, Air- 
craft Squadrons, 2nd Mar. Brig. Subse- 
quently, in Aug. 1932, he was awarded 
the Nicaraguan Cross of Valor for fre- 
quent flights over dangerous terrain to 
rescue a detachment of Marines lost in 
the jungle. Returning to the States in Jan. 
1933, he was reassigned aviation duty at 
Quantico. In June 1933, he began a year's 
study in the communications section of 
the Postgraduate School at the Naval 
Academy. While there he was promoted 
to first lieutenant in Nov. 1934. In Aug. 
1935, following temporary duty under in- 
struction at the Submarine Base, New 
London, Conn., Lt. Binney was assigned 
another year of postgraduate communica- 
tions training at Harvard. The following 
July, he was ordered to San Diego, Calif., 
where he served for three years in air- 
craft communications. He was promoted 
to captain in Oct. 1936. He returned to 
Quantico in Aug. 1939, and was stationed 
there when WWII broke out. During his 
three years there, he served as Radio 
Officer of the 1st MAG; Communications 
Officer of Base Air Detachment 1; and 
CO of the Base Air Detachment's Head- 
quarters Squadron. He also completed 
the Senior Course while at Quantico, and 
was promoted to major in Jan. 1942, then 
to lieutenant colonel in Aug. 1942. He 
served briefly at Cherry Point, N.G., and 
San Diego, Calif... then departed in Mar. 
1943, from Marine Fleet Air, West Coast, 
for the Pacific area. Overseas he served 
as Communications Officer of the 4th 
Marine Aircraft Base Defense Wing; Ex- 
ecutive Officer of MAG 13, Ellice and 
Marshall Islands; and Commander, Force 



Aircraft, Forward Area, Samoan Group. 
He was promoted to colonel in Dec. 

1943, and remained overseas until July 

1944. Assigned to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C., Col. Binney served as Head, Per- 
sonnel Section, Division of Aviation, 
until Oct. 1945, when he was appointed 
Naval Attache and Naval Attache for Air 
for the U.S. Embassies in Guatemala, El 
Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and 
Costa Rica. In June 1948, he returned to 
Washington and was assigned to the Bu- 
reau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, 
serving as Deputy Director of the Elec- 
tronics Div. until Mar. 1949, and as 
Director until June 1950. He then com- 
pleted the course at the Naval War Col- 
lege, Newport, R.I., in June 1951. The 
following month, Col, Binney departed 
for Korea where he served as Chief of 
Staff, 1st MAW until May 1952. Early in 
1952, he was released from his Chief of 
Staff duties for three months to command 
MAG 33 in Korea. On his return to the 
States, he was assigned to Quantico and 
began a two-year assignment as CO of 
the Marine Corps Air Station there. In 
Sept. 1954, he was promoted to brigadier 
general and assumed duties as Assistant 
Commanding General of the 3rd MAW 
at Miami, Fla. In June 1955, Gen. Binney 
became Commander of Marine Air Re- 
serve Training at the Naval Air Station, 
Glenview, 111., serving there until Nov. 
1956, Ordered to Japan, he assumed du- 
ties in Jan. 1957, as CG, 1st MAW, Air- 
craft, FMF, Pacific. While serving in this 
post, he was promoted to his present rank 
of major general in Apr. 1957. In Jan. 1958, 
he was named CG of the 2nd MAW at 
Cherry Point, He held this command un- 
til Dec. 1959, when he was assigned to 
HQMC as Director of Aviation. Follow- 
ing this assignment he assumed his cur- 
rent duties at Norfolk in Sept. 1961, as 
Deputy Commander, FMF, Atlantic. 



BONNYMAN 



iOROELON 



BONNYMAN, Alexander, Jr. "Sandy." 
First Lieutenant. Medal of Honor: b. 
Atlanta, Ga, May 2, 1910; d. KIA, Betio 
Is., Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Is., Nov. 22, 
1943. After attending Princeton Univer- 
sity, class of 1932, where he was a first 
stringer on the football team, "Sandy" 
Bonnyman left school to join the Army 
Air Corps where he became a Flying 
Cadet. He was honorably discharged on 
Sept. 19, 1932, and went to work with 
his father's huge coal mining company. 
In 1938, Bonnyman acquired his own cop- 
per mine in the mountains near Santa Fe, 
N. Mex. With the advent of WWII, he 
enlisted as a private in the Marine Corps 
at Phoenix, Ariz., and took his recruit 
training at San Diego. In Oct. 1942, he 
sailed for the South Pacific aboard the 
USS Matsonia with the 6th Marines, 2nd 
Mar. Div. Combat in the final stages of 
the Guadalcanal campaign followed and 
in Feb. 1943, Bonnyman, now a corporal, 
received a field promotion to the rank of 
second lieutenant. The next stop was Ta- 
rawa, Landing on D-Day, Nov. 20, 1st 
Lt. Bonnyman having been promoted 
on Sept. 1, 1943 was Executive Officer 
of the 2nd Bn., 8th Marines' Shore Party. 
When the assault troops were pinned 
down by heavy enemy artillery fire at the 
seaward end of the long Betio Pier, Lt. 
Bonnyman, on his own initiative, organ- 
ized and led the men over the open pier 
to the beach. There he voluntarily ob- 
tained flame throwers and demolitions, 
organized his pioneer shore party into 
assault demolitionists, and directed the 
blowing up of several hostile installations 
before the close of D-Day. On the second 
day of the epic struggle for that strate- 
gically important piece of coral, Bonny- 
man, determined to effect an opening in 
the enemy's strongly defended defense 
line, led his demolition team in an assault 
on the entrance to a huge bombproof 



shelter which contained approximately 
150 Japanese soldiers. This strong point 
was inflicting heavy casualties upon the 
Marines and was holding up their ad- 
vance. The enemy position was about 40 
yards forward of the Marine lines. The 
lieutenant advanced his team to the 
mouth of the position, killing many of 
the defenders before they were forced to 
withdraw to replenish their supply of 
ammunition and grenades. On the third 
and final day, Bonnyman renewed his at- 
tack upon the enemy position, leading 
his men in the placing of flame throwers 
and demolitions in both mouths of the 
cave. He pressed his attack and gained 
the top of the structure flushing more 
than 100 of its occupants into the open 
where they were shot down. Assailed by 
additional Japanese, the lieutenant stood 
at the forward edge of the position and 
killed three of the attackers before he 
himself fell mortally wounded. His men 
beat off the counterattack and broke the 
back of the resistance. The island was 
declared secured on the day of Lt. Bon- 
nyman's death. 

BORDELON, William James. Staff Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. San Antonio, 
Tex., Dec. 25, 1920; d. KIA, Tarawa 
Atoll, Gilbert Is., Nov. 20, 1943, After 
attending local schools in his hometown 
and graduating from Central Catholic 
High School, where he had become a 
cadet officer in the ROTC, Bordelon en- 
tered the Marine Corps on Dec. 10, 1941, 
and received his recruit training at San 
Diego, Calif, On graduation from boot 
camp, he was assigned to Company D, 
2nd Engr. Bn., 2nd Mar, Div,, where his 
promotions came rapidly. By July 10, 
1942, he had reached the rank of sergeant 
and was transferred to Co, C, 18th Ma- 
rines. On Oct. 20, 1942, his outfit em- 
barked for Wellington, New Zealand, 



BORDELON 



BO U K E R 



where they remained for six weeks be- 
fore leaving for Guadalcanal aboard the 
USS President Hayes. Bordelon's organ- 
ization remained on the Japanese-infested 
island from Jan. 4, 1943, until Feb. 19, 
1943, and then returned to New Zealand, 
this time aboard the USS President 
Adams. The next few months were spent 
in preparation for the next campaign. 
Bordelon was promoted to staff sergeant 
on May 13, 1943, and transferred to Com- 
pany A, 1st Bn., 18th Marines, on Oct. 
10. One week later he boarded the USS 
Zeilin, but the vessel did not leave Well- 
ington until Nov. 1. Making one stop at 
Efate, New Hebrides, on the 7th and 
sailing again on the 18th, the Zeilin ar- 
rived off grim, enemy-held Tarawa on 
D-Day, Nov. 20, 1943. During the subse- 
quent landing, Sgt Bordelon was one of 
four men from his tractor to reach the 
beach alive. The sergeant and a buddy, 
Sgt, Elden Beers, went over the tractor's 
side together and were immediately 
caught in the barbed wire entanglement. 
Extricating themselves under heavy fire, 
the two Marines and two others from 
their craft managed to hit the beach and 
secure a little protection behind a four- 
foot-high seawall. In their struggle to 
reach the beach, the Marines lost all their 
equipment except a few small arms and 
two packages of dynamite, Quickly form- 
ing the dynamite into demolition charges, 
Sgt, Bordelon personally put two pill- 
boxes out of action, Assaulting a third 
enemy position, the sergeant was hit by 
enemy machine gun fire just as one of his 
charges left his hand. The backlash from 
the charge also wounded Bordelon and 
he had to be bandaged by two of his 
companions. The small band behind the 
seawall was still pinned to the sand by 
fire which was coining from a machine 
gun nest 200 yards up the beach. Gather- 
ing up the last two demolition charges, 



Bordelon started to crawl toward the 
enemy gunpit. He succeeded in destroy- 
ing the position but, in doing so, was 
again hit through the left arm. He re- 
turned and asked his men to apply a 
tourniquet. Taking a rifle, Sgt. Bordelon 
provided fire coverage for a group at- 
tempting to scale the wall, In the mean- 
time, his companions had decided to try 
to rescue a group of wounded Marines 
who were floundering around in the wa- 
ter offshore. On their first move another 
enemy machine gun pinned them down. 
The sergeant, seeing his companion 
wounded, started off in search of a corps- 
man, but was unable to locate one. In- 
stead he stumbled on a rifle grenade and 
immediately returned to take action 
against enemy machine gunners who 
were holding up the rescue of the 
wounded. As he started his next single- 
handed attack, his attention was caught 
by a badly wounded Marine whom the 
surf had thrown upon the beach. Imme- 
diately going to the aid of the Marine, 
he was caught in the shoulder by a burst 
of enemy fire. Although he was suffering 
from multiple wounds, he lunged toward 
the enemy gun and employing the rifle 
grenade, destroyed the nest before he 
fell dead from a final burst of enemy 
fire. This Marine hero was originally 
buried in Lone Palm Cemetery on Betio 
Is., Tarawa Atoll. He later was moved to 
the U,S. Army Mausoleum at Schofield 
Barracks, Hawaii. The Medal of Honor 
was posthumously awarded to him by 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

BOUKER, John Griswold. Brigadier Gen- 
eral; b, Greenfield, Mass., July 27, 1914. 
John Bouker graduated from Greenfield 
High School in 1931 and Deerfield Acad- 
emy in Deerfield, Mass., in 1932. He then 
entered Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N.H. While still in college, he enlisted 



BOU KER 



E O U 1C I R 



in the Marine Corps Reserve in June 
1935, and completed Marine Platoon 
Leaders' Class at Quantico, Va. that 
August. Upon graduation from Dart- 
mouth in 1936, he was awarded a Bache- 
lor of Arts degree, and was commissioned 
a Marine Reserve second lieutenant on 
Aug. 6, 1936, to rank from July 1, 1936. 
During the next three years he was em- 
ployed by the Liberty Mutual Insurance 
Company of Boston, Mass. In April 1937, 
he joined the 2nd Inf. Bn., Organized 
Marine Corps Reserve, in Boston. On 
Sept. 30, 1939, he was ordered to active 
duty as a first lieutenant, and completed 
the First Reserve Officers' Class at Marine 
Corps Schools, Quantico, that Nov. As- 
signed next to the Marine Barracks, 
Parris Is., S.C., Lt. Bouker served as a 
battery officer with the 4th Defense Bn. 5 
FMF, until Feb. 1941, when he em- 
barked with his battery for Guantanamo 
Bay, Cuba. In Oct. 1941, he returned to 
the States, serving in the Artillery Section 
(later the Gunnery Section) of the Divi- 
sion of Plans and Policies at HQMC for 
18 months. He was promoted to captain 
in Feb. 1942, and to major in Aug. 1942. 
In June 1943, after instruction in the 
Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, 
Va., Maj. Bouker embarked for the 
Pacific area. He took part in three 
WWII campaigns, including the occu- 
pation and defense of Cape Torokina 
during the Treasury-Bougainville opera- 
tion, the consolidation of the northern 
Solomons, and the assault and occu- 
pation of Okinawa. He was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel in Apr. 1944, while 
serving with the 3rd Defense Bn. on 
Bougainville. In April 1945, Bouker ar- 
rived at Okinawa Shima, and participated 
in combat against the enemy as 3rd Am- 
phibious Corps Artillery Target Informa- 
tion Center Officer. He returned to the 
States in Aug. 1945, and was integrated 



into the regular Marine Corps while sta- 
tioned at the Recruit Depot, Parris Is. In 
Oct. 1946, after completing the Advanced 
Naval Gunfire Course at Marine Corps 
Schools, Quantico, Va., he was assigned 
to Pearl Harbor as Naval Gunfire Offi- 
cer, HQ, FMF, Pacific, until May 1948. 
For the next three years he was stationed 
at Marine Corps Schools, Quantico. Dur- 
ing this time, he was 2nd Bn. Executive 
Officer of the PLC Training Regiment; 
an instructor in the Basic School; com- 
pleted the Senior Course; and served as 
Director of the Officer Candidate Screen- 
ing Course. In Aug. 1951, he was named 
CO of the 2nd Bn., 3rd Marines, 3rd Mar. 
Brig, (later 3rd Mar. Div.), FMF. Short- 
ly after arriving at Camp Pcnclleton for 
this assignment, he was promoted to 
colonel, in Dee. 1951. Remaining with 
the 3rd Mar. Div,, Col. Bouker served 
as Regimental Commander, 3rd Marines, 
and Assistant Division G-3 (Liaison), 
respectively, until June 1953. That same 
month lie began a three-year tour of duty 
as Professor of Naval Science and CO of 
the NROTC unit at Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N.Y. In July 1956, he again em- 
barked for the Far East where he joined 
the 3rd Mar. Div., and served as .Regi- 
mental Commander of the 3rd Marines 
in Japan and on Okinawa. In Sept. 1957, 
Col Bouker returned to the States and 
served a year as IIQ Bn. Commander, 
MCB, Camp Lejeune, N.C., before enter- 
ing the National War College, Washing- 
ton, D.C., as a student Upon graduation 
in June 1959, he was assigned to the Joint 
Staff, Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
serving there until Oct. 1961, Ordered to 
HQMC, Gen, Bouker was promoted to 
his present rank of brigadier general on 
Nov. 1, 1961, and that samo month be- 
came Deputy Director of the Marine 
Corps Reserve, In Feb. 1962, ho left 
HQMC to serve as CO, Landing Force 



22 



BOWMAN 



BOWMAN 



Training Unit, Pacific Fleet, Coronado, 
Calif. 

BOWMAN, George Shepard. Brigadier 
General. CG, 1st MAW, Iwakuni, Japan 
(1963) : b. Hammond, La., Dec. 24, 1911. 
George Bowman entered Louisiana State 
University, at Baton Rouge, and received 
a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical 
Engineering upon graduation in 1936. 
Active in sports during his school years, 
he was a five-letter man at the university, 
participating in football and track. He 
was also a member of the ROTC unit at 
the university, and resigned his Army 
Reserve commission to accept appoint- 
ment as a Marine second lieutenant, July 
10, 1936. After completing Basic School 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, he was 
stationed at the Navy Yard, Pearl Har- 
bor, Hawaii, from May 1937, to July 

1938, then served with the 6th Marines 
in San Diego. In Feb. 1939, he was as- 
signed as a student Naval aviator at the 
Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in July 

1939. Lt. Bowman was designated a Na- 
val Aviator in Dec. 1939. He reported to 
Quantico, Va., in Feb. 1940, and was later 
assigned to Marine Fighter Squadron 
111, MAG 11. He was promoted to cap- 
tain in Oct. 1941. When the United States 
entered WWII, Gapt. Bowman was 
ordered with the squadron to San Diego. 
In Mar. 1942, he was named commander 
of Seiviee Squadron 13, MAG 13, and 
embarked with the group for American 
Samoa. lie was promoted to major in 
Aug. 1942. While stationed on Samoa, he 
served as Operations Officer of MAG 13 
from Jan. 1943, to Sept. 1943, when he 
returned to the States. He* was assigned 
to MCAS, Santa Barbara, Calif., in Nov. 
1943, and was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel the following month. In Dec. 
1943, he became Operations Officer, G-3, 



MAG 42, Marine Fleet Air, West Coast, 
serving in this capacity until Sept. 1944, 
and as Group Executive Officer until 
Dec. In Jan. 1945, he arrived at Ewa, 
Oahu, Hawaii, as Assistant G-3, Aircraft, 
FMF, Pacific. That June he was assigned 
as Operations Officer on the Staff of 
Commander Naval Air Base, Okinawa, 
administering shore controlled air-sea 
rescue facilities. Following this assign- 
ment, he rejoined Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, 
in Nov. 1945, serving as a squadron com- 
mander with MAG 15 until Feb. 1946. 
In Mar. 1946, he reported to Marine 
Corps Schools, Quantico, where he com- 
pleted the Command and Staff Course in 
Aug. 1946, then served as an instructor 
in the Aviation Section through May 
1949. Upon leaving Quantico, he began 
a three-year tour of duty at HQMC in 
June 1949, serving as Assistant Head and, 
later, Head, Personnel Branch, Division 
of Aviation. While serving in the latter 
capacity, he was promoted to colonel in 
Feb. 1951. Col. Bowman was detached 
from HQMC in July 1952, and ordered 
to Korea. On his arrival in Korea he 
served briefly as CO of MAG 12, 1st 
MAW, prior to assuming his regular du- 
ties as Group Executive Officer. From 
Jan. to April 1953, he again served as the 
group's commander. For exceptionally 
meritorious conduct from Aug. 1952, to 
Apr. 1953, he was awarded the Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V." The Distin- 
guished Flying Cross was awarded him 
for heroism while flying an attack bomb- 
er in a massed aerial assault on enemy 
supply installations in the vicinity of 
Chinnampo, Mar. 26, 1953. On his re- 
turn to Washington, D.C., in May 1953, 
he was a member of a board studying the 
Marine Aviation-Ground Officer Program 
arid, in Aug. 1953, entered the National 
War College as a student. He completed 
the course the following summer, and 



23 



BOWSER 



BOWSER 



was transferred to Cherry Point, N.C,, 
in July 1954. He served there as Chief 
of Staff, 2nd MAW, Aircraft, FMF, At- 
lantic, until Jan, 1956. Col. Bowman was 
assigned to Marine Corps Schools, Quan- 
tico, in Feh. 1956, and served as Director 
of the Junior School through June 1958. 
The following month he returned to 
HQMC where he served as Deputy As- 
sistant Director of the Division of Avia- 
tion until Mar. 1960. In Apr. 1960, he 
was assigned to the Staff of the Com- 
mander in Chief, Pacific, in Hawaii. He 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
July 1960. On Feb. 1, 1963, he became 
CG of the 1st MAW in Iwakuni, Japan. 

BOWSER, Alpha Lyons. Major General, 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, HQMC, 
Washington, D.C.: b. Crofton, Pa., Aug. 
21, 1910. After graduation from high 
school at Crafton, Alpha Bowser entered 
the U, S. Naval Academy and was com- 
missioned a Marine second lieutenant up- 
on graduation, June 2, 1932. He com- 
pleted basic school at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard in June 1933, and later saw 
duty aboard the USS Texas. In July 1934, 
he was assigned to the 1st Mar. Brig,, 
Quantico, Va. He served there until July 

1935, when he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant. Bowser then entered the Army 
Field Artillery School, Fort Sill, Okla., 
and upon completing the course in June 

1936, returned to Quantico. In June 1937, 
he joined the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Nevada, He was promoted to 
captain in Oct. 1938. Detached from the 
Nevada in Jan. 1939, he was transferred 
to San Diego, Calif. He commanded artil- 
lery batteries there until June 1940, when 
he returned to Quantico to serve as an 
artillery instructor for two years. He was 
promoted to major in May 1942. In July 
1942, he joined the 3rd Mar. Div. at Camp 
Lejeune, N.C., moved with it to San Diego 



that Oct., and sailed for the Pacific area 
in Jan. 1943. He was promoted to lieuten- 
ant colonel in Mar. 1943. Lt. Col Bowser 
served as an observer during the New 
Georgia operation in Aug. 1943, and as 
Assistant Operations Officer of the 3rd 
Mar. Div. during the Bougainville opera- 
tion in Nov. and Dec. 1943. For heroic 
achievement in the latter assignment, he 
was awarded his first Bronze Star Medal. 
In Feb. 1944, he was given command of 
the 3rd 105mrn Howitzer Bn., 12th Ma- 
rines, 3rd Mar, Div. He was awarded a 
second Bronze Star Medal for outstand- 
ing service in this capacity during the 
recapture of Guam, and his first Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V" during the 
Iwo Jima campaign. Following his return 
to the States in Apr. 1945, he was sta- 
tioned at HQMC as Chief, Records 
Branch, Personnel Department, until May 
1946. Following this, he served for three 
years on the Staff of the MCS at Quan- 
tico. He was promoted to colonel in Aug. 
1949. That Sept. he joined the Staff of 
FMF, Pacific, in Honolulu, Hawaii, as 
Naval Gunfire Officer. He served in this 
capacity until July 1950 when he was 
ordered to Korea. There he served as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 1st Mar. 
Div. For outstanding service during the 
Inchon-Seoul and Chosin Reservoir ac- 
tions, respectively, he was awarded a 
second and third Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V." After his return from Korea 
in May 1951, Col Bowser served at 
Camp Pendleton, Calif., as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3, of the MCB, until 
Feb. 1952, when he became Chief of 
Staff of the 3rd Mar, Div. In July 1952, 
he was ordered to Paris, France, where 
he served until July 1954 as Staff Officer, 
Plans Branch, and Senior Marine Officer, 
Supreme HQ, Allied Powers, Europe 
(SHAPE). On his return to Washington, 
he entered the National War College in 



24 



BOYHSTQN 

Aug. 1954, completing the course in June 
1955. Transferred to San Diego that July, 
Col. Bowser began a year's duty on the 
Staff of Commander, Amphibious Force, 
U.S. Pacific Fleet, as Assistant Chief of 
Staff for Troop Operations and Training, 
and Force Marine Officer. In Aug. 1956, 
he assumed command of the Recruit 
Training Command, Marine Corps Re- 
cruit Depot, San Diego. He was pro- 
moted to brigadier general in Sept. 1956. 
Gen. Bowser served in San Diego until 
June 1958, when he became Assistant 
Division Commander, 1st Mar. Div., 
Camp Pendleton. Subsequently, in Jan. 
1959, he was assigned as Commanding 
General, Force Troops, FMF, Pacific, and 
CG, MCB, Twentynine Palms, Calif. 
While serving in this capacity, he was 
promoted to major general in July 1960. 
Gen, Bowser departed Twentynine Palms 
for Washington in Oct. 1960, and that 
same month assumed his current assign- 
ment as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, 
HQMC. 

BOYDSTON, Erwin Jay. Private. Medal 
of Honor: b. Deer Creek, Col, Apr, 22, 
1875. Pvt. Boydston's citation reads, in 
part; "... in the presence of the enemy 
at Peking, China, July 21 to Aug. 17, 
1900. Under heavy fire from the enemy 
during this period, Pvt, Boydston assisted 
in the erection of barricades " 

BOYINGTQN, Gregory. "Pappy," Col- 
onel, Marine Corps ace, credited with 
the destruction of 28 Japanese aircraft. 
Medal of Honor; b. Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, 
Dec, 4, 1912. After graduation from Lin- 
coln High School in Tacoma, Wash., 
Gregory Boyington majored in aeronau- 
tical engineering at the University of 
Washington, graduating in 1934 with a 
Bachelor of Science degree. Always an 
athlete, he was a member of the college 



BOYINGTON 




Boyington 

wrestling and swimming teams, and is a 
one-time holder of the Pacific Northwest 
Intercollegiate middleweight wrestling 
title. Boyington started his military ca- 
reer while still attending college. As a 
member of the ROTC for four years, he 
became a cadet captain. He was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the Coast 
Artillery Reserve in June 1934, and served 
two months of active duty with the 630th 
Coast Artillery at Fort Worden, Wash. 
On June 13, 1936, he enlisted in the Vol- 
unteer Marine Corps Reserve. On that 
date, he went on active duty and returned 
to inactive duty on July 16. In the mean- 
time, he had become a draftsman and 
engineer for the Boeing Aircraft Co, of 
Seattle, On Feb, 18, 1937, Boyington ac- 
cepted an appointment as an aviation 
cadet in the Marine Corps Reserve. He 



BOYINGTO N 

was assigned to the NAS, Pensacola, Fla. 
for flight training. He was designated a 
Naval Aviator on Mar. 11, 1937, and was 
transferred to Quantico, Va. for duty 
with Aircraft One, FMF. He was dis- 
charged from the Marine Corps Reserve 
on July 1, 1937, in order to accept a 
commission as second lieutenant in the 
regular Marine Corps. Detached to the 
Basic School, Philadelphia, in July, 1938, 
Lt. Boyington was transferred to the 2nd 
MAG at the San Diego NAS upon com- 
pletion of his studies. With that unit he 
took part in fleet problems aboard the 
aircraft carriers USS Lexington and USS 
Yorktown. Promoted to first lieutenant 
on Nov. 4, 1940, he went back to Pensa- 
sola as an instructor. Boyington resigned 
his commission in the Marine Corps on 
Aug. 26, 1941, to accept a position with 
the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Co. 
(CAMCO). CAMCO was a civilian or- 
ganization formed for the protection of 
the Burma Road. The unit later became 
known as the American Volunter Group 
(AVG), the famed "Flying Tigers" of 
China. During his months with the "Ti- 
gers" Boyington became a squadron com- 
mander and shot down six Japanese 
planes to secure an appreciable lead over 
other American aces who didn't get into 
the fight until after Dec. 7, 1941. He flew 
300 combat hours before the AVG was 
disbanded. Boyington returned to the 
States in July 1942, and accepted a com- 
mission as a first lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps Reserve on Sept. 29 of that year. 
He reported for active duty at the NAS, 
San Diegb, on Nov. 23, 1942, and was 
assigned to MAW, Pacific. The following 
day he was temporarily promoted to ma- 
jor in the Reserve. Within two months, 
he was on his way overseas again, Maj. 
Boyington joined MAG 11 of the 1st 
MAW and became CO of Marine Fight- 
ing Squadron 214 after a short tour in 



BOYINGTON 

the Solomon Is. with another squadron. 
The new squadron was made up of a 
group of casuals, replacements, and green 
pilots and was dubbed the "Black Sheep" 
Squadron. Before organizing the "Black 
Sheep," Boyington had done some com- 
bat flying at Guadalcanal in Apr. 1943, 
as Executive Officer of Marine Fighting 
Squadron 122, but he had added no ene- 
my planes to his score there. However, 
during those two periods of intense ac- 
tivity in the Russell Is. -New Georgia and 
Bougainville-New Britain-New Ireland 
areas, "Pappy," so named because of his 
age (31) as compared to that of his men, 
added to his total almost daily. During 
his squadron's first tour of combat duty, 
Boyington personally shot down 14 
enemy planes in 32 days. On Dec. 17, 
1943, he headed the first Allied fighter 
sweep over impregnable Rabaul. By Dec. 
27, his record had climbed to 25. He 
tied the then-existing American record 
of 26 planes on Jan. 3 when he shot 
down another fighter over Rabaul. Typi- 
cal of Maj. Boyington's daring feats was 
his attack on Kahili airdrome at the 
southern tip of Bougainville on Oct. 17, 
1943. He and 24 other fighter pilots cir- 
cled the field persistently where 60 hostile 
aircraft were grounded, goading the Jap- 
anese into sending up a large numerically 
superior force, In the fierce battle that 
followed, 20 of the enemy planes were 
shot out of the skies. The Black Sheep 
roared back to their base without the loss 
of a single ship, On Jan, 3, 1944, 48 
American planes including one division 
(4 planes) from the Black Sheep Squad- 
ron took off from Bougainville for a 
fighter sweep over Rabaul, Pappy was 
the tactical commander of the flight and 
arrived over Rabaul at 8 o'clock in the 
morning, In the ensuing action the major 
was seen to shoot down his 26th plane. 
He then became embroiled in the general 



26 



BROWN 



BURROWS 



melee of diving, swooping planes and 
was not seen or heard from again. Fol- 
lowing a determined search which proved 
futile, the major was declared missing in 
action. Actually he had been picked up 
by the Japanese. While a prisoner of the 
enemy he was selected for temporary 
promotion to the rank of lieutenant col- 
onel. Then came mid-Aug. 1945, the 
atom bombs, and the Japanese capitula- 
tion. Maj. Boyington was liberated from 
Japanese custody at Omori Prison Camp 
in the Tokyo area on Aug. 29 and arrived 
in the States shortly afterward. On Sept. 
6, the top ace who had been a prisoner 
of the Japanese for 20 months accepted 
his temporary commission as a lieutenant 
colonel in the Marine Corps. At the time 
of his release it was confirmed that Col. 
Boyington had actually accounted for 
three Japanese planes on Jan. 3, the day 
he himself was shot down. That set his 
total at 28 planes. Shortly after his return 
home, Col. Boyington was ordered to 
Washington to receive the nation's high- 
est award, the Medal of Honor. Col. Boy- 
ington was retired from the Marine Corps 
on Aug. 1, 1947, and, for his performance 
of duty in actual combat, he was ad- 
vanced to his present rank. 

BROWN, Charles. Corporal Medal of 
Honor: b. New York, N.Y. Charles Brown 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at Hong 
Kong, China. He was awarded the Na- 
tion's highest military honor for bravery 
while serving aboard the USS Colorado 
in action against a Korean fort, June 11, 
1871, Cpl. Brown assisted in capturing 
the Korean standard in the center of the 
citadel of the fort. 

BUCKLEY, Howard Major. Private. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Croton Falls, N.Y., Jan. 
23, 1868. Pvt. Buckley was awarded the 
nation's highest military honor for dis- 



tinguished conduct during the Philippine 
Insurrection (1899-1906). He was cited 
for courageous action in the presence of 
the enemy in battle while with the 8th 
Army Corps on Mar. 25, 26, 27 and Apr. 
4, 1899. 

BURNES James. Private. Medal of Honor: 
b. Worcester, Mass., Jan. 14, 1870. James 
Burnes enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Mare Island, Calif., on June 9, 1898. He 
received the Medal of Honor on Apr. 
21, 1902. His citation reads, in part: 
"... for bravery in crossing the river at 
Tientsin, China, June 20, 1900, in a small 
boat with three other men under heavy 
fire. He assisted in destroying buildings 

occupied by the enemy " Pvt. Burnes 

was discharged from the Corps at Brem- 
erton, Wash., on June 8, 1903. 

BURROWS, William Ward. Lieutenant 
Colonel. 2nd Commandant of the Marine 
Corps: b. Charleston, S.C., Jan. 16, 1758; 
d. Washington, D.C., 1805. William Bur- 
rows studied law first in Charleston, S.C., 
then in London, England. He returned to 
the States in 1775 in time to fight in the 
Revolution as a militiaman. After the war 
he moved to Philadelphia where he again 
practiced law until July 12, 1798, when 
President John Adams commissioned him 
as Major Commandant of the newly es- 
tablished U.S. Marine Corps. Burrows 
realized immediately that the country 
was in desperate need of a force such as 
his Corps represented. With the prospect 
of war with France, the United States 
was hurriedly recreating its fleet. Bur- 
rows plunged into the task of recruiting 
and training the detachments for the 
ships. By early 1799, his 881-man Marine 
Corps was thinly spread over 25 ships 
and several shore stations. The quasi war 
with France continued until Sept. 1800, 
when the States finally settled their dif- 



8 U S E 



ferences with Napoleon. On the crest of 
the economy wave which followed, Con- 
gress sold many of the Navy's ships and 
drastically reduced the Marine Corps. 
This move proved unwise, for the war 
with the Barbary States followed and 
Burrows was again faced with the task 
of obtaining another 500 Marines to re- 
inforce the Mediterranean squadron. In 
1804, having nurtured the Corps through 
two wars, established headquarters at 
Eighth and Eye Streets in the nation's 
capital, and formed the Marine Band, he 
asked to be retired for reasons of health. 
He died one year later and now lies in 
Arlington National Cemetery. 




Buse 

BUSE, Henry William. Major General: 
b. Ridley Park, Pa., Apr. 10, 1912. After 
graduation from high school, Henry Buse 



BUSE 

attended the Severn Preparatory School, 
Md., for one year. He then entered the 
U.S. Naval Academy and was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant upon 
graduation on May 31, 1934. After com- 
pleting Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard in Apr. 1935, Lt. Buse went 
aboard the USS Oklahoma for a year's 
duty at sea. In June 1936, he was ordered 
to Quantico, Va., for duty with the 1st 
Mar. Brig., FMF. He was transferred in 
Mar. 1937, to the Marine Barracks at 
Pearl Harbor and, while there, was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in July 1937. In 
Sept. 1939, he entered the Army Infantry 
School at Fort Benning, Ga., completing 
the course the following Feb. He joined 
the 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Brig, at Quan- 
tico in March 1940, serving as a company 
officer and later company commander. 
He was promoted to captain in July 1940. 
That Sept, Capt. Buse embarked with 
the brigade for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 
With the redesignation of the brigade as 
the 1st Mar. Div. in March 1941, he was 
made commander of the division's 1st 
Scout Co., and continued to command 
the company at Quantico and New River 
(later Camp Lejeune), N.C. He was 
serving in this capacity when WWII 
broke out. In Apr. 1942, he was assigned 
to the 1st Tank Bn, 1st Mar. Div., as Bn 
Executive Officer. He was promoted to 
major in May 1942. In June 1942, he em- 
barked for the Pacific area. Arriving in 
Wellington, New Zealand, he was named 
Assistant Operations Officer of the 1st 
Mar. Div., and shortly thereafter took 
part in the Guadalcanal landing, and the 
capture and defense of Guadalcanal. He 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Apr. 1943. In Dec. 1943, while serving 
as Assistant Operations Officer of the 1st 
Div., Lt. Col, Buse landed on Cape 
Gloucester, and the following month, 
was assigned as CO, 3rd Bn., 7th Ma- 



D y $ E 



BUSH 



rines. He later joined the 5th Marines, 
serving successively as Regimental Execu- 
tive Officer and CO, during the Talasea 
(New Britain) operation. Returning to 
the States in July 1944, he was' assigned 
to HQMC where he served as Executive 
Officer, G-3 Section. In July 1946, he de- 
parted Washington for duty with Troop 
Training Unit, Amphibious Training 
Command, and served as Regimental 
Combat Team Instructor in Japan in con- 
nection with training 8th Army troops. 
Lt. Col. Buse returned to Pearl Harbor 
in Feb. 1947, to serve as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-4 (Supply), FMF, Pacific un- 
til Feb. 1949. After his return to the con- 
tinental United States, he completed the 
Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, 
Va. } in June 1949 and, the following 
month, was ordered to Marine Corps 
Schools, Quantico. There he commanded 
the 22nd Marines (reinforced), FMF, 
until Sept. 1949, then became CO of the 
Schools troops. He was promoted to col- 
onel in Oct. 1949. In May 1950, he be- 
came CO of the Special Training Regi- 
ment, Marine Corps Schools, Quantico. 
In Sept. he was transferred to Camp Le- 
jeune, where he commanded the 6th 
Marines, 2nd Mar. Div, until Dec, 1951, 
then served as the division's Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations and 
Training). Ordered to Korea in Sept. 
1952, he saw combat as Chief of Staff of 
the 1st Mar. Div. Returning from Korea 
in July 1953, Col. Buse became Assistant 
G-3 at HQMC. In July 1954, he began a 
two-year assignment as Chief of Staff of 
the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris 
Is., S.C. He embarked again for Pearl 
Harbor in July 1956, and served there for 
a year and a half as Chief of Staff, FMF ? 
Pacific. In Dec. 1957, he reported to Nor- 
folk, Va,, as Chief of Staff, FMF, Atlantic, 
While serving in this capacity, he was 
promoted to brigadier general in Aug. 



1958. The following month, Gen. Buse 
began a three-year assignment as Marine 
Corps Liaison Officer to the Vice Chief 
of Naval Operations. Following this, he 
served as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
HQMC, from Sept. 1961, to May 1962. 
Ordered overseas, Gen. Buse assumed 
command of the 3rd Mar. Div. on Oki- 
nawa in June 1962. In addition, as the 
senior Marine commander in the western 
Pacific area, he was designated Com- 
mander of Task Force 79, the amphibious 
striking arm of the 7th Fleet. He was 
promoted to his present rank of major 
general July 1, 1962. 

BUSH, Richard Earl. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b, Glasgow, Ky., Dec. 23, 1924. 
Richard Bush enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Bowling Green, Ky., on Sept. 
22, 1942, and received his recruit train- 
ing at San Diego, Calif. He was later 
transferred to a replacement battalion at 
Camp Elliot, Calif, for further training 
as an armorer. He was awarded the Med- 
al of Honor for leading a squad in the 
final assault against Mt. Yaetake on Oki- 
nawa on Apr. 16, 1945. His citation reads, 
in part: "For rallying his men forward 
with indomitable determination, Cpl. 
Bush boldly defied the slashing fury of 
concentrated Japanese artillery fire pour- 
ing down from the gun-studded mountain 
fortress to lead his squad up the face of 
the rocky precipice, sweep over the ridge 
and drive the defending troops from their 
deeply entrenched position. He fought 
relentlessly until seriously wounded and 
evacuated with others under protecting 
rocks. Although prostrate under medical 
treatment when a Japanese hand grenade 
landed in the midst of the group, Cpl. 
Bush, alert and courageous in extremity 
as in battle, unhesitatingly pulled the 
deadly missile to himself and absorbed 
the shattering violence of the exploding 



BUTCHER 

charge in his own body, thereby saving 
his fellow Marines from severe injury or 
death despite the certain peril to his own 
life." 

BUTCHER, Joseph Orville. Brigadier 
General: b. Bloomington, Ind., Sept. 16, 
1912. Joseph Butcher attended Indiana 
University and, upon graduation in 1936, 
he received a Bachelor of Arts degree. 
While at the university, he completed 
advanced training with the Army ROTC 
unit, and was commissioned in the Army 
Infantry Reserve in June 1935. He re- 
signed his Army Reserve commission to 
accept appointment as a Marine second 
lieutenant July 7, 1936. Upon completing 
Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard in Apr. 1937, Lt. Butcher was trans- 
ferred to the USS Arkansas as a member 
of the Marine Detachment. He completed 
his tour of sea duty in Sept. 1938, and, 
the following month, was assigned to 
Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., 
where he was stationed for almost three 
years. He served there as Editor and 
Publisher of Leatherneck Magazine; CO 
of the Marine Corps Institute Detach- 
ment; Post Exchange Officer; and saw 
temporary duty as a member of the Ma- 
rine guard detachment at the "Little 
White House" at Warm Spring, Ga. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in July 
1939. In June 1941, he was ordered to 
the Marine Corps Air Station, Quantico, 
Va., where he served as Station Quarter- 
master. While at Quantico he was pro- 
moted- to captain in June 1942, and to 
major in August 1942. In Oct. 1942, Maj. 
Butcher was assigned to New River 
(later Camp Lejeune), N.C., and served 
as First School Adjutant and Executive 
Officer, Quartermaster School, School Bn., 
FMF Training Center. He also served for 
an interim period from Jan. to Sept. 1943, 
as Bn, Commander and, subsequently, as 



BUTCHER 

Bn. Executive Officer. He was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel in Mar. 1944. He 
was ordered overseas in Oct. 1944, for 
duty with Service Command., FMF, Pearl 
Harbor, Hawaii, as Assistant Officer in 
Charge, and subsequently Officer in 
Charge, General Supply Section, Supply 
Div. A Letter of Commendation with 
Commendation Ribbon was awarded him 
for meritorious performance while on the 
Staff of the CG 5 Supply Service, from 
Oct. 9, 1944, to May 31, 1945, in the 
Iwo Jima and Okinawa operations. In 
June 1945, Lt. Col. Butcher was trans- 
ferred to the U.S. Army Forces, western 
Pacific, Manila, Philippines, for duty as 
Marine Logistics Officer with the Marine 
Detachment (Provisional), at Gen. Doug- 
las MacArthur's headquarters, in prepa- 
ration for the invasion of Japan, In Oct. 
1945, he returned to Service Command, 
FMF, Pearl Harbor, and served as Assist- 
ant G-3 until his return to the States in 
Feb. 1946, Arriving in Washington, D.C., 
Lt. Col. Butcher was assigned as Editor- 
in-Chief of Leatherneck Magazine from 
Mar. through July 1946; as Executive 
Officer, Division of Public Information, 
HQMC, Aug. 1946, through Aug. 1947; 
and as a student in the Industrial College 
of the Armed Forces, from Sept. 1947, 
through June 1948. He returned to 
HQMC to serve as Supply Officer and 
Assistant Head, Materiel Section, Div. of 
Aviation from July 1948, through June 
1951. In July 1951, he was transferred to 
the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San 
Diego, Calif., as Depot G-4/Supply Offi- 
cer. He was promoted to colonel in Nov. 
1951, and remained in San Diego until 
May 1954, when he was assigned over- 
seas duty. That month he joined the 1st 
MAW in Korea, and served as Wing Sup- 
ply Officer through May 1955, In July 
1955, he assumed duty at the Marine 
Corps Supply Center, Barstow, Calif,, 



30 



BUTLER 



BUTLER 



serving concurrently as Director, Mate- 
riel Div. and CO, 3rd Bn., until Aug. 
1957, when he became Chief of Staff of 
the Supply Center. In Sept. 1958, he was 
transferred from Barstow to become CO, 
Marine Corps Supply Schools, Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C. He served there for 18 
months. In Mar. I960, Col. Butcher was 
assigned to the Pentagon and completed 
a tour of duty in the Office of Supply 
Management Policy, Office of the Assist- 
ant Secretary of Defense (Supply and 
Logistics ) . In July 1961, he was promoted 
to his present rank of brigadier general 
and appointed Assistant Quartermaster 
General of the Marine Corps, Gen. 
Butcher served as Assistant Quartermas- 
ter General until Sept. 1962, when he 
departed HQMC, and assumed the post 
of CG, Marine Corps Supply Center, 
Albany, Ga. 

BUTLER, Smedley Darlington. Major 
General. "Old Gimlet Eye." One of the 
most colorful officers in the history of the 
Corps: b. West Chester, Pa., July 30, 
1881; d. Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 21, 1940. One of the two Ma- 
rines who received the Medal of Honor 
for separate acts of heroism, Butler was 
appointed a Marine second lieutenant 
May 20, 1898, during the War with 
Spain. He was commissioned a first lieu- 
tenant on Apr. 8, 1899, and ordered to 
Manila, P.I. Butler served with distinc- 
tion in China from June 14, 1900, to 
Oct. 1900. He was promoted to captain 
by brevet for distinguished conduct in 
the presence of the enemy near Tientsin. 
In that battle, Butler was wounded on 
July 13, 1900. From 1901 to 1912, he 
served at various Stateside posts and in 
Puerto Rico and Panama, On Aug. 11, 
1912, he commanded an expeditionary 
battalion in Nicaragua. From Oct. 12 to 




Butler 

31, 1912, he participated in the bombard- 
ment, assault, and capture of Coyotepe. 
He returned to Panama in Nov. 1912. His 
first medal of honor was presented fol- 
lowing action at Vera Cruz, Mexico, Apr. 
21 and 22, 1914, when he commanded the 
Marines who landed and occupied the 
city, His citation reads, in part, "... was 
eminent and conspicuous in command of 
his battalion. He exhibited courage and 
skill in leading his men through the ac- 
tion of the 22nd and in the final occupa- 
tion of the city." The following year he 
was awarded his second Medal of Honor 
for bravery and forceful leadership as 
CO of detachments of Marines and sea- 
men of the USS Connecticut in repulsing 
Caco resistance on Fort Riviere, Haiti, 



31 



B U Ti ER 



BUTTON 



on Nov. 17, 1915. During WWI, he 
commanded the 13th Regt. of Marines 
in France. For exceptionally meritorious 
service, he was awarded the Army Dis- 
tinguished Service Medal, the Navy Dis- 
tinguished Service Medal, and the French 
Order of the Blade Star. On his return to 
the States in 1919, he became CG of the 
Marine Barracks, Quantico, Va. He 
served in this capacity until Jan. 1924, 
when he was granted a leave of absence 
to accept the post of Director of Public 
Safety in Philadelphia, Pa. In Feb. 1926, 
he returned to the Corps and assumed 
command of the Marine Corps Base, San 
Diego, Calif. From Mar. 1927, to Apr. 
1931, he served again in China with the 
3rd Mar. Brig. His last tour of duty, 
from Apr. to Oct. 1931, was spent as CG 
of the Marine Barracks at Quantico. On 
Oct. 1, 1931, he was retired upon his own 
application after 33 years of service in 
the Marine Corps. Two years after his 
death in 1940, the USS Butler, a destroy- 
er, later converted to a high-speed mine 
sweeper, was named for Gen. Butler. 



BUTTON, William Robert. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 
3, 1895. While serving as a lieutenant in 
the Haitian Gendarmerie, Cpl. Button 
accompanied 2nd Lt. Herman Hanneken 
on a mission to capture or destroy Charle- 
magne Peralte, the reigning chieftain of 
the Cacos who had been terrorizing the 
countryside. Disguised as natives, Button 
and Hanneken found the bandit encamp- 
ment and, in the face of one-hundred-to- 
one odds, they made an aggressive stand. 
Charlemagne Peralte was killed, thus 
breaking the back of the Caco bandit 
scourge. Cpl. Button's citation reads, in 
part: "... near Grande Riviere, Republic 
of Haiti, on the night of Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 
1919 , . . he distinguished himself by his 
excellent judgment and leadership . . . un- 
hesitatingly exposed himself to great per- 
sonal danger when the slightest error 
would have forfeited not only his life, 
but the lives of the detachments of Gen- 
darmerie under his command. . . ." Cpl. 
Button lies buried in I laiti, the country 
of his memorable exploits. 



CADDY, William Robert. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Quincy, Mass., 
Aug. 8, 1925; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Mar. 3, 
1945. William Caddy was inducted into 
the Marine Corps through Selective Ser- 
vice on Oct. 27, 1943. He received recruit 
training at Parris Is., S.C., where he fired 
a score of 305 with the service rifle to 
qualify as a sharpshooter. After extensive 
training at Camp Lejeune, N.C. and 
Hilo, Hawaii, he embarked aboard the 
USS Drake for Iwo Jima. Landing against 
the fanatic opposition which had charac- 



terized the Japanese forces since Tarawa, 
Caddy fought on Iwo for 12 days. On 
Mar. 3, he, his platoon leader, and his 
acting platoon sergeant, were advancing 
against shattering Japanese machine-gun 
and small arms fire in an isolated sector. 
Seeking temporary refuge, the three Ma- 
rines dropped into a shell hole where 
they were immediately pinned down by 
a well concealed enemy sniper, After sev- 
eral unsuccessful attempts to advance 
further, the 19-year-old Marine and his 
lieutenant engaged in a furious hand gre- 



32 



CAFF1RATA 



GANNON 



nade battle with the defending Japanese. 
When an enemy grenade landed in their 
hole, P.F.C. Caddy immediately covered 
it with his body and absorbed the deadly 
impact. For his act of heroism he was 
posthumously awarded the nation's high- 
est award on Sept, 8, 1946. 

CAFFERATA, Hector Albert, Jr. Private 
First Class. Medal of Honor: b. New 
York, N.Y., Nov. 4, 1929. Hector Caffe- 
rata enlisted in the MCR on Feb. 15, 
1948, and was a member of the 21st 
Reserve Inf. Bn. at Dover, N.J., until he 
was called to active duty on Sept. 6, 
1950. After training at Camp Pendleton, 
Calif., he embarked for Korea in Oct. 
1950. He earned the nation's highest 
military award for his heroic stand 
against an enemy attack at the Chosin 
Reservoir. His citation reads, in part: 
" . , . as a rifleman with Co. F, 2nd Bn., 
7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div., in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on Nov. 28, 1950. When all other mem- 
bers of his fire team became casualties, 
creating a gap in the lines during the 
initial phase of a vicious attack against 
his company's hill position, Pvt. Cafferata 
waged a lone battle with hand grenades 
and rifle fire as the attack gained momen- 
tum and the enemy threatened penetra- 
tion through the gap Making a target 

of himself under the devastating fire 
from automatic weapons, rifles, grenades, 
and mortars he maneuvered up and down 
the line and delivered accurate and effec- 
tive fire against the onrushing force, kill- 
ing 15, wounding many more, and forcing 
the others to withdraw so that reinforce- 
ments could move up and consolidate 
the position, Again, fighting desperately 
against a renewed onslaught later that 
same morning when a hostile grenade 
landed in a shallow entrenchment occu- 
pied by wounded Marines, Pvt. Cafferata 



rushed into the gully under heavy fire, 
seized the deadly missile in his left hand 
and hurled it free of his comrades . . . 
severing part of one finger and seriously 
wounding him in the left hand and arm. 
Courageously ignoring the intense pain, 
he staunchly fought on until he was 
struck by a sniper's bullet and forced to 
submit to evacuation. . . ." He was sent 
to Japan in Dec. 1950, and returned to 
the States the following month for treat- 
ment. He was placed on the retired list 
on Sept. 1, 1951. 

CAMPBELL, Albert Ralph. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Williamsport, Pa., 
Apr. 8, 1875. Albert Campbell enlisted 
in the Marine Corps on Oct. 7, 1897. He 
was awarded the Medal of Honor on 
Mar. 24, 1902, "... for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy in the 
advance on Tientsin, China, June 21, 
1900. . . ." 

CAMPBELL, Daniel. Private. Medal of 
Honor; b. Prince Edward Is., Oct. 26, 
1874. Pvt. Campbell's citation reads, in 
part: "... On board the USS Marble- 
head during the cutting of the cable lead- 
ing from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11, 
1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, 
Campbell set an example of extraordin- 
ary bravery and coolness throughout this 
action. . . ." 

CANNON, George Ham. First Lieuten- 
ant. Meclal of Honor: b. Webster Groves, 
Mo.; d. KIA, Midway Is., Dec. 7, 1941. 
George Cannon attended the Culver Mil- 
itary Academy in Culver, Ind,, prior to 
entering the University of Michigan at 
Ann Arbor. While attending that univer- 
sity he was a member of the ROTC and 
graduated with a Bachelor of Science de- 
gree in Mechanical Engineering in June 
1938. He was commissioned a second 



33 



CARLSON 



CARLSON 



lieutenant in the Engineer Reserve, U.S. 
Army, during his last year at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Upon graduation, he re- 
signed to accept a commission as a Ma- 
rine second lieutenant, Commissioned on 
June 25, 1938, he was ordered to duty 
on July 5, 1938, at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard to await assignment to the next 
class of Basic School. He began studies 
on July 18 of that year. His first tour of 
duty was aboard the USS Boise, follow- 
ing the completion of his schooling May 
20, 1939. He was assigned to the Post 
Service Battalion at the Marine Barracks, 
Quantico, Va,, on July 10, 1940, and two 
weeks later entered the Base Defense 
Weapons Course at the Marine Corps 
Schools. Ordered to the MCB, San Die- 
go, Calif, in Dec. 1940, he joined Bat- 
tery H, 2nd Defense Bn. on Feb. 16, 
1941. In Mar. 1941, the battery joined 
the 6th Defense Bn, and in July the unit 
sailed for Pearl Harbor, In Aug. 1941, 
Cannon was promoted to first lieutenant, 
to rank from June 25, 1941, On Sept. 7, 
1941, he reported to Midway Is. as a pla- 
toon leader and member of the Bn. Cod- 
ing Board. He was killed in action on the 
first day of WWII, Dec. 7, 1941, during 
the sneak attack by Japanese forces. His 
citation reads, in part; "Lt Cannon was 
at his Command Post when he was mor- 
tally wounded by enemy shell fire. He 
refused to be evacuated from his post un- 
til after his men who had been wounded 
by the same shell, were evacuated, and 
directed_the reorganization of his Com- 
mand Post until forcibly removed and as 
a result of his utter disregard of his own 
condition, he died from loss of blood." 
On May 25, 1943, a destroyer was named 
for Lt. George Cannon. 

CARLSON, Evans Fordyce. Brigadier 
General. Leader of the famed ''Carlson s 
Raiders": b. Sidney, N.Y., Feb. 26, 1896; 




Carlson 

d. Emmanuel Hospital, Portland, Ore., 
May 27, 1947. Evans Carlson's military 
career began in 1912 when at the age of 
16 he left high school and enlisted in the 
U.S. Army. When he finished his four- 
year enlistment he was a "top sergeant." 
He had served in the Philippines and in 
Hawaii, Carlson stayed out of uniform 
less than one year and returned to the 
army in time for the Mexican punitive 
expedition, During WWI he saw action 
in France, and was awarded the Purple 
Heart for wounds received in action. He 
was commissioned a second lieutenant in 
May 1917, and made captain of field 
artillery in Dee. 1917. Later he served in 
Germany with the Army of Occupation. 
Carlson's spectacular career as a Marine 



34 



CARLSON 



C A R R 



started in 1922 when he enlisted as a 
private, In 1923, he was commissioned a 
second lieutenant. After duty at Quan- 
tico, Va., he sailed for Culebra, Puerto 
Rico in 1924 and remained there five 
months before being ordered to the west 
coast for duty with the Pacific Fleet. Ap- 
plying for aviation training in 1925, he 
went to Pensacola, Fla., for instruction, 
but subsequently returned to duty with 
ground units. He served another tour of 
foreign shore duty from 1927 to 1929 at 
Shanghai, China, Next, he was ordered 
to Nicaragua in 1930 as an officer in the 
Guardia Nacional. A first lieutenant at 
the time, he won his first Navy Cross for 
leading 12 Marines against 100 bandits. 
He was also commended for his actions 
following the earthquake at Managua in 
1931, and for performance of duties as 
Chief of Police in 1932 and 1933. Return- 
ing to the States in 1933, he was sent al- 
most immediately to Shanghai again, 
Shortly afterward he was transferred to 
the Marine Detachment, American Lega- 
tion, Peiping, China, where he served as 
Adjutant and began study of the Chinese 
language. In 1936 he returned to the 
States via Japan, Carlson then served at 
Quantico while attending MCS and 
studying International Law and Politics 
at George Washington University in 
Washington, D.C. lie went back to 
China for the third time in 1937 as an 
official student of the Chinese language 
and as a military observer with Chinese 
forces. There he was afforded the oppor- 
tunity to learn the tactics of the Japanese 
soldier. Traveling thousands of miles 
through the interior of China, often on 
foot and horseback over the most haz- 
ardous terrain, he lived under the primi- 
tive conditions of native troops. When 
he left China in 1938, he was commended 
by the Commander in Chief of the Asi- 
atic Fleet for his services. Carlson was 



now so impressed with the danger of 
Japanese aggression in the Far East that 
in 1939 he resigned his commission as a 
captain in order to be free to write and 
lecture on that subject. When the danger 
he foresaw neared reality in 1941, he re- 
quested to be recommissioned in the 
Marine Corps and was accepted with the 
rank of major. A year later he was placed 
in command of the 2nd Mar. Raider Bn. 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel. His 
leadership of that unit in the raid on 
Makin Island, Aug. 17, 1942, won him a 
Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross. 
A second Gold Star was awarded him for 
heroism and distinguished leadership on 
Guadalcanal in Nov. and Dec. of that 
year. Col. Carlson was ordered back to 
the States for medical treatment in the 
spring of 1943, and subsequently re- 
turned to Tarawa as an observer. In that 
engagement he was cited for volunteer- 
ing to carry vital information through 
enemy fire from an advanced post to 
div, HQ. He was wounded during the 
Saipan operation while attempting to res- 
cue a wounded enlisted man from a front 
line observation post, and was awarded 
a Gold Star in lieu of a second Purple 
Heart. Physical disability resulting from 
the wounds received on Saipan caused 
Carlson's retirement on July 1, 1946. He 
was advanced to the rank of brigadier 
general on the retired list at that time 
for having been specially commended for 
the performance of duty in actual com- 
bat, On May 27, 1947, the 51-year-old 
veteran succumbed to a heart illness at 
Emmanuel Hospital, Portland, Ore. 

CARR, William Louis. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Peabody, Mass., Apr. 1, 
1875, William Can enlisted in the Ma- 
rine Corps at Boston, Mass., on June 7, 
1898, He was presented with the Medal 
of Honor on Dec. 11, 1901. His citation 



35 



C AT E S 



C AT E S 



reads, in part: ". . . for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy at 
Peking, China, July 21, 1900 to Aug. 17, 
1900." Carr was discharged as a corporal 
at Boston, Mass., on June 10, 1903. 




Gates 

CATES, Clifton Bledsoe. General. 19th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps: b. 
Tiptonville, Tenn,, Aug. 31, 1893. After 
completing his elementary education in 
country schools, Clifton Gates was sent 
to the Missouri Military Academy where 
he became an honor student and a four- 
letter man in sports. His Bachelor of 
Laws degree was obtained at the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee in 1916. On June 13, 
1917, as a reserve second lieutenant, he 
reported for active duty at Marine Bar- 
racks, Port Royal, S.C., and sailed for 
France the following Jan. As a young 
lieutenant with the 6th Mar. Regt. in 
WWI, Gates fought in the Verdun de~ 



fensive sector; at Bouresches and Belleau 
Wood in the Aisne defensive; at Soissons 
in the Aisne-Marne offensive; in the Mar- 
bache sector of the St-Mihiel offensive; 
and in the Mont Blanc and Argonne- 
Forest engagements of the Meuse-Ar- 
gonne offensive. He won the Navy Cross, 
Army Distinguished Service Cross, and 
an Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a second 
Distinguished Service Cross for heroism 
in the Bouresches and Belleau Wood 
fighting, where he was both gassed and 
wounded He won the Silver Star Medal 
at Soissons, where he was wounded a 
second time, and an Oak Loaf Cluster in 
lieu of a second Silver Star Modal in the 
Mont Blanc fighting, Apart from those 
decorations, the French government rec- 
ognized his heroism with the Legion of 
Honor and the Crois tie Guerre with Gilt 
Star and two palms. After participating 
in the occupation of Germany, Gates 
returned to the States in Sept. 1919, and 
during the next year served in Washing- 
ton, IXC., as a White House aide and 
Aide-de-Gamp to the Commandant of 
the Marine Corps, He then served at San 
Francisco, Calif., as Aide-de-Gamp to 
the CG, Department of the Pacific, from 
Oct. 1920 until June 1923, when he be- 
gan a tour of sea duty as commander of 
the Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
California* That assignment was com- 
pleted in Apr. 1925. A month later he 
began a year of service with the 4th 
Mar. Regt. at San Diego, Calif. In Mar. 
1928, after serving on recruiting duty at 
Spokane, Wash,, and Omaha, Neb., he 
was named a member of the American 
Battle Monuments Commission at Wash- 
ington. He served in that capacity until 
May 1929, then was ordered to Shanghai, 
China, where he rejoined the 4th Ma- 
rines. Three years later he was detached 
from that regiment to return to Wash- 
ington for study in the Army Industrial 



36 



GATES 



CAT LI N 



College. Completing his course in June 
1933, he reported the following month 
to Quantico, where he served with the 
7th Marines and completed the Senior 
Course in the MCS. He returned again 
to Washington in Sept. 1935, and was 
assigned to the War Plans Section of the 
Division of Operations and Training at 
HQMC. In Aug. 1937, Gates sailed for 
Shanghai as a bn. commander with the 
6th Mar. Regt, serving with that unit 
until he rejoined the 4th Marines in Mar. 
1938. Again the following year he was 
brought back to Washington for instruc- 
tion in the Army War College. That 
course was completed in June 1940, and 
he reported the next month to the Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard as director of the 
Marine Officers' Basic School. By the 
time the United States entered WWII, 
he had been promoted to colonel. In May 
1942, Col. Cates took command of the 
1st Mar. Regt. which, as part of the 1st 
Mar. Div., he led at Guadalcanal. With 
the invaluable experience obtained in 
that campaign, he was returned to the 
States the following Mar. for his first 
tour of duty as Commandant of the MCS 
at Quantico. He continued in that capac- 
ity until June 1944. The following month 
he took command of the 4th Mar. Div., 
leading that organization in the Pacific 
theater until the end of the war. Mean- 
while, he had been promoted to major 
general Ordered back to the States in 
Dec. 1945, the general became President 
of the Marine Corps Equipment Board 
at Quantico, holding that position for six 
months before he was named CG of the 
Marine Barracks, Quantico. He held that 
command until Jan. 1, 1948, when he 
was advanced to the rank of general and 
sworn in as Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, succeeding Gen. Alexander A. 
Vandegrift. When he completed his four- 
year term as Commandant, he reverted 



to the rank of lieutenant general and be- 
gan his second tour as Commandant of 
the MCS. He was again promoted to 
general upon his retirement on June 30, 
1954. 

CATLIN, Albertus W. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Medal of Honor: b. Gowanda, N.Y., 
Dec. 1, 1868; d. Culpeper, Va., May 31, 
1933. Albertus Catlin was commissioned 
a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
on July 1, 1892. After serving at various 
stations in the States and on board ships 
of the navy, Catlin saw action in the 
Spanish-American War as CO of the Ma- 
rine detachment aboard the USS Maine, 
when the ship was destroyed in Havana 
Harbor in Feb. 1898. On duty in Cuba 
in 1911, Catlin commanded a battalion 
of the 1st Marines at Guantanamo Bay. 
At Vera Cruz, Mex. in 1914, Catlin led 
the 3rd Marines and was awarded the 
Medal of Honor for bravery in action. 
Soon after the outbreak of WWI Catlin, 
now a lieutenant colonel, was placed in 
charge of the Marine training camp at 
Quantico. In Oct. 1917, he went to France 
as CO of the 6th Marines. From June 1 
to 6, 1918, Col. Catlin s 6th Marines saw 
action in the front lines from Paris-Metz 
Road through Lucy le Bocage to Hill 
142. For gallantry in action against the 
enemy at Belleau Wood, Catlin was 
awarded two Croix de Guerre, one with 
palms and one with gilt star. At Belleau 
Wood, he was wounded by a bullet which 
went through his shoulder and lung. Up- 
on his return to the States, Col. Catlin 
for a time was on duty at HQMC, and 
then was appointed a brigadier general 
on Aug. 30, 1918. His next tour of duty 
was at the MB, Quantico, and in Nov. 
1918, he sailed for Haiti where he as- 
sumed command of the 1st Brig, of 
Marines until Sept. 1919. As a result of 
his WWI wound, Gen. Catlin was in ill 



37 



CHAMBERS 



CHAMBERS 



health from the time of his retirement 
in Dec. 1919 until he died at Culpeper, 
Va., on May 31, 1933. 

CHAMBERS, Justice Marion. Colonel. 
Medal of Honor: b. Huntington, W.Va., 
Feb. 8, 1908. Justice Chambers com- 
pleted three years at Marshall College in 
Huntington, then attended George Wash- 
ington University and National Univer- 
sity, both in Washington, D.C., where he 
obtained his law degree. Following the 
completion of two years enlistment in the 
naval reserve in 1930, he joined the Ma- 
rine Corps Reserve as a private. He was 
commissioned in 1932 and continued his 
studies toward promotion. He was a 
major, attending summer camp, when 
Washington's 5th Bn. was called up in 
1940. On Tulagi, Chambers received the 
Silver Star Medal for evacuating the 
wounded and directing the night defense 
of a battalion aid station, where he him- 
self was a patient already seriously 
wounded. He commanded the 3rd Bn., 
25th Marines, in the Roi-Namur cam- 
paign. On Saipan he suffered blast concus- 
sion, but returned to lead his command 
there and on Tinian. On Iwo Jima, 
Chambers, now a lieutenant colonel, 
commanded the 3rd Bn., 25th Mar. Regt> 
in the landing on Feb. 19, 1945. His sec- 
tor was beneath high ground from which 
heavy enemy fire raked the whole land- 
ing beach. Capture of the high ground 
was essential to the success of the D-Day 
operations. Had this not been accom- 
plished, there would have been a most 
serious threat to the subsequent opera- 
tions of the 5th Amphibious Corps. The 
3rd Bn. lost more than half its officers 
and nearly one-half its enlisted strength 
on D-Day. But by fearless disregard for 
his own life and leading his depleted 
battalion by example rather than com- 
mand, Lt. Col. Chambers won the key 



heights and anchored the right flank of 
the Marines' position. On the fourth day, 
directing the Marines' first rocket barrage 
and exposed to the enemy's main line of 
resistance, Chambers fell under enemy 
machine gun fire. His wounds were so 
serious that he was medically retired 
and, because he had been specially com- 
mended for performance of duty in com- 
bat, he was promoted to colonel. His 
Medal of Honor citation reads, in part: 
"... as Commanding Officer of the 3rd 
Assault Bn. Landing Team, 25th Marines, 
4th Mar. Div., in action against enemy 
Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Is- 
lands, from 19 to 22 Feb. 1945. Under a 
furious barrage of enemy machine gun 
and small arms fire from the command- 
ing cliffs on the right, Col. Chambers, 
then Lt. Col., landed immediately after 
the initial assault waves of his battalion 
on D-Day to find the momentum of the 
assault threatened by heavy casualties 
from withering Japanese artillery, mor- 
tar, rocket, machine gtin arid rifle fire. 
Exposed to relentless hostile fire, he cool- 
ly reorganized his battle-weary men, in- 
spiring them to heroic efforts by his own 
valor and leading them in an attack on 
the critical, impregnable high ground 
from which the enemy was pouring an 
increasing volume of fire directly onto 
troops ashore, as well as amphibious craft 
in succeeding waves. Constantly in the 
front lines, encouraging his men to push 
forward against the enemy's savage re- 
sistance, Col Chambers led the 8-hour 
battle to carry the flanking ridge top and 
reduce the enemy's fields of aimed fire, 
thus protecting the vital foothold gained. 
His zealous fighting spirit undiminished, 
despite terrific casualties and the loss of 
most of his key officers, he again reor- 
ganized his troops for renewed attack 
against the enemy's main line of resist- 
ance and was directing the fire of the 



38 



CHAMPAGNE 



CHAPMAN 



rocket platoon when he fell, critically 
wounded." 

CHAMPAGNE, David Bernard, Corpo- 
ral. Medal of Honor: b. Wakefield, R.I., 
Nov. 13, 1932; d, KIA, Korea, May 28, 
1952. CpL Champagne's citation reads, in 
part: "... while serving as a Fire Team 
Leader of Co, A, 1st Bn., 7th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. ( Reinf . ) , in action against the 
enemy aggressor forces in Korea on May 
28, 1952, Advancing with his platoon in 
the initial assault of the company against 
a strongly fortified and heavily defended 
hill position, CpL Champagne skillfully 
led his fire team through a veritable hail 
of intense enemy machine gun, small 
arms, and grenade fire, overrunning 
trenches and a series of almost impreg- 
nable bunker positions before reaching 
the crest of the hill and placing his men 
in defensive positions. Suffering a pain- 
ful leg wound while assisting in repelling 
the ensuing hostile counterattack, which 
was launched under cover of a murder- 
ous hail of mortar fire, he steadfastly 
refused evacuation and fearlessly contin- 
ued to control his fire team. When the 
enemy counterattack increased in inten- 
sity, and a hostile grenade landed in the 
midst of the fire team, CpL Champagne 
unhesitatingly seized the deadly missile 
and hurled it in the direction of the ap- 
proaching enemy. As the grenade left his 
hand, it exploded, blowing off his hand 
and throwing him out of the trench. 
Mortally wounded by enemy mortar fire 
while in this exposed position, CpL 
Champagne, by his valiant leadership, 
fortitude, and gallant spirit of self-sacri- 
fice in the face of almost certain death, 
undoubtedly saved the lives of several 
of his fellow Marines. . . ," 

CHAPMAN, Leonard Fielding, Jr. Major 
General. Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, 



HQMC, Washington, B.C.: b. Key West, 
Fla., Nov. 3, 1913. After graduation from 
high school at Deland, Fla., Leonard 
Chapman entered the University of Flo- 
rida where he was a member of the 
ROTC unit for four years. Upon gradu- 
ation in June 1935, he was commissioned 
in the Army Field Artillery Reserve. He 
resigned that commission to accept ap- 
pointment as a Marine second lieutenant, 
July 8, 1935. After completing Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
he served with the 1st Bn., 10th Marines, 
at Quantico, Va., from Apr. 1936 until 
Aug. 1937. In June 1938, after complet- 
ing Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, 
Okla., he was assigned to the 10th Ma- 
rines at the MCB, San Diego, Calif. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in Sept. 
1938, In June 1940, Chapman departed 
San Diego for Honolulu. There he com- 
pleted Gunnery School aboard the USS 
New Orleans prior to reporting on board 
the USS Astoria in July 1940 for a two- 
year assignment as CO of the Marine 
Detachment. He was promoted to cap- 
tain in Apr. 1941. Aboard the Astoria 
following the outbreak of WWII, Capt. 
Chapman took part in the early Pacific 
raids culminating in the battles of the 
Coral Sea and Midway. He was pro- 
moted to major in May 1942, and re- 
turned to the States late that June. He 
was assigned to MCS, Quantico, in Aug. 
1942 as an instructor in. the Artillery 
Course. Promoted to lieutenant colonel 
in May 1943, he was named Executive 
Officer of the Artillery Section at MCS. In 
June 1944, Lt. Col. Chapman again de- 
parted for combat duty. Joining the 1st 
Mar. Div. in the Pacific area, he earned 
the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" 
for meritorious service as R-3, Eleventh 
Marine Artillery Regiment, and CO, 4th 
Bn., llth Marines, respectively, during 
combat at Peleliu in Sept. and Oct. 1944; 



39 



CHRISTIAN SON 



C H 



$TS AN SON 



and the Bronze Star Medal with Combat 
"V" as 4th Bn. Commander at Okinawa, 
Apr. to July 1945. Following the war he 
served as Secretary of the General Staff, 
FMF, Pacific, from Sept. 1945 to July 
1946, when he returned to the continen- 
tal United States. From Aug. 1946 until 
May 1949, he was stationed at HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., serving as Executive 
Officer, G-3 Section, Division of Plans 
and Policies. Ordered to MCS, Quantico, 
Lt. Col Chapman served as Coordinator, 
Reserve Artillery Training Unit; com- 
pleted the Amphibious Warfare School, 
Senior Course, in June 1950; then served 
as Chief of the Supporting Arms Group, 
Marine Corps Development Center, 
While at Quantico, he was promoted to 
colonel in July 1950. In July 1952, he 
departed Quantico for Camp Pendleton, 
Calif., where he joined the 3rd Mar. Div. 
as Regimental Commander, 12th Marines. 
He sailed with the division in Aug. 1953 
for Japan, where he continued to com- 
mand the 12th Marines. In Aug. 1954, 
he was named CO, Marine Barracks, U.S. 
Fleet Activities, Yokosuka, Japan, serv- 
ing in this capacity until May 1956. In 
July 1956, Col. Chapman assumed duties 
in Washington, D.C., as CO, Marine Bar- 
racks, and Director of the Marine Corps 
Institute. Two years after assuming these 
duties, he was promoted to brigadier 
general, July 1, 1958. Following his pro- 
motion, Gen. Chapman was assigned to 
Camp Lejeune, N.C., serving as CG, 
Force Troops, FMF, Atlantic, until Aug. 
1961. He reported to HQMC in Sept, 
1961 as Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-4. Gen. Chapman was promoted to 
major general on Nov. 1, 1961, and on 
the same date assumed his current duties 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4. 

CHRISTIANSON, Stanley Reuben. Pri- 
vate First Class. Medal of Honor: b. 



Mindoro, Wis., Jan. 24, 1925; d. KIA, 
Seoul, Korea, Sept. 29, 1950. Stanley 
Christiansen enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Oct. 2, 1942 at the age of 17. 
Following recruit training at San Diego, 
Calif., he took advanced training with 
the 2nd Mar. Div. and went overseas 
with that unit. He fought at Tarawa, 
Saipan, Tinian, Iheya, Aguni, and Oki- 
nawa, and served with the occupation 
forces in Japan. Discharged in Dec. 1945, 
Christiansen reenlisted in the regular 
Marine Corps three months later. He 
served at the NAS in Pensacola, Fla., as 
a Drill Instructor at Parris Is., S.C.; at 
the Naval Ammunition Depot, Hastings, 
Neb.; at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, Brook- 
lyn, N.Y.; and at Camp Lejeune, N.C., 
before going overseas to Korea with the 
1st Mar. Div. in Aug. 1950. Eleven days 
later he earned the Menial of Honor. His 
citation reads, in part: "...while serv- 
ing with Co. E, 2nd Bn., 1st Marines, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf,) in action against 
enemy aggressor forces at Hill 132, Seoul, 
Korea, in the early morning hours of 
Sept. 29, 1950. Manning one of the sev- 
eral listening posts covering approaches 
to the platoon area when the enemy 
commenced the attack, P.F.C, Christian- 
son quickly sent another Marine to alert 
the rest of the platoon. Without orders, 
he remained in his position and, with 
full knowledge that he would have slight 
chance of escape, fired relentlessly at 
oncoming hostile troops attacking fur- 
iously with rifles, automatic weapons, 
and incendiary grenades. Accounting for 
seven enemy dead in the immediate vi- 
cinity before his position was overrun 
and he himself fatally struck down, 
P.F.C. Christiansen, by his superb cour- 
age, valiant fighting spirit, and devotion 
to duty, was responsible for allowing 
the rest of the platoon time to man posi- 
tions, build up a stronger defense on that 



40 



C L O U D 



COLE 



flank, and repel the attack with 41 of the 
enemy destroyed, many more wounded, 
and three taken prisoner. . . ." 

CLOUD, George Harlon. Major General. 
Commanding General, Marine Corps 
Supply Center, Barstow, Calif,: b. Gold- 
thwaite, Tex,, Sept. 27, 1904. Following 
graduation from high school in 1922, 
George Cloud attended the University 
of Texas. He began his Marine Corps 
career as an enlisted man in May 1927. 
Shortly afterward, he embarked for China 
duty with the 4th Marines under the late 
Maj. Gen. Smedley D. Butler, and re- 
turned in June 1929. Commissioned a 
Marine second lieutenant Mar. 12, 1930, 
he later entered the Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard, completing the 
course in June 1931. That month he 
joined the 1st Marines at Quantico, Va., 
and participated with them in the early 
experimental joint fleet amphibious ex- 
ercises in Hawaii, which laid the ground 
work for amphibious techniques used 
successfully by Marines during their 
island-jumping operations of WWII. Go- 
ing aboard the USS New York in July 
1932, he served a tour of sea duty as 
Marine Detachment Officer* On his re- 
turn to Quantico in July 1934, he served 
with the 5th Marines in the newly formed 
FMF. He was promoted to first lieuten- 
ant in Dec, 1934, and in Oct. 1935 was 
assigned duty at the MB, Washington, 
D.C, In Jan. 1937, he returned to Shang- 
hai where he commanded the Machine 
Gun Co., 2nd Bn., 4th Marine Regt. That 
Sept. he was promoted to captain. Or- 
dered to the States in July 1939, Capt. 
Cloud began his first tour at Parris Is., 
S.C., as a battalion supply officer, Em- 
barking for the Pacific area with the 
4th Defense Bn. in Feb. 1941, he was 
stationed at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 
then moved to Pearl Harbor in Oct. 



where he subsequently witnessed the 
Japanese attack, and later served in the 
New Hebrides. Cloud was promoted to 
major in Feb. 1942, and to lieutenant col- 
onel in Aug. 1942. In Feb. 1943, Lt. Col 
Cloud was assigned to the First Base 
Depot, Noumea, Caledonia, returning to 
the States in June 1943 to become Post 
Quartermaster at Parris Is. He returned 
to the Pacific area in July 1944, and 
served as Assistant Supply Officer with 
the 1st Mar. Div., then preparing for the 
Peleliu invasion. While serving in that 
capacity, he joined the 25th Div., Sixth 
Army, as an observer during the Luzon 
invasion, before returning to the 1st Mar. 
Div. for the Okinawa campaign. Shortly 
thereafter, he rejoined the Sixth Army 
Staff to aid in the advance planning for 
the Japanese mainland invasion and sub- 
sequent occupation. Returning to the 
States in Dec. 1945, he served as Assist- 
ant Post Supply Officer at Parris Is. until 
Feb. 1947, when he assumed command 
of the Supply School at Camp Lejeune, 
N.C. While at Camp Lejeune, he was 
promoted to colonel in Feb. 1948. As- 
signed to HQMC, Washington, D.C., in 
Nov. 1949, Col. Cloud saw duty there as 
Chief, Administrative Branch, Supply 
Department, In June 1952, he reported 
to the Marine Corps Supply Center, Al- 
bany, Ga., where he served four years as 
Chief of Staff. He was then transferred 
to the MCRD, Parris Is., in June 1956, 
and served there as Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-4/Depot Supply Officer, for two 
years. Col. Cloud was promoted to briga- 
dier general in July 1958, upon assuming 
command of the MCSC, Barstow, Calif. 
Four years later, while serving in this 
capacity, he was promoted to major gen- 
eral in Aug. 1962. 

COLE, Darrell Samuel. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Flat River, Mo., July 20, 



41 



COLE 



COIL LI NS 



1920; d. KIA, Two Jima, D~Day, Feb. 19, 
1945. After graduation from high school, 
Darrell Cole joined the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps, where he became an 
assistant forestry clerk and assistant edu- 
cational advisor for his company. On 
Aug. 25, 1941, he enlisted in the Marine 
Corps and was sent to Parris Is., S.C., for 
training, where his proficiency with the 
French horn marked him as a logical 
candidate for Field Music School. Com- 
pleting Field Music School, he was trans- 
ferred to the 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div, 
On Aug. 7, 1942, he found himself wad- 
ing ashore with his buddies of Company 
H of the 2nd Bn. on the beaches of 
Guadalcanal When a regular machine 
gunner of his unit fell wounded, Cole 
assumed the role of gunner, and acquit- 
ted himself in such a manner as to win 
the praise of his CO. He returned to the 
States on Feb. 2, 1943, and joined the 
1st Bn., 23rd Marines, which was then 
forming at Camp Lejeune, N.C., as part 
of the new 4th Mar. Div. During the 
first engagement of the division, at Roi- 
Namur in the Kwajalein Atoll, Cole again 
went into action as a machine gunner. 
Four months later the 4th Mar. Div. 
stormed ashore at Saipan, and Cole was 
designated as a machine gun section 
leader. During the battle when his squad 
leader was killed, Cole, although wound- 
ed himself, assumed command of the 
entire squad. A few days after the battle 
of Saipan, Cole led his squad ashore in 
the invasion of the neighboring island of 
Tinian. In Jan. 1945, Sgt. Cole, who had 
been promoted the previous Nov., sailed 
with his company for Iwo Jima. On 
D-Day, Feb. 19, Cole led his machine 
gun section ashore in the assault on Iwo's 
shifting beaches. One of his squads had 
hardly reached dry land before their 
advance was halted by a deadly hail of 
fire from two enemy positions. Taking 



stock of the situation, Cole crawled for- 
ward and wiped out the two positions 
with hand grenades. His unit continued 
the advance until they were again halted 
by fire from three Japanese pillboxes. 
One of Cole's machine guns silenced the 
most threatening position, then jammed. 
Armed with only a pistol and one hand 
grenade, Sgt. Cole made a one-man at- 
tack against the two remaining positions. 
Twice he returned to his own lines for 
additional grenades and continued the 
attack under the fierce enemy fire until 
he had succeeded in destroying the Jap- 
anese strong point. Returning to his own 
squad, he was instantly killed by an ene- 
my grenade. By his one-man attack and 
heroic self-sacrifice, Sgt. Cole enabled his 
company to move forward against the re- 
maining fortifications and attain their 
ultimate objective. For his unselfish act 
of heroism he was awarded the nation's 
highest military award, the Medal of 
Honor, 

COLEMAN 3 John. Private. Medal of 
Honor; b. County of Cork, Ireland, Oct. 
9, 1847. Pvt. Coloman was cited for 
bravery " . . . on board the USS Colorado 
in action at Korea on June 11, 1871. 
Fighting hand-to-hand with the enemy, 
he succeeded in saving the life of Alex- 
ander McKen/Je. , . ." 

COLLINS, William Robert. Brigadier 
General. Chief of Staff, Joint Task Force 
--4, Fort Monroe, Va,: b. Washington, 
D.Q, Feb. 5, 1913. William Collins com- 
pleted Western High School in 1931 and 
entered Georgetown University from 
which he graduated in 1935 with a 
Bachelor of Foreign Service degree, 
While at the university he was a member 
of the ROTC unit. He resigned his Army 
Reserve commission to accept appoint- 
ment as a Marine second lieutenant, 



COLLINS 



COMM1SKEY 



Sept. 1935. After completing Marine Offi- 
cers' Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard the following spring, he was 
assigned to the 5th Marines, FMF, at 
Quantico, Va. While there he was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in Sept. 1938. 
That month Collins entered the Infantry 
School at Fort Banning, Ga., and on com- 
pleting the Tank Course in June 1939, 
served as Platoon Leader and Executive 
Officer in the 1st Tank Co,., Quantico. In 
May 1940, after attending Fleet Gunnery 
School in Hawaii, he became CO of the 
Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
New Orleans, He was promoted to cap- 
tain in Oct. 1941. He was serving aboard 
the New Orleans when Pearl Harbor was 
attacked on Dec. 7, 1941, and took part 
in the Pearl Harbor-Midway operation. 
Later he participated in the Coral Sea 
and Midway raids in 1942. He was pro- 
moted to major in May 1942, and a 
month later was detached from the New 
Orleans. In July 1942, Maj. Collins was 
assigned to Camp Elliott, San Diego, 
Calif,, as CO of the Tank School at the 
Training Center, He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in June 1943. In Feb. 

1944, he moved to Camp Pendleton, 
Calif., as CO of the 5th Tank Bn,, 5th 
Mar. Div. With his battalion he was or- 
dered overseas in Sept, 1944. For con- 
spicuous gallantry in action on Iwo Jima 
from Feb. 19 to Mar. 26, 1945, he was 
awarded the Silver Star Medal. He moved 
with the division into Japan in Sept. 

1945, and in Dec. joined the 6th Marines, 
2nd Mar. Div., as Regimental Military 
Governor, Fukuoka, Japan, and later 
served as Regimental Executive Officer, 
In Sept. 1946, Lt Col. Collins was or- 
dered to San Diego, where he served as 
Inspector-Instructor of the llth Tank 
Bn., USMCR. Transferred in Aug. 1948 
to Quantico, he completed the Senior 
Course, MCS, in May 1949; then he 



served as Operations Officer and Instruc- 
tor, Combined Arms Section, Marine 
Corps Educational Center; and as Chief 
of the Landing Assault Section, Landing 
Force Development Center, respectively. 
He was promoted to colonel in Feb. 1951. 
He entered the National War College in 
Aug. 1951 and graduated in June 1952. 
He arrived in London, England, in July 
1952 for duty with the Joint American 
Military Advisory Group. Shortly after- 
ward, he moved to Frankfurt, Germany, 
as Staff Operations Officer, Policy Branch, 
J-3 Division, HQ, U.S. European Com- 
mand, concurrent with the establishment 
of that Command. He served in that post 
for two years. On his return to the States 
in Aug. 1954, he served as a Member of 
the Advance Research Group, Marine 
Corps Educational Center, Quantico. 
Col. Collins was assigned to the 2nd Mar. 
Div., Camp Lejeune, N.C., from Aug. 
1955, to May 1958. During that time he 
served as Regimental Commander of the 
2nd Marines until July 1956; then as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, of the divi- 
sion; and as Chief of Staff (luring Oper- 
ation Deep-Water in Turkey. Following 
a brief assignment on the Personnel 
Board at HQMC, Col. Collins returned 
to MCS, Quantico, from June 1958 
through Feb. 1961. There he served as 
President of the Tactics and Techniques 
Board, Marine Corps Landing Force De- 
velopment Center, until Oct. 1959 when 
he was named Director of the Develop- 
ment Center. His rank of brigadier gen- 
eral dates from Nov. 1, 1959. Upon his 
detachment from Quantico, Gen. Collins 
assumed his current duties at Fort Mon- 
roe, Va., in Feb. 1961. 

COMMISKEY, Henry Alfred. "Hank." 
Major. Medal of Honor: b. Hattiesburg, 
Miss., Jan. 10, 1927. Hank Commiskey, 
the first Marine to be awarded the Medal 



43 



CO MMI SKI Y 



COMMISKEY 




of Honor for extraordinary heroism in the 
Korean War, served more than five years 
as an enlisted man, including 21 months 
overseas. Following recruit training at 
San Diego, Calif,, he served at Camp 
Pendleton, Calif., Hawaii and Japan, in 
addition to the combat operations at I wo 
Jima, While serving as a drill instructor 
at Parris Is,, S.C., as a staff sergeant, he 
was accepted for officer training and 
commissioned a second lieutenant, Sept. 
10, 1949, He completed training in June 
1950, and taught in the tactics section at 
the MCS, Quantico, before going to Ko- 
rea with the 1st Mar, Regt, in Aug. 1950. 
The action for which Commiskey re- 
ceived the Medal of Honor came a few 
days after the Inchon landing, in which 
he participated. His citation reads, in 
part: "... as a Platoon Leader in Co. C, 



1st Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Re- 
inf.), in action against enemy aggressor 
forces near Yongdungpo, Korea, on Sept. 
20, 1950. Directed to attack hostile forces 
well dug in on Hill 85, 1st Lt. Commis- 
key, spearheaded the assault, charging up 
the steep slopes on the run. Coolly dis- 
regarding the heavy enemy machine gun 
and small arms fire, he plunged on well 
forward of the rest of his platoon and was 
the first man to reach the crest of the 
objective. Armed only with a pistol, he 
jumped into a hostile machine gun em- 
placement occupied by five enemy troops 
and quickly disposed of four of the sol- 
diers with his automatic pistol. Grappling 
with the fifth, Commiskey knocked him 
to the ground and held him until he could 
obtain a weapon from another member 
of his platoon and kill the last of the ene- 
my gun crew. Continuing his bold as- 
sault, he moved to the next emplacement, 
killed two more of the enemy and then 
led his platoon toward the rear nose of 
the hill to rout the remainder of the 
hostile troops and destroy them as they 
fled from their positions.*' Following hos- 
pitalization at the Naval Hospital in 
Pensacola, he served at the Naval Air 
Rocket Test Station, Lake Denmark, 
Dover, N.J, In Sept. 1951, he became a 
student naval aviator at the NAS, Pensa- 
cola, He received his wings at Corpus 
Christi in June 1953, and later completed 
jet training at El Tore, Calif. In Apr. 
1954, he returned to Korea as a pilot with 
Marine Attack Squadron 212, MAG 12, 
1st MAW. He returned to the States in 
Sept. 1954, and at his own request was 
assigned line duty. He joined the 1st 
Mar, Div, in Dec. 1954, and served con- 
secutively as a company commander, 
Assistant S-3 of the 1st Service Regt., and 
Division Reenlistment Officer, From Sept. 
1956 until July 1959, he served as Officer 
in Charge of the Marine Corps Recruit- 



C O N O I E Y 



C O MOLE Y 



ing Station, 6th Marine Corps Reserve 
and Recruitment District, Jackson, Miss. 
Commiskey completed the Junior Course 
at MCS, Quantico, from Aug. 1959 to 
June I960, where he is an instructor and 
student company commander at the Basic 
School. 

CONOLEY, Odell Maurice. Brigadier 
General. Deputy G-3, HQ, U.S. European 
Command, Paris, France: b. Amarillo, 
Tex., Nov. 9, 1913. Odell Conoley com- 
pleted high school at Amarillo in 1931. 
Upon graduation from Texas A & M 
College in June 1935, he was commis- 
sioned in the Army Inf. Reserve. Shortly 
afterward, he resigned this commission 
to accept appointment as a Marine sec- 
ond lieutenant on Sept. 11, 1935. After 
completing Basic School at the Philadel- 
phia Navy Yard in May 1936, Lt. Conoley 
was stationed at the MCB, San Diego, 
Calif. In Sept. 1937, he embarked for 
China. While there he saw duty in 
Shanghai; at the American Embassy in 
Peiping; and with the Marine Detach- 
ment in Tientsin. He returned to San 
Diego in Nov. 1938 as a first lieutenant. 
Six months later, he was assigned sea 
duty as commander of the Marine De- 
tachment aboard the USS Henderson, 
serving in this capacity from May 1939 
through Aug. 1940. In Sept. 1940, he 
joined the 1st Mar. Brig., serving at Parris 
Is., S.C.; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; and 
Camp Lejeune, N.C. Three days after the 
United States entered WWII, he re- 
ceived his promotion to captain. In Apr. 
1942, Conoley embarked with the 2nd 
Bn., 7th Marines, for the Pacific area. 
Later, with his unit as part of the 1st 
Mar. Div., he took part in the Guadal- 
canal campaign where he earned the 
Navy Cross, and in the Cape Gloucester 
and Bismarck Archipelago operations, 
advancing from major in May 1942, to 



lieutenant colonel in July 1943. For gal- 
lantry in action in Dec. 1943, while 
commanding the 2nd Bn., 7th Marines, 
at Cape Gloucester, Lt. Col. Conoley 
was awarded the Silver Star Medal. After 
his return to the States in June 1944, he 
entered the Infantry Course at the Com- 
mand and Staff School, Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan,, prior to brief assignments 
at Camp Pendleton and San Diego. He 
left the States in July 1945, for duty with 
6th U.S. Army HQ in the Philippines, 
later moving with the headquarters to 
Kyoto, Japan. In Jan. 1946, he began a 
year's assignment with 8th U.S. Army 
HQ in Yokohama, serving as Assistant 
G-3 and Liaison Officer. For service in 
this capacity, he received the Army Let- 
ter of Commendation with Commenda- 
tion Ribbon. Upon reporting to San 
Diego in Jan. 1947, Lt. Col. Conoley was 
attached to Troop Training Unit, Am- 
phibious Forces, Pacific Fleet, as an in- 
structor. That May he began a three-year 
tour of duty at HQMC, Washington, D.C., 
as Operations Officer, G-3 Section, Divi- 
sion of Plans and Policies. In July 1950, 
he enrolled at the Army War College, 
Fort Leavenworth, and was promoted to 
colonel in Feb. 1951. On completing the 
course in July 1951, Col. Conoley served 
as an instructor at MCS, Quantico, for 
six months, and as Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-4, from Dec. 1951, to July 1954. 
He then joined the 1st Mar. Div. in Korea 
in Aug. 1954, as Deputy Chief of Staff. 
In Oct., he was named CO of the 7th 
Marines. With the 1st Mar. Div. he re- 
turned to Camp Pendleton in June 1955, 
at which time he became the 1st Div/s 
Chief of Staff. In May 1956, he was again 
ordered to MCS, Quantico, where he 
served consecutively as Member, FMF, 
Organization and Composition Board; 
Member, Advance Research Group; and 
Chief of Staff, Marine Corps Educational 



45 



C O O N E Y 



c y R s i Y 



Center. In Sept. 1957, he became Deputy 
Director of the Marine Corps Educa- 
tional Center. Following this assignment, 
Col. Conoley was transferred in July 
1959, to Camp Lejeune, N.C., where he 
served for 20 months as Assistant Divi- 
sion Commander, 2nd Mar. Div. He was 
promoted to brigadier general in Nov. 
1959. 

COONEY, James. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Limerick, Ireland, July 27, 
1860; d. Mar. 14, 1903. James Cooney 
enlisted in the Marine Corps on Aug. 19, 
1889. He was awarded the Medal of 
Honor on Jan. 24, 1902 for distinguishing 
himself by meritorious conduct in the 
presence of the enemy during the battle 
near Tientsin, China, July 13, 1900. 

COURSEY, John P. Brigadier General: 
b. Lyons, Ga,, Dec. 20, 1914. John Coursey 
entered the University of Michigan at 
Ann Arbor, and was graduated in 1937 
with a Bachelor of Science degree in 
chemistry. While in college he was a 
member of the ROTC unit for four years. 
He was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant in the Army Infantry Reserve in Feb. 
1937, and resigned that commission to 
accept appointment as a Marine second 
lieutenant, Aug. 5, 1937. After completion 
of Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard, and Secondary Battery Gunnery 
School aboard the USS Nevada, he joined 
the USS Arizona, In July 1939, after one 
year of sea duty, he reported to the 2nd 
Mar. Brig, as a communications officer. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
Sept. 1940. In May 1941, he embarked 
for Honolulu, Hawaii, where he again 
joined the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Arizona. After the Pearl Harbor 
attack, during which the Arizona was 
sunk, Lt, Coursey served as a company 
commander at the Marine Barracks, Pearl 



Harbor. While there he was promoted 
to captain in Feb. 1942, and to major in 
Aug. 1942. From Pearl Harbor and fol- 
lowing a short tour on Midway Island 
he reported for flight training in Nov. 
1942 at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Dallas, 
Texas. He was designated a Naval Avia- 
tor at the Naval Air Training Center, 
Pensacola, Fla. in May 1943, then com- 
pleted operational training at the Naval 
Air Station, Jacksonville, Fla. He was 
next assigned to Marine Fleet Air, West 
Coast, for duty with Marine Utility 
Squadron 953 and MAG 15 at Camp 
Kearney, San Diego, and Corvalis, Ore. 
He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
May 1944. Ordered overseas again in 
Oct. 1944, he served as Executive Officer 
of MAG 25 and CO of Marine Transport 
Squadron 152, respectively, during the 
Northern Solomons campaign, Following 
WWII, he returned to the States and 
completed the Marine Command and 
Staff School at MCS, Quantico, Va., in 
Feb. 1946. The following month he be- 
came CO of the Marine Air Detachment, 
Marino Air Reserve Training Command, 
Naval Air Station, Atlanta, Ga. In Jan. 
1950, he completed the Armed Forces 
Staff College, Norfolk, Va. He was then 
assigned to the Marine Corps Education- 
al Center, Quantioo, where he served as 
an instructor in the Aviation Section un- 
til Dec. 1951, and as Officer in Charge 
of the Aviation Section until July 1952. 
While at Quantico, he was promoted to 
colonel in Nov. 1951, During the Korean 
War, he served in Korea from Aug. 1952 
until April 1953 as Executive Officer of 
MAG 33. In May 1953, he was assigned 
to Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., where 
he served as Instructor and Marine Corps 
Representative, Naval Advisory Group, 
Air University, until Aug. 1955; and was 
graduated from the Air War College in 
June 1956. He returned to Hawaii in Aug. 



46 



CROWE 



1956, to assume duties as Deputy G-3, 
FMF, Pacific. On his return to the States 
in May 1958, he became CO of MCAS, 
Quantico. In Dec. 1959, he was named 
Military Secretary to the Commandant 
of the Marine Corps. During this assign- 
ment, he was promoted to his present 
grade of brigadier general in Aug. 1962. 
In Oct. 1962, Gen. Coursey became As- 
sistant Wing Commander, 2nd MAW, at 
Cherry Point. 

COURTNEY, Henry Alexius, Jr. Major. 
Medal of Honor: b. Duluth, Minn., Jan. 
6, 1916; d. KIA, Okinawa, May 15, 1945. 
Before entering the service, Henry Court- 
ney had been admitted to the bar in 
Minnesota and Illinois, having received 
his bachelor's degree from the University 
of Minnesota and his doctor's degree 
from Loyola University in Chicago, 111. 
He received his commission as a second 
lieutenant in the Marine Corps Reserve 
in Feb. 1940, and in Mar. of that year 
was placed in command of the Duluth 
unit of the Marine Corps Reserve which 
was mobilized and sent to San Diego, 
Calif., for training. He later went to 
Iceland where he served for 10 months. 
At Guadalcanal, Solomons Is*, he partic- 
ipated in the first United States offensive 
of WWII, commanding a company of 
the 1st Mar. Div. His next combat action 
was Okinawa, where his gallantry won 
for him the Medal of Honor. His citation 
reads, in part: "Ordered to hold for the 
night in static defense behind Sugar Loaf 
Hill, Maj. Courtney weighed the effect 
of a hostile night counterattack against 
the tactical value of an immediate Ma- 
rine assault, He resolved to initiate the 
assault and obtained permission to seize 
the forward slope of the hill. He declared 
his personal intention of moving forward, 
then proceeded on his way, boldly blast- 
ing nearby cave positions and neutralizing 



enemy guns as he went Subsequent- 
ly, reinforced by 26 men and an LVT 
load of grenades, he determined to storm 
the crest of the hill. . . . Upon reaching 
the crest and observing large numbers 
of Japanese forming for action less than 
100 yards away he instantly attacked, 
waged a furious battle and succeeded in 
killing many of the enemy and forcing 
the remainder to take cover in the 
caves. . . ." Maj. Courtney was killed in- 
stantly by a hostile mortar burst while 
moving among his men. 

CROWE, Henry P. Colonel (Retired): 
b. Boston, Ky., Mar. 7, 1899. After at- 
tending high school at Mt. Pulaski, 111., 
Henry Crowe enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Oct. 28, 1918. As an enlisted 
man, he served in the Dominican Re- 
public from 1921 to 1923, in Nicaragua 
in 1928, and at various other posts and 
stations. He was also a frequent partici- 
pant in local and national shooting com- 
petition, winning the coveted Distin- 
guished Marksman Medal. Commissioned 
a marine gunner (a warrant officer rank) 
in Sept. 1934, he served on Pacific ma- 
neuvers and at several stations in the 
States during the next two years. He em- 
barked for China in Oct. 1936, and after 
three years with the Marine Detachment 
at the American Embassy, Peiping, he 
returned to the States in Oct. 1939, to 
join the 6th Mar. Regt. at San Diego, 
Calif. He was transferred to the 8th Mar. 
Regt. in Apr. 1940, and was promoted 
to chief marine gunner in Feb. 1941. 
Crowe embarked with the 8th Marines 
for Samoa in Jan. 1942, and the follow- 
ing month was promoted from chief gun- 
ner to captain. He was promoted to major 
in Mar. 1943, and to lieutenant colonel 
in Jan. 1944. He fought as commander 
of the regimental weapons company at 
Guadalcanal and as commander of the 



47 



C U K E L A 



C U K E i A 



2nd Bn. at Tarawa and Saipan. He also 
served with that regiment in New Zea- 
land and Hawaii before he returned to 
the States in Sept. 1944 for treatment of 
the wounds he received at Saipan. He 
was released from the U.S. Naval Hos- 
pital at San Diego in Mar. 1945, and the 
following month was named Training 
Officer of FMF, Pacific, at Pearl Harbor. 
After WWII, Lt. Col. Crowe served 
briefly with the 29th Marines in China 
and with Marine garrison forces, 14th 
Naval District, at Pearl Harbor. He re- 
turned to the States in Mar. 1946, and 
after duty at San Diego and Quantico, 
entered the Senior Course in the Am- 
phibious Warfare School at Quantico in 
Sept. 1947. He completed the course in 
May 1948, and reported to the 1st Mar, 
Div. at Camp Pendleton, Calif, the fol- 
lowing month. There he served as a bat- 
talion executive officer, as division special 
service officer, and as executive officer of 
the 1st Shore Party Bn. before taking 
command of that unit in July 1950, He 
arrived in Japan the following month to 
help prepare for the Inchon landing. 
After fighting in Korea, he returned to 
the States in May 1951. Lt. Col. Crowe 
was promoted to colonel in Dec. 1951, 
while serving as Chief of the Tactical 
School Section with the Troop Training 
Unit, Amphibious Training Command, 
at Coronado, Calif. He later served there 
as Chief of the Administrative Schools 
Section before assuming command of the 
Headquarters and Service Bn. at the Re- 
cruit Depot, San Diego, in Jan, 1953. Fol- 
lowing his detachment from San Diego, 
he completed his final tour of duty June 
1957 to Mar. 1960, as CO, MB, Norfolk 
Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Va. 

CUKELA, Louis. Major. Navy Medal of 
Honor, Army Medal of Honor: b. Spala- 
to, Serbia, May 1, 1888; d. U.S. Naval 




Cukefa 

Hospital, Bethesda, Mel, Mar, 19, 1956. 
Louis Cukela was educated in the grade 
schools of Spalato; then he attended the 
Merchant Academy, and later the Royal 
Gymnasium, both for two-year courses. 
In 1913, he emigrated to the United 
States and he and his brother settled in 
Minneapolis, Minn. On Sept, 21, 1914, 
he enlisted in the U.S. Army, He was 
serving as a corporal in Company H, 
13th Inf. when he was honorably dis- 
charged by purchase on June 12, 1916. 
Seven months later, on Jan. 31, 1917, with 
WWI raging in Europe, he enlisted in 
the Marine Corps, Following the United 
States' entry into the conflict, he went to 
France and took part in all the engage- 
ments in which the 5th Marines fought. 
He was awarded both Medals of Honor 



C U K E L A 



CUNNINGHAM 



for the same action near Villers-Cotterets, 
France, on the morning of July 18, 1918, 
during the Soissons engagement. The 
66th Co., 5th Marines, in which Cukela 
was a gunnery sergeant, was advancing 
through the Forest de Retz when it was 
held up by an enemy strong point. De- 
spite the warnings of his men, Sgt. Cukela 
crawled out from the flank and advanced 
alone toward the German lines. Getting 
beyond the strong point despite heavy 
fire, "Gunny" Cukela captured one gun 
by bayoneting its crew. Picking up their 
hand grenades, he then demolished the 
remaining portion of the strong point 
from the shelter of a nearby gunpit. He 
took four prisoners and captured two 
undamaged machine guns. This famous 
Marine was wounded in action twice, 
but since there is no record of either 
wound at the Navy's Bureau of Medicine 
and Surgery, he was never awarded the 
Purple Heart. The first wound was suf- 
fered at Jaulny, France, on Sept. 16, 
1918, during the St-Mihiel engagement. 
Sgt. Cukela was wounded again during 
the fighting in the Champagne sector. 
Neither wound was serious. Cukela re- 
ceived a field appointment to the rank of 
second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
Reserve on Sept. 26, 1918, and was se- 
lected for a commission in the regular 
Marine Corps on Mar. 31, 1919. Pro- 
moted to first lieutenant on July 17, 1919, 
he was advanced to the rank of captain 
on Sept 15, 1921. After WWI, Cukela 
served at various overseas bases in Haiti, 
Santo Domingo, the Philippines, and 
China; and at stations in Quantico, Va.; 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Norfolk, Va.; Hampton 
Roads, Va.; Mare Island, Calif.; Wash- 
ington, D.C.; Nashville, Ind.; and Fort 
Knox, Ky. From June 1933, to Jan. 1934, 
he served as a company commander with 
the Civilian Conservation Corps. His last 
years in the Marine Corps were spent at 



Norfolk, where he served as the post 
quartermaster. Retired as a major on 
June 30, 1940, he was recalled to active 
duty on July 30 of the same year. During 
WWII the major served at Norfolk and 
Philadelphia. He finally returned to the 
inactive retired list on May 17, 1946. Maj. 
Cukela served a few days less than 32 
years of active duty in the Army and 
Marines. On Mar. 19, 1956, Major Cukela 
died at the U.S. Naval Hospital, Bethesda, 
Md. He was buried with full military 
honors in Arlington National Cemetery, 
Mar. 22, 1956. 

CUNNINGHAM, Alfred Austell. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel. First Marine Aviator: b. 
Atlanta, Ga., 1882; d. Sarasota, Fla., May 
27, 1939. Shortly after he was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps, Alfred Cunningham developed a 
strong interest in flying. Stationed at 
Philadelphia at the time, he managed to 
rent a forlorn contraption which had 
been built as a flying machine. Permis- 
sion was granted Cunningham to make 
take-off attempts at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard, but the "plane" never got off 
the ground. Named the "Noisy Nan" by 
his fellow officers, it was capable of little 
more than a bumpy ride down the run- 
way. Eventually, however, the Corps 
took pity on the young aviation enthu- 
siast and sent him to the Navy Aviation 
Camp at Annapolis, Md. on July 9, 1912. 
In early 1913, he went to Guantanamo 
Bay, Cuba, where he participated in 
naval exercises. Duty at the Washington 
Navy Yard followed on Sept. 26, 1913. 
Several months later he was appointed 
to a board which was planning the or- 
ganization of a Naval Aeronautic Ser- 
vice. In Feb. 1914, he became a test 
pilot. Duty and further instruction at 
Pensacola, Fla. during the next two 
years left Cunningham with a broken 



49 



CUNNINGHAM 



S H M A H 



back suffered in an experimental cata- 
pult hop, Fully recovered in Apr. 1916, 
he requested instruction in "land flying" 
an innovation for the Navy. When he 
reported to San Diego, Calif., he was 
the first Marine or Naval officer to take 
up land flying. With the advent of WWI, 
Cunningham was sent to France on ob- 
servation duty. On his return to the 
States in Jan. 1918, he recommended the 
organization of a Marine aviation force 
to participate in the European hostilities. 
The project was approved and Cunning- 
ham, then a major, was in command of 
the Marine flying units until the end of 
the war. He was the first officer-in-charge 
of Marine Corps aviation and held the 
position until Nov., 1920, when he was 
detailed to command the 1st Marine 
Air Squadron in Santo Domingo. When 
his tour of aviation duty ended in July 
1922, he was sent to Quantico for instruc- 
tion. From then till June 1926, he was 
Assistant Adjutant and Inspector, after 
which he was ordered as Division Ma- 
rine Officer and as aide on the Staff of 
Commander, Battleship Division 3. In 
June 1928, he was detailed to temporary 
detached duty at Nicaragua and served 
with the 2nd Brig. Marines as Executive 
Officer of the Western Area at Leon, 
Nicaragua. When that tour of duty ex- 
pired, he became executive officer and 
registrar of the Marine Corps Institute 
from 1929 to 1931, and then was detailed 
as an Assistant Quartermaster at the MB, 
Philadelphia, where he served from Apr. 
1931 to Mar. 1935. About this time, Maj. 
Cunningham's health began to fail and 
he spent several months in the hospital. 
On May 10, 1935, he appeared before a 
Naval Retiring Board at MB, Washing- 
ton, D.C., which found him to be inca- 
pacitated for active service and 10 days 
later he was ordered home to await re- 
tirement on the first of Aug. of that year. 



While on the retired list, he was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant colonel with rank 
from Jan, 16, 1936. 

CUSHMAN, Robert Everton, Jr. Major 
General. Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 ( In- 
telligence) and Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3 (Plans, Operations and Training) 
HQMC, Washington, D.C.: b. St. Paul, 
Minn., Dec. 24, 1914. After graduation 
from St. Paul Central High School at 
the age of sixteen, Robert Cushman was 
appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy. 
Upon graduation, he was commissioned 
a Marine second lieutenant, June 6, 1935. 
Lt. Cushman completed Marine Officers' 
Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard, then served briefly at the Marine 
Corps Base, San Diego, Calif. In Feb. 
1936, he arrived in Shanghai, China, 
serving with the 4th Marines, and later 
the 2nd Mar. Brig., as a platoon com- 
mander. On his return to the States in 
Mar. 1938, he served at Naval shipyards 
in Brooklyn, N.Y,, and Portsmouth, Va. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
Aug. 1938. In Apr, 1939, he was assigned 
to the Marine Detachment at the New 
York World's Fair, and was subsequently 
stationed at the Marine Barracks, Quan- 
tico, Va. lie was promoted to captain in 
Mar. 1941. In June 1941, Capt. Cushman 
went aboard the USS "Pennsylvania at 
San Diego, enroute to Pear) Harbor, as 
CO of the ship's Marine Detachment. lie 
was serving in this capacity when the 
Japanese attacked the ship and other 
Naval installations at Pearl Harbor on 
Dec. 7, 1941. Upon his transfer from the 
Pennsylvania, he joined the 9th Marines 
at San Diego as a battalion executive 
officer in May 1942 and, that same 
month, was promoted to major. With 
his unit he moved to Camp Pendleton 
in Sept. 1942 and embarked for the Pa- 
cific area in Jan. 1943. He was promoted 



50 



C U S H M A N 



C U S H M A N 



to lieutenant colonel in May 1943. That 
month Lt. Col. Cushman was appointed 
CO of the 2nd Bn., 9th Marines. During 
the two years he held that post, he led 
his battalion repeatedly into combat, 
earning the Bronze Star Medal with Com- 
bat "V" on Bougainville, the Navy Cross 
during the recapture of Guam, and the 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V" during 
the Iwo Jima campaign. On his return 
to the States in May 1945, he was sta- 
tioned at MCS, Quantico, for three years. 
During that period he completed the 
Senior School, served as an instructor in 
the Command and Staff School, and dur- 
ing his last two years there was Super- 
visory Instructor, Amphibious Warfare 
School. In June 1948, he was named Head 
of the Amphibious Warfare Branch, Of- 
fice of Naval Research, Navy Depart- 
ment, Washington, D.C. From Oct. 1949, 
until May 1951, he served at HQMC. 
While there he was promoted to colonel 
in May 1950. In June, 1951, he joined the 
Staff of Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval 
Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterra- 
nean Fleet, in London, England, serving 



as Amphibious Plans Officer until June 
1953. Following his return to the States, 
he was transferred to Norfolk, Va,, as a 
member of the faculty of the Armed 
Forces Staff College, and in July 1954, 
became Director of the Plans and Opera- 
tions Division there. In July 1956, he as- 
sumed command of the 2nd Mar. Regt, 
2nd Mar. Div., at Camp Lejeune, N.C. 
Assigned to Washington, D.C., in Feb. 
1957, he served four years on the staff of 
former Vice President Richard Nixon, as 
Assistant to the Vice President of the 
United States for National Security Af- 
fairs. While serving in this capacity, he 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
July 1958. Gen. Cushman became Assist- 
ant Division Commander, 3rd Mar. Div. 
on Okinawa in Mar. 1961. He was pro- 
moted to his present rank of major general 
in Aug. 1961, and in Sept. assumed com- 
mand of the 3rd Mar. Div. In July 1962, 
he returned to HQMC where he assumed 
his current assignment as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-2 ( Intelligence ) and Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3 (Plans, Operations 
and Training). 



D 



DAHLGREN, John Olof. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Kahliwar, Sweden, 
Sept. 14, 1872. Cpl. Dahlgren's citation 
reads, in part: "... for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy at the 
battle of Peking, China, June 20 to July 
16, 1900 . . .* 

DALY, Daniel. "Dan." Sergeant Major. 
Called by Gen. Smedley D. Butler, "The 
fightin'est Marine I ever knew": b. Glen 
Cove, Long Island, N.Y., Nov. 11, 1873; 



d. Glendale, Long Island, N.Y., Apr. 28, 
1937. Only other Marine, in addition to 
Butler, to be awarded two Medals of 
Honor for separate acts of heroism. A 
small man - 5 feet, 6 inches, 132 pounds 
Daly was nevertheless a fine military 
figure, erect and well-proportioned. He 
was also a strict disciplinarian, yet always 
fair-minded and very popular among 
both officers and enlisted men. He joined 
the Marine Corps on Jan, 10, 1899, and 
was sent to the Asiatic Fleet. In May 



51 



DALY 



A LY 




Daly 

1900, he shipped aboard the USS Newark 
for Taku Bay, China, where he landed 
with other Marines and entrained for 
Peking. The American Marines, together 
with the Germans, had been stationed on 
Tartar Wall, south of the American Lega- 
tion, but intense enemy fire had driven 
them from the position. With Capt. Hall, 
Daly manned the wall bastion, bayoneted 
rifle in hand, On Aug. 14, Capt. Hall left 
to bring up reinforcements and Daly re- 
mained fo defend the position single- 
handed. Chinese snipers fired at him and 
stormed the bastion, but he fought them 
off until reinforcements arrived. For this 
gallantry Daly was awarded his first 
Medal of Honor. Fifteen years later, in 
action against Haitian bandits, Daly 
earned a second Medal of Honor. The 



citation accompanying the award states: 
"... on the night of Oct. 24, 1915, three 
officers and 35 enlisted men were at- 
tacked by 400 Cacos while crossing a river 
in a deep ravine concealed in bushes 
about 100 yards from a fort. The Marine 
detachment fought its way forward to a 
good position which it maintained dur- 
ing the night, although subjected to a 
continuous fire from the Cacos. At day- 
break the Marines in three squads under 
the command of Capt. Upshur, Lt, Oster- 
man and Gy. Sgt. Daly advanced in three 
different directions surprising and scat- 
tering the enemy in all directions. Had 
one squad failed, not one man of the 
party would have lived to tell the tale. 
Gy. Sgt. Daly, 15th Co., during the opera- 
tions was the most conspicuous figure 
among the enlisted men/* In the years 
that followed, Dan Daly's service in- 
cluded sea duty aboard the USS Newark, 
Panther, Cleveland, Marietta, Mississippi, 
Ohio, and Machias, In addition, he saw 
combat in China and Haiti. During 
WWI, Daly served in combat in the 
Toulon sector (Mar.-May 1918); the 
Aisne Operations (June 1918); and the 
Chateau-Thierry sector (Belleau Wood, 
June 1918). On June 5, at the risk of his 
life, he extinguished a fire in the ammu- 
nition dump at Lucy le Boeage, Two days 
later, while the same sector was under 
one of its heaviest bombardments, Daly 
visited all machine gun crews of his com- 
pany, which were over a wide section of 
the front, to cheer on his men, On June 
10, singlehandcd, he attacked an enemy 
machine gun emplacement, capturing it 
with hand grenades and an automatic 
pistol. On the same date, during an 
enemy attack on the village of Boures- 
ches, he brought in wounded under 
heavy fire. Daly is perhaps best remem- 
bered for a famous battle cry delivered 
during the bloody fighting at Belleau 



52 



D A M A I O 



DAVIS 



Wood in June 1918. The Marines were 
taking a terrific pounding on the outskirts 
of Lucy le Bocage on the fringe of Bel- 
leau Wood. They were outnumbered, 
outgunned, and pinned down. Then Daly 
made history. He ordered an attack. 
Leaping forward, he allegedly yelled to 
his tired men, "Come on, you sons of 
bitches, do you want to live forever?" 
Daly also served in the St.-Mihiel offen- 
sive (Sept. 1918). He was wounded in 
action on June 21 and twice on Oct. 8, 
1918. He then served with the American 
Army of Occupation in Germany follow- 
ing the Armistice. In 1919, he was placed 
on the retainer list of the Fleet Marine 
Corps Reserve, awaiting retirement. He 
took a job as a bank guard on Wall 
Street, New York City, and held the po- 
sition for 17 years. Daly was retired 
officially on Feb. 6, 1929. After his death 
in 1937, a destroyer was named for him. 
His record as a fighting man remains un- 
equalled in the annals of Marine Corps 
history. 

DAMATO, Anthony Peter. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Shenandoah, Pa., 
Mar. 28, 1922; d. KIA, Engebi Island, 
Eniwetok Atoll. Anthony Damato enlisted 
in the Marine Corps on Jan. 8, 1942. He 
distinguished himself during the first 
year of his enlistment, and was advanced 
in rate for especially meritorious conduct 
in action while serving aboard ship at 
Arzeau, Algeria, Nov. 8, 1942; he landed 
with an assault wave entering the port 
from seaward and assisted in boarding 
and seizing vessels in the harbor as well 
as the seizure of the port. He returned 
to the States in Mar. 1943, and three 
months later sailed for Pacific duty. As a 
member of the 22nd Mar. Regt, on the 
night of Feb. 19, 1944, on Engebi Island, 
he was crouched in a foxhole with two 
comrades when a Japanese threw in a 



grenade. His citation reads in part: "Real- 
izing the imminent peril to all three and 
fully aware of the consequences of his 
act, he unhesitatingly flung himself on 
the grenade and, although instantly killed 
as his body absorbed the explosion, saved 
the lives of his two companions." 

DAVENPORT, Jack Arden. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Kansas City, Mo., 
Sept. 7, 1931; d. KIA, Songnae-Dong, 
Korea, Sept. 21, 1951. Cpl. Davenport's 
citation reads, in part: "... while serving 
as a Squad Leader in Co. G, 3rd Bn., 5th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in the 
vicinity of Songnae-Dong, Korea... while 
expertly directing the defense of his po- 
sition during a probing attack by hostile 
forces attempting to infiltrate the area, 
Cpl. Davenport, acting quickly when an 
enemy grenade fell into the foxhole which 
he was occupying with another Marine, 
skillfully located the deadly projectile 
in the dark and, undeterred by the per- 
sonal risk involved, heroically threw him- 
self over the live missile, thereby saving 
his companion from serious injury or pos- 
sible death " 

DAVIS, Henry W. Private. See Murray, 
William H. 

DAVIS, Raymond Gilbert. Colonel. 
Medal of Honor: b. Fitzgerald, Ga., Jan. 
13, 1915. Raymond Davis graduated in 
1933 from Atlanta Technical High School, 
Atlanta, Ga. He then entered the Geor- 
gia School of Technology, graduating in 
1938 with a Bachelor of Science degree 
in chemical engineering. While in col- 
lege he was a member of the ROTC unit. 
After graduation, he resigned his com- 
mission in the U.S. Army Infantry Re- 
serve to accept appointment as a Marine 
second lieutenant on June 27, 1938. In 



53 



DAVIS 



D A V 8 S 



May 1939, Lt, Davis completed the Ma- 
rine Officers' Basic School at the Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard, and began a year of 
service with the Marine Detachment on 
board the USS Portland in the Pacific. 
He returned to shore duty in July 1940 
for weapons and artillery instruction at 
Quantico, Va. ? and Aberdeen, Md. Com- 
pleting the training in Feb. 1941, Davis 
was assigned to the 1st Antiaircraft Ma- 
chine Gun Battery of the 1st Mar. Div. 
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. He returned 
to the States with the unit in Apr., and 
the following month was appointed Bat- 
tery Executive Officer, serving in that 
capacity at Parris Is., S.C., and Quantico. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
Aug. 1941. In Sept. 1941, he moved with 
the battery to the Marine Barracks, New 
River (later Camp Lejeune), N.C, Upon 
his promotion to captain in Feb. 1942, 
he was named Battery Commander. Dur- 
ing WW II, he participated in the 
Guadalcanal-Tulagi landings, the capture 
and defense of Guadalcanal, the Eastern 
New Guinea and Cape Gloucester cam- 
paigns, and the Peleliu operation. Em- 
barking for the Pacific area with his unit 
in June 1942, he took part in combat on 
Guadalcanal from Aug. 1942, to Feb. 
1943. Following that campaign, he was 
appointed Executive Officer of the 1st 
Special Weapons Bn., 1st Mar. Div. He 
was promoted to major in Mar. 1943. In 
Oct. 1943, he became commander of the 
1st Special Weapons Bn., and served in 
that capacity at New Guinea and Cape 
Gloucester. In Apr. 1944, while on Cape 
Gloucester, he was named CO, 1st Bn., 
1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. Maj. Davis' 
action while commanding the 1st Bn. at 
Peleliu in Sept. 1944 earned him the Navy 
Cross and the Purple Heart. Although 
wounded during the first hour of the 
Peleliu landing, he refused evacuation to 
remain with his men; and, on one occa- 



sion, when heavy Marine casualties and 
the enemy's point-blank cannon fire had 
enabled the Japanese to break through, 
he personally rallied and led his men in 
fighting to re-establish defensive posi- 
tions. In Oct. 1944, he returned to Pavuvu 
and was promoted to lieutenant colonel. 
Returning to the States in Nov. 1944, 
Davis was assigned to Quantico, as Tech- 
nical Inspector, MCS. He was named 
Chief of the Infantry Section, Marine 
Air-Infantry School, Quantico, in May 
1945, and served in that post for two 
years before returning to the Pacific area 
in July 1947 to serve with the 1st Prov, 
Mar. Brig, on Guam. Lt. Col. Davis was 
the 1st Brigade's Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3 (Operations and Training), until 
Aug. 1948, and from then until May 1949 
was Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 (Sup- 
ply). Upon his return from Guam in 
May 1949, he was named Inspector-In- 
structor of the 9th MCR Inf. Bn. at 
Chicago, 111. He served there until Aug. 
1950, when he embarked for Korea. In 
Korea, he commanded the 1st Bn., 7th 
Marines, from Aug. to Dec. 1950. In 
addition to receiving the Medal of Honor 
for action during that period, he twice 
earned the Silver Star Medal by exposing 
himself to heavy enemy fire while lead- 
ing and encouraging his men in the face 
of strong enemy opposition. He also re- 
ceived the Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V" for exceptionally meritorious conduct 
and professional skill in welding the 1st 
Bn. into a highly effective combat team. 
Later, as Executive Officer of the 7th 
Marines, from Dec. 1950 to June 1951, 
Lt. Col. Davis earned the Bronze Star 
Medal with Combat "V" for his part in 
rebuilding the regiment after the Chosin 
Reservoir campaign. He returned from 
Korea in June 1951. Ordered to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., he served as Assistant 
Officer in Charge of the Operations Sub- 



54 



DAY 



DE BLANC 



section, G-3, Division of Plans and Poli- 
cies, until Feb. 1952, when he took 
charge of the subsection. In Apr. 1953, 
he became Head of the Operations and 
Training Branch, G-3 Division. While 
serving in this capacity, he was promoted 
to colonel in Oct. 1953. The following 
July, Col. Davis entered the Special 
Weapons Employment Course, Fleet 
Training Center, Norfolk, under instruc- 
tion. In Sept. 1954, he entered the Senior 
Course, MCS, Quantico. On completing 
the course in June 1955, he served con- 
secutively as Assistant Director and, 
later, Director, of the Senior School. In 
Oct. 1957, Col. Davis was again trans- 
ferred to Washington, D.C., and served 
as Assistant G-2, HQMC, until Aug. 1959. 
The following June he completed the 
course at the National War College in 
Washington, prior to embarking for Eu- 
rope. In July I960, he assumed duty in 
Paris, France, on the Staff of the Com- 
mander in Chief, Europe, HQ, United 
States European Command. In July 1962, 
he was selected for promotion to briga- 
dier general by the Selection Board at 
HQMC. 

DAY, George L. Served under the name 
of ADAMS, John M. (q.v.) 

DE BLANC, Jefferson Joseph. Captain. 
Medal of Honor: b. Lockport, La., Feb. 
15, 1921. Jefferson De Blanc enlisted in 
the Naval Reserve as a seaman second 
class on July 29, 1941, and received 
elimination flight training at the Naval 
Reserve Aviation Base in New Orleans 
for two weeks before going to the NAS 
at Corpus Christi, Tex., to continue his 
training. His Naval enlistment was ter- 
minated on Oct. 15, 1941, and he was 
appointed an aviation cadet, USNR, on 
the following day. Commissioned a sec- 
ond lieutenant in the Marine Corps 



Reserve on May 4, 1942, Lt, De Blanc 
moved to San Diego to join Headquarters 
Squadron, 2nd MAW. In July, he was 
assigned to the Advance Carrier Training 
Group, where he remained under instruc- 
tion until Aug. 6. He was placed in the 
new pilot's pool until he joined Marine 
Fighting Squadron 112, MAG 11, of the 
1st MAW in Oct. Two weeks later he 
left for overseas and arrived at Guadal- 
canal on Nov. 1. On Jan. 31, 1943, he 
was flying over enemy-held Kolomban- 
gara Is. in the Solomons as a section 
leader of six fighter planes of Marine 
Fighting Squadron 112. Their mission 
was to escort a strike force of dive 
bombers and torpedo planes out to attack 
Japanese surface vessels. Leading his 
section directly to the target area, the 
lieutenant and the strike force encoun- 
tered a large number of Japanese Zeros 
protecting the enemy's surface craft. Im- 
mediately engaging the Zeros at 14,000 
feet, Lt. De Blanc aggressively coun- 
tered their repeated attempts to drive 
off the Marine bombers and waged 
fierce combat until he received a call for 
assistance from the dive bombers which 
were under attack at 1000 feet. Diving 
to that altitude, he plunged into the for- 
mation of enemy float planes and single- 
handedly disrupted their attack, thus 
enabling the Marine dive bombers to 
complete their runs on the enemy ships 
and to escape. His escort mission thus 
completed, Lt, De Blanc nevertheless 
remained on the scene, despite his rapidly 
diminishing fuel supply, and challenged 
the superior number of float planes. His 
aggressiveness against these tremendous 
odds paid off as he destroyed three of 
the enemy planes and dispersed the re- 
mainder. Preparing to maneuver his dam- 
aged plane back to Guadalcanal, the 
lieutenant had climbed aloft and set his 
course before he noticed two more Zeros 



55 



DE BLANC 



DEL VA 1L E 



closing in upon him from behind. In a 
short, bitterly fought contest, Lt. De 
Blanc sent two more Japanese planes 
crashing into the sea. However, his own 
plane was so badly damaged in the en- 
counter that the new Marine ace was 
forced to bail out at a perilously low alti- 
tude atop the trees of Japanese-held 
Kolombangara. Landing in the sea, Lt. 
De Blanc discovered that he was badly 
wounded in the back, arms, and legs and 
that he was a long way from shore. Sup- 
ported only by his life jacket, he headed 
for the beach. After six hours in the water 
he crawled up on the enemy beach, and 
for more than two days subsisted on co- 
conuts while his wounds went unattend- 
ed. He was found by a party of friendly 
natives who hid him and cared for him. 
The coast-watcher in that locality was 
notified and immediately started trying 
to contact the Allied authorities by clan- 
destine radio. After 15 days on Kolom- 
bangara, one of the Navy PBYs landed 
on the surf off the island and the natives 
paddled Lt. De Blanc out to it in a canoe. 
He was flown back to his base and to the 
hospital. Lt. De Blanc had been pro- 
moted to first lieutenant on Dec. 19, 
1942, and he was further advanced to 
captain on June 1, 1943. He was trans- 
ferred to Marine Fighting Squadron 122, 
also of MAG 11, in July, and his return 
to the States followed about six weeks 
later. Assigned to Headquarters Squad- 
ron 41, Marine Base Defense Air Group 
41, MCAS, El Toro, Santa Ana, Calif., 
he remained in that unit until Dec. 1943, 
when he was transferred to HQ Squad- 
ron of MAG 32. Two months later he 
rejoined Marine Base Defense Air Group 
41. After one month with them, the cap- 
tain was assigned to Marine Fighting 
Squadron 461, Marine Base Defense Air 
Group 43, at El Centro, Calif. In Nov. 
1944, Capt. De Blanc embarked upon his 



second tour of overseas service. He joined 
Marine Fighting Squadron 422 in the 
Marshall Is. and remained in that area 
until May 1945, when he flew northward 
to participate in the Okinawa campaign 
with Marine Fighting Squadron 212. He 
continued operating in the Ryukyus un- 
til the end of the war, bagging one more 
Japanese plane to raise his total to nine. 
He returned to the States again in Oct. 
and was detached to the NAS at Seattle, 
Wash. Capt. De Blanc's relief from active 
duty occurred on Dec. 31, 1945. On Dec. 
6, 1946, Capt. De Blanc was awarded 
the Medal of Honor at the White House. 




Del Valle 

DEL VALLE, Pedro A. Lieutenant Gen- 
eral (Retired), CG, 1st Mar. Div. during 
the attack and occupation of Okinawa, 



56 



DEL VA III 



EN I G 



Apr. 1 to July 21, 1945: b. San Juan, 
Puerto Rico, Aug. 28, 1893. Upon grad- 
uation from the U.S. Naval Academy in 
June 1915, Pedro Del Valle was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant on 
June 5, 1915. After finishing a course of 
instruction at the Marine Officers' School, 
Norfolk, Va., he went on foreign shore 
duty with the 1st Prov. Mar. Brig, in the 
Republic of Haiti. In May 1916, he land- 
ed from the USS Prairie and participated 
in the capture of Santo Domingo City 
and the subsequent campaign in the Re- 
public of Santo Domingo. A tour of sea 
duty followed ks CO, Marine Detach- 
ment, USS Texas, serving with the British 
Grand Fleet under Admiral Beatty dur- 
ing the surrender of the German High 
Seas Fleet. In Feb. 1919, he was detached 
to the MB, Quantico, Va. After another 
tour of sea duty, on this occasion aboard 
the USS Wyoming, he was assigned as 
Aide-de-Camp to Maj. Gen. J. H. Pen- 
dleton and accompanied the general in 
an inspection tour of the West Indies. 
In 1924, he went to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C. While stationed there he was Ma- 
rine Corps Representative on the Federal 
Traffic Board. In 1926, he was ordered to 
foreign shore duty with the Gendarmerie 
d' Haiti for three years and upon his re- 
turn to the States in 1928, attended the 
Field Officers' Course at the MCS, Quan- 
tico, Va. Upon graduation he became an 
instructor, then served on temporary duty 
with the U.S. Electoral Mission in Nica- 
ragua. After a tour of sea duty as Squad- 
ron Marine Officer on board the USS 
Richmond, during which tour he partici- 
pated in the operations resulting from 
the Cuban Revolution in 1933, he was 
ordered to HQMC. From Oct. 1935, to 
June 1937, he was Assistant Naval At- 
tach6, attached to the American Embassy 
at Rome, Italy, and on duty as an ob- 
server with the Italian Forces during the 



Ethiopian War. He returned to the States 
to attend the Army War College, Wash- 
ington, D.C., and, following graduation, 
was assigned to HQMC where he was 
Executive Officer, Division of Plans and 
Policies. He became CO, llth Marines 
(Artillery) in Mar. 1941. He was serving 
in this capacity when the U.S. entered 
WWII. He remained as the regiment's 
CO, and led it overseas in 1942, partici- 
pating in the seizure and defense of 
Guadalcanal as part of the 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinforced) from Aug. 7 to Dec. 9, of 
that year. From May to July 1943, he 
served as Commander of Marine Forces 
(less aviation), on Guadalcanal, Tulagi, 
Russell, and Florida Is. He returned to 
the States to become President of the 
Marine Corps Equipment Board. He 
went again to the Pacific in Apr. 1944, 
this time as CG, 3rd Corps Artillery, 3rd 
Amphibious Corps, and took part in the 
Guam operation in July and Aug. of 1944. 
He became CG, 1st Mar. Div. and was 
awarded a Distinguished Service Medal 
for his leadership of that organization on 
Okinawa from Apr. 1 to July 1945. At 
war's end, he was ordered back to HQMC 
to become Inspector General and was 
assigned duties as the Director of Per- 
sonnel, Oct. 1, 1946, a post which he held 
until his retirement. He was transferred 
to the retired list on Jan. 1, 1948. Having 
been specially commended for the per- 
formance of duty in combat, he was 
advanced to lieutenant general on the 
retired list. His retirement climaxed more 
than 30 years of active service. 

DENIG, J. Henry. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. York, Pa., 1839. Sgt. Denig's 
citation reads, in part: "... on board the 
USS Brooklyn, during action against 
rebel forts and gunboats and with the 
ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 
1864, Despite severe damage to his ship 



57 



DEVEREUX 



DEVBRiUX 



and the loss of several men on board as 
enemy fire raked her decks, Sgt, Denig 
fought his gun with skill and courage 
throughout the furious two-hour battle 
which resulted in the surrender of the 
rebel ram Tennessee and in the damag- 
ing and destruction of batteries at Fort 
Morgan. . . ." 




Devereux 

DEVEREUX, James P. S, Brigadier Gen- 
eral (Retired). CO of the Wake Detach- 
ment, 1st Defense Bn., during the heroic 
but futile defense of Wake Island from 
Dec. 8 to 23, 1941: b. Cabana, Cuba, Feb. 
20, 1903. James Devereux attended the 
Army and Navy Preparatory School in 
Washington, D.C. and, later, La Villa at 
Lausanne, Switzerland. He enlisted in 
the Marine Corps in July 1923, was com- 
missioned a second lieutenant in Feb. 



1925, then was assigned to duty in Nor- 
folk; Philadelphia; the MB, Quantico, 
Va.; and at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In 

1926, he was detailed to the mail guard 
detachment in New York, and later was 
transferred to the force of Marines in 
Nicaragua as a company officer. Return- 
ing to the States early in 1927, he was 
assigned to the USS Utah and subse- 
quently was transferred ashore again to 
Nicaragua. Shortly thereafter he was or- 
dered to the Orient, and while in China 
was promoted to first lieutenant. Other 
duty in China included command of the 
Mounted Detachment of the Legation 
Guard at Peking, An expert horseman, 
Devereux has always been associated 
with mounted activities at stations where 
he had been assigned. In 1933, following 
a year's tour of duty at Quantico, he was 
assigned to the Coast Artillery School at 
Fort Monroe, Va. Following his promo- 
tion to captain in Dec. 1935, he was or- 
dered back to Quantico where, until 
1936, he instructed in the Base Defense 
Weapons School and aided in the prep- 
aration of a Marine Corps manual on 
Base Defense Weapons. This knowledge 
was most useful later on the wind-swept 
coral atoll known as Wake Island. Fol- 
lowing a tour of duty with the Marine 
Detachment on board the USS Utah, 
Devereux was transferred to the MCB, 
San Diego, Calif., in 1938. In Jan. 1941, 
he was ordered to Pearl Harbor and later 
assumed command of the 449 Marines on 
Wake Island who, after a bitter struggle, 
surrendered to the Japanese on Dec. 23, 
1941. While a prisoner of the Japanese, 
he was selected for promotion to lieuten- 
ant colonel, but it was announced that 
men who were listed as prisoners of v^ar 
would not be able to assume their new 
rank. Thus, it was not until shortly after 
his repatriation that his new rank be- 
came effective. He was promoted to colo- 



58 



D E W I Y 



Dl AMON D 



nel in Jan. 1946, to rank from Nov. 10, 
1942, in order to assume his rightful 
place on the lineal list together with his 
contemporaries. Upon returning to the 
States following his release from prison 
camp in Hokkaido, Col. Devereux was 
ordered to HQMC in Washington to nar- 
rate his personal account of the defense 
of Wake for the CMC. He was given a 
rehabilitation leave, and late in 1945 he 
was ordered to the MCS, Quantico, Va. 
Later, from Sept. 1946 to May 1947, he 
was assigned as a student in the Senior 
Course, Amphibious Warfare School at 
Quantico. Upon completion of his studies 
he was detached to the 1st Mar. Div. at 
Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, Calif., and 
was serving with that organization when 
he concluded his brilliant 25-year career 
on Aug. 1, 1948. Devereux was advanced 
to his present rank of brigadier general 
upon retirement in accordance with law, 
having been specially commended for 
the performance of duty in actual combat. 

DEWEY, Duane Edgar. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Grand Rapids, Mich., Nov. 
16, 1931. CpL Dewey's citation reads, in 
part: "... as a Gunner in a machine gun 
platoon of Co. E, 2nd Bn., 5th Marines, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces near Panmunjom, 
Korea, on Apr. 16, 1952. When an enemy 
grenade landed close to his position while 
he and his assistant gunner were receiv- 
ing medical attention for their wounds 
during a fierce night attack by numerically 
superior hostile forces, Cpl. Dewey, al- 
though suffering intense pain, immediate- 
ly pulled the corpsman to the ground 
and, shouting a warning to the other 
Marines around him, bravely smothered 
the deadly missile with his body, per- 
sonally absorbing the full force of the 
explosion to save his comrades from pos- 
sible injury or death . . . ." He was hos- 



pitalized for 50 days after the action and 
was released from active duty on Aug. 
19, 1952. 




Diamond 

DIAMOND, Leland. "Lou." Master Gun- 
nery Sergeant, One of the most famous 
of all "Old Breed" Marines, Lou Diamond 
represents the legend of a colorful chap- 
ter of Marine Corps tradition and history: 
b. Bedford, Ohio, May 30, 1890; d. Great 
Lakes Naval Training Center Hospital, 
Sept. 20, 1951. Although Diamond first 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at the age 
of 27 somewhat older than most re- 
cruits the difference never was notice- 
able. His salty, hard-driving personality 
soon expressed itself in both word and 
deed. Because of the incredible voice 
which matched his 5-foot, 11-inch, 200- 
pound frame, Lou was once dubbed "The 



59 



DIAMOND 



D 8 A M N D 



Honker/' Though cool in training and 
battle, he was rarely quiet. According to 
his WWI buddies, "The tougher the 
action, the louder Lou would yell." Many 
of his comrades at Guadalcanal consid- 
ered him "a human air-raid warning sys- 
tem." Although in the military service, 
Diamond lived informally, going hatless 
and wearing dungarees practically every- 
where. He even accepted one of his 
decorations in dungarees. When receiv- 
ing the citation awarded him in Australia 
by Gen. A. A. Vandegrift, Lou looked 
the general in the eye and said, "I made 
my landing in dungarees guess they're 
good enough to get my commendation 
in." Self-confidence, even cockiness, was 
one of the sergeant's outstanding charac- 
teristics. He considered anybody with 
less than ten years in the Corps a "boot." 
While he bawled out recruits who some- 
times instinctively saluted him, he him- 
self frequently failed to salute less than 
a field grade officer. Opportunities to 
apply for a commission were rejected 
by the grizzled campaigner, who ex- 
plained that "nobody can make a gentle- 
man out of me." Though not a "spit- 
and-polish" Marine, Diamond proved 
himself an expert with both 60- and 
81-mm. mortars, his accurate fire being 
credited as the turning point of many an 
engagement in the Pacific during WWII. 
Diamond enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Detroit, Mich., July 25, 1917, listing as 
his former occupation "railroad switch- 
man." As a corporal in Jan. 1918, he 
shipped out from Philadelphia aboard 
the USS Von Stuben bound for Brest, 
France. He saw action with the 6th Ma- 
rines in the battles at Chateau-Thierry, 
Belleau Wood, the Aisne-Marne, St.-Mi- 
hiel and the Meuse-Argonne. Promoted 
to the grade of sergeant, he marched to 
the Rhine with the Army of Occupation. 
At war's end, he returned to the States, 



disembarked at Hoboken, N.J., and on 
Aug. 13, 1919, received an honorable dis- 
charge from the Corps. But railroading 
and civilian life in general did not suit 
Lou's fancy, and on Sept. 23, 1921, Lou 
again walked into a Marine recruiting 
office. Promotions were rapid for him and 
while serving as Assistant Armorer at 
Parris Is., S.C., in Feb. 1925, he regained 
his sergeant's stripes. But Lou itched for 
more action and he soon got it in 
Shanghai with Company M, 3rd Bn., 4th 
Mar. Regt. However, the Sino-Japanese 
controversy, in Lou's opinion, was "not 
much of a war," and on June 10, 1933, he 
returned to the States, disembarking from 
the USS Henderson at Mare Island, Calif. 
By then a gunnery sergeant, Diamond re- 
turned to Shanghai with his old outfit, 
the 4th Marines, ten months later; was 
transferred to the 2nd Marines in Dec. 
1934; and returned to the States in Feb. 
1937. Two years after his promotion to 
master gunnery sergeant, July 10, 1939, 
he was assigned to the Depot of Supplies 
at Philadelphia to help design a new in- 
fantry pack Following the Japanese at- 
tack at Pearl Harbor, Lou shipped out to 
Guadalcanal with H Co., 2nd Bn. ? 5th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div., arriving at the 
beaches Aug. 7, 1942, He was then 52 
years old. Among the many fables con- 
cerning his "'Canal" service is the tale 
that he lobbed a mortar shell down the 
smoke stack of an off-shore Japanese 
cruiser. It is considered possible, how- 
ever, that he actually drove the cruiser 
from the bay with his harassing "near- 
misses." An indication of Sgt Diamond's 
value to the Corps is found in a letter of 
commendation for "outstanding perform- 
ance of duty on Tulagi and Guadalcanal," 
from Gen. A. A. Vandegrift, Commander 
of the 1st Mar. Div., and later CMC. The 
letter states in part: "To every man in 
your company you were a counselor, an 



60 



D I C K SO N 



DOBBIN 



arbiter of disputes, and an ideal Marine. 
Your matchless loyalty and love of the 
Marine Corps and all it stands for, are 
known to hundreds of officers and men 
of this Division, and will serve as an 
inspiration to them on all the battlefields 
on which this Division may in the fu- 
ture be engaged." After two months on 
Guadalcanal, physical disabilities dictated 
Lou's evacuation by air against his wishes. 
He was moved to the New Hebrides and 
later to a hospital in New Zealand, where 
he proved to be a somewhat obstreperous 
patient. Somehow, he acquired orders to 
board a supply ship for New Caledonia, 
where a friend ordered him back to 
Guadalcanal the supposed location of 
his old outfit. Upon his arrival, however, 
Diamond discovered that the 1st Mar. 
Div. had shipped out to Australia, a dis- 
tance of over 1,500 miles. Lou made the 
trip, without orders, by "bumming" rides 
on planes, ships and trains. But Diamond 
was destined to see no more combat. On 
July 1, 1943, he disembarked from the 
USS Hermitage at San Pedro, Calif., and 
12 days later was made an instructor at 
the Recruit Depot, Parris Is., S.C. He was 
transferred to Camp Lejeune on June 15, 
1945, and joined the 5th Training Bn. 
with the same duties, A familiar sight in 
the early morning on the company street 
thereafter was "Old Lou," standing with 
watch in hand and whistle in mouth, 
awaiting the first note of reveille to break 
the men out. M. Gy. Sgt. Leland Dia- 
mond retired on Nov. 23, 1945, and re- 
turned to his home in Toledo, Ohio. His 
death at the Great Lakes Naval Training 
Center Hospital, Sept. 20, 1951, was fol- 
lowed by a funeral, with full military 
honors, at Sylvania, Ohio. 

DICKSON, Donald Lester. Colonel. Ma- 
rine Corps artist: b. Cambridge, Mass., 
Jan. 28, 1906. While attending the art 



school of the Worcester, Mass. Museum, 
Donald Dickson enlisted in the Army 
Reserve on Dec. 17, 1924. Before his first 
enlistment was completed, he transferred 
to an organized MCR unit in Boston in 
1927. He continued to serve with this 
unit, going through all the ranks from 
private to first lieutenant, until the unit 
was mobilized on Nov. 8, 1940. He re- 
mained with the unit until it arrived in 
Cuba and was then transferred to the 
1st Mar. Div. With the division he went 
ashore on Guadalcanal on Aug. 7, 1942 
as R-l with the staff of the 5th Marines. 
He was ordered back to the States on 
Nov. 28, 1942, after the national release 
of his drawings and paintings made on 
Guadalcanal which had appeared in Life 
Magazine and other publications. Prior 
to WWII, Dickson's "Stony Craig" had 
become a familiar and widely read, in- 
ternationally syndicated adventure strip. 
In June 1942, he sailed for Pearl Harbor 
and was assigned to work with CINPaC 
as Public Relations Officer and on the 
preparation of coverage of Marine opera- 
tions in the central Pacific. He participated 
in landings on the Marshalls, Saipan, 
and Tinian. He returned to the States 
on Nov. 5, 1944, and was assigned to 
the Northeastern Procurement Division 
as Public Relations Officer. He remained 
with this organization until Feb. 1945, 
when he was released from active duty 
as a lieutenant colonel. He returned to ci- 
vilian life and accepted a position with the 
Curtis Publishing Company. On June 23, 
1951, he was recalled to active duty, pro- 
moted to colonel, and assigned as Editor- 
Publisher of Leatherneck Magazine. 

DOBBIN, John Francis. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Assistant Wing Commander, 1st 
MAW, Iwakuni, Japan (1963): b. Bos- 
ton, Mass., May 1, 1912. After completing 
high school in Boston in 1929, John Dob- 



61 



DOBBIN 



DOBBIN 



bin entered Boston College from which 
he was graduated with a Bachelor of Arts 
degree in 1933. In June 1934, he enlisted 
in the Naval Reserve and, after serving 
as a seaman second class, was an aviation 
cadet for one year. He was discharged 
from the Naval Reserve to accept a com- 
mission in the Marine Corps on July 8, 
1936. In Sept. 1936, after a period as a stu- 
dent aviator at Pensacola, Fla., Lt. Dobbin 
was designated a naval aviator and trans- 
ferred to Marine Barracks, Quantico, 
Va., as Assistant Squadron Operations 
Officer. He attended Basic School at 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard from July 
1937 to June 1938, then joined Scouting 
Squadron 3 in the Virgin Islands. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Aug. 1939. 
He departed from the Virgin Islands in 
May 1940. The following month he joined 
a Marine fighter squadron at San Diego, 
Calif., later moving with it to Ewa, Oahu, 
Hawaii. After the outbreak of WWII, he 
served as a squadron executive officer in 
the Hawaiian Islands and at Midway. He 
was promoted to captain in Jan. 1942, 
and to major in Aug. 1942. Maj. Dobbin 
flew with Marine Fighting Squadron 224, 
1st MAW, at Guadalcanal and elsewhere 
in the Solomon Is. He was declared a 
Marine Corps "ace" in Oct. 1942. In Jan. 
1943, he returned to the States for duty 
as a flight instructor at the Naval Air 
Station, Jacksonville, Fla. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel in Dec. 1943. 
In June 1944, Lt. Col. Dobbin was as- 
signed to Cherry Point, N.C., as Opera- 
tions Officer of the 9th MAW. That Oct. 
he became CO of Marine Carrier Air 
Group 1 attached to the aircraft carrier 
USS Block Island in the Pacific and on 
Saipan and Okinawa. He came back to 
the States in Nov. 1945. He was stationed 
briefly at the MCAS, Santa Barbara, 
Calif., and in Jan. 1946, was transferred 
to MCAS, Cherry Point, as a squadron 



officer and, later, Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-4. He left there in Nov. 1947, to serve 
for almost three years as Aviation Ma- 
teriel Officer and Assistant Logistics Of- 
ficer, G-4 Section, Division of Plans and 
Policies at HQMC, Washington, D.C. In 
July 1950, with the outbreak of hostilities 
in Korea, Lt, Col. Dobbin was ordered 
to the MCAS, El Toro, Calif. He served 
there as CO of Marine Training Squadron 
2, Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, from Aug. 1950 
until Mar. 1951, and briefly as CO, MAG 
13. In Nov. 1951, he reported to London, 
England, for duty under instruction in 
the United Kingdom Joint Services Staff 
College. He was promoted to colonel in 
Dec. 1951. On completing the course in 
May 1952, Col. Dobbin returned to the 
States and was assigned duty at the 
MCAS, Quantico, as CO, Marine Corps 
Aviation Technical School, and Execu- 
tive Officer, MCAS respectively. The 
following Sept. he entered the Senior 
Course, MCS, Quantico, completing the 
course in June 1954. From July 1954 to 
June 1955, he served in the Far East as 
commander of MWSG 17, 1st MAW, 
Japan. Following his return to the States, 
he was assigned in Aug. 1955, as a stu- 
dent in the National War College, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Upon graduation in June 
1956, he served with the Joint Operations 
Analysis Group for two months and in 
Aug. 1956 joined the Weapons Systems 
Evaluation Group, Institute of Defense 
Analysis, Office of the Assistant Secretary 
of Defense ( Research and Development) , 
He remained in Washington until June 
1958, when he was assigned as a student 
in the Helicopter Training Group at 
Pensacola. After completing the course 
in Aug. 1958, Col. Dobbin served as As- 
sistant to the Commanding General, and 
later as CO, MAG 36, 3rd MAW, Marine 
Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, Calif. In 
Nov. 1959, he assumed duties as Assistant 




Continental Marine Private, 1775 Marine Private, 1812 



Marine Private, Indian Wars, 1836 




ri 
full dress uniform 



Marine Musician, Mexican War, 1846 Marine Second Lieutenant, undress 

uniform, 18594868 






ym> f s , 

sfv^d'',, 




Marine Private, undress uniform, Marine Private, full dress uniform, Marine Private, field service uniform, 
1859-1868 1875 1900 




Marine Second Lieutenant, fatigue Marine Private, field service uni- Marine Corps Officer in dress blue 
uniform, 1900 form, 1917 uniform 



Ribbons of Decorations and Authorized for Wear by 

U.S. Personnel 



Him MWI 







Row i Navy and/or Army Medal of Honor. Marine Corps Brevet Medal. Navy Cross. Army Distinguished Service Cross. 
Navy Distinguished Service Medal. 

Row 2 Army Distinguished Service Medal. Silver Star Medal. Legion of Merit. Distinguished Flying Cross. Navy and 
Marine Corps Medal. 

Row 3 Army Soldiers Medal. Bronze Star Medal. Air Medal. Navy Commendation Ribbon. Army Commendation Medal. 

Row 4 Navy Commendation for Achievement. Purple Heart. Specially Meritorious Medal. Presidential Unit Citation. 
Army Distinguished Unit Emblem. 

Row 5 Navy Unit Commendation Ribbon. Gold Life Saving Medal. Silver Life Saving Medal. Reserve Special Com- 
mendation Ribbon. Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal. 

Row 6 Navy Good Conduct Medal. Army Good Conduct Medal. Coast Guard Good Conduct Medal. Organized Marine 
Corps Reserve Medal. Naval Reserve Medal. 

Row 7 Dewey Medal. Sampson Medal. Peary Polar Expedition Medal. NC-4 Medal. Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal 
(1928-30) 

Row 8 Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal (1933-35). U. S. Antarctic Expedition Medal (1939-41). Civil War Campaign 
Medaf. Expeditionary Medal. Spanish Campaign Medal. 

Row 9 Spanish War Service Medal. Army of Cuban Occupation Medal. Army of Puerto Rican Occupation Medal Philip- 
pine Campaign Medal. Philippine Congressional Medal. 

Row 10 China Relief Expedition Medal. Cuban Pacification Medal. Nicaraguan Campaign Medal (1912) Haitian Cam- 
paign Medal (1915 & 1919-20). Mexican Border Service Medal. 

Row 11 Dominican Campaign Medal. Victory Medal World War I. Army-Navy Occupation of Germany Medal (1918-23) 
Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal. Mexican Service Medal. 

Row 12 Yangtze Service Medal. China Service Medal (1937-39 & Sept, 1945-). American Defense Service Medal Ameri- 
can Campaign Medal. European-African Middle Eastern Campaign Medal. 

Row 13 Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal. Victory Medal World War II. Army-Navy Occupation Service Medal. National 
Defense Service Medal. Korean Service Medal. 

Row 14 Antarctica Service Medal. Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal. Marine Corps Reserve Ribbon. Armed Forces 
Reserve Medal. United Nations Ribbon. 

Row 15: Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal. Merchant Marine Meritorious Service Medal. Merchant Marine 
Gallant Ship Unit Citation. Merchant Marine Mariners Medal. Merchant Combay Bar 

Row IS Merchant Marine Defense Bar. Merchant Marine Atlantic War Zone. Merchant Marine Mediterranean Middle 
East War Zone. Merchant Marine Pacific War Zone. Philippine Defense Ribbon 

Row 17 -A p J? FI ,' f iP'"* e r^ b * e - rati0 w- R'bbon Philippine Independence Ribbon. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Korean 
Presidential Unit Citation. Viet-Nam Presidential Unit Citation. 

Ribbons Courtesy of Hilborn-Hamberger, New York, N. Y. 

Photo Copyright Franklin Watts, Inc. Reproducable only by permission of Franklin Watts, Inc. 



DOUGHERTY 



D U N L A P 



Wing Commander, 3rd MAW, MCAS, 
El Toro. While serving in this capacity, 
he also saw temporary duty as Chief of 
Staff, 3rd Prov. Mar. Brig., Camp Pendle- 
ton, from Feb. through May 1960, at 
which time he returned to El Toro. Sub- 
sequently, he served as Chief of Staff, 
3rd Wing, until Apr. 1961, when he again 
assumed duties as Assistant Wing Com- 
mander. While serving in this capacity, 
he was promoted to his present rank of 
brigadier general in July 1961. Following 
his detachment from the 3rd MAW, Gen. 
Dobbin assumed his current duties as 
Assistant Wing Commander, 1st MAW, 
Iwakuni, Japan, in Jan. 1962. 

DOUGHERTY, James. Private. Medal 
of Honor; b. Langhash, Ireland, Nov. 16, 
1839. James Dougherty enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa. on July 
30, 1869. His citation reads, in part: 
"... on board the USS Benecia . . . attack 
on and capture of the Korean forts, June 
11, 1871 ... for seeking out and killing 
the commanding officer of the Korean 
forces. , . " 

DUNLAP, Robert Hugo. Major. Medal 
of Honor: b. Abingdon, 111., Oct. 20, 1920. 
Following graduation from high school 
Robert Dunlap entered Monmouth Col- 
lege at Monmouth, 111., where he was a 
prominent football player and trackman. 
He was graduated in May 1942, with a 
Bachelor of Arts degree. He enlisted in 
the Marine Corps on Mar. E> ? 1942, while 
still a student at Monmouth, and was 
promoted to private first class at that 
time. He was placed on the inactive list 
with the Platoon Leaders' Unit of the 
9th Reserve District until his graduation. 
Called to active duty in May 1942, he 
was transferred to the Candidate's Class 
at Quantico, Va. He was discharged as 
an enlisted man on July 17, and received 



his second lieutenancy the next day. 
Following Reserve Officers Class at Quan- 
tico, Dunlap requested parachute train- 
ing and was ordered to the Parachute 
Training School at Camp Gillespie, San 
Diego, Calif. He was designated a para- 
chutist on Nov. 23, 1942, and in Dec. 
was assigned to the 3rd Parachute Bn. 
Advanced to first lieutenant in Apr. 1943, 
he took part in the invasions of Vella La 
Vella and Bougainville in the Solomon 
Is. during the latter part of 1943. During 
the Iwo campaign, Dunlap led his com- 
pany through a hail of artillery, mortar, 
rifle, and machine gun fire in a deter- 
mined advance from low ground uphill 
toward the steep cliffs from which the 
enemy poured a devastating rain of bul- 
lets and shrapnel. It was the day follow- 
ing the original landing on Feb. 19, 1945. 
Finally, when the volume of enemy fire 
became too intense to advance any far- 
ther toward the caves located high to the 
front, Dunlap held up his company and 
crawled alone approximately 200 yards 
forward of his front lines. From his posi- 
tion at the base of the cliff, about 50 
yards from the Japanese lines, the major 
spotted the enemy gun positions and, re- 
turning to his own lines, relayed the vital 
information to the supporting artillery 
and naval gunfire units. Persistently dis- 
regarding his own safety, he then placed 
himself in an exposed vantage point to 
direct more accurate supporting fire. He 
worked without respite for two days and 
two nights under constant enemy fire, 
skillfully directing a smashing bombard- 
ment against the almost impregnable 
enemy positions. He returned to the States 
in Mar. 1944, to join the 5th Mar. Div. 
then being formed at Camp Pendleton, 
Oceanside, Calif. The veteran officer be- 
came a machine gun platoon leader in 
G Co. of the 3rd Bn., 26th Marines. He 
departed for overseas for the second time 



63 



DYER 



D Y E S S 



in the summer of 1944, and on Oct. 2, 
1944 ? was promoted to captain. With his 
new rank he became CO, C Co., 1st Bn., 
26th Marines, in which capacity he was 
serving when he won the Medal of Honor 
at Iwo Jima. On Feb. 26, 1945, Maj. 
Dunlap caught a bullet in the left hip. 
He was evacuated from Iwo Jima and 
subsequently became a patient at the 
U. S. Naval Hospitals at Guam, Pearl 
Harbor, San Francisco, and Great Lakes, 
111. Hospitalized for nearly 14 months, 
Maj. Dunlap was discharged from the 
Great Lakes Naval Hospital on Apr. 20, 
1946. He went on inactive duty in Sept. 
1946, and was then retired. 

DYER, Jesse Farley. Brigadier General. 
Medal of Honor: b. St. Paul, Minn., Dec. 
2, 1877; d. U.S. Naval Hospital, Corona, 
Calif., Mar. 31, 1955. Jesse Dyer served 
with the 13th Minnesota Inf. during the 
Spanish-American War. He was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant in 
1903. Before action at Vera Cruz, for 
which he was awarded the Medal of 
Honor, he served at sea and in the Philip- 
pines, Cuba, and Panama. During WWI 
he was Aide to the Governor of the Virgin 
Islands. After that he served on expedi- 
tionary duty in Haiti and China during 
die 1920s and early '30s. Before he re- 
tired in 1937, he was stationed at Parris 
Is., S.C. He won the Nation's highest 
decoration on April 21-22, 1914, when a 
Marine and Naval landing force occupied 
Vera Cruz, after the arrest of some Ameri- 
can sailors had touched of! a crisis be- 
tween the United States and Mexico. His 
citation states, in part, that Capt. Dyer 
"... was, in both days' fighting, at the 
head of his company, and was eminent 



and conspicuous in his conduct, leading 
his men with skill and courage." He was 
advanced to brigadier general on the re- 
tired list in 1942, when Congress passed 
the law providing for promotion of re- 
tired officers who had been specially 
commended in combat. 

DYESS, Aquilla James. Lieutenant Col- 
onel. Medal of Honor: b. Augusta, Ga., 
Jan. 11, 1909; d. KIA, Namur Island, 
Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Is., Feb. 2, 
1944. Aquilla Dyess graduated from 
Clemson College, Clemson, S.C. in 1932 
with a Bachelor of Science degree in 
architecture. At Clemson, he served as 
a cadet major in the ROTC, and was ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Army 
Infantry Reserve in 1931. He was ap- 
pointed a first lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps Reserve in Nov. 1936. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor posthum- 
ously for "conspicuous gallantry and in- 
trepidity at the risk of his life" at the 
head of his troops on Namur Island, 
Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Is. Dyess was 
killed by a burst of enemy machine gun 
fire while standing on the parapet of an 
antitank trench directing a group of in- 
fantry in a flanking attack against the last 
Japanese position in the northern part of 
the island. In this final assault, Dyess 
posted himself between the opposing 
lines and, exposed to fire from heavy 
automatic weapons, led his troops in the 
advance. Wherever the attack was slowed 
by heavier enemy fire, he quickly ap- 
peared and placed himself at the head 
of his men and inspired them to push 
forward and gain ground. The airfield at 
Roi, Namur Island, has been named in 
his honor. 



64 



E 




Edson 

EDSON, Merritt Austin. "Red Mike/' 
Major General. Medal of Honor; b. Rut- 
land, Vt., Apr. 25, 1897; d. Washington, 
D.C., Aug. 14, 1955. Merritt Edson at- 
tended the University of Vermont before 
enlisting in the MCR at the outbreak of 
WWL He was commissioned a second 
lieutenant in the regular Marine Corps 
on Oct. 9, 1917. He served in France 
from Sept. 1918 to Dec, 1919. Through- 
out his Marine Corps career, Edson was 
closely associated with the development 
of small arms marksmanship. In 1921, he 
was a firing member of the winning Ma- 
rine Corps National Match Rifle Team 
at Camp Perry, Ohio. In 1927, 1930, and 



1931, he was attached to the Marine 
Corps National Rifle and Pistol Teams 
as Assistant Team Coach. During the 
Regional Match years of 1932 and 1933, 
he acted as Team Coach and Team Cap- 
tain respectively. Upon the resumption 
of the National Matches in 1935, he was 
captain of the Marine Corps National 
Rifle and Pistol Teams of 1935 and 1936, 
successfully winning the national trophies 
in both years, In June 1941, Edson was 
assigned as CO, 1st Bn., 5th Mar. Regt. 
For the next six months, he was engaged 
in conducting experimental operations 
and training in close conjunction with 
destroyer transports, which led to the 
organization of the 1st Mar. Raider Bn. 
one month after the United States* entry 
into WWII. This battalion was a proto- 
type of every Mar. Raider Bn. and Army 
Ranger Bn. formed throughout the war. 
On Aug. 7, 1942, the 1st Mar. Raider Bn., 
commanded by Edson now a colonel 
landed on Tulagi in the Solomon Is., and 
captured that island after two days of 
severe fighting. After the airfield on 
Guadalcanal had been seized from the 
enemy, Col. Edson, with a force of 800 
men, was assigned to the occupation and 
defense of a ridge dominating the jungle 
on either side of the airfield. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for this 
action, his citation reading in part: "... 
as CO of the 1st Mar. Raider Bn., with 
Parachute Bn. attached, during action 
against Japanese forces in the Solomon 
Is. on the night of 13-14 Sept. 1942 . . . 
Col. Edson, although continuously ex- 
posed to hostile fire throughout the night, 
personally directed the defense of the 
reserve position against a fanatical foe of 
greatly superior numbers. By his astute 



ELLIOT 



L R O D 



leadership and gallant devotion to duty, 
he enabled his men, despite severe losses 
to cling tenaciously to their position on 
the vital ridge, thereby retaining com- 
mand not only of the Guadalcanal air- 
field, but also of the 1st Division's entire 
offensive installations in the surrounding 
area." In Nov. 1943, he participated as 
Chief of Staff of the 2nd Mar. Div. in 
the battle of Tarawa. Shortly thereafter, 
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier 
general. In 1944, he was appointed Chief 
of Staff, FMF, Pacific. After his return to 
the States, having completed 44 months 
of continuous duty in the Pacific area, he 
was assigned to the Office of the Chief 
of Naval Operations, and later to HQMC. 
Upon his retirement from the Corps, 
Gen. Edson returned to his native state 
of Vermont, where he was appointed 
Commissioner of Public Safety. Fie also 
became President of the National Rifle 
Association. He returned to active duty 
for a short period in order to serve on a 
special commission to recommend stand- 
ards of action for prisoners of war. 

ELLIOTT, George Frank. Major Gen- 
eral. 10th Commandant of the Marine 
Corps -Oct. 3, 1903 to Nov. 30, 1910: 
b. Utah, Ala., Nov. 30, 1846; d. Wash- 
ington, D.C., Nov. 4, 1931. After attend- 
ing the U.S. Military Academy for two 
years, George Elliott was appointed a 
second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
Oct. 12, 1870. During his early career he 
performed the usual round of sea and 
shore duty, was on field duty with the 
naval expedition to Panama in 1885, and 
guarded the legation at Seoul, Korea, af- 
ter a precarious march to that city during 
the war between China and Japan in 
1894. During the Spanish-American War, 
he won considerable distinction in com- 
mand of a detachment of Marines and 
Cubans fighting the Spaniards near 



Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Later, Elliott 
commanded a battalion of Marines in the 
Battle of Novaleta during the Philippine 
Insurrection. He was made Brigadier 
General Commandant of the Marine 
Corps on Oct. 3, 1903, but left his head- 
quarters shortly afterward and took per- 
sonal command of a brigade of Marines 
maintaining order in Panama shortly after 
that country gained its independence. 
During his tenure as Commandant he 
raised the educational requirements for 
officers, instituted an improved system 
of rifle firing and, by his untiring efforts, 
obtained stronger support of Congress 
for the Corps. By his skillful maneuver- 
ing of a delicate situation he succeeded 
in having Marines replaced on board 
vessels of the Navy from which they had 
been removed by order of President 
Theodore Roosevelt. He retired from the 
Corps with the rank of major general on 
Nov. 30, 1910. 

ELRQD, Henry Talmage. Major. Medal 
of Honor; b. Rebecca, Ga,, Sept. 27, 
1905; d. KIA, Wake Island, Dec, 23, 
1941. Henry Elrod enlisted in the Marine 
Corps in Dec. 1927, and was appointed 
a second lieutenant in Feb. 1931. He at- 
tended the University of Georgia and 
Yale University prior to his entry into the 
Marine Corps. Following more than a 
year at the Marine Corps Basic School 
in Philadelphia and at the MB there as 
a student aviator, Lt. Elrod was ordered 
to the NAS, at Pensacola. Here he served 
as a company officer and as student avia- 
tor. In Feb. 1935, he won his wings and, 
as a Marine aviator, was transferred to 
Quantico, where he served with a Marine 
Aircraft unit until Jan. 1938. In addition 
to his other duties, he was Squadron 
School, Personnel, and Welfare Officer. 
In July 1938, Elrod went to San Diego 
for duty at the NAS and served as squad- 



66 



ELWOOD 



E LWOO D 



ron materiel, parachute, and personnel 
officer until Jan. 1941, when he was de- 
tached to the Hawaiian area. He arrived 
at Wake a short time before the hostil- 
ities commenced and was one of the 12 
pilots who flew the Marine planes onto 
the island. During the defense of Wake, 
Maj. Elrod repeatedly displayed conspic- 
uous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk 
of his life, above and beyond the call of 
duty. On Dec. 12, he singlehandedly at- 
tacked a flight of 22 enemy planes and 
shot down two. On several flights he ex- 
ecuted low altitude bombing and strafing 
runs on enemy ships, and became the 
first man to sink a major warship with 
small caliber bombs delivered from a 
fighter-type aircraft. When his plane was 
destroyed by hostile fire, he organized a 
unit of ground troops into a beach de- 
fense and repulsed repeated Japanese 
attacks until he fell mortally wounded. 
The citation reads, in part, "His superb 
skill as a pilot, daring leadership, and 
unswerving devotion to duty distin- 
guished him among the defenders of 
Wake Island. . . ." 

ELWOOD, Hugh Mcjunkin. Brigadier 
General. WWII Marine Corps ace. Ser- 
vice Plans Analysis and Review Offi- 
cer, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff 
(Plans and Programs), HQMC, Wash- 
ington, D.C.: b. Pittsburgh, Pa., Nov. 14, 
1915, Hugh Elwood graduated from high 
school at Oakmont, Pa,, and at the age 
of 16, he enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Aug. 1, 1932, for duty as a field musician. 
He was immediately assigned to active 
duty, Requesting sea duty, he served 
aboard the USS Chicago, and attended 
the Naval Academy Preparatory Class at 
Norfolk, Va. He was appointed to the 
U.S. Naval Academy in July 1934, and 
was commissioned a Marine second lieu- 
tenant upon graduation, June 2, 1938. 



Following Basic School at the Philadel- 
phia Navy Yard, Lt. Elwood commanded 
the Marine Corps Institute Detachment 
at the MB, Washington, D.C., and in 
1940 was assigned to flight training at 
NAS, Pensacola, Fla. He was designated 
a naval aviator, Feb. 21, 1941. Remaining 
at Pensacola as an instructor, he was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in July 1941, 
and to captain in Feb. 1942. Shortly after 
the outbreak of WWII, he completed 
the Naval School of Photography and 
was assigned as a communications officer 
with a Marine photographic squadron, 
and later served as Aide-de-Camp to the 
CG, MAW, Pacific. He was transferred 
overseas in Mar. 1943, and a month later 
was promoted to major. He served as 
Executive Officer and later CO of Ma- 
rine Fighting Squadron 212 in the Solo- 
mon Is. area. During this assignment, he 
shot down six enemy aircraft and was 
designated a Marine Corps ace. For hero- 
ism in aerial combat from Oct. 1943 to 
Apr. 1944, he received the Distinguished 
Flying Cross and the Air Medal. In May 
1944, he was assigned as Operations Offi- 
cer, Air Defense Command, Marianas. 
He returned to the States in Oct. 1944, 
and two months later was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel. Elwood subsequently 
completed the Command and Staff 
School at Quantico, Va. From Apr. 1945 
until Oct. 1946, he was attached to the 
Naval Aviation Mission to Peru as Oper- 
ations Officer and, later Chief of the 
Mission and Inspector General of the 
Peruvian Air Force. On his return to the 
States, he commanded the Marine Air 
Det, Marine Air Reserve Training Com- 
mand, St. Louis, Mo. ? until July 1949. 
He was next assigned to the Naval Acad- 
emy where he was an instructor in the 
Aviation Department for two years. Or- 
dered to Korea in Aug. 1951, he took 
part in combat as Executive Officer and 



67 



EPPERSON 

Tactical Officer, MAG 12, 1st MAW. He 
earned a second Distinguished Flying 
Cross for heroism in this capacity on Jan. 
26, 1952, when he led his division on a 
12-plane interdiction mission against 15 
hostile tanks, executed a series of devas- 
tating bombing and strafing attacks in 
the face of enemy antiaircraft fire, then 
escorted the damaged plane of his wing- 
man safely back to the base. He also 
earned a Bronze Star Medal and a second 
Air Medal in Korea. Returning to the 
States in the summer of 1952, he com- 
pleted the Strategy and Tactics Course at 
the Naval War College, Newport, R.I. 
in June 1953, then returned to Quantico 
where he served for three years as Chief, 
Air Section, Marine Corps Educational 
Center. While at Quantico, he was pro- 
moted to colonel in Nov. 1953. In the 
summer of 1956, Col. Elwood was as- 
signed briefly as Chief of Staff, Amphi- 
bious Troops, Naval Forces, Eastern 
Atlantic and Mediterranean. He then 
served as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, 
2nd MAW, Cherry Point, N.C., and from 
May 1957 to Jan. 1959, commanded 
MAG 32, 2nd Wing, at Beaufort, S.C. 
Ordered to the Far East, he joined the 
1st MAW at Iwakuni, Japan, in Mar. 
1959 as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3. In 
June 1960, he began a two-year assign- 
ment in the Plans and Policy Director- 
ate, Joint Staff, Office of the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, serving as a member of the Basic 
War Plans Branch, J-5, and later as Chief 
of the Branch. In July 1962, he was trans- 
ferred to the Office of the Deputy Chief 
of Staff (Plans and Programs), HQMC, 
as Service Plans Analysis and Review 
Officer. In Feb. 1963, he was promoted 
to brigadier general. 

EPPERSON, Harold Glenn. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Akron, Ohio, 
July 14, 1923; d. KIA, Saipan, June 25, 



E RS K I N E 

1944. P.F.C. Epperson's citation reads, in 
part: "... while serving with the 1st Bn., 
6th Marines, 2nd Mar. Div., in action 
against enemy Japanese forces on the is- 
land of Saipan. . . . With his machine gun 
emplacement bearing the full brunt of a 
fanatic assault initiated by the Japanese 
under cover of pre-dawn darkness, P.F.C. 
Epperson manned his weapon with de- 
termined aggressiveness, fighting furious- 
ly in defense of his battalion's position 
and maintaining a steady stream of dev- 
astating fire against rapidly infiltrating 
hostile troops to aid materially in anni- 
hilating several of the enemy and in 
breaking the abortive attack. Suddenly a 
Japanese soldier, assumed to be dead, 
sprang up and hurled a powerful hand 
grenade into the emplacement. Deter- 
mined to save his comrades, P.F.C. Ep- 
person unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice 
himself and, diving upon the deadly mis- 
sile, absorbed the shattering violence of 
the exploding charge in his own body. . . . 
P.F.C, Epperson fearlessly yielded his 
own life that his able comrades might 
carry on the relentless battle against a 
ruthless enemy. . . ." 

ERSKINE, Graves Blanchard. General 
(Retired): b, Columbia, La., June 28, 
1897. Graves Erskine graduated from 
Louisiana State University in 1917, then 
reported for active duty with the Marine 
Corps as a second lieutenant on July 5, 
1917. He sailed for France in Jan. 1918 
and as a member of the 6th Mar. Regt, 
participated in the Aisne-Marne defen- 
sive (Chateau-Thierry) where he was 
wounded in action and the St.-Mihiel 
offensive where he was again wounded, 
this time so severely that he was evacu- 
ated for hospitalization to the States and 
sailed for home in Oct. 1918. Foreign 
shore duty with the 1st Prov. Mar. Brig, 
in Santo Domingo followed. After a pe~ 



68 



E RS K I N E 



E RSK1 N E 




Erskine 

nod aboard the USS Olympia, Erskine 
again went on foreign shore duty, on this 
occasion with the 2nd Mar, Brig, in 
Santo Domingo. During this time he was 
detached for a short period to San Juan, 
Puerto Rico, In Sept. 1924, he became 
Depot Quartermaster, MB, Quantico, 
and two years later was assigned as a 
student at the Army Infantry School, 
Fort Banning, Ga. Upon completion of 
the school, he was ordered to the MCS, 
Quantico, where he assumed duties as an 
instructor in the Department of Tactics. 
In Mar. 1928, he was ordered to foreign 
shore duty in Nicaragua where he was a 
member of the 2nd Mar. Brig, for three 
months before being detached to the 
Nicaragua National Guard Detachment. 
Upon return to the States he became 
successively an instructor at Basic School, 



MB, Navy Yard, Philadelphia; a student 
at the Command and General Staff 
School, Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; and an 
instructor in the 1 and 2 Sections, MCS, 
Quantico. In Jan. 1935, he went to China 
to join the Marine Detachment at the 
American Embassy in Peiping, where he 
remained until returning to the MCS to 
become Chief of the 1 and 2 Sections. 
After a short period as Executive Officer 
of the 5th Mar. Regt, Erskine became 
Chief of Staff, Amphibious Force, At- 
lantic Fleet, the position he held at the 
time of the United States' entry into 
WWII. From Sept. 1942, to Oct. 1944, 
he was Chief of Staff, Amphibious Train- 
ing Staff; Amphibious Corps, Pacific 
Fleet; FMF, San Diego Area; 5th Am- 
phibious Corps and the FMF, Pacific. 
During this period he received a Legion 
of Merit and a Gold Star in lieu of a 
second Legion of Merit for exceptionally 
meritorious service. His second award 
came as a direct result of his outstanding 
work in the Saipan and Tinian Opera- 
tions. He became CG of the 3rd Mar. 
Div. in Oct. of 1944 and led that division 
in the battle for Iwo Jima for which he 
was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal. He continued as CG until Oct. 
1945, when he returned to Washington 
where, as a result of a special Congres- 
sional Act, he was appointed Administra- 
tor of the Retraining and Reemployment 
Administration (RRA). This Administra- 
tion had "general supervision and direc- 
tion of the activities of all existing 
executive agencies (except the Veterans' 
Administration) in the fields of retrain- 
ing, reemployment, vocational education 
and vocational rehabilitation for the pur- 
pose of coordinating such activities and 
eliminating overlapping functions of such 
agencies." In June 1947 Gen. Erskine, 
upon his release from the RRA, assumed 
command of Camp Pendleton in Califor- 



69 



E RS Kl N E 



E RS K i N E 



ma and later assumed command of the 
1st Mar. Div. which returned to Camp 
Pendleton from China. The welding to- 
gether of the Marine Air Units at nearby 
El Toro Air Station with the 1st Mar. 
Div. troops at Camp Pendleton became a 
reality in all respects. It was this combi- 
nation, after three years of training to- 
gether over the hills of Camp Pendleton, 
that boarded ships for the combat area 
in Korea and which later made such an 
enviable record in combat against the 
North Koreans and Chinese Communist 
troops. During the period of service at 
Camp Pendleton, Gen. Erskine was also 
assigned additional duties of Deputy 
Commander, FMF, Pacific, with head- 
quarters in Hawaii and for a period of 
time commuted between the two head- 
quarters to exercise this dual command. In 
June 1950 the Secretary of Defense ap- 
pointed Gen. Erskine Chief of Military 
Group, Joint State-Defense Mutual De- 
fense Assistance Program Survey Mission 
to Southeast Asia. In carrying out his 
assigned duties, the Mission visited the 
Philippines, French Indochina, Malaya, 
Thailand, and Indonesia. During the 
three and one-half months of this survey 



Gen. Erskine inspected troops and train- 
ing schools of the countries mentioned 
and held many conferences with military 
and civilian leaders in each area. Upon 
reporting back to HQMC, Gen. Erskine 
received orders to assume duties as CG, 
Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
Calif., where he not only exercised com- 
mand responsibilities in this assignment 
but also was charged with the respon- 
sibility of being CG, Marine Corps 
Emergency Forces, Western Sea Fron- 
tier. In July 1951, Gen. Erskine was as- 
signed as the CG, FMF, Atlantic, which 
included two MAWs, one Mar. Div. and 
an assortment of force and special troops 
with a total personnel of some 50,000 
which were engaged in continuous, 
strenuous training to maintain the capa- 
bility of immediate embarkation for for- 
eign shores for assault operations on 
orders. Gen. Erskine was authorized to 
retire from active service by a Special 
Act of Congress in June 1953 for the pur- 
pose of accepting a position as Assistant 
to the Secretary of Defense as Director 
of Special Operations of the Department 
of Defense. 



F 



FAIRBOURN, William Taro. Brigadier 
General Assistant Division Commander, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), Fleet Marine 
Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif.: b. Sandy, 
Utah, June 28, 1914. William Fairbourn 
completed high school in 1931, then en- 
tered the University of Utah from which 
he was graduated in 1935. He was com- 
missioned a Marine second lieutenant on 
July 10, 1935. He completed Basic School 



at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in Mar. 
1936. The following month he joined the 
2nd Bn., 10th Marines, 2nd Mar. Brig., at 
the MCB (later Marine Corps Recruit 
Depot), San Diego, Calif. From there he 
was assigned to the Field Artillery 
School, Fort Sill, Okla., in Aug. 1937, 
completing the regular course in June 
1938, prior to returning to San Diego. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in Oct. 



70 



FA I R BO U UN 



FA R D Y 



1938. He was assigned a two-year tour 
of sea duty aboard the USS Chester in 
June 1940, as Commander of the Marine 
Detachment. He was promoted to cap- 
tain in Apr. 1941. Following the United 
States' entry into WWII, he participated 
in the Pacific raids on the Marshalls and 
Tulagi, and in the Coral Sea and Midway 
operations. He was promoted to major 
in June 1942. Returning to San Diego 
the following month, Fairbourn served in 
the States until Mar. 1943, when he again 
embarked for combat duty in the Pacific 
area. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in July 1943. As Operations Offi- 
cer, 12th Marines, 3rd Mar. Div., he par- 
ticipated in the action on Bougainville 
and Guam, twice earning the Bronze Star 
Medal with Combat "V" during these 
campaigns. Later he saw combat on Iwo 
Jima as CO, 2nd Bn., 12th Marines. In 
May 1945, Lt. Col. Fairbourn was or- 
dered to Camp Lejeune, N.C., where he 
served as G-3 of the Marine Training 
Command. Early in 1946, he was as- 
signed briefly to Commander Task Force 
100. He began a three-year assignment 
in the Office of the Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions, Washington, D.C., in June 1946, 
becoming Assistant to OP-09M in Sept. 
1947. After leaving Washington, he en- 
tered the Command and General Staff 
College, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. in 
Aug. 1949, and graduated in June 1950. 
Ordered to HQ, FMF, Atlantic, Norfolk, 
Va., he served as Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-2, until Oct. 1950, when he became 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3. He was 
promoted to colonel in Jan. 1951. De- 
tached from Norfolk in July 1952, he was 
assigned to the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I., where he completed the Strat- 
egy and Tactics Course in June 1953, 
and served on the staff until June 1955. 
The following month he was ordered to 
Camp Pendleton, Calif., to become Regi- 



mental Commander, llth Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. (Reinf.). Col. Fairbourn was 
transferred to the Far East in Oct. 1956 
and served consecutively as Chief of Staff 
of the 3rd Mar. Div. through Nov. 1957, 
and Chief of Staff of the 1st Marine Ex- 
peditionary Force through Mar. 1958. He 
returned to the States the following 
month. In May 1958, he became Director, 
1st MCR and Recruitment District, Gar- 
den City, Long Island, N.Y. He was pro- 
moted to brigadier general in Nov. 1959. 
In Dec. 1959, Gen. Fairbourn was as- 
signed to HQMC as Deputy Director of 
the MCR. He then served as Director of 
the Reserve from Jan. 1960, to June 1962. 
Transferred to Camp Pendleton, he as- 
sumed his current duties as Assistant 
Division Commander, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.), in July 1962. 

FARDY, John Peter. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b. Chicago, 111., Aug. 8, 1922; d. 
KIA, Okinawa, May 7, 1945. John Fardy 
was inducted into the Marine Corps on 
May 8, 1943, and received recruit twin- 
ing at San Diego, Calif. After attending 
Japanese Language School, he joined the 
29th Replacement Bn. and sailed for 
New Caledonia. There he was reassigned 
to the 27th Replacement Bn. He made 
the Dec. 26th landing on Cape Glouces- 
ter, and later the Peleliu landing. On 
Okinawa, he earned the nation's highest 
award. His citation reads, in part: "... on 
May 7, 1945, when his squad was sud- 
denly assailed by extremely heavy small 
arms fire from the front during a deter- 
mined advance against strongly fortified, 
fiercely defended Japanese positions, 
Cpl. Fardy temporarily deployed his 
men along a nearby drainage ditch. 
Shortly thereafter, an enemy grenade fell 
among the Marines in the ditch. Instantly 
throwing himself upon the deadly mis- 
sile, Cpl. Fardy absorbed the exploding 



71 



FIELD 

blast in his own body, thereby protecting 
his comrades from certain and perhaps 
fatal injuries " 

FIELD, Oscar Wadsworth. Private. 
Medal of Honor: b. Jersey City, N.J., 
Oct. 6, 1873. Oscar Field enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Aug. 
10, 1896. He was awarded the Medal of 
Honor on Aug. 19, 1899. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving on 
board the USS Nashville, for extraordin- 
ary bravery and coolness while cutting 
the cables leading from Cienfuegos, 
Cuba, May 11, 1898, under heavy fire 
from the enemy " Pvt. Field was dis- 
charged from the Corps on Nov. 6, 1905. 

FIELDS, Lewis Jefferson. Major General. 
Director of Personnel, HQMC, Washing- 
ton, D.C.: b. Delmar, Md., Oct. 1, 1909. 
Lewis Fields graduated from high school 
at Crisfield, Md, in 1927. He received 
his Bachelor of Arts degree in mathe- 
matics upon graduation from St. John's 
College, Annapolis, Md., on June 3, 1931. 
He was a member of the Maryland Na- 
tional Guard from Mar. 1925, until Jan. 
1932, when he enlisted in the Marine 
Corps. After three and a half years as an 
enlisted man, he was commissioned a 
Marine second lieutenant on June 25, 
1935. He completed Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in Oct. 1935, 
then served with the Sea School Detach- 
ment at Portsmouth, Va. In July 1936, he 
was assigned duty aboard the USS 
Quincy upon that vessel's commissioning, 
and later participated in the evacuation 
of U-.S. nationals during the Spanish 
Revolution. The following July, he en- 
tered the Base Defense Weapons Course 
at the MCS, Quantico, Va. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in July 1938. In 
Sept. 1939, Lt. Fields began serving as 
Aide-de-Camp to the CG, FMF, and CG, 



F I i I D $ 



MCB, San Diego. While serving in this 
capacity, he was promoted to captain in 
Mar. 1941. He remained in San Diego 
until Nov. 1941, and the following month 
entered the Field Artillery School, Fort 
Sill, Okla. On completing the Battery 
Officers' Course in Mar. 1942, he was 
transferred to MCB, Camp Lejeune, 
N.C., for duty with the 3rd Bn., llth 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. He was promoted 
to major in May 1942. Maj. Fields em- 
barked with the 3rd Bn. for the Pacific 
area that May, and in Aug. saw action 
on Guadalcanal. He was named CO, 1st 
Bn., llth Marines, 1st Mar. Div. in Nov. 
1942 on Guadalcanal. In Jan. 1943, he 
moved with the 1st Bn. to Australia for 
training. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in May 1943. He led the 1st Bn. 
in action in Dec. 1943 at Cape Gloucester, 
where he earned his first Bronze Star 
Medal. In May 1944, he was named As- 
sistant Chief, G-3, 1st Mar. Div. Subse- 
quently, he was awarded the Legion of 
Merit with Combat "V" for outstanding 
service as the 1st Division's Operations 
Officer, during the preparation for and 
seizure of Peleliu and Ngesebus. He de- 
parted for the States in Dec. 1944. In 
Jan. 1945, Lt. Col. Fields became Aide 
to CMC, Gen. A. A. Vandegrift. He con- 
tinued as Aide until June 1947, when he 
was ordered to Quantico. Upon complet- 
ing the Senior Course, MCS, in June 
1948, he was assigned to the Staff of the 
Commander in Chief, Atlantic Com- 
mand, and U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk, 
Va. He also saw duty with NATO as 
Assistant to the U.S. Representative to 
the North Atlantic Ocean Regional Plan- 
ning Group, serving as principal advisor 
on ground matters and defense of land 
areas in the Atlantic Command; and as 
military advisor to the Joint Department 
of State/Department of Defense team 
sent to Portugal, He was promoted to 



72 



F 1 S H i II 



FISHER 



colonel in May 1950. In early 1951, he 
was designated the Assistant Chief of 
Staff, Personnel and Administration, for 
the Supreme Allied Command, Atlantic 
(SACLANT). His initial task was to 
establish the present SACLANT head- 
quarters in Norfolk. Upon being detached 
from Norfolk in Aug. 1951, he began two 
years' duty at HQMC, Washington, D.C., 
as Head of the Plans Branch, G-3 Divi- 
sion; and as Marine Corps Member of 
the Joint Strategic Plans Committee, 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. Ordered to Korea 
in Sept, 1953, Col. Fields served as Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff, G-2, 1st Mar. Div., 
and later as CO, llth Marines (artillery), 
until Apr. 1954. He then returned briefly 
to HQMC and, in June 1954, was as- 
signed to the Supreme Headquarters, 
Allied Powers, Europe, in Paris, France, 
as Chief of the Plans Section. He served 
there two years. Returning to the States, 
Col. Fields became Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-3, at HQ, FMF, Atlantic, in 
Norfolk, serving in this capacity from 
Sept. 1956 to Sept, 1957 and, subsequent- 
ly, as Chief of Staff. Transferred to 
Washington, D.C., in Nov. 1957, he 
served almost a year as Marine Corps 
Liaison Officer to the Vice Chief of Naval 
Operations. He was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier general in July 1958. 
In Sept. 1958, Gen. Fields began a two- 
year assignment on the Joint Staff, Office 
of the JCS, as Deputy Director, J-5 Plans 
and Policy Directorate. On completing 
this assignment, he served for two years 
as CG, Force Troops, FMF, Pacific, and 
CG, MCB, Twentynine Palms, Calif. Re- 
porting to HQMC in Sept. 1962, he as- 
sumed duty as Assistant Director of 
Personnel, and the following month was 
promoted to major general. In Nov. 1962, 
he became Director of Personnel. 

FISHER, Harry. Private. Medal of Hon- 



or: b. McKeesport, Pa., Oct. 20, 1874; 
d. KIA, Peking, China, July 16, 1900. Pvt. 
Fisher enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
May 19, 1899. After serving at Cavite, 
P.I., he was transferred to the battleship 
Oregon on Dec. 7, 1899 for service with 
the Marine Guard. In May 1900, Fisher 
went ashore with the Marine Guard of 
his ship under the command of Capt. 
John T. Myers, and proceeded from 
Tientsin to Peking. At Peking, in view 
of the threatening attitude of the Chi- 
nese, they formed an American Legation 
Guard. In defense of the Legation against 
the Chinese Boxers and Imperial Troops, 
Fisher lost his life assisting in the erec- 
tion of barricades under the heavy fire 
of the enemy. 

FISHER, Morris. "Bud." Chief Warrant 
Officer (Retired). World famous Marine 
marksman: b. Youngstown, Ohio, May 4, 
1890. Morris Fisher enlisted in the Marine 
Corps in 1911. He distinguished himself 
as a marksman in 1915 at Winthrop, Md., 
when he won a gold medal and distin- 
guished marksmanship badge. In Sept. 
1918, he broke two world's records in 
the International Free Rifle Team Match 
fired at Camp Perry, Ohio, in Sept. 1918. 
The match was fired at 300 meters, each 
rifleman firing 40 shots from the standing, 
kneeling, and prone positions, a total of 
120 shots. Fisher's score was 1090, a total 
of 17 points over the former world's rec- 
ord. His score for the prone position was 
385, or 10 points over the former world's 
record. The American team won the 
match with a score of 5301, breaking the 
former world's record of 5172 made by 
the Swiss team in 1912. In France, Fisher 
continued his marksmanship record with 
the American Expeditionary Force team. 
In 1920 he was on the Olympic team 
and won the individual Olympic cham- 
pionship in Belgium. He again shot on 



73 



FISHER 




Fisher 

the winning team in Lyons, France, in 
1921 and in Milan, Italy, in 1922. The 
following year, he won the individual 
world's championship, and later at Cha- 
lons, France, won the Olympic cham- 
pionship. In 1927, Sgt. Fisher represented 
the Marine Corps in eight consecutive 
International matches. The report of the 
Commandant of the Marine Corps for 
that year, summarizing the results of the 
Marine Corps shooting competitions, 
stated that the Marines had participated 
in 96 rifle and pistol matches and had 
won 81 of them. They were awarded a 
total of 49 trophies. In 1930, Fisher rep- 
resented the United States in Europe in 
the last big-bore international rifle match. 
Gy. Sgt. Fisher retired from the Corps 
in June 1941, after 30 years' service. His 
expert marksmanship in matches all over 



FLEMING 

the world had brought him more medals 
than his broad chest could ever hold. 
With the advent of WWII, Fisher re- 
turned to active duty with the Marines 
in Mar. 1942, as boss of the Rifle Range 
at Parris Is., S.C. Drawing from a lifetime 
of marksmanship experience, he was able 
to coach and train young men who had 
never fired a rifle until they came to boot 
camp. At Parris Is., the legendary Fisher 
is said to have put every shot into the 
bull's eye, while a playful Marine boot 
dangled from his shooting arm! He was 
promoted to chief warrant officer on 
Sept. 30, 1943, and returned to inactive 
status at the end of the war. 

FITZGERALD, John. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Limerick, Ireland, Mar. 17, 
1873. Pvt. Fitzgerald received the nation's 
highest military award for "... heroism 
and gallantry in action at Cuzco, Cuba, 
on June 14, 1898. . , ." Along with Sgt. 
Maj. John Quick, Fitzgerald stood on 
the crest of a hill, under enemy fire, and 
signaled the USS Dolphin, asking her to 
throw shells into a valley below in order 
to force the enemy from concealment. 
Quick was also awarded the Medal of 
Honor for this same courageous exploit. 

FLEMING, Richard Eugene. Captain. 
Medal of Honor: b. St. Paul, Minn., Nov. 
2, 1917; MIA June 5, 1942; d. June 6, 
1942. Richard Fleming enlisted in the 
MCR in 1939 and applied for flight train- 
ing. He was commissioned a second lieu- 
tenant in the Reserve on Sept. 10, 1940, 
and was designated a naval aviator on 
Nov. 13 of the same year. On Dec. 17, 
1941, he participated in a flight from 
Oahu, T.H. to Midway, a distance of 
1137 nautical miles overwater with no 
surface vessels assigned as plane guards. 
From that day until June 5, 1942, he 
made many flights against enemy forces 



74 



F O 1 E Y 



FONTANA 



in the Midway area. Capt. Fleming was 
officially listed as missing in action on 
June 5, 1942, when he and his radio-gun- 
ner failed to return to base from an attack 
mission against two enemy battleships 
about 140 miles from Midway. He was 
officially declared dead on June 6, 1942. 
For his heroism in action, he was post- 
humously awarded the Medal of Honor. 
His citation reads, in part: "... as Flight 
Officer, Marine Scout-Bombing Squadron 
241, during action against enemy Japa- 
nese forces in the battle of Midway on 
4 and 5 June 1942. When his Squadron 
Commander was shot down . . . Capt. 
Fleming led the remainder of the divi- 
sion with such fearless determination 
that he dived his own plane to the peril- 
ously low altitude of 400 feet before re- 
leasing his bomb. . , ." 

FOLEY, Alexander Joseph. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Heckersville, Pa., 
Feb. 19, 1866. In a battle near Tientsin, 
China on July 13, 1900, Foley distin- 
guished himself during the bitterest pe- 
riod of fighting. With complete disregard 
for himself, he organized and led a rescue 
party to evacuate the American wounded 
who lay helpless under direct enemy fire. 
For his gallantry in combat he was 
awarded the nation's highest military 
honor. 

FONTANA, Paul John. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. WWII ace and Korea combat avia- 
tor. Commander, Marine Corps Air 
Bases, Eastern Area, and CG, MCAS, 
Cherry Point, N.C. (1963): b. Lucca, 
Italy, Nov. 27, 1911. Paul Fontana grew 
up in Sparks, Nev., and after completing 
high school there, entered the University 
of Nevada at Reno. He graduated in 
1934 with a Bachelor of Science degree 
in electrical engineering. A member of 
the ROTC unit at the university, he re- 



signed his Army Reserve commission to 
accept appointment as a Marine second 
lieutenant, July 6, 1936. After Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
a sea duty assignment aboard the USS 
Salt Lake City, and duty at the MB, Mare 
Island, Calif., Lt. Fontana was ordered 
to Pensacola, Fla., for flight training in 
Jan. 1939. He was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant in July 1939. Lt. Fontana was 
designated a naval aviator on Jan. 25, 
1940. In Mar. 1940, he was assigned to 
the NAS, San Diego, Calif. He returned 
to Pensacola in Nov. 1940, and served 
as a flight instructor until July 1941, 
when he joined Marine Fighting Squad- 
ron 111, MAG 11, at Quantico, Va. He 
also completed the aviation course at the 
Chemical Warfare School, U.S. Army, 
Edgewood Arsenal, Md. He was pro- 
moted to captain in Oct. 1941. When the 
United States entered WWII, Capt. Fon- 
tana was ordered to aviation duty in San 
Diego. In Mar. 1942, he joined Marine 
Fighting Squadron 112, becoming CO in 
May 1942. He was promoted to major in 
Aug. 1942. In Oct. 1942, Maj. Fontana 
embarked with his squadron for the Pa- 
cific area. As CO, Squadron 112, MAG 
14, he took part in combat against the 
Japanese in the capture and defense of 
Guadalcanal. Downing five enemy air- 
craft in four days over Guadalcanal in 
Nov. 1942, he was awarded the Navy 
Cross and designated a Marine Corps 
ace. Remaining with the 1st MAW, he 
was named Assistant Operations Officer 
of the Strike Command, Solomon Is., in 
Apr. 1943. After taking part in the con- 
solidation of the southern Solomons, he 
returned to the States in Oct. 1943. He 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Dec. 1943. He was then assigned to Ma- 
rine Fleet Air, West Coast, in San Diego, 
as Assistant Operations Officer, having 
served briefly as commander of the Flight 



75 



FO NTA N A 



FORD 



Training Unit, MCAS, El Toro, Calif. In 
Dec. 1944, he was ordered to Hawaii for 
duty with the 2nd MAW as Assistant 
Operations Officer. He also served in this 
capacity with the Army's 10th Tactical 
Air Force for the Okinawa campaign 
and was awarded the Bronze Star Medal 
with Combat "V" for heroic action against 
the Japanese prior to and during the am- 
phibious assault of Okinawa, from Jan. 
9 to June 30, 1945. The Distinguished 
Flying Cross was awarded him for hero- 
ism as a fighter plane pilot in the Ryukyu 
Islands area from May to July 1945. He 
remained on Okinawa until Jan. 1946. 
Following WWII, Lt. Col. Fontana 
served in Washington, D.C., as Assistant 
Plans, Operations, and Training Officer, 
Division of Aviation, HQMC, from Mar. 
1946 to July 1948. The following month 
he entered the Air War College, Maxwell 
Air Force Base, Maxwell Field, Ala. 
After graduation in the summer of 1949, 
he returned to the MCAS, El Toro, in 
July as commander of Marine Fighting 
Squadron 311, MAG 12, 1st MAW. At 
the outbreak of the Korean War, Fon- 
tana was serving as Deputy Commander 
of MAG 12, 1st MAW, FMF, having 
assumed this assignment in May 1950. 
For conspicuous gallantry in action, Sept. 
21, 1950, while serving briefly as Deputy 
Group Commander, MAG 33, executing 
close air support of the Army's 10th 
Corps during an attack on enemy instal- 
lations at Yongdongpo, Korea, he was 
awarded the Silver Star Medal (Army). 
Rejoining his group on its arrival in the 
Wonsan area, he earned the Legion of 
Merit with Combat *V for exceptionally 
meritorious conduct from Oct. 10 to Nov. 
8, 1950, prior to and during operations 
at Wonsan. In Jan. 1951, Lt. Col. Fontana 
was named CO of MAG 33, 1st MAW, 
and in this capacity continued combat 
operations against the Communist forces. 



He was promoted to colonel in Mar. 
1951, and the following month returned 
to the States. He reported at El Toro in 
Apr. 1951, and in May became Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3, Aircraft, FMF, Pa- 
cific. He served there until July 1952. 
The following month, he entered the Na- 
tional War College, Washington, D.C. 
After graduation in June 1953, he served 
at HQMC as Head, Operations and 
Training Branch, Division of Aviation, 
In June 1955, following his detachment 
from HQMC, Col. Fontana took com- 
mand of the Overhaul and Repair Fa- 
cility, MCAS, Cherry Point, N.C. He 
served in this capacity two years, In Aug. 
1957, he assumed command of MAG 13, 
1st Mar. Brig., MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, 
Hawaii, and in addition was assigned 
with his group to the 1st MAW in Japan 
from Oct. 1958 through Feb. 1959. Fol- 
lowing this assignment, he became Chief 
of Staff of the 1st Mar. Brig, in June 

1959. While serving in Hawaii, he was 
promoted to brigadier general in July 

1960. In Aug. 1960, Gen. Fontana began 
a two-year tour of duty at the Pentagon 
as Deputy Director for Operations, J-3 
Directorate, Joint Staff, Office of the 
JCS. Following this assignment, he be- 
came Commander, Marine Corps Air 
Bases, Eastern Area, and CG, MCAS, 
Cherry Point. 

FORD, Patrick F., Jr. Private. (Name 
changed to Ford from James Meredith 
on June 6, 1900.) Medal of Honor: b. 
Omaha, Neb., Apr. 11, 1872. Patrick Ford 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at Boston, 
Mass, on July 23, 1896. He was awarded 
the Medal of Honor on Aug. 15, 1899 for 
extraordinary bravery and coolness while 
cutting the cables leading from Cienfue- 
gos, Cuba, May 11, 1898. He was serving 
aboard the USS Marblehead. Ford was 



76 



FORSfERER 



FOSS 



discharged from the Corps on Sept. 9, 
1901. 

FORSTERER, Bruno Albert. Gunnery 
Sergeant Medal of Honor: b, Konigs- 
berg, Germany, July 14, 1869; d. June 14, 
1957. Bruno Forsterer enlisted in the 
Marine Corps in 1896. Several years later, 
on Apr. 1, 1899, near Tagalli, Samoa, 
American and British Marines and sail- 
ors were set ashore to protect their coun- 
tries* interests on that small South Pacific 
island chain during a native uprising. 
The islands had been recognized as a 
quasi-independency under the combined 
political control of the U.S. and Great 
Britain, and the naval forces of both na- 
tions were actively drawn into a dispute 
between two Samoan chiefs. The Ameri- 
can and British forces (which included 
some 110 friendly natives, missionaries, 
and interpreters ) were ambushed as they 
made their way inland. Sgt. Forsterer 
and two other Marines rallied the U.S. 
Marines at a wire fence in front of a ra- 
vine, where they fought a delaying action 
until the wounded could be evacuated 
and the entire landing force could be 
withdrawn to the shore line. Forsterer 
and the other two Marines remained at 
the fence and contained the enemy, then 
fought their way back across the ravine 
and rejoined their unit. After the landing 
force had reached the beach and were 
awaiting reinforcements from the ships 
Sgt. Forsterer volunteered to lead more 
friendly natives to safety. For his heroism 
in combat he was awarded the Medal of 
Honor. Sgt. Forsterer was discharged in 
1909 as a gunnery sergeant. 

FOSS, Joseph Jacob. Major. WWII ace. 
Medal of Honor: b. near Sioux Falls, 
S.D., Apr. 17, 1915. Following gradua- 
tion from high school, Joseph Foss at- 
tended Augustana College for one year 




Foss 

and Sioux Falls College for three semes- 
ters. He then enrolled at the University 
of South Dakota, Vermillion, and gradu- 
ated in 1940 with a degree in business 
administration. In college he was a mem- 
ber of the boxing, track, and football 
teams. He became interested in flying 
when a squadron of Marine flyers staged 
an air show at Sioux Falls in 1932. Three 
years later he had his first airplane ride, 
paying five dollars to go up with a barn- 
stormer. In 1937, he paid $65 on the in- 
stallment plan for his first course in 
flying. In 1939, he took a Civil Aero- 
nautics Authority flying course at the 
University of South Dakota and, by the 
time he graduated from college, be had 
100 hours of flying time to his credit. On 
June 14, 1940, he enlisted in the MCR 



77 



FOSS 



FOSTER 



and was assigned to inactive duty. Hon- 
orably discharged from the Reserve on 
Aug. 8, 1940, he accepted an appoint- 
ment as an aviation cadet in the MCR 
the following day. He was called to ac- 
tive duty Aug. 23, and sent to Pensacola, 
Fla,, for training. He completed further 
training at Miami, won his Marine wings 
and was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant in the MCR on Mar. 31, 1941. 
He was advanced to first lieuten- 
ant Apr. 10, 1942, while serving as an 
instructor at Pensacola and was promoted 
to captain Aug. 11, 1942, at Camp 
Kearney, Calif. Capt. Foss arrived at 
Guadalcanal in Sept. 1942, and became a 
Marine Corps ace on Oct. 29. Flying 
almost daily for one month, he shot down 
23 enemy planes during that period, for 
which he was awarded the Medal of 
Honor. Bagging three more later raised 
his total to 26, which tied the WWI rec- 
ord of the noted Capt. Eddie Ricken- 
backer, and set a new record for WWII. 
His 26 planes included 20 Zero fighters, 
four bombers, and two bi-planes. His 
citation reads, in part: "... as Executive 
Officer of a Marine Fighting Squadron 
at Guadalcanal, Solomon Is. Engaging in 
almost daily combat with the enemy 
from Oct. 9 to Nov. 19, 1942, Capt. Foss 
personally shot down 23 Japanese planes 
and damaged others so severely that their 
destruction was extremely probable. In 
addition, during this period, he success- 
fully led a large number of escort mis- 
sions, skillfully covering reconnaissance, 
bombing, and photographic planes as 
well as surface craft. On Jan. 15, 1943, 
he added three more enemy planes to his 
already brilliant successes for a record 
of aerial combat achievement unsur- 
passed in this war. Boldly searching out 
an approaching enemy force on Jan. 25, 
Capt. Foss led his eight Marine planes 
and four Army planes into action and, 



undaunted by tremendously superior 
numbers, intercepted and struck with 
such force that four Japanese fighters 
were shot down and the bombers were 
turned back without releasing a single 
bomb." While at Guadalcanal, Capt. Foss 
was forced to make three dead-stick 
landings on Henderson Field as a result 
of enemy bullets crippling his engine. In 
Nov., he was shot down over the island 
of Malaita after accounting for three 
Zeros. He was picked out of the water by 
natives in a small boat. Returning to the 
States in Apr. 1943, he reported at HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., and the following 
month was sent on a tour of Navy pre- 
flight schools and Naval Air Stations 
where Marines were in training. He was 
promoted to major on June 1, 1943. Back 
in the Pacific in Feb. 1944, Foss became 
squadron commander of Marine Fight- 
ing Squadron 115. He served in the com- 
bat zone around Emirau, St. Mathias 
Group, but failed to better his "shoot- 
down" record. He returned to the States 
in Sept. 1944, and was ordered to Kla- 
math Falls, Ore. In Feb. 1945, he be- 
came operations and training officer at 
the MCAS, Santa Barbara, Calif. At the 
end of the war in Aug. 1945, he requested 
to be released to inactive duty. Finally 
relieved from active duty on Dec. 8, 
1945, he was retained in the MCR on in- 
active duty. In 1948, Foss went into poli- 
tics and won an election to the State 
(South Dakota) House of Representa- 
tives. Two years later he made an un- 
successful bid in the Republican guber- 
natorial primary. He returned to the 
State Legislature and in June 1954, won 
an overwhelming victory for the guber- 
natorial nomination. He was elected Gov- 
ernor of South Dakota the following 
Nov., and two years later was re-elected. 

FOSTER, William Adelbert. Private First 



FRANCIS 



F REEMAN 



Class. Medal of Honor: b. Cleveland, 
Ohio, Feb. 17, 1915; d. KIA, Okinawa, 
May 2, 1945. William Foster was enlisted 
in the Marine Corps Reserve through 
Selective Service on Apr. 1, 1944. He re- 
ceived recruit training at the MCB at 
San Diego, Calif. In Sept. 1944, after 
combat training at Camp Pendleton, 
Calif., he embarked for overseas duty on 
board the USS General C. G. Morton, 
bound for the Russell Is. in the Solomon 
group. There he joined his regular unit 
- Co. K, 3rd Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. He landed with his organization on 
Okinawa on Apr. 1, 1945, the first an- 
niversary of his enlistment in the Marine 
Corps. On May 2, he earned the nation's 
most coveted decoration. Dug in with 
another Marine, he and his comrade en- 
gaged in a fierce hand grenade duel with 
infiltrating enemy soldiers. When a Jap- 
anese grenade landed beyond reach in 
their foxhole, P.F.C. Foster, with com- 
plete disregard for his personal safety, 
dove on it and absorbed its full explosion 
with his own body, thus protecting the 
other Marine from serious injury. Mor- 
tally wounded, he handed his two re- 
maining grenades to his comrade and 
said, "Make them count . . ." His citation 
states: "...he had unhesitatingly relin- 
quished his own chance of survival that 
his fellow Marine might carry on the re- 
lentless fight against a fanatic enemy " 

FRANCIS, Charles Robert. Sergeant Ma- 
jor. Medal of Honor: b. Doylestown, Pa., 
May 19, 1875. Charles Francis enlisted 
in the Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa., 
on Apr. 21, 1898. He received the Medal 
of Honor "... for distinguished conduct 
in the presence of the enemy in the ad- 
vance on Tientsin, China, June 21, 1900." 
He was retired as a sergeant major on 
Apr. 30, 1923. 



FRANKLIN, Joseph John. Marine Gun- 
ner. Medal of Honor: b. Buffalo, N.Y., 
June 18, 1870; d. U.S. Naval Home, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Apr. 28, 1940. Gunner 
Franklin received the nation's highest 
military award "... while serving on 
board the USS Nashville, for extraordin- 
ary bravery and coolness while cutting 
the cables leading from Cienfuegos, 
Cuba, May 11, 1898, under a heavy fire 
of the enemy " 

FREEMAN, Orville Lothrop. Lieutenant 
Colonel (USMCR): b. Minneapolis, 
Minn., May 9, 1918. Orville Freeman at- 
tended Minneapolis Central High School, 
where he competed in track and football. 
In 1940, he was awarded a Bachelor of 
Arts degree with high honor from the 
University of Minnesota and was selected 
a Phi Beta Kappa. He continued his stud- 
ies at the University of Minnesota Law 
School until shortly after the start of 
WWII when he began his active Marine 
Corps service. He enlisted in the MCR at 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, Aug. 7, 1941, and 
was appointed a private first class upon 
enlistment. He was assigned active duty 
on Jan. 30, 1942, and joined the Feb. Offi- 
cer Candidates' Class at MCS, Quantico, 
Va. Upon completing the course he was 
commissioned a second lieutenant in the 
MCR, Apr. 4, 1942. He then completed 
the Reserve Officers' Class at MCS in 
June 1942. Assigned to Company K, 3rd 
Bn., 9th Marine (Reinf.), Lt. Freeman 
served as a platoon leader and company 
officer at Camp Elliott, Calif., from June 
until Sept. 1942, then moved with his 
company to Camp Pendleton, Calif. In 
Jan. 1943, he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant and later that month sailed with 
his company aboard the USS Mt. Vernon 
for the Pacific area. Lt. Freeman was 
stationed in New Zealand from Feb. until 
July 1943. With the company he was then 



79 



FRY 



F R YE R 



transferred to Guadalcanal, and from 
there moved to Bougainville action, and 
upon his release from hospitalization and 
treatment, he was transferred to Wash- 
ington, D.C. He served as Staff Officer 
in the Rehabilitation Division, Special 
Services Branch, Personnel Department, 
HQMC until Dec, 1945. Returning to 
Minneapolis on terminal leave, he was 
subsequently relieved from active duty 
on Feb. 13, 1946, and assigned to the 9th 
Mar. Reserve Dist. He was promoted to 
major in the MCR in Mar. 1951, and to 
lieutenant colonel in Oct. 1959. Admit- 
ted to the Minnesota bar in 1947, he was 
a member of a Minneapolis law firm un- 
til Jan. 1955, when he was inaugurated 
Governor of Minnesota, He served six 
years (three terms) in that office and in 
Jan. 1961 became Secretary of Agriculture 
in President John F. Kennedy's Cabinet. 

FRY, Isaac N. Orderly Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: Sgt. Fry was cited for bravery 
while serving aboard the USS Ticonde- 
roga during attacks on Fort Fisher, Jan. 
13-15, 1865. As a member of the Marine 
Guard and captain of a gun, he per- 
formed his duties with skill and courage 
as the Ticonderoga maintained a well 
placed fire upon the batteries to the left 
of the palisades during the initial phases 
of the three-day battle. 

FRYER, Eli Thompson. Brigadier Gen- 
eral (Retired). Medal of Honor: b. 
Hightstown, N.J, Aug. 22, 1878. Eli Fryer 
was appointed a Marine second lieuten- 
ant on Mar. 21, 1900, and after a course 
of instruction at MB, New York, N.Y., he 
served at the MB, Newport, R.I., from 
Aug. 1901 to June 1903, except for a pe- 
riod of detached duty with the Marine 
Bn. in Panama from Sept. 13 to Dec. 8, 
1902. From June 5, 1903, to Mar. 14, 
1905, he served with the Marine Expedi- 



tionary Bn, on board the USS Panther 
and at Camp Roosevelt, Culebra, Puerto 
Rico, and commanded the Marines at 
Dry Tortugas, Fla. Following a one-year 
tour at the MB, New York, Fryer joined 
a battalion organized for service in the 
Philippines. From Apr, 1906 to Nov. 
1908, he served at Olongapo, Polloc, and 
Cavite. During the next five years Fryer 
worked as Post Quartermaster for the 
MB and the School of Application at 
Annapolis, Md., and commanding the 
Marine Detachments on the USS Loui- 
siana, New Hampshire, and Alabama. 
Assigned to the 2nd Advance Base Regt. 
in Nov. 1913 Fryer, now a captain, served 
at Pensacola, Culebra, and Vera Cruz, 
where he was awarded the Medal of 
Honor "For distinguished conduct in bat- 
tle, engagements of Vera Cruz, Apr. 21 

and 22, 1914 " He returned with the 

2nd Regt. to the States in Nov. 1914 and 
was assigned duty as Regimental Adju- 
tant. Shortly after the arrival of the 2nd 
Regt. in Haiti, Aug. 4, 1915, Capt. Fryer 
was relieved of duty as Adjutant and was 
assigned to command the 20th Co. One 
year later, he was detached from Haiti 
and assigned to the MB, New Orleans, 
La., as Post Quartermaster with addi- 
tional duty as Inspector-Instructor of the 
Marine Co., Louisiana Naval Militia. 
From June 1918, to Nov, 1919, Fryer 
served on the USS Brooklyn as Fleet 
Marine Officer and as aide to the Com- 
mander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet. As a re- 
sult of Allied intervention in Siberia, 
the Brooklyn remained in the vicinity of 
Vladivostok during most of this period. 
After WWI, Fryer served at Charleston, 
S.C., Quantico, Va., and with the Marine 
Corps Expeditionary Force in Panama, 
and on Culebra. In Aug. 1925, he again 
joined the Mar. Brig, in Haiti until July 
26, 1927, when he was detached to 
Quantico, Va., as a student in the Field 



80 



FULLER 



FULLER 



Officers' Course. After completing this 
instruction Fryer was assigned duty as 
Chief of Staff, MB, Quantico, and CO of 
the 1st Regt. Fryer joined MB, Parris 
Is., S.C., July 15, 1929, and served as 
Post Commander to Oct. 1, 1929, when 
he assumed command of the Naval Pri- 
son. Detached from Parris Is. in Sept. 

1933, he served some two months as CO 
of the MB at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard before he assumed command of 
the 2nd Regt. In Haiti. He continued in 
command of the 2nd Regt., with brief 
periods as Brig. Commander until July 

1934, when he was ordered to the MB, 
New York, to await retirement. Col. Fryer 
was placed on the retired list on Oct. 1, 
1934, and was appointed a brigadier gen- 
eral on the retired list from Feb. 23, 1942. 

FULLER, Ben Hebard. Major General. 
15th Commandant of the Marine Corps: 
b. Big Rapids, Mich., Feb. 27, 1870; d. 
Washington, D.C., June 8, 1937. Ben 
Fuller, whose active service in the Corps 
totaled 48 years, 9 months, and 8 days, 
entered the U.S. Naval Academy in May 
1885. After finishing the four-year course 
of instruction, he was assigned to the 
prescribed two-year cruise as a naval 
cadet on various vessels of the Pacific 
Squadron. He was commissioned a sec- 
ond lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 
July 1, 1891 with six other members of 
his graduating class. Together with his 
Marine classmates, he took the first 
course ever given for Marine officers in 
the School of Application at the MB, 
Washington, D.C., from which he grad- 
uated in Mar. of the following year. His 
military education continued in the fol- 
lowing years with courses of instruction 
at *"he Army School at Fort Leavenworth, 
the Army War College, and the Navy 
War College, Fuller's first three years of 
service in the Marine Corps were spent 



ashore at different posts in the eastern 
part of the States. On Sept. 7, 1893, he 
was promoted to first lieutenant and then 
went to sea for the first time as a Marine 
officer on the USS Atlanta in Apr. of the 
next year. During his active career he 
spent nearly seven years at sea on a 
dozen different naval vessels. During the 
Spanish-American War he was in com- 
mand of the Marine detachment of the 
USS Columbia and served in West In- 
dian waters. Shortly after that war he 
was promoted to captain and transferred 
to the Philippines for duty, where he par- 
ticipated in the Battle of Novaleta. At 
the outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion in 
1900, he was placed in command of a 
company of artillery in an expeditionary 
Marine force. He participated in the 
siege and capture of Tientsin and was 
commended in Navy General Orders for 
his "gallant, meritorious and courageous 
conduct" in battle. He joined in the 
march of the relief column to Peking 
and was in command of an independent 
detachment at Fong Chow, China. Capt. 
Fuller returned to the Philippines in Oct. 
1900, and went to the States the follow- 
ing year. During the next three years he 
was given several peacetime shore as- 
signments, and also spent a few months 
at sea. He was promoted to major in 
Mar. 1904. Shortly afterward he was 
transferred to the command of MB, 
Honolulu, T.H., where he served for 
about two years, then went to New York 
for duty. After a brief tour of duty in the 
States, a part of which was spent as in- 
structor in the School of Application at 
Annapolis, he again went to foreign duty 
this time to the Canal Zone where he 
served as CO of the battalion of Marines 
from Aug. 1908 until Feb. 1910. His next 
regular station of duty was in command 
of the MB at Charleston, S.C. He was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel Mar. 8, 



81 



FULLER 

1911. While serving at Charleston he 
commanded a regiment of an expedition- 
ary Brigade of Marines that went to 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in May 1911. 
Since the show of force alone was suffi- 
cient to quiet the Cuban political situa- 
tion, the expedition was withdrawn and 
Col. Fuller resumed his duties at Charles- 
ton. He spent most of the next two years 
in service schools. Fuller joined the 5th 
Regt. of Marines as second in command 
in July 1914, and spent several months 
with that organization on the Hancock, 
cruising around Haiti-Santo Domingo 
and in camp at Guantanamo Bay. Some 
two years later, after a short cruise as 
Fleet Marine Officer, Atlantic Fleet, and 
while attending the Navy War College 
he was promoted to colonel in Mar. 1917. 
He commanded the MB, Philadelphia, 
Pa. for about one year, beginning early 
in Sept. 1917, and was then assigned to 
the command of the 2nd Prov. Brig, of 
Marines engaged in a military occupa- 
tion of Santo Domingo. He was promoted 
to temporary brigadier general in Aug. 
1918, but reverted to his regular rank of 
colonel about one year later. While serv- 
ing in Santo Domingo he had extensive 
experience in administering several cabi- 
net positions in the military government 
of that country. He joined the staff of 
the Naval War College as an instructor 
in Nov. 1920, and in July 1922 took com- 
mand of the MCS at Quantico, which 
position he held for the next year and a 
half. Next Fuller was assigned to com- 
mand the 1st Brig, of Marines occupying 
Haiti in Jan. 1924 until Dec. 1925. He 
was promoted to the regular rank of 
brigadier general as of Feb. 8, 1924. Dur- 
ing the next two and a half years he 
spent most of the time serving on various 
boards and on court-martial duty in 
Washington, D.C. He was made assistant 
Commandant of the Corps in July 1928 



FULLER 

under Maj. Gen. Lejeune, and continued 
to serve in that capacity not only during 
the remainder of Lejeune's tenure of of- 
fice but also throughout that of Gen. 
Neville. During Gen. Neville's brief 
period as Major General Commandant 
in 1929-1930, Gen. Fuller frequently act- 
ed as Commandant when the Comman- 
dant was ill. After the death of Gen. 
Neville, Fuller was selected as Major 
General Commandant on Aug. 6, 1930. 
Gen. Fuller's tenure as Commandant of 
the Marine Corps, which continued un- 
til his retirement for age on Mar. 1, 1934, 
was one of general retrenchment due to 
the world-wide depression, the initiation 
of the good-neighbor policy in dealing 
with Latin American countries, and other 
reasons. The depression brought about 
sharp reduction in the federal revenue 
and in an effort to offset this, appropria- 
tions for the Marine Corps were reduced 
and the curtailments were offset by re- 
ductions in the enlisted strength, and a 
flat reduction in pay. Plans for the ulti- 
mate withdrawal of the Marine Brigades 
from both Haiti and Nicaragua devel- 
oped from the beginning of Fuller's com- 
mandantcy, and the last contingent of 
Marines was withdrawn from Nicaragua 
early in Jan. 1933, The same process of 
curtailing the activities of the Marines in 
Haiti had been continuing for a number 
of years, and by 1934 and some time 
previously they were serving only in 
Cape Haitian and Port-au-Prince and as 
officers in the Garde d'Haiti. The 4th 
Regt. of Marines continued on duty in 
China throughout this period. With the 
gradual release of Marines on foreign 
duty, greater progress was made in the 
education of officers and in the more ad- 
vanced technical training of enlisted 
men. Sweeping changes in foreign policy 
caused the Marines Corps to redefine its 
mission in the scheme of national de- 



FU LiiR 



FULLER 



fense. The necessity for a substantial ex- 
peditionary force of Marines to be in 
readiness to accompany the Fleet was an 
idea that had taken form not long after 
the turn of the century, but it was not 
until 1933 when personnel became avail- 
able as a result of withdrawal of Marines 
from foreign countries that the idea was 
fully developed and such a force as the 
Fleet Marine Force was organized. That 
organization came into being in Dec. of 
that year with part of its force at Quan- 



tico, Va., and part at San Diego, Calif. 
The gradual expansion of the Navy dur- 
ing Fuller's tenure of office demanded 
more and more Marines for sea duty. 
This, together with the further develop- 
ment of the Fleet Marine Force, influ- 
enced the development of the Corps' 
amphibious doctrines. General Fuller was 
transferred to the retired list of the Ma- 
rine Corps on Mar. 1, 1934, after having 
attained the statutory age limit of 64 years. 



GAIENNIE, Louis Rene. Private. Medal 
of Honor: b. St. Louis, Mo., June 9, 1878; 
d. during WWII, exact date not known. 
Louis Gaiennie enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Mare Island, Calif., on July 11, 
1899. He received the Medal of Honor 
on Dec. 11, 1901 "... for distinguished 
conduct in the presence of the enemy 
at Peking, China, July 21, to Aug. 17, 
1900. . . ." 

GALE, Anthony. Lieutenant Colonel. 4th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps 
Mar. 3, 1819 to Oct. 8, 1820: b. Dublin, 
Ireland, Sept. 17, 1782; d. Lincoln Coun- 
ty, Ky., 1843. Fewer records survive con- 
cerning Anthony Gale than of any other 
Commandant of the Corps. For six 
months following the death of Comman- 
dant Lieutenant Colonel Franklin Whar- 
ton, the Corps was officially without a 
leader. However, Archibald Henderson 
was temporarily at the helm. By Mar. of 
1819, the Secretary of the Navy had made 
his decision and the post of Commandant 
went to Gale. The few records which 
remain indicate that Gale was neither 



effective nor efficient as the head of the 
Corps. He was finally removed from office 
and the Corps on Oct. 8, 1820. The gov- 
ernment, however, awarded him a pen- 
sion which continued until his death in 
1843. 

GALER, Robert Edward. Brigadier Gen- 
eral (Retired). Medal of Honor: b. 
Seattle, Wash., Oct. 23, 1913. Robert 
Galer was commissioned a second lieu- 
tenant in the Marine Corps July 1, 1936. 
Following his designation as a naval 
aviator in Apr, 1937, he was transferred 
to the 1st Mar. Brig, at Quantico for duty 
with Aircraft 1. In July of the same year 
he was assigned to a course of instruc- 
tion at the Basic School at Philadelphia, 
Pa. Following the completion of his 
studies in June 1938, he was ordered to 
the New York Navy Yard, but shortly 
thereafter was transferred to the Virgin 
Is. where he served with Marine Scout- 
ing Squadron 3 at St. Thomas. He was 
advanced to first lieutenant in July 1939. 
He returned to the States in June 1940, 
and in July reported to the 2nd MAW in 



83 



G AL E R 



GARCIA 



San Diego, Calif. In Jan. 1941, he was 
ordered to Hawaii and was appointed a 
captain in Mar. 1941. He was serving at 
MCAS, Ewa, when the Japanese at- 
tacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. In 
May 1942, Galer assumed command of 
Marine Fighting Squadron 224. It was 
while in command of this unit that he 
received the nation's highest award, 
shortly after his promotion to the rank of 
major. His citation reads, in part: ". . . 
as leader of a Marine Fighting Squadron 
in aerial combat with enemy Japanese 
forces in the Solomon Is. area, Aug.- 
Sept. 1942. Leading his squadron re- 
peatedly in daring and aggressive raids 
against Japanese aerial forces, vastly 
superior in numbers, Maj. Galer availed 
himself of every favorable attack oppor- 
tunity, individually shooting down 11 
enemy bomber and fighter aircraft over 
a period of 29 days. Though suffering 
the extreme physical strain attendant 
upon protracted fighter operations at an 
altitude above 25,000 feet, the squadron, 
under his zealous and inspiring leader- 
ship, shot down a total of 27 Japanese 
planes. . . ." Following the presentation 
of the Medal of Honor, he was ordered 
to Marine Forces, Air, West Coast, Mira- 
mar, Calif., where he served as Assistant 
Operations Officer. Shortly after ad- 
vancement to the rank of lieutenant colo- 
nel in Nov. 1943, he was ordered to 
return to the Hawaiian Is., where he 
became Chief of Staff, Marine Air, Ha- 
waiian Area. In May 1944, he was named 
as Operations Officer, 3rd MAW. He 
served as an observer during the Palau 
Is. campaign while on temporary duty 
from the 3rd MAW. His next assignment 
found him as Training Officer of Pro- 
visional Air Support Command, FMF, 
Pacific. Galer again returned to the 
States in June 1945, and in July he re- 
ported to the MB, Naval Air Training 



Base, Corpus Christi, Tex. as officer in 
charge of a cadet regiment. He remained 
in that capacity until Aug. 1947, at which 
time he was assigned as a student at the 
Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk, 
Va. In June 1948, Col. Galer reported to 
MAG-14, 2nd MAW, at the MCAS, 
Cherry Point, N.C. where he served as 
Operations and Training Officer. He 
joined HQ Squadron 2 at that station in 
Apr. 1949, and was transferred Apr. 26, 
1950, to the NAS, San Diego, Calif. He 
served there as Marine Planning Officer 
and, later, as Assistant Chief of Staff for 
Plans on the Staff of the Commander, 
Air Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Col. Galer 
sailed in Mar. 1952 for Korea, where he 
saw duty as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 
(Supply) of the 1st MAW until the fol- 
lowing May. He was then named CO of 
MAG 12, 1st MAW there. Col. Galer was 
also awarded the Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V" for his service in Korea from 
May 24 to Aug. 5, 1952, when he was 
shot down behind enemy lines by anti- 
aircraft fire and later rescued by helicop- 
ter. After a period of hospitalization, he 
returned to duty at El Toro, Calif, in Oct. 
1952 as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l 
(Personnel), and later, G-3 (Operations), 
of Aircraft, FMF, Pacific. He was en- 
rolled as a student in the Air War 
College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Mont- 
gomery, Ala. in July 1953. Upon his 
graduation from the College the follow- 
ing June, he was transferred to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., where he became 
Assistant Director, Guided Missiles Di- 
vision, Bureau of Aeronautics, Depart- 
ment of the Navy, He served in that 
capacity until Jan, 1956, when he as- 
sumed duties as Acting Director. On 
July 31, 1957 he was retired and ad- 
vanced to brigadier general. 

GARCIA, Fernando Luis. Private First 



84 



G A U G H A N 



GEI GE R 



Class. Medal of Honor; b. Utuado, Puerto 
Rico, Oct. 14, 1929; d. KIA, Korea, Sept. 
5, 1952, P.F.C. Garcia's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . while serving as a member of 
Co. I, 3rd Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.) in action against enemy aggres- 
sor forces in Korea on Sept. 5, 1952. 
While participating in the defense of a 
combat outpost located more than one 
mile forward of the main line of resist- 
ance during a savage night attack by 
a fanatical enemy force employing gre- 
nades, mortars, and artillery, P.F.C. 
Garcia, although suffering painful 
wounds, moved through the intense hail 
of hostile fire to a supply point to secure 
more hand grenades. Quick to act when 
a hostile grenade landed nearby, endan- 
gering the life of another Marine as well 
as his own, he unhesitatingly chose to 
sacrifice himself and immediately threw 
his body upon the deadly missile, receiv- 
ing the full impact of the explosion. . . ." 

GAUGHAN, Philip. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. Belmullet, Ireland, Mar. 17, 
1865; d. U.S. Naval Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Dec. 30, 1913. Philip Gaughan 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. on July 19, 1887. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving on 
board the USS Nashville . . . for extraor- 
dinary heroism and coolness while cutting 
the cables leading from Cienfuegos, 
Cuba, May 11, 1898, under heavy fire 
of the enemy. . . ." He was discharged 
from the Corps on July 18, 1899. 

GEIGER, Roy Stanley. General. Com- 
mander of both air and grounds units 
during WWII: b. Middleburg, Fla., Jan. 
25, 1885; d. National Naval Medical Cen- 
ter, Bethesda, Md., Jan. 23, 1947. Roy 
Geiger attended Florida State Normal 
School and received an LLB degree from 
Stetson University, following which he 




Geiger 

enlisted in the Marine Corps on Nov. 2, 
1907, He was commissioned a second 
lieutenant on Feb. 5, 1909. Following 
attendance at the Marine Officers* School 
at Port Royal, S.C., he served as a mem- 
ber of the Marine Detachments aboard 
the USS Wisconsin and the USS Dela- 
ware. In Aug. 1912, he went to foreign 
shore duty in Nicaragua and while in 
that country participated in the bom- 
bardment, assault, and capture of Coyo- 
tepe and Barranca. Further foreign shore 
duty followed in the Philippines and 
China with the 1st Mar, Brig, and with 
the Marine Detachment, American Lega- 
tion, Peking, China, from 1913 to 1916. 
In Mar. 1916, he joined the Naval Aero- 
nautic Station at Pensacola, Fla., as a 
student naval aviator. He successfully 
completed the course and was designated 



85 



6 E I G E R 



G E I G E R 



a naval aviator in June 1917. Further 
training followed and in July 1918 he 
arrived in France. Geiger served with 
Group Number Five, Royal Air Forces at 
Dunkerque. He commanded a squadron 
of the 1st Mar. Aviation Force and was 
attached to the Day Wing, Northern 
Bombing Group. He was detached to 
the States in Jan. 1919. For distinguished 
service in leading bombing raids against 
the enemy, he was awarded the Navy 
Cross. From Dec. 1919, to Jan. 1921, he 
was a squadron commander with the 
Mar. Aviation Force attached to the 1st 
Prov. Brig, in Haiti. Upon return to the 
States and after duty at the Marine Fly- 
ing Field, Marine Barracks, Quantico, 
Va., he attended Command and General 
Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 
He graduated in June 1925. Again he 
went to foreign shore duty, commanding 
Observation Squadron Two with the 1st 
Mar. Brig, in Haiti. In Aug. 1927, he re- 
turned to Quantico as a squadron officer 
and instructor at the MCS, and in May 
1928, was assigned to duty in the Avia- 
tion Section, Div. of Operations and 
Training at HQMC. After attending 
Army War College and graduating in 
June 1929, he was ordered to Quantico, 
where he was assigned duty as CO, Air- 
craft Squadrons, East Coast Expedition- 
ary Force. He returned to Washington 
for duty with Aeronautics, Navy Depart- 
ment as Officer in Charge, Marine Corps 
Aviation. In June 1935, he returned to 
Quantico as CO, Aircraft One, FMF. 
From June 1939, to Mar. 1941, he was a 
student at the Senior and the Advanced 
Courses, Naval War College, Newport, 
R.I. This was followed by a brief tour 
of duty in the Office of the Naval At- 
tache, London, England. In Aug. 1941, 
he became CG, 1st MAW, FMF, in which 
capacity he was serving upon this coun- 
try s entry into WWII. He led the 1st 



MAW from Sept. 3 to Nov. 4, 1942, while 
stationed at Guadalcanal. For extraordin- 
ary heroism in this capacity as well as 
commander of all aircraft, he was award- 
ed a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy 
Cross. His citation reads in part, "Despite 
almost continuous bombardment by 
enemy aircraft, hostile naval gunfire and 
shore based artillery, the combined total 
of Army, Navy and Marine Corps units 
stationed at Guadalcanal under Maj. 
Gen. Geiger's efficiently coordinated 
command succeeded in shooting down 
268 Japanese planes in aerial combat and 
inflicting damage on a number estimated 
to be as great. . . . Sank six enemy vessels, 
including one heavy cruiser, possibly 
sank three destroyers and one heavy 
cruiser, and damaged 18 other ships, in- 
cluding one heavy cruiser and five light 
cruisers." He was recalled to HQMC in 
May 1943, to become Director of Avia- 
tion. In Nov. 1943, he returned to the 
field, this time as CG of the 1st Mar. 
Amphibious Corps and led the Corps 
from Nov. 9 to Dec. 15, 1943, in the 
Bougainville Operation, for which he 
was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal. Reclesignated 3rd Amphibious 
Corps in Apr. 1944, Geiger led this or- 
ganization in the invasion and subsequent 
recapture of Guam during July and Aug. 
1944, and in the assault and capture of 
the southern Palau Islands in Sept. and 
Oct. of the same year. For these opera- 
tions he was awarded two Gold Stars in 
lieu of a second and third Distinguished 
Service Medal. Gen. Geiger led this 
Corps into action for the fourth time as 
part of the Tenth Army in the invasion 
and capture of Okinawa. In July 1945, 
he assumed duties as CG of the FMF, 
Pacific, which position he held until 
called back to HQMC in Nov. 1946. On 
Jan. 23, 1947, Gen. Geiger died at the 
National Naval Medical Center, Bethes- 



86 



GLENN 



GLENN 



da, Md. Gen. Geiger was promoted to 
the rank of general posthumously by the 
80th Congress to be effective from Jan. 
23, 1947. 




Glenn 

GLENN, John Herschel, Jr. Lieutenant 
Colonel. National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Mercury Astronaut, Ma- 
rine Corps test pilot, and first American 
to orbit the earth: b. Cambridge, Ohio, 
July 18, 1921. John Glenn graduated 
from high school in New Concord, Ohio, 
in 1939, and while attending Muskingum 
College enlisted in the U.S. Naval Re- 
serve in Mar. 1942. He was assigned 
active duty May 28, 1942 and transferred 
to the Naval Aviation Pre-Flight School, 
Iowa City, Iowa, and while there was 
designated an aviation cadet, Aug. 4, 
1942. Following pre-flight instruction, he 



completed the primary flight training 
course at the U.S.N.R. Aviation Base, 
Kansas City, Olathe, Kans., from Aug. 
1942 to Nov. 1942. He then joined the 
Naval Air Training Center, Corpus 
Christi, Tex., where, on completing flight 
training, Mar. 31, 1943, he was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the MCR, 
and designated a naval aviator. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Oct. 1943, 
and sailed for the Pacific area in Feb. 

1944. During WWII, he flew 59 missions 
in the Marshall Is. campaign, earning two 
Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten 
Air Medals as a pilot in Marine Fighter 
Squadron (VMF) 155, MAG 31, 4th 
MAW. Returning to the States in Feb. 

1945, he was subsequently assigned to 
the 9th MAW, MCAS, Cherry Point, 
N.C., and NAS, Patuxent River, Md. He 
was promoted to captain in July 1945, 
and integrated in the regular Marine 
Corps in Mar. 1946. Glenn next served 
at the MCAS, El Toro, Calif., from Mar. 
until Dec. 1946. He then departed the 
States for two years* duty with MAG 24, 
1st MAW, and during this time was a 
member of Marine Fighter Squadron 
218 on North China patrol and on Guam. 
From Jan. 1949 to June 1951, he served 
as Flight Instructor, Instructors' Ad- 
vanced Training Unit, Naval Auxiliary 
Air Station, Cabaniss Field, Corpus 
Christi; and as Instrument Flight Instruc- 
tor, NAS, Corpus Christi. In July 1951, 
he was transferred to MCS, Quantico, 
Va., where he completed the Junior 
Course in Nov. 1951, then served as 
Assistant G-2/G-3. He was promoted to 
major in July 1952. Glenn departed 
Quantico in Nov. 1952 and completed 
the Jet Refresher Course at MCAS, 
Cherry Point. In Feb. 1953, he arrived in 
Korea for duty as a jet pilot with Marine 
Fighter Squadron 311, MAG 33. During 
the Korean War, he flew a total of 90 



87 



GLENN 



G I O W I N 



combat missions. Flying 63 missions with 
VMF-311 from Feb. through May 1953, 
he was awarded a third Distinguished 
Flying Cross and six Air Medals. As an 
exchange pilot with the 5th U.S. Air 
Force from June to Sept. 1953, he flew 
27 missions with the 25th Fighter Squad- 
ron, 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing. While 
serving with the 25th Squadron, he de- 
stroyed three MIGs in nine days. For 
this outstanding performance, the U.S. 
Air Force awarded him a Distinguished 
Flying Cross, his fourth such award; and 
two Air Medals, his 17th and 18th. He 
remained in Korea through Dec. 1953. 
Early in 1954, Maj. Glenn entered the 
Navy Test Pilot Training School at the 
NAS, Patuxent River, completing the 
course in July 1954. After graduation, 
he was Project Officer on a number of 
aircraft, including the F8U, F8U-1, and 
F8U-P, at the Armament Test Division 
of the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent 
River. In Nov. 1956, he was assigned as 
Project Officer, Fighter Design Branch, 
Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Dept., in 
Washington, D.C. On July 16, 1957, Maj. 
Glenn completed the first non-stop su- 
personic coast-to-coast flght in an F8U-1 
Crusader. This flight, from Los Alamitos 
NAS, Calif., to Floyd Bennett Field, 
N.Y., took 3 hours 23 minutes and 8.1 
seconds. He was awarded another Dis- 
tinguished Flying Cross for this feat, his 
fifth such award. His rank as lieutenant 
colonel dates from Apr. 1, 1959. With the 
advent of Project Mercury John Glenn 
was one of the original 69 selectees 
brought to the Nation s Capital for inter- 
views to determine their qualifications to 
become America's first astronauts. Of the 
69 men, all military test pilots or former 
test pilots, 32 were chosen for further 
screening under grueling physical and 
mental stresses. Glenn was among the 32. 
On Apr. 9, 1959, NASA introduced the 



seven best qualified men; John Glenn 
had become one of the nation's first seven 
astronauts. Less than two years later, on 
Feb. 20, 1962, in his Friendship 7 Mer- 
cury Spacecraft, Glenn orbited the earth 
three times in four hours, 56 minutes 
four and three-fourths hours of which he 
was weightless in space. In his Mercury 
craft, he was rocketed into space by a 
modified Atlas missile from Cape Cana- 
veral, Fla., at 9:47 A.M. (EST) and landed 
in the Atlantic Ocean, 166 miles east of 
Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas at 
2:43 P.M. During the second and third 
orbits, he controlled the capsule himself 
through the autopilot after the automatic 
controls broke down just at the end of 
the first orbit. During his 83,000-mile 
ride through space, he had achieved an 
orbital speed of 17,530 miles an hour at 
a high point of 162.5 statute miles and 
a low point of 98.9 statute miles. Follow- 
ing re-entry, Col. Glenn landed with his 
spacecraft in the Atlantic, five miles from 
the destroyer USS Noa. He was picked 
up still inside his spacecraft and lowered 
to the deck of the destroyer at 3:04 P.M. 
Later, he was lifted from the Noa by heli- 
copter and transferred to the carrier USS 
Randolph for transport to Grand Turk 
Island for examination by a team of doc- 
tors and technicians. He was pronounced 
in excellent condition, Although new 
astronauts have been added to the orig- 
inal seven, Col. Glenn has continued in 
his assignment with the NASA program. 

GLOWIN, Joseph Anthony. Corporal 
Medal of Honor: b. Detroit, Mich., Mar. 
14, 1892. Joseph Glowin enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Norfolk, Va. on Dec. 9, 
1913. His citation reads, in part: "... for 
extraordinary heroism in the line of his 
profession and for eminent and conspic- 
uous courage in the presence of the 
enemy at the action at Guayacanes, 



88 



GOMEZ 



GRAY 



Dominican Republic, July 3, 1916. . . " 

GOMEZ, Edward. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Omaha, Neb., Aug. 
10, 1932; d. KIA, Korea, Sept. 14, 1951. 
P.F.C. Gomez' citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving as an ammunition 
bearer in Co. E, 2nd Bn., 1st Marines, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces in Korea on Sept. 

14, 1951. Boldly advancing with his 
squad in support of a group of riflemen 
assaulting a series of strongly fortified 
and bitterly defended hostile positions 
on Hill 749, P.F.C. Gomez consistently 
exposed himself to the withering barrage 
to keep his machine gun supplied with 
ammunition during the drive forward to 
seize the objective. As his squad deployed 
to meet an imminent counterattack, he 
voluntarily moved down an abandoned 
trench to search for a new location for 
the gun and, when a hostile grenade 
landed between himself and his weapon, 
shouted a warning to those around him 
as he grasped the activated charge in his 
hand. Determined to save his comrades, 
he unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice him- 
self and, diving into the ditch with the 
deadly missile, absorbed the shattering 
violence of the explosion in his own 
body. . . ." 

GONSALVES, Harold. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Alameda, 
Calif,, Jan. 28, 1926; d. KIA, Okinawa, 
Apr. 15, 1945. P.F.C. Gonsalves' citation 
reads, in part "... as Acting Scout 
Sgt. of a Forward Observer Team, 
serving with Battery L, 4th Bn., 15th 
Marines, 6th Mar. Div., during action 
against enemy Japanese forces on Oki- 
nawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, Apr. 

15, 1945 . . . when his CO determined to 
move into the front lines in order to reg- 
ister a more effective bombardment in 



the enemy's defensive position, he unhesi- 
tatingly advanced uphill with the officer 
and another Marine despite a slashing 
barrage of enemy mortar and rifle fire. 
As they reached the front, a Japanese 
grenade fell close within the group. In- 
stantly P.F.C. Gonsalves dived on the 
deadly missile, absorbing the exploding 
charge in his own body and thereby pro- 
tecting the others from serious and per- 
haps fatal wounds. . . ." 

GRAY, Ross Franklin. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Marvel Valley, Ala., Aug. 1, 
1920; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Feb. 27, 1945. 
Two days after D-day on Iwo Jima, Sgt. 
Gray was acting platoon sergeant of one 
of A Company's platoons which had been 
held up by a sudden barrage of Japanese 
hand grenades in the area northeast of 
Airfield No. 1. Promptly withdrawing 
his platoon out of range of the grenades, 
the sergeant moved forward to recon- 
noiter. He ascertained that the advance 
was held up by a series of enemy em- 
placements connected by covered com- 
munication trenches and fronted by a 
mine field. Despite enemy small arms 
fire, the sergeant cleared a path through 
the mine field up to the mouth of one of 
the fortifications, then returned to his 
own lines where, with three volunteers, 
he went back to the battalion dump and 
acquired 12 satchel charges. Placing 
these in a defiladed area within his pla- 
toon he took one weighing 24 pounds 
and, covered by the three volunteers, 
advanced up the path he had cleared and 
threw the charge into the enemy position, 
sealing it. Immediately brought under 
fire from a machine gun in another 
opening of the same position, Sgt. Gray 
returned to the defiladed spot, obtained 
another charge, returned to the position, 
and completely destroyed it. Spotting 
another emplacement, he went through 



89 



G R I I N E 



GREENE 



the mine field for the seventh and eighth 
time to get another charge and destroy 
another enemy stronghold. He continued 
this one-man attack, all the time under 
heavy small arms fire and grenade bar- 
rage, until he had destroyed six enemy 
positions. Throughout the action, he went 
unarmed so that he could more easily 
carry the charges and accessories. When 
he had eliminated the six positions, Sgt. 
Gray disarmed the whole mine field be- 
fore returning to his platoon. He emerged 
from the entire courageous undertaking, 
which undoubtedly saved the lives of 
many Marines, without a scratch. A re- 
capitulation of the day's work revealed 
that he had killed over 25 of the enemy, 
destroyed one machine gun, one small 
field piece, and an ammunition dump 
containing small arms ammunition and 
mines. Although he remained unscratched 
through his 12 trips back and forth among 
enemy mines, constantly under heavy 
fire, Sgt. Gray was killed six days later 
on Feb. 27, by an enemy shell. 

GREENE, Wallace Martin, Jr. Lieutenant 
General. Chief of Staff, HQMC, Wash- 
ington, D.C.: b. Burlington, Vt, Dec. 27, 
1907. Gen. Greene graduated from high 
school in 1925 and attended the Univer- 
sity of Vermont for a year before enter- 
ing Annapolis. Upon graduation from the 
Naval Academy, June 5, 1930, he was 
commissioned a Marine second lieuten- 
ant and ordered to Marine Officers' Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. 
He completed that school in June 1931, 
then served for a year at the MB, Navy 
Yard, Portsmouth, N.H. In July 1932, 
he completed Sea School at San Diego, 
Calif., and joined the Marine Detach- 
ment aboard the USS Tennessee. Return- 
ing from sea duty in Mar. 1934, the gen- 
eral served briefly at Pensacola, Fla., 
and Quantico, Va., before reporting to 




the MB, NAS, Lakehurst, N.J., that Nov. 
Except for a temporary assignment at 
Edgewood Arsenal, McL, where he com- 
pleted a course in the Chemical Warfare 
School, he remained at Lakehurst until 
Mar. 1936. After that he served at the 
MCRD, San Diego, until he sailed for 
Guam in Oct. 1936. He was stationed 
there until June 1937, when he embarked 
for Shanghai to join the 4th Marines. 
Upon his return from China in Aug. 
1939, he entered the Junior Course, MCS, 
Quantico. He completed the course in 
May 1940, then took command of the 
1st Chemical Co., 1st Mar. Brig,, sailing 
with it that Oct. for Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba. While there, the Brigade was re- 



90 



GREENE 



GUILLEN 



designated the 1st Mar. Div. Returning 
with the unit in Apr. 1941, he served at 
Quantico and New River (later Camp 
Lejeune), N.C., as Assistant Operations 
Officer, 1st Mar. Div. In Nov. 1941, 
Greene was ordered to London, England, 
as a Special Naval Observer. During that 
assignment, he attended the British Am- 
phibious Warfare School at Inverary, 
Scotland, and the Royal Engineer Demo- 
litions School at Ripon, York, England, 
returning to the States in Feb. 1942. 
Named Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 3rd 
Mar. Brig, that Mar., Greene sailed with 
the brigade for Upolu, Western Samoa, 
the following month. He remained on 
that island until Nov. 1943, when he 
joined the 5th Amphibious Corps in Ha- 
waii as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
Tactical Group 1. For outstanding ser- 
vice in this capacity during the planning 
and execution of the Marshall Is. inva- 
sion, he was awarded his first Legion of 
Merit with Combat "V." Following the 
disbanding of the group in Mar. 1944, he 
joined the 2nd Mar. Div. as G-3, earning 
a second Legion of Merit for outstanding 
service in this capacity on Saipan and 
Tinian. He remained with the 2nd Div. 
until his return to the States in Sept. In 
Oct. 1944, he was appointed Officer in 
Charge, G-3, Operations, Division of 
Plans and Policies, HQMC, Washington, 
D.C. He held that post until July 1945, 
then served as Executive Officer, Special 
Services Branch, Personnel Department. 
In Apr. 1946, he was ordered to Little 
Creek, Va., as G-3, Troop Training Unit, 
Amphibious Training Command, U.S. 
Atlantic Fleet. Leaving Little Creek in 
June 1948, he reported to Pearl Harbor 
that Aug. as G-3, FMF, Pacific. Col. 
Greene returned from that assignment in 
June 1950, and for the next two years was 
Chief of the Combined Arms Section, 
MCS, Quantico. He also served briefly 



as Chief of the Coordination and Evalua- 
tion Section there, before entering the 
National War College, Washington, in 
Aug. 1952. He graduated in June 1953, 
and the next month became Staff Special 
Assistant to the JCS for National Security 
Council Affairs. In Sept. 1955, he was 
promoted to brigadier general and be- 
came Assistant Commander, 2nd Mar. 
Div., Camp Lejeune. Transferred to the 
MCRD, Parris Is., S.C., in May 1956, 
he served as CG, Recruit Training Com- 
mand, until Mar. 1957; and, subsequent- 
ly, as CG of the Recruit Depot. In July 
1957, Gen. Greene became CG of the 
MCB, Camp Lejeune. Ordered to HQMC, 
Washington, in Jan. 1958, he served for 
over a year as Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3. He was promoted to major general 
in Aug. 1958. In Mar. 1959, he was 
named Deputy Chief of Staff (Plans), 
serving in this capacity through Dec. of 
that year. On Jan. 1, 1960, he was pro- 
moted to lieutenant general on assuming 
his current assignment as Chief of Staff. 

GROSS, Samuel. Private. ( Real name was 
Samuel Margulies.) Medal of Honor: b. 
Philadelphia, Pa., May 9, 1891; d. Sept. 
13, 1934, In an attack on Fort Riviere, 
Haiti on Nov. 17, 1915, Pvt. Gross was 
the second man to charge through a 
breach in the wall under heavy fire from 
the enemy. A hand-to-hand battle within 
the fort followed, with the Cacos waging 
a desperate defense with rifles, clubs, and 
stones. After the ten minute bloody con- 
flict the fort was captured. Gross was dis- 
charged from the Corps as an epileptic 
on Sept. 10, 1918. 

GUILLEN, Ambrosio. Staff Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. La Junta, Calif., Dec. 
7, 1929; d. KIA, Korea, July 25, 1953. 
S. Sgt. Guillen's citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving as a platoon sergeant 



91 



GU IL IEN 



GORKI 



of Co. F, 2nd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf.), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces in Korea on July 25, 1953. 
Participating in the defense of an outpost 
forward of the main line of resistance, 
S. Sgt. Guillen maneuvered his platoon 
over unfamiliar terrain in the face of hos- 
tile fire and placed his men in fighting 
positions. With his unit pinned down 
when the outpost was attacked under 
cover of darkness by an estimated force 
of two enemy battalions supported by 
mortar and artillery fire, he deliberately 
exposed himself to the heavy barrage 
and attacks to direct his men in defend- 
ing their positions and personally super- 
vise the treatment and evacuation of the 
wounded. Inspired by his leadership, the 
platoon quickly rallied and engaged 
the enemy in fierce hand-to-hand combat. 
Although critically wounded during the 
course of the battle, S. Sgt. Guillen re- 
fused medical aid and continued to di- 
rect his men throughout the remainder 



of the engagement until the enemy was 
defeated and thrown into disorderly re- 
treat. Succumbing to his wounds within 
a few hours, S. Sgt. Guillen, by his out- 
standing courage and indomitable fight- 
ing spirit, was directly responsible for 
the success of his platoon's repelling a 
numerically superior enemy force. . . ." 

GURKE, Henry. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Neche, N.D., Nov. 6, 
1922; d. KIA, Bougainville, Nov. 9, 1943. 
P.F.C. Gurke's citation reads, in part: 
"... while attached to the 3rd Mar. Raid- 
er Bn ... while his platoon was engaged 
in the defense of a vital road block, 
P.F.C. Gurke, in company with another 
Marine, was delivering a fierce stream 
of fire against the main vanguard of the 
Japanese, When a Japanese grenade 
dropped squarely into their foxhole, 
P.F.C. Gurke thrust his companion aside 
and flung his own body over the missile 
to smother the explosion. . , ." 



H 



HAMBLET, Julia E. Lieutenant Colonel. 
Former Director of Women Marines: b. 
Winchester, Mass., May 12, 1916. Julia 
Hamblet attended the Hartridge School, 
Plainfield, N.J., and graduated from Vas- 
sar in 1937 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. 
She obtained a Master of Science degree 
in public administration at Ohio State 
University in 1951. After serving with the 
U.S. Information Service, Washington, 
D.C. from 1937 until 1943, she entered 
the Marine Corps that spring. Upon 
graduation from the first Marine Corps 
Women's Reserve Officer Training Class 
at Mt. Holyoke, Mass., she was commis- 



sioned a first lieutenant in the Reserve on 
May 4, 1943. During WWII, Lt. Hamblet 
commanded Aviation Women Reserve 
Group 1, numbering some 2600 women, 
at the MCAS, Cherry Point, N.C. After 
her release from active duty in 1946, she 
spent two months in London, then was 
called back to HQMC in Washington to 
serve as Director of Women Reserves. 
When women were accepted into the 
regular components of the armed forces 
in 1948, she accepted a regular commis- 
sion. She was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Aug. 1949. In 1951, after 
completing graduate work at Ohio State 



HANNEKEN 



HANNEKEN 



University, Col. Hamblet was assigned 
to the Staff of the Commander, FMF, 
Pacific, in Hawaii. The following year 
she was named Officer in Charge of the 
Women Marine Officers' Training De- 
tachment, MCS, Quantico, Va. Col. 
Hamblet became Director of Women 
Marines on May 1, 1953. The post car- 
ried the rank of colonel, and she con- 
tinued to serve in that capacity when 
her four year tour was extended by the 
Commandant of the Marine Corps. In 
Mar. 1959, she reverted to her perma- 
nent rank of lieutenant colonel when she 
became Military Secretary to the Com- 
mander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern 
Europe. Since the latter part of 1962, she 
has been CO of the Women Marine De- 
tachment at MCRD, Parris Is. 

HANNEKEN, Herman Henry. Brigadier 
General (Retired). Medal of Honor: b. 
St. Louis, Mo., June 23, 1893. While on 
duty in Haiti in 1919, Herman Hanneken 
suppressed the activities of the bandit 
leader, Charlemagne Peralte, by killing 
the notorious outlaw in a daring raid on 
his camp in northern Haiti. For this out- 
standing feat, he was awarded the Med- 
al of Honor. In another daring exploit, 
just five months following the execution 
of Charlemagne, he shot and killed Osiris 
Joseph, another Haitian bandit chieftain 
who had succeeded Charlemagne. Han- 
neken was awarded the Navy Cross for 
this act of heroism. His Marine Corps 
career, which was to endure for 34 years, 
began when he enlisted as a private in 
July 1914. He served for five years as an 
enlisted man, rising to the rank of ser- 
geant. He was appointed a second lieu- 
tenant in Dec, 1919. Upon receipt of his 
commission he was assigned to duty with 
the Haitian Gendarmerie. He was or- 
dered to return to the States in Apr. 1920, 
and following his arrival at the MB, 




Hanneken 

Quantico, he was assigned to a special 
course at the MCS. As a member of the 
6th Mar. Regt, Hanneken, now a first 
lieutenant, sailed for Brazil to participate 
in the Brazilian Exposition. The unit re- 
turned to Quantico in the latter part of 
1922. Several months later, he was trans- 
ferred to the Marine Detachment, USS 
Antares, where he assumed duties as CO. 
In Jan. 1925, Hanneken was transferred 
to the MB, NAS, Lakehurst, N.J., and 
in Apr. 1927, was detached to the MB 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Again 
ordered to foreign duty in Dec. 1928, he 
arrived in Corinto, Nicaragua, in Jan. of 
the following year. Upon his arrival in 
Nicaragua he was assigned to duty with 
the 2nd Brig. Marines. It was in that 
Central American country, less than a 
month after his arrival, that Hanneken 



93 



H ANN IKE N 



HANSON 



captured another notorious bandit leader. 
He was awarded his second Navy Cross 
for ''bringing in" bandit chieftain San- 
dino's Chief of Staff, Gen. Jiron. In July 
1930, he returned to Quantico to attend 
the Company Officers' Course, MCS. Up- 
on graduation in Jan. of the next year, he 
was transferred to the MCB at San 
Diego, Calif., and later to the Naval Base 
at San Pedro, Calif. His next assignment 
found Hanneken at the MB, Marine Is- 
land, Calif., in Aug. 1936 where, during 
his tour of duty, he was appointed a 
major. He was ordered to Quantico in 
June 1938, and two months later, re- 
ported for a course of instruction at that 
base in the Senior Course, MCS. From 
June 1939 to Dec. 1940, he was CO, MB, 
NAD, Hingham, Mass. He was next or- 
dered to New York to assume command 
of the Marine Detachment aboard the 
USS Harry Lee with additional duties 
as Transport Quartermaster. The major 
served with the 1st Mar. Div. from June 
1941 until Nov. 1944, when he returned 
to the States to command the 2nd Inf. 
Training Regt. and the HQ Bn. at Camp 
Pendleton, Calif. While with the 1st Mar. 
Div. his duties were varied. While CO 
of the 7th Marines during the Guadal- 
canal campaign he was awarded the Sil- 
ver Star Medal for conspicuous gallantry 
and intrepidity in action against the ene- 
my. Again, during the Peleliu action, he 
won the Legion of Merit for meritorious 
conduct in action and, during the Cape 
Gloucester operation, was decorated 
with the Bronze Star Medal. In Sept. 
1945, he was assigned as CO of the Stag- 
ing Regiment at the Marine Training and 
Replacement Command, San Diego Area, 
prior to his transfer to the Troop Train- 
ing Unit, Amphibious Forces, Pacific 
Fleet. Gen. Hanneken was serving as 
Chief of Staff of that organization when 
he was transferred to the retired list for 



Marine Corps officers. Following his re- 
tirement on July 1, 1948, he was advanced 
to his present rank for having been espe- 
cially commended for his performance of 
duty in combat. 

HANSEN, Dale Merlin. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Wisner, Neb., 
Dec. 13, 1922; d. KIA, Okinawa, May 11, 
1945. Private Hansen's citation reads, in 
part: "... while serving with Co. E, 2nd 
Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. in action 
against enemy Japanese forces on Oki- 
nawa Shima, May 7, 1945. Cool and 
courageous in combat, Pvt. Hansen un- 
hesitatingly took the initiative during a 
critical state of the action and, armed 
with a rocket launcher, crawled to an 
exposed position where he attacked and 
destroyed a strategically located hostile 
pillbox. With his weapon subsequently 
destroyed by enemy fire, he seized a rifle 
and continued his one-man assault. 
Reaching the crest of a ridge, he leaped 
across, opened fire on six Japanese and 
killed four before his rifle jammed. At- 
tacked by the remaining two Japanese, 
he beat them off with the butt of his rifle 
and then climbed back to cover. Prompt- 
ly returning with another weapon and 
supply of grenades, he fearlessly ad- 
vanced, destroyed a strong mortar posi- 
tion and annihilated eight more of the 
enemy." P.F.C. Dale Hansen was killed 
by a Japanese sniper four days after his 
valiant exploits for which he earned the 
nation's highest award. 

HANSON, Robert Murray. First Lieuten- 
ant Medal of Honor: b. Lucknow, India, 
Feb. 4, 1920; d. MIA, last seen Feb. 3, 
1944, when his plane crashed into the 
sea over Rabaul, New Britain. Famous 
for one killing spree in which he downed 
20 enemy planes in six consecutive flying 
days, 1st Lt. Hanson was commended in 



94 



H A R R E L L 



HARRIS 



the citation accompanying the Medal of 
Honor for his bold attack against six 
enemy torpedo bombers Nov. 1, 1943, 
over Bougainville Is., and for bringing 
down four Zeros while fighting them 
alone over New Britain on Jan. 24, 1944. 
His citation reads, in part: "A master of 
individual air combat, Lt. Hanson daunt- 
lessly attacked six enemy torpedo bomb- 
ers, forcing them to jettison their bombs 
and destroying one Japanese plane," in 
the Bougainville action, which occurred 
over Empress Augusta Bay during the 
landing operations. In the New Britain 
action, over Simpson Harbor, 'lie waged 
a lone and gallant battle against hostile 
interceptors as they were orbiting to at- 
tack our bombers and, striking with 
devastating fury, brought down four 
Zeros and probably a fifth." Lt. Hanson 
arrived in the South Pacific in June 1943, 
and his daring tactics and total disregard 
for death soon became well known. His 
fatal crash occurred just one day before 
his twenty-fourth birthday. 

HARRELL, William George. Platoon Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Rio Grande 
City, Tex., June 26, 1922. William Harrell 
enlisted in the Marine Corps on July 3, 
1942, at Harlington, Tex. Completing his 
basic training at the MCB, San Diego, 
Calif., he was temporarily in the First 
Guard Co. at that base prior to his trans- 
fer to H&S Co., 2nd Antitank Bn., Camp 
Elliott, San Diego, Calif., in Sept. 1942. 
He was promoted to private first class 
upon his arrival at Camp Elliott, and 
while there was later advanced to cor- 
poral. Following completion of the Basic 
Rocket Course, Harrell departed for 
overseas in Feb. 1943 with A Co., 1st 
Bn., 28th Marines, 5th Mar. Div. as an 
armorer. He first served at Hawaii, went 
on to Saipan then to I wo Jima. On Mar. 
3, 1945 Harrell, now a sergeant, and an- 



other man dug in for the night in a long 
narrow two-man foxhole on a little ridge 
20 yards forward of the depression where 
the company CP was established. Be- 
yond the foxhole the ridge fell off into a 
ravine which was in Japanese territory. 
Because of their nearness to the enemy, 
the two men took turns standing one- 
hour watches throughout the night. An 
attack by the Japanese was repulsed, but 
the other Marine's weapon jammed and 
he returned to the CP to obtain another. 
While he was gone, the enemy managed 
to explode a grenade in the foxhole, 
blowing off Sgt. HarrelFs left hand. The 
second Marine returned just as the Japa- 
nese were swarming up to the foxhole 
and, together, he and Harrell drove them 
off. Thinking he was dying due to the 
severity of his wounds and saber cuts 
suffered in the last repulse, Sgt. Harrell 
ordered his companion to retire to safety. 
His friend left, but only to get another 
rifle. During his absence, two Japanese 
charged the foxhole, setting off another 
grenade. As Sgt. Harrell attempted to 
push it out of the hole it exploded, tear- 
ing off his right hand. He was evacuated 
and treated at various field hospitals 
prior to his arrival in the States. Sgt. 
Harrell was discharged from the Marine 
Corps in Feb. 1946 because of disability 
from his wounds. 

HARRIS, Field. Lieutenant General (Re- 
tired): b. Versailles, Ky., Sept. 18, 1895. 
Field Harris graduated from the U.S. 
Naval Academy in Mar. 1917, and was 
appointed a second lieutenant in the 
Marine Corps on Mar. 30 of that year. 
Following a short tour of duty aboard 
the USS Nevada, he joined the 3rd Prov. 
Brig, at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where 
he remained until Apr. 1919. He again 
saw foreign shore duty in Dec. of the 
same year when he was assigned to the 



95 



HARRIS 



HARRIS 




Harm 

MB, Naval Station, Cavite, P.L Return- 
ing to the States in June 1922, he served 
three years in the Office of the Judge 
Advocate General, Navy Department, 
Washington, D.C. A tour of sea duty fol- 
lowed as CO of the Marine Detachment, 
USS Wyoming. In Aug. 1927, he attended 
a one-year course at the MCS, Quantico, 
and then began flight training at NAS, 
Pensacola, Fla. On Apr. 13, 1929 he was 
designated a naval aviator. His first fly- 
ing duties were at NAS, San Diego, Calif., 
where he was CO and Executive Officer 
of an Aircraft Squadron, West Coast Ex- 
peditionary Force. A course of instruction 
at the Air Corps Tactical School, Langley 
Field, Va., was followed by foreign shore 
duty in Haiti and sea duty aboard the 
aircraft carrier USS Lexington. In June 



1935, Harris joined the Aviation Section 
at HQMC, Washington, D.C., following 
which he attended the Naval War Col- 
lege at Newport, R.I., where he grad- 
uated from the Senior Course in May 
1939. In the following two years he was 
stationed in Quantico, and at Guantana- 
mo Bay, Cuba, and in Aug. 1941, went 
to Cairo, Egypt as Assistant Naval At- 
tache, and Assistant Naval Attache for 
Air. During WWII, Gen. Harris served 
as Chief of Staff to the Commander, Air- 
craft, at Guadalcanal from Apr. to July 

1943, and was awarded the Legion of 
Merit for his outstanding services. He 
won a second Legion of Merit while Com- 
mander, Aircraft, Northern Solomons, in 
the autumn of 1943, From Feb. to Apr. 

1944, he was Commander of Air for the 
Green Island Operation, where he was 
awarded a Gold Star in lieu of his third 
Legion of Merit. For his services as Di- 
rector of Marine Aviation during the lat- 
ter years of WWII, the general received 
a Gold Star in lieu of his fourth Legion 
of Merit. He remained as Director of 
Marine Aviation until Feb. 1948, at which 
time he was ordered to duty as CG, Air- 
craft, FMF, Atlantic, and the 2nd MAW 
at Cherry Point, N.C. He became CG, 
Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, and the 1st MAW 
at El Toro, Santa Ana, Calif., in July 
1949. In Aug. 1950, he sailed for Korea 
as CG, 1st MAW. Returning to the States 
in June 1951, he was assigned duties at 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. In Sept. 1951, 
he became CG, Air, FMF, Atlantic, at 
Norfolk, Va. He was retired and advanced 
to lieutenant general on July 1, 1953. 

HARRIS, John. Colonel. 6th Comman- 
dant of the Marine Corps Jan, 7, 1859 
to May 2, 1864: d. Washington, D.C., 
May 12, 1864. Col John Harris became 
the leader of his Corps in old age and 
after 45 years of commissioned service. 



96 



HARRIS 



HARRIS 



He entered the Corps as a second lieu- 
tenant on Apr. 14, 1814, and there are 
no records which indicate that he ren- 
dered any outstanding services during 
the War of 1812. In the years following 
that war, he was assigned as commander 
of Marine guards on a number of the 
larger naval vessels and at various times 
was stationed at Erie, Philadelphia, Nor- 
folk, New York, and Boston. He rendered 
conspicuous service with Gen. Archibald 
Henderson in the Florida Indian wars in 
1836-37, in command of a mounted de- 
tachment of Marines. For this service he 
was later awarded the brevet rank of 
major. He returned to Washington in 
Mar. 1837, as the bearer of a treaty 
which had been made by the CG with 
the Seminole chiefs. From that time until 
the Mexican War, he was assigned to 
routine post duties and recruiting. Dur- 
ing the Mexican War his services were 
limited. He did not go to the theater 
of operations until the closing month of 
the war when he took a battalion of 
Marines to Mexico, but arrived after the 
armistice had been concluded. He was 
sent with his battalion to Alvarado, Mex. 
as part of an occupying force, pending 
negotiations to determine whether or not 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec would be 
placed under American control. The proj- 
ect failed shortly thereafter and Harris 
returned to the States and resumed his 
round of peace-time duties, spending the 
remainder of the time until he was made 
commandant in command of the MB at 
Philadelphia and New York. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel on Dec. 10, 
1855, and appointed to the office of 
Colonel Commandant of the Corps on 
Jan. 7, 1859 the day following the death 
of Gen. Archibald Henderson. Although 
Harris had succeeded a vigorous, aggres- 
sive commandant, he conducted the 
peace-time affairs of the Corps satisfac- 



torily until the approach of the Civil 
War. After the election of Abraham Lin- 
coln as President, the Marine Corps, to- 
gether with the other military services of 
the U.S., began to distintegrate when a 
large proportion of the commissioned 
personnel resigned to offer their services 
to their native southern states. This di- 
vided loyalty in the Corps seems to have 
affected Harris somewhat, although he 
himself was not a southerner. When, for 
example, one of the Marine officers re- 
signed during the crisis with the obvious 
intention of joining the Confederacy, 
Harris gave him a letter of recommenda- 
tion commending him highly to any 
military organization in need of the ser- 
vices of an experienced officer. With the 
actual outbreak of the war, however, 
Harris doubtless saw his obligations more 
clearly. His position grew more difficult 
as nearly half of the officers of the Corps 
resigned, many of them younger officers 
with particularly distinguished records. 
The older officers of the Corps, nearly all 
of whom remained with the Union, were 
well on in years and had lost most of 
their zest for combat. Official records fail 
to disclose any recommendations by 
Harris for the expansion of the Marine 
Corps to sufficiently meet the great na- 
tional emergency. He seemed to have 
been content with supplying Marines to 
guard shore establishments of the navy 
and supplying Marine detachments for 
the larger vessels. There is no evidence 
that he appreciated the value of an ex- 
peditionary force of Marines of sufficient 
strength to assist the fleet in its operations 
along the Confederate coast. The record 
of the Marine Corps in the Civil War and 
during the remainder of Harris* tour as 
Commandant was brilliantly successful 
concerning men serving on naval vessels 
but negligible when fighting on shore. 
Harris' tour as Commandant and his long 



HARVEY 



HAWKINS 



career of 50 years as a Marine officer 
came to its close when he died In Wash- 
ington on May 12, 1864. 

HARVEY, Harry. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. New York, N.Y., June 4, 1873; 
d. Apr. 5, 1929. Harry Harvey enlisted in 
the Marine Corps on Feb. 5, 1895, at 
Brooklyn, N.Y. He was awarded the 
Medal, of Honor on Jan. 24, 1902. His 
citation reads, in part: "... For distin- 
guished conduct in the presence of the 
enemy in battle at Benefictican, Philip- 
pine Is., Feb. 16, 1900." Sgt. Harvey was 
discharged from the Marine Corps Feb. 
4, 1903. 

HAUGE, Louis James, Jr. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Ada, Minn., Dec. 12, 
1924; d. KIA, Okinawa, May 14, 1945. 
Cpl. Hauge's citation reads, in part: 
"... Although painfully wounded as he 
charged the first machine gun, he 
launched a vigorous singlehanded gre- 
nade attack, destroyed the entire hostile 
gun position and moved relentlessly for- 
ward " At the time of his death, Cpl. 

Hauge was squad leader of a machine 
gun squad in southern Okinawa engaged 
in an assault against a heavily fortified 
Japanese hill. It was during the evening 
that the left flank of Co. C, 1st Bn., 1st 
Marines, was pinned down by a barrage 
of mortar and machine gun fire. The ene- 
my was pouring enfilade fire into the 
ranks of the Marines. Quickly spotting 
the two guns responsible for the damage, 
the corporal boldly rushed across an open 
area,- heaving hand grenades as he ran. 
Wounded before he reached the first 
gun, he nevertheless continued his one- 
man assault and completely destroyed 
the position. Without stopping, he pushed 
forward and attacked the second gun 
with grenades and demolished it before 
falling from the deadly fire of the Japa- 
nese snipers. 



HAWKINS, William Dean. First Lieu- 
tenant. Medal of Honor: b. Fort Scott, 
Neb, Apr. 18, 1914; d. KIA, Betio Is., 
Nov. 21, 1943. William Hawkins enlisted 
in the Marine Corps on Jan. 5, 1942 and 
was assigned to the 7th Recruit Bn., Re- 
cruit Depot, San Diego. He then joined 
the 2nd Marines, 2nd Mar. Div., com- 
pleted Scout-Snipers' School at Camp 
Elliott, San Diego, and on July 1, 1942 
embarked on board the USS Crescent 
City for the Pacific area. A private first 
class when he went overseas, he was 
quickly promoted to corporal and then 
to sergeant. On Nov. 17, 1942, he was 
commissioned a second lieutenant while 
taking part in the Guadalcanal campaign 
in the battle for the Solomons. On June 
1, 1943, he was promoted to first lieuten- 
ant. Less than six months later, he was 
killed in action leading a scout-sniper 
platoon in the attack on Betio Is. during 
the assault on Tarawa. During the two- 
day assault, Lt. Hawkins led attacks on 
pill boxes and installations, personally 
initiated an assault on a hostile position 
fortified by five enemy machine guns, re- 
fused to withdraw after being seriously 
wounded, and destroyed three more pill 
boxes before he was mortally wounded 
on Nov. 21, 1943. In recognition of his 
leadership and daring action against 
enemy positions, the air strip on Betio 
Is. was named Hawkins Field in his hon- 
or. With his unit Lt. Hawkins also shared 
in the two Presidential Unit Citations 
awarded the 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf. ) for 
heroic action during the Guadalcanal and 
Tarawa campaigns. His citation accom- 
panying the Medal of Honor reads, in 
part: "... as CO of a Scout-Sniper Pla- 
toon attached to the 2nd Marines, 2nd 
Mar. Div., in action against Japanese- 
held Tarawa in the Gilbert Is., Nov. 20 
and 21, 1943. The first to disembark from 
the jeep lighter, Lt. Hawkins unhesitat- 



98 



H A Y D E N 



H AY D E N 



ingly moved forward under heavy enemy 
fire at the end of the Betio pier, neutral- 
izing emplacements in coverage of troops 
assaulting the main beach positions. 
Fearlessly leading his men on to join the 
forces fighting desperately to gain a 
beachhead, he repeatedly risked his life 
throughout the day and night to direct 
and lead attacks on pill boxes and instal- 
lations with grenades and demolitions. 
At dawn on the following day, Lt. Hawk- 
ins returned to the dangerous mission of 
clearing the limited beachhead of Japa- 
nese resistance, personally initiating an 
assault on a hostile position fortified by 
five enemy machine guns and, crawling 
forward in the face of withering fire, 
boldly fired point-blank into the loop- 
holes and completed the destruction with 
grenades. Refusing to withdraw after 
being seriously wounded in the chest 
during this skirmish, Lt. Hawkins stead- 
fastly carried the fight to the enemy, de- 
stroying three more pill boxes before he 
was caught in a burst of Japanese shell 
fire and mortally wounded. . . ." 

HAYDEN, Sterling Walter. Captain. 
Served with the Office of Strategic Ser- 
vices (OSS) during WWII: b. Mont- 
clair, N.J., Mar. 26, 1916. At the age of 
17, Sterling Hayden shipped out of New 
London, Conn., as a seaman aboard the 
schooner Puritan. For the next nine years 
he followed the sea as a seaman, navi- 
gator, first officer and finally as master. 
By 1941 Sterling Hayden was fast be- 
coming known to millions of American 
movie-goers. In Oct. of that year Hayden 
decided that he wanted an active part 
in the conflict which was sweeping 
Europe and was soon to engulf America. 
He spent the next six months in Scot- 
land and England, training with com- 
mando and parachute units. In Oct. 1942, 
Hayden enlisted in the MCR as a private 



and was sent to Parris Is., S.C., for recruit 
training. Upon completion of his training 
in Dec. of the same year, he was recom- 
mended for assignment to Officers' 
School, and was transferred to Quantico, 
to attend OCS and Reserve Officers' 
Class. He graduated on Apr. 21, 1943, 
and received a commission as second 
lieutenant in the MCR on the same day. 
The following month, the CMC received 
a request from the Director of Strategic 
Services that Lt. Hayden be transferred 
to OSS for duty. The transfer was ac- 
complished on June 25, 1943, and two 
days later Hayden legally changed his 
name to John Hamilton. After a short 
period of indoctrination into the OSS, 
"John Hamilton" boarded a plane and re- 
ported to the Strategic Services Officer 
at Cairo, Egypt, for duty. The next two 
years of Hamilton's career are shrouded 
in the veil of mystery which surrounded 
the activities of all who were connected 
with the OSS. The official records indi- 
cate that he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant on Sept. 13, 1944, and that he 
received his captaincy on Feb. 14, 1945. 
He participated in the Naples-Foggia 
campaign and received a commendation 
for establishing Air Crew Rescue Unit 
Teams in enemy-occupied territory. He 
was also awarded a Bronze Arrowhead 
which is given for parachuting into ene- 
my-held territory. Hayden was also 
authorized to wear a bronze combat star 
for participation in action against the 
enemy in the Balkan countries, and was 
awarded the Silver Star Medal for gal- 
lantry in action in the Mediterranean 
Theater. The accompanying citation 
simply states: "Lt. Hamilton (Hayden) 
displayed great courage in making haz- 
ardous sea voyages in enemy-infested 
waters and reconnaissance through ene- 
my-held areas." Capt. "J onn Hamilton" 



99 



HAYES 



HAYES 



was relieved from active duty on Dec. 
24, 1945. 

HAYES, Charles Harold. Major General. 
Assistant Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, HQMC, Washington, D.C.: b. 
San Marcial, N.M., Sept. 18, 1906. Charles 
Hayes graduated from high school in 
Albuquerque and, a year later, attended 
Colorado A&M College for a year before 
entering the U.S. Naval Academy in 
1926. Graduating from the Academy on 
June 5, 1930, he was commissioned a 
Marine second lieutenant. The following 
June, he completed Marine Officers' Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. 
In July 1931, he reported to the MB, 
Quantico, where, during the next three 
years, he served with the Barracks De- 
tachment and the 1st and 10th Marines. 
In addition, he served with the 1st Bn., 
1st Marines, aboard the battleships 
Wyoming and Arkansas from Jan. to May 
1932, and with the U.S. Electoral Mis- 
sion in Nicaragua from July to Dec. of 
that same year. He also completed the 
Battalion Officers' Artillery School at 
Quantico before leaving in June 1934 to 
join the Marine Detachment aboard the 
aircraft carrier Lexington. Returning 
from sea duty in Nov. 1934, he was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant and entered 
aviation training at Pensacola, Fla., the 
following month. He was designated a 
naval aviator in Apr. 1936. That June he 
returned to Quantico to serve with Scout- 
ing Squadron 7-M, Bombing Squadron 
1-M, and Utility Squadron 1-M. He was 
promoted to captain in July 1937. Leav- 
ing Quantico in June 1940, he reported 
the following month to the NAS, San 
Diego, Calif., where he was assigned to 
Marine Utility Squadron 2 (later redesig- 
nated Utility Squadron 252) . He departed 
for Pearl Harbor in Jan. 1941, and with 
the squadron helped set up a new MCAS 



at Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii. Just four days 
before the Pearl Harbor attack, he sailed 
for San Diego to become Executive Offi- 
cer of Marine Fighter Squadron 251. He 
was promoted to major in Jan. 1942. In 
June 1942, Hayes sailed with the squad- 
ron for Noumea, New Caledonia, and 
several weeks later moved to Espiritu 
Santo in the New Hebrides Islands. He 
was awarded the Navy Distinguished 
Service Medal for his accomplishments 
in the crucial early days of the Guadal- 
canal campaign when he was sent to that 
island by Vice Admiral John S. McCain, 
Commander, Aircraft, South Pacific, to 
expedite the completion of vital Hender- 
son Field. Now a major, he landed there 
on Aug. 15, 1942, with a Navy construc- 
tion unit and four shiploads of hard-to- 
get aviation supplies and, despite daily 
Japanese air raids, had the field ready for 
operation within four days. The first 
planes arrived on Aug. 20 and he re- 
mained on the island as operations officer 
of the airstrip until Sept. 5, 1942, shortly 
after his promotion to lieutenant colonel. 
Later in the campaign he served as As- 
sistant Operations Officer of the 1st 
MAW. Returning to the States in Mar. 
1943, Lt. Col. Hayes saw duty as Execu- 
tive Officer of Air Operational Training 
Squadron 8 at Cherry Point, N.C. In Dec. 
1943, he returned to the Pacific area to 
become Air Officer on the Staff of the 
Commander, 3rd Amphibious Corps. He 
was promoted to colonel in Jan. 1944. 
Awarded the Legion of Merit in that as- 
signment, Col. Hayes took part in the 
planning and execution of the Green Is- 
land, Emirau, Leyte, and Luzon inva- 
sions and the planning phase of the Palau 
operation. He arrived in Tokyo Bay with 
the initial occupation forces on the day 
of the surrender, and in Oct. 1945 re- 
turned to the States. Ordered to Cherry 
Point, Col. Hayes served as Chief of 



100 



HAYES 



HENDERSON 



Staff of the MCAS until Dec. 1947, and 
as commander of MAG 11 for the next 
six months. He left Cherry Point in June 
1948, to enter the Senior Course at the 
Naval War College, Newport, R.I. Com- 
pleting the course in May 1949, he was 
assigned to the Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations in Washington as As- 
sistant Head of the Aviation Liaison and 
Special Projects Section, Strategic Plans 
Division. He became the head of the 
section in Oct. 1950, and held that post 
until he was ordered to Korea in Aug. 
1952. For outstanding service in the Ko- 
rean War from Sept. 1952 to June 1953, 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Opera- 
tions), 1st MAW, Col. Hayes was award- 
ed a second Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V." He left Korea for Hawaii in June 
1953 to become Deputy Chief of Staff, 
FMF, Pacific. In Aug. 1954, he was 
named CO of MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, 
Oahu. He was promoted to brigadier 
general in Oct. 1955, following his return 
to Washington, and assumed duty that 
month as Marine Corps Liaison Officer 
to the Office of the Vice Chief of Naval 
Operations. In July 1956, Hayes was ap- 
pointed a member of the Cordiner Ad- 
visory Committee on Professional and 
Technical Compensation in the Armed 
Forces by Secretary of Defense Charles 
E. Wilson. On completing his assignment 
in Washington, he was transferred to 
Japan where he assumed command of the 
1st MAW in Dec. 1957. Following his re- 
turn from the Far East in May 1959, Gen. 
Hayes was assigned to MCAS, El Toro, 
Calif., as CG of the 3rd MAW. He was 
promoted to major general in June 1959. 
In Jan. 1960, Hayes became Deputy Com- 
mander, FMF, Pacific, at Camp H. M. 
Smith, Oahu, and served there until 
Sept. 1961. Assigned to HQMC the fol- 
lowing month, he assumed the post of 
Deputy Chief of Staff (Plans), later re- 



designated Deputy Chief of Staff (Plans 
and Programs) . He is now Assistant Com- 
mandant of the Marine Corps. 

HEISCH, Henry William. Private. Medal 
of Honor: b. Latendorf, Germany, June 
10, 1872; d. July 10, 1941. Pvt Heisch's 
citation reads, in part: "... for bravery 
in crossing the river at Tientsin, China, 
June 20, 1900, in a small boat with three 
other men under a heavy fire, Heisch 
assisted in destroying buildings occupied 
by the enemy " 

HELMS, John Henry. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. Chicago, III, Mar. 16, 1874; 
d. Feb. 17, 1919. John Helms enlisted in 
the Marine Corps on July 6, 1897, at 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving on 
board the USS Chicago, for heroism in 
rescuing Ishi Tomizi, ship's cook, from 
drowning at Montevideo, Uruguay, Jan. 
10, 1901." 

HENDERSON, Archibald. Brigadier 
General. 5th Commandant of the Marine 
Corps - Oct. 17, 1820, to Jan. 6, 1859: 
b. Colchester, Fairfax County Va., Jan. 
21, 1783; d. Washington, D.C., Jan. 6, 
1859. Archibald Henderson was ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on June 4, 1806; was promoted to 
first lieutenant Mar. 6, 1807; to captain 
Apr. 1, 1811; and appointed a major, by 
brevet, in the year 1814. As a captain he 
served during the War of 1812 on board 
the U.S. Frigate Constitution, and partic- 
ipated in the engagement between that 
vessel and the Java on Dec. 29, 1812. He 
was also in the engagements with the 
Cyane and Levant on Feb. 20, 1812. Dur- 
ing the years between the second war 
with Great Britain, and the year he was 
appointed commandant, Henderson was 
on duty at such posts and stations as Bos- 



101 



HENDERSON 



HENDERSON 




Henderson 

ton, Mass.; Portsmouth, N.H.; HQMC; 
and New Orleans, La. The years from 
1820 to 1835 were marked by neither 
unusual nor outstanding activities on the 
part of the Marine Corps other than its 
part in the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies, and the operations in the 
early 1830s against the pirates of Quallah 
Battoo. During the war with the Seminole 
and Creek Indians in Georgia and Flor- 
ida in 1836^37, in which the Marine 
Corps took an active part, Commandant 
Henderson tacked a famous sign on his 
door which read: 

HAVE GONE TO FLORIDA TO FIGHT INDIANS. 
WILL BE BACK WHEN THE WAR IS OVER. 

A. Henderson 
Col. Commandant 

He then went into the field with his com- 
mand, sharing in the dangers and expo- 



sures of that campaign. For his services in 
checking Indian hostilities, he was ad- 
vanced in rank to brigadier general. Dur- 
ing the Mexican War, which was pre- 
ceded by much military activity on the 
part of the Marine Corps during the years 
1845-46 on the west coast, Henderson ably 
administered the affairs of the Marine 
Corps. The success attained by the Corps 
during war operations and other activ- 
ities, including its expansion and devel- 
opment from a small fighting force into 
a well-organized and very formidable 
arm of the nation's military forces, was 
due in no small measure to the leader- 
ship and ability of its commandant. Dur- 
ing the years between the Mexican war 
and the Civil War, the Marine Corps, 
under the ever watchful eye and direc- 
tion of Commandant Henderson, was by 
no means an idle organization. In 1852- 
53, the Marines took part in the famous 
expeditions of Commodore Perry to 
Japan. In 1855 they participated in an 
expedition to Uruguay as a result of an 
insurrection at Montevideo, and in 1856 
fought an engagement with the hostile 
Indians at Seattle in the Washington Ter- 
ritory. Also, during the same year, Ma- 
rines took part in the capture of the Bar- 
rier Forte in China. In the year 1857, 
during the "Know Nothing" political ex- 
citement, the Marines were ordered upon 
the request of the mayor of Washington, 
D.C., to suppress an armed mob of 
"hired roughs and bullies." These men 
had been imported from Baltimore to 
take possession of the election booths, 
and the situation had gotten beyond the 
control of the civil authorities. During 
the serious riot, a cannon was put into 
position by a large crowd of "Plug 
Uglies" and others who threatened that 
unless the Marines were instantly with- 
drawn the piece would be discharged 
into their ranks, "General Henderson 



102 



HENDERSON 



HE Y WOOD 



deliberately went up to the piece and 
placed his body against the muzzle, 
thereby preventing it from being aimed 
at the Marines, just at the moment when 
it was about to be discharged." This act 
of heroism brought an abrupt end to the 
riot, and the Marines restored order. For 
more than 38 years Henderson had guid- 
ed the destiny of the Corps, battling for 
its position as a strong armed force in the 
American military structure and, at the 
same time, attending religiously to every 
minute administrative detail. When the 
"grand old man of the Marine Corps,* 5 
who had served as Commandant under 
eleven presidents, died in office at the 
age of 76, he left his beloved Marine 
Corps with a heritage of tradition and an 
esprit de corps that less vigorous com- 
mandants and trying days could never 
dispel. 

HENDERSON, Margaret Monroe. Colo- 
nel. Director of Women Marines: b. 
Cameron, Tex., Feb. 6, 1911. Margaret 
Henderson graduated from high school 
at Kenedy, Tex. in 1928, and received 
her BBA degree upon graduation from 
the University of Texas in 1932. She then 
taught in secondary schools of Lubbock, 
Tex. until 1943 when she entered the 
Marine Corps. After completing the Ma- 
rine Corps Women's Reserve Officer 
Training School at Mt. Holyoke, Mass., 
she was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant in the Reserve on June 30, 1943. Dur- 
ing WWII, she served as an instructor at 
Women Marine Schools, Camp Lejeune, 
N.C., and as Officer in Charge of the 
Business School, Marine Corps Institute, 
Washington. Returning to Camp Lejeune 
in Sept. 1945, she became Executive Offi- 
cer of the Women's Reserve Bn. De- 
tached from active duty in May 1946, 
Margaret Henderson returned to Lub- 
bock, where she served as an instructor 



at Texas Technological College for two 
years. In Nov. 1948, she was integrated 
into the Regular Marine Corps and re- 
turned to active duty. During subsequent 
tours of duty, she served consecutively 
as Commander of the Women's Recruit 
Training Bn., Marine Corps Recruit De- 
pot, Parris Is., S.C.; as Head, Women's 
Affairs Section, Division of Plans and 
Policies, HQMC; and as Commander of 
the Women Officers' Training Detach- 
ment, MCS, Quantico. She also saw duty 
on the west coast from Jan. 1955 to Mar. 
1957 as Assistant G-l, at the Marine 
Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif. In 
Apr. 1957, Lt. Col. Henderson was re- 
assigned to HQMC as Head, Women's 
Affairs Section, G-l Division. On Feb. 
13, 1959, she succeeded Col. Julia Ham- 
blet as Director of Women Marines. 

HEYWOOD, Charles. Major General. 
9th Commandant of the Marine Corps 
June 30, 1891, to Oct. 2, 1903. b. in Maine, 
Oct. 3, 1839; d. Washington, D.C., Feb. 
26, 1915. Charles Heywood was appoint- 
ed a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on Apr. 5, 1858. During that year 
he was stationed at the MB, Washington, 
D.C., and at Brooklyn, N.Y. While on 
duty in Brooklyn he served in the Quar- 
antine riots at Staten Island, N.Y. He 
performed special duty on the Niagara, 
and later on board the St. Louis of the 
Home Squadron, the ship seeking fili- 
busters in Central America. He was in- 
valided from Aspinwall (Colon) in Jan. 
1860, and later was ordered to the sloop 
of war Cumberland, flagship of the 
Squadron of Observation at Vera Cruz, 
Mex. In Mar. 1861, he returned to duty 
on board the Cumberland, and with that 
vessel took part in the destruction of the 
Norfolk Navy Yard during the Civil War. 
In May 1861, Heywood was promoted 
to first lieutenant and as such landed 



103 



H E Y WOO D 



H E Y WO O D 




with the Marines at Hatteras Inlet, where 
he was present at the capture of Forts 
Clark and Hatteras, He was advanced to 
captain in Nov. of that year, and during 
the winter of 1861-62 participated active- 
ly in a number of boat expeditions in 
the James River. In the fight between 
the Cumberland and the Merrimac in 
Mar. 1862, his conduct was particularly 
noteworthy while commanding the after 
gun deck division, firing the last gun in 
the fight and saving himself by jumping 
overboard as the Cumberland went down 
with her flag flying. He was favorably 
mentioned for his gallant conduct and 
received the brevet rank of major for his 
services during the engagement. For 
some time afterward, both on shore and at 
sea, he was actively engaged in the 
search for the notorious raider Alabama, 



until he applied for duty on board the 
flagship Hartford. He was ordered to 
that vessel as Fleet Marine Officer of the 
West Gulf Squadron. He served on shore 
at Pensacola and was on board the Hart- 
ford in the battle of Mobile Bay, where 
he received the brevet rank of lieutenant 
colonel for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices. During that engagement he had 
charge of two 9-inch guns. His services 
during the Civil War thus secured for 
him two brevet ranks for distinguished 
gallantry in the presence of the enemy. 
From 1865 to 1867 he performed duty 
on board various ships, serving as Ad- 
miral Farragut's Fleet Marine Officer on 
the European Station and later in the 
same capacity in the North Atlantic 
Squadron. During this period he also 
served for a time at Washington, Nor- 
folk, and Brooklyn. In Nov. 1876, he 
attained the regular rank of major to 
which he had been brevetted more than 
ten years before, and was ordered to 
command the MB, Washington, D.C. 
During the serious labor riots of the 
summer of 1877 Heywood commanded 
a battalion of Marines at Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, and Reading, Pa. He was 
honorably mentioned by Gen. Hancock, 
U.S. Army, who was in general com- 
mand, and received thanks from the Navy 
Department for his services, His next two 
years of duty carried him to widely sepa- 
rated posts Mare Island, Calif., and 
Brooklyn, N.Y. In Apr. 1885, he organ- 
ized, within 24 hours from the time of 
the order, a battalion of 250 Marines for 
duty on the Isthmus of Panama to open 
the transit. Subsequently under his com- 
mand on the Isthmus were 800 Marines 
in addition to a strong detachment of the 
U.S. Navy and the artillery. For his ardu- 
ous services the admiral commanding 
asked Heywood to "receive his grateful 
acknowledgments/' He was promoted to 



104 



H E Y W O O D 



HILL 



lieutenant colonel on Mar. 9, 1888, and 
on June 30, 1891 was appointed Colonel 
Commandant of the Marine Corps. By 
special acts of Congress he was promoted 
to brigadier general in Mar. 1899, and to 
major general in July 1902. The energy, 
experience, and training which he had 
shown and obtained in his early days in 
the Marine Corps were fully brought into 
play from the moment he assumed com- 
mand of the Corps. At that time the 
Marine Corps consisted of 75 officers and 
2,100 enlisted men; but the number grad- 
ually rose during Gen. Heywood's tenure 
of office until, at the time of his retire- 
ment in 1903, it had reached the total of 
278 officers and 7,532 enlisted personnel. 
He was always aware of the problem of 
more closely associating the Corps with 
the Navy so that the work of the two 
could be in closest harmony. He was the 
first to establish a regular system of ex- 
aminations for officers for promotion, 
and set up the system of officers' schools, 
which has continued with slight inter- 
ruption since then. By increasing the 
efficiency of the Corps he tried to demon- 
strate to the Navy how absolutely essen- 
tial it was as an auxiliary to the naval 
service. Under his administration the 
number of Marine Corps posts were in- 
creased from 12 to 21. There was scarcely 
a regular post at which Gen. Heywood 
was not able to provide new barracks 
or officers' quarters. He caused the reg- 
ular system of target practice to be 
established and adopted good conduct 
medals for the betterment of the disci- 
pline in the Marine Corps. The declara- 
tion of war with Spain found the Marine 
Corps prepared. Gen. Heywood closed a 
most distinguished career of more than 
45 years as a commissioned officer in the 
Marine Corps, when on Oct. 3, 1903, in 
accordance with law, having attained the 
age of 64 years, he was placed on the 



retired list. His death occurred in Wash- 
ington, D.C. on Feb. 26, 1915, and his 
remains were interred in the Arlington 
National Cemetery. 

HILL, Frank. Private. Medal of Honor: 
b. Hartford, Conn., Aug. 13, 1864. Frank 
Hill enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Sept. 14, 1896, at Portsmouth, Va, He re- 
ceived the nation's highest military 
award on Aug. 15, 1899. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving aboard 
the USS Nashville, for extraordinary 
heroism and coolness while cutting the 
cables leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, 
May 11, 1898, under heavy fire of the 

enemy " Hill was discharged from the 

Corps on Oct. 12, 1901. 

HILL, Walter Newell. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Medal of Honor: b. Haverhill, 
Mass., Sept. 29, 1881; d. St. Albans Naval 
Hospital, NT., June 29, 1955. While a 
captain, Hill was awarded the Medal of 
Honor for bravery on Apr. 21-22, 1914, 
when a Marine and Naval landing force 
occupied Vera Cruz during a crisis be- 
tween the United States and Mexico. His 
citation states in part: "... Captain Hill 
was in both days' fighting at the head of 
his company, and was eminent and con- 
spicuous in his conduct, leading his men 
with skill and courage." Walter Hill was 
a student at Harvard University prior to 
his appointment as a Marine second lieu- 
tenant Feb. 1, 1904. He served at sea, at 
various posts and stations in the United 
States and in Cuba, China, and the 
Philippines. He went on to serve in 
France during WWI, and in the Virgin 
Islands, Haiti, and the Dominican Re- 
public. He was awarded the Haitian 
Medaille Militare for service in that 
country during operations against rebel 
bandits. Upon retirement in Sept. 1938, 
he was advanced to brigadier general on 



105 



HOCHMUTH 



H O L C O M B 



the retired list for having been specially 
commended in combat. Returning to ac- 
tive duty in Jan. 1942, he served at 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., until the end 
of the war. 

HOCHMUTH, Bruno Arthur. Brigadier 
General. Deputy Chief of Staff Research 
and Development, HQMC, Washington, 
D.C.: b. Houston, Tex., May 10, 1911. 
Bruno Hochmuth completed high school 
in Houston in 1930. In June 1935, he 
graduated from Texas A&M College, re- 
ceiving a Bachelor of Science degree in 
industrial education. He was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant in 
July 1935. After completing Basic School 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, he joined 
the Marine Detachment, Texas Centen- 
nial, Dallas, Tex, in June 1936. In Dec. 
1936, he was transferred to the 2nd Bn., 
6th Marines in San Diego. Departing for 
Shanghai, China in Aug. 1937, he served 
briefly with the 6th Marines then saw 
two and one-half years' duty with the 4th 
Marines. On his return to the States, he 
was detached to the 7th Defense Bn. in 
Sept. 1940. The following Feb., he em- 
barked with the battalion for American 
and British Samoa. In Mar. 1943, after 
two years overseas, he was assigned 
briefly to the Antiaircraft Artillery School, 
Camp Lejeune, N.C. From June 1943 to 
May 1944, he served as Assistant Direc- 
tor, Command and Staff School, Quan- 
tico, prior to embarking again for the 
Pacific area. He participated in the cam- 
paigns at Saipan and Tinian as Assistant 
Operations Officer with the 3rd Amphib- 
ious Corps, and later served as CO of 
the 3rd Bn., 4th Marines, in the Okinawa 
campaign. As Executive Officer of the 
4th Marines, he made the initial landing 
on Japan on Aug. 29, 1945, and on Sept. 
2 of the same year attended the formal 
surrender ceremony at Yokosuka. Return- 



ing to the States in Aug. 1947, he saw 
three years' duty at HQMC, then entered 
the Industrial College, Fort McNair, 
Washington, D.C. He graduated in June 

1951, and returned to Camp Lejeune as 
CO, 2nd Marines, 2nd Mar. Div. In July 

1952, he was named G-l, 2nd Mar. Div., 
Camp Lejeune. Ordered to Kingston, 
Ont. in Sept. 1953, he served as Instruc- 
tor, Canadian Army Staff College, for 
two years. He again went to the Far East 
in Aug. 1955 to serve as G-4, 3rd Mar. 
Div., Japan and Okinawa. On Aug. 1956, 
he was assigned to Quantico as a Mem- 
ber of the Advanced Research Group, 
Marine Corps Educational Center. In 
July 1957, he was transferred to the Ma- 
rine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, 
serving as Chief of Staff through Oct. 
1959. On Nov. 1, 1959, he was promoted 
to brigadier general and became CG of 
the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San 
Diego. He assumed duties as CG, Recruit 
Training Command, Dec. 1, 1959. On 
Jan. 1, I960, he became Deputy Chief of 
Staff, Research and Development, HQMC, 
Washington, D.C. 

HOFFMAN, Charles. Gunnery Sergeant. 
Real name of JANSON, Ernest A. (q.v.). 

HOLCOMB, Thomas. General. 17th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps Dec. 
1, 1936, to Dec. 31, 1943: b. New Castle, 
Del, Aug. 5, 1879. Thomas Holcomb was 
educated in Delaware and in Washing- 
ton, D.C. He was appointed a second 
lieutenant from civil life on Apr. 13, 
1900. Holcomb was on detached duty 
with a company of Marines, organized 
for service with a Marine Bn. attached 
to the North Atlantic Fleet, from Sept. 
1902 to Apr. 1903. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant Mar. 3, 1903. He served 
in the Philippine Is. from Apr. 1904 to 
Aug. 1905, and from Oct. to Nov. 1906. 



106 



H O LC O M B 



HO L C CM B 




Holcomb 

Lt. Holcomb was on duty with the Lega- 
tion Guard, Peking, China, from Sept. 
1905 to Sept. 1906, and again from Dec. 
1908 to July 1910, being then detached 
from the Legation Guard. On May 13, 
1908, he was promoted to captain. He 
continued on duty in Peking as Attache 
on the staff of the American Minister for 
study of the Chinese language and re- 
mained on that duty until May 1911. In 
Dec. 1911 he was again ordered to the 
Legation at Peking to continue his study 
of the Chinese language, and remained 
there until May 1914. Thomas Holcomb 
has been prominently identified with the 
development of rifle shooting, and served 
as Inspector of Target Practice, in the 
Marine Corps from Oct. 1914 to Aug. 
1917. In addition, he was a member of 
the Marine Corps Rifle Teams of 1901, 



1902, 1903, 1907, 1908, and 1911, and of 
teams representing the United States in 
the Palma Trophy Match in 1902 and 

1903. On Aug. 29, 1916, he was promoted 
to major. From Aug. 1917 to Jan. 1918, 
he commanded the 2nd Bn., 6th Regt, at 
MB, Quantico, in preparation for over- 
seas service. From Feb. 1918 to July 1919, 
he served with the AEF in France, in 
command of the 2nd Bn. until Aug. 1918, 
and thereafter as second in command of 
the 6th Regt. He participated in all en- 
gagements in which the Regiment took 
part the Aisne defensive (Chateau- 
Thierry); the Aisne-Marne offensive 
(Soissons); the Marbache sector; the St- 
Mihiel offensive; the Meuse-Argonne 
(Champagne) offensive; the Meuse- 
Argonne (Argonne Forest) offensive; 
and the march to the Rhine in Germany 
following the Armistice. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel on June 4, 
1920. In recognition of his distinguished 
services he was awarded the Navy Cross, 
the Silver Star with three Oak Leaf 
Clusters, a Meritorious Service Citation 
by the Commander-in-Chief, AEF, the 
Purple Heart, and was three times cited 
in General Orders of the 2nd Div., AEF. 
The French government conferred on 
him the Cross of the Legion of Honor, 
and three times awarded him the Croix 
de Guerre with Palm. From Sept. 1922 to 
June 1924, he commanded the MB, Naval 
Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and on 
his return to the States, was ordered to 
the Command and General Staff School 
of the Army at Fort Leaven worth, com- 
pleting the course as a Distinguished 
Graduate in June 1925. He was then or- 
dered to HQMC, for duty in the Division 
of Operations and Training, where he 
remained until June 1927. On Dec. 22, 
1928 he was promoted to colonel. From 
Aug. 1927 to Feb. 1930, Col. Holcomb 
commanded the Marine Detachment, 



107 



NORTON 



HUGHES 



American Legation, Peiping, China. In 
June 1930, he went to the Naval War 
College as a student, Senior Course, 
from which he graduated in June 1931. 
He was then ordered to the Army War 
College, from which course he graduated 
in June 1932. From June 1932 to Jan. 
1935, Holcomb served in the Office of 
Naval Operations, Navy Department. He 
was promoted to brigadier general on 
Feb. 1, 1935. He then served as Com- 
mandant of the MCS in Quantico until 
Nov. 1936, when he was ordered to 
HQMC to assume the office of Major 
General Commandant on Dec. 1, 1936. 
During his tenure he expanded the or- 
ganization from 15,000 to 305,000 fight- 
ing men. Not only did he show "super- 
lative ability" in directing this expansion, 
but he also inculcated the greater Marine 
Corps with the esprit de corps of the 
smaller organization, as typified in the 
invasion of Tarawa. On Dec. 1, 1940, he 
was reappointed Major General Com- 
mandant for four years by the President. 
With his advancement to lieutenant gen- 
eral on Jan. 20, 1942, Gen. Holcomb be- 
came the highest ranking officer ever to 
command the Corps. Upon retiring as 
Marine Corps Commandant on Jan. 1, 
1944, Gen. Holcomb was placed on the 
retired list, raised to full general, and 
then ordered to active duty. After more 
than 40 years of service, he went off the 
active rolls of the Marine Corps on Apr. 
10, 1944 to take over his new job as Min- 
ister to South Africa. He served in that 
capacity for four years before retiring on 
a farm near St. Mary's City, Maryland. 

HORTON, William Charlie. Private. 
Medal of Honor: b. Chicago, III, July 
21, 1876. William Horton enlisted in the 
Marine Corps on Apr. 22, 1898, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. He was awarded the Medal 
of Honor on Jan. 5, 1902. His citation 



reads, in part: "... for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy at 
Peking, China, July 21 to Aug. 17, 1900. 
Horton assisted in erecting barricades 
under heavy fire. . . ." He was discharged 
from the Corps on Apr. 21, 1903. 

HUDSON, Michael. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. Sligo County, Ireland, 1834. 
Michael Hudson enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Sept. 12, 1861. 
His citation reads, in part: "... on board 
the USS Brooklyn during action against 
rebel forts and gunboats and with the 
ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 
1864. Despite severe damage to his ship 
and the loss of several men on board as 
enemy fire raked the decks, Sgt. Hudson 
fought his gun with skill and courage 
throughout the furious 2-hour battle 
which resulted in the surrender of the 
rebel ram Tennessee." 

HUGHES, John Arthur. "Johnny the 
Hard." Lieutenant Colonel. Medal of 
Honor: b. New York, N.Y., Nov. 2, 1880; 
d. Veterans Administration Hospital, St. 
Petersburg, Fla. John Hughes served as 
an enlisted man in the Marine Corps 
from Nov. 1900 to Dec. 1901. He was 
commissioned a second lieutenant on 
Dec. 17, 1901. During his career he saw 
service in the Philippines, Cuba, Panama, 
Santo Domingo, Mexico, and at various 
posts throughout the States. He served 
in WWI in France and was wounded on 
two occasions. He was also wounded in 
Santo Domingo in 1916. He was awarded 
the Medal of Honor for his gallantry in 
action around Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
"... for distinguished conduct in battle 
engagements of Vera Cruz, Apr. 21 and 
22, 1914; was in both days' fighting at 
the head of his company and was emi- 
nent arid conspicuous in his conduct, 
leading his men with skill and cour- 



108 



H U I B E R T 



HUNT 



age. . . /* He was retired from the Corps 
on July 3, 1919. 

HULBERT, Henry Lewis. First Lieu- 
tenant. Medal of Honor: b. Kingston- 
upon-Hull, England, Jan. 12, 1867; d. 
KIA, France, near Mont Blanc, Oct. 4, 
1918. Henry Hulbert enlisted in the Ma- 
rine Corps on Mar. 28, 1898. On Apr. 
1, 1899, he distinguished himself in the 
face of the enemy at Samoa when he 
refused to desert disabled comrades, al- 
though his own life was endangered. For 
his exceptional bravery, he was awarded 
the Medal of Honor. At the outbreak of 
WWI, he was appointed a marine gun- 
ner, and joined the 5th Regt. of Marines 
and sailed for France. Gunner Hulbert 
was cited for bravery at Chateau-Thierry 
by Gen. John J. Pershing in the follow- 
ing: "On June 6, 1918, displayed coolness 
and extraordinary heroism throughout 
the attack. During the counterattack of 
the enemy, he, armed with a rifle, 
charged and routed a group of machine 
gunners." Death in action in the Battle 
of Mont Blanc Ridge came to this heroic 
officer shortly after he had been pro- 
moted to the rank of first lieutenant. 

HUNT, Leroy Philip. General (Retired) : 
b. Newark, N.J., Mar. 17, 1892. Leroy 
Hunt was commissioned a second lieu- 
tenant in the Marine Corps on Mar. 16, 
1917, and joined the MB, Norfolk, Va. as 
a student at the Marine Officers' School. 
He sailed for France in Aug. 1917, and 
as a member of the 5th Mar. Regt. par- 
ticipated in the Verdun Defensive sector, 
and in the Aisne-Marne defensive (Cha- 
teau-Thierry) in June, 1918, where he 
was gassed in action. He took part in the 
Aisne-Marne offensive (Soissons) where 
he was wounded in action, the St.-Mihiel 
offensive, the Meuse-Argonne offensive 
(Champagne) and the Meuse-Argonne 



offensive (Argonne Forest). He was a 
member of the Army of Occupation in 
Germany and sailed for home on July 25, 
1919. For repeated acts of heroism in ac- 
tion near St.-Etienne, France, in Oct. 
1918, Hunt was awarded the Distin- 
guished Service Cross. Upon return to 
the States, he was assigned recruiting 
duty at Portland, Ore., and then to the 
staff of MCS, Quantico, and later to the 
MB, Quantico, again becoming a mem- 
ber of the 5th Mar. Regt. In June 1924, 
he went to sea as CO of the Marine De- 
tachment aboard the USS Maryland. Fol- 
lowing sea duty he was attached to the 
MCB at San Diego and for a short time 
acted as a CO of the Western Mail 
Guard Detachment. Duty overseas with 
the 3rd Mar. Brig, in Shanghai, China, 
as a battalion commander was followed 
by duty at the MB, Quantico, where he 
was successively Post Adjutant and a stu- 
dent at the Field Officers' Course, MCS, 
graduating in June 1930. Foreign shore 
duty with the Nicaragua National Guard 
Detachment as CO Northern Area and 
Intelligence and Operations Officer fol- 
lowed. Upon return to the States, Hunt 
was successively assigned to the Naval 
Training Station, Great Lakes, 111.; 
HQMC; and the MB, Quantico, where 
he joined the 5th Mar. Regt. In 1935, he 
went on temporary duty to Alaska with 
the Matanuska Colonization project. A 
tour of duty as Registrar of the Marine 
Corps Institute in Washington and Ex- 
ecutive Officer and CO, MB, Washing- 
ton, D.C., was followed by an assignment 
as a student at the Senior Course, Naval 
War College, Newport, R.I. After grad- 
uation in May 1939, he became Force 
Marine Officer aboard the USS California, 
where he remained until ordered to the 
2nd Mar. Div. in Feb. 1941 as CO of 
Special and Service Troops. For a short 
period in June 1941, he was on tempo- 



109 



HUNT 



HURST 



rary duty in Iceland, and from then until 
Sept. 1942, he was a member of the 1st 
Mar. Div., first as Chief of Staff, and 
secondly as CO of the 5th Mar. Regt. In 
the latter capacity he led the regiment in 
the seizure and defense of Guadalcanal. 
Upon return to the States he became 
Area and Corps Inspector of the Am- 
phibious Command, Pacific Fleet, which 
position he held until ordered to the 
Pacific to assume command of the Ma- 
rine Garrison Forces, 14th Naval District. 
He was next ordered to the 2nd Mar. 
Div. as Assistant Division Commander 
and participated in operations involving 
the mopping-up of Saipan and Tinian and 
the capture of Okinawa. Appointed Di- 
vision Commander, he led the division 
in the occupation of the Japanese home- 
land. For a period he was CG, 1st Army 
Corps. In Feb. 1946, Gen. Hunt returned 
to the States and assumed duties as CG, 
Troop Training Unit, Training Com- 
mand, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet. 
In Jan. 1947, he became CG, Department 
of Pacific, San Francisco, and in July, two 
years later, became CG, FMF, Atlantic, 
at Norfolk, Va. He was retired from the 
Corps on July 1, 1951. 

HUNT, Martin. Private. Medal of Honor: 
b. County of Mayo, Ireland, July 9, 1873; 
d. July 22, 1938. Martin Hunt enlisted in 
the Marine Corps in Boston, Mass., on 
Aug. 27, 1896. He received the Medal of 
Honor on July 2, 1915. His citation reads, 
in part: "... for distinguished conduct 
in the presence of the enemy at the bat- 
tle of Peking, China, June 20 to July 16, 

1900 " Pvt. Hunt was discharged from 

the Corps at Cavite, P.L on Aug. 26, 1901. 

HUNTINGTON, Robert W. Colonel: b. 
Connecticut, Dec. 3, 1840; d. Charlottes- 
ville, Va., Nov. 3, 1917. Robert Hunting- 
ton accepted a commission as second 



lieutenant in the Marine Corps on June 
5, 1861, shortly after the Civil War began. 
In the War between the States he fought 
at the First Battle of Bull Run, and later 
served with the south Atlantic blockad- 
ing squadron. After the Civil War he 
served the normal peacetime tours of sea 
and shore duty. In 1885 he was on an 
expedition to Panama. Four years later 
he was commanding the Marine detach- 
ment on board the USS Trenton in Samoa 
when his ship was caught in a hurricane 
and totally wrecked. When the United 
States went to war with Spain, he com- 
manded a battalion of Marines and made 
a landing at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on 
June 10, 1889. His battalion drove off the 
Spanish troops, and secured Guantanamo 
Bay as a base of operations for the Amer- 
ican navy. After a long, active career, he 
retired on Jan. 15, 1900. 

HURST, Edward Hunter. Colonel. Se- 
lected for promotion to brigadier general 
by the July 1962 Selection Board at 
HQMC: b. Fort Valley, Ga., Dec. 18, 
1916. Edward Hurst graduated from 
Mercer University at Macon, Ga., in June 
1938, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 
journalism. While in college, he enlisted 
in the MCR, Apr. 13, 1936, and com- 
pleted the Platoon Leaders' Class at 
Quantico, in the summers of 1936 and 
1937, Designated an honor graduate of 
the PLC, he was commissioned a second 
lieutenant on June 27, 1938, and as- 
signed to active duty. On completing 
Basic School in May 1939, Lt. Hurst 
served consecutively with the Marine De- 
tachment aboard the USS New Mexico; 
at the Rifle Range, Parris Is., S.C.; and as 
commander of the Aviation Detachment 
at the MB, NAS, Pensacola, Fla. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Aug. 1941; 
to captain in Feb. 1942; and to major in 
Mar. 1943. Shortly after his last promo- 



110 



HURST 



HURST 



tion, he became CO of the Marine Train- 
ing Detachment, U.S. Naval Reserve 
Midshipmen's School (Women's Reserve), 
Northampton, Mass. In July 1943, he 
moved to Camp Lejeune, N.C., as CO 
of the Officers' Training School, Marine 
Corps Women's Reserve Schools. He 
later completed the Command and Staff 
Course at MCS, Quantico. In Apr. 1944, 
Maj. Hurst sailed for the Pacific area as 
CO, 3rd Bn. ? 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
The Silver Star Medal was awarded him 
for conspicuous gallantry in action dur- 
ing the seizure and occupation of Peleliu 
in Sept. 1944. Forced to land his assault 
battalion of amphibious tanks in single 
file because of the heavily barricaded 
beach, he personally reconnoitered the 
front lines and directed his battalion's 
attack on Japanese caves and block- 
houses, annihilating one enemy reinforced 
battalion of approximately 1600 men. 
The following month, he was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel. In Apr. 1945, Lt. 
Col. Hurst participated in the action 
which earned him the Navy Cross on 
Okinawa. He was wounded in action on 
June 19 and subsequently evacuated to the 
States for hospitalization. Following the 
war, he served in the Division of Plans and 
Policies at HQMC until May 1947. In ad- 
dition, he served as Marine Corps Liaison 
Officer, Secretary's Committee of Re- 
search on Reorganization, Office of the 
Secretary of the Navy. In June 1947, 
he returned to MCS, Quantico, where he 



completed the Instructors' Orientation 
Course, then served as Leadership Sec- 
tion Chief and Officer in Charge of the 
Student Battalion at the Basic School, 
until Dec. 1949. In July 1950, on com- 
pleting the Swedish Language School at 
the U.S. Naval School in Anacostia, he 
assumed duty at the American Embassy, 
Stockholm, Sweden, as Assistant Naval 
Attache and Assistant Naval Attache for 
Air. He returned to the States in Nov. 
1952, and the following month joined the 
2nd Mar. Div. at Camp Lejeune. He 
served consecutively as Regimental Ex- 
ecutive Officer of the 8th Marines, and 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, of the 2nd 
Div. until June 1954. During the latter 
assignment, he was promoted to colonel. 
In July 1954, Col. Hurst was assigned to 
HQMC, serving in the G-3 Division for 
three years, as Head, JCS and Plans Re- 
view Section, and Head, Plans Branch, 
respectively. He completed the National 
War College, Washington, D.C. in June 
1958. From July 1958 until Mar. 1960, he 
served in Hawaii on the Joint Staff of the 
Commander in Chief, Pacific, as Head, 
Southeast Asia Plans and Policy Section. 
In May 1960, he became CO of the 
Schools Bn., Camp Pendleton, and Camp 
Commander of Camp Del Mar. He as- 
sumed command of the 3rd Mar. Regt, 
3rd Mar. Div. (Reinf.), on Okinawa, in 
Mar. 1962, and in addition serves as 
Camp Commander of Camp Schwab. 



IAMS, Ross Lindsey. Major (Retired). 
Medal of Honor: b. May 5, 1879, Grays- 
ville, Pa. Under various temporary ap- 



pointments as marine gunner, first and 
second lieutenant, and captain, lams 
served with the Corps until he was placed 



ill 



I A M S 



I A M S 



on the retired list on Nov. 1, 1932. His 
foreign service record includes eleven 
month in France in 1918-19, and as- 
signments in Haiti, Mexico, China, the 
Philippines, and Nicaragua. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for con- 
spicuous gallantry during the Haitian 
Campaign. His citation states that while 
in company with members of the 5th, 
13th, and 23rd Companies and a Marine 
and sailor detachment from the USS 
Connecticut, he participated in the attack 



on Fort Riviere, Haiti, on Nov. 17, 1915. 
Following a concentrated drive, several 
different detachments of Marines grad- 
ually closed in on the old French bastion 
fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of 
retreat for the Caco bandits. Approaching 
a breach in the wall which was the only 
entrance to the fort, larns unhesitatingly 
jumped through the breach, despite con- 
stant fire from the Cacos, and engaged 
the enemy in desperate hand-to-hand 
combat until the bastion was captured 
and Caco resistance neutralized. 



JACKSON, Arthur J. Captain, Medal of 
Honor: b. Cleveland, Ohio, Oct. 18, 1924. 
Arthur Jackson was inducted into the 
Marine Corps at Portland, Ore,, on Jan. 
11, 1943. He received his basic training 
at the Recruit Depot, San Diego, Calif, 
and soon thereafter joined the 1st Mar. 
Div. Jackson received a letter of com- 
mendation on Cape Gloucester for carry- 
ing a wounded Marine to safety in the 
face of well-entrenched Japanese troops 
on the slope of a steep hill, thus saving 
the wounded man's life. His feat, for 
which he was awarded the Medal of 
Honor, took place on Peleliu, Palau Is- 
lands, when he was a P.F.C. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving with 
the 3rd Bn-., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div., 
in action against enemy Japanese forces 
on the Is. of Peleliu, Sept. 18, 1944. Bold- 
ly taking the initiative when his platoon's 
left-flank advance was held up by the fire 
of Japanese troops concealed in strongly 
fortified positions, P.F.C. Jackson unhesi- 
tatingly proceeded forward of our lines, 



and, courageously defying the heavy bar- 
rages, charged a large pillbox housing 
approximately 35 enemy soldiers. Pouring 
his automatic fire into the opening of the 
fixed installation to trap the occupying 
troops, he hurled white phosphorus gre- 
nades and explosive charges brought up 
by a fellow Marine, demolishing the pill- 
box and killing all of the enemy. Advanc- 
ing alone under the continuous fire from 
other hostile emplacements, he employed 
similar means to smash two smaller posi- 
tions in the immediate vicinity. Deter- 
mined to crush the entire pocket of 
resistance although harassed on all sides 
by the shattering blasts of Japanese 
weapons and covered only by small rifle 
parties, he stormed one gun position after 
another, dealing death and destruction 
to the savagely fighting enemy in his ... 
drive against the remaining defenses and 
succeeded in wiping out a total of 12 
pillboxes and 50 Japanese soldiers. . . ." 

JACOBSON, Douglas Thomas, Captain. 



112 



J A N S O H 



J AN S O N 



Medal of Honor: b. Rochester, N.Y., Nov. 
25, 1925. Capt. Jacobson won the nation's 
highest award at Iwo Jima. His citation 
reads, in part: "Promptly destroying a 
stubborn 20-mm. antiaircraft gun and its 
crew. . . . Jacobson waged a relentless 
battle as his unit fought desperately . . . 
he first destroyed two hostile machine 
gun positions, then attacked a large block- 
house, completely neutralizing the forti- 
fication before dispatching the five-man 
crew of a second pillbox. ... He wiped out 
an earth-covered rifle emplacement and, 
confronted by a cluster of similar em- 
placements . . . fearlessly advanced, quick- 
ly reduced all six positions . . . killed 10 
of the enemy, opened fire on a Japanese 
tank . . . and smashed the enemy tank's 
gun turret. . . ." It was reported that Capt. 
Jacobson destroyed a total of 16 enemy 
positions and annihilated approximately 
75 Japanese. 

JANSON, Ernest August. Sergeant Major. 
Medal of Honor: b. New York, N.Y., Aug. 
17, 1878; d Long Island, N.Y., May 14, 
1930. Following nearly ten years of service 
with the U.S. Army, Ernest Janson en- 
listed in the Marine Corps on June 14, 

1910, at the MB, Bremerton, Wash. He 
was appointed a corporal on Mar. 14, 

1911, and honorably discharged June 13, 
1914. He re-enlisted on June 17, 1914, 
and was appointed a sergeant on Aug. 24, 
1914. During this second enlistment, he 
served on the USS Nebraska from July 
13, 1914, until Jan. 30, 1915; on detached 
duty on the USS Montana from Jan. 30, 
1915 until Feb. 6, 1915; on the USS 
Nebraska again from Feb. 6, 1915 until 
Oct. 22, 1916; and at Norfolk, Va., from 
Oct. 22, 1916 until May 25, 1917. Sgt. 
Janson sailed for France on the USS 
De Kalb on June 14, 1917, and disem- 
barked at St. Nazaire, France, June 27, 
1917. Appointed a gunnery sergeant, a 




Janson 

temporary warrant for the duration of the 
war, on July 1, 1917, he served honorably 
with the 49th Co., 5th Regt., in its vari- 
ous activities and on June 6, 1918, was 
severely wounded in action. For his con- 
spicuous services on that date, Sgt. Jan- 
son was awarded the Congressional 
(Army) Medal of Honor and the Navy 
Medal of Honor. His citation reads, in 
part: "... in action with the enemy near 
Chateau-Thierry, France, June 6, 1918. 
Immediately after his company had 
reached its objective on Hill 142, several 
hostile counterattacks were launched 
against the line before the new position 
had been consolidated. Gy. Sgt. Janson 
was attempting to organize a position on 
the north slope of the hill when he saw 
12 of the enemy, armed with five light 



113 



JOHN 



JOHN 



machine guns, crawling toward his group. 
Giving the alarm, he rushed the hostile 
detachment, bayoneted the two leaders, 
and forced the others to flee, thus aban- 
doning their guns. His quick action, ini- 
tiative, and courage drove the enemy 
from a position from which they could 
have swept the hill with machine gun 
fire and forced the withdrawal of our 
troops." The French Medaille Militaire 
which carries the Croix de Guerre with 
Palm, the Montenegran Silver Medal, the 
Portuguese Cruz de Guerra, and the Ital- 
ian Croce di Guerra were also awarded 
him for this same act of bravery. In Nov. 
1918, Sgt. Janson returned to the States 
and was admitted to the Naval Hospital, 
N.Y., for treatment of the wounds re- 
ceived in action on June 6. At the ex- 
piration of his second enlistment, April 
25, 1919, he was honorably discharged. 
He re-enlisted May 7, 1919, and served 
the full term of this enlistment as a re- 
cruiter at New York City. He was hon- 
orably discharged on May 6, 1923, His 
4th enlistment took place May 7, 1923, 
and he remained on recruiting duty until 
July 20, 1926, when he was transferred to 
MB, Quantico. On his return to Quari- 
tico, he was reinstated to his wartime 
rank of gunnery sergeant. He requested 
retirement the following month. He was 
advanced one grade to sergeant major on 
Aug. 31, 1926, and placed on the retired 
list, Sept. 30, 1926. Janson returned to 
New York and during his last years lived 
on Long Island. He died after a brief ill- 
ness, May 14, 1930, and was buried in 
Evergreen Cemetery, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

JOHN, Philip William. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Member of the Staff of the Com- 
mander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern 
Europe, Naples, Italy: b. Seattle, Wash., 
Oct. 6, 1907. After graduation from high 
school, Philip John attended Whitman 



College and Oregon State College. He 
enlisted in the Organized MCR in Feb. 
1930, and was commissioned a second 
lieutenant on Oct. 15, 1935. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in Dec. 1938. In 
Nov. 1940, Lt. John was called to active 
duty with the 6th Marines in San Diego, 
Calif. The following May, he joined the 
1st Mar. Brig. (Prov. ) and embarked for 
duty in Iceland. While there, he was 
promoted to captain in Jan. 1942. He was 
assigned to the 2nd Mar. Div. in Apr. 
1942, and served with the division until 
the end of the war. He was promoted to 
major in Aug. 1942, and to lieutenant 
colonel in Dec. 1943. During this period, 
John commanded the Div. Service Bn., 
and later saw action in the Saipan, Tin- 
ian, and Okinawa operations as Div. 
Quartermaster until Aug. 1945. On his 
return to the States in Sept. 1945, Lt. 
Col. John was named Officer in Charge 
of the Marine Corps Forwarding Depot, 
Seattle, Wash. He was integrated into the 
Regular Marine Corps in July 1946. Re- 
porting to Fairbanks, Alaska, in Nov. 
1946, he was an observer with Task 
Force Frigid, an Army extreme cold 
weather test force. In June 1947, he began 
two years' duty as Executive Officer, Bar- 
stow Annex, Marine Corps Depot of 
Supplies, San Francisco, Calif. Following 
this assignment, he entered the Com- 
mand and General Staff School at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans., in Aug. 1949, and 
upon graduation in June 1950 was as- 
signed to the Marine Corps Supply 
Depot, Camp Lejeune, N.C., as Execu- 
tive Officer. He was promoted to colonel 
in Feb. 1951. In July 1951, he became 
CO, Marine Corps Supply Depot, Camp 
Lejeune, and served in that capacity un- 
til Oct. 1953. That month he was trans- 
ferred to the MCAS, El Toro, Calif., 
where he served as Staff Supply Officer, 
Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, until July 1956. 



114 



JOHNSON 



JONES 



He then joined MCS, Quantico, as a 
member of the Advanced Research 
Group, Marine Corps Educational Cen- 
ter. Transferred to Washington, D.C. in 
June 1957, Col. John was assigned to the 
Staff of the Quartermaster General, 
HQMC. He was promoted to brigadier 
general Jan. 1, 1960, at which time he 
was designated Director, Materiel Divi- 
sion, Supply Department. Shortly after, 
he was detached from HQMC to assume 
his current assignment in Naples, Italy, 
in Apr. 1960. 

JOHNSON, James Edmund. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Pocatello, Idaho, 
Jan. 1, 1926; d. MIA, Yudam-ni, Korea, 
Dec. 2, 1950. Sgt Johnson's citation reads, 
in part: . . . "while serving as a squad 
leader in a provisional rifle platoon com- 
posed of artillerymen and attached to 
Co. J, 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf. ), in action against enemy ag- 
gressor forces at Yudam-ni, Korea on 
Dec. 2, 1950. Vastly outnumbered by a 
well-entrenched and cleverly concealed 
enemy force wearing the uniforms of 
friendly troops and attacking his pla- 
toon's open and unconcealed positions, 
Sgt. Johnson unhesitatingly took charge 
of his platoon in the absence of the 
leader and exhibiting great personal valor 
in the face of a heavy barrage of hostile 
fire, coolly proceeded to move about 
among his men, shouting words of en- 
couragement and inspiration and skillfully 
directing their fire. Ordered to displace 
his platoon during the fire fight, he im- 
mediately placed himself in an extremely 
hazardous position from which he could 
provide covering fire for his men. Fully 
aware that his voluntary action meant 
either certain death or capture, he coura- 
geously continued to provide effective 
cover for his men and was last observed 
in a wounded condition singlehandedly 



engaging enemy troops in close hand 
grenade and hand-to-hand fighting. . . ." 

JONES, William Kenefick. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Legislative Assistant to the Com- 
mandant of the Marine Corps, HQMC, 
Washington, D.C.: b. Joplin, Mo., Oct. 
23, 1916. William Jones attended South- 
west High School in Kansas City, Mo., 
graduating in 1933. In 1937, he was grad- 
uated from the University of Kansas with 
a Bachelor of Arts degree. While in col- 
lege, Jones enlisted in the MCR Apr. 25, 
1936, and attended summer training 
courses in the Platoon Leaders' Class at 
San Diego, Calif. He was commissioned 
a Marine Reserve second lieutenant on 
Jan. 31, 1938, and was assigned to active 
duty on Sept. 29, 1939. After completing 
the Reserve Officers* Course at Quantico, 
in Nov. 1939, he joined the 1st Bn,, 6th 
Marines, at San Diego. The following 
Nov. he was integrated into the regular 
Marine Corps. He remained with the 1st 
Bn. for almost six years, including the 
entirety of WWII. In May 1941, he em- 
barked with the 6th Marines for Iceland 
as part of the 1st Mar. Brig. He returned 
to the States in Mar. 1942, when the regi- 
ment was attached to the 2nd Mar. Div. 
at San Diego. In the spring of 1942, he 
was promoted to first lieutenant and, 
shortly after, to captain. With his unit, 
he was ordered to the Pacific area in 
Oct. 1942. He took part in the Guadal- 
canal campaign as a company executive 
officer, and later served as a company 
commander, and battalion executive 
officer. He was promoted to major in May 
1943. In Sept. 1943, he became CO of 
the 1st Bn., and in this capacity took part 
in four more campaigns: Tarawa, where 
he earned the Silver Star Medal and a 
field promotion to lieutenant colonel; 
Saipan, where he earned the Navy Cross; 
Tinian; and Okinawa. The Silver Star 



115 



JONES 

Medal was awarded him for gallantry in 
action at Tarawa on the night of Nov. 
22-23, 1943 when, his citation states, he 
exposed himself to withering shellfire to 
organize and direct a mortar platoon and 
elements of his HQ company in a bril- 
liantly executed counterattack against 
Japanese troops who had broken through 
his battalion's lines. Returning to the 
States in July 1945, Lt. Col. Jones was 
stationed at MCS, Quantico, as Head, 
Tactics and Techniques Section, Basic 
School, until May 1947; then as Chief of 
the Infantry Section, Junior School, 
until June 1948. Following brief duties in 
Washington, D.C., he sailed in Aug. 
1948 for Sweden, where he served for 
two years as Assistant Naval Attache and 
Assistant Naval Attache for Air at the 
American Embassy in Stockholm. In Aug. 
1950, he reported for duty in the G-3 
Section, Division of Plans and Policies, 
HQMC. He served there as Head of the 
Operations Subsection until Feb. 1952, 
when he became Head of the Operations 
and Training Branch, During the latter 
assignment, he was promoted to colonel 
in Aug. 1952. In Sept. 1953, after serving 
for three months as Assistant G-3 at 
HQMC, he arrived in Korea where he 
served as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
1st Mar. Div. for five months. He then 
commanded the 1st Mar. Regt. until his 
return to the States in July 1954. During 
the next four years, he was again sta- 
tioned at MCS, Quantico, where he 
served as Assistant Chief of Staff, G~2/ 
G-3, for two years, with additional duty 
as a member of the Fleet Marine Force 
Organization and Composition Board, 
from June 1956 to Jan. 1957; and in Aug. 
1956 became CO of the Basic School. 
Leaving Quantico in July 1958, he as- 
sumed command of the Recruit Training 
Regiment, MCRD, Parris Is., S.C. He 
held this command until July 1960, when 



JULIAN 

he entered the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I. Upon completing the course in 
Naval Warfare, he was assigned to the 
Pentagon as Chief, General Operations 
Division, J-3, Operations Directorate, 
Joint Staff, Office of the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, in July 1961. He served in this ca- 
pacity until Sept. 1962, when he was as- 
signed to HQMC. 

JULIAN, Joseph Rudolph. Platoon Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Worcester, 
Mass., Apr. 3, 1918; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, 
Mar. 9, 1945. Joseph Julian enlisted in 
the MCR after graduation from high 
school. He served as a drill instructor at 
Parris Is., and later was assigned to the 
5th Mar. Div. His citation reads, in part: 
"... as a platoon sergeant, serving with 
the 1st Bn., 27th Marines, 5th Mar. Div., 
in action against enemy Japanese forces 
during the seizure of Iwo Jirna in the 
Volcano Islands, Mar. 9, 1945. Deter- 
mined to force a breakthrough when 
Japanese troops occupying trenches and 
fortified positions on the left front laid 
down a terrific machine gun and mortar 
barrage in a desperate effort to halt his 
company's advance, PL Sgt. Julian quickly 
established his platoon's guns in strategic 
supporting positions and then, acting on 
his own initiative, fearlessly moved for- 
ward to execute a one-man assault on the 
nearest pillbox. Advancing alone, he 
hurled deadly demolitions and white 
phosphorus grenades into the emplace- 
ment, killing two of the enemy and driv- 
ing the remaining five out into the 
adjoining trench system. Seizing a dis- 
carded rifle, he jumped into the trench 
and dispatched the five before they could 
make an escape. Intent on wiping out all 
resistance, he obtained more explosives 
and, accompanied by another Marine, 
again charged the hostile fortifications 
and knocked out two more cave positions. 



116 



JULIAN 



JULIAN 



Immediately thereafter, he launched a 
bazooka attack unassisted, firing four 
rounds into the one remaining pillbox 



and completely destroying it before he 
fell, mortally wounded by a vicious burst 
of enemy fire." 



K 



KATES, Thomas Wilber. Private. Medal 
of Honor: b. Shelby Center, N.Y., May 7, 
1865. Thomas Kates enlisted in the Ma- 
rine Corps at Marine Barracks, N.Y. on 
July 21, 1899. He was awarded the Med- 
al of Honor "... for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy in the 
advance on Tientsin, China, June 21, 
1900. . . ." He was discharged from the 
Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on May 19, 1903. 

KEARNEY, Michael. Captain. Medal of 
Honor: b. Newmarket, Ireland, Oct. 4, 
1874; d. Oct. 1937. Michael Kearney en- 
listed in the Marine Corps at Boston, 
Mass, on Apr. 21, 1896. He earned the 
nation's highest military award "... while 
serving aboard the USS Nashville, for ex- 
traordinary bravery and coolness while 
cutting the cables leading from Cienfue- 
gos, Cuba, May 11, 1898. . . " Kearney 
was discharged from the Corps on June 
1, 1901 at Brooklyn, but reenlisted and 
served until Dec. 22, 1926 when he was 
retired as a captain. 

KELLY, John Doran. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Youngstown, Ohio, 
July 8, 1928; d. KIA, Korea, May 28, 1952. 
P.F.C. Kelly's citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving as a radio operator of 
Co. C, 1st Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.), in action against enemy aggres- 
sor forces in Korea on May 28, 1952. 
With his platoon pinned down by a nu- 
merically superior enemy force employ- 



ing intense mortar, artillery, small arms 
and grenade fire, P.F.C. Kelly requested 
permission to leave his radio in the care 
of another man and to participate in an 
assault on enemy key positions. Fearlessly 
charging forward in the face of a mur- 
derous hail of machine gun fire and hand 
grenades, he initiated a daring attack 
against a hostile strongpoint and per- 
sonally neutralized the position, killing 
two of the enemy. Unyielding in the face 
of heavy odds, he continued forward and 
singlehandedly assaulted a machine gun 
bunker. Although painfully wounded, 
he bravely charged the bunker and de- 
stroyed it, killing three of the enemy. 
Courageously continuing his one-man 
assault, he again stormed forward in a 
valiant attempt to wipe out a third 
bunker and boldly delivered point-blank 
fire into the aperture of the hostile em- 
placement. Mortally wounded by enemy 
fire while carrying out this heroic action, 
P.F.C. Kelly, by his great personal valor 
and aggressive fighting spirit, inspired 
his comrades to sweep on, overrun, and 
secure the objective. . . ." 

KELLY, John Joseph. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Chicago, 111., June 24, 1898. 
John Kelly enlisted in the Marine Corps 
in May 1917. In France, he saw action 
in the engagements at Chateau-Thierry, 
St-Mihiel, Mont Blanc, the Argonne, the 
advance to the Meuse, and the march to 
the Rhine for the occupation of the Co- 



117 



K E i S O 



1C I i R 



blenz Bridgehead. At Mont Blanc Ridge, 
Pvt. Kelly was credited with having run 
"through our own barrage 100 yards in 
advance of the front line and attacking 
an enemy machine gun nest, killing the 
gunner with a grenade, shooting another 
member of the crew with his pistol, and 
returning through the barrage with eight 
prisoners." 

KELSO, Jack William. Private, Medal of 
Honor: b. Madera, Calif., Jan. 23, 1934; 
d KIA, Korea, Oct. 2, 1952. Pvt. Kelso's 
citation reads, in part: ". . . while serving 
as a rifleman of Co. I, 3rd Bn., 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on Oct. 2, 1952, When both the platoon 
commander and the platoon sergeant be- 
came casualties during the defense of a 
vital outpost against a numerically su- 
perior enemy force attacking at night 
under cover of intense small arms, gre- 
nade, and mortar fire, Pvt. Kelso bravely 
exposed himself to the hail of enemy fire 
in a determined effort to reorganize the 
unit and to repel the onrushing attackers. 
Forced to seek cover, along with four 
other Marines, in a nearby bunker which 
immediately came under attack, he un- 
hesitatingly picked up an enemy grenade 
which landed in the shelter, rushed out 
into the open and hurled it back at the 
enemy. Although painfully wounded 
when the grenade exploded as it left his 
hand, and again forced to seek the pro- 
tection of the hunker when the hostile 
fire became more intensified, Pvt Kelso 
refused to remain in his position of com- 
parative safety and moved out into the 
fire-swept area to return the enemy fire, 
thereby permitting the pinned-down 
Marines in the bunker to escape. Mor- 
tally wounded while providing covering 
fire for his comrades, Pvt. Kelso, by his 
valiant fighting spirit, aggressive deter- 



mination, and self-sacrificing efforts in 
behalfv of others, served to inspire all 
who observed him. ..." 

KENNEMORE, Robert Sidney. Techni- 
cal Sergeant Medal of Honor: b. Green- 
ville, S.C., June 21, 1920. Sgt Kennemore s 
citation reads, in part: ". . . as leader of 
a machine gun section in Co. E, 2nd Bn., 
7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. ( Reinf. ), in 
action against enemy aggressor forces in 
Korea on Nov. 27 and 28, 1950. With the 
company's defensive perimeter overrun 
by a numerically superior hostile force 
during a savage night attack north of 
Yudam-ni and with his platoon com- 
mander seriously wounded Sgt Kenne- 
more unhesitatingly assumed command, 
quickly reorganized the unit, and directed 
the men in consolidating their position. 
When an enemy grenade landed in the 
midst of a machine gun squad, he bravely 
placed his foot on the missile and, in the 
face of almost certain death, personally 
absorbed the full force of the explosion 
to prevent injury to his fellow Ma- 
rines. . . ." 

KIER ? Avery Raymond. Major General. 
CG, Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, 
El Toro, Calif. Also, CG, Marine Corps 
Air Station, El Toro, and Commander, 
Marine Corps Air Bases, Western Area: 
b. Gentry, Mo., Feb. 11, 1905. Avery Kier 
attended Argentine High School in Kan- 
sas City, Kans., and received his Bachelor 
of Laws degree upon graduation from 
the Kansas City School of Law in June 
1927. He then completed two years of 
study in aeronautical engineering at the 
University of Minnesota. On June 4, 
1929, he enlisted in the MCR at St. Paul, 
Minn., and was assigned to Flight School 
at the NAS, Pensacola, Fla. He was com- 
missioned a Marine Reserve second lieu- 
tenant and graduated from flight training 



118 



K 1 E SI 



KIER 



in June 1930, then saw six months' duty 
with the Aircraft Squadrons, West Coast 
Expeditionary Forces, at North Is., San 
Diego, Calif. Relieved from active duty 
in Jan. 1931, Lt. Kier joined the Adminis- 
trative staff of the University of Minne- 
sota, Minneapolis, Minn., working there 
until May 1938. During this time he 
served brief tours of active duty with the 
Marine Air Reserve Detachment at the 
Naval Reserve Aviation Base, Minneap- 
olis, and was Executive Officer of the 
Marine Reserve Aviation Squadron. He 
was promoted to captain in Aug. 1937. 
During the summer of 1938, he served 
on active duty as a flight instructor at 
Minneapolis in connection with the Naval 
Aviation Cadet Training program. 
Following a brief tour at the Naval 
Reserve Aviation Base, Kansas City, 
Kans., he reported to the NAS, Pensacola 
in Mar. 1939 for active duty and training 
as an instructor. On his detachment from 
Pensacola in May 1940, he returned to 
the Naval Reserve Aviation Base, Min- 
neapolis, for duty as Inspector-Instructor 
of Marine Reserve Aviation activities at 
that station, and as CO of the Marine 
Reserve Aviation Unit. He was integrated 
into the Regular Marine Corps in Feb. 
1941, and that month joined Marine 
Scout Bombing Squadron 2, 2nd MAG, 
at the NAS, San Diego as a naval aviator 
and squadron gunnery officer. In Apr. 
1941, he moved with the squadron to 
Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii. On Dec. 7, 1941, 
when Pearl Harbor was attacked, Capt. 
Kier was aboard the USS Lexington en 
route with the bomber squadron to Mid- 
way Is. The Lexington returned to Pearl 
Harbor where the squadron disembarked 
Dec. 10. On Dec. 17, ten days after the 
originally scheduled fly-off, Capt. Kier 
was among the 17 pilots who flew 1137 
miles from Oahu to Midway to bolster 
that island's defense. This was then the 



longest mass overwater, single-engined 
flight on record. Six months later, in May 
1942, he was promoted to major. Return- 
ing to the States in Dec. 1942, Maj. Kier 
served on the staff of the CG, Marine Air 
West Coast, as Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3, located at the NAS, San Diego. He 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Apr. 1943. A year later, he was again 
ordered overseas, arriving in the Mar- 
shalls in May 1944 for duty as Operations 
Officer, and later Executive Officer of 
MAG 13, 4th Marine Air Base Defense 
Wing. In Nov. 1944, he joined HQ, Pro- 
visional Air Support Command, FMF, 
Pacific, as Operations Officer, during the 
formation and training of the Landing 
Force Air Support Control Units, which 
were later assigned to Amphibious 
Forces, Pacific Fleet. He was promoted 
to colonel in Dec. 1944. Next he served 
ashore on Iwo Jima and Okinawa with 
the Marine Air Support Control Units. 
Following his return to this country in 
Aug. 1945, Col. Kier commanded Marine 
Air Support Group 51 at MCAS, Santa 
Barbara, Calif, until Jan. 1946; then he 
commanded MAGs 46 and 33 at MCAS, 
El Toro, Calif, until July. In Sept. 1946, 
he entered MCS, Quantico, completing 
the Senior Course in June 1947. He was 
next assigned to Norfolk, Va., serving as 
Force Air Officer and Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-2, FMF, Atlantic. In July 1948, 
he joined the Staff of the Commander in 
Chief, Atlantic Fleet, as Fleet Marine 
Officer. Transferred to the American Em- 
bassy, London, England, in Aug. 1950, 
Col. Kier began a two-year tour of duty 
as Assistant Naval Attache for Air. Re- 
turning to the States in Aug. 1952, he 
was attached to the 3rd MAW, MCAS, 
Miami, Fla,, serving consecutively as 
Assistant Chief of Staff and Chief of 
Staff of the Wing. In Aug. 1954, he be- 
came CO, MCAS, Quantico. After two 



119 



1C I NS I R 

years at Quantico, he was ordered to the 
MCAS, El Toro, in Aug. 1956, for a brief 
tour of duty as Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3, Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, prior to his 
detachment to the Far East in Dec. 1956. 
The following month he assumed duties 
in Japan as Assistant Commander, 1st 
MAW. While serving in this capacity, he 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
April 1957. That same month, Gen. Kier 
was transferred to Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, 
as CG, 1st Mar. Brig., FMF. He served 
25 months in this capacity prior to his 
return to the continental United States. 
In July 1959, he became Director of In- 
formation, HQMC, Washington, D.C, 
Following this assignment, he returned 
to Japan in Apr. 1960 as CG, 1st MAW. 
He was promoted to his present rank of 
major general in July 1960, and remained 
in Japan until June of the following year. 
From July 1961 through June 1962, Gen. 
Kier commanded the 3rd MAW at El 
Toro. He then remained at El Toro where 
he assumed his present commands as CG, 
Aircraft, FMF, Pacific in June 1962, and 
CG, MCAS, El Toro and Commander, 
Marine Corps Air Bases, Western Area 
in July 1962. 

KINSER, Elbert Luther. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Greeneville, Tenn., Oct. 21, 
1922; d. KIA, Okinawa, May 4, 1945. El- 
bert Kinser enlisted in the Marine Corps 
in Dec. 1942, and received recruit train- 
ing at Parris Is., S.C. He sailed from the 
States in Mar. 1943, and joined the 7th 
Replacement Bn. in Pago Pago, Tutuila, 
American Samoa, Later, that battalion 
joined the 1st Mar. Div. in Melbourne, 
Australia and Sgt. Kinser was assigned 
to I Co., 1st Marines. Action with the 1st 
Marines followed at Cape Gloucester, 
New Britain, and later at Peleliu, Palau 
Is. On Easter Sunday, Apr. 1, 1945, Sgt. 
Kinser landed with his unit at Okinawa 



C LI NE 

where he was subsequently killed in ac- 
tion on May 4. He won the nation's 
highest military decoration while acting 
as a leader of a rifle platoon, serving with 
Co. I, 3rd Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div., 
in action on Okinawa. Taken under sud- 
den and close attack by hostile troops 
entrenched on the reverse slope while 
moving up a strategic ridge along which 
his platoon was holding newly won posi- 
tions, Sgt. Kinser engaged the enemy in 
a fierce hand grenade battle. Quick to 
act when a Japanese grenade landed in 
the immediate vicinity, Sgt. Kinser un- 
hesitatingly threw himself on the deadly 
missile, absorbing the full charge of the 
shattering explosion in his own body and 
thereby protecting his men from serious 
injury and possible death. 

KLINE, Roy Lewis. Brigadier General. 
Deputy Director, J-5 (Plans and Policy) 
Directorate, Joint Staff, Office of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff: b. Sept. 10, 1914. After 
graduation from high school, Roy Kline 
received his Bachelor of Science degree 
in mechanical engineering from Iowa 
State College, Arnes, Iowa. While at- 
tending college he was a member of the 
Army Engineers ROTC. Upon gradua- 
tion he entered the Marine Corps and 
was commissioned a Marine second lieu- 
tenant Sept. 10, 1935. He completed Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
June 1936, then served with the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS Saratoga 
for one year. Following this duty, he 
was enrolled in the Flight Training 
Course at the NAS, Pensacola, Fla, He 
was designated a naval aviator in Apr. 
1938. That June he joined the 2nd MAG, 
FMF, at the NAS, San Diego, Calif. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in Sept. 
1938. He remained in San Diego until 
Nov. 1940 when he became a flight in- 
structor at the Pensacola NAS. In May 



120 



1C 1.9 N E 



KOC AK 



1941, he was assigned to the 1st MAG, 
MB, Quantico, Va. He was promoted to 
captain in Nov. 1941. In Dec. 1941, Capt. 
Kline began a two-year assignment with 
the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Depart- 
ment, Washington, D.C. While there, he 
was promoted to major in May 1942, 
and to lieutenant colonel in Sept. 1943. 
Ordered overseas, Lt. Col. Kline joined 
MAG 23 on Midway in Feb. 1944, and 
served initially as Group Operations Offi- 
cer and later as Group Executive Officer. 
In Aug. 1944, he was transferred to Scho- 
field Barracks, Honolulu, Hawaii, to be- 
come Assistant Air Officer for the 10th 
Army. He accompanied that organization 
to Okinawa. In Aug. 1945, he joined the 
Staff of the Commander in Chief, Pacific, 
as Assistant Fleet Aviation Officer. The 
following Apr., after his return to the 
States, he was named CO of the MAD, 
MARTC, NAS, Grosse He, Mich. He re- 
turned to Quantico in Aug. 1947 as a stu- 
dent in the Amphibious Warfare School, 
Senior Course. After completing the Sen- 
ior School in May 1948, Lt. Col. Kline 
became a Resident Member of the Ma- 
rine Corps Board at MCS, Quantico. In 
Aug. 1950, he was transferred to the 
MCAS, Cherry Point, N.C., for two years' 
duty with MAG 14, 2nd MAW. He 
served consecutively as Executive Offi- 
cer, Deputy Group Commander, and CO. 
During this period he also served for 
four months in the Pacific area and the 
Far East as a member of the Pacific Fleet 
Evaluation Group. Later he served in 
the Caribbean area for five months as 
Chief of Staff of TRAEX-1, the first ex- 
ercise of its kind in FMF, Atlantic. He 
was promoted to colonel in Feb. 1951. 
From Aug. 1952 to June 1953, he was a 
student in the Strategy and Tactics 
Course at the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I. In July 1953, he rejoined the 
2nd MAW, serving in various capacities 



including Chief of Staff for "Weldfast," 
the landing force for the NATO Mediter- 
ranean maneuvers. He also served briefly 
as CO, Marine Air Control Group 1, 2nd 
MAW, prior to becoming Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3, in Dec. 1953. Departing 
Cherry Point in Aug. 1954, Col. Kline 
was assigned to the 1st MAW in Korea 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, and later, 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l. In June 
1955, upon returning to the States, he 
was ordered to MCS, Quantico. He 
served there as Director of the Junior 
School, Chief of Staff of the Marine 
Corps Educational Center, and Chief of 
Staff of MCS, respectively. In June 1958, 
he was ordered to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C. He served there for 18 months as 
Military Secretary to the CMC. He was 
promoted to his present rank of brigadier 
general in Nov. 1959. Detached from 
HQMC in Jan. 1960, Gen. Kline served 
consecutively as Assistant Wing Com- 
mander, 2nd MAW, Cherry Point, until 
Feb. 1961; and Assistant Wing Com- 
mander, 1st MAW, Iwakuni, Japan, until 
Jan. 1962. He then returned to the States 
and in Feb. 1962 became Marine Corps 
Liaison Officer to the Vice Chief of N.aval 
Operations. In Nov. 1962, he was as- 
signed as Deputy Director, J-5 (Plans 
and Policy) Directorate, Joint Staff, Of- 
fice of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

KOCAK, Matej. Sergeant. Medal of Hon- 
or: b. Egbell, Hungary, Dec. 31, 1882. 
Matej Kocak enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Pittsburgh, Pa. on Oct. 16, 1907. For 
his part in the action on July 18, 1918, 
in the Villers Cotterets Forest, south of 
Soissons, France, he was cited for extra- 
ordinary heroism. His citation reads, in 
part, "... he advanced ahead of the 
American line and captured a machine 
gun and its crew. Later the same day, 
he took command of several squads of 



121 



K II A U S 

Allied troops and led them forward in 
the advance. . . ." For his bravery he was 
awarded the Medal of Honor (Army) on 
Feb. 18, 1919, and the Medal of Honor 
(Navy) on Nov. 11, 1920. 

KRAUS, Richard Edward. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Chicago, 111., 
Nov. 24, 1925; d. KIA, Peleliu, Oct. 3, 
1944. P.F.C. Kraus won the Medal of 
Honor while serving as an amphibious 
tractor driver with the 8th Amphibious 
Tractor Bn., FMF, which participated 
in the D-Day landings on Peleliu. He and 
three companions had accepted a volun- 
teer mission to evacuate a wounded fel- 
low Marine from the front lines. As the 
group made their way forward, they were 
met by an intense barrage of hand gre- 
nade fire which forced them to take 
cover. While returning to the rear, the 
stretcher party observed two men ap- 
proaching whom they believed to be 
Marines. Upon challenging the pair, they 
proved to be Japanese, and one of the 
enemy responded by throwing a hand 
grenade into the midst of the group. Pvt. 
Kraus unhesitatingly hurled himself on 
top of it, and by his prompt action and 
personal valor in the face of certain death, 
saved the lives of his three comrades. 

KRIJLAK, Victor Harold. Major General. 
Special Assistant to the Director for 
Counter Insurgency and Special Activ- 
ities, Joint Staff, Joint Chiefs of Staff: 
b. Denver, Col, Jan. 7, 1913. Victor 
Krulak was commissioned a Marine sec- 
ond lieutenant upon graduation from the 
U.S. Naval Academy, May 31, 1934. His 
first assignment after completing Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard 
was with the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Arizona, followed by an assign- 
ment at the U.S. Naval Academy. In 
July 1936, he joined the 6th Marines at 



KR 



the MCB, San Diego, Calif. The follow- 
ing Mar. he sailed with his unit for 
Shanghai, China, where he served with 
the 4th Marines for two years as a com- 
pany commander. While there, he was 
promoted to first lieutenant in July 1937. 
Lt. Krulak left China in May 1939. On 
his return to the States, he completed 
the Junior Course at MCS, Quantico, in 
June 1940, and was appointed Assistant 
to the Brigade Quartermaster, 1st Mar. 
Brig., FMF. He was promoted to captain 
in Aug. 1940. With the 1st Mar. Brig. 
(later the 1st Mar. Div.)> Capt. Krulak 
embarked for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 
in Oct. 1940. Returning to Quantico in 
Apr. 1941, he served on the staff of Gen. 
Holland M. Smith, then CG of Amphib- 
ious Corps, Atlantic Fleet. He was serving 
in this capacity when WWII broke out. 
In May 1942, he was promoted to major. 
He moved with the staff of the Amphib- 
ious Corps to San Diego in Sept. 1942, 
and continued as Aide to the CG and as 
Assistant G-4 until Jan. 1943, when he 
volunteered for parachute training. He 
completed training and was designated 
a parachutist on Feb. 15, 1943. The fol- 
lowing month he sailed for the Pacific 
area and at New Caledonia took com- 
mand of the 2nd Parachute Bn., 1st Mar. 
Amphibious Corps. He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in Apr. 1943, and went 
into action that Sept. at Vella, Lavella. 
That Oct., Lt. Col. Krulak commanded 
the diversionary landing on Choiseul to 
cover the Bougainville invasion, during 
which action he earned the Navy Cross 
for extraordinary heroism and the Purple 
Heart for wounds received in combat. 
He returned to the States in Nov. 1943, 
served in the Division of Plans and Poli- 
cies, HQMC, until Oct. 1944, then went 
overseas again. He joined the newly 
formed 6th Mar. Div, as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3 (Operations). For outstand- 



122 



K R U L A 1C 



KYLE 



ing service in the planning and execution 
of the Okinawa campaign, he was award- 
ed the Legion of Merit with Combat "V." 
He also received the Bronze Star Medal 
at the war's end for his part in negotiat- 
ing the surrender of Japanese forces in 
the Tsingtao, China area. Returning to 
the States in Oct. 1945, Lt. Col. Krulalc 
reported to Quantico as Officer in Charge 
of the Research Section, and subsequent- 
ly became Assistant Director of the Sen- 
ior School. He left Quantico in June 1949 
for Camp Pendleton, where he served as 
Regimental Commander of the 5th Ma- 
rines, 1st Mar. Div. He was promoted to 
colonel in Aug. 1949. Ordered to Pearl 
Harbor in June 1950, Col. Krulak was 
serving as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
FMF, Pacific, when the Korean War be- 
gan. In the ensuing year, his duties took 
him to the battle front many times and, 
during the latter half of 1951, he re- 
mained in Korea as Chief of Staff of the 
1st Mar. Div. He earned a second Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V" in that capac- 
ity, and was awarded the Air Medal for 
reconnaissance and other flights in Korea 
between Aug. 1950 and July 1951. Col. 
Krulak remained in Korea until Nov. 
1951, then returned to Washington for 
duty at HQMC as Secretary of the Gen- 
eral Staff until June 1955. In Aug. 1955, 
he rejoined FMF, Pacific, at Pearl Har- 
bor, serving as Chief of Staff. He was 
promoted to brigadier general in July 
1956, and at the same time assumed du- 
ties as Assistant Division Commander, 
3rd Mar. Div., on Okinawa. On his re- 
turn to the States in July 1957, Gen. 
Krulak became Director of the Marine 
Corps Educational Center, Quantico. 
While at Quantico, he was promoted to 
his present rank of major general in Nov. 
1959. The following month, Gen. Krulak 
assumed command of the MCRD, San 
Diego. In Feb. 1962, he relinquished his 



command in San Diego, and assumed 
his current assignment as Special Assist- 
ant to the Director for Counter Insurg- 
ency and Special Activities, Joint Staff, 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

KUCHNEISTER, Herman William. Pri- 
vate. Medal of Honor: b. Hamburg, 
Germany, Oct. 15, 1875. Herman Kuch- 
neister enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Brooklyn, N.Y. on Aug. 19, 1897. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor on July 7, 
1899. His citation reads, in part: ". . . while 
serving aboard the USS Marblehead, for 
extraordinary bravery and coolness while 
cutting the cables leading from Cien- 
fuegos, Cuba, May 11, 1898. . . ." He was 
discharged from the Corps at Boston, 
Mass, on Mar. 28, 1900. 

KYLE, Wood Barbee. Brigadier General. 
CG, Force Troops, Fleet Marine Force, 
Atlantic, at Camp Lejeune, N.C.: b. Pecos, 
Tex., Mar. 3, 1915. Wood Kyle entered 
Texas A&M College in 1932 where he 
was a member of the ROTC unit, and 
graduated with Military Department 
honors in June 1936. He resigned his 
commission in the U.S. Army Infantry 
Reserve to accept appointment as a Ma- 
rine second lieutenant July 11, 1936. 
After short tours of duty at San Diego, 
Calif., and the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
Lt. Kyle served with the 2nd Mar. Brig, 
at Shanghai, China, from Oct. 1937 to 
Apr. 1938. Returning to San Diego with 
the brigade, he was promoted to first 
lieutenant in July 1939. He remained in 
San Diego until May 1940, when he was 
assigned to the Marine Detachment on 
board the USS Lexington. Detached 
from the Lexington in Dec. 1941, he 
joined the 1st Bn., 2nd Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Div., in San Diego, and that same month 
was promoted to captain. He embarked 
for the Pacific area in July 1942, and in 



123 



KYLE 



KYLE 



Aug. 1942 was promoted to major. Later, 
when the CO of the 1st Bn., 2nd Marines, 
was seriously wounded at Guadalcanal, 
Maj. Kyle, then Executive Officer, as- 
sumed command of the battalion, refus- 
ing evacuation for his own wounds, and 
continued to head the battalion from 
Nov. 1942 to Jan, 1943. The Silver Star 
Medal was awarded him for heroism dur- 
ing this campaign. A second Silver Star 
Medal was awarded Maj. Kyle for cour- 
ageous leadership during combat on 
Tarawa in Nov. 1943, when he person- 
ally led his men in an attack on the 
heavily defended central sector of the 
island. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Jan. 1944. After participating 
in campaigns at Saipan and Tinian, Lt. 
Col. Kyle returned to San Diego in Oct. 
1944. In Jan. 1945, he was assigned to 
the Command and General Staff School, 
Fort Leavenworth, Kans. for instruction. 
On completing the course in Mar. 1945, 
he was assigned to the school's faculty. 
For outstanding performance during the 
final months of the war, he was awarded 
the Army Commendation Ribbon. He re- 
mained at the school until Aug. 1947. 
From Sept. 1947 to May 1949, he was 
Assistant G-3, FMF, Pacific. During this 
period he served at Tsingtao, China, 
Guam, Hawaii, and on the United States 
west coast. In June 1949, Lt. Col. Kyle 
assumed duty as Executive Officer, Divi- 
sion of Reserve, HQMC. Two years later, 



he was also designated liaison officer be- 
tween HWMC and the Reserve Forces 
Policy Board. In July 1951, he became 
Assistant Director of the Division of Re- 
serve, and continued as liaison officer. 
He was promoted to colonel in Nov. 
1951. In June 1952, Col. Kyle was assigned 
to Little Creek, Va., where he served 
as Assistant G-3 and G-3, respectively, of 
Troop Training Unit, Atlantic, until Aug. 
1954. Departing the States, he assumed 
duty in Sept. 1954 as Regimental Com- 
mander of the 4th Marines ( Reinf . ) , 3rd 
Mar. Div., in Japan. In Feb. 1955, he 
moved with the regiment to Kaneohe 
Bay, Hawaii, where he helped establish 
the 4th Marines, and continued as Regi- 
mental Commander until his return to 
the States in June 1955. In July 1956, he 
completed the course at the Army War 
College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa. He then 
became Chief, Tactics and Technique 
Board, Marine Corps Landing Force De- 
velopment Center, Quantico, Va., in Aug. 
1956. In June 1958, he was again ordered 
overseas and, that same month, assumed 
duties in Paris, France, as Chief, Plans 
Branch, J-3, HQ, U.S. European Com- 
mand. While serving in this post, he was 
promoted to his present rank of brigadier 
general Apr. 1, 1961. Gen. Kyle com- 
pleted a three-year tour of duty in Paris 
prior to reporting to his present post as 
CG, Force Troops, FMF, Atlantic, in 
Aug. 1961. 



LaBELLE, James Dennis. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Columbia 
Heights, Minn., Nov. 22, 1925; d. KIA, 
Iwo Jima, Feb. 8, 1945. P.F.C. LaBelle s 



citation reads, in part: "... filling a gap 
in the front lines during a critical phase 
of the battle, P.F.C. LaBelle had dug in- 
to a foxhole with two other Marines and, 



124 



LARSON 

grimly aware of the enemy's persistent 
attempts to blast a way through our lines 
with hand grenades, applied himself with 
steady concentration to maintaining a 
sharply vigilant watch during the hazard- 
ous night hours. Suddenly a hostile gre- 
nade landed beyond reach in his foxhole. 
Quickly estimating the situation, he de- 
termined to save the others if possible, 
shouted a warning, and instantly dived 
on the deadly missile, absorbing the ex- 
ploding charge in his own body and 
thereby protecting his comrades from 
serious injury. . . ." 

LARSON, August. Major General (Re- 
tired): b. Sherburn, Minn., July 2, 1904. 
August Larson graduated from high 
school in Sherburn, then attended the 
University of Minnesota for three years. 
He enlisted in the Marine Corps on Jan. 
13, 1928 and served as an enlisted man 
until Feb. 26, 1931, when he was com- 
missioned a Marine second lieutenant 
after completing Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard. He embarked 
for China in Dec. 1932, and saw duty 
with the 4th Marines until Sept. 1934. 
Subsequently, while attached to the USS 
Augusta, he studied the Russian language 
in Shanghai, and returned to the States 
in Nov. 1935. In Jan. 1936, he reported 
to Quantico, and for the next six weeks 
helped train the Marine Detachment 
which served at the late President Frank- 
lin D. Roosevelt's residence at Warm 
Springs, Ga. In May 1936, Larson began 
a three-year tour at Quantico, where he 
served with the 5th Marines, and com- 
pleted the Junior Course at the MCS. An 
outstanding rifle and pistol shot, he was 
a member of the Marine Corps Rifle 
and Pistol Team in 1931, 1932, 1936, and 
1937, and coached the team in 1938 and 
1939. He entered the Ordnance Field 
Service School at the Raritan Arsenal, 



LARSON 

Metuchen, N.J. in Sept. 1939 and com- 
pleted the course that Dec. He then 
joined the Sea School Detachment at 
the Norfolk, Va. Navy Yard the follow- 
ing month, and in Apr. 1940 took com- 
mand of the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Wasp. Returning to Quantico 
in Feb. 1942, he served on the Staff at 
the MCS, and completed the Command 
and Staff Course prior to his detachment 
in Mar. 1944. That Apr. he embarked for 
the Pacific area. As Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-4 (Supply), 1st Prov. Mar. Brig, 
he participated in the initial landing 
against the Japanese on Guam in July 
1944, earning the Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V." After the brigade was re- 
organized in Sept. 1944, he held the same 
post with the 6th Mar. Div. and, in this 
capacity, won the Bronze Star Medal 
with Combat "V" on Okinawa during 
the period Apr. 1 to May 17, 1945. As 
Executive Officer, 22nd Marines, and 
later Regimental Commander, during 
the latter part of the Okinawa campaign, 
he was awarded the Silver Star Medal 
for gallantry in action, May 17 to June 
21, 1945. Resuming his duties as Executive 
Officer, he moved with the regiment to 
Tsingtao, China, at the end of the war. 
In Mar. 1946, he was transferred to Pei- 
ping to command the 5th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. On his return to the States in 
Aug. 1946, he served as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-4, of the Troop Training Unit, 
Amphibious Training Command, U.S. 
Atlantic Fleet, Little Creek, Va., until 
Mar. 1949. Subsequently, he completed 
the Logistics Course at the Command 
and General Staff College, Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kans., in June 1949, and at the 
U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I., 
in June 1950. The following month, he 
was named Marine Corps Liaison Officer 
with the Logistics Plans Division, Office 
of the Chief of Naval Operations, Navy 



125 



LEE 



LEI 



Department, serving in this capacity un- 
til Apr. 1952. Shortly afterward, in July 
1952, he became Marine Corps Liaison 
Officer in the Office of the Secretary, 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. He left Washington 
in Aug. 1953 to become a member of the 
Advanced Research Group at Quantico. 
In July 1955, he was transferred to the 
west coast for a two-year tour of duty as 
Deputy Base Commander, MCB, Camp 
Pendleton, Calif, While serving there, he 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
July 1956. Upon his detachment, he de- 
parted for Okinawa where he assumed 
duty as Assistant Division Commander, 
3rd Mar. Div., in July 1957. He returned 
to the States in June 1958. Assigned to 
HQMC, he served briefly as Deputy 
Chief of Staff, Research and Develop- 
ment, prior to becoming Director of Per- 
sonnel in Aug. 1958. In Aug. 1959, he 
was promoted to his present rank of 
major general. At the time of his retire- 
ment on Feb. 1, 1963, Gen. Larson was 
assigned to the Office of the Chief of 
Staff, HQMC. 

LEE, Harry. "Light Horse." Major Gen- 
eral: b. Washington, D.C., June 4, 1872; 
d. Quantico, Va., May 13, 1935. Harry 
Lee was appointed a second lieutenant 
in the Marine Corps (for the war with 
Spain) on Aug. 2, 1898, and after a brief 
period of instruction was ordered to the 
USS Resolute. Sailing for Havana, Cuba, 
he served there until Feb. 9, 1899, on 
which date he was ordered home, being 
honorably discharged Feb. 14, 1899. He 
was commissioned a first lieutenant in 
the Marine Corps on Apr. 17, 1899 and 
was promoted to captain July 23, 1900. 
From Mar. 4, 1904 to Aug. 24, 1905, 
Capt. Lee served in the Philippine Is., 
and from Sept. 12, 1905 to Apr. 11, 1906, 
he commanded the Marine Guard, U.S. 
Legation, Peking, China. From Apr. 27, 



1906 to Jan. 9, 1907, he again served in 
the Philippines, He served at various 
posts and stations in the States and on 
several vessels of the Navy until Aug. 23, 
1912, when he sailed from Philadelphia 
on the Prairie as Adjutant of the 1st Prov. 
Regt. for service in Panama. He served 
in Nicaragua from Sept. 5 to Nov. 21, 
1912, and participated in the bombard- 
ment, assault, and capture of the fortifi- 
cations of Coyotepe and Barranca. From 
Feb. 18, 1913 to May 27, 1913, he was 
absent on temporary expeditionary ser- 
vice at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. He also 
served for short periods in Haiti and 
Santo Domingo during 1914, 1915, and 
1916. On Aug. 1, 1917, Lt Col. Lee 
joined the MB, Quantico, for duty with 
the 6th Regt., arriving with it in France 
on Feb. 8, 1918. There he was detached 
to the U.S. Army for duty. He partici- 
pated in the battles in the Chateau- 
Thierry sector June 1 to July 5, 1918 as 
second in command of the 6th Regt. un- 
til June 6, and as its CO from that date 
on, after the evacuation of Col. Catlin, 
who was wounded in action. Under Lee's 
command, the regiment participated with 
distinction in the Aisne-Marne offensive 
(Soissons), July 17 to July 21, 1918; the 
Marbache sector, Aug. 7 to 16, 1918; the 
St-Mihiel offensive, Sept. 12 to 16, 1918; 
Mont Blanc Ridge, Champagne Sector, 
Oct. 2 to 10, 1918; the Meuse-Argonne 
offensive (Argonne Forest), Nov. 1 to 
11, 1918; and in the march of the Allies 
to the Rhine. He returned to the States 
Aug. 6, 1919. He commanded the 1st 
Regt. of Marines at the MB, Navy Yard, 
Philadelphia, Pa. from Sept 25, 1919 to 
May 20, 1920, then served at Quantico 
from Oct. 2, 1920 to July 23, 1921. From 
Aug. 1921 to July 18, 1924, Gen. Lee 
served as Brig. Commander of the 2nd 
Brig, in Santo Domingo, and later served 
in the additional capacity as Military 



126 



LEEK 



LEEK 



Governor of that country. From there he 
was ordered to the MB, Parris Is., S.C. 
as CG of that post, which duty he per- 
formed until Aug. 12, 1927 when he was 
detached to the MB, Quantico, for duty 
as Executive Officer. On Oct. 1, 1929, he 
returned to Parris Is. for a second tour as 
CG of the post. On Mar. 1, 1933, he as- 
sumed command of the MB, Quantico, 
the post he was holding at the time of 
his death. 




Leek 



LEEK, Frederick Everett. Major General. 
CG, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Iwakuni, 
Japan: b. Stockton, Calif., Oct. 12, 1914. 



Frederick Leek completed high school in 
1931; then he attended the University of 
California, from which he graduated in 
May 1935 with a Bachelor of Arts de- 
gree. After four years with the ROTC 
unit at the University of California, he 
was commissioned an ensign in the U.S. 
Naval Reserve in May 1935. He resigned 
his naval commission to accept appoint- 
ment as a Marine second lieutenant on 
Sept. 10, 1935. After completing Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
May 1936, he saw a year of sea duty 
aboard the USS Tennessee. Following a 
brief assignment in San Diego, he em- 
barked in Sept. 1937 for duty in China 
with the 1st Bn., 6th Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Brig. The following Apr., he returned 
with the brigade to San Diego. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Oct. 1938. 
Lt. Leek remained in San Diego until 
June 1939. That month he reported to 
the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, and 
was assigned advanced instruction at the 
University of Mexico. After earning his 
Master of Arts degree in Spanish, he con- 
tinued at the university until Mar. 1941, 
and served subsequently as Assistant 
Naval Attache to the American Embassy 
in Mexico. He was promoted to captain 
in Dec. 1941, and to major in May 1942, 
shortly before his departure from Mexico. 
Following his return to the States, he en- 
tered flight school in July 1942 at the 
NAS, New Orleans, La. In Apr. 1943, he 
was designated a naval aviator at the 
Naval Air Training Center, NAS, Pen- 
sacola, Fla. He then served briefly at the 
NAS, Sanford, Fla. He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in Aug. 1943. That 
month, Lt. Col. Leek joined HQ Squad- 
ron, MAG 15, Camp Kearney, Calif., as 
Squadron Commander. Ordered over- 
seas in Dec. 1943, he reported to Marine 
Utility Squadron, MAG 25, Tontouta Air 
Base, New Caledonia, as Squadron Ex- 



127 



LEEK 



Li S MS 



ecutive Officer, and in Jan. 1944 became 
Squadron CO. During this assignment, 
his group, as part of South Pacific Com- 
bat Air Transport (SCAT), performed 
flight missions in the Solomon Is. area, 
New Georgia, and Emirau. In June 1944, 
he was assigned as Operations Officer, 
MAG 25, operating between Tontouta 
and Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides. 
Transferred to MAG 12 in Aug. 1944, 
Leek served as Group Operations Officer 
at Emirau Island, prior to moving to 
Leyte in the Philippines in Jan. 1945. 
From there he took part in the assault 
landings on Mindanao Province, Philip- 
pines, until May 1945, when he returned 
to the States. His flights in the Solomons 
and Philippines area merited him three 
Distinguished Flying Crosses, and nine 
Air Medals. The Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V" was awarded him for excep- 
tionally meritorious service as Group 
Operations Officer, MAG 12, in the Bis- 
marck Archipelago area, Sept. 1944 to 
Jan. 1945; and in the central and southern 
Philippines area, Jan. to May 1945. In 
July 1945, Lt. Col. Leek reported as Ex- 
ecutive Officer, MCAS, Santa Barbara, 
Calif. After deactivation of the station, 
he departed in Apr. 1946 for duty as 
Executive Officer of MCAS, Ewa, Ha- 
waii. On his return to the continental 
U.S. in Jan. 1948, he was assigned 'to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. as Assistant 
Head, Reserve Branch, Division of Avia- 
tion. Transferred to Norfolk, Va., in July 
1950, he served as Assistant G-3 (Air), 
and Deputy Chief of Staff, respectively, 
at HQ, FMF, Atlantic. He was promoted 
to colonel in Jan. 1951. Following his de- 
tachment from Norfolk in July 1952, he 
entered the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I. On completing the course in 
June 1953, he reported to HQ, 2nd 
MAW, Cherry Point, N.C., as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-L Following this as- 



signment, he moved to NAS, Pensacola, 
in Oct. 1954, and completed the course 
in helicopter training. He was then as- 
signed to the Marine Corps Air Facility, 
New River, N.C., in Jan. 1955, as Com- 
mander of Marine Helicopter Group 26. 
He remained at that station until late 
Feb. 1956. The following month, Col. 
Leek joined the 1st MAW in the Far 
East as CO, Marine Helicopter Group 
16, in Oppama, Japan. He returned to 
the States in Apr. 1957, and that June 
became Chief of Staff, Marine Air Re- 
serve Training Command, Glenview, 111. 
In July 1959, he was promoted to briga- 
dier general and named Commander of 
Marine Air Reserve Training, Glenview. 
Gen. Leek remained at Glenview until 
Dec. 1960, and the following month as- 
sumed duty at Camp Pendleton as 
Assistant Division Commander, 1st Mar. 
Div., a billet usually held by a ground 
officer. He also served as Division CG 
during June and July 1961, then resumed 
his post as Assistant Division Command- 
er until May 1962. Ordered overseas, he 
assumed command of the 1st MAW, Iwa- 
kuni, Japan, in June 1962. In Aug. 1962, 
he was promoted to major general while 
serving in his present post. 

LEIMS, John Harold. First Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Chicago, 111., June 
8, 1921. Lt. Leims' citation reads, in part: 
"... as commanding officer of Co. B ? 1st 
Bn., 9th Marines, 3rd Div., in action 
against the enemy Japanese forces on 
Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, Mar. 7, 
1945. Launching a surprise attack against 
the rock-imbedded fortifications of a 
dominating Japanese hill position, Lt. 
Leims spurred his company forward with 
indomitable determination and, skillfully 
directing his assault platoons against the 
cave-emplaced enemy troops and heavily 
fortified pillboxes, succeeded in captur- 



128 



L E J E U N I 



IE J EU NE 



ing the objective late in the afternoon. 
When it became apparent that his assault 
platoons were cut off in this newly won 
position, approximately 400 yards for- 
ward of adjacent units, and that he lacked 
all communication with the command 
post, Leims personally advanced and laid 
telephone lines across the isolating ex- 
panse of open fireswept terrain. Ordered 
to withdraw his command after he had 
joined his forward platoons, he immecii- 
ately complied, adroitly effecting the 
withdrawal of his troops without inci- 
dent. Upon arriving at the rear, he was 
informed that several casualties had been 
left at the abandoned ridge position be- 
yond the front lines. Although suffering 
acutely from strain and exhaustion of 
battle, he instantly went forward despite 
darkness and the slashing fury of hostile 
machine gun fire, located and carried to 
safety one seriously wounded Marine and 
then, running the gauntlet of enemy fire 
for the third time that night, again made 
his tortuous way into the bullet-riddled 
death trap and rescued another of his 
wounded men. ..." 

LEJEUNE, John Archer. Lieutenant Gen- 
eral. 13th Commandant of the Marine 
Corps - July 1, 1920 to Mar. 4, 1929: b. 
Pointe Coupee, La., Jan. 10, 1867; d. 
Baltimore, Md., Nov. 20, 1942. John Le- 
jeune attended Louisiana State Univer- 
sity, Baton Rouge, from which he was 
graduated with a Bachelor of Arts de- 
gree. Subsequently he secured an ap- 
pointment as a midshipman at the U.S. 
Naval Academy, from which he was 
graduated in 1888. At the expiration of a 
two-year cruise as a cadet midshipman 
he was commissioned a second lieutenant 
in the Marine Corps on July 1, 1890, and 
during the succeeding years saw action 
in the Spanish-American War aboard the 
USS Cincinnati. In the fall of 1903 Le- 




Lefenne 

jeune, now a major, was dispatched to 
Panama with a battalion of Marines 
when conditions became critical in the 
revolution in Colombia. He returned to 
Panama three years later following a 
brief tour of duty at the MB in Wash- 
ington, D.C. During the following years 
he was transferred to duty in the Philip- 
pines, arriving in May 1907. While there 
he commanded the MB, Navy Yard, 
Cavite, and later the 1st Brig, of Marines. 
He was detached to the States in June 
1909. His next tour of foreign shore duty 
was served in Cuba with the 2nd Prov. 
Brig. Marines from May 1912 to Dec. of 
the same year. After a short period in 
the States, he was again detached to ex- 
peditionary service in Cuba in Feb. 1913, 
this time with the 2nd Brig, at Guantana- 
mo Bay. In Nov. 1913, he sailed from 



129 



LE J EU N E 



LITTLETON 



New York with the 2nd Advanced Base 
Regt, his ultimate destination Vera Cruz, 
Mex. .where he landed with his unit in 
Apr. of 1914. He returned home in Dec. 
1914, this time reporting to HQMC in 
Washington, D.C. to become assistant to 
the Major General Commandant of the 
Marine Corps. With the outbreak of 
WWI, Lejeune assumed command of the 
newly constructed MB at Quantico, Va. 
Overseas service was, however, inevitable 
and in June 1918 he arrived at Brest, 
France. Upon reporting to the command- 
er of the AEF, he was assigned to com- 
mand a brigade of the 32nd Div., and 
assumed command of the 4th Brig, of 
Marines of the 2nd Div. immediately fol- 
lowing the attack of that division in the 
Soissons offensive. On July 28, 1918, Gen. 
Lejeune assumed command of the 2nd 
Div. and remained in that capacity until 
Aug. 1919 when the unit was demobil- 
ized. He was the first Marine officer to 
hold an Army divisional command, and 
following the Armistice he led his divi- 
sion in the march into Germany. During 
WWI he was recognized by the French 
government as a strategist and leader, 
receiving the Legion of Honor and the 
Croix de Guerre from that country. In 
Oct. 1919, he again was appointed CG, 
MB, Quantico, prior to his appointment 
as Major General Commandant of the 
Marine Corps on June 30, 1920. Upon 
the expiration of his second term as Com- 
mandant, Gen. Lejeune indicated his re- 
luctance to retire from the Marine Corps, 
but was still relieved as Commandant 
in Mar. 1929. The following Nov. of that 
year, he retired in order to accept the 
position of superintendant of the Virginia 
Military Institute, serving there until 
poor health necessitated his resignation 
in Oct. 1937. In Feb. 1942, he was ad- 
vanced to the rank of lieutenant general 
on the Marine Corps retired list. Gen. 



Lejeune died on Nov. 20, 1942, at the 
Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, 
Md., and was interred in the Arlington 
National Cemetery with full military 
honors. Today Camp Lejeune, N.C., 
bears the name of one of the ablest offi- 
cers of the American military forces, and 
one of the most distinguished soldiers 
of WWI. 

LEONARD, Joseph. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. Cohoes, N.Y., Aug. 28, 1876. 
Joseph Leonard enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on June 7, 1897. 
He was awarded the nation's highest 
military honor for bravery during the 
Philippine Insurrection. His citation reads, 
in part: ". . . for distinguished conduct in 
the presence of the enemy, while with 
the 8th Army Corps on Mar. 25, 27, and 
29, and on Apr. 4, 1899 " He was dis- 
charged from the Corps, but reenlisted 
to serve during WWI. On July 3, 1918, at 
Quantico, he was discharged as a ser- 
geant. 

LITTLETON, Herbert A. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Blackhawk, 
S.D., July 1, 1930; d. KIA, Korea, Apr. 
22, 1951. P.F.C. Littleton's citation reads, 
in part: ". . . while serving as a radio 
operator with an artillery forward ob- 
servation team of Co. C, 1st Bn., 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in ac- 
tion against enemy aggressor forces in 
Korea on Apr. 22, 1951. Standing watch 
when a well-concealed and numerically 
superior enemy force launched a violent 
night attack from nearby positions against 
his company, P.F.C. Littleton quickly 
alerted the forward observation team 
and immediately moved into an advan- 
tageous position to assist in calling down 
artillery fire on the hostile force. When 
an enemy hand grenade was thrown into 
his vantage point shortly after the arrival 



130 



iiVERSEDGE 



LIVERSEDGE 



of the remainder of the team, he un- 
hesitatingly hurled himself on the deadly 
missile, absorbing its full, shattering im- 
pact in his own body. By his prompt ac- 
tion and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, he 
saved the other members of his team 
from serious injury or death. . . ." 




Liversedge 

LIVERSEDGE, Harry Bluett. "Harry the 
Horse." Brigadier General: b. Volcanoe, 
Calif., Sept 21, 1894; d. Navy Medical 
Center, Bethesda, Md., Nov. 25, 1951. 
After attending the University of Cali- 
fornia, Harry Liversedge began his career 
in the Marine Corps in May 1917, when 
he enlisted as a private. He was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in Sept. 1918. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
July 1919, while serving with the 5th 



Brig, in France. Following his return to 
the States in Aug. 1919, he was ordered 
to the MB, Quantico, but shortly there- 
after was assigned to the 2nd Prov. Mar. 
Brig, at Santo Domingo, arriving in Oct. 
of that year. In Apr. of the following 
year he was returned to the States. Upon 
return from the Olympic Games in 1920 
and after a tour at the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, he was ordered to MB, 
Quantico in Mar. 1922. As aide to Brig. 
Gen. John H. Russell, he later sailed to 
Port au Prince, Haiti, but was ordered 
back to Quantico in Aug. of the same 
year. He returned to Haiti in Dec. 1922 
for duty as aide to the American High 
Commissioner. In July 1923, he reported 
for duty again at Quantico, and in the 
early part of the following year was 
transferred to the Naval Academy for 
participation in the 1924 Olympics. He 
returned to Quantico in Aug. of that year, 
this time to attend the Company Officers' 
Course at the MCS. Upon completion of 
this course he was transferred to Mare 
Is., Calif. He served at Quantico from 
Sept. 1926 to Feb. 1927, when he was 
detached for duty in China. Following 
his arrival in the Orient he was tempo- 
rarily detached to the 3rd Brig, at Tientsin 
to act as boxing coach, and while in 
Shanghai participated in the Interna- 
tional Track and Field Meets. In Aug. 
1929, he was transferred to Quantico and 
in Nov. of the same year was ordered to 
the MCB at San Diego, Calif. Following 
his promotion to captain in Jan. 1930, he 
was ordered to HQ, Department of the 
Pacific, San Francisco, in May 1932. 
There he served as Aide-de-Camp to the 
CG. He served aboard the USS California 
from June 1933 to June 1935, when he 
returned to Quantico. He completed the 
Senior Course at the MCS and in June 
1936, was transferred to serve on the 
Staff of the Basic School, MB, Navy Yard, 



131 



ilVERSEDGl 



LUCAS 



Philadelphia. He was appointed a major 
in July of that year. Early in 1938 he was 
again ordered to Quantico, this time to 
serve with the 1st Mar. Brig. In May 
1940, another transfer took him to the 
west coast. There he was assigned duty 
as the Inspector-Instructor, 14th Bn., 
MCR at Spokane, Wash. Following his 
promotion to the rank of lieutenant col- 
onel in Aug. 1940, he was ordered to the 
MCB, San Diego, and was subsequently 
assigned to the 8th Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Div. In Jan. 1942, Lt. Col. Liversedge 
departed from the States for American 
Samoa, in command of the 2nd Bn., 8th 
Marines. He was promoted to colonel in 
May of that same year and in Aug. he 
assumed command of the 3rd Mar. 
Raider Bn. He led this unit ashore at 
Pavuvu in the unopposed occupation of 
the Russell Is. He commanded the bat- 
talion until Mar. 1943 when he was given 
command of the newly organized 1st 
Mar. Raider Regt. In Jan. 1944, he was 
transferred to the 5th Mar. Div. and 
assumed command of the 28th Marines. 
He gallantly led the "28th" ashore in the 
Iwo Jima campaign, for which he was 
awarded a Gold Star in lieu of his Sec- 
ond Navy Cross. Following a brief tour 
of duty with the occupation forces in 
Japan, he was ordered to the MCB in 
San Diego in Mar. 1946. In July 1946 
he was assigned duties as Director of the 
12th Mar. Reserve District and District 
Marine Officer, 12th Naval District, San 
Francisco. He served in that capacity un- 
til he was named assistant commander of 
the 1st Mar. Div., Camp Pendleton, Calif., 
in Feb. 1948. In May of that year, he 
was promoted to brigadier general, and 
the following May, he took command of 
Fleet Marine Force, Guam, where he 
remained until Apr. 1950. He then served 
briefly as Deputy Commander, MB, 
Camp Pendleton, before becoming Di- 



rector of the Marine Corps Reserve in 
June 1950. He died at the Navy Medical 
Center, Bethesda, Md. on Nov. 25, 1951. 

LOPEZ, Baldomero. First Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Tarnpa, Fla., Aug. 
23, 1925; d. KIA, Inchon, Korea, Sept. 
15, 1950. Lt. Lopez' citation reads, in 
part: ". . . as a rifle platoon commander 
of Co. A, 1st Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf.), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces during the Inchon in- 
vasion in Korea on Sept, 15, 1950. With 
his platoon, 1st Lt. Lopez was engaged 
in the reduction of immediate enemy 
beach defenses after landing with the 
assault waves. Exposing himself to hos- 
tile fire, he moved forward alongside a 
bunker and prepared to throw a hand 
grenade into the next pillbox whose fire 
was pinning down that sector of the 
beach. Taken under fire by an enemy 
automatic weapon and hit in the right 
shoulder and chest as he lifted his arm 
to throw, he fell backward and dropped 
the deadly missile. After a moment, he 
turned and dragged his body forward in 
an effort to retrieve the grenade and 
throw it. In critical condition from pain 
and loss of blood, and unable to grasp 
the hand grenade firmly enough to hurl 
it, he chose to sacrifice himself rather 
than endanger the lives of his men and, 
with a sweeping motion of his wounded 
right arm, cradled the grenade under 
him and absorbed the full impact of the 
explosion. . . ." 

LUCAS, Jacklyn Harrell. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Plymouth, 
N.C., Feb. 14, 1928. On D-Day plus one 
on Iwo Jima, P.F.C. Lucas was creeping 
through a twisting ravine in company 
with three other men of his rifle team 
when the Japanese opened a hand gre- 
nade attack on them. The men jumped 



132 



C K E Y 



LU C K E Y 



into two shallow foxholes. A grenade 
landed in Lucas' foxhole and he threw 
his body over it. Another one came hurt- 
ling in, and he reached out and pulled 
it beneath himself shortly before the ex- 
plosion which lifted him off the ground 
and blew parts of his clothing into the 
air. Severely wounded in the right arm 
and wrist, right leg and thigh, and chest, 
P.F.C. Lucas had undoubtedly saved his 
companions from serious injury and pos- 
sible death. He was evacuated and 
treated at various field hospitals prior to 
his arrival at San Francisco, Calif., Mar. 
28, 1945. He was discharged from the 
MCR because of disability resulting 
from his wounds on Sept. 18, 1945. 




Luckey 

LUCKEY, Robert Burneston. Lieutenant 
General. CG, Fleet Marine Force, At- 



lantic, Norfolk, Va.: b. Hyattsville, Md., 
July 9, 1905. After graduation from high 
school, Robert Luckey entered the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, from which he was 
graduated in 1927. He accepted a com- 
mission as a Marine second lieutenant, 
Aug. 10, 1927. After completing the Basic 
School for Marine Corps Officers at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in Feb. 1928, 
Lt. Luckey sailed for Nicaragua the fol- 
lowing month to serve on expeditionary 
duty with the 2nd Mar. Brig. He re- 
turned from Nicaragua in July 1929, and 
was assigned to the MB, U.S. Naval 
Academy, prior to completing the Sea 
School at the Navy Yard, Portsmouth, 
Va. In June 1930, he began a tour of sea 
duty with the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Rochester. From Sept. to Nov. 
1930, he was temporarily detached from 
that ship to serve again in Nicaragua as 
commander of the Electoral Guard De- 
tachment in the Department of Carazo. 
Leaving the Rochester in Feb. 1932, he 
served with Marine Detachments aboard 
the USS Memphis and Pulton until July 
of that year. In Sept. 1933, after a year's 
duty at the Norfolk Navy Yard, Lt. 
Luckey entered the Battery Officers' 
Course at the Army Field Artillery 
School, Fort Sill, Okla. Completing the 
course in June 1934, he was ordered to 
San Diego, Calif., where he served as a 
battery officer with the 6th and 10th Ma- 
rines. He was promoted to first lieutenant 
in Jan. 1935. He sailed for China in Jan. 
1936, and was assigned to the Marine 
Detachment at the American Embassy in 
Peiping. While there, he was promoted 
to captain in Nov. 1936. Luckey joined 
the 2nd Mar. Brig, at Shanghai in Jan. 
1938, and returned with it to the States 
in Apr. That June he reported to the MB, 
Quantico, where in Sept. 1938 he was 
named Aide-de-Camp to the CG. He 
served in that capacity until July 1939, 



133 



LUCKEY 



MMO $ 



then served briefly as Post Adjutant. In 
Oct. 1939, he became a battery com- 
mander with the 1st Bn., 10th Marines, 
at Quantico. From Oct. 1940 to Apr. 

1941, Capt. Luckey served with the 1st 
Mar. Brig., FMF, on temporary duty at 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. On his return, 
he served as a battalion operations and 
executive officer with the llth Marines, 
1st Mar. Div., at Parris Is., S.C., and later 
at Camp Lejeune, N.C. He was promoted 
to major in Jan. 1942. He was named 
Division Antitank Officer and command- 
er of the 1st Special Weapons Bn., 1st 
Mar. Div., at Camp Lejeune in Feb. 

1942, and embarked for the Pacific area 
with his battalion that June. Arriving on 
Guadalcanal in Aug., he took part in the 
fighting there. While on Guadalcanal, he 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Sept 1942. Lt. Col. Luckey became Regi- 
mental Executive Officer of the llth Ma- 
rines in Oct. 1942. He held that post 
during the later stages of the Guadal- 
canal operation and in the Cape Glouces- 
ter campaign. In addition, he served as 
Artillery Officer on the staff of the Assist- 
ant CG, 1st Mar. Div., Cape Gloucester, 
and earned the Bronze Star Medal with 
Combat "V." He returned to the States 
in Feb. 1944. From Mar. to Oct. 1944, 
he was Director of the Artillery School, 
MCS, Quantico. He was ordered overseas 
again in Nov. 1944, and in Dec. 1944 
was promoted to colonel. He served as 
Division Artillery Officer and Regimental 
Commander of the 15th Marines, 6th 
Mar. Div., on Okinawa and Guam, and 
in Tsingtao, China. In this capacity he 
earned, the Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V" at Okinawa, and another Bronze Star 
Medal (Army) in Tsingtao during the 
surrender and repatriation of Japanese 
forces in that area. He returned from 
China in Apr. 1946 to enter the Naval 
War College, Newport, R.I. Upon grad- 



uation in June 1947, Col. Luckey joined 
the 2nd Mar. Div., Camp Lejeune, as 
Division Artillery Officer and Regiment- 
al CO of the 4th and 10th Marines. He 
took command of the MB, Washington, 
D.C., in June 1949, and after two years 
there, returned to Camp Lejeune in July 
1951. He served at Camp Lejeune as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, and later 
Chief of Staff, 2nd Mar. Div., until June 
1953, when he became Chief of Staff, 
MCS, Quantico. In Aug. 1954, he was 
promoted to brigadier general. Gen. 
Luckey returned to Camp Lejeune in 
Sept. 1954, and served as CG, Force 
Troops, FMF, Atlantic, until June 1955. 
He then reported to HQMC, Washing- 
ton, D.C., as Deputy Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-3 (Plans), and in June 1956 
began a year's assignment as Deputy 
Chief of Staff (Research and Develop- 
ment). While serving in this capacity, he 
was promoted to the rank of major gen- 
eral in Nov. 1956. In July 1957, Gen. 
Luckey became CG of the MCRD, Parris 
Is. Following this assignment, he report- 
ed in June 1959 as CG, 3rd Mar. Div. on 
Okinawa. On his return to the States in 
Oct. 1960, he served for one year as CG, 
MCB, Camp Lejeune. On Nov. 1, 1961, 
he assumed his current duties as CG, 
FMF, Atlantic, and was promoted to 
lieutenant general. 

LUMMUS, Jack. First Lieutenant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Ennis, Tex., Oct. 22, 1915; 
d. Iwo Jima, Mar. 8, 1945. Lt. Lumrnus' 
citation reads, in part; ". . . as leader of a 
rifle platoon, attached to Co, E, 2nd Bn., 
27th Marines, 5th Mar. Div., in action 
against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo 
Jima Mar. 8, 1945. Resuming his assault 
tactics with bold decision after fighting 
without respite for two days and nights, 
1st Lt. Lummus slowly advanced his pla- 
toon against an enemy deeply entrenched 



134 



i U MM U S 



i U M M U $ 



in a network of mutually supporting posi- 
tions. Suddenly halted by a terrific con- 
centration of hostile fire, he unhesitatingly 
moved forward of his front lines in an 
effort to neutralize the Japanese position. 
Although knocked to the ground when 
an enemy grenade exploded close by, he 
immediately recovered himself and, again 
moving forward despite the intensified 
barrage, quickly located, attacked, and 
destroyed the occupied emplacement. In- 
stantly taken under fire by the garrison 
of a supporting pillbox and further as- 
sailed by the slashing fury of hostile rifle 
fire, he fell under the impact of a sec- 
ond enemy grenade but, courageously 
disregarding painful shoulder wounds, 
staunchly continued his heroic one-man 



assault and charged the second pillbox, 
annihilating all the occupants. Subse- 
quently returning to his platoon position, 
he fearlessly traversed his lines under 
fire, encouraging his men to advance and 
directing the fire of supporting tanks 
against other holding Japanese emplace- 
ments. Held up again by a devastating 
barrage, he again moved into the open, 
rushed a third heavily fortified installa- 
tion and killed the defending enemy. De- 
termined to crush all resistance, he led 
his men indomitably, personally attack- 
ing foxholes and spider-traps with his 
carbine and systematically reducing the 
fanatic opposition until, stepping on a 
land mine, he sustained fatal wounds " 



M 



McCARD, Robert Howard. Gunnery Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Syracuse, 
N.Y., Nov. 25, 1918; d. KIA, Saipan, June 
16, 1944. Sgt. McCard left the States on 
Jan. 13, 1944, and on Jan. 31, landed at 
Kwajelein in the Marshalls. From then 
until Feb. 26, he fought in the battles for 
Ennugaret, Ennumennett, and Namur Is. 
Leaving the Marshalls, he went to the 
Hawaiian Is. for two months, then sailed 
for Saipan. D-Day was June 15, 1944. On 
the 16th, Gy. Sgt McCard participated 
in an advance when his tank was put out 
of action by a battery of Japanese 77- 
mm. guns. Cut off from the rest of his 
platoon, McCard brought all his tank's 
weapons to bear on the enemy, but the 
intensity of the Japanese fire caused him 
to order his crew out of the escape hatch. 
While they made their escape, McCard 
exposed himself and hurled hand gre- 



nades at the enemy until his supply was 
exhausted. Severely wounded, he never- 
theless dismantled one of the tank's ma- 
chine guns, then faced the enemy again 
and delivered such effective fire that he 
killed 16 of the enemy before he himself 
was killed. 

MCCARTHY, Joseph Jeremiah. Captain, 
USMCR. Medal of Honor: b. Chicago, 
III, Aug. 10, 1911. Joseph McCarthy en- 
listed in the Marine Corps on Feb. 20, 
1937 at Chicago, 111., and served for four 
years. He was discharged and, after a 
year of civilian life, he reenlisted in Feb. 
1942. He was again discharged in June 
of that year to accept a commission in 
the MCR. He joined the 4th Mar. Div. 
shortly thereafter and went overseas in 
Jan. 1944. He earned the Medal of Honor 
for gallantry on Iwo Jima. His citation 



135 



McCAWLEY 



McC AWLIY 



reads, in part: "... as CO of Co. G, 2nd 
Bn,, 24th Marines, 4th Mar. Div., in ac- 
tion against enemy Japanese forces dur- 
ing the seizure of Iwo Jima, Volcano Is., 
on Feb. 21, 1945. Determined to break 
through the enemy's cross-island defenses, 
Capt. McCarthy acted on his own initia- 
tive when his company advance was held 
up by uninterrupted Japanese rifle, ma- 
chine gun and high velocity 47-mm. fire 
during the approach to Motoyama Air- 
field Number 2. Quickly organizing a 
demolitions and flame thrower team to 
accompany his picked rifle squad, he 
fearlessly led the way across 75 yards of 
fire-swept ground, charged a heavily for- 
tified pillbox on the ridge to the front 
and, personally hurling hand grenades 
into the emplacement as he directed the 
combined operations of his small assault 
group, completely destroyed the hostile 
installation. Spotting two Japanese sol- 
diers attempting an escape from the shat- 
tered pillbox, he boldly stood upright in 
full view of the enemy and dispatched 
both soldiers before advancing to a second 
emplacement under greatly intensified 
fire and blasted the strong fortifications 
with a well-planned demolitions attack. 
Subsequently entering the ruins, he found 
a Japanese taking aim at one of his men 
and with alert presence of mind jumped 
the enemy, disarmed and shot him with 
his own weapon. Then, intent on smash- 
ing through the narrow breach, he ral- 
lied the remainder of his company and 
pressed a full attack with furious ag- 
gressiveness until he had neutralized all 
resistance and captured the ridge." 

McCAWLEY, Charles G. Colonel. 8th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps 
Nov. 1, 1876 to Jan. 29, 1891: b. Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Jan. 29, 1827; d. Rosemont, 
Pa., Oct. 13, 1891. Charles McCawley 
was appointed a second lieutenant in the 



Marine Corps on Mar. 3, 1847 and served 
during the war with Mexico. He partici- 
pated in the storming of the Castle of 
Chapultepec and taking of the City of 
Mexico, being brevetted first lieutenant 
for gallant and meritorious conduct in 
these actions. He served throughout the 
Civil War. In May 1862, he was ordered 
with a detachment of Marines to reoc- 
cupy the Norfolk Navy Yard and aided 
in the destruction of large stores of am- 
munition, which would otherwise have 
fallen into the hands of the Confederate 
forces. He also aided in the capture of 
Port Royal, S.C., and served with a bat- 
talion of Marines on Morris Is. during 
the bombardment and destruction of 
Fort Sumter and the capture of Forts 
Wagner and Gregg. He commanded a 
detachment of 100 officers and men in 
the boat attack on Fort Sumter, Sept. 8, 
1863, and received a brevet as major for 
gallant and meritorious conduct during 
this engagement. In 1876 he was ap- 
pointed to the highest post in the Marine 
Corps, Colonel Commandant. One of 
Col. McCawley's first duties as Comman- 
dant was to dispatch Marines to eastern 
cities where labor riots had gone beyond 
control of local and state authorities. In 
each instance, the disorders were dis- 
persed shortly after the arrival of the 
Marines. Among other accomplishments 
attributed to his tenure was a plan that 
resulted in the assignment of several 
members of each graduating class of the 
U.S. Naval Academy to the Marine Corps 
as second lieutenants. The Quartermaster 
Department, under Commandant Mc- 
Cawley, became more self-sustaining by 
manufacturing a considerable portion of 
its own clothing and equipment at its 
supply depot in Philadelphia. In 1880, 
he assigned one of the Corps' most fa- 
mous officers John Philip Sousa to 
serve as leader of the Marine Corps 



136 



McCUTCHEON 



McCUTCHEON 



Band. During McCawley's 15-year term 
as Commandant, U.S. Marines staged 
successful landings in Panama, Chile, 
Egypt, Korea, Haiti, Samoa, Argentina, 
Japan, and the Hawaiian Is. to protect 
American lives and property. Marines 
also served in Alaska where they pa- 
trolled the Bering shores to eliminate seal 
poaching. Col. McCawley retired from 
active service at the age of 64 on Jan. 29, 
1891. 

McCUTCHEON, Keith Barr. Brigadier 
General. Assistant Chief of Staff J-3, Staff 
of the Commander in Chief, Pacific, 
Hawaii (1963): b. East Liverpool, Ohio, 
Aug. 10, 1915. After graduation from 
high school in 1933, Keith McCutcheon 
obtained his Bachelor of Science degree 
in management engineering from Car- 
negie Institute of Technology at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in 1937. An honor graduate 
of the ROTC unit at Carnegie Tech, he 
resigned his Army Reserve commission 
to accept appointment as a Marine sec- 
ond lieutenant, Aug. 13, 1937. The fol- 
lowing June, after completing the Basic 
School for Marine Corps officers at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard, he began a 
tour of sea duty with the Marine De- 
tachment aboard the USS Jorktown, re- 
maining on that ship until May 1939. A 
month later he entered flight training at 
Pensacola, Fla. In July 1940, he com- 
pleted flight school and was designated 
a naval aviator. He was promoted to first 
lieutenant the following month. Lt. Mc- 
Cutcheon's first duty station in aviation 
was with Marine Observation Squadron 
1 (which later became Observation 
Squadron 151). With that squadron he 
served aboard the carriers Ranger, Wasp, 
and "Yorktown, and at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, during 
extensive Caribbean maneuvers. He was 
detached from the squadron in Sept. 



1941 to enter the Postgraduate School, 
U.S. Naval Academy, where he com- 
pleted the course in aeronautical engi- 
neering. While there he was promoted 
to captain in Feb. 1942, and to major 
in Aug. 1942. From Annapolis, Maj. 
McCutcheon was ordered to the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology at 
Cambridge in Oct. 1943 for graduate 
work in aeronautical engineering. He 
was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
May 1944, and that June received his 
Master of Science degree. In Sept. 1944, 
after a short tour as Executive Officer, 
MAG 41, at El Toro, Calif., he departed 
for the Pacific area. He served as Opera- 
tions Officer of MAG 24 on Bougainville; 
and later on Luzon and Mindanao, 
Philippine Is, He saw additional duty, 
subsequently, as Operations Officer of 
MAGs, Dagupan, on Luzon, and later 
Operations Officer of MAGs, Zamboanga, 
on Mindanao. The Silver Star Medal was 
awarded Lt. Col. McCutcheon for gal- 
lantry in action from April 12 to 17, 1945, 
at Malabang, Mindanao, where he flew 
into a guerrilla-held airstrip four days 
before the American invasion to obtain 
vital information from guerrilla leaders 
on Japanese strength in the area. On the 
last day before the landings, he and the 
Australian Army officer who led the 
guerrillas joined the invasion convoy by 
small boat to turn over their information 
to the task force commander. Prior to the 
Luzon invasion, he directed a program of 
intensive close air support training for 
MAGs 24 and 32, Both these groups 
earned Navy Unit Commendations for 
their support of the U.S. 6th Army at 
Luzon and, afterward, as part of MAGs, 
Zamboanga, went on to share another 
Navy Unit Commendation with MAG 
12 for their support of the 8th Army on 
Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago. 
He also earned the Distinguished Flying 



137 



McCUTCHEON 

Cross and six Air Medals during WWII. 
Detached from MAG 24 in Aug. 1945, he 
remained in the Philippines for a short 
time after the war as Operations Officer 
of MAG 32, and Executive Officer of 
MAG 61, respectively. He returned to the 
States in Nov. 1945, and shortly after was 
assigned as an instructor in the Aviation 
Section, MCS, Quantico. Following this, 
he served from Oct. 1946 until Dec. 1949 
in the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy De- 
partment, Washington, D.C. He served 
in the Guided Missiles (then Pilotless 
Aircraft) Division of the Design and En- 
gineering Group, and was Branch Chief 
at various times of the Liaison, Experi- 
mental Projects, and Target Drone 
branches. He also performed additional 
duty in 1947 as Senior Marine Corps 
Aide to the White House. Lt. Col. Mc- 
Cutcheon was transferred to Norfolk, Va. 
in Jan. 1950, completing the course at 
the Armed Forces Staff College in June 
1950. He was then ordered to Quantico 
for duty as CO of Marine Helicopter 
Squadron 1 (HMX-1), the Corps' only 
helicopter squadron at that time. After 
undergoing transitional helicopter train- 
ing with the Navy's Helicopter Squadron 
2, at Lakehurst, N.J. he was designated a 
helicopter pilot in Aug. 1950. During the 
next 18 months, HMX-1 served as the 
focal point for the expansion of the Ma- 
rine Corps helicopter program. In addi- 
tion, he served as a member of the 
Marine Corps Schools Advanced Base 
Problem Team during a demonstration 
in England in 1951. He was promoted 
to colonel in June 1951. In Nov. 1951, 
he left Quantico and the following month 
took command of Marine Helicopter 
Transport Squadron 161 in Korea. He 
earned his second Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V" and his seventh through 
tenth Air Medal in this capacity, prior 
to his return from Korea in Aug. 1952. 



MCLAUGHLIN 

That Oct., after a short time at HQMC, 
Washington, he reported to HQ, United 
States European Command in Frank- 
furt, Germany, where he served succes- 
sively as Operations Officer, Assistant 
Chief, and later Chief, Operations 
Branch, J-3 Division, until May 1954. 
Upon his return to the States, Col. Mc- 
Cutcheon assumed duties in June 1954 
as Chief, Air Section, Marine Corps 
Equipment Board, Quantico. In Aug. 
1957, he reported to MAG 26 at New 
River, Camp Lejeune, N.C., as CO. He 
commanded the helicopter group until 
June 1959, when he was detached to 
Washington, D.C., to attend the National 
War College. Following graduation, Col. 
McCutcheon was assigned to HQMC in 
July 1960 as Assistant Director of Avia- 
tion, and in Sept. 1961 was named 
Director of Aviation. He departed Wash- 
ington in Feb. 1962, and that Mar. was 
promoted to his present rank of brigadier 
general and assumed command of the 
Hawaii-based 1st Mar. Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Cutcheon commanded the brigade until 
Jan. 1963, when he joined the staff of 
Commander in Chief Pacific as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, J-3. 

McLAUGHLIN, Alford Lee. Technical 
Sergeant. Medal of Honor: b. Leeds, Ala., 
Mar. 18, 1928. Sgt. McLaughlin's citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving as a 
machine gunner of Co. I, 3rd Bn., 5th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on the night of Sept. 4-5, 1952. Volun- 
teering for his second continuous tour of 
duty on a strategic combat outpost far 
in advance of the main line of resistance, 
(then) P.F.C. McLaughlin, although oper- 
ating under a barrage of enemy artillery 
and mortar fire, set up plans for the de- 
fense of his position which proved de- 
cisive in the successful defense of the 



138 



M c N A L L Y 



Ma cN E A L 



outpost. When hostile forces attacked in 
battalion strength during the night, he 
maintained a constant flow of devastat- 
ing fire upon the enemy, alternately em- 
ploying two machine guns, a carbine, 
and hand grenades. Although painfully 
wounded, he bravely fired the machine 
guns from the hip until his hands became 
blistered by the extreme heat from the 
weapons and, placing the guns on the 
ground to allow them to cool, continued 
to defend the position with his carbine 
and grenades. Standing up in full view, 
he shouted words of encouragement to 
his comrades above the din of battle and, 
throughout a series of fanatical enemy at- 
tacks, sprayed the surrounding area with 
deadly fire, accounting for an estimated 
150 enemy dead and 50 wounded. . . ." 

McNALLY, Michael Joseph. Sergeant 
Major. Medal of Honor: b. New York, 
N.Y., June 29, 1860; d. Washington Star 
obituary records death of a Michael Jo- 
seph McNally at the Naval Medical 
Center, Bethesda, Md., on May 24, 1957. 
Michael McNally enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Dec. 1, 1897, and was awarded 
the Medal of Honor for "distinguished 
conduct in the presence of the enemy at 
Samoa on Apr. 1, 1899." He retired from 
the Corps on Dec. 1, 1914. 

McNAMARA, Michael. Private. Medal 
of Honor: b. Clure, Ireland, 1841. Michael 
McNamara enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Nov. 19, 1868. His 
citation reads, in part: ". . . while serving 
on board the USS Benicia ... for gal- 
lantry in advancing to the parapet, 
wrenching the match-lock from the hands 
of an enemy and killing him, at the cap- 
ture of the Korean Forts, June 11, 1871. 



McTUREOUS, Robert Miller, Jr. Private. 



Medal of Honor: b. Altoona, Fla., Mar. 
26, 1924; d. KIA, aboard hospital ship 
USS Relief, June 11, 1945. Pvt. Mc- 
Tureous' citation reads, in part ". . .while 
serving with Co. H, 3rd Bn., 29th Ma- 
rines, 6th Mar. Div., in action against 
enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa, 
June 7, 1945 . . . following his company's 
seizure of an important hill-objective, 
Pvt. McTureous was quick to observe the 
plight of company stretcher-bearers who 
were suddenly assailed by slashing ma- 
chine gun fire as they attempted to 
evacuate wounded at the rear of the 
newly won position. Determined to pre- 
vent further casualties, he quickly filled 
his shirt with hand grenades and charged 
the enemy-occupied caves from which 
the concentrated barrage was emanating 
... as he waged his furious one-man 
assault, he smashed grenades into the 
cave entrances, thereby diverting the 
heaviest fire from the stretcher-bearers 
to his own person and, resolutely return- 
ing to his own lines under a blanketing 
hail of rifle and machine gun fire to re- 
plenish his supply of grenades, dauntless- 
ly he continued his systematic reduction 
of Japanese strength until he himself 
sustained serious wounds after silencing 
a large number of the hostile guns. 
Aware of his own critical condition and 
unwilling to further endanger the lives 
of his comrades, he stoically crawled a 
distance of 200 yards to a sheltered posi- 
tion within friendly lines before calling 
for aid. By his fearless initiative and bold 
tactics, Pvt. McTureous had succeeded 
in neutralizing the enemy fire, killing six 
of the Japanese and effectively disorgan- 
izing the remainder of the savagely de- 
fending garrison. . . ." 

MacNEAL, Harry Lewis. Private. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Philadelphia, Pa., Mar, 
22, 1875. Harry MacNeal enlisted in the 



139 



M A C K I E 



M A N G R UM 



Marine Corps on Nov. 16, 1896. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor on Aug. 9, 
1899 for his gallantry while serving on 
board the USS Brooklyn during the bat- 
tle of Santiago, Cuba, on July 3, 1898. 




Mackte 

MACKIE, John Freeman. Corporal. First 
Marine to win the Medal of Honor: b. 
New York, N.Y., 1836; d. Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1910. John Maclcie enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Aug. 
23, 1861. He was awarded the Medal of 
Honor on July 10, 1863, for bravery 
". . . while serving on board the USS 
Galena in the attack on Fort Darling at 
Drurys Bluff, James River, May 15, 1862 
. . . particularly mentioned for his gallant 
conduct and services and signal acts of 
devotion to duty. . . " Mackie was dis- 
charged from the Corps on July 10, 1863. 



MANGRUM, Richard Charles. Major 
General. CG, 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, 
MCAS, Cherry Point, N.C.: b. Seattle, 
Wash., Oct. 27, 1906. After attending 
Franklin High School and the University 
of Washington in Seattle, Richard Man- 
grum enlisted in the MCR on Sept. 28, 
1928, and entered primary flight training 
at the Naval Reserve Aviation Base, 
Seattle. He completed advanced flight 
training at Pensacola, Fla., in Feb. 1929, 
and was commissioned a Marine Reserve 
second lieutenant on Apr. 27, 1929. Lt. 
Mangrum was next assigned to NAS, San 
Diego, Calif., where he was designated 
a naval aviator, Aug. 20, 1929, then 
served as a squadron officer until Mar. 
1931. During the next ten years, he was 
active in Marine aviation on the west 
coast, serving as commander of the Ma- 
rine Corps Reserve Aviation Unit in 
Seattle, and in Oakland, Calif., respec- 
tively, and also as a squadron inspector- 
instructor. During this period, he was 
promoted to first lieutenant in June 1931, 
and then to captain in Jan. 1937. He was 
integrated in the regular Marine Corps 
in Feb. 1941. The following month he 
joined Bombing Squadron 2, 2nd MAG, 
on Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii. In July 1941, the 
group was integrated with the newly 
formed 2nd MAW, and the squadron and 
group were redesignated Marine Scout 
Bombing Squadron 232 (VMSB-232), 
MAG 21. When the Japanese struck 
Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, Capt. Man- 
grum took part in the defense of Ewa 
Field, Oahu. He was promoted to major 
in Jan. 1942. That month he was named 
commander of VMSB-232 and moved 
with the squadron to Guadalcanal, where 
his unit became the first dive-bomber 
squadron to operate in the Solomons. He 
was awarded the Distinguished Flying 
Cross and the Navy Cross for his action 
in the Solomons campaign. During this 



140 



M A N G R U M 



M ANG RUM 




Mangrara 

campaign, he was promoted to lieuten- 
ant colonel in Sept. 1942. In Jan. 1943, 
following his return to the States, Lt. Col. 
Mangrum assumed command of the 
Aviation Cadet Regiment at NAS, Corpus 
Christi, Tex. He was promoted to col- 
onel in Dec. 1943. In May 1944, Col. 
Mangrum was transferred to Cherry 
Point, N.C., and became CO of MAG 93, 
9th MAW, Marine Corps Auxiliary Air 
Facility, Bogue Field. He returned to the 
Pacific area in Nov. 1944 as Chief of 
Staff, 3rd MAW and, later, as CO, MAG 
45, 4th MAW. He served at Ulithi in the 



western Caroline Is. as Air Defense Com- 
mander from Jan. to Oct. 1945. Following 
WWII, he reported to HQMC, Washing- 
ton, D.C., as Head of the Reserve Section, 
Division of Aviation, to reactivate the 
Aviation Reserve Program. In July 1948, 
he was enrolled at the Naval War Col- 
lege, Newport, R.L Completing the Stra- 
tegy and Tactics Course in June 1949, 
he served on the faculty until July 1951. 
The following month he flew to Korea 
for duty with the 1st MAW. His service 
as CO, MAG 12, and later as Wing Liai- 
son Officer with HQ, 5th Air Force, 
Seoul, earned him a second Legion of 
Merit with Combat "V* and the Navy 
Commendation Ribbon with Combat 
"V," Col. Mangrum returned to this coun- 
try in June 1952, and was ordered to 
Quantico, where he served as Chief of 
Staff of the Marine Corps Educational 
Center. In Aug. 1954, he was transferred 
to MCAS, Miami, Fla., for duty as CO. 
While at Miami he rejoined the FMF as 
CO, MAG 31 (Reinf.) for a brief period, 
and also commanded an air-ground task 
group for the TRAEX 2-56 maneuvers in 
the Caribbean area. He became Deputy 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Plans), at 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., in June 1956. 
He was promoted to brigadier general in 
July 1957. Departing Washington early 
in 1959, Gen. Mangrum became Assistant 
Wing Commander, 1st MAW, at Iwakuni, 
Japan, in Feb. 1959. He was promoted 
to his present rank of major general in 
Nov. 1959, and assumed duties as CG 
of the 1st MAW. He served in this capa- 
city until Apr. 1960 when he returned to 
the States. In May 1960, Gen. Mangrum 
was assigned to Norfolk, Va., as CG, 
Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic, and Deputy 
Commander, FMF, Atlantic. Upon con- 
solidation of the two activities, July 1, 
1960, he continued as Deputy Command- 
er, FMF, Atlantic, until Sept. 1961. The 



141 



M ARG U L I ES 



M ASTERS 



following month, he assumed his current 
assignment as CG } 2nd MAW. 

MARGULEES, Samuel Private. Served 
under the name of GROSS, Samuel (q.v.). 

MARTIN, Harry Linn. First Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Bucyrus, Ohio, Jan. 
4, 1911; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Mar. 26, 1945. 
Lt. Martin landed on Iwo Jima on Feb. 
19, 1945-D-Day. Less than a month 
later, on Mar. 16, the day the Iwo cam- 
paign officially closed, the Japanese 
launched a concentrated attack and pene- 
trated the Marine lines in the area where 
Lt. Martin's platoon was bivouacked. 
"He immediately organized a firing line 
among the men in the foxholes closest to 
his own and temporarily stopped the 
headlong rush of the enemy. Several of 
his men lay wounded in positions over- 
run by the Japanese and, in a determined 
effort to rescue them, he was severely 
wounded twice as he defied intense hos- 
tile fire and made his way through the 
Japanese to his men, guiding them back 
to their own lines. Four of the enemy 
had entrenched themselves in an aban- 
doned machine gun pit and were sub- 
jecting the area to a barrage of hand 
grenades. Lt. Martin, alone and armed 
only with a pistol, charged the pit and 
killed all four of its occupants. Realizing 
that his few remaining men could not 
repulse another organized attack, he 
called to them to follow him and then 
charged into the midst of the strong ene- 
my force, firing his weapon and scatter- 
ing them until he fell mortally wounded 
by a grenade. He died 10 days later " 

MARTIN, James. Sergeant Medal of 
Honor: b. Deny, Ireland, 1826. James 
Martin enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Philadelphia, Pa. on July 9, 1847. He 
earned the nation's highest military 



award ". . . while serving on board the 
USS Richmond, Mobile Bay . . . was 
commended for coolness and good con- 
duct as a captain of a gun in the action 
of Mobile Bay on the morning and fore- 
noon of Aug. 5, 1864 . . . was in actions 
with Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the 
Chalmettes, the rebel ironclads and gun- 
boats below New Orleans, Vicksburg, 
Port Hudson, and was present at the 
surrender of New Orleans, on board the 
Richmond. . . " He was awarded the 
Medal of Honor on Dec. 31, 1864. He 
retired from the Corps after seven re- 
enlistments, having served 33 years. 

MASON, Leonard Foster. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Middlebor- 
ough, Ky., Feb. 2, 1920; d. KIA, Guam, 
July 23, 1944. P.F.C. Mason was awarded 
the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gal- 
lantry in singlehandedly charging and 
wiping out a Japanese machine gun posi- 
tion on Guam, July 22, 1944, despite 
serious wounds. Mason, an automatic 
rifleman, made the initial landing on 
July 21. The next day he was proceeding 
with his comrades through a gully when 
Japanese machine guns opened fire on 
them. Resolving to clear out the enemy 
position, Mason left the gully to blast 
the enemy from the rear. Wounded 
numerous times in the arm and shoulder, 
he nevertheless wiped out the enemy 
position and rejoined his platoon to re- 
port, before consenting to be evacuated. 
The following day he died aboard a hos- 
pital ship offshore. 

MASTERS, James Marvin, Sr. Major Gen- 
eral. CG, Marine Corps Base, Camp 
Pendleton, Calif.: b. Atlanta, Ga., June 
16, 1911. James Masters attended The 
Citadel before entering the U.S. Naval 
Academy at Annapolis in 1929. Upon 
graduation from the Academy, he was 



142 



MASTERS 



MASTERS 



commissioned a Marine second lieuten- 
ant, June 1, 1933. He completed the Basic 
Course at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
May 1934, and the following month be- 
gan a year's tour of sea duty, serving with 
the Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
New Mexico. In July 1935, he joined the 
1st Mar. Brig, at Quantico, Va. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in July 1936. 
Lt. Masters remained at Quantico until 
Jan. 1937, and the following month em- 
barked for Shanghai, China, where he 
served with the 4th Marines until Nov. 
1939, While in China, he was promoted 
to captain in Sept. 1939, On his return 
to the States, he was ordered to the MB, 
Washington, D.C. in Dec. 1939, and later 
served briefly at Quantico. In Sept. 1940, 
he was assigned to the MCB, Parris Is,, 
S.C., as a battery CO with the 4th De- 
fense Bn. He was transferred with the 
battalion to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in 
Feb. 1941, and in Nov. 1941 embarked 
with the battalion for Pearl Harbor. On 
Dec. 7, 1941, Capt. Masters participated 
in the defense of that base against the 
Japanese aerial attack. On Dec. 25, he 
departed Pearl Harbor en route to and 
in command of the first reinforcements 
for Johnston Is., where he remained until 
Nov. 1942. He was promoted to major 
in May 1942. Maj. Masters then joined 
the 10th Defense Bn. at Pearl Harbor in 
Nov. 1942. Later, as Executive Officer 
of the battalion, attached to the 1st Mar. 
Amphibious Corps, he served in the Solo- 
mon and Russell Is. He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in Apr. 1943. In Aug. 

1943, he joined the 2nd Bn., 1st Marines, 
1st Mar. Div., and served briefly in Aus- 
tralia prior to going into combat again 
in Dec. 1943 and Jan. 1944 as a battalion 
CO at Cape Gloucester. Following this, 
he returned to the States and, in Mar. 

1944, assumed duty at HQMC with the 
Division of Plans and Policies, G-3. In 



Sept. he was assigned detached duty at 
Pearl Harbor, and on Guam, Saipan, and 
Tinian, Marianas Is. In Nov. 1944, he 
was transferred to the 7th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. The following month, he began 
serving as Regimental Executive Officer 
at Pavuvu, Russell Is. In this capacity 
he took part in combat on Okinawa, in 
Apr., May, and June of 1945, during 
which action he earned the Navy Cross. 
Ordered to Tientsin, China, in Oct. 1945, 
Lt. Col. Masters served with the 1st Mar. 
Div. as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, until 
Mar. 1946, then returned to the States. 
Upon his return, he was again assigned 
to HQMC where in May 1946 he began 
a two-year assignment in the Inspection 
Division. In May 1948, he was ordered to 
the MCS, Quantico, serving as Executive 
Officer and, later, CO of the Basic 
School. He was promoted to colonel in 
Aug. 1949. He was then transferred to 
Camp Lejeune, N.C., and assumed com- 
mand of the 8th Mar. Regt., 2nd Mar. 
Div. in Sept. 1950. He commanded the 
regiment for 18 months, then returned to 
Washington where he was enrolled as 
a student at the National War College 
from Aug. 1952 to June 1953. The fol- 
lowing month he became a Member of 
the Joint Strategic Plans Group, Joint 
Staff, Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
serving in this capacity for two years. In 
Aug. 1955, Col. Masters assumed duty 
as Regimental Commander of the 4th 
Marines (Reinf.), 3rd Mar. Div., at 
MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. He com- 
manded this regiment until he was 
named FMF Pacific Liaison Officer to 
the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet 
in Hawaii in June 1956. While serving 
in this capacity, he was promoted to 
brigadier general in July 1957. Gen. Mas- 
ters reported to HQMC as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-2, in Sept. 1957. He 
was assigned additional duty as Inspector 



143 



MAST E RS 



MASTERS 



General of the Marine Corps in June 

1960, and was promoted to major gen- 
eral the following month. He continued 
in the post of Inspector General of the 
Marine Corps from Aug. 1960 until July 

1961. Transferred to the west coast, Gen. 
Masters assumed command of the 1st 
Mar. Div. (Reinf.), FMF, at Camp Pen- 
dleton, Calif., July 31, 1961. He served 
in this capacity until June 1962, when 
he became CG, MCB, Camp Pendleton. 

MASTERS, John Hillary. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Assistant Division Commander, 3rd 
Mar. Div., Okinawa: b. Atlanta, Ga., May 
23, 1913. John Masters attended The 
Citadel, Charleston, S.C., for a year and 
a half, before entering the U.S. Naval 
Academy in 1932. On graduating from 
the Academy he was appointed a Marine 
second lieutenant, June 4, 1936. Lt. 
Masters served as a company officer at 
the Portsmouth, N.H. Navy Yard, then 
completed the Basic School at the Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard in June 1937. As- 
signed to the 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Brig,, 
FMF, Quantico, he served as a platoon 
leader in a machine gun company and 
Officer in Charge of the Special Weapons 
and Antitank Platoons, and took part in 
maneuvers in the Caribbean. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in June 1939. 
That month he became Aide-de-Camp 
to the CG, MB, Quantico. In May 1940, 
he departed Quantico to assume duty 
aboard the USS Tuscaloosa as CO of the 
Marine Detachment. While serving in 
this capacity, he was promoted to cap- 
tain in Jan. 1942, and to major in Sept. 
1942. On completing his tour of sea duty 
in Sept. 1942, Maj. Masters embarked 
for China where he served for 21 months 
as Commander, U.S. Naval Unit 1, U.S. 
Naval Group, China, and trained Chinese 
guerrilla troops. During this assignment, 
he was promoted to lieutenant colonel 



in Jan. 1944, and remained in China un- 
til June 1944. The following month, Lt. 
Col. Masters assumed duty at HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., as Aide-de-Camp to 
the CMC, Gen. A. A. Vandegrift. He re- 
turned to China in Sept. 1945, and par- 
ticipated in the occupation of northern 
China until May 1947. During this time, 
he commanded the 1st Bn. 5 5th Marines, 
then served as Regimental Executive 
Officer from Oct. 1946 to May 1947. In 
July 1947, he resumed his former duties 
in the States as Aide-de-Camp to the 
CMC, and continued in the same ca- 
pacity with Gen. Vandegrift's successor, 
Gen. Clifton B. Gates, from Jan. 1948 
through May 1949. Ordered next to 
MCS, Quantico, he completed the Senior 
Course, Sept. 1949 to June 1950. He then 
served as Chief, General Subjects Group, 
Combined Arms Section, until Mar. 
1951; and Assistant Director, Junior 
School, until Mar. 1952. He was pro- 
moted to colonel in Feb. 1951. He was 
transferred to Camp Lejeune, N.C., in 
Mar. 1952, as Regimental Commander, 
8th Marines, 2nd Mar. Div. In Feb. 1954, 
he became Assistant Chief of Staff, MCB, 
Camp Pendleton, then served as Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff, G-3, from July 1954 
through Aug. 1955. Remaining at Camp 
Pendleton, he was named CO, 2nd Inf. 
Training Regt, in Sept. 1955, and held 
this post until June 1957. Col. Masters 
assumed duties in Aug. 1957 as Force 
Inspector, FMF, Pacific, Honolulu, Ha- 
waii. In May 1958, he was named CO, 
4th Marines (Reinf.), 1st Mar. Brig., on 
Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. He served 
there until July 1959 and, on his return 
to Washington, D.C., assumed duties in 
Aug. 1959 as Assistant Director of Per- 
sonnel, HQMC. Following this assign- 
ment, Col. Masters was named Legislative 
Assistant to the CMC in Feb. 1960. While 
serving in that capacity, he was pro- 



144 



M A T H I AS 

moted to his present rank of brigadier 
general in July 1960. Gen. Masters de- 
parted from HQMC in Sept. 1962, and 
assumed duty as Assistant Division Com- 
mander, 3rd Mar. Div., on Okinawa. 

MATHIAS, Clarence Edward. Sergeant 
Major. Medal of Honor: b. Royalton, 
Pa, Dec. 12, 1876; d. U.S. Naval Hos- 
pital, Washington, D.C, Dec. 9, 1935. 
Clarence Mathias enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Harrisburg, Pa. on Sept 20, 
1899. His citation reads, in part: ". . . for 
distinguished conduct in the presence 
of the enemy in the advance on Tientsin, 
China, June 21, 1900. . . ." Mathias was 
retired from the Corps on June 15, 1923 
as a sergeant major. 

MATTHEWS, Daniel Paul. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Van Nuys, Calif., 
Dec. 31, 1931; d. KIA, Vegas Hill, Korea, 
Mar. 28, 1953. Sgt. Matthews' citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving as a 
Squad Leader of Co. F, 2nd Bn, 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in ac- 
tion against enemy aggressor forces in 
Korea on Mar. 28, 1953. Participating in 
a counterattack against a firmly en- 
trenched and well concealed hostile force 
which had repelled six previous assaults 
on a vital enemy-held outpost far forward 
of the main line of resistance, Sgt. Mat- 
thews fearlessly advanced in the attack 
until his squad was pinned down by a 
murderous sweep of fire from an enemy 
machine gun located on the peak of the 
outpost. Observing that the deadly fire 
prevented a corpsman from removing a 
wounded man lying in an open area fully 
exposed to the brunt of the devastating 
gunfire, he worked his way to the base of 
the hostile machine gun emplacement, 
leaped onto the rock fortification sur- 
rounding the gun and, taking the enemy 
by complete surprise, singlehandedly 



MA US ERT 

charged the hostile emplacement with 
his rifle. Although severely wounded 
when the enemy brought a withering hail 
of fire to bear upon him, he gallantly 
continued his valiant one-man assault 
and, firing his rifle with deadly effective- 
ness, succeeded in killing two of the 
enemy, routing a third, and completely 
silencing the enemy weapon, thereby 
enabling his comrades to evacuate the 
stricken Marine to a safe position. Suc- 
cumbing to his wounds before aid could 
reach him, Sgt. Matthews, by his in- 
domitable fighting spirit, courageous 
initiative, and resolute determination in 
the face of almost certain death, served 
to inspire all who observed him and was 
directly instrumental in saving the life 
of his wounded comrade. . . ." 

MAUSERT, Frederick William, III. Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Cambridge, 
N.Y., May 2 ? 1930; d. KIA, Songnap-yong, 
Korea, Sept. 12, 1951. Sgt. Mauserfs cita- 
tion reads, in part: "... while serving as 
a squad leader in Co. B, 1st Bn., 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf. ), in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on Sept. 12, 1951. With his company 
pinned down and suffering heavy casual- 
ties under murderous machine gun, rifle, 
artillery, and mortar fire laid down from 
heavily fortified, deeply entrenched hos- 
tile strongholds on Hill 673, Sgt. Mausert 
unhesitatingly left his covered position 
and ran through a heavily mined and 
fire-swept area to bring back two critical- 
ly wounded men to the comparative 
safety of the lines. Staunchly refusing 
evacuation despite a painful head wound 
sustained during his voluntary act, he 
insisted on remaining with his squad and, 
with his platoon ordered into the assault 
moments later, took the point position 
and led his men in a furious bayonet 
charge against the first of a series of 



145 



M E G I i 



MEG E E 



literally impregnable bunkers. Stunned 
and knocked to the ground when another 
bullet struck his helmet, he regained his 
feet and resumed his drive, personally 
silencing the machine gun and leading 
his men in eliminating several gther em- 
placements in the area. Promptly reor- 
ganizing his unit for a renewed fight to 
the final objective on top of the ridge, 
Sgt. Mausert boldly left his position 
when the enemy's fire gained momentum 
and, making a target of himself, boldly 
advanced alone into the face of the ma- 
chine gun, drawing the fire away from 
his men and enabling them to move into 
position to assault. Again severely wound- 
ed when the enemy's fire found its mark, 
he still refused aid and continued spear- 
heading the assault to the topmost ma- 
chine gun nest and bunkers, the last 
bulwark of the fanatic aggressors. Leap- 
ing into the wall of fire, he destroyed 
another machine gun with grenades be- 
fore he was mortally wounded by burst- 
ing grenades and machine gun fire. . . ." 

MEGEE, Vernon E. Lieutenant Gen- 
eral (Retired). Veteran of Korean fight- 
ing, three WWII campaigns, and pre- 
war expeditionary duty in Haiti, China, 
and Nicaragua: b. Tulsa, Okla., June 5, 
1900. Vernon Megee enlisted in the Ma- 
rine Corps on Mar. 8, 1919, and was 
commissioned a second lieutenant May 
4, 1922. After completing the Officers' 
Basic Course, he served his first tour of 
expeditionary duty with the 1st Mar. 
Brig, in Haiti from Oct. 1923 to Nov. 
1925. He was then stationed with the 
I0th Marines at Quantico. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in Mar. 1926. 
In Apr. of the following year, Lt. Megee 
was ordered to China for his second tour 
of expeditionary duty. Returning from 
China in Mar. 1928, he was assigned to 
preliminary aviation training at the NAS, 




Megee 

San Diego, Calif, until Jan. 1929. He 
then began another tour of expeditionary 
service as Squadrons Quartermaster, Air- 
craft Squadrons, 2nd Mar. Brig., in Nica- 
ragua. After earning the Navy and Marine 
Corps Medal there, he returned to the 
States to enter flight training at Pensa- 
cola, Fla. in Jan. 1931. Awarded his 
wings in Feb. 1932, Lt. Megee was next 
assigned to Aircraft Squadrons, West 
Coast Expeditionary Forces at San Diego, 
where he remained until May 1933. The 
following month he began a three-year 
tour of duty at Quantico as a student 
and instructor in the MCS, then as Exec- 
utive Officer of Marine Fighter Squad- 
ron 9. He was promoted to captain in 
Nov. 1934. Capt. Megee entered the Air 
Corps Tactical Training School at Max- 



146 



MEGEE 



MILLER 



well Field, Ala., in Aug. 1936. After 
graduating in June 1937, he returned to 
Quantico for another two years as an 
instructor in aviation tactics. He was pro- 
moted to major in Aug. 1938. In July 
1939, Megee took command of Marine 
Fighter Squadron 2, 2nd MAG, with 
which he participated in fleet exercises 
the following year. In Oct. 1940, Maj. 
Megee was assigned to the U.S. Naval 
Aviation Mission to Peru as special ad- 
visor to that government's Minister of 
Aviation. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Jan. 1942, and to colonel in 
Dec. 1942. He returned to the States in 
Oct. 1943. The following month Col. 
Megee reported to Cherry Point, N.C. as 
Chief of Staff of the 3rd MAW. He went 
overseas with that unit in May 1944. 
Assigned to Aircraft, FMF, Pacific in 
Oct. 1944, he was named commander of 
the Prov. Air Support Command. After 
leading Control Unit 1 at Iwo Jima, he 
became Chief of Staff, Air Support Con- 
trol Units, Pacific Fleet, with additional 
duty as Commander, Marine Air Support 
Control Units. He served in that capacity 
until he returned to the States in Sept. 
1945. Reporting to HQMC that Oct., Col. 
Megee became a member of the Joint 
Amphibious Operations and Doctrines 
Committee until Aug. 1946. He then 
served briefly as an instructor at the Na- 
tional War College, Washington, D.C. 
He was promoted to brigadier general 
in Dec. 1946. Ordered to Norfolk, Va., 
the general became Chief of Staff, FMF, 
Atlantic the following month. Gen. Me- 
gee returned to Washington in Aug. 1949 
to serve as Assistant Director of Marine 
Corps Aviation until Jan. 1950. That 
month he joined the Joint Staff, Depart- 
ment of Defense. In Aug. 1951, he was 
promoted to major general and named 
commander of MCAS and Marine Corps 
Air Bases, Cherry Point, N.C. The gen- 



eral remained there until Feb. 1952, then 
served for almost a year as CG, Aircraft, 
FMF, Pacific at El Toro, Calif. He took 
command of the 1st MAW in Korea in 
Jan. 1953. The following Jan. he reported 
to Pearl Harbor, where he served as 
Deputy Commander, FMF, Pacific, un- 
til June 1955. A month later he was ap- 
pointed CG, Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic, 
serving in that capacity at Norfolk until 
Dec. 1955. Gen. Megee was promoted to 
lieutenant general Jan. 1, 1956. On the 
same date, he was appointed Assistant 
Commandant of the Marine Corps and 
Chief of Staff, HQMC. He was the first 
Marine aviator to serve in that capacity. 
Following two years in this assignment, 
he moved to Honolulu, T.H., where he 
served as CG, FMF, Pacific, from Dec. 
1957 until his retirement Nov. 1, 1959. 

MEREDITH, James. Private. Medal of 
Honor. See FORD, Patrick K, Jr. 

MILLER, Andrew. Sergeant, Medal of 
Honor: b. Germany, 1836. Andrew Miller 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at Wash- 
ington, D.C. on Aug. 21, 1854. His cita- 
tion reads, in part ". . . while serving on 
board the USS Richmond, Mobile Bay 
. . . commended for coolness and good 
conduct as captain of a gun in the action 
of Mobile Bay, on the morning and fore- 
noon of Aug. 5, 1864 . . . was on board 
the USS Brooklyn in the actions with 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the Chal- 
mettes; the rebel ironclads and gunboats 
below New Orleans; batteries below 
Vicksburg; and present at the surrender 
of New Orleans. . . ." Miller was dis- 
charged from the Corps on Aug. 21, 
1858, but served three additional enlist- 
ments. 

MILLER, John Carroll. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. CG, Landing Force Training Unit, 



147 



MILLER 



MILLER 



Atlantic, Norfolk, Va.: b. Lake Andres, 
S.D., Dec. 25, 1912. John Miller gradu- 
ated from high school at Lake Andres 
and, in 1931, he entered the University 
of South Dakota, where he was a mem- 
ber of the ROTC. Graduating in June 
1935, he was commissioned a second lieu- 
tenant in the Army Infantry Reserve. 
Shortly after, he resigned that commis- 
sion to accept appointment as a Marine 
second lieutenant on Sept. 10, 1935. He 
completed Basic School for Marine offi- 
cers at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
May 1936, and the following month be- 
gan a year of sea duty with the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS New Mexico. 
Ordered to China in Aug. 1937, he served 
with the 6th Marines, 2nd Brig., at the 
International Settlement in Shanghai 
during hostilities between China and 
Japan. He returned to San Diego with 
the 6th Marines in Apr. 1938. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Oct. 1938. 
In May 1939, he was transferred to the 
MB at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, 
Calif., becoming Commander of the Bar- 
racks Detachment in Oct. 1940. He also 
saw temporary duty in connection with 
the Western Division Rifle and Pistol 
Matches, and served briefly with the 
Marine Detachment at the Receiving 
Ship, San Francisco, Calif. In Aug. 1940, 
he joined the 1st Def . Bn. at San Diego, 
and in Feb. 1941 sailed with the battal- 
ion for Pearl Harbor. He was promoted 
to captain in Nov. 1941, and to major in 
May 1942. Miller continued to serve at 
Pearl Harbor and on Palmyra Island un- 
til Dec. 1942. In Feb. 1943, he joined 
the 16th Def. Bn. on Johnston Is. as Ex- 
ecutive Officer. He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in July 1943. He re- 
turned to San Diego in Aug. 1943 to be- 
come Area Ordnance Officer. In Feb. 
1944, Miller departed again for Hawaii 
to command the 3rd Bn., 8th Marines, 



2nd Mar. Div., and that May embarked 
with the battalion for Saipan, Although 
severely wounded during the approach 
to the beach on D-Day, June 15, 1944, 
he disembarked and directed the opera- 
tion of his battalion, earning a Bronze 
Star Medal with Combat "V" for his hero- 
ism. After being hospitalized at San 
Diego, Lt. Col. Miller went overseas 
again in Jan. 1945, joining the 5th Ma- 
rines, 1st Mar. Div., as Regimental 
Operations Officer. He also served tem- 
porarily as liaison officer with the Army's 
7th Infantry Division in the Philippines 
and on Okinawa. Rejoining the 5th Ma- 
rines in Apr., he commanded the 3rd Bn. 
during the Okinawa campaign, and was 
awarded a second Bronze Star Medal for 
meritorious achievement from Apr. 4 to 
May 18, 1945. He returned to the States 
in June 1945 and that Sept. entered the 
Command and Staff Course at the MCS, 
Quantico. Completing the course in Feb. 
1946, he served as an instructor in the 
Senior Course, Amphibious Warfare 
School, until June 1948. The following 
month, he began a two-year tour of duty 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Opera- 
tions and Training), 1st Mar. Div., Camp 
Pendleton, Calif. In July 1950, he sailed 
for the Panama Canal Zone, where he 
was Executive Officer of the MB, 15th 
Naval District. On his return to the 
States in Feb. 1951, he was promoted to 
colonel. That Mar., Col. Miller reported 
to the Troop Training Unit, Amphibious 
Training Command, Pacific Fleet at Cor- 
onado, Calif. Besides his chief assign- 
ment there as Director of Training, he 
also saw temporary duty in Japan in 1952 
as Chief of Staff, Troop Training Team, 
Amphibious Force, Far East. He left Cor- 
onado in July 1953 to join the 3rd Mar. 
Div. at Camp Pendleton. Embarking for 
Japan the following month, he served as 
Chief of Staff of the 3rd Mar. Div.'s Ad- 



148 



MI T C H i L 



M O N E G A N 



vance Echelon, before taking command 
of the 4th Marines in Oct. 1953. He 
served in the latter capacity until Apr. 
1954 when he became the division's 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 (Logistics). 
In Sept. 1954, Col. Miller moved to Pearl 
Harbor as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 
(Operations and Training), FMF, Pa- 
cific. On his return to the States, he 
joined MCS, Quantico, in July 1956 as a 
member of the Advanced Research 
Group. The following July he reported 
to London, England, as Force Marine 
Officer, Staff of the Commander in Chief, 
U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and 
Mediterranean. During the Lebanon 
crisis in the summer of 1958, he served 
as Senior Marine Officer on the Staff of 
the Commander in Chief, U.S. Specified 
Command, Middle East. Assigned to 
Quantico on his return to the States in 
July 1959, he served as Deputy Director, 
Marine Corps Educational Center, un- 
til Nov. 1959, when he became Director 
of the Educational Center. While serv- 
ing in this capacity he was promoted to 
his present rank of brigadier general, Jan. 
1, 1960. In Sept. 1961, Gen. Miller be- 
came Director of the Marine Corps 
Landing Force Development Center at 
Quantico. He served in this capacity un- 
til June 1962, when he reported to 
Norfolk as CG, Landing Force Training 
Unit, Atlantic. 

MITCHELL, Frank Nicias. First Lieu- 
tenant. Medal of Honor: b. Indian Gap, 
Tex., Aug. 18, 1921; d. KIA, Hansan-ni, 
Korea, Nov. 26, 1950. Lt. Mitchell's cita- 
tion reads, in part: "... as leader of a 
rifle platoon of Co. A, 1st Bn., 7th Ma- 
rines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.) in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on Nov. 26, 1950. Leading his platoon in 
point position during a patrol by his com- 
pany through a thickly wooded and snow 



covered area in the vicinity of Hansan-ni, 
Lt. Mitchell acted immediately when the 
enemy suddenly opened fire at point- 
blank range, pinning down his forward 
elements and inflicting numerous casual- 
ties in his ranks. Boldly dashing to the 
front under blistering fire from automa- 
tic weapons and small arms, he seized an 
automatic rifle from one of the wounded 
men and effectively trained it against the 
attackers and, when his ammunition was 
expended, picked up and hurled gre- 
nades with deadly accuracy, at the same 
time directing and encouraging his men 
in driving the outnumbering enemy from 
his position. Maneuvering to set up a 
defense when the enemy furiously 
counterattacked to the front and left 
flank, Lt. Mitchell, despite wounds sus- 
tained early in the action, reorganized 
his platoon under the devastating fire 
and spearheaded a fierce hand-to-hand 
struggle to repulse the onslaught. Asking 
for volunteers to assist in searching for 
and evacuating the wounded, he person- 
ally led a party of litter bearers through 
the hostile lines in growing darkness and, 
although suffering intense pain from mul- 
tiple wounds, stormed ahead and waged 
a singlehanded battle against the enemy, 
successfully covering the withdrawal of 
his men before he was fatally struck 
down by a burst of small arms fire " 

MONEGAN, Walter Carleton, Jr. Private 
First Class. Medal of Honor: b. Melrose, 
Mass., Dec. 25, 1930; d. KIA, Sosa-ri, 
Korea, Sept. 20, 1950. P.F.C. Monegans 
citation reads, in part: "... while serving 
as a rocket gunner attached to Co. F, 2nd 
Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.) 
in action against enemy aggressor forces 
near Sosa-ri, Korea, and on Sept. 17 and 
20, 1950. Dug in on a hill overlooking the 
main Seoul highway when six enemy 
tanks threatened to break through the bat- 



149 



MOORE 



MO RRI S 



talion position during a pre-dawn attack 
on Sept. 17, P.F.C. Monegan promptly 
moved forward with his bazooka under 
heavy hostile automatic weapons fire and 
engaged the lead tank at a range of less 
than 50 yards. After scoring a direct hit 
and killing the sole surviving tankman 
with his carbine as he came through the 
escape hatch, he boldly fired two more 
rounds of ammunition at the oncoming 
tanks, disorganizing the attack and en- 
abling our tank crews to continue blasting 
with their 90-mm guns. With his own 
and an adjacent company's position 
threatened with annihilation when an 
overwhelming enemy tank-infantry force 
by-passed the area and proceeded toward 
the battalion CP during the early morn- 
ing of Sept, 20, Monegan seized his 
rocket launcher and, in total darkness, 
charged down the slope of the hill where 
the tanks had broken through. Quick to 
act when an illuminating shell lit the 
area, he scored a direct hit on one of the 
tanks as hostile rifle and automatic weap- 
ons fire raked the area at close range. 
Again exposing himself, he fired another 
round to destroy a second tank and, as 
the rear tank turned to retreat, stood up- 
right to fire and was fatally struck down 
by hostile machine gun fire when another 
illuminating shell silhouetted him against 
the sky. . . /* 

MOORE, Albert. Private. Medal of Hon- 
or: b. Merced, Calif., Dec. 25, 1862. 
Albert Moore enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Mare Is., Calif . on Jan. 18, 1898. 
He was awarded the nation's highest 
military honor ". . . for distinguished 
conduct in the presence of the enemy at 
Peking, China, July 21 to Aug. 17, 1900. 
Moore assisted to erect barricades under 
heavy fire. . . ." He was discharged from 
the Corps at San Francisco, Calif, on 
Jan. 17, 1903. 



MORELAND, Whitt Lloyd. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Austin, Tex., 
Mar. 7, 1930; d. KIA, Kwagch'i-dong, 
Korea, May 29, 1951. P.F.C. Moreland's 
citation reads, in part: "...while serv- 
ing as an Intelligence Scout attached to 
Co. C, 1st Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.), in action against enemy ag- 
gressor forces in Korea. Voluntarily ac- 
companying a rifle company in a daring 
assault against a strongly defended ene- 
my hill position, P.F.C. Moreland deliv- 
ered accurate rifle fire on the hostile 
emplacement and thereby aided mater- 
ially in seizing the objective. After the 
position had been secured, he unhesitat- 
ingly led a party forward to neutralize 
an enemy bunker which he had observed 
some 400 meters beyond and, moving 
boldly through a fire-swept area, almost 
reached the hostile emplacement when 
the enemy launched a volley of hand gre- 
nades on his group. Quick to act despite 
the personal danger involved, he kicked 
several of the grenades off the ridgeline 
where they exploded harmlessly and, 
while attempting to kick away another, 
slipped and fell near the deadly missile. 
Aware that the sputtering grenade would 
explode before he could gain his feet and 
dispose of it, he shouted a warning to his 
comrades, covered the missile with his 
body and absorbed the full blast of the 
explosion, but in saving his companions 
from possible injury or death, was mor- 
tally wounded. . . ." 

MORRIS, John. Corporal. Medal of Hon- 
or: b. Dublin, Ireland, Feb. 12, 1862. 
John Morris enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Brooklyn, N.Y. He was awarded the 
Medal of Honor ". . . for leaping over- 
board from the flagship USS Lancaster 
at Villefranche, France, Dec. 25, 1881, 
and rescuing from drowning Robert 
Blizzard, ordinary seaman, a prisoner 



150 



M U N N 



MU N N 



who had jumped overboard. . . ." Morris 
was discharged from the Corps at Brook- 
lyn on Apr. 20, 1895. 




Munn 

MUNN, John Calvin. Lieutenant General. 
CG, Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendle- 
ton, California: b. Prescott, Ark., Oct. 17, 
1906. After completing high school in 
1923, John Munn entered the U.S. Na- 
val Academy the same year. Upon grad- 
uation he was commissioned a Marine 
second lieutenant on June 2, 1927. In 
Jan. 1928, after further instruction at 
Annapolis and completion of the Marine 
Officers' basic course at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard, he joined the 2nd Mar. Brig, 
in Nicaragua. Returning from Nicaragua 
in Sept. 1929, he reported to Quantico, and 
during Oct. and Nov. served with the Ma- 



rine Detachment at former President Her- 
bert Hoover's summer camp near Criglers- 
ville, Va. That Dec., he was designated a 
student naval aviator and ordered to 
Hampton Roads, Va. for preliminary 
training. From there, he was assigned to 
Pensacola, Fla., in May 1930. Following 
his designation as a naval aviator in Jan. 
1931, he remained at Pensacola for two 
months of advanced training, then served 
for six months at the NAS, San Diego, 
Calif. In Oct. 1931, Lt. Munn joined 
Scouting Squadron 14-M, which went 
aboard the USS Saratoga the following 
month, as one of the first two Marine 
squadrons to serve aboard Navy carriers. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
Jan. 1934. He remained on the Saratoga 
until June 1934, then returned to San 
Diego. There, he joined Bombing Squad- 
ron 4-M for two years* duty aboard the 
Lexington and Langley. Leaving the west 
coast in June 1936, he was assigned avia- 
tion duty at Quantico. He was promoted 
to captain in Aug. 1936. In May 1938, 
he sailed for Colombia to serve as Naval 
Attache and Naval Attache for Air, at 
the American embassies in Colombia, 
Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. 
He returned to the States in Mar. 1941, 
and was stationed briefly in Washington. 
In June, he was assigned to Marine Ob- 
servation Squadron 151 of MAG 11, 1st 
MAW, at Quantico and later saw duty 
aboard the Ranger. He was promoted 
to major in July 1941. Munn was ordered 
to San Diego with Squadron 151 in Dec. 
1941 when the U.S. entered WWII. In 
Aug. 1942, upon his promotion to lieuten- 
ant colonel, he departed for the Pacific 
area. On Sept. 3, 1942, he arrived on 
Guadalcanal in the first transport plane 
to land there. While on Guadalcanal, he 
served as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, 
1st MAW, and Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3, 2nd MAW, respectively. Lt. Col. 



151 



MU N N 



MURPHY 



Munn was awarded the Navy Commen- 
dation Ribbon with Combat "V" for 
service on Guadalcanal. In Mar. 1943, he 
assumed command of MAG 11 in the 
New Hebrides. He returned to the States 
in July 1943. From Sept. 1943 until Feb. 
1945, he served in Washington as Assist- 
ant Head of the Aviation Planning Sec- 
tion, HQ, Commander in Chief, U.S. 
Fleet. While serving in this capacity, he 
was promoted to colonel in Nov. 1943. 
In Mar. 1945, he returned to the Pacific 
area to take command of MAG 31. The 
group, under his command, destroyed 
180 Japanese planes in the Okinawa cam- 
paign. For service in this capacity, he 
was awarded both the Silver Star Medal 
and his first Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V." After the war, he commanded the 
group in Japan. He returned briefly to 
the States in Apr. 1946 for temporary 
duty in Washington. Col. Munn reported 
to Pearl Harbor in June 1946 as Aviation 
Plans Officer on the staff of the Com- 
mander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, and as 
Fleet Marine Officer. He returned from 
Hawaii in June 1948. During the next 
two years, he served at Cherry Point, 
N.C., as Commander of Marine Wing 
Service Group 2 (Prov.), and Chief of 
Staff of Air, FMF, Atlantic, and the 2nd 
MAW, respectively. He entered the Na- 
tional War College, Washington, in Aug. 
1950, and graduated the following sum- 
mer. In June 1951, Col. Munn was named 
a member of the Joint Strategic Plans 
Group, Joint Staff. He served in that 
capacity until Feb. 1952, when he was 
assigned to the Division of Aviation at 
HQMC, as Executive Officer and, later, 
as Assistant Director. Col. Munn em- 
barked for Korea in Apr. 1953 to become 
Chief of Staff of the 1st MAW. For out- 
standing service in that capacity, he was 
awarded his second Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V." On his return from Korea 



in Apr. 1954, he assumed command of 
MCAS, El Toro, Calif. While there, he 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
Aug. 1954. In Oct. 1954, Gen. Munn was 
transferred to Norfolk, Va., as Assistant 
CG, Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic. Ordered to 
Washington in Feb. 1955, he was as- 
signed to the Office of the Vice Chief of 
Naval Operations, as Marine Corps Liai- 
son Officer, until Oct. of the same year. 
He then served as Inspector General of 
the Marine Corps until Jan. 1956, when 
he returned to Cherry Point to assume 
command of the 2nd MAW. He was pro- 
moted to major general in Aug. 1956. 
Upon his detachment from Cherry Point 
in Feb. 1958, Gen. Munn was named 
Director of Aviation at HQMC. On Jan. 
1, I960, he was promoted to his present 
rank, lieutenant general, on assuming 
his assignment as Assistant Commandant 
of the Marine Corp. 

MURPHY, John Alphonsus. Drummer. 
Medal of Honor: b. New York, N.Y., 
Feb. 26, 1881; d. Nov. 29, 1935. John 
Murphy enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Washington, D.C. on Jan. 5, 1897. His 
citation reads, in part: ". . . for distin- 
guished conduct in the presence of the 
enemy at Peking, China, July 21 to Aug. 

17, 1900 " He received the Medal of 

Honor on Dec. 11, 1901. 

MURPHY, Raymond Gerald. Captain. 
Medal of Honor: b. Pueblo, Col, Jan. 14, 
1930. Capt. Murphy's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . as a platoon commander of Co. 
A, 1st Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.), in action against enemy aggres- 
sor forces in Korea on Feb. 3, 1953. Al- 
though painfully wounded by fragments 
from an enemy mortar shell while lead- 
ing his evacuation platoon in support of 
assault units attacking a cleverly con- 
cealed and well-entrenched hostile force 



152 



MURRAY 



MURRAY 



occupying commanding ground, (then) 
2nd Lt. Murphy steadfastly refused medi- 
cal aid and continued to lead his men 
up a hill through a withering barrage of 
hostile mortar and small arms fire, skill- 
fully maneuvering his force from one 
position to the next and shouting words 
of encouragement. Undeterred by the in- 
creasingly intense enemy fire, he imme- 
diately located casualties as they fell and 
made several trips up and down the fire- 
swept hill to direct evacuation teams to 
the wounded, personally carrying many 
of the stricken Marines to safety. When 
reinforcements were needed by the as- 
saulting elements, 2nd Lt. Murphy em- 
ployed part of his unit as support and, 
during the ensuing battle personally killed 
two of the enemy with his pistol. With 
all the wounded evacuated and the as- 
saulting units beginning to disengage, he 
remained behind with a carbine to cover 
the movement of friendly forces off the 
hill and, though suffering intense pain 
from his previous wounds, seized an 
automatic rifle to provide more firepower 
when the enemy reappeared in the 
trenches. After reaching the base of the 
hill, he organized a search party and 
again ascended the slope for a final check 
on missing Marines, locating and carry- 
ing the bodies of a machine gun crew 
back down the hill. Wounded a second 
time while conducting the entire force to 
the line of departure through a continu- 
ing barrage of enemy small arms, artillery 
and mortar fire, he again refused medical 
assistance until assured that every one of 
his men, including all casualties, had pre- 
ceded him to the main lines. . . ." 

MURRAY, Raymond Leroy. Brigadier 
General. Selected for promotion to major 
general in July 1962. Now serving as CG, 
Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Is., 
S.C.: b. Los Angeles, Calif., Jan. 30, 1913. 



Raymond Murray attended schools in 
Alhambra, Calif., and Harlingen, Tex., 
graduating from high school in 1930. On 
July 9, 1935, following graduation from 
Texas A&M College, he accepted his 
commission as a Marine second lieuten- 
ant. After completing Basic School at 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard in Mar. 
1936, he joined the 2nd Mar. Brig, in San 
Diego, Calif. Embarking with the brigade 
for China in Sept. 1937, he served for a 
short time with the 2nd Bn. in Shanghai. 
In Jan. 1938, he joined the Marine De- 
tachment at the American Embassy in 
Peiping. He was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant in Aug. 1938. Upon his return to 
San Diego in Sept. 1940, he again saw 
duty with the 2nd Brig. While there, he 
was promoted to captain in Mar. 1941. 
That May, he sailed for duty in Iceland 
with the 6th Marines (Reinf.), 1st Prov. 
Mar. Brig., and later graduated from the 
British Force Tactical School. After the 
brigade was disbanded, he returned to 
San Diego in Apr. 1942, and the follow- 
ing month was promoted to major. In 
Oct. 1942, Murray embarked with the 
6th Marines for the Pacific area. For 
conspicuous gallantry on Guadalcanal in 
Jan. 1943, as commander of the 2nd Bn., 
6th Marines, he was awarded his first Sil- 
ver Star Medal. He was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel in June 1943. Lt. Col. 
Murray was awarded a second Silver 
Star Medal for conspicuous gallantry 
while commanding the same unit on 
Tarawa in Nov. 1943. Serving in this 
same capacity on Saipan, his heroism 
in remaining at his post although se- 
riously wounded and continuing to 
direct his battalion during the initial 
assault earned him his first Navy Cross 
on June 15, 1944. Returning to the States 
in Aug. 1944, he entered the Command 
and Staff School at Quantico the follow- 
ing month. After brief duty as an instruc- 



153 



MURRAY 



MYERS 



tor, he was named Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-3, 1st Special Mar. Brig., moving 
with the brigade to Camp Lejeime, N.C., 
in Feb. 1946. In Oct. 1946, he departed 
for duty in the Pacific area as Deputy 
Chief of Staff, HQ, Marine Garrison 
Forces, Pacific, and the following Apr. 
was named Inspector of Marine Garrison 
Forces. He returned to Quantico in July 
1948 for temporary duty on the Marine 
Corps Board at Marine Corps Schools. 
Transferred to Camp Pendleton, Calif., 
in Jan. 1949, he served consecutively as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4; as CO, 3rd 
Marines; and as Executive Officer, 5th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. In July 1950, 
when the 1st Prov. Mar. Brig, was formed 
for duty in Korea, he was ordered over- 
seas with the 5th Mar. Regt. which was 
to be the nucleus for the brigade. As 
CO, 5th Marines, he was awarded his 
third and fourth Silver Star Medal 
(Army) and the Legion of Merit during 
action in Aug. and Sept. 1950. With his 
unit, he participated in the battles of the 
Naktong River perimeter, Wolmi-Inchon, 
Seoul, and Wonsan; and in the Marine 
advance north toward the Yalu River. He 
was subsequently awarded the Army Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross for extarordinary 
heroism in the 1st Division's historic 
breakout from the Chosin Reservoir area 
to the sea at Hamhimg, and two days 
later took part in the action which earned 
him his second Navy Cross. Shortly after- 
ward, with his regiment committed to 
fighting on the central Korean front, he 
was advanced to the rank of colonel in 
Jan. 195L Following his return from 
Korea, he served from May until Aug. 
1951 at HQMC, Washington, D.C., then 
entered the National War College. On 
completing the course in June 1952, he 
saw two years' duty as CO, Basic School, 
MCS, Quantico. In July 1954, he was 
ordered to the MCB, Camp Pendleton. 



Col. Murray remained at Camp Pendle- 
ton four years, serving first as CO, 1st 
Inf. Training Regt. until Feb. 1955; then 
as Chief of Staff of the MCB until July 
1957. During his final year there, he was 
assigned to the 1st Mar. Div., serving as 
Division Inspector, Chief of Staff, and 
Assistant Chief of Staff, respectively. In 
July 1958, he assumed duties as Chief of 
Staff, MCB, Camp Lejeune. He was pro- 
moted to his present rank of brigadier 
general in June 1959. Gen. Murray de- 
parted for Okinawa the following month 
and assumed duties as Assistant Division 
Commander, 3rd Mar. Div., in Aug. 
1959. In July 1960, he reported to Camp 
Pendleton, as Deputy Base Commander 
and subsequently, in Mar. 1961, became 
CG of the MCB, Camp Pendleton. He 
served in the latter capacity until June 
1962. On July 1, 1962, he assumed com- 
mand of the MCRD, Parris Is. 

MURRAY, William H. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Brooklyn, N.Y., June 3, 1876. 
(Served under the name of Henry W. 
Davis.) William Murray enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y., on Apr. 
8, 1898. His citation reads, in part: ". . . 
for meritorious conduct in the presence 
of the enemy at Peking, China, July 21 
to Aug. 17, 1900. . , ." He was discharged 
from the Corps on Apr. 8, 1903. 

MYERS, John Twiggs. Lieutenant Gen- 
eral: b. Weisbaden, Germany, Jan. 29, 
1871; d. Coconut Grove, Fla., Apr. 17, 
1952. John Myers entered the U.S. Naval 
Academy in Sept. 1887. Graduating in 
1892, he continued to hold the rank of 
naval cadet. He was transferred from the 
Navy to the Marine Corps on Mar. 6, 

1895, and accepted appointment as a sec- 
ond lieutenant the following day. In May 

1896, after completing the course at the 
School of Application in Washington, 



154 



MYERS 



MYERS 




/. T. Myers 

D.C., he was ordered to the Naval War 
College at Newport, R.I. He then served 
briefly at the MB, Boston, Mass, before 
joining the barracks detachment at Mare 
Is., Calif, in Nov. of the same year. He 
left Mare Is. May 7, 1898, to join the 
Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
Charleston, which sailed a few days later 
to convoy six troop ships to the Philip- 
pines. En route, the Charleston stopped 
at Guam, and on June 21, Lt. Myers ac- 
companied the captain of the Charleston 
ashore as head of a landing party of 16 
sailors and 30 Marines. They disarmed 
and made prisoners of the Spanish gar- 
rison on the island. After that, the convoy 
moved on to the Philippines, where 
Myers was transferred to the USS Balti- 
more in July 1899. While attached to that 
ship during the Philippine Insurrection, 



he commanded a landing expedition 
which went ashore under fire to capture 
and destroy an Insurrecto gun at Port 
Olongapo on Sept. 23 and made another 
landing under fire at Bacoor on Oct. 2. 
He also commanded a 100-man landing 
force which took over the naval station 
at Subic Bay on Dec. 10, 1899, the day 
after it was captured by the Army. On 
Apr. 18, 1900, he was transferred from 
the Baltimore to the USS Oregon,, and 
on May 24 of the same year he was de- 
tached to the USS Newark. Meanwhile, 
a wave of violence, led by an athletic 
society known as the Boxers, was erupt- 
ing in China, during which a number of 
foreigners were killed or subjected to 
gross indignities. The Imperial Govern- 
ment, sympathizing with the movement, 
did little to stop it, and the foreigners in 
Peking were soon forced to take refuge 
in the legations there. On May 28, E. H. 
Conger, the American Minister at Pe- 
king, telegraphed the Commander in 
Chief of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron at 
Taku to send an armed force for the 
protection of the legation. The follow- 
ing day Myers set out for that city as 
commander of a force of 48 Marines 
and three sailors from the Oregon and 
Brooklyn. Together with detachments of 
British, Russian, French, Italian and Jap- 
anese Marines, they reached Peking at 
11 o'clock on the night of May 31, just 
before the city was encircled. On June 
24 serious fighting broke out on the walls 
of the legation as hordes of Boxers, 
armed with swords, spears, clubs, stones, 
noise-makers, and several 3-inch field 
pieces, attempted to overwhelm the 
handful of foreign troops. A German de- 
tachment repulsed the first attack and 
the U.S. Marines hurled back a second, 
causing heavy losses among the Boxers. 
After that the Chinese changed their tac- 
tics and began building a tower on the 



155 



MYERS 



MYERS 



ancient wall above the American Lega- 
tion, only about 25 feet from the Marines* 
position. Since this would have allowed 
the Boxers to fire at will on the troops 
and civilians below, Minister Conger re- 
ported this danger to the British Minister, 
Sir Claude M. MacDonald, who had been 
picked by common consent as command- 
er of the international defense. He agreed 
to the American's suggestion that an at- 
tack should be made on the tower and 
the Chinese barricade behind it. Myers 
was picked to head the attacking force, 
composed of himself and 14 other Ameri- 
can Marines, 16 Russian and 25 British 
Marines. His plan was to have the Rus- 
sians hit the barricade from the north, 
while the American and British Marines 
were to assault the tower, then fight their 
way to the barricade, along a trench 
which ran from it to the tower. At a sig- 
nal from Myers, the attack began about 
3 o'clock on the morning of July 3. The 
Anglo-American force, with Myers in the 
lead, found the tower empty when they 
reached it, then proceeded along the 
trench, where they ran into bitter, hand- 
to-hand fighting. Myers was badly 
wounded by a spear during the action 
in the trench, but the attack continued 
until the barricade was in friendly hands. 
In addition to the wounded Myers, the 
allied losses included two U.S. Marines 
and one Russian killed and two Russian 
and three British Marines severely 
wounded. Estimates of enemy losses ran 
as high as 50 dead. The disheartened 
Boxers agreed to an uneasy truce on July 
16. Myers was brevetted a major and ad- 
vanced four numbers in rank for his brav- 
ery. A relief column finally reached 
Peking on Aug. 14 and the following 
month Myers, convalescing from typhoid 
fever and the spear wound in his leg, 
was ordered to the U.S. Naval Hospital 
at Yokohama, Japan. From there he was 



transferred to the Naval Hospital at Mare 
Is. He remained there until Dec. 1902, 
when he took command of the MB at 
Bremerton, Wash. Myers left Bremerton 
in May 1903, arriving on the east coast 
the following month to take command of 
the Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
Brooklyn. He held that command until 
Apr. 1905, then served at the Naval War 
College in Newport, afterward taking 
command of the School for Noncommis- 
sioned Officers at the MB, Washington, 
D.C. in Oct. of the same year. In May 
1906, he took command of the barracks 
detachment there, serving in that assign- 
ment until he left Washington that July. 
The following month he returned to the 
Philippines, commanding the 1st Mar. 
Regt. there until Jan. 1907, when he was 
assigned to the USS West Virginia as 
commander of its Marine Detachment 
and Fleet Marine Officer of the Asiatic 
Fleet. In May 1909, Maj. Myers was 
transferred from the West Virginia to the 
USS Tennessee for duty as Fleet Marine 
Officer, Pacific Fleet, but the following 
month, because of a serious intestinal 
infection, he was ordered once more to 
the Naval Hospital at Mare Is. Myers was 
hospitalized or on sick leave until Jan. 
1911, when he entered the Army Field 
Officers' Course at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kans. Completing that course in Mar. 
1911, he was stationed briefly at the MB, 
Philadelphia, Pa. and on recruiting duty 
in Boston before he entered the Army 
War College in Washington that Aug. 
Graduating in July 1912, he took com- 
mand of the MB at the Washington Navy 
Yard the following month. His service 
there was interrupted by expeditionary 
duty as a battalion commander with the 
2nd Prov. Mar. Regt. off Santo Domingo 
in 1912 and with the 2nd Regiment, 2nd 
Prov. Mar. Brig, at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba the following year. He left Wash- 



156 



M YE US 



MYERS 



ington in Apr. 1913, to serve for the next 
year as commander of the MB, Honolulu, 
T.H. In Apr. 1914, he returned from 
that assignment to take command of the 
1st Bn., 4th Mar. Regt. at Mare Is., sail- 
ing with that unit for the west coast of 
Mexico later the same month. The regi- 
ment remained aboard the battleship 
South Dakota in Mexican waters during 
a period of strained relations between 
the United States and that country, but 
did not land. The regiment returned to 
the States in July and Myers, still com- 
manding its 1st Bn., was stationed with 
it at San Diego, Calif, until Feb. 1915, 
when that unit was assigned duty at the 
Panama Pacific International Exposition 
in San Francisco, Calif. The battalion 
was ordered to sea duty with the Pacific 
Fleet in Nov. 1915 and in Feb. of the 
following year, after service on the USS 
San Diego and USS Buffalo, it returned 
to San Diego. Myers, now a lieutenant 
colonel, was detached from the 1st Bn., 
4th Marines in June 1916, and assigned 
to the Atlantic Fleet as Fleet Marine 
Officer and Counterintelligence Officer 
on the staff of its commander. Serving in 
those capacities for most of WWI, he 
was stationed aboard the USS Wyoming 
until Oct. 1916, and on the USS Penn- 
sylvania from then until Aug. 1918, 
when he took command of the MB at 
Parris Is., S.C. He remained there until 
the war ended that Nov. In Jan. 1919, 
after a short time at Quantico, Myers 
assumed command of the MB at Pearl 
Harbor, where he was stationed until 
Aug. 1921. He was then named Adjutant 
and Inspector of the Department of the 
Pacific, with headquarters at San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., serving in that assignment 
until May 1924. After that, he com- 
manded the MCB at San Diego from 
June of that year to Nov. 1925. Myers 
then sailed for Haiti to take command of 



the 1st Mar. Brig. He returned from that 
tour of expeditionary duty in Jan. 1928 
and the following month reported to 
HQMC in Washington. There, after serv- 
ing on various boards, he was named 
Assistant to the Major General Comman- 
dant in Apr. 1930, serving in that ca- 
pacity until Feb. 1933. A month later he 
returned to San Francisco where he was 
CG, Department of the Pacific and West- 
ern Recruiting Area, until he was placed 
on the retired list, Feb. 1, 1935 at the 
statutory retirement age of 64. A major 
general when he retired, Gen. Myers was 
promoted to lieutenant general on the 
retired list in 1942, when the law was 
passed authorizing such promotions for 
officers who had been specially com- 
mended in combat. 

MYERS, Reginald Rodney. Colonel. 
Medal of Honor: b. Boise, Idaho, Nov. 
26, 1919. Reginald Myers graduated 
from high school in Salt Lake City, Utah, 
and then from the University of Idaho, 
Moscow, Idaho, in June 1941 with a 
Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical 
engineering. He attained the rank of 
cadet colonel in the ROTC at the uni- 
versity. On Sept. 1, 1941, he resigned his 
Army Reserve commission to accept ap- 
pointment as a second lieutenant in the 
Marine Corps. He completed Marine 
Officers* Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard, then served as a company 
commander at the MCB, San Diego, 
Calif. In June 1942, he joined the Marine 
Detachment on board the USS New Or- 
leans for a year's duty at sea. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in Oct. 1942, 
and to captain in Apr. 1943. In July 1943, 
Capt. Myers became CO of the Marine 
Detachment on board the USS Minneap- 
olis. While serving on the New Orleans, 
he fought the Japanese at Guadalcanal, 
Tulagi, the Eastern Solomons, and Tassa- 



157 



MYE RS 



MYERS 



faronga. Later, aboard the Minneapolis, 
he participated in the Gilbert, Marshall, 
Marianas, and western Caroline Is. cam- 
paigns. Returning briefly to the States 
in Oct. 1944, he was promoted to major 
in Jan. 1945. Maj. Myers again returned 
to the Pacific area in June 1945, and 
served with the 5th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div., during the assault on Okinawa, 
and in the landing on and occupation of 
northern China. He returned to the States 
in May 1946, and served at Mare Island, 
Calif., Norfolk, Va., and Cherry Point, 
N.C. At Cherry Point, he served as As- 
sistant G-4, Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic, and 
2nd MAW, from Aug. 1948 until May 
1950. Ordered to Korea in July 1950, Maj. 
Myers served as Executive Officer, 3rd 
Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. For his 
part in the Inchon landing, Sept. 15, 
1950, he was awarded the Bronze Star 
Medal with Combat "V"; and for his 
heroism in helping rescue two wounded 
Marines four days later, he was awarded 
a Gold Star in lieu of a second Bronze 
Star Medal. He earned the Medal of 
Honor in Korea for fearlessly leading 250 
United Nations troops to victory over 
4000 of the enemy. The battle occurred 
Nov. 29, 1950, as the Chinese Commun- 
ists threatened to envelop United States 
10th Army Corps forces at the Chosin 
Reservoir. His citation reads, in part: 
"... as executive officer of the 3rd Bn., 
1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in 
action against enemy aggressor forces in 
Korea on Nov. 29, 1950. Assuming com- 
mand- of a composite unit of Army and 
Marine service and headquarters ele- 
ments totaling approximately 250 men, 
during a critical stage in the vital defense 
of the strategically important military 
base at Hagaru-ri, Maj. Myers immediate- 
ly initiated a determined and aggressive 
counterattack against a well-entrenched 
and cleverly concealed enemy force num- 



bering an estimated 4000. Severely han- 
dicapped by a lack of trained personnel 
and experienced leaders in his valiant 
efforts to regain maximum ground prior 
to daylight, he persisted in constantly 
exposing himself to intense, accurate and 
sustained hostile fire in order to direct 
and supervise the employment of his 
men and to encourage and spur them on 
in pressing the attack. Inexorably moving 
forward up the steep, snow-covered slope 
with his depleted group in the face of 
apparently insurmountable odds, he con- 
currently directed artillery and mortar 
fire with superb skill and, although los- 
ing 170 of his men during 14 hours of 
raging combat in sub-zero temperatures, 
continued to reorganize his unit and 
spearhead the attack which resulted in 
600 enemy killed and 500 wounded." 
Maj. Myers returned to the States in June 
1951. That Aug. he reported to the Basic 
School, MCS, Quantico, as a battalion 
commander. While stationed at Quantico, 
he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
Dec. 1951. Assigned next to Washington, 
D.C., Lt. Col. Myers served as Inspector- 
Instructor of the 5th Special Inf. Bn., 
USMCR, from Sept 1952 through Aug. 
1953, and Inspector-Instructor, 13th Inf. 
Bn., USMCR, from Sept. 1953 through 
July 1955. Following this assignment, he 
entered the Senior School at MCS, Quan- 
tico, and completed the course in June 
1956. He remained at Quantico until 
Apr. 1958, serving as CO, H&S Bn., and 
as Executive Officer, Basic School, re- 
spectively. Following temporary duty at 
the Foreign Service Institute, Washing- 
ton, D.C., he was assigned as Assistant 
Naval Attache at the U.S. Embassy in 
London, England. He left London July 
31, 1961, to become Head, International 
Planning Section, Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations, Pentagon, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 



158 



N 



NEVILLE, Wendell Gushing. Major 
General. 14th Commandant of the Ma- 
rine Corps -Mar. 5, 1929, to July 8, 
1930. Medal of Honor: b. Portsmouth, 
Va., May 12, 1870; d. July 8, 1930. Wen- 
dell Neville entered the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, Md. in 1886, after learning 
that an appointment to the Academy had 
not been filled in his district. He received 
his diploma in 1890 and following a two- 
year cruise aboard a warship was com- 
missioned a second lieutenant in the 
Marine Corps. At the outbreak of the 
Spanish-American War, Lt. Neville was 
assigned to the 1st Mar. Bn., hurriedly 
organized under Lt Col. W. R. Hunting- 
ton for service in Cuba. The battalion 
staged an attack under heavy gunfire at 
Guantanamo Bay, established a beach- 
head and routed enemy forces in that 
area. For outstanding valor and leader- 
ship in that action, Lt. Neville was 
awarded the Brevet Medal, highest Ma- 
rine Corps decoration at that time, and 
was promoted to the brevet rank of 
captain. Promoted to the permanent rank 
of captain a few months after the war, 
he was assigned to a battalion of Ma- 
rines ordered to China to relieve the 
hard-pressed garrison at Peking during 
the Boxer Rebellion. He took part in four 
battles in that area and was again com- 
mended for his gallantry. In the Philip- 
pine Is. not long afterward, he was 
appointed military governor of Basilan 
Province. Following that assignment he 
served in Cuba, Nicaragua, Panama, 
and Hawaii. While in command of Ma- 
rines landing at Vera Cruz on Apr. 21, 
1914, he displayed conspicuous gallantry. 
In that operation, Lt. Col. Neville was 
awarded the Medal of Honor for his dis- 



tinguished conduct. His citation reads, in 
part "... his duties required him to be at 
points of great danger in directing his 
officers and men, and he exhibited con- 
spicuous courage, coolness, and skill in 
his conduct of the fighting. Upon his 
courage and skill depended, in great 
measure, success or failure. . . ." Prior to 
his embarkation for France in 1917, Col. 
Neville returned to China where he was 
chosen to command the combined Allied 
guard at Peking. On Jan. 1, 1918, he 
was placed in command of the 5th Mar. 
Regt. in France, and in May moved his 
regiment into action at Belleau Wood 
where Germany's big drive was decisive- 
ly halted. In July Gen. Neville's com- 
mand was enlarged to include the 4th 
Mar. Brig, which he directed during the 
remaining days of the war and during 
its occupation service in Germany. After 
service with the Army of Occupation in 
Germany, Gen. Neville and his brigade 
returned to the States in July 1919. Pro- 
moted to major general in Mar. 1920, 
he served as assistant to the CMC and 
later became CG, Department of the Pa- 
cific, with headquarters in San Francisco. 
Prior to becoming Commandant on 
Mar. 5, 1929, he was in command of the 
MB, Quantico, Va. Gen. Neville's sudden 
death on July 8 ? 1930, while in office as 
Major General Commandant, closed one 
of the most brilliant military careers of 
his day a career of service that extend- 
ed through many important chapters of 
Marine Corps history: Guantanamo Bay, 
the Siege of Peking, Tientsin, the Philip- 
pine Insurrection, Panama, Vera Cruz, 
Belleau Wood, Soissons, St.-Mihiel, 
Meuse-Argonne, the Rhine, and Coblenz. 



159 



NEW 



NICHOLAS 



NEW, John Dury. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Aug. 12, 1924; d. 
KIA, Peleliu Is., Sept. 25, 1944. P.F.C. 
New's citation reads, in part: "... while 
serving with the 2nd Bn., 7th Marines, 
1st Mar. Div., in action against enemy 
Japanese forces on Peleliu Is., Sept. 25, 
1944. When a Japanese soldier emerged 
from a cave in a cliff directly below an 
observation post and suddenly hurled a 
hand grenade into the position from 
which two of our men were directing 
mortar fire against enemy emplacements, 
P.F.C. New instantly perceived the dire 
peril to the other Marines and, with utter 
disregard for his own safety, unhesitat- 
ingly flung himself upon the grenade 
and absorbed the full impact of the ex- 
plosion, thus saving the lives of the two 
observers." 

NICHOLAS, Samuel. 1st Commandant 
of the Marine Corps - Nov. 28, 1775 to 
Aug. 1783: b. 1744, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
d. Aug. 27, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa. First 
officer commissioned in the Marine Corps 
by the Second Continental Congress on 
Nov. 5, 1775, five days before the recog- 
nized birth of the Corps itself. His com- 
mission, however, was confirmed on Nov. 
28th when the President of Congress 
signed an order making him a captain at 
the wage of $32 a month. Nicholas im- 
mediately set up a recruiting station in 
the old Tun Tavern to enlist Marines for 
duty aboard the Black Prince (later 
named the Alfred). The Black Prince and 
several other vessels were outfitted and 
received Marine Detachments; then, in 
the spring of 1776, they sailed to the 
Bahamas and, at New Providence, they 
surprised the British garrison. Capt. 
Nicholas and a landing force of 200 Ma- 
rines and 50 bluejackets captured the 
town and the forts which defended it, 
taking away with them valuable stores 




Nicholas 

and ammunition. This was the first am- 
phibious operation the Marine Corps had 
ever attempted. Following this success- 
ful action, the fleet returned north. On 
June 25, 1776, in Philadelphia, Nicholas 
was promoted to Major of Marines and 
ordered to "discipline four companies of 

Marines for guards on frigates " In 

Dec. of the same year, Maj. Nicholas re- 
ceived orders to march with three com- 
panies of his Marines "to be under the 
command of his excellency, The Com- 
mander in Chief, in operations against 
the British in New Jersey/* The battles 
of Trenton and Princeton followed. 
Nicholas and his Marines remained with 
Gen. Washington's army until the end 
of winter. In the spring of 1777, Nicholas 
returned to Philadelphia and served as 
Commanding Officer of Marines. His 



160 



NICSCERSON 



N1CKERSON 



duties, since he exercised general super- 
vision over the Continental Marines, 
closely coincided with those of the 
Commandant today. Throughout the re- 
mainder of the war he continued to serve 
in this capacity in the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia. When the Revolutionary War 
ended the Marines, along with the Navy, 
were temporarily disbanded in 1783 and 
Nicholas returned to civilian life. He re- 
mained in Philadelphia until his death in 
1790. On May 12, 1919, he was honored 
by the Navy when a new destroyer was 
christened the USS Nicholas. 




Nickerson 



NICKERSON, Herman, Jr. Major Gen- 
eral. CG, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), Fleet 
Marine Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif.: 
b. Boston, Mass., July 30, 1913. Follow- 



ing graduation from high school at 
Arlington, Mass., Herman Nickerson en- 
tered Boston University where he was a 
member of the ROTC unit for four years. 
Upon graduation he resigned an Army 
Reserve commission to accept appoint- 
ment as a Marine second lieutenant on 
July 10, 1935. After completing Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
Feb. 1936, he embarked for Shanghai, 
China, where he served for two and a 
half years with the 4th Marines. While 
in China, he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant in Aug. 1938. On his return to the 
States in Nov. 1938, he served as CO of 
the Marine Detachment at NAS, Seattle, 
Wash. Joining the 2nd Defense Bn. in 
Sept. 1940, he served with them in San 
Diego, Calif., and Parris Is., S.C. In May 
1941, he was promoted to captain while 
on temporary duty under instruction at 
the Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, 
Va. In Dec. 1941, following the attack 
on Pearl Harbor, Nickerson departed 
Parris Is. for San Diego with the 2nd De- 
fense Bn. to join the 2nd Mar. Brig, 
overseas. Arriving on American Samoa 
in Jan. 1942, he served consecutively as 
Battery Commander, Group Executive 
Officer, and finally Group Commander, 
3-Inch Antiaircraft Artillery Group. 
While overseas, he was promoted to 
major in May 1942, and to lieutenant col- 
onel in June 1943. He returned to the 
States in July 1943. That Oct., Lt. Col. 
Nickerson was assigned to MCS, Quan- 
tico, as CO of the Ordnance School, and 
subsequently completed the Command 
and Staff School. In Feb. 1945, he joined 
the 4th Inf. Training Regt. at Camp 
Pendleton, Calif., and again embarked 
for duty in the Pacific area, serving as 
Ordnance Officer, 4th Mar. Div., and 
Executive Officer, 25th Marines. He later 
saw duty as Ordnance Officer with the 
III Amphibious Corps in Tientsin, China, 



161 



NICKERSON 



N y G E N T 



and following dissolving of the 3rd Am- 
phibious Corps, served as Division Ord- 
nance Officer and Division Legal Officer, 
respectively, of the 1st Mar. Div. In Jan. 
1947, on his return to the States, he be- 
gan a three-year assignment at the 
MCRD, Parris Is., serving consecutively 
as Assistant G-3, Recruit Training Bat- 
talion Commander, Weapons Training 
Battalion Commander, and Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3. He also saw tem- 
porary duty from Jan. through Aug. 1949 
as a U.S. Military Observer with the 
United Nations Mission in Palestine and 
seven Arab States. Following this, he 
completed the Armed Forces Staff Col- 
lege, Norfolk, Va., and was promoted to 
colonel in July 1950. That same month, 
upon the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, 
he departed for the Far East. From Aug. 
1950 to Apr. 1951, he served as Advisor 
on Marine Corps Matters, GHQ, Far 
East Command, and also performed tem- 
porary additional duty in Korea. For 
conspicuous gallantry in Sept. 1950 as 
Liaison Officer, 1st Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div., during the advance along the 
Inchon-Seoul highway and the Han River 
crossing, he was awarded the Silver Star 
Medal. In Apr. 1951, he became CO of 
the 7th Marines in Korea, serving in this 
capacity through Sept. 1951. During the 
early part of this period, he earned both 
the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" 
and, subsequently, the Army Distin- 
guished Service Cross. Col. Nickerson 
was named Inspector of FMF, Pacific, in 
Oct. 1951. In Mar. 1952, he returned to 
MCS, Quantico, where he served as Di- 
rector, "Advance Base Problem Section 
until June 1954, and Director, Senior 
School, until July 1956. He served next 



as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, FMF, 
Pacific, at Pearl Harbor, from Aug. 1956 
to Dec. 1957. In Jan. 1958, he joined 
FMF, Atlantic, at Norfolk as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3. Transferred to 
HQMC in Sept. 1958, Col. Nickerson 
served as Special Assistant to the Fiscal 
Director until Apr. 1959, when he was 
named Fiscal Director of the Marine 
Corps. He was promoted to brigadier 
general on Jan. 1, 1959. While at HQMC, 
Gen. Nickerson was elected President of 
the American Society of Military Comp- 
trollers in 1959 and again in 1960. He 
completed his tour of duty as Fiscal Di- 
rector of the Marine Corps in May 1962. 
That June he assumed command of the 
1st Mar. Div. at Camp Pendleton. He 
was promoted to his present rank of 
major general, July 1, 1962, having been 
authorized the title and uniform of a 
major general while en route and prior 
to reporting to his current command. 

NUGENT, Christopher. Orderly Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. County Caven, 
Ireland, 1840; d. New York, 1898. Chris- 
topher Nugent enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Feb. 8, 1858 at Boston, Mass. 
During a seven-year career in the Corps 
he served aboard various ships and, 
while an orderly sergeant on the USS 
Fort Henry, he was awarded the Medal 
of Honor for "displaying extraordinary 
zeal, skill, and discretion in driving a 
guard of rebel soldiers into a swamp, 
capturing their arms, and destroying 
their camp equipage while in charge of 
a reconnoitering party sent into Crystal 
River, Fla., on June 15, 1863." Nugent 
was discharged from the Corps on Oct. 
9, 1865. 



162 



o 




O'Bannon 

O'BANNON, Presley Neville. First Lieu- 
tenant: b. Fauquier County, Va., 1776; 
d Logan County, Ky., Sept. 12, 1850. 
Presley O'Bannon was appointed a sec- 
ond lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 
Jan. 18, 1801. He was promoted to first 
lieutenant on Oct. 15, 1802. When the 
Barbary States were levying unfair trib- 
ute from nations who sent merchant ships 
through the Mediterranean, O'Bannon, 
in charge of seven Marines, was sent to 
Egypt where he and his small force 
joined "General" William Eaton who had 
organized a motley horde of Greek mer- 
cenaries, Arab cavalrymen, and French 



soldiers of fortune for the purpose of 
overthrowing the ruling Tripolitan pasha 
and replacing him with the rightful own- 
er of the throne. After unbelievable mu- 
tinies and disappointments, suffered in 
a 600-mile trek across the desert, Eaton's 
"Army" reached Derne, Tripoli, on Apr. 
26, 1805. The following day, led by Lt. 
O'Bannon and his few Marines, they 
stormed the old fortress and raised the 
American flag, for the first time, over 
foreign soil. O'Bannon's heroism and 
leadership throughout the desert journey 
and the final battle contributed heavily 
to the success of the expedition. In recog- 
nition for his gallantry, the pasha pre- 
sented O'Bannon with a jeweled sword 
with a Mameluke hilt. On his return to 
the States, Virginia awarded him another 
sword, a true scimitar. The blade of this 
sword has more curve than the similar 
sword worn by Marine officers today. 
O'Bannon retired from the Corps on Mar. 
6, 1807. He spent the remainder of his 
life in Kentucky and, after his death, a 
monument was erected in Frankfort to 
commemorate his heroic service to his 
country. 

OBREGON, Eugene Arnold. Private 
First Class. Medal of Honor: b. Los An- 
geles, Calif, Nov. 12, 1930; d. KIA, Seoul, 
Korea, Sept. 26, 1950. P.F.C. Obregon's 
citation reads, in part: ". . . while serving 
with Co. G, 3rd Bn, 5th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces at Seoul, Korea 
on Sept. 26, 1950. While serving as an 
ammunition carrier of a machine gun 
squad in a Marine rifle company which 
was temporarily pinned down by hostile 
fire, P.F.C. Obregon observed a fellow 



163 



O'BRIEN 



OSTERMANN 



Marine fall wounded in the line of fire. 
Armed only with a pistol, he unhesitat- 
ingly dashed from his covered position 
to the side of the casualty. Firing his 
pistol with one hand as he ran, he 
grasped his comrade by the arm with 
his other hand and, despite the great 
peril to himself, dragged him to the side 
of the road. Still under enemy fire, he 
was bandaging the man's wounds when 
hostile troops of approximately platoon 
strength began advancing toward his 
position. Quickly seizing the wounded 
Marine's carbine, he placed his own 
body as a shield in front of him and lay 
there firing accurately and effectively 
into the hostile group until he himself 
was fatally wounded by enemy machine 
gun fire. . . ." 

O'BRIEN, George Herman, Jr. Captain. 
Medal of Honor: b. Fort Worth, Tex., 
Sept. 10, 1926. Capt. O'Brien's citation 
reads, in part: ". . . as a rifle platoon com- 
mander of Co. H, 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces in Korea on Oct. 
27, 1952. With his platoon subjected to 
an intense mortar and artillery bom- 
bardment while preparing to assault a 
vitally important hill position on the 
main line of resistance which had been 
overrun by a numerically superior enemy 
force on the preceding night, (then) 2nd 
Lt. O'Brien leaped from his trench when 
the attack signal was given and, shout- 
ing for his men to follow, raced across 
an exposed saddle and up the enemy- 
held hill through a virtual hail of deadly 
small arms, artillery, and mortar fire. Al- 
though shot through the arm and thrown 
to the ground by hostile automatic weap- 
ons fire as he neared the well-entrenched 
enemy position, he bravely regained his 
feet, waved his men onward, and con- 
tinued to spearhead the assault, pausing 



only long enough to go to the aid of a 
wounded Marine. Encountering the en- 
emy at close range, he proceeded to hurl 
hand grenades into the bunkers and, 
utilizing his carbine to best advantage 
in savage hand-to-hand combat, succeed- 
ed in killing at least three of the enemy. 
Struck down by the concussion of gre- 
nades on three occasions during the sub- 
sequent action, he steadfastly refused to 
be evacuated for medical treatment and 
continued to lead his platoon in the as- 
sault for a period of nearly four hours, 
repeatedly encouraging his men and 
maintaining superb direction of the unit. 
With the attack halted, he set up a de- 
fense with his remaining forces to pre- 
pare for a counterattack, personally 
checking each position, attending to the 
wounded, and expediting their evacua- 
tion. When a relief of the position was 
effected by another unit, he remained to 
cover the withdrawal and to assure that 
no wounded were left behind. . . ." 

ORNDOFF, Harry Westley. Private. 
Medal of Honor: b. Sandusky, Ohio, 
Nov. 9, 1872; d. July 14, 1938. Harry 
Orndoff enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Mare Is., Calif, on Oct. 17, 1896. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor on Dec. 10, 
1901 ". . . for distinguished conduct in 
the presence of the enemy in battles on 
June 13, 20, 21 and 22, 1900, while with 
the relief expedition of the Allied Forces 
in China. . . ." He was discharged from 
the Corps with a medical survey on 
Jan. 21, 1902. 

OSTERMANN, Edward Albert. Major 
General (Retired). Medal of Honor: b. 
Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 23, 1882. Edward 
Ostermann accepted a commission as a 
second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
on Mar. 20, 1907. His long career took 
him to Cuba, Panama, China, Nicaragua, 



164 



O V I A T T 



OWENS 



Mexico, Haiti, Hawaii, and the Philip- 
pines. He was awarded the Medal of 
Honor .in 1917 for his conspicuous gal- 
lantry in action, incident to the capture 
of Fort Dipitie, Haiti, on Oct. 24, 1915. 
The citation accompanying the medal 
states that a Marine detachment was 
crossing a river in a deep ravine at night 
when it was suddenly fired upon from 
three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed 
in the bushes about 100 yards from the 
objective, Fort Dipitie. The Marines 
fought their way forward to a good posi- 
tion and maintained it throughout the 
night despite the continuous fire of the 
Cacos. At daybreak, the Marines in three 
squads commanded by Lt. Ostermann, 
Capt. William P. Upshur, and Gy. Sgt. 
Daniel Daly, advanced in three different 
directions, surprising and scattering the 
Cacos in all directions. Capt. Upshur's 
and Lt. Ostermann's squads then went 
on to capture the fort with a total of 13 
Marines. The fort was demolished and 
burned and the garrison was put to flight. 
"These men were in pitch darkness sur- 
rounded by ten times their number and 
fighting for their lives. . . ." the citation 
states; "... Had one squad failed, not 
one man of the party would have lived to 
tell the story. . . " Gen. Ostermann, Capt. 
Upshur (who also became a general), 
Gy. Sgt. Dan Daly, and Maj. Smedley 
D. Butler all received the Medal of Hon- 
or for this battle. Gen. Ostermann was 
retired because of physical disability on 
Jan. 1, 1943 and, because of having been 
"specially commended for his perform- 
ance of duty in actual combat/' he was 
promoted to the rank of major general on 
the retired list. 

OVIATT, Miles M. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b. Cattaraugus County, N.Y., 
1841. Miles Oviatt enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Aug. 19, 



1862. His citation reads, in part: ". . . 
while serving on board the USS Brook- 
lyn in the engagement in Mobile Bay, 
Aug. 5, 1864: conspicuous for good con- 
duct at his gun. . . ." 

OWENS, Michael. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b, New York, N.Y. Michael Owens 
enlisted in the Marine Corps at New 
York, N.Y. on Aug. 17, 1865. His citation 
reads, in part: ". . . while serving on board 
the USS Colorado during the capture of 
Korean forts, June 11, 1871 . . . fighting 
hand-to-hand with the enemy . . . and 
badly wounded. . . ." After four reenlist- 
ments, Owens was discharged from the 
Corps with a medical survey on Aug. 17, 
1888. 

OWENS, Robert Allen. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Greenville, S.C., Sept. 13, 
1920; d. KIA, Bougainville, Nov. 1, 1943. 
The landing on the beach at Cape Toro- 
kina, Bougainville, was strongly resisted 
by a well-camouflaged 75-mm. regiment- 
al gun. Strategically placed, the gun had 
already scored direct hits on several of 
the landing craft and it was seriously 
threatening the success of the operation. 
No boats could approach the beach with- 
out passing within 150 yards or less from 
the muzzle. The emplacement was so 
situated that it could only be attacked 
from the front and also in a position 
whereby rifle fire and grenades could not 
reach the gun crew. Sizing up the situa- 
tion, Sgt. Owens decided that the only 
way to neutralize the gun was to charge 
it directly from the front. Calling on four 
volunteers to cover him, he placed them 
where they could keep adjacent bunkers 
under fire. At the moment when he 
judged he had a fair chance of reaching 
his objective, he charged right into the 
emplacement through the fire port, and 
chased the Japanese out the back where 



165 



O Z B O U RN 



OZBO U RN 



they were cut down by his riflemen. 
Pursuing them, he in turn was instantly 
killed. It was discovered that a round 
had been placed in the chamber and the 
breech was almost closed at the moment 
that Sgt. Owens came through the fire 
port. More than 150 rounds of high-ex- 
plosive shells were stacked and ready for 
firing. The enemy had counted heavily 
on this weapon to stop the Marine land- 
ing. On July 22, 1946, the destroyer, USS 
Robert A. Owens was christened at Bath, 
Maine, in his honor. 

OZBOURN, Joseph William. Private. 
Medal of Honor: b. Herrin, 111, Oct. 24, 
1919; d. KIA, Tinian Is, July 30, 1944. 
Pvt. Ozbourn's citation reads, in part: 
". . . as a BAR man serving with the 1st 



Bn, 23rd Marines, 4th Mar. Div, during 
the battle for enemy Japanese-held Tinian 
Is, Marianas Is. on July 30, 1944. As a 
member of a platoon assigned the mission 
of clearing the remaining Japanese 
troops from dugouts and pillboxes along 
a tree line, Pvt. Ozbourn, flanked by two 
men on either side, was moving forward 
to throw an armed hand grenade into a 
dugout when a terrific blast from the 
entrance severely wounded the four men 
and himself. Unable to throw the gre- 
nade into the dugout and with no place 
to hurl it without endangering the other 
men, Pvt. Ozbourn unhesitatingly grasped 
it close to his body and fell upon it, sac- 
rificing his own life to absorb the full 
impact of the explosion but saving his 
comrades. . . ." 



PAIGE, Mitchell. Colonel (Retired). Med- 
al of Honor: b. Charleroi, Pa, Aug. 31, 
1918. Mitchell Paige enlisted in the Ma- 
rine Corps on Sept. 1, 1936 at Baltimore, 
Md. Completing his boot camp training 
at Parris Is., S.C. in Nov. 1936, he was 
transferred to Quantico. Later he served 
aboard the USS Wyoming as a gunner. 
In Feb. 1937, he was transferred to Mare 
Is. Navy Yard for guard duty, and two 
months later was ordered to Cavite in 
the Philippine Is. While in Cavite he be- 
came a member of the All-Navy-Marine 
baseball team which gained prominence 
throughout the island and the Orient. He 
served in China from Oct. 1938 to Sept. 
1939. He left north China and returned 
to the States in Apr. 1940 for guard duty 
at the Brooklyn and Philadelphia Navy 
Yards. In Sept. 1940, he rejoined the 5th 



Marines, at Quantico, and the following 
month participated in maneuvers at 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and Culebra, 
Puerto Rico. In Mar. 1941, he was trans- 
ferred back to the States and ordered to 
New River, N.C. to help construct and 
prepare a new training base for Marines 
which later became Camp Lejeune. After 
the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 
Paige was once more sent overseas with 
the 7th Marines and landed at Apia, 
British Samoa. From Samoa the 7th Ma- 
rines went to Guadalcanal, landing in 
Sept. of 1942. There he won the nation's 
highest decoration in Oct. 1942 when he 
made a desperate lone stand against 
enemy Japanese after they had broken 
through the lines and killed or wounded 
all of the Marines in his machine gun 
section. His citation reads, in part: 



166 



PAIGE 



PAIGE 




Paige 

"... while serving with a company of 
Marines in combat against enemy Jap- 
anese forces in the Solomon Is. on Oct. 
26, 1942. When the enemy broke through 
the line directly in front of his position, 
(then) Plat. Sgt. Paige, commanding a 
machine gun section with fearless deter- 
mination, continued to direct the fire of 
his gunners until all his men were either 
killed or wounded. Alone, against the 
deadly hail of Japanese shells, he fought 
his gun and, when it was destroyed, took 
over another, moving from gun to gun, 
never ceasing his withering fire against 
the advancing hordes until reinforce- 
ments finally arrived. Then, forming a 
new line, he dauntlessly and aggressively 
led a bayonet charge, driving the enemy 
back and preventing a breakthrough in 



our lines " He remained there until 

Jan. 1943 when he went to Melbourne, 
Australia with the 1st Mar. Div. While 
on Guadalcanal he was commissioned a 
second lieutenant in the field on Dec. 19, 
1942, with date of rank from Oct. 2, 1942, 
following his heroic one-man stand. In 
June 1943, he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant. In Sept. 1943, he left with the 
1st Mar. Div. for New Guinea where 
his unit joined the 6th Army for the at- 
tack on Cape Gloucester, New Britain, 
on Dec. 26, 1943. In May 1944, the divi- 
sion left Cape Gloucester for a rest area 
in the Russell Is., Pavuvu. In July 1944, 
Paige was sent back to the States and as- 
signed duty at Camp Lejeune, N.C. In 
June 1945, he became Tactical Training 
Officer at Camp Matthews, Calif., and 
the following Sept., was sent to the 
MCRD as a recruit training officer. He 
was promoted to captain in Feb. 1945. 
Capt. Paige was placed on inactive duty 
in May 1946, returning to active duty 
again in July 1950, and was assigned duty 
at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, Calif. He 
was later transferred to the MCRD at 
San Diego, Calif., as Plans and Opera- 
tions Officer of the 2nd Recruit Training 
Bn. At this time he also went on a special 
assignment as Plans and Training Officer 
in charge of setting up a PLC training 
program for the Special Training Co. He 
was promoted to the rank of major on 
Jan. 1, 1951. In Oct. 1951, Maj. Paige 
became Executive Officer of the 2nd 
Recruit Training Bn., MCRD, San Diego, 
Calif, until Oct. 1952, when he was trans- 
ferred to the 4th Special Junior Course, 
Marine Corps Educational Center, B Co., 
HQ Bn., MCS, Quantico. He attended 
school there until May 1953, then served 
as Division Recruiting Officer, 2nd Mar. 
Div., Camp Lejeune, N.C. until Feb. 
1954. Maj. Paige was next assigned to 
Sub-Unit 2, HQ Co., HQ Bn, 3rd Mar. 



167 



PARKER 



PENDLITON 



Div., San Francisco, Calif., serving as 
Officer in Charge, Division Noncommis- 
sioned Officers* School, 3rd Mar. Div. un- 
til Apr, 1955. During this period he also 
served briefly as Assistant Officer in 
Charge of Sub-Unit 1. From there he 
served as Battalion Executive Officer and 
later CO of the 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div. at Camp Pendleton from Apr. 
1955 until Aug. 1955. That month he re- 
ported to the 12th MCR and Recruit- 
ment District to serve as Officer in 
Charge of Marine Corps Recruiting Sta- 
tion in San Francisco; he was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel in May 1957. In 
Aug. 1957, he was assigned duty as In- 
spector-Instructor, 7th Infantry Bn., 
USMCR, at San Bruno, Calif, until Aug. 
1958, when he was detached to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C. In May 1959, he en- 
tered the U.S. Army Language School 
in Monterey, Calif., and remained there 
for 9 months until he was ordered to 
the MB, U.S. Naval Station, San Diego, 
Calif, to serve as Executive Officer until 
Oct. 1959. He was placed on the Disabil- 
ity Retired List on Nov. 1, 1959. For 
being specially commended for perform- 
ance of duty in actual combat he was 
promoted to colonel upon retirement. 

PARKER, Pomeroy. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Gates County, N.C., Mar. 17, 
1874. Poineroy Parker enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Norfolk, Va. on Sept. 
13, 1892. His citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving on board the USS 
Nashville, for extraordinary bravery and 
coolness while cutting the cables leading 
from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11, 1898, 
under heavy fire of the enemy. . . ." 

PATE, Randolph McCall. General. 21st 
Commandant of the Marine Corps: b. 
Port Royal, S.C., Feb. 11, 1898; d. U.S. 
Naval Hospital, Bethesda, Md., July 31, 



1961. Randolph Pate served a brief tour 
of enlisted service with the U.S. Army in 
1918. Following WWI, he graduated 
from the Virginia Military Institute in 
June 1921 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. 
He was commissioned a second lieu- 
tenant in the MCR in Sept., and accepted 
a commission in the regular Marine 
Corps the following May. In addition to 
expeditionary duty in Santo Domingo 
during 1923 and 1924, Pate served in 
China from 1927 to 1929, and at various 
posts throughout the States during his 
38-year Marine Corps career. During 
WWII Pate, then a colonel serving as 
Deputy Chief of Staff, FMF, Pacific, was 
awarded the Legion of Merit for out- 
standing service during operations on 
Palau, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. In 1947 
he was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of 
a second Legion of Merit for exception- 
ally meritorious service at Guadalcanal 
during the first U.S. offensive against 
Japan. Following WWII, he served as 
Director of the Division of Reserve at 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. and as Direc- 
tor of the Marine Corps Educational 
Center at the MCS, Quantico. He was 
promoted to brigadier general in 1948. 
Ordered to Korea in June 1953, Gen. 
Pate commanded the 1st Mar. Div. until 
May 1954, earning the Distinguished 
Service Medal and the Republic of 
Korea's Order of Military Merit Taiguk. 
Promoted to the rank of general on Jan. 
1, 1956, he became the 21st Comman- 
dant of the Marine Corps, succeeding 
Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. Serving 
in that capacity for four years, Gen. Pate 
was retired with the rank of general on 
Dec. 31, 1959. 

PENDLETON, Joseph Henry. "Uncle 
Joe." Major General: b. Rochester, Pa., 
June 2, I860; d. San Diego, Calif., Feb. 4, 
1942. Joseph Pendleton was appointed to 



168 



PENDLETON 



PENDLETON 




Pendleton 

the U.S. Naval Academy from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1878. After graduating from the 
Academy he was appointed a second 
lieutenant in the Marine Corps on July 
1, 1884, following two years at sea as a 
cadet engineer. His first duty was per- 
formed at the MB, Navy Yard, N.Y., 
where he served from Aug. 31, 1884 to 
Feb. 7, 1885. From here the new lieuten- 
ant joined the USS Pensacola on Mar. 20, 
1885. In Mar. 1888, he reported to the 
MB, N.Y. His next station was the MB, 
Mare Is., Calif, where he served from 
May 24, 1889 to May 12, 1892; but be- 
tween June 21 and Oct. 14, 1891 he was 
on temporary duty on board the Al-Ki, 
cruising the Bering Sea. Lt. Pendleton 
again served in Alaska at the MB, Sitka, 
from June 1892 to June 1894, and from 
Nov. 1899 to Mar. 1904. He was advanced 



to first lieutenant on June 28, 1891. Dur- 
ing the period intervening between these 
two tours of duty in Alaska, Lt. Pendle- 
ton served at the MB, Washington, D.C., 
New York, Annapolis, and on board the 
USS Yankee. He was promoted to captain 
on Mar. 3, 1899, and to major Mar. 3, 
1903. After being detached from the MB, 
Sitka, Alaska on Mar. 21, 1904, Maj. 
Pendleton reported to the MB, Mare Is., 
Calif., Apr. 2, 1904. On May 28, 1904, he 
joined the 1st Brig, of Marines in the 
Philippine Is., and on Apr. 7, 1905 he 
reported to Olongapo where he served 
until Jan. 1906. From Feb. to July 1906, 
Maj. Pendleton commanded the MB, 
Guam. From Sept. 1906 to Sept. 1909, he 
commanded the MB, Puget Sound, 
Bremerton, Wash. On Jan. 1, 1908, he 
was advanced to the rank of lieutenant 
colonel. Pendleton joined the 1st Brig, of 
Marines in the Philippine Is. for his sec- 
ond tour of duty there on Nov. 4, 1909. 
He performed duty as CO, 1st Brig, and 
as Post Quartermaster, and CO of the 1st 
Regt, Olongapo, Philippine Is. On May 
23, 1911, he was promoted to colonel. He 
was detached from the Philippine Is. in 
May 1912, and returned to the States via 
the Suez Canal and Europe, reporting at 
the MB, Portsmouth, N.H. in Aug. 1912. 
Col. Pendleton, while attached to Ports- 
mouth, was absent on temporary foreign 
shore service from Aug. 1912 to Dec. of 
that year. This duty covered the period 
of the 1912 operations in Nicaragua. He 
was in command of the Marines during 
the campaign. The skirmishes at Masaya 
and Chichigalpa, and the capture of Coy- 
otepe and Leon, occupy high places in 
Marine Corps history. From Feb. to June 
1913, Col. Pendleton was with an expe- 
ditionary force at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba. In Aug. 1913, he was detached 
from the MB, Portsmouth, N.H. From 
Sept. 1913 to Dec. 1914, Col. Pendleton 



169 



PENDLETON 



PHILLIPS 



was in command of the MB, at Puget 
Sound, Wash., and was on expeditionary 
duty for a good part of this period. He 
was in command of the 4th Regt. from 
Apr. to Dec. 1914 on board the USS 
South Dakota, and at San Diego, Calif. 
From Dec. 1914 to Feb. 1916, Col. Pen- 
dleton was in command of the 4th Regt. 
at San Diego, California; part of the time, 
however, he was on expeditionary duty 
and temporary sea duty with the Pacific 
Fleet. From Feb. 3 to Dec. 31, 1916, Col. 
Pendleton was in command of the MB, 
San Diego, Calif.; but, from June 6 to 
Dec. 31, 1916, he was absent on expedi- 
tionary duty in command of the 4th Regt. 
He was placed in command of all naval 
forces ashore in Santo Domingo on June 
19, 1916. He participated in engagements 
with the enemy at Las Trencheras, at 
Dona Antonia, at Guayacanes, and was in 
command of the forces that occupied 
Santiago. During this period (on Aug. 
29, 1916) he was promoted to brigadier 
general. On Nov. 22, 1916, Brig. Gen. Pen- 
dleton was detailed to command the 2nd 
Prov. Brig, in Santo Domingo, and on 
Dec. 31, 1916 was detached from the 
MB, San Diego, and assigned to per- 
manent duty in Santo Domingo. Gen. 
Pendleton was acting Military Governor 
of Santo Domingo from Oct. 29 to Nov. 
29, 1917, and on Mar. 18, 1918, was 
designated Military Governor temporar- 
ily, in the absence of the Military Gov- 
ernor. He was detached from Santo 
Domingo Oct. 21, 1918 and reported to 
HQMC in Washington, D.C., Oct. 28, 

1918. "From Nov. 11, 1918 to Sept. 25, 

1919, Gen. Pendleton commanded the 
MB, Parris Is., S.C., and on Oct. 1, 1919, 
joined the 2nd Advanced Base Force at 
San Diego, Calif, as its CG. From Oct. 
1, 1921 to Nov. 7, 1921, he was in com- 
mand of the Department of Pacific at 
San Francisco. Upon the establishment 



of the 5th Brig, of Marines in Oct. 1921, 
Gen. Pendleton was assigned to that or- 
ganization as the CO. In addition to these 
duties he was assigned as CG of the 
Department of the Pacific in the absence 
of Gen. Barnett, from May 1922 to Sept. 
1922. He was advanced to major general 
Dec. 10, 1923. From Feb. 1924 to Mar. 
1924, he was on duty inspecting Marine 
Corps stations and organizations in Cen- 
tral America and the West Indies. After 
this inspection trip he was on a short tour 
of duty at HQMC and in May 1924, he 
resumed duties at San Diego as CO of 
the 5th Brig, of Marines. On June 2, 1924, 
Gen. Pendleton was retired, having 
reached the age of 64. He died in San 
Diego, Calif., on Feb. 4, 1942 at the age 
of 81. 

PFEIFER, Louis Fred. Private. Medal 
of Honor. Served under the name of 
THIES, Louis Fred (q.v.). 

PHELPS, Wesley. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Neafus, Ky., June 
12, 1923; d. KIA, Peleliu Is., Oct. 4, 1944. 
P.F.C. Phelps* citation reads, in part: 
"... while serving with the 3rd Bn., 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div., in action against 
enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Is., dur- 
ing a savage hostile counterattack on the 
night of Oct. 4, 1944. Stationed with 
another Marine in an advanced position 
when a Japanese hand grenade landed 
in his foxhole, P.F.C. Phelps instantly 
shouted a warning to his comrade and 
rolled over on the deadly bomb, absorb- 
ing with his own body the full, shattering 
impact of the exploding charge. Cour- 
ageous and indomitable, P.F.C. Phelps 
fearlessly gave his life that another might 
be spared serious injury. . . ." 

PHILLIPS, George. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Rich Hill, Mo., July 14, 1926; 



170 



PH I L L I P S 



PIERCE 



d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Mar. 14, 1945. Pvt. 
Phillips' citation reads, in part: ". . .while 
serving with the 2nd Bn., 28th Marines, 
5th Mar. Div., in action against enemy 
Japanese forces during the seizure of Iwo 
Jima in the Volcano Is., on Mar. 14, 1945. 
Standing the foxhole watch while other 
members of his squad rested after a night 
of bitter hand-grenade fighting against 
infiltrating Japanese troops, Pvt. Phillips 
was the only member of his unit alerted 
when an enemy hand grenade was tossed 
into their midst. Instantly shouting a 
warning, he unhesitatingly threw him- 
self on the deadly missile, absorbing the 
shattering violence of the exploding 
charge in his own body and protecting 
his comrades from serious injury. . . ." 

PHILLIPS, Lee Hugh. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Stockbridge, Ga., Feb. 3, 
1930. Cpl. Phillips' citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving as a squad leader of 
Co. E, 2nd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf. ), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces in Korea on Nov. 4, 
1950. Assuming the point position in the 
attack against a strongly defended and 
well-entrenched numerically superior en- 
emy force occupying a vital hill position 
which had been unsuccessfully assaulted 
on five separate occasions by units of the 
Marine Corps and other friendly forces, 
Cpl. Phillips fearlessly led his men in a 
bayonet charge up the precipitous slope 
under a deadly hail of hostile mortar, 
small arms, and machine gun fire. Quick- 
ly rallying his squad when it was pinned 
down by a heavy and accurate mortar 
barrage, he continued to lead his men 
through the bombarded area and, al- 
though only five members were left in the 
casualty ridden unit, gained the military 
crest of the hill where he was immedi- 
ately subjected to an enemy counterat- 
tack. Although greatly outnumbered by 



an estimated enemy squad, Cpl. Phillips 
boldly engaged the hostile force with 
hand grenades and rifle fire and, exhort- 
ing his gallant group of Marines to fol- 
low him, stormed forward to completely 
overwhelm the enemy. With only three 
men now left in his squad, he proceeded 
to spearhead an assault on the last re- 
maining strong point which was defend- 
ed by four of the enemy on a rocky and 
almost inaccessible portion of the hill 
position. Using one hand to climb up the 
extremely hazardous precipice, he hurled 
grenades with the other and, with two 
remaining comrades, succeeded in an- 
nihilating the pocket of resistance and in 
consolidating the position. Immediately 
subjected to a sharp counterattack by an 
estimated enemy squad, he skillfully di- 
rected the fire of his men and employed 
his own weapon with deadly effective- 
ness to repulse the numerically superior 
hostile force. . . ." 

PHILLIPS, Reuben Jasper. Corporal. 
Medal of Honor: b. Cambria, Calif., July 
28, 1874. Reuben Phillips enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Mare Is., Calif, on July 
16, 1898. He was awarded the Medal of 
Honor ". . . for distinguished conduct in 
the presence of the enemy in the battles 
on June 13, 20, 21 and 22, 1900, while 
with the relief expedition of the Allied 
Forces in China. . . ." He was discharged 
from the Corps on July 21, 1903. 

PIERCE, Philip Nason. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel (Retired). Marine Corps writer: b. 
Gardiner, Me., Sept. 20, 1917. Philip 
Pierce enlisted in the Marine Corps as a 
private on Mar. 12, 1942. He was as- 
signed to Officer s School at MCS, Quan- 
tico on June 15, and was commissioned 
a second lieutenant on Aug. 22, 1942. 
Spending two years with various combat 
units in the Pacific Theater during WWII, 



171 



PIERCE 



PORTER 



he took part in campaigns in the Mar- 
shall Is., and at Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo 
Jima. He was promoted to captain on 
Nov. 30, 1944. Following WWII, Capt. 
Pierce served at various posts in the 
States, including HQMC; Camp Pendle- 
ton, Calif.; and Fort Sill, Okla. He re- 
turned to combat duty with the advent 
of the Korean War. As a battalion opera- 
tions officer he was with the famed Mar. 
Prov. Brig, which President Syngman 
Rhee called "the saviors of Korea" as a 
result of their battle successes along the 
Pusan Perimeter during the summer of 
1950. Joining the 1st Mar. Div. in Sept., 
Pierce took part in the Inchon landing 
and the liberation of Seoul. Throughout 
the following year his division fought in 
central, eastern and northern Korea, in- 
cluding the epic Chosin Reservoir Cam- 
paign. He was promoted to major on Jan. 
1, 1951, and to his present rank on July 
1, 1955. Since the Korean War, Lt. Col. 
Pierce has served at many posts and sta- 
tions throughout the States; in the Pa- 
cific; and the Orient. A qualified Russian 
interpreter, he has served with Naval In- 
telligence and is a graduate of Strategic 
Intelligence School. From 1951 to 1953 
he was assigned as CO, Artillery Demon- 
stration Unit, at MCS, Quantico. This 
duty was followed by an assignment as 
Chief Instructor at the Navy's Amphib- 
ious Training School in Coronado, Calif. 
Following a third tour of duty in the 
Orient, where he served as a special staff 
officer on the staffs of the CG, 1st Mar. 
Div. and the 3rd Mar, Div., he became 
successively executive officer and then 
CO of the MB, U.S. Naval Base, Brook- 
lyn, N.Y. He also served as District Ma- 
rine Officer on the staff of the Com- 
mander, 3rd Naval District. From 1958 
until his retirement, Lt. Col. Pierce was 
Director of Media Branch, Division of 
Information, at HQMC, Washington, 



D.C. Lt. Col. Pierce's articles and feature 
stories have been published in national 
magazines and newspapers throughout 
the country. His work has appeared in 
such publications as Bluebook, Argosy, 
Navy, Marine Corps Gazette, Leather- 
neck, and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
He is the author of The Compact His- 
tory of the U.S. Marine Corps, and co- 
author (with Karl Schuon) of John H. 
Glenn: Astronaut. 

POPE, Everett Parker. Major. Medal of 
Honor: b. Milton, Mass., July 16, 1919. 
Maj. Pope's citation reads, in part: ". . . 
while serving as CO of Co. C, 1st Ma- 
rines, 1st Mar. Div., during action against 
enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Is. on 
Sept. 19 and 20, 1944. Subjected to point- 
blank cannon fire which caused heavy 
casualties and badly disorganized his 
company while assaulting a steep coral 
hill, (then) Capt. Pope rallied his men 
and gallantly led them to the summit in 
the face of machine gun, mortar, and 
sniper fire. Forced by widespread hostile 
attack to deploy the remnants of his com- 
pany thinly in order to hold the ground 
won, and with his machine guns out of 
order and insufficient water and ammu- 
nition, he remained on the exposed hill 
with 12 men and 1 wounded officer, de- 
termined to hold through the night. At- 
tacked continuously with grenades, ma- 
chine guns, and rifles from three sides, 
he and his valiant men fiercely beat back 
or destroyed the enemy, resorting to 
hand-to-hand combat as the supply of 
ammunition dwindled, and still main- 
taining his lines with his eight remaining 
riflemen when daylight brought more 
deadly fire and he was ordered to with- 
draw. . . ." 



PORTER, David Dixon. Colonel Medal 



172 



POWER 



P O Y N T E R 



of Honor: b. Washington, B.C., Apr. 29, 
1877; d. Feb. 25, 1944, Naval Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Col. Porter's citation 
reads, in part: ". . . in battle at the junc- 
tion of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, 
Samar, P.I., Nov. 17, 1901. Capt. Porter, 
in command of the columns upon their 
uniting ashore in the Sohoton region, 
made a surprise attack of the fortified 
cliffs and completely routed the enemy, 
killing 30 and capturing and destroy- 
ing the powder magazine, 40 lantacas 
(guns), rice, food, and cuartels. Due 
to his courage, intelligence, discrimina- 
tion, and zeal, he successfully led his 
men up the cliffs by means of bam- 
boo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The 
cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic or- 
igin, in the nature of pumice, and were 
honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks 
were suspended in platforms held in 
position by vine cables in readiness to be 
precipitated upon people below. After 
driving the insurgents from their posi- 
tion which was almost impregnable 
being covered with numerous trails lined 
with poisoned spears, pits, etc. Capt. 
Porter led his men across the river, scaled 
the cliffs on the opposite side, and de- 
stroyed the camps there. He and the men 
under his command overcame incredible 
difficulties and dangers in destroying 
positions which, according to reports 
from old prisoners, had taken three years 
to perfect, were held as a final rallying 
point, and were never before penetrated 
by white troops. Capt. Porter also ren- 
dered distinguished public service in the 
presence of the enemy at Quinapundan 
River, Samar, P.I. on Oct. 26, 1901." 

POWER, John Vincent. First Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Worcester, Mass., 
Nov. 20, 1918; d. KIA, Roi-Namur, Kwa- 
jalein, Feb. 1, 1944. In mid-January 1944, 
Lt. Power sailed from San Diego harbor 



in a combat-loaded transport the first 
group to sail directly from the States to 
an enemy beach. Its destination: Roi- 
Namur Is. in the Kwajalein Atoll. Roi was 
conquered in short order and the sur- 
viving Japanese fled to nearby Namur. 
Advancing about 75 yards inland, Lt. 
Power's platoon made contact with a 
large enemy pillbox. The platoon leader 
and one of his men advanced upon the 
position and placed a charge upon it. In 
the process, both were wounded. Taken 
back to a shell hole by his comrades, the 
lieutenant's stomach wound was dressed 
and he turned over command of his pla- 
toon to his sergeant, after promising that 
he would help as much as possible. The 
sergeant and some of his men urged the 
lieutenant to return to the beach where 
he could be properly cared for, but Lt. 
Power refused. The platoon sergeant and 
his men continued to demolish the pill- 
box which contained about 30 Japanese 
and then moved on to another. While 
the Marines were preparing to blow up 
that one, Lt. Power rejoined them. The 
charge was placed and set off. Even be- 
fore the smoke cleared away, Lt. Power 
charged into the opening firing his car- 
bine with his right hand and holding his 
wounded stomach with his left. Empty- 
ing his clip, Lt. Power attempted to re- 
load his weapon to continue the attack. 
It was then that the fatal shots struck 
him in the stomach again and in the 
head. By the time his men reached him, 
he was dead. 

POYNTER, James Irsley. Sergeant. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Bloomingdale, Ind., Dec. 
1, 1916; d. KIA, south of Sudong, Korea, 
Nov. 4, 1950. Sergeant Poynter's citation 
reads, in part: ". . . while serving as a 
squad leader in a rifle platoon of Co. A, 1st 
Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), 
in action against enemy aggressor forces 



173 



P REN DE RG AST 



PULLER 



during the defense of Hill 532, south of 
Sudong, Korea, on Nov. 4, 1950. When a 
vastly outnumbering, well-concealed hos- 
tile force launched a sudden, vicious 
counterattack against his platoon's hasty 
defensive position, Sgt Poynter displayed 
superb skill and courage in leading his 
squad and directing its fire against the 
onrushing enemy. With his ranks crit- 
ically depleted by casualties and he him- 
self critically wounded as the onslaught 
gained momentum and the hostile force 
surrounded his position, he seized his 
bayonet and engaged in bitter hand-to- 
hand combat as the breakthrough con- 
tinued. Observing three machine guns 
closing in at a distance of 25 yards, he 
dashed from his position and, grasping 
hand grenades from fallen Marines as 
he ran, charged the emplacements in 
rapid succession, killing the crews of two 
and putting the other out of action be- 
fore he fell, mortally wounded. . . ." 

PRENDERGAST, Thomas Francis. Cor- 
poral. Medal of Honor: b. Waterford, 
Ireland, Apr. 2, 1871. Thomas Prender- 
gast enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
May 16, 1893. He was awarded the 
Medal of Honor on July 19, 1901 ". . . for 
distinguished conduct in the presence of 
the enemy in battles while with the 8th 
Army Corps (during the Philippine In- 
surrection) on Mar. 25, 27, and 29, and 
April 4, 1899. . . ." 

PRESTON, Herbert Irving. Private. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Berkeley, N.J., Aug. 6, 
1876. Herbert Preston enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa. on 
June 29, 1899. His citation reads, in part: 
**. . . for distinguished conduct in the 
presence of the enemy at Peking, China, 
July 21 to Aug. 17, 1900. Preston assisted 
to erect barricades under heavy fire. . . ." 



PRUITT, John Henry. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Faderville, Ark., Oct. 4, 
1896; d. KIA, France, Oct. 1918. Cpl 
Pruitt's citation reads, in part: "... in 
action with the enemy at Mont Blanc 
Ridge, France, Oct. 3, 1918. Cpl. Pruitt, 
singlehanded, attacked two machine 
guns, capturing them and killing two of 
the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners 
in a dugout nearby. This gallant soldier 
was killed soon afterwards by shell fire 
while he was sniping at the enemy. . . ." 




Puller 

PULLER, Lewis Burwell. "Chesty." Lieu- 
tenant General (Retired). Colorful veter- 
an of the Korean fighting, four World 
War campaigns, and expeditionary ser- 
vice in China, Nicaragua, and Haiti: b. 
West Point, Va., June 26, 1898. Lewis 
Puller attended Virginia Military Insti- 
tute until enlisting in the Marine Corps 



174 



PULLER 



PULLER 



in Aug. 1918. He was appointed a Ma- 
rine Reserve second lieutenant on June 
16, 1919, but due to the reduction of the 
Corps after WWI, was placed on inactive 
duty ten days later. He rejoined the Ma- 
rines as an enlisted man on the 30th of 
that same month, then served later as an 
officer in the Gendarmerie d'Haiti, a mili- 
tary force set up in that country under a 
treaty with the States. Most of its officers 
were U.S. Marines, while its enlisted per- 
sonnel were Haitians. After nearly five 
years in Haiti, where he saw frequent 
action against the Caco rebels, Puller re- 
turned to the States in Mar. 1924. He was 
commissioned a Marine second lieutenant 
that same month, and during the next 
two years served at the MB, Norfolk, Va.; 
completed the Basic School at Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; and served with the 10th Mar. 
Regt. at Quantico, Va. He was then de- 
tailed to duty as a student naval aviator 
at Pensacola, Fla. in Feb. 1926. In July 
of that year, he embarked for a two-year 
tour of duty at the MB, Pearl Harbor. 
Returning in June 1928, he served at 
San Diego, Calif., until he joined the 
Nicaraguan National Guard Detachment 
that Dec. After winning his first Navy 
Cross in Nicaragua he returned to the 
States in July 1931, to enter the Company 
Officers' Course at the Army Infantry 
School, Fort Benning, Ga. He completed 
the course in June 1932, and returned to 
Nicaragua the following month to begin 
the tour of duty which brought him his 
second Navy Cross. In Jan. 1933, Puller 
left Nicaragua for the west coast of the 
United States. A month later he was 
called from San Francisco to join the 
Marine Detachment of the American Le- 
gation at Peiping, China. There, in addi- 
tion to other duties, he commanded the 
famed "Horse Marines." Without coming 
back to the States, he began a tour of 
sea duty in Sept. 1934, as CO of the Ma- 



rine Detachment aboard the USS Augusta 
of the Asiatic Fleet. In June 1936, he 
returned to the States to become an in- 
structor in the Basic School at Philadel- 
phia. He left there in May 1939, to serve 
another year as commander of the 
Augustas Marine Detachment. From that 
ship, he joined the 4th Mar. Regt. at 
Shanghai, China, in May 1940. After 
serving as a battalion executive and CO 
with the 4th Marines, Puller sailed for 
the States in Aug. 1941, just four months 
before the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 
Sept. he took command of the 1st Bn., 
7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div. at Camp 
Lejeune. That regiment was detached 
from the 1st Div. in Mar. 1942 and, the 
following month, as part of the 3rd Mar. 
Brig., it sailed for the Pacific theater. The 
7th Regt. rejoined the 1st Mar. Div. in 
Sept. 1942, and Puller, still commanding 
its 1st Bn., went on to win his third Navy 
Cross at Guadalcanal. The action which 
brought him that medal occurred on the 
night of Oct. 24-25, 1942. For a desperate 
three hours his battalion, stretched over a 
mile-long front, was the only defense be- 
tween vital Henderson Airfield and a 
regiment of seasoned Japanese troops. In 
pouring jungle rain, the Japanese smashed 
repeatedly at his thin line, as Puller 
moved up and down its length to en- 
courage his men and direct the defense. 
After reinforcements arrived he com- 
manded the augmented force until late 
the next afternoon. The defending Ma- 
rines suffered fewer than 70 casualties in 
the engagement, while 1400 of the enemy 
were killed and 17 truckloads of Japanese 
equipment were recovered by the Amer- 
icans. After Guadalcanal, Puller became 
executive officer of the 7th Marines. He 
was fighting in that capacity when he 
won his fourth Navy Cross at Cape 
Gloucester in Jan. 1944. There, when the 
commanders of two battalions were 



175 



PULLER 



PURVIS 



wounded, he took over their units and 
moved through heavy machine gun and 
mortar fire to reorganize them for attack, 
then led them in taking a strongly forti- 
fied enemy position. In Feb. 1944, Col. 
Puller took command of the 1st Marines 
at Cape Gloucester. After leading that 
regiment for the remainder of the cam- 
paign, he sailed with it for the Russell Is. 
in Apr. 1944, and went on from there to 
command it at Peleliu in Sept. and Oct. 
1944. He returned to the States in Nov. 
1944, was named executive officer of the 
Inf. Training Regt at Camp Lejeune in 
Jan. 1945 and took command of that 
regiment the following month. In Aug. 
1946, he became Director of the 8th 
Marine Corps Reserve District, with 
headquarters at New Orleans, La. After 
that assignment, he commanded the MB 
at Pearl Harbor until Aug. 1950, when 
he arrived at Camp Pendleton, Calif, to 
re-establish and take command of the 1st 
Marines, the same regiment he had led 
at Cape Gloucester and Peleliu. Landing 
with the 1st Marines at Inchon, Korea, 
in Sept. 1950, he continued to head that 
regiment until Jan. 1951, when he was 
promoted to brigadier general and named 
Assistant Commander of the 1st Mar. 
Div. That May he returned to Camp 
Pendleton to command the newly reac- 
tivated 3rd Mar. Brig., which was re- 
designated the 3rd Mar. Div. in Jan. 1952. 
After that, he was assistant division com- 



mander until he took over the Troop 
Training Unit, Pacific, at Coronado, 
Calif, that June. He was promoted to 
major general in Sept. 1953, and in July 
1954 assumed command of the 2nd Mar. 
Div. at Camp Lejeune. Despite his illness 
he retained that command until Feb. 
1955, when he was appointed Deputy 
Camp Commander. He served in that 
capacity until Aug., when he entered the 
U.S. Naval Hospital at Camp Lejeune. 
On Nov. 1, 1955 he was promoted to 
lieutenant general and placed on the 
temporary disability retired list. 

PURVIS, Hugh. Private. Medal of Honor: 
b. Philadelphia, Pa., Mar. 5, 1846. Hugh 
Purvis enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Oct. 27, 1869 at Philadelphia, Pa. He won 
the Medal of Honor while serving aboard 
the USS Alaska in the conflict against 
hostile Korean forces who had been at- 
tacking and destroying American ships 
and cargoes and killing American crews. 
During a final battle for a fiercely de- 
fended Korean fort, Purvis distinguished 
himself by tearing down the fort's 12- 
foot yellow cotton flag thereby greatly 
demoralizing the hostile forces. His cita- 
tion reads, in part: "...On board the 
USS Alaska during the attack on and cap- 
ture of the Korean forts, June 11, 1871, 
braving the enemy fire, Purvis was the 
first to scale the walls of the fort and 
capture the flag of the Korean forces. . . ." 



Q 



QUICK, John Henry. Sergeant Major. 
Medal of Honor: b. Charlestown, W. Va., 
June 20, 1870; d. St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 
10, 1922. John Quick enlisted in the Ma- 



rine Corps on Aug. 10, 1892 at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. He served continuously in the 
Corps on board naval vessels and ashore 
in all parts of the world until Nov. 20, 



176 



QUICK 



QUICK 




Quick 

1918, when he was placed on the retired 
list. It was in Cuba during the war with 
Spain that Quick's gallantry was the sub- 
ject of official dispatches and a number 
of commendations, which resulted in his 
being awarded the Medal of Honor. The 
USS Panther arrived in Guantanamo Bay 
at about 1:00 P.M., June 10, 1898, and 
soon began landing Lt. Col. Robert W. 
Huntington's battalion of Marines. A 
camp site was selected on the top of 
McCalla hill where the old Spanish 
blockhouses had been located. After re- 
pulsing a number of Spanish attacks 
' during the first few days, it was decided 
to capture Cuzco Well (located about six 
miles southeast of Camp McCalla and 
near the coast), the only water supply 
for the Spanish forces in the vicinity. 
During the morning of June 14, 1898, 



Companies C and D and approximately 
50 Cubans moved through the hills to 
seize Cuzco Well. The USS Dolphin 
moved east along the shore ready to fur- 
nish naval gunfire support upon call. 
The Spanish soon discovered the move- 
ment and their main body near the Well 
was alerted. The Marines and Cubans oc- 
cupied the hill which overlooked the 
enemy's position, but were immediately 
subjected to heavy long-range rifle fire. 
Capt. George F. Elliott, in command of 
the Marine Detachment, signaled the 
Dolphin to shell the Spanish position; 
but due to the fact that the sender was 
not clearly visible, the message was mis- 
interpreted, and the vessel began drop- 
ping shells on a small detachment of 
Marines who were enroute to join the 
fight. The problem of directing the fire 
of the USS Dolphin was solved by Sgt. 
Quick who heroically placed himself in 
plain sight of the vessel but in danger 
of falling shells and signaled for the 
fire to be stopped, using a blue flag be- 
longing to the Cubans. Due to the poor 
visibility, Sgt. Quick scrambled to the top 
of the hill where he was plainly silhouet- 
ted against the horizon. As he calmly 
turned his back to the enemy and began 
waving his flag, he was immediately sub- 
jected to a furious enemy rifle fire. While 
enemy bullets cut through the bushes 
and screamed overhead, Quick continued 
to signal the Dolphin as coolly as though 
he were on a parade ground. Letter by 
letter the message to the ship was spelled 
out in the dot-dash code. When Sgt. 
Quick finished his message, the ship an- 
swered. Quick then picked up his rifle 
and resumed his place on the firing line. 
The Dolphin shifted her fire and by 2:00 
P.M. the Spaniards had begun to retreat 
For this deed, Quick was awarded the 
Medal of Honor and this citation: "John 
Quick, sergeant, United States Marine 



177 



QUICK 



QUICK 



Corps, for distinguished and gallant con- 
duct in the Battle of Cuzco, Cuba, on 
June 14, 1898, signaling to the USS 
Dolphin on three different occasions 
while exposed to heavy fire from the 
enemy." During the Philippine Insurrec- 
tion, Quick served in the Samoan cam- 
paign from Oct. 26, 1901 to Mar. 26, 
1902, participating in the heroic march 
across Samar. Shortly after the personnel 
of Co. C, 9th U.S. Infantry, had been 
massacred at Balangiga by the insurrec- 
tionists, a vigorous campaign against the 
rebellious elements of the island of Samar 
began. A battalion of Marines ( 14 officers 
and approximately 300 enlisted men) 
under Maj. L. W. T, Waller was or- 
ganized at Cavite on Luzon Island and 
sent to take part in the campaign. John 
Quick was a member of the force com- 
manded by Maj. Waller which left Basey 
on Dec. 8, 1901, to hack its way through 
jungles and swamps across the island. 
Later it was the fortitude and leadership 
of Capt. D. D. Porter and Sgt. Quick 
which gave the other members of the 
party the courage and strength to carry 
on while suffering great hardships and 
privations, After that expedition, John 
Quick settled down to a more peaceful 
routine. He performed various duties in 
many places until the trouble of 1906 in 
Cuba where he served with the Marines 
in the Army of Cuban Pacification. After 
serving in the various enlisted grades, 
Quick was appointed to the rank of 
sergeant major on Nov. 12, 1905, and 
continued in that rank throughout the 
remainder of his service. During another 
period of quiet, Sgt. Maj. Quick served 
as first sergeant at St. Juliens Creek, MB, 
Washington, D.C., and other stations in 
the States. Then came the Battle of Vera 
Cruz, Mex., in Apr. 1914 when Marines 
advanced into the city. The Secretary of 



the Navy commended John Quick for his 
gallantry during the occupation: "He was 
continually exposed to fire during the 
first two days of the operation and 
showed coolness, bravery, and judgment 
in the prompt manner in which he per- 
formed his duties/' Vera Cruz was the 
end of the lull before the storm. There 
was trouble in Haiti, in Santo Domingo, 
and the approaching world war in Eu- 
rope was looming more portentous every 
day. When it came, John Quick was 
ready, sailing for France as sergeant ma- 
jor of a battalion of the 6th Regt, U.S. 
Marines. Belleau Wood was only the 
opening battle of WWI for Quick; he 
participated in every battle that was 
fought by the Marines in France until 
Oct. 16, 1918: the Toulon sector at Ver- 
dun; the battle of Belleau Wood; the 
Aisne-Marne offensive (popularly known 
as the Battle of Soissons ) ; the Marbache 
sector near Pont-a-Mousson; the St.-Mi- 
hiel offensive; the Battle of Mont Blanc 
Ridge; and the Meuse-Argonne sector. His 
gallantry at Belleau Wood won for him 
the Distinguished Service Cross and the 
Navy Cross. He won these decorations on 
June 6, 1918, when "he volunteered and 
assisted in taking a truckload of ammu- 
nition and materiel into Bouresches, 
France, over a road swept by artillery 
and machine gun fire, thereby relieving 
a critical situation." He was further- 
awarded the 2nd Div. Citation and the 
French fourragere. Sgt. Maj. Quick par- 
ticipated in all the campaigns in which 
the Marine Corps took part during his 
service. They were the West Indian 
Campaign, Spanish Campaign, Philippine 
Campaign, Cuban Campaign, Mexican 
Campaign and WWI. Sgt. Maj. John H. 
Quick died in St, Louis, Mo., on Sept. 
10, 1922. 



178 



R 



RAMER, George Henry. Second Lieu- 
tenant. Medal of Honor: b, Myersdale, 
Pa., Mar. 27, 1927; d. KIA, Korea, Sept. 
12, 1951, Lt. Earner's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . as leader of the 3rd Platoon 
in Co. I, 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf.), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces in Korea on Sept. 12, 
1951. Ordered to attack and seize hostile 
positions atop a hill vigorously defended 
by well-entrenched enemy forces . . . 
2nd Lt. Ramer fearlessly led his men up 
the steep slopes and, although he and the 
majority of his unit were wounded during 
the ascent, bolding continued to spear- 
head the assault. With the terrain becom- 
ing more precipitous near the summit 
and the climb more perilous as the hos- 
tile forces added grenades to the dev- 
astating hail of fire, he staunchly carried 
the attack to the top, personally annihi- 
lated one enemy bunker with grenade 
and carbine fire and captured the objec- 
tive with his remaining eight men. Un- 
able to hold the position against an 
immediate, overwhelming hostile coun- 
terattack, Ramer ordered his group to 
withdraw and singlehandedly fought 
the enemy to furnish cover for his men 
and for the evacuation of three fatally 
wounded Marines. Severely wounded a 
second time, Lt. Ramer refused aid when 
his men returned to help him and, after 
ordering them to seek shelter, coura- 
geously manned his post until the hostile 
troops overran his position and he fell 
mortally wounded. . . ." 

RANNAHAN, John. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b. County of Monahan, Ireland, 
1836. John Rannahan enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa. on 



June 21, 1861. His citation reads, in part: 
". . . while serving on board the USS 
Minnesota; especially commended for 
bravery in the assault on Fort Fisher, 
Jan. 15, 1865, remaining at the front near 
the fort when the panic carried the mass 
away. . . ." Rannahan was discharged 
from the Corps at Boston, Mass, on Jan. 
24, 1865. 

REEM, Robert Dale. Second Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Lancaster, Pa., Oct. 
20, 1925; d. Chinhungni, Korea, Nov. 6, 
1950. 2nd Lt. Reem's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . as a Platoon Commander in 
Co. H, 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf.), in action against enemy 

aggressor forces Grimly determined 

to dislodge a group of heavy enemy in- 
fantry units occupying well-concealed 
and strongly fortified positions on com- 
manding ground overlooking unprotected 
terrain, 2nd Lt. Reem moved slowly for- 
ward up the side of the ridge with his 
platoon in the face of a veritable hail of 
shattering hostile machine gun, grenade, 
and rifle fire. Three times repulsed by a 
resolute enemy force in achieving his ob- 
jective, and pinned down by the continu- 
ing fury of hostile fire, he rallied and 
regrouped the heroic men in his depleted 
and disorganized platoon in preparation 
for a fourth attack. Issuing last-minute 
orders to his noncommissioned officers 
when an enemy grenade landed in a de- 
pression of the rocky ground in which 
the group was standing, 2nd Lt. Reem un- 
hesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and, 
springing upon the deadly missile, ab- 
sorbed the full impact of the explosion in 
his own body, thus protecting others from 
serious injury and possible death " 



179 



REID 



RE YN A U D 



REID, George Croghan. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Medal of Honor: b. Lorain, Ohio, 
Dec. 9, 1876; d. U.S. Air Force Hospital, 
Harlingen Air Force Base, Texas, Feb. 
19, 1961. George Reid was appointed a 
second lieutenant in the Marine Corps 
during the War with Spain, May 20, 
1898. He served on the Asiatic Station 
from May 1899 to May 1902. This duty 
included service with the China Relief 
Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion 
from June 1900 to Oct. 1900. Returning 
from the Orient, he was stationed at 
various posts in the States for the next 
few years, this service being interrupted 
by expeditionary duty on the Isthmus of 
Panama during the early part of 1904. In 
1906 he returned to the Philippine Is., 
remaining there until Sept. 1908. He was 
on duty at posts in the States until 1912 
when he again went on expeditionary 
duty, this time to Nicaragua with the 
forces dispatched there to protect Amer- 
ican interests, during the insurrectionary 
troubles in that country. During this 
service he took part in the assault and 
capture of Coyotepe and Barranca on 
Nov. 19, 1912, for which he received 
a letter of commendation for gallantry 
and conspicuous service in action. In Jan. 
1914, he went to sea as Division Marine 
Officer of the Atlantic Fleet, remaining 
on this duty until May 1916. While serv- 
ing in this capacity he landed with the 
Marines of the Fleet in Vera Cruz, Mex., 
April 21, 1914, and took part in the en- 
gagements incident to the occupation of 
that city. For distinguished conduct in 
the fa'ce of the enemy he was awarded 
the Medal of Honor. 

REYNAUD, Joseph Sinclair. Brigadier 
General. CG, Marine Corps Supply Ac- 
tivity, Philadelphia, Pa.: b. New Orleans, 
La., Apr. 9, 1915. Joseph Reynaud grad- 
uated from Jesuit High School in Phila- 



delphia in 1932. He entered Tulane 
University and upon graduation, received 
an engineering degree in June 1936. While 
in college, he enlisted in the MCR, July 
5, 1935, and the following summer en- 
tered the Platoon Leaders' Class at 
Quantico, Va. Upon completing the 
course, he was commissioned a Marine 
Reserve second lieutenant, Sept. 19, 
1936, with rank from July 1, 1936. He 
was assigned to extended active duty in 
Aug. 1940 and has served continuously 
since that time. He was integrated in the 
regular Marine Corps following WWII. 
In Nov. 1940, he completed the Reserve 
Officers' Course at MCS, Quantico, then 
served variously as a staff instructor, sup- 
ply officer, and company commander. 
While at Quantico, he was promoted to 
first lieutenant in Feb. 1941, and to cap- 
tain in Feb. 1942. Ordered overseas in 
Jan. 1943, he was promoted to major that 
Mar., and subsequently joined the 18th 
Marines, 2nd Mar. Div., in New Zealand. 
From there he participated in combat on 
Tarawa in the Gilbert Is., and on Saipan 
and Tinian in the Marianas. For heroic 
action in the assault on Saipan, he was 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal with 
Combat "V." Following the Marianas 
campaign, he was assigned as Executive 
Officer of the 2nd Engineer Bn. in Aug. 

1944, and that same month was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel. Reynaud became 
commander of the 2nd Engineer Bn. in 
Nov. 1944, and in this capacity partici- 
pated in the Okinawa campaign in Apr. 

1945. He returned to the States in June 
1945, and following a brief assignment 
at Camp Lejeune, N.C., was ordered to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., in Oct. 1945. 
He served there for almost four years as 
Executive Officer and y ~Jater, Head, En- 
gineer Supply Division, Supply Depart- 
ment. In July 1949, he was assigned to 
the Marine Corps Supply Depot, Bar- 



180 



R I L I Y 



RI LE Y 



stow, Calif., as Supply Officer, and a year 
later was named CO of the Fifth Base 
Depot, Barstow. In Dec. 1951, he was 
transferred to the Marine Corps Supply 
Depot, Philadelphia, Pa,, where he served 
as Chief of the Industrial Branch ( Cloth- 
ing and Equipment Factory) for almost 
three years. During this assignment he 
was promoted to colonel in June 1952. 
In Sept. 1954, Col. Reynaud joined the 
FMF, Atlantic, at Norfolk, Va., as Force 
Supply Officer. He remained there until 
Mar. 1956, when he was ordered to the 
Far East. He served as Wing Supply 
Officer of the 1st MAW in Japan until 
Apr. 1957. The following month he re- 
turned to HQMC where he served con- 
secutively as Director of the Services 
Division, Supply Department through 
Mar. 1959, and Plans and Programs Offi- 
cer, Supply Department until Aug. 1959. 
He then entered the Industrial College 
of the Armed Forces, Washington, D.C., 
and on completion of the course in June 
1960, was assigned to the Marine Corps 
Supply Activity, Philadelphia, as Chief 
of Staff. In Jan. 1962, he was assigned to 
a general officer's billet as CO of the 
Supply Activity. While serving in this 
capacity, he was promoted to brigadier 
general in Aug. 1962. 

RILEY, Thomas Felton. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Inspector General of the Marine 
Corps at HQMC, Washington, D.C.: b. 
Harrisonburg, Va., July 6, 1912. After 
graduation from high school in 1931, 
Thomas Riley attended Virginia Military 
Institute. Here he obtained his Bachelor 
of Science degree in 1935. A member of 
the National Guard and the ROTC while 
in college, he resigned an Army Reserve 
commission to accept appointment as a 
Marine second lieutenant on July 10, 
1935. On completing Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in Mar. 1936, 



he was ordered to the Norfolk, Va. Navy 
Yard where he remained until Jan. 1937. 
He then joined the Marine Detachment 
aboard the USS Vincennes. Returning 
from sea duty in June 1938, he was as- 
signed to the 29th U.S. Army Engineers 
at Portland, Ore. for instruction in aerial 
photo mapping. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant the following month. Lt 
Riley joined the 1st Mar. Brig, at Quan- 
tico, in Dec. 1938, serving with and later 
commanding the 1st Engineer Co. until 
Sept. 1939, when the unit was expanded 
into the 1st Engineer Bn. Embarking for 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in Sept. 1940, 
he continued as a company commander 
with the battalion until the following 
spring. In May 1941, he was promoted to 
captain and assigned command of the 
Marine Detachment aboard the USS 
New York. He was serving in this capa- 
city when the United States entered 
WWII. In May 1942, he was promoted 
to major, and the same month reported 
to Camp Lejeune, N.C., as commander 
of the 1st Aviation Engineer Bn., FMF. 
Maj. Riley sailed with the battalion for 
the Pacific area in Aug. 1942. That Nov., 
after taking part in the construction of a 
landing field on New Caledonia, he ar- 
rived with his unit on Guadalcanal. 
There he subsequently earned the 
Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V" for 
his service from Nov. 1942 through Feb. 
1943 in the rehabilitation of Henderson 
Field and the construction of Sailor 
Field. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Aug. 1943. In Oct. 1943, he 
joined the staff of the 3rd Amphibious 
Corps, serving as Assistant Engineer and 
Executive Officer of the Engineering Sec- 
tion at Bougainville, Emirau, Saipan, and 
Guam. After organizing and training the 
3rd Amphibious Corps* Service Shore 
Party, he commanded it under fire during 
the Guam operation. For outstanding 



181 



R 1 LE Y 



ROBERTS 



service in this campaign, from July 21 to 
Aug. 10, 1944, he was awarded the Le- 
gion of Merit with Combat "V." He re- 
turned to the States in Sept. 1944. Short- 
ly after his return, he was named Officer 
in Charge of the Engineer Supply Divi- 
sion, Quartermaster General's Depart- 
ment, HQMC. He left Washington in 
Oct. 1946 to become Inspector-Instructor 
of the llth Engineer Bn., MCR, in Balti- 
more, Md. In July 1948, Lt. Col. Riley 
embarked for Guam to become Executive 
Officer of the 5th Service Depot. He 
served in this capacity until July 1949 
when he assumed command of the De- 
pot. He returned to the States in Feb. 
1950, following the Depot's transfer to 
the Marine Corps Supply Annex at Bar- 
stow, Calif. That Aug. he entered the 
Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk. 
He completed the course in Jan. 1951, 
and that same month was promoted to 
colonel. He remained in Norfolk until 
May 1952, serving consecutively as As- 
sistant Engineer Officer, and Engineer 
Officer, FMF, Atlantic. He was next as- 
signed to HQMC in June 1952, and 
served for two years as Head, Planning 
Branch, G-4 Division. In June 1954, he 
became a member of the Advanced Re- 
search Group at Quantico. Following this 
assignment, Col. Riley was ordered to 
MCB, Camp Lejeune, in July 1955 for a 
two-year tour of duty as Chief of Staff, 
2nd Mar. Div. In June 1957, he reported 
at Camp Pendleton as Chief of Staff of 
the MCB. Upon his detachment from this 
post in Jan. 1959, he reported to the CG, 
1st Mar. Div. for duty as Assistant Divi- 
sion Commander. While serving in this 
capacity, he was promoted to his present 
rank of brigadier general in July 1959. 
Gen. Riley departed Camp Pendleton in 
July 1960, and the following month be- 
came Assistant Division Commander, 3rd 
Mar. Div., on Okinawa. He departed 



Okinawa late in May 1961, and in July 
assumed his current post as Inspector 
General of the Marine Corps. 

ROAN, Charles Howard. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Claude, Tex., 
Aug. 16, 1923; d. KIA, Peleliu, Sept. 18, 
1944. P.F.C. Roan's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . while serving with the 2nd 
Bn., 7th Marines, 1st Mar. Div., in ac- 
tion against enemy Japanese forces on 
Peleliu, Palau Islands, Sept. 18, 1944. . . . 
P.F.C. Roan and his companions were 
suddenly engaged in a furious exchange 
of hand grenades with Japanese forces 
emplaced in a cave on higher ground and 
to the rear of the squad. Seeking protec- 
tion with four other Marines in a depres- 
sion in the rocky, broken terrain, P.F.C. 
Roan was wounded by an enemy gre- 
nade which fell close to their position 
and, immediately realizing the imminent 
peril to his comrades when another gre- 
nade landed in the midst of the group, 
unhesitatingly flung himself upon it, 
covering it with his body and absorbing 
the full impact of the explosion. . . ." 

ROANTREE, James S. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Dublin, Ireland, 1835. 
James Roantree enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Brooklyn, N.Y. on Jan. 15, 1858. 
His citation reads, in part: ". . . while 
serving on board the USS Oneida in the 
engagement in Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 1864 
. . . conducted himself with distinguished 
gallantry and is mentioned as particu- 
larly deserving of notice. . . ." Roantree 
was discharged from the Corps at Brook- 
lyn, N.Y. on Dec. 17, 1870. 

ROBERTS, Carson Abel. Lieutenant Gen- 
eral. CG, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, 
Oahu, Hawaii: b. Lancaster, Wis., Sept. 
4, 1905. Carson Roberts graduated from 
University High School, Madison, Wis., 



182 



ROBERTS 



ROBERTS 




Roberts 

in 1925, and from the University of 
Wisconsin in 1929 with a Bachelor of 
Philosophy degree. He was appointed a 
Marine second lieutenant July 30, 1929. 
The following July he completed the 
Basic School for Marine Corps officers at 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard. In Mar. 
1932, after service at the MB, Pensacola, 
Fla., Lt. Roberts sailed for Haiti where 
he served with the 1st Mar. Brig. He 
returned to this country in Jan. 1934 to 
enter flight training at Pensacola and was 
designated an aviator on Nov. 12 of that 
year. He was promoted to first lieutenant 
in Nov. 1934. In Jan. 1935, he was or- 
dered to Quantico, where he saw service 
with Observation and Fighter Squadrons 
7 and 9-M and Aircraft 1, FMF. He was 
promoted to captain in July 1937. Leaving 



Quantico in May 1938, he completed a 
course at the Army Chemical Warfare 
School, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. the fol- 
lowing month. He then served with 
Scouting Squadron 2 and MAG 2 at San 
Diego, Calif., from July 1938 until June 
1940, when he returned to Quantico. 
There he served successively with Base 
Air Detachment 1, Bombing Squadron 
1, and MAG 11. In addition, he was sta- 
tioned with Bombing Squadron 1 at 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, from Nov. 1940 
to Apr. 1941. Capt. Roberts was serving 
as Adjutant of MAG 11 when the United 
States entered WWII, and with that unit 
was ordered from Quantico to San Diego 
a few days after the attack on Pearl Har- 
bor. He was promoted to major in Jan. 
1942. That May, Maj. Roberts was named 
Group Operations Officer. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel in Aug. 1942, 
and the following month was detached 
from the group. After instruction at the 
Army Air Force School of Fighter Com- 
mand in Orlando, Fla., Lt. Col. Roberts 
left for the Pacific area. As Operations 
Officer, 4th MAW, he saw duty in Ha- 
waii, Samoa, and the Ellice and Gilbert 
Is. He was promoted to colonel in Jan. 

1944. Col. Roberts became Assistant 
Operations Officer on the Staff of the 
Commander, Shore Based Aircraft, For- 
ward Area, Central Pacific, in Apr. 1944. 
For meritorious service in this capacity 
during operations against the Japanese 
in the Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana 
Is., he was awarded his first Bronze Star 
Medal with Combat "V." He returned to 
the States in Nov. 1944 to serve as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, Marine Fleet 
Air, West Coast, San Diego. In Mar. 

1945, he was assigned to Hawaii, head- 
ing the Future Plans Section, Aircraft, 
FMF, Pacific, until the end of the war. 
While serving in this capacity, he was 
awarded a second Bronze Star Medal 



183 



ROBERTS 



ROBERTSH AW 



for meritorious achievement in planning 
the employment of Marine air units in 
the Okinawa campaign and the occupa- 
tion of Japan. He was named Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations and 
Training), 1st MAW, in Sept, 1945, and 
in that assignment his duties took him to 
the Philippines, Okinawa, and China. 
Returning to the States in Nov. 1945, 
Col, Roberts commanded the MCAS at 
Eagle Mountain Lake, Texas, until Apr. 
1946. He then served briefly with the 
2nd MAW at Cherry Point, N.C., and 
entered the Army Command and Gen- 
eral Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, 
Kans., that Aug. He completed the 
course in July 1947 and for the next two 
years was Chief of the Aviation Section, 
MCS, Quantico. From July 1949 to Apr. 
1951, he was Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
MARTC, Glenview, 111. Ordered to Ko- 
rea in May 1951, he saw action there 
until Mar. 1952, serving successively as 
Deputy Chief of Staff, 1st MAW; Com- 
mander, MAG 33; and Chief of Staff, 1st 
Wing. He was awarded the Legion of 
Merit with Combat "V" for outstanding 
service as group commander, and the 
Distinguished Flying Cross for heroism 
in that capacity on Nov. 10, 1951 while 
leading a close air support strike near 
Sohui-ri. In May 1952, he became Chief 
of Staff, Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic, at Nor- 
folk, Va. He was ordered to Quantico 
in July 1953, serving there consecutively 
as a member of the Advanced Research 
Group, MCS, and as Assistant Com- 
mander, MCAS. In Aug. 1954, he became 
Director of the Marine Corps Develop- 
ment Center. He was promoted to briga- 
dier general in July 1955. Gen. Roberts 
was transferred from Quantico in Jan. 
1956. Assigned to Washington, D.C., he 
served as Inspector General of the Ma- 
rine Corps until Oct. 1956, at which time 
he joined the staff of the Secretary of 



Defense as Director of Armed Forces In- 
formation and Education. He resumed 
temporarily his former duties as Inspec- 
tor General of the Marine Corps in Oct. 
1957. He was promoted to major general 
in Nov. 1957. In Dec. 1957, Gen. Roberts 
became Deputy Chief of Staff (Plans) at 
HQMC. He served in this capacity until 
Mar. 1959, and the following month as- 
sumed duties in Japan as. CG, 1st MAW. 
On his return to the States in Dec. 1959, 
he served for more than a year and a half 
as CG, 3rd MAW, El Toro. Following 
this assignment, he remained at El Toro 
where he subsequently assumed duties 
as CG, Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, in June 
1961. In June 1962, he was promoted to 
lieutenant general and moved to CG, 
FMF Pac, Oahu, Hawaii. 

ROBERTSHAW, Louis Bentham. Briga- 
dier General. Commander, Marine Air 
Reserve Training, Glenview, 111.: b. 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 1, 1912. Louis 
Robertshaw graduated from Haverford 
Township High School, Havertown, Pa., 
in 1930, and attended Friends Central 
School, and Swavely School in Manassas, 
Va. He entered the U.S. Naval Academy 
in 1932. While there, he captained the 
1935 football team, and received the 
Naval Academy Sword for personal ex- 
cellence in athletics. He was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant upon 
graduation, June 4, 1936. He then served 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, the San 
Diego MCB, and the MB, Washington, 
D.C., prior to completing the Basic 
School for Marine Corps Officers at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in June 1937. 
That month he embarked for duty in 
China with the 6th Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Brig., and participated in the defense 
of the International Settlement in Shang- 
hai from Oct. 1937 to Feb. 1938. In May 
1938, he returned with the brigade to 



184 



ROBERTS HAW 



ROBINSON 



San Diego, and remained until Feb. 1939 
when he again sailed for China. While 
serving with the 2nd Bn., 4th Marines, 
in Shanghai, he was promoted to first 
lieutenant in July 1939. Following his 
return to the States in Aug. 1940, Robert- 
shaw was assigned to the Naval Acad- 
emy as Executive Officer of the Marine 
Detachment, and as a coach in football 
and basketball. In Apr. 1941, he was 
assigned to the Philadelphia Navy Yard 
as an instructor. He was promoted to 
captain in Oct. 1941. He entered flight 
school at the NAS, Pensacola, Fla. in 
Feb. 1942. Upon graduation in Aug. 
1942, he was designated a naval aviator 
and promoted to major. He embarked 
from San Diego for Noumea, New Cale- 
donia, in Oct. 1942. After serving as 
Executive Officer, Marine Scout Bomb- 
ing Squadron 132, MAG 11, he assumed 
command of the squadron in Dec. 1942 
when the CO became a casualty. Maj. 
Robertshaw was awarded the Distin- 
guished Flying Cross for his air attack 
on a group of Japanese transports in 
which he scored a direct hit on one trans- 
port and severely damaged land installa- 
tions in the Solomons* area in Nov. and 
Dec. 1942. A second Distinguished Fly- 
ing Cross and six Air Medals were also 
awarded him for bombing operations in 
the Solomons. In Apr. 1943, he became 
Group Operations Officer. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel in Dec. 1943. 
On his arrival in the States in January 

1944, he was named Executive Officer 
and, later, CO of Marine Base Defense 
Aircraft Group 41, MCAS, El Toro, Calif. 
He was again ordered overseas in June 

1945, serving as Assistant G-3, Aircraft, 
FMF, Pacific, Ewa, Hawaii, and, later, 
as Marine Aviation Officer on the Staff 
of Commander, Naval Activities, Japan. 
He returned to the States in July 1946, 
and was assigned to Marine Air West 



Coast, Miramar, San Diego. Shortly after, 
Lt. Col. Robertshaw was transferred to 
MCAS, El Toro, where he served as Ex- 
ecutive Officer and CO, respectively, of 
Marine Transport Squadron 152. In July 
1948, he began a two-year tour of duty 
as CO, Marine Air Detachment, Marine 
Air Reserve Training Command, NAS, 
Willow Grove, Pa. After leaving Willow 
Grove, he saw two years' duty in the 
Division of Aviation, HQMC. While 
there, he was promoted to colonel in 
Feb. 1951. Ordered to Korea in Aug. 

1952, Col. Robertshaw served briefly as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, 1st MAW, prior 
to becoming CO of MAG 33. For out- 
standing service in Korea from Sept. 1952 
to May 1953, during which time he flew 
77 missions, he was awarded the Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V," a third Dis- 
tinguished Flying Cross, and his seventh 
through eleventh Air Medals. In June 

1953, following his return to the States, 
he was stationed at Quantico, where he 
later entered and completed the Senior 
Course, MCS. He went overseas again 
in July 1954 for two years* duty on the 
Staff of the Commander in Chief, Pacific, 
at Pearl Harbor. In Aug. 1956, he re- 
turned to Quantico as a member of the 
Advanced Research Group, Marine 
Corps Educational Center. After a year 
at Quantico, Col. Robertshaw was trans- 
ferred to Cherry Point, N.C., serving as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 and later, 
Chief of Staff, 2nd MAW, Aircraft, FMF, 
Atlantic. He also served on temporary 
duty in 1957 as Marine Corps Liaison 
Officer during Operation Deep-Water in 
Turkey. On his detachment from Cherry 
Point, he departed for the Far East in 
Oct. 1959 and, the following month, as- 
sumed duties as Assistant Wing Com- 
mander, 1st MAW, in Iwakuni, Japan. 

ROBINSON, Robert Guy. Gunnery Ser- 



185 



R O C K I Y 



ROCKET 



geant. Medal of Honor: b. New York, 
N.Y., Apr. 30, 1896. Gy. Sgt. Robinson s 
citation reads in part: ". . . as observer in 
the 1st Marine Aviation Force at the 
front in France. He not only participated 
successfully in numerous raids into the 
enemy territory, but on Oct. 8, 1918, 
while conducting an air raid in company 
with planes from Squadron 218, R.A.F., 
he was attacked by nine enemy scouts 
and in the fight which followed he shot 
down one of the enemy planes. Also, on 
Oct. 14, 1918, while on an air raid over 
Pittham, Belgium, his plane and one 
other became separated from their for- 
mation on account of motor trouble and 
were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. In 
the fight which ensued, he behaved with 
conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity. 
After shooting down one of the ene- 
my planes he was struck by a bullet 
which carried away most of his elbow, 
and his gun jammed at the same time. 
He cleared the jam with one hand while 
his pilot maneuvered for position. With 
the gun cleared, he returned to the fight 
though his left arm was useless, and 
fought off the enemy scouts until he 
collapsed after receiving two more bullet 
wounds, one in the stomach and one in 
the thigh." 

ROCKEY, Keller E. Lieutenant General 
(Retired). CG of the 5th Mar. Div. in 
the battle for Iwo Jima: b. Columbia 
City, Ind, Sept. 22, 1888. Keller Rockey 
was commissioned as a second lieutenant 
in the Marine Corps on Nov. 18, 1913. 
Upon reporting for duty he was assigned 
as a student to the Marine Officers' 
School, MB, Norfolk, Va. where, upon 
graduation in May 1915, he went to sea. 
First, he was a member of the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS Nebraska, 
then a member of the Marine Detach- 
ment aboard the USS Nevada. Following 




Rockey 

sea duty he sailed for France in June 
1917, and one year later, as a member of 
the 5th Mar. Regt, participated in the 
Aisne-Marnedefensive(Chateau-Thierry). 
He was awarded a Navy Cross for his 
actions at Chateau-Tblerry where, on 
July 6, 1918, "he performed distinguished 
service by bringing up supports and plac- 
ing them in the front lines at great 
personal exposure, showing exceptional 
ability and extraordinary heroism." Short- 
ly after returning to the States in 1919, 
Rockey went to foreign shore duty in 
Haiti as a member of the Haitian Con- 
stabulary. He remained there until 1921, 
then returned to the States and joined 
the MB, Washington, D.C. Following 
duty at HQMC, Washington, D.C., he 
became a student at the Field Officers' 



186 



ROTTET 



RO TTE T 



Course, MCS, Quantico. After graduation 
in July, 1925, he was again assigned to 
school, this time as a student at the Com- 
mand and General Staff School, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans. Upon graduation in 
June 1926, he became an instructor in 
the Department of Tactics, MCS. From 
Jan. 1928 to Nov. 1928, he was CO of 
the 1st Bn., llth Regt, 2nd Mar. Brig., 
stationed in Nicaragua. He then became 
Base Intelligence, Operations, and Train- 
ing Officer of the MCB, San Diego, Calif., 
and later Chief of Staff of the Base. In 
June 1934, he was assigned to duty in the 
Major General Commandant's Depart- 
ment, HQMC, following which he be- 
came Force Marine Officer, Battle Force 
aboard the USS California. He returned 
to Washington in July 1939 to assume 
duties with Operations, Navy Depart- 
ment ( War Plans ) and in Aug. 1941 be- 
came Chief of Staff of the 2nd Mar. Div., 
the position he held when the United 
States entered WWII. He was assigned 
duties as Director, Division of Plans and 
Policies at HQMC in Aug. 1942 and, one 
year later, assumed duties as Assistant 
to the Commandant. In Feb. 1944, he 
went to the Pacific where he was succes- 
sively CG of the 5th Mar. Div. and the 
3rd Amphibious Corps. Following the 
deactivation of the 3rd Corps, he as- 
sumed command of the 1st Mar. Div. 
(Reinf. ), with headquarters at Tientsin, 
China, He returned to the States and be- 
came CG of the Department of the Pa- 
cific in Sept. 1946, which position he held 
until ordered to duty on Jan. 2, 1947 as 
CG of the newly activated FMF, At- 
lantic. Gen. Rockey was retired from the 
Corps on Sept. 1, 1950. 

ROTTET, Ralph Kaspar. Major General. 
Director of the Marine Corps Educa- 
tional Center, Quantico, Va.: b. Jasper, 
Ind., Feb. 25, 1911. Ralph Rottet gradu- 



ated from high school in Shelbyville, 
Ind., where he was a member of the 
Indiana National Guard. A year later he 
was appointed to the U.S. Naval Acad- 
emy. Upon graduation from the Academy, 
he was awarded a Bachelor of Science 
degree and commissioned a Marine sec- 
ond lieutenant, May 31, 1934. He then 
completed Basic School at the Philadel- 
phia Navy Yard in Apr. 1935, and that 
June joined the Marine Detachment 
aboard the USS Salt Lake City. In June 
1936, he entered flight training at the 
NAS, Pensacola, Fla. In July 1937, he 
was promoted to first lieutenant and des- 
ignated a naval aviator. During the next 
three years, Rottet served at NAS, San 
Diego, Calif. He was promoted to cap- 
tain in July 1940. He returned to Pen- 
sacola as an instructor in Nov. 1940. 
Upon being transferred to Washington, 
D.C. in Oct. 1941, he saw a year's duty 
at the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy De- 
partment. He was promoted to major in 
May 1942. In Nov. 1942, he joined the 
3rd MAW, MCAS, Cherry Point, N.C. 
There he served as CO, Marine Fighting 
Squadron 311, and later as CO of MAG 
31. He was promoted to lieutenant col- 
onel in June 1943. Deployed with the 
group to the Marshall Is. area in Sept. 
1943, Lt. Col. Rottet served as Executive 
Officer, Operations Officer, and finally 
CO of MAG 31, then a part of the 4th 
MAW in the Pacific. Flying F4U Cor- 
sairs with his group, he operated from 
Wallis Is., American Samoa, Funafuti in 
the Ellice Islands, Malcin in the Gilbert 
Islands, and Roi-Namur in the Marshalls. 
Twenty-one combat missions in this area 
earned him the Distinguished Flying 
Cross and the Air Medal with two Gold 
Stars. Under his command, MAG 31 de- 
veloped an effective napalm bombing 
method, and conducted the first napalm 
bombing strikes, inflicting extensive dam- 



187 



RO TT ET 



RO U H 



age on the enemy. For meritorious ser- 
vice in this capacity, he was awarded 
the Bronze Star Medal with Combat 
"V." He returned to the States in Dec. 
1944. From Jan. to June 1945, Lt. Col. 
Rottet attended the Army-Navy Staff 
College, Washington, D.C. Upon com- 
pleting the course, he was transferred 
to MCAS, Cherry Point, where he com- 
manded Aircraft Engineering Squadron 
46, then served as Assistant Chief of Staff 
(G-3), Operations and Training. Follow- 
ing his detachment from Cherry Point in 
Aug. 1946, he served on the faculty of 
the Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, 
Va. until July 1948. That Sept. he re- 
ported to NAS, San Diego, as Marine 
Aviation Planning Officer, on the Staff of 
Commander, Air Force, Pacific Fleet, 
While there, he was promoted to colonel 
in July 1949. Col. Rottet joined NAS, 
Minneapolis, Minn., in June 1950, as CO, 
Marine Air Detachment, Marine Air Re- 
serve Training Command. In July 1951, 
he was assigned to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C., where he served briefly as Execu- 
tive Officer, Operations and Training 
Branch, Division of Aviation, prior to 
becoming Head of the branch. He was 
transferred to MCAS, El Toro, Calif., in 
July 1953, completing the Jet Indoctrina- 
tion Course that Aug. before leaving for 
Korea. In Korea, he saw duty from Aug. 
1953 to July 1954, earning the Legion of 
Merit for outstanding service as Com- 
mander of MAG 12, and later MAG 11, 
1st MAW. On his return to the States, 
he was stationed at MCS, Quantico, serv- 
ing as Member of the Advanced Re- 
search Group, Marine Corps Educational 
Center, from Aug. 1954 to June 1955. 
The following month, he reported to 
HQ, Aircraft, FMF, Atlantic, in Norfolk 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3. In July 
1956, he became Chief of Staff, FMF, 
Atlantic, the first aviator appointed to 



that position. In July 1957, he was pro- 
moted to brigadier general. That same 
month, Gen. Rottet was named CG, 4th 
Prov. Marine Air-Ground Task Force. 
Six months later he was ordered to the 
Far East, arriving in Japan in Dec. 1957 
to assume duty as Assistant Commander, 
1st MAW, Aircraft, FMF, Pacific. He 
returned to the States in Mar. 1959 as 
Commander, Marine Corps Air Bases, 
Eastern Area, and CG, MCAS, Cherry 
Point, N.C. While serving in this capac- 
ity, he was promoted to his present rank 
of major general in July 1960. In Sept. 
1960, Gen. Rottet began a year's assign- 
ment as CG, 2nd MAW. He remained at 
Cherry Point until Oct. 1961, when he 
assumed his current duties as Director of 
the Marine Corps Educational Center at 
Quantico. 

ROUH, Carlton Robert. Captain. Medal 
of Honor: b. Lindenwold, N.J., May 11, 
1919. Capt. Rouh's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . while attached to the 1st Bn., 
5th Marines, 1st Mar. Div., during action 
against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu 
Is., Sept 15, 1944. Before permitting his 
men to use an enemy dugout as a position 
for an 81-mm. mortar observation post, 
( then ) 1st Lt. Rouh made a personal re- 
connaissance of the pillbox and, upon 
entering, was severely wounded by Japa- 
nese rifle fire from within. Emerging 
from the dugout, he was immediately 
assisted by two Marines to a less exposed 
area but, while receiving first aid, was 
further endangered by an enemy gre- 
nade which was thrown into their midst. 
Quick to act in spite of his weakened 
condition, he lurched to a crouching 
position and thrust both men aside, plac- 
ing his own body between them and the 
grenade and taking the full blast of the 
explosion himself. . . ." 



188 



RU H L 



RUSSELL 



RUHL, Donald Jack. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Columbus, Mont, 
July 2, 1923; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, Feb. 21, 
1945. On Feb. 19, 1945-D-Day at Iwo 
Jima Pvt. Ruhl singlehandedly attacked 
a group of eight Japanese who had been 
driven from a blockhouse. Killing one 
with his bayonet, he killed another with 
rifle fire before the rest fled. Early the 
next morning he left the safety of his 
tank trap and moved out under a tre- 
mendous volume of mortar and machine 
gun fire to rescue a wounded Marine 
lying in an exposed position about 40 
yards forward of the front lines. Half 
carrying and half pulling the wounded 
man, Ruhl removed him to a position 
out of reach of enemy rifles. Calling for 
an assistant and a stretcher, the young 
man again braved the heavy fire to carry 
the casualty 300 yards back to an aid sta- 
tion on the beach. Returning to his outfit, 
he volunteered to investigate an appar- 
ently abandoned Japanese gun emplace- 
ment 75 yards forward of the right flank. 
Subsequently he occupied the position 
through the night, thus preventing the 
enemy from again taking possession of 
the valuable weapon. The next morning, 
D plus two, E Co. of the 28th Marines 
pushed forward in the assault against 
the vast network of fortifications sur- 
rounding the base of Mt. Suribachi. Dur- 
ing the advance, P.F.C. Ruhl, with his 
platoon guide, crawled to the top of a 
Japanese bunker to bring fire to bear on 
enemy troops located on the far side of 
the bunker. Suddenly a hostile grenade 
landed between the two Marines. Call- 
ing a warning to his senior NCO, he 
instantly dove upon the deadly missile 
and absorbed the full charge of the ex- 
ploding grenade into his own body. 

RUSSELL, John Henry, Jr. Major Gen- 
eral. 16th Commandant of the Marine 



Corps: b. Mare Is., Calif., Nov. 14, 1872; 
d. Coronado, Calif., Mar. 6, 1947. John 
Russell entered the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis in May 1888. He graduated 
with the class of 1892 and, after two 
years as a naval cadet, he was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on July 1, 1894. He served at shore 
stations until June 1, 1896, then went 
aboard the USS Massachusetts. During 
the Spanish-American War he served on 
that ship in the blockading operations 
around the West Indies and in the bom- 
bardment of the forts of Santiago, Cuba. 
In Nov. 1898, he was promoted to first 
lieutenant and was assigned, in turn, to 
Philadelphia, Norfolk and Washington, 
D.C. He was promoted to captain on 
Mar. 28, 1899 while serving aboard the 
USS Josemite. Duty followed on Guam, 
in the States at east coast stations and at 
Mare Is., Calif., and aboard the USS 
Oregon. He was promoted to major in 
July 1906, and transferred to the com- 
mand of the Marine Barracks, Honolulu, 
Hawaii. From Hawaii his duty assign- 
ments took him to the Canal Zone, back 
to the States on the staff of the Navy 
War College, to the legation guard at 
Peking, China, then to Washington, D.C. 
and the Office of Naval Intelligence. 
Early in 1914, he was given command of 
the 2nd Bn. 3rd Marines and landed 
with that unit at Vera Cruz, Mex. on 
Apr. 30, 1914. The battalion remained in 
Mexico until Dec. when it was with- 
drawn, and Maj. Russell returned to his 
regular assignment with the Navy De- 
partment. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel and took command of the 3rd 
Mar. Regt. in Santo Domingo, then was 
placed in command of the 1st Prov. Brig, 
of Marines occupying Haiti. During his 
tour of duty in Haiti he became thor- 
oughly familiar with its political and 
economic difficulties and, on Feb. 11, 



189 



RUSSELL 



RUSSELL 



1922 after promotion to brigadier general, 
he was appointed as High Commissioner 
of Haiti with the rank of Ambassador 
Extraordinary. He remained in this im- 
portant assignment for nearly nine years 
before being transferred to the MCB at 
San Diego where he took command in 
Nov. 1930. A year later he was assigned 
to Quantico, and from there he returned 
to HQMC as Assistant to the Comman- 
dant. He was promoted to major general 
and continued as Assistant to the CMC 
until he was appointed Commandant on 
Apr. 5, 1934. Gen. Russell's administra- 
tion lasted only two years and eight 
months, but it brought significant changes 
and progress within the Corps. The old 



system of seniority promotions of officers 
was changed to that of advancement by 
selection. The 1st Mar. Brig, was with- 
drawn from Haiti, while the 4th Marines 
continued to occupy Shanghai, but car- 
ried out no military operations. Organi- 
zation, education, and training of the 
Corps progressed rapidly. The FMF as- 
sumed a new importance. The Reserves 
were given more attention, including 
summer training camps for selected col- 
lege students. And the number of ships 
carrying Marine Detachments continued 
to increase throughout the period. Gen. 
Russell reached the statutory age limit 
in Nov. 1936, and was retired from active 
duty on Dec. 1, 1936. 



s 



SANTELMANN, William Frederick. 
Lieutenant Colonel (Retired). Leader of 
the Marine Band -1940 to 1955: b. 
Washington, D.C., 1902. After comple- 
tion of his studies at the New England 
Conservatory of Music at Boston, Wil- 
liam Santelmann enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Sept 5, 1923. Immediately up- 
on enlistment he was assigned to the 
orchestral group which performed regu- 
larly at all White House affairs. During 
this time he served under the direction 
of his father who had already been lead- 
er of the band four years before William's 
birth. Although the son had begun con- 
ducting small groups soon after entering 
the band, it was not until 1935, with his 
appointment as Assistant Leader, that he 
had to devote full time to conducting. 
On Apr. 1, 1940, the Commandant of the 
Marine Corps appointed him the Leader 
and with that responsibility went the 



rank of captain. Promotion to major fol- 
lowed in 1947 and in 1951, Santelmann 
attained the highest rank ever held by a 
musician in the Marine Corps, lieutenant 
colonel. In his 32 years of service with 
the Marine Band, Santelmann made con- 
cert tours into every state in the country 
and into every large city from coast to 
coast. He appeared as Director on 12 of 
these tours and established a firm repu- 
tation as a conductor. Perhaps the most 
important duties assigned to Col. Santel- 
mann were those connected with the 
White House, the Presidents, and their 
guests. Planning and providing the music 
for all official functions during the ad- 
ministrations of Presidents Coolidge, 
Hoover, Roosevelt, Truman, and the first 
term of President Eisenhower was a very 
exacting yet stimulating responsibility. 
In addition to his duties as Leader of the 
Marine Band, Col. Santelmann was also 



190 



SCANNELL 



SC H 1 LT 



Supervisor of all Marine Bands through- 
out the world, Music Director of the fa- 
mous Gridiron Club of Washington, and 
Music Director of the Military Order of 
the Carabao. 

SCANNELL., David John. Private. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Boston, Mass., Mar. 30, 
1875. David Scannell enlisted in the 
Marine Corps at Boston, Mass, on Feb. 
1, 1898. He was awarded the nation's 
highest military honor ". . . for distin- 
guished conduct in the presence of the 
enemy at Peking, China, July 21 to Aug. 
17, 1900. Scannell assisted in erecting 
barricades under heavy fire. . . ." He was 
discharged from the Corps on Mar. 6, 
1903. 

SCHILT, Christian Frank. General (Re- 
tired). Medal of Honor. Pioneer of Ma- 
rine Corps aviation: b. Richland County, 
111., Mar. 1, 1895. Christian Schilt enlisted 
in the Marine Corps June 23, 1917. As an 
enlisted man he served at Ponta Delgada 
in the Azores with the 1st Mar. Aero- 
nautical Co., a seaplane squadron as- 
signed to antisubmarine patrol. This was 
the first organized American air unit of 
any service to go overseas during WWI. 
Returning to the States as a corporal, 
Schilt entered flight training at the Ma- 
rine Flying Field, Miami, Fla. He was 
designated an aviator June 5, 1919, and 
commissioned a second lieutenant 5 days 
later. That Oct. he began his first tour of 
expeditionary duty as a member of 
Squadron D, Marine Air Forces, 2nd 
Prov. Brig, in Santo Domingo. He re- 
turned to the States in Feb. 1920 to enter 
the Marine Officers* Training School, 
Quantico, Va. Completing the course in 
Aug. 1920, he went overseas again the 
following month, joining Squadron E of 
Marine Aviation Forces, 1st Prov. Brig, 
at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He was trans- 




Schilt 

ferred to the 2nd Brig, the following 
Mar. to make an aerial survey and mosaic 
map of the coast line of the Dominican 
Republic. After completing this assign- 
ment he returned to Quantico in Oct. 
1922. Except for service at NAS, Pensa- 
cola, Fla. from Jan. to July 1923, and 
completing a three-month photographic 
course at the Air Service Technical 
School, Chanute Field, 111. in 1925, he 
remained at Quantico for the next five 
years. While attached to that post he won 
second place in the Schneider Interna- 
tional Seaplane Race at Norfolk, Va. in 
Nov. 1926, flying a special Curtiss racer 
at a speed of 231.3 miles per hour over 
seven laps of a triangular 50-kilometer 
course, In Nov. 1927, Schilt was ordered 
to Managua, Nicaragua where he joined 
Observation Squadron 7-M. It was during 



191 



SCH ILT 



S C H S if 



this tour of duty that he won the Medal 
of Honor. He was awarded the Medal for 
heroism from Jan. 6 to 8, 1928, at Quilali, 
Nicaragua, where two Marine patrols 
were ambushed and cut off by rebel 
bandits. Lt. Schilt voluntarily risked his 
life to make 10 flights into the besieged 
town, evacuating 18 casualties and carry- 
ing in a replacement commander and 
badly needed medical supplies. To make 
a landing strip on the village's rough, 
rolling main street, the Marines on the 
ground had to burn and level part of the 
town and, since the plane had no brakes, 
they had to stop it by dragging from its 
wings as soon as it touched down. Hos- 
tile fire on landings and take-offs, plus 
low-hanging clouds, mountains, and 
tricky air currents, added to the difficulty 
of the flights, which the citation describes 
as feats of "almost superhuman skill com- 
bined with personal courage of the high- 
est order." Schilt returned to the States 
in Aug. 1929 and, after commanding 
Fighter Squadron 5-N at Quantico, was 
named Chief Test Pilot and Flight and 
Aerological Officer at the Naval Aircraft 
Factory, Philadelphia, Pa. He served in 
that capacity for two years before return- 
ing to Quantico in June 1932 to enter 
the Company Officers' Course at the 
MCS. He completed that course in July 
1933, and a month later entered the Air 
Corps Tactical School at Montgomery, 
Ala. Graduating in June 1934, he began 
another four years at Quantico, where 
he was Air Officer on the Staff of the 
CG, FMF, and later a squadron com- 
mander with Aircraft 1, FMF. He then 
served from May 1938 to June 1940, as 
Executive Officer of MCAS at St. Thom- 
as, Virgin Is. After that assignment he 
returned to Quantico to complete the 
Senior Course in the MCS and serve with 
Base Air Detachment 1, FMF. He left 
Quantico in May 1941, when he was as- 



signed to the American Embassy in Lon- 
don, England, as an Assistant Naval 
Attache for Air. In that capacity he trav- 
eled through England and Scotland and 
served as a naval observer in north Africa 
and the middle east. He returned to the 
States in Aug. 1941, and was assigned to 
Quantico as Engineer and Supply Officer 
of the 1st MAW. In Sept. 1942, he ar- 
rived on Guadalcanal as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, 1st MAW. After that he was 
commander of MAG 11, Chief of Staff of 
the 1st Wing and CO of the Strike and 
Search Patrol Commands, Solomon Is. 
He returned to the States in Sept. 1943 
and took command of the MCAS at 
Cherry Point, N.C. until Mar. of the fol- 
lowing year. From Apr. to June 1944, 
Schilt headed the 9th MAW during the 
organization of that unit. He then served 
for six months as Chief of Staff of the 
wing and for another month as its com- 
mander before returning to the Pacific 
theater in Feb. 1945. This time he was 
Island Commander at Peleliu from Mar. 
to Aug. 1945, and CG, Air Defense Com- 
mand, 2nd MAW, on Okinawa until Oct. 

1945, when he took command of the 2nd 
Wing. Returning from Okinawa in Mar. 

1946, he reported to NAS, Glenview, 111. 
the following month. There he headed 
the MARTC until July 1949, when he 
was ordered to Norfolk as Chief of Staff, 
FMF, Atlantic. He served in that capac- 
ity until he took command of the 1st 
MAW in Korea in July 1951. In Apr. 
1952, he returned from Korea to serve in 
Hawaii as Deputy Commander, FMF, 
Pacific until Feb. 1953, when he became 
CG, Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, at MCAS, 
El Toro, Calif. He left El Toro in July 
1955. Ordered to HQMC, he was pro- 
moted to lieutenant general Aug. 1, 1955 
and, on that same date, assumed duties 
as Director of Aviation, Assistant Com- 
mandant of the Marine Corps for Air, 



192 



SCHWAB 



5 H A P L E Y 



and Assistant Chief of Naval Operations 
for Marine Aviation. He served in this 
capacity until his retirement from the 
Marine Corps on Apr. 1, 1957. He was 
promoted to his present rank by reason 
of having been specially commended for 
heroism in combat. 

SCHWAB, Albert Ernest. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Washington, 
D.C., July 17, 1920; d. KIA, Okinawa, 
May 7, 1945. P.F.C. Schwab's citation 
reads, in part: ". . . as a flame thrower 
operator serving with HQ Co., 1st Bn., 
5th Marines, 1st Mar. Div., in action 
against enemy Japanese forces on Oki- 
nawa May 7, 1945. Quick to take action 
when his company was pinned down in 
a valley and suffering resultant heavy 
casualties under blanketing machine 
gun fire emanating from a high ridge to 
the front, P.F.C. Schwab, unable to 
flank the enemy emplacement because 
of steep cliffs on either side, advanced 
up the face of the ridge in bold defiance 
of the intense barrage and, skillfully di- 
recting the fire of his flame thrower, 
quickly demolished the hostile gun po- 
sition, thereby enabling his company to 
occupy the ridge. Suddenly a second 
Japanese machine gun opened fire, kill- 
ing or wounding several Marines with 
its initial bursts. Estimating with split- 
second decision the tactical difficulties 
confronting his comrades, P.F.C. Schwab 
elected to continue his one-man assault 
despite a diminished supply of fuel for 
his flame thrower. Cool and indomitable, 
he moved forward in the face of the di- 
rect concentration of hostile fire, relent- 
lessly closed in on the enemy position and 
attacked. Although severely wounded 
by a final vicious blast from the enemy 
weapon, P.F.C. Schwab had succeeded 
in destroying two highly strategic Jap- 



anese gun positions during a critical 
stage of the operation. . . ." 

SCOTT, Joseph Francis. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Boston, Mass., June 4, 1864. 
Joseph Scott enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at Boston, Mass, on Aug. 11, -1888. His 
citation reads, in part: "... while serving 
on board the USS Nashville, for extra- 
ordinary bravery and coolness while cut- 
ting the cables leading from Cienfuegos, 
Cuba, May 11, 1898, under a heavy fire 
of the enemy. . . ." He was discharged 
from the Corps on May 7, 1901. 




Shapley 

SHAPLEY, Alan. Lieutenant General 
(Retired). Former CG, Fleet Marine 
Force, Pacific, in Honolulu, Hawaii: b. 
New York, N.Y., Feb. 9, 1903. Alan 
Shapley received his early schooling at 
Vallejo, Calif., and was graduated from 
the Peddie School at Hightstown, NJ. in 



193 



SNAP LEY 



SH A P 1 E Y 



1922. He then entered the U.S. Naval 
Academy, graduating on June 2, 1927 as 
a Marine second lieutenant. After further 
training at the Academy, duty at Quan- 
tico, Va., and completion of the Marine 
officers' Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard, he sailed for Hawaii in Jan. 
1929 to begin almost three years of duty 
at the MB, Pearl Harbor. He returned to 
the States in Oct. 1931, and served in 
various capacities at San Diego, Calif., 
before taking command of the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS San Fran- 
cisco in Jan. 1934. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant that same month. De- 
tached from the USS San Francisco in 
June 1936, he returned to Quantico 
where he served as Aide-de-Camp to the 
CG of the MB. He was promoted to 
captain in July 1936. In June 1937, Shap- 
ley entered the Junior Course of the 
MCS at Quantico. He completed the 
course in May 1938, and was ordered to 
San Francisco, Calif, as Aide-de-Camp to 
the CG, Department of the Pacific. After 
serving in that capacity until July 1939, 
he served as Operations, Training and 
Intelligence Officer of the Department 
of the Pacific until May 1940. A month 
later he departed for Hawaii, where he 
took command of the Marine Detach- 
ment on the USS Arizona. He was pro- 
moted to major in Aug. 1941. He was 
awarded the Silver Star Medal for hero- 
ism on Dec. 7, 1941, when the USS 
Arizona was sunk at Pearl Harbor. 
There, in the water after the ship had 
been bombed and set afire by the Japa- 
nese, he disregarded his own exhaustion 
and tEe enemy's bombing and strafing 
to rescue one of his men from drowning. 
Two days after the attack on Pearl Har- 
bor, he sailed for San Diego to become 
personnel officer of the Amphibious 
Corps, Pacific Fleet. He was promoted 
to lieutenant colonel in Aug. 1942. Lt. 



Col. Shapley assumed a similar post with 
the 1st Amphibious Corps in Oct. 1942, 
and that same month he sailed with the 
1st Corps for the Pacific area. There he 
commanded the 2nd Raider Bn., 1st Mar. 
Raider Regt. from Mar. to Sept. 1943. 
Later, he led the crack 2nd Mar. Raider 
Regt. in the fighting at Bougainville, 
earning the Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V" for outstanding service at Bougain- 
ville in Nov. 1943. After the Bougainville 
campaign, Lt. Col. Shapley was given 
command of the 1st and 2nd Mar. Raider 
Regts., from which he organized the 4th 
Marines, which he commanded at Emi- 
rau, Guam, and Okinawa. In addition to 
the Navy Cross for heroism on Guam, 
he was also awarded a second Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V" for outstand- 
ing service at Okinawa from Apr. to June 
1945. He was promoted to colonel in Nov. 
1944. Following the Okinawa campaign, 
Col. Shapley returned to the States in 
July 1945 to become Assistant Inspector 
in the Inspection Division at HQMC, 
Washington, D.C. In Sept. he entered 
the National War College in Washington. 
After graduation in June 1947, he served 
for two years at Norfolk, Va., as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations and 
Training), of FMF, Atlantic. Subsequent- 
ly, he was ordered to the Marine Corps 
Recruit Depot at San Diego in June 1949, 
and after serving as personnel officer, be- 
came that unit's chief of staff in Sept. 
1949. In Jan. 1951, Col. Shapley was 
ordered again to Washington where he 
served on the International Planning Staff 
of the Standing Group, North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization, until June 1953. Or- 
dered to Korea, he served as Chief of 
Staff, 1st Mar. Div., earning the Bronze 
Star Medal with Combat "V" for meri- 
torious achievement during this period. 
For subsequent service as Senior Advisor 
to the Korean Marine Corps, he was 



194 



SHAW 



SHAW 



awarded the Republic of Korea's Ulchi 
Medal with Silver Star. From Korea, Col. 
Shapley was ordered to Japan in May 
1954. He served there as CO, and sub- 
sequently as CG, Troop Training Team, 
Amphibious Group, Western Pacific. He 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
July 1954. In July 1955, on his return to 
the States, Gen. Shapley became Assist- 
ant Commander of the 1st Mar. Div., 
Camp Pendleton, Calif. Following his 
detachment from the 1st Div. in May 

1956, he commanded the Recruit Train- 
ing Command at the Marine Corps Re- 
cruit Depot, San Diego, for a brief time 
prior to being ordered to the Far East. 
Upon his promotion to major general in 
Sept. 1956, he assumed duties on Oki- 
nawa as CG, 3rd Mar, Div., FMF. Gen. 
Shapley returned to the States in July 

1957, reporting to HQMC, Washington, 
as Director of the MCR. After holding 
this post for over two years, he returned 
to the west coast in Nov. 1959, and served 
as CG, MCB, Camp Pendleton, until 
Mar. 1961. In Apr. 1961, upon assuming 
his assignment as CG, FMF, Pacific, he 
was promoted to his present rank of 
lieutenant general. He was placed on 
the retired list July 1, 1962. 

SHAW, Samuel Robert. Brigadier Gen- 
eral (Retired). Recalled to active duty, 
Sept. 30, 1962, as Director of Programs 
on the Staff of the Preparedness Sub- 
Committee, Senate Armed Services Com- 
mittee, Washington, D.C.: b. Cleveland, 
Ohio, June 6, 1911. After graduating 
from high school at Dayton, Ohio, Sam- 
uel Shaw enlisted in the Marine Corps in 
Sept. 1928, and was appointed to the 
U.S. Naval Academy from the ranks in 
July 1930. Upon graduation he was com- 
missioned a Marine second lieutenant 
May 31, 1934. After completing the 
Marine Officers' Basic School at the 



Philadelphia Navy Yard and a year of 
sea duty with the Marine Detachment 
aboard the USS Tuscaloosa, he joined the 
5th Marines at Quantico, Va. in June 
1936. He was promoted to first lieutenant 
in July 1937. Shortly afterward, Shaw 
was temporarily detached from the regi- 
ment to complete the Army Ordnance 
Field Service School at Raritan Arsenal, 
Metuchen, N.J. He was also a member 
of the Marine Corps Rifle and Pistol 
Teams of 1937 and 1938, and command- 
ed the Marine Detachment at the Rifle 
Range, Cape May, N.J., from Mar. to 
Aug. 1939. Upon his return from Cape 
May, he entered the Junior Course at the 
MCS, Quantico. He completed the course 
in June 1940, and later fired on the 1940 
Rifle and Pistol Team. He was promoted 
to captain in July 1940. Shaw sailed in 
Oct. 1940 for Pearl Harbor. As a com- 
pany commander at the MB, Pearl Har- 
bor Navy Yard, he took part in the 
defense of Pearl Harbor when the Japa- 
nese struck on December 7, 194L He 
was promoted to major in May 1942 and 
to lieutenant colonel in Apr. 1943. In July 
1943, after his return to the States, Lt. 
Col. Shaw was appointed Assistant Chief 
of Staff, A-3 (Operations and Training), 
FMF, San Diego area. He served in that 
capacity until he entered the Army Com- 
mand and General Staff School, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans., and completed the 
course in Oct. 1944. Departing for the 
Pacific area the following month, he as- 
sumed command of the 6th Pioneer Bn., 
6th Mar. Div. In this capacity, he saw 
action in the Okinawa campaign and 
earned the Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V." He held that command until Oct. 
1945, when he landed with the battalion 
at Tsingtao, China. There, as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-4, 6th Mar. Div., he was 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal. He re- 
turned from China in Sept. 1946. From 



195 



SHEPHERD 



SHEPHERD 



Oct. 1946 to Jan. 1949, Lt. Col. Shaw 
was stationed at Quantico as a member 
of a special Marine Corps Board con- 
vened to conduct research and prepare 
material relative to postwar legislation 
concerning the role of the Marine Corps 
in national defense. Transferred to Wash- 
ington, D.C., in Jan. 1949, he served as 
Research Officer in the Organizational 
Research and Policy Division, Office of the 
Assistant Chief of Naval Operations, until 
Nov. 1949; and, subsequently, as Shore 
Party Officer in the Engineer Section, Di- 
vision of Plans and Policies, at HQMC; as 
a member of the Navy Department Man- 
agement Survey Board; and as Chief of 
the Joint Action Panel in the Marine 
Corps' Division of Plans and Policies. 
He was promoted to colonel in Aug. 
1949. He left Washington in Feb. 1952 
to become Senior Marine Corps Repre- 
sentative on the Joint Amphibious Board 
at Little Creek, Va. ? where he remained 
until July 1953. He returned to Quantico 
that Aug. as a member of the Advanced 
Research Group, Marine Corps Educa- 
tional Center. Ordered overseas in June 
1954, Col. Shaw joined the 1st Mar. Div. 
in Korea the following month as Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff, G-4. He returned to 
HQMC, Washington, in July 1955, serv- 
ing as Director, Policy Analysis Branch, 
until June 1957, when he was named 
Deputy Chief of Staff, Research and 
Development He was promoted to briga- 
dier general in Nov. 1957. Gen. Shaw 
departed Washington for Quantico in 
July 1958 to become Director of the Ma- 
rine Corps Development Center. Follow- 
ing this assignment, he was named CO, 
Landing Force Training Unit, Pacific 
Fleet, in Nov. 1959, serving in this capac- 
ity until his retirement, Mar. 1, 1962. 

SHEPHERD, Lemuel Cornicle, Jr. Gen- 
eral 20th Commandant of the Marine 




Shepherd 

Corps - Jan. 1, 1952 to Dec. 31, 1955. Re- 
tired but recalled to active duty and ap- 
pointed Chairman of the Inter-American 
Defense Board: b. Norfolk, Va., Feb. 10, 
1896. Lemuel Shepherd, a graduate of 
Virginia Military Institute, was commis- 
sioned a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on Apr. 11, 1917. On May 19, he 
reported for active duty at the MB, Port 
Royal, S.C. Less than a month later, he 
sailed for France as a member of the 5th 
Mar. Regt, with the first elements of the 
AEF. He served in defensive sectors in 
the vicinity of Verdun and participated 
in the Aisne-Marne offensive (Chateau- 
Thierry) where he was twice wounded 
in action at Belleau Wood during the 
fighting there in June 1918. Upon return- 
ing to the front in Aug., he rejoined the 
5th Marines and saw action in the St- 



196 



SHEPHERD 



SHEPHERD 



Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne (Champagne) 
offensive where he was wounded for the 
third time. For his gallantry in action at 
Belleau Wood, Lt. Shepherd was award- 
ed the Army Distinguished Service Cross, 
the Navy Cross, the French Croix de 
Guerre, and was cited in the general 
orders of the 2nd Inf. Div., AEF. After 
duty with the Army of Occupation in 
Germany, Shepherd sailed for home in 
July 1919, In Sept., he returned to France 
for duty in connection with the prepara- 
tion of relief maps of the battlefields over 
which the 4th Brig, of Marines had 
fought. Upon Shepherd's return to the 
States in Dec. 1920, he was assigned as 
Aide-de-Camp to the Commandant and 
Aide at the White House. In July 1922, 
he was assigned duty in command of a 
selected company of Marines at the Bra- 
zilian Exposition at Rio de Janeiro. Ill 
June of 1923, he was ordered to sea duty 
as CO of the Marine Detachment aboard 
the USS Idaho. This tour was followed 
by duty at the MB, Norfolk, Va., where 
he commanded the Sea School. In Apr. 
1927, he sailed for expeditionary duty 
in China, where he served in the 3rd 
Mar. Brig, in Tientsin and Shanghai. 
Upon returning to the States in 1929, 
he attended the Field Officers' Course, 
MCS. After graduation, Capt Shepherd 
was assigned to overseas duty again, this 
time on detached duty with the Garde 
d'Haiti where he served for four years 
as a District and Department Command- 
er. Following the withdrawal of Marines 
from Haiti in 1934, Shepherd, now a 
major, was detailed to the MB, Wash- 
ington, D.C., as Executive Officer and 
as Registrar of the Marine Corps Insti- 
tute. Promoted to lieutenant colonel in 
1936, he was assigned to the Naval War 
College at Newport, R.I. Following grad- 
uation in May 1937, he commanded the 
2nd Bn., 5th Mar. Regt, part of the 



newly formed FMF, Atlantic, which was 
being extensively employed in the de- 
velopment of amphibious tactics and 
techniques. In June 1939, he was or- 
dered to the Staff of the MCS, Quantico, 
Va., where he served during the next 
three years as Director, Correspondence 
School; Chief of the Tactical Section; 
Officer in Charge of the Candidates 
Class; and Assistant Commandant. In 
Mar. 1942, four months after the United 
States' entry into WWII, Col. Shepherd 
was ordered to command the 9th Mar. 
Regt. He organized, trained, and took 
this unit overseas as part of the 3rd Mar. 
Div. Upon appointment to flag rank in 
July 1943, while serving on Guadalcanal, 
Brig. Gen. Shepherd was assigned as 
Assistant Division Commander of the 1st 
Mar. Div. In this capacity, he partici- 
pated in the Cape Gloucester operation 
on New Britain from Dec. 1943 through 
Mar. 1944, where he was awarded a 
Legion of Merit for distinguished service 
in command of the operations in the B or- 
gan Bay area. In May 1944, Gen. Shep- 
herd assumed command of the 1st Prov. 
Mar. Brig, and led this organization in 
the invasion and subsequent recapture 
of Guam during July and Aug. of 1944. 
For distinguished leadership in this oper- 
ation, Gen. Shepherd received his first 
Distinguished Service Medal, and was 
promoted to major general. After organ- 
izing the 6th Mar. Div. from the Brigade, 
Maj. Gen. Shepherd commanded it 
throughout the Okinawa Operation and 
subsequently took that unit to Tsingtao, 
China. There, on Oct. 25, 1945, he re- 
ceived the surrender of the Japanese 
forces in this area. For exceptionally 
meritorious service as CG of the 6th Mar. 
Div. in the assault and occupation of Oki- 
nawa (Apr. 1 to June 21, 1945) he was 
awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a second 
Distinguished Service Medal. The cita- 



197 



SHEPHERD 



S HO U P 



tion for this decoration reads in part: 
"Schooled by grim experience in the art 
of countering Japanese strategies, Maj. 
Gen. Shepherd organized a major Marine 
Corps fighting unit for the second time 
within a year, planned its commitment 
into battle with brilliant military acu- 
men . . . and demonstrated a superior 
ability to use the men and weapons at 
his command. His indomitable courage 
and astute judgment were important fac- 
tors in the success of his division's opera- 
tions/* Several months later, the general 
returned to the States and in Mar. 1946, 
organized the Troop Training Command, 
Amphibious Forces, Atlantic Fleet, at 
Little Creek, Va. On Nov. 1 of the same 
year, he was ordered to duty as Assistant 
to the Commandant and Chief of Staff 
of HQMC. He remained at this post un- 
til Apr. 1948, when he was assigned to 
Quantico, where he served as Command- 
ant of the MCS until June 1950. When 
the Korean War erupted, Gen. Shepherd 
was in command of the FMF, Pacific, 
with HQ at Pearl Harbor. In this capac- 
ity, he participated in the landing at 
Inchon and the evacuation of our forces 
from Hungnam following the withdrawal 
from the Chosin Reservoir in north Korea 
in Dec. 1950. On Jan. 1, 1952, he was ap- 
pointed Commandant of the Marine 
Corps by the President of the United 
States. During Gen. Shepherd's four-year 
appointment as the 20th CMC, he ini- 
tiated a number of important policies 
which resulted in an increased military 
proficiency of the Corps. He was the first 
Commandant to become a member of 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and upon his 
retirement on Jan. 1, 1956 he was award- 
ed a third Distinguished Service Medal 
Two months after his retirement, Gen. 
Shepherd was recalled to active duty and 
appointed Chairman of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Defense Board. 



SHIVERS, John. Private. Medal of Hon- 
or: b. Canada, 1830. John Shivers enlisted 
in the Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa. 
on Sept. 17, 1864. His citation reads, in 
part: "... while serving on board the 
USS Minnesota, especially commended 
for bravery in the assault on Fort Fisher, 
Jan. 15, 1865, remaining at the front near 
the fort when the panic carried the mass 
away. ..." 




Shoup 

SHOUP, David Monroe. General. 22nd 
Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps. 
A Marine officer since 1926, he assumed 
his present duties and was promoted to 
his present rank on Jan. 1, 1960: b. Battle 
Ground, Ind., Dec. 30, 1904. As a colonel 
in WWII, Gen. Shoup earned the na- 
tion's highest award, the Medal of Honor, 
while commanding the 2nd Marines, 2nd 



198 



S H O U P 



SHOU P 



Mar. Div., at Betio, a bitterly contested 
island of Tarawa Atoll. The British Dis- 
tinguished Service Order was also award- 
ed him for this action. The following 
citation accompanied his award of the 
Medal of Honor: "For conspicuous gal- 
lantry and intrepidity at the risk of his 
own life above and beyond the call of 
duty as CO of all Marine Corps troops 
in action against enemy Japanese forces 
on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert 
Is., from Nov. 20 to 22, 1943. Although 
severely shocked by an exploding shell 
soon after landing at the pier, and suffer- 
ing from a serious painful leg wound 
which had become infected, Shoup (then 
a colonel) fearlessly exposed himself to 
the terrific relentless artillery, machine 
gun, and rifle fire from hostile shore em- 
placements and, rallying his hesitant 
troops by his own inspiring heroism, gal- 
lantly led them across the fringing reefs 
to charge the heavily fortified island and 
reinforced our hard-pressed thinly held 
lines. Upon arrival at the shore, he as- 
sumed command of all landed troops 
and, working without rest under constant 
withering enemy fire during the next 
two days, conducted smashing attacks 
against unbelievably strong and fanatic- 
ally defended Japanese positions despite 
innumerable obstacles and heavy casual- 
ties. By his brilliant leadership, daring 
tactics, and selfless devotion to duty, Col, 
Shoup was largely responsible for the 
final, decisive defeat of the enemy and 
his indomitable fighting spirit reflects 
great credit upon the United States Na- 
val Service." David Shoup was the 25th 
Marine to receive the Medal of Honor 
in WWII. It was presented to him on 
Jan. 22, 1945, by the late James V. For- 
restal, Secretary of the Navy. The gen- 
eral was a 1926 graduate of DePauw 
University, Greencastle, Ind., where he 
was a member of the ROTC. He served 



for a month as a second lieutenant in the 
Army Infantry Reserve before he was 
commissioned a Marine second lieuten- 
ant on July 20, 1926. Ordered to Marine 
Officers' Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard, Lt. Shoup's instruction was 
interrupted twice by temporary duty 
elsewhere in the States, and by expedi- 
tionary duty with the 6th Marines in 
Tientsin, China. After serving in China 
during most of 1927, he completed Basic 
School in 1928. He then served at Quan- 
tico, Va.; Pensacola, Fla.; and San Diego, 
Calif. From June 1929 to Sept. 1931, Lt. 
Shoup was assigned to the Marine De- 
tachment aboard the USS Maryland. By 
coincidence, the USS Maryland was the 
flagship for the assault on Tarawa 12 
years later providing emergency naval 
gunfire support with her 16-inch guns 
early on D-Day. On his return from sea 
duty, Shoup served as a company officer 
at the MCB (later Marine Corps Recruit 
Depot), San Diego, until May 1932, 
when he was ordered to the Puget Sound 
Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in June 1932. 
Lt. Shoup later served on temporary duty 
with the Civilian Conservation Corps in 
Idaho and New Jersey from June 1933 
to May 1934. Following duty in Seattle, 
Wash., he was again ordered to China 
in Nov. 1934, serving briefly with the 4th 
Marines in Shanghai and, subsequently, 
at the American Legation in Peiping. He 
returned to the States, via Japan, early 
in June 1936 and was again stationed at 
the Puget Sound Navy Yard. He was pro- 
moted to captain in Oct. 1936. Capt. 
Shoup entered the Junior Course, Marine 
Corps Schools, Quantico, in July 1937. 
On completing the course in May 1938, 
he served as an instructor for two years. 
In June 1940, he joined the 6th Marines 
in San Diego. He was promoted to major 
in Apr. 1941. One month later, Maj. 



199 



S H O U P 



SHUCK 



Shoup was ordered to Iceland with the 
6th Marines and, after serving as 
Regimental Operations Officer, became 
Operations Officer of the 1st Mar. 
Brig, in Iceland in Oct. 1941. For his 
service in Iceland during the first 
three months after the United States en- 
tered WWII, he was awarded the Letter 
of Commendation with Commendation 
Ribbon. He assumed command of the 
2nd Bn., 6th Marines, in Feb. 1942. On 
returning to the States in Mar., the 1st 
Mar. Brig, was disbanded and he re- 
turned with his battalion to San Diego. 
In July 1942, he became Assistant Oper- 
ations and Training Officer of the 2d Mar. 
Div. He was promoted to lieutenant col- 
onel in Aug. 1942. Sailing from San Diego 
aboard the USS Uatsonia in Sept. 1942, 
Lt. Col. Shoup arrived at Wellington, 
New Zealand, later that month. From 
then until Nov. 1943, he served as G-3, 
Operations and Training Officer of the 
2nd Mar. Div. during its training period 
in New Zealand. His service in this ca- 
pacity during the planning of the assault 
on Tarawa earned him his first Legion 
of Merit with Combat "V." During this 
period he also served briefly as an observ- 
er with the 1st Mar. Div. on Guadalcanal 
in Oct. 1942, and with the 43rd Army 
Division on Rendova, New Georgia, in 
the summer of 1943, earning a Purple 
Heart in the latter operation. Promoted 
to colonel, Nov. 9, 1943, Col. Shoup was 
placed in command of the 2nd Marines 
(Reinf.), the spearhead of the assault 
on Tarawa. During this action he earned 
the Medal of Honor as well as a second 
Purple Heart. In Dec, 1943, he became 
Chief of Staff of the 2nd Mar. Div. For 
outstanding service in this capacity from 
June to Aug. 1944, during the battles for 
Saipan and Tinian, he was again award- 
ed the Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V." He returned to the States in Oct. 



1944. On his return Col. Shoup served as 
Logistics Officer, Division of Plans and 
Policies, HQMC. He was again ordered 
overseas in June 1947. Two months later 
he became CO, Service Command, FMF, 
Pacific. In June 1949, he joined the 1st 
Mar. Div. at Camp Pendleton as Divi- 
sion Chief of Staff. A year later he was 
transferred to Quantico where he served 
as CO of the Basic School from July 1950 
until Apr. 1952. He was then assigned to 
the Office of the Fiscal Director, HQMC, 
serving as Assistant Fiscal Director. He 
was promoted to brigadier general in 
Apr. 1953. In July 1953, Gen. Shoup was 
named Fiscal Director of the Marine 
Corps. While serving in this capacity, 
he was promoted to major general in 
Sept. 1955. Subsequently, in May 1956, 
he began a brief assignment as Inspector 
General of the Marine Corps from Sept. 
1956 until May 1957. He returned to 
Camp Pendleton in June 1957 to become 
CG of the 1st Mar. Div. Gen. Shoup 
joined the 3rd Mar. Div. on Okinawa in 
Mar. 1958 as CG. Following his return 
to the States, he served as CG of the 
MCRD, Parris Is., from May to Oct. 
1959. On Nov. 2, 1959, he was promoted 
to lieutenant general and assigned duties 
as Chief of Staff, HQMC. He served in 
this capacity until he assumed his current 
assignment. Gen. Shoup was nominated 
by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 
Aug. 14, 1959, to be the 22nd Comman- 
dant of the Marine Corps. Subsequently, 
his nomination for a four-year term, be- 
ginning Jan. 1, 1960, was confirmed by 
the Senate. 

SHUCK, William Edward, Jr. Staff Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Ridgely, 
W.Va., Aug. 16, 1926; d. KIA, Korea, July 
3, 1952. S. Sgt. Shuck's citation reads, in 
part: ". . . while serving as a squad 
leader of Co. G, 3rd Bn., 7th Marines, 



200 



S I G L R 



SB LV E RT H O RN 



1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces in Korea on July 
3, 1952. When his platoon was subjected 
to a devastating barrage of enemy small 
arms, grenade, artillery, and mortar fire 
during an assault against strongly forti- 
fied hill positions well forward of the 
main line of resistance, S. Sgt. Shuck, 
although painfully wounded, refused 
medical attention and continued to lead 
his machine gun squad in the attack. 
Unhesitatingly assuming command of a 
rifle squad when the leader became a 
casualty, he skillfully organized the two 
squads into an attacking force and led 
two more daring assaults upon the hos- 
tile positions. Wounded a second time, 
he steadfastly refused evacuation and 
remained in the foremost position under 
heavy fire until assured that all dead and 
wounded were evacuated. Mortally 
wounded by an enemy sniper bullet 
while voluntarily assisting in the removal 
of the last casualty, S. Sgt. Shuck, by his 
fortitude and great personal valor in the 
face of overwhelming odds, served to 
inspire all who observed him. . . ." 

SIGLER, Franklin Earl. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Montclair, 
N.J., Nov. 6, 1924. On Iwo Jima, Frank- 
lin Sigler, then a private, took command 
of his squad when his squad leader be- 
came a casualty and unhesitatingly led 
them in a bold rush against an enemy 
gun position which had been holding up 
the advance of his company for several 
days. Reaching the gun position first, he 
personally annihilated the gun crew with 
grenades. When more enemy troops be- 
gan firing from tunnels and caves leading 
to the gun position, he successfully scaled 
the rocks leading up to the position and 
alone assaulted the Japanese completely 
surprising them. Although painfully 
wounded in this one-man assault, he re- 



fused to be evacuated and, crawling back 
to his squad, directed machine gun fire 
and rocket fire on the cave entrances. In 
the ensuing fight three of his men were 
wounded and Pvt. Sigler, disregarding 
the pain from his wound and the heavy 
enemy fire, carried them to safety be- 
hind the lines. Returning to his squad he 
remained with his men, directing their 
fire until ordered to retire and seek med- 
ical aid. Hospitalized in the U.S. Naval 
Hospital, Bethesda, Md., he was dis- 
charged with the rank of private first 
class in June 1946 because of disability 
resulting from his wounds. 

SILVA, France. Private. Medal of Hon- 
or: b. Hayward, Calif., May 8, 1876. 
France Silva enlisted in the Marine Corps 
at San Francisco, Calif, on Sept. 12, 1899. 
His citation reads, in part: "... for dis- 
tinguished conduct in the presence of the 
enemy at Peking, China, June 28 to Aug. 

17, 1900 " He was discharged from 

the Corps on Jan. 6, 1901. 

SILVERTHORN, Merwin Hancock. 
Lieutenant General (Retired): b. Min- 
neapolis, Minn., Sept. 22, 1896. Merwin 
Silverthorn attended the University of 
Minnesota before enlisting in the Marine 
Corps on Apr. 27, 1917. In Aug. of that 
year, he sailed for France with the 5th 
Mar. Regt. He was commissioned a sec- 
ond lieutenant on June 9, 1918 while in 
France, and fought in the Aisne-Marne 
defensive (Chateau -Thierry), Aisne- 
Marne offensive (Soissons), Marbache 
Sector ( Pont-a-Mousson ) , and the Meuse- 
Argonne offensive (Champagne). After 
WWI he remained in Europe with the 
Army of Occupation of Germany until 
ordered to the States in Sept. 1919. In 
May 1923, following tours of duty at 
Washington, D.C., Mare Is., Calif., and 
Quantico, he went to Haiti with the 1st 



201 



SI LV ERT HO R N 



S I M A N E K 



Brig. Marines. In Mar. 1924, he was 
transferred to the Gendarmerie d' Haiti, 
serving with that organization as District 
Commander, Aux Cayes, and Chief of 
Police, Port-au-Prince. Returning to the 
MB at Quantico in July 1926, he served 
there for almost four years before he was 
assigned to the MB on Guam in Apr. 
1930 as an assistant quartermaster. He 
was detached to the States in Jan. 1932, 
and for the next several years he served 
at various posts and stations in this coun- 
try. During those years he completed a 
course at the Army Quartermaster Sub- 
sistence School in Chicago and the Senior 
Course in the MCS, Quantico. After two 
years as an instructor at Quantico he en- 
tered the Naval War College at New- 
port, R.I. in July 1938. Completing the 
course at Newport in May 1939, Silver- 
thorn began a tour of sea duty which in- 
cluded service in various capacities 
aboard the USS Indianapolis, USS En- 
terprise, USS Houston, and the USS 
Chester, returning to Washington in 
Aug. 1941. He was a lieutenant colonel, 
attached to the War Plans Section of the 
Operations Division, Navy Department, 
when the States entered WWII. Silver- 
thorn was then assigned to HQ, Com-* 
mander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet, where he 
served as a naval member of the Joint 
U.S. Strategic Committee, Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, from Jan. 1942 until June 1943. 
He remained in Washington for the next 
six months as Chief of the Amphibious 
Warfare Section at the Army and Navy 
Staff College, winning the Letter of 
Commendation Ribbon from the Army 
for his service in that capacity. In Jan. 
1944, he joined the 1st Mar. Amphibious 
Corps in the Pacific theater, serving as 
Chief of Staff of that unit until it was 
redesignated the 3rd Amphibious Corps. 
He then served in the same capacity 
with the 3rd Corps until June 1945. The 



following month he became Chief of 
Staff, FMF, Pacific. A brigadier general 
when the war ended, he remained with 
FMF, Pacific until Sept. 1946. The fol- 
lowing month he took command of the 
Troop Training Unit, Training Com- 
mand, Amphibious Forces, Atlantic Fleet, 
at Little Creek, Va. Gen. Silverthorn re- 
turned once more to Washington in Sept. 
1947, serving as Marine Corps Liaison 
Officer with the Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations until May 1949, then 
as Director of the MCR at HQMC. He 
was named Assistant Commandant of 
the Marine Corps in July 1950, and was 
temporarily promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant general the following Feb., when 
the office of Assistant Commandant was 
elevated to that rank. He took command 
of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot at 
Parris Is. in Feb. 1952, reverting to the 
rank of major general for that assign- 
ment, and was again promoted to lieu- 
tenant general upon retirement on June 
30, 1954. 

SIMANEK, Robert Ernest. Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Detroit, Mich., 
Apr. 26, 1930. P.F.C. Simanek's citation 
reads, in part: ". . . while serving with 
Co. F, 2nd Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf. ), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces in Korea on Aug. 17, 
1952. While accompanying a patrol en 
route to occupy a combat outpost for- 
ward of friendly lines, P.F.C. Simanek 
exhibited a high degree of courage and 
a resolute spirit of self-sacrifice in pro- 
tecting the lives of his fellow Marines. 
With his unit ambushed by an intense 
concentration of enemy mortar and small 
arms fire, and suffering heavy casualties, 
he was forced to seek cover with the re- 
maining members of the patrol in a near- 
by trench line. Determined to save his 
comrades when a hostile grenade was 



202 



SIMPSON 



SIMPSON 



hurled into their midst, he unhesitatingly 
threw himself on the deadly missile, ab- 
sorbing the shattering violence of the ex- 
ploding charge in his own body and 
shielding his fellow Marines from serious 
injury or death. . , ." 

SIMPSON, Ormond Ralph. Brigadier 
General. Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, 
HQMC, Washington, B.C. (1963): b. 
Corpus Christi, Tex., Mar. 16, 1915. 
Ormond Simpson was a member of the 
ROTC unit at Texas A&M College where 
he was designated Military Honor Grad- 
uate and awarded a Bachelor of Science 
degree in mechanical engineering upon 
graduation in June 1936. He held an 
Army Reserve commission until July 11, 
1936 when he was commissioned a 
Marine second lieutenant. After serving 
variously for 15 months at San Diego, 
Calif., Philadelphia, Pa., and Quantico, 
he resigned his commission to accept a 
position at Texas A&M in Oct. 1937. The 
following month he was granted a com- 
mission in the MCR, and two years later 
was promoted to first lieutenant in the 
Reserve. In Nov. 1940, Lt. Simpson re- 
quested assignment to extended active 
duty and was ordered to the MCB, San 
Diego, where he served as a company 
commander with the 8th Marines until 
the outbreak of WWII. Shortly after his 
promotion to captain in Dec. 1941, he 
sailed with the 8th Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Brig, for the Pacific area. Stationed on 
Samoa, Capt. Simpson served as Regi- 
mental Adjutant of the 8th Marines until 
Aug. 1942, when he was promoted to 
major and named Assistant Operations 
Officer of the Samoan Group Defense 
Force. In Mar. 1944, he joined the Emirau 
Landing Force, 3rd Mar. Div. He was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel in Apr. 
1944, and returned to the States the fol- 
lowing month. After completing the In- 



fantry Course, Command and General 
Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., 
Lt. Col. Simpson returned to the Pacific 
area in Nov. 1944. He served at Leyte 
and Manila, Philippine Is., as Assistant 
G-4, GHQ, Southwest Pacific Area; and 
later, in occupied Japan, joined 'the Staff 
of Supreme Commander, Allied Powers 
(SCAP), as Assistant G-4. The Army 
Legion of Merit was awarded Lt. Col. 
Simpson for exceptionally meritorious 
conduct from Dec. 1944 to Jan. 1946 
during the planning for the invasion of 
Japan and its subsequent occupation. 
Following his return to the States, he 
was assigned to MCS, Quantico, in Mar. 
1946, and served as an instructor in the 
Logistics Section for over three years. 
While at Quantico, he was integrated 
into the regular Marine Corps. In June 
1949, he was transferred to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C. as Special Assistant 
to the Director of the Division of Plans 
and Policies. He was promoted to colo- 
nel in Nov. 1951, and the following 
month was detached from Headquarters. 
In Jan. 1952, Col. Simpson joined the 
2nd Mar. Div., Camp Lejeune, N.C., 
serving as Regimental Commander of 
the 6th Marines until Apr. 1953 when 
he became Division Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-4. In Sept. 1953, he departed for 
Korea where he subsequently earned 
the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious 
service as CO, 1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. 
The following Feb. he became Division 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3. On his re- 
turn from Korea in July 1954, Col. Simp- 
son was assigned as a student to the 
Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, 
Pa., graduating in June 1955. Ordered 
to HQMC that July, he served briefly 
in the Policy Analysis Division, then was 
named Secretary of the General Staff in 
Oct. In Jan. 1956, he became Military 
Secretary to the CMC, serving in this 



203 



SITTER 



SITTER 



capacity for two and a half years. From 
July 1958 until June I960, Col. Simpson 
served as Chief of Staff, MCS, Quantico. 
Following this assignment, he joined the 
staff at Duke University in July I960, 
serving for one year as CO, Naval Re- 
serve Officers' Training Corps unit and 
Professor of Naval Science. Departing 
for Okinawa in Aug. 1961, he assumed 
duty as Assistant Division Commander, 
3rd Mar. Div., and was promoted to 
brigadier general. In May 1962, when 
American troops were requested by the 
Government of Thailand during the Lao- 
tian crisis, Gen. Simpson was ordered to 
Thailand as CG of the 3rd Mar. Expedi- 
tionary Brig, and Naval Component 
Commander, Joint Task Force 116. He 
remained in Thailand until Aug. 7, 1962, 
then resumed his duties on Okinawa, In 
Nov. 1962, following his return to the 
States, he assumed duty at HQMC as 
Assistant Director of Personnel. He 
served in this capacity through Mar. 
1963, then assumed his assignment as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, HQMC. 

SITTER, Carl Leonard. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Medal of Honor: b. Syracuse, Mo., 
Dec. 2, 1921. Carl Sitter enlisted in the 
Marine Corps on June 22, 1940. After 
eight months' duty in Iceland, he was 
ordered to the Pacific. He was serving as 
a corporal in the Wallis Is. when, on 
Dec. 12, 1942, he was given a field com- 
mission as a second lieutenant in the 
MCR. He later received a regular com- 
mission. Sitter saw combat at Eniwetok 
in the Marshall Is., and Guam in the 
Marianas. He was first wounded Feb. 20, 
1944 at Eniwetok, but went back into ac- 
tion almost immediately. He was wound- 
ed again the following July on Guam. 
Removed to the States, he served at San 
Diego, Quantico, Brooklyn Naval Ship- 
yard, Panama Canal Zone, Key West, 



Fla., Camp Lejeune, N.C., and Camp 
Pendleton, Calif, before going overseas 
again to Korea in Aug. 1950. His citation 
reads, in part: ". . . as commanding officer 
of Co. G, 3rd Bn., 1st Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces at Hagaru-ri, Korea, on 
Nov. 29 and 30, 1950. Ordered to break 
through enemy-infested territory to rein- 
force his battalion on the early morning 
of Nov. 29, Capt. Sitter continuously ex- 
posed himself to enemy fire as he led his 
company forward and, despite 25 per 
cent casualties suffered in the furious 
action, succeeded in driving through to 
his objective. Assuming the responsibil- 
ity of attempting to seize and occupy a 
strategic area occupied by a hostile force 
of regiment strength deeply entrenched 
on a snow-covered hill commanding the 
entire valley southeast of the town, as 
well as the line of march of friendly troops 
withdrawing to the south, he reorganized 
his depleted units the following morning 
and boldly led them up the steep, frozen 
hillside under blistering fire, encouraging 
and redeploying his troops as casualties 
occurred and directing forward platoons 
as they continued the drive to the top 
of the ridge. During the night a vastly 
outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, 
vicious counterattack, setting the hill 
ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and 
automatic weapons fire. . . . With the en- 
emy penetrating his lines in repeated 
counterattacks which often required 
hand-to-hand combat and, on one occa- 
sion infiltrating to the command post with 
hand grenades, he fought gallantly with 
his men in repulsing and killing the fa- 
natic attackers in each encounter. Pain- 
fully wounded in the face, arms, and 
chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly 
refused to be evacuated and continued 
to fight on until a successful defense of 
the area was assured with a loss to the 



204 



S K A G G 5 

enemy of more than 50 per cent dead, 
wounded, and captured. . . /' 

SKAGGS, Luther, Jr. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Henderson, Ky., 
Mar. 3, 1923. P.F.C. Slcaggs' citation 
reads, in part: ". . . . while serving as 
squad leader with a mortar section of a 
rifle company in the 3rd Bn., 3rd Marines, 
3rd Mar. Div., during action against 
enemy Japanese forces on Guam, July 
21-22, 1944. When the section leader be- 
came a casualty under a heavy mortar 
barrage shortly after landing, P.F.C. 
Skaggs promptly assumed command and 
led the section through intense fire for a 
distance of 200 yards to a position where 
it could deliver effective coverage of the 
assault on a strategic cliff. Valiantly de- 
fending this vital position against strong 
enemy counterattacks during the night, 
P.F.C. Skaggs was critically wounded 
when a Japanese grenade lodged in his 
foxhole and exploded, shattering the 
lower part of one leg. Quick to act, he 
applied an improvised tourniquet and, 
while propped up in his foxhole, gal- 
lantly returned the enemy's fire with his 
rifle and hand grenades for a period of 
eight hours, later crawling unassisted to 
the rear to continue the fight until the 
Japanese had been annihilated " 

SKINNER, Sherrod Emerson, Jr. Second 
Lieutenant. Medal of Honor: b. Hart- 
ford, Conn., Oct. 29, 1929; d. KIA, Korea, 
Oct. 6, 1952. Lt. Skinner's citation reads, 
in part: ". . . as an artillery forward ob- 
server of Battery F, 2nd Bn., llth 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action 
against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
on the night of Oct. 26, 1952. When his 
observation post in an extremely critical 
and vital sector of the main line of re- 
sistance was subjected to a sudden and 
fanatical attack by hostile forces, sup- 



SMl TH 

ported by a devastating barrage of artil- 
lery and mortar fire which completely 
severed communication lines connecting 
the outpost with friendly firing batteries, 
2nd Lt. Skinner, in a determined effort 
to hold his position, immediately organ- 
ized and directed the surviving personnel 
in the defense of the outpost, continuing 
to call down fire on the enemy by means of 
radio alone until this equipment became 
damaged beyond repair. Undaunted by 
the intense hostile barrage and the rap- 
idly closing attackers, he twice left the 
protection of his bunker in order to direct 
accurate machine gun fire and to re- 
plenish the depleted supply of ammuni- 
tion and grenades. Although painfully 
wounded on each occasion, he stead- 
fastly refused medical aid until the rest 
of the men received treatment. As the 
ground attack reached its climax, he 
gallantly directed the final defense until 
the meager supply of ammunition was 
exhausted and the position overrun. 
During the three hours that the outpost 
was occupied by the enemy, several gre- 
nades were thrown into the bunker serv- 
ing as protection for 2nd Lt. Skinner and 
his remaining comrades. Realizing that 
there was no chance for other than 
passive resistance, he directed his men 
to feign death even though the hostile 
troops entered the bunker and searched 
their persons. Later, when an enemy gre- 
nade was thrown between him and two 
other survivors, he immediately threw 
himself on the deadly missile in an effort 
to protect the others, absorbing the full 
force of the explosion and sacrificing his 
life for his comrades. . . ." 

SMITH, Albert Joseph. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Calumet, Mich., July 31, 
1898. Albert Smith's rescue of a Navy 
pilot from a burning airplane which had 
crashed at the NAS, Pensacola, Fla. in 



205 



SMITH 



SMITH 



Feb. 1921, won for him the Medal of 
Honor. Then a private, Smith was on 
duty as a sentry the morning of Feb. 11, 
1921, when suddenly a seaplane piloted 
by Machinist's Mate 2nd Cl. Fieri M. 
Phelps went into an erratic spin and 
crashed to the flying field, imprisoning 
the pilot. Almost at the same instant, a 
gravity gasoline tank exploded and the 
plane burst into flame. The citation ac- 
companying Smith's award credits him 
with having "pushed himself to a posi- 
tion where he could reach Phelps," de- 
spite the explosion of the gas tank and 
"with total disregard for his own personal 
safety.*' He later freed Phelps but sus- 
tained painful burns about the head, 
neck, and both hands. Having enlisted 
in the Marine Corps in Oct. 1919, he 
served three years, including a tour of 
duty in Santo Domingo. 

SMITH, Holland McTyeire. General ( Re- 
tired). One of the United States' top 
commanders in the Pacific during WWII, 
he led the 5th Amphibious Corps in the 
assaults on the Gilberts, the Marshalls, 
and Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas. 
In the latter operation, he commanded 
all Expeditionary Troops in the Mari- 
anas, including those which recaptured 
Guam. Later, he served as the first CG 
of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and 
headed Task Force 56 (Expeditionary 
Troops) at Iwo Jima: b. Seale, Ala., Apr. 
20, 1882. Holland Smith received a 
Bachelor of Science degree from Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute in 1901, obtained 
his Bachelor of Laws degree from the 
University of Alabama in 1903, and prac- 
ticed law in Montgomery, Ala., for a year 
before he was appointed a Marine sec- 
ond lieutenant Mar. 20, 1905. In Apr. 
1906, after completing the School of Ap- 
plication at Annapolis, Md., he sailed for 
the Philippines, where he served on ex- 




H. M. Smith 

peditionary duty with the 1st Mar. Brig, 
until Sept. 1908. He returned to the 
States the following month and was sta- 
tioned at the MB, Annapolis, until Dec. 
1909, when he embarked for expedition- 
ary duty in Panama. Returning from 
there in Apr. 1910, he served variously 
at Annapolis; Puget Sound, Wash.; San 
Diego, Calif., and the Recruiting Station, 
Seattle, Wash., before sailing in Sept. 
1912, to rejoin the 1st Mar. Brig, in the 
Philippines. This time he remained with 
the 1st Brig, until Apr. 1914, when he 
took command of the Marine Detach- 
ment aboard the USS Galveston. He 
served in that capacity in Asiatic waters 
until July 1915, then returned to the 
States the following month for duty at the 
Navy Yard, New Orleans, La. From there 
he was ordered to the Dominican Repub- 



206 



SMITH 



SMI TH 



lie in June 1916, as a member of the 4th 
Mar. Regt During that unit's operations 
against rebel bandits he saw action in 
the march to Santiago and engagements 
at La Pena and Kilometer 29. Returning 
to the States May 30, 1917, he sailed for 
France just two weeks later as command- 
er of the 8th Machine Gun Company, 
5th Marines. In France, Gen. Smith was 
detached from the 5th Marines and sent 
to the Army General Staff College at 
Langres, from which he was graduated 
in Feb. 1918. He was then named Ad- 
jutant of the 4th Mar. Brig., in which 
capacity he fought in the Verdun Sec- 
tor and Aisne-Marne defensive, including 
the epic battle of Belleau Wood. Trans- 
ferred to the 1st Corps, 1st Army, in July 
1918 he served as assistant operations 
officer in charge of liaison during the 
Aisne-Marne, Oisne-Aisne, St.-Mihiel and 
Meuse-Argonne offensives. After the 
Armistice he participated in the march 
to the Rhine through Belgium and Lux- 
embourg as an assistant operations officer 
with the 3rd Army, and served with the 
General Staff, U.S. Army, during the oc- 
cupation of Germany. For his service at 
Belleau Wood he was awarded the Croix 
de Guerre with palm by the French gov- 
ernment. Returning to the States in Apr. 
1919, Smith's assignments in the next 
four years included duty at Norfolk, Va., 
study at the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I., and service in Washington, 
D.C. with the War Plans Section of the 
Office of Naval Operations. There he 
was the first Marine officer to serve on 
the Joint Army-Navy Planning Committee. 
Leaving Washington in May 1923, he 
served aboard the battleships Wyoming 
and Arkansas as Fleet Marine Officer, 
U.S. Scouting Fleet, until Sept. of that 
year. In Feb. 1924, after serving at 
HQMC and in connection with joint 
Army-Navy maneuvers, Smith joined the 



Mar. Brig, on expeditionary duty in 
Haiti, serving as that unit's Chief of Staff 
and Officer in Charge of Operations and 
Training. He returned from that country 
in Aug. 1925, to serve as Chief of Staff 
of the 1st Mar. Brig, at Quantico, until 
Sept. 1926; as a student in the MCS, 
Quantico, from then until June 1927; and 
as Post Quartermaster of the MB, Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard, from July 1927 to 
Mar. 1931. In Apr. 1931, he began an- 
other tour of sea duty, this time aboard 
the USS California as Aide to the Com- 
mander and Force Marine Officer of the 
Battle Force, U.S. Fleet. He served in 
those capacities until June 1933, then 
commanded the MB at the Washington 
Navy Yard until Jan. 1935. The next two 
years he served at San Francisco, Calif., 
as Chief of Staff, Department of the Pa- 
cific. From there he was ordered to 
HQMC in Mar. 1937 to serve two years 
as Director of the Division of Operations 
and Training, after which he was Assist- 
ant Commandant of the Marine Corps 
under Maj. Gen. Thomas Holcomb from 
Apr. to Sept. 1939. After the latter as- 
signment Gen. Smith assumed command 
of the 1st Mar. Brig, at Quantico, taking 
that unit to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for 
extended amphibious training in Oct. 
1940. In Feb. 1941, when the brigade 
was redesignated the 1st Mar. Div., he 
became that organization's first com- 
mander. He returned with the division 
to Quantico in Apr. 1941, and in June of 
that year he was detached from it to take 
command of the organization which 
eventually became the Amphibious 
Force, Atlantic Fleet. Under this com- 
mand, the 1st Mar. Div. and the 1st and 
9th Army Divisions received their initial 
training in amphibious warfare. Moving 
to San Diego in Aug. 1942, the general 
took command of the Amphibious Corps, 
Pacific Fleet, under which he completed 



207 



SMITH 



SMS TH 



the amphibious indoctrination of the 2nd 
and 3rd Mar. Divs. before they went 
overseas and the 7th Army Division and 
other units involved in the Aleutians 
operation. The Amphibious Corps, Pacific 
Fleet, was later redesignated the 5th 
Amphibious Corps, and in Sept. 1943, as 
commander of that unit, Gen. Smith ar- 
rived at Pearl Harbor to begin planning 
for the Gilbert Is. campaign. He con- 
tinued to head the 5th Amphibious Corps 
until Aug. 1944, when he was named 
CG, FMF, Pacific, at Pearl Harbor. In 
addition to that post, he commanded 
Task Force 56 at Iwo Jima before return- 
ing to the States in July 1945, to head the 
Marine Training and Replacement Com- 
mand at Camp Pendleton, Calif. A lieu- 
tenant general when he was retired on 
May 15, 1946 at the age of 64, he was 
promoted to general on the retired list 
for having been especially commended 
in combat. 

SMITH, John Lucian. Colonel. Marine 
Corps ace. Medal of Honor: b. Lexing- 
ton, Okla., Dec. 26, 1914. During the 
crucial battle for the Solomons, Col. 
Smith led Marine Fighter Squadron 223 
on sorties against the enemy, during 
which the squadron accounted for 83 
enemy aircraft destroyed. His citation 
reads, in part: ". . . as CO of Marine 
Fighting Squadron 223, during operations 
against enemy Japanese forces in the 
Solomon Is. Area, Aug.-Sept. 1942. Re- 
peatedly risking his life in aggressive 
and daring attacks, Smith (then a major) 
led his squadron against a determined 
force, greatly superior in numbers, per- 
sonally shooting down 16 Japanese planes 
between Aug. 21 and Sept 15, 1942. In 
spite of the limited combat experience 
of many of the pilots of this squadron, 
they achieved the notable record of a 
total of 83 enemy aircraft destroyed in 



this period, mainly attributable to the 
thorough training under Maj, Smith and to 
his intrepid and inspiring leadership. . . ." 
Col. Smith retired from active duty in 
the Marine Corps on Sept. 1, 1960. 




J. C. Smith 

SMITH, Julian C, Lieutenant General 
(Retired): b. Elkton, Md., Sept. 11, 1885. 
Julian Smith, one of the Marine Corps* 
outstanding leaders in the field of am- 
phibious warfare, was graduated from 
the University of Delaware with a Bache- 
lor of Arts degree prior to receiving his 
appointment as a second lieutenant in 
the Marine Corps in Jan. 1909. Smith re- 
ceived his basic training as a Marine of- 
ficer at the MB, Port Royal, S.C. Follow- 
ing his promotion to first lieutenant in 
Sept. 1912, Smith was ordered to the 
MB, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. In 



208 



SMITH 



SMITH 



Dec. of the following year he was trans- 
ferred to Panama, at which station he 
remained until Jan. 1914. As a member 
of an expeditionary force, Lt. Smith de- 
parted from Panama and took part in the 
occupation at Vera Cruz, Mex., from 
Apr. to Dec. 1914. Upon return to the 
States, he again was ordered to Philadel- 
phia, this time as a member of the 1st 
Brig, of Marines. In Aug. of the follow- 
ing year he departed for and arrived in 
Haiti for duty, and in Apr. of 1916 he 
was transferred to Santo Domingo with 
the 2nd Bn., 1st Regt, 1st Brig. In Dec. 
of the same year, he was again ordered 
to return to the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
this time with the Advance Base Force 
there. Following his promotion to cap- 
tain in Mar. 1917, he was ordered to 
attend a course of instruction at the 
Naval War College in Newport, R.I. Sev- 
eral months later he was ordered to 
Quantico to instruct in the Marine Offi- 
cers' Training Camp. In the early part of 
1919, Smith, now a captain in command 
of a machine gun battalion, sailed for 
Cuba. Following his appointment to ma- 
jor, he was returned to the Navy Yard 
at Philadelphia, and a short time later 
was transferred to HQMC, Washington, 
D.C. In Aug. 1920, he again assumed 
duties at Quantico. In July of the follow- 
ing year he was detached to serve at sea 
on the staff of the Commander, Scouting 
Fleet. After two years' service as a sea 
soldier, he was again returned to HQMC, 
this time to serve in the office of the 
Chief Coordinator, Bureau of the Budget, 
Washington, D.C. Immediately following 
graduation from the Army Command and 
General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, 
Kans. in 1928, he was again ordered to 
duty at HQMC. Smith captained the 
Marine Corps Rifle and Pistol Team 
Squad for the year 1928, while detached 
to temporary duty at Quantico. He also 



captained the 1930 squad. His next as- 
signment found him with the Marines 
in Corinto, Nicaragua in Aug. 1930. Upon 
return from Nicaragua after a three-year 
tour of duty, he returned to Quantico. 
Shortly afterward he was appointed to 
the rank of lieutenant colonel. After an- 
other short tour of duty in Philadelphia, 
he returned to HQMC for duty with the 
Division of Operations and Training. With 
his promotion to colonel, he assumed the 
duties of Director of Personnel. In June 
1938, he became CO, 5th Marines, with 
the 1st Mar. Brig., Quantico. After his 
promotion to brigadier general, Gen. 
Smith was sent to London, England, 
where he served with the Naval Attache, 
American Embassy, as a naval observer. 
He returned to the States in Aug. 1941, 
and again reported to Quantico. Upon 
appointment to major general in Oct. 

1942, he assumed command of the FMF 
Training Schools, New River, N.C. Fol- 
lowing his command of the 2nd Mar. 
Div., which he assumed in the spring of 

1943, Gen. Smith was appointed CG, Ex- 
peditionary Troops, 3rd Fleet which cap- 
tured the southern Palau Islands and 
occupied Ulithi Atoll. For his services in 
that capacity he was awarded a Gold 
Star in lieu of a second Distinguished 
Service Medal. In Dec. 1944, Gen. Smith 
took command of the Department of the 
Pacific with headquarters in San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. In Feb, 1946, he was sent 
to Parris Is., S.C., to assume command 
of that post. On Dec. 1, 1946, he was 
retired and advanced to his present rank 
of lieutenant general for having been 
specially commended for performance of 
duty in actual combat. 

SMITH, Oliver P. General (Retired). 
CG of the 1st Mar. Div. during its his- 
toric breakthrough to the sea in Korea in 
1950: b. Menard, Tex., Oct. 26, 1893. 



209 



SMITH 



SMITH 



Oliver Smith attended the University of 
California, Berkeley, Calif., and gradu- 
ated in 1916. He reported for active duty 
as a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on May 14, 1917. The following 
month he was assigned his first overseas 
tour at Guam, Marianas Is., where he 
served with the MB, Naval Station. In 
May 1919, he returned to the States for 
duty with the MB at Mare Is., Calif. 
Ordered to sea duty in Oct. 1921, he 
served as CO of the Marine Detachment 
aboard the USS Texas until May 1924. 
At that time he was ordered to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., for duty with the 
personnel section. Returning overseas in 
June 1928, he joined the Gendarmerie d' 
Haiti, Port-au-Prince, as Assistant Chief 
of Staff. Following his return from foreign 
shore duty in June 1931, he became a 
student at the Field Officers' Course, 
Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Ga. 
Graduating in June 1932, he was ordered 
to duty at the MCS, Quantico, Va., as 
an instructor in the Company Officers' 
Course. In Sept. 1933, he was named 
Assistant Operations Officer of the 7th 
Mar. Regt. at Quantico. He sailed for 
France in Jan. 1934, where he joined the 
staff of the American Embassy at Paris 
for duty with the Office of the U.S. Naval 
Attache. From Nov. 1934 to July 1936, 
while in Paris, he studied at the Ecole 
Superieure de Guerre. He returned to 
the States in Aug. 1936, and joined the 
staff of the MCS at Quantico as an in- 
structor in the Three Section (Opera- 
tions and Training), then was transferred 
to the west coast in July 1939, where he 
joined the FMF as Operations Officer 
at the MCB, San Diego, Calif. In June 
of the following year he became CO of 
the 1st Bn., 6th Marines, and in May 
1941, sailed with the regiment for Ice- 
land where he remained until returning 
to the States in March 1942. In May of 



the same year Smith was ordered to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., where he 
became Executive Officer of the Divi- 
sion of Plans and Policies. He remained 
in this capacity until Jan. 1944, when 
he joined the 1st Mar. Div. on New Brit- 
ain. There he took command of the 5th 
Marines and subsequently led the regi- 
ment in the Talasea phase of the Cape 
Gloucester operation. In Apr. 1944, he 
was named Assistant Division Command- 
er of the 1st Mar. Div. and participated 
in operations against the Japanese in the 
Peleliu operation during Sept. and Oct. 
1944. Gen. Smith became Marine Deputy 
Chief of Staff of the 10th Army in Nov. 
1944, and participated in the Okinawa 
operation from Apr. through June 1945. 
In July 1945, the general returned to the 
States and became Commandant of the 
MCS, Quantico, and in Jan. 1948, was 
named CG, MB, Quantico, in addition to 
his duties at the school. Three months 
later he became Assistant Commandant 
of the Marine Corps, Chief of Staff, 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. Named CG 
of the 1st Mar. Div. in June 1950, Gen. 
Smith led his division through the bitter 
campaigns of the Korean War. After lead- 
ing the 1st Mar. Div. in the assault of 
Inchon and subsequent capture of Seoul, 
Gen. Smith moved his division to Won- 
san for the Corps' 280th and least op- 
posed landing. After driving toward the 
Yalu, the division reached the Chosin 
reservoir where the Chinese Communist 
forces entered the war. With the flank- 
ing forces collapsing, Gen. Smith rallied 
the 1st Mar. Div. and began the historic 
70-mile, 13-day fight to the sea. In the 
face of sub-zero temperatures and the 
onslaught of eight Chinese Communist 
divisions, Gen. Smith brought his forces 
to Hungnam for the amphibious opera- 
tion in reverse. Gen. Smith returned to 
the States in May 1951 and was assigned 



210 



SMITH 



S N ED E KE R 



duties as CG, MCB, Camp Pendleton, 
Calif. In July 1953 he became CG, FMF, 
Atlantic. He served in this capacity un- 
til his retirement on Sept. 1, 1955. 

SMITH, Willard M. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b. Allegheny, N.Y., 1840. Willard 
Smith enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Aug. 19, 1862. His citation reads, in part: 
"... while serving on board the USS 
Brooklyn, in the engagement in Mobile 
Bay, Aug. 5, 1864; conspicuous for good 
conduct at his gun. . . ." He was dis- 
charged from the Corps on Aug. 19, 1866. 

SNEDEKER, Edward Walter. Lieuten- 
ant General. Commandant, Marine Corps 
Schools, Quantico, Va.: b. Peoria, 111., 
Feb. 19, 1903, After attending schools in 
Peoria and at Dallas, S.D., he was grad- 
uated from high school at Benkelman, 
Neb., in 1922. He was appointed to the 
U.S. Naval Academy the same year and 
commissioned a Marine second lieuten- 
ant upon graduation, June 3, 1926. His 
first tour of expeditionary duty was with 
the llth Marines in Nicaragua from May 
to Aug. 1927. He was then transferred 
from Nicaragua to the MB at Cape 
Haitien, Haiti, where he remained until 
Aug. 1929. He returned to Haiti in Jan. 
1931 and that Oct. was promoted to 
first lieutenant. He remained in Haiti un- 
til May 1933. In addition to expeditionary 
duty, he served at various posts and sta- 
tions in the States before the war, chiefly 
in communications. He also completed 
the Marine Officers* Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard; the Communi- 
cation Officers' Course at the Army Sig- 
nal School, Fort Monmouth, N.J.; the 
post-graduate course in applied commu- 
nications at the Naval Academy; and the 
Senior Course in the MCS at Quantico. 
He was promoted to captain in July 
1936, and to major in Sept. 1940. On 



completing the Senior Course, he served 
as transport quartermaster aboard the 
USS Barnett for six months before he 
was named signal officer of the 1st Mar. 
Div. in June 1941. That Sept., after par- 
ticipating in landing exercises with the 
division, he moved with it to New River, 
N.C. He sailed with its advance echelon 
for New Zealand, via the Panama Canal, 
in May 1942. In Aug. 1942, he landed 
with the 1st Div. at Guadalcanal. He was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel in Sept. 
1942. While taking part in the capture 
and defense of Guadalcanal, Lt. Col. 
Snedeker was awarded both the Silver 
Star Medal and the Bronze Star Medal. 
After serving several months in Austra- 
lia, he was detached from the division 
in July 1943, to become signal officer of 
the 1st Marine Amphibious Corps. Then, 
following service as an observer at Vella 
Lavella, he was named Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3 (Operations), of the 1st 
Corps in Sept. 1943. He also served in 
that capacity in the Treasury-Bougain- 
ville campaign. Returning to the States 
in Jan. 1944, he served at HQMC as 
Chief, G-3 Section, Division of Plans and 
Policies. He was promoted to colonel in 
June 1944. In Nov. 1944, he rejoined the 
1st Mar. Div. in the Russell Is. As CO, 
7th Marines, he led his regiment in the 
assault and capture of Okinawa, during 
which action he earned the Navy Cross. 
He returned to HQMC in Oct. 1945, to 
serve again as Chief of the G-3 Section. 
He continued in that capacity until May 
1946, then served briefly as Chief, In- 
structors Section, Quantico, before taking 
command of the Basic School there in 
Aug. 1946. He left Quantico for Guam in 
June 1949 to become Assistant Chief of 
Staff for Plans and Area Marine Officer, 
Naval Forces, Marianas. Col. Snedeker 
returned from Guam in July 1950, and 
departed for Korea later the same month 



211 



SORENSON 



SO US A 



as Chief of Staff, 1st Prov. Mar. Brig. 
After the Pusan Perimeter fighting, the 
brigade was absorbed by the 1st Mar. 
Div. and he became the division's Dep- 
uty Chief of Staff, serving in that capacity 
in the Inchon-Seoul campaign and the 
Oct. landing at Wonsan. During Nov. 

1950, he served on temporary duty with 
the Pacific Fleet Evaluation Group, re- 
turning to the 1st Div. on Dec. 3 to estab- 
lish a control and regulating post at 
Chinghung-ni, along the division's with- 
drawal route from the Chosin Reservoir. 
Following that campaign he became the 
division's Chief of Staff in Feb. 1951. He 
served in that capacity until late May 
1951 during operations in Central Korea. 
For meritorious service in Korea, he re- 
ceived three separate awards of the 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V." Col. 
Snedeker returned to the States in July 

1951, to serve as Chief of Staff of the 3rd 
Mar. Brig, at Camp Pendleton. He was 
promoted to brigadier general in Dec. 
1951. In May 1952 he became Deputy 
Director of the Marine Corps Education- 
al Center at Quantico, where he remained 
until June 1954. The following month 
he was appointed Assistant Commander, 
2nd Mar. Div., Camp Lejeune, and in 
Feb. 1955, was given command of the 
division. He was promoted to major gen- 
eral in Apr, 1955. The general began 
serving as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
at HQMC in Aug. 1955. He served in 
this capacity for two and a half years, 
and in Feb. 1958 assumed command of 
the 1st Mar. Div. at Camp Pendleton. 
On assuming his current assignment as 
Commandant of the Marine Corps 
Schools, he was promoted to lieutenant 
general in Nov. 1959. 



reads, in part: "... while serving with 
an assault battalion attached to the 4th 
Mar. Div. during the battle of Namur 
Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Is., on 
Feb. 1-2, 1944. Putting up a brave defense 
against a particularly violent counter- 
attack by the enemy during invasion 
operations, Sorenson ( then a private ) and 
five other Marines occupying a shellhole 
were endangered by a Japanese grenade 
thrown into their midst. Unhesitatingly, 
and with complete disregard for his own 
safety, Pvt. Sorenson hurled himself up- 
on the deadly weapon, heroically taking 
the full impact of the explosion ... he 
was severely wounded but the lives of 
his comrades were saved." 




Soiisa 



SORENSON, Richard Keith. First Lieu- 
tenant. Medal of Honor: b. Anoka, Minn., SOUSA, John Philip. "The March King." 
Aug. 28, 1924. Lt. Sorenson's citation American composer, bandmaster, and 



212 



SO U S A 



SO US A 



Leader of the Marine Band: b. Wash- 
ington, D.C, Nov. 6, 1854; d. Reading, 
Pa., Mar. 6, 1932. As a boy of mixed 
Portuguese and German ancestry, John 
Sousa spent a great deal of his time 
playing on the lawn of the Marine Com- 
mandant's house at 8th and Eye Streets 
in Washington, D.C. His father, Antonio 
Sousa, not only played in the Marine 
Band, but also worked as a carpenter 
on the CMC's house. When, shortly after 
his 13th birthday, John decided to run 
away, his father consulted Commandant 
Jacob Zeilin. In the opinion of the father, 
the boy needed the discipline and train- 
ing traditionally offered by the Marines. 
The Commandant agreed. In those years 
it was not at all uncommon for the Ma- 
rine Corps to enlist an apprentice. So 
John Philip Sousa, who had begun his 
musical education at the age of six, be- 
came a "boy bound to learn music." His 
enlistment, as such, lasted seven years 
and five months. Already a promising 
student of the violin, young Sousa also 
was given military training and was 
taught "to read, write and cipher as far 
as the single rule of three." To defray 
the expense of this schooling, one dollar 
was deducted from his pay each month. 
Young Sousa reenlisted after his first 
"hitch" and he and his father served to- 
gether in the Marine Band until 1875, 
when they both received special dis- 
charges. John Sousa then became a civil- 
ian bandmaster, traveling through the 
New England States and as far west as 
St. Louis. Antonio remained in Washing- 
ton and continued to work for the Com- 
mandant as a civilian cabinet maker. Five 
years later, in 1880, when the Marine 
Corps needed a new leader for the Band, 
Sousa's father again appealed to the 
Commandant in behalf of his son. The 
appeal was successful. John Philip Sousa, 
one-time apprentice, was asked to return 



to Washington to become 14th Leader of 
the Marine Band. He took his new po- 
sition on Oct. 1, 1880. Under his direc- 
tion, the band continued its White House 
engagements, played weekly concerts at 
the Marine Barracks as well as- on the 
Capitol Plaza, took part in parades and 
celebrations, and began making annual 
concert tours of the United States. Re- 
quests had been coming in from every 
part of the country for the band to play 
at historical celebrations. Sousa finally 
asked President Benjamin Harrison for 
permission to take the band on tours. 
Presidential approval of the idea was 
prompt. Thus, in 1891, the first tour be- 
gan; since then, the band has regularly 
made an annual fall tour. Sousa's show- 
manship, together with his musical and 
executive ability, were all instrumental 
in making the Marine Band popular from 
coast to coast. Meanwhile, Sousa himself 
had become interested in composing new 
marches. He wrote Semper Fidelis, which 
later was adopted as the official march 
of the Marine Corps. As it turned out, 
this march sparked the genius of the 
young composer. In the years that fol- 
lowed, march after march flowed from 
his prolific pen. Among the best known 
are Stars and Stripes Forever, Washing- 
ton Post, Liberty Bell, High School Ca- 
dets, Invincible Eagle, El Capitan, The 
Thunderer, Manhattan Beach, Jorktown 
Centennial, Hands Across the Sea, Man 
Behind the Gun, King Cotton, Bullets 
and Bayonets, Boy Scouts of America, 
Liberty Loan March, Naval Reserve 
March, Sabre and Spurs March, and On 
the Campus March. On July 30, 1892, 
Sousa had resigned from the Marine 
Band to organize a band of his own. 
Later, during the Spanish-American War, 
Sousa tried to join the Marine Corps 
again, but there was no vacancy for a 
bandmaster. Undaunted, he joined the 



213 



SO U S A 



STEIN 



Army. Illness, however, prevented him 
from serving a single day. When WWI 
came along, the same situation prevailed; 
this time Sousa joined the Navy. He was 
assigned to the Naval Training Station 
at Great Lakes, 111., in the capacity of 
musical director. His rank: Lieutenant 
Commander, USNR. During that time he 
gave countless concerts in behalf of Lib- 
erty Loan Drives and served with the 
Navy until 1919. Years later, at the re- 
quest of Marine Corps officers who had 
served in north China during the Boxer 
Rebellion, Sousa composed a march 
called The Roijal Welsh Fusiliers to com- 
memorate the Marines' association with 
that British regiment. In June, 1930, he 
was at Tidworth, England, when a "beau- 
tifully bound score of the march" was 
formally presented to the Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers (the oldest regiment in Wales) 
to perpetuate the regiment's friendship 
with the United States Marines. Sousa's 
last appearance before the Marine Band 
was on the occasion of the Carabao Wal- 
low of 1932 at Washington. The band 
furnished the music for the big event. 
Sousa, as a distinguished guest, arose 
from the speakers' table, took the baton 
from Capt. Taylor Branson, then Leader 
of the Band, and led the musicians 
through the stirring strains of Stars and 
Stripes Forever. John Philip Sousa died 
on Mar. 6, 1932, at Reading, Pa., where 
he was scheduled to conduct the Ring- 
gold Band the following day. His body 
was brought to his native Washington 
to lie in state in the band hall of the 
Marine Barracks, 8th and Eye Streets, 
S.E. Four days later, two companies of 
Marines and bluejackets, the Marine 
Band, and honorary pallbearers from the 
Army, Navy and Marine Corps headed 
the funeral cortege from the Marine Bar- 
racks to Congressional Cemetery. 



SPROWLE, David. Orderly Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Lisbon, N.Y., 1811, 
David Sprowle enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on June 16, 1848 at Boston, Mass. 
His citation reads, in part: "... while 
serving on board the USS Richmond, 
Mobile Bay . . . commended for coolness 
and setting a good example to the Ma- 
rine guard working a division of great 
guns in the action of Mobile Bay on the 
morning and forenoon of Aug. 5, 1864. . . ." 
He was discharged from the Corps on 
Dec. 1, 1866 at Washington, D.C. 

STEIN, Tony. Corporal. Medal of Honor: 
b. Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 30, 1921; d. KIA, 
Iwo Jima, Mar. 1, 1945. Cpl, Stein's cita- 
tion reads, in part: "... while serving 
with Co. A, 1st Bn., 28th Marines, 5th 
Mar. Div., in action against enemy Japa- 
nese forces on Iwo Jima, Feb. 19, 1945. 
The first man of his unit to be on station 
after hitting the beach in the initial as- 
sault, Cpl. Stein, armed with a personally 
improvised aircraft-type weapon, provid- 
ed rapid covering fire as the remainder 
of his platoon attempted to move into po- 
sition and, when his comrades were 
stalled by a concentrated machine gun 
and mortar barrage, gallantly stood up- 
right and exposed himself to the enemy's 
view, thereby drawing the hostile fire to 
his own person and enabling him to ob- 
serve the location of the furiously blaz- 
ing hostile guns. Determined to neutralize 
the strategically placed weapons, he 
boldly charged the enemy pillboxes one 
by one and succeeded in killing 20 of the 
enemy during the furious singlehanded 
assault. Cool and courageous under the 
merciless hail of exploding shells and 
bullets which fell on all sides, he con- 
tinued to deliver the fire of his skillfully 
improvised weapon at a tremendous rate 
of speed which rapidly exhausted his 
ammunition. Undaunted, he removed his 



214 



STEWART 



ST E WA RT 



helmet and shoes to expedite his move- 
ments and ran back to the beach for 
additional ammunition, making a total of 
eight trips under intense fire and carry- 
ing or assisting a wounded man back 
each time. He rendered prompt assistance 
to his platoon whenever the unit was in 
position, directing the fire of a half-track 
against a stubborn pillbox until he had 
effected the ultimate destruction of the 
Japanese fortification. Later in the day, 
although his weapon was twice shot from 
his hands, he personally covered the 
withdrawal of his platoon to the company 
position/' 

STEWART, James A. Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1839. 
James Stewart enlisted in the Marine 
Corps on Apr. 13, 1868. His citation 
reads, in part: "... while serving on 
board the USS Plymouth, jumped over- 
board in the harbor of Villefranche, 
France, Feb. 1, 1872, and saved Mid- 
shipman Osterhaus from drowning " 

Stewart was discharged from the Corps 
on July 11, 1873. 

STEWART, Joseph Lester. Brigadier 
General. CG, Force Troops, Fleet Ma- 
rine Force, Pacific, and CG, Marine 
Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, Calif.: b. 
Newton, Ala., May 31, 1915. Joseph 
Stewart graduated from Butler County 
High School in Greenville, Ala., in 1933. 
He was awarded a Bachelor of Science 
degree on May 31, 1937, upon graduation 
from Alabama Polytechnic Institute and 
was an honor graduate of the ROTC 
course there. While in college he was a 
a three-letter athlete. He was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant on 
July 28, 1937. He completed Basic School 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in May 
1938, then served for one year with the 
Marine Detachment aboard the USS 



California. This was followed by assign- 
ments with the 1st Bn., 6th Marines, and 
the 2nd Bn., 10th Marines. In Sept. 1940, 
he was promoted to first lieutenant. He 
graduated from the Battery Officers' 
Course at Fort Sill, Okla., in May 1941, 
then returned to the 10th Marines. When 
WWII broke out, Lt. Stewart was de- 
ployed with the 2nd Mar. Brig, for Samoa 
as CO of B Battery, 1st Bn., 10th Ma- 
rines, in Jan. 1942. He was promoted to 
captain in Feb. 1942, and remained over- 
seas until Aug. In Oct. 1942, while at- 
tending the Field Officers' Course at Fort 
Sill, he was promoted to major, Later, 
he completed the Command and General 
Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 
Ordered to Kiska, Alaska, in July 1943, 
he served on the Staff of the Amphibious 
Corps, Pacific Fleet, during the Aleutian 
campaign. From Sept. 1943 through Oct. 
1945, he served in the Pacific area as 
Executive Officer, G-3 Section, 5th Am- 
phibious Corps, He participated in com- 
bat at Kwajalein and Eniwetok in Jan. 
and Feb. 1944. Later, following his pro- 
motion to lieutenant colonel, he took part 
in the Saipan-Tinian and Iwo Jima cam- 
paigns, earning the Legion of Merit and 
the Bronze Star Medal, both with Com- 
bat "V." He also participated in the occu- 
pation of Japan, then returned to the 
States in Dec. 1945. Lt. Col. Stewart 
served as an instructor in the Senior 
Course, MCS, from Jan. 1946 through 
June 1949. In July 1949, he joined the 
1st Mar. Div. at Camp Pendleton, Calif., 
serving as Assistant G-3, Commander of 
the 1st Bn., 5th Marines, and Division 
G-3, respectively, until June 1950. Upon 
the outbreak of the Korean War, he was 
ordered to Korea where he served with 
both the 1st Prov. Mar. Brig, and the 1st 
Mar. Div., as Brigade G-3 and later Divi- 
sion G-3. He participated in action at the 
Pusan Perimeter and in the assault and 



215 



S T E WA RT 



STREITER 



seizure of Inchon, Subsequently, as Ex- 
ecutive Officer of the 5th Marines, he 
took part in the bitter Chosin Reservoir 
campaign in Nov. and Dec. 1950; and 
commanded the 3rd Bn., 5th Marines in 
the first United Nations counteroffensive 
early in 1951. The Silver Star Medal was 
awarded Lt. Col. Stewart for conspicuous 
gallantry as Executive Officer, 5th Ma- 
rines, in Korea, Dec. 3, 1950, during his 
regiment's attack from Yudam-ni toward 
Hagaru-ri against elements of three ene- 
my divisions. He was also awarded his 
second Legion of Merit and his second 
Bronze Star Medal, as well as an Air 
Medal for his service in Korea. Following 
his return from Korea in June 1951, he 
was assigned to HQ, FMF, Pacific, as 
Assistant G-3 and later G-3. He was pro- 
moted to colonel in Nov. 1951. In Aug. 
1953, Col. Stewart began a three-year 
assignment at HQMC where he served 
consecutively as Assistant G-4 and Head 
of the G-4 Planning Branch. In Aug. 
1956, he entered the National War Col- 
lege, Washington, D.C. Following grad- 
uation in June 1957, he assumed duty as 
Deputy Plans Director on the Staff of 
the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic 
(SACLANT), at Norfolk, Va. In Sept. 
1958, he was named Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-3, FMF, Atlantic. Col. Stewart 
departed from Norfolk for MCS, Quan- 
tico, in Aug. 1959. There he served as 
Director of the Senior School until May 

1961, when he became Deputy Director 
of the Marine Corps Educational Center. 
He was promoted to his present grade of 
brigadier general in Aug. 1962. In Sept. 

1962, Gen. Stewart became CG, Force 
Troops, FMF, Pacific, and CG, MCB, 
Twentynine Palms, Calif. 

STEWART, Peter. First Sergeant. Medal 
of Honor: b. Airdrie, Scotland, Feb. 17, 
1858; d. June 17, 1914. Peter Stewart 



enlisted in the Marine Corps at New 
York, N.Y. on Jan. 5, 1894. His citation 
reads, in part: "... for distinguished con- 
duct in the presence of the enemy in bat- 
tles on June 13, 20, 21 and 22, 1900, 
while with the relief expedition of the 
Allied Forces in China. . . ." 

STOCKHAM, Fred William. Gunnery 
Sergeant. Medal of Honor (Army): b. 
Detroit, Mich., Mar. 16, 1881; d. Belleau 
Wood, France, June 22, 1918. Sgt. Stock- 
ham's citation reads, in part: "... with 

the 96th Co., 2nd Bn., 6th Regt in 

action with the enemy in Bois-de-Belleau, 
France, on the night of June 13-14, 1918. 
During an intense enemy bombardment 
with high explosive and gas shells which 
wounded or killed many members of the 
company, Sgt. Stockham, noticing that 
the gas mask of a wounded comrade was 
shot away, without hesitation, removed 
his own gas mask and insisted upon giv- 
ing it to the wounded man, well knowing 
that the effects of the gas would be fatal 
to himself. Despite the fact that he was 
without protection of a gas mask, he con- 
tinued with undaunted courage and valor 
to direct and assist in the evacuation of 
the wounded in an area saturated with 
gas and swept by heavy artillery fire, 
until he himself collapsed from the ef- 
fects of gas, dying as a result thereof 
a few days later." 

STREETER, Ruth Cheney. Colonel. First 
Director of the U.S. Marine Corps Wom- 
en's Reserve: b. Brookline, Mass., Oct. 2, 
1895. Ruth Streeter attended schools 
abroad and graduated from Bryn Mawr 
College at Bryn Mawr, Pa. in 1918. Dur- 
ing the depression years following 1930, 
she worked in public health and welfare, 
unemployment relief, and old-age assist- 
ance in her home state of New Jersey. 
Long interested in aviation, she complet- 



216 



SULLIVAN 



S WE TT 



ed a course in aeronautics at New York 
University and served as adjutant of 
Group 221, Civil Air Patrol. She learned 
to fly in 1940 and in 1941 became the 
only woman member of the Committee 
on Aviation of the New Jersey Defense 
Council. The same year she also acted as 
chairman of the Citizens' Committee for 
Army and Navy, Inc. for Fort Dix, NJ. 
She received her commercial pilot's li- 
cense in Apr. 1942. Col. Streeter was the 
first woman to hold the rank of major in 
the Marine Corps. She was appointed to 
that rank on Jan. 29, 1943. She was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel on Nov. 22, 
1943, and then to the rank of colonel on 
Feb. 1, 1944. She left the Corps in Dec. 
1945. 

SULLIVAN, Edward. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Cork, Ireland, May 16, 1870; 
d. Boston, Mass., Mar, 14, 1955. Edward 
Sullivan enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Boston, Mass., on July 23, 1896. He was 
awarded the Medal of Honor on Aug. 
15, 1899 for extraordinary bravery and 
coolness while serving aboard the USS 
Marblehead, cutting cables leading from 
Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11, 1898, tinder 
heavy fire of the enemy. He was dis- 
charged from the Corps at Newport, R.I., 
on July 30, 1901. 

SUTTON, Clarence Edwin. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Middlesex Co., Va., 
Feb. 18, 1871; d. Oct. 9, 1916. Clarence 
Sutton enlisted in the Marine Corps on 



July 5, 1899. He was awarded the Medal 
of Honor "... for distinguished conduct 
in the presence of the enemy at the bat- 
tle of Tientsin, China, July 13, 1900. Sut- 
ton carried a wounded officer from the 
field under a heavy fire. . . /' He was dis- 
charged from the Corps on Sept. 3, 1903. 

SWETT, James Elms. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel. Medal of Honor: b. Seattle, Wash., 
June 15, 1920. Lt Col. Swetfs citation 
reads, in part: ". . . as a division leader 
in a Marine fighting squadron in action 
against enemy Japanese aerial forces in 
the Solomon Is. area, Apr. 7, 1943. In a 
daring flight to intercept a wave of 150 
Japanese planes, 1st Lt. Swett unhesi- 
tatingly hurled his four-plane division 
into action against a formation of 15 en- 
emy bombers and during his dive per- 
sonally exploded 3 hostile planes in 
mid-air with accurate and deadly fire. 
Although separated from his division 
while clearing the heavy concentration 
of antiaircraft fire, he boldly attacked 6 
enemy bombers, engaged the first 4 in 
turn, and unaided shot them down in 
flames. Exhausting his ammunition as he 
closed with the fifth Japanese bomber, 
he relentlessly drove his attack against 
terrific opposition which partially dis- 
abled his engine, shattered the wind- 
screen and slashed his face. In spite of 
this, he brought his battered plane down 
with skillful precision in the water off 
Tulagi without further injury. . . .'* 



217 



T 



TALBOT, Ralph. Second Lieutenant. 
Medal of Honor: b. South Weymouth, 
Mass., Jan. 6, 1897; d. near the Belgian 
front, Oct. 25, 1918. Ralph Talbot en- 
rolled on May 26, 1918, as a second lieu- 
tenant (provisional) in Class 5A, Marine 
Corps Reserve Flying Corps. On June 
4, 1918, he was appointed a second lieu- 
tenant (provisional) in Class 5, by the 
Major General Commandant, with rank 
from Apr. 3, 1918. Upon enrollment he 
was assigned to active service with the 
First Marine Aviation Force, Miami, Fla. 
He was detached on July 12, 1918, to 
foreign shore expeditionary service in 
France. He sailed from the States July 
17, 1918, aboard the USS DeKalb, ar- 
rived and disembarked at Brest, France, 
Aug. 1, 1918, and was assigned to duty 
with the Northern Bombing Group. He 
participated in numerous air raids into 
enemy territory while attached to Squad- 
ron C, and on Oct. 8, 1918, while on such 
a raid, he was attacked by nine enemy 
scouts. In the fight that followed, he shot 
down an enemy plane. On Oct. 14, 1918, 
while on a raid over Pittham, Belgium, 
Lt. Talbot and one other plane became 
detached from the formation on account 
of engine trouble, and were attacked by 
12 enemy scouts. During the severe fight 
that followed, his plane shot down one 
of the enemy scouts. His observer was 
shot through the elbow and his gun 
jammed. He cleared the jam with one 
hand while Lt. Talbot maneuvered to 
gain time; then they returned to the fight. 
The observer fought until shot twice in 
the stomach and once in the hip. When 
he collapsed, Lt. Talbot attacked the 
nearest enemy scout with his front guns 
and shot him down. With his observer 



unconscious and his motor failing he 
dived to escape the rest of the enemy 
and crossed the German trenches at an 
altitude of 50 feet, landing at the nearest 
hospital and left his observer and re- 
turned to his aerodrome. For this feat 
Lt. Talbot was awarded the Navy Medal 
of Honor, On Oct. 25, 1918, while at- 
tached to the 9th Squadron, Day Wing, 
Northern Bombing Group, and while 
flying a DH-4 bombing plane, Talbot 
struck a hump. The plane capsized, 
caught fire, and Lt. Talbot was killed. 

THARIN, Frank Cunningham. Major 
General. One of the defenders of Wake 
Is. at the outbreak of WWII. CG, 3rd 
Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine 
Force, Pacific, MCAS/E1 Toro (Santa 
Ana) Calif, (1963): b. Washington, D.C., 
Oct. 23, 1910. After graduation from 
Central High School in the nation's capi- 
tal, Frank tharin entered the U.S. Naval 
Academy in 1930. Upon graduation, May 
31, 1934, he was appointed a Marine 
second lieutenant. After completing Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 
June 1935, he saw a year of sea duty 
with the Marine Detachment aboard the 
USS Northampton, then entered flight 
school at the NAS, Pensacola, Fla. He 
was promoted to first lieutenant in July 
1937, and that same month was desig- 
nated a naval aviator. That Sept. Tharin 
reported for duty at the North Is. NAS ? 
near San Diego, Calif., with Marine 
Fighter Squadron 2. In Nov. 1938, he 
was assigned duty under instruction at 
the Air Corps Technical School, Lowry 
Field, Denver, Colo. Returning to North 
Is. in Aug. 1939, he joined MAG 21. He 
was promoted to captain in July 1940. 



T H A R I N 



TH A R I N 




Early in 1941, he was transferred with 
his group to Ewa, Hawaii. There he was 
assigned to Marine Fighter Squadron 
211 in Oct. 1941, and the following month 
moved with the squadron to Wake Is. He 
was one of the senior pilots on Wake 
in Dec, 1941 when the Japanese attacked 
the small Pacific island. During the initial 
attack, he was wounded by shrapnel, and 
in the bitter fighting that followed, he 
was credited with destroying and dam- 
aging several enemy aircraft, and assisting 
in the destruction of a large destroyer. 
His action during the defense of Wake 
earned him the Silver Star Medal, the 
Distinguished Flying Cross, two Air 
Medals., and the Purple Heart. Taken 
prisoner Dec. 23, 1941, he was interned 
for almost four years by the Japanese 



in prison camps at Woosung, Kiangwan, 
Fengtai (China), Fusan (Korea), and 
Hokkaido (Japan). Liberated on Sept. 
14, 1945, Capt. Tharin was flown to the 
States for hospitalization. He was pro- 
moted to major in Nov. 1945 with rank 
from May 1942, and to lieutenant colonel 
in January 1946 with rank from Oct. 
1942. He then completed Instrument 
Flight Instructors' Course, Atlanta, Ga., 
and the Command and Staff Course, 
Quantico, Va. Leaving Quantico in Aug. 
1946, he served at the MCAS, Cherry 
Point, N.C. for 18 months as Assistant 
G-3, 2nd MAW. Following this assign- 
ment, he assumed duty in the Division 
of Plans and Policies, HQMC, Washing- 
ton, D.C., in Jan. 1948. He was promoted 
to colonel in Aug. 1949. Col. Tharin re- 
mained at HQMC until June 1950. Two 
months later, he assumed duty in Hawaii 
on the Staff of Commander in Chief, 
Pacific. On his return to the continental 
U.S. in Aug. 1952, he became CO of 
MAG 32, 3rd MAW, Miami, Fla, In July 
1953, he entered the National War Col- 
lege and completed the course the fol- 
lowing June. From June 1954 until June 
1956, he served in the Office of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff as a member of the Joint 
Strategic Plans Group. Ordered to the 
Far East, he saw duty as CO, MAG 11, 
1st MAW, in Japan from July 1956 until 
June 1957, then served briefly as Chief of 
Staff, 1st MAW. In Sept. 1957, he be- 
came Chief of Staff, Aircraft, FMF, At- 
lantic, Norfolk, Va. Transferred to Cherry 
Point in July 1958, he was promoted to 
brigadier general and appointed Assist- 
ant Wing Commander, 2nd MAW. Gen. 
Tharin remained at Cherry Point four 
years, serving consecutively as: Assistant 
Wing Commander until Dec. 1959; CG 
of the 2nd Wing until Oct. 1960; and, 
finally, Commander, Marine Corps Air 
Bases, Eastern Area and CG, MCAS, 



219 



T H I E S 



TSMMERMANI 



until Sept. 1962. While there, he was 
promoted to major general in Aug. 1962. 
Assigned next to El Toro, Gen. Thar in 
assumed command of the 3rd MAW 
there in Oct. 1962. 

THIES, Louis Fred. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Philadelphia, Pa., June 19, 
1876. (Served first tour under assumed 
name of Thies, then reenlisted under 
real name of Pfeif er, Louis Fred. ) Louis 
Thies enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Brooklyn, N.Y, on Jan. 5, 1898. His cita- 
tion reads, in part: ". . . while serving on 
board the USS Petrel, for heroism and 
gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own 
life to danger for the saving of the oth- 
ers on the occasion of the fire on board 
said vessel, Mar. 31, 1901. . . ." He was 
discharged from the Corps on Aug. 27, 
1917. 

THOMAS, Herbert Joseph. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Columbus, Ohio, 
Feb. 8, 1918; d. KIA, Bougainville, Nov. 
7, 1943. Sgt. Thomas' citation reads, in 
part: "... in action against enemy Japa- 
nese forces during the battle of Koromo- 
kina River, Bougainville Is., on Nov. 7, 
1943. Although several of his men were 
struck by enemy bullets as he led his 
squad through dense jungle undergrowth 
in the face of severe hostile machine gun 
fire, Sgt. Thomas and his group fearlessly 
pressed forward into the center of the 
Japanese position and destroyed the 
crews of two machine guns by accurate 
rifle fire and grenades. Discovering a 
third gun more difficult to approach, he 
carefully placed his men closely around 
him in strategic positions from which 
they were to charge after he had thrown 
a grenade into the emplacement. When 
the grenade struck vines and fell back 
into the midst of the group, Sgt. Thomas 
deliberately flung himself upon it to 



smother the explosion, valiantly sacrific- 
ing his life for his comrades. . . ." 

THOMASON, Clyde. Sergeant. Medal of 
Honor: b. Atlanta, Ga., May 23, 1914; d. 
KIA, Makin Is., Aug. 18, 1942. Sgt. Thom- 
ason's citation reads, in part: "... during 
the Marine Raider Expedition against 
the Japanese-held island of Makin on 
Aug. 17-18, 1942. Leading the advance 
element of the assault echelon, Sgt. 
Thomason disposed his men with keen 
judgment and discrimination. On one oc- 
casion, he dauntlessly walked up to a 
house which concealed an enemy Japa- 
nese sniper, forced in the door, and shot 
the man before he could resist. Later in 
the action, while leading an assault on 
an enemy position, he gallantly gave up 
his life in the service of his country," 

THOMPSON, Henry. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1833. Pvt. 
Thompson's citation reads, in part: 
"... while serving on board the USS 
Minnesota; especially commended for 
bravery in the assault on Fort Fisher, 
Jan. 15, 1865, remaining at the front near 
the fort when the panic carried the mass 
away. . . ? 

TIMMERMAN, Grant Frederick. Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Americus, 
Kan., Feb. 19, 1919; d. KIA, Saipan, July 
8, 1944. Sgt. Timmerrnan's citation reads, 
in part: "... as Tank Commander serving 
with the 2nd Bn., 6th Marines, 2nd Mar. 
Div., during action against enemy Japa- 
nese forces on Saipan, on July 8, 1944. 
Advancing with his tank a few yards 
ahead of the infantry in support of a 
vigorous attack on hostile positions, Sgt. 
Timmerman maintained steady fire from 
his antiaircraft sky mount machine gun 
until progress was impeded by a series 
of enemy trenches and pillboxes. Observ- 
ing a target of opportunity, he immedi- 



220 



T O M L I N 



T O M P K I N S 



ately ordered the tank stopped and, 
mindful of the danger from the muzzle 
blast as he prepared to open fire with the 
75mm. , fearlessly stood up in the exposed 
turret and ordered the infantry to hit the 
deck. Quick to act as a grenade, hurled 
by the Japanese, was about to drop into 
the open turret hatch, Sgt. Tirnmerman 
unhesitatingly blocked the opening with 
his body, holding the grenade against his 
chest and taking the brunt of the explo- 
sion . . . saving his men at the cost of his 
own life. . . ." 

TOMLIN, Andrew J. Corporal. Medal 
of Honor: b. Goshen, N.J., 1844. Andrew 
Tomlin enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Philadelphia, Pa. on July 10, 1862. His 
citation reads, in part: "... while serving 
aboard the USS Wabash. During the as- 
sault on Fort Fisher, Jan. 15, 1865, he 
advanced under a heavy fire from the 
enemy's sharpshooters into an open space 
to the fort and assisted a wounded com- 
rade to a place of safety. . . ." 

TOMPKINS, Rathvon McClure. Briga- 
dier General. Assistant Division Com- 
mander, 2nd Mar. Div., Fleet Marine 
Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C. (1963): b. 
Boulder, Colo., Aug. 23, 1912. Following 
completion of high school in South Kent, 
Conn., Rathvon Tompkins entered the 
University of Colorado from which he 
was graduated in 1935 with a Bachelor of 
Arts degree. At the university he boxed 
and played hockey and polo. He enlisted 
in the MCR, June 5, 1935, and was a 
member of the Western Platoon Leaders* 
Class, 1935 (Reserve), at the MCB, San 
Diego, Calif. July to Aug. 1935. He ac- 
cepted appointment as a Marine Reserve 
second lieutenant Mar. 25, 1936. In Oct. 
1939, he was assigned active duty and 
entered the Reserve Officers* Class, MCS, 
Quantico, Va. Upon completion of the 



course that Nov., he joined the 2nd Bn., 
6th Marines, 2nd Mar. Brig. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in Feb. 1940. 
In May 1941, he sailed for Iceland with 
the 1st Prov. Mar, Brig. He was serving 
there when the U.S. entered WWII. He 
was promoted to captain in Jan. 1942. 
On his return to the States in Mar. 1942, 
Tompkins was assigned to the 6th Ma- 
rines, 2nd Mar. Div., in San Diego. He 
was promoted to major in Aug. 1942. 
Maj. Tompkins was ordered overseas in 
Oct. 1942, and subsequently participated 
in combat in the capture and defense of 
Guadalcanal, the consolidation of the 
southern Solomons, the Gilbert Is. opera- 
tion, and the Marianas operation. For 
heroic achievement on Guadalcanal as 
Regimental Operations Officer, 6th Ma- 
rines (Reinf.), 2nd Mar. Div., from Jan. 
to Feb. 1943, he was awarded the Bronze 
Star Medal with Combat "V." Subse- 
quently, during landing operations on 
Tarawa, he earned the Silver Star Medal 
for conspicuous gallantry in rescuing 
seven wounded Marines under contin- 
uous enemy fire, Nov. 20, 1943. He was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel in Dec. 
1943. During the next six months he 
served as Operations Officer, Infantry, 
Assistant Division Commander Section, 
2nd Mar, Div. Arriving on Saipan in 
June 1944, he took part in the action 
which earned him the Navy Cross as 
commander of the 1st Bn., 29th Marines, 
2nd Mar. Div. On July 3 he was wound- 
ed by shrapnel on Saipan, and later 
evacuated to the States for hospitalization. 
Lt. Col. Tompkins served at HQMC, Di- 
vision of Plans and Policies, from Mar. 
1945 until Dec. 1946. In Jan. 1947, he 
reported to Naval Forces, Eastern At- 
lantic and Mediterranean, London, Eng- 
land, for duty under instruction as a 
student in the Joint Services Staff Col- 
lege. Following graduation, he was des- 



221 



T O MP Kl N S 



T O W L E 



ignated a Naval Observer in the Office 
of the U.S. Naval Attache, London, and 
assigned duty as an instructor on the 
staff of the School of Combined Opera- 
tions, in Aug. 1947. In Apr. 1948, he 
returned to the States, and assumed duty 
at MCS, Quantico, as Chief, Infantry 
Section, Amphibious Warfare School, 
Junior Course; and, later, Instructor, 
Tactical Operations Group, Combined 
Arms Section. He was promoted to col- 
onel in Feb. 1951. In Aug. 1951, Col. 
Tompkins began a two-year tour of duty 
as a member of the War Plans Section, 
Joint Strategic Plans Group, Joint Staff, 
Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Or- 
dered to Korea in June 1953, he served 
with the 1st Mar. Div. as commander of 
the 5th Marines (Reinf,), and later as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2. A Gold Star 
in lieu of a second Bronze Star Medal 
with Combat "V" was awarded him for 
meritorious achievement during the pe- 
riod July 24, 1953 to Apr. 18, 1954. He 
returned to the States in July 1954. He 
entered the Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I., in Aug. 1954, Upon completing 
the Senior Resident Course in Naval 
Warfare, he was assigned in June 1955 
to the Staff of the Naval War College, 
and served subsequently as Assistant 
Head and Head, Strategy and Tactics 
Department, and Senior Marine, Staff, 
Naval War College. In July 1957, he was 
transferred to Camp Pendleton, where he 
commanded the 1st Service Bn. (Reinf.), 
1st Mar. Div,, until Dec. 1957, then 
served -as the Division's Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3, until Mar. 1958. In Apr. 
1958, Col. Tompkins arrived in the Far 
East for duty as Chief of Staff, 3rd Mar. 
Div., (Reinf.), in Okinawa. The follow- 
ing Apr. he became Assistant Division 
Commander, serving in this capacity un- 
til his detachment in June 1959. He 
joined the Personnel Department, HQMC, 



in Aug. 1959, and remained there for 
three years. He served first as Head of 
the Military Personnel Procurement 
Branch until June 1960, when he became 
Assistant Director of Personnel. Shortly 
after assuming this post, he was promot- 
ed to brigadier general in July 1960. In 
Aug. 1962, Gen. Tompkins was detached 
from HQMC, and the following month 
assumed duty as Assistant Division Com- 
mander, 2nd Mar. Div., at Camp Lejeune. 

TOWLE, Katherine A. Colonel. Director 
of Women Marines Nov. 4, 1948 to 
May 1, 1953: b, Towle, Calif., Apr. 30, 
1898. Katherine Towle was graduated 
from the University of California at 
Berkeley in May 1920. In addition she 
also studied at Columbia University in 
New York City. When called to active 
duty simultaneously with the receipt of 
her commission as captain in the U.S. 
Marine Corps Women's Reserve on Feb. 
25, 1943, she was employed as Assistant 
to the Manager at the University of Cali- 
fornia. In early Mar. 1943, she was or- 
dered directly from civil life to HQMC 
in Washington, D,C. Later that month 
she was ordered to the Marine Detach- 
ment, Naval Training School (Women 
Reserve), Hunter College, New York 
City as the senior woman officer of the 
detachment. In May of the same year 
she was detached from Hunter College, 
ordered to temporary duty in Washing- 
ton, and in early June was assigned to 
the special staff of the CG, Camp Le- 
jeune, New River, N.C. as Assistant for 
Women's Reserve, with the opening of 
the Women's Reserve Training Center 
there. While serving in that capacity in 
Feb. 1944, she was advanced to the rank 
of major. Her next duty assignment, be- 
ginning in Sept. 1944, was at HQMC as 
Assistant Director of the Marine Corps 
Women's Reserve. In Mar. 1945, she was 



222 



TROESDELi. 



TWINING 



promoted to lieutenant colonel, and with 
the resignation of the Director of the 
Women's Reserve, she became the sec- 
ond Director on Dec. 7, 1945. Her ad- 
vancement to the rank of colonel came 
simultaneously with her appointment by 
Gen. A. A. Vandegrift, then CMC. On 
June 12, 1946, Col. Towle relinquished 
her position as Director of the Women's 
Reserve and returned to the University 
of California at Berkeley following her 
release from active service on Aug. 18, 
1946. From that time until she reported 
to the CG, Department of Pacific, San 
Francisco for active duty on Sept. 23, 
1948, she was assistant dean of women 
at that university. Col. Towle reported 
for duty at HQMC Oct. 18, 1948, and 
served as Director of Women Marines 
until her retirement on May 1, 1953. 

TRUESDELL, Donald Leroy. Commis- 
sioned Warrant Officer. Medal of Honor: 
b. Lugoff, S.C., Aug. 26, 1906. Donald 
Truesdell enlisted in the Marine Corps 
in Nov. 1924. He earned the nation's 
highest award when, as a corporal in the 
Marines and a lieutenant in the Nicara- 
guan native army, he was second in 
command of a patrol pushing through 
that country's trackless forests on the 
trail of bandits. A rifle grenade fell from 
the pack of one member of the patrol, 
hitting a rock and the impact ignited the 
detonator of the grenade, threatening the 
safety of the entire patrol. Without hesi- 
tation, CpL Truesdell grabbed the mis- 
sile and attempted to hurl it away. He 
was seconds late, and the grenade ex- 
ploded while still in his grasp, blowing 
off his hand and inflicting multiple 
wounds in his body. For his heroism he 
was awarded the Medal of Honor and 
also the Nicaraguan Cross of Valor by 
that government. The citation accom- 
panying CpL Truesdell's award stated 



that he "could easily have sought cover 
and safety for himself," being several 
yards away but he chose to try and save 
the patrol at the risk of his own life. 
Although he had lost an arm, officer 
Truesdell continued to serve with the 
Marine Corps until his retirement as a 
Commissioned Warrant Officer in May 
1946. 

TWINING, Merrill Barber. General (Re- 
tired): b. Monroe, Wis., Nov. 28, 1902. 
Merrill Twining was commissioned a 
Marine second lieutenant upon gradua- 
tion from the U.S. Naval Academy, June 
7, 1923. During the next two years, he 
completed the Marine Officers' Basic 
School; served at Quantico; participated 
in Caribbean maneuvers with the 10th 
Marines; and was stationed at the MB, 
Pensacola, Fla. Lt. Twining was ordered 
to the MB at Pearl Harbor in Nov. 1925, 
and after six months in Hawaii he sailed 
for China via the Philippine Is. In China 
he served with the 4th and 12th Mar. 
Regts. at Shanghai, Taku, Hsin Ho, 
Tientsin, and Peking. He returned to the 
States in Aug. 1928. Twining was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant in Dec. 1928 
while serving as Commander of the MB 
at the Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, 
Keyport, Wash. He then served briefly 
as Editor and Publisher of Leatherneck 
Magazine in Washington, D.C. In Sept. 
1929, Lt. Twining was assigned to the 
Office of the Judge Advocate General of 
the Navy. While stationed there, he ob- 
tained his Bachelor of Laws degree from 
George Washington University in 1932. 
He reported again to the MB at Pearl 
Harbor in Nov. 1932, remaining there 
until Jan. 1935. In Mar. 1935, while at- 
tached to the MB at the NAS, Sunnyvale, 
Calif., he earned the Distinguished Pistol 
Shot's Gold Badge in the Western Divi- 
sion Rifle and and Pistol Matches at San 



223 



TWINING 



TYLER 



Diego, Calif. He was promoted to cap- 
tain in May 1935. From July 1935 to Aug. 
1936, Capt. Twining was a student in the 
Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, 
Ga. During the next year he served at 
Philadelphia as an instructor in the Ma- 
rine Officers' Basic School. Moving to 
Quantico in June 1937, he served as a 
company commander with the 5th Ma- 
rines, and two years later became an in- 
structor in the Marine Corps Schools, 
He also participated in Caribbean ma- 
neuvers in 1938 and 1939. He was pro- 
moted to major in July 1939. In Nov. 
1941, Maj. Twining joined the 1st Mar. 
Div. at Camp Lejeune, N.C. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel in Jan. 1942 
and moved with his division to the Paci- 
fic area in May 1942. He earned his first 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V" for 
meritorious service from June 25 to Dec. 
10, 1942 as the Division's Assistant Op- 
erations Officer and, later, Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3. In that capacity, he helped 
prepare and execute plans for the Gua- 
dalcanal campaign. During the planning 
phase, Lt. Col. Twining and Maj. Wil- 
liam B. McKean were flown over the 
then-Japanese-held island on July 17, 
1942 for the first sighting of Guadalcanal 
by U.S. Marines in WWII. Following 
the Guadalcanal campaign, he served as 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, of the 1st 
Mar. Amphibious Corps, then com- 
manded by Gen. Alexander A. Vande- 
grift. Returning to the States in Nov. 
1943, Lt Col. Twining remained until 
1947 at the MCS, Quantico. While there, 
he served successively as Chief of Op- 
erations and Training, Executive Officer, 
and as a member of the Schools' Admin- 
istrative Staff. He was promoted to colo- 
nel in Feb. 1945. In Aug. 1947, Col. 
Twining reported to Pearl Harbor as 
Chief of Staff, FMF, Pacific. The follow- 
ing June, he was named Fleet Marine 



Officer on the Staff of the Commander- 
in-Chief, Pacific Fleet. He served in that 
capacity until July 1949, when he re- 
turned to the MCS as Senior Resident 
Member of the Marine Corps Board. In 
Aug. 1950, he reported to Camp Pendle- 
ton and the following month was pro- 
moted to brigadier general. He served 
there as CG, Marine Corps Training and 
Replacement Command until Nov. 1951, 
and later as Commander of FMF Troops 
and CG, 3rd Mar. Div. Upon leaving 
Camp Pendleton, Gen. Twining joined 
the 1st Mar. Div. in Korea in Mar. 1952. 
He returned to the States that June, and 
subsequently served in the Office of the 
CMC. He was promoted to major gen- 
eral in Sept. 1952. In Jan. 1954, he was 
named Deputy Chief of Staff at HQMC. 
Gen. Twining returned to Korea in Jan. 
1955 as Commander of the 1st Mar. Div. 
In Mar. of that year, he accompanied 
the division to Camp Pendleton, where 
he served until Aug. 1956. In Sept. 1956, 
he was promoted to lieutenant general 
and assumed duties as Commandant, 
MCS, Quantico, the 25th Marine officer 
to head the Schools. He served in that 
capacity until his retirement on Oct. 31, 
1959. 

TYLER, Paul Robert. Brigadier General. 
Serving with the Defense Supply Agency, 
Department of Defense, Washington, 
D.C.: b. Rochester, N.Y., Aug. 13, 1913. 
After graduation from high school at 
Kenmore, N.Y., in 1930, he attended Can- 
isius College at Buffalo prior to his ap- 
pointment to the Naval Academy in 1932. 
Upon graduation, he was commissioned 
a Marine second lieutenant, June 4, 1936. 
During the next year, he served at the 
MB, Parris Is., S.C., then attended Basic 
School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. 
Following this, he served with the Ma- 
rine Detachment at the U.S. Naval Prison, 



224 



T Y L E R 



TYLER 



Portsmouth, N.H. until June 1938, when 
he joined the 5th Marines, 1st Mar. Brig., 
FMF, at Quantico. In June 1939, he was 
promoted to first lieutenant. That Sept., 
Tyler entered the Signal Corps School, 
Fort Monmouth, N.J., completing the 
course in Feb. 1940. He then returned 
to Quantico as Regimental Communica- 
tions Officer of the 5th Marines, and 
subsequently took part in fleet exercises 
in the Caribbean area. In Sept. 1941, he 
was transferred to New River (later 
Camp Lejeune), N.C., as Assistant Com- 
munications Officer with the 1st Mar. 
Div. He was promoted to captain in Oct. 

1941, and was serving in this capacity 
when the U.S. entered WWII. In Apr. 

1942, he joined the 3rd Mar. Brig., FMF, 
as Brigade Communications Officer, and 
in May arrived with his unit for duty in 
western Samoa. While stationed there, 
he was promoted to major in Aug. 1942. 
On his return to the States in July 1943, 
he served in the Signal Supply Divi- 
sion, Quartermaster Department, HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., with temporary duty 
at the supply depots in Philadelphia and 
San Francisco. He was promoted to lieu- 
tenant colonel in Dec. 1943. In Mar. 1944, 
Lt. Col. Tyler was transferred to the San 
Francisco Depot of Supplies as Officer 
in Charge of the Signal Supply Division. 
In Apr. 1945, while assigned to FMF, 
Pacific, he began two years' duty over- 
seas, serving consecutively as Signal Of- 
ficer, U.S. Marine Corps Section, Army 
Forces, Western Pacific; and as Regi- 
mental Executive Officer and Regimental 
Supply Officer, 7th Service Regt., Signal 
Corps, at Manila in the Philippines, and 
Tientsin, China. Ordered to Washington, 
D.C., in Apr. 1947, he served briefly in 



the Office of the Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions until Sept. 1947, when he became 
Officer in Charge of the Electronics Sup- 
ply Division, Marine Corps Supply Depot, 
Camp Lejeune. He returned to Washing- 
ton in Aug. 1949 for duty with the Elec- 
tronics Divisions, Bureau of Ships, Navy 
Department; and in Nov. 1950, became 
Marine Corps Liaison Officer, Planning 
and Coordination Division, Office of 
Naval Materiel, Navy Department. Dur- 
ing this assignment, he was promoted to 
colonel in Feb. 1951. In Aug. 1952, Col. 
Tyler entered the Armed Forces Indus- 
trial College, completing the course the 
following June. Ordered overseas, lie ar- 
rived in Korea in Aug. 1953 as Division 
Supply Officer, 1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), 
subsequently becoming CO of the 1st 
Service Bn. in Apr. 1954. Following his 
return from Korea in June 1954, he was 
assigned to the MCSC, Barstow, Calif., 
where he served as Head of the Supply 
Branch and Chief of Staff. In Oct. 1955, 
he was named Executive Officer of the 
Marine Corps Supply Forwarding Annex 
in San Francisco, and in Feb. 1956 be- 
came CO of the Annex. He returned to 
HQMC in July 1957 to serve as Head 
of the Supply Management Branch, Ma- 
teriel Division. In Aug. 1958, he was pro- 
moted to brigadier general and assumed 
duties as Director of the Materiel Divi- 
sion. In Apr. 1959, Gen. Tyler became 
Assistant Quartermaster General of the 
Marine Corps, and in Aug. 1959 was 
named CG, Marine Corps Supply Activ- 
ity, Philadelphia, Pa. He served in the 
latter capacity until Jan. 1962 when he 
assumed his current assignment with the 
Defense Supply Agency. 



225 



u 



UPHAM, Oscar J, Private. Medal of 
Honor; b. Toledo, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1871; 
d. Guthrie, Okla., Feb. 19, 1949. Oscar 
Upham enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
the age of 25, shortly before the war 
with Spain. After a year of duty at Mare 
Is., Calif., he was ordered to sea duty 
aboard the USS Oregon, He was a pow- 
der monkey for a six-inch gun on the 
Oregon's bridge during the Spanish- 
American War, when the Spanish fleet 
tried to escape from the harbor at San- 
tiago, Cuba, on July 3, 1898. During the 
Boxer Rebellion in 1900, Pvt. Upham and 
his fellow Marines were erecting barri- 
cades in Peking, China, when the Chinese 
rebels surrounded the group and settled 
down for a three-month siege. A quota- 
tion from his diary, kept during the siege, 
reads: "We are holding out no hope for 
rescue and many do not give rescue a 
second thought." He was awarded the 
Medal of Honor for this action one of 
33 Marines to win that award during the 
rebellion. 

UPSHUR, William Peterkin. Major Gen- 
eral. Medal of Honor: b. Richmond, Va., 
Oct. 28, 1881; d. Sitka, Alaska, Aug. 18, 
1943. William Upshur was graduated 
from the Virginia Military Institute in 
1902. He was appointed a second lieuten- 
ant in the Marine Corps on Feb. 1, 1904, 
and subsequently served on the high seas 
aboard naval vessels at foreign stations 
throughout the world, and at various 
posts and stations in the States. His for- 
eign shore duty included service with an 
expeditionary force to Havana, Cuba, in 
Oct. 1906, and duty at Camp Evans, Deer 
Point, Guantanamo, Cuba from Jan. 9 to 
Feb. 8, 1907. He again was detailed to 




Upshur 

expeditionary duty with a force of Ma- 
rines on the Isthmus of Panama from 
June 19 to Aug. 8, 1908. Arriving at Olon- 
gapo, Philippine Is. in Jan. 1912, he 
joined the 1st Brig. Marines and was 
again detached in Feb. 1914, this time 
to the Marine Detachment, American 
Legation, Peking, China, where he served 
until Oct. 16, 1914. On Aug. 4, 1915, he 
assumed command of the 15th Co., 2nd 
Regt., Port an Prince, Haiti, where he 
participated in engagements against hos- 
tile Cacos bandits. It was during this ac- 
tion that he was awarded the Medal of 



226 



U P S H U R 



U P 5 H U R 



Honor. Other decorations for service in 
Haiti include the Haitian Campaign 
Medal and Marine Corps Expeditionary 
Medal. Upon the United States' entry 
into WWI, Gen. IJpshur was again de- 
tailed for foreign shore duty, this time 
with the 13th Regt. Marines in France 
from Sept. 1918 to Aug. 1919, during 
which time he was in command of the 
American Military Prison, Casino des 
Lilas, Bordeaux, and the American Guard 
Camp, also Guards of American and 
French docks, Bassens from Feb. 1919 
to May of the same year. He was on tem- 
porary duty at the Naval Station, St. 
Thomas, Virgin Is. in July and Aug. 1921. 
He also served in Haiti for a period of 
two years with the 1st Brig. Marines, 
from 1922-24. In Jan. and Mar., 1929 he 
was on temporary duty as Chief Umpire, 
Fleet Training Exercise No. 5, Culebra, 
Puerto Rico, and again in Jan., Feb., and 
Mar. 1940. In Sept. 1939 he was assigned 
to the MCB, San Diego, Calif. In addi- 



tion to his foreign shore stations he 
served aboard the USS Maine, USS Kear- 
sarge, USS Rainbow, USS Buffalo, and 
the USS California. During his career he 
also served as Commandant of the MCS 
at MB, Quantico, Va.; Director- of the 
Marine Corps Reserve; with the War 
Plans Division, Office of the Chief of 
Naval Operations, Navy Department; 
and as CG of the MCB at San Diego. He 
was a graduate of the Marine Corps 
School of Application, the Army Com- 
mand and General Staff School, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans. and of the Army 
and Navy War Colleges. The general's 
last station of duty was with the Depart- 
ment of the Pacific, where he served as 
CG with headquarters in San Francisco, 
Calif, from Jan. 1, 1942 until the time of 
his death. The general died in an air- 
plane crash near Sitka, Alaska, on Aug. 
18, 1943, while on an inspection tour of 
his command which included Alaska and 
the Hawaiian Islands. 



v 



VANDEGRIFT, Alexander Archer. Gen- 
eral (Retired), 18th Commandant of the 
Marine Corps Jan. 1, 1944 to Jan. 1, 
1948. Commanded the 1st Marine Am- 
phibious Corps in the landing at Empress 
Augusta Bay, Bougainville, and the 1st 
Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in the battle for 
Guadalcanal during WWII. For out- 
standing services as CG of the 1st Mar. 
Div., (Reinf.), dining the attack on Gua- 
dalcanal, Tulagi, and Gavutu in the Solo- 
mon Is. on Aug. 7, 1942, was awarded the 
Navy Cross; and for the subsequent oc- 
cupation and defense from Aug. 7 to 
Dec. 9, 1942, awarded the Medal of 



Honor: b. Charlottesville, Va., Mar. 13, 
1887. Alexander Vandegrift attended 
the University of Virginia and was com- 
missioned in the Marine Corps as a sec- 
ond lieutenant on Jan. 22, 1909. Following 
instruction at the Marine Officers' School, 
Port Royal, S.C., and a tour of duty at 
the MB, Portsmouth, N.H., he went to 
foreign shore duty in the Caribbean area 
where he participated in the bombard- 
ment, assault, and capture of Coyotepe 
in Nicaragua. He further participated in 
the engagement and occupation of Vera 
Cruz, Mexico. In Dec. 1914, Vandegrift 
attended the Advance Base Course at 



227 



VANDEGRIFT 



VANDEGUBFT 




Vandegrift 

the MB, Philadelphia. Upon completion 
of schooling, he sailed for Haiti with the 
1st Brig, and participated in action 
against hostile Cacos bandits at Le Trou 
and Fort Capois. In Aug. 1916, he be- 
came a member of the Haitian Constabu- 
lary, Port au Prince, where he remained 
until detached to the States in Dec. 1918. 
He returned to Haiti again in July 1919 
to serve with the Gendarmerie d' Haiti 
as an Inspector of Constabulary. He re- 
turned to the States in Apr. 1923, and 
was assigned to the MB at Quantico. He 
completed the Field Officers' Course, 
MCS, in May 1926, after which he went 
to the MCB, San Diego, Calif, as Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff. In Feb. 1927, he sailed 
for China where he served as Operations 
and Training Officer of the 3rd Mar. 
Brig, with HQ at Tientsin. He was or- 
dered to Washington, D.C., in Sept. 1928, 



where he became Assistant Chief Co- 
ordinator, Bureau of the Budget. Follow- 
ing duty in Washington, he joined the 
MB, Quantico, where he became Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff, G-l Section, FMF, 
in which post he remained until ordered 
to China in June 1935. Here he was suc- 
cessively Executive Officer and CO of 
the Marine Detachment at the American 
Embassy in Peiping. He reported to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C., in June 1937, 
where he became Military Secretary to 
the Major General Commandant. In Mar. 
1940, he was appointed Assistant to the 
Major General Commandant, in which 
position he remained until Nov. 1941, 
when he was detached to the 1st Mar. 
Div. Gen. Vandegrift sailed with the divi- 
sion as CG in May 1942 for the south 
Pacific, where on Aug. 7, 1942, in the 
Solomon Is., he led ashore the 1st Mar. 
Div. (Reinf.), in the first large scale 
offensive action against the Japanese. In 
July 1943, he assumed command of the 
1st Mar, Amphibious Corps and com- 
manded this organization in the landing 
at Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, 
northern Solomon Is., on Nov. 1, 1943. 
Upon establishing the initial beachhead, 
he relinquished command and returned 
to HQMC, where on Jan. 1, 1944 he be- 
came Commandant of the Marine Corps. 
His first gigantic task was the chore of 
building the Marine Corps to meet the 
demands of the two years to follow. Un- 
der "Archie" Vandegrift's cool, tenacious 
direction the Corps was increased by an- 
other 125,000 men, At war's end Gen. 
Vandegrift was faced with the twin tasks 
of demobilization and the establishment 
of the Marine Corps on a permanent, 
post-war basis commensurate with the 
needs and demands which might arise in 
the future. Gen. Vandegrift left active 
service on Dec. 31, 1947. He was placed 
on the retired list Apr. 1, 1949. 



228 



VAN R Y Z I N 



VAN RYZIN 



VAN RYZIN, William John. Brigadier 
General. Chief of Staff for the Command- 
er in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern At- 
lantic and Mediterranean (CINCNELM), 
London, England: b. Appleton, Wis., 
Apr. 20, 1914. After graduation from high 
school in 1931, William Van Ryzin en- 
tered the University of Wisconsin. There 
he completed four years of service in the 
ROTC unit and was commissioned a Ma- 
rine second lieutenant on July 8, 1935. 
After attending Basic School at the Phila- 
delphia Navy Yard, he embarked for 
China in May 1936 for duty with the 
Marine Detachment at the American 
Embassy, Peiping, While in China, he 
was promoted to first lieutenant in Aug. 
1938. In Feb. 1939, he was ordered to 
the MCB, San Diego, Calif., and from 
Nov. 1939 to Aug. 1940 served with the 
1st Defense Bn. there. Assigned tempo- 
rary duty at the Coast Artillery School, 
Fort Monroe, Va., Van Ryzin completed 
the Antiaircraft Artillery Course in Dec. 

1940. He rejoined the 1st Defense Bn. in 
Jan. 1941 for duty at Pearl Harbor, Ha- 
waii. He was promoted to captain in May 

1941. That Oct. he was named CO of the 
Marine Detachment, 1st Defense Bn., 
Palmyra Is. He was serving in this capac- 
ity when the Japanese attacked Pearl 
Harbor on Dec. 7. For meritorious 
achievement in this assignment and, 
later, as Commander of the 3-inch Anti- 
aircraft Artillery Group on Palmyra, 
from Dec. 7, 1941 to July 1942, he was 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal with 
Combat "V." He was promoted to major 
in May 1942. On his return to Pearl Har- 
bor in July 1942, Maj. Van Ryzin was 
assigned to Marine Forces, 14th Naval 
District. In May 1943, he was ordered to 
the MCB, Camp Lejeune, N.C. The 
following month he was promoted to 
lieutenant colonel. In July 1943, as Com- 
mander of the 18th Antiaircraft Bn., Lt. 



Col. Van Ryzin again embarked for the 
Pacific area. While serving in that capac- 
ity, he participated in the occupation 
and defense of Tinian. In Apr. 1945, he 
joined the 3rd Mar. Div., 12th Marines, 
and served consecutively as a battalion 
commander, as Regimental Executive 
Officer, and as the division's Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-l. From Feb. to Aug. 
1946, he was attached to the 1st Mar. 
Div., llth Marines, as a battalion com- 
mander, and took part in the occupation 
of northern China. Ordered to HQMC in 
Sept. 1946, he served almost three years 
as Executive Officer, Division of Plans 
and Policies, G-l Section (Personnel). In 
June 1949, he was assigned to MCS, 
Quantico, as a student in the Senior 
Course. After graduating the following 
June, he joined the Staff of Commander 
Amphibious Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, 
as Assistant Chief of Staff, Military 
Operations. He was promoted to colonel 
in Jan. 1951. He returned to MCS, Quan- 
tico, in Aug. 1952, and remained there 
three years, serving successsively as 
Chief, Supporting Arms Section, Tactics 
and Techniques Board; as a member of 
the Advanced Research Group; and as 
Chief, Advanced Base Problem Section, 
Marine Corps Educational Center. In 
Aug. 1955, he reported overseas as Chief 
of Staff of the 3rd Mar. Div. (Reinf.), 
FMF, on Okinawa. Departing Okinawa 
the following summer, Col. Van Ryzin 
assumed duty at HQ, United Nations 
and Far East Command, Japan, in late 
June 1956, serving as Chief, Operations 
Branch, J-3 Division until Aug. 1957. On 
his return to the States, he reported to 
HQMC, Washington, D.C. in Sept., as 
Director of the Policy Analysis Division. 
In Dec. 1957, he became Secretary of 
the General Staff. While serving in this 
capacity, he was promoted to brigadier 
general in Feb. 1959. In Mar. 1959, Gen. 



229 



VAN STOCKUM 



VA N STOCKUM 



Van Ryzin was named Deputy Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-3, at HQMC. He de- 
parted Washington in July 1960 and late 
that month, on his arrival in London, as- 
sumed his current duties as Chief of 
Staff, CINCNELM. 

VAN STOCKUM, Ronald Reginald. Brig- 
adier General. Director of the Marine 
Corps Reserve, HQMC, Washington, 
D.C.: b. in England, July 8, 1916, Ronald 
Van Stockum grew up in the state of 
Washington. He graduated from high 
school in Yakima, Wash, and, in June 
1937, he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts 
degree in economics upon graduation 
from the University of Washington, 
where he had been a member of the 
Army ROTC unit for four years. He was 
commissioned a Marine second lieutenant 
on Aug. 4, 1937, and entered the Marine 
Officers' Basic School at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard. After completing the course, 
he was assigned his first tour of sea duty 
with the Marine Detachment aboard the 
USS Tennessee from June 1938 until May 
1939. He then served with the 1st and 
3rd Bns., 6th Marines, at the MCB, San 
Diego, until Dec. 1940. During this tour 
of duty, he was promoted to first lieuten- 
ant. In Jan. 1941, he joined the Marine 
Detachment aboard the USS Wasp, 
where he was serving when WWII broke 
out. Upon his promotion to captain in 
Feb. 1942, he was named CO of the 
Wasp's Marine Detachment. During this 
period the Wasp made two trips into the 
Mediterranean area with British Spitfires 
for the relief of Malta. In July 1942, Van 
Stockum was transferred to the 1st Bn., 
21st Marines ( later part of the 3rd Mar. 
Div. ) . He was promoted to major in Aug. 
1942, and in Feb. 1943 embarked for the 
Pacific area. Maj. Van Stockum was 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal with 
Combat "V" for his service as Infantry 



Weapons CO with the 1st Bn., 21st Ma- 
rines, during the occupation and defense 
of Cape Torokina, Bougainville. He was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel in May 
1944, and during the succeeding months 
served as Battalion Executive Officer 
in the Guam campaign. In Sept. 1944, 
he assumed command of the 1st fin., 3rd 
Marines, which was in floating reserve 
off Iwo Jima during that operation. On 
his return to the States in Apr, 1945, he 
served briefly at Camp Pendleton, Calif., 
then was an instructor with the Troop 
Training Unit, Amphibious Force, Pa- 
cific, in San Diego, for 18 months. From 
Jan. 1947 until June 1948, he was In- 
spector-Instructor, 4th Infantry Bn., 
MCR, Minneapolis, Minn. From July 
1948 until Aug. 1949, he held that same 
post with the 1st Infantry Bn., MCR, 
New York City. Next he completed the 
Senior Course at MCS, Quantico, in June 
1950, He was then assigned to the Staff 
of the Commander, Amphibious Group 
2, on board the USS Mt. Olympus, where 
he served in the Operations and Training 
Section. It was during this period, while 
the flagship was in the Navy Yard, that 
he attended the Army Arctic Indoctrina- 
tion School in Alaska. Also during this 
period, Commander, Amphibious Group 
2 and the staff participated in Operation 
Blue Jay above the Arctic Circle, at 
Thule, Greenland. He was promoted to 
colonel in Jan. 1952, and was detached 
from the Mt Olympus in July 1952. Col. 
Van Stockum then completed a two-year 
tour of duty as CO of the MB and Dis- 
trict Marine Officer at the Naval Training 
Center, Great Lakes, 111. In Aug. 1954, 
he became Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, 
3rd Mar. Div. and Prov. Corps, then in 
Japan. From June 1955 until July 1957, 
he served as HQ Commandant for the 
Commander in Chief, Far East and 
United Nations Commands in Tokyo. On 



230 



VAN W9NKLE 



VAUGHN 



his return from the Far East in Aug. 
1957, Col. Van Stockum entered the Ca- 
nadian National Defence College at Fort 
Frontenac, Kingston, Ont., the first U.S. 
Marine to receive this assignment. Upon 
graduation in July 1958, he reported to the 
2nd Mar. Div., Camp Lejeune, N.C., 
where he served consecutively as Deputy 
Chief of Staff, Regimental Commander 
of the 3th Marines, Division Inspector, 
and Chief of Staff, until June 1961. In 
July 1961, he became Director of the 
4th Marine Corps Reserve and Recruit- 
ment District with headquarters in Phila- 
delphia. He served in this capacity until 
June 1962, when he assumed his present 
assignment as Director of the Marine 
Corps Reserve at HQMC, and on July 1, 
1962 was promoted to the grade of briga- 
dier general. 

VAN WINKLE, Archie. Second Lieuten- 
ant. Medal of Honor: b. Juneau, Alaska, 
Mar. 17, 1925. Archie Van Winkle en- 
tered the University of Washington to 
study physical education, but left after a 
few months to enlist in the MCR on Dec. 
14, 1942, During almost three years of 
active duty, he served as an aviation 
radioman-gunner and mechanic, partici- 
pating in the Solomons, Philippines, and 
Emirau operations. On Oct. 22, 1945, he 
was discharged. He continued his studies 
in physical education for two years at 
Everett Junior College and for another 
year at the University of Washington. In 
Mar. 1948, he rejoined the Reserve and 
became a member of A Co., llth In- 
fantry Bn. at Seattle. On Aug. 7, 1950 the 
battalion was mobilized and ordered to 
Camp Pendleton, Calif, for training. Van 
Winkle, then a staff sergeant, arrived in 
Korea late that month and participated 
in the Inchon landing. He was cited for 
gallantry in action near Sudong, Korea 
on Nov. 2, 1950. His citation reads, in 



part: "... immediately rallying the men 
in his area after a fanatical and numeri- 
cally superior enemy force penetrated the 
center of the line under cover of dark- 
ness and pinned down the platoon with 
a devastating barrage of deadly auto- 
matic weapons and grenade fire, S, Sgt. 
Van Winkle boldly spearheaded a deter- 
mined attack through withering fire 
against hostile frontal positions and, 
though he and all the others who charged 
with him were wounded, succeeded in 
enabling his platoon to gain the fire su- 
periority and the opportunity to reorgan- 
ize. Realizing that the left-flank squad 
was isolated from the rest of the unit, he 
rushed through 40 yards of fierce enemy 
fire to reunite his troops despite an elbow 
wound which rendered one of his arms 
totally useless. Severely wounded a sec- 
ond time when a direct hit in the chest 
from a hostile hand grenade caused seri- 
ous and painful wounds, he staunchly re- 
fused evacuation and continued to shout 
orders and words of encouragement to 
his depleted and battered platoon. Final- 
ly carried from his position unconscious 
from shock and loss of blood, S. Sgt. Van 
Winkle served to inspire all who observed 
him to heroic efforts in successfully re- 
pulsing the enemy attack " Evacuated 

to Japan and later to the States, he served 
for several months with the Marine 
guards at the Bremerton ( Wash. ) Naval 
Base before his release from active duty 
on July 16, 1951. 

VAUGHN, Pinkerton R. Sergeant. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Downington, Pa., 1839. 
Pinkerton Vaughn enlisted in the Marine 
Corps at Philadelphia, Pa. on Oct. 31, 
1860. His citation reads, in part: "... 
while serving aboard the USS Mississippi, 
in the attack on the Port Hudson batteries, 
night of Mar. 14, 1863; commended for 
zeal and courage displayed in the per- 



231 



V ITT O R I 



V 1 T T O R I 



formance of unusual and trying service 
while the vessel was aground and ex- 
posed to a heavy fire. , . ." Vaughn was 
discharged from the Corps at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. on Nov. 7, 1864. 

VITTORI, Joseph. Corporal. Medal of 
Honor: b. Beverly, Mass., Aug. 1, 1929; 
d. KIA, near Songnae-dong, Korea, Sept, 
16, 1951. Cpl. Vittori was cited for ac- 
tion which occurred on Hill 749 where 
his company was engaged in an assault 
on well-entrenched Chinese Communist 
positions. A vicious enemy counterattack 
drove back a forward platoon with heavy 
casualties, and Cpl. Vittori, with two oth- 
er volunteers from his reserve platoon, 
plunged into hand-to-hand combat in the 
midst of the swarming enemy soldiers to 
give the Marine company time to con- 



solidate its positions. Later, when a call 
went up for an automatic rifleman to de- 
fend an isolated hejavy machine gun posi- 
tion on the flank of his company's sector, 
Cpl. Vittori again volunteered. With 
heavy casualties leaving a 100-yard gap 
in the Marine lines at the position, he 
fought a singlehanded battle to prevent 
an enemy breakthrough. Leaping from 
one side of the position to the other, he 
kept up a withering fire of over 1000 
rounds in three hours, He made repeated 
trips through heavy shellfire to replenish 
his ammunition,, manned a machine gun 
after its gunner fell, and despite enemy 
penetration to within feet of his position, 
kept the enemy out of the breach in his 
company's lines until he was mortally 
wounded, 



w 



WADE, Sidney Scott. Major General, 
CG, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San 
Diego, Calif.: b. Bloomington, III, Sept. 
30, 1909. Sidney Wade graduated from 
high school in Bloomington and, follow- 
ing enlisted service in the Marine Corps 
from May 1928 to July 1929, he was ap- 
pointed to the U.S. Naval Academy. 
Upon graduation, he was commissioned 
a Marine second lieutenant, June 1, 1933. 
After completing Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in June 1934, he 
saw duty at sea aboard the USS Pennsyl- 
vania and the USS Salt Lake City until 
June 1935, prior to embarking for duty in 
China with the 4th Marines. In China he 
was promoted to first lieutenant in June 
1936. Shortly after his return to the States 
in Oct. 1937, he was ordered to the NAS, 



Pensacola, Fla., serving at the MB until 
June 1939, when he reported to MCS, 
Quantico. He was promoted to captain in 
Aug. 1939. Capt Wade completed the 
Junior Course at MCS in May 1940, then 
served two years on board the USS 
Louisville as CO of the Marine Detach- 
ment. With the outbreak of WWII, he 
saw action during the latter assignment 
in the raid on the Gilbert-Marshall Is., 
and in the New Guinea, Bismarck, and 
Solomon Is. area. He was promoted to 
major in May 1942. That month Maj. 
Wade joined the Amphibious Corps, 
Pacific Fleet, at the MCB, San Diego, 
Calif. While attached to that organiza- 
tion, he completed a course of instruc- 
tion at the Command and General Staff 
School, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. in Nov. 



232 



WADE 



WA LK E R 



1942. In Dec. 1942, he reported for duty 
with the 1st Mar. Amphibious Corps and 
embarked for the Pacific area, where the 
1st Corps was subsequently redesignated 
the 3rd Amphibious Corps. He was pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel in Apr. 1943. 
For outstanding service as Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-2 and Assistant G-2 on 
the Staff of the 3rd Amphibious Corps, 
FMF, during the planning and execution 
of the Bougainville, Emirau, Guam, Pa- 
lau, and Okinawa operations, from Dec. 
1942 through May 1945, he was awarded 
his first Legion of Merit with Combat 
"V." On his return to the States in June 
1945, Lt. Col. Wade served briefly at the 
Marine Training and Replacement Com- 
mand, San Diego. That Oct. he was as- 
signed to MCS, Quantico, serving there 
until Aug. 1947, when he was ordered 
to Washington, D.C., as one of the orig- 
inal members of the Joint Logistics Plans 
Group, Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was pro- 
moted to colonel in Aug. 1949. In Aug. 
of the following year, he was again or- 
dered overseas and on his arrival at Pearl 
Harbor, Hawaii, assumed duty as Assist- 
ant Chief of Staff, G-2, FMF, Pacific. 
From Hawaii he was ordered to Korea 
in Oct. 1951. In Korea he earned a second 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and an 
Air Medal for outstanding service as CO, 
1st Marines, 1st Mar. Div. He returned 
to the States in May 1952. Col. Wade 
entered the National War College, Wash- 
ington, D.C., in Aug. 1952. In Aug. 1953, 
after completing the course, he reported 
to HQMC as Head, Plans Branch, G-3 
Division. Transferred from Washington 
to MCS, Quantico, in July 1955, he served 
as Senior Member, Advanced Research 
Group, until June 1956. At that time, he 
was assigned a year's duty in the Office 
of the Chief of Naval Operations, Wash- 
ington, D.C. He was promoted to briga- 
dier general in May 1957. Subsequently 



ordered to Camp Lejeune, N.C., Gen. 
Wade assumed duty as CG, Force 
Troops, FMF, Atlantic, in June 1957. On 
Jan. 10, 1958, he assumed command of 
the 2nd Prov. Mar. Force, FMF, Atlantic, 
and on May 14 departed for the Mediter- 
ranean area. At the request of the gov- 
ernment of Lebanon, the first units of 
the 2nd Prov. Mar. Force under his com- 
mand went ashore at Beirut on July 15. 
He remained in command of all Marine 
Forces in Lebanon during the entire 
operation. Gen. Wade departed from 
Lebanon Oct. 4 with the 2nd Prov. Mar. 
Force headquarters staff and returned 
to Camp Lejeune. There he assumed his 
duties as Assistant Commander of the 
2nd Mar. Div., having been named to 
this assignment July 15, 1958, while still 
in the Middle East. On May 22, 1959, he 
was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal for exceptionally meritorious ser- 
vice as CG, 2nd Prov. Mar. Force, Amer- 
ican Land Forces, Middle East, during 
the Lebanon operation. In July 1959, 
Gen. Wade assumed duties as CG, MCB, 
Camp Lejeune. While serving in this ca- 
pacity, he was promoted to his present 
rank of major general in July 1960. Fol- 
lowing a 15-month tour of duty, Gen. 
Wade relinquished command of the 
MCB, Camp Lejeune, in Oct. 1960, and 
reported as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
HQMC. In Sept. 1961, he was assigned 
to the Pentagon as Marine Corps Liaison 
Officer to the Vice Chief of Naval Oper- 
ations. He served in this capacity until 
Feb. 1962, when he assumed his current 
assignment as CG, Marine Corps Recruit 
Depot, San Diego. 

WALKER, Edward Alexander. Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Huntley, Scotland, 
Oct. 2, 1864; d. July 1948. Edward 
Walker enlisted in the Marine Corps at 
Brooklyn, N.Y. on Oct. 30, 1896. His cita- 



233 



W A i S H 



WAI.S H 



tion reads, in part: "... for distinguished 
conduct in the presence of the enemy at 
the battle of Peking, China, June 20 to 
July 16, 1900. . . ." Walker was discharged 
from the Corps at Bremerton, Wash., on 
Oct. 29, 1901. 

WALSH, Kenneth Ambrose. Lieutenant 
Colonel (Retired). Medal of Honor: b. 
Brooklyn, N.Y., Nov. 24, 1916. Kenneth 
Walsh enlisted in the Marine Corps on 
Dec. 15, 1933, and underwent recruit 
training at Parris Is., S.C, Upon gradua- 
tion, he spent two years as an aviation 
mechanic and radioman at MCB, Quan- 
tico, Va. In Mar. 1936, Walsh was selected 
for flight training and was transferred to 
Pensacola, Fla. He won his wings there 
as a private in Apr, 1937, and spent four 
years in scout and observation flying. 
During this time he served aboard the 
aircraft carriers "Yorktown, Wasp, and 
Ranger. Meanwhile, Walsh was promoted 
through the enlisted ranks to master 
technical sergeant and then to marine 
gunner, equivalent to the present rank of 
warrant officer. The latter promotion 
took place on May 11, 1942, while he 
was serving with MAG 12, 1st MAW, 
FMF, San Francisco, Calif. In Oct. 1942, 
he was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant, and, in June 1943, was promoted to 
first lieutenant. He was promoted to cap- 
tain (temporary) in Feb. 1944 (this ap- 
pointment became permanent Nov. 13, 
1948); to major in Apr. 1955; and to 
lieutenant colonel in Oct. 1958. When 
the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, he 
was serving on the west coast with Ma- 
rine Fighting Squadron 122. He trans- 
ferred to Marine Fighting Squadron 124 
in Sept. 1942, to be shipped overseas in 
Jan. 1943 for duty in the Solomon Is. 
area. He was particularly active in 
aerial combat in the Vella LaVella vicin- 
ity in Aug. 1943 while he was division 



leader of his squadron. He scored all his 
21 victories in the Vought Corsair F4U 
fighter. The citation accompanying his 
Medal of Honor, awarded for this action, 
states, in part: "... as a pilot in Marine 
Fighting Squadron 124 in aerial combat 
against enemy Japanese forces in the 
Solomon Islands Area. Determined to 
thwart the enemy's attempt to bomb Al- 
lied ground forces and shipping at Vella 
LaVella on Aug. 15, 1943, Walsh (then 
a first lieutenant) repeatedly dove his 
plane into an enemy formation outnum- 
bering his own division six-to-one and, 
although his plane was hit numerous 
times, shot down two Japanese dive 
bombers and one fighter. After develop- 
ing engine trouble on Aug. 30 during a 
vital escort mission, 1st Lt. Walsh landed 
his mechanically disabled plane at 
Munda, quickly replaced it with another 
and proceeded to rejoin his flight over 
Kahili. Separated from his escort group 
when he encountered approximately 50 
Japanese Zeros, he unhesitatingly at- 
tacked, striking with relentless fury in 
his lone battle against a powerful force. 
He destroyed four hostile fighters before 
cannon shellfire forced him to make a 
dead-stick landing off Vella LaVella 
where he was later picked up." Ordered to 
return to the States in Nov. 1943, Walsh 
was assigned special temporary aviation 
duty with the Division of Aviation, 
HQMC. During the same month, he re- 
ceived the Medal of Honor. In Jan. 1944, 
he joined Aviation Casual Co., MB, NAS, 
Jacksonville, Fla., to serve as flight in- 
structor. In Apr. 1945, he was transferred 
to the Philippine Islands and served in 
that area and in the Okinawa campaign 
as Operations Officer for Marine Fighter 
Squadron 222 and, later, as Assistant 
Operations Officer of MAG 14. He re- 
turned to HQMC in March 1946, to be 
reassigned with the Bureau of Aeronau- 



234 



WA IS H 



WA LSH 



tics, Navy Department. After more than 
three years with the Bureau, he joined 
the 1st MAW, FMF, in Jan. 1949, at El 
Toro, Santa Ana, Calif,, as Assistant 
Group Engineering Officer. He trans- 
ferred from there in July 1949, to MCAS, 
Quantico, as an aircraft engineering and 
maintenance student. Upon completion, 
he returned to El Toro and MAG 25 as 
Assistant Engineering Officer. With this 
group he went overseas on July 15, 1950, 
shortly after the outbreak of the Korean 
Conflict. He served in Korea until July 
27, 1951, He returned to El Toro in late 
July 1951, remaining there until Apr. 1, 
1952, when he was transferred to Staff, 
Commander Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, 
Norfolk, Va., as Marine Liaison Officer 
for Aircraft Materiel and Maintenance. 
He remained there until Sept. 28, 1955, 
when he was assigned to the 3rd MAW, 
Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, El Toro, as Air- 
craft Maintenance and Repair Officer and 
transport commander. In Jan. 1959, Col. 
Walsh was assigned to the 1st MAW, 
Aircraft, FMF, Pacific, as Wing Aircraft 
Maintenance Officer. He held this assign- 
ment until Apr. 1960, and the following 
month returned to the 3rd MAW at El 
Toro, serving consecutively as Executive 
Officer and Operations Officer of Marine 
Transport Squadron 352 until Oct. 1961. 
That month he was assigned to HQ and 
HQ Squadron, Marine Wing Service 
Group 37, 3rd MAW. He retired from 
active service in Jan. 1962. 

WALSH, William Gary. Gunnery Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Roxbury, 
Mass., Apr. 7, 1922; d. KIA, Iwo Jima, 
Feb. 27, 1945. William Walsh attended 
public schools in Boston before enlisting 
in the Marine Corps in Apr. 1942. He 
received his basic training at Parris Is., 
S.C, and advanced training at Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C. From there, he went to 



Samoa and was assigned to a unit of Ma- 
rine Scouts. His next assignment was 
with the famed Carlson's Raiders. During 
WWII, Walsh saw action at Guadalcanal, 
Bougainville, Tarawa and the Russell Is. 
Following two years in the Pacific thea- 
tre, he returned to the States. He was sent 
overseas later with the 5th Div. in time 
for the Iwo Jima invasion. It was at Iwo, 
while leading his men against a fortified 
hill on Feb. 27, 1945, that the incident 
occurred which took his life but won for 
him the Medal of Honor. His citation 
reads, in part: "... as Leader of an as- 
sault platoon, serving with Company G 
3rd Bn., 27th Marines, 5th Mar. Div., in 
action against enemy Japanese forces at 

Iwo Jirna With the advance of his 

company toward Hill 362, facing vicious 
machine gun fire from a forward position 
guarding the approaches to this key 
enemy stronghold, Gy. Sgt. Walsh fear- 
lessly charged at the head of his platoon 
against the Japanese entrenched on the 
ridge above him, utterly oblivious to the 
unrelenting fury of hostile automatic 
weapons and hand grenades employed 
with fanatic desperation to smash his 
daring assault. Thrown back by the ene- 
my's savage resistance, he once again 
led his men in a seemingly impossible at- 
tack up the steep rocky slope, boldly de- 
fiant of the annihilating streams of bullets 
which saturated the area, and . . . gained 
the ridge's top only to be subjected to an 
intense barrage of hand grenades thrown 
by the remaining Japanese staging a sui- 
cidal last stand on the reverse slope. 
When one of the grenades fell in the 
midst of his surviving men, huddled to- 
gether in a small trench, Gy. Sgt. Walsh 
. . . instantly threw himself upon the 
deadly bomb, absorbing with his own 
body the full and terrific force of the 
explosion ... he saved his comrades from 
injury and possible loss of life and en- 



235 



WALT 



WALT 



abled his company to seize and hold this 
vital enemy position." 

WALT, Lewis William. Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Director of the Marine Corps Land- 
ing Force Development Center, Marine 
Corps Schools, Quantico, Va.: b. Wau- 
baunsee County, Kans., Feb. 16, 1913. 
Lewis Walt graduated from high school 
in Fort Collins, Colo., then entered Colo- 
rado State University and was awarded a 
Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry 
upon graduation in 1936. He was an en- 
listed man in the Colorado National 
Guard from Dec. 1929 to May 1936, and 
was also a member of the Army ROTC 
unit at Colorado State University. Upon 
graduation he was commissioned a second 
lieutenant in the Army Field Artillery 
Reserve, but resigned that commission 
to accept an appointment as a Marine 
second lieutenant, July 6, 1936. He com- 
pleted Basic School at Philadelphia, and 
in Apr. 1937 was assigned to the 6th 
Mar. Regt. in San Diego, Calif, as a ma- 
chine gun platoon leader. Embarking for 
China in Aug. 1937, he took part in the 
defense of the International Settlement 
of Shanghai until Feb. 1938, at which 
time he returned to San Diego. In June 
1939, he began his second tour of over- 
seas duty when he was assigned to the 
MB, Guam, Mariana Is. He was pro- 
moted to captain in Dec. 1941. Early in 
1942, Walt volunteered to join the 1st 
Marine Raider Bn., and in Apr. 1942 
arrived with the battalion on Samoa. On 
Aug. 7, 1942, as commander of Co. A, 
1st Raider Bn., he landed his company 
in the assault on Tulagi and Florida is- 
lands in the British Solomon Is. He was 
awarded the Silver Star Medal for con- 
spicuous gallantry during these landings. 
Following this, he joined the 5th Mar. 
Regt. on Guadalcanal where he took part 
in combat first as Regimental Operations 



Officer then as CO of the 2nd Bn., 5th 
Marines.. He was promoted to major in 
Sept. 1942. In Oct. 1942, as Battalion 
Commander, 2nd Bn., 5th Marines, 1st 
Mar. Div., he was wounded in action but 
continued in combat. On Dec. 22, 1942, 
lie was given a spot promotion to lieu- 
tenant colonel for distinguished leader- 
ship and gallantry in action during the 
Guadalcanal Campaign. In Dec. 1943, 
following hospitalization and training in 
Australia, Lt, Col Walt led the 2nd Bn. 3 
5th Marines, in the assault on Cape 
Gloucester and shortly thereafter was as- 
signed as Regimental Executive Officer. 
In the middle of this campaign he was 
ordered to take over command of the 
3rd Bn., 5th Marines, during its intense 
battle for Aogiri Ridge, During this ac- 
tion, he earned his first Navy Cross. De- 
parting Cape Gloucester in late Feb. 
1944, he was ordered to the Naval Hos- 
pital, Oakland, Calif., for treatment of 
wounds and malaria. In June 1944, he 
returned to the Pacific area. That Sept., 
he participated in the landing on Peleliu 
as Regimental Executive Officer, 5th Ma- 
rines. On D-Day he was ordered, again, 
to take over command of the 3rd Bn,, 5th 
Marines, in the midst of the battle for the 
beachhead, His second Navy Cross was 
awarded him during this action. In Nov. 
1944, Lt. CoL Walt returned to the States, 
and the following month assumed duty 
at MCS, Quantico, as Chief of the Offi- 
cer Candidates' School, Tactics Section. 
In July 1946, he joined Troop Training 
Unit, Pacific, MCB, San Diego, as Bat- 
talion Landing Team Instructor. During 
this assignment, he saw duty in Japan 
in connection with training 8th Army 
troops. Assigned to Camp Pendleton in 
Jan. 1947, he served as Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-3, 3rd Mar. Brig., and then as 
G-3, 1st Mar. Div. In Nov. 1947, he as- 
sumed duty as Operations and Training 



236 



WA LT 



WATSO N 



Officer, 1st Prov. Mar, Brig., on Guam, 
and served as Chief of Staff of that or- 
ganization from Feb. to Apr. 1949. Re- 
turning to MCS, Quantico, in May 1949, 
he saw duty as a battalion commander 
with the Special Training Regiment; and 
in Sept., he entered the Amphibious 
Warfare School, Senior Course. On com- 
pleting the course in June 1950, he re- 
mained at MCS serving as Chief of Tactics 
Section, S-3, and finally, Executive Offi- 
cer, Basic School. He was promoted to 
colonel in Nov. 1951. After leaving Quan- 
tico, he served from Feb. to Nov. 1952 
as Assistant Chief of Staff (Military Oper- 
ations) on the Staff of the Commander, 
Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet. Or- 
dered to Korea in Nov. 1952, he saw 
combat with the 1st Mar. Div. until Aug. 

1953, serving consecutively as CO, 5th 
Marines; Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 
and Chief of Staff of the division. The 
Legion of Merit and Bronze Star Medal, 
both with Combat "V," were awarded 
him for exceptionally meritorious service 
during this assignment. Also, the Korean 
government awarded Col. Walt the Ulchi 
Medal and the Ulchi Medal with Silver 
Star for this period of combat. On ar- 
rival at MCS, Quantico, in Aug. 1953, 
Col. Walt saw duty as Director, Ad- 
vanced Base Problem Section, Marine 
Corps Educational Center, through May 

1954, followed by duty as CO, Officers 7 
Basic School, until Aug. 1956; and Mem- 
ber of the Advanced Research Group, 
Marine Corps Educational Center, until 
June 1957. Transferred to Washington, 
D.C., Col. Walt served briefly as Head, 
Detail Branch, Personnel Department, 
HQMC, until Nov. 1957, when he be- 
came Assistant Director of Personnel. He 
served in the latter capacity until Aug. 
1959, then entered the National War Col- 
lege, Washington, D.C., completing the 
course in June 1960. In July 1960, Col. 



Walt began a one-year assignment as 
Marine Corps Representative on the 
Joint Advance Study Group of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff, Department of Defense, 
Washington, D.C, Upon completing this 
assignment, he reported for duty at Camp 
Lejeune as Assistant Division Command- 
er, 2nd Mar. Div., in June 1961, and was 
promoted to his present rank of brigadier 
general in July 1961. In Sept. 1962, Gen. 
Walt returned to MCS, Quantico, to 
become Director of the Marine Corps 
Landing Force Development Center. 

WATKINS, Lewis George. Staff Sergeant. 
Medal of Honor: b. Seneca, S.C., June 
6, 1925; d. KIA, Korea, Oct. 7, 1952. 
S. Sgt. Watkins' citation reads, in part: 
"... Although painfully wounded when 
a well entrenched hostile force at the 
crest of a hill engaged the platoon with 
intense small arms and grenade fire, he 
gallantly continued to lead his men. Ob- 
taining an automatic rifle from one of the 
wounded men, he assisted in pinning 
down an enemy machine gun, holding 
up the assault. When an enemy grenade 
landed among S. Sgt. Watkins and sev- 
eral other Marines as they were moving 
forward through a trench on the hill 
crest, he immediately pushed his com- 
panions aside, placed himself in a posi- 
tion to shield them and picked up the 
deadly missile in an attempt to throw it 
outside the trench. Mortally wounded 
when the grenade exploded in his hand, 
S. Sgt. Watkins, by his great personal 
valor in the face of almost certain death, 
saved the lives of several of his com- 
rades. . , ." 

WATSON, Wilson D. Private. Medal of 
Honor: b. Tuscumbia, Ala., Feb. 18, 
1921. Pvt. Watson's citation reads, in 
part: "... serving with the 2nd Bn., 9th 
Marines, 3rd Mar. Div,, during action 



237 



WE E DE 



W E E D E 



against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo 
Jima Feb. 26 and 27, 1945. With his 
squad abruptly halted by intense fire 
from enemy fortifications in the high 
rocky ridges and crags commanding the 
line of advance, Pvt. Watson boldly 
rushed one pillbox and fired into the 
embrasure with his weapon, keeping the 
enemy pinned down singlehandedly un- 
til he was in a position to hurl in a gre- 
nade, then running to the rear of the 
emplacement to destroy the retreating 
Japanese and enabling his platoon to 
take its objective. Again pinned down at 
the foot of a small hill, he dauntlessly 
scaled the jagged incline under fierce 
mortar and machine gun barrages and 
with his assistant automatic rifleman 
charged the crest of the hill, firing from 
his hip. Fighting furiously against Japa- 
nese troops attacking with grenades and 
knee mortars from the reverse slope, he 
stood fearlessly erect in his exposed posi- 
tion to cover the hostile entrenchments 
and held the hill under savage fire for 
15 minutes, killing 60 Japanese before 
his ammunition was exhausted and his 
platoon was able to join him." 

WEEDE, Richard Garfield. Major Gen- 
eral. Chief of Staff, U.S. Military Assist- 
ance Command, Viet-Nam: b. Sterling, 
Kan., Sept. 26, 1911. Richard Weede at- 
tended Kansas State Teachers College for 
two years prior to entering the U.S. Na- 
val Academy in 1931. He was commis- 
sioned a Marine second lieutenant upon 
graduation, June 5, 1935. He completed 
Basic "School at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard in Sept. 1935, then served with the 
1st Bn. at Quantico, Va. In Oct. 1936, he 
joined the 2nd Mar. Brig, in San Diego, 
Calif. While there, he was promoted to 
first lieutenant in July 1938. That Sept. 
he embarked for Guam where he served 
almost two years. He returned to Quan- 



tico in July 1940 and was subsequently 
assigned to the 4th and later the 5th De- 
fense Bns. at Parris Is., S.C. He was pro- 
moted to captain in Mar. 1941. Upon 
the outbreak of WWII, Weede was or- 
dered overseas, joining the 2nd Defense 
Bn. on American Samoa in Jan. 1942. 
With the exception of a brief period of 
instruction in the States, he remained in 
the Pacific area and served with the 2nd 
Bn. throughout the war. While overseas, 
he was promoted to major in May 1942, 
and to lieutenant colonel in May 1943. As 
CO of the 5-Inch Artillery Group, Lt. 
Col. Weede moved to Tarawa in Nov. 

1943 in conjunction with the initial land- 
ing there, and commanded the group 
through repeated enemy bombing raids. 
He became battalion commander in May 

1944 prior to his return to the States. 
After completing Field Artillery School 
at Fort Sill, Okla., he joined the 2nd Mar. 
Div. on Saipan in Oct. 1944. As CO of 
the 2nd Bn., 10th Marines, he took part 
in combat in the landing on and seizure 
of Iheya Shima and in the final stages of 
the Okinawa campaign. For meritorious 
service on Tarawa and Okinawa, he was 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal with 
Combat "V." Lt. Col. Weede returned to 
the States in July 1945, and the follow- 
ing month was assigned to the Bureau 
of Ordnance, Navy Department. He de- 
parted Washington in Aug. 1947 for 
MCS, Quantico, where he completed the 
Senior Course in June 1948, then served 
consecutively as Supervisory Instructor 
and Assistant Director of the Junior 
Course. He was promoted to colonel in 
June 1950. In May 1951, he joined the 
1st Mar. Div. in Korea, where he served 
in combat as CO, 5th Marines. For out- 
standing service in this capacity during 
the period Aug. 5 to Nov. 19, he was 
awarded the Legion of Merit with Com- 
bat "V." Subsequently, as Chief of Staff, 



238 



WELLER 



WELLER 



1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), he was awarded 
his second Legion of Merit for the period 
Nov. 26, 1951 to Feb. 10, 1952. His par- 
ticipation in liaison and reconnaissance 
flights from May 1951 to Jan. 1952 also 
earned him two Air Medals. In Mar. 
1952, Col. Weede returned to HQMC, 
serving there through Aug. 1952 as a 
Member of the FMF Organizational 
Structure Board and of the Naval Ex- 
amining Board. Enrolling at the Army 
War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., he 
completed the course in June 1953. In 
July of that year he returned to MCS to 
serve a year as a member of the Ad- 
vanced Research Team. Reassigned to 
HQMC in July 1954, he served as Assist- 
ant G-l and subsequently served on the 
Marine Corps Table of Organization 
Board until July 1956. He was then trans- 
ferred to Camp Pendleton, Calif., where 
he served as Chief of Staff, 1st Mar. Div. 
( Reinf, ), through May 1958. Following 
this, he was named CG, Recruit Training 
Command, MCRD, San Diego, in June 
1958, and was promoted to brigadier gen- 
eral in July 1958. Gen. Weede departed 
San Diego in Nov. 1959, and later that 
month assumed command of the 1st Mar. 
Brig, at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. He was 
promoted to his present rank of major 
general in Aug. 1961. In Feb. 1962, Gen. 
Weede relinquished command of the 1st 
Mar. Brig, and assumed his current as- 
signment in Saigon, Viet-Nain, as Chief 
of Staff of the newly created U.S. Mili- 
tary Assistance Command. 

WELDER, Donald McPherrin. Major 
General. Deputy Commander, Fleet Ma- 
rine Force, Pacific, Camp H. M. Smith, 
Oahu, Hawaii: b. Hartford, Conn., May 
1, 1908. After graduation from high 
school in Pittsburgh, Pa. in 1925, Donald 
Weller studied for a year at Carnegie 
Tech before entering the U.S. Naval 



Academy. Upon graduation, June 5, 1930, 
he was commissioned a Marine second 
lieutenant. During his first years of ser- 
vice, he completed the Marine Officers' 
Basic School and the Infantry Basic 
Course at MCS, Quantico; served aboard 
the USS Arkansas with the 1st Bn., 10th 
Marines; and was a detachment officer at 
MB, Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va. 
On rejoining the 1st Bn., 10th Marines, 
he was promoted to first lieutenant in 
Jan. 1935, and later completed the Army 
Field Artillery School, Fort Sill, Okla. 
In June 1937, Lt. Weller went aboard the 
USS Tuscaloosa as commander of the 
Marine Detachment. He was promoted 
to captain in Aug. 1937. He served on the 
Tuscaloosa until June 1939. The follow- 
ing month, he again joined the 1st Bn., 
10th Marines, at Quantico. After serving 
there as a battery commander until Sept. 
1940, he was named Artillery and Naval 
Gunfire Advisor on the Staff of the CG, 
1st Mar. Brig., and participated in ex- 
tended Caribbean maneuvers from Oct. 
1940 to Mar. 1941. He then returned to 
Quantico, where he continued to special- 
ize in naval gunfire matters as Assistant 
Operations Officer of the Amphibious 
Corps, Atlantic Fleet. He was promoted 
to major in Jan. 1942, and to lieutenant 
colonel in Aug. 1942. Lt. Col. Weller 
departed Quantico for San Diego, Calif, 
in Sept. 1942, and became Assistant 
Operations Officer of the Amphibious 
Corps, PacificTleet, the following month. 
In Jan. 1943, he took command of the 
2nd Bn., 12th Marines, 3rd Mar. Div., 
and a month later embarked with that 
unit for the Pacific area. He led the 2nd 
(75mm howitzer) Bn. at Bougainville 
and Guam. For meritorious achievement 
in these campaigns, he was awarded the 
Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V" and 
a Gold Star in lieu of a second. Follow- 
ing the Guam campaign, he was named 



239 



WIST 



W H A RTO N 



Naval Gunfire Officer, FMF, Pacific, in 
Aug. 1944. For outstanding service in 
this capacity during the planning and 
combat stages of the Iwo Jima invasion, 
he was awarded the Legion of Merit with 
Combat "V." He returned to the States in 
June 1945, then served for six months as 
Chief of the Naval Gunfire Section, Troop 
Training Unit, Training Command, Am- 
phibious Forces, Pacific Fleet, in San 
Diego. Following this, Lt. Col. Weller 
completed the Army-Navy Staff College 
in Washington, B.C., and the Instructors' 
Orientation Course, MCS, Quantico. In 
June 1946, he began a three-year 
tour of duty as Chief of the Naval 
Gunfire Section, MCS, Quantico. While 
there, he was promoted to colonel in 
Feb. 1948. Upon his detachment from 
Quantico, Col. Weller entered the Naval 
War College, Newport, R.I., in Aug. 
1949, and completed his studies there in 
June 1950. During the next two years, 
he was stationed at HQMC, Washington, 
D.C., serving as Chief, Strategic Planning 
Section; Executive Officer, Division of 
Plans and Policies; and Chief, Policy 
Analysis Division, respectively. In July 
1952, he reported to Camp Lejeune, N.C. 
There he served as CO, 10th Marine Ar- 
tillery Regiment and Artillery Officer, 
2nd Mar. Div., until June 1953 when he 
became Chief of Staff of the 2nd Div. A 
year later, he returned to Quantico where 
he became Chief of Staff, MCS, in Aug. 
1954. He was promoted to his present 
rank of major general in July 1958. De- 
parting Washington for the Far East in 
Aug. 1960, he reported on Okinawa that 
same month as CG, 3rd Mar. Div. 
(Reinf.), FMF. He served in this capacity 
until Sept. 1961, when he assumed his 
present assignment as Deputy Command- 
er, FMF, Pacific. 

WEST, Walter Scott. Private. Medal of 



Honor: b. Bradford, N.H., Mar, 13, 
1872; d. Sept. 1943. Walter West enlisted 
in the Marine Corps at Boston, Mass, on 
May 11, 1897, His citation reads, in part: 
"... while serving on board the USS 
Marblehead, for extraordinary bravery 
and coolness while cutting the cables 
leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11, 
1898, under a heavy fire of the ene- 
my " West was discharged from the 

Corps on Jan, 20, 1899. 

WHARTON, Franklin. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel. 3rd Commandant of the Marine 
Corps -Mar. 7, 1804 to Sept. 1, 1818: 
b. Philadelphia, Pa,, July 23, 1767; d. 
New York, N.Y., Sept. 1, 1818. Franklin 
Wharton, whose prominent and wealthy 
family had played an important part in 
the development of the American Colo- 
nies, was commissioned a captain of Ma- 
rines on Aug. 3, 1798. His first duty sta- 
tion was MB, Philadelphia; however, 
after several weeks, he was assigned to 
the frigate United States, where he 
served as officer in charge of the vessel's 
Marine Detachment until the close of 
the undeclared sea war with France in 
1801. He returned to Philadelphia as 
CO of Marines there and, on Mar. 6, 
1804, he received word of his promotion 
to the office of Commandant of the Ma- 
rine Corps. Capt. Wharton's assignment 
to succeed his close friend, Lt. Col. Wil- 
liam Ward Burrows, as CMC in 1804, 
was a gigantic undertaking for an officer 
having only five years experience as a 
member of the Marine Corps. However, 
what he may have lacked in military ex- 
perience was offset by his vitality, diplo- 
macy, and complete faith in his officers 
and men. The Marine Corps at that time 
was engaged in America's war with the 
Barbary States. Commandant Wharton 
retained policies established by his prede- 
cessor; he stressed military discipline 



240 



W H A RTO N 



WB ESEM AN 



and neatness; he also prescribed distinc- 
tive uniforms for his officers and men. 
The Marine Corps Band, organized by 
Commandant Burrows, reached new 
heights under Col. Wharton. It partici- 
pated in virtually every important affair 
of state held in Washington. Within the 
continental limits of the United States, 
Marines were needed in Louisiana where 
a large force of Spanish troops had been 
massed at its southwestern boundary. 
Marines of that era were stationed at 
New Orleans, which had been designated 
to become the seat of the "monarchy" 
proposed by Aaron Burr. Volunteer com- 
panies, Marines, and other troops pa- 
trolled the streets, ready to suppress any 
attempt at insurrection. Commandant 
Wharton also ordered a detachment of 
Marines to Georgia and Florida in 1811 
to cooperate with U.S. Army troops in 
an attempt to subdue an Indian upris- 
ing. Under Col. Wharton, Marines par- 
ticipated in many important engagements 
during the War of 1812, They saw action 
at Annapolis, Fort McHenry, Ports- 
mouth, Chaney Is., Bladensburg, and 
New Orleans, and fought under Gen. 
Henry Dearborn on the northern fron- 
tier. At sea, Marines participated in im- 
portant naval battles, serving aboard the 
warships and privateers on the Great 
Lakes, the Atlantic, and the Pacific. They 
fought under Commodore Oliver Perry 
on Lake Erie and under Commodore 
Isaac Chauncey on Lake Ontario. Aboard 
the frigate Constitution, Marines were 
important factors in that vessel's victori- 
ous battles against the Guerriere, Java, 
Levant, and Cyane, Those aboard the 
Wasp saw action in the vessel's engage- 
ments with the Frolic, Reindeer, and 
Avon. Marines serving aboard the frigate 
United States were commended for their 
efficiency in its fight with the Macedonian, 
Lt. Col. Commandant Wharton died 



Sept. 1, 1818 in New York City and was 
buried in Old Trinity Church Yard in 
New York. 




Wieseman 

WIESEMAN, Frederick Leonard. Major 
General. CG, 2nd Mar. Div., Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C.: b. Milwaukee, Wis., Mar. 
16, 1908. Frederick Wieseman graduated 
from high school at Palmyra, Wis., in 1925. 
In Aug. of that year, he joined the Ma- 
rine Corps, serving as an enlisted man 
until July 1927, when he was appointed 
to the U.S. Naval Academy. Upon gradu- 
ation, he was commissioned a Marine 
second lieutenant on June 4, 1931. After 
completing Basic School at Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1932, he served with the Marine 
Corps Rifle and Pistol Team at Quantico. 
Transferred to the MB, Parris Is., S.C. 
in Sept. 1932, he served there until Mar. 



241 



WI ES EMA N 



WILLIAMS 



1934, He was a member of the 1932 Par- 
ris Is. Marine football team, coached the 
basketball team there two seasons, and 
was head coach of the Quantico Marine 
football teams of 1935 and 1936. He also 
served at sea with the Marine Detach- 
ment aboard the USS Minneapolis from 
Apr. 1934 to June 1935, when he began 
three months' service again as a member 
of the Marine Corps Rifle and Pistol 
Team, Quantico. He later completed a 
course at the U.S. Naval Gun Factory 
Optical School, Washington, D.C., and 
a tour of duty at the MB, Quantico. He 
again served at sea from Feb. 1937 to 
June 1939 aboard the USS Yorktown, 
prior to completing the Amphibious War- 
fare School, Junior Course, Quantico, in 
May 1940. The following month he be- 
gan a third assignment with the Marine 
Corps Rifle and Pistol Team, From Jan. 
to Sept. 1941, he saw service in Cuba 
and at Parris Is. with the 1st Mar. Div. 
His next assignment was with the 7th 
Marines, 1st Mar. Div,, serving at New 
River (later Camp Lejeune), N.C., until 
Mar. 1942 when the unit was detached 
to the 3rd Mar. Brig, for duty at Samoa. 
With the 7th Marines, he rejoined the 
1st Mar. Div. on Guadalcanal in Sept. 
1942, and in Jan, 1943 became Liaison 
Officer for the 1st Mar. Div. at GHQ, 
Southwest Pacific Area. Transferred to 
the 1st Marine Amphibious Corps, he 
earned th^ Bronze Star Medal as an 
Assistant Chief of Staff (Supply) in the 
Solomon Is. area from Aug. to Dec. 1943. 
For meritorious service as logistical offi- 
cer on the Staff of the CG of the 3rd 
Amphibious Corps from Dec. 1943 to 
Aug, 1944, during which time he par- 
ticipated in combat operations on Guam, 
he was awarded the Legion of Merit, 
Following his return to the States, he 
was ordered in Oct. 1944 to HQMC, 
Washington, D.C., where he served two 



years in the Division of Plans and Poli- 
cies. Assigned to FMF, Pacific, in Dec. 
1946, he served consecutively as Execu- 
tive Officer and CO of the 7th Service 
Regt; as CO of the 12th Service Bn,; 
and as CO of the 3rd Marines at Tsing- 
tao, China. While there he served as 
Representative of the Commander, Naval 
Forces, Western Pacific, in successful ne- 
gotiations with the Chinese Communists 
for the release of a Marine plane crew 
shot down and held prisoner in Shantung 
Province in 1948. In Oct. 1948, he joined 
Troop Training Unit, Atlantic, and fol- 
lowing duty there entered the Armed 
Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Va., in 
Feb. 1949, He completed the course that 
June, At the beginning of the Korean 
conflict, he was serving as Chief of the 
Logistics Section, Marine Corps Educa- 
tional Center, Quantico, He left Quantico 
in July 1952, and served as Chief of 
Staff, 3rd Mar. Div,, both at Camp Pen- 
dleton, Calif., and in Japan before re- 
turning to this country in May 1954. The 
following month, he returned to Quantico 
for a one-year tour of duty as a member 
of the Advanced Research Group. Or- 
dered to HQMC in July 1955, he served 
as Assistant Fiscal Director until May 
1956, when he was named Fiscal Direc- 
tor. He was promoted to brigadier gen- 
eral in July 1956. Departing HQMC in 
Apr. 1959, Gen. Wieseman reported at 
Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, the following 
month as CG, 1st Mar. Brig. While there, 
he was promoted to major general in 
Nov. 1959. On his return to Washington, 
Gen, Wieseman was assigned as Deputy 
Chief of Staff (Plans), HQMC, in Jan. 
1960. In Nov. 1961, he left HQMC to 
become CG, 2nd Mar. Div. at Camp Le- 
jeune, N.C, 

WILLIAMS, Ernest Calvin. Major. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Sidell, 111., Aug. 2, 1887; 



242 



WILLIAMS 



W I 8. $ O N 



d. July 31, 1921. Maj. Williams' citation 
reads, in part: "... for extraordinary 
heroism in the line of his profession in 
the face of the enemy at San Francisco 
deMacoris, Dominican Republic, Nov. 
29, 1916. . . /' Against enemy forces, Wil- 
liams and a dozen men rushed the gate 
of a fortress. Eight of the men were 
wounded by rifle fire but Williams 
pressed on with the remaining four and 
plunged against the door as it was being 
closed, forcing an entry to the strong- 
hold, killing the guards and taking com- 
mand of the fort which held a hundred 
prisoners. Williams was retired from the 
Corps as a major on Mar. 22, 1921. 

WILLIAMS, Hershel Woodrow. Chief 
Warrant Officer (USMCR). Medal of 
Honor: b. Fairmont, W.Va., Oct. 2, 1923. 
Hershel Williams enlisted in the MCR 
on May 26, 1943. He left the States on 
board the MS Weltevreden on Dec. 3, 
1943 for New Caledonia. In Jan. 1944, 
he joined the 3rd Mar. Div. at Guadal- 
canal. He was first attached to Co. C, 21st 
Marines, and then to HQ Co., 1st Bn., 
21st Marines. During July and Aug. 1944, 
he participated in action against the 
Japanese at Guam, and in Oct. he re- 
joined Co. C. Now a sergeant, Williams' 
next campaign was at Iwo Jima where 
he won the Medal of Honor. Landing on 
D-Day, Feb. 21, 1945, the sergeant three 
days later became a distinguished fight- 
ing man. Quick to volunteer his services 
when U.S. tanks were maneuvering vain- 
ly to open a lane for the infantry through 
a network of reinforced concrete pill- 
boxes, buried mines, and black volcanic 
sands, Williams daringly went forward 
alone to attempt the reduction of devastat- 
ing machine gun fire from the unyielding 
positions. Covered by only four riflemen, 
he fought desperately for four hours un- 
der terrific enemy small arms fire and 



repeatedly returned to his own lines to 
prepare demolition charges and obtain 
serviced flame throwers, then struggling 
back, frequently to the rear of hostile 
emplacements, to wipe out one position 
after another. One occasion saw him dar- 
ingly mounted on a pillbox to insert the 
nozzle of his flame thrower through the 
air vent, killing the occupants and silenc- 
ing the gun. On another occasion, he 
grimly charged enemy riflemen who at- 
tempted to stop him with bayonets and 
destroyed them with a burst of flame 
from his weapon. He was wounded in 
action during that campaign on Mar. 6, 
1945. 

WILSON, Harold Edward. Master Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Birmingham, 
Ala., Dec. 5, 1921. M. Sgt. Wilson's cita- 
tion reads, in part: "... while serving as 
platoon sergeant of a rifle platoon at- 
tached to Co. G, 3rd Bn., 1st Marines, 
1st Mar. Div. (Reinf.), in action against 
enemy aggressor forces in Korea on the 
night of Apr. 23-24, 1951. When the com- 
pany outpost was overrun by the enemy 
while his platoon, firing from hastily con- 
structed foxholes, was engaged in resist- 
ing the brunt of a fierce mortar, machine 
gun, grenade and small arms attack 
launched by hostile forces from high 
ground under cover of darkness, Sgt. 
Wilson braved intense fire to assist the 
survivors back into the line and to direct 
the treatment of casualties. Although 
twice wounded by gunfire, in the right 
arm and the left leg, he refused medical 
aid for himself and continued to move 
about among his men, shouting words of 
encouragement. After receiving further 
wounds in the head and shoulder as the 
attack increased in intensity, he again 
insisted upon remaining with his unit. 
Unable to use either arm to fire, and 
with mounting casualties among our 



243 



WILSON 



WILSON 



forces, he resupplied his men with rifles 
and ammunition taken from the wound- 
ed. Personally reporting to his company 
commander on several occasions, he re- 
quested and received additional assist- 
ance when the enemy attack became 
even more fierce and after placing the re- 
inforcements in strategic positions in the 
line, directed effective fire until blown 
off his feet by the bursting of a hostile 
mortar round in his face. Dazed and suf- 
fering from concussion, he still refused 
medical aid and, despite weakness from 
loss of blood, moved from foxhole to fox- 
hole, directing fire, resupplying ammuni- 
tion, rendering first aid and encouraging 
his men. By his heroic actions in the face 
of almost certain death, when the unit's 
ability to hold the disadvantageous posi- 
tion was doubtful, he instilled confidence 
in his troops, inspiring them to rally re- 
peatedly and turn back the furious as- 
saults. At dawn, after the final attack had 
been repulsed, he personally accounted 
for each man in his platoon before walk- 
ing unassisted one-half mile to the aid 
station where he submitted to treat- 
ment " 

WILSON, Louis Hugh, Jr. Colonel. Med- 
al of Honor: b. Brandon, Miss., Feb. 11, 
1920. Louis Wilson enlisted in the MCR 
in May 1941 and was assigned to active 
duty in June 1941. Subsequently as- 
signed to Officers' Candidate Class at 
Quantico, Va., he was commissioned a 
Marine Reserve second lieutenant on 
Nov. 1, 1941, then joined the Reserve 
Officers' Class there. The MCB at San 
Diego, Calif, was his next stop; there he 
performed the duties of a platoon leader 
in the 2nd Mar. Div. On Apr. 10, 1942, 
he accepted a commission in the regu- 
lar Marine Corps. He was later appoint- 
ed a first lieutenant on Oct. 1, 1942. 
Shipping overseas in Feb. 1943, he was 



assigned as a company officer to N Co., 
9th Marines, 3rd Mar. Div. and in Apr. 
received his captaincy. Guadalcanal and 
Efate, New Hebrides Is. were his next 
two stops before landing on Bougain- 
ville, British Solomon Is. on Nov. 1, 1943. 
He became Executive Officer of the com- 
pany while on Bougainville. Capt. Wil- 
son returned to Guadalcanal as CO, Co. 
F, 2nd Bn., 9th Marines the following 
month. He was in the assault on Guam 
on July 25 and 26, 1944, during which 
action he earned the Medal of Honor. 
His citation reads, in part, ". . . as CO of 
Co. F, 2nd Bn., 9th Marines, 3rd Mar. 
Div., in action against enemy Japanese 
forces at Fonte Hill, Guam, Marianas Is. 
July 25 and 26, 1944. Ordered to take 
that portion of the hill within his zone 
of action, Capt. Wilson initiated his at- 
tack in mid-afternoon, pushed up the 
rugged, open terrain against terrific ma- 
chine gun and rifle fire for 300 yards 
and successfully captured the objective. 
Promptly assuming command of other 
disorganized units and motorized equip- 
ment in addition to his own company 
and one reinforcing platoon, he organ- 
ized his night defenses in the face of 
continuous hostile fire and, although 
wounded three times during this five- 
hour period, completed his disposition 
of men and guns before retiring to the 
company CP for medical attention. Short- 
ly thereafter, when the enemy launched 
the first of a series of savage counterat- 
tacks lasting all night, he voluntarily re- 
joined his besieged units and repeatedly 
exposed himself to the merciless hail of 
shrapnel and bullets, dashing 50 yards 
into the open on one occasion to rescue 
a wounded Marine lying helpless beyond 
the front lines. Fighting fiercely in hand- 
to-hand encounters, Wilson led his men 
in a furiously waged battle for approxi- 
mately 10 hours, tenaciously holding his 



244 



WB L SON 



WILSON 



line and repelling the fanatically re- 
newed counterthrusts until he succeeded 
in crushing the last efforts of the hard- 
pressed Japanese early in the following 
morning. Then, organizing a 17-man pa- 
trol, he immediately advanced upon a 
strategic slope essential to the security of 
his position and, boldly defying intense 
mortar, machine gun, and rifle fire which 
struck down 13 of his men, drove relent- 
lessly forward with the remnants of his 

patrol to seize the vital ground " 

After being wounded during the battle, 
Wilson was evacuated to the U.S. Naval 
Hospital, San Diego, Calif., remaining 
there until Oct. 15 when he returned to 
duty as CO, D Co., MB, Camp Pendle- 
ton, Calif. In Dec. he left for Washing- 
ton, D.C., as Detachment Commander 
of the MB and Post Security Officer. On 
Mar. 15, 1945, he was promoted to major. 
While serving in that capacity, Maj. Wil- 
son was formally presented the Medal 
of Honor by the President of the United 
States. In June 1946, he became Dean of 
the Marine Corps Institute in Washing- 
ton, D.C., and later became Assistant 
Director. Pearl Harbor became his next 
station in Dec., serving there as Aide- 
de-Camp to Lt. Gen. Thomas E. Watson, 
CG, FMF, Pacific. Maj. Wilson returned 
to the States in Jan. 1949, and shortly 
after assumed duties as Officer-in-Charge, 
District HQ Recruiting Station, New 
York, N.Y. After serving in New York 
until Aug. 1951, he began a three-year 
tour of duty at the MCS, Quantico, and 
while there was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Nov. 1951. At Quantico, Lt. 
Col. Wilson served consecutively as CO 
of the 1st Training Bn., Basic School, 
and CO, Camp Barrett, prior to becom- 
ing Executive Officer of the Basic School 
in Feb. 1953. Then he completed the 
Senior Course at the MCS in Aug. 1954. 
The following month, after a brief tour 



as a Senior School instructor, he depart- 
ed for Korea and served as Assistant G-3, 
1st Mar. Div. Returning to the States 
with the division he served as G-3 until 
Aug. 1955, when he was named CO of 
the 2nd Bn. 5th Marines. In Mar. 1956, 
he was ordered to HQMC where he 
served for two years as head of the Op- 
erations Unit, G-3 Division. He was 
again assigned to Quantico in June 1958, 
and served as CO of the Training and 
Test Regt, Basic School, until June 1960, 
then as CO of the Basic School until 
July 1961. During this last assignment, 
he was promoted to colonel in July 1960. 
From Aug. 1961 until June 1962, Col. 
Wilson completed the course at the Na- 
tional War College, Washington, D.C. 
In July 1962, he was assigned to HQMC, 
and is presently serving as Joint Matters 
Coordinator, Office of the Deputy Chief 
of Staff (Plans and Programs). 

WILSON, Robert Lee, Private First 
Class. Medal of Honor: b. Centralia, 111., 
May 24, 1921; d. KIA, Tinian, Aug. 3, 
1944. P.F.C. Wilson's citation reads, in 
part: "... with the 2nd Bn., 6th Marines, 
2nd Mar. Div,, during action against 
enemy Japanese forces on Tinian Island. 
As one of a group of Marines advancing 
through heavy underbrush to neutralize 
isolated points of resistance, P.F.C. Wil- 
son daringly preceded his companions 
toward a pile of rocks where Japanese 
troops were supposed to be hiding. Fully 
aware of the danger involved, he was 
moving forward while the remainder of 
the squad armed with automatic rifles 
closed together in the rear, when an ene- 
my grenade landed in the midst of the 
group. Quick to act, P.F.C. Wilson cried 
a warning to the men and unhesitatingly 
threw himself on the grenade, heroically 
sacrificing his own life that the others 
might live and fulfill their mission." 



245 



W I N A N S 



W I N D R 1 C H 



WINANS, Roswell. Brigadier General. 
Medal of Honor: b. Brookeville, Ind., 
Dec. 9, 1887. Roswell Winans, whose 
combat service goes back to the "Banana 
Wars" in Central America and in France 
during WWI, earned the nation's highest 
military decoration for action during an 
engagement at Guayacanas in the Do- 
minican Republic on July 3, 1916. Ser- 
ving there as a first sergeant, he was 
cited for extraordinary heroism in action 
against a considerable force of rebels on 
the line of march of his unit. On Oct. 10, 
1912, after serving four years in the U.S. 
Army, he enlisted in the Marine Corps 
and rose to the rank of first sergeant, 
seeing duty during the Mexican, Haitian, 
and Dominican campaigns, before he 
was commissioned a second lieutenant 
during WWI. A captain at the end of that 
war, Winans served prior to WWII at 
various Marine posts and stations in the 
States, as well as taking part in the sec- 
ond Nicaraguan Campaign. He was a 
colonel at the outbreak of WWII, and 
was promoted to his present rank upon 
retirement on Aug. 1, 1946. 

WINDRICH, William Gordon. Staff Ser- 
geant. Medal of Honor: b. Chicago, III, 
May 14, 1921; d. KIA, Yudam-ni, Korea, 
Dec. 2, 1950. William Windrich enlisted 
in the MCR June 6, 1938, and was or- 
dered to active duty in Nov. 1940. Dur- 
ing WWII, he spent 20 months overseas 
in the south Pacific as a machine gunner. 
Discharged in Nov. 1945, S. Sgt, Wind- 
rich reenlisted in the regular Marine 
Corps the following Feb. In the summer 
of 1946 he participated in the atomic 
bomb tests at Bikini Atoll while serving 
aboard the USS Mount McKinley. Dur- 
ing the years after WWII he also served 
as an NCO of the guard in Washington, 
D.C., at the Naval Gun Factory and at 
HQMC, and in China. At the outbreak 



of fighting in Korea, Windrich was on 
military police duty at Camp Pendleton, 
Calif. He went overseas with the 1st 
Mar. Brig, and was among the first Ma- 
rines to see action in Korea. His citation 
reads, in part: "... as a platoon sergeant 
of Co. I, 3rd Bn., 5th Marines, 1st Mar. 
Div, (Reinf.), in action against enemy 
aggressor forces in the vicinity of Yudam- 
ni, Korea, the night of Dec. 1, 1950. 
Promptly organizing a squad of men 
when the enemy launched a sudden, 
vicious counterattack against the forward 
elements of his company's position, ren- 
dering it untenable, S. Sgt. Windrich, 
armed with a carbine, spearheaded the 
assault to the top of the knoll immediate- 
ly confronting the overwhelming force 
and, under shattering hostile automatic 
weapons, mortar, and grenade fire, di- 
rected effective fire to hold back the at- 
tackers and cover the withdrawal of our 
troops to commanding ground. With sev- 
en of his men struck down during the 
furious action, and he himself wounded 
in the head by a bursting grenade, he 
made his way to his company's position 
and, organizing a small group of volun- 
teers, returned with them to evacuate the 
wounded and dying from the frozen hill- 
side., staunchly refusing medical atten- 
tion himself. Immediately redeploying 
the remainder of his troops, S. Sgt. Wind- 
rich placed them on the left flank of the 
defensive sector before the enemy again 
attacked in force. Wounded in the leg 
during the bitter fight that followed, he 
bravely fought on with his men, shouting 
words of encouragement and directing 
their fire until the attack was repelled. 
Refusing evacuation although unable to 
stand, he still continued to direct his 
platoon in setting up defensive positions 
until, weakened by the bitter cold, ex- 
cessive loss of blood and severe pain he 
lapsed into unconsciousness and died " 



246 



W 9 T E K 



W I T E K 



WITEK, Frank Peter. Private First Class. 
Medal of Honor: b. Derby, Conn., Dec. 
10, 1921; d. KIA, Finegayan, Guam, Aug. 
3, 1944. P.F.C. Witek's citation reads, in 
part: "... while serving with the 1st Bn., 
9th Marines, 3rd Mar. Div., during the 
Battle of Finegayan at Guam, Marianas, 
on Aug. 3, 1944, when his rifle platoon 
was halted by heavy surprise fire from 
well-camouflaged enemy positions, P.F.C. 
Witek daringly remained standing to fire 
a full magazine from his automatic at 
pointblank range into a depression hous- 
ing Japanese troops, killing eight of the 
enemy arid enabling the greater part of 
his platoon to take cover. During his pla- 
toon's withdrawal for consolidation of 



lines, he remained to safeguard a severely 
wounded comrade, courageously return- 
ing the enemy's fire until the arrival of 
stretcher bearers and then covering the 
evacuation by sustained fire as he moved 
backward toward his own lines. With his 
platoon again pinned down by a hostile 
machine gun Witek, on his owii initia- 
tive, moved forward boldly ahead of the 
reinforcing tanks and infantry, alternate- 
ly throwing hand grenades and firing as 
he advanced to within five to ten yards 
of the enemy position, destroying the 
hostile machine-gun emplacement and 
an additional eight Japanese before he 
himself was struck down by an enemy 
rifleman. . . ." 



YOUNG, Frank Albert. Sergeant Major. 
Medal of Honor: b. Milwaukee, Wis., 
June 22, 1876; d. U.S. Naval Hospital, 
Mare Is., Calif., Apr. 3, 1941. Prior to his 
enlistment as a private in the Marine 
Corps on Aug. 25, 1897, Frank Young 
had served with the U.S. Cavalry from 
May 25, 1886 to June 6, 1891. During 
his first enlistment in the Marine Corps, 
he participated in the Naval Expedition 
of Subic Bay, Luzon Is., Sept. 23, 1899, 
and Rumblon Is., Dec. 16, 1899, in the 
Philippines, Later, in the siege of Peking, 
China during the Boxer uprising, he 
served with special distinction, for which 
he was awarded the Medal of Honor. 
His first enlistment in the Marine Corps 
terminated Sept. 7, 1902, with an excel- 
lent discharge. From Jan. 10, 1903 to Jan. 
12, 1906, he again served with the 12th 
U.S. Cavalry. On Jan. 15, 1906, he reen- 
listed in the Marine Corps and served 



continuously in the Corps until Oct. 31, 
1923, retiring with the rank of sergeant 
major. 

YOUNGDALE, Carl Albert. Brigadier 
General. Assistant to the Deputy Chief 
of Staff (Plans and Programs) for Joint 
Matters, HQMC, Washington, D.C.: b. 
Cowrie, Iowa, June 23, 1912. Carl Young- 
dale graduated from Harcourt Consoli- 
dated High School, Harcourt, lowja, in 
1930. In June 1936, he received his 
Bachelor of Science degree from Iowa 
State University, where he was a mem- 
ber of the ROTC unit for four years. He 
resigned his Army Reserve commission 
(Field Artillery) to accept appointment 
as a second lieutenant in the Marine 
Corps on July 10, 1936. The following 
Mar., he completed Basic School at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard. The same 
month he was transferred to the Marine 



247 



YOUNGDALE 



YOUNGDALE 



Detachment, Naval Prison, Portsmouth, 
N.H., where he served as a detachment 
officer until June 1938. Assigned to the 
1st Mar. Brig., FMF, at Quantico, in July 
1938, he served first as an infantry pla- 
toon leader in D Company, 1st Bn., 5th 
Marines, and later as an artillery officer 
in the A Battery, 1st Bn., 10th Marines. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant in 
July 1939. Transferred to the USS Hen- 
derson in July 1940, Youngdale served 
aboard that ship for two years as CO of 
the Marine Detachment. He was pro- 
moted to captain in Jan. 1942, and to 
major in Aug. 1942. From Aug. 1942 un- 
til Apr. 1943, Maj. Youngdale served as 
Officer in Charge of the Artillery School 
and G-3 of the Training Center at Camp 
Elliott, Calif. After graduating from the 
Artillery School, Fort Sill, Okla. in July 
1943, he was ordered overseas. He joined 
the 4th Mar. Div. as CO, 4th Bn., 14th 
Marines. He was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel in Mar. 1944, shortly after the 
battle of Roi-Namur, and subsequently 
took part in the Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo 
Jima campaigns. He was awarded the 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V" for 
exceptionally meritorious service on Sai- 
pan and Tinian in landing his battalion 
under heavy enemy fire and furnishing 
artillery support for succeeding waves of 
invasion troops. Later the Silver Star 
Medal was awarded him for conspicuous 
gallantry while leading his reconnais- 
sance party ashore on Iwo Jima under 
intense enemy fire. In May 1945, he was 
appointed Regimental Executive Officer 
of the 14th Marines, and remained with 
the regiment until Nov. 1945 when he 
returned to the States. In Jan. 1946, Lt. 
Col. Youngdale became Executive Officer 
for the Field Artillery School at Quan- 
tico, where he served until Sept. 1947, 
then graduated from the Senior School, 
MCS, Quantico, in May 1948. From June 



1948 until July 1950, he was assigned as 
Inspector Instructor of the 2nd 105mm 
Bn., USMCR, Los Angeles, Calif. Or- 
dered overseas in Aug. 1950, he joined 
the llth Marines, 1st Mar. Div., serving 
as Regimental Executive Officer and 
later Regimental CO during the landings 
at Inchon, the capture of Seoul, and the 
Chosin Reservoir phase of the Korean 
War. He took over the Artillery Regiment 
at Hagaru-ri just prior to the advance 
to Hungnam. For outstanding service in 
Korea from Aug. to Nov. 1950, and from 
Nov. 1950 to May 1951, he received two 
Gold Stars in lieu of a second and third 
Legion of Merit with Combat "V." In 
June 1951, he began a two-year assign- 
ment on the staff of the Commander in 
Chief, Pacific Fleet. While serving in 
this post, he was promoted to colonel in 
Nov. 1951. In July 1953, he was assigned 
to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, where he 
served as Marine Corps Liaison Officer 
for the Secretariat until July 1955. He 
then entered the National War College, 
Washington, D.C., graduating in June 
1956. Following gracluation he was as- 
signed to the United States European 
Command, Paris, France, as Chief of 
Operations Branch, J-3 Division. From 
Aug. 1958 to June 1961, Col. Youngdale 
was assigned to the 2nd Mar. Div. FMF, 
Camp Lejeune, serving successively as 
Division Chief of Staff, CO of the 10th 
Marines, and Assistant Division Com- 
mander, He was designated Assistant 
Chief of Staff, G-2, HQMC, in June 1961, 
and was promoted to brigadier general 
in Aug. 1961. In May 1962, Gen. Young- 
dale was designated the Assistant Chief 
of Staff, G-2 and Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-3. He served in this capacity until 
July 1962, when he became Assistant to 
the Deputy Chief of Staff (Plans and 
Programs) for Joint Matters, HQMC. 



248 



z 



ZEILIN, Jacob. Brigadier General. 7th 
Commandant of the Marine Corps: b, 
Philadelphia, Pa,, July 16, 1806; d. Wash- 
ington, D.C., Nov. 18, 1880. Jacob Zeilin 
was appointed a second lieutenant in the 
Marine Corps on Oct. 1, 1831. After com- 
pleting training in Washington, D.C., 
his first tours of duty were ashore at the 
MB, Philadelphia, and at Gosport (Ports- 
mouth), Va. He then served aboard the 
sloop of war Erie in Mar. 1832, after 
which followed a tour of duty at Charles- 
town (Boston), Mass. In Aug. 1934, he 
again joined the sloop Erie on a long and 
eventful voyage that lasted for more 
than three years. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant Sept 12, 1836. From Sept. 
1837 to Apr. 1841, Zeilin served at 
Charlestown, Mass, and New York. In 
Feb. 1842, he returned to sea duty on 
board the Columbus; during the cruise 
that followed he spent several months 
on the Brazil station. Upon the conclu- 
sion of this tour of sea duty, and after 
again serving at important Marine Corps 
stations on the east coast of the States 
from 1842 to 1845, he was transferred 
to duty aboard the frigate Congress. Dur- 
ing the conquest of California (1846- 
1847), he took part in the capture and 
occupation of Santa Barbara and San 
Pedro early in Aug, 1846, and soon after- 
ward assisted in the first capture of Los 
Angeles. A few days later, with the 
Marines of the Squadron, he recaptured 
San Pedro, which had been lost to the 
insurgent Californians. In Dec. 1846, 
when Gen. Kearney's army was be- 
leaguered at San Bernardo Ranch, Calif., 
Zeilin took a prominent part in its relief 
and rescue. In Jan. 1847, he served as ad- 
jutant of Commodore Stockton's mixed 



column of sailors, Marines, and volun- 
teers who marched from San Diego and 
defeated the Californians in the- battle 
of San Gabriel and in the affair at La 
Mesa. On Jan. 28, 1847, he was appoint- 
ed Military Commandant of San Diego 
and served in that capacity until the 
completion of the conquest of California. 
Zeilin was promoted to the regular rank 
of captain on Sept. 14, 1847. During the 
following few months, together with the 
Marines of the Pacific Squadron, he par- 
ticipated in the capture of important ports 
in Lower California and the west coast 
of Mexico, and served as Fleet Marine 
Officer of the Pacific Squadron. After 
the close of the war with Mexico, Zeilin 
proceeded to Norfolk, Va., where he 
served for a time, then went to New 
York. He remained in New York until 
June 1852, when he was selected to ac- 
company Commodore Perry as Fleet 
Marine Officer in the famous expedition 
to Japan in which the Marines took a 
prominent part. Zeilin himself was the 
second person to set foot on shore at the 
formal landing of the naval forces at 
Yokohama on July 14, 1853. He was also 
one of those later accorded special honor 
for his part in the expedition that opened 
the doors of the Mikado's realm to the 
outside world. Upon his return from 
Japan, he was again stationed at Nor- 
folk. This duty was followed by com- 
mand of the MB, Navy Yard, Washing- 
ton, D.C. After remaining for a time at 
Washington, he again went to sea, this 
time aboard the frigate Wabash on the 
European Station. He remained on this 
assignment until the year 1859. During 
the early part of the Civil War, he was 
on garrison duty in command of MB, 



249 



ZE 1L I N 

first at Philadelphia and later at Wash- 
ington, D.C. In July 1861, he was on de- 
tached duty with the Marine battalion 
at the Battle of Bull Run and was 
wounded in that action. Five days later 
he was appointed to the regular rank of 
major. In 1863, Maj. Zeilin was given 
command of the battalion of Marines 
sent to support the naval force whose 
mission was the capture of Charleston, 
S.C. But, because of illness, he returned 
after a few weeks to garrison duty at 
MB, Portsmouth, N.H. While serving at 
Portsmouth he was appointed Colonel 
Commandant of the Marine Corps on 
June 10, 1864. His faithful and efficient 
performance of the duties of Comman- 
dant of the Corps during the trying pe- 



Zl O N 

riod of the last year of the war and those 
years immediately following it, is evi- 
denced by the fact that he was promoted 
to the rank of brigadier general on Mar. 
2, 1867. Brig. Gen. Jacob Zeilin retired as 
CMC on Nov. 1, 1876, after having 
served more than 45 years as a Marine 
Corps officer. 

ZION, William. Private. Medal of Honor: 
b. Knightston, IncL, Oct. 23, 1878. Wil- 
liam Zion's citation reads, in part: 
"... for distinguished conduct in the 
presence of the enemy at Peking, China, 
July 21 to Aug. 17, 1900. . . ." Pvt. Zion 
was discharged from the Corps on July 
29, 1904. 



250 



APPENDIX A 



COMMANDANTS OF THE U.S. MARINE CORPS 

1. SAMUEL NICHOLAS 28 Nov 1775 - Aug 1783 

2. WILLIAM WARD BURROWS 12 Jul 1798 - 6 Mar 1804 

3. FRANKLIN WHARTON 7 Mar 1804 - 1 Sep 1818 

4. ANTHONY GALE 3 Mar 1819 - 8 Oct 1820 

5. ARCHIBALD HENDERSON 17 Oct 1820 6 Jan 1859 

6. JOHN HARRIS 7 Jan 1859 - 2 May 1864 

7. JACOB ZEILIN 10 Jun 1864 - 31 Oct 1876 

8. CHARLES G. MCCAWLEY 1 Nov 1876 - 29 Jan 1891 

9. CHARLES HEYWOOD 30 Jun 1891 - 2 Oct 1903 

10. GEORGE F. ELLIOTT 3 Oct 1903 - 30 Nov 1910 

11. WILLIAM P. BEDDLE 3 Feb 1911 - 24 Feb 1914 

12. GEORGE BARNETT 25 Feb 1914 - 30 Jun 1920 

13. JOHN A. LEJEUNE 1 Jul 1920 - 4 Mar 1929 

14. WENDELL C. NEVILLE 5 Mar 1929 - 8 Jul 1930 

15. BEN H. FULLER 9 Jul 1930 - 28 Feb 1934 

16. JOHN H. RUSSELL, JR 1 Mar 1934 - 30 Nov 1936 

17. THOMAS HOLCOMB 1 Dec 1936 - 31 Dec 1943 

18. ALEXANDER A. VANDEGRIFT 1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1947 

19. CLIFTON B. GATES 1 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1951 

20. LEMUEL C. SHEPHERD, JR 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1955 

21. RANDOLPH McCALL PATE 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1959 

22. DAVID M. SHOUP 1 Jan 1960- 



251 



APPENDIX B 

U. S. MARINE CORPS CHRONOLOGY OF COMBAT ACTIONS IN 
WORLD WAR II- (Courtesy Leatherneck Magazine, Nov 1950) 

Pearl Harbor-Midway 7Dec 1941 

1st Def Bn (less Wake Det) 

2ndEngBn ( less Co C) 

3rd Def Bn 

4th Def Bn 

6th Def Bn 

Marine Forces, 14th Naval Dist [ 7 Dec 1941 

Marine Aircraft Gp-21, HQ and SMS 

Marine Fighter Sq-211 (rearech) 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-231 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-232 

Marine Transp Sq-252 

Guam Bataan Corregidor 8 Dec 1941 6 May 1942 

1st Sep Marine Bn 8 Dec 1941 - 1 Jan 1942 

4th Marines 8 Dec 1941 - 6 May 1942 

Marine Barracks, Guam 8 Dec 1941 - 9 Dec 1941 

Wake Island 8-23 Dec 1941 

1st Def Bn (Wake Det) 1 

Marine Fighter Sq-211 (Fwd Ech) [ 8-23 Dec 1941 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-231 (Adv Ech) J 

Battle of Midway 3-6 Jun 1942 

2nd Raider Bn 4-6 Jun 1942 

3rd Defense Bn ( 3-in AAA Gp only) 4 Jun 1942 

6th Def Bn 3-6 Jun 1942 

Marine Aircraft Gp-22, HQ & SMS 3-6 Jun 1942 

Marine Fighter Sq-221 3-6 Jun 1942 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-241 , 3-6 Jun 1942 

Guadalcanal Tulagi Landings 

(including First Savo) 7-9 Aug 1942 

1st Amph Tractor Bn 
IstEngBn(lessCoB) 



1st Marines 

1st Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

252 



7-9 Aug 1942 



APPENDICES 



1st Marine Div HQ 

1st Mil Police Co 

IstMedBn ( less Co C) 

1st Parachute Bn 

1st Pioneer Bn 

1st Raider Bn 

1st Scout Co (2nd Plat only) 

IstSvBn ( less Co B) 

1st Signal Co 

1st Spec Weapons Bn 

1st Tank Bn ( less Co C) 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn (Co A only) L 7-9 Aug 1942 

2nd Eng Bn (Co A only) 

2nd Med Bn (Co D only) 

2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops (Det only) 

2nd Pioneer Bn (Co A only) 

2ndSvBn ( Co C only) 

2nd Special Weapons Bn 

2nd Tank Bn (Co C only) 

3rd Def Bn 

5th Marines 

10th Marines (3rd Bn only) 

llth Marines (less 1st Bn) 

Capture and Defense of Guadalcanal 

10 Aug 1942 8 Feb 1943 



1st Amph Tractor Bn 

1st Aviation Eng Bn 

1st Eng Bn ( less Co B) 

1st Eng Bn (CoB) 

1st Marines 

1st Marine Div HQ 

1st Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

IstMedBn ( less Co C) 

(CoC) 

1st Military Police Co 
1st Parachute Bn 
1st Pioneer Bn 
1st Raider Bn 
1st Scout Co 
IstSvBn (less CoB) 

(CoB) 
1st Signal Co 
1st Special Weapons Bn 



10 Aug 1942 - 

18 Sep 1942 

10 Aug 1942 - 

18 Sep 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

18 Sep 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

7 Aug 1942- 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

18 Sep 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 

10 Aug 1942 - 



- 22 Dec 1942 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 22 Dec 1942 

- 22 Dec 1942 

- 22 Dec 1942 

- 8 Dec 1942 

- 22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
18 Sep 1942 

- 9 Aug 1942 
16 Oct 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 
22 Dec 1942 



253 



APPENDICES 



1st Tank Co (less Co C) 
2nd Amph Tractor Bn 

(1st Plat, Co A) 

(HQ Plat, Co A) 
2nd Aviation Eng Bn 
2nd Eng Bn (Co A only) 
2nd Marine Div HQ 
2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops (Det) 
2nd Med Bn (Co D only) 
2nd Pioneer Bn (Co A only) 
2nd Raider Bn 
2nd Repl Bn 
2nd Sv Bn (Co C only) 
2nd Signal Co 
2nd Special Weapons Bn 
2nd Tank Bn (Co C only) 
3rd Barrage Balloon Sq 
3rd Def Bn 
4th Repl Bn 
5th Def Bn( Det only) 
5th Marines 
6th Marines 
7th Marines 
8th Marines (1st Bn) 

(2nd&3rdBns) 
9th Def Bn 
10th Marines (3rd Bn only) 

( 1st Bn only) 

( 2nd Bn only) 
llth Def Bn 
llth Marines (less 1st Bn) 

(IstBn) 
14th Def Bn 

18th Marines (Co's C & F) 
1st Marine Air Wing, Hedron (Det) 
2nd Marine Air Wing, Hedron (Fwd Ech) 
Marine Aircraft Gp-14, HQ & SMS 
Marine Aircraft Gp-23, HQ & SMS 

(Fwd Ech) 

(Rear Ech) 
Marine Aircraft Gp-25, HQ & SMS 

(DetHQSq) 

(Det SMS) 

Marine Fighter Sq-112 
Marine Fighter Sq-121 (Fit Ech) 



10 Aug 1942 - 22 Dec 1942 

15 Sep 1942 - 31 Jan 1943 

4 Oct 1942 - 31 Jan 1943 

30 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

4 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 31 Jan 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 31 Jan 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

4 Nov 1942 - 17 Dec 1942 

28 Oct 1942 - 11 Nov 1942 
10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
12 Dec 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

8 Sep 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

12 Nov 1942 

8 Sep 1942 - 15 Jan 1943 

10 Aug 1942 - 9 Dec 1942 

4 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 

18 Sep 1942 - 5 Jan 1943 

4 Nov 1942 - 31 Jan 1943 

2 Nov 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
30 Nov 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
10 Aug 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

4 Nov 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
4 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 

17 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 
10 Aug 1942 - 22 Dec 1942 
18 Sep 1942 - 22 Dec 1942 

15 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 
4 Jan 1943 - 8 Feb 1943 

3 Sep 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
26 Dec 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

16 Oct 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

20 Aug 1942 - 4 Nov 1942 

29 Aug 1942 - 4 Nov 1942 

3 Sep 1942 -8 Feb 1943 
18 Nov 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 

2 Nov 1942 - 8 Feb 1943 
20 Oct 1942 - 28 Jan 1943 



254 



APPENDICES 



Marine Fighter Sq-122 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-123 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-124 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-131 
Marine Scout Bomber-132 
Marine Scout Bomber-141 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber-142 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber-144 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Transp Sq-152 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Photo Sq-154 (Det Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-212 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-223 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-224 
Marine Scout Bomber-231 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber-232 
Marine Scout Bomber-233 (Fit Ech) 

(GrdEch) 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-234 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-251 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-253 

Makin Island Raid 

2nd Raider Bn 

Battle of Eastern Solomons 

Marine Fighter Sq-223 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-232 (Fit Ech) 

Battle of Cape Esperance 
(Second Savo) 

Marine Fighter Sq-121 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-141 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-223 
Marine Fighter Sq-224 (Fit Ech) 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-231 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-232 



12 Nov 1942 
3 Feb 1943 
3 Feb 1943 

11 Nov 1942 
1 Nov 1942 - 

23 Sep 1942 - 

12 Nov 1942 
5 Feb 1943 

21 Oct 1942 

10 Nov 1942 

17 Aug 1942 - 

20 Aug 1942 - 

30 Aug 1922 - 

30 Aug 1942 - 

20 Aug 1942 - 

25 Dec 1942 - 

18 Jan 1943 - 

28 Jan 1943- 

19 Aug 1942 - 

3 Sep 1942 - 



- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 19 Jan 1943 

- 17 Jan 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 
21 Nov 1942 

16 Oct 1942 

- 2 Nov 1942 
14 Nov 1942 

- 2 Nov 1942 

- 5 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 

- 8 Feb 1943 



1748 Aug 1942 

17-18 Aug 1942 

23-25 Aug 1942 

23-25 Aug 1942 



1142 Oct 1942 

11-12 Oct 1942 
11-12 Oct 1942 
11-12 Oct 1942 
11-12 Oct 1942 
11-12 Oct 1942 
11-12 Oct 1942 



New Georgia Rendova Vangunu 

Occupation 20 Jun 1943 31 Aug 1943 

1st Raider Bn 5 Jul 1943 - 28 Aug 1943 

1st Raider Regt ( HQ ) 5 Jul 1943 - 28 Aug 1943 

2nd Sep Wire Plat 1 Jul 1943 - 31 Aug 1943 

4th Raider Bn 21 Jun 1943 - 1 1 Jul 1943 



255 



APPENDICES 



9th Def Bn 

10th Def Bn (Tank Plat only) 

llth Def Bn (BtryE) 

(Tank Plat) 

(Btry K) 

Marine Aircraft Gp-25, HQ & SMS 
Marine Fighter Sq-121 
Marine Fighter Sq-122 
Marine Fighter Sq-124 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-132 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-141 
Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-143 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-144 
Marine Transp Sq-152 
Marine Transp Sq-153 
Marine Fighter Sq-214 
Marine Fighter Sq-215 

(Det Grd Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-221 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-233 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-234 
Marine Transp Sq-253 (Det Fit Ech) 



30 Jun 1943 - 
26 Jul 1943 - 
14 Jul 1943 - 
4 Aug 1943 - 
7 Aug 1943 - 

21 Jun 1943 - 
21 Jim 1943 

21 Jun 1943 
21 Jun 1943 - 

22 Jun 1943 
20 Jun 1943 - 

20 Jul 1943 - 

21 Jun 1943 
20 June 1943 
20 Jun 1943 - 

22 Jul 1943 - 
25 Jul 1943 - 

21 Aug 1943 - 
27 Jun 1943 - 
13 Aug 1943 - 
4 Aug 1943 - 
20 Jun 1943 - 



31 Aug 1943 
13 Get 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 

- 22 Jul 1943 

- 24 Jul 1943 
31 Aug 1943 

- 1 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
29 Aug 1943 

- 1 Aug 1943 

- 5 Aug 1943 
18 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
24 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 
31 Aug 1943 



Vella Lavella Occupation 15 Aug 1943 16 Oct 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps HQ (Fwd Ech) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps Med Bn (Co A) 7 Oct 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 
1st Marine Amph Corps Motor Transp Bn (Co A) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

(Co B) 7 Oct 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps Signal Bn (Det) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

1st Med Bn (Det Co A) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

1st Parachute Bn 4 Oct 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

1st Parachute Regt 4 Oct 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

2nd Parachute Bn 1 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

3rd Special Weapons Bn (2d Plat, Btry A) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

4th Base Depot (Go's A & B, Br No 3) 25 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

4th Def Bn 15 Aug 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Marine Aircraft Gp-25, HQ & SMS 15 Aug 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-123 15 Aug 1943 - 18 Sep 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-124 15 Aug 1943-6 Sep 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-141 15 Aug 1943 3 Sep 1943 

Marine Transp Bomber Sq-143 15 Aug 1943 - 29 Aug 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-214 15 Aug 1943 - 2 Sep 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-215 (Fit Ech) 15 Aug 1943 - 6 Sep 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-221 15 Aug 1943 - 24 Aug 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-222 (Fit Ech) 5 Sep 1943 - 15 Oct 1943 



256 



APPENDICES 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-232 23 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-233 15 Aug 1943 - 21 Sep 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-234 15 Aug 1943 - 7 Sep 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-235 (Fit Ech) 4 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-236 7 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq ( N) -531 ( Adv Ech) 12 Sep 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

( Rear Ech ) 10 Oct 1943 - 16 Oct 1943 

Eastern New Guinea Operation 

( including Finschlaf en, Oro Bay, Milne Bay, 

and Goodenough Is) 22 Sep 194317 Feb 1944 

1st Amphibious Track Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

1st Marines 22 Sep 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

1st Marine Div HQ 20 Oct 1943 - 31 Dec 1943 

1st Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 31 Dec 1943 

1st Med Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

1st Military Police Co 15 Oct 1943 - 30 Jan 1944 

1st Motor Transp Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

1st Sv Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 30 Jan 1944 

1st Special Weapons Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 24 Jan 1944 

1st Tank Bn 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

5th Marines 8 Oct 1943 - 28 Dec 1943 

7th Marines 20 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

1 1th Marines 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

17th Marines (less 3rd Bn) 15 Oct 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

( 3rd Bn ) 1 Nov 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 

Woodlark Island, Occupation and 

Consolidation of 30 Jun 1943 7 Dec 1943 

12th Def Bn 30 Jun 1943 - 7 Dec 1943 

Cape Gloucester (New Britain) 

Operation 26 Dec 1943 1 Mar 1944 

1st Amph Tractor Bn 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Marines 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Marine Div HQ 1 Jan 1944 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Med Bn (less Rear Ech) 26 Dec 1943 - I Mar 1944 

1st Marine Div HQ and Sv Bn 1 Jan 1944 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Military Police Co 31 Jan 1944 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Motor Transp Bn 26 Dec 1943 - 31 Jan 1944 

1st Sv Bn 31 Jan 1944 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Special Weapons Bn 25 Jan 1944 - 1 Mar 1944 

1st Tank Bn (less Go B) 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

257 



APPENDICES 

5th Marines 29 Dec 1943 - 15 Jan 1944 

7th Marines 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

llth Marines 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

12th Def Bn 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

17th Marines 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 

Green Islands Landing 15-19 Feb 1944 

1st Marines Air Wing, Hedron 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-143 15 Feb 1944 - J 9 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-212 15 Feb 1944 - 17 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-216 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-217 (Fit Ech) 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-218 (Fit Ech) 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq (N) -531 15 Feb 1944 - 1 9 Feb 1944 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-233 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-244 15 Feb 1944 - 19 Feb 1944 

Treasury Island Landing 27 Oct 1943 6 Nov 1943 

1st Marine Amph Corps Signal Bn (2nd Plat, Co A) 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

1st Marine Air Wing, Hedron 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-212 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-215 (Fit Ech) 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-221 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-531 (N) 27 Oct 1943 - 6 Nov 1943 

Choiseul Island Diversion 28 Oct 1943 4 Nov 1943 

1st Marine Amph Corps Exper Rocket Plat (Det) 28 Oct 1943 - 4 Nov 1943 

1st Parachute Regt (Det) 28 Oct 1943 - 4 Nov 1943 

2nd Parachute Bn 28 Oct 1943 - 4 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq (N)-531 28 Oct 1943 - 4 Nov 1943 

Occupation and Defense of Cape Torokina 

Bougainville 1 Nov 1943 15 Dec 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps HQ (Adv Ech) 1 Dec 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn ( 1st Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 17 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1 Marine Amph Corps Exper Rocket Plat 6 Dec 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 
1 Marine Amph Corps Motor Transp Bn 

(Fwd Ech) 26 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 
1 Marine Amph Corps Signal Bn 

(Fwd Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

( lst Ech ) 11 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

(2nd Ech) 13 N OV 1943 _ ^5 Dec 1943 

258 



APPENDICES 

1st Parachute Bn 23 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1st Parachute Regt 4 Dec 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1st War Dog Plat 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1st 155rnm Arty Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

2nd Raider Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

2nd Raider Regt (Prov) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

2nd 155mm Arty Bn 16 Nov 1943 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Amph Tractor Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Def Bn ( 1st Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

(2nd Ech) 11 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Marines 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Marine Div HQ 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn (less dets HQ Co) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops (Det) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Med Bn (less Co E & Dets HQ & Sv Co) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Motor Transp Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Parachute Bn 4 Dec 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Raider Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Sep Wire Plat (less Dets) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Sv Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Signal Co 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Special Weapons Bn 17 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

3rd Tank Bn 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

4th Base Depot ( Dets Branch No 3 ) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

9th Marines 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

19th Marines 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

21st Marines (less 2nd & 3rd Bn) 6 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

21st Marines (2nd Bn) 11 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

(3rd Bn) IT Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

1st Marine Air Wing, Hedron 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-143 (Fwd Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 30 Nov 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-144 (Fit Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 22 Nov 1943 

Marine Transp Sq-153 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-215 (Fit Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

(Grd Ech) 10 Dec 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq-221 1 Nov 1943 - 19 Nov 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-232 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq~244 (Fit Ech) 1 Nov 1943 - 29 Nov 1943 

Marine Fighter Sq ( N ) -531 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 



13 Nov 1943 8 Dec 1943 



Tarawa (Gilbert Islands) 
Operation 

1 Marine Amph Corps Medium Tank Bn (Co C) 20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 
2nd Airdrome Bn (Effice Is) 13 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn 20 Nov 1943 - 5 Dec 1943 

259 



APPENDICES 



2nd AT Bn 

2nd Def Bn 

2nd Eng Bn 

2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div HQ 

2nd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops 

2nd Med Bn 

2nd Pioneer Bn 

2nd Sv Bn 

2nd Special Weapons Bn 

2nd Tank Bn 

V Amph Corps HQ 

V Amph Corps Recon Co 

5th Def Bn (Funafuti) 

6th Marines 

7th Def Bn 

8th Def Bn 

8th Marines 

10th Marines 

18th Marines 

25th Repl Draft 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-331 (Det Fit Ech) 

Marine Transp Sq-353 (Det Fit Ech) 

Occupation of Kwajalein and 
Majuro Atolls 

1st Armored Amph Bn 

1st Def Bn 

1st Joint Assault Signal Co 

1st Prov Rocket Det 

2nd Sep Pack Howitzer Bn (Fl Res) 

2nd Sep Tank Co 

4th Amph Tractor Bn 

4th Marine Div HQ 

4th Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

4th Med Bn 

4th Motor Transp Bn 

4th Tank Bn 

4th Sv Bn 

4th Special Weapons Bn 

V Amph Corps HQ 

V Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 

V Amph Corps Recon Co 

V Amph Corps Signal Bn 



20 Nov 1943 - 30 Nov 1943 

24 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 4 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 25 Nov 1943 

18 Nov 1943 - 3 Dec 1943 

13 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

28 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

20 Nov 1943-1 Dec 1943 

20 Nov 1943 - 24 Nov 1943 

13 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

30 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 

26 Nov 1943 - 8 Dec 1943 



29 Jan 1944 8 Feb 1944 

1 Feb 1944 - 6 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 4 Feb 1944 

3 1 Jan 1944- 8 Peb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 6 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 7 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 7 Feb 1944 

30 Jan 1944 - 2 Feb 1944 
1 Feb 1944 - 7 Feb 1944 



260 



APPENDICES 



V Amph Corps Tactical Gp I (Fl Res) (Consisted of 

22d Marines, reinf by Army units) 1 Feb 1944 - 4 Feb 1944 

10th Amph Tractor Bn 1 Feb 1944 8 Feb 1944 

llth Amph Tractor Bn (Co A only) 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

14th Marines 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

15th Def Bn 2 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

20th Marines 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

22nd Marines (Fl Res) 1 Feb 1944 - 4 Feb 1944 

23rd Marines 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

24th Marines 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

25th Marines 1 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Aircraft Gp-31, HQ & SMS 7 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-111 ( Grd Ech) 7 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-113 2 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-231 (Grd Ech) 3 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-311 7 Feb 1944 - 8 Feb 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-422 2 Feb 1944-8 Feb 1944 



Occupation of Eniwetok Atoll 
(Marshalls) 

1st Def Bn 

2nd Sep Eng Co. 

2nd Sep Med Co 

2nd Sep Pack How Bn (Fl Res) 

2nd Sep Tank Co 

2nd Sep Transp Co 

4th Tank Bn (Co D Scout only) 

V Amph Corps Recon Co 

V Amph Corps Tactical Gp I (Fl Res) 

10th Def Bn 

22ndMarines 

Marine Aircraft Warning Sq-1 

Marine Aircraft Gp-22,HQ & SMS 

Marine Fighter Sq-113 

Marine Fighter Sq-422 

Capture and Occupation of 
Saipan 

1st Amph Truck Co 

1st Joint Assault Signal Co 

1st Prov Rocket Det 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn 

2nd Armored Amph Bn 

2nd Eng Bn 

2nd Joint Assault Signal Co 



17 Feb 1944 2 Mar 1944 



17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

21 Feb 1944 

17 Feb 1944 - 

20 Feb 1944 - 

20 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 

17 Feb 1944 - 



- 2 Mar 1944 
25 Feb 1944 
25 Feb 1944 
25 Feb 1944 

- 2 Mar 1944 
25 Feb 1944 
25 Feb 1944 
23 Feb 1944 

- 2 Mar 1944 

- 2 Marl944 
25 Feb 1944 
2 Mar. 1944 

- 2 Mar 1944 

- 2 Mar 1944 

- 2 Mar 1944 



15 Jun 1944 10 Aug 1944 

15 Juri 1944 - 24 Jul 1944 
15 Jun 1944 -24 Jul 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 24 Jul 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 24 Jul 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 24 Jul 1944 
12 Jul 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 24 Jul 1944 



261 



APPENDICES 



2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div HQ 

2nd Med Bn (HQ Sv & Go's A, B, and C) 

(Go's D andE) 
2nd Motor Transp Bn 
2nd Pioneer Bn 
2nd Prov Rocket Det 
2nd Sv Bn 
2nd Tank Bn 
2nd 155mm Howitzer Bn 

III Amph Corps, Air Delivery Sect (Fwd Ech) 
4th Marine Div HQ 
4th Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 
4th Med Bn 
4th Motor Transp Bn 
4th Sv Bn 
4th Tank Bn 
4th 105mm Howitzer Bn 
V Amph Corps Air Delivery Sect 
V Amph Corps HQ 
V Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 
V Amph Corps Med Bn 
V Amph Corps Motor Transp Co 
V Amph Corps Prov Eng Gp 
V Amph Corps LVT Gp 

V Amph Corps Signal Bn 

V Amph Corps Recon Bn 

6th Marines 

7th Field Depot 

10th Amph Tractor Bn (less Co A) 

10th Marines 

llth Amph Tractor Bn (Co C only) 

14th Marines 

18th Marines 

20th Marines 

23rd Marines 

24th Marines 

25th Marines 

29th Marines 

Island Command, Tinian ( Adv Detail) 

Marine Observ Sq-2 

4th Marine Air Wing (Mar Air Def Det 
Marianas Area) 

Aircraft Warning Sq-5 

Marine Transp Sq-252 (Det Fit Ech) 

Marine Transp Sq-353 



15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
26 Jiil 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jul 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jun 1944 - 
15 Jim 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jim 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
15 Jun 1944 
17 Jun 1944 - 



- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 16 Jul 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

-24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 
-24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 26 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 

- 24 Jul 1944 
- 10 Aug 1944 



17 Jun 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 
15 Jun 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 
20 Jun 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 
3 Aug 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 



262 



APPENDICES 



Marine Fighter Sq (N)-532 (Adv Ech) 
Marine Transp Sq-952 (Det Fit Ech) 

Capture and Occupation of 
Guam 



6 Jul 1944 -10 Aug 1944 
2 Jul 1944 - 5 Jul 1944 



21 Jul 1944 15 Aug 1944 



1st Armored Amph Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 13 Aug 1944 

1st Base HQ Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st Exper Rocket Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st Military Police Co 27 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 
1st Prov Marine Brig (HQ & Brig Troops) 1st Prov Brig 

composed of 4th Marines Reinf and 

22nd Marines, Reinf 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st Prov Repl Co 21 Jul 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 

1st Radio Intell Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st Sep Eng Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st Sep Wire Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st War Dog Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

1st 105mm Arty Bn ( Howitzer) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

2nd Ammunition Co 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

2nd Aviation Eng Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

2nd Sep Eng Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

2nd War Dog Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

2nd 155mm Howitzer Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Amph Tractor Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Joint Assault Signal Co 21 Jul 1944 15 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps Air Delivery Sect (Fwd Ech) 8 Aug 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps Arty HQ 21 Jul 1344 - 12 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps HQ 21 Jul 1944 - 12 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps Med Bn ( Rein) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps Motor Transp Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

III Amph Corps Signal Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Marine Div HQ 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 
3rd Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn (less Dets) (HQ Bn) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops (Dets) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 
3rd Med Bn (less Co E and Dets HQ and Sv Co) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Motor Transp Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Sv Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd Tank Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

3rd War Dog Plat 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

4th Ammunition Co 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

4th Amph Tractor Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

4th Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

V Amph Corps HQ 13 Aug 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 



263 



APPENDICES 



V Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

V Amph Corps Signal Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

5th Field Depot (less rear ech) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

7th 155mm Arty Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

9th AAA Bn ( 1st Ech only) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

9th Def Bn ( less dets ) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

9th Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

10th Amph Tractor Bn (Co A only) 21 Jul 1944 ~~ 15 Aug 1944 

llth Amph Tractor Bn (Co A only) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

12th Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

14th Def Bn (less Sea Coast Arty Gp) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

14th AAA Bn 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

19th Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

21st Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

22nd Marines 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Island Command, Guam 26 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Observ Sq-1 (Grd Ech) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

(Fit Ech) 30 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Aircraft Warning Sq-2 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 
4th Marine Aircraft Wing ( Mar Air Def Det, 

Marianas Area) 17 Jun 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Aircraft Gp-21, HQ & SMS (Fwd Ech) 27 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-217 (Det Grd Ech) 30 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

(Remainder Sq) 4 Aug 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-225 30 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Transp Sq-252 (Det Fit Ech) 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

Marine Transp Sq-353 3 Aug 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq (N)-532 ( Adv Ech) 21 Jul 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 

(Rear Ech) 21 Jul 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq (N)-534 (Adv Ech) 29 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 

(Fit Ech) 4 Aug 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 



Capture and Occupation of 
Tinian 

1st Amph Truck Co 

1st Joint Assault Signal Co 

1st Prov Rocket Det 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn 

2nd Amph Truck Co 

2nd Armored Amph Bn 

2nd Base HQ Bn 

2nd Joint Assault Signal Co 

2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div HQ 

2nd Med Bn (Go's D and E) 



24 Jul 1944 10 Aug 1944 



24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944- 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

2 Aug 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 



10 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 



264 



APPENDICES 



2nd Med Tractor Bn 

2nd Prov Rocket Det 

2nd Sv Bn 

2nd Tank Bn 

4th Marine Div HQ 

4th Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

4th Med Bn (Go's D and E) 

4th Motor Transp Bn 

4th Sv Bn 

4th Tank Bn 

4th 105mm Howitzer Bn 

5th Amph Tractor Bn 

V Amph Corps Air Det Sect 

V Amph Corps Amph Recon Bn 

V Amph Corps HQ 

V Amph Corps Med Bn (less Go's B and C, 

DetHQ&SvCo) 
V Amph Corps Motor Transp Bn 
V Amph Corps Prov Eng Gp 
V Amph Corps Prov LVT Gp 
V Amph Corps Signal Bn 
6th Marines (less 2nd Bn) 

(2ndBn) 
7th Field Depot 
8th Marines 

10th Amph Tractor Bn (less Co A) 
10th Marines (less 2nd Bn) 
llth Amph Tractor Bn (Co C only) 
14th Marines 
17th AAA Bn 
18th Marines 
20th Marines 
23rd Marines 
24th Marines 
25th Marines 
29th Marines 

Island Command (Adv Detail) 
Marine Observ Sq-2 
Marine Observ Sq-4 
Marine Transp Sq-252 (Det Fit Ech) 
Marine Transp Sq-353 



24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944- 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 



- 10 Aug 1944 

- 10 Aug 1944 

- 10 Aug 1944 

- 10 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 



24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 

26 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 

24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 

2 Aug 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 - 

24 Jul 1944 
24 Jul 1944 - 
29 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944- 
24 Jul 1944 - 
24 Jul 1944 - 

3 Aug 1944 - 



-7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
-7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

- 8 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

-7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 

- 7 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 
10 Aug 1944 



Capture and Occupation of Southern 

Palau Island 15 Sep 1944 14 Oct 1944 



1st Amph Tractor Bn 



15 Sep 1944 - 14 Oct 1944 



265 



APPENDICES 



1st Eng Bn 

1st Marines 

1st Marine Div HQ 

1st Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

1st Med Bn 

1st Motor Transp Bn 

1st Pioneer Bn 

1st Sv Bn 

1st Tank Bn 

2nd Radio Intell Plat 

III Amph Corps, Air Delivery Sect (Fwd Ech) 

III Amph Corps HQ 

3rd Armored Amph Bn 

3rd Base HQ Bn 

3rd 155mm Art Bn 

4th Joint Assault Signal Co 

4th War Dog Plat 

5th Marines 

5th Sep Wire Plat 

5th War Dog Plat 

6th Amph Tractor Bn 

6th Sep Wire Plat 

7th AAA Bn 

7th Marines 

8th Amph Tractor Bn 

8th 155mm Art Bn 

llth Marines 

12th AAA Bn 

16th Field Depot 

Administrative Command FMF, Pacific 

Island Command, Peleliu (1st Ech) 

2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, Hedron 

3rd Marine Observ Sq (Fwd Ech) 

Marine Aircraft Gp Sq~ll, HQ & SMS (Fwd Ech) 

(Rear Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-144 (GrdEch) 

(Fit Ech) 

Marine Fighter Sq-121 (GrdEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq-122 (GrdEch) 

(Fit Ech) 
Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-134 (Grd Ech) 

(Fit Ech) 

Marine Transp Sq-353 
Marine Fighter Sq ( N ) -541 ) (Grd Ech ) 

(Fit Ech) 
Marine Transp Sq-952 



15 Sep 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 

15 Sep 1944 

14 Sep 1944 
15 Sep 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
22 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 ~~ 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944- 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 

24 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 

25 Sep 1944 - 
1 Sep 1944 - 

26 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
15 Sep 1944 - 
10 Get 1944 - 
20 Sep 1944 - 

6 Oct 1944 - 

6 Oct 1944 - 

15 Sep 1944 - 

24 Sep 1944- 

1 Oct 1944 



14 Oct 
20 Oct 
14 Oct 
-2 Oct 
-2 Oct 
-2 Oct 
14 Oct 
-2 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
10 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 
14 Oct 



1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 
1944 



266 



APPENDICES 

Zamboanga, Mindanao, Southern Philippine 
Campaign (Army) 

Marine Air Wing-1, Hedron 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Air Warning Sq-3 17 Apr 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Air Warning Sq-4 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-12, HQ & SMS 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-24, HQ & SMS 17 Apr 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-32, HQ & SMS 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-115 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-133 17 Apr 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-142 11 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-21 1 10 Mar 1945-4 Jul 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-218 10 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-236 17 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-241 17 Apr 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-243 17 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-244 17 Apr 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-313 10 Mar 1945 - 1 Jun 1945 

Marine Scout Bomber Sq-341 17 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Marine Bomber Sq-611 17 Mar 1945 - 4 Jul 1945 

Cebu, Negros, Samar, Leyte Campaign (Army) 

Marine Aircraft Gp-14, HQ & SMS 11 Jan 1945 - 28 May 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-212 19 Jan 1945 - 14 May 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-222 2 Apr 1945 - 14 May 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-223 19 Jan 1945 - 15 May 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-251 2 Apr 1945 - 1 May 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-313 3 Dec 1945 - 15 Mar 1945 

Leyte Operation (only) 

2nd Joint Assault Signal Co (Air Liaison) 20 Oct 1944 - 29 Nov 1944 

3rd Joint Assault Signal Co (Air Liaison) 20 Oct 1944 - 29 Nov 1944 

VAC Arty HQ (Air Sect) 20 Oct 1944 - 29 Nov 1944 

Det, Air Liaisons Sec VAC 10 Oct 1944 - 29 Nov 1944 

5th 155mm How Bn VAC Arty 20 Oct 1944 - 13 Dec 1944 

llth 155mm Gun Bn, VAC Arty 20 Oct 1944 - 29 Nov 1944 

Marine Aircraft Gp-25, HQ & SMS 30 Oct 1944 - 16 Dec 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-115 3 Dec 1944 - 16 Dec 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-21 1 5 Dec 1944 - 11 Dec 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq-218 5 Dec 1944 - 16 Dec 1944 

Marine Fighter Sq (N)-541 3 Dec 1944 - 16 Dec 1944 

D a gup an , Luzon Campaign (Army) 

Marine Aircraft Gp-24, HQ & SMS 1 1 Jan 1945 - 8 Apr 1945 

267 



APPENDICES 



Marine Aircraft Cp-32, HQ & SMS 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-133 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-142 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-236 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-241 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-243 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-244 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-341 

Luzon Operation (only) 

Marine Aircraft Gp-25, HQ & SMS 

Marine Fighter Sq-1 15 

Marine Fighter Sq-124 (aboard'USS Essex) 

Marine Fighter Sq-211 

Marine Fighter Sq-212 

Marine Fighter Sq-2 13 (aboard USS Essex) 

Marine Fighter Sq-218 

Marine Fighter Sq-222 

Marine Fighter Sq-223 

Marine Fighter Sq-251 

Marine Fighter Sq ( N ) -541 

Borneo (Balikpapen) Operation 

Marine Corps Aviation Sv Det-1 

(Fwd Ech aboard USS Block Island) 
Marine Corps Aviation Sv Det-2 

(Fwd Ech aboard USS Gilbert Islands) 
Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-143 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-233 



27 Jan 1945 - 22 Feb 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 9 Apr 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 23 Mar 1945 
11 Jan 1945 - 23 Mar 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 14 Apr 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 25 Mar 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 16 Apr 1945 
22 Jan 1945 - 24 Mar 1945 



17 Dec 1944 - 1 Apr 1945 

17 Dec 1944 - 9 Mar 1945 

3 Jan 1945 - 22 Jan 1945 

12 Dec 1944 - 9 Mar 1945 

11 Jan 1945 -18 Jan 1945 
3 Jan 1945 - 22 Jan 1945 

17 Dec 1944 - 9 Mar 1945 
11 Jan 1945-1 Apr 1945 

12 Jan 1945 - 18 Jan 1945 
3 Jan 1945 - 1 Apr 1945 

17 Dec 1944 - 8 Jan 1945 



26 Jan 1945 - 6 Jul 1945 

26 Jim 1945 - 6 Jul 1945 
26 Jun 1945 - 6 Jul 1945 
26 Jan 1945 - 6 Jul 1945 



Marine Fighter Sq-512 (aboard USS Gilbert Islands) 26 Jim 1945 - 6 Jul 1945 



Assault and Occupation of 
Iwo Jima 

1st Joint Assault Signal Co 
1st Prov Field Arty Gp (H& Btry) 
1st Prov Rocket Det 
1st Radio Intell Plat 
2nd Armored Amph Bn 
2nd Bomb Disposal Co 
2nd Sep Eng Bn 
2nd Sep Topographic Co 
2nd 155mm Howitzer Bn 
3rd Amph Track Bn 
3rd Eng Bn ( less Co C) 
(CoC,FlRes) 



15 Feb 1945 16 Mar 1945 

19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 5 Mar 1945 



2*8 



APPENDICES 



3rd Joint Assault Signal Co (less Det) 

(DetFlRes) 
3rd Marines (FlRes) 
3rd Marine Div HQ 

3rd Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn (less Dets HQ & Co) 
3rd Marine Div Spl & Sv Troops (Dets) 
3rd Med Bn (less Co C) 

( Co C, FlRes) 
3rd Motor Transp Bn (less Co C) 

( Co C, FlRes) 
3rd Pioneer Bn (less Co C) 

( Co C, FlRes) 
3rd Prov Rocket Det 
3rd Military Police Co 
3rdSvBn (lessdets) 
3rd Tank Bn 
3rd War Dog Plat 
4th Amph Truck Co 
4th Eng Bn 
4th Marine Div HQ 
4th Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 
4th Med Bn 
4th Motor Transp Bn 
4th Pioneer Bn 
4th Sv Bn 
4th Tank Bn 
4th 155mm Howitzer Bn 
5th Amph Tractor Bn 
5th Amph Truck Co 
5th Eng Bn 

5th Joint Assault Signal Co 
V Amph Corps Air Delivery Sect 
V Amph Corps Arty HQ 
V Amph Corps HQ 
V Amph Corps HQ & Sv Bn 
V Amph Corps Med Bn 
V Amph Corps Motor Transp Co 
V Amph Corps Prov LVT Gp 
V Amph Corps Signal Bn 
V Amph Corps Shore Party (Comm Unit) 
V Amph Corps Evac Hospital No 1 
5th Div HQ 
5th Med Bn 
5th Motor Transp Bn 
5th Pioneer Bn 
5th Sv Bn 



18 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 

19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945- 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 



- 16 Mar 1945 

- 5 Mar 1945 

- 5 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 

- 5 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 

- 5 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 

- 5 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 
16 Mar 1945 



269 



APPENDICES 



5th Shore Party Regt 

5th Tank Bn 

6th War Dog Plat 

7th War Dog Plat 

8th Ammunition Co 

8th Field Depot 

9th Marines 

10th Amph Tractor Bn 

llth Amph Tractor Bn 

12th Marines 

13th Marines 

14th Marines 

23rd Marines 

24th Marines 

24th Repl Draft 

25th Marines 

26th Marines 

27th Marines 

28th Marines 

28th Repl Draft (less Dets) 

( Dets Fl Res) 
30th Repl Draft 
31st Repl Draft 
33rd Depot Co 
34th Depot Co 
34th Repl Draft (less Dets) 

(DetFlRes) 
36th Depot Co 

Amph Recon Bn FMF Pac (Co B only) 
Landing Force Assault Signal Comm Unit-1 
Marine Observ Sq-1 (Fwd Ech) 
Marine Observ Sq-4 
Marine Observ Sq-5 
Marine Fighter Sq-1 12 (Fwd Ech 
aboard USS Bennington) 
Marine Fighter Sq-123 (Fwd Ech 
aboard USS Bennington) 
Marine Fighter Sq-124 
Marine Fighter Sq 213 
Marine Fighter Sq-216 (Fwd Ech 

aboard USS Wasp) 
Marine Fighter Sq-217 (Fwd Ech 

aboard USS Wasp) 
Marine Fighter Sq-221 (Fwd Ech 
aboard USS Bunker Hill) 
Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-242 (Fwd Ech) 



19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 

19 Feb 1945 
19 Feb 1945 - 
19 Feb 1945 - 



16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 
16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 
-5 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 
5 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 8 Mar 

- 16 Mar 

- 16 Mar 



1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 

1945 



15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 

15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 
15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 
15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 

15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 
15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 

15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 
8 Mar 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 



270 



APPENDICES 



Marine Transp Sq-252 
Marine Transp Sq-253 
Marine Transp Sq-353 
Marine Fighter Sq-451 (Fwd Ech 
aboard USS Bunker Hill) 
Marine Bombing Sq-612 
Marine Transp Sq-952 

Assault and Occupation of 
Okinawa Gunto 

1st Amph Tractor Bn 

1st Amored Amph Bn 

1st Bomb Disposal Co 

1st Eng Bn 

1st Joint Assault Signal Co 

1st Marines 

1st Marine Div HQ 

1st Marine Div HQ & Sv Bn 

1st Med Bn 

1st Military Police Bn, FMF 

1st Motor Transp Bn 

1st Pioneer Bn 

IstProvAAAGp (HQ) 

1st Sep Eng Bn 

1st Sep Topographic Co 

1st War Dog Plat 

1st 155mm Arty Bn 

2nd AAA Bn 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn (Fl Res) 

2nd Amph Tractor Bn 

2nd Amph Truck Co (Fl Res) 

2nd Eng Bn (Fl Res) (Co C only) 

2nd Joint Assault Signal Co (Fl Res) 

2nd Marines 

2nd Marine Div HQ (Fl Res) 

(Detonly) 
2nd Med Bn (FIRes) 

(CoE only) 
2nd Motor Transp Bn (Fl Res) 

( Co B only) 
2nd Pioneer Bn (Fl Res) 

(Co A only) 

2nd Military Police Co (3rd Plat) 
2nd Prov Field Arty Gp HQ 
2nd Prov Rocket Det (Fl Res) 

(3rd Sect only) 



3 Mar 1945 - 9 Mar 1945 
3 Mar 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 
8 Mar 1945 - 15 Mar 1945 

15 Feb 1945 - 4 Mar 1945 

15 Feb 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 

1 Mar 1945 - 16 Mar 1945 



I Apr 1945 30 

1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

2 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

3 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 
1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 



Jun 1945 

30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 



271 



APPENDICES 



SndSvCo (FIRes) 

(2nd Plat, Ord C, & 3rd Plat S&S Co) 
2nd Tank Bn (FIRes) 

(Co A only) 

2nd War Dog Plat (Fl Res) 
3rd Ammunition Co 
3rd Armored Amph Bn 
III Amph Corps Air Del Sect (Fwd Ech) 
III Amph Corps Arty HQ 
III Amph Corps HQ 
III Amph Corps Med Bn 
III Amph Corps Signal Bn 
3rd Sep Laundry Plat 
3rd Sep Radio Intell Plat 
3rd 155mm Arty Bn 
4th Amph Tractor Bn 
4th Joint Assault Signal Co 
4th Prov Rocket Det 
4th Sep Laundry Plat (Fl Res) 
4th War Dog Plat 
5th AAA Bn 
5th Depot Co 
5th Marines 
5th Prov Rocket Det 
5th Sep Laundry Plat 
6th Amph Truck Co 
6th Eng Bn 

6th Joint Assault Signal Co 
6th Marines 
6th Marine Div HQ 
6th Med Bn 
6th Motor Transp Bn 
6th Pioneer Bn 
6th Sv Bn 
6th Tank Bn 
6th 155mm Howitzer Bn 
7th Marines 
7th Sep Laundry Plat 
7th 155mm Arty Bn 
8th AAA Bn (1st Ech) 

(2nd Ech) 

(3rd Ech) 

8th Amph Tractor Bn 
8th Marines (FIRes) 
8th Marines 
8th 155mm Arty Bn 



1 Apr 1945 

1 Jun 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Jun 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

11 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

3 May 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

I Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945- 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

17 May 1945 - 

3 May 1945 - 

3 Jun 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 

1 Jun 1945 - 

1 Apr 1945 - 



- 10 Apr 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 10 Apr 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 10 Apr 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 10 Apr 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Apr 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 
-30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 
-30 Jun 1945 
-.30 Jun 1945 
-30 Jun 1945 
-30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
10 Apr 1945 
30 Jun 1945 
30 Jun 1945 



272 



APPENDICES 

9th Amph Tractor Bn 1 Apr 1945 30 Jun 1945 

9th 155mm Arty Bn 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

10th Marines (Fl Res) 1 Apr 1945 - 10 Apr 1945 

(2nd Bn only) 1 J lm 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

llth Marines 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

llth Motor Transp Bn 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

15th Marines 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

16th AAA Bn ( Adv Ech) 4 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

(2nd Ech) 1 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

(3rd Ech) 27 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

22nd Marines 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

26th Repl Draft (less Rear Ech) 1 Apr 1945 13 May 1945 

29th Marines 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

29th Repl Draft 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

32nd Repl Draft 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

33rd Repl Draft 1 Apr 1945 - 17 May 1945 

35th Repl Draft (Fl Res) 1 Apr 1945 - 10 Apr 1945 

41st Repl Draft (Fl Res) 1 Apr 1945 - 10 Apr 1945 

46th Repl Draft 17 May 1945 

54th Repl Draft 27 May 1945 

55th Repl Draft 10 Jun 1945 - 11 Jun 1945 

57th Repl Draft 27 May 1945 - 29 May 1945 

62nd Repl Draft 10 Jun 1945 - 11 Jun 1945 

63rd Repl Draft 27 May 1945 - 11 Jun 1945 

Aircraft Warning Sq~l 18 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 
Landing Force Assault Signal Cornm 

Units 1, 2, and 3 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 
MCASD - 1 (Fwd Ech aboard USS Block Island) 10 May 1945 - 16 Jun 1945 

Marine Air Wing - 2 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

(Rear Ech) 1 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 
MCASD ~~ 2 (Fwd Ech aboard 

USS Gilbert hland) 21 May 1945 - 16 Jun 1945 

Marine Observ Sq-3 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Aircraft Warning Sq-6 17 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Observ Sq-6 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Aircraft Warning Sq-7 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Observ Sq-7 6 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Aircraft Warning Sq-8 6 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-14, HQ & SMS 29 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-22, HQ & SMS (Fwd Ech) 2 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

( Rear Ech) 12 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

MarineAircraft Gp-31, HQ & SMS 1 Apr 194S>- 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp~33, HQ & SMS 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Aircraft Gp-43, Hedron 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-113, (Grd Ech) 6 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

(Fit Ech) 21 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

Marine Fighter Sq-131 (Grd Ech) 29 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

273 



APPENDICES 



(FltEch) 

Marine Transp Sq-143 
Marine Fighter Sq-212 (Fwd Ech) 

(RearEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq-222 (GrdEch) 

(Fit Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-223 (FltEch) 

(GrdEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq-224 

(RearEch) 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-223 (Fwd Ech) 

(RearEch) 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-233 (Rear Ech) 

(aboard USS Block Island) 
Marine Transp Sq-252 
Marine Transp Sq-253 
Marine Fighter Sq-311 (FltEch) 

(RearEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq-312 (Assault Ech) 

(FltEch) 

Marine Fighter Sq-313 
Marine Fighter Sq-314 (Grd Ech) 

(FltEch) 

Marine Fighter Sq-322 (Grd Ech) 
Marine Fighter Sq-322 
Marine Fighter Sq-323 (GrdEch) 

(FltEch) 

Marine Transp Sq-353 
Marine Photo Sq-354 
Marine Fighter Sq-422 (Grd Ech) 

(FltEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq-441 (Grd Ech) 

(FltEch) 

Marine Fighter Sq-511 (aboard USS Block Island) 
Marine Fighter Sq-512 (aboard 

USS Gilbert Islands) 
Marine Fighter Sq (N)-533 (FltEch) 

(GrdEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq (N) -542 (Grd Ech) 

(FltEch) 
Marine Fighter Sq (N)-543 

(Assault Ech) 

(FltEch) 

(RearEch) 

Marine Bomber Sq-611 (Det Fit Ech) 
Marine Transp Sq-952 
Marine Transp Sq-953 (Det Fit Ech) 



29 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


7 Jun 1945 8 Jun 1945 


29 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


7 Jun 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


29 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


10 Jun 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


11 Jun 1945- 


30 Jun 1945 


24 Jun 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


2 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


1 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


1 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


1 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


1 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


18 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


18 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


6 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


1 May 1945 ~ 


30 Jim 1945 


2 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


9 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


2 Jun 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


6 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


24 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


2 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


9 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


2 Apr 1945 


30 Jun 1945 


9 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


19 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


29 Jun 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


6 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


23 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


2 Apr 1945 ~~ 


30 Jun 1945 


7 Apr 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 


3 May 1945 - 


30 Jun 1945 



21 May 1945 - 16 Jun 1945 

10 May 1945 - 30 Jim 1945 

30 May 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 

1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jim 1945 

7 Apr 1945 - 30 Jim 1945 



1 Apr 1945- 

6 Apr 1945 - 

1 May 1945 

6 Jun 1945 - 

22 Apr 1945 - 

29 May 1945 - 



- 30 Jim 1945 

- 30 Jim 1945 

- 3.0 Jun 1945 
-10 Jun 1945 

- 30 Jun 1945 
31 May 1945 



APPENDICES 



Occupation of North China 

1st Assault Signal Co 

1st Marine Ammunition Co 

1st Marine Div 

1st Military Police Bn, FMF, Pac 

1st Recon Co 

1st Sep Eng Bn 

1st Signal Co 

111 Amph Corps 

3rd Amph Truck Co 

3rd Marine Brig 

1st Salvage Plat, 3rd Salvage Repair Co 

3rd Sep HQ & Supply Co (Prov) 

3rd Sep Laundry Plat 

3rd Sep Radio Intell Plat 

4th Bakery Plat (Prov) 

4th Rocket Det (Prov, FMF, Pac) 

4th Salvage Repair Co (Prov) 

4th Sep Radio Intell Plat 

5th Sep Laundry Plat 

6th Amph Truck Co 

6th Bakery Plat (Prov) 

6th Marine Div 

7th Sep Laundry Plat 

7th Sv Regt 

Occupation of Japan 



llth Motor Transp Bn, FMF, Pac 
3rd Bn, (Reinf), 12th Marines 
12th Marine Ammunition Co 
12th Sv Bn 

20th Marine Depot Co 
37th Marine Depot Co 
38th Marine Depot Co 
Marine Air Cp-25 
Marine Air Cp-32 
Marine Fighter Sq-115 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-134 
Marine Transp Sq-152 
Marine Transp Sq-153 
Marine Fighter Sq-211 
Marine Fighter Sq-218 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-244 
Marine Transp Sq-252 
Marine Transp Sq-253 
Marine Scout Bomber Sq-343 
Marine Transp Sq-352 
Marine Bomber Sq-413 
Marine Fighter Sq (N)-533) 
Marine Fighter Sq (N)-541 
Marine Bomber Sq-611 



2nd Marine Div 

2nd Sep Eng Bn 

2nd Sep Guard Bn, FMF, Pac 

2nd Sep HQ & Sup Co (Prov) 

2nd War Dog Plat 

3rd Fleet Marine Landing Force (Task Unit 31, 32, composed of 

Marine Dets of ships of the 3rd Fleet) 
3rd Military Police Bn (Prov) 
Regimental Combat Team-4 
4th Separate Laundry Plat 
V Amph Corps 
5th Amph Truck Co 
5th Assault Signal Co 
5th Marine Div 
5th Sep Radio Intell Plat 
6th Marine Div 
6th Marine Ammunition Co 
6th Sep Laundry Plat 
6th War Dog Plat 
8tH Marines 



APPENDICES 

8th Marine Ammunition Co 

8th Sep Laundry Plat 

8th Sv Regt 

10th Marines 

10th Marine Ammunition Co 

12th Motor Transp Bn (Prov) 

13th Marines 

20th Amph Truck Bn 

24th Marine Depot Co 

26th Marines 

27th Marines 

28th Marines 

33rd Marine Depot Co 

34th Marine Depot Co 

36th Marine Depot Co 

42nd Marine Depot Co 

43rd Marine Depot Co 

Prov Marine Air Base Sq, Omura, Japan. 

HQ Sq, Marine Operating Gp-1 

Marine Observ Sq-2 

Landing Force Assault Signal Comm Unit No. 4 

Marine Observ Sq-5 

Marine Air Warning Sq-9 

Marine Air Warning Sq-12 

HQ Sq & SMS, Mag-22 

HQ Sq & SMS, Mag-31 

Marine Fighter Sq-1 13 

Marine Torpedo Bomber Sq-131 

Marine Fighter Sq-224 

Marine Transp Sq-252 

Marine Transp Sq-253 

Marine Fighter Sq-311 

Marine Fighter Sq-314 

Marine Transp Sq-353 

Marine Fighter Sq-422 

Marine Fighter Sq-441 

Marine Fighter Sq (N) -542 

Marine Fighter Sq (N) -543 

Marine Bomber Sq-612 

Marine Transp Sq-952 

Presidential Unit Citation 

1st Def Bn, Wake Det 

1st Def Bn 

Marine Fighter Sq-2 11 of MAW-2] 

8-22 Dec 1941 



276 



APPENDICES 

Marine Aircraft Gp-22 
Midway Islands 
June 1942 

1st Marine Div, Reinf 

Guadalcanal 

7 Aug 9 Dec 1942 

(2nd PUG Assault and seizure of Peleliu and Ngesebus, Palau 

Islands, 15 - 29 Sep 1944) 

(3rd PUG - Okinawa, 1 Apr - 21 Jun 1945 

fr * <* 

Marine Fighter Sq-214 
Guadalcanal 

7 Apr 1943 

* * * 

2nd Marine Div, Reinf 
Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands 

20 - 24 Nov 1943 

4th Marine Div, Reinf 
Saipan and Tinian 
15 Jun - 1 Aug 1944 

k <* 

3rd Marine Div, Reinf (serving as 3rd Combat Team) 

Guam 

21 Jul - 10 Aug 1944 

5th Amph Corps Assault Troops, Reinf 

Iwo Jima 

19 - 28 Feb 1945 

6th Marine Div, Reinf 
Okinawa 

1 Apr ~~ 21 Jun 1945 

* <* o 

Marine Observ Sq-3 
Okinawa 

2 Apr - 21 Jun 1945 

<* <* 

2nd Marine Aircraft Wing 

Okinawa, Shima and Ryukyus campaign 

4 Apr - 14 Jul 1945 

Navy Unit Commendation 

Amph Recon Bn, FMF, Pac 
19-26 Nov 1943 - Gilbert Islands 

277 



APPENDICES 

20 Jan 23 Feb 1944 Marshall Islands 
15 Jun - 4 Aug 1944 Marianas Islands 
26 Mar 24 Jul 1945 Ryukyus Islands 

llth Marine Regt, 1st Marine Div 

26 Dec 1943 30 Apr 1944 Cape Gloucester, New Britain 

* * * 

1st Prov Marine Brig 

21 Jul 10 Aug 1944 Guam, Marianas Islands 
1st Sep Eng Bn 

10 Dec 1942 27 Feb 1943 Guadalcanal 

20 Aug 1944 24 Mar 1945 Tinian 

14 Apr 2 Sep 1945 Okinawa 

9th Marine Def Bn 

30 Nov 1942 20 May 1943 (date of last enemy aerial attack) Guadalcanal 

30 Jun 7 Nov 1943 (date of last enemy aerial attack) (Tank plats of the 

10th and llth Def Bns attached during this period) Rendova and 

New Georgia Area 

21 Jul 20 Aug 1944 Guam 

6th Def Bn, FMF 
Jun 1942 Midway 

V Amph Corps, Reinf, Support Troops 
19 - 28 Feb 1945 - Iwo Jima 

3rd Amph Corps Signal Bn 

1 Nov 1943 21 Jun 1945 Bougainville, Guam, Palau, Okinawa 

# *> * 

3rd Bn, 10th Marines, 2nd Marine Div, FMF 
7 Jul 1944 - Saipan 

* * * 

3rd Marines, 3rd Marine Div 

1 NOV _ 22 Dec 1943 Empress Augusta Bay Beachhead, Bougainville, 
British Solomon Islands 

12th Marines, 3rd Marine Div 

1 Nov 1943 12 Jan 1944 Empress Augusta Bay Beachhead, 

Bougainville, British Solomon Islands 
21 Jul 10 Aug 1944 Guam, Marianas Islands 

21st Marines, Reinf, serving as 21st Regimental Combat 

Team, 3rd Marine Div 
21 July 10 Aug 1944 Guam, Marianas Islands 

278 




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