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U. S. One 6 ' 

Maine to Florida 


Federal Writers' Project of trie 
Works Progress Administration. 


U. S. #7 Highway Association 

Where do the fishermen gather jor the 
annual run of alewives in the Nonesuch 
River? . . . Where in Maryland is Henry 
Clay said to have written the Missouri Com- 
promise? . . . Where did Caroline Miller 
collect material jor LAMB IN His BOSOM? 
. . . What are beemartin gourds used jor? 
. . . What is Kossuth Cake? When and 
where was it first made? . . . 

These questions suggest the startling vari- 
ety of information to be found in U. S. 
One: Maine to Florida. This, the first of 
the Highway Tour books of the American 
Guide Series compiled by the Federal 
Writers' Project, is a new and exciting kind 
of guide. It not only gives the tourist in a 
hurry all he needs to know about the route, 
but takes time out to tell things about the 
country and places along U. S. #1 that only 
natives know things that strangers might 
have to spend weeks or months in a place 
to find out. A unique feature is the list of 
descriptions of local dishes that the traveler 
should not miss. 

Route One is one of the country's most 
important highways. It runs through 13 At- 
lantic seaboard states, carrying millions of 
tourists annually. Each one of them will find 
something important and interesting in this 
indispensable guide. 


155 East 44th Street New York 



U. S. One 


Compiled and written by the Federal Writers' Project 
of the Works Progress Administration 



and published by 


[ BMG UOPWA, I 8 ] 

All rights in this book are reserved, and it may not be 
reproduced in whole or in part without written permis- 
sion from the holder of these rights. For information 
address the publishers. 

Composed and printed in the United Stales of America by Union Labor 


Typography by Robert Josephy 


U. S. ONE is a publication of the Federal Writers' Project of the 
Works Progress Administration. Under this project, organized to 
give useful work to unemployed writers, an ambitious and pioneering 
task has been undertaken a written description of the most impor- 
tant sections of the United States. The Federal Writers' publications 
are of many types. This volume is part of the American Guide Series 
of regional, State and local guidebooks, and second in a series of 
interstate route guides. The entire series of guides, when completed, 
will highlight the history, resources and points of interest in an area 
of more than three million square miles. Although collated, re- 
checked and edited in the central office in Washington, the materials 
for the book were collected in the States and the book was written 
by the state workers on the Federal Writers' Project. To insure its 
accuracy authorities have checked statements of fact, and to give it all 
possible scope many public 'spirited persons have given their services 
freely. They share with us the hope that those who use this volume 
will through it gain a better knowledge and greater understanding 
of America and American life. 

The Federal Writers' Project, directed by Henry G. Alsberg, is 
administered by Ellen S. Woodward, WPA Assistant Administrator. 




Foreword iii 

Notes on Use of Book ix 

Introduction xi 

Special Foods from Maine to Florida xvii 


Section 1. Calais to Ellsworth 

Section 2. Ellsworth to Belfast 15 

Section 3. Belfast to Brunswick 20 

Section 4. Brunswick to New Hampshire Line 33 


Section 5. Maine Line to Massachusetts Line 47 


Section 6. New Hampshire Line to Rhode Island Line 55 


Section 7. Massachusetts Line to Connecticut Line 65 


Section 8. Rhode Island Line to New Haven 89 

Section 9. New Haven to New York Line 105 


Section 10. Connecticut Line to New Jersey Line 114 


Section 11. New York Line to Pennsylvania Line 124 


Section 12. New Jersey Line to Maryland Line 135 


Section 13. Pennsylvania Line to Baltimore 151 

Section 14. Baltimore to Washington 168 




Section 15. Washington to Richmond 185 

Section 16. Richmond to North Carolina Line 202 


Section 17. Virginia Line to Raleigh 210 

Section 18. Raleigh to South Carolina Line 220 


Section 19. North Carolina Line to Columbia 231 

Section 20. Columbia to Georgia Line 235 


Section 21. South Carolina Line to Florida Line 240 


Section 22. Georgia Line to Jacksonville 252 

Section 23. Jacksonville to New Smyrna 255 

Section 24. New Smyrna to Miami 264 

Section 25. Miami to Key West 282 


Side Route 1. Perry to Eastport 296 

Side Route 2. Whiting to Lubec 299 


Side Route 3. Richmond to Westover 301 


Side Route 4. Folkston to Okefenokee Swamp 305 

Annual Events 311 

Map of US 1 


Eastport, Maine Highton 

Fort Knox, Maine Highton 

Shiloh, Maine 

"Wedding Cake House," Maine 

New Hampshire Coast Highton 

Ironworks House, Saugus, Mass. 

Providence Harbor, R. I. Highton 

Hannah Robinson House, Narragan- 
sett, R. I. 

Congregational Church, Old Lyme, 

New Haven Green, Conn. Highton 

Hutchinson River Parkway, Saxon 
Woods, N. Y. 

Bush Homestead, Port Chester, N. Y. 

George Washington Bridge, New 
York City 

Stretch of US 1,N.J. 

Bayonne Bridge, N. J. 

State House, Trenton, N. J. Highton 

City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. Highton 

Brandy wine Baptist Church, Pa. Highton 

Jerusalem Mills, Md. Shriver 

House at Greenbelt, Md. Rothstein 

State Capitol, Raleigh, N. C. 

State House, Columbia, S. C. 

Presbyterian Church, Camden, S. C. 

Turpentine Distillery, Ga. 

Following page 




' 112 




Following page 

Old Slave Market, Louisville, Ga. 240 

Southern Georgia Plains Highton 240 

On a Florida Beach Miami News Service 256 

Biscayne Bay, Miami, Fla. Miami News Service 256 

Gates at Westover, Va. Va. Cons. & Dev. Com. 272 

Okefenokee Swamp, Ga. 272 

NOTE: The illustrations referred to on pages 47, 121, 
138, 167, 184, and 188 have been omitted 


THIS is a mile-by-mile description of US 1 and most of the short routes branch' 
ing from it. Descriptions of the more important side and cross routes and large 
cities have been omitted for lack of space; readers are referred to the State guide 
books of the American Guide Series for this material. The description of the 
main route, written north to south, is of course valid in the reverse direction. For 
the convenience of those entering the route at midway points the description of 
US 7 has been broken into short sections, cumulative mileage being started 
afresh at the beginning of each. Mileages on the side routes are also cumulative, 
being counted from the junctions with the main route. Those using this guide 
book on the road are reminded that cumulative mileages depend on the manner in 
which a car is driven; if curves are rounded on the inside, if many other cars are 
passed, if the road is left even briefly for stops at filling stations, if an alternate 
to the indicated route is used in going through a city or town, total mileages will 
differ from those given here. 

Travelers are advised to read in advance the descriptions of sections they ex- 
pect to travel and, to mark the points of interest they particularly wish to view. 

Great effort has been expended to make this book as accurate as possible, but 
it is realized that no volume covering such a wide range of material, some of it 
inadequately documented, can be free of mistakes; if those who find errors will 
report them to the Federal Writers' Project in Washington, corrections will 
gladly be made in future editions. 


Tours Editor 


THE HISTORY OF US 1, which runs from the Canadian Boundary 
of Maine to southern Florida, reflects the history of the Atlantic Sea- 
board States. North of Baltimore the route approximates the Old 
Post Road, first official intercolonial highway of the country connect- 
ing the leading cities of all the thirteen Colonies but Delaware. The 
cities of this northern section maintained their primacy as settlement 
spread inland. South of Baltimore, however, the early commercial 
and cultural centers along the coast gradually lost leadership to cities 
that developed inland along the geologic fall line; the main north- 
and-south highway connecting the States veered inland with the 
shift of power. It is significant that when Federal highway numbering 
began in 1925 this old route became US 1. It remains as it was in 
Colonial and early Federal days the chief line of communication 
between the centers of the Atlantic Seaboard States. 

With increasing congestion of metropolitan areas, US 1 has in 
many places been rerouted to bypass the centers of the cities it for- 
merly traversed. It still, however, runs through country intimately 
bound up with important events. In Maine the route runs close to the 
sites of the first two settlements attempted in New England; in Florida 
it passes through St. Augustine, the oldest settlement in the present 
United States. Many of the New England towns through which it 
runs were "little hornets' nests" during the Revolutionary War. Over 
a part of the route Paul Revere in 1773 spurred his horse on his dash 
to Philadelphia with news of the Boston Tea Party. Fort Washington 
in New York City is where three thousand Americans surrendered to 
General Howe in 1776, completing the abandonment of the city. 
Across the river in New Jersey the route passes the site of old Fort 
Lee, from which Washington watched the attack and surrender of his 
Fort Washington garrison. Lafayette and his troops in 1781 hurried 
along this road to oppose the British invasion of Richmond. 

This highway was likewise closely bound up with the Civil War. In 
Pennsylvania US 1 traverses the territory in which first rose the op- 
position to the institution of slavery that was to culminate in the bit- 
terest internal struggle of the nation. The highway crosses the Mason- 
Dixon line, which marked the division between the free and slave 
States in this war. In Virginia it runs close to the bloody battlefield 
from which in 1864 Grant sent the words that became the slogan of 


xii U. S. ONE 

the final days of the Civil War: "I intend to fight it out on this line if 
it takes all summer." South of Fredericksburg is a hundred-mile 
stretch of land that bore the brunt of the four-year drive of the Fed- 
eral armies to capture the Confederate capital; the route here trav- 
erses an area that has seen more bloodshed than has any other on 
the North American Continent. 

In Maine the highway runs close to the house prepared for the re- 
ception of Marie Antoinette if her friends should rescue her; in 
Massachusetts, to the house in which lived the Scottish prisoners cap- 
tured by Cromwell at the Battle of Dunbar and indentured for seven 
years to the Saugus iron works; in Virginia, to the site of the home of 
Margaret Brent, who before 1634 had demanded "voyce & vote 
allso"; in North Carolina, to the place where lived for a time the 
lovely Flora MacDonald of Scottish history; in the same State, to the 
house in which the Governor of North Carolina made his famous 
complaint to the Governor of South Carolina: "It's a damned long 
time between drinks"; in Georgia, to an area that is an untamed 

The chronicle of US 1 is directly related to the history of transpor- 
tation in America. In the early seventeenth century the colonists 
blazed trails or made use of the Pequot Path, the Potomac Path, and 
other Indian traces along the general line of the present route to 
establish an artery of communication between isolated settlements. 
According to Madam Knight, who made the trip between Boston 
and New York on horseback in 1704, "the Rodes all along this way 
were very bad. Incumbered with Rocks and mountainos passages, 
which were very disagreeable to my tried carcass. In going over a 
Bridge, under which the River Run very swift, my hors stumbled and 
very narrowly 'scaped falling over into the water." A "cannoo" in 
which she crossed the Thames River was so unstable that she kept her 
"eyes stedy, not daring so much as to lodg' my tongue a hair's 
breadth more on one side of my mouth than tother, nor so much as 
think of Lott's wife, for a wry thought would have upset our whery." 

Travel south of the Potomac was even more difficult. Several fer- 
ries from Virginia to the Maryland shore were early established along 
the Potomac as short-cuts to Baltimore and Philadelphia. Diaries and 
travel books written by those who used the route through Virginia in 
the days when it was known as the King's Highway record many 
near-disastrous adventures on it. Even at the end of the eighteenth 


century Dr. Coke, an Englishman, nearly perished in fording Acco- 
tink Creek during a freshet; John Marshall spoke feelingly of miring 
his horse; and Thomas Jefferson bemoaned the fact that the best 
speed he could make was three miles an hour. 

The development and expansion of the Colonies in the eighteenth 
century created commercial transportation needs, and various types 
of vehicles came upon the scene. The first common carrier service in 
America was established under a franchise granted by the Governor 
of New Jersey, over a part of what was to become US 1, with the use 
of a crude sort of cart for carrying freight. About 1725 the stage 
wagon, of English origin, appeared in the Colonies. Until 1870, 
when the first transcontinental railroad was completed, the modi- 
fied stagecoach remained the chief transport agency in America, 
though the conditions of land travel were far from uniform. The Old 
Post Road between Boston and New York ran through New London, 
Newport, and Providence; stagecoach fare was ten dollars. Regular 
passenger service between New York and Philadelphia, largely by 
boat, was inaugurated in 1 732 ; the trip required five days, though by 
the end of the century the time had been reduced to a day and a half. 
During the stagecoach era, when passengers were for a time charged 
according to their weight, competition between rival stages reached 
such a fantastic peak that in Massachusetts passengers were carried 
free ,by one stage line, until the alert rival company offered not only 
free passage but dinner as well. Ownership of taverns and stage- 
coaches was frequently combined. The sound of the coachman's horn 
became familiar throughout the countryside not only serving ad- 
vance notice to would-be passengers, but also by the number of toots 
indicating to the landlord how many passengers planned to eat at his 

The appearance of the first wheeled vehicles brought about the 
transformation of tote-paths and pack-train routes into wagon roads; 
even then a "middling good road" was one in which the mud did not 
come up over the traveler's boot tops. The introduction of stages 
necessitated improvement of the dirt roads, which were maintained 
by the various communities. Some of the turnpike companies at- 
tempted to lay permanent stone surfaces, financing and building 
them according to English precedent; the corporations charged tolls 
not only for the cost and maintenance of the roads but also for the 
profit of stockholders. Part of the Old Post Road near Greenwich, 

xiv U. S. ONE 

Connecticut, was built by the third turnpike company chart- 
ered in the United States, and within a few years many other sections 
of the route were improved in the same way. But the turnpikes proved 
unprofitable, particularly after the advent of the railroad, most of the 
roads soon reverting to public control, though the last toll gate on 
US 1 was not removed until little more than a decade ago. 

Roads south of Washington were slow to develop. In 1 804 Thomas 
Moore, the Irish poet, while traveling in Virginia, wrote home: 
"Such a road I have come and in such a conveyance. The mail takes 
twelve passengers which generally consist of squalling children . . . 
and stinking republicans smoking cigars." During the War of 1812 
communication by means of sailing packets, which had formerly 
united the New England States and the southern seaboard, was al- 
most entirely cut off. For a time the only commercial intercourse 
possible was by means of trains of Conestoga wagons, which departed 
daily from the North with commodities. This long interruption of 
water transportation stimulated the development of movement by 
land between the two sections, despite the mire, difficult fords, and 
other obstacles that drew the curses of travelers, and increased the 
use of the stagecoach and the improvement of roads. 

After the war the coastal packets never fully recovered their trade. 
Turnpikes and plank roads were built between the fall-line cities as 
an inland north-and-south route, which became increasingly more 
popular than the post route nearer the coast. 

The coming of the railroad led to the disappearance of the stage- 
coach and thus marked the end of one of the most adventurous 
aspects of early American life. US 1 connects points at which the ear- 
liest railroad experiments were made. In 1805 Thomas Leiper of 
Philadelphia constructed the first "rail road" with horse-drawn cars 
that hauled stone from his quarry to the river landing nearly a mile 
away. Twenty-five years later the first section of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad was opened between Baltimore and Ellicott Mills, 
fourteen miles away. At a number of points US 1 bore the shock of 
the railroad advance. Stages were unable to compete with the su- 
perior steam-powered rivals, and the route fell into general disuse for 
half a century. 

By the end of the nineteenth century a need for better and more 
extensive roads had developed in the thickly populated northeastern 
States. In 1890 New Jersey passed the first State highway law; 


Massachusetts, New York, and other States followed suit. But it was 
the extensive development of motor transportation that inaugurated 
a new period in the history of the route. State roadbuilding aid had 
been extended to counties through which the principal highways 
passed. Eventually the Federal Government began to interest itself, 
and the Federal Aid Act of 1916 led to active participation in the 
financing and construction of roads in all States. A condition of the 
Act was the creation of State highway departments to cooperate in 
establishing uniform standards for building roads partly financed by 
the Government. Five of the States through which US 1 passes were 
among the first seven to establish such departments, and to benefit 
from the more scientific engineering methods prescribed. 

Though US 1 runs through many attractive areas, its roadside for 
long sections, as on other express highways of the country, is depress- 
ingly ugly, being characterized by hideous shacks, enormous signs, 
dumps, and raw cuts. A group of far-sighted businessmen who profit 
by the traffic on US 1 has organized a committee to remedy this con- 
dition, but it is unlikely that any real progress will be made until the 
States take control of the situation, because indifference or lack of 
cooperation on the part of a few can nullify the efforts of the many, or 
can force them into screaming competition. Today there are more 
than three million miles of roads and highways in the United States, 
used by some twenty-six million motor vehicles. What can be done 
toward beautifying U. S. highways is briefly though admirably illus- 
trated by the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, a parkway that 
serves as an alternate to US 1 for about twenty miles south of Wash- 
ington. In some States, notably in Connecticut, advances have been 
made in the control of roadside advertising and in roadway beauti- 
fication; Virginia clubwomen have persuaded a number of national 
manufacturers to cease billboard advertising in the State. 


While traveling speed and comfort have reached heights un- 
dreamed of a century ago, meals available to travelers have declined 
steadily in quality because the American is no longer the gourmet he 
once was. Nowhere are the democratic processes more evident than 
in the food-catering business; the restaurant keeper is up for reelec- 
tion three times a day and must continually respond to the will of the 
majority if he is to avoid bankruptcy. If his constituents demand ela- 
borate dining room furnishings and pantalets on the chop-bones 
rather than high-priced cuts of meat, if they prefer quick service in 
place of cooked-to-order dishes, or if they order a limited range of 
foods and ignore new ones, the restaurant keeper must fill the 

America has native foodstuffs in variety and of qualities unsur- 
passed in any other country, and American colonists early devised a 
large number of savory dishes. Delegates to the first Continental Con- 
gress were offered meals Lucullus would not have scorned. Even the 
austere John Adams, deeply engrossed in the affairs of the Colonies, 
found time to comment in detail on them. Up until the middle of the 
nineteenth century no account of an entertainment or meeting was 
complete without some mention of the menu. 

There are many reasons for the decline in food standards. The 
sedentary occupations of city-dwellers have lessened the keenness of 
their appetites, and the tempo of modern life has left little time for 
them to test the quality of individual dishes, and even less time to 
wait for the preparation of special orders. More important in the de- 
cline has been the domestic revolution. Women have seldom had as 
great an interest in food as men have had, but when housekeeping 
was the only career open to them and compliments on satisfying 
meals were the chief rewards for service, they spent much of their 
time in shopping for choice foodstuffs, mixing, beating, paring, boil- 
ing, and baking. When new careers were opened to women and they 
were no longer dependent on cooking for their living, they and the 
manufacturers united to make the preparation of meals a short 
process. Today a pre-cooked dinner, from soup to nuts, can be 
bought and placed on the table in half an hour. The difference be- 
tween a dinner created by mass-production processes and one pre- 
pared at home is as great as the difference between a ready-made 


xviii U. S. ONE 

suit and one tailored to order, but an eating public gradually accus- 
tomed to the ready-made meal has lost appreciation of the finer 

While the fine old American dishes have in many places disap- 
peared from restaurant menus because of the lack of demand for 
them, there are still restaurant keepers here and there who cater to 
the discriminating minority. For the benefit of those interested in the 
food specialties of the areas through which US 1 runs, the following 
lists have been compiled. Some of the dishes are offered in restaurants 
along the route, occasionally prepared according to the best tradi- 
tions, more often in debased forms; others, relics of a more leisurely 
way of life, are found only in private homes. Fortunately, the art of 
preparation has not been completely lost, and food purveyors will be 
quick to respond to a demand for their revival. 


APPLE FRITTERS: sweet milk, eggs, sugar, and salt, with slices of apple 
stirred into the batter; dropped into hot fat and fried until brown. Served 
with sugar and cream. 

APPLE SLUMP: cored and sliced apples, seasoned with sugar and cinnamon. 
Dough is dropped on in separate spoonfuls. Baked and served with butter 

OLD-FASHIONED PAN DOWDY: alternating layers of sugar, molasses, cinna- 
mon, salt pork, and sliced apples, topped with thin crust. Baked in slow oven 
and served with thin cream. 

STEAMED SUET PUDDING: flour, milk, molasses, sugar, seasoning, spices, 
suet, raisins, citron, currants, and almonds. Steamed and served with soft 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING: scalded milk, corn meal, and molasses, cooked 
until thick; sugar, egg, butter, and spices are added, and the mixture is 
baked. Served either hot or cold with whipped cream or hard sauce. 

WOODS-STYLE PLANKED GAME FISH: fish is placed, skin side in, on live 
hardwood tree from which bark is stripped; salt pork or bacon strips are 
pegged just above fish for basting; cooked until brown with fire built two 
feet from tree. Served with drawn butter. 

WOODS-STYLE BAKED GAME FISH: dressed fish is covered with an inch of 
wet clay and baked overnight in hot ashes of campfire; when clay is broken 
open, the fish meat comes out steaming. Served with butter. 

1743 POLOE: fowl, rice, onion, and seasoning stewed together and served 

RED FLANNEL HASH: cooked beets, potatoes, carrots, turnips, and left-over 
corned beef or spare ribs, chopped, seasoned, and pan fried. 

SOUSED CLAMS: freshly shucked clams stewed in vinegar. Served either hot 
or cold. 

CLAM BAKE: clams, lobsters, crabs, green corn, sweet potatoes, and eggs 
cooked in rockweed on ledges heated by outdoor fire. 

BOILED PIES: cider applesauce mixed with fritter batter and fried in deep 

EGGS CANADIAN: eggs scrambled with maple syrup. 

ROAST VENISON: leg or saddle of venison thoroughly larded with pork, 
basted with claret while baking; served with gravy made from pan drippings, 
also with currant, barberry, or wild plum jelly. 


BLANC MANGE: sea moss (picked up along the ocean beaches), milk, salt, 
and vanilla cooked until thick. 


xx U. S. ONE 

LOBSTER ROLL: roll filled with lobster, lettuce, and salad dressing. 
PEPPER STEAK SANDWICHES: small steak and pepper relish filling. 
FRIED CLAMS: dipped in batter of bread crumbs and fried in deep fat. 
FISH AND CLAM CHOWDER: made with milk and no vegetables. 
CODFISH BALLS: codfish mixed with potatoes and fried. 
CRANBERRY TURNOVERS: biscuit dough fried in deep fat, then filled with 
cranberry sauce. 


BOSTON BAKED BEANS: pea or kidney beans, salt pork, black molasses, 
sugar, and dry mustard, baked six to twelve hours. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD: yellow cornmeal, rye meal, soda, salt, molasses, 
and milk steamed for several hours. 

NEW ENGLAND CHOWDER: clams, potatoes, onion, pork, and milk. 

SUCCOTASH: corn stewed with green beans. 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING: cornmeal, molasses, sugar, egg, butter, milk, salt, 
ginger, and cinnamon baked in slow oven. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS: flour, milk, salt, sugar, butter, and yeast; dough cut 
into circles, each of which is folded. These originated in the old Parker 
House, one of the famous hotels of Boston. 


JOHNNY CAKE: white corn meal, well scalded, sugar, salt, milk, fried on a 

CLAM CAKES: chopped clams, milk, flour, egg, and seasoning fried brown 
in deep lard. 

CLAM CHOWDER: chopped clams, milk, butter, diced pork or bacon, fried 
sliced onion, seasoning, thickened with flour and served over soda or oyster 

WHITPOT PUDDING: Indian meal, molasses, milk, and salt baked one hour. 
Served cool. 

BROWN BREAD: yellow or white corn meal, milk, molasses, soda, flour, and 
salt steamed for three hours in crock. 

INDIAN APPLE PUDDING: white meal, cut apples, sugar, salt, hot skimmed 
milk, and molasses baked for one hour; cold milk is then added and baking 
is continued four hours more. 

OLD-FASHIONED MOLASSES COOKIES: molasses, granulated sugar, eggs, 
lard, and saleratus dissolved in sour milk or water. 

CLAM BAKE: clams in shells, fish, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, onions, 
and sweet corn, separated by layers of rockweed, steamed half an hour over 
hot stones in barrel or trench. 

NEW YORK ; xxi 


BROILED LOBSTER: broiled over live coals; served with butter sauce. 

SHORE DINNER: all available seafoods (clams, fish, lobsters, oysters, crabs) 
prepared in various ways. 

CLAM BAKES: clams steamed on hot stones beneath a seaweed blanket. 

SQUASH PIE: open face; made with baked squash (usually Hubbard). 

MINCE PIE: double crust; home-made mincemeat moistened with cider. 

COWSLIP OR DANDELION GREENS: picked before ready to bloom; cooked 
slowly with salt pork. Dandelion greens have been a standard "spring tonic" 
for generations, folk-medicine having recognized the signs of a marked 
vitamin-A deficiency without knowing anything about vitamins. The de- 
ficiency occurs less frequently today because green vegetables are available 
in winter. 

BAKING POWDER BISCUITS: the Yankee "quick biscuit" is made only on 
individual recipes. 

CLAM CHOWDER: hard clam stew made without tomatoes; tastes better 
the second day. 

PUMPKIN PIE: open face, made with small, sugar pumpkins and smooth, 
flaky crust crinkled on the edge. 

BAKED WOODCHUCK: special delicacy, particularly in early autumn when 
Johnny Chuck has rounded out by feeding on sweet clover. 

ROAST RACCOON: available only after a hunt for the little washing bear. 

RHUBARB PIE: either open face or double crust. Served with venison or 

POVERTY RELISH: chopped cabbage, salt, and a dash of vinegar. 

BAKED SPARE RIBS: served cold or hot with brown gravy. 

NEW ENGLAND BOILED DINNER: corned beef and cabbage. 


OYSTER STEW: oysters steamed only until edges curl; served in own liquid 
mixed with milk heated below the boiling point; salt, pepper and butter 
added before serving. 

SOFT-SHELL CLAMS: powdered lightly with flour and fried in hot bacon 
fat. Never dipped in batter before frying. 

CAMP FIRE SWEET POTATOES: sweet potatoes mashed with egg, topped 
with marshmallows, and browned in oven. 

BLUSHING BUNNY: cheese, egg and tomato puree, made as in Welsh Rare- 
bit, served on crackers or toast. 

POST ROAD PUDDING: sliced sponge cake sprinkled with sherry in which 
apricots and prunes have been placed; covered with a mixture of beaten 
eggs, sugar, milk, and vanilla, thickened over slow fire. Served cold with 
whipped cream, decorated with glaced cherries. 

xxii U. S. ONE 

UPSIDE DOWN CAKE: bottom of iron skillet is covered with melted butter, 
tl\en with brown sugar and pieces of fruit such as pineapples, pears, peaches, 
apricots, and finally with cake batter. Baked in moderate oven. Served up- 
side down with whipped cream. 

BROILED T-BoNE STEAK: broiled close to flame; after first searing on each 
side it is basted with melted butter well peppered and salted. 


SUCCOTASH: corn and lima beans stewed together, a dish adopted from the 

BEACH PLUM JAM: plums that grow wild on Sandy Hook; equal quantities 
of fruit and sugar. 

NEW JERSEY CLAM CHOWDER: chopped clams, onions, carrots, potatoes; 
seasoned with thyme and a small amount of salt pork. 

BULLY CLAM CHOWDER: large juicy clams, ground ripe tomatoes, green 
peppers, onions, parsley, spices, salt, and pepper. 

CAPE MAY CLAM CHOWDER: clams drained and chopped fine, diced 
potatoes, onions, and lean salt pork; simmered for an hour after potatoes are 

' SNAPPER SOUP: ground snapper, boiled slowly in salt water; crab meat, 
green peppers, thyme, parsley, small cubes of Jersey red-skin potatoes, garlic,' 
salt, and red pepper. 

SNAPPER STEW: snapper cut in small cubes cooked slowly; hard-boiled egg 
yolk, butter, cream, salt, nutmeg, and paprika are added. Served on toast. 

Lowlands of south Jersey abound with snapping turtles, popularly known 
as snappers. It is a difficult job to get at the meat. The snapper is tickled on 
the nose with a stout stick. When he grabs it, the stick is pulled until he has 
fully unfolded his long neck. Then his head is chopped off behind the ears, 
after which he relaxes. A sharp knife is then inserted between the interstices 
in the side bridges that tie the lower and upper shells. 

PLANKED SHAD: whole roe or buck shad split down back and placed on a 
hickory or white pine plank slightly larger than the fish; the plank is heated 
to the charring point, then propped upright before fire of hot coals. 

PICKLED EELS AND MUSSELS: soaked in brine 48 hours, with spices and 
vinegar, served with lemon and chopped parsley. 

THE LARGEST HOT DOG IN THE WORLD: a New Jersey invention. 


The "Pennsylvania Dutch" tradition of "seven sweets and seven sours" 
on the table at each meal is still evident in eastern Pennsylvania restaurants; 


in no other place are so many kinds of jelly and pickles routinely placed on 
the table along with the salt, pepper, sugar and catsup. 

KARTUFFLE GLACE: boiled potatoes put through meat grinder, and added 
to flour, eggs, and melted butter; formed into balls the size of large marbles. 

LENTIL SOUP: lentils with beef or pork and often potatoes. 

FAGGOTS: pork pluck, consisting of the liver, heart, and lungs of a pig, 
chopped up and baked. 

FROIS OR WELSH PANCAKES: giant pancakes sprinkled with currants and 
sugar, stacked high and cut across in quarters. Served piping hot with jelly. 

SOUSE: pigs' feet; eaten cold or hot with vinegar. 

SCHNITZ UN KNEPP: dried apples and dumplings cooked with or without 
a ham shoulder. 

PORK FRITTERS: slices of pork tenderloin dipped in corn meal batter and 

APPLE BUTTER: sweet apples and sweet cider boiled into a rich paste, then 

PHILADELPHIA SCRAPPLE: corn meal and ground pork, boiled and allowed 
to cool; it is then sliced and fried. 

PHILADELPHIA PEPPER POT: white honeycomb tripe, veal, potatoes, onion, 
peppers, seasonings, and dumplings. 

SAUERKRAUT AND DUMPLINGS: dumplings covered over with sauerkraut. 

flour and melted butter; pig's knuckles added and covered with sauerkraut. 

SHOO-FLY: crumb pie made with molasses and sprinkled with sugar and 


MARYLAND BISCUITS: stiff dough beaten with a hatchet and baked in small 
hard cakes pricked with a fork. 

MARYLAND FRIED CHICKEN: young chicken cut in pieces, dipped in light 
batter, floured, fried in deep fat. Served with cream gravy and waffles or 
with corn fritters and bacon. 

TIPSY PARSON: loaf of sponge cake stuck full of blanched almonds and 
saturated with sherry. Served with boiled custard, topped with whipped 

EGGNOG: yolks and whites of eggs beaten separately, with sugar, brandy, 
milk, and rich cream. Served particularly during the holidays. 

SOFT CRABS: cleaned by removing sand bag, dead men and eyes; dipped 
in batter and cracker crumbs and fried in deep fat. 

CREAMED HOMINY: soaked overnight, simmered for six hours, and creamed 
with butter, salt, and milk. 

LADY BALTIMORE CAKE: white layer cake with filling of soft icing and 
chopped fruits and nuts. 

xxiv U. S. ONE 

PLANKED SHAD: boned, baked on hickory or other hardwood plank, and 
served on plank with trimmings of lemon and potato chips. 

SALLY LUNN: unsweetened cake dough, raised with yeast; baked brown in 
deep dish. 

STUFFED HAM: parboiled ham cut in even slices, alternated with chopped 
greens and spring onions; sewed in clean white cloth and boiled. When 
sliced, it reveals stripes of pink and green. Served particularly at Easter. 

BRAISED MUSKRAT: boiled until tender, cut small, and baked with thick 
brown crust. Known to the trade as "marsh rabbit." 

SWEET POTATO SOUTHERN: boiled Maryland sweet potatoes, mashed, 
mixed with beaten egg, cinnamon, cream, and brown sugar, topped with 
marshmallows, and baked in casserole. 

KOSSUTH CAKE: a rich cake served with chocolate and whipped cream; 
by a Baltimore baker and first served at a reception given to Louis Kossuth, 
the Hungarian patriot, in the winter of 1851-52. 

DIAMOND-BACK TERRAPIN: boiled, skinned, and cut fine, blended with 
butter and sherry. 

At hotels individual portions range from $3.00 to $5.00. There was a time 
when terrapin were so plentiful that indentures stipulated that the servant 
should not be fed the food oftener than twice a week. H. L. Mencken pro- 
nounces terrapin the noblest of all victuals but warns against its desecration 
by the addition of sauces or condiments. Some Maryland gourmets decry 
the use of sherry as a flavoring but drink sherry (or Madeira) while eating it. 


CORN PONE: yellow corn meal, water, salt, and shortening, baked. 

CORN DODGER: meal, water, salt, and shortening, fried. 

ASH CAKE: corn bread cooked in ashes near the coals of an open fireplace. 

CRACKLING BREAD: corn bread with crisp bits of fat. 

SPOON AND BATTER BREADS: thin mixtures of corn meal, eggs, milk, and 
shortening, baked. 

BRUNSWICK STEW: squirrel, rabbit (the old recipes began "First catch your 
hare") or chicken, tomatoes, onions, okra, carrots, celery, cabbage, potatoes, 
butter beans, bacon, red pepper, corn, and salt. Originated in Brunswick 
County, Virginia; hence the name. 

TURNIP GREENS AND COLLARDS: usually cooked with hog jowl. 

FRIED HERRING: rolled in corn meal and fried till crisp; a breakfast dish. 

HERRING CAKES: herring flakes mixed with eggs, potatoes, flour, or corn 

FRIED APPLE PIE: sliced apples mixed with sugar and spices and placed in 
a half moon of short pastry; fried in deep fat. 

SMITHFIELD HAM: may or may not be peanut-fed; cured by months of ex- 
posure to the smoke of hardwoods. Soaked overnight and simmered half an 


hour for every pound of ham. Slashed, prepared with a paste made of brown 
sugar and sherry, dotted with cloves, and covered with cracker crumbs. 
Baked and served cold; sliced very thin. 


CHICKEN BRUNSWICK STEW: chicken, lima beans, corn, and tomatoes. 

BARBECUED CHICKEN: while roasting, basted with sauce made of butter, 
lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce, red pepper, and other seasoning. 

BEATEN BISCUITS: made from flour, lard, salt, and sweet milk, beaten for 
half an hour, preferably on a marble slab; baked in a hot oven, and served 

SWEET POTATO BISCUITS: boiled mashed sweet potatoes added to regular 
buttermilk biscuit dough. 

BAKED HAM: country cured from peanut-fed hogs; baked with a wine 

SUCCOTASH: corn and lima or string beans; okra and tomatoes often added. 

PEACH AND OTHER SHORTCAKES: made with a short unsweetened biscuit 

TIPSY CAKE: sponge cake, blanched almonds, and syllabub flavored with 
brandy, in layers, the whole moistened with scuppernong or Concord wine. 

SALLY WHITE CAKE: pound cake batter, sherry, citron, coconut, blanched 
almonds, rose water, and mace; sometimes moistened with peach brandy. 

SWEET PICKLED PEACHES: peaches cooked whole in a thick spiced syrup. 

BRANDIED PEACHES: heavily sugared peaches fermented in a stone crock 
that is sometimes buried for a time. 

WINE JELLY: jelly flavored with home-made scuppernong, blackberry, or 
Concord wine. Served with whipped cream. 


SCRAPPLE: corn meal cooked in pork broth to consistency of thick mush, 
added to tender pieces of pork, seasoned with salt, pepper, and onion juice. 
When cold and firm, the moisture is sliced and browned in a hot skillet. 

PERSIMMON PUDDING: fresh fruit, egg whites, sugar, milk, and corn starch, 
baked in a crust. 

SWEET POTATOES: potatoes boiled, sliced, and baked in a butter and sugar 

SWEET POTATO BISCUITS: boiled mashed potatoes added to biscuit dough. 

SWEET POTATO PONE: grated raw potatoes mixed with sugar, molasses, 
milk, and ginger, then baked. 

SWEET POTATO PUDDING: parboiled potatoes grated, mixed with butter, 
sugar, powdered cinnamon, lemon juice, and eggs, then baked. 

xxvi U. S. ONE 

JELLY PIE: blackberry or scuppernong grape jelly, butter, sugar, and eggs, 
baked in a crust. 

CAROLINA OPOSSUM: meat cut in small pieces, soaked in salted water, 
stewed, and seasoned with lemon juice and currant jelly. 

CAROLINA OPOSSUM AND SWEET POTATOES: opossum boiled whole, sur- 
rounded with baked yellow sweet potatoes, and basted with grease in which 
possum was boiled; baked until brown. 

DEVILED BAKED HAM: soaked 18 hours in vinegar, sherry, and mustard; 
boiled in this sauce, then baked in quick oven. 

FISH STEW: fresh-water fish stewed in large quantity of water seasoned 
with fat-back bacon, onions, tomato catsup, Worcestershire sauce. 

HOMINY WAFFLES: cooked hominy, flour, milk, and melted butter. 

CRACKLING CORNBREAD: meal, salt, boiling water, cracklings (crisp bits of 
pork left after lard rendering), molded into small oblong cakes and baked 
until brown. 


'PossoM AND 'TATERS: opossum, parboiled in salt water; highly seasoned 
and baked; served with sweet potatoes. 

SOUSE MEAT: hog's head, ears, and feet stewed, mashed, seasoned, pressed, 
and sliced when cold. 

TURNIP GREENS: fresh and tender turnip tops, boiled with salt pork or 
smoked bacon. 

CORN PONE: stiff dough of meal, water, and salt, baked in oblong pones. 

SORGHUM PUDDING: pudding made with sorghum syrup and ginger, baked 
in a loaf, and sliced. 

LEATHER BREECHES: dried green snap beans, soaked overnight and boiled 
with salt bacon. 

BARBECUE: pork, beef, lamb, or chicken, turned frequently and basted 
with a sauce of vinegar, pepper, salt, and butter. 

BRUNSWICK STEW: chopped beef, pork, tomatoes, corn, onion, peppers, 
and high seasonings. 

FRIED PIES: pastry filled with dried or fresh fruit and fried in hot fat. 

BOILED PEANUTS: Spanish peanuts in shell boiled in salt water until soft. 


WAMPUS OR HUSH PUPPIES: corn meal scalded in milk, mixed with egg, 
baking powder, and onion, and cooked in the grease of frying fish. In early 
Florida days when fish were fried in large pans out of doors, the savory odor 
caused the family's pack of hounds to whine and yelp with hunger. As a 
means of quieting the dogs, the cook would hastily scald corn meal, pat it 
into cakes without salt or shortening, and cook it in the grease of frying fish. 

FLORIDA xxvii 

When done, it was thrown to the dogs, after which silence prevailed; hence 
the name, hush puppies. 

SWAMP SALAD: the raw bud of a palmetto tree (which has the taste of a 
green chestnut) served with salad dressing. 

SWAMP CABBAGE: the sliced bud of a palmetto tree boiled with salt pork 
until tender. 

COMPTIE: the powdered root of a wild plant in south Florida; used as flour 
for making cakes or bread. 

RATTLESNAKE SNACKS: meat of skinned snake cut into thin slices, salted, 
and smoked over hickory. Served as hors-d'oeuvres. 

RATTLESNAKE ENTREE: meat boiled and served with supreme sauce. 

FROMAJARDIS: ring-shaped baked cheese cakes with cinnamon; a cross is 
cut in rim of cake. 

SEA TURTLE: sliced into steaks and fried. 

FLORIDA GOPHER: sliced into steaks and fried over a low fire. (In Florida a 
gopher is a land turtle.) 

GUAVA JELLY: made from ripe fruit and prepared as other jellies. 

STONE CRAB: boiled in salted water until claws are salmon pink; meat is 
extracted and dipped in melted butter. 

COQUINA COCKTAIL: chilled coquina broth, to which lemon juice and 
Tabasco are added; mixture churned in a cocktail shaker and served im- 
mediately. Coquina is an ocean shellfish about the size of a coffee bean. 

CRAWFISH ENCHILADO: green and red peppers added to meat of crawfish 
and fried in olive oil. 

ARROZ CON POLLO: rice colored and flavored with saffron, then boiled in 
pot with chicken. 


In the above list a few dishes appear in more than one State. Succotash, for 
example, is made of corn with any kind of fresh beans in one State; in a 
second it is made of corn with lima beans only; and in a third of corn with 
beans, okra and tomatoes. It will be observed that most of the dishes are 
made of foods native to America; the best dishes of every land are those 
developed by native cooks from local products. Few American cooks are en- 
tirely successful in following French recipes and few French cooks can cook a 
typical American meal. A blighting influence on American cooking has been 
the attempt to impose French menus on the American people without an 
understanding of French cooking methods and the use of French ingredients. 





Calais Ellsworth Bangor Belfast Brunswick Portland 
N.H. Line, 341.4m. US 1. 

Bangor & Aroostook R.R. parallels route between Bangor and Searsport; Maine 
Central R.R. between Calais, Bangor, and Bucksport and between Rock- 
land and Portland; and Boston & Maine R.R. between Portland and Ports- 

Hard-surfaced roadbed, three lanes wide between Portland and Portsmouth. 
Accommodations principally in cities. 

US 1 in Maine runs close to the coast from one end of the State to 
the other. It runs through resort areas, rolling and rocky farmlands, 
and along the banks of broad rivers; it crosses high hills locally 
called mountains and blueberry plains. It connects the two ends 
of the 2,500-mile coast line, which are but 225 miles apart by air line. 
The southern part of the route is more frequented, but the whole of 
the broken and jagged coast has a picturesque charm that makes it a 
favorite with summer travelers. South of Maine, land and sea have 
few rigid boundaries; the waves encroach and retreat, the land is 
washed away and built up. But on the Maine shore they meet 
abruptly; that old devil sea at times comes dashing in as though it had 
been gathering force halfway around the earth to break the stubborn, 
granite headlands; it attacks with a roar, retreats, and returns to 
attack again. 

There are two coasts of Maine. The coast known to most visitors 
has spruce-tipped hills and hard beaches dappled with the red, 
orange, green, blue, and white raiment of visitors, blue-green waters 
broken by tilting sails and the wakes of speeding motorboats, and a 
brilliant blue sky. The inhabitants of this land work night and day 
running hotels, boarding houses, tourist camps, and lunch stands, 
piloting fishing and sightseeing boats, trying in a brief season to earn 
the money for house repairs, heavy shoes and overcoats, medicines, 
school books, and other 12-month needs. 

The second coast of Maine is for four or five months muffled in 
snow; travel is at times difficult and most hotels and many of the 
rooms in homes are closed. But this Maine has its own charm. The 
rural inhabitants, even though striving to add to their limited in- 
comes, have time to relax and they accept the comparatively few 
visitors as members of their families, telling them long stories of 

2 U. S. ONE 

grandfathers and uncles who never returned from the sea, of the 
great-aunts who heard voices, and other tales characteristic of a 
country that part of the year has almost pioneer isolation. There are 
other rewards for those who visit this coast out of season. The 
chowder and baked beans, made in family quantities and eaten after 
strenuous climbs over snowy hills, have a finer flavor than those of 
summer; the headlands, snow-crowned, take on an icy glaze that 
sharpens their strange silhouettes; and the sea in acrobatic assaults 
causes the very rocks to tremble. But the glory of this Maine is its 
sky, unreal saffron after the gray light that comes before the dawn, 
blue as Persian tiles for a brief time at midday, and an unearthly 
pale green streaked with rose in the late afternoon, turning the snow 
pale heliotrope with purple shadows. 

Section 7. Calais to Ellsworth, 123.9 m. 

US 1 between Calais and Ellsworth passes through the old hunting 
grounds of the Passamaquoddy Indians, which still provide good sport 
in season. Broad blueberry plains stretch out to the W., and numer- 
ous rivers and streams along the route provide excellent fishing. 

CALAIS (pron. Kal' is), m. (82 alt., 5,470 pop.), the "interna- 
tional city" of Maine, is the only city in the State on the Canadian 
Border. It is a port of entry and many of its citizens came from the 
Canadian Provinces. The city spreads out on a hilly terrain along the 
western bank of the St. Croix River, directly opposite St. Stephen, 
N.B. The mile-long main street, a wide thoroughfare lined with fine 
old elm trees, runs from the end of the International Bridge to the 
St. Croix Country Club at the southern end of the city. The business 
district is at the northern end, close to the river; from the bridge are 
visible the docks that once played an important part in the city's 
industrial history. Around the business district are quiet streets with 
attractive houses surrounded by trees, broad lawns, and well- 
trimmed shrubbery. Handsome churches and modern schools add to 
the air of prosperity. The municipal affairs of Calais and St. Stephen 
are allied to the extent that the fire engines of the two communities 
clang back and forth across the International Bridge to answer 
alarms in what to each community is technically a foreign land. The 
Calais water supply comes from St. Stephen, being piped across the 
river. United States and Canadian currencies are accepted in both 


The first settlers, who arrived in 1779, were attracted to Calais by 
the wealth of timber, the fertile soil, and the abundance of fish and 

Calais early became an important lumbering center. The launch- 
ing in 1801 of the Liberty, the first vessel built in the community, 
marked the beginning of a profitable industry that lasted till the end 
of the era of tall ships. In 1809 the Massachusetts Legislature named 
the settlement for the French port of Calais, as a compliment to 
France because of the aid rendered to the struggling Colonies during 
the Revolution. After 1820 the primitive backwoods settlement be- 
gan to expand rapidly. Roads and bridges were built; churches and 
homes sprang up along the highways. In 1850, with a population of 
4,749, it was incorporated as a city. 

The MASON HOUSE (private), at the point (R) where Main St. turns 
toward the customhouse, was the home of Noah Smith, Jr. (180068). 
Smith, paternal grandfather of the writer, Kate Douglas Wiggin, is 
said to have been one of the last people who had official business with 
President Lincoln before his assassination; at that time he received 
the President's signature to a pardon granted to a young Calais 
soldier who had been convicted of treason. 

RED BEACH, 8.9 m. (90 alt.; Ward 9, City of Calais), takes its 
name from the color of the granite outcrop along the shore. The vil- 
lage lies along the main highway in a pleasant wooded area from 
which the wide island-dotted St. Croix is visible. 

Opposite Red Beach, in the St. Croix River, is DOCKET ISLAND (40 alt.), 
which is reached by rowboat. 

In 1603 Pierre du Guast, the Sieur de Monts, received the trading concession 
for Acadia, which, in the grand manner of the times, was defined as a territory 
extending from Cape Breton Island to a point well below the present New York 
City. In the following spring he set sail with his lieutenant, Samuel de Champlain, 
and four score colonists, including a Huguenot minister and a Catholic priest, 
landing on June 26, 1604, on this island, which he called St. Croix, and on which 
he expected to establish a trading post and settlement. So sketchy was knowledge 
of the New World at the time, that the settlers brought with them part of the 
timber used in the erection of their buildings. Before winter arrived the island 
held a storehouse, dining hall, kitchen, barracks, a blacksmith shop, and 
carefully laid out gardens. An unusually severe winter and scurvy wrought such 
discouragement that in the spring of 1605 de Monts and Champlain sailed ofFS. 
to find a more suitable place for the colony; in August they decided to move it to 
the spot that is now Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia. Dochet Island was not en- 
tirely abandoned, however; the French used it for a garrison at intervals for 
some years. 

4 U. S. ONE 

This early settlement played an important part in the adjustment of the 
boundary question after the Revolutionary War; both the United States and 
Great Britain acknowledged the River St. Croix as the point of departure in 
drawing the line, but Britain disputed the American claim as to what river 
bore this name. Discovery of Ghamplain's map and subsequent examination of 
the ruins of the early settlement decided the matter; had the British won their 
point eastern Maine would probably now be Canadian territory. 

ROBBINSTON, 12.4 m. (60 alt.; Robbinston Town, 582 pop.), 
is a village whose main street parallels the St. Croix River (ferry 
service to St. Andrews, N.B.). The smokestack of a sardine-canning 
factory that burned down sometime in the past is a landmark here. 
Fishing, supplemented by sardine canning, is the principal industry 
of the town. In the spring when the herring are running, the fish 
weirs offshore can be seen from the road. 

At 18.4 m. is a granite boulder placed by the National Geographic 
Society to mark the 45TH PARALLEL OF LATITUDE, which is 
exactly midway between the Equator and the North Pole. 

PERRY, 20.3 m. (40 alt.; Perry Town, 992 pop.), lies on a double 
bend of US 1 where it crosses Boyden Stream. The houses are few 
and scattered. 

At Perry is the junction with State 190 (see Side Route 7). 

PEMBROKE, 26.2 m. (80 alt.; Pembroke Town, 965 pop.), is a 
village of pleasant homes along the bank of the Pennamaquam River. 
While the principal industries are now the packing of blueberries and 
sardines, the substantial, well-built houses recall the prosperity of the 
wooden-hull era, when extensive shipbuilding activities were carried 
on in the area. 

The large, square, stone building of the OLD IRONWORKS here re- 
sembles a fort. The plant was established in 1828 with machinery 
brought from Wales. Much of the ore used came from bogs in the 

At WEST PEMBROKE, 27.2 m. (50 alt., Pembroke Town), 
which seems part of Pembroke village rather than a separate com- 
munity, are a number of sturdy old homes. H. Styles Bridges, Gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire (1935-1936) and U.S. Senator (1937- ), 
was born here on September 9, 1896. 

Right from West Pembroke on State 214, an improved gravel road, is MED- 
DYBEMPS LAKE, 10 m., with excellent fishing (boats and canoes Jor hire) and a 
good bathing beach. 

This is one of the many hunting regions where the illegal practice of "deer 


jacking," less frequent today, was popular. The bright light of a hooded lantern 
or of a flashlight fascinates the fleet-footed animal, making him a target for the 
huntsman's bullet. When shot, the deer seldom drops immediately, but runs 
sometimes for hours, the hunter in hot pursuit. This phase, known as "deer 
running," develops fleet runners, particularly in deer-jacking expeditions when 
the law is pursuing the hunters as swifdy as the hunters are pursuing the deer. 
A story is told of a Washington County stripling who, left unwarned on sentry 
duty at Cedar Creek, Va., when a retreat was ordered, found himself alone fac- 
ing the advancing enemy. He made his solitary retreat from Cedar Creek with the 
speed he had acquired in deer jacking in the Meddybemps region. He is said to 
have reported at Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 19 miles from his post, in advance of 
the dispatch bearer, who was on horseback. 

DENNYSVILLE, 32.4 m. (30 alt.; Dennysville Town, 443 pop.), 
took its name from Dennys River, which in turn was named for an 
Indian chief whose hunting grounds were in this region. Swift Dennys 
River parallels the main street, over which tall trees form an arch. 

In 1786 the township land was granted to Gen. Benjamin Lincoln 
of Hingham, Mass., who, at the surrender of Yorktown, was selected 
to conduct the British to the spot where their arms were deposited. 

There is a fine SALMON-FISHING POOL near the center of the village. 

The LINCOLN HOME (private), half a mile N. of the center and facing 
the river, was erected in 1787 by artisans from Hingham, Mass., 
under the direction of General Lincoln's son, Theodore. It is a two- 
story yellow structure. Theodore, who occupied the house, had large 
lumber interests and employed many Indians of the district. James 
Audubon, the artist and naturalist, was a friend of Theodore's son, 
Thomas, who assisted Audubon in making arrangements for an ex- 
pedition to Labrador in 1833. Members of the Lincoln family still 
own and occupy the house, which contains many of the early furnish- 
ings, as well as old books and documents. 

In the store of I. K. Kilby in the village is a COLLECTION OF INDIAN 
RELICS (open) found in the neighborhood. 

WHITING, 41.7 m. (60 alt.; Whiting Town, 327 pop.), a village 
formerly called Orangetown, is in an area where extensive lumbering 
operations are still carried on; the town is recognized by the large 
piles of lumber near its center along the road. The route passes a 
lumber mill on the Orange River, which has been dammed at this 
point to provide water power. 

In this area are long stretches of forests, broken occasionally by 
small scrubby farms. In spite of the extensive lumbering operations 

6 U. S. ONE 

that have been carried on in what is now the State of Maine, the 
forests have not been seriously depleted. The country is full of game. 
Many rabbits are caught here and shipped to other parts of Maine, 
as well as to other States, for stocking game preserves. 

At the rear of a small white church (R) is the GRAVE OF COL. 
JOHN CRANE, the first white settler. He was a member of the Boston 
Tea Party, and during the Revolution commanded one of the bat- 
teries whose fire diverted the attention of the British from the Ameri- 
can forces in their capture of Dorchester Heights in March 1776. 

At Whiting is the junction with State 189 (see Side Route 2). 

INDIAN LAKE (fishing and boating facilities), 47.3 m. (R), lies 
along the road, the blue of its waters enhanced by the dark green 
foliage of the dense forest surrounding it. 

At 50.9 m. (R) is the graveled entrance to the SUMMER SURVEYING 
SCHOOL of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on the shore of 
Gardner Lake; the neighborhood provides a variety of surveying 

EAST MAGHIAS, 54.3 m. (60 alt.; East Machias Town, 1,253 
pop.), is bisected by the East Machias River, the residential area and 
the business districts being on opposite sides of the stream. 

On top of a hill across the river (L) is WASHINGTON ACADEMY. A 
general interest in having a local school was shown as early as 1790- 
1791, and a petition for help from the Government in the undertak- 
ing was transmitted to the General Court of Massachusetts in that 
year. The petition was granted and Township 11, since known as 
Cutler, was given as an endowment for an academy, but it was not 
until September 1823 that Washington Academy was opened. 

In the LIBRARY (L), a brick building with two old millstones from 
an early gristmill set strikingly in the front wall, one on either side 
of the entrance, is a canvas showing a panorama of the community 
in the prosperous lumbering and shipbuilding days. 

At 55.9 m. is the junction with a local road. 

Left on this road is MACHIASPORT, 4 m. (80 alt.; Machiasport Town, 825 
pop.), a typical Maine coast village where lumber shipping is now the chief 

When news of the battle of Lexington reached this part of Maine in early May 
1775, Ichabod Jones, who had left Massachusetts because of the increasing 
disturbance to business, caused in part by the Boston Port Bill, hastily left for 
Boston. to secure his personal property. The Boston Port commander refused, 
however, to allow him to take his boat out of the harbor except to return to 


Maine for lumber to be used in building barracks for the increasing number of 
British soldiers. The armed schooner Margaretta was sent along as a convoy to 
enforce the order. Meanwhile, public opinion in Machias had been inflamed and 
Captain Moore of the Margaretta found a Liberty Pole in the little frontier coast 
town and citizens incensed at the idea of providing supplies for the armies to be 
used against them. Led by Benjamin Foster and the fiery Irishman, Jeremiah 
O'Brien, the local citizens commandeered two boats, one of which, however, be- 
came stranded; on June 12, 1775, they closed in on the Margaretta. In the fight 
that followed the British officer was mortally wounded and his boat captured. 
The following month the Machias men captured a British schooner from Nova 
Scotia. The British sent Sir George Collier with the Ranger and three other boats 
to punish the rebels; Collier routed the local force from the breastworks they had 
hastily thrown up along the river and burned several buildings before his fleet 
moved on. The capture of the Margaretta has been called the "first naval battle of 
the Revolution"; the battle itself was not important but it provided the Revolu- 
tionary leaders in Philadelphia with a talking point in urging the establishment 
of a navy. 

Machiasport was the terminus of the narrow-gage Machias- Whitneyville R.R., 
built in 1841 to carry lumber from Whitneyville to Machiasport for shipping, 
and operated for 50 years by the Sullivan family of Whitneyville. One of the 
locomotives used on this railroad is now at the Crosby Laboratory, University of 
Maine, Orono. 

From WRIGHT'S LOOKOUT, a bold rock at the top of Corn Hill, a few hundred 
yards back from the main street, is a splendid view of the Machias headlands and 
the western end of the Bay of Fundy. 

At the southern end of the village, on the western bank of the Machias River, 
is the State reservation holding the EARTHWORKS OF FORT MACHIAS, or Fort 
O'Brien as it is locally called because it was erected in part through the activities 
of the O'Briens. After the Collier raid Washington ordered a regiment of militia 
recruited and sent to protect the settlement. In 1781 Fort Machias was made part 
of the national defense. The British, however, did not return to the little town 
until 1814, when they took the fort and burned the barracks. The place was 
again fortified in 1863, during the Civil War, but was not attacked. 

At CLARK'S POINT, 7 m. (L), are the so-called PICTURE ROCKS. Figures 
somewhat resembling men, animals, and landscapes can be seen on a slanting 
ledge below the high-water mark. Some authorities who have examined the 
formations believe they are geologic, others that they are hieroglyphics. 

MAGHIAS (Ind., bad little Jails), 58.8 m. (80 alt.; Machias Town, 
1,853 pop.), seat of Washington Co., lies along the Machias River; 
the town formerly included what is now the town of Machiasport 
(see above). The gristmill in the center of the bridge across the river 
looks down on the narrow gorge through which the waters tumble 
and roar ceaselessly. From the bridge are seen the buildings of the 
WASHINGTON STATE NORMAL SCHOOL on a high hill overlooking the 

8 U. S. ONE 

After the destruction of the Plymouth Colony trading post at 
Pentagoet by the French, the English in 1633 established under 
command of Richard Vines, another post here, in a spot much closer 
to the French headquarters; La Tour, French Governor of Acadia, 
wiped it out almost at once. In 1675 Rhodes, the pirate, used the 
site as a base for repairs and supplies; a few decades later another 
pirate, Samuel Bellamy, came here for the same purpose, and, liking 
the place and deciding that it offered him security, determined to 
establish a permanent stronghold. Piracy was rampant along the 
Atlantic seaboard at this time, partly because of English and Spanish 
trade restrictions, designed to force colonists to buy from the mother 
country alone; this created a good market for stolen goods in the 
Colonies. Privateering served as excellent training for piracy, as 
Cotton Mather warned in 1704 in one of his "hanging sermons," 
and many men who started out to prey on shipping for their govern- 
ments soon decided to keep the booty for themselves. Bellamy, from 
all reports, developed a Robin Hood philosophy on the matter; when 
he had captured a ship he would harangue its crew and invite them 
to join him, arguing that the men had as much right to rob as had the 
shipowners, who were merely powerful bandits protected by law. 

When Bellamy determined to settle on the site of the present 
Machias, he erected breastworks and a crude fort before leaving for 
another expedition with three objectives recruits, loot, and women. 
He had left the mouth of the river and was plundering along the 
Nova Scotian banks when, by mistake, he attacked a French naval 
vessel. His vessel, the Whidaw, was almost captured before he man- 
aged to escape. Sailing south, he had further bad luck; he captured 
a New Bedford whaler, whose captain pretended to join him and 
agreed to act as a navigator through the dangerous reefs and shoals. 
The whaling captain did his part for a time and then deliberately 
ran his ship aground on a sandbar near Eastham, Mass. The pirates, 
following the lead of the whaler, went on the rocks, and Bellamy 
and most of his crew drowned. 

In 1763 the first permanent English colony was established by 
settlers from Scarboro near Portland. 

The Machias River has played an important part in the town's 
development as a commercial lumber and shipbuilding center. One 
of the few remaining "long lumber" log drives in Maine takes place 
on the Machias River each spring. Logs are hauled over the snow 


to the landings, and when the ice goes out of the river they are 
shoved into the fast-moving water, which hurtles them downstream. 
When one of the numerous jams occurs, a daring river driver walks 
out on it to pry loose the key log; if this does not succeed the jam is 

BURNHAM TAVERN, High and Free Sts. (open Sat. aft., June 7-Oct. 1; 
adm. 10&, a plain two-story gambrel-roofed structure with the lower 
section of the roof broken back to a vertical wall with five windows, 
was built in 1770 by Joe Burnham. Beneath each of the four corner- 
stones of the building the owner placed a box containing a slip of 
paper inscribed with the words "hospitality," "cheer," "hope," and 
"courage." Over the door hangs the original sign, which reads: 
"Drink for the thirsty, food for the hungry, lodging for the weary, 
and good keeping for horses." Beneath the roof the townspople 
gathered to plan their movements against the British and to discuss 
the exciting events of the day. Here Jeremiah O'Brien and his com- 
rades devised the capture of the Margaretta (see above) . 

In the O'Brien Cemetery here is the GRAVE OF CAPTAIN O'BRIEN. 
Just beyond the cemetery is a marker indicating the site of his home. 

Also on Elm St., half a mile from the center, is a small stream 
called FOSTER'S RUBICON; the men of Machias met on its banks in 
June 1775 to discuss the demands that they furnish lumber to be 
sent back to Boston and used in building barracks for the British 
troops. After a long debate, during which part of the townsmen 
advocated compliance and others resistance, Benjamin Foster, a 
church leader as well as a rebel, sprang across the stream, inviting 
those who shared his views to follow him. The rebels went first, then 
those who had been wavering, and finally those who had advocated 
compliance; the settlement as a whole was committed to the 

At Machias is the junction with State 1 A. 

Right on State 1 A is WHITNEYVILLE, 4.5 m. (70 alt.; Whitneyville Town, 
229 pop.), a small farming community on the western bank of the Machias River 
that is the terminus of an annual spring log drive. A marker near the river indi- 
cates the spot where the Margaretta was beached, after being towed up the river 
following her capture, and concealed from the British by leafy boughs. 

State 1A runs through wide blueberry plains and rejoins US 1 at Jonesboro. 

JONESBORO, 66.3 m. (60 alt.; Jonesboro Town, 468 pop.), a 
small Chandler River farming community, had a Revolutionary 

io U. S. ONE 

War heroine in the person of Hannah Weston, a descendant 
of Hannah Dustin, who became famous in the Indian massacre at 
Haverhill, Mass., in 1697. With a younger sister, Hannah Weston 
carried 50 pounds of lead and powder, collected from neighbors, 
through the woods from Jonesboro to Machias for use during the 
Margaretta episode (see above) in June 1775. The GRAVE OF HANNAH 
WESTON is near the highway on the Charles Fish farm at the northern 
end of the village. 

At 73.7 m. is a junction with State 187. 

Left on State 1 87, which cuts through the deep stillness of the woods and runs 
along the western shore of Englishman's Bay for several miles, presenting many 
attractive scenes, is JONESPORT, 12.7 m. (40 alt.; Jonesport Town, 1,634 
pop.). Although it derives considerable income from summer visitors, Jo nesport's 
principal means of livelihood are fishing and sardine packing. Jonesport became 
famous as the background of Phillip Lord's radio program, Sunday Night at Seth 
Parker's. Island views, camp sites, fishing, and beaches are its resort attractions. 

In the harbor is BEALS ISLAND, reached from Jonesport by ferry. Separated 
from its larger but much less populous neighbor, Great Wass Island, by the 
FLYING PLACE, a narrow strait, Beals Island affords views of surrounding islands 
and curious sea-wrought rock formations. Play of surf is most spectacular on 
stormy days in the Flying Place. 

BEALS (40 alt.; Beals Town, 524 pop.) is a fishing community on Beals Island, 
as well as a summer resort, where the popular sport is deep-sea fishing. 

There is a faithful congregation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints at Beals. In 1865 G. J. Adams, a Mormon missionary from Phila- 
delphia, succeeded despite local opposition in recruiting followers here. Prevail- 
ing upon many to sell their worldly goods, he organized the Palestine Emigration 
Association, issuing a religious publication, The Sword of Truth and the Harbinger of 
Peace. After arrangements had been made with the Turkish Government, through 
the American consul, 175 members left on a 52-day voyage to Palestine in the 
barkentine, Nellie Chapin, and settled near Jaffa. Beset by internal dissensions, 
misunderstandings with the natives, and disease caused by poor sanitary condi- 
tions, the colony was disbanded within a year and the survivors returned to the 
United States. 

BARNEY'S POINT, on the island, was named for Barney Beal, a son of Man waring 
Beal, the first settler. The most colorful of the island legends are woven around 
the bold exploits and feats of strength of "Tall Barney," who always wore a 
butcher's coat and whose 6 ft. 7 in. of brawn earned him fame as "cock of the 
walk" from Quoddy Head to Cape Elizabeth; it was said that when he sat in a 
chair his hands touched the floor. Once while he was fishing off Black's Island, 
armed sailors, objecting to his proximity to English territory, boarded his sloop, 
intent on capture at gun point. Barney relieved the sailors of their guns, which he 
promptly broke over his knee and tossed back into the British boat. When the 
Canadian guards unwisely persisted in their intimidations, Barney twisted the 
arm of one until he broke the bone. In Rockland, Barney was said to have felled a 


horse with his fist, when a truckman drove too close to him. In a Portland saloon, 
without argument or assistance, he proved to 15 men the folly of deriding a 
"down-e aster." 

PERIO'S POINT, near the Freeman West Beal Wharf, was named for Perio 
Checkers, an Indian, who is the only man known to have scaled the perpendicular 
side of the steep cliff that still challenges climbers at this point. 

In the past, shipwrecks in this vicinity were frequent. Companies were formed 
on the mainland to salvage boats and cargoes. 

The GRAVE OF AUNT PEGGY BEAL, in the cemetery near the public square, 
reminds natives of how Aunt Peggy exorcised the powers of a witch, a Mrs. 
Thomas Hicks. Mrs. Hicks had the habit of borrowing from Aunt Peggy; if 
Aunt Peggy refused to lend what Mrs. Hicks wanted, it either died or disap- 
peared. The last thing refused was a sheep, which died the following day. A 
Salem sailor, who claimed to know all about the handling of witches, told Aunt 
Peggy to build a hot fire and to hold the sheep over it until it was scorched all 
over. This was done. "Now," he said, "a boat will come over for something three 
times, and you must refuse each time, even though the witch tells you where the 
article is." It all came about as the sailor predicted, so the story goes, and the day 
following the refusal of the third article, Mrs. Hicks was dead. 

GREAT WASS ISLAND COAST GUARD STATION is notable for its equipment and 
drills. The SEACOAST MISSION SHIP regularly visits the island lighthouse. 

In this area US 1 continues through blueberry plains; the homes 
show few evidences of prosperity, being weather-beaten and un- 

COLUMBIA FALLS, 75 m. (60 alt.; Columbia Falls Town, 583 
pop.), was once a thriving lumber and shipbuilding center. Today 
the inhabitants depend on general farming and the blueberry indus- 
try for a livelihood. The prosperity that the town once knew is 
revealed by the many fine old homes in the vicinity. 

The RUGGLES HOUSE (open), constructed in 1820 after a design by 
Aaron Sherman of Duxbury, Mass., who planned a number of 
homes in Washington County, was built for Judge Thomas 
Ruggles, a wealthy lumber dealer. The house is notable for the 
delicate detail of its exterior trim. The interior woodwork, executed 
by an unknown English artisan, is unusually fine. In the drawing- 
room are rope headings on the cornices of the fireplace, done with 
great skill, exquisite carvings on the molding, and delicate indentures 
on the chair rail of the wainscoting and on the frames and sills of 
the wide-shuttered windows. The house is in the process of restora- 
tion, and workmen have uncovered rich mahogany-inlaid panels. 
Of particular interest is the swastika design, carved with a common 
penknife, below the mantel in the dining room. It is said that the 

12 U. S. ONE 

villagers were so impressed by the delicacy of the work that they 
believed the carver's knife was guided by the hand of an angel. 

Arthur Train used the Ruggles house as the setting for his short 
story, The House that Tutt Built. 

The MAUDE BUCKNAM HOUSE, opposite the post office, a yellow 
Gape-God style dwelling with a wing, was built about 1820. It is 
notable for its woodwork. 

The LIPPINCOTT HOUSE, opposite the Bucknam House, is a square 
hip-roofed building with interesting interior details, including old- 
fashioned rope moldings and many fireplaces. 

At 76.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road, known locally as the 
Jeff Davis Trail, which was cut in 1858 to enable members of the 
U.S. Coast Survey to transport supplies and heavy instruments to 
the top of Humpback, or Lead Mountain. Jefferson Davis, a close 
friend of Alexander Bache, Superintendent of the Coast Survey, was 
a guest at the survey camp during the summer when the trail was cut. 

Right on this road is COLUMBIA, 1.5 m. (60 alt.; Columbia Town, 409 
pop.), settled soon after the Revolutionary War. 

The road continues in a northwesterly direction onto a 200-sq.-m. plateau, 
where nearly 90 percent of the country's blueberries are raised. Small brooks 
meander through acres of the low bushes, which in mid-June are covered with 
inverted bell blossoms. Blueberry packing begins in August and lasts through 
September. Men in large straw hats, women in sunbonnets, and barefoot children 
work from dawn to sundown raking, winnowing, and boxing the berries to be 
trucked to the canning factories. 

The blueberry industry has grown up in the wake of lumbering; the plants 
quickly cover the thin sandy soil after the trees are cut, and they need little culti- 
vation. The land is burned over every third year to stimulate new growth. The 
spruce in this area was removed in the first quarter of the 1 9th century to provide 
masts and spars for ships built in the nearby yards. Blueberry plains are privately 
owned but protected by the State. "Bootleg berries," those stolen by night pick- 
ers, are not as common as they once were. 

HARRINGTON, 79.8 m. (40 alt.; Harrington Town, 862 pop.), 
was settled about 1765 and incorporated in 1797. Like many other 
villages along the route, its air of comfort and prosperity depends 
largely on the money derived from the summer tourist trade. Pleas- 
ant Bay is a favorite spot for deep-sea fishing. 

CHERRYFIELD, 86.1 m. (50 alt.; Cherryfield Town, 1,111 
pop.), lies on both sides of the Narraguagus River. The Belgrade, full- 
rigged bark that carried 56 local men around Cape Horn to Cali- 
fornia in the days of the gold rush, was built in this formerly active 


shipbuilding community. Today lumbering and blueberry packing 
are the chief industries of the town. 

MILBRIDGE, 91.6 m. (20 alt.; Milbridge Town, 1,207 pop.), 
lies at the mouth of the Narraguagus, its main street, which US 1 
follows, paralleling the river. From the highway at the southern end 
of the village there is a fine view of the offshore islands (boats and 
guides for deep-sea fishing) . Lumbering, lobster fishing, and farming are 
the main sources of livelihood. A knitting mill is also in operation. 

A boat once frequently seen along the Maine coast and still 
occasionally found in some of the fishing villages of Nova Scotia is 
the pinky (Prov. Eng., small). These boats, pointed at both ends, have 
wide gunwales rising to meet in a stern overhang. In 1 927 Howard L. 
Chapelle, naval architect and author of The History of American 
Sailing Ships, revived the building of this type of craft in the Mil- 
bridge yard. 

GOULDSBORO, 101.9 m. (80 alt.; Gouldsboro Town, 1,115 
pop.), is principally a summer resort and small trading center for 
the Grindstone Neck area. David Cobb made his home here from 
1796 to 1808. During those years he was one of the most influential 
citizens of Maine. In 1795 he was appointed agent of the great 
Bingham estate (see below)', the following year he moved to Goulds- 
boro, and in 1802 was sent to the Massachusetts Legislature to 
represent eastern Maine. 

SULLIVAN, 111.6 m. (60 alt.; Sullivan Town, 873 pop.), a 
small hamlet, is the corporate center of a township whose many 
summer homes are spread out along US 1 . 

The STONE STORE (not open), in the center of the village, is a two- 
story gabled building, constructed of heavy blocks of stone. 

At 112.1 m. is a striking view of Mt. Desert Island and its hills. 

HANCOCK, 114.8 m. (Hancock Town, 760 pop.), was settled in 
1764 and incorporated in 1828. In 1890 the township had a popula- 
tion of 1,190; the decrease has been gradual. 

At 120.3 m. is a magnificent view of the Schoodic Hills and Cadil- 
lac Mountain, also various other hills rising from and around French- 
man's Bay. 

The region through which US 1 passes here has small farms that 
look fairly prosperous, and much wooded land. 

ELLSWORTH, 123.9 m. (100 alt., 3,557 pop.), the seat and 
the only city in Hancock Co., was settled in 1763. The community 

i 4 U. S. ONE 

has seen extensive lumbering operations, a period of shipbuilding, 
and an industrial era brought about by the development of its water 
power. A large part of the business district and many of the old 
buildings were destroyed by fire in 1933, but the center has been 
rebuilt. Today the town is a happy combination of gracious old 
homes and attractive modern business buildings. An example of this 
is the new CITY HALL, showing a Scandinavian influence and stand- 
ing near the old white CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, which dominates 
the business district from the E. side of State Street Hill. The latter, 
built in 1812, has a portico with delicately fluted columns, and a 
slender spire. 

The sparkling Union River flows through the center of the city, 
and from the bridge (L) 60-foot falls are visible. 

The BLACK MANSION, on W. Main St. (open May 30-Nov. 1; adm. 
50f), built about 1802, was the home of Col. John Black, land agent 
for William Bingham, who owned very large tracts of land E. of the 
Penobscot River. Colonel Black's predecessor in the agency was his 
father-in-law, Col. David Cobb, an aide-de-camp of General Wash- 
ington. The two-story brick house, an elegant structure in the tiny 
frontier settlement, is of modified Georgian design, with one-story 
wings that may have been added after the main structure was built. 
An ornamental cornice and balustrade surround the low roof. The 
main structure has no front entrance; four triple-hung, shuttered 
windows open out on a low porch with five Ionic columns, that runs 
the length of the main building and is surmounted with a balustrade. 
A notable feature of the interior is the graceful curving staircase 
rising from the spacious hall that divides the house and parallels its 
front. Many of Colonel Black's possessions and those his wife in- 
herited from her father are in the house; other articles have been 
added since the house became public property in 1928. Among the 
valued relics are a miniature of Washington by one of the Peales, a 
rare volume of the Colonial laws of Massachusetts, and a high-backed 
Dutch chair with a hinged seat that can be lengthened to form a 
couch or bed. 

The furnishings include fine Duncan Phyfe, Sheraton, and Chip- 
pendale pieces, as well as Spode and Royal Dresden china. 

The PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 2-5 p.m.), State St., once the Tisdale 
house, built before 1 820, retains many of its original features, such 
as arched doorways and deep fireplaces. 


Section 2. Ellsworth to Belfast, 61.3 m. 

From Ellsworth US 1 cuts sharply NW. to Bangor, traversing 
placid farmlands that contrast with the wooded hills; south of 
Bangor the route follows the west bank of the Penobscot River, 
running through scenic country to Belfast. 

LUCERNE-IN-MAINE, 14.7 m. (440 alt.; Dedham Town, 279 
pop.), is a resort on the shores of LAKE LUCERNE, drawing winter 
sports enthusiasts as well as summer visitors. The CLUBHOUSE (L), 
just off the highway, was the halfway house on the old Bangor- 
Ellsworth stagecoach route; it has been much remodeled. Thick 
woods nearly conceal (R) the huge log tourist lodge and tennis 
courts and (L) a golf course, bridle paths, hiking trails, and a bathing 
beach. This resort was carefully planned by the head of a lumbering 
firm, who did not wish to see the natural beauty of the lakeshore and 
hills spoiled. 

At 14.9 m. is a beautiful view of Lake Lucerne. 

EAST HOLDEN, 17.8 m. (100 alt., Holden Town), is at a cross- 
roads where overnight cabins outnumber the handful of residences. 

At 19.1 m. is HOLDEN (190 alt.; Holden Town, 543 pop.). The 
TOWN HALL and GRANGE HALL (L) mark the corporate and social 
center of the township. The National Grange of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, of which the local lodges are members, was organized in 
1867 by Oliver H. Kelley, an employee of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture who felt the need of a fraternal organization to unite the 
farmers for social and educational purposes. The lodges became 
politically important, serving as local forums; they are still very 
active in Maine. Grange suppers and meetings are open to the 
public and visitors who want to study the State are advised to 
attend the meetings, which are always advertised. The suppers are 
standardized and usually include baked beans, ham, cole slaw, pie, 
and cake. 

At 23.2 m. is a sweeping view across valleys and mountains. 

BREWER, 25.8 m. (100 alt., 6,329 pop.), is a city somewhat over- 
shadowed by Bangor, across the Penobscot River. It was named for 
Col. John Brewer, who was one of the first settlers, as well as the first 
postmaster. Once famous for the wooden ships built in its yards, the 
city depends for its present prosperity on the activity of pulp and 
paper mills. 

i6 U. S. ONE 

CHILLICOTE HOUSE, now an antique shop, corner of State and 
N. Main Sts., is a conspicuous landmark standing at the crest of a 
short hill that drops sharply to the E. approach of the Bangor-Brewer 

At 80 Chamberlain St. is the JOSHUA CHAMBERLAIN HOUSE (private). 
General Chamberlain, noted for his gallantry during the Civil War, 
received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his part in the defense 
of Little Round Top at Gettysburg; as a further reward for his mili- 
tary activity he was delegated to review and receive the arms and 
colors of the Confederate Army at Appomattox in 1865. In spite of 
repeated injuries received while in active service, he was able to 
serve as Governor of the State (1867-1871) and as president of 
Bowdoin College (1871-1883). 

BANGOR, 26.5 m. (100 alt., 28,749 pop.), manufacturing city 

Points of Interest. Salmon Pool, Veazie House, Old City Hall, and others. 

HAMPDEN, 31.5 m. (80 alt.; Hampden Town, 2,417 pop.), on 
the banks of the Penobscot River, a suburban village flanked by 
farms, was settled in 1767, two years before Bangor, and for a long 
time rivaled that town in importance. During the War of 1812 the 
British drove the out-numbered militia from the settlement. 

Huge piles of pulp wood are seen in the Penobscot (L) as the route 
passes through the outskirts of Bangor. 

HAMPDEN HIGHLANDS, 32.7 m. (150 alt., Hampden Town), 
has blue-green river vistas. In the latter part of May the numerous 
orchards in the township and in Orrington across the Penobscot 
blanket the countryside with translucent pink and white beauty and 
send forth a delicate scent that permeates the whole area. 

The DOROTHEA LYNDE Dix MEMORIAL PARK (L) is on the site of 
the Isaac Hopkins farm, on which in 1 802 the prison and almshouse 
reformer, for whom the park is named, was born. When Miss Dix 
went to Boston as a young girl, she was so shocked by conditions in 
public institutions that she began a campaign that carried her all 
over the country and resulted in marked reforms. 

WINTERPORT, 39.8 m. (80 alt.; Winterport Town, 1,437 pop.), 
whose name was derived from its position at the head of winter 
navigation on the Penobscot River, at one time had some importance 
as a port and shipbuilding community. In the 1936 State election 


Winterport was the first and only town in Maine to use voting 

At 40.4 m. (R) is the BLAISDELL HOUSE (not open), built in 1798, 
a two-and-a-half-story yellow structure with a gable roof and two 
dormer windows. 

FRANKFORT, 42.5 m. (180 alt.; Frankfort Town, 468 pop.), a 
village shaded by huge century-old elms, belies its history of indus- 
trial prosperity. Log cabins first appeared here in 1756, and a 
permanent settlement was made in 1760. Shipbuilding began early 
and, by the time of the Revolution, Frankfort was important enough 
to draw the attention of the British Navy. Many of the 33 ships 
destroyed along the Penobscot in 1779 were tied up, or under con- 
struction, in this port. The English bombarded the settlement in 
1814, subsequently occupying it. 

In the vicinity of Frankfort, the road, which is very hilly and 
winding, affords many panoramas of the valley. Small farms cling 
to the hillsides. 

At 43.9 m. along both sides of the road are the buildings of the 
MT. WALDO GRANITE CORPORATION (open); nearby are the deep 
clefts from which countless tons of fine granite have been quarried. 

The FLATS here bordering the river are among several points on 
the Maine coast where Captain Kidd is said to have buried a part of 
his treasure. A tinker who lived on the spot refused to allow searchers 
on the property; after his death a number of attempts were made to 
find the supposedly hidden jewels and gold. Legend has it that the 
hunters were frightened away by mysterious noises from the earth; 
no treasure has ever been found here. 

MOUNT WALDO (1,062 alt.), highest of several small peaks in this 
region, can be seen (R) at intervals. Mt. Waldo granite has been 
used in many public buildings. 

The granite ledges of MOSQUITO MOUNTAIN, 44.7 m., rise sharply 


At 46.7 m. is PROSPECT (90 alt.; Prospect Town, 388 pop.). 

Left from Prospect on State 174 is FORT KNOX (see illustration), 2.5 m., now a 
State reservation. The site for this fort was selected during the days of the heated 
boundary disputes with Great Britain, but work was not begun until 1846; the 
fort was never entirely completed, though troops were trained here during the 
Civil War. This massive structure was built of Mt. Waldo granite and commands 
one of the most beautiful views on the Penobscot River. 

i8 U. S. ONE 

A short distance beyond Fort Knox is the western approach to the WALDO- 
HANCOCK BRIDGE (toll 50$ on State 3. 

STOCKTON SPRINGS, 51.2 m. (150 alt.; Stockton Springs 
Town, 877 pop.), has become relatively prosperous because of its 
fish canneries and fertilizer factories. In 1890 an attempt was made 
to exploit the spring for which the town was named, but failed when 
it was found that sediment settled in the bottles when the water was 
ready to market. 

At 55.1 m. (L) stands the HOME OF LINCOLN COLCORD, a writer 
and the son of a sea captain; he was born off Cape Horn. His home, 
for several generations the snug haven to which his adventurous 
forebears retired at the end of their voyages, is beautifully situated 
above the bay. 

In this area US 1 passes many estates as well as farms that have 
achieved prosperity by catering to the needs of their summer 

SEARSPORT, 55.4 m. (50 alt.; Searsport Town, 1,414 pop.), 
has a small, compact business district on its main street (US 1). 
The rest of the village stretches along the highway, which affords 
many vistas of Penobscot Bay. In the heyday of New England ship- 
ping, Searsport was known as the home of expert seamen, and it has 
been the birthplace of many United States naval officers. As a 
terminus of the Bangor & Aroostook R.R., it ships much of the 
annual potato crop of Aroostook Co. 

In an old brick house that was built in the village during the days 
of the town's prosperity is housed the PENOBSCOT MARINE MUSEUM, 
containing an unusually fine collection of relics and papers con- 
nected with the ships, shipowners, and captains of the days when the 
Penobscot was one of the most important shipbuilding centers of 
the Nation. 

At 59.4 m. (R) is STEPHENSON TAVERN (private), a story-and-a- 
half house of simple lines, built in 1800; there is a well sweep in the 
front yard. The old pine sign, bearing a black horse and the name 
Jerome Stephenson, is so weather-beaten that the painted horse and 
lettering stand out a quarter of an inch. 

On the northern outskirts of Belfast the route crosses Passagassa- 
wakeag River on the BELFAST MEMORIAL BRIDGE, which is dedicated 
to Waldo County's enlisted men of the World War. From a hill 
beyond the bridge can be seen the dark red warehouses of Belfast's 


waterfront. From US 1 between this point and Belfast are a suc- 
cession of views of the waters of the Penobscot and its islands. 

BELFAST, 61.3 m. (160 alt., 4,993 pop.), a popular tourist cen- 
ter and seat of Waldo Co., has parallel streets that follow a rolling 
terrain, which rises in a majestic sweep from the banks of the Pas- 
sagassawakeag. Its highest points command views of the island- 
sprinkled waters of Penobscot Bay. 

The town was named for Belfast, Ireland, by a group of Scotch- 
Irish settlers who came to the place in 1770, after having tried set- 
tlement at Londonderry, N.H. Belfast was harassed by the British 
in 1779 and its settlers were driven away, but they successfully re- 
established themselves five years later. The city has achieved pros- 
perity by catering to the many summer residents and visitors. 

Reminiscent of an earlier prosperity are the many fine old houses, 
whose chief interest lies in their variation on the standard 19th 
century architecture. 

The JAMES P. WHITE HOUSE (private), 30 Church St., is a simple 
white structure built in 1825. Fine old elms shade the broad lawn, 
which is surrounded by a picket fence. 

The CLAY HOUSE (private), 130 Main St., was built in 1825. It is 
an attractive structure of the Greek Revival type with Doric columns. 

The old JOHNSON HOUSE, 100 High St., set in beautiful grounds, is 
a hip-roof structure with a lookout, built in 1812. The Corinthian 
columns on the front and sides may be later additions. Its shutters 
were the first used in Belfast. 

The BEN FIELD HOUSE (private), 137 High St., is a large, square, 
hip-roof structure with a den tiled cornice, built in 1807. 

The old BLAISDELL HOUSE (private), a third of a mile S. of the 
center on High St., on spacious grounds, has a portico with four 
Ionic columns and an elaborately carved pediment. 

1. Right from Belfast on Main St.; R. at 0.2 m. on Waldo Ave. to the 
junction with Poor Mills Rd. at 1.4 m.; L. here to the old JOSEPH MILLER 
TAVERN, 2.4 m. (R). It has the only salt-box roof left in Belfast, tiny panes in the 
windows, and no eaves, a characteristic of early building in the vicinity. 

2. Straight ahead from the center on High St. at 1.2 m. (R) is the OTIS 
HOUSE (private), a one-and-a-half-story gable-end house on Nickerson Hill, over- 
looking the river; it was built in 1800. 

3. Visible from Belfast's waterfront, and lying about 6 miles offshore in Pe- 
nobscot Bay, is ISLESBORO, a long, low, tree-clad island that can be reached 
from Belfast. 

20 U. S. ONE 

Section 3. Belfast to Brunswick, 79.3 m. 

Between Belfast and Brunswick US 1 follows the western edge of 
Penobscot Bay, then gradually swings SW. to cross the Kennebec 
River. The countryside is fairly open, with distant views of the ocean. 
Houses belong chiefly to the 19th century, and there are few signs 
of recent prosperity. The area around Camden is particularly beau- 
tiful, the hills being covered with evergreens, though these grow 
thinner toward the south. 

At 1 m. (L) is the BELFAST CITY PARK with excellent camping and 
trailer facilities. 

At 7.6 m. is a junction with a gravel road. 

Left on this road is NORTHPORT, 0.5 m. (140 alt.; Northport Town, 413 
pop.), near Saturday Cove, an arm of Penobscot Bay; many delightful woodland 
walks lead from the village to the shore. 

CAMDEN, 18.3 m. (100 alt.; Camden Town, 3,606 pop.), one 
of Maine's loveliest towns, lies "under the high mountains of the 
Penobscot, against whose feet the sea doth beat," as Capt. John 
Smith described the site. Champlain, who visited the Penobscot in 
1605, named the Camden Hills the "mountains of Bedabedec" on 
his map; so steeply do they rise from the blue waters of Penobscot 
Bay that the magnificent yachts dropping anchor all summer long 
in the harbor seem from a distance to ride in the heart of the business 

The town has developed rapidly as a small summer resort in 
recent years, the estate valuation now being more than half that of 
Bar Harbor. It has also become a winter sport center. The summer ^ 
residents have taken particular interest in the landscaping of the 
town, a project that is stimulated by annual contests in which prizes 
are awarded. 

Behind the CAMDEN PUBLIC LIBRARY, Main St., is an AMPHI- 
THEATER with a seating capacity of 1,500, landscaped with native 
trees, shrubs, and plants. 

The old CAMDEN OPERA HOUSE, corner Elm and Washington Sts., 
has been remodeled into a modern auditorium with elaborate 
interior decorations. Mrs. Mary Louise Bok, daughter of the late 
Cyrus H. K. Curtis, a summer resident for many years, has been a 
leader in carrying out many municipal improvements. A notable 
group of musicians, including Josef Hoffman, pianist, summer here. 


1. Right from Camden on Mechanic St., the southern section of State 137; 
straight ahead (R) from State 137 at 1 m.; L. at 1.5 m., passing a lake at 3.4 m.; 
L. at 3.5 m. and again at 3.7 m. to the CAMDEN BOWL, in which carnivals and 
competitive sports events are held in summer and winter. 

2. Right from Camden on Mountain St., which enters the northern section of 
State 137, at 1 m. is the junction with a trail leading to the summit of MOUNT 
BATTIE (800 alt.). From this height, occupied by cannon during the War of 1812, 
are beautiful views of Penobscot Bay and the surrounding hills. An area of ap- 
proximately 6,000 acres between Lake Megunticook and the seashore, including 
part of Mt. Megunticook, Mt. Battie, and Bald Mountain, is being proposed for 
park development. 

ROCKPORT, 19.9 m. (100 alt.; Rockport Town, 1,651 pop.), 
a town with a diminishing population, was set off from Camden in 
1891. From the bridge at the S. end of the village is a remarkable 
view of the harbor and the white lighthouse jutting out on the point. 
Goose River forms a V-shaped waterfront that has been landscaped 
by Mrs. Mary Louise Bok (see above). Unusually interesting are the 

SPITE HOUSE (L), on Deadman's Point, was moved in 1925 over 
land and water from Phippsburg, 85 miles away, by Donald W. 
Dodge of Philadelphia. James McCobb, a prominent Phippsburg 
citizen of his time, built the so-called Minott House in Phippsburg 
for his second wife. Some time after his third marriage, the elder 
McGobb died while his son Thomas was at sea. The third Mrs. 
McGobb, who had also been previously married, arranged a mar- 
riage between her son by her first husband and her stepdaughter, the 
sister of Thomas McCobb, thereby obtaining practical control of 
one of the largest estates in the section. When Thomas McCobb 
returned and learned of the marriage and its consequences, he 
became incensed, declared he would build himself a mansion large 
enough and sufficiently grand to overshadow the residence occupied 
by his stepmother, and in 1806 built this beautiful structure which, 
from the day of its completion, has borne its present name. 

At 25 m. is the junction with Waldo Ave. 

Left on Waldo Ave. to the ROCKLAND BREAKWATER, which extends from Jame- 
son Point nearly a mile across the harbor entrance and makes an excellent point 
from which to survey the city and environs. There is a LIGHTHOUSE at the end of 
the breakwater. 

ROCKLAND, 26.3 m. (40 alt., 9,075 pop.), separated from 
Thomaston and incorporated in 1848 as East Thomaston, is a 
trading center and shire town for Knox Co. The many summer 

22 U. S. ONE 

residents and visitors have been a good source of trade. The city 
fronts on the fine harbor that the Indians called Catawamkeag (great 
landing place) . Fishing, shipping, shipbuilding, and limestone quarry- 
ing have been the chief industries of the past. 

is at 200 Broadway. 

Pleasant Sts., have floats, docks, and clubhouses for visitors. 

1. Left from Rockland on Main St. ; at 2 m. L. on a tarred road; at 2.1 m. L. 
to large triangular RANGE BEACONS, 3.7 m. These open structures are used by 
vessels of the U.S. Navy in sighting their positions on the measured trial course 
off Rockland, which is marked by six buoys. New vessels and old ones that have 
been reconditioned are sent here for tests of speed and engine efficiency. 

OWL'S HEAD, 4.6 m. (40 alt.; Owl's Head Town, 574 pop.), a summer re- 
sort, lies on the far end of a tree-sheltered cape. Visited by Champlain in 1605, it 
was then called Bedabedec Point (Ind., cape of the waters). The town was the scene 
of a bloody encounter in 1755 when Captain Cargyle, famous Indian fighter 
employing Indian tactics, killed and scalped nine braves, receiving a bounty of 
200 pounds sterling each. During the Revolution and the War of 1812, British 
and American privateers were active in nearby waters. 

Left from Owl's Head to the heavily wooded U.S. LIGHTHOUSE RESERVATION, 
5.3 m. (L). 

OWL'S HEAD LIGHT (open 9-11:30 a.m. all year; 1-5 p.m. July-Aug.; 1-3 p.m. 
remainder of year), was built in 1826, during the administration of President John 
Quincy Adams. The old white tower is only 26 ft. high; but because of its situa- 
tion the light can be seen 16 miles at sea. In summer, yachts cruising in these 
waters are welcomed by three strokes of a bell. Snowshoeing parties from Rock- 
land visit the snow-clad headland in winter. 

At 5.7 m. the road ends. From this point it is but a short walk to the shore, 
where the red and yellow quartz-streaked face of the headland, worn smooth by 
the pounding of the surf, rears itself nearly 100 ft. above sea level. Tall spruces, 
their roots clinging tenaciously to the few inches of soil, crown the summit. 

2. Left from Rockland, in Penobscot Bay and to the E. of it in the Atlantic 
Ocean, are North Haven and Vinalhaven Islands, Deer Isle, and Isle au Haut, to 
all of which there is steamship service from Rockland. 

NORTH HAVEN (476 pop.), about 12 m. from Rockland, at the mouth of 
Penobscot Bay, is a fashionable area with a number of summer estates. There is a 
flying field here. 

VINALHAVEN (1,843 pop.) is S. of North Haven, with which it is connected 
by ferry. It also has many large summer homes. The town was settled in 1789 
and when incorporated 1 4 years later was named for John Vinal of Boston. It 
has a larger permanent population than North Haven because of its active granite 
quarries, from which came the 51- to 55-foot monoliths of the Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine in New York City. 

DEER ISLE (1,226 pop.), on the eastern side of Penobscot Bay, is an hourglass- 


shaped area, about 12 miles in length. It has much charm but has received little 
development, which is a satisfaction to those who cherish its primitive character. 
Its permanent inhabitants are skilled boatmen, some of them having manned 
yachts in the international races. 

ISLE AU HAUT (89 pop.), presenting a headland to the Atlantic some miles 
S. of Deer Isle, is the administrative headquarters of Isle au Haut Township, 
which contains about a dozen smaller islands. It is chiefly visited by the more 
hardy summer visitors. The nearby waters have been the scene of a number of 

(not open to visitors), one of the largest of its kind in New England. 
The quarry is between the highway and the plant. 

At 29.7 m. (L) is a junction with State 131. On a hill close to the 
junction and entered from State 131 is MONTPELIER (open daily, 10 
a.m.-6 p.m., June 1Nov. 7; adm. 50f), a recent reproduction of the 
home built in 1795 by Gen. Henry Knox (see below). This large, 
imposing two-story-and-basement structure has a low roof sur- 
rounded by a balustrade and surmounted with a monitor that rises 
between the four inside chimneys. The central third of the facade is 
elliptical and ornamented by four engaged columns; the pedimented 
doorway is reached by a stairway leading to a wide roofless piazza. 
The 18 rooms of the house are furnished with old pieces, many of 
them from the original structure; they also contain many relics of 
the general and a portrait of him by Gilbert Stuart. 

THOMASTON, 30.6 m. (100 alt.; Thomaston Town, 2,214 
pop.), lying at the head of the long narrow fiord into which St. 
George River drains, is a favorite port of call of yachtsmen. Its main 
street has many attractive old homes with notable doorways. A 
trading post stood here in 1630 and occupation of the site was fairly 
continuous in spite of Indian attacks, though actual settlement did 
not begin until more than a hundred years later. Real development 
began after the Revolutionary War; Henry Knox, who had made a 
name for himself at the Battle of Bunker Hill, who became a trusted 
adviser of Washington, and who was Secretary of War both under 
the Confederation and during Washington's first term as President, 
had married a granddaughter of Samuel Waldo, proprietor of the 
enormous Waldo Patent (see below) ; through purchase and marriage 
he came into control of a large part of the patent and, at the close of 
his cabinet career, came to live in Thomaston, which had been in- 
corporated in 1777. Knox made many plans for the development of 

24 U. S. ONE 

his holdings, trying shipbuilding, brick making, lime burning, farm- 
ing, lumbering, and many other industries, but, though an able 
military man, he was a poor business man. His extensive hospitality 
contributed to his failure to amass a fortune. 

The community prospered, however, and was at one time active 
in shipbuilding, reaching its peak of prosperity and population about 
1 840, when its population was three times as large as it is today. 

The plain frame CILLEY HOUSE (private), 25 Main St., was the 
home of Jonathan Cilley, a Congressional Representative from 
Maine when he was killed in a duel in February 1838 on the old 
Bladensberg duelling ground, close to the District of Columbia Line. 
Cilley had risen in Congress to denounce an article with a charge of 
immorality against another Congressman, which had appeared in 
an anonymous gossip column of a New York newspaper. He fastened 
the blame for the article on a Virginian, was challenged to a duel 
by William Graves, a Representative of Kentucky, and fell at the 
third shot. 

From Thomaston there is steamship service to other coastal points 
as well as to Monhegan and other islands. 

MAINE STATE PRISON (visiting hours Tues. and Fri., 2:30-4 p.m.), 
31.1 m., on Limestone Hill and surrounded by high gray walls of 
field stone, has accommodations for 300 prisoners. The first, and 
possibly the only, military execution in Maine took place on this 
site when Jeremiah Braun was hanged on the charge of having 
guided a British raiding party that in 1780 captured Gen. Peleg 
Wadsworth, a grandfather of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 

The prison site was sold to the State in 1824 by William King, 
Governor of Maine. 

Capital punishment was abolished in Maine in 1876, reestablished 
in 1883, and finally abolished in 1887 at the request of the Governor, 
who said that it had not deterred crime. 

At 31.6 m. is a junction with State 131. 

Right on State 131 is the entrance (L) to the KNOX STATE ARBORETUM and the 
ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, 1.1 m. (adm. free) . In the arboretum are speci- 
men trees, shrubs, and wild flowers native to Maine. The museum, a two-story 
brick building, contains a collection of Maine minerals, Red Paint Indian arti- 
facts, two fine American bird collections, and a collection of sea shells and marine 
life indigenous to Maine. 

At 35.7 m. is a junction with State 1 37. 


Right on State 137 is WARREN, 1.3 m. (37 alt.; Warren Town, 1,429 pop.). 
In 1864, after the recovery of Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy then Mrs. Patterson 
from a serious illness under the guidance of P. P. Quimby of Portland, Me., she 
came to this village with another Quimby pupil, who had become much attached 
to her. While here she gave a number of public lectures, which she reported to the 
Portland healer in a series of charming letters. The title of one lecture she wrote 
was publicly advertised as P. P. Quimby' s Spiritual Science Healing Disease as 
opposed to Deism or Rochester Rapping Spiritualism. Her work here is considered by 
some as the beginning of her career as the founder of Christian Science. 

At 42.5 m. is the junction with State 220. 

Left on State 220 to WALDOBORO, 0.7 m. (120 alt. ; Waldoboro Town, 2,31 1 
pop.), at the head of navigation on the Medomak River. It was named for Gen. 
Samuel Waldo, proprietor of the Waldo Patent, which included this township 
and many hundred thousand other acres. The settlers, who arrived in 1748, were 
Germans who had received special encouragement from Governor Waldo. The 
town at one time had considerable prestige as a shipbuilding center, the first 
five-masted steamer, the Governor Ames, having been built here. 

A seasonal local industry is the catching, packing, and shipping of alewives, 
commonly called herring. The village also has a pearl button factory and derives 
considerable income from the summer tourist trade. Many local boats are hired 
for deep-sea fishing, the catch including cod, cusk, hake, and halibut. Fly-fishing 
for mackerel and pollock is popular with visitors in this area. Occasionally gamey 
striped bass and very large tunas are caught in nearby waters. 

The GERMAN MEETING HOUSE (open for services once a year), on the west side of 
the river, was built between 1770 and 1773. The 36- by 46-foot building has a 
large entrance porch. Inside, a gallery overlooks a hand-made communion table 
and contribution boxes. The pews are unpainted. A cabinet contains a collection 
of old German books and mementos. 

Nearby is the old GERMAN CEMETERY, with many unusual and interesting in- 
scriptions on grave markers. One bears the following: "This town was settled in 
1738 by Germans who immigrated to this place with the promise and expecta- 
tion of finding a prosperous city, instead of which they found nothing but 

FRIENDSHIP, 10.1 m. (90 alt.; Friendship Town, 742 pop.), a fishing village 
of small neat homes, is at the end of a peninsula. Local travel here being generally 
by boat, small floats or wharves appear at the ends of the side streets, which slope 
sharply down to the shore. Pride in the building and care of small boats is tradi- 
tional in Friendship, as evidenced by the large number of well-painted craft in 
the bay. 

In a small building on the grounds of Dr. William H. Hahn (L) is an extensive 
COLLECTION OF GLASSWARE (seen at convenience of owner), consisting of about a 
thousand pieces, most of which are early American lamps. Dr. Hahn also has a 
collection of ruby glassware and some old Roman and Turkish metal lamps. 

Salt-water fishing, from both sail and motor boats, is the chief pastime in the 
vicinity of Friendship, the coastal waters offering many kinds of fish. Casting 
for mackerel has become popular, but heavy catches are often made by trolling 

2 6 U. S. ONE 

in the early morning and in the evening; these fish are as lively and agile as trout. 
Gunners, excellent pan fish 12 to 15 inches in length and up to 1^ pounds in 
weight, are usually caught on the incoming tides, with sharp hooks on straight 
poles baited with worms, clams, or periwinkles. Pollock, gamey as salmon, are 
caught with a fly rod, by trolling bright flies in a swift current, or with herring at- 
tached to a colored spinner. The silver hake, which when fresh is one of the most 
satisfying foods for a hungry fisherman, can be caught from small boats near the 

As at other points on the Maine coast the skipper who takes parties out for 
deep-sea fishing is generally an entertaining fellow who knows the fish runs, as 
well as many fish stories; he furnishes tackle and good advice, and cooks a tasty 

Clambakes, another popular diversion, can be arranged at reasonable rates, if 
assistance is wanted. A driftwood fire, built between granite boulders and reduced 
to embers, is used to steam lobsters, clams, and crabs in pails of seaweed; potatoes 
and corn, also cooked in seaweed, complete the menu. 

GARRISON ISLAND (20 alt., Friendship Town), off the extreme southern 
end of the peninsula but connected with the mainland at low tide, is the site of a 
fort that was built about 1755. 

NOBLEBORO, 48 m. (170 alt.; Nobleboro Town, 599 pop.), was 
part of the Pemaquid Patent and named, when incorporated in 
1788, for Arthur Noble, one of the heirs of the proprietor. 

Between a white house and a barn at 50.9 m. is the junction with 
a dirt road. 

Right on this road, which runs through a pasture to SHELL HEAPS, 0.5 m., 
which have been explored, leaving the strata exposed. Between the bottom layer 
and the second, which is approximately 6 ft. thick, is a layer of soil; in this second 
layer the shells are mixed with the bones of animals. The top layer, containing 
smaller shells, is covered with earth holding good-sized trees. The age of the heap 
is unknown but the bottom layer was undoubtedly deposited many centuries ago. 
The top deposit was made by the Abnaki Indians, who came to this region in 
summer to catch fish and smoke them for winter use. 

DAMARISCOTTA, 52.4 m. (30 alt.; Damariscotta Town, 825 
pop.), is a tiny village on low land in a bend of the Damariscotta 

The digging of clams, which are served extensively in the many 
nearby summer hotels and eating places, and are shipped away in 
refrigerated cars, is an important local industry. The clammers, who 
live in shacks near the salt water during the summer, tap along the 
beaches at low tide, causing the clams, disturbed by the vibrations, 
to spout out tiny streams of water that betray their hiding places in 
the mud. 


NEWCASTLE, 52.6 m. (60 alt.; Newcastle Town, 914 pop.), is a 
pleasant little community with tree-shaded streets on the bank of the 
Damariscotta River at a point where it widens considerably. Like 
many southern Maine towns, Newcastle was settled early in the 17th 
century but the settlers, harassed by Indians, left their new homes 

Right from Newcastle on a local road is (R), atop a hill, the KAVANAUGH 
MANSION (private}, 2.6 m., built in 1803 and once owned by Edward Kavanaugh, 
acting Governor of Maine in 1 843. The two-story white building has an octagonal 
cupola, a balustraded roof, and a fine doorway with fanlight and side lights under 
a semicircular portico. Although slightly altered from its original form, it retains 
an old-fashioned charm. 

ST. PATRICK'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH (open), 2.8 m. (R), was built 1803- 
1808 and dedicated by Father Jean de Cheverus (1768-1836), who in 1808 
became the first Roman Catholic bishop of New England. Bishop Cheverus came 
to America from France in 1796 and did some work among the Indians of the 
Maine coast. In the final year of his life, after his return to France, he was made a 

This thick-walled old church has a 250-year-old altarpiece from France. Some 
of its paintings were taken from a Mexican convent during the Mexican War. 
The present altar is of the sarcophagus type, unusual in the United States; in the 
chancel is the original altar. 

WISCASSET (Ind., meeting of three rivers), 60 m. (50 alt.; Wis- 
casset Town, 1,186 pop.), seat of Lincoln Co., is a ghost town with 
little more than half the population it had in 1850, when it was still 
a fairly important port on the west bank of the wide Sheepscot River. 
Its beautiful old homes, most of which were built by shipping mer- 
chants and sea captains, are now occupied in part by artists and 
writers who have been attracted by the distinctive charm of the 
place. Until 1802 the town, formerly much larger in area than it 
now is, was called Pownalborough in honor of Royal Governor 
Pownal. Settlement began here in the middle of the 17th century but 
the place was abandoned during King Philip's War and was not 
again occupied until 1730. 

Open House Day is held annually in August, the funds going to 
the support of the town library. On this day the beautifully furnished 
old homes, some occupied by descendants of the original owners and 
others by summer residents, are opened to the public (adm. $2), and 
collections of old and new craft work are displayed. 

The WILLIAM NICKELS HOUSE (1807-08), corner of Main and 
Fort Sts., one of the largest mansions of its period in Wiscasset, is a 

28 U. S. ONE 

massive three-story structure with a one-story entrance portico, 
Corinthian pilasters, a long central Palladian window in the second 
story, and a large semicircular window above it interpolated between 
the square windows on each side in the third story. This unfortunate 
arrangement of windows is a characteristic central motif of the 
facade in houses on the Maine coast. The inharmonious railing above 
the portico is a later addition (c. 1890). An interesting variation in 
the detail of the main cornice is the omission of the modillions and the 
use of a double row of dentils in their place. The main portal with 
its elliptical fan light and elaborately mullioned side lights is particu- 
larly notable for slender pilasters and delicately carved transom rail 
and architrave. The face of the pilasters is carved in herringbone 

The ABIEL WOOD HOUSE (1812), corner of High and Lee Sts., is 
almost a duplicate of the Nickels House. The Wood House, however, 
has greater distinction because of the more pleasing proportions of 
its Palladian window, and the lack of such superficial embellishments 
as the Corinthian pilasters. 

The CLAPP HOUSE, or Lilac Cottage, on US 1 opposite the Com- 
mon, is an old story-and-a-half structure of unknown date, now 
painted white with green shutters. The front yard, which is fragrant 
with lilacs in the spring, is enclosed by a picket fence. 

The LINCOLN COUNTY COURTHOUSE (1824), on the Common, con- 
tains a jail that was at one time a State prison. This building, the 
oldest in which court is still held in Maine, at one time resounded 
with the rolling periods of Daniel Webster. 

The LEE-PAYSON-SMITH HOUSE, High St. opposite the library, is 
still owned by the descendants of Samuel E. Smith, Governor of 
Maine (1831-34). It was erected in the early 19th century and ad- 
mirably illustrates the skill of the carpenter-architects of the day and 
their sensitive appreciation of classic detail executed in wood. The 
distinctive charm of this square, two-story frame house, with its clap- 
board front, brick ends, hip-roof topped with a captain's walk, and 
low service wings, is found in its refinement of detail and its subtle 
proportions, which attain an almost monumental quality. Perhaps 
the most notable feature of the exterior is the fine modillioned and 
dentiled cornices, both on the main section of the house and on the 
ells at the side; its thin acute-angle profile, combined with the low 
pitch of the roof, gives an effect of singular grace and delicacy. The 


Ionic pilasters, placed at some distance from the corners of the main 
fa9ade, are carved in somewhat heavier detail. The open railing 
around the captain's walk, suggesting a Chippendale pattern, is well 
proportioned to the mass of the house. 

In the TOWN LIBRARY (open weekdays 2-5:30 p.m.), High St., is a 
very old piece of fire apparatus, a hand-drawn affair, equipped with 
two leather buckets, two cotton bags for use in carrying small articles 
from burning buildings, and a bed key for unfastening beds prepara- 
tory to their removal. The Wiscasset Fire Society, organized in 1801, 
though no longer active in a fire-fighting capacity, has maintained 
many of its old-time rules and regulations, and members are still 
fined 10^ if they are absent from meetings. 

The TUCKER MANSION, or Tucker Castle, E. end of High St., built 
in 1807, is of curious architecture; it is said to be a copy of a castle in 
Dunbar, Scotland. The piazza was added in 1860. Inside, a slender 
spiral staircase with mahogany balustrades rises in the center of the 
hall. Patience Tucker Stapleton, daughter of a sea captain and 
author of Trailing Tew and other stories, lived here in her youth. 

1 . From the eastern end of Wiscasset an improved, unnumbered road branches 
S. NORTH EDGEGOMB, 0.8 m. (50 alt., Edgecomb Town), is a small settle- 
ment of white houses, with lawns extending to the tree-shaded bank of the 

Opposite the post office, on the high riverbank is (L) the MARIE ANTOINETTE 
HOUSE (visited at convenience of owner). This structure, built in 1774 by Capt. Joseph 
Decker on Squam Island, from which it was much later brought to this spot, 
was inherited by Decker's daughter, the wife of Samuel Clough, captain of a 
merchantman that frequently visited France. In 1793 the captain became en- 
gaged in an enterprise, the details of which are somewhat obscure. According 
to tradition, he was moved by the unfortunate situation of the imprisoned Queen 
of France to attempt her rescue with the aid of her friends; it seems clear, how- 
ever, that he was merely hired by them to carry her to America on the Sally 
when they had managed to effect her release. Some of her personal belongings 
and various articles that her friends thought might make her home in exile more 
comfortable and furnish it in a style befitting her rank, were 1 smuggled aboard 
the Yankee ship. The plan, however, like others with the same purpose, failed; 
the Queen was beheaded and Captain Clough set sail hastily to escape possible 
punishment for his share in the enterprise. 

In the meantime the captain had written to his wife to give her warning of the 
guest she might expect to have for a time, carefully trying to reconcile her to the 
dismaying idea of sheltering royalty. He doubtless found his home polished and 
shining when he at last arrived without the Queen. The captain stored the 
Queen's possessions in his home; some thought this was because of a personal 
devotion to her, but it seems more likely that his Yankee conscience made him 

30 U. S. ONE 

uneasy about his right to dispose of the goods that had come into his possession in 
such an irregular manner. Gradually, as time passed and no one came to claim 
the cargo, the furnishings came into use in the large, plain, square house, now 
standing in North Edgecomb. Many stories are told of their later uses and wan- 
derings. It is said that a satin robe, worn by the King of France on state occasions, 
was in time made into a dress by Mrs. Clough. A Wiscasset clockmaker discovered 
in the interior of an old clock a plate inscribed in French indicating that the time- 
piece had been presented by the maker to the Queen on the Dauphin's birthday. 
Other mementos are at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; a few 
articles still remain in the Clough house. 

There is a legend that Talleyrand and Marie Antoinette's son, the Dauphin 
of France, were passengers on the return voyage of the Sally and that both were 
guests at the Clough house for some time. 

2. Right from Wiscasset on State 218 to (L) the old ALNA MEETING HOUSE 
7.1 m. (apply at Walker House, next door, for admission). The original hand-hewn 
shingles are in place on two of the weather-beaten sides of this old structure, 
which was built in 1789, and on the north side are the original clapboards, ship- 
lapped at the northeastern corner against the storms. Curiously designed hand- 
wrought foot scrapers grace the sides of the doorstep. The interior woodwork is 
very well preserved; the box pews, with carved spindles, seated nearly five hun- 
dred people. The raised hourglass pulpit, with a winding flight of steps and finely 
molded handrail, is paneled in contrasting dark and light wood; above the pulpit 
is an octagonal bell-shaped canopy and sounding board, and behind it a long 
arched window flanked by fluted pilasters. The pulpit, with an arrangement for 
accommodating ministers of different heights, has been used by many men of 
varying oratorical talents since Parson Wood, the first minister, preached of fire 
and brimstone and fought in vain against the introduction of instrumental 

HEAD TIDE, 10 m. (40 alt., Alna Town), a tiny village consisting of a few 
homes, one store, a church, and a sawmill, lies on both sides of the bridge that 
crosses the Sheepscot River. The second house (L) on the road beyond the store 

At 64.6 m. is the junction with Montsweag Road, which is un- 
marked and in poor condition. 

Left on this road, at 4.4 m., is a view of HOCKOMOCK BAY with its 
several islands. 

At PHIPPS POINT, 4.8 m. (R), on a private estate, is the SITE OF SIR WILLIAM 
PHIPS' HOME. Phips was born in Maine in 1651 of a poverty-stricken family and 
worked as a shepherd and ship carpenter until he was 25, when he went to sea; he 
learned to read and write in Boston and decided to make his fortune by treasure 
hunting, managing in 1683 to receive a commission from the English Crown for 
the recovery of treasure in a ship sunk off the Bahamas. He was successful in this 
enterprise, receiving 16,000 pounds sterling and a knighthood as his reward. 
He next commanded an expedition that captured Port Royal without difficulty 
but his second expedition to Canada failed. Through the wirepulling of Cotton 


Mather he was appointed Royal Governor of Massachusetts; he lacked, however, 
the tact and education to enable him to cope with the problems that confronted 
him and became involved in difficulties resulting in his recall to England. He died 
there in 1695 during an investigation of the charges against him. 

NEQUASSET MEETING HOUSE, 67.7 m. (R), the oldest meeting house 
E. of the Kennebec River, was built in 1757. Here Josiah Winship, 
the first permanent pastor, was ordained in 1765, when there were 
but 20 families and only two frame houses in the settlement. 

WOOLWICH, 69.1 m. (30 alt.; Woolwich Town, 671 pop.), is on 
the east bank of the Kennebec River opposite the city of Bath. Ship- 
building and fishing for shad and sturgeon were the early industries, 
now replaced by farming, dairying, and orcharding. The canning of 
corn, peas, and beans is here rapidly increasing in volume. 

Right from Woolwich on State 127 to the APPLETON DAY HOUSE, 3 m. (R), 
built in 1777 on the site of the Samuel Harnden blockhouse. It is a two-and-a- 
half-story frame house with a fireplace in each room. The chimneys and fireplaces 
are constructed of locally made bricks. There are three cellars under this house; 
legend has it that an underground passageway extending from the cellars to the 
river was built for use in times of Indian attack. 

US 1 crosses CARLTON BRIDGE (toll 50f) t built in 1927, which spans 
the Kennebec River. The bridge commands a sweeping view of the 
river, waterfront, and city. 

The Kennebec is one of the historic rivers of America. It was one 
of the earliest explored routes on the coast of North America; various 
adventurers had made fragmentary reports on it before 1600, and 
Ghamplain and Weymouth had explored it to some extent before 
1606. It was named as one of the boundaries of various large land 
grants in the race between the French and the British for control of 
the continent. In the middle of August 1 607 George Popham and 
Raleigh Gilbert, commanding the expedition prompted by Sir 
Fernando Gorges and Sir John Popham, sailed up the river, passing 
the place now spanned by the bridge in their search for a site for the 
colony that was to send fur, sassafras, and other commodities back to 
England to make fortunes for the London investors. Two decades 
later it saw a steady stream of traffic to and from the trading settle- 
ment on the site of the present Augusta conducted by the "Under- 
takers" of Plymouth; the rich cargoes that came down its waters 
saved the Massachusetts settlement from extinction. Since that time 
the river has been the scene of continuous activity, of log-drives, ship 

32 U. S. ONE 

launchings, commercial travel, power development, and, not least 
important, hunters' and fishermen's treks. 

BATH, 70.3 m. (50 alt., 9,110 pop.), named for the ancient city 
of Bath, England, has a history of almost two centuries of shipbuild- 
ing, though its yards turn out comparatively few vessels today. Its 
heyday was in the wooden-ship era, though the first steel sailing 
vessel, a four-master, was built here. Naturally, many of its inhabit- 
ants have been shipmasters and shipowners, and the older homes are 
filled with souvenirs from distant parts of the earth printed Indian 
linens, teakwood chests, blue and white ginger jars from Canton, and 
strangely shaped sea shells and still have a faint odor of sandal- 
wood, camphor, and spice. During the World War the local yards 
were active again, attracting several thousand workmen, but the 
revival was temporary. The chief event in local life, however, is still 
the launching of a new craft; and the townspeople follow the histories 
of Bath ships with pride. 

BATH IRONWORKS (visited by permit), in the center of the city at 
Union and Water Sts. below the Carlton Bridge, was founded by 
Gen. Thomas Hyde after his return from the Civil War. Some fairly 
large and many small Government vessels have been built here, in- 
cluding the battleship Georgia, cruisers, and lighthouse tenders. 
Many fine yachts have also come from this plant. 

Nearby are other shipbuilding works that can make any but the 
largest vessels. 

The new DAVENPORT MEMORIAL BUILDING, Front St., housing the 
Bath municipal offices, has in its tower a bell cast in 1805 at the Paul 
Revere foundry. The DAVENPORT MEMORIAL MUSEUM in the building 
contains ship paintings, original half-models from which were built 
famous Kennebec merchantmen and vessels launched in other Maine 
ports, and many exhibits of importance in Maine marine history. 

In the beautifully landscaped CITY PARK, on Front St., is a cannon 
taken from the British man-of-war Somerset, which was "swinging 
wide at her moorings" in Boston Harbor when Paul Revere made his 
ride. The cannon was used for the firing of salutes at Bath until the 
latter part of the 1 9th century. 

The APARTMENT HOUSE, 3 North St., corner of Front St., formerly 
a rather pretentious old home, was between 1915 and 1924 occupied 
by Madame Emma Eames (1867), the operatic star, and her hus- 
band, Emilio de Gogorza, the baritone. 




The home of Herbert L. Spinney (open), 75 Court St., houses a 
ated with the Smithsonian Institution for many years. 

Right from Bath on Washington St., at 1.6 m. and opposite Harward St., is 
the old PETERSON HOUSE, on the river bank. The place is an architectural curi- 
osity that was built (1770) by ship carpenters for the King's timber agent. The 
mass of the building is broad at the base and narrow at the top; the door jambs, 
windows, and window frames follow the lines of the house. The front lawn is the 
site of the dock at which were loaded the tree trunks that had been marked with a 
"broad arrow," indicating that they were sacred to the Royal Navy. These trees 
were intended for masts and were at least 24 inches in diameter. The resentment 
of the people of Maine against the commandeering of their best mast pines was 
one of the causes of the revolt that became a revolution. 

Right from Washington St. on Harward St.; at 1.8 m. is the junction with 
High St.; L. here to Whiskeag Rd.; R. on the latter to (R) the STONE HOUSE 
2.1 m. (private), a structure with cathedral-like doors and windows that was 
erected in 1805 and became the home of Maine's first Governor (1820), William 
King. It is said to have been built as a hunting lodge by some Englishmen. 

BRUNSWICK, 79.3 m. (30 alt.; Brunswick Town, 6,144 pop.), 
old port (see MAINE GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Oilman Mansion, Emmons House, Pejepscot Historical 
Museum, Bowdoin College, and others. 

Section 4. Brunswick to New Hampshire Line, 76.9 m. 

South of Brunswick US 1 runs through pleasant farmlands broken 
occasionally by pine groves, with open ocean (L) never far distant 
and often visible across wide stretches of marshland. Side routes 
branch (L) to historic and scenic spots on coastal peninsulas where 
the inhabitants are for the most part descendants of early fishermen 
and seamen, gaining their livelihoods by catering to the summer col- 
onists and tourists. 

At 8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road is SHILOH, 10 m., which has received national attention 
from time to time as the home of the Holy Ghost and Us Society, a religious sect 
with Adventist beliefs, founded by the Reverend Frank W. Sandford, the Elijah 
of the early 1900's. 

Sandford's cult brought converts from many parts of the world to pour their 
money into a common fund. Men and women sold their worldly possessions and 
turned the proceeds over to him. The colony flourished for a time, practicing 
various crafts. W 7 hen the world did not end as he had predicted after ordering a 
ceaseless night-and-day vigil of prayer in the high tower on the main building, 

34 U. S. ONE 

Sandford announced that the Almighty had commissioned him to go forth and 
convert the heathen. When he prayed for means to accomplish this, a $10,000 
check appeared; he purchased a 150-ton sailing vessel, the Coronet, and set sail 
from Portland Harbor with a flowing beard, purple robe, sailor hat, and Bible. 
Several voyages were made without noticeable results. During the last voyage, in 
1912, after many hardships and privations, eight members of the party died of 
scurvy; when the ship returned to Portland Harbor, Sandford had trouble with 
the authorities. When he came back to Shiloh two years later he found his old 
power gone and his people scattered; he subsequently dropped from sight. The 
buildings (services at noon Sun,), on a high, windswept hill, are unusual. The square, 
hip-roof three-story MAIN STRUCTURE (see illustration), on a high foundation, has a 
large five-story tower on its front, each story of the tower containing a large room 
and the top floor having protruding bay windows on each side; the tower is sur- 
mounted with a high-domed cupola supported by very slender columns. Between 
the main building and two-story, towered wings are three-story ornamental gate- 
ways with arched doors. Broad piazzas with balustrades on the roofs surround 
the three buildings. 

In 1936, after many years of neglect, the place was repaired and the towers 
regilded. A small group of cultists lives here but does not welcome curious visitors. 
When rumors reached Portland of renewed activities under the leadership of 
Sandford's son and of the reconditioning of the Coronet, reporters were sent to in- 
vestigate; the residents refused to answer questions. 

Services are held in a well-carpeted room seating 200. During prayer all per- 
sons kneel with elbows on chairs, various members introducing the prayers as 
called upon by the speaker. While visitors are now invited to these services, none 
can inspect other buildings on the grounds at any time. 

FREEPORT, 8.9 m. (140 alt.; Freeport Town, 2,184 pop.), a 
pleasant, tree-shaded old village, is often referred to as the Birthplace 
of Maine, because the final papers for the separation of Maine from 
Massachusetts, which established it in 1820 as an independent State, 
were signed here by commissioners from Massachusetts and the 
Province of Maine, probably in JAMESON'S TAVERN (1779), just N. 
of the post office (R). 

When Freeport was incorporated in 1789 it was named for Sir 
Andrew Freeport, the character in Addison's Spectator Papers who rep- 
resented the London merchant class. There was a time when Free- 
port had a prosperous shipbuilding business, but it is now engaged in 
shoemaking, crabbing, and crab-meat packing. The crab meat, 
picked from the shells by groups of young women, is shipped in iced 

Freeport, like almost every other old town along this coast, has its 
story of an Indian attack. In 1756 Thomas Means, living near Flying 
Point, was surprised in his bed and scalped; his wife and infant son 


were killed by a single bullet; two other children crept into hiding 
and escaped. The Indians took Mrs. Means' sister Mary with them 
to Canada, where she became a housemaid in the home of one of the 
French feudal lords. She was later rescued by William McLellan, 
whom she married. 

Left from Freeport on a dirt road to an old CEMETERY, 0.6 m., the burial place 
of many sea captains and seamen of the area. 

PORTER'S LANDING, 1.2 m., the commercial center in Freeport's shipping days, 
is now a dignified residential section in which the old homes have been entirely 

At 2.7 m. is a four corners in SOUTH FREEPORT, the street (L) leading to 
the village center. South Freeport, at the mouth of Harraseeket River on Freeport 
Harbor, which is navigable throughout the year, has been a fishing center from 
its earliest day, assuming its greatest importance between 1825 and 1830, when as 
many as 12,000 barrels of mackerel were packed and shipped annually. Of 
late it has specialized in crab-meat packing. In 1 878 the John A. Briggs, one of 
the largest wooden vessels built on the Maine coast up to that time, was launched 

Beyond the four corners are the RUINS OF CASCO CASTLE, once a pic- 
turesque summer hotel modeled after a medieval stronghold. The tower, all that 
remains of the hotel, which was burned in 1 904, is a round solid structure of field 
stone about 80 ft. high with walls 3 ft. thick. Standing on an eminence overlook- 
ing the bay, it has long been a landmark for fishermen. 

At 10.1 m. is the junction with a local road. 

Right on this road to the DESERT OF MAINE (adm. 25$, 2 m., covering 
300 acres and surrounded by forests and green farmlands. This miniature Sahara, 
not unusual in coastal areas, is an example of the worst type of soil erosion. 

The first patch of sand, noticed in the latter part of the 19th century, was about 
30 ft. sq. The sand stratum is present around the 300-acre (1937) area for a radius 
of six miles. In this circle a top layer of loam is either being covered or worn by 
frequent sandstorms. Some geologists believe the spot covers the bed of an an- 
cient lake, perhaps formed by glacial deposits, for a glint of mica is apparent in 
the sand, which is very fine in texture. Sandstorms constantly raise and lower the 
desert level as the erosion creeps outward, the sand covering everything in its 
path, creating 30-ft. gullies and high dunes. The tops of trees once 70 ft. high 
appear as bushes, and strangely enough are still alive. Among them is an apple 
tree that still blossoms and bears fruit. 

At 14.6 m. is the junction with State 115. 

Right on this road is YARMOUTH, 0.4 m. (80 alt.; Yarmouth Town, 2,125 
pop.). This seaport town on Casco Bay was settled in 1658, laid waste by Indians 
in 1673, and resettled in 1713. Fishing and crab-meat packing are the major in- 
dustries, which have supplanted the shipping and shipbuilding of the 1 9th century. 

NORTH YARMOUTH ACADEMY, on Main St., was founded in 1810. 

3 6 U. S. ONE 

At 15.5 m. (L) in the Westcustogo neighborhood (Ind., clear tidal 
river) is a BURIAL GROUND dating back to 1732. Just beyond is a group 
of three large old houses. The most southerly of the houses is on the 
SITE OF THE ROYALL GARRISON HOUSE, part of the property pur- 
chased by William Royall in 1643. The house behind it stands on the 
SITE OF THE FIRST CHURCH OF YARMOUTH, built in 1729. The third 
house (1769) is on the SITE OF THE LORING GARRISON of the 17th 

FALMOUTH FORESIDE, 19.8 m. (100 alt.; Falmouth Town, 
2,041 pop.), is a residential section of fine homes in an agricultural 
town on the shores of Casco Bay. 

UNDERWOOD SPRING (L), now exploited as a private commer- 
cial enterprise, is a natural curiosity, for though it has no per- 
ceptible source, it has a large flow of pure water unaffected by 
drought or freshet. The Abnaki Indians maintained a permanent 
settlement here, and Waymouth, the English explorer, wrote in 
his journal that the Indians allowed hirri to fill his casks at this 

Along the route here is an exceptional panoramic view (L) of 
Gasco Bay and its islands. 

At 21.8 m. (R) is a marker indicating the nearby SITE OF FORT 
NEW CASCO, which, erected in 1698, was also a trading post. The 
Indians of Maine had at first been very friendly with the English; it 
was only after they had been repeatedly betrayed, insulted, cheated, 
and assaulted that they became hostile and vengeful. The French, 
who managed their relations more amicably, soon won the friendship 
of the Indians and determined to use them in their efforts to drive the 
English from American shores. Maine, part of the territory that the 
French claimed longest, was particularly subject to attack. In 1703 a 
conference was held with the Indians at Fort New Casco and the 
settlers hoped for safer times; but within two months another attack 
came and the fort was the center of defense for the settlements of 
Casco Bay. The attack of a large force of Frenchmen and Indians 
was repulsed only by the arrival of an armed vessel. The fort was 
abandoned in 1716, when Massachusetts thought it was no longer 
necessary to maintain a garrison here. 

The attractive castellated stone edifice (L) is the Episcopal CHURCH 
OF ST. MARY THE VIRGIN; directly opposite is FALMOUTH TOWN 
FOREST, a well-kept grove of old pine trees. 


PORTLAND, 27.7 m. (80 alt., 70,810 pop.), largest city in Maine 

Points of Interest. Longfellow Birthplace, Sweat Memorial Art Museum, City 
Hall with Municipal Organ, Wadsworth House, and others. 

From Portland there are steamer trips to the various islands of GASGO BAY 
(Ind., place of herons), on which the city lies. The bay was visited by most of the 
explorers who came along this coast shortly after 1600; all were attracted to it be- 
cause of the safe anchorage offered by its deep waters and because the islands gave 
them places to land where they felt reasonably safe from the inhabitants of the 
country, on whom they looked with some fear. The islands are now frequented 
by summer visitors. Some are fairly large, some mere dots on the water. On them 
hang countless legends of castaways, buried treasures, shipwrecks, and Indian 
gods. Many of the islands bear homely names given by the pioneers, who displayed 
considerable imagination in finding resemblances to objects and animals in the 
rough profiles Ram, Horse, Sow and Pigs, the Goslings, Turnip, and Whale- 
boat are among them. Others have names derived from events that took place on 
them, or from animals inhabiting them. 

The first settlement in the bay took place in 1623, when Gapt. Christopher 
Levett erected a stone house, probably on YORK ISLAND, formerly known as 
House Island. 

JEWELL ISLAND, one of the outermost, acquired by George Jewell in 1636, 
has the usual legend of treasure buried on it by Captain Kidd. Treasure seekers, 
ignorant of the fact that Kidd never visited this part of the coast, tried every 
possible device to find the gold and jewels they believed to be there, sacrificing 
animals, using divining rods, and invoking the help of demented people they 
believed to have second sight. Legends have grown up about the activities of the 
persistent diggers; one concerns a mysterious stranger who appeared, asking for 
the help of a skipper residing there. The visitor disappeared without anyone's 
having seen him leave the island and shortly afterward the captain showed evi- 
dence of great wealth; curious neighbors announced that they had seen the im- 
prints of a large chest near a newly dug hole and a later treasure hunter reported 
the finding of a buried skeleton nearby. 

CLIFF ISLAND was the home of men who were accused of luring ships onto 
the rocks, in order to wreck them. 

ORR'S ISLAND, accessible from State 24, S. of Brunswick, was the scene of 
Harriet Beecher Stowe's story The Pearl of Orr's Island; Mrs. Stowe's former 
home stands on a hill near the ferry landing. 

EAGLE ISLAND, on the outer rim of the bay, was owned by Admiral Robert 
E. Peary, who made his home on its stony acres for many years. 

Large PEAKS ISLAND, near Portland and a favorite resort of residents of 
that city, has various amusement devices; a number of Portland people have 
year-round homes here. 

BAILEY ISLAND, S. of Orr's Island, was the summer home of Clara Louise 
Burnham of Chicago, who wrote a number of stories about the area. 

At 29.3 m. US 1 crosses Fore River, the southern boundary of 
Portland, on Vaughan's Bridge. Here huge oil and gas tanks line the 

38 U. S. ONE 

highway on both sides of the river, which separates Portland and 
South Portland. 

The NONESUCH RIVER, 32 m., so named for its remarkably crooked 
course to the sea, figured prominently in the affairs of Scarboro 
settlers and is mentioned in many early histories. Because it was im- 
possible to bring boats of any size up this sharply winding tidal river, 
a canal was constructed, to follow the general course of the river. 
Instead of digging the entire canal by hand, the workers made a 
narrow ditch along the proposed course. The action of the tides car- 
ried away the loose soil, finally completing a project that would have 
required much back-breaking toil. Near the highway bridge, fisher- 
men congregate in May for the annual run of ale wives. 

At 32.6 m. is the old PLUMMER HOUSE (private), set back with its 
side facing the street. It is a one-and-a-half-story, gable-end house 
with a central chimney. 

At 33.7 m. is OAK HILL (100 alt., Scarboro Town). 

Left from Oak Hill on State 207 to (R) the HUNNEWELL HOUSE (1684), 0.7 m. 
(private), known as the Old Red House. It stands in a "heater piece", a triangular 
plot of ground at a junction of roads, so called in early days when snow-removal 
equipment, which included a heater, was stored there. The timbers of this small 
one-and-a-half-story lean-to dwelling are hand-hewn and wooden pegged. A 
trap door in the living room floor leads to the shallow dugout used as a hiding 
place during Indian raids. 

At 1.2 m. is SGARBORO (20 alt.; Scarboro Town, 2,445 pop.). Most of the 
houses in this small village were built and are inhabited by seafaring men. The 
FIRST PARISH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (R), on the site of one built in 1728, is an 
attractive little white structure with a fan window in the front, and a belfry and 

The PARSON LANCASTER HOUSE (private), 1.5 in. on State 207, is a two-and-a- 
half-story unpainted dwelling with two huge elms in its front yard; it was built in 
1766. Interesting architectural features include wide roof boards, single board 
wainscoting, white (pumpkin) pine paneling, HL hinges, hand-wrought latches, 
knobs, and locks, fireplaces with hand-carved woodwork, and a staircase with 
delicate balustrade. The floors, ceilings, and unpainted woodwork have the 
patina of age. 

In the BLACK POINT CEMETERY, 1.7 m. (L), the dark gray slate stones date 
back to 1739. 

At 3 m. is the junction with a road (L) that leads to the popular bathing 

The private BLACK POINT GAME PRESERVE AND FARM, 3.7 m. (R) on State 
207, lies opposite the BLACK POINT FRUIT FARM, which has fine orchards. Small 
game such as partridge, pheasant, and rabbit roam unmolested in the small 
wooded preserve set aside by local residents. 


MASSACRE POND, visible (L) at 4.1 m., was so named because in 1713 Richard 
Hunnewell and 19 companions were set upon near here and slain by a band of 
200 Indians. 

Opposite the pond is the fairway of the PROUT'S NECK COUNTRY CLUB GOLF 
COURSE (private). At the seventh hole is a marker on the site of the first Anglican 
church in Maine, erected prior to 1658. 

At GARRISON COVE, 4.8 m., the road emerges from the woods to a cliff 
from which is a splendid view of the bay with the white sands of Old Orchard 
Beach gleaming in the distance. 

A marker at 5.2 m. (R) indicates the spot where Chief Mogg Heigon, subject 
of Whittier's poem, Mogg Megone, was slain in 1677. This marker is at the eastern 
end of beautiful Garrison Cove on the site of Josselyn (or Scottow) Fort, a head- 
quarters for defense in the first Indian war. Directly ahead is BLACK POINT, its 
rugged shore line sweeping westward toward Old Orchard Beach. 

The PROUT'S NECK YACHT CLUBHOUSE, 5.1 m. (R) on the ledges of the point, 
commands a wide view of the Atlantic. 

Left of the highway is a path leading to the PROUT'S NECK BIRD SANCTUARY, 
given to Scarboro by Charles Homer in memory of his brother, Winslow Homer, 
the artist. 

PROUT'S NECK, 5.5 m. (40 alt., Scarboro Town), is a pretentious summer 
settlement. Left is the SITE OF A BLOCKHOUSE where in 1703 eight men under 
Capt. John Larrabee for several days withstood a siege by 500 French and 
Indian marauders. 

In 1633 Thomas Cammock and his wife Margaret moved from Richmond's 
Island to Prout's Neck, then called Black Point. Here they were joined by Henry 
Josselyn and for a short time, in 1638, by his brother, John Josselyn. John's ac- 
counts of his visit, published as New England Rarities and elsewhere, repeat stories 
of sea serpents, witches' revels, and of a merman or triton that appeared in Casco 
Bay till Mr. Mitten chopped off its hand to prevent it from upsetting his canoe. 
Josselyn included a description of the native flora and of the Indians remarking, 
"There are many stranger things in the world than are to be seen between 
London and Stanes." 

At 35 m. (L) is the DANISH VILLAGE, a tourist camp with cabins 
patterned after the colorful little homes of a medieval Danish town, 
grouped about the raadhus (town hall). Architectural details have 
been faithfully copied in the hall, where meals are served, as well as 
in the individual cabins. 

At 35.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to SCOTTOW'S HILL. The first stagecoach road from Boston 
passed over this steep summit to avoid the marshes near the coast. At 0.6 m. is 
the KING HOMESTEAD, a two-story gable-end house with a long shed at one end. 

The highway crosses SCARBORO MARSHES, where underlying 
quicksands have caused great difficulties in road construction. 
Asphalt paving has been used because the surface invariably settles 

40 U. S. ONE 

several inches within a few months after being repaired. In former 
days large crops of salt-marsh hay were gathered on the hundreds 
of acres of marshland bordering the shore S. of Portland. Seven-by- 
ten-inch oak slabs were fastened to the hoofs of the horses used in 
haying to keep them from sinking into the ground. Protected by 
game laws, plover, duck, and gulls feed uninterruptedly on the 
marshes where they were formerly hunted. 

At DUNSTAN, 36.7 m. (50 alt., Scarboro Town), is the ST. 
Louis SCHOOL FOR BOYS, conducted by the Sisters of Charity. Large 
residences in this vicinity have been converted into tourist homes 
and inns that advertise "New England shore dinners" steamed 
and fried clams, lobster stew, and boiled and broiled lobster. 

At SAGO (pron. So'ko), 42.4 m. (60 alt., 7,233 pop.), is the CYRUS 
KING HOUSE, 271 Main St., now the rectory of the Holy Trinity 
Roman Catholic Church. The house was built in 1807 by Cyrus 
King, member of the Scarboro family, which produced the first 
Governor of Maine. A later occupant of the house was Horace 
Woodman, the inventor, who in 1854 devised the self-stripping 
cotton card and many other textile manufacturing appliances. 

Lyman Beecher Stowe, the author who is a grandson of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, was born in Saco when his father was minister of 
the FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, corner Beach and Main Sts. 

YORK INSTITUTE, 375 Main St. (open weekdays 7-4 p.m.), a small 
brick building erected in 1928, contains a collection of Colonial 
costumes and furniture, paintings, statuary, Maine minerals, Indian 
relics, and historical documents. 

THORNTON ACADEMY, 438 Main St., a coeducational school of 
high standing in general preparatory courses, was founded in 1811 
and now has 200 students. 

BIDDEFORD, 43.3 m. (80 alt., 17,633 pop.), is united histori- 
cally, industrially, and socially with its twin city, on the opposite 
bank of the Saco River. As a unit, the two cities rank second in 
industrial importance in Maine; Biddeford is the industrial part of 
the union, Saco being predominantly residential. The population, 
strongly Franco-American, is employed in the three large textile and 
textile-machinery mills and the several smaller manufactories. 

As far as is known, Richard Vines was in charge of the first com- 
pany of Englishmen to explore the site of Saco; he had been sent out 
from England in 1616 by Gorges, the most enthusiastic of the English 


promoters of settlement at the time, and others whom Gorges had 
interested in the enterprise. In 1629 Saco was granted to Thomas 
Lewis and Richard Bonython, and a permanent settlement was 
made shortly thereafter. 

It is said that about 1675 some drunken sailors, rowing in the 
river and seeing an Indian woman and her infant in a canoe nearby, 
determined to test a legend they had heard to the effect that Indian 
offspring swam from birth by instinct. They overturned the canoe; 
while the woman reached shore safely, the child died a few days 
later as the result of the experience. Unfortunately for the settlers, 
the child was the son of Squando, an Indian leader, who executed 
terrible revenge on the whites. 

(visited by permit), an industry established in 1845, occupies an area 
of 56 acres and manufactures nationally advertised cotton products. 

The SAGO-LOWELL Co. PLANT, off Main on Smith St. (visited by 
permit), has built textile machinery for more than 100 years. 

The YORK MANUFACTURING Co. PLANT, Main St. on Factory 
Island between Biddeford and Saco (visited by permit), also manu- 
factures textiles. 

The LAFAYETTE HOUSE, 20 Elm St., is a square, yellow, three- 
story house with a hip roof. It is on the property of the Diamond 
Match Co., which conducts many kinds of woodworking at this 

Between Biddeford and Kennebunk US 1 for a few miles follows 
the post road established for early mail carriers. 

KENNEBUNK, 51.9 m. (20 alt.; Kennebunk Town, 3,302 pop.), 
is notable for its fine elms. The town, settled about 1650, was for 
nearly a century in almost constant dread of attack by Indians. By 
1730 shipbuilding had begun along the Mousam River. This indus- 
try and an active trade with the West Indies made Kennebunk a 
town of importance until the beginning of the Revolutionary War. 
Soon after the Revolution the Mousam River was again utilized in 
the development of industry. Small mills sprang up along its banks; 
shoes, twine, and lumber are still manufactured here. Kennebunk 
has one of the few municipally owned light and power plants in the 

The FIRST PARISH UNITARIAN CHURCH, at the northern entrance 
to Kennebunk village, was built in 1774 and remodeled in 1803. 

42 U. S. ONE 

The fine steeple has a three-story tower with front windows and a 
top in three stages; the first stage is an open belfry, the second has a 
four-faced clock, and the third is an octagonal lantern cupola with 
elliptical openings. In 1803 a bell cast in the Paul Revere foundry 
was placed in the steeple. 

The STORER HOUSE (private), on Storer St., was the home of 
Gen. Joseph Storer, Revolutionary soldier and friend of Lafayette. 
This large yet simple structure is representative of the excellent 
taste in home building that characterized the post-Revolutionary 

Kenneth Roberts, author of Northwest Passage and other popular 
historical novels, was born in this house. Just beyond is the huge, 
spreading LAFAYETTE ELM, under which the French hero stood 
during the reception given in his honor in 1825 by the people of 
Kennebunk. The tree has grown so large that it has been necessary 
to prop up several of its massive limbs. 

The BOURNE MANSION (1815), on Bourne St. (private), is a square 
three-story structure with four chimneys, two at each end of the 
building. The principal entrance, facing the garden, has a fanlight 
of thick leaded glass, a motif that is repeated above in the second- 
story window. Outstanding features of the interior are the curved 
staircase and the fine paneled fireplaces. 

FIVE ELMS, on Main St. near Fletcher St., are believed to have 
been set out on the day of the Battle of Lexington. Directly back of 
the fourth elm is the NATHANIEL FROST HOUSE, one of many fine 
homes built by prosperous merchants and shipowners in the town's 
period of greatest affluence. 

Left from Kennebunk on State 35 at 0.1 m. is the ROBERT LORD HOUSE 
(1800-1803), similar in formality and dignity to the Sewell House, of the same 
period, in York. It is a massive, two-story, rectangular structure with a low hip 
roof and parapet rail. The symmetrical fagade is finished with carefully matched 
siding simulating stone, and is broken by the lines of slender Doric pilasters, by 
a slightly projecting central pavilion with crowning gable pediment, and by a 
narrow belt course at the second-floor level. The elliptical fanlight of the entrance 
doorway and its dark louvred shutters are repeated in a large sentinel window in 
the pediment. In the second story is a triple rectangular window, its sections 
separated by slender paneled pilasters. The wall openings are framed with an 
unusually fine trim. The design of the parapet rail, though a trifle light in the 
absence of the usual corner posts, is notable for its delicately turned balusters. 
An older house (c.1767) forms a rear wing. 

The TAYLOR HOUSE (1795-1797), adjoining the Lord House, is notable for its 


three exterior entrances. Of similar proportions and detail, these doorways are 
designed with flanking pilasters, semicircular fanlights, and crowning pediments. 
The interior is decorated with unusually fine putty-stucco ornament a char- 
acteristic medium of the period used in simulating carved ornament on flat 

At 0.6 m. is the junction with a tarred road. 

Right here 1 m. to a field road leading to a granite monument marking the 
SITE OF THE LARRABEE GARRISON HOUSE (1720), overlooking Mousam River. A 
bronze bas-relief on the monument depicts the garrison within whose walls were 
five houses. 

On State 35 at 1.2 m. is the yellow brick WEDDING CAKE HOUSE (private), 
one of the most extraordinary relics of the scroll-saw era extant. The house (see 
illustration), apparently built some time before the decorations were added, is a 
square, two-story structure of good proportions with a central doorway and, above, 
a graceful Palladian window. At the corners have been added series of slim, 
elaborately ornamented wooden pinnacles that rise several feet above the low 
roof; these are duplicated on each side of the entrance and, in miniature, in front 
of a trellised canopy over the steps that lead to the doorway. In between these 
pinnacles at the tops of the first and second stories, has been suspended an 
elaborate tracery, raised to Gothic peaks over the entrance canopy and the 
Palladian window; the effect is that of the paper lace mat on old-fashioned 
valentines. A long barn, touching the rear of the house on the right, also has 
pinnacles; its small high windows are outlined by large wooden arches. A local 
legend is that the decorations were added by a sea captain whose bride had been 
deprived of her large wedding cake when he was ordered hastily to sea in an 

The LINDSEY TAVERN (1799), 56.7 m. (L), now a tourist home, 
was a stagecoach stop on the old Post Road. Some of the original 
features of the interior, including stencilled wallpaper in the entrance 
hall, a Dutch oven in the dining room, and hand-made door hinges, 
have been retained. 

WELLS, 56.9 m. (50 alt.; Wells Town, 2,036 pop.), is a small 
settlement in one of Maine's oldest townships. Covering a large area 
that originally included Kennebunk, the town was often the center 
of hostilities during the Indian wars, which raged intermittently 
between 1650 and 1730. The names occurring most often in accounts 
of early Indian warfare are the names still most frequently heard in 
the town today. During a large part of the town's existence, farming 
has been the chief means of livelihood for the inhabitants. Increasing 
numbers of tourists and summer residents have afforded a large 
market for local garden produce. 

At 57.9 m. (L) is the JOSEPH STORER GARRISON HOUSE (private), 
where 1 5 soldiers withstood a two-day siege by 500 Frenchmen and 

44 U. S. ONE 

Indians in 1692. It is a weather-beaten two-and-a-half-story yellow 
structure with a foundation of granite. 

At 58.1 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Left on this road to WELLS BEACH, 1 m. (20 alt., Wells Town), a popular 
resort with a good bathing beach. 

The FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 58.3 m. (R), stands on the 
site of the first church building in Wells, which was organized about 
1643 by the Reverend John Wheelwright, who shared the beliefs of 
Anne Hutchinson, the English noncomformist. Wheelwright had 
been exiled from Massachusetts, had settled at Exeter and, when 
that was declared to be under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, had 
migrated to this town with his family. About 1 646 he made his peace 
with Massachusetts and returned to Boston. While a student at 
Oxford University he was apparently notable as an athlete, for 
Oliver Cromwell, his classmate there, said later in life that he had 
never felt as much fear before any army as before Wheelwright in 
competitive sports. The church Wheelwright built at Wells was 
burned by the Indians in 1692. 

Between Wells and Ogunquit are (L) many glimpses of sand 
dunes, beaches, and the ocean. This section of US 1 is highly com- 
mercialized, appealing to the tourist trade with road stands, restau- 
rants, and cabins. 

OGUNQUIT, 62 m. (60 alt., Wells Town), noted for many years 
only as a fishing village in a particularly beautiful setting, now has 
16 hotels and is known for its colony of artists and actors (see 
below). Among the many recreations here is fishing for tuna, 
which has become popular along the southern Maine coast in recent 

Left from Ogunquit on a winding road, which passes through heavily forested 
country broken by summer estates and affords splendid vistas of the ocean (L). 
The coast line is rocky. 

At 0.9 m. is the junction with a road (L) that leads 0.2 m. to PERKINS 
COVE and an art colony. Grouped about the art school are small individualis- 
tically decorated cottages. The village abounds with art and antique shops and 
has several gaily decorated Chinese restaurants. 

At 2.2 m. is the entrance to the OGUNQUIT CLIFF COUNTRY CLUB. 

At 2.7 m. is the EPISCOPAL MEMORIAL STONE CHURCH with its bell in an arch 
of the roof over the door. It stands on a cliff overlooking the sea. 

At 5.9 m. the road rejoins US 1 at Cape Neddick. 


At 62.4 m. is a junction with Agamenticus Road. 

Right on this road is a camp site at the foot of MOUNT AGAMENTICUS (692 alt.), 
5.7 m., where the Indian saint Aspinquid was buried. This, the highest of the 
hills in this relatively low area, long used as a point of navigation in the days of 
square-riggers, is still so used by coastal vessels. A 15-minute climb from the camp 
site along a bridle trail leads to the FIRE LOOKOUT STATION, from which is an ex- 
tensive view of the sea in one direction, with BOON ISLAND LIGHT in the distance. 

According to tradition, in April 1682 the Increase, a trader between Plymouth 
and Pemaquid, was wrecked on an offshore island, its only survivors, three white 
men and one Indian, existing as best they could on the rocky shores. They were 
nearly ready to give up hope of rescue when one day in May they saw smoke 
rising from the summit of Agamenticus. This smoke was that of the burnt offer- 
ings of hundreds of Indians from all over Maine, converts of Aspinquid, who was 
a disciple of John Eliot; they had brought deer, moose, fish, and even rattlesnakes 
to sacrifice in the flames to the memory of their departed leader. Heartened by 
the smoke that indicated the presence of people on the mainland, the castaways 
gathered driftwood and themselves built a huge fire, which attracted rescuers 
from the mainland. In gratitude for their salvation, it is said, the men named the 
island Boon. Boon Island Light was erected here in 1811. 

At 62.8 m. (L) is the new OGUNQUIT PLAYHOUSE. The Ogunquit 
summer theater group, one of the largest in Maine, has been under 
the direction of Walter Hartwig for several years, and has nationally 
known stage and screen stars as guest artists. During the season a new 
play is presented each week. The Workshop, an interesting develop- 
ment that attracts students of the theater from all sections of the 
country, makes several presentations during the summer. 

In the vicinity of CAPE NEDDICK, 66.1 m. (50 alt., York 
Town), are the well-built stone fences and rolling farmlands of 
southern Maine, with rock outcroppings typical of the New England 
glacial terrain. 

At 70.2 m. is a junction with a tarred road. 

Right on this road is the MC!NTIRE GARRISON HOUSE (private), 3.7 m. (L), 
built between 1640-45 by Alexander Maxwell and restored in 1909 by John R. 
Mclntire. As was customary in early garrisons, the second story overhangs the 
first so that beleaguered defenders could pour hot pitch and grease upon the 
enemy below. The building is constructed of heavy timbers interlocking at the 
corners and sheathed on the outside with weather-beaten shingles. 

At the east end of the bridge (R) is a GRANITE MONUMENT with a 
bronze plaque bearing the following inscription: 

"The Province of Maine. Originally extending from the Merri- 
mac to the Kennebec Rivers, was granted Aug. 10th 1622 to Sir 

46 U. S. ONE 

Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason, by The Council for New 
England, established at Plymouth in 1635 when Gorges received the 
Eastern portion extending from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec, 
which thereafter retained the original name of the Province of 

US 1 crosses the New Hampshire Line at 76.9 m. in the center of 
the PoRTSMouTH-KiTTERY MEMORIAL BRIDGE over the Piscataqua 


Maine Line Portsmouth Mass. Line, 15.1 m. US 1. 

Boston & Maine R.R. parallels route. 

Well paved; all types of accommodations at short intervals. 

Section 5. Maine Line to Massachusetts Line, 15.1 m. 

US 1 spans the restless Piscataqua River; the current of this 
turbulent stream is so swift that the water never freezes even when the 
temperature is far below zero. 

From the earliest days the road between Portsmouth, N.H., and 
Newburyport, Mass., often followed or closely paralleled by the line 
of the modern highway, served to bind the sparse settlement together. 
Over this country road a lone horseman carried the mail between 
Portsmouth and Boston until the coming of the stagecoach. He 
forded rivers, crossed treacherous salt marshes, and, when necessary, 
fought off Indians and wolves in the discharge of his duties. Stavers 
Flying Stage Coach began a regular run between Portsmouth and 
Boston in 1761. This was a curricle, a two- wheeled, two-horse vehicle 
with room for three passengers. Over this route on December 13, 
1774, Paul Revere rode to inform the Committee of Safety in Ports- 
mouth of the British order that no more gunpowder should be ex- 
ported to America. As a result the citizens were able to secrete what 
ammunition they had. Washington passed this way in 1775 after 
taking command in Cambridge, and again in 1789. James Monroe 
traveled it in 1817, and Lafayette in 1824, when he had become an 
almost legendary hero to the inhabitants, who lined the highway for 
a glimpse of him. 

PORTSMOUTH, 0.5 m. (30 alt., 14,495 pop.), ancient port (see 

Points of Interest. Wentworth-Gardner House and many other points of histori- 
cal and architectural interest. 

US 1 in Portsmouth passes through narrow State Street, past the 
old EPISCOPAL CHAPEL, a wooden Doric structure (L), and the JOHN 
PAUL JONES HOUSE, built in 1738 (R), to Haymarket Square. Turning 
L. on Middle Street, it passes (R) the PIERCE HOUSE (see illustration), 
built in 1800; the BOARDMAN HOUSE, 1805 (R); the LARKIN HOUSE, 
1815 (R); and the RUNDLET MAY HOUSE, 1806 (R). 


48 U. S. ONE 

The highway goes through pine woods and salt meadows, dipping 
into a hollow at 2.1 m., where Sagamore Creek, a tidal stream, winds 
along to Little Harbor and thence to the ocean. 

At 5 m. the northern outskirts of the beautiful old township of Rye 
are entered. 

At 5.8 m. is a junction with the paved and marked Greenland 

Right on this road about 1 50 yds. to the SITE OF THE CAPTURE OF BREAKFAST 
HILL. A marker on top of a boulder (R) commemorates the capture of a number 
of Indians here in 1696. Eating a leisurely breakfast following the massacre on 
Portsmouth Plains the previous day, the Indians were surprised by Captain 
Shackford and a company of soldiers, who killed them and rescued the captives 
they had taken. 

South of Rye Township US 1 runs through the prosperous village 
of NORTH HAMPTON, 6.1 m. (99 alt., 695 pop.), around which 
are green acres that are either cultivated by farmers whose titles go 
back to the 17th century, or are beautiful estates of wealthy summer 
residents; the latter are between the highway and the sea. Probably 
settled first by Samuel and John Dearborn in 1 690, North Hampton 
Town was the scene of many attacks by the Winnicummet Indians. 
To withstand their onslaughts its early houses were strongly built of 
wood backed with brick. Many of these are still standing. Formerly 
a part of Hampton Town, North Hampton was incorporated in 1742. 

At 8.5 m. is a junction with the paved and marked Atlantic Road. 

1. Left on this road about 300 yds. is (L) the simple, white NORTH HAMPTON 
TOWN HALL, in the belfry of which hangs a bell made by the Paul Revere 

2. Right on Atlantic Road to NORTH HILL, on which stands NORTH HAMPTON 
CENTER. High above the sunny meadows, the white meeting house dominates the 
cluster of white farmhouses about the village green. 

Where the green is bordered on the W. by the Post Road, a MILEPOST is set 
in a stone wall. It reads: 


(Portsmouth 10 miles, Newburyport 12). This post was erected by Benjamin 
Franklin when he was Postmaster General under the Crown. South of this mile 
post on the Post Road is a tablet (R) at 0.25 m., marking the SITE OF THE HOME 
OF THE FIRST SETTLERS, Samuel and John Dearborn, and their descendant, 








Major General Henry Dearborn, who commanded the Army of the United 
States at the outbreak of the second war with England in 1812. 

It was over this section of the road that, by order of Richard 
Waldron, constable of Dover, three Quaker women were dragged 
from Dover and flogged. The order, issued in 1662, stated: "You and 
every one of you are required in the King's Majesty's name to take 
these vagabond Quakers, Anne Colman, Mary Tompkins, and Alice 
Ambrose and make them fast to the cart's tail, and, driving the cart 
through your several towns, to whip them upon their naked backs 
not exceeding ten stripes apiece on each of them, in each town; and 
so to convey them from constable to constable till they are out of this 
jurisdiction, as you will answer it at your peril; and this is your 
Warrant." Whittier drew a vivid picture of this episode in his poem, 
How the Women Went from Dover: 

"Bared to the waist for the north wind's grip 
And keener sting of the constable's whip, 
The blood that followed each hissing blow 
Froze as it sprinkled the whiter snow. 

"Priest and ruler, boy and maid 
Followed the dismal cavalcade 
And from door and window, open thrown, 
Looked and wondered gaffer and crone." 

Portunately, through the courage of Justice Robert Pike of Salis- 
bury who trod the warrant underfoot, its provisions were carried out 
only at Hampton and Dover. 

HAMPTON, 10.9 m. (83 alt.; Hampton Town, 1,507 pop.), is a 
compact little village, its streets lined with lofty elms. Hampton was 
an outpost of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which maintained a 
blockhouse here in 1635 as a protection against the numerous Indian 
attacks. The town was one of New Hampshire's four original towns 
and the mother of many of the surrounding litde towns. A grant of 
the land was given to a group of Englishmen led by the Reverend 
Stephen Bachiler, who in 1638 sailed in shallops up the Winnicum- 
met River "thru salt sea marshes to uplands brown." These pioneers, 
with thoughts turning homeward to England, promptly changed the 
lovely Indian name of Winnicummet (beautiful place in the pines) to 
Hampton at the incorporation of the town in 1639. 

Although today this is a farming and shoe manufacturing com- 
munity on a small scale, the tang of the sea is in the air and strange 

50 U. S. ONE 

objects in the old houses are a heritage of the days when brigantines 
and clipper ships put out from Hampton Harbor to sail the distant 

Left on Winnicummet Road, which intersects US 1 in the village, is (R) the 
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, built in 1843; its pulpit is from the Fourth 
Meeting House, erected in 1797. 

On this road in a quiet grove of pines lies the old BURYING GROUND, 0.5 m., 
with its ancient stones (1654-1800) almost hidden by fragrant pine needles. 

At 11.4 m. on US 1 is a large square house (R) surrounded by an 
old-fashioned garden. This mansion is generally known as the home 
of Gen. Jonathan Moulton of Revolutionary War fame and locally 
as the HAUNTED HOUSE. A bit of the interior of the house, a fine speci- 
men of Georgian architecture, has been pictured by Whittier in The 
New Wife and the Old: 

"From the oaken mantel glowing 
Faintest light the lamp is throwing 
On the mirror's antique mould 
High-backed chair, and wainscot old." 

Reputedly a miserly man, General Moulton is said to have shown 
his thrift by removing the rings of his first wife at her death and pre- 
senting them to the second wife. In revenge the first wife is said to 
have returned and ever after haunted the place. The story goes, too, 
that the general agreed to sell his soul to the devil for as much gold 
as his boots would hold. The fireplace is pointed out as the place 
where the general placed his boots with the toes cut off, so that when 
the devil poured the money down the chimney it ran through the 
boots. Thus the fiend was outwitted. 

About 300 yds. from US 1 on a road that runs E. from the Haunted 
House is the old MEETING HOUSE GREEN or Cow Commons, once the 
heart of the village. Nearby is a LOG CABIN (open Wed. and Sat. aft.; 
free), a reproduction of the first meeting house. The cabin's door was 
formerly the front door of the Garrison House, built by Col. Joshua 
Wingate on order of Governor Dudlye in 1703. Beside the cabin is 
the TUCK MEMORIAL HOUSE (open. Wed. and Sat. aft.; free) with a his- 
torical room containing many odd relics. 

One of New England's most dreaded witches had her hut near the 
log cabin; here she was buried "in a grave by a ditch." Goody Cole 
was the fear of the countryside, for, it was charged, she had "made 
a league with the devil" and with his aid was able to render persons 


deformed, to torture, and even to drown with an invisible hand. 
Whittier speaks of her in The Wreck of Rivermouth: 

" 'Fie on the witch !' cried a merry girl, 
As they rounded the point where Goody Cole 
Sat by her door with her wheel atwirl, 
A bent and blear-eyed, poor old soul. 
'Oho!' she muttered, 'ye're brave to-day! 
But I hear the little waves laugh and say, 
The broth will be cold that waits at home; 
For it's one to go, but another to come !'" 

Although none of the fantastic crimes attributed to witches could 
be laid directly at Goody Cole's door, she was persecuted and im- 
prisoned by the town for years. In 1673 her plea for liberty was re- 
fused by Justice Jonas Clark of Salisbury Court in the following 
decision, "In ye case of Unis Cole now prisoner at ye Bar not Legally 
guilty according to Intitement butt just ground of vehement sus- 
pissyon of her haveing had famillyarrty with the deiull." 

Opposite the log cabin (R) is the attractive MEETING HOUSE 
GREEN MEMORIAL PARK surrounded by a series of boulders marked 
with the names of the earliest settlers. The park was the joint gift of 
the towns that were once part of Hampton. 

The salt marshes S. of Hampton figured rather prominently in the 
commercial history of this part of New Hampshire. Extensive com- 
mercial salt works were in operation on the edges of the marshes in 
Colonial days to extract the salt from the grass, which was set in 
cocks on the marsh to dry. A tide mill, of which there are no traces 
at the present time, was built here in 1681 for the purpose of grinding 
the town's corn in return for "a one-sixteenth part thereof," and was 
active until 1879. 

At Taylor River, 12.5 m., was the shipyard where vessels, some of 
them of large tonnage, were built. At a bend in the stream known as 
the Mooring Turn, vessels were accustomed to ride at anchor. Be- 
ginning in 1682, many barques, brigantines, and sloops were built 
and launched to sail for distant ports. 

HAMPTON FALLS, 13.2 m. (62 alt.; Hampton Falls Town, 481 
pop.), is a delightful village dignified by austere white churches. 
Originally a part of Hampton Town, Hampton Falls was incor- 
porated as a separate township in 1726. In the early part of the 18th 
century this section was one of the busiest in all New England; saw- 

52 U. S. ONE 

mills, grist mills, shingle mills, woolen mills, cotton mills, and ferti- 
lizer plants kept many workmen busy. 

In stagecoach days the village was a post station where changes 
of horses were made, from 100 to 125 horses being kept at one time 
for that purpose. WELLSWOOD INN (L), then known as Wells Tavern, 
was a stage house with 40 horses stabled across the road. So great was 
the local interest in horses that a horse show was held in Hampton 
Falls in 1726. Sunday travel was banned in those days and the 
tithing men of Hampton Falls were very active in promptly arresting 
and fining anyone so offending. The practice did not end until 1825. 

On August 10, 1737, officials of New Hampshire and Massachu- 
setts, forming an imposing cavalcade of stagecoaches, horseback 
riders, and carriages, met here to determine the boundary line 
between the two Colonies. 

The MONUMENT in the square (R) was erected in memory of New 
Hampshire's first Governor, Mesheck Weare, President of New 
Hampshire from 1776-1784, who was born and lived here. Its 
inscription reads: 

"He was one of those good men 
Who dare to love their country and be poor." 

The GOVERNOR WEARE HOUSE on Exeter Road near the square, 
built in 1748, is a splendid example of early Colonial architecture; 
in it, according to well authenticated tradition, both Washington 
and Lafayette were entertained. 

ELMFIELD (L) is notable for its furnishings, which have been in 
the house since its early days. The old place is still owned by the 
Gove family, who built it in the early part of the 18th century. Ed- 
ward Gove, grandfather of the present owner, was imprisoned for 
several years in the Tower of London for taking part in a conspiracy 
against Governor Crandon. He lived to spend his last years in this 
house, an invalid as the result, he said, of poison administered during 
his imprisonment. 

Here John Greenleaf Whittier spent many summer vacations, and 
here in 1892 he died in the room overlooking the lovely old-fashioned 
rose garden. The log cabin and Colonial kitchen may be visited by 
permission of the owner. 

All of this region is Whittier land. The poet took great pride in 
the fact that he was a lineal descendant of the Reverend Stephen 


Bachiler, founder of Hampton, and showed a lively interest in the 
house of his ancestors. 

1. Right from Hampton Falls on Exeter Road at 1.8 m. is (R) APPLECREST 
FARM, which is most attractive in the spring when thousands of trees are in full 
blossom, and in the fall when crimson fruit is being picked and packed in a model 
packing house. Adjoining Applecrest Farm is (R) the two-story unpainted house 
that was the BIRTHPLACE OF FRANKLIN B. SANBORN (1831-1917), journalist and 
author. He was one of the three founders of the Concord Summer School of 
Philosophy, and biographer of his friends Emerson, Thoreau, and Hawthorne. 
The gray two-story house (R) is the BIRTHPLACE OF RALPH ADAMS CRAM, dis- 
tinguished American architect. At 3.6 m. (L) is the old CRAM HOMESTEAD, an 
unpainted house of dignified lines, built in 1 676. 

2. Right from Hampton Falls on the Kensington Road to the FALLS OF FALLS 
RIVER, 5 m., where formerly were situated a fulling mill, a grist mill, and a 
sawmill run by water power. The mills have long since disappeared, but the 
charm of the falls remains. On the river's bank is (R) the DODGE HOMESTEAD. 
The original house, built in 1 648, was in 1 787 replaced by the present structure, 
which retains many of the original features and pieces of furniture of the Colonial 

A stone on the estate is by many local people considered proof that the Norse- 
men landed in or near Hampton in the early llth century. Although covered 
with dry moss a series of marks can be found chiseled in the stone; at first glance 
these appear to be crosses such as the Indians used to guide their tribesmen 
through the woods, but closer examination makes it clear that they are not 
characteristic Indian symbols. They more nearly resemble the runic inscriptions 
of the Norsemen. 

Behind the house on the river bank is an EPISCOPAL CHAPEL, said to be the 
smallest in the State; the little building of stone was fashioned from an old ice 
house. The chapel is privately owned but is always open to the wayfarer. Worship- 
ers are called together every Sunday afternoon at four by an old brass bell taken 
from one of the ships built on the Hampton River in the early 1 8th century. 

SEABROOK, 14.7 m. (65 alt.; Seabrook Town, 1,666 pop.), a 
village with limited accommodations, is Old Worldish in appearance 
and atmosphere. Its landscape has been unchanged for three cen- 
turies; cocks of salt hay still dot the wide sand dunes beyond it as 
they did in Colonial days. 

For 57 years a part of Hampton Town, the Seabrook section was 
settled in 1638 and did not become a separate township until 1768. 
Living was especially precarious here in early days because of fre- 
quent Indian attacks. The chief industry a century ago was the build- 
ing of whaleboats, which set forth from Seabrook on fishing trips to 
the coast of Labrador. The names of some of the original settlers 

54 U. S. ONE 

have come down for almost three hundred years, among them such 
names as Byrd, Peavear, Boynton, and Bachiler. 

A part of the people of Seabrook speak a language reminiscent 
of rural England, and at times almost unintelligible to a visitor. 
Once these people were expert shoemakers, doing all their work by 
hand in ten-foot cabins; since the coming of machines the industry 
has been conducted in a factory. The employees work when they 
please and, if the mood suits them, sleep under a tree, in full view of 
the factory. Members of a long-lived race, active and hearty, many 
of them are working at the age of 90 years or more. 

SEABROOK NURSERIES (L) in the season from May to September 
exhibit 20 acres of gladioli in every possible variety and color. YE 
COCK AND KETTLE INN (R) dates from the 18th century. The OLD 
MAN OF SEABROOK (L), an antique shop, is so named because of the 
curious figure of an old man hanging on its wall. The figure, orig- 
inally a clothing store dummy in Newburyport, was brought to Sea- 
brook about 40 years ago and placed in its present position. 

At 15.1 m. US 1 crosses the Massachusetts Line. 


N.H. Line Newburyport Boston Dedham R.I. Line, 
77.9m. US 1. 

Boston & Maine R.R. S. of Boston, and the New York, New Haven & Hartford 

R.R. parallel the route at intervals. 

Good, hard-surfaced roadbed, mostly three and four lanes wide. 

Usual accommodations at short intervals. 

Section 6. New Hampshire Line to Rhode Island Line, 77.9 m. 

US 1 is the most direct route, though not the most scenic, between 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Even 
in the days of stagecoaches the section of highway between Newbury- 
port and Boston, the Newburyport Turnpike, was known as the 
"airline route" because of its unwavering course. In its 35 miles it 
deviates only 83 ft. from a straight line; it runs through pleasant farm 
lands N. of Newburyport, then over the glacial hills of Topsfield and 
Danvers. At Lynnfield it runs through flat country as it passes Sun- 
taug Lake between the red rock outcrops of Saugus, on the outskirts 
of Boston. There are no unnecessary hindrances to traffic in Boston 
on the through route, which follows a wooded parkway with over- 
passes and a staggered system of traffic lights. South of Boston the 
road, locally called the Providence Turnpike, is an express highway 
traversing only one center of size, North Attleboro, thence crossing 
rolling country, largely undeveloped. 

At 2.4 m. is SALISBURY (15 alt.; town pop. 2,245, incorp. 
1640). In the tiny triangular green (L) is the QUAKER WHIPPING 
STONE, originally the stepping stone of the Friends' Meeting House, 
built in Salisbury in 1752; it marks the site of Maj. Robert Pike's 
championship of three Quaker women who had been ordered tied to 
the tail of an oxcart and whipped (see Section 5). 

About 20 yds. N. of the square, on US 1, a marker (L) indicates 
the SITE OF THE BETSY GERRISH HOUSE, within whose narrow walls 
was held a session of the General Court. At that time the community 
was a "shire town" and the only settlement N. of the Merrimac 

On State 110, 200 yds. R. of the square, is the green known as 
POTLID SQUARE. A boulder here marks the SITE OF THE FIRST LOG 


56 U. S. ONE 

built in the same year. Settlers moved here in 1638 from Newbury, 
Mass., and Salisbury, England, and in attempting to develop the 
fishing, shipbuilding, and cooperage industries, incurred the hostil- 
ity of the Indians, who resented the depletion of their food supply and 
of the forests. 

Left from Salisbury on State 1A to the old BURYING GROUND, at the junction of 
State 1A and Beach Rd., laid out in 1639. This cemetery holds large flat stones 
known as "wolf slabs," which were placed on the ground to protect the graves of 
the early settlers from hungry wolves. Here are buried Maj. Robert Pike and the 
first five ministers of Salisbury. 

At 2.1 m. is SALISBURY BEACH (salt-water swimming pool, recreation equip- 

Along the three-lane concrete highway no vestiges remain of the 
dark forest that once menaced the dooryards of the early inhabitants. 
At 4.2 m. is the junction with First St. 

Left on First St. are the remnants of the original settlement of Salisbury, the 
Ring's Island section. The sharply rising bank (L) and the tiny creek (R), 0.1 m., 
were the SITE OF THE FISH FLAKES AND SHIPYARDS of early days. Up the steep 
slope were once wheeled barrows of fish, brought from Labrador and Chaleur 
Bay, to be spread in the sun on drying racks or "flakes." The SITE OF THE OLD 
FERRY SLIP, 0.2 m., on the bank of the Merrimac River, is identified by rotting 
timbers at the water's edge. At 0.3 m. (L) stands the NATHAN DOLE HOUSE 
(open by arrangement), built in 1680, and once occupied by the poet, Edna St. 
Vincent Millay. Nearby is MARCHES TAVERN, built in 1690 by John March, who 
ran the ferry connecting the settlement with Newbury and other nearby port 
towns. Seaward from the tavern are INDIAN SHELL HEAPS, now appearing as 
green mounds in the distance across the marshes. These accumulations of broken 
clam shells mark the spot where, in the summer months, the Indians gathered to 
fish in the Merrimac, before returning at the approach of winter to the protection 
of the inland woods. 

At 4.5 m. US 1 passes over the bridge that crosses the Merrimac 
River. The road affords glimpses of the waterfront, a short stretch 
of business section, and the white spires rising above the foliage of 
the residential parts of Newburyport. 

At 5 m. (L) is a glimpse of the rear wall and the squat stone frame 
of the old COUNTY JAIL (1744), its spiked metal fence imbedded in the 
rock base; during the Revolution, British privateersmen were 
shackled to its floor. Beyond are the ancient stones of the old HILL 
BURYING GROUND, holding the remains of soldiers of the French and 
Indian, Revolutionary, and Civil Wars. Here also is buried the self- 
styled "Lord" Timothy Dexter (1743-1806), eccentric Newburyport 


merchant who made a fortune by speculating in depreciated Colonial 
currency and in such trading deals as the sale of warming pans. 

Along the highway are level stretches that were once the com- 
mons, where townsfolk pastured their flocks and herds; there is a 
shaded residential area (L). 

NEWBURYPORT, 5 m. (57 alt., pop. 14,815), historic port (see 

Points of Interest. Caldwell Rum Distilleries, Old County Jail, Jackson-Dexter 
House, St. Paul's Church, Sumner House, Brown Park and Garrison Statue, 
Old South Church, and others. 

From the western edge of Newburyport US 1 traverses the wooded 
and farming sections of N. Essex County. 
At 7.4 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is a junction, 0.5 m., with a marked side road leading to 
DEVIL'S BASIN, 1.6 m. Geologists find in this abandoned quarry fine specimens of 
brittle dolomized rock, green- and yellow-veined serpentine, and masses of 

At 8.4 m. US 1 crosses the PARKER RIVER, at this point a narrow 
stream in the midst of vivid green marshes. At 9.1 m. (R), set back 
from the road, is the GOVERNOR DUMMER ACADEMY, a boarding 
school established in 1762. The original schoolhouse, standing among 
the clapboarded dormitories built at a later date, is a one-story 
building typical of the little district schoolhouses that were once the 
backbone of New England's school system. The finest building on the 
campus is the GOVERNOR DUMMER MANSION (1715), now occupied 
by the headmaster. Shaded by arching elms, this building is an out- 
standing example of early American-Georgian architecture. The 
carved detail of the doorway merits close inspection. 

Several ghost stories center around the mansion. It is said that 
whenever August has two full moons, on the night of the first moon 
Governor Dummer rides his white horse up the broad staircase as he 
did on the night of the grand housewarming in 1715. Another story 
concerns the smiling ghost of a child who peeped through the kitchen 
doorway. Not until her bones were discovered in a moldering box in 
the cellar and given proper burial, did the little apparition vanish. 
It is also averred that the ghost of an English officer who was killed 
in a duel on the lawn occasionally reappears in full-dress uniform, 
with powdered wig embroidered cloak, and sword. 

58 U. S. ONE 

At 12.3 m. is the intersection with State 133. 

Right on this road is GEORGETOWN, 4.9 m. (81 alt.; town pop. 2,009, 
incorp. 1838), offspring of the town of Rowley and one of the later settlements in 
Essex County. A local story is that land grants in the district were restricted by 
Ezekiel Rogers, head of the Rowley Company, so that Oliver Cromwell might 
find a refuge here in the eventuality that his political efforts to dethrone Charles 
I should be unsuccessful. 

The BROCKLEBANK HOUSE (adm,free), about 0.4 m. from the common on State 
1 33, was built in 1 670. This attractive gambrel-roofed dwelling was the home of 
Capt. Samuel Brocklebank, who was killed in King Philip's War. An old sign of 
the White Horse Tavern (1773) swings in front of it. 

At 5.8 m. on State 133 is the junction with a dirt road; L. here to the summit 
of BALDPATE HILL (312 alt.), a high point in Essex County, affording a view of 
green valleys and distant hills. This road passes two 18th century houses with 
steep-pitched roofs, and at 1 m. (R) reaches BALDPATE INN (still a hotel). The inn 
has paneled walls and old-time fireplaces and furnishings. 

At 17.3 m. US 1 crosses State 97. 

Right on State 97 is TOPSFIELD, 0.6 m. (59 alt.; town pop. 1,113, incorp. 
1648), which is built up around a lovely green and has the appearance of a town 
of old New England. Near the green are the CIVIL WAR MEMORIAL, representing 
a dying soldier handing the colors to a comrade, and the PEACE MEMORIAL 
dedicated to "Men and Women of Topsfield who helped to restore peace to a 
world at war, 1914-1918." Across from the memorials stands the PUBLIC LI- 
BRARY containing murals of historic scenes, the work of Harold Kellogg, its 
architect, as well as collections of rare books and objects of historical interest. 
Nearby are the high school, the town hall, and the white-spired Congregational 
Church. Nothing remains to indicate that Topsfield was something of a boom 
town in Colonial times. In 1648 bog iron was dug and smelted at the Boxford 
Iron Works; excitement ran high when a copper vein was struck on the Endicott 
grant. Mining, however, proved unprofitable, and agriculture continued to be 
the mainstay of the town. 

In the center of the village (R) is an old three-story, square, brick house with 
wooden ends. Near it, branching R. between the white church and the green, is 
an unmarked lane that passes through a pasture gate, meadows, and woods, to 
the PARSON CAPEN HOUSE (open in summer; adm. 70), which has been restored by 
the local historical society. A two-story structure (1683) of the type intended to 
withstand Indian attacks, it has an unusually deep second-story overhang, 
steeply pitched roof, central chimney, many-paned casement windows, and 
carved door brackets. On the corners of the overhang are pineapple drops. The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City has reproduced the kitchen in its 
American wing. Furnishings, of the period when the house was built, include a 
chair-table, a wooden bread-trough, wooden plates, and mugs. A brick oven is 
inside a fireplace 8^ ft. wide. 

It is said that a maid servant of Parson Capen lost her soul by reading an im- 
proper book on the Sabbath; when Satan appeared to claim his booty the 


parson challenged him to a contest, with the terrified girl as the prize. Spilling 
half a bushel of flaxseed on the floor, the parson engaged to read a section of the 
Bible backwards before Satan could pick up the seed. The devil lost the contest 
and, in chagrin, vanished through a rat hole that has also been preserved. 

The GHOATE HOUSE (private) is a two-story, hip-roofed, white frame building 
on a grassy terrace, above a shaded lawn surrounded by a fence with ball-topped 
posts. It has a parapet, four corner chimneys, a front doorway with an unusually 
fine fan light, and a Doric-columned portico. 

State 97, N. of Topsfield, passes the PINE GROVE CEMETERY, 1 m. (L), contain- 
ing stones dating back to 1663. Here are buried ancestors of Joseph Smith, 
founder of Mormonism. Next to the burial ground once stood a meeting house, 
built in 1663. In 1675, during King Philip's War, it was inside a palisade, with a 
watch house hi the SE. corner. 

At 3.2 m. (R), with a large elm by the door, is the PERLEY-HALE-PERKINS 
HOUSE (private), built in 1760 by Maj. Asa Perkins. The fine old weatherbeaten 
house has a long roof and central chimney. 

At 3.5 m. is the junction with Depot St. 

Left 0.5 m. on Depot St. are (R) the extensive grounds of the KELSEY-HIGH- 
LANDS NURSERY, equipped with a private airport. At 0.6 m. (R) stands the pic- 

BOXFORD, 5.2 m. on State 97 (95 alt.; town pop. 726, incorp. 1694), is a 
village in an unspoiled stretch of low rolling hills dotted with several large lakes. 
So salubrious was the air here in 1855 that the town physician remarked with 
regret that he might as well practice in heaven. The first settler, Abraham Red- 
dington, arrived in 1645. The community has always been predominantly agri- 
cultural in its activities, though it has had various small industries to supply 
local needs and at one time had sawmills that prepared lumber for the shipyards 
along the coast. The single melodramatic episode in Boxford's peaceful history 
was the Ames murder trial of 1769. This trial was one of the few in New Eng- 
land at which the ordeal by touch was employed a test based on the idea that 
the wounds of a corpse would bleed if the murderer touched the body. 

Left of the green is the FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, a white meeting house 
with a long row of horse stalls. On the opposite side of Depot Street is JOURNEY'S 
END (open in summer by permission), the residence of Frank A. Manny, author. 
This clapboarded, gambrel-roofed house contains an interesting historical collec- 
tion. In the garden is a miniature sand village, Boxford in the 80's, which inspired 
Stanley Hall to write the Story of a Sandpile, a contribution to the modern play- 
ground movement. 

On Elm St., a few hundred feet from Journey's End, is the PUBLIC LIBRARY 
(R), housing a small collection of historical exhibits. 

At 17.1 m. (L) is a view across far stretches of rolling hills and 

At 17.8 m. (L) is the TOPSFIELD FAIR GROUNDS (agricultural ex- 
hibits^ races annually in mid-September). 

At 20.1 m. (R) is an old MILESTONE, with B (Boston) and P (Port- 
land) cut deep into the granite. Here US 1 twists through wooded 

6o U. S. ONE 

and open land, passing at 21.6 m. (R) the turreted red brick struc- 
ture of the DANVERS STATE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE (visiting 2-4 
p.m.; special hours for groups interested in the work), crowning the highest 
hill in the township. 

US 1 passes pine groves, PURITAN LAWN MEMORIAL PARK (a 
cemetery), and SUNTAUG LAKE at 26 m. (R). 

At 26.7 m. is SOUTH LYNNFIELD (77 alt.), a crossroads vil- 
lage at the junction with State 128. 

Right on State 128 0.4 m. is the junction with Summer St.; R. on Summer St. 
to FILLINGS POND (boating, bathing, and fishing), 1.8 in. (R). 

LYNNFIELD, 3 m. on Summer St. (136 alt., town pop. 1,896), is a little 
village on a plateau. It was settled in 1638 and known as Lynn End until the 
town was incorporated in 1782. Many of the residents of the town are employed 
in the nearby industrial centers. 

Grouped around the shaded green are small white houses of Colonial type. On 
the green is the WAR MEMORIAL BOULDER. At the base of the triangular plot the 
former FIRST CHURCH (1714), outwardly unchanged, houses the town's fire 
apparatus. Left of the green, on a tree-shaded hillock, are the lichen-covered 
stones of the old BURYING GROUND, containing the graves of the first three min- 
isters of the old church and a number of Revolutionary War soldiers. One of the 
latter, Martin Herrick, was sent by the Committee of Safety to help spread the 
alarm on the eve of the Battle of Lexington. The epitaphs on some of the old 
grave stones are unconventional. 

At 27.9 m. (R) is the LYNN RESERVOIR; at 28.8 m. US 1 skirts 
the 580-acre BREAKHEART RESERVATION in North Saugus, a State- 
owned tract with trails, picnic grounds, lookouts, and parking spaces. 

At 29.1 m. is the junction with Lynn Fells Parkway. 

Right on the parkway at 1.2 m. is the junction with Howard St. At 7 Howard 
St. is the "SCOTCH" BOARDMAN HOUSE (private). Once the home of the Indian 
Queen Nanepashemet, this house (1651) later served as quarters for the Scottish 
prisoners captured by Cromwell at the Battle of Dunbar, who were sentenced to 
seven years' servitude in New England and indentured to the Saugus iron works. 
During frequent boundary changes, the dwelling has been in two counties and 
four towns. The original boundary between Lynn and Boston ran through the 
middle of the front door, which for many years bore the letters B and L on its 
two halves. The roof reaching almost to the ground, the broken line of the central 
chimney, and the second-story overhang are typical of the local architecture of the 
period in which the house was built. 

At 30.3 m. is a junction with Main St. 

Left on Main St. is SAUGUS CENTER, 0.7 m. (20 alt.; town pop. 15,076, 
incorp. 1815). John Winthrop, son of Governor Winthrop, having learned of 
deposits here of bog-ore similar to that smelted in Sussex, England, went to 


England in 1641 to organize a company to exploit the ore. Two years later he 
returned with capital and skilled ironworkers. In 1645, under the management 
of Richard Leader, the plant had an output of 8 to 10 tons a week, and in a few 
years had achieved a rate of production beyond the needs of the Colony. Among 
the articles made were the first fire engine (1654), kettles, anchors, bar iron and 
wrought iron for blacksmiths, and the first dies for coining money in America. 
These dies, used by the mint in Boston, were for cast-silver pieces with "the 
word Massachusetts with a pine tree on one side, and the letters N.E. ANNO 
1652, and III, VI, or XII, denoting the number of pence, on the other." Diffi- 
culties with the ironworkers and financial backers brought the enterprise to ruin, 
however, and the indentured Scottish servants proved even less amenable than 
the paid workers. At the break-up of Hammersmith, as the mill was then called, 
the more skilled workers set up forges and blooming mills throughout New 

Except for this venture, Saugus was largely agricultural through the first two 
centuries of its existence. Several factories that were opened in the 19th century 
turned out a variety of products snuff, chocolate, nails, and shoes but these 
industries declined and the town today is purely residential. 

Clustered about the green are a GRAVEYARD, a CIVIL WAR MONUMENT, and the 
TOWN HALL. Close by, on Central St., is the restored old IRONWORKS HOUSE 
(private), built in 1643 by Farmer Thomas Dexter, founder of the ironworks. 
The house (see illustration) has diamond-paned casement windows, nail-studded 
doors, and an immense central chimney. Carved wooden ornaments, some of 
which are shaped like acorns, accent the acute angle of the roof line and hang 
from the second story. The beams of English oak in the center are exposed. It is 
said that the builder, little dreaming of the vast forests of the New World, brought 
timber with him from England for the framework. The fireplaces are at least 12 
ft. wide, and contain pothooks and cranes supposed to have been made at the 
forge, the site of which is across the road. 

Nearby are grass-covered cinder banks, relics of the early industrial venture. 

At 32.5 m. (R) is a granite milestone marking an old INDIAN 
TRAIL. According to tradition, William Richard and Ralph Sprague, 
the first white men to pass through this region, used this trail on their 
way from Salem (Naumkeag) to Charlestown (Mishawam) in 

At 32.8 m. is a junction with Salem St. 

Right on this street is MALDEN, 1.5 m. (12 alt., city pop. 37,277), an in- 
dustrial city (see MASS. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Gould- Webster Homestead, Waitt's Mount, City Hall, Par- 
sonage House, Greene House, and others. 

The SOLDIERS' MONUMENT, 34.9 m., on the corner of Broadway 
and Webster Sts., is an imposing bronze statue on a granite base 
erected to commemorate Everett men who served in the Spanish- 

62 U. S. ONE 

American War and with the American troops sent to China during 
the Boxer Rebellion. 

EVERETT, 35.1 m. (12 alt., 47,228 pop.), an industrial center 
(see MASS. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Parlin Library, Mystic Iron Works, Glendale Park, Immacu- 
late Conception Church, and others. 

At 36.7 m. the Mystic River is crossed, and US 1 follows tne 
Northern Artery, one of the main routes for traffic to and from Boston. 
At 38 m. is the junction with Somerville Ave. 

Right on Somerville Ave. is SOMERVILLE, 0.5 m. (13 alt., town pop. 100,- 
733), an industrial city (see MASS. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Old Powder House, Samuel Tufts House, Ford Motor Co. 
Plant, Magoun House, and others. 

Between Somerville and Cambridge, US 1 passes through a highly 
industrial area with a number of meat-packing plants. 

At 39 m. US 1 turns R. on Memorial Drive, which runs along the 
beautiful Charles River, and passes the buildings of Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, 40.1 m. (R), and (L) the Harvard Bridge 
and the boathouses used by the M.I.T. and Harvard crews. Here is a 
junction with Massachusetts Ave. 

Right on this avenue to the center of CAMBRIDGE, 1 m. (9 alt., town pop. 
118,075), an educational center (see MASS. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Radcliffe College, Sargent College, Christ Church, Fogg Art Museum, Long- 
fellow House, and others. 

At 41.2 m. US 1 turns L. and crosses Cottage Farm Bridge to 
Commonwealth Ave., 41.3 m. 

Left on Commonwealth Ave. 2.5 m. is the center of BOSTON (8 alt., city 
pop. 817,713), historical and industrial city (see MASS. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. B. & M. R.R., North Station, 120 Causeway St.; Boston & 
Albany R.R., and N.Y., N.H., & H.R.R., South Station, Atlantic Ave. and 
Summer St.; Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn R.R., Rowe's Wharf, 350 Atlantic 
Ave. (ferry to East Boston) ; East Boston Terminal, Marginal St. near Jeffries. 

Points of Interest. Boston Athenaeum, Public Library, Bunker Hill Monument, 
Charlestown Navy Yard and "Old Ironsides," Faneuil Hall, King's Chapel and 
Burying Ground, Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of Natural History, and many 


At 42.8 m. US 1 follows the Jamaicaway, a boulevard running 
through an area where natural beauty has been conserved, and skirts 

At a traffic circle, 44.9 m., the route turns R. into a four-lane high- 
way that passes the ARNOLD ARBORETUM, 45.8 m., and continues 
through a section of West Roxbury. 

At 50.5 m. US 1 passes over MOTHER BROOK, dug in 1639, the 
first canal in America. It connects the Charles and Neponset Rivers, 
thus making Boston an island. 

The road skirts (R) the picturesque village of DEDHAM, 51.6 m. 
(118 alt.; town pop. 15,371, incorp. 1636), historic town (see MASS. 

Points of Interest. Thayer House, Norfolk County Courthouse, St. Paul's Epis- 
copal Church, Fairbanks House, and others. 

US 1 rises and dips through steep embankments, woodlands, and 
open fields. 

At 58.3 m. is the junction with Moose Hill Rd. 

Left on this road to the entrance of the OBSERVATORY AND BIRD SANCTUARY 
at Moose Hill (540 alt.), 2 m. The sanctuary, containing more than 2,000 acres, 
is in the charge of the Massachusetts Audubon Society. 

At 62.5 m., adjoining the highway are the extensive farm lands 
well-equipped institution. 

At 62.4 m. is the junction with Water St. 

Right on this street is SOUTH WALPOLE, 0.2 m. (200 alt.). On the corner 
of Neponset and Washington Sts. (L) stands FULLER'S TAVERN (open), a rambling, 
white building. Around it are great shade trees and a garden of lilacs, syringas, 
and perennials. This inn, built in 1807 and renovated in 1927, was a famous 
halfway house on the stagecoach route between Boston and Providence. 

US 1 skirts the edge of TURNPIKE LAKE, 68.4 m., and reaches 
an elevation permitting a wide view of the countryside. 

At 70.6 m. is the junction with State 1 A (N. Washington St.), an 
alternate to US 1 for a few miles. 

Right on State 1A, at 362 N. Washington St. (R), is the WOODCOCK HOUSE, 
0.1 m. In 1669 John Woodcock made the first permanent settlement in the 
North Purchase now North Attleboro and established a tavern that, during 
its 170 years of service (1670-1840), was visited by many celebrities. In its earliest 
days the hostelry was one of a chain of garrisons reaching from Boston to Rhode 

64 U. S. ONE 

Island. Woodcock, wounded seven times in his encounters with Indians, killed 
many of them. In revenge they killed his son, Nathaniel, and placed his scalp 
on a stick in the old BURYING GROUND opposite the tavern. 

NORTH ATTLEBORO, 1.4 m. (183 alt.; town pop. 10,202, incorp. 1887), 
was formerly in Attleboro Town. 

In 1780 a person who has survived in local history as "the Frenchman" 
established a jewelry business; this line of activity eventually became paramount 
in the town and declined only in recent years. 

of each month, 2-5 p.m.), 224 Washington St., is a two-and-a-half-story, clap- 
boarded house with slate roof. The adjacent barn contains a number of historical 

At 1.8 m. State 1A rejoins US 1. 

At 73.9 m. is the junction with Allen Rd. 

Right on Allen Rd. 0.3 m. to the junction with the Old Post Rd.; L. here to 
the FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 0.9 m. (L), a clapboarded structure built 
in 1712. 

Right from the Old Post Rd., opposite the church, 0.2 m. on Mount Hope 
St., to a footpath (L) leading to the old POWDER HOUSE (1768), a circular brick 
building 12 ft. in diameter with a shingled conical roof. During the Revolutionary 
War and the War of 1812 ammunition was stored here. 

In the BRICK SHOP, 1 m. on the Old Post Rd., some of the first metal buttons 
in the United States were manufactured. The first die used in the jewelry business 
in this country was cut here by the Robinson-Jones Co. The two-and-a-half-story 
brick structure was built in 1812, and still contains some of the original equip- 
ment; it is used as a chemical laboratory by the sons of the present owner. 

At 77.9 m. US 1 traverses an old stone bridge and crosses the 
Rhode Island Line. 


Mass. Line Pawtucket Providence Narragansett Conn. 
Line, 60m. US 1. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. parallels this route. 

Paved highway, some of it four-lane. 

Accommodations of all kinds in Providence; limited accommodations elsewhere. 

Section 7. Massachusetts Line to Connecticut Line, 60 m. 

The northern section of this route goes through the industrial and 
commercial area of the State, through Providence, the capital city, 
and its thickly populated environs of Pawtucket and Cranston. South 
of the latter city the route passes through a less densely settled section 
of the State, through the coastal townships of Warwick, East Green- 
wich, Narragansett, and the Kingstowns, which are rich in historic 
interest. The road in many places affords pleasant views of a pros- 
perous farming country, and of the waters of Narragansett Bay and 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

South of the Massachusetts Line US 1 runs for about three miles 
through the eastern section of Pawtucket. 

PAWTUCKET, 1.5 m. (25 alt., 77,149 pop.), industrial city 
(see R.I. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Old Slater Mill, Old Pidge Tavern, Daggett House Museum, 
St. Mary's Church of the Immaculate Conception, New City Hall, Narragansett 
Park, and others. 

US 1 bypasses many of the historic sites of this old city to run on 
Broadway past small stores and tenements. 

At 1.7 m. is the Division St. Bridge over the Pawtucket River, 
which once provided water power for the Slater cotton mill and 
other early textile factories. At the W. end of the bridge, the road 
turns (L) on Pawtucket Ave., on which is the PIDGE TAVERN, 3.1 m. 
(L), said to be the oldest house in Rhode Island; the right end of this 
substantial two-and-a-half-story building faces the street. 

At 3.2 m. is the Pawtucket-Providence boundary line. 

PROVIDENCE, 5.7 m. (12 alt., 252,981 pop.), State capital (see 

Points of Interest. Brown University, State House, Roger Williams Park, Rhode 
Island Historical Society, Rhode Island School of Design (arts and crafts), and 
numerous historic houses. 


66 U. S. ONE 

The city (see illustration), second largest in New England, is entered 
from the N. on Main St., once an Indian trail. Opposite the old 
GROUND, set aside in 1700 for a "training field, burying ground, 
and other public uses." Many famous Rhode Islanders are interred 

Branching R. from N. Main St. at 4.3 m., the well-marked high- 
way twists deviously through a number of side streets lying a short 
distance W. of the center of the city. From State St., beside the main 
line of the railroad (L), can be seen ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH (R), the 

Turning R. on Fountain St., US 1 passes the rear of the PUBLIC 
LIBRARY and veers (L) into Franklin St. 

At 6.9 m. is a junction with Elmwood Ave., at which is GRACE 
CHURCH CEMETERY (L). US 1 turns (R) on Elmwood Ave. 

At the junction with Reservoir Ave., 8 m., is a bronze STATUE OF 
COLUMBUS (R), modeled by Bartholdi, the sculptor of the Statue of 
Liberty in New York Harbor, and originally cast in silver for the 
1893 World's Fair in Chicago. 

At 8.8 m. is an entrance to beautiful ROGER WILLIAMS PARK (L), a 
recreational area containing lakes, gardens, shady drives, tennis 
courts, the Benedict Memorial to Music, the Betsy Williams House 
(1773), a zoo, and a museum. 

At 9.6 m. is the Providence- Cranston boundary line. The highway 
runs through the eastern outskirts of the city of CRANSTON (see 
R.I. GUIDE}, an industrial city. 

In the southern part of the city US 1 traverses a fairly open coun- 
tryside, dotted here and there with large factories manufacturing 
wire goods, textile machinery, and fire extinguishers. 

At 10.6 m. is the Cranston-Warwick boundary line. The 42- 
square-mile city of Warwick has no metropolitan center; within its 
limits are more than a dozen villages separated by large tracts of 
woodland and open fields. At the end of Elmwood Ave., 11.5 m., 
US 1 bears R. on the old Boston Post Road, the route between New 
York and Boston that has been heavily traveled since Colonial days. 
In this flat and sparsely wooded section is the STATE AIRPORT, 12.9 
m. (L), opened in the spring of 1936. 

South of GREENWOOD BRIDGE, at 14.5 m., is the residential village 
of GREENWOOD (Warwick City, 50 alt.). 


At 15.1 m., on the outskirts of Apponaug, GORTON POND (R) 
provides good fresh-water fishing and bathing. 

Near Gorton Pond US 1 bears R. into Main St., village of AP- 
PONAUG (20 alt.), 15.7 m., the shopping district and the adminis- 
trative center of the "city" of Warwick (see R.L GUIDE). 

The ARMORY OF THE KENTISH ARTILLERY, R. on Main St., is occu- 
pied by a company organized during the Revolution and chartered in 

In Apponaug Four Corners the road turns L. and passes through 
the attractive residential village of COWESETT, 17 m. (Warwick 
City, 20-200 alt.). The large estates on the ridge (R) command an 
extensive view of East Greenwich Bay (L). 

At 18.3 m. is the Warwick- East Greenwich boundary line. 

EAST GREENWICH, 18.5 m. (East Greenwich Town, 40 alt., 
3,666 pop., incorp. 1677), is a village, the center of a town that was a 
part of Providence County until Kent County was formed in 1750. 
Many of the first settlers were veterans of King Philip's War. In pre- 
Revolutionary days the community produced pottery from coarse 
red clay dug from the vicinity of Quidnesset and fired in local kilns. 
The resulting product was of inferior grade, but pride in local indus- 
try gave it preference over English pottery. At the present time East 
Greenwich manufactures textiles and textile machinery, and ships 
tons of Rhode Island shellfish to other States. Though much of the 
township land is stony, truck gardens cover the more fertile acres. 

In the village, which is built on the side of a long hill (R) facing 
Greenwich Bay, are many early American houses. On the SE. corner 
of Division and Pierce Sts. is the CAPT. JOHN CONGDON HOUSE (1711), 
a two-story frame structure with a gambrel roof. On the SW. corner 
of the same intersection is the ELDREDGE HOUSE, a large, white, frame 
house (about 1757). This building was bought in 1788 by Nathan 
Greene, who opened the first tannery in town. The SALTPETER LOT 
(L) is the place where Richard Mathewson and Earl Mowry manu- 
factured gunpowder for the Continental Army. 

WINDMILL COTTAGE, (L) at Division and West Sts., is so called 
because of the four-story hexagonal windmill attached to its W. side. 
This house (about 1818) was bought in 1866 by Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow for his friend, George Washington Greene, diplomat, 
historian, and professor; Greene was a grandson of Gen. Nathanael 
Greene of Revolutionary fame. 

68 U. S. ONE 

Nearly opposite Windmill Cottage on Division St. (R) is the Gov. 
WILLIAM GREENE HOMESTEAD, or Samuel Gorton, Jr., House, the 
outstanding Colonial relic in this part of the State. It is a substantial 
white wooden structure, two and a half stories high, the main section 
rectangular in plan, with the long rear slope of the roof extending 
lower than does the front. An addition at the rear gives the house an 
L shape. The date of construction (1680) shown on the central stone 
chimney, pilastered and capped, probably the end chimney of the 
original house, applies to only the west end. The ell in the north end 
has a beautiful, pedimented doorway. Since 1718 this house has been 
in possession of the Greene family, and it was here that Gen. Na- 
thanael Greene met and married Catherine Littlefield in 1774. The 
future general was very fond of dancing with his fiancee, notwith- 
standing his father's efforts to "whip him out of such idle propensi- 

At the junction of Division St. and Howland Rd. a marker states 
that in September 1774 a Tory mob gathered to destroy the village 
of East Greenwich. 

On Howland Rd. is the DANIEL HOWLAND HOUSE (1677), a typical 
early small New England farmhouse. 

On Main St. (L) near the town boundary line is the VARNUM 
MEMORIAL ARMORY (1914), erected in honor of Gen. James Mitchell 
Varnum. This brick building with castellated roof holds interesting 
historical relics in its museum. 

In this same closely built section (L) is the GREENE HOUSE, 86 Main 
St., a two-story frame building (1724). The addition on the northern 
end contained (1804) the first bank in East Greenwich. Albert C. 
Greene, United States Senator (1845-51), once lived here. 

On Pierce St. near the FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH is the GENERAL 
VARNUM HOUSE (1733), a handsome, square, two-story frame house 
with low-pitched roof. The front door opens on a small porch with a 
roof supported by Ionic columns. The fine interior woodwork in the 
northeast parlor was copied by Stanford White for the Women's 
Building of the Jamestown Exposition. Varnum was the first colonel 
of the Kentish Guards, formed during the Revolution. Later he was a 
brigadier general in the Continental Army and judge for the North- 
west Territory. Washington, Lafayette, and Thomas Paine were 
guests in this old mansion. 

Nearby is the ARMORY OF THE KENTISH GUARDS, a small frame 


structure with Doric pillars framing the central doorway. In the 
summer of 1 774, 56 citizens of Kent County met to establish a mili- 
tary company. At the October session of the General Assembly they 
were granted the right to incorporate as an independent company 
under the name of the Kentish Guards. The company was, and still 
is, subject only to the orders of the Governor. 

Opposite the armory is the EAST GREENWICH ACADEMY, a private 
coeducational school, founded in 1802 and first known as Kent Acad- 
emy. In 1841 it was sold to the Providence Conference of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. Dr. Eben Tourgee, who founded the New 
England Conservatory of Music in Boston, established the music 
department in this school. The original building was moved to 
Spring St. and is the headquarters of the EAST GREENWICH HISTORI- 

Also on Pierce St. is the FRIENDS MEETING HOUSE (about 1804), 
where the many Quakers in this section, among them the prominent 
Greene family, gathered. Since the sect has nearly died out in this 
neighborhood, the old structure is seldom opened except on Quar- 
terly Meeting Day, when members gather from all over the State to 
transact the business of the society. 

Another historic building is the CAPT. THOMAS ARNOLD HOUSE 
(about 1735), 28 King St., where lived the first Federal Collector of 
Customs for the Port of East Greenwich. At the foot of this short 
street is the SECOND KENT COUNTY JAIL, built in 1804 and still in use, 
though much enlarged. Over the door of the old house formerly stood 
two painted wooden figures, chained together one of a v/hite man, 
the other of a Negro signifying that justice implies impartiality to 
men of all races. These figures are now in possession of the Rhode 
Island Historical Society. On a hill at the end of Wine St., near King 
St., is the old BAPTIST BURIAL GROUND, dating back to 1729. 

On the corner of Main and Court Sts. (R) is the KENT COUNTY 
COURTHOUSE (1750). This square, three-and-a-half-story frame struc- 
ture with its clock tower is Georgian in character. Here the convention 
for the framing of the Rhode Island Constitution met in September 
1842. The exterior of this beautiful building has remained un- 
changed, but the interior has been entirely remodeled. In the early 
days the courtyard had on one side of its walk a liberty pole and on 
the other side the pillory and whipping post. The ELDREDGE MEMO- 
RIAL FOUNTAIN now stands in the courtyard where once were the 

70 U. S. ONE 

town pump and horse trough. At the end of Court St. is the DR. 
PETER TURNER HOUSE (about 1774), home of a Revolutionary Army 

Diagonally across Main St. from the courthouse is the Greenwich 
later called the Updike Tavern. Abraham Lincoln stopped here 
overnight hi 1860. The old tavern, scene of the organization of the 
Kentish Guards, was razed in 1896 to make way for the present hotel. 

A few yards S. of the inn (L) is the METHODIST CHURCH (1833). 
In 1850 the old church, being too small for the growing congregation, 
was cut in two and the sections moved apart to make way for a new 
central section. In this meeting house, on November 5, 1842, the 
Constitution of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Planta- 
tions was adopted. 

At 101 Marlborough St. stands an old three-story frame structure 
on a stone foundation, the FIRST KENT COUNTY JAIL (1780). It is now 
a dwelling house, but in the cellar are two of the original prison cells. 

S. on Main St., was chartered in 1797. Nearby is the old BRICK 
HOUSE (L), the first brick house to be built (1767) in East Greenwich. 

At 19.4 m. near the southern edge of the village of East Greenwich 
is the junction with Forge Rd., which leads to the peninsula of POTO- 
WOMUT, a part of Warwick, though separated from the rest of that 
city by East Greenwich. The residents of Potowomut say they realize 
they belong to Warwick only when their annual tax bills arrive. 

Left on Forge Rd., 0.2 m. (L), is a spring on a trail frequently taken by Roger 
Williams, founder of the Colony. He named it ELIZABETH SPRING for the wife of 
his friend, John Winthrop, Jr. After Mrs. Winthrop's death, some time previous 
to 1675, Williams wrote to Winthrop of his stopping at this place on a trip to the 
Narragansett country, saying "Here is the spring, I say with a sigh, but where is 
Elizabeth? My charity answers, 'She is gone to the Eternal Spring and Fountain of 
Living Waters.' " A small marker at the bottom of a path descending from Forge 
Rd. bears the spring's name and the date 1645. At present the spring is dry. 

On Ives St., which runs N. from Forge Rd., is GODDARD MEMORIAL PARK, 
a gift to the State in 1927 from Robert H. Ives Goddard of Providence, and his 
sister, the Marquise Madeleine D'Andigne of Paris. Planned by the original 
owners as a forest reservation, this 470-acre State park contains many rare species 
of trees. The park has facilities for swimming, baseball, tennis, golf, and riding. 
Picnic tables and fireplaces are in groves of white pine trees. In 1936, in connec- 
tion with the State Tercentenary, several structures were erected to illustrate 
the village life of the Narragansett Indians. The reconstructions show a typical 


round house, and a long house, with its imitation birch bark fastened to the roof 
poles by vines. A circular stockade was also built, with poles extending 9 ft. 
above ground, and tied together at the top by vines. 

At the end of Forge Rd., about 1m., are the SITE OF AN OLD FORGE and the 
NATHANAEL GREENE BIRTHPLACE. A granite monument near the shore of the 
Potowomut River marks the site of the old forge and blacksmith shop, which 
belonged to the Greene family. The birthplace of Nathanael Greene, brilliant 
Revolutionary general, is high on a hillside above the forge site. This large white 
frame house (1684) suffered from remodeling in several styles of architecture. 
Nine generations of the Greene family have lived here. Specimens of the massive 
anchors made at the Greene forge are in the yard. One anchor is held fast in a 
tree that has grown around it. 

On US 1 at 20 m. is the junction with the unpaved Pierce Rd. 

On this road, and visible (R) from US 1, is the COGGESHALL 
HOUSE (about 1715), a two-and-a-half-story structure with a large 
pilastered stone chimney. It is now known as Spring Brook Farm. 

HUNTS RIVER BRIDGE, 20.7 m., marks the East Greenwich-North 
Kingstown boundary line. 

In the open, rolling country of this section of North Kingstown 
is the junction with the paved Frenchtown Rd. 

Right 2.5 m. on Frenchtown Rd. is the village of FRENGHTOWN, on the 
site of a 17th century Huguenot settlement that was broken up by boundary 
controversies between Rhode Islanders and the owners of the Atherton Purchase, 
who endeavored (1659-71) to keep this part of the Colony under the jurisdiction 
of Connecticut. 

At about 21.5 m. is the section known as Quidnesset, a flat but 
pleasant residential country dotted with groups of evergreen trees. 
It was here that clay was secured for the Colonial pottery works in 
East Greenwich. 

At 22.7 m. is the junction with the improved Newcombs Rd. 

Left 2 m. on this road is NORTH KINGSTOWN BEACH, a large summer colony 
with facilities for swimming, boating, and fishing. There are good accommoda- 
tions in season. 

Opposite the junction with Newcombs Rd. are the DANIEL FONES 
HOUSES (R), on land held in the Fones family since 1680; it was a 
part of the Atherton Purchase, bought from John Winthrop, Jr., 
about 1669. The Indians had sold it to Winthrop and others in 1659. 

The well-preserved farmhouse near the road was the home of 
Daniel Fones, soldier and privateersman in the Revolutionary War. 
Extensively remodeled, its gambrel roof is the outstanding evidence 

72 U. S. ONE 

of its construction in an early period, though not as early as the date 
on the chimney (1644) indicates. 

The very plain two-and-a-half-story gable house, a few yards south, 
is the older of the two, although the date of its construction is un- 
known. Characteristic of the houses of that period are the windows 
with their small panes. 

DEVIL'S FOOT ROCK, 22.9 m. (R), is a large flat rock with a curious 
depression that has traditionally been considered as an imprint of 
the devil's foot. The footprint, close to the road, according to legend 
marks the spot where the evil one stepped when he came over to the 
mainland from Conanicut Island. 

At 23.3 m. is the junction with the improved Camp Ave. 

Left 2.5 m. on the latter is QUONSET POINT, another summer colony with a 
good beach. 

The RICHARD SMITH HOUSE, 24.3 m. (L), known also as the Up- 
dike House, and as Cocumcussoc, is scarcely visible from the highway 
because of surrounding trees. This two-and-a-half-story frame struc- 
ture has a central brick chimney. The modern vine-covered piazza 
along the front and the sides disguises the old lines so that the house 
does not appear to be of late 17th century type. In 1639 Richard 
Smith built here his first trading post in the Narragansett Indian 
territory; its garrison served as headquarters of the Colonial troops 
during the campaign that ended in the Swamp Fight in 1675. A few 
rods in front of the house is a tablet marking the grave of 40 men who 
fell in this engagement. The house was burned in 1676 by Indians 
but a few of its beams are said to have been used in the present house, 
erected by Richard Smith, Jr., about 1680. The wife of Richard 
Smith, Sr., according to tradition, brought from England a recipe for 
cheese that became so popular that the local product was shipped to 
the southern Colonies and to the West Indies. 

The PALMER NORTHUP HOUSE, 24.4 m. (R), an interesting old 
structure, is a two-and-a-half-story wooden house with a gable roof. 
A lean-to, adjoining the house on the rear and extending to the roof, 
gives the house something of a camel-back effect. A part of one side 
of this house consists of a stone wall that may have been a "chimney 
end" at one time. The uneven spacing of the windows, the small 
panes in the lower windows, and the "chimney end" are characteris- 
tic of American houses built about 1650; the date of construction of 


this house is not known, but it is apparent that many improvements 
and additions have been made, as its mass and piazza are not at all 
characteristic of that early period. 

In front of the Palmer Northup House, on the edge of the highway, 
is a stone marker stating that near here was situated the Roger Wil- 
liams Trading Post, established in 1637. Williams spent much of his 
time here bartering with the Indians. In 1651 he sold his post to 
Richard Smith, whose trading house was only a few rods distant, in 
order to obtain money for his journey to England to seek the annul- 
ment of the patent (1651-52) under which William Coddington had 
established a separate government for Newport and Portsmouth. 

At 25 m. is the junction with Tower Hill Rd. or US IB. 

Right on this paved road at 0.6 m. is the junction with State 102, part of which 
is still called the TEN ROD ROAD. It was originally laid out 165 ft. wide so that 
herds of cattle could easily be driven from western Rhode Island and from east- 
ern Connecticut, to Wickford for shipment by sea. 

The PHILLIPS HOUSE (R), 0.9 m. on US IB, in the small village of Belleville 
(North Kingstown Town), is sometimes called Mowbra Castle. The original 
house (about 1700) consisted of the ell and a part of the present main building. 
The chief architectural feature of the exterior is a stone pilastered chimney. 
During the Revolution Samuel Phillips, the owner, was a lieutenant in the Con- 
tinental Navy. He commanded one of the five boats in the daring expedition 
that captured General Prescott in Portsmouth in July 1777 and brought him 
safely through the British fleet. 

At 3.9 m. is the junction with the dirt Shermantown Rd. Right 0.7 m. on 
Shermantown Rd. is, on Congdon Hill, the Platform, the SITE OF ST. PAUL'S (the 
Old Narragansett) CHURCH, now in Wickford (see below}. The church was 
founded through the efforts of the English Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. Dr. James MacSparran was appointed rector of this 
church in 1721, and served until 1757. The church was built in 1707, and was 
moved to Wickford in 1800. Dr. MacSparran is buried in the cemetery that 
adjoined the church. 

At 4.9 m. on US IB is the HAZARD CARSON HOUSE (R), a two-story frame struc- 
ture built about 1775. The living room in this house has a fine Colonial mantel 
and wainscoting. 

At 5.5 m. is the North Kingstown-South Kingstown boundary line. As the 
highway passes over the high rolling country in this vicinity distant views of the 
Pettaquamscutt River, or Narrow River, and Narragansett Bay (L) are unfolded. 

In a field (L) at 5.6 m. is an unmarked stone known as HANNAH ROBINSON'S 
ROCK. According to tradition Hannah Robinson, on her return to her father's 
house after having been deserted by her husband, asked the servants who were 
carrying her litter to stop that she might have a last look at her beloved Nar- 
rangansett country (see below). 

At 5.8 m. is the junction with Bridgetown Rd. Left 0.6 m. on Bridgetown Rd. 

74 U. S. ONE 

is the junction with the dirt Narrow River Rd. Left on the latter is the GLEBE, 
1.1 m., a shingled two-and-a-half-story house v/ich a gable roof. Here dwelt 
James MacSparran, rector of St. Paul's Church from 1721 to 1757, with his wife 
Hannah (Gardiner), whose family built the house about 1690. Notable are the 
hand-hewn and paneled walls. The house was known during the MacSparran 
occupancy as a center of lavish hospitality; here were often entertained Dean 
Berkeley and John Smibert, the artist. The only thing about South County that 
the famous Episcopal clergyman disliked was the climate, which he found 
"either frying or freezing." 

At 7.45 m. on US IB are stone gateposts (L) through which can be reached, 
by a footpath that begins at the top of a hill 0.2 m. inside the entrance, PETTA- 
QUAMSCUTT ROCK, or Treaty Rock. On this spot was negotiated the Pettaquam- 
scutt Purchase of 1 658, by which a group of white settlers acquired from the In- 
dians a large tract of land, the boundaries of which were not quite clear. The 
tract may have been 144 sq. m. in area. The rock is now on private land (may be 
visited with consent of owners). 

At 7.7 m. on US IB is the junction with the dirt Middle Bridge Rd. At the 
junction is a tablet (L) inscribed "This Acre of Land was given by Samuel Sewall 
and Hannah His Wife, September 23, 1707, 'To build a public Meeting House 
on for the Solemn worship of God.' Dr. Joseph Torrey, minister of this church, 
1732-1791, lies buried here." 

Left 0.1 m. on Middle Bridge Rd. is the HELME HOUSE (L), a plain two-and- 
one-half-story shingled house with a gambrel roof. Built before the Revolution, 
it is the last remaining house of what was known as Tower Hill, the capital of 
South Kingston. In Revolutionary days a small boy would be sent to the roof of 
this house to watch the movements of the fleet off Newport. Benjamin Franklin 
was frequently entertained in the house on his journeys between Boston and 
Philadelphia. The present owner is a descendant of Chief Justice Helme, whose 
name the house bears. 

At 1.1 m. on Middle Bridge Rd. is a market (R) near the SITE OF THE JIREH 
BULL GARRISON HOUSE, burned by the Indians December 15, 1675, during King 
Philip's War. 

At 9 m. on US IB, in open rolling country, is the CARTER JACKSON MONU- 
MENT (R), a low stone pillar, easily overlooked, which is completely covered by 
a lengthy inscription: "This pillar is erected to the memory of William Jackson 
of Virginia who was murdered upon this spot by ship captain Thomas Carter of 
Newport, Rhode Island, who having been shipwrecked and rendered penniless 
thereby, and being overtaken by Mr. Jackson, who also being on his way north, 
furnished him with money and use of a horse on the way. Having arrived at the 
point indicated by this pillar, Carter there robbed and murdered his kind and 
confiding benefactor with a dagger, about the hour of midnight, on January 1st, 
1751. Was tried and convicted of his crime at the village of Tower Hill on April 
4, 1751. And was hung in chains upon a gibbet May 10, 1751, at the eastern foot 
of Tower Hill, at the side of the public highway, where the shrieking as it 
were of its chains and during boisterous winds at night, were the terror of 
many persons who lived near there or passed nearby. One of these being the late 
Governor George Brown of Boston Neck. Who told this writer that such had been 
his own case when a youth, while on his way to the residence of College Tom 


Hazard that he visited every week. It appears, that Carter threw Jackson in the 
Narrow River at the time he committed the murder, and that a negro found him 
therein, and near the above mentioned gibbet. A wayside innkeeper, Mrs. Nash, 
who lived about 10 miles westward from Tower Hill, happening to be at the vil- 
lage at the time that his body was found. She recognized it as being that of Jack- 
son by means of a button she had sewn upon his vest only a few hours before he 
left her house, and that Captain Carter was with him. Carter was therefore ar- 
rested, tried, and condemned, and executed accordingly." Thomas R. Hazard 
wrote that as a boy he heard "ever and anon, one of Carter's bones fall cajunk to 
the ground." 

As US IB passes the brow of a hill near the Carter Jackson Monument, a 
panorama of the whole country to the S. comes into view. A little to the E. (L) 
is Narragansett Pier, to the S. is Point Judith, and slightly to the W. (R) is the 
village of Wakefield, in a valley. 

At 10 in. is the junction with US 1 . 

At 25.1 m. on US 1 is the northern rim of the old village of WICK- 
FORD (North Kingstown Town, sea level), which takes pride in hav- 
ing more well-preserved 1 8th century houses than has any other vil- 
lage of its size in New England. Along West Main St., between this 
point and the village center, are eleven old buildings; but since only 
three date from before 1800 this may be considered one of the newer 
sections of Old Wickford. Much of the original village was laid out 
as a real estate development by Lodowick Updike, grandson of 
Richard Smith, the trader at Cocumcussoc (see above). Updike began 
selling lots in 1709. The first house in the village was probably erected 
in 1711, on the southern side of present Washington St. 

On West Main St. at 25.2 m. is the old TOWN HOUSE (R), a small 
one-story frame structure (1807). This plain building, reminiscent 
of countless New England schoolhouses, is now an American Legion 

Near the village center, a few yards W. of Bridge St., is the STE- 
PHEN COOPER HOUSE (1728), probably the oldest house now standing 
in Wickford. It is a gambrel-roofed house, painted gray with brown 

In the center of the village, 25.4 m., US 1 turns R., but Main St., 
straight ahead, is a rich field for students of early American architec- 
ture. On this short street are no less than 20 houses built between 
1728 and 1804. On adjoining or nearby streets are more than 40 other 
old houses, most of them dating from the 1 8th century. 

The IMMANUEL CASE HOUSE, 64 Main St., probably built in 1786, 
is an outstanding example of a late 18th century home. It is a large 

76 U. S. ONE 

two-and-a-half-story house, rectangular in plan, with two large brick 
chimneys rising from the ridge of its gable roof. The massive chim- 
neys taper. Interesting features are the corniced windows and the 
paneled door; Ionic pilasters support the latter 's entablature which 
had a decorated frieze; the entablature is topped by a pediment. The 
simple lines of the structure and the interesting details combine to 
give an impression of dignity and affluence. Immanuel Case was 
tavernkeeper in the old village of Tower Hill; he moved to Wickford 
in 1786. 

Branching from Main St. E. of the Case House is Church Lane, 
which leads around a corner to the old NARRAGANSETT CHURCH 
(open in summer; in winter on application to the Wickford House on Main 
St.). This church was built on Oongdon Hill and moved to Wickford 
in 1800. According to old records it was moved "between Tuesdays." 
It is an exceptionally fine example of an 1 8th century church. The 
building is severely plain in outline, without a tower or other ex- 
ternal decoration, except a beautiful doorway surmounted by a 
large, curved, broken pediment, supported by two plain capped 
pilasters. A small dark tablet is in the pedimented field. The church 
is used for summer services; slave pews are still visible in the gallery. 

YE OLD NARRAGANSETT BANK HOUSE (1768), on the SW. corner of 
Main and Fountain Sts., was once used by Deborah Whitford as a 
bakery. About 1805 it was remodeled by Benjamin Fowler, a mer- 
chant, landholder, and financier, to serve as a bank; since 1853 the 
building has been used for residential purposes. In appearance it is 
much like the Case House (see above). 

On the E. side of Pleasant St., a few yards N. of Main St., is the 
JOHN UPDIKE HOUSE (1745), one of the largest and best-furnished 
homes of Old Wickford. The building is two and a half stories high, 
with a gable roof and central chimney. It was confiscated from a 
Tory owner during the Revolution. 

At the E. end of Main St., 0.3 m. from US 1, is a pleasant view 
of Wickford Harbor. 

From Main St. a marked side road runs about 0.5 m. to the STATE 
LOBSTER HATCHERY (visitors welcome), where lobsters are raised from 
eggs. The Wickford hatchery released about 1,500,000 lobsters in 

At 25.9 m. (R) is the SOUTH COUNTY BARN MUSEUM (open Sat., 
Sun. aft. in summer; at other times by arrangement; adm. 25), containing a 


fine collection of the implements used in early times by farmers, 
mechanics, and housewives. The tools and products of the various 
craftsmen and artisans are gathered into small shop units to present 
an interesting and accurate picture of Colonial life. Here the visitor 
sees the tools with which the colonist tilled his fields; how he kept his 
livestock; how he spun yarn, wove cloth, and made clothing; what 
he used in caring for the sick; what he used when he hunted and 
fished, and traveled and traded by land and sea. 

At 27.2 m. is the small residential village of HAMILTON (North 
Kingstown Town, 20 alt.). 

At 29.1 m. is the junction with a paved side road. From the junc- 
tion is clearly seen (L) GONANICUT ISLAND in the middle of 
Narragansett Bay, and in front of it smaller DUTCH ISLAND, 
site of Fort Greble. FORT GREBLE, constructed during the Civil War, 
is now garrisoned by a skeleton force. South of this point US 1 runs 
close to the bay, with many attractive views (L). 

Left 0.5 m. on the side road is PLUM BEACH, a small but excellent bathing 
beach. Here also at BARBOUR'S HEIGHTS the town maintained a coast guard 
and breastworks during the Revolution. 

At 29.4 m. is the junction with a dirt side road. 

Right 1 m. on the latter, in a little brook valley among low rolling hills, is (L) 
the GILBERT STUART HOUSE, built in 1751 (open May to October; adm. 25). Here 
in 1755 Gilbert Stuart, son of a snuff grinder, was born. He became a great por- 
trait painter. For a hundred years after Gilbert Stuart's time a grist mill was oper- 
ated here before the Gilbert Stuart Memorial, Inc., purchased and restored this 
old house. In the large barn-like structure, painted a dark red, snuff is once 
more being made. 

The CASEY HOUSE, 30.1 m. (R), built about 1725, was the scene 
of several Revolutionary skirmishes. The original floor of the dining 
room, which has been overlaid, is riddled with bullet holes, as are 
three of its doors. A closet at the right of the stairway served as a safe 
hiding place for the American minute-men. This house is to become 
the property of the Society for the Preservation of New England 
Antiquities, according to an agreement made by its present (1937) 
owner, Edward Casey. It is a two-and-a-half-story wooden structure, 
almost square in plan, with a large brick chimney rising from its 
gable-on-hip roof. Hip-roof dormers project on three sides of this 
roof. On the south side is a piazza topped by a paneled parapet rail 
and supported by six Doric columns. 

78 U. S. ONE 

At 30.8 m. is the North Kingstown-Narragansett boundary line. 
At 31.7 m, is the junction with South Ferry Rd. 

Left 0.5 m. on the paved South Ferry Rd. is the FRANKLIN FERRY HOUSE (L), 
a rambling yellow farmhouse, used as joint dwelling and business office for the 
ferry, which began running shortly before 1700, and was for some tune the only 
means of communication between Newport and the mainland. 

In front of the Franklin House the paved section of South Ferry Rd. turns L.; 
and at 1 m. (L) is the large, well-preserved HANNAH ROBINSON HOUSE (about 
1710). This large two-and-a-half-story gambrel-roofed house (see illustration) was 
remodeled in 1755 by Rowland Robinson, a wealthy Narragansett planter, 
grandson of the builder, and father of Hannah. The house was once 105 ft. long, 
but the old kitchen and Negro quarters have been demolished, reducing the 
length to about 60 ft. The main part is rectangular in plan; joining it, and giving 
the entire structure an L-shape, is a large addition at the rear. The small window 
lights (panes) and the small clapboards indicate the early origin of the original 
structure. The house has a fine main doorway, surmounted by a broken pediment 
which rests on two fluted Doric pilasters; it probably does not belong to the 
original plan. The west bedroom, known as the Lafayette Chamber since it was 
occupied by the Marquis de Lafayette during the Revolutionary War, contains 
the names of French officers scratched on the windowpanes. In this house Han- 
nah Robinson met the Frenchman with whom she later eloped. The story of her 
desertion, of her poverty and illness and her father's unrelenting anger, of the 
belated reunion of father and daughter, and of the return of the girl on a litter 
borne by slaves to this house to die, is well told by Alice Morse Earle in Old 

On the unpaved section of South Ferry Rd., at 0.7 m., is the NARRAGANSETT 
BAPTIST CHURCH (L), a simple, white frame building visible for miles around 
because of its situation on a treeless hilltop. Regular services are no longer held 
here; the building is a social center. 

At 0.8 m. (R) on South Ferry Rd., on the slope of a hill overlooking the bay, is 
FORT PHILIP KEARNY, which was built on the site of the former village of South 
Ferry. During the Civil War the village consisted of eight or nine tenement 
houses, an inn, and a mill that manufactured jean. The mill engine room and dye 
house are still standing. In 1905 the Government bought 25 acres of this land 
from the Davis Pain Killer Manufacturing Company and built Fort Kearny. 
Two companies were stationed here during the World War. Mines were laid, 
and a net was strung across the bay to prevent the entrance of enemy sub- 
marines, should they try to move up the bay to Providence. 

At 32.3 m. is the junction with a paved side road marked "Bonnet 
Point." From this junction BEAVER TAIL LIGHT, at the southern end 
of Conanicut Island, is clearly visible. 

Left on this road at 0.5 m., standing a little to the N., is the WILLIAM GARDI- 
NER HOUSE (L), a two-and-a-half-story dwelling erected in 1727. A .large, 
capped, central brick chimney rises from the ridge of the gable roof, which 
slightly overhangs at the ends. The windows are topped by small cornices. This 


was the home of a wealthy 1 8th century farmer, whose daughter Hannah mar 
ried Mr. James MacSparran, rector of St. Paul's Church. She died in London 
during the plague. 

On BONNET POINT, 1 m., which is now a summer colony, was a fort, erected in 
1777 and twice rebuilt. During the Revolution it was used continuously, and 
again, during the War of 1812, a battery was stationed here. During the Civil 
War it was rumored that the Confederate cruiser Alabama was anchored in the 
bay and once again the fort was strengthened and a battery put on duty. The 
fortifications have since been demolished. 

At 34.5 m. is the junction with a paved side road. 

Left 0.2 m. on this road is the HAZARD HOUSE (L). It is a large, square, white, 
frame house (about 1740), with a front lawn sloping gently down toward the bay. 
From the front of the house is seen WHALE ROCK LIGHT, between the mainland 
and Conanicut Island. The lighthouse was completed in 1872. 

The Hazard House is on the northern edge of the village of Narragansett, 
which is the administrative center for the township of the same name. 

NARRAGANSETT, 36.1 m. (Narragansett Town, 100 alt.; 
1,258 town pop.), is a village in a township that has been a separate 
political entity since 1901, though in 1888 it was set aside as a special 
district in the township of South Kingstown. Narragansett per- 
petuates the name of the tribe of Indians that at one time roamed 
over this territory. The Narragansett Indians were killed or driven 
away at the time of King Philip's War, 1675-76. The 19th century 
mansion of William Sprague, Governor of the State (1860-63), which 
burned in 1 909, was built on the site of one of the camping grounds 
of Ganonchet, last notable sachem of the tribe. 

Narragansett Village is best known as a summer resort, though 
farming and fishing are carried on. Many years ago a long pier jutted 
out into the water just below the largest bathing beach, and here 
vessels of all descriptions landed passengers and cargoes. The heavy 
surf tore the pier away, but this part of the town is still known as 
Narrangansett Pier; its beaches are popular in summer. 

One of the favorite stories of the town is that of a native who dis- 
ciplined his son by beating him with an axe-helve. After one such 
beating he announced that the boy had run away to sea, but towns- 
people believed that the boy had been done to death and buried in 
the old man's cellar. When the father died, no one wished to stay 
with the body the night before burial; finally a volunteer watcher 
from Kingston appeared. He was awakened from a nap by the open- 
ing of the outer door, which unlatched itself and swung inward. He 

8o U. S. ONE 

closed and latched it carefully. Again the door opened; this time he 
slammed it shut and whittled out a wooden plug to secure the latch 
as tightly as possible. He had hardly completed the task before the 
plug popped out, the door swung inward, and a heavy object was 
tossed into the room from the outer darkness. It was an axe-helve, 
worn and smooth from use. When the watcher found no one outside 
he shut the door a third time, and it remained closed. 

Half a mile N. of the center of the village, and visible from US 1, 
is the private, well-equipped DUNES CLUB (L), named for its sur- 
roundings. The main clubhouse is a low, rambling, stucco structure 
300 ft. long and two stories high, with an impressive clock tower. The 
club is near the northern end of the pier beach, a crescent-shaped 
strip of sand about half a mile in length. 

Near the village center is SHERRY'S BATHING PAVILION (open to the 

At 36.1 m., in the center of Narragansett, US 1 turns R. on Narra- 
gansett Ave. 

Left (straight ahead) on the Point Judith Road. At 0.1 m. on this road, L. on 
Beach St., past PETTAQUAMSGUTT PARK on the site of the former Hotel de la 
Plage, between the Casino Theater and the office of Narragansett Beach Cor- 
poration. The park serves as a convenient passageway to the beach walk and is a 
pleasant place to rest. Band concerts are held here during the summer months. 

Just beyond the park the route swings R. on Ocean Rd. Near the turn are the 
TOWERS, formerly the old Narragansett Casino. Only a stone arch across the 
road, with two large towers at either end, is left of the old casino, which was 
destroyed by fire some time ago. Nearby is the COAST GUARD STATION (L), a two- 
story stone building with a slate roof (1887). At about 1 m. the village of Nar- 
ragansett gives way to the large estates of summer colonists, which line both 
sides of the highway 

HAZARD CASTLE, 1.3 m. (R), almost hidden from the road by trees, is a large 
building of rough stone, with two large granite towers. The house, an imitation 
of an English abbey, was begun in 1846 by Joseph Peach Hazard, but he aban- 
doned it in an unfinished condition, and vegetation grew up in wild profusion. 
The house became known as the Haunted Castle. In 1883 a nephew of the origi- 
nal builder bought the place and completed it. A view from the top of the square 
tower the other is hexagonal 165 feet above sea level, includes every point 
from Newport to Block Island. In this building some years ago, Dwight W. Tryon, 
the New York artist, had a studio. 

The entrance to the POINT JUDITH COUNTRY CLUB (private) is at 1.8 m. (R). 
The club maintains a golf course, tennis courts, and polo grounds. The polo 
games (adm. 55) are held the last week in July and the first two weeks in 

SCARBOROUGH BEACH, 3.5 m. (L), is a State reservation with a fine beach. 
A large pavilion is now being constructed on the reservation. 


At 4.7 m. is the junction with a paved side road. Right 0.7 m. on this road is 
SAND HILL COVE, another State reservation. The bathing beach is protected by 
the Point Judith Breakwater. GALILEE, 1.7 m., is an old-fashioned little fishing 

Ocean Rd. ends at POINT JUDITH, 5.7 m. Many stories are told about the 
origin of the name. Some say the point was named for the wife of John Hull, 
Boston goldsmith and mintmaster, while others say that it was named for Judith 
Stoddard, his mother-in-law. There is a legend that the name was given by some 
churchman from Boston, who took the name from the Bible. On some of the 
earliest maps the name is printed "Point Juda Neck." Another story is that a 
Nantucket captain was lost in fog and did not know in which direction to steer; 
his daughter, in the boat with him, presently cried out that she spied land; the 
old captain commanded anxiously, "Pint, Judy, pint!" Whatever the deriva- 
tion of the name, Point Judith is a piece of land known to all mariners as one of 
the most dangerous spots along the Atlantic coast. The POINT JUDITH COAST 
GUARD STATION is on the point. 

During the Revolution a coast guard and tower beacon were maintained here. 
In 1888 a Coast Guard station was built. The building burned down in 1933 
and was replaced by a new station, completed in 1935. Near the station is POINT 
JUDITH LIGHTHOUSE. The first lighthouse was a wooden structure built in 1806. 
This was blown down in the great gale of September 1815. The present building 
is an octagonal stone building, built in 1816. The light is now operated by elec- 
tricity. Though dangerous to seafarers, Point Judith appears tame on ordinary 
occasions. The land is flat, sandy, and nearly treeless. Only when high winds roll 
up great breakers does the point impress landlubbers with its threatening char- 
acter. From the point there is an unbroken view of the Atlantic. 

On Narragansett Ave., which US 1 follows, is the MANSION HOUSE, 
a four-story summer hotel containing the most beautiful corner- 
cupboard in South County; this cupboard may have been brought 
from an older house, the Thomas Mumford homestead, which stood 
near the Tower Hill Road and burned down many years ago. 
Thomas Mumford, one of the original Pettaquamscutt purchasers, 
owned large tracts of land in this part of Narragansett. 

Near the western edge of the village is SPRAGUE MEMORIAL PARK 
(R). In the distance on a hilltop (R) is a tall brown structure, the 
TOWER HILL HOUSE (in South Kingstown), a home for under- 
privileged children conducted by Roman Catholic charities. 

At 37.5 m. is the Narragansett-South Kingstown boundary line. 

At 38 m. is the junction with US IB (see side tour above at 25 m.) 
and also the paved Kingston Rd. 

Right 0.7 m. on the latter road is the SCALLOP SHELL (R), the home of Miss 
Caroline Hazard. Miss Hazard, president of Wellesley College from 1899 to 1910, 
was the author of many books, including Anchors of Tradition, Narragansett Bal- 
lads, and A Scallop Shell of Quiet. 

82 U. S. ONE 

At 1.5 m. is the village of PEACE DALE (South Kingstown Town, 40 alt.). 
This village is the home of the PEACE DALE MANUFACTURING Co., the chief in- 
dustry of the place; its history dates from 1800. Isaac P. and Rowland G. Hazard 
here erected a mill for the making of fine woolens and in 1848 they procured a 
charter for the Peace Dale Manufacturing Company; the mill began to turn out 
shawls in 1849. In 1856 the works were greatly enlarged, and in 1872 a new mill 
was added for the manufacture of worsted goods. 

In earlier times the farmers of Peace Dale raised large quantities of flax; the 
seeds were pressed into oil and the fiber of the flax was woven into linen. In 1751 
the General Assembly passed an act to give bounties for the raising of flax. The 
stores all took flax in barter and each kept a machine for beating out the seed. 

Near the center of the village, on Kingstown Rd., is the HAZARD MEMORIAL 
LIBRARY, a fine stone building erected by the Hazard family in memory of the 
late Rowland G. Hazard. 

On the SE. corner of Kingstown Rd. and Columbia St. is the MUSEUM OF 
PRIMITIVE CULTURE (open weekdays , 70 a.m.; free). This collection, the work of 
Rowland G. Hazard, was inspired by his interest in primitive peoples. In the 
collection are several thousand specimens obtained from various parts of the 
United States and from many foreign countries. The bulk of the material is 
archeological, consisting of stone artifacts, such as arrows and spear heads; there 
are also baskets and costumes. A number of objects belong to the early history of 
Rhode Island. 

At 38.6 m. is the village of WAKEFIELD (South Kingstown 
Town, 40 alt.). The center of the village is crowded with small stores, 
but to the S. US 1 passes many large homes set amid beautiful tree- 
known as the Narragansett Mills, was operating in Wakefield before 
1800. After several changes in ownership and management, the com- 
pany was sold (1866) to Robert Rodman, who for many years manu- 
factured jeans and doeskins. The company is now managed by a 
New York concern that manufactures woolen cloth. 

On High St. is the TOWN HALL, the administrative center of South 
Kingstown (sea level-333 alt., 6,010 pop.). South Kingstown was 
formerly a part of the township of Kingstown, incorporated in 1674, 
which was divided into North and South Kingstown in 1723. A set- 
tlement was made at Pettaquamscutt in 1657-58. 

Before white settlers came the area was occupied by the Narra- 
gansett Indians. A few Indians remain in the township; most of them 
have some white or Negro blood. 

On Old Kingston Rd. at Rocky Brook, 0.3 m. W. of High St., is 
the WILLIAM RODMAN HOUSE, which some authorities believe to be 
the birthplace of Oliver Hazard Perry. The house more often referred 


to as the Perry House is about two miles S. of Wakefield on US 1 
(see below). 

SUGAR LOAF HILL, which rises about 50 ft. above the highway at 
39.2 m. (R), is of disputed origin. Some have held it to be an artificial 
mound erected by the Indians, but geologists say that it is a natural 
hill. There is a good view from its summit. 

At 39.25 m. an older paved section of the Post Rd. branches R. 

Right 0.1 m. on this road is the WILLARD HAZARD HOUSE (R), better known 
as the Tavern. This long two-and-a-half-story shingled structure with a gable 
roof was built about 1740. Of unusual interest are its paneled corner pilasters. 
Here, according to Thomas Hazard's Jonny-Cake Papers, the widow Nash combed 
the hair of William Jackson, the unfortunate traveler from Virginia who was 
murdered by Thomas Carter (see side tour at 25 m.). This house, with its tap- 
room and great ballroom on the second floor, was a favorite stage stop. It is still 
a hostelry, known as Ye Old Tavern. 

At 0.2 m. on the Old Post Rd. is the DOCKRAY HOUSE (R), one of the older 
houses of South County, and a famous landmark because of the chimney and 
oddly placed windows. John Dockray, a merchant from Newport, bought the 
land from Daniel Stedman, "with dwelling," on February 25, 1769. The ell, 
once used as a store, is believed to have been built in 1725. 

At 40.8 m. is the junction with a dirt lane. 

Right 0.3 m. on the latter is the OLIVER HAZARD PERRY HOUSE (open May 
30-0 ct. 7; 77 a.m.-6 p.m.; adm. 25i each for members of large parties; otherwise adults 
50$, children 25$). It is a two-story, gambrel-roofed house, restored in 1929 by 
Mrs. Perry Tiffany, wife of the last descendant-owner. The land has been held by 
the Perry family since 1702, when Benjamin Perry came here from Sandwich, 
Mass. From here Oliver Hazard Perry went to take command of the American 
inland fleet on Lake Erie. The house contains many relics both of Commodore 
Oliver Hazard Perry and of his younger brother, Commodore Matthew C. 
Perry, who opened the ports of Japan to the world. 

The SAMUEL G. POTTER HOUSE, 41.7 m. (L), a one-and-a-half- 
story structure, was built about 1800 on a part of the John Potter 
estate by Samuel G. Potter, who was twice Lieutenant Governor. 
The house, surrounded by evergreens, stands back some distance 
from the highway. 

At 41.9 m. is the junction with an unpaved side road marked 
"Snug Harbor." Here is a good view of POTTER POND (L). 

Left on this road 0.1 m. is the JOHN POTTER HOUSE (R), a one-and-a-half- 
story shingled structure. Chronicles of this region describe John Potter as an 
18th century squire, fond of fox hunting, the pleasures of the table, and good 
wine; as skillful in fishing for votes of Rhode Island freemen as for striped bass; 

84 U. S. ONE 

an acknowledged but not convicted counterfeiter the legend being that when 
the King's runners were sighted, Potter threw his counterfeiting press into the 
deepest part of Potter Pond, from which it was never recovered. 

At 42.7 m. is the junction with a dirt road marked "Matunuck 

Left 1 m. on this road is the HAZARD HOLLAND HOUSE (L). This house, situ- 
ated some distance back from the road, was built about 1778 and once belonged 
to General Staunton, an 18th century soldier and politician. The house still has 
its original doors and windows, three of which have inside sliding shutters. 

MATUNUGK BEACH, 1.6 m., is one of the oldest summer colonies on the 
Atlantic seaboard. There are many beautiful homes and hotels at this beach. 
To the W. of the beach are MATUNUCK POINT and the MATUNUCK THEATER- 
BY-THE-SEA, open during the summer months. It has a summer stock company 
with well-known players taking the leading roles. 

The WAGER WEEDEN WATERING PLAGE, 42.8 m. (L), is marked by 
a tall stone slab, noting that water used to be brought to this spot from 
the pure waters of nearby Wash Pond by Wager Weeden (see below). 

Opposite the Weeden tablet, on a hill back of several houses near 
the roadside, is the EDWARD EVERETT HALE HOUSE (R), with an "H" 
cut in its wooden window shutters. Here the author of The Man With- 
out a Country spent his summers among the natural beauties he loved 
so much. 

WILLOW DELL (1785), 42.85 m. (L), a large house painted yellow, 
with red trimmings and green blinds, was the 1 9th century home of 
Judge Wager Weeden, grandfather of William Babcock Weeden, the 

At 44.1 m. is the junction with the unpaved Moonstone Beach Rd. 

Left 1.6 m. on this road is the SAMUEL PERRY HOUSE (L). This structure must 
have been built between 1696, when Samuel Perry came to Kingstown and was 
made a freeman of the Colony, and 1716, when he willed the homestead, a mill, 
and 146 acres of land to his son James. With this house is connected the legend 
of the ring that returned from the sea. The wife of one of the Perrys, boasting of 
her riches, threw her golden wedding ring into the sea, remarking that it would 
be as impossible for her to become poor as for her ring to return. Some time later 
her husband cut her ring out of a fish that was being served at dinner, whereupon 
the lady grew pale with fear. Years later she died in poverty. 

At the end of the road is MOONSTONE BEACH, 2 m., named for the yellow-white, 
or pearl-like, color of its sand. 

The GREAT CHIMNEY HOUSE, 44.6 m. (L), known also as the 
Browning House, built about 1750, now stands in a dilapidated con- 
dition in an auto scrap yard. Nearly opposite this weather-beaten, 


shingled house is the QUAKER BURIAL GROUND, which is about 200 
ft. R. of the highway and not visible from it. George Fox preached to 
the colonists in this vicinity in 1680, and soon after that his converts 
erected a meeting house near the present burial ground. James Perry, 
Sr., instrumental in its building, gave three acres of land for a free 
burial lot. The meeting house was torn down in 1888. 

At 46.4 m. is the South Kingstown-Charlestown boundary line. 
This part of Charlestown is flat and sandy. From the highway is 
visible (L) the ocean-front beach, which is separated from the main- 
land by Charlestown or Ninigret Pond. The evenly spaced summer 
cottages on the beach stand out sharply against the waters of the 
ocean like the teeth of a gigantic saw. 

At 46.9 m. is the CHARLESTOWN AIRPORT (L), a level field used 
only for emergency landings. 

At 47 m. is the junction with an unpaved road marked "Charles- 
town by the Sea." 

Left 1 m. on this road is CHARLESTOWN BEACH, offering surf bathing and camp- 
ing places; the beach also has three good hotels, open in season. Here is the 
Charlestown Beachway where Charlestown Pond connects with the Atlantic 

GENERAL STANTON INN (open in summer), 47.5 m. (R), is a three- 
story, gambrel-roofed, frame building, with shingled ends and a 
clapboard front, built about 1755. In the middle of the 19th century 
the inn was the real political headquarters of Rhode Island. 

The cluster of houses and small stores at 48.1 m. is the village of 
CHARLESTOWN, also called Cross' Mills (Charlestown Town, 
20 alt.). In the village center, near the intersection with State 2, are 
two corn-meal mills. The larger and more modern of the two uses a 
Diesel engine for its power, but the meal is ground by stones that are 
over 200 years old. Across the street is the INDIAN MAID MILL, run by 
the old water power system. 

Right from the village center on State 2; not far from the road at 2 m. is the 
INDIAN BURIAL GROUND, a 20-acre plot of land owned by the Rhode Island His- 
torical Society and maintained by the State. This was a burial plot for sachems of 
the Narragansett tribe. One of the graves was opened in 1869; the body had been 
buried in a log coffin in which were two kettles, one of brass and the other of iron. 

The TOWN HALL is on State 2 at about 2.3 m. 

Charlestown Township (sea level-100 alt., 1,118 pop.) was taken from West- 
erly and incorporated in 1738. It was named for King Charles II, who gave 
Rhode Island its charter of 1663. 

86 U. S. ONE 

At 48.3 m. is the junction with an unpaved road marked "Fort 

Left 0.2 m. on the latter is FORT NECK LOT, a three-quarter acre reservation 
owned by the Rhode Island Historical Society though maintained by the State 
as a park. It is at the head of a cove opening from Ninigret Pond. This fort was 
supposed for many years to have been the stronghold of the Niantic Indians, but 
it is now generally conceded that it was built by the early Dutch traders and used 
as a trading post. Bastions and other evidences of military engineering skill found 
in the fort, whose original outlines are now protected by an iron fence, seem to 
support this theory. Here Capt. John Mason of Connecticut and his little band of 
white men halted for one night on their long and dreary march into the Pequot 
country in 1637. Sitting around a council fire with the Niantic men, Mason per- 
suaded Ninigret to join him in war against the long-time enemies, the Pequots. 

At 49 m. (L) is the KING TOM FARM (open June to Sept. by permission 
of the owner), once the property of the Niantic, Thomas Ninigret, 
better known as King Tom, who was born in 1736. He was sent to 
England for his education and brought back the plans for a fine 
home; he had the wainscoting and much of the other interior wood- 
work made in Newport. This structure was subsequently destroyed 
by fire but the outline of the house has been marked by a low wall; 
behind it a garden has been laid out and, on the foundation of the old 
chimney, is a bronze tablet bearing a picture of the original King 
Tom House. 

On the farm still stands a two-and-a-half-story, gambrel -roofed 
house, painted yellow, which was built between 1746 and 1769. Also 
on the farm is CORONATION ROCK, on which the Narragansett Indians 
crowned their sachems; the date 1770 cut into it commemorates the 
year of the last coronation. 

At 50 m. is the junction with an unpaved road marked "Kimball 
Bird Sanctuary." 

Right 1.3 m. on this road is the KIMBALL BIRD SANCTUARY (open at all times), 
on the shore of Watchaug Pond. The grounds, beautifully landscaped with 
sumacs and red cedars, belong to the Audubon Society of Rhode Island. The 
sanctuary has been in existence for nearly 12 years. It is being improved by the 
addition of more facilities, such as bird houses and other equipment. 

At 51.9 m. is the junction with an unpaved road marked "Burlin- 
game Reservation." 

Right 1 m. on this road into the BURLJNGAME RESERVATION, a State park ac- 
quired in 1927. Its land area is 3,100 acres, about half of which is forested with 
broadleaf and pine. The reservation is a game preserve, containing partridge, 


pheasant, quail, deer, rabbits, and squirrels. A water area of 500 acres provides 
swimming and skating in season. 

At 52.5 m. is the junction with an unpaved road. 

Left 1.9 m. on this road is QUONOCHONTAUG BEACH, where are several 
hotels with excellent accommodations for guests seeking summer diversion, 
swimming, boating, and fishing. The hotels and inns are comfortable, as well 
as moderate in their rates. 

The GENERAL STANTON MONUMENT, 52.6 m. (L), is a granite shaft 
about 20 ft. high, erected by the State in honor of Joseph Stanton, 
Jr., who was born in Charlestown in 1739. General Stanton was 
prominent as a soldier in the French and Indian War. He was a colonel 
in a Rhode Island regiment during the Revolution, and was also 
prominent in politics, being one of the first two United States Sena- 
tors from Rhode Island. 

Opposite the monument is the old WILGOX TAVERN (R), known 
also as the Monument House, built about 1730. It was here that 
General Stanton was born. Recently the house has been restored and 
refurnished in its original 1 8th century style. 

At 53.7 m. is the Charlestown-Westerly boundary line. Near this 
line, at 53.8 m., is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left 1 m. on this road is SHELTER HARBOR, at one time known as Music 
Colony, an exclusive summer resort not open to the general public. Many singers 
and artists have summer homes here. 

At HAVERSHAM CORNER, 54.3 m., is the junction with the 
Watch Hill Shore Rd. (see below). 

The countryside between 56.7 m. and 57 m. is hilly, and steep 
sand dunes are visible (L). The built-up section of Westerly begins 
at 58.8 m. 

US 1 passes the JOSHUA BABGOCK HOUSE, 59.1 m. (R), a fine, well- 
preserved frame building erected about 1735. Joshua Babcock was a 
physician, military officer, and judge, and a friend of Benjamin 
Franklin, whom he frequently entertained in this house. 

Near the Babcock House (R) is the SMITH GRANITE QUARRY 
(visitors welcome), established in 1847. Much fine monumental stone 
has been taken from this quarry, including a 50-ton block for the 
Antietam Soldier on the battlefield of Antietam. 

WESTERLY, 59.7 m. (sea level-240 alt., 10,997 pop.), a resort 
(see R.L GUIDE). 

88 U. S. ONE 

Points of Interest. Lucy Carpenter House, Captain Card House, Westerly Mem- 
orial Bldg. and Library, Watch Hill, and others. 

Left from the village center on Elm St., which becomes Watch Hill Rd. This 
route runs along the bank of the Pawcatuck River, past RIVER BEND CEMETERY, 
1.4 m., and the old BABCOCK BURIAL GROUND, 2.5 m. The summer resort of 
WATCH HILL, 5.5 m., has a fine beach and many little hills that afford charm- 
ing cottage sites. Hotel accommodations are ample in season, and there are 
facilities for fishing and boating. About 1.5 m. E. of the village are the cellar 
REMAINS OF FORT MANSFIELD, erected in 1898 and dismantled after the World 
War. The fort was on the elbow of NAPATREE POINT, the extreme southwestern 
tip of Rhode Island. 

At 60 m. on the PAWCATUCK BRIDGE, over the river of the same 
name, is the Connecticut State Line. 


R.I. Line New London New Haven Greenwich N.Y. 
Line, 119m. US 1. 

New York, New Haven, & Hartford R.R. parallels the route. 

Four-lane cement roadbed over major part of route. Excellent accommodations 

of all types at frequent intervals. 

Section 8. Rhode Island Line to New Haven, 71.2 m. 

The first post rider on the American Continent was dispatched 
over this route, from New York to Boston, following the old Pequot 
Path, then only a blazed trail through the wilderness. Over this route 
in 1773 Paul Revere, spurring his foam-flecked horse, dashed on his 
way to Philadelphia with news of the Boston Tea Party. When the 
half-frozen horseman paused at Guilford to bait his horse, the aston- 
ished natives gaped wide-eyed at the streaks of war paint on his face. 
Today this highway, the Roaring Road, modern and efficiently 
policed, is the only direct route across southern Connecticut from 
border to border. A section of the chief vehicular highway through 
the North Atlantic States, it is the most heavily traveled road be- 
tween New York and the cities of the New England seaboard. Al- 
though this route parallels the shore, it bypasses many of the pictur- 
esque coastal villages, and permits but occasional views of Long 
Island Sound. 

US1 crosses the Pawcatuck River, m., which separates Westerly, 
R.I., from the village of PAWCATUCK, in the Town of Stonington, 

WEQUETEQUOCK (Ind., head of a tidal river), 2.5 m. (Town of 
Stonington), is a village on the long flat inlet known as Wequete- 
quock River. 

Left from Wequetequock, at an irregular crossroad opposite the small 19th 
century meeting house, on a dirt road that leads across Wequetequock Cove and 
branches sharply R. past an old GRAVEYARD, 0.1 m., the earliest in the town of 
Stonington; here are "wolf stones," the heavy slabs of rude stone that were laid 
over graves in primitive settlements as protection against the bold and numerous 
wolves that then roamed the countryside. The oldest stone is dated 1690. 

At 5.3 m. (L) is STONINGTON (Stonington Town 11,025 
pop.), a quiet old town of modest, shady streets on a narrow, rocky 
point. Off the Boston Post Road, quite by itself on a long point that 


go U. S. ONE 

juts out into the ocean and offers magnificent marine views, the 
community still has some of the atmosphere of old whaling days. 
Fishing gear and lobster traps are piled on the wharves at the end of 
the side streets, and during the summer there is much activity 

Little remains of the shipbuilding that made Stonington a center 
of such importance in the colony of Connecticut that the village was 
popularly known as a "Nursery for Seamen." One of the first whaling 
franchises ever granted in America was issued to a Mr. Whiting for 
the waters between Stonington and Montauk Point in 1647. 

The point of land on which the community stands was occupied by 
Narragansett Indians before the arrival of William Chesebrough and 
a group of colonists from Plymouth in 1649. Ownership of the terri- 
tory was disputed for several years by Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut. Massachusetts named the settlement "Souther Towne" in 1658. 
Connecticut renamed it Stonington in 1666, after the agreement of 
1 662 under which the town again came within the boundaries of the 
Nutmeg State. 

During both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 the 
town was attacked by the British from the sea. Today there is little 
industry in the community. One factory produces fine silk-throwing 
machinery, one mill makes velvet, and another produces various 
forms of rubber molds. 

The DUDLEY PALMER HOUSE (1700), 14 Elm St., a white clap- 
board, two-and-a-half-story peak-roofed house with a brick central 
chimney, has a delicately designed cornice with capped corner 
boards. A part of the home is used as a WHALING MUSEUM (open 
weekdays, free); its owner, Dr. J. H. Weeks, is an authority on local 
history and has collected many relics of whaling days. 

In CANNON SQUARE, the southern center of the borough, stand 
two of the 18-pounders used in defense of Stonington during the 
British attack of 1814. 

The old STONE LIGHTHOUSE, at the end of Water St., holds a tea- 
room and museum (free). It is a massive squat building of heavy 
granite blocks, once painted white, with an octagonal tower topped 
by a windowed hood from which the light shone. The diamond-paned 
casement windows, with exceptionally heavy window caps, evince a 
Tudor influence, strange to find in a New England lighthouse. 

Among the historic maritime exhibits is the figurehead of the Great 


Republic, the largest ship of the mid-1 9th century, and one of the first 
to be rigged as a four-masted barque. Built in Boston by Donald 
McKay in 1853, her registered tonnage was 4,555. She caught fire 
and had to be scuttled while being loaded for her maiden voyage, 
and never went to sea as originally designed. Under modified rigging, 
she was a failure commercially but did good work as a troop ship in 
both the Crimean and the American Civil Wars. 

The greater part of Stonington is on a peninsula close to the water. 
US 1 skirts the northern end of the village and turns abruptly R. 

The route passes over an inlet of Stonington Harbor. For less than 
a mile it parallels the northern shore of the harbor, and then crosses a 
broad neck of land that terminates in LORD'S POINT, a summer colony 
on the sound. From the bridge crossing the long and narrow QUIAM- 
BOG COVE, 8 m., is an excellent view (L) of FISHER'S ISLAND, 
three miles offshore one of the numerous islands NE. of Long 
Island that are part of New York State. 

At 9 m. is the junction with a paved side road. 

Left on this road to MASON ISLAND, 0.8 m., which commands an impressive 
view of Fisher's Island. Mason Island, edged with rocky ledges and sandy beaches, 
was presented to Gapt. John Mason of Windsor in appreciation of his victory over 
the Pequot Indians of Pequot Hill. It is now occupied by summer homes. Though 
the island is accessible by a private road over a causeway, sightseers are not 

MYSTIC, 9 m. (Town of Stonington), is an old maritime com- 
munity of trim white houses on green-fringed, irregular Mystic 
Harbor, the tidal outlet of the Mystic River. For generations Mystic 
was the home of daring mariners and fishermen, and was feared by 
the British during the Revolution as "a cursed little hornets' nest." 
It teemed with shipbuilding activity during the gold rush days, when 
the Mystic River echoed with pounding hammers "knocking away 
the shores and spurs," so that clipper ships might slide down the ways 
to make world records on their exciting runs around the Horn to 
California. Here was built in 1860 the Andrew Jackson, a modified 
clipper that combined cargo space with speed. It hung up a record of 
89 days and 4 hrs., breaking by 9 hrs. the record of the famous 
Flying Cloud (1851). In succeeding passages the Andrew Jackson made 
the best average time of any ship sailing to San Francisco. 

Right from Mystic on State 159, a short distance, is (L) the MARINE HISTORI- 
CAL MUSEUM, housed in an old wooden mill building. Here is one of the finest 

92 U. S. ONE 

collections of clipper ship models in America, in addition to old figureheads and 
paraphernalia of whaling and sailing days. 

On the museum grounds is the hull of the sailboat Annie, which defeated all 
comers in the sandbagger class from 1870 to 1880. It was designed by D. O. 
Richmond, known as one of the most successful yacht builders of the era pre- 
ceding ballast keel construction. 

US 1 crosses the Mystic River to WEST MYSTIC, 9.7 m. (Town 
of Groton), where the Galena (1862), one of the earliest ironclad war- 
ships, was built. 

1. Right from West Mystic on Elm St. 0.9 m. to PEQUOT HILL, on which is 
the MASON MONUMENT, marking the spot where Gapt. John Mason with a force 
of 77 men captured and burned a Pequot Indian fort in 1637. More than 600 Indi- 
ans were burned to death while they slept. "Seven escaped and seven died by 
the sword," said a report. 

2. Left from West Mystic, State 125 runs along the shore qf Mystic Harbor 
past numerous old houses and new summer homes to NOANK (Ind., point of 
land), 2.5 m., home of swordfishermen, lobstermen, and boatbuilders. Their 
wharves and craft fringe the waterfront; and their dwellings cluster on the hillside 
of the seagirt point, where the old lighthouse beacon has guided home genera- 
tions of seafarers. 

West of West Mystic, the road runs inland, crossing low hills 
which, several miles to the S., level into peninsulas, notably cottage- 
its exclusive summer colony. 

At 11.7 m. is FORT HILL (R), where Pequot reinforcements en- 
camped when Mason burned their stronghold at Pequot Hill. The 
remnant of the tribe was pursued by Mason to Fan-field, and there 
perished in the Great Swamp Fight. 

At the head of the salt inlet of Poquonock River the route runs 
through the hamlet of POQUONOCK BRIDGE (Ind., cleared land), 13.4 m. 
(Town of Groton). 

At 14.2 m. is a dignified shaft in Avery Memorial Park (L), mark- 
ing the SITE OF THE HIVE OF THE AVERYS, the homestead that from 
1656 to 1894 was occupied by seven generations of the descendants of 
Capt. James Avery. The shaft, topped by a bust of the original settler 
in Puritan costume, was the gift of the late John D. Rockefeller, a 
descendant of the Averys, and was designed by the sculptor, Bela 
Lyon Pratt, another descendant. 

North of the monument US 1 ascends to a hilltop from which, at 
14.9 m., there is a wide view that embraces the countryside south- 
ward to Long Island Sound. 


At 16.4 m. the road bypasses GROTON HEIGHTS, crowned by 
the granite obelisk of GROTON MONUMENT and the grass-grown 
breastworks of FORT GRISWOLD, scene of a disastrous Revolutionary 
battle in 1781. 

At 16.5 m. is GROTON (Groton Town 10,770 pop.), a summer 
resort whose main streets US 1 bypasses. The town spreads along the 
eastern bank of the Thames River opposite New London. From the 
water's edge to the hillcrest, the old shipbuilding village of narrow 
streets and small vine-grown houses slumbered for years, growing in 
its sleep and awakening just before the World War to be rediscovered 
by industry. Today, although submarines, engines, banjos, thread, 
and castings are produced here, Groton has remained a Yankee 

Land in Groton was granted to New London settlers in 1648-9 
and first occupied in 1649 by Jonathan Brewster, eldest son of Elder 
William Brewster of the Mayflower colony, who established a trading 
post at Brewster's Neck. Organized in 1705, the town was named for 
the county seat of the Winthrops in Suffolk, England. Agriculture 
was not profitable, but the fisheries were. From early times Groton 
men and boys have been engaged at sea; there have been many 
distinguished Groton skippers. 

The MOTHER BAILEY HOUSE (1782), 108 Thames St., a two-and-a- 
half-story wooden building, owes its fame to an episode of the War of 
1812. In June 1813 Commodore Stephen Decatur and his small 
fleet, pursued by a British squadron, had taken shelter in New 
London Harbor. Fearful of a repetition of the attack of 1781, terrified 
inhabitants bundled their household goods into carts and hastened 
inland. A messenger from the fort, sent through town to collect old 
rags for gun wadding, was therefore unsuccessful until he met 
Mother Bailey, who promptly removed her red flannel petticoat and 
remarked, "There are plenty more where that came from." After the 
war, President Andrew Jackson is reported to have visited Mrs. 
Bailey and presented the iron fence at the W. of the house as a token 
of appreciation. 

The BILL MEMORIAL LIBRARY (open Tues. and Thurs. 2-6 p.m.; 
Sat. 2-7 p.m.), near the Groton Monument, has a fine collection of 

Near Groton is a U.S. SUBMARINE BASE (visitors admitted). 

North of the village center, US 1 crosses the Thames River on a 

94 U. S. ONE 

steel bridge sufficiently high to afford a view straight down New 
London Harbor (L), one of the deepest on the Atlantic coast, with 
more than three miles of navigable water frequented by seagoing 
vessels of many types. 

The view (R) up the tidal course of the Thames River extends 
about two miles over part of the course of the annual Yale-Harvard 
crew races. On the western bank are the modern brick buildings of 
the U.S. COAST GUARD ACADEMY, and on the hilltop further N., the 
campus and native granite buildings of CONNECTICUT COLLEGE. 

NEW LONDON, 18.6 m. (29,640 pop.), a seaport (see CONN. 

Points of Interest. Fort Trumbull, Old Town Mill, Huguenot House, Shaw 
Mansion Museum, Lyman Allyn Museum, Whaling Museum, Connecticut 
Arboretum, Connecticut College, and others. 

West of New London, US 1 takes a somewhat winding course, 
keeping well inland but affording glimpses of the upper reaches of 
the estuary of the Niantic River. 

West of the Niantic River is EAST LYME, 25.5 m. (East Lyme 
Town 2,575 pop.), a rural village on whose side roads are many 
well-preserved homesteads of early settlers. 

At the NE. corner of the junction with State 161, at the village 
center, stands the remodeled 18th century CALKINS TAVERN, where 
both Washington and Lafayette stopped. Further W. is the COLONIAL 
INN, built during the full flower of the Greek Revival; and at the rear 
of the small BAPTIST CHURCH is the JUSTIN BECKWITH HOUSE (1785), 
its elaborate facade exemplifying the beginning of the Greek Revival. 

PATAGANSET LAKE, 26.3 m. (R), has a number of different 
kinds of aquatic plants. The STONE RANCH MILITARY RESERVATION, 
27.8 m. (R), bordering US 1 intermittently for about two miles, was 
formerly the property of Fred Stone, the comedian, and was designed 
by him to imitate a typical western ranch. Now State-owned, it is 
maintained as a C.C.C. camp and public shooting ground. 

West of the hamlet of LAYSVILLE (Town of Old Lyme), 32.1 m., 
which once supported a small woolen industry, US 1 traverses fertile 
valley farm lands. 

Between 34 m. and 35 m. the highway passes the mile of roses (L) 
planted by Judge W. E. Noyes, along a stone wall of his estate. At 
34.3 m. (R) is the FLORENCE GRISWOLD HOUSE, with a two-story 
Ionic portico, rendezvous of many artists who have decorated the 


paneled walls of the interior with sketches. Notable among the many 
paintings of the exterior of this house is Metcalf's May Night, which 
won first prize in the Corcoran Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.) 
exhibition in 1907, and is now owned by the Pittsburgh Art Gallery. 

At a rotary at 34.5 m., US 1 turns abruptly W., avoiding the elm- 
shaded center of the ancient maritime village of Old Lyme, which is 
reached by continuing directly S. 

OLD LYME (Old Lyme Town 1,313 pop.), which US 1 skirts at 
this point, is a resort and art colony. Here, the saying goes, "a sea 
captain once lived in every house." In dignified old dwellings their 
descendants treasure teak-wood chests, Paisley shawls, ivory images, 
and exquisite tapestries collected in the Orient. The variety of Old 
Lyme's landscape, combining shady streets with stretches of marsh- 
land and tranquil meadows with a rugged shore line, has attracted 
many eminent artists. 

The town of Old Lyme, once known as Black Hall, was named for 
Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire, England, the port from which Matthew 
Griswold, the first settler, sailed for America. The town was set off 
from Say brook in 1665 and incorporated as a separate town in 1855. 

The GREEN has been the center of town life since the first settle- 
ment. Here stood the old whipping post and stocks, and here on 
March 16, 1774, Lyme had its own Tea Party when a traveling ped- 
dler was found to be carrying sacks of tea on the back of his donkey. 
While the unwary peddler paced the floor of a cell, the townsfolk 
gathered at the green and made a bonfire of his wares. 

The CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (see illustration), SW. corner Ferry 
Road and Lyme St., is a copy of a structure long recognized by 
artists as a fine expression of Colonial ecclesiastical architecture in 
New England. The original church, built in 181617 by Col. Samuel 
Belcher from plans of a Christopher Wren church in London, burned 
on the eve of July 4, 1907, was reproduced in the present building 
(1909). Above the Ionic portico, which has a rich and delicate 
cornice, the white steeple rises with a square clock tower, one closed 
stage and one octagonal stage to the slender spire. The small, square 
windows increase the effect of simplicity. 

The old PECK TAVERN, Post Road and Sill Lane, now headquarters 
of the Old Lyme Guild (annual exhibition of arts and crafts in late sum- 
mer, adm. free), is one of the town's earliest buildings. The porch is 
elaborately ornamented with carvings. Although many of its features 

96 U. S. ONE 

are of later construction, the old taproom and a second-floor ball- 
room with a swinging partition belong to the early state. 

The LYME ART GALLERY (two annual exhibitions: water colors, etch- 
ings, drawings throughout June; paintings and sculpture from end of June to 
fast week in Sept., adm. 50), Boston Post Road, exhibits the canvasses 
of the many artists of distinction who have founded a large colony 

At 35 m. US 1 crosses the Connecticut River. Good views of the 
broad stream unfold at this point. The FERRYHOUSE, on the site of the 
old landing that handled all cross-river traffic here from 1662 to 
1911, stands below the eastern approach to the highway bridge. 

At 37.3 m. is a junction (R) with US 1-Alt. US 1, following the 
Old Post Road, turns L. through the center of OLD SAYBROOK, 
37.9 m. (Old Saybrook Town 1,643 pop.), at the mouth of the Con- 
necticut River, one of the oldest towns in the State. This quiet elm- 
shaded village has changed little in the last century. Natives do a 
thriving business in renting small boats during the duck-hunting 
season. Along the waterfront lobstermen are busy with their traps 
and bait, and in the spring the teeming activity during the run of 
shad recalls the early importance of Saybrook's fisheries, when 
thousands of shad were caught daily, salted down, and shipped 

Saybrook Point was first occupied in 1623 by "two families and 
six men" sent by the Dutch of Manhattan Island to take possession of 
lands at the mouth of the river. Evidently they were soon frightened 
away by the unfriendly Indians, as there was no evidence of the 
settlement in 1633 when a party from a Dutch ship landed here, 
named the point "Kievet's Hook" because of the cries of the 
sandpipers, and affixed the coat of arms of the States General to 
a tree. 

Wishing to eliminate the danger of Dutch occupation, the English 
granted a patent to Viscount Saye and Sele, and to Lord Brooke, 
who commissioned John Winthrop, Jr., as agent and governor of the 
"River Connecticut, the harbors and places adjoining these unto." 
Winthrop, arriving at Boston in October 1635 with Lion Gardiner, 
an engineer formerly in the employ of the Prince of Orange, immedi- 
ately dispatched a party of men, who on November 9th reached this 
spot, which was later named for the two grantees. Winthrop and 
Gardiner arrived on November 24th. The Dutch shield was torn 

Kf* $ 

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down from the tree and in its place was carved a grinning face. The 
English had barely thrown up earthworks and mounted their guns 
when a Dutch fleet sailed into the harbor. The little fort brought out 
the Union Jack and manned its guns, and the Dutch withdrew with- 
out firing a shot. 

In 1 673 Governor Andros of New York attempted to take posses- 
sion of Saybrook. Hoisting the King's flag over his ship he demanded 
the fort's surrender. Capt. Thomas Bull, then in command, promptly 
raised His Majesty's colors over the fort, and Andros, not daring to 
fire on a British flag, was persuaded to settle the matter at a confer- 
ence with the General Court. 

Saybrook was the original site of Yale College, which was estab- 
lished here as the Collegiate School in 1701. Although some of the 
early classes were held at the home of the Rev. Abraham Pierson, the 
first rector, in Killingworth (now Clinton), Saybrook was the official 
site of the college. 

YE OLD SAYBROOK INN (1800), Main St. and the Old Boston Post 
Road, has a low hip roof surrounded by a simple balustrade over an 
elaborate cornice of Greek detail. The building was erected by Maj. 
Richard William Hart, a son of Gen. William Hart, who was one of 
the company that purchased lands of the Western Reserve from the 
State of Connecticut in 1795. In 1867-8, the house, while operated as 
a tavern by Captain Morgan, was visited by Charles Dickens, who 
depicted the old innkeeper as Captain Jorgen in A Message from the 

The plain white CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Main St., of heavy 
construction, was built in 1839. Its small, square two-stage tower 
rises above a portico with four impressive Tuscan columns. On the 
church a plaque is inscribed, "This church was organized in the 
Great Hall of the Fort in the summer of 1646." 

The BLACK HORSE TAVERN (1720), built for John Burrows, long 
enjoyed a profitable business when steamboat passengers landed at 
the wharf in its back yard to transfer to the Connecticut Valley Rail- 
way. Although the building has been remodeled, the old parlor still 
retains its two old summer beams and burnt oystershell plaster. The 
fireplace has some plain, though excellent, wide paneling. 

Rejoined by US 1-Alt., which bypasses the old settlement, the 
highway passes numerous old houses that have been converted into 
antique shops. 

98 U. S. ONE 

At 42.1 m. is the intersection with a dirt road. 

Left on this dirt road, 0.4 m., to the shore of Long Island Sound; a short dis- 
tance offshore is SALT ISLAND, affording anchorage for fishing schooners and 
other small craft. Accessible on foot only by sand flats at low tide, this islet 
was formerly the site of extensive salt and fish-oil works. 

WESTBROOK, 42.3 m. (Westbrook Town 1,087 pop.), is the 
birthplace of David Bushnell, inventor of the torpedo and of the first 
submarine used in actual warfare. 

At 42.8 m. (L) is the DAVID BUSHNELL HOUSE (adm. 35), the 
home of the inventor's uncle. The building (1720) has been restored 
and is now maintained as a museum. Among the exhibits are parts 
of Bushnell's original "turtle" submarine. 

Crossing Patchogue and Menunketesuck Rivers just N. of their 
confluence at Menunketesuck Point, where sandbars across the 
marshy district made it possible to ford the streams before the build- 
ing of bridges, US 1 passes a fine State-maintained PICNIC AREA, 
44.1 m. (R). 

At 44.5 m. is the junction with State 145. 

Left on State 145 to the summer colony at KELSEY POINT, past GROVE 
BEACH, a mile-long stretch of sand that forms one of the finest bathing beaches 
in the State. This road rejoins US 1 at 2.6 m. 

CLINTON, 46.9 m. (Clinton Town 1,574 pop.), a clean, quiet 
village, is one-half mile inland from the harbor once busy with ship- 
ping and ship-building, but now disturbed only by the unhurried 
pleasure boats and trawlers. The manufacture of Pond's Extract 
from native witch-hazel, cut in back-country brush lots and some- 
times distilled in backwoods stills, is the town's chief industry. On the 
small triangular green (R) is a CANNON used by Gideon Kelsey in his 
single-handed defense of the local coast line against British invasion 
in 1812. Clinton township was once the more populous part of the old 
Town of Killingworth. It was incorporated as a separate town in 
1838 and named for Governor De Witt Clinton of New York. 

The STANTON HOUSE (L), built in 1789 and now a Colonial mu- 
seum (open weekdays 2-5 p.m.; free), contains an excellent collection of 
old chinaware and furniture. The paneled dividing wall is hinged, 
and can be raised to hooks in the ceiling, making the front of the 
house one large room. The original wallpaper, a handsome French 
product, still covers two walls of the SW. room. The ADAMS STANTON 


STORE, in one room, has been restored to its early condition, with its 
original counter, shelves, and drawers still bearing the painted labels 
of their contents. The accountant's desk and ledgers occupy their 
place by a rear window. Behind this house is the old WELL used by 
the Reverend Abraham Pierson, first rector of the Collegiate School, 
later Yale College. The famed clergyman's homestead formerly 
stood on this site and the first Yale students attended classes there, 
until the college was moved to Saybrook. In the center of the green, 
opposite the church, is a MONUMENT commemorating the early years 
of the Collegiate School, 1701-07. Across the way is a MILESTONE (L), 
one of the many placed along the highways by Benjamin Franklin. 

At 95 E. Main St. is the WRIGHT HOMESTEAD (1807), birthplace of 
Gen. Horatio G. Wright, commander at the Battle of Cedar Creek, 
whose skillful rallying of his panic-stricken troops made possible 
Sheridan's ride, the subject of the poem by that name. Fort Wright 
on Fisher's Island was named for him. 

At 47.2 m. is the intersection with Swain town Road. 

Right on Swain town Road; at its intersection with Cow Hill Road at 1.4 m. 
is a LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE, an example of the early New England country 
school. This one-room building, erected in 1800, has windows fitted with batten 

Left on Cow Hill Road, at 1.5 m., is the STEVENS FARM, cultivated since 1675 
by nine generations of the Stevens family. The salt-box homestead, with exposed 
timbers in some of the rooms, was built in 1699. Among the many heirlooms pre- 
served by the family is a copy of the original grant to the property received by 
John Stevens from King Charles II of England, as well as rifles used by members 
of the family in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, and in hunting forays on 
Roast Meat Hill to the N. 

At 47.9 m. US 1 crosses the Hammonasset River and proceeds 
past many restaurants and hotels where shore dinners are a specialty. 
Water scenes and rural landscapes diversify the scenery. Long Island 
Sound is visible at frequent intervals with its pleasure craft spreading 
white sails, coastwise steamers plying between New York and New 
England ports, and tugs pulling strings of barges. Long Island, 25 
miles distant, can be glimpsed. 

At 48.6 m. is the intersection with a hard dirt road. 

Left on this road into HAMMONASSET STATE PARK, a tract of 954 acres, with 
bathing, boating, and camping facilities for more than a million and a half visi- 
tors annually. The sandy beach, extending five miles along the shore, is the 
largest public beach in Connecticut. 

ioo U. S. ONE 

MADISON, 51.2 m. (Town of Madison 1,918 pop.), contains 
many old landmarks grouped about a long, dignified central green. 
Here lived Cornelius Scranton Bushnell, builder of Civil War battle- 
craft and financial sponsor of Ericsson's Monitor. The GRAVES HOUSE 
(R), a salt-box structure E. of the green, dates from 1675, its weather- 
worn shingles bearing evidence of its age. Overlooking the green 
from the W. is the stately CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (1838), whose 
gilded, cylindrical spire thrusting above the trees guided returning 
seamen straight to Madison Harbor. The Madison Historical Society 
occupies the NATHANIEL ALLIS HOUSE (open weekdays in summer, 2-6 
p.m.; adm. 25 ') at the center; the structure contains a completely 
equipped Colonial kitchen, examples of early American clothing, 
furniture, embroidery, and pewter. 

Right from the green on Scotland Road to DUCK HOLE, 1.5 m., at four corn- 
ers near a bridge over the Hammonasset River; here an old mill dam in a sylvan 
setting offers a quiet resting place. 

At 52.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this dirt road to the shore where are stone wharves recalling the old 
shipping and shipbuilding trades that once nourished here. 

At 52.9 m. is the junction with a side road. 

Left on this side road which follows Neck River to its mouth in Guilford Har- 
bor, where the sandy beach of HOGSHEAD POINT looks out to FAULKNER'S 
ISLAND, the site of a Government LIGHTHOUSE four miles offshore. 

A PICNIC AREA is just W. of an underpass at 53.4 m. in the village 
of EAST RIVER, a rural hamlet E. of the stream of the same name. 

The road now crosses the upper section of the village of Guilford, 
the center of which is reached by turning (L) on State St., which is at 

GUILFORD (3,117 Town pop.) was named for the town in 
Surrey, England. Many old houses border the quiet streets, and the 
wide green, with its elms and Greek Revival church, has a tranquil 
simplicity characteristic of the town. 

Founded in 1 639 and originally named Menunkatucket, Guilford 
was settled by a body of Puritans from Kent and Surrey under the 
leadership of Henry Whitfield and Samuel Desborough. 

Granite quarrying and oyster culture have flourished in the town 
throughout most of its existence. Quarries opened here in 1837 have 


provided stone for the Statue of Liberty foundation, breakwaters at 
Block Island, 13 bridges over the Harlem River, the foundation of 
the Brooklyn Bridge, the northern half of the Battery wall in New 
York, and the lighthouse at Lighthouse Point, New Haven. 

A leading occupation is the cultivation of roses, carried on at the 
PINCHBECK GREENHOUSE on State St., one of the largest single hot- 
houses in the United States. Covering more than 125,000 square 
feet in glass, the greenhouse is 1,200 feet long, and has produced a 
record output of 18,000 roses in one day; average production is about 
7,000 daily. 

Schoolroom furniture, canned goods, birch extract, toilet articles, 
iron, brass, and bronze castings are made here. 

The CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, framed by the trees on the green, 
was built in 1829 at the end of the decade in which the Greek Re- 
vival reached its fullest development. This church offers an interest- 
ing comparison with the Litchfield Congregational Church, built in 
the same year. Some of the details of the tall steeple in three diminish- 
ing stages with a conical spire, are purely Greek, as are the reeded 
and fluted Ionic columns of the portico, showing the advancing 
accuracy of the effort to return to original classical form. 

The WHITFIELD HOUSE, one long block S. on Whitfield St. (open 
daily 9-5;, is probably the oldest house in Connecticut, but 
the present structure is largely a restoration. About a third of the 
heavy rear wall, the immense chimney that covers the whole north 
end of the house, and the line of the foundation are all that remain of 
the original stone house, which was built in 1639-40 by the Reverend 
Henry Whitfield, to serve not only as a home but as a meeting house, 
a fort, and for all public uses of the community, as the most important 
house in Connecticut towns often did. 

In 1936, financed by W.P.A. funds, under the direction of J. 
Frederick Kelly, an authority on early Connecticut architecture, the 
house was restored as nearly as possible to its original appearance, 
even to the odd windows, which old prints show in the SW. corner. 
Now maintained by the State as a museum, the building houses a 
varied collection of old relics and curios. 

The HYLAND HOUSE, Boston St. between Graves Ave. and Pearl 
St. (open summer 9-5; small fee), also known as the Fiske Wildman 
House, has been restored by the Dorothy Whitfield Historical 
Society, and is now a museum. Though many times reconstructed, 

io2 U. S. ONE 

the present Highland House is a fairly accurate representation of 
the original structure. 

Guilford's beautiful, ledge-lined HARBOR is bordered by spacious 
country estates. On Rocky Island, reached by a foot bridge, is the 
Yacht Club. SACHEM'S HEAD, a rocky promontory, was the scene of a 
savage battle between two Indian tribes when the inlet, since called 
Bloody Cove, "ran red with blood." Here, according to tradition, 
the victorious chief Uncas overtook the Pequot sachem. Cutting off 
the head of the vanquished leader, Uncas fixed it in the crotch of a 
tree, where the skull remained for many years, a ghastly warning 
against further aggression. 

On the NW. corner of US 1 and State St., at 56.1 m., is the COM- 
FORT STARR HOUSE (1645), the only surviving wooden house built by 
the signers of the "stay together, work together" covenant drawn up 
by the original settlers. 

Right from Guilford on State St. to the intersection with North St., 0.3 m. 
Here at 1 North St. stands the HOME OF SAMUEL LEE, captain of the Coast 
Guard in Revolutionary days. During Captain Lee's absence Tories often raided 
the house in search of contraband articles that had been seized by the Coast 
Guard, but they were always outwitted by the captain's wife, Alice. It was she 
who fired a cannon in the yard to warn the colonists who were working in their 
northern fields, when the British landed at Leete's Island. 

Further on State St., which becomes Nut Plains Road, is the delightful seques- 
tered village of NUT PLAINS, 2.7 m., where hickory and walnut trees shade 
the quiet main street. Here lived General Andrew Ward, Revolutionary hero 
who covered Washington's retreat by keeping the camp fires at Trenton burning, 
thus successfully deceiving the British until the Continental Army had safely 
withdrawn. Among the ten grandchildren in General Ward's household was the 
studious Roxana, who tied her French textbook to the spinning wheel, so that 
she might study as she worked. She became Mrs. Lyman Beecher, mother of 
Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

At 3 m. (L) stand two HALL HOUSES, the frames of which were raised on the 
same day in 1740. One, in dilapidated condition, boasts an ell-plan chimney. 
The other, built by a brother on adjoining property, is in excellent condition, 
although it has never been painted. Most of the interior woodwork is original, 
and since the timbering is exposed, offers a good example of early framing. 

Passing a roadside picnic area, (L) at 58.6 m., US 1 swings N. 
around MOOSE HILL, affording a fine view of the Connecticut coun- 
tryside. On a hillside (L), at 60.8 m., is the large red EDWARD FRISBIE 
HOMESTEAD, now known as the Hearthstone Tea Room. Although 
marked 1685, its architecture suggests that the present structure is 
mid-1 8th century possibly built about the chimney of an earlier 


house. The interior is well-preserved and interesting, with an un- 
usually large stone slab hearth. { 

At 63.1 m. the road crosses the Branford River, which flows into 
Branford Harbor two miles S. 

At 63.3 m. is the intersection with US 1-Alt., a new four-lane 
highway bypassing the old and interesting village of Branford. 

US 1, no longer than the cut-off, passes through the center of 
BRANFORD, 64.2 m. (Branford Town 7,022 pop.), named for 
Brentford in the English county of Middlesex. It is a pleasant resi- 
dential area, formerly a busy center of shipping. Here is the site of an 
important salt works, the product of which was used in the preserva- 
tion of meat for the Revolutionary Army. 

In this section are many fine old houses. One of the best is the 
SAMUEL FRISBIE HOUSE (L),on E. Main St. (US 1), a red two-story 
clapboard structure unaltered since it was built in 1792. 

Grouped about the green, a large triangular plot (L), are the 
town's public buildings, churches, and monuments. 

On the southern side of the green stands the small cupola-topped 
BRANFORD ACADEMY BUILDING (1870), now occupied by the local 
historical society. On the SE. corner is a small commemorative tablet 
calling attention to the SITE OF THE REVEREND SAMUEL RUSSELL 
HOUSE, where in 1701 ten clergymen met and donated books for the 
founding of the Collegiate School, later Yale College. 

At 64.5 m., on a knoll overlooking a small green, is the JAMES 
BLAGKSTONE MEMORIAL LIBRARY, a marble building of 1896, which, 
though having the pretentious architectural detail typical of that 
period, houses an uncommonly fine library for so small a town. 

At 64.9 m. is the junction with N. Harbor St. 

Left on N. Harbor St. to BRANFORD POINT, 1.5 m., where are a large 
restaurant and a municipal bathing beach. 

At 65.3 m. the highway bears N. to rejoin the four-lane highway, 
US 1-Alt. 

West of the village, US 1 ascends the Branford Hills, with good 
views ahead. At 66.9 m. it passes LAKE SALTONSTALL. Here, on 
Beaver River (R), stands an old MILL with hewn timbering. It is on 
the site of the first iron mill in Connecticut, though undoubtedly it is 
not the original building. A clause in the deed making it mandatory 
for the owner to grind any corn or grain brought to him by a property 

104 U. S. ONE 

owner of East Haven might prove embarrassing to the present 
owner, as only one millstone now remains. 

EAST HAVEN, 67.5 m. (East Haven Town, 7,812 pop.), includes 
comparatively level agricultural land devoted to truck gardening to 
the N., and residential colonies and summer resorts along the shore 
to the S. It is now receiving the overflow from many of New Haven's 
expanding activities. 

At 57 Main St. stands a house (1694) so remodeled as to be 
scarcely recognizable as a Colonial structure; it is interesting, never- 
theless, because the stone end walls and first story are parts of a struc- 
ture that tradition says .was the JOHN WINTHROP FORGE. This 
building was continuously in use as a blacksmith shop until 1920. 

Near the center of East Haven is the junction (L) with Heming- 
way Avenue. On the SW. corner, facing the green, is the STEPHEN 
THOMPSON HOUSE (private), with stone end walls and overhanging 
eaves, dating from 1760. 

Left on Hemingway Ave. four blocks is the ELNATHAN STREET 
HOUSE (1810), a splendidly preserved example of early 19th century 
construction, with an entrance porch in the Greek Revival style, said 
to have been built at the time of the original structure. 

Left from East Haven village on Thompson St. to New Haven's MUNICIPAL 
AIRPORT, opened in 1931. It has a field capacity of 200 ships, a hangar, and 
modern equipment. 

At 67.9 m. is the intersection with State 142. 

Left on State 142 are MOMAUGUIN POINT, 2.4 m., and other beaches, 
lined with summer cottages. 

At 69.3 m. is the intersection with Woodward Ave. 

Left on Woodward Ave. to FORT HALE PARK, 1.8 m., with spacious, hilly, 
wooded grounds and a public bathing beach. MORRIS COVE, 2.4 m., is one of 
the less crowded shore resorts. LIGHTHOUSE POINT, 3.4 m., is a popular 
municipal park and resort for those who seek a safe, clean beach with ample 
parking space and the usual shore amusements. 

At 70.2 m. US 1 passes over the northern cove of New Haven 
Harbor, following Bridge St. and State St. 

NEW HAVEN, 71.2 m. (162,655 pop.), university community 
(see CONN. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. New Haven Green (see illustration), Center Church, New Haven 
Colony Historical Society Museum, Yale University, East Rock rose garden, 
Peabody Museum, and the Gallery of Fine Arts. 


Section 9. New Haven to New York Line, 47.8 m. 

Westward from New Haven, m., is the Allingtown section of 
West Haven Town. At the top of Allingtown Hill, 2 m., is the inter- 
section with Prudden St. 

Right on Prudden St. one block is a small triangular green (L), with a MONU- 
MENT TO WILLIAM CAMPBELL, a British adjutant who, among other acts of mercy, 
saved the life of the local pastor, who had broken a leg in his flight from the Red- 
coats when they invaded the town on July 5, 1779. That same day the officer 
was mortally wounded. 

The highway, here called the Milford Turnpike, cuts cross-country 
in a southwesterly direction to the Housatonic River. 
At 6.6 m. is the intersection with State 152. 

Right along State 152 are the extensive FAIRLEA FARMS (R), where acidophilus 
milk was first developed; the road traverses fertile farming country to the center 
of ORANGE, 1.7 m. (1,530 Town pop.), overshadowed by its white CONGREGA- 
TIONAL CHURCH (1810). The RACEBROOK COUNTRY CLUB, off Derby Rd., has one 
of the outstanding golf courses in Connecticut. 

At 7.7 m. US 1-Alt. branches R. to bypass Milford. 

At 9.5 m. on US 1 is MILFORD (Milford Town 14,870 pop.), a 
pleasant little residential community centered around the long elm- 
shaded village green. The little Wepawaug River flows through the 
center of the town and under numerous bridges, finally tumbling 
over a dam into a shallow bay so filled with silt and sand that it is 
navigable for only the smallest craft. 

The town, an offshoot of the New Haven settlement, was founded 
in November 1640 for Milford in Pembroke, England. From the land 
of the original township, which extended 20 miles N., five separate 
towns have since been made. 

Oysters and clams have been important Milford products since the 
earliest days of the settlement. The Connecticut Oyster Farms Com- 
pany of Milford owns 7,400 acres of undersea oyster beds; there are 
many other large oyster firms in the town. Oyster farming is a typical 
Connecticut industry conducted on underseas acreage along the 
bottom of Long Island Sound. The shellfish are planted, cultivated, 
and harvested like any other crop. Pollution is a serious problem; 
efforts are made by the State authorities to eliminate this hazard 
through the gradual cleaning up of tributary streams that empty 
into the sound. 

io6 U. S. ONE 

The CAPT. SAMUEL EELS HOUSE (open weekdays, small fee), 34 High 
St., owned by the Milford Historical Society, was built by Captain 
Eels about 1689, and is an authentic 17th century type. The sharply 
twisting "dog-legged" stairs are among its many unusual features. 
The wide, coved cornice at the front is one of the two of this once- 
common style now preserved in Connecticut. The position of the 
chimney, back of the ridge, is typical of the period of its erection. 
After 1754 this dwelling was the home of Capt. Stephen Stow, who 
served heroicly as a volunteer nurse to 46 Revolutionary War prison- 
ers, smallpox victims set ashore by a British prison ship on New 
Year's Eve, 1777; they were cared for at the homes of settlers until 
the next day, when the Town Hall was converted into a hospital. 
Stow and all the prisoners who died were buried in a common grave. 

The old BURYING GROUND on Prospect St. is one of the oldest 
formal cemeteries in the State; in use since 1675, it contains the 
graves of Jonathan Law, Governor of Connecticut (1742-51); 
Robert Treat, Commander of the Connecticut troops during King 
Philip's War, Deputy Governor and Governor of the State for 32 
years, and founder of Newark, N. J.; and the Reverend Samuel 
Andrew, rector of Yale College (1707-19). Here also stands a 
MONUMENT TO CAPT. STEPHEN STOW, marking the common grave 
where he and his patients are buried. 

The charm of Milford centers about its two Congregational 
churches, West Main St., which stand on opposite banks of the 
Wepawaug and form a New England picture of unusual beauty. 
The FIRST CHURCH (1823), said to have been designed by David 
Hoadley, is of a type that became the flower of Connecticut's best 
period of church architecture. The design was copied in the Congre- 
gational Church in Cheshire, and by Levi Newell in the Southington 
and Litchfield Congregational Churches. It has a graceful Ionic 
portico, shielding three arched doors of approximately even height, 
and a belfry in two stages one octagonal and one open and sur- 
mounted by a spire. The interior has a finely proportioned gallery 
and domed ceiling. PLYMOUTH CHURCH (1834), its neighbor, is in the 
heavier, more matter-of-fact Doric of the developed Greek Revival 
style. It serves the United Church as a parish house, and in summer 
as a playhouse. 

The CLARK TAVERN, 46 West River St., is reputed to have been 
erected in 1660, but was so drastically remodeled between 1815 and 


1875 that only an interior examination justifies an earlier date. 
Washington stopped here for supper in 1799, when the building was 
kept as a tavern by Andrew Clark. According to the story of his visit 
as originally told by Grandmother Clark and handed down by her 
descendants, when Washington was served with the milk and bread 
he had ordered for his supper, he objected to the pewter spoon and 
asked for a silver one. When told that the tavern did not afford silver 
spoons, he handed a shilling to an attendant and directed that he 
"go to the minister's and borrow one." 

The Milford bypass merges with US 1 (L) W. of Milford center at 
8.6 m.; the route continues to the village of DEVON, 12.1 m. 
(Town of Milford), a residential community with beaches and cot- 
tages on the shore to the S. 

The WASHINGTON BRIDGE, 12.4 m., carries US 1 over the Housa- 
tonic River into Fairfield County. Here is the SITE OF A FERRY that 
started operations in 1650 under Moses Wheeler, said to have been 
the first white centenarian in the country. South of the bridge was the 
scene of the cross-river swim (1649) of a Milford man who thus 
evaded a public lashing to be administered for breaking the blue 
laws. His offense had been to kiss his wife on the Sabbath. He was 
later joined by his family in Stratford, where he subsequently 
became a leading citizen. 

At 13 m. US 1 turns L. to pass through Stratford, US 1-Alt. by- 
passing the business section of the village. 

STRATFORD, 14 m. (Stratford Town 19,212 pop.), a village 
with many well-preserved old houses, is now principally a residential 
suburb of Bridgeport, though it also has some factories. Early activi- 
ties were confined to shipbuilding and oyster fishing. 

On Main St. (US 1) is (L) the oldest EPISCOPAL BURYING GROUND 
in the State, laid out in 1723 at the rear of CHRIST CHURCH. 

In Stratford the Reverend Samuel Johnson organized a congrega- 
tion and built the first Episcopal church in Connecticut (1723-43). 
Atop the present building is a weathercock from the spire of the 
original structure, still bearing the bullet holes of British marksmen 
under Colonel Frazier, who, when quartered here in 175758, 
amused themselves by using the vane as a target. 

The conspicuous DAVID JUDSON HOUSE (open daily, adm. 25 1\ on 
Main St. (L), now owned by the Stratford Historical Society, has in 
its doorway the earliest bull's eye glass in the State. In the cellar of 

io8 U. S. ONE 

the house (1723) is a great fireplace with two Dutch ovens; the oak 
beam forming the cellar lintel is 18 inches square. There is a notable 
example of the early use of fluted pilasters in the upstairs paneling. 

A block L. of the Post Road and paralleling it is Elm St., on which 
are many well-preserved old houses dating from the early 18th 

US 1 turns R. from Main St. into Stratford Ave. 

Left from the corner of Main St. and Stratford Ave.; Main St. passes the 
Sikorsky airplane plant (L), where amphibian "clipper" ships are made, and the 
BRIDGEPORT AIRPORT (R), formerly the Mollison Airport, so named for the 
British fliers who crashed here in 1933 after their successful flight over the At- 
lantic. Across the most extensive salt meadows in Connecticut is the solitary old 
LIGHTHOUSE (1822) at STRATFORD POINT, 3.3 m. In Long Island Sound, 
6.5 miles due S., is the STRATFORD SHOAL LIGHTHOUSE. 

US 1 crosses the newest of the many bridges that gave the city its 

BRIDGEPORT, 17.3 m. (146,716 city pop.), industrial center 
(see CONN. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Burroughs Library Historical Collections, Seaside Park, 
Beardsley Park, Anne Hathaway Cottage, Barnum House Museum, Stratfield 
Cemetery, and others. 

At 22 m. is FAIRFIELD (17,218 Town pop.), an old Colonial 
town. At the business center on the modern highway are small neat 
shops, a motion picture theater, a modern brick bank building of 
Colonial design, and a library. In sharp contrast is the old town cen- 
ter, a block S. There, beneath the shade of towering elms, 18th and 
1 9th century mansions, standing back from the road on wide lawns, 
border the winding streets about the old white Town House. 

Around the edges of the township, especially on the eastern 
boundary, industry has made use of lands not suited to residential 

The Fairfield land was twice purchased from the Pequonnock 
Indians on May 11, 1639, and on June 24, 1649; a quit claim deed 
was obtained from the Sasco Indians, February 11, 1661. Named 
possibly in a descriptive sense, or for Fairfield in Kent, the settlement 
soon received a patent. Anticipating the confiscatory methods of Sir 
Edmund Andros, who claimed all unoccupied lands for the Crown, 
the territory was divided into lots that ran from the shore inland for 
about ten miles. 


During the Revolution the village was burned by British raiders 
under General Tryon. Driving the militiamen back to the hills, the 
British looted and fired the village during a severe thunderstorm. 
About 200 houses were destroyed and the resulting bitterness aided 
recruiting of the Continental Line. Whaleboat crews conducted 
reprisals upon the Tories of Long Island and many Fairfield sailors 
sought vengeance upon British shipping. 

The FAIRFIELD MEMORIAL LIBRARY (open 9-8:30), SE. corner 
Unquowa Rd. and New Post Rd., a two-story brick building with 
limestone trim, belongs to a society organized and incorporated in 
1876. Memorial Hall, on the second floor, is notable for its panels 
commemorating early settlers. One wing of the building is devoted 
to the exhibits of the Fairfield Historical Society, which include 
many rare old books, early town documents, and maps. 

The TOWN HOUSE, corner Old Post Rd. and Beach Rd., on the 
green, was originally built in 1794. The central part, a dignified, 
hip-roofed, white clapboard structure surmounted by a white belfry, 
has been restored to the original lines. Restoration in 1937 included 
the addition of wings to provide office space. At the western end of 
the green was formerly a pond in which suspected witches were given 
"trial by water." If they floated they were believed to be guilty, but 
if they sank they were adjudged innocent. Here Mercy Disbrow and 
Elizabeth Clawson were bound and thrown into the water. Accord- 
ing to records of the time, "they buoyed up like a cork." At the edge 
of the green stands the old TOWN SIGN POST, still in use. 

The THADDEUS BURR HOUSE (private), built in 1790 on the Old Post 
Rd. between Beach and Penfield Rds., and now surrounded by lofty 
elms, is a house whose present appearance belies its age. Built to 
replace the original Burr Homestead, destroyed during the British 
invasion, it was a copy of the Hancock House in Boston, and all of 
the glass for the windows was the gift of John Hancock. The colon- 
nade of heavy Tuscan pillars, the front doorway, and the third story 
were added about 1840. In the garden is a hedge of very old arbor 
vitae. In the original homestead, John Hancock and Dorothy 
Quincy were married August 8, 1775. Dorothy had been a visitor 
here during the siege of Boston and carried on a gay flirtation with 
Col. Aaron Burr, much to the discomfort of her fiance. 

The old MILESTONE, on Mill Plain Rd., about 1,500 ft. N. of the 
Post Road, is one of the stones erected along the old coach routes by 

no U. S. ONE 

Benjamin Franklin in 1753, and is inscribed "F XX M N H" (Fair- 
field. 20 miles to New Haven). 

At 23.1 m. is a junction with Bronson Rd., where US 1 crosses the 
railroad on a concrete overpass. 

Right on Bronson Rd., which turns N. by way of an overpass and goes up to 
the Colonial settlement of GREENFIELD HILL (Town of Fairfield), 3.3 m., 
site of the academy conducted by the Reverend Timothy Dwight from 1786 until 
1795, when he became president of Yale College. Grouped about the green are 
numerous old houses and taverns, and nearby (west side of Hillside Rd.) is the 
HUBBELL HOUSE (1751), where Dr. Dwight held his first classes before the erec- 
tion of the academy building, now gone. In spring the village streets are beautiful 
with pink and white dogwood; there are excellent views of the sound from several 

At 24.1 m. (L) among some willows is a granite monument mark- 
ing the SITE OF THE GREAT SWAMP FIGHT, which ended the Pequot 
War in July 1637, when the survivors of that hostile tribe were either 
killed or sold into slavery. Subsequently, this fertile territory was 
settled in comparative peace. 

WESTPORT, 27.9 m. (Westport Town 6,073 pop.), is a village 
in a town that is chiefly residential; many artists and literary folk 
have established studios and permanent homes along the shore and 
about the countryside. 

Among the residents are Van Wyck Brooks, author of The Flower- 
ing of New England; Lillian Wald, founder of the Henry Street Settle- 
ment; John S. Curry, the artist; Rollin Kirby, the cartoonist; and 
William McFee, the author of sea stories. 

On the hill that US 1 descends to reach the center of Westport is 
the well-proportioned CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (L), shining- white 
behind tall spruces. 

On the brow of the hill in the western end of the village stands (L) 
the BEDFORD HIGH SCHOOL, gift of a native son. In the school audi- 
torium are murals painted by John Steuart Curry, a prize winner in 
the Carnegie International Exhibit of 1933, whose work is also repre- 
sented at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The Curry 
murals here depict Tragedy and Comedy., and include such recogniz- 
able figures as Little Eva, Uncle Tom, Charlie Chaplin, Sherwood 
Anderson, Theodore Dreiser, Eugene O'Neill, Mickey Mouse, Will 
Rogers, Hamlet, a Kewpie doll, and Mr. and Mrs. Curry. Friends 
and neighbors served as models for some of the figures. 


Right from Westport on State 57 through rough hill country to WESTON, 
5 m. (Weston Town 670 pop.). From this high ground are fine views of the sur- 
rounding countryside, especially from the lawn of the CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 
(1830), a simple, well-proportioned structure, whose small windowpanes are 
now turning violet through age. At the entrance to a residence across the way are 
old gas lampposts that once lighted New York City street corners. The street 
names can still be discerned. 

At 31.1 m. a right-angle turn (L) leads past the Norwalk Green. 
NORWALK, 31.5 m. (Norwalk Town 36,019 pop.), industrial 
center (see CONN. GUIDE). 

Points oj Interest. Town House with D.A.R. collection, Roger Ludlow Memorial, 
Theater-in- the- Woods, and numerous old houses. 

Left from Norwalk at the traffic rotary is SOUTH NORWALK, 1.2 m. 
(Town of Norwalk), where the manufacturing plants of the town are concen- 

US 1 now passes a succession of hot-dog stands, gasoline stations, 
and billboards. 

DARIEN, 35.6 m. (Darien Town 6,951 pop.), is a residential 
village largely peopled with commuters to New York. To the S. 
winding lanes go down to Long Island Sound; N. of the main road 
the wooded countryside is dotted with homes. 

Right from Darien on State 29 to NEW CANAAN, 5.1 m. (New Canaan 
Town 5,456 pop.), which has carefully tended country estates and polo fields. 
This town is exclusively a residential community, situated on high ridges, which 
in many places afford views of the sound. 

On Mead St., close to the center, is the NEW CANAAN BIRD SANCTUARY in 
MEAD MEMORIAL PARK, one of the first established in the United States. 

Left from New Canaan on Railroad Ave., R. on Weed St., L. on Wahackme 
Road to its termination at Ponus Road, and R. on that highway, to the PONUS 
MONUMENT, 1.3 m., erected in honor of Chief Ponus, to mark the old Indian trail 
that led to the Hudson River. 

In the western part of the Town of Darien US 1 passes the village 
of NOROTON, 37.2 m., named for Chief Rooaton, whose name is 
also preserved in the place names of nearby Rowayton and Roton 

Left from Noroton on Ring's End Rd. to Swift's Lane (L), 0.3 m., where a 
miniature COLONIAL VILLAGE (private), a collection of small old buildings moved 
from various New England towns, is visible from the roadway. 

At the end of Ring's End Road, 0.5 m., on the waterfront is the old MILL AND 
CUSTOMHOUSE, erected in 1737. 

ii2 U. S. ONE 

STAMFORD, 40.2 m. (56,765 pop.), manufacturing and resi- 
dential city (see CONN. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Old houses, Stamford Museum. 

Right from Stamford on State 104, 8.3 m., to the junction with a cross- 
country path that runs 0.2 m. to the precipitous gorge of the Mianus River on 
the New York Line. Within the shade of primeval hemlocks, the narrow river 
swirls through dark pools and tumbles over shoals strewn with boulders of pink 
quartz, forming one of the wildest spots near New York City. 

At 41.4 m., midway between the railroad and the Post Road along 
the Stamford-Greenwich town line, is LADDIN'S ROCK (L), on a 
private estate. According to local legend, Indians attacked the home 
of an old Dutch settler, Cornelius Labden, who was forced to see his 
family scalped. But Labden escaped; he leaped upon his horse and 
galloped through the hemlocks toward the brink of a cliff crying, 
"Come on ye foul fiends; I go to join your victims." In the rush of 
pursuit, the Indians blindly rode their horses over the cliff, and all 
went crashing to their deaths at the jagged base. 

The CONDE NAST PRESS, at 41.5 m., is a modern industrial plant in 
landscaped surroundings. Here are published House Beautiful and 

At 43 m. the highway runs through MIANUS, named for Chief 
Mayannos, and then crosses the river below a dam that impounds 
the waters of old DUMPLING POND (R). When the British raided this 
section in 1779 some of the soldiers tarried at the gristmill, then a 
century old, about 1.5 miles upstream from the present bridge. 
They invited themselves to a meal of dumplings that the miller's 
wife chanced to be making; she told them to wait a few minutes 
until the food was cooked. Taking advantage of a lapse in their at- 
tention, she irately threw the dumplings into the millpond, an act 
commemorated in the name. 

COS COB, 43.8 m. (Town of Greenwich), is a village bearing the 
name of an Indian chief. 

On the plains N. of the millpond immediately L. of US 1, are a 
PETUQUAPAEN. Here the Dutch and English united to annihilate the 
Siwanoy tribe, which had been resisting the encroachments of white 
settlers upon the Indians' best hunting ground. According to a con- 
temporary account, "the Lord having endued the colonists with ex- 
traordinary strength," not a man, woman, or child of the several 







hundred inhabitants escaped the fire set to their wigwams on a bitter 
February night in 1644, "nor was any outcry whatsoever heard." 
Public thanksgiving and general rejoicing were the order of the day 
when this news reached New Amsterdam. 

Conspicuously situated (L) on the western shore of Cos Cob 
Harbor is the POWER HOUSE of the main line of the New Haven 

At 45.4 m. US 1 climbs PUT'S HILL. Here in 1779 General 
Israel Putnam made his escape by horse from the British. Although 
the Tories abandoned their chase at the brink of the precipice down 
which the daring Putnam plunged, they succeeded in firing a bullet 
through his hat. At this, he turned around in his saddle and is sup- 
posed to have shouted his favorite oath, "God cuss ye, I'll hang ye to 
the next tree when I catch ye." 

At the top of the hill is the stone CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (L), 
for years a guide to fishermen far out in the sound, and visible for 
many miles in all directions. 

GREENWICH, 45.8 m. (33,1 12 pop.), residential city (see CONN. 

Points of Interest, Bruce Mansion Museum, Putnam Cottage with D.A.R. col- 
lection, Indian Burial Ground, Little Captain's Island (public bathing beach), 
many beautiful estates, and fine old houses. 

Left from Greenwich on Greenwich Ave. ; then on Steamboat Rd. to the dock, 
0.9 m., for boats plying to LITTLE CAPTAIN'S ISLAND, 2.5 miles offshore 
(round trip 25$. Here is a public picnic ground and bathing beach (Island 
Beach) . A mile distant is the old stone lighthouse on the rockbound tip of GREAT 
CAPTAIN'S ISLAND, southernmost extremity of New England. These islands 
named for Captain Patrick, the earliest settler in Greenwich and BYRAM 
POINT, on the mainland, are the only points in New England lying below the 
forty-first parallel. From Great Captain's Island the skyscrapers of New York City, 
20 miles distant, seem a mirage rising over the water. 

US 1, here lined with roadside stands catering to every conceivable 
demand of a motoring public, continues to the New York Line at 
the Byram River, 47.8 m. On the Connecticut bank of the stream 
(L) is the weathered LYON HOUSE (1670), a modest outpost bordering 
the current of the heaviest traffic along the Atlantic seaboard. 


Conn. Line Port Chester New Rochelle New York NJ. 
Line, 22.2m. US 1. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. and New York, Wcstchester & Boston 

R.R. parallel this route. 

Four-lane concrete roadbed except for macadam stretches through business 

centers. Complex network of roads in Westchester County makes it necessary to 

follow directions carefully. 

Accommodations limited because of proximity to New York City. 

Section 70. Connecticut Line to New Jersey Line, 22.2 m. 

This section of the through route, known as the Boston Post Road, 
follows the shore of Long Island Sound across Westchester County, a 
county of suburban homes, large estates, and wealthy clubs, of 
natural beauty in proximity to carefully landscaped parkways. 

At the Connecticut-New York Line US 1 crosses the Byram River, 
which runs along the northwestern border of PORT CHESTER, 
m. (34 alt., 22,622 pop.), first known as Saw Pit, which was 
settled about 1650. The Byram River, now the State Line, in Colonial 
days flowed through the center of the village. Unlike other commun- 
ities on the route, Port Chester is partly dependent on its manufac- 
turing plants. The principal products are candy, ammonia, nuts and 
bolts, furnaces, coal and gas ranges, soft drinks, and commercial 

At 0.5 m. (R) is the five-story PLANT OF LIFE SAVERS, ING. (guide 
service free)., national headquarters of the confectionery firm. 

Haseco St., contains a collection of Currier and Ives prints, Japanese 
and Chinese furniture imported by local sea captains, amusing col- 
lection of political campaign buttons of recent years, and several 
Indian implements found in the vicinity. 

The SAMUEL BROWN HOME, Browndale PL, was built in 1660. The 
house has been altered several times and a wing was added to the 
original structure 70 years ago; but interior walls, doors, and floors 
are unchanged. The Dutch oven and the fireplaces have been 

The BROWN GRAVEYARD, Indian Rd., a huddle of fallen tomb- 
stones in an overgrowth of brambles and trees, was the private 



burial ground of descendants of the Brown family from 1660 to 1900. 
Forgotten today, it lies at the rear of a vacant lot between modern 

The BUSH HOMESTEAD (1750), Lyon Park overlooking King St. 
(open Tues., Thurs., Sat., 9-4:30; apply to caretaker), a well-preserved 
house (see illustration) in the Colonial style, built shortly before the 
Revolution by Abraham Bush, a sea captain, was the headquarters 
in 1777-78 of Gen. Israel Putnam. The original furniture has been 
preserved, including the bed and desk used by "Old Put." Aaron 
Burr, as a colonel under Putnam, visited the house frequently. 

US 1 winds through the narrow streets of the business district and 
beneath railroad crossings to the southern edge of the village. 

Right from the State Line on Putnam Ave.; at 0.7 m. L. on N. Regent St. 
(State 120 B); at 1.5 m. R. on Westchester Ave. (State 119, 120); at 4.2 m. R. 
on the Hutchinson River Parkway (see illustration)', at 4.3 m. L. on Parkway. This 
parkway, a four-lane road, cuts through terraced and forested countryside of 
Westchester County and provides an alternate route between the Connecticut 
Line and New York City. While somewhat longer than the main route, it is 
more scenic and is free from busses and trucks, traffic lights, and cross traffic 
(speed limit of 35 m.p.h. strictly enforced}. Traffic from side entrances and exits is 
regulated by a system of islands separating north- and south-bound traffic. 

For the first eight miles the parkway is bordered by public and private golf 
courses and large estates. At 7.1 m. is SAXON WOODS PARK, the county's 749-acre 
recreational development, containing bridle paths, trails, picnic grounds, and a 
public 18-hole golf course (nominal fees). 

At 12.5 m. a traffic circle gives entrance to the Cross County Parkway (R). 

At 15.8 m. the parkway swings L. to join US 1, 0.2 m. E. of the New York 
City Line (see below). 

At 1.6 m. on US 1 is RYE (49 alt., 37, 495 pop.), settled in 1660 
by people from Greenwich, Conn. The Post Road here roughly 
follows the line of an Indian trail from Manhattan Island to a "wad- 
ing place" across the Byram River. The first country road was laid 
out in 1672. In size a city, but an incorporated village by preference, 
Rye is visible from the highway only as a series of landscaped apart- 
ment houses and mansions. 

The JAY MANSION (not open), Locust Ave. and Post Rd. (R), a 
two-story structure, Greek Revival in style, was built in the second 
quarter of the 1 9th century on the site of the home of John Jay. It 
was Jay who was largely responsible for the draft of the first New 
York State Constitution and who helped negotiate the treaty of 
peace with Great Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War. From 

u6 U. S. ONE 

1790 to 1794, as first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he 
handed down important decisions interpreting the new Federal 
Constitution. After serving two terms as Governor of New York, he 
retired to this 800-acre estate in 1801 and became a gentleman 
farmer, writing conservative political advice to newspaper editors 
for 28 years. His body lies in the family plot in the rear of this 

The HAVILAND INN (open), on Purchase St. (R), was built in 1730 
and is now the village hall. The original windows are intact; the 
beams are wooden-pegged; hand-hewn shingles cover three-quarters 
of the structure; several of the doors have Colonial "HL" hinges. 
Dame Tamar Haviland, a war widow, was here hostess to Washing- 
ton on several occasions. John Adams and General Lafayette danced 
Virginia reels in the ballroom on the second floor. 

At 3.4 m. is a junction with Cross County Parkway. 

Left on the parkway to PLAYLAND, 0.9 m. (open all year; free parking), the largest 
recreational center in Westchester Co. The 273 acres include a salt-water bathing 
beach with accommodations for 10,000, a boardwalk, a fresh- water swimming 
pool, a dance hall, a skating and hockey rink, a picnic grove, and an amusement 
park (open summer). 

The RYE COUNTRY CLUB (not open to public), 4.1 m. (L), is an 
exclusive social center. 

MAMARONECK (Ind., he assembles the people), 5.2 m. (47 alt., 
11,766 pop.), was settled by English farmers about 1650. Woolen 
cloth, food, perfume oil, and motor oil factories provide local em- 
ployment for some of the residents, but the majority are commuters 
to New York City. Seven yacht clubs have private basins along the 
jagged shore line of the village harbor. Swinging between private 
estates, the Post Road swings to Long Island Sound, but presents 
only a dismal view of marshland, fishing huts, and boat docks. The 
estates of Ethel Barrymore, James Montgomery Flagg, and Robert 
("Believe It or Not") Ripley are near the village. 

Inns and taverns, decorated with chromium in the modern man- 
ner, are numerous S. of the village. 

At 6.2 m. is the junction with State 126 (Mamaroneck Ave.). 

Right on State 126 just beyond the junction is CLOSET HALL (R), now a gas sta- 
tion and restaurant. James Fenimore Cooper, the novelist, lived in this house 
after his marriage with Susan DeLancey of Mamaroneck. The building formerly 
stood on Heathcote Hill, overlooking the sound. 


At 6.6 m. is a junction with Orienta Ave. 

Left on Orienta Ave. to beach and yacht clubs on the sound, 1.3 m. On this 
street stood the early movie studios of D. W. Griffith, screen pioneer. The produc- 
tions Way Down East, Orphans of the Storm, and Valley Forge were filmed with local 

LARCHMONT, 7.7 m. (100 alt., 5,282 pop.), is a residential 
community with no industries. More than half the population 
commutes daily to New York City. 

NEW ROCHELLE, 8.9 m. (72 alt., 54,000 pop.), suburban city 
(see N.T. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. N.Y./N.H., & H. R.R., R.R. Place between North Ave. and 
Mechanic St.; N.Y., Westchester & Boston R.R., Port Chester Ave. and Quaker 
Ridge. Trains at 15-min. intervals during rush hours. 

Points of Interest. Jacob Leisler Monument, Thomas Paine Memorial and 
Museum, Salesian College, Hudson Park, the College of the City of New Ro- 
chelle, Fort Slocum Ferry, Glen Island, the Casino, and others. 

Left from New Rochelle on Echo Ave., R. on Pelham Rd. to State IB, the 
Shore Rd., which closely follows the shore of Long Island Sound to the New York 
City Line. Views of the sound are almost continuous. 

At 2.1 m. (R) is BOLTON PRIORY (not open), built in 1838 by the Reverend 
Robert Bolton. Washington Irving, a friend of the Bolton family, gave yellow 
bricks from the old Dutch Church at Sleepy Hollow for the lettering of the con- 
struction date above the door. 

CEDAR KNOLL (L) was for many years believed to be haunted on moonlight 
nights by decapitated Siwanoy warriors holding their heads in their hands. 

At 2.4 m. (L) is the NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB (private), one of New York 
City's wealthiest sport clubs. The clubhouse, visible beyond wide landscaped 
lawns, is Italian. Renaissance in style. 

PELHAM MANOR, 11.4 m. (100 alt., 11,851 pop.), a purely suburban 
community, was named for Thomas Pell, who in 1664 purchased 
lands along the sound from the Siwanoys. The title was later con- 
firmed by James II of England and the territory formed into the 
Manor of Pelham. 

At 11.7 m., on Pelhamdale Ave., is the former route of a tiny 
trolley that is said to have given Fontaine Fox, the cartoonist, the 
inspiration for his Toonerville Trolley sketches. The line followed the 
street from Pelham Rd. (State IB) to the Pelham railroad station. 

At 12.2 m. is the junction with Split Rock Road. 

"~ Left on this road, which runs to the New York City Line, 0.5 m., then SE. 
through Pelham Bay Park to Pelham Bridge Rd. (State IB). Split Rock Rd. was 

ii8 U. S. ONE 

once the private driveway from the manor house of Thomas Pell to the Boston 
Post Road. Washington's army retreated along this route after the Battle of Pell's 
Point, October 18, 1776, took place in the vicinity of the cleft 10-ft. boulder that 
stands (R) near the New York Line. 

At 12.4 m. (R) is a junction with the Hutchinson River Parkway, 
alternate route from the Connecticut Line (see above). 
At 12.5 m. is the junction with S. Fulton Ave. 

Right on S. Fulton Ave. to S. Columbus Ave., 1.1 m.; L. on S. Columbus Ave. 
to ST. PAUL'S CHURCH AND EASTCHESTER COMMON, 1.2 m. (L). Situated on the 
marshy land beside the Hutchinson River, named for Anne Hutchinson, this old 
church stands surrounded by giant gas and oil tanks and concrete factories that 
here sprawl over the New York City-Mount Vernon Line. 

The rectangular church, built in 1761, has stone walls now weathered with 
age; it is of a simple style, with a square tower above the front entrance. The bell, 
presented long before the Revolution, and cast by Lester and Pack, who also cast 
the Liberty Bell, was buried in 1775 to prevent its being made into cannon. It is 
still rung at services. 

After the Battle of Pell's Point, Hessian troops seized the church and used it as a 
barracks and hospital. Ninety Hessians who died the first night were buried in a 
sandpit at the foot of the cemetery; the grave is now marked. The cemetery also 
contains an Indian grave marker dated 1687, another stone dated 1704, the 
graves of many Revolutionary soldiers, and the vault in which was buried George 
Washington Adams, the son of President John Quincy Adams who was drowned 
nearby in 1829. 

The pewholders and vestrymen of St. Paul's at the end of the Revolution in- 
cluded members of the Van Cortlandt, Rhinelander, Pinckney, Morgan, Drake, 
and Roosevelt families. 

Aaron Burr pleaded cases in the church after the Revolution, when it was used 
as a courthouse. 

f A part of the old village green lies between the church and the sunken highway. 
Colonial troops drilled here for both the French and Indian and .the Revolutionary 
Wars. Coaches rolled by on the 14-day trip to Boston (today planes pass over the 
church on the 85-minute Boston run). In 1733 John Peter Zenger, New York 
newspaper editor, was arrested for his account of an election for assemblyman 
held here; his release several months later helped to establish the American 
principle of freedom of the press. 

At Guion's Tavern, situated at the western end of the village green, Washing- 
ton paid off his troops after the Battle of White Plains, October 28, 1776. The 
desk he used is owned by a member of the church. 

At 12.6 m. is the New York City Line. This back door of the 
metropolis offers no breath- taking vista; it is but a flat stretch of 
Hutchinson River marshes, bridges, and gas stations, with the brick 
blocks and old wooden houses of the northernmost Bronx in the 


NEW YORK CITY (51 alt., 6,930,450 pop.), most populous 
city in the world (see N.Y. CITT GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Baltimore & Ohio bus terminal, 42nd St. opposite Grand 
Central Terminal, W. 23rd St. and Liberty St. ferries; Central R.R. of New 
Jersey, W. 23rd St. and Liberty St. ferries; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 
Barclay St., Christopher St., and W. 23rd St. ferries; Erie, Chambers St. and W. 
23rd St. ferries; Lehigh Valley, Pa. Station, Cortlandt St. ferry; Long Island, Pa. 
Station; New York Central, Grand Central Terminal, 42nd St. and Park Ave.; 
New York, New Haven & Hartford, Grand Central Terminal and Pa. Station; 
New York, Ontario & Western, Cortlandt St. & W. 42nd St. ferries; Pennsylvania, 
Pa. Station, 7th to 8th Aves., 31st to 33rd Sts., Cortlandt St. ferry; West Shore, 
Cortlandt St. and W. 42nd St. ferries. 

Points of Interest. The Battery, Central Park, the Empire State Building, Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, Museum of Natural History, Museum of the City of New 
York, New York Public Library, Radio City, Wall St., and many others. 

US 1 cuts through the Bronx and across northern Manhattan; it 
crosses the Hudson River on the George Washington Memorial 
Bridge (see illustration) to New Jersey. These parts of the city are 
essentially residential, with neighborhood shopping centers somewhat 
resembling the Main Streets of second-class cities. The elevated 
railway structures, the subway kiosks, and occasional views of the 
towers of Columbus Circle and beyond, are reminders, however, 
that this is part of America's greatest metropolis. 

The Bronx, one of the five boroughs of the city, was named for 
Jonas Bronck or Brounck, who in 1638 built the first manor house 
N. of the Harlem River. When in 1639 the Dutch West India Co. 
sold land here the area was called Broncksland, of which the present 
borough name is a corruption. 

At 12.9 m. the broad macadam highway crosses the HUTCHINSON 
RIVER, named for Anne Hutchinson, Boston nonconformist who was 
banished by Massachusetts Puritans after violent controversies; she 
left Rhode Island after the death of her husband and settled in this 
area; in 1643 she was slain by Indians at Throgg's Neck. The river 
has been developed as a barge canal, giving access to Long Island 
Sound through East Chester Bay. 

The banks of the river were one of the sources of the clam and 
periwinkle shells that the Indians and the Dutch settlers used as 
money. White shells were known as "wampum," black and purple 
as "suckauhock." 

This approach to New York City is dismal and uninteresting. Gas 

120 U. S. ONE 

stations, auto junk yards, diners, and third-rate roadhouses line the 
highway. Weedy lots sprawl to the backdoors of private homes and 
apartment houses. 

At 14.5 m. the road crosses a hill in the Williamsbridge section 
and gives a view of a jagged mass of apartment houses and modern 
stores, with the dim outline of lower Manhattan skyscrapers on the 
southern horizon. On the E. are the towers of the Tri-Borough 
Bridge, opened in the summer of 1936; spans from 125th St., Man- 
hattan, and Southern Blvd., the Bronx, converge on Randalls Island 
in the East River; and from there the bridge continues across Wards 
Island to end at Astoria Boulevard in Queens. 

At 16.3 m., at the edge of Bronx Park, is the junction with Ford- 
ham Rd. US 1 turns R. on Fordham Rd. 

In the next half mile Fordham Rd. bisects BRONX PARK, 719 acres, 
a forested tract along the Bronx River, famous for its zoo (L) and its 
botanical gardens (R). 

The NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK (free except Mon. and Thurs.;free 
on all holidays), founded in 1 897 and locally called "the Bronx Zoo," has 
one of the largest collections of wild animals, birds, and reptiles in the 
world. The 160 acres of exhibits, near Lake Agassiz and Bronx Lake, 
formed by Bronx River, include, besides bear dens, houses for ele- 
phants, lions, primates, zebras, land and aquatic birds, reptiles, large 
and small mammals, ostriches, antelopes, kangaroos, and wild swine. 
There are restaurants and administration buildings on the grounds. 

The buildings are of neo-classical design with brown Tiffany brick 
walls and limestone trim. The stone cornices and pediments have 
elaborately carved figures of animals. 

The NEW YORK BOTANICAL MUSEUM, together with the gardens, 
is one of the largest in the world. The gardens date back to the time 
of Pierre Lorillard, nature lover and snuff maker, who built a mill 
on the river in 1840, later constructed a stone mansion, and set out 
large, old-fashioned gardens that are still visible. 

After cutting through the park Fordham Road becomes a business 
street with department stores, offices, theaters, banks, trolleys, and 

At 16.9 m. is a junction with Southern Blvd. (State 1A). 

State 1A, alternate route through the city to Jersey City, follows Southern 
Blvd. across the Bronx, and 1st and 2nd Aves. down Manhattan to Houston St., 
and across to the HOLLAND TUNNEL under the Hudson River to New Jersey. 


The route offers views of East River shipping and bridges, the Cornell-New 
York Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, Tudor City, 
Bellevue Hospital, sections of New York's East Side, the Bowery, and Greenwich 

On Fordham Rd. (R) at 17.4 m. is FORDHAM UNIVERSITY, largest 
Roman Catholic college in the United States. In 1841 when, as St. 
John's College, it opened its doors to its first student body of six, its 
president was the Reverend John McCloskey, later first American 
cardinal. Only part of the courses are offered in the 20 English Gothic 
field-stone buildings on the main campus; several branches are main- 
tained in downtown Manhattan. 

At 18 m. is a junction with Grand Concourse (State 22 and 100), 
one of the main thoroughfares of the Bronx, running S. to Madison 
and Fifth Aves. in Manhattan. 

Right on Grand Concourse is (R) POE PARK, 0.1 m. (adm. free; open weekdays 
except Mon., 70-1, 2-4:30; Sun., 1-4:30), containing the white cottage built before 
1816, in which Edgar Allen Poe lived from 1845 to 1849. The furniture is in keep- 
ing with the period when Poe lived here, but was not used by him. The poet's 
young wife, Virginia, died in this house in January 1847. 

At 18.4 m. US 1 turns L. on University Ave. 

At 18.6 m. is the campus of NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (R), chartered 
in 1831, now with a student body of 34,000 and a faculty of 1,800. 
The buildings on University Heights house only the colleges of arts, 
pure sciences, and engineering, the Guggenheim School of Aeronau- 
tics, various administrative units, and extracurricular activities. 
Other divisions are in downtown Manhattan, the most important on 
Washington Square, and on Long Island. The HALL OF FAME (see 
illustration), dominating the campus at the edge of the Harlem River, 
is a one-story open arcade with granite base. Bronze busts of the 
great men of American history stand in openings between limestone 
piers. The arches offer framed views of the Palisades on the New 
Jersey shore, and of Manhattan Island. 

At 20.1 m. the route turns R. on 181st St. and crosses Harlem 
River on a broad concrete bridge with sweeping views of Manhattan 
L. and R. The river, really a strait, separates Manhattan from the 
mainland. Barge, tug, and steamer traffic splashes busily through the 
channel. Below, at the water's edge on the Bronx shore, runs the main 
line of the New York Central R.R. Left are the towers of the mid- 
town district, with the spiked summit of the Chrysler Building and 

122 TJ. S. ONE 

the mooring mast of the Empire State Building standing out clearly 
from the others. 

At 20.9 m. the route crosses BROADWAY, New York's "Main 
Street" since the 17th century, first known as Heere Straat. 

At 21.1 m. the route turns L. on Fort Washington Ave. 

At 21.2 m. the route turns R. on W. 179th St. to the entrance of 
the GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE (50 for pleasure vehicles pd. at N.J. 
end; 5 for pedestrians), spanning the Hudson River and forming a 
dramatic gateway to New Jersey. Construction was begun in 1927; 
the cost was $57,000,000. The bridge is of the suspension type with a 
graceful 3,500-ft. main span joining the severe steel towers, 630 ft. 
high, on the New Jersey and New York shores. These towers are 
twice the height of the Palisades at this point, though this fact is not 
apparent to those crossing the structure. The roadway in the center 
of the bridge is 250 ft. above the water. Four cables, each 36 inches 
in diameter and each containing 26,474 wires, provide strength suffi- 
cient to support the present deck and an additional deck that can be 
added if necessary to meet future traffic demands. Franklin D. Roose- 
velt, then Governor of New York, delivered one of the dedication 
speeches at the opening of the bridge on October 24, 1931. The 
bridge is owned and operated by the Port of New York Authority. 

Immediately below the bridge is the SITE OF FORT WASHINGTON 
(R), key American fortification on Manhattan Island during the 
first year of the Revolution. It occupied the highest part of the island 
between the present 181st and 186th Sts. Three thousand Americans, 
considered among the best of Washington's troops, surrendered the 
fort to General Howe on November 16, 1776, completing the aban- 
donment of New York. 

From the roadway of the bridge the view southward includes the 
tallest buildings of Manhattan, the tower of Riverside Church at 
120th St., the unbroken line of apartment houses along Riverside 
Drive, the North River berths of the largest ocean liners, and the 
busy ferry traffic between the New York and New Jersey terminals. 
Northward in the Hudson is the path of summer excursion boats to 
Bear Mountain, and of freight and passenger vessels to Albany. On 
the New Jersey side, partly hidden by foliage in summer, is the sheer 
face of the Palisades, now disfigured in places by factories at the foot 
of the cliff. Excavations for the New Jersey Bridge approach revealed 
the tracks of dinosaurs in the Triassic rock of the Palisades. This 


barricade of rock, once a molten mass, was given the form of columns 
when the substance cooled, shrank, and cracked beneath the earth's 
surface. It was covered for ages by a layer of sediment several thou- 
sand feet deep that was subsequently worn away. 
At 22.2 m. is the New Jersey end of the bridge. 


N. Y. Line Fort Lee Jersey City Trenton Pa. Line, 68.6 m. 
US 1. 

Erie R.R. parallels the route N. of Jersey City and Pennsylvania R.R. and 
Baltimore & Ohio R.R. between Jersey City and the Pa. Line. 
Superhighway of four to six lanes throughout, paved almost entirely with con- 
crete. Accommodations in cities along route. 

Section 11. New York Line to Pennsylvania Line, 68.6 m. 

US 1 in this State, designed to speed the heavy traffic flow between 
New York and Philadelphia, avoids most urban congestion and cross 
traffic. It bypasses the center of every city. Because the road (see 
illustration) runs for miles without a turn and carries more traffic than 
any other State highway, many New Jersey residents avoid it. Those 
who prefer scenery to speed, and historic landmarks to traffic circles, 
turn off at Elizabeth to State 27, an alternate route to Trenton; but 
the motorist who likes to test his skill on a modern highway, and is 
cautious enough to avoid trouble with the State police, should follow 
US 1 . The route is carefully patrolled and traffic regulations are en- 

From George Washington Bridge, where the New York Line is 
crossed, US 1 twists through a breath-taking series of underpasses 
and overpasses until it straightens out for a gradual descent along the 
western slope of the Palisades on the Bergen Turnpike. Metropolitan 
residential and industrial development has claimed all of the land 
here, except for the marshy lowlands of Overpeck Creek. Westward 
are the clusters of commuters' towns, and in the distance the hazy 
outline of the Ramapo Mountains. From Jersey City the road sweeps 
upward to Pulaski Skyway, giving the last panorama of the New 
York City hinterland, a region of smokestacks and marshes, of a few 
skyscrapers and many tenements, of patterns in steel rails and con- 
fusion in garbage dumps. Between Newark and Linden the industrial 
area thins out; southward the highway traverses New Jersey country- 
side, with farms, woodland, nurseries, and only an occasional factory 
until the outlying part of Trenton is reached. Hills are rare, and 
there is little in the landscape to divert the driver's attention from the 
long, straight path of concrete lying ahead. 

FORT LEE, 1.1 m. (280 alt., 8,759 pop.), appears chiefly as an 



assortment of roadhouses, oil stations, and small eating places. The 
residential and business district is off the highway (R). Little of the 
community is seen, however, because of the series of highway under- 
passes and overpasses designed for automatic sorting of the bridge 
traffic. The driver needs to watch carefully for US 1 markers. 

During the Revolution this plateau at the crest of the Palisades was 
selected by Washington as the site of the fort for which the town is 
named. His plan was to prevent the British fleet from sailing up the 
Hudson River to West Point. From the rocky bluff, Washington 
watched the attack and surrender of his garrison at Fort Washington, 
directly across the river, in November 1776. A few days later he was 
forced to abandon Fort Lee. The approximate site of the old fort is 
marked by a monument, the work of Carl E. Tifft, in MONUMENT 
PARK, Palisade Ave. Early in the 20th century Fort Lee became one 
of the cradles of the motion picture industry. Serial thrillers are no 
longer made here, but a printing studio that normally employs sev- 
eral hundred persons still operates. Some of the barn-like buildings 
used by the old studios are near the highway (L). A red dome and 
gilded cross (L) are on the CONVENT OF HOLY ANGELS. 

Swinging S. after its separation from the other bridge exits and 
approaches, US 1 crosses Main St., Fort Lee, down which Washing- 
ton marched after evacuating the fort. For a short distance the high- 
way runs on the western crest of the Palisades ridge. Here there is no 
rock wall, but elevation is sufficient to permit a broad view of Over- 
peck Creek in the valley below and, beyond the next ridge, the 
slender line of the Hackensack River. On clear days the Ramapo 
Mountains are visible still further NW. 

The road begins its descent to the valley on a long, straight en- 
bankment. Below (R) lies the community of PALISADES, with a 
cluster of apartment houses, smaller dwellings, and schools. 

The recent real estate development of MORSEMERE, 3.6 m., 
has a modern business district in the English cottage style. Another 
through highway is in the center of the main street at a lower level ; 
US 1 is at street level and turns (L) on an overpass. 

In the residential section of Ridgefield, the highway is no longer 
concrete paved. A WORLD WAR MONUMENT stands in a small plot 
(L); just S. of it is the old SAMUEL WRIGHT HOUSE (R), hugging the 
slope. Built in 1790, it is an excellent example of Dutch Colonial 
architecture. Dormer windows and other alterations have not spoiled 

126 U. S. ONE 

the original charm. Other old houses are still standing along this part 
of the road. 

RIDGEFIELD, 4.5 m. (30 alt., 4,671 pop.), has an unpretentious 
shopping center on the highway. The most noticeable building is the 
two-story RIDGEFIELD NATIONAL BANK of red brick (R). 

South of Ridgefield the highway is almost at the floor of the valley. 
Tracks of the Erie R.R. run parallel in the meadowland (R). On 
either side of the road are drab homes and factories. 

Approach to FAIRVIEW, 5.5 m. (20 alt., 9,067 pop.), is an- 
nounced by the acrid smell from a bleachery (R). A few hundred 
yards from the highway (R) is a scattered group of 54 small gray 
buildings, the plant of the INTERNATIONAL FIREWORKS COMPANY, one 
of the largest manufacturers of display fireworks. Here were made the 
elaborate fireworks for the inaugurals of Presidents Wilson, Hoover, 
and Roosevelt; routine business is the making of "True Lovers' 
Knots" and "Fountains of Youth" for conventions of fraternal orders 
and for civic celebrations. 

Between Fairview and North Bergen the route passes a CEMETERY 
(L) and an adjacent MONUMENT WORKS that sells bird baths and 
bridge prizes as a side line. The tracks of the West Shore R.R. are 
bridged near the entrance to the railroad's tunnel under the Palisades 
ridge. The highway, of recent concrete construction, climbs over a 
rocky hump. Factory buildings of the NORTH JERSEY INDUSTRIAL 
TERMINAL are R. Three miles westward are the twin towers of radio 
station WINS at Carlstadt. 

On the upward slope (L) are rocky outcroppings of the underlying 
Palisades, upon which small houses barely find a foothold. Below, on 
the valley's edge (R), are railroad yards and a roundhouse of the 
N.Y. Central a scene painted in grays and blacks. 

NORTH BERGEN, 8.3 m. (25 alt., 40,714 township pop.), has 
churches, stores, a second-hand lumberyard, and two large gas tanks 
on or near the highway. The business section gives no indication of 
the large number of people living in this residential township. 

Entering the outlying northern section of Jersey City, US 1 be- 
comes Tonnelle Ave. The highway overpasses the main line tracks 
of the Pennsylvania R.R. just W. of the only trunk line tunnel from 
New Jersey into Manhattan. The streamlined electric locomotives 
operated between New York City and Washington use these tracks. 

To the SW. is the irregular hump of SNAKE HILL, lone break in the 


uniform flatness of the marshlands. Geologists say that it is probably 
the eroded stump of an ancient volcano that once cast up enough 
molten rock to form the Watchung Mountains, 10 miles westward. 
A peculiarity of residential planning along the road here is the 
practice of putting tiny huts on stilts. This may be for protection 
against dampness in the lowlands (R), but on the hillside it perhaps 
merely indicates conformity with the local mores. 

The meadowlands have their own skyline. On the banks of the 
Hackensack River (R) stand the six great chimneys of a public serv- 
ice electric and gas plant, adjacent to a gas and coke plant. Beyond 
are small hills of coke, several times the height of a freight car. The 
towers of railroad and highway drawbridges are grouped nearby at 
the river. 

At 11.9 m. the highway crosses the main line tracks of the Erie 
R.R. and the Lackawanna R.R., and there is a view of Jersey City's 
skyline. No towering office buildings dominate here, but rather the 
broad bulk of the American Can Co., which is now (1937) working 
three shifts a day, in part because of the use of cans for beer. The gray 
stone clock tower of ST. JOHN'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, near 
Journal Square in the heart of Jersey City, stands out. 

At 12 m. is a traffic circle at the entrance to Pulaski Skyway. 

Left from US 1 (straight ahead from the circle) on a concrete highway to the 
center of JERSEY CITY, 0.5 m. (80 alt., 316,715 pop.), industrial city (see N.J. 

Railroad Stations. Pa. R.R., Exchange Place; Erie R.R., foot of Pavonia Ave.; 
Central R.R. of N.J., Phila. & Reading Ry., and Baltimore & Ohio R.R., foot of 
Johnston Ave.; Hudson & Manhattan R.R., Journal Sq., Exchange PL, and 
Erie Stations. 

Points of Interest. Site of Paulus Hook Fort, Peter Stuyvesant Statue, Old Bergen 
Church, Medical Center, Colgate Clock, St. Peter's College, and others. 

Swinging R. from the traffic circle, US 1 enters PULASKI SKYWAY. 
This steel and concrete viaduct, named for the Polish nobleman who 
lost his life in the American Revolution, is 3.4 miles long, rises 145 ft. 
above two rivers, and cost $21,000,000. An average of more than 
30,000 vehicles used it daily in 1935. This was a pioneer achievement 
in the solution of the problem of handling through-traffic in one of 
the most congested traffic areas in the world; the situation here was 
aggravated by the marshy terrain, which lessened the possible num- 
ber of highways and bridges. 

i 2 8 U. S. ONE 

Climbing an easy grade, the road crosses the Hudson and Man- 
hattan R.R. ("the Tubes") and approaches the cantilever span across 
Hackensack River. Were it not for the heavy I-beam railing, an ex- 
cellent view of the waterways adjacent to New York Harbor and of 
the Newark industrial area could be obtained. As it is, however, the 
area is in full view only when the two high points of the skyway are 
crossed; from those points are seen the tall office buildings of Newark 
and the gas tanks of Harrison. Seen by a glance through the railing is 
(L) one of the great garbage dumps for which the Newark meadows 
are known. Next is seen the large plant of the WESTERN ELECTRIC 
Co., at the head of Newark Bay where the Hackensack and Passaic 
Rivers unite. The sun glints sharply from the roofs of hundreds of 
employees' cars, parked in neat formation next to the factory. To the 
rear (L) are the towers of midtown and then downtown Manhattan, 
then the slight elevation that is Brooklyn, the gap of the Narrows (en- 
trance to New York Harbor), and finally the hilly outline of Staten 
Island, 8 miles S. The usual haze from factory smoke often obliterates 
part of the view, and the no-parking rule makes use of field glasses 

Two more large public service plants of the dominant power and 
local transportation company of the State are R. of the skyway. One 
of these is unusual because it boils mercury instead of water to operate 
its turbine for generating electricity. 

The view further (R) is up the valleys of Hackensack and Passaic 
Rivers. The best picture of Newark, straight ahead, is from the 
cantilever span across Passaic River. At the western end of the sky- 
way the highway enters the Newark city limits. Elevated on a fill, the 
road takes a straight course through a concentrated industrial area, 
with freight tracks of the Pennsylvania R.R. running parallel (R). 
Next along the route is one of Newark's less prosperous residential 

Once more the highway climbs, bridging the main freight line of 
the Lehigh Valley R.R. It descends on a broad embankment, curv- 
ing in a wide arc. On both sides are home-made huts and garden 
patches, occupying what was once a dumping ground. Built of ma- 
terials salvaged from dumps, the huts have served for several years 
as daytime shelters for men, women, and even children from needy 
families in Newark, who come here to raise vegetables for immediate 
consumption and for canning. The gardeners take almost belligerent 





pride in their work, competing for prizes for the best yields. In sum- 
mer the huts are brightly decorated with flowers, flags, and lattice- 

At 18.1 m. is a traffic circle. 

Left from the traffic circle is a paved road leading past the NEWARK AIRPORT, 
with a public parking space next to the flying field, 0.2m. Here the motorist may 
watch take-offs and landings at the busiest airport of the Nation, mail and passen- 
ger terminal for New York City as well as Newark and Jersey City. Each day there 
are 122 arrivals and departures of scheduled airliners; the rush hours are from 
4:30 to 6:30 p.m. For a view of night-flying, with the large field illuminated by 
floodlights, the best time is about 8:30. The airport, established in 1928, was re- 
claimed from marshlands by the city of Newark; it represents an investment of 

At 19.1 m. is the junction with State 21 and State 29, overpassed 
by westbound traffic on US 1 . 

Right on State 21 is the business center of NEWARK, 1.8 m. (115 alt., 442,337 
pop.), industrial city (see N.J. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Pa. R.R., Lehigh Valley R.R., and Hudson & Manhattan 
Tubes, Raymond Plaza, West; Erie R.R., Broadway (N. Newark) and foot of 
4th St.; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Broad St. at Lackawanna PL; 
Central R.R. of N.J., Broad St. near Edison PL 

Points of Interest. Four Corners, Port Newark, Newark Museum, Newark Uni- 
versity, Old Stone Schoolhouse, Military Park, Washington Park, and others. 

Between this junction and Elizabeth the road is a broad belt of 
asphalt with some curves and so crowded with trucks and pleasure 
cars that it is of more than usual danger. Concrete paving has not 
yet been laid because the earth fill is still settling into the marsh. On 
either side of the low embankment the flats are covered with tall 
meadow grass and cat-tails, brightened with sunflowers in the summer 
months. The meadow (L) is being filled and graded over a large 
area for an extension of Newark Airport. 

Visible (L) several miles to the S. is the beautiful sweeping arch of 
the BAYONNE BRIDGE (see illustration), extending across Kill van Kull 
between Bayonne, N.J., and Staten Island, N.Y.; opened to traffic in 
1932, this is the longest steel-arch bridge in the world, with a span of 
1,675 ft., and the top of its arch is higher than the towers of Brooklyn 
Bridge. Almost straight ahead from this point on the roadway is the 
cantilever span of the GOETHALS BRIDGE, which has carried traffic 
between Elizabeth, N.J., and Staten Island, N.Y., since its comple- 
tion in 1928. These bridges, distinguished engineering achievements, 

i 3 o U. S. ONE 

compare favorably in design with outstanding architectural monu- 

Some of the large industrial plants of Newark (R) are next to the 
main line tracks of the Pennsylvania R.R. ELIZABETH AIRWAY 
RADIO (L) is a station maintained by the U.S. Department of Com- 
merce to guide planes within a radius of 100 miles, by means of the 
radio beam, to Newark Airport. 

The city limits of Elizabeth at North Ave. are marked by the first 
traffic light W. of Jersey City. The highway is safer here, with a grass 
strip dividing the street. Frame houses and some industrial and busi- 
ness establishments are on both sides of the road. After dipping under 
a highway crossing and the main line tracks of the Central R.R. of 
N J., the route leads R. at 22.6 m. on E. Jersey St. 

ELIZABETH (43 alt., 114,589), industrial and residential city 
(see JVJ. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Pa. R.R., Central R.R. of N.J., Baltimore & Ohio R.R., and 
Reading Ry., Broad St. at the Arch. 

Points of Interest. Governor Williamson House, First Presbyterian Church, 
Union Square, Nathaniel Bonnell House, Gov. Jonathan Belcher Mansion, 
Elias Boudinot House, Liberty Hall, and others. 

South of E. Jersey St. the highway passes for a short distance over a 
concrete and steel viaduct, bridging cross streets near the center of 
Elizabeth. The elevation is enough to give a fine view of the city, 
with the needle-like spire of old FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH and 
the tall, white tower of UNION COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R). The narrow 
channel of ELIZABETH RIVER, crossed by the viaduct, seems unbe- 
lievably small to have been an important waterway during Colonial 
days and early years of the republic. 

US 1 passes through the fringe of an extensive oil refining district. 
Storage tanks of the Standard Oil Company are illuminated nightly 
with colored lights. A familiar sight is the Standard Oil herd of goats 
that keeps the grass around the tanks closely cropped; they are used 
instead of mechanical lawnmowers because of the risk of sparks. The 
road here enters the first open country W. of George Washington 

LINDEN, 25.9 m. (25 alt., 21,206 pop.), has a business district to 
serve local people and the endless chain of motor traffic. A large 
portion of the population works at local industrial plants. On the 
highway (R) is WHEELER PARK, an attractive recreational area 


maintained by the county. Just beyond the park (R) are two of 
Linden's newest and most important industries, the neatly land- 
scaped plant of the Gordon Gin Co. and a plant of General Motors. 
The Bayway refinery of Standard Oil is within the municipality. 
Several miles from US 1 (L) are the twin masts of radio station 
WOR's transmitter at Carteret, each 485 ft. high. 

RAHWAY, 27.6 m. (20 alt., 16,011 pop.), is another community 
of two-story frame houses, with the main business section off the 
highway (R). There are some attractive homes in this suburb. 

West of Rahway US 1 swings R., ascends an embankment, and 
crosses RAHWAY RIVER. The big dome of the NEW JERSEY REFORMA- 
TORY, with its buttressed concrete wall and surrounding farm, is close 
by the highway (L). A school for juvenile offenders is conducted here, 
giving industrial training in several crafts. 

The route enters farming country in this section; red barns and 
an occasional dairy herd are reminders of the rural setting that was 
unbroken until the construction of the speed highway several years 
ago, with its attendant lunch rooms and filling stations. 

At 30.7 m. is the Rahway Clover Leaf, first highway intersection 
of this type built in the country, and a model for later highway- 
crossing eliminations. Adjoining the road (R) is a new cemetery 
development, one of several modern burial grounds or memorial 
parks along the route. Absence of residential neighborhoods on US 1 
from this point S. to Trenton should not tempt the driver to excessive 
speed, since State police in passenger cars as well as on motorcycles 
are frequently encountered. Their uniforms of French gray coats and 
dark blue trousers with a broad gold stripe are noteworthy. 

At 33.7 m. is ROOSEVELT PARK (R), a tract of 192 acres that is 
the first unit of the Middlesex County park system. Unemployed 
men under the Emergency Relief Administration and the Works 
Progress Administration set to work on a small wilderness of marsh 
and underbrush and made a park, well-landscaped and equipped 
with all facilities for picnickers. Over the hill is an artificial lake, and 
within the park area are the new MIDDLESEX COUNTY TUBERCULOSIS 
HOSPITAL, a handsomely designed building erected with the aid of 
Federal funds, and the KIDDIE KEEP-WELL CAMP, where under- 
nourished children are given summer vacations. 

A ravine, through which runs a single-track freight line of the 
Lehigh Valley R.R., is bridged as the highway rolls with scarcely 

1 32 U. S. ONE 

a curve through somewhat undulating country. The landscape here 
has few distinctive features. For 5 miles the road is paralleled (L) 
by the rusty rails of what was once a high-speed electric line between 
Elizabeth and New Brunswick. Electric cars are no longer operated 
but every Tuesday a small motorbus, equipped with steel flanges on 
the tires, makes one trip as far as Bonhamtown Junction, now the 
end of the line. At this point the flanges are removed, the bus is 
driven off the rails and turned around, and the flanges replaced. 
Weeks pass without any passengers being carried; the sole purpose of 
the run is to hold the franchise. 

At 35.5 m. is the junction with a concrete and asphalt road. This 
point was known as Bonhamtown Junction in the days of trolley 

Left on this road is BONHAMTOWN, 0.8 m. (80 alt., 800 pop.), a country 
village with two small churches, a school, and a general store on a winding main 
street. The settlement dates far back into the Colonial period, and was the scene 
of skirmishes during the Revolutionary War. It is the site of the United States 
Army's RARITAN ARSENAL, a large depot for the storage and distribution of 
ordnance material (not open to the public). In the magazine area enough ammuni- 
tion to supply a field army for more than 30 days can be stored. The cost of plant 
and equipment on this 2,200-acre area was $14,000,000; the value of material in 
storage is about $240,000,000. 

PISGATAWAY, 3.5 m. (120 alt., 2,011 pop.), has a few modern business 
buildings scattered along its main thoroughfare. By far the most interesting and 
attractive structure in the community is ST. JAMES EPISCOPAL CHURCH (L), a 
glistening white building, almost square, with four large pillars and a tiny steeple. 
This edifice, the third built by a parish organized in 1714, was consecrated in 
1837. It is a reproduction of the church destroyed by the tornado of 1835, which 
tossed the pulpit into Raritan River. (The pulpit was found on the shore of Staten 
Island, 15 miles away.) The original bell, brought from England in 1702, still 
hangs in the belfry. 

Curious inscriptions are found on the stones in the adjoining graveyard. One, 
dated 1693, tells of twin boys who skipped Sunday service to gather mushrooms 
in the woods. The mushrooms were, as the epitaph has it, "poyseond." Another 
tombstone is that of Harper, reputedly an atheist, who had obtained the deed to 
his new brick house on the day of the 1835 tornado. Celebrating his acquisition at 
the village tavern, he ran out into the road when the windstorm struck the town 
and defied God to kill him. Hardly had the blasphemous words left his lips, so the 
story goes, when the church roof blew off and a flying timber crushed him to 
death. Piscataway was the scene of a bitter dispute among its Baptist residents, 
beginning in 1705 and lasting for a century. The township became known as 
Quibbletown and was so recorded in official documents during the Revolution. 
American soldiers bestowed their own nickname: Squabbletown. 

At 3.7 m. this side road rejoins US 1. 


At 36.6 m. US 1 crosses Raritan River on COLLEGE BRIDGE, a 
handsome structure of reinforced concrete arches. Part of the campus 
of NEW JERSEY COLLEGE FOR WOMEN is visible (R), spread out upon 
the bluff above the river. The spire is that of COLONIAL CHAPEL, on 
the campus. Beyond are some of the buildings of New Brunswick; 
and the view upstreet is not unlike that of Stratford-on-Avon. The 
road passes the NEW BRUNSWICK WAR MEMORIAL (L). 

At 37.1 m. is the junction with State S-28, at a traffic circle. 

Right on State S-28 is NEW BRUNSWICK, 2.5 m. (50 alt., 34,555 pop.), 
university town (see N.J. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Rutgers University, Joyce Kilmer Memorial, Buccleuch Man- 
sion, Guest House Museum, Red Lion Tavern, White Hall Hotel, factories, and 
old houses. 

South of New Brunswick are the grounds of the NEW JERSEY 
STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE (R). The main line tracks of the 
Pennsylvania R.R. are crossed on a high embankment and bridge. 

The highway closely follows the original route of stagecoach days, 
when it was an important land link between the water highways of 
the Raritan and Delaware Rivers. For almost 25 miles there is no 
curve perceptible to the eye, although there are two or three slight 
deviations from a straight line. To prevent collisions, the 6-mile 
stretch S. of the railroad overpass has been divided by a center strip, 
and the work is being continued toward Trenton. The concrete was 
forced apart by compressed air to make room for the strip and curbs; 
a new subgrade was prepared at the side, and as much as a 500-foot 
length was moved into position at one time. 

Nurseries and well-kept farms are on both sides of the road. From 
a low-lying ridge at 51.1 m. is a view (R) of PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 
across the meadowland of an intervening valley. The university 
buildings, largely hidden by oaks and elms, are dwarfed by the mas- 
sive Tudor tower of the chapel. In the foreground is the bulk of 
Palmer Stadium, while through the trees an occasional glimpse of 
Carnegie Lake is caught. 

(L). In the laboratories here a staff of scientists carries on experimen- 
tal work in plant and animal pathology. One of the major problems 
of the institute has been the control of the Japanese beetle. 

At 52.7 m. is the junction with a dirt road, marked by a gatehouse. 

i 3 4 u - s - ONE 

Left on this road and visible from the highway is the WALKER-GORDON FARM 
(open). Operated by the Borden Milk Company, the plant is known for its roto- 
lactor, a revolving platform that combines the method of an automobile assembly 
line with the mechanical features of a carousel, for the purpose of milking cows 
efficiently. The cows step on and off the platform, milked and stripped in 12^ 
minutes, after one complete revolution of the wheel. The 1,400 cows are milked 
by the rotolactor in less than 6 hours. 

PENN'S NECK, 54.9 m. (100 alt.), is one of the most attractive 
hamlets on US 1 . Here the road underpasses the Princeton Branch of 
the Pennsylvania R.R. Beyond the cut of the hill are two Colonial 
mansions; a nursery rose-field (L) provides several acres of color 
during the season. 

Crossing the abandoned DELAWARE AND RARITAN CANAL on a 
drawbridge at one of the few places where water still remains, the 
highway runs on to Trenton. At 58 m. (L) is an artificial lake on 
Shabakunk Creek, a branch of historic Assunpink Creek. Herons 
often alight here, close by the highway. 

At 65.9 m. is the junction with US 206, at a traffic circle. 

Left on US 206 is the center of TRENTON, 2.2 m. (60 alt., 123,356 pop.), 
State capital (see N.J. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Pa. R.R., Clinton St. near Greenwood Ave.; Phila. & Reading 
Ry., N. Warren and Tucker Sts. 

Points of Interest. Battle Monument, State Capitol (see illustration), Masonic 
Lodge House Museum, Douglas House, State Museum, Lenox Pottery Works, 
and various churches and houses. 

Swinging R. from the traffic circle, US 1 runs along the edge of 
the city of Trenton, past rows of typical brick houses built close to the 
sidewalk as in Philadelphia. The road drops gradually on Calhoun 
St. toward the Delaware River, crossing branch lines of the Reading 
and Pennsylvania Railroads and the old Delaware and Raritan 
Canal feeder. Sanhican Creek, in MAHLON STAGY PARK, is bridged 
just before the road ascends a short embankment to the Calhoun St. 
Bridge, which crosses the Delaware River. Slow driving is required 
on this old structure, which has withstood many floods and ice jams. 

At 68.6 m., on the bridge, the Pennsylvania Line is crossed. 


N.J. Line Morrisville Philadelphia Swarthmore Kennett 
Square Md. Line, 83.5 m. US 1. 

Reading R.R. parallels the route between Morrisville and Philadelphia; Penn- 
sylvania R.R. parallels the entire route. 

Well-paved, all-weather route. Accommodations at short intervals; hotels in 

Section 12. New Jersey Line to Maryland Line, 83.5 m. 

Between the western bank of the Delaware River and the Mary- 
land Line, US 1 pursues a southwesterly course across the undulating 
terrain of Bucks County, through the city of Philadelphia, and over 
the section of the highway known as the Baltimore Pike. 

The highway crosses the Delaware River on the TRENTON- 
MORRISVILLE BRIDGE at a point where in 1804 the first bridge across 
the Delaware was built. 

Bucks County was established in 1 682 by William Penn as one of 
the three original counties. The rolling surface and fertile soil of the 
county are adapted to agriculture, the chief occupation of the in- 
habitants; small farms predominate. 

MORRISVILLE, 0.6 m. (21 alt., 5,368 pop.), incorporated in 
1804, was named in honor of Robert Morris, "financier of the 
American Revolution" and a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Prior to this time it had been known as the Falls of the Dela- 
ware. Morris maintained an imposing mansion and stables, patterned 
after the English stables of the period, on a 2,800-acre tract here. 
Jean Victor Maria Moreau, one of Napoleon's marshals, who fell 
into disfavor, lived in the mansion during his exile. In 1915 the tract 
was subdivided and modern dwellings were built upon it. 

The first European settlement in the county was made by the 
Dutch West India Company on a small island near the western bank 
of the Delaware, below the falls. Three or four families lived around 
the company's trading post there from 1624 to 1627. Nothing re- 
mains of the island except a large sand bar, nearly opposite Morris- 
ville. A ferry operated here more than 50 years before Penn's arrival 
in America. 

Morrisville was seriously considered by Congress as a site for the 
permanent capital of the United States, when, on October 7, 1783, a 

i 3 6 U. S. ONE 

resolution was presented "... that the Federal Town should be erect- 
ed on the banks of the Delaware at the Falls near Trenton on the New 
Jersey side, or in Pennsylvania on the opposite." Southern interests 
sought to have Annapolis chosen as the National Capital; Washing- 
ton advised against Morrisville, and Alexander Hamilton, in a 
historic instance of logrolling, favored the present site on the Potomac 
River. Despite the formidable opposition the Morrisville plan was 
defeated by only two votes. 

The route passes through narrow streets, with thin sidewalks 
flanked by rows of brick houses. At 1.1 m. (R) is a three-story dwell- 
ing in the American-Georgian style, built by Thomas Barkley in 1750 
and restored in 1921, which served as General Washington's head- 
quarters prior to the surprise attack on Trenton that caught the 
Hessians in the midst of a Christmas celebration. Barkley 's estate was 
the site selected for the proposed Federal buildings. 

The highway continues through Penn Valley, which is dotted with 
old brownstone and limestone houses. The homes of early Quaker 
settlers are identified by dormer windows and wide English chimneys. 

At 6.1 m. is OXFORD VALLEY (80 alt., 283 pop.). The Wat- 
sons, owners of a large tract of land on the south side of Edge Hill, 
were the original settlers. Old brownstone houses, surrounded by 
huge trees, are scattered along a hillside that slopes gently downward 
to Queen Anne Creek. 

According to a possibly erroneous local legend, Oxford was so 
named because of the likeness of an ox on the village tavern sign, and 
the bad ford over the creek. Valley was added to the name in 1844, 
when a post office was opened. 

The LANGHORNE SPEEDWAY at 8 m. (R) has attracted many of the 
country's best-known automobile race drivers since it was built in 
1925. The national motorcycle championship races have been held 
here on several occasions. 

SOUTH LANGHORNE, 9 m. (120 alt., 789 pop.), is a suburban 
development that has grown up around the old Eden post office and 
the Langhorne station on the Reading R.R. 

Right from South Langhorne on State 113 is LANGHORNE, 0.6 m. (103 
alt., 4,333 pop.), formerly called Four Lanes End. This is an attractive residential 
town with homes set in well-kept lawns. There are several mansions far back in 
spacious grounds. Lafayette stopped at the RICHARDSON HOUSE, 115 E. Maple 
Ave., to have his wounds dressed when he was being carried by boat from the 


Battlefield of Brandywine to be placed in the care of the Moravian Sisters at 
Bethlehem. It is now the Community House. 

Opposite the Community House is the HICKS HOUSE, a brick dwelling built in 
1763 by Gilbert Hicks, an officer of the British Crown. Hicks' life was threatened 
by the townspeople after he had read from the courthouse steps the Amnesty 
Proclamation of General Howe and his brother, Admiral Howe, dated November 
30, 1776. He fled the town and joined the British Army in New Jersey. The New 
Jersey Legislature held sessions in the Hicks House after being driven across the 
Delaware in advance of Washington's retreat in December 1776. 

ST. MARY'S MANOR, on Manor Ave., is a school conducted by the Fathers of 
the Society of Mary for the education of foreign missionaries. 

On State 113 is WRIGHTSTOWN, 7.3 m. (320 alt., 64 pop.). The LENAPE 
MONUMENT near a huge chestnut tree in this village marks the starting point of 
the Indian Walk. The land involved in the "Walking Purchase" was part of the 
tract deeded to William Penn by the Lenni-Lenapes more than half a century 
earlier. This tract was to be bounded by the Delaware River and the Neshaminy 
Creek, and was to extend as far N. as a man could walk in three days. Penn 
"walked out" one and a half days in a leisurely manner and, at a point near 
what is now Wrightstown, decided he had as much land as he would need. 

When settlements began to infringe on Indian domain the almost-forgotten 
treaty was resurrected. After a tribal council the Lenapes agreed to allow the 
remaining day and a half to be walked out. 

The Penns offered 500 acres of the new tract and five pounds sterling to the 
person who walked the greatest distance in the given time. Richard Marshall, 
James Yeates, and Solomon Jennings, supposedly fast walkers, were selected. 
Three Indians were to accompany them. 

Late in September 1735 (some authorities set 1737 as the year), the walkers 
started at sunrise from an old tree below the Wrightstown meeting house. The 
strenuous pace forced Jennings and two of the Indians to drop out in two and a 
half hours. The remaining Indian stopped at Easton. By sundown the north side 
of the Blue Mountains had been reached. When the Indians realized the walk 
was to continue for another half day, they declared they were being cheated out 
of all their good land. An eyewitness said the last part of the first day's journey 
was covered by twilight. At sunrise the walk was resumed. Yeates lasted only a 
short time. Marshall, continuing alone, by noon reached a spur of the Second or 
Broad Mountain, approximately 65 miles from the starting point. 

In order to include the rich Minisink lands, the Pennsylvania proprietaries 
ordered the surveyors to draw the boundary line at an angle instead of straight. 
The Minisink was the ancestral homeland of the Lenapes and, since they felt the 
proprietaries had taken advantage of them, they refused to vacate. When, how- 
ever, they were ordered to move by the Six Nations Confederation, which claimed 
ownership of all Lenape lands by right of conquest, they acceded. Some of them 
migrated to Ohio and others to the Wyoming Valley. 

The highway traverses beautiful farm country dotted with wooded 
sections, and roughly parallels Neshaminy (Ind., two streams or 
double stream) Creek (L). 

i 3 8 U. S. ONE 

OAKFORD, 11.5 m. (88 alt., 500 pop.), is the gateway to one of 
Philadelphia's summer bungalow colonies on Neshaminy Creek. 
Small frame bungalows are scattered through a wooded ravine 
formed by the stream. 

At 13.2 m. (R), at the foot of a gradual descent, is a fine example 
of an early Colonial farmhouse. Poquessing (Ind., the place of mice) 
Creek, 13.6 m., is the dividing line between Bucks and Philadelphia 

Within the city limits open fields, truck gardens, and small farms 
line the highway, and wooded valleys and rolling hills slope away to 
meet the sky. 

At 15.3 m. is the junction with Red Lion Road. 

Right on this narrow macadam road, which passes a commercial airport and 
numerous old stone farmhouses, is BRYN ATHYN (Welsh, hill of cohesiveness), 
4.1 m. (280 alt., 736 pop.). The BRYN ATHYN CATHEDRAL (open weekdays 3-5 
p.m.; Sat. 10-12 a.m. and 3-5 p.m.) is a center of the General Church of the New 
Jerusalem (Swedenborgian). The cathedral (see illustration) is being built in 14th 
century English Gothic style with later additions in 12th century Romanesque. 

A frame chapel was erected here in 1895 by followers of Emanuel Swedenborg 
(1688-1772), a Swedish scientist and philosopher who, about 1747, began to 
promulgate a new system of theology. In 1908 John Pitcairn donated $30,000 to 
the Swedenborgians, and shortly afterward plans were drawn up for a building 
program that would take 50 years to complete. The cornerstone of the cathedral 
was laid in 1914 and the edifice was dedicated in 1919 the year in which the 
society received $2,000,000 under Pitcairn's will. 

Raymond Pitcairn, son of John, is (1937) resident architect of the cathedral. 
Customs and practices of the building crafts guilds of the Middle Ages have been 
adopted; materials are finished by hand, granite is quarried nearby, and all 
timber except the teakwood used in the floors and doors is taken from neighboring 

The characteristic cruciform plan of the English parish churches has been fol- 
lowed, and a handsome square pinnacled tower, rising to a height of 150 feet 
above the crossing, dominates the group. Metamorphosed granite of yellow, red, 
green, and gray tints gives the buildings a warm tone. 

The main fagade, on the W., consists of a porch of three bays between but- 
tresses, surmounted by a stone-carved and pinnacled parapet, with a lofty, five- 
light window above. The movement of this fagade to a point 50 feet W. of its 
present location is contemplated, to allow the addition of three bays to the nave 
of the church. 

Within the west door, which is of temporary material but fitted with exquisite 
monel metal hinges, is the narthex, also three bays in width. 

The chancel is in three sections, each rising three steps above the preceding one. 
The Great Altar is similarly elevated three steps above the sanctuary floor and is 
12 steps above the nave. The three sections of the chancel are symbolic of the 


three degrees of the internal mind and of the three heavens defined in the Sweden- 
borgian faith. 

The stained glass windows of the church, depicting the story of the Scriptures, 
are exceptionally fine. They are warm in color, except in the sanctuary, where 
blue predominates. 

From the south transept, there is an entrance into the council building, which 
is of simple 12th century Norman design. The hall in this building is notable for 
its variety of stone carving. The corbels supporting the roof trusses are carved to 
represent the heads of leading characters in the history of the New Church. 

The choir hall, entered from the north transept, has a broad white plastered 
wall, heavy stone trim, and huge oak beams. 

US 1, here Roosevelt Boulevard, leads to Broad St. 

Right (straight ahead) from the corner of Roosevelt Boulevard and Broad St., 
on Hunting Park Ave., for US 1-Alt., which avoids the heavy traffic of the city. 
Hunting Park Ave. runs down to Schuylkill River; R. here on East River Drive, a 
pleasant parkway that crosses City Line Ave. ; L. on this broad avenue to Lans- 
downe Ave.; L. on Lansdowne Ave. to LANSDOWNE, 12.2 m., at the junction 
with US 1 (see below). 

US 1 turns (L) from Roosevelt Boulevard on Broad St. to the CITY 
HALL (see illustration). 

PHILADELPHIA, 30 m. (408 alt., 1,950,961 pop.), largest city in 
the State (see PA. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Baltimore & Ohio, 24th and Chestnut Sts.; Pennsylvania, 
Broad and Market Sts. and 30th and Market Sts.; Pennsylvania and Reading 
Seashore Lines, foot of Market St.; Reading System, North Broad St.; Reading 
Terminal, 12th and Market Sts. 

Points of Interest. Independence Square Group, Christ Church, Franklin Insti- 
tute, Free Library, Art Museum, Rodin Museum, United States Mint, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Fairmount Park, and others. 

Right, around City Hall and two squares on Broad St., to Walnut 
St.; R. on Walnut to 34th St. where Woodland Ave. intersects; L. 
into Woodland Ave. to 39th St. where Baltimore Ave. intersects; 
R. into Baltimore Ave. (US 1), which crosses Cobbs Creek. 

This creek, the dividing line between Philadelphia and Delaware 
Counties, was named for William Cobb, who purchased an old 
Swedish mill and a sizable tract of land on the banks of the stream. 
The Indians called the creek Karakung (place of the wild geese), and 
the Swedes, Amosland. At its mouth on Tinicum Island, Johann 
Printz, Governor of New Sweden, in 1643 established a fort and 
built a home for himself; not long afterward he started a Swedish 
settlement at Upland, nearby, on the site of the present Chester. 

i 4 o U. S. ONE 

This was the first permanent European settlement in what is now 

YEADON (L), 35.5 m. (100 alt., 5,430 pop.), a thickly settled sub- 
urban community, with stone and box-like brick houses, was named 
for William Bullock's estate, Yeadon Manor. Yeadon is in Delaware 
County, which took its name from the river; the river was named for 
Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, Governor and Captain-General of 
the Colony of Virginia, who explored near its mouth in 1610. The 
highway cuts through a corner of the borough, passing FERNWOOD 

LANSDOWNE, 36.8 m. (120 alt., 7,782 pop.), was named for 
Lord Lansdowne, a consistent friend of the American Colonies, both 
before and after the Revolution. It is a fine residential community 
with wide, well-shaded streets and large homes set on broad lawns. 
Many of the houses, built during the late 1 9th century, bristle with 
turrets and towers and have elaborate decorations. There are also 
many half-timbered houses, in modern adaptations of the Eliza- 
bethan style. 

A 200-year-old SYCAMORE TREE, with a spread of more than 100 
ft., stands in front of 47 E. Lacrosse Ave. 

CLIFTON HEIGHTS, 38 m. (160 alt., 5,055 pop.), named for 
Clifton Hall, residence of Henry Lewis, a Welsh Quaker, became a 
borough in 1895. Several large textile mills operate here. 

At Springfield Inn is the junction with Saxer Ave. 

Right on Saxer Ave. 1.5 m. to the junction with Springfield Rd.; L. of the 
junction is SPRINGFIELD MEETING HOUSE. The first meeting house on this site, 
built about 1700 by members of the Society of Friends, was made of logs. This 
structure, destroyed by fire, was replaced by a stone building in 1738. Eventually 
it became inadequate, and in 1851 the present stone edifice was constructed. It 
was in the earlier structure that, in 1754, a group of Friends entered into a weighty 
discussion concerning the future of young Benjamin West. West wanted to study 
art, contrary to his father's wishes. Although the Quakers considered such a 
calling frivolous, one of the speakers pleaded the youth's cause so convincingly 
that the meeting was constrained to give him its blessing (see below). 

The highway continues through a beautiful wooded region check- 
ered with fine farms and estates. At 39.4 m. (R) is the TEMPLE 

At 40.2 m. the highway runs to the N. of MORTON (205 alt., 
1,340 pop.), established as a village about 1866. It was named for 


John Morton, the Pennsylvania delegate to the Continental Congress 
in 1776 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

The highway descends, passing a large swimming pool (R) and 
crossing Stony Creek, a branch of Darby Creek. A typical old Dela- 
ware County homestead is passed at 40.6 m. 

At 41.2 m. (L) the highway skirts SWARTHMORE (115 alt., 
3,405 pop.), an attractive residential suburb and college town. The 
homes here show the American Colonial influence with a simplifica- 
tion of detail. Limestone is generally used in construction, and a few 
of the houses have double chimneys. The town has almost no business 

The community grew around SWARTHMORE COLLEGE, founded by 
the Society of Friends in 1884, to give Quaker youths opportunity for 
advanced educational training under the supervision of members of 
their own faith. The charter was revised in 1911 to make the institu- 
tion non-sectarian. The enrollment is limited to 250 men and 250 
women, and a high scholastic standard is maintained. 

Thirty-four buildings are scattered over this 237-acre campus, 
which includes a large wooded tract and the beautiful rocky valley 
through which Crum Creek flows. PARRISH HALL is the main college 
building. The LIBRARY contains 90,000 volumes. The Friends' His- 
torical Library, housed in a wing of the Library Building, contains 
books on Quaker history, religion, and attempts at social reform, and 
a special collection of manuscript records of Friends' Meetings. The 
SPROUL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY is well equipped for advanced 

The BIRTHPLACE OF BENJAMIN WEST (1738-1820), Quaker portrait 
painter (see above), is on the campus. The distinctive feature of the 
simple gray stone structure is the "Germantown hood," a shingle- 
covered cornice projecting from the walls between the first and 
second story. The purpose of the hood is to protect the lower walls 
from driving rain. West studied abroad and was one of the first 
American artists to receive European recognition; one of his pictures, 
Perm's Treaty with the Indians, is in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. 

The highway at this point descends, passing a factory (L) and, at 
41.7 m., crossing the DELAWARE COUNTY MEMORIAL BRIDGE, which 
honors local veterans of the World War, over Crum Creek (cor. of 
Swed. cromkill or crumkill, crooked creek). The Indian name for the 
stream was Okehocking, for a tribe of that name. A number of mills 

142 U. S. ONE 

were early established along its course. Valuable mineral deposits 
and quarries fringe its banks; feldspar and Wissahickon gneiss are 

PINE RIDGE, 42.2 m. (160 alt., 40 pop.), is one of the newer 
suburban communities. Its attractive frame and brick houses are 
scattered over a hill heavily grown with pine trees, which conceal 
them from view. 

At 43 m. is the junction with State 252 (Providence Road). 

1. Left on this road to Yale Ave., 1.8 m.; L. here to LAPIDEA MANOR, 2 m. 
(R). This fine old residence was the home of the late Gov. William Cameron 
Sproul. The grounds extend northward half a mile to Crum Creek and constitute 
part of the extensive tract at one time owned by Thomas Leiper. Leiper's home, 
STRATHAVEN, built here in 1785, is now occupied by his descendants. Leiper is 
generally credited with having constructed the State's first railway, which was 
horse-drawn. He built the rail road in 1 805 to haul stone from his quarries to the 
banks of Crum Creek. The tracks were of white oak, the wheels of iron. Leiper's 
son later built a canal along Crum Creek and abandoned the rail road. 

2. Right on State 252 to ROSE TREE HUNT CLUB, 1.6 m., one of the oldest 
hunt clubs in the country. The club owns more than 100 acres and has hunting 
privileges on more than 8,000 acres. Its meets, held semi-annually, in the spring 
and during Thanksgiving week, attract thousands from all over the East. 

At 43.4 m. is a junction with Winchester Road. 

Left on this paved highway at 1.3 m. to the HEDGEROW THEATER, one of 
America's first summer playhouses. It is housed in a 125-year-old mill. A group of 
actors who took over the building in the early 1890's and produced a series of 
plays, became a self-sustaining permanent repertory company. This group be- 
came known throughout the United States as a result of the fine work of Jasper 
Deeter, the director, a former Harrisburg newspaperman. He took over the direc- 
tion with a company of six actors and actresses in April 1 923. 

Misfortune dogged the company's footsteps in many of its early ventures. 
Much credit for its continued existence belonged to Harriet Moore, the 83-year- 
old cook, who was adept at holding off bill collectors. Financial difficulties con- 
tinued to distract the group until Ferd Nofer took over the business management. 
There are now 22 members of the Hedgerow Company living in the community. 
They cultivate a truck garden and raise sheep, thus obtaining vegetables and wool 
for their own needs. A printing press has been added to the permanent equip- 
ment. Members construct all the stage property. 

The theater seats 168 persons, and frequently plays to a house of 220. Perform- 
ances are now given the year around. In the winter of 1934-35 a troupe of 17 
made a profitable tour of the South and Southwest. Ann Harding, stage and 
motion picture star, was one of the members of this colony. Among other prom- 
inent figures of the screen and legitimate stage who started their careers at 
Hedgerow are: Dorothy Peterson and John Beal of the movies, Max Morris 
Carnovsky of the Group Theater, Allyn Joslyn, and Harry Believer. 


MEDIA, 43.5 m. (160 alt., 40 pop.), is the center of the Rose Tree 
Valley section and seat of Delaware County. It was so named because 
of its central position in the county. The majority of Media's homes 
were built during the post-Civil War period. Strongly constructed 
and set back from the streets on shady lawns, they present a gloomy 

When Media was founded in 1683 by members of the Society of 
Friends, a controversy arose over the liquor question. The problem 
was settled by a clause in the charter, making it unlawful "for any 
person or persons to vend or sell vinous, spirituous, or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors within the limits of the said borough, except for medical 
purposes or for use in the arts." Media thus became the first Pennsyl- 
vania town for which direct legislation forbidding the sale of spirituous 
liquor was enacted. The Pennsylvania Liquor Law, enacted following 
repeal of the prohibition amendment to the United States Constitu- 
tion, abrogated the former act of the legislature, and the sale of liquor 
in Media is now legal. 

At 44.1 m. the highway crosses Ridley Creek, whose banks are a 
favorite haunt of hikers, picnickers, and vacationists. In the early 
days of colonization it was the home of a wandering tribe of Indians 
known as the Okehocking. 

This section of the State was settled by Quakers and Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians; the latter erected the first church, probably about 

The highway ascends a steep hill and winds through a stand of 
fine hardwood trees. The PENNSYLVANIA TRAINING SCHOOL, known 
locally as the Elwyn School for Feeble-Minded Children, is at 
44.8 m. (L). 

At 45.3 m. (R), on a wooded slope, stands the BLACK HORSE INN, 
opened in 1739; it is built of stone, with low doorways. Once an im- 
portant stop on the Baltimore-Philadelphia stage route, it is now a 
station of the Pennsylvania Highway Patrol. 

The highway leads downhill and crosses a branch of Chrome Run. 
The COMBS CONSERVATORY OF Music is (R) at 45.6 m. and a LIME- 
STONE QUARRY (R) at 45.7 m. The road crosses Chrome Run at 
45.8 m., after which it climbs uphill past wooded picnic grounds 
(R). At 46.1 m. (R) is a fine vista down Dismal Run Glen. The road 
passes over a steep knob and to the L. is an excellent view of the 
Chester Creek Valley. At 46.9 m. are the WAWA DAIRY FARMS, 

u - S. ONE 

typical of the many fine modern dairy establishments in the county. 
The road then makes an S-curve downgrade through a wooded glen. 

At 47.6 m. the highway crosses Chester Creek, the second largest 
creek in Delaware County. The Swedes, who settled near its mouth 
at Upland, named it Upland Kill. Both branches of the stream fur- 
nish water power for numerous small mills. The creek was once 
navigable by large boats for a distance of two miles, but today is 
much diminished in size because several communities, particularly 
West Chester, take from it their water supply. 

Old homes, some built more than 200 years ago, are along the 
creek and highway. These are in marked contrast with the fine mod- 
ern estates a few hundred yards farther on, after the highway makes 
an S-curve upgrade. At 48 m. is a glen (R), affording a view over the 
Chester Creek Valley. Conifers and hardwood trees, planted in a 
reforestation program, line the road here. 

IVY MILLS, 48.8 m. (330 alt., 65 pop.), was named for the IVY 
PAPER MILL, erected in 1729 by Thomas Willcox. Hand methods 
were used in this mill long after machines were being employed else- 
where in paper mills. The village consists of a few houses. There are 
several large orchards in the vicinity. 

At 49 m. is a fine view across the northern part of Aston Township. 
At 49.1 m. the route passes (R) the PYLE BLACKSMITH SHOP, re- 
minder of the days when the great stage route connected the States 
of the Atlantic seaboard. 

MARKHAM, 50.1 m. (240 alt., 134 pop.), former site of the Con- 
cord flour mills, was once an important milling, shipping, and post 
office center for the surrounding rural area. Its long street lined with 
frame houses follows the course of a sycamore-shaded stream. 

US 1 ascends a steep hill, at its summit passing the DANTE ORPHAN- 

CONCORD VILLE, 51.1 m. (240 alt., 134 pop.), a village with 
old stone houses, lies deep in a wood on a high ridge. The CONCORD 
MEETING HOUSE, in a group of old trees, dominates the scene; its 
outmoded carriage shed still stands. Overlooking Brandy wine Val- 
ley, the meeting house commands one of the finest views in Delaware 
County. The meeting was established prior to 1686. The land for the 
meeting house, which was built in 1694, was leased to the trustees by 
John Mendenhall for "one pepper corn yearly forever." The British 
used the building as a base hospital after the Battle of Brandywine. 


The village took its name from Concord Township, largest in the 
county. Established in 1683, this township was named by the Quaker 
settlers in token of the harmonious relations existing among them. 
The feeling of concord was not, however, extended to their Indian 
neighbors, for in 1685 they petitioned the Penn government against 
the Indians "for ye Rapine and Destructions of Hoggs." 

South of the crossroad the road descends through rugged, rolling 
country, Brandy wine Summit and other ridges rising L. After cross- 
ing a branch of Harvey Run, the road follows a ravine worn by the 
stream. The BRAND YWINE BAPTIST CHURCH (see illustration), built in 
1715 and remodeled in 1770, is (R) at 53.8 m. It was the third Bap- 
tist church erected in the State. The churchyard contains a number 
of old tombstones, including some marking graves of Revolutionary 

CHADD'S FORD, 54.9 m. (168 alt., 200 pop.), scene of the Bat- 
tle of Brandywine, lies at the bottom of a gentle slope on the eastern 
bank of the sparkling creek. The present-day stream carries but a 
small volume of water, but in the days of early settlement floods and 
ice made the ford so hazardous that it became necessary to provide 
ferry service. The service, begun in 1737, was abandoned after a 
bridge was built. 

The Continentals suffered a major defeat here on September 11, 
1777, when Washington, in an effort to prevent the British from 
reaching Philadelphia, hurled his army of about 12,000 men at a 
force of 18,000 British and Hessian soldiers under General Howe, who 
was marching N. from Wilmington. Maneuvering by both sides for 
possession of the bridge over Brandywine Creek resulted in a military 
chess game lasting many hours. Finally, late in the afternoon, the 
British gained the bridge by crossing the creek above it and executing 
a flank attack on the American forces. The victors moved on to 
Philadelphia, while Washington and his troops sought refuge NW. 
of the city. This battle, nevertheless, taught Howe to respect his foes. 
Lafayette, attempting to rally the harassed center, late in the battle 
was severely wounded in the leg. 

Right are battle memorials, among them a beautiful MARBLE 
ARCH. Beyond them are farmhouses that were used as headquarters 
during the day's struggle. 

Brandywine Creek forms part of the eastern boundary of Chester 
County, one of the three original counties laid out by Penn in 1 682. 

146 U. S. ONE 

The county was named for Chester, England, home of Robert Pear- 
son, close friend of Penn. Comfortable stone and brick homesteads 
with the usual big, gray barns, dot this rich agricultural district. 

Originally, the Great Valley, or the Chester Valley as it is some- 
times called, was shared by English and Welsh Friends; the latter 
had settled to the E. in Tredyffrin and Westtown Townships. Ger- 
man settlers came later into the northern section, and the south- 
western section was colonized by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. 

CHADD'S FORD JUNCTION, 55.3 m. (168 alt., 60 pop.), con- 
sists of a few old houses and deserted mills. 

South of Chadd's Ford the highway curves L. and parallels Ring 
Run, picturesque tributary of the Brandywine. 

Kennett Township, through which US 1 passes, was the scene of 
Bayard Taylor's Story of Kennett, a tale of the Revolution based on 
historic incidents of the region. One of the old buildings in the town- 
ship is the MEETING HOUSE (R) at 58.1 m., built in 1707. This stone 
structure commands a fine view of the valley and the distant hills (L). 
The old carriage sheds and the grove of trees, typical of most Friends' 
meeting houses, are present. 

US 1 runs through East Marlboro Township, which also served as 
the locale of Bayard Taylor's novels. Prior to and during the Civil 
War, East Marlboro was a hotbed of abolition sentiment. Many of 
the Quaker homesteads were utilized as stations of the "underground 
railroad," by which fugitive slaves were protected and aided in their 
flight northward. 

At 59.1 m. is the ANVIL TAVERN (R), around which General 
Knyphausen's Hessian division bivouacked the day before the Battle 
of Brandywine. 

At 59.2 m. (R) is the gateway to LONGWOOD GARDENS (open week- 
days and first Sun. of month; 11 a.m.- 5 p.m.; free except Sat. and Sun., when 
fee is 25f), a 1,000-acre estate, most of which is devoted to the growing 
of farm produce. A nine-hole golf course covers 50 acres, and the re- 
mainder is given over to flower gardens, lawns, ponds, and woods. 

The land, now owned by Pierre S. DuPont, was conveyed to 
George Pierce by William Penn in 1701. Two grandsons of George 
Pierce assembled the trees and plants for the first gardens, even carry- 
ing specimens of cypresses all the way from the Dismal Swamp in 
Virginia to Longwood in their saddlebags. Once known as Pierce's 
Park, the estate received its present name shortly before the Civil 


War. It was then known as Long Woods and was used as an "under- 
ground station" by Wilmington, Kennett Square, and Hamorton 

Near the entrance is a group of FOUNTAINS that play promptly at 
two o'clock each day in good weather. Beyond them are a lake, a 
circular CLOGKTOWER (R) with a fine set of chimes, and a rocky 
eminence (L). 

The CONSERVATORY (L) covers an area of 107,825 sq. ft. In it, 
among other plants are vines that produce peaches, azaleas from 
Belgium, chrysanthemums from the Orient, and exceptional speci- 
mens of orchids and acacias. On the first Sunday in each month, an 
organ recital is given in this building. 

Beyond the conservatory is the OPEN AIR THEATER. A vine-covered 
stone wall is the backdrop; neatly trimmed boxwoods form the wings, 
and water spouted from fountains and colored by light is used for a 
curtain. Pine and hemlock trees clothe a ridge that looms behind the 
stage. The seating capacity is 2,200. 

Further on (L) is a natural lake. Left of this lake is a formal WATER 
GARDEN, copied from the one in the gardens of the Villa Gamberaia, 
near Florence, Italy. The garden contains six pools, each centered 
with a fountain, in a rectangular plot of close-cropped lawn, bordered 
by rows of smaller fountains along the longer sides of the rectangle, 
interspersed with boxwood, and with a backdrop of trees. The four 
larger pools are rectangular, cut out on the inner corners to follow 
the curve of a circular fountain in the center. The sixth pool lies at 
the end of the garden opposite an observation platform, which stands 
in the position occupied by the villa in the original garden in Italy. 

MEETING HOUSE (R) was the scene of many anti-slavery speeches. A 
cylindrical stone monument in the burial ground marks the GRAVE 
OF BAYARD TAYLOR (1825-75), who died in Berlin (see below). 

The road runs through a mushroom-producing area, with many 
nurseries visible from the highway. This industry is quite profitable. 

KENNETT SQUARE, 62.1 m. (380 alt., 3,091 pop.), founded in 
1705 on a ridge and named for a village in Wiltshire, England, is a 
town of red brick and stone houses standing along narrow winding 

nalist, poet, and diplomat, is at Station and Union Sts. Taylor was 

148 U. S. ONE 

one of the first of America's adventurous but penniless youths to seek 
knowledge and experience in the old cities of Europe. His Views Afoot 
or Europe Seen with a Knapsack and Staff was a best-seller in 1846. At the 
age of 21 he was publishing a newspaper in Phoenixville, and in 1847 
he became a member of the staff of the New York Tribune. He was one 
of the first white men to penetrate Africa, and he accompanied Perry 
to Japan. He died soon after he became American Minister to 

first editions of his books, and some of his paintings and drawings. 

South of Kennett Square US 1 dips down through excellent farm- 
ing country. Fine Colonial farmhouses dot the landscape at close 
intervals. At 63.5 m. (R) lies the GREEN BANK FARM, an outstanding 
example of an old farm that has been modernized without destroying 
its original charm. 

TOUGHKENAMON, 64.6 m. (320 alt., 450 pop.), is named for 
Toughkenamon Ridge (R), N. of the hamlet. The Indians called 
this elevation Doch-can-a-mon ( firebrand hill) . 

In addition to mushroom nurseries, there are numerous green- 
houses devoted to the cultivation of roses and carnations in this area. 
Most of the buildings along the route are of brick or stone inter- 
spersed with occasional white and yellow frame dwellings built in the 
style common to the late 19th century. 

AVONDALE, 66.5 m. (272 alt., 763 pop.), is a busy marketing 
center for mushroom growers, with banks, stores, and low office 
buildings jammed together in the center of the town. Most of the 
brick buildings are gleaming red, the result of several coats of paint. 
The highway twists and turns in the village to avoid a maze of creeks 
and railroad tracks. 

The highway describes several sharp curves while climbing a 
wooded slope. Old brownstone homesteads, many built by the first 
settlers, are scattered along the highway. 

this point the road bears L. to traverse a charming countryside. At 
68.1 m. (R) are nurseries, among the leading producers of roses and 
carnations for eastern city markets. Several hundred square feet of 
glass cover extensive plantings, and beds of red, white, and yellow 
roses are close to the road, a delightful roadside decoration. Signs 
invite passersby to visit the gardens. 


Still in the mushroom and flower-growing area is WEST GROVE, 
68.1 m. (320 alt., 1,375 pop.), long the scene of annual Methodist 
camp meetings. The town is clean and modern. Long rows of brick 
houses with porches flank the street. 

JENNERSVILLE, 71.5 m. (578 alt., 250 pop.), a rural hamlet, 
was named for Dr. Edward Jenner, who introduced and developed 
vaccination. Dr. Josiah Ankrim, a resident, chose the name because 
of his admiration for the English physician. 

At 74.6 m. (L) is the LINCOLN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS extending over 
450 acres. A stone archway stands at the entrance. This institution is 
maintained by the Presbyterian Church for the education of young 
Negro men and women. It was founded in 1854 as Ashmun Institute, 
and in 1866 received its present name in memory of the "Great 
Emancipator." It has preparatory, college, and theological courses. 
Brick dormitories, a chapel, and the administration building with 
classrooms and laboratories compose the university group. The en- 
rollment is 450. 

At 76 m. red soil begins to supplant the limestone. The road crosses 
a more rugged country, dipping and rising with the slopes and bridg- 
ing several small streams. 

OXFORD, 78.1 m. (535 alt., 2,606 pop.), is a bustling distributing 
center, with well-kept streets and houses. It was named for the college 
town in England. Great quantities of milk are shipped daily from this 
point to the Philadelphia market. 

At 78.4 m. the pike passes the OXFORD FRIENDS' MEETING 
HOUSE (R), constructed of brick in 1879 and standing among trees. 
Left at this point is a fringe of mills and sheds, paralleling a 

Jack pines, scrub oaks, and other stunted growths appear in 
greater numbers as the highway nears the Maryland State Line. 

At 81.5 m. (L) is NOTTINGHAM (500 alt., 30 pop.), in which is 
The PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (R) was built in 1802. The houses are 
of stone and well built. 

The highway now traverses West Nottingham Township, laid out 
in 1702 as part of the "Nottingham Lots," consisting of a tract of 
1 8,000 acres. The area was supposed to be in Pennsylvania, but the 
Mason-Dixon Line placed the larger part of it in Maryland. Two 
manors of 5,000 acres each, which had been set aside for Letitia 

1 50 U. S. ONE 

Aubrey, Perm's daughter, and for William Perm, Jr., were in the 
northwestern part of the area. 

SYLMAR, 83.2 m., is a border hamlet with a name made by 
combining syllables from the words Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

At 83.5 m. is the Pennsylvania-Maryland State Line. This, the 
MASON-DIXON LINE, was surveyed and marked by Charles Mason 
and Jeremiah Dixon, English astronomers, in 1763-67. These men had 
been commissioned by the Penns and the Calverts to determine the 
boundary in order to settle disputes among claimants of land under 
various grants dating back to 1682. George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, 
founder of Maryland, under his grant claimed a part of Pennsylvania 
that would have included the site of Philadelphia as far N. as the 
Holmesburg section. This dispute was adjusted in 1738 and a boun- 
dary line was established 1 5 miles below Philadelphia . Later the present 
line was run, Mason and Dixon placing stone markers at 5 -mile inter- 
vals along a stretch of 132 miles. On the side facing Pennsylvania the 
letter P and the arms of the Penn family were carved; on the Mary- 
land side, the letter M and the crest of the Gal verts. The Mason- 
Dixon Line was generally accepted as the dividing line between the 
free and the slave States the North and the South. 


Pa. Line Rising Sun Bel Air Baltimore Washington, 
B.C., 89 m. US 1. 

Baltimore & Ohio R.R. roughly parallels the route between Baltimore and 
Washington; Greyhound, Pan- American, and Safeway-Trailways busses follow 
the route throughout. 

Well-paved roadbed throughout; some steep grades and sharp curves; traffic 
heavy, particularly between Baltimore and Washington. Tourist homes and 
tourist camps along route; hotels in cities. 

Section 13. Pennsylvania Line to Baltimore, 49.8 m. 

US 1 is one of two main routes between Philadelphia and Balti- 
more. The other, US 13-40 (see MD. GUIDE), is less scenic and has 
heavier truck traffic, though somewhat greater historic interest. 

US 1 traverses rolling country, skirting streams in deep valleys, 
wending along high tablelands, and overlooking fertile and well- 
cultivated fields. Dairying is a means of livelihood. 

The highway crosses the Maryland Line at the village of SYLMAR, 
m. (470 alt., 37 pop.). 

At 1.9 m. (R) is a marker inscribed NOTTINGHAM LOTS (see Section 

RISING SUN, 2.8 m. (387 alt., 565 pop.), is an important bank- 
ing and trading center for the area, making considerable sales of farm 
supplies and building materials. A large and well-equipped plant 
here handles and ships milk. 

The community, which is on the brow of a hill, was founded by 
Henry Reynolds and known as Summer Hill until 1816, when the 
present name was adopted. This name was taken from that of an old 
tavern whose sign bore a picture of a sun on the horizon. This old 
hostelry stood on the spot now occupied by the bank; the present 
RISING SUN HOTEL, formerly the Maryland House, is on the opposite 
corner. The original structure on this site was the Odd Fellows' Hall, 
which was burned, rebuilt on a larger scale, and subsequently turned 
into a tavern. 

In Rising Sun, at 3.4 m. ? is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this road to the junction with another road at 1.5 m.; R. here and L. 
at 2.2 m. to WEST NOTTINGHAM ACADEMY, 2.6 m., the oldest surviving Presby- 
terian educational institution in the New World. At the entrance to the academy 

i 5 2 U. S. ONE 

grounds (L) stands the WEST NOTTINGHAM PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, a large stone 
building set in a beautiful grove of trees. Among the early settlers in the Notting- 
ham section were many Scotch-Irish Presbyterians; in 1724 they organized a 
congregation known as Lower Octoraro, under the presbytery of New Castle. 
The site of the earliest meeting house is uncertain; four or five years later a new 
meeting house was erected on a site of the old cemetery near the high school 
campus in the present village of Rising Sun. The congregation then became 
known as the Nottingham. The Whitefield revival caused a split in 1741, and the 
New Light faction built a meeting house of its own near the older place of wor- 

The Reverend Samuel Finley (1715-66), a native of Ireland who was ordained 
in America in 1744 and took active part as a revivalist in the Great Awakening 
in Pennsylvania, was a pastor of the new congregation from 1744 to 1761, when 
he became president of Princeton College. The two congregations were reunited 
in 1784 and the present church was completed in 1804. 

The date of the founding of the academy is usually given as 1741 but it was 
probably opened after Finley became the pastor. Under the capable direction of 
Finley it gained high prestige, drawing students from long distances. After Fin- 
ley's departure from the academy and especially later in the troublous times of 
the Revolution and the period following, the school lost ground and by the end 
of the century had suspended operation. 

In 1812, however, a charter and an annual grant of $800 (later reduced to 
$500) were obtained from the legislature and the school was revived, the leader 
and headmaster for many years being the Reverend James Magraw, pastor of 
the West Nottingham Church. The practice of having the local pastor serve as 
headmaster was followed for the greater part of the century. For many years 
most of the pupils of the revived school came from the neighborhood; those from 
outside the neighborhood were boarded in private homes. In 1906, to accommo- 
date the boarders and with a view to expansion, the Magraw homestead was 
acquired. To gain additional support for the old Presbyterian school it was placed 
under control of the synod of Baltimore. 

The academy is situated on a beautiful 340-acre tract of rolling land. At the 
entrance, opposite the church, is the ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, a former resi- 
dence. The entrance road swings R. ; on the far side of the turn is a MEMORIAL 
ARCH commemorating two signers of the Declaration of Independence who 
were former students at the school. A path runs under this arch to what is called 
the OLD ACADEMY, erected in 1865 to replace what is believed to have been the 
third academy building. Farther back on the grounds is MAGRAW HALL, a large 
stone building erected a few years ago after the burning of the old Magraw house. 
This is the main dormitory and school building. The school has dormitory facili- 
ties for 52 boys, and an enrollment of 70 to 80, including day students. 

RICHARD'S OAK, 6.1 m. (R), close to the road, is sometimes called 
the Lafayette Oak. A tablet on the tree says that it has a circumfer- 4 
ence of 21 ft. 8 in., a height of 70 ft., and a spread of 105 ft., and 
that it is thought to be over 500 years old. Lafayette and the 1,200 
New England soldiers he was leading to Virginia to operate against 


Benedict Arnold are said to have cirnped near the tree on April 12, 

The road now descends to OCTORARO CREEK (Ind., rushing waters), 
6.8 111., crossing on a new bridge. The old road swings a little to the 
L., crossing on the old Porter's Bridge. Formerly a number of grist 
and paper mills lined the banks of this stream, which has always been 
good for bass fishing. 

At 7.2 m. (R) is the junction with a paved road, the former Cono- 
wingo Road, the main route prior to the building of the new road 
over the Conowingo Dam. 

At 8.9 m. is the junction with US 222 (R) and with an unnumbered 
road (L). 

1. Right on US 222 at 0.2 m. (L) is the entrance to the estate, SUCCESS (open), 
with a shabby house reputed to date from about 1734 occupying an elevated site. 
The one-and-a-half-story main structure, which was apparently built in two 
parts, has a gambrel roof and dormer windows, and was constructed of squared 
logs, now covered by weather-boarding. About 1849 the original log kitchen was 
replaced by one of stone that contains the great fireplace of the former structure; 
this fireplace has a crane for hanging pots and takes logs eight ft. long, which, 
it is said, were in former times hauled by a horse. In the main house is what is 
known as the Betsy Ross room; local tradition has it that this Philadelphia up- 
holsterer was a frequent visitor, and that she conceived the idea of the five-pointed 
star for the flag she was asked to make, from this five-cornered room. The room is 
not star-shaped, however, but five-walled, the fifth wall being a chimney that 
cuts across one corner of the square room. 

2. Left from the junction of US 1 on the unnumbered paved road is the en- 
trance lane, 0.4 m. (L), to OCTORARA. This beautiful estate is the residence of 
Mr. and Mrs. Jotham Johnson (open upon written request addressed to Rowlandsville, 
Md.). The house, approached by a tree-bordered lane about a quarter of a mile 
long, stands on a beautiful, tree-covered lawn and amid landscaped gardens; a 
double row of boxwood 200 ft. long ends in a circle. The house commands a fine 
view with glimpses of Conowingo Lake and the river. The tract, originally part 
of the estates of the Hall family of Mount Welcome (see below), was also known as 
Mount Independence. The house, said to have been built in the late 17th century, 
was originally a small stone structure; it is the center of the present building. 
In time a frame wing was added. In 1807 the place was bought by Henry White 
Physick of Philadelphia, who built the stone kitchen wing and the stone barn. 
His brother, Dr. Philip Syng Physick, who acquired the place in 1823, tore down 
the frame part, which was in bad condition, and in 1824 built the present large 
brick wing, which is now the main house. The front piazza was subsequently 

Continuing S., the road shortly descends to Octoraro Creek, 1.3 m., the last 
part of the way on a steep grade, with a sign warning: "Descend in second gear" 
The scenery here is arresting, the stream rushing in a deep gorge, on the far side 

i 5 4 U. S. ONE 

of which is the village of ROWLANDSVILLE (170 pop.). The paved road ends 
at the foot of the hill, but a crushed-stone road continues along the stream, pass- 
ing the bridge to the village, and twice crossing railroad tracks; at 2.2 m. the 
route meets US 222 (see below). 

At 9.1 m. (R) on US 1 is an old house known as MOUNT WELCOME 
(open). The tract Mount Welcome, originally 1,000 acres, was one of 
the earliest grants in this section, and was for many years in the pos- 
session of the Hall family, who played a prominent part in the history 
of Cecil County. The original house, of which a few ruins remain, 
stood nearer the river. 

The main part of the present two-and-a-half-story house is of 
brick, now covered with plaster, and the gable roof contains a central 
dormer window. The second-story floorboards are a foot wide and 
the doors, some of them only three-fourths of an inch thick, hang 
true. Behind the main structure is a smaller one of stone containing 
the ancient fireplace with its pot-cranes. 

At 9.4 m. is the present village of CONOWINGO (Ind., at the 
falls), principally made up of rilling stations and roadside restaurants. 
The road now descends to the Conowingo Dam. At the east end of 
the dam, 9.9 m.j is the junction with US 222. 

Left on US 222, which descends immediately and runs almost at river level, 
though for the first two or three miles at some distance from the stream. At 0.8 m. 
is the junction with the Rowlandsville road (see above). 

A marker at 0.9 m. indicates the SITE OF A SUSQUEHANNOCK INDIAN FORT 
that in 1682 was involved in the Maryland- Pennsylvania boundary controversy. 
An Indian fort had been named during the negotiations as being on the 40th 
parallel of latitude; the fort in question was several miles up the river. George 
Talbot, grantee of Susquehanna Manor, by mistake drew his line from this 
lower fort. 

At 2.2 m. (L) are a few houses and a sign reading "Sportsmen's Haven," and 
at 3.5 m. (L) is a large old stone building with a sign offering accommodations to 
fishermen. The road here runs fairly close to the river. On an island reached from 
this point is a fishermen's club. In the spring fishing is good for rock and wall-eyed 
pike, and in the fall for bass. Between the first rapids in the river and the Cono- 
wingo Dam, trolling is popular; below the rapids rod fishing prevails. The bed 
of the old canal, which can be discerned along much of the way, here is distinctly 
visible (R). A short distance beyond and now used as a baseball field is the bed 
of an old mill pond, into which logs floating down the canal were turned off to a 
nearby sawmill. 

At 3.7 m. (R) are the RUINS OF AN OLD STONE MILL that stood by the canal. 
The river here comes into full view. Nearby is another inn catering to fishermen. 

At 4 m. is a marker indicating SMITH'S FALLS, or, as it was marked on Gapt. 
John Smith's map, "Smyth's Fales." In 1608 Captain Smith ascended the river 


to this point, marking it on the map he made with a cross that he explained 
meant "to the crosses hath bin discovered what beyond is by relation." The PORT 
DEPOSIT QUARRIES (L) have been operated since 1808. They cut into the face of 
the cliff and extend to a height of 150 to 200 ft. The stone, called Everlasting 
Granite, has been used in many buildings in this region, notably in Mount Royal 
Station in Baltimore. 

At 4.6 m. the road passes under the railroad viaduct and reaches the north 
end of PORT DEPOSIT (20 alt., 963 pop.). Here the river is flanked by steep 
cliffs that for the most part rise almost sheer to heights of over 200 ft., broken at 
only three places, called "hollows." (Boats and guides are available.) Main Street, 
a mile long, lies between the railroad tracks and the cliffs. A few houses are in the 
hollows on the cliffside. The town is for the most part not attractive, though some 
of the old buildings are of interest. In 1729 Thomas Cresap was operating a ferry 
near here, known as the Upper Ferry, to distinguish it from the Lower Ferry 
near the mouth of the river, which had been established in 1695. Since the Upper 
Ferry was at the head of navigation, residents of the vicinity petitioned for a road 
on which tobacco casks could be rolled and other produce brought to the landing 
and to the nearby "merchants' mill." The road was made, and also one running 
toward Philadelphia. At the time the Maryland Canal was completed in 1810 
the place was known as Creswell's Ferry, for Col. John Creswell, the ferry owner. 
The canal brought such a boom that the town was laid out in 1812; in the follow- 
ing year it received its present name because of the fact that it served as a storage 
place for goods to be shipped by water. In May 1813 the settlement still had no 
great importance and the British, entering the Susquehanna, did not bother to 
attack it. 

Unsuccessful efforts to build a bridge across the river were made in 1808 and 
1813, but in 1819 a mile-long bridge, consisting of several spans that extended 
from island to island, was completed. This was burned in 1823, the fire being 
caused, it is said, by friction from the iron runners of a sleigh passing rapidly 
over it. The bridge was rebuilt a few years later and served until 1 854, when one 
of the spans broke under the weight of a drove of cattle; it was not rebuilt and 
ferry service was resumed and continued by county subsidy until a few years ago. 
The arks and rafts operating on the Maryland Canal brought increasing trade 
to the town; in 1822, $1,337,925 worth of goods, mainly lumber but including 
large quantities of wheat, flour, whiskey, and iron, were handled- by 
the little port. The development of railroads and other factors gradually lessened 
this trade. 

At 5.2 m. (L), next to the Roman Catholic Church, is a long double house 
with a first story half brick and half stone, and two frame upper stories; this is 
an old INN, dating from the early days. Farther on (R) is a house with a porch 
enclosed by beautiful ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK. At the northeast corner of Main 
St. and Woodlawn Road is the ANGLERS' INN, occupying a stone house a century 
old. A few doors below the southeast corner of the junction is a STONE HOUSE, 
reputed to be one of the oldest in the town, with iron railings on the second- and 
third-story porches. 

On Main Street is a large brick building, the day school of the JACOB TOME 
INSTITUTE. On the opposite side of the street is the TOME MANSION, formerly the 
residence of Jacob Tome, the institute's founder, who was born in Pennsylvania 

156 U. S. ONE 

in 1810 of German Lutheran parents. In the spring of 1833, practically 
penniless, he arrived at Port Deposit on a raft. In time he made a fortune in the 
lumber business, which was then booming at Port Deposit. His subsequent busi- 
ness interests were varied. During the Civil War Tome served as a member of the 
finance committee of the Maryland Senate, and was an adviser to President 

Left on the Woodlawn Road at 0.7 m. is (L) the dirt lane leading to ANCHOR 
AND HOPE FARM (open), originally consisting of two old tracts, Anchor and Hope 
and Raycroft's Choice. The house is reputed to be over 200 years old a long 
stone structure, substantially but rather crudely built. It was the first inn in this 
area, and was called the Ferry House. The living room, the former taproom of the 
inn, contains two stone fireplaces, one at each end, and in a corner a cubicle with 
a sliding panel the ticket office, where ferry and stagecoach tickets were sold. 

(power station open daily 9 a.m. -4 p.m.), are high ridges with steep 
wooded bluffs bordering a flat river valley that is a mile wide; the 
river in low water flows over a shallow rocky bed, and in flood swells 
broadly and rushes with great force. Conowingo Lake, extending 
14.5 miles up the river, has lessened the ruggedness of the banks, but 
on the whole has greatly enhanced the scenic beauty. Downstream 
from the dam the river retains its natural aspect. 

US 1 crosses the Susquehanna River on the crest of the dam, 
which is provided with spillways under the roadbed. Before the build- 
ing of the dam in 1928, the highway crossed on the old Conowingo 
Bridge, two miles N. The Conowingo power plant was built by the 
Philadelphia Electric Co., and completed in 1928. It has seven units 
of 54,000 horsepower each, with provision for ultimate installation 
of four additional units. The transmission lines carry the current at 
220,000 volts, delivering at Philadelphia each year many million 
kilowatt hours. The dam is 4,648 ft. long and is based on solid rock 
at a depth of 96.5 ft. The turbines are spaced along the dam, the 
large power station being at the western end. 

From the bed of the river, the height of which has been raised by 
the dam, were removed rocks bearing inscriptions that are attributed 
to a lost race of higher culture than that of the Indians of the period 
when the white men arrived in America. The rocks are now in the 
collection of the Maryland Academy of Sciences in Baltimore (see 

The former centers of the shad fishing for which Chesapeake Bay 
is famous were the upper waters of the bay and the Susquehanna 
River. Herring, also, were plentiful. The shad formerly had a free 


run to their spawning grounds up the river, but now the power dams 
block the way. This situation is being overcome to some extent by 
artificial propagation and stocking. Conowingo Lake is also stocked 
with large-mouth bass and blue-gill sunfish. 

The Susquehanna River, though one of the long rivers in eastern 
United States, winding 420 miles, has rapids and shoals in its lower 
course, so that it is navigable for only about five miles from its mouth 
in Chesapeake Bay. In the past, however, during the spring freshets, 
log rafts and flat-bottomed arks were floated down stream, though 
such trips were always hazardous. Navigation was greatly helped by 
the completion in 1797 of a canal a mile long, around the Conewago 
Falls above Wrightsville. The movement of products down the river 
attained a large volume, reaching a peak in the second quarter of the 
19th century, when as many as 2,000 to 3,000 rafts made the trip 
each season. 

This method of shipment, of course, did not serve well for more 
perishable products. The city of Baltimore early took an interest in 
the improvement of navigation on the Susquehanna as a means of 
developing the trade of the great region tapped by that river. In 
1783 a group of leading citizens incorporated themselves as the 
Proprietors of the Susquehanna Canal, to promote this development. 
They had ambitious dreams of a major waterway to extend as far as 
Buffalo. The immediate project, along the east bank of the river from 
the Maryland-Pennsylvania Line to the head of navigation near Rock 
Run at the north end of the present town of Port Deposit, was com- 
pleted in 1805; but the canal was too narrow and had to be widened 
in 1810 or 1812. This canal, known as the Maryland or Susquehanna 
Canal, was one of the earliest in the country. Although it brought 
prosperity to Port Deposit, it was not a paying venture. 

When the Susquehanna and Tidewater Canal was projected on 
the west side of the river, the conflicting interests were settled by 
acquisition of the Maryland Canal in 1837 through an exchange of 
stock. The business of the Maryland Canal declined, especially after 
the railroad paralleled it, and it finally ceased operation. 

The building of the Union Canal to connect Philadelphia with the 
Susquehanna, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, and other 
plans of eastern cities for securing the trade of the western territory 
caused growing concern in Baltimore. In 1823 a survey was made 
for a canal from the Conewago Falls along the western bank of the 

158 U. S. ONE 

Susquehanna to a point near Havre de Grace, thence across the low- 
lands to Baltimore. This project was not carried out at the time, 
but in 1835 the legislatures of Pennsylvania and of Maryland au- 
thorized canals, respectively, from Wrightsville to the State Line and 
from the State Line to Havre de Grace, subsequently united as the 
Susquehanna and Tidewater Canal. Excavation started in 1836, 
and the canal was completed in 1840. Owing to high prices in the 
boom period of the 1830's, the total cost was $3,500,000, the third 
greatest for an ante-bellum waterway. The canal was 45 miles 
long, with a width of 50 ft., a depth of 5 to 6 ft., and locks 170 ft. 
long and 17 ft. wide, permitting it in later years to accommodate 
boats of 1 50 tons capacity. The enormous capitalization and indebt- 
edness prevented its being profitable, but it enjoyed a large volume 
of business over a period of years. A large part of the traffic went to 
Baltimore, but for fully 20 years, from 1840 to 1860, more than one- 
fourth of it consisted of trade with Philadelphia that passed through 
the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, owing to the fact that the 
Union Canal was too small. After the 1860's railroad transportation 
caused a rapid decline in the traffic on the Susquehanna and Tide- 
water Canal, and in 1 870 the canal company leased the property for 
999 years to the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co. Inadequate 
maintenance resulted in a still further decline in business. In 1894 a 
freshet greatly damaged the banks of the canal, which were never 
repaired, and in 1895 the lock gates were permanently closed. 

In 1866 a branch railroad from Perry ville to Port Deposit was 
completed, following which the Columbia & Port Deposit R.R. was 
built (1866-77). 

At 10.8 m., the western end of the dam, the highway begins a 
rapid ascent. 

At 11.1 m. (R) is STATE POLICE SUBSTATION F, with a wide parking 
space offering a fine view of Conowingo Lake. 

At 12.5 m. is the junction with an unnumbered State road. 

Left on this road; at 0.1 m. (R) is the old DEER CREEK FRIENDS' MEETING 
HOUSE, a small stone building, rectangular in shape and of plain design. Behind 
it is the burying ground. Over the doorway of the building is the inscription: 
"Founded 1737. Rebuilt 1784. Restored by HughJ. Jewett in 1888." The origi- 
nal meeting house of logs, established for a branch of the Bush River Meeting, 
is supposed to have been in a grove on the opposite side of the road. After the 
Hicksite movement split the Society of Friends, a group from the Deer Creek 
Meeting in 1829 built a separate meeting house. Rebuilt in 1877, it is at the south 


end of Darlington. A few years ago the two groups reunited. During the 
summer services are held regularly on Sunday mornings in the old meeting house. 
DARLINGTON, 0.5 m. (324 alt., 500 pop.), is strung along the highway for a 
mile. At 1 m. a dirt road (L) leads 200 yds. to the FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE 
(R), where services of the united meeting (see above) are held during the winter. 
The State road continues S., passing several fine estates. This rural section, 
including the broad Deer Creek Valley, is beautiful. At 2.3 m. the highway crosses 
DEER CREEK. On the near side of the creek is (R) the ESTATE OF FRANCIS STOKES 
(private) of Philadelphia. The stone building on the bank of the stream, just inside 
the entrance, is WILSON'S MILL, believed to have been built in the 18th century; it 
has not operated for many years, but the millrace is still running. A few hundred 
feet back, near the stream, is the miller's house, also of stone, now occupied by 
the overseer of the estate. The stone mansion, on an elevation (R) just beyond 
the old mill, dates from shortly after the Civil War. The lovely garden along the 
millrace is only occasionally open to the public; the estate, however, is visible 
from the road. 

At 13.1 m. (R) is the junction with a paved road marked by a 
sign, "Hopkins Corner." This is the old Gonowingo Road, which 
crossed the river about two miles above the Conowingo Dam. The 
bridge site was submerged by the lake, and the road now comes to a 
dead end at that point. 

Right on the old Conowingo Road to BERKELEY, 0.9 m. (150 pop.); R. on 
a side road (macadamized for short distance, then graveled) to a lane, 1.1 m. 
(L). A marker, on the opposite side of the road but with an arrow pointing to the 
lane, reads: "Lafayette at Col. Rigbie's House." Left on this lane, at the top of a 
hill commanding a fine view, is COLONEL RIGBIE'S HOUSE (open), 1.4 m., where 
Lafayette and his officers were entertained on April 13, 1781. At this point in the 
march, rumblings of disaffection were heard among the troops, who were poorly 
clad and without shelter, but Lafayette promptly arrested the ringleader, who 
was convicted as a spy and executed, and the troops went on toward Virginia. 

Col. Nathan Rigbie in 1708 acquired Phillips' Purchase, a tract of 2,000 acres 
bordering the Susquehanna River. The present homestead comprises but 100 
acres around the old house. Col. James Rigbie inherited it from his father, Col. 
Nathan Rigbie, and lived here until his death in 1790. He was high sheriff of 
Baltimore County, an important office at that tune, and was captain and later 
colonel of a company of militia. The original one-story stone house, now to the 
rear of the main house and partly covered by weatherboards, was built in 1732; 
it still contains the great fireplace with its cranes and pothooks. The main house, 
built of wood in 1750, is one and a half stories high, with dormer windows; it has 
beautiful paneled walls and a staircase with low risers and carved walnut balusters 
and handrail. The present owner has endeavored to preserve the Colonial 
aspect of the house. 

At 16.3 m. is the junction with two unnumbered roads. 

1. Left from this point on the Churchville road, which runs S. through the 
beautiful Deer Creek Valley with its fine estates; the valley is wide, sloping down 

i6o U. S. ONE 

gently from high ridges. At 2.7 m. the highway crosses Deer Creek. On a knoll 
(R) beyond the stream is PRIEST NE ALE'S MASS HOUSE (open). The entrance lane 
is at 2.9 m., and the house stands back about 250 yards from the highway. Deer 
Creek Chapel had been established in this neighborhood by the Jesuits as early 
as 1747. In 1764 Thomas Shea deeded the tract of land known as Paradise, 
sometimes spelled Paradice, to Father Bennett Neale. 

It is believed that the present structure was built by Father Neale, though it 
may have been that a house already standing was remodeled by him for purposes 
of worship. In order to conform to the law at that time, which banned Roman 
Catholic churches, it was in the form of a dwelling, a hall being used as a chapel. 
Although named St. Joseph's Chapel, it was known as Priest Neale's Mass House. 
The original house, not of large size, is one-story, almost square, with thick stone 
walls that have been plastered over. In the rear is a frame addition. The place 
was sold by the Jesuits about 1 800, and thereafter used exclusively as a dwelling. 
The old chapel hall is now divided into rooms. 

2. Right from US 1 on the Whiteford road is DUBLIN, 1 m. (455 alt.), an 
attractive crossroads village. The highway traverses tableland for the most part; 
just before reaching Whiteford it descends from the ridge that flanks a broad 

At 7.2 m. is the junction with State 165 in the village of WHITEFORD (536 
alt., 268 pop.), which is strung for some distance along this highway. The area is 
noted for its slate, particularly that from the Peach Bottom Quarry in Whiteford. 
The deposits are in the adjacent ridge, which State 165 skirts. The quarries have 
not been worked actively for the last decade or two, though the mining of deposits 
beyond the Pennsylvania Line to the N. has recently been resumed. The former 
quarry workers are now employed in a mill that grinds the stone for use as roofing 

a. Right from Whiteford 0.8 m. on State 165 is CARDIFF (398 pop.). White- 
ford, Cardiff, and Delta across the Pennsylvania Line form practically a continu- 
ous community along the highway. 

Cardiff, settled about 1860 and called South Delta, was subsequently named 
for Cardiff, Wales. This Welsh community retains to some extent the Welsh 
customs and speech. The male inhabitants are almost all employed in the nearby 
quarries and in the plant of the Cardiff Marble Co., established about 1917. 
This section is famous for its verd-antique marble used for tiling throughout the 
United States. 

b. Left from Whiteford 2.2 m. on State 165 is PYLESVILLE (358 alt., 50 
pop.). Near the village is an asbestos quarry, the only one in the country produc- 
ing the type of asbestos needed for making acid filter paper. Maryland is one of 
the half-dozen important producers of asbestos in the United States. 

At 4.7 m. on the main side road is the junction with State 24; R. on a road 
marked "Bush's Corner" 1.5 m. to ST. MARY'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, where 
an annual tilting tournament is held in August. Tournaments have long been 
popular gatherings in the rural sections of the States S. of Pennsylvania; in most 
other States they have nearly disappeared, or exist only as fashionable revivals. 




There are several places in Maryland where they have been continued without 
artificial stimulation. For weeks before the event the countrymen practice riding 
a course of traditional length, attempting to catch on their lances a series of small 
rings suspended from arches; this feat requires considerable skill. Until about 1917 
the contestants wore medieval costumes but at present they wear whatever they 
choose. They are entered under titles they select the Black Knight, the Knight 
of Hard Bargain, the Knight of Love's Adventure, and so on, the name usually 
being taken from that of an estate or village where they live. The contest is 
opened with a speech by the local politician or orator, who gives the charge to the 
knights, reminding them that they are carrying on a traditional "defense of 
Christianity and womanhood"; a band usually sounds a fanfare and the marshal 
announces: "Knight of Hard Bargain, prepare to charge." The man named rides 
his cavorting steed to the head of the course; the marshal continues: "Charge, 
Sir Knight," and the rider, with lance set, dashes forward. The contestants are 
eliminated by decreasing the size of the rings, the smallest ring in some cases being 
little larger than a finger-ring. Each knight has a lady of his choice, the winner 
of the contest crowning the Queen of Love and Beauty. The tilting is a gala event 
for the countryside, some of the contestants traveling long distances to partici- 
pate. After the riding there are usually a chicken-supper and dance. 

Beyond the junction with the unnumbered roads, US 1 begins 
gradually to descend, crossing Deer Greek at 18.5 m., then rising 
again on an easy grade. The scenery along the creek is picturesque, 
and for several miles along the highway are sweeping views, espe- 
cially over the valley (R). 

At 23.1 m. is the junction with State 23. On the far corner at this 
junction is ST. IGNATIUS ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, a large stone 
structure that has stood for a hundred years. Services in this section 
were started by itinerant priests who traveled on horseback. 

Right 2 m. on State 23 is FOREST HILL (544 alt., 365 pop.), the trading 
and banking center of a rich dairying section that provides a large part of the 
milk supply for Baltimore. In the vicinity are several canneries and a plant nurs- 

Right from Forest Hill on State 24, which at 1 m. enters the valley of Deer 
Creek; the road gradually descends and skirts Stirrup Run and Deer Creek. 
Above the confluence of these streams, Deer Creek runs through a gorge with 
steep, wooded sides; the highway parallels the creek for two or three miles. This 
picturesque section reaches its climax in the ROCKS OF DEER CREEK, 5 m. Here, 
at a narrow point, rock cliffs rise on both sides to a height of 250 ft. above the 
stream. There are picnic tables here and a path that ascends the cliff. The large 
frame building by the railroad was formerly a hotel. 

Beyond Forest Hill on State 23 is JARRETTSVILLE, 8.2 m. (265 pop.). 
The mining of chrome was formerly an important industry in this section, but the 
deposits have long since been exhausted. 

Left from Jarrettsville 2.6 m. on State 165 to old HARFORD BAPTIST CHURCH 
(R) near Winters Run. This church, dating from 1754, is the second oldest of the 

i6a U. S. ONE 

denomination in Maryland. It was founded by a group that withdrew from the 
Chestnut Ridge (or Sater's) Church to form a Particular (Calvinistic) Church, 
the Chestnut Ridge Church being General Baptist (Arminian). Over the door of 
the old Harford Church is inscribed "1787," indicating the year of its erection. 
It is believed, however, that the original structure was largely retained in the 
rebuilding. The church is a plain brick building, rectangular in shape. The 
present membership is small, services being held only once a month by itinerant 

At 12 m. (R) on State 23 is the BETHEL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The present 
building, erected in 1802, is the third built here, the original structure dating 
back at least to 1769, when the first regular minister was called. 

BEL AIR, 26.1 m. (396 alt., 1,650 pop.), is a busy and thriving 
town, the seat of Harford County, and the trading and banking cen- 
ter for a rich farming section. It has three inns and a number of 
boarding houses. Three weekly newspapers are published the 
Bel Air Times and the Aegis for Bel Air, and the Harford Democrat- 
Enterprise for Bel Air and Aberdeen. 

Harford County was until 1773 a part of Baltimore County, old 
Harford Town on Bush River being first designated as the former's 
county seat. In 1782 an election held to decide the county seat was 
won by Aquila Scott's Old Field, the site of the present Bel Air. 
A strong movement in favor of Havre de Grace developed, but a 
second election in 1787 again resulted in favor of Belle Air, as the 
name was originally spelled. The town was incorporated in 1901. 

Bel Air does not present a modern or planned appearance; it is a 
charming place, however, with tree-bordered streets and comfortable 
houses. The population is composed largely of families with distin- 
guished Maryland lineage; there is, accordingly, a pride in local 

Entering Bel Air from the N. US 1 makes a sharp turn (R) into 
Broadway, which is lined with rows of large maple trees, arching 

At a traffic light US 1 turns L. into Main St. A short distance 
beyond this turn, Bond St. branches R. from Main St. The US 1 
markers follow Bond St., which affords a slight cut-off. 

On Bond Street is (R) the COUNTRY CLUB INN, a long wooden, 
two-story structure with the lower walls now stuccoed; it stands in 
attractive grounds. The original log building, no longer in evidence, 
is incorporated in the southeast end. In cutting a window some years 
ago, a workman found between the logs a shingle bearing the date 
1718, which is believed to have been the date of erection. The main 


addition was built in 1790; since that time there have been altera- 
tions and additions. Formerly the old Eagle Hotel, the inn has enter- 
tained many distinguished guests. It contains old furnishings of 

The ARMORY (L), on Main Street, is the home of the local com- 
pany of the Maryland National Guard, and also serves as a com- 
munity hall. Directly opposite is the HARFORD COUNTY PUBLIC 
LIBRARY, occupying a small house believed to be very old. On Penn- 
sylvania Avenue is the former BEL AIR ACADEMY, a substantial struc- 
ture built of stone, now plastered over; it is now a private residence. 
The school was chartered by the legislature in 1811, and opened in 
1816 as the Harford County Academy, with the Reverend Reuben 
Davis as principal. He was a noted educator in his day; a large por- 
trait of him hangs in the office of the Board of Education in the court- 
house. Some years after the academy was opened, it was raised to 
the rank of a college, renamed Maryland College, and empowered 
to grant degrees. It is believed that no degrees were granted, how- 
ever, as the school shortly reverted to the status of an academy, this 
time being called Bel Air Academy. In 1888 a consolidation was 
effected with the town's public elementary school, and some of the 
elementary grades were housed in the academy building until about 
1907, when its use was discontinued; the united institution was called 
the Bel Air Academy and Graded School until 1907. when the name 
Bel Air High School was officially adopted for the higher grades. 

The COURTHOUSE is a large brick building, built in 1858 and en- 
larged in 1904; the original courthouse, built in 1791, was burned. 
The courthouse is a local "hall of fame," housing the portraits of 
many Harford County celebrities, including that of the actor, Edwin 
Booth, who was born near Bel Air. 

Pinkney, born in Annapolis on March 17, 1764, was a statesman, 
diplomat, and lawyer. He served as Attorney General of the United 
States from 1811 to 1814, and later as U.S. Senator from Maryland. 

On the southern outskirts of Bel Air, at 27 m. (R), are the HAR- 
FORD COUNTY FAIR GROUNDS, where the annual fair is held in Octo- 
ber. The Harford County Pony Show is held here in June. 

US 1 between Bel Air and Baltimore, known locally as the Bel Air 
Road, has an excellent new three-lane roadbed. At 29 m. is the 
junction with State 147, the Harford Road, an alternate route 

1 64 U. S. ONE 

between here and Baltimore, only slightly longer than the main 
route. STATE POLICE SUBSTATION D is at the fork between the roads. 
On US 1 at 29.3 m. (L) is the junction with a dirt road, marked 
by a sign reading "Fresh Air Farm." 

Left on this dirt road 1 m. to the FRESH AIR FARM, containing 38 acres, with 
suitable buildings and playground facilities, including a swimming pool. It is 
maintained by the Children's Fresh Air Society of Baltimore, for the benefit of 
neglected and destitute boys and girls between 5 and 12 years of age. Since its 
establishment in 1891, it has cared for nearly a quarter of a million children. 
During school vacation it has a new set of 350 children every 10 days. The main 
dining hall is in a great stone barn reputed to have been built in 1819. Milk and 
vegetables for the table are produced on the farm. 

At 30.3 m. is the junction, marked "Lynch's Corner," with a 
macadam road. 

Left on this road 1.4 m. is (L) an old STONE BARN, now in dilapidated condi- 
tion, that was originally part of a stagecoach station. After the Battle of Monoc- 
acy, on July 9, 1864, the Confederates had a free hand for a time in Maryland. 
Gen. B. T. Johnson was detached with a cavalry force to destroy the lines of com- 
munication with Baltimore. From Cockeysville Johnson sent Maj. Harry Gilmor 
with a detachment of the Second Maryland Cavalry, C.S.A., to burn the railroad 
bridges over the Gunpowder and Bush Rivers. Gilmor's raiders moved along the 
Joppa Road to Magnolia Station, where they captured the morning express from 
Baltimore, set fire to it, and backed it onto the Gunpowder Bridge. On their way 
to Gunpowder, Gilmor and his men camped in and around this building. 

Left from this point 1.6 m. on a dirt road is (R) the entrance to OLNEY (open 
on request), home of J. Alexis Shriver, former secretary of the Maryland Historical 
Society. Between the road and the house is woodland, and behind it is a delightful 
garden enhanced by evergreens and boxwood. The tract x originally called Pros- 
pect, was acquired by John Norris in the 1700's but the main part of the present 
house, typically Southern in appearance, was built in 1810. The place has always 
been in careful hands, and when the present owner in 1927 undertook its restora- 
tion to former beauty and its embellishment, he had a structure basically sound 
to work with; he was aided by an architect who had done much work on old 
houses and who later reconstructed Wakefield, the birthplace of George Wash- 
ington. The chief addition to the exterior was a portico salvaged when the old 
Atheneum Club building in Baltimore was razed; this structure had been built 
in 1830 as a residence. The four marble columns of the portico, weighing 18 tons 
each, had been cut at the Beaver Dam quarries and their transportation to 
Baltimore was an even greater problem than was their later conveyance to Olney. 
On the marble door-lintel are cherubs, representing Art and Literature, carved 
by Jardella for the mansion Robert Morris was building when his land specula- 
tions brought him to bankruptcy; the lintel was acquired and used by one of his 
creditors in a house that, because of the ornament, became known as Angel 
House. The interior of the Olney house has beautiful woodwork and contains 
fine old family furniture and many articles of historic interest. 


US 1 descends and at 31.5 in. crosses LITTLE GUNPOWDER FALLS, 
the dividing line between Harford and Baltimore Counties; the nar- 
row wooded valley presents an attractive view. 

At 33 m. (L) is the HOODOO MARKER, so called because of the in- 
scription: "Cursed be he who removeth his neighbor's landmark, 
and all the people shall say amen. Deuteronomy, Chap. 27, Verse 
17." Above this is the boundary inscription: "This stone is in place 
of a double poplar tree, a boundary of expectation francis freedom 
alias young's escape and the second boundary of onion's prospect 
hill, the latter now owned by Edward Day." This ancient marker, 
much used by surveyors, is a rough shaft about nine feet high; only 
the side bearing the inscriptions is smooth. The dark stone, hard as 
flint, and now painted white on its face, is close to the road, though 
owing to a fill the top of the stone is now at the road level. The stone, 
thought to be at least 1 50 yrs. old, is probably a relic of a lifetime of 
quarreling between brothers, John and Edward Day. The only near 
reconciliation of the men occurred when Edward was supposed to be 
on his deathbed and his pastor, shocked by the idea of one of the 
brothers going to death with the breach unhealed, persuaded John 
to enter the sick man's bedroom. He thought his efforts had been 
successful until John was about to leave. Edward called him back for 
a last word, "John, if I die this is a go; if I get well it's all off." He 
recovered and the brothers died enemies. 

At 33.5m. (L), on the outskirts of Kingsville, is ST. JOHN'S P.E. 
CHURCH, situated on the strip of ground lying between US 1 and the 
Jerusalem Road. Copley Parish Church, originally named for Gov- 
ernor Copley and later named St. John's, was erected in 1692 at Elk 
Neck on the northern side of Gunpowder River. Joppa Town, 
founded in 1712, became the county seat and the congregation of St. 
John's two years later built a new church there, this time of brick; by 
1750 the population of the area had increased to the point that a 
"chapel of ease" was built at the forks of the Gunpowder; 18 years 
later, however, when Baltimore became the county seat, a steady 
decrease in population began. When a new building was needed in 
1815, Edward Day is said to have given three acres of ground and 
with his own funds built a church at this fork of the roads. Later a 
chancel, belfry, and vestry-room were added to the original plain 
structure; in 1896 a new building was erected beside the old. 
The parish's old communion service, one of the many presented 

i66 U. S. ONE 

in the name of Queen Anne, is kept in the Diocesan Library in 

The St. John's Church lot is bounded at the south end by a road 
forming a short cut between US 1 and Jerusalem Road. On US 1, at 
the far corner of this junction, is a sign with an arrow pointing across 
the road to a paved road that branches (R) from US 1. 

Right on this road at 1.1 m. (R) is the SITE OF ISHMAEL DAY'S HOUSE. A small 
farmhouse now stands on the old foundations. When on July 11, 1864, one of 
Gilmor's Confederate cavalrymen pulled down the Union flag, Day, the owner 
of the house, shot him and escaped into the woods. The Confederates burned the 
house and barn. 

KINGSVILLE, 33.6 m. (271 alt., 50 pop.), is a banking and 
trading center. 

KINGSVILLE INN (R) is a long two-and-a-half-story building with a 
central gable and six dormer windows. The earliest part, now the 
south end, was a dwelling built by the Reverend Mr. Deans, rector 
of St. John's Church, then in Joppa Town. The date of erection, 
1753, is inscribed on a fireback recently removed from the fireplace 
in the living room; this lovely piece of ironwork was cast at the Piney 
Grove furnace just above Joppa. In the living room are the original 
paneling and window seats, and the stairway and the mantel on the 
second floor are worth attention. On the front door is the original 
knocker. It is not definitely known when the building was enlarged 
and converted into an inn, but it was probably early in the 1800's. 
Except that the stone walls have been plastered over, the front of the 
structure retains much of its early appearance; it has been enlarged 
by wooden additions in the rear. 

The house has the usual tradition that Washington and Lafayette 
were guests, though the story cannot be substantiated. John Paul, a 
son-in-law of the Reverend Mr. Deans, operated a gristmill on the 
Little Gunpowder Falls stream at the Philadelphia Road. Accused 
of selling flour to the British, he was arrested and sentenced to death, 
but escaped and hid in a cave that is below Vinegar Hill near Frank- 
linville, on the Little Gunpowder Falls stream about three miles SE. 
of Kingsville. According to one account, Paul eventually managed 
to board a ship bound for England. 

Left from Kingsville on a macadam road is JERUSALEM, 2 m. (20 pop.), 
on the far side of the stream called Little Gunpowder Falls. Just E. of the bridge 
is (R) JERUSALEM MILLS (see illustration), established in 1772 by David Lee, a 


Quaker from Bucks County, Pennsylvania. A number of the oldest mills in the 
State were founded by Quakers from Pennsylvania, who appreciated the value of 
Maryland's streams as sources of power. During the Revolution, David Lee, 
though a Friend, operated a gun factory in a two-story stone building still 
standing behind the mill and now used as a dwelling. The mill has stone walls in 
the first story, but the upper two stories are of wooden construction. The present 
basement and first story are parts of the original building. The ceilings are sup- 
ported by two-foot-thick, hand-hewn beams of white oak that show no signs of 
decay. It is believed that the original building had a second story with sloping 
roof, but that the present upper structure was erected later; it has two tiers of 
dormer windows, an unusual feature for a mill. The mill is still active, using a 
ponderous stone grinder. During the Civil War, the grandson of the founder 
did a nourishing business and built himself a mansion of 20 rooms that is still 
standing a short distance from the mill. 

At 35.6 m. the highway dips to cross the main GUNPOWDER FALLS. 
At 36.4 m. is a junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this dirt road 0.6 in. is (R) the entrance lane to PERRY HALL MAN- 
SION (open), situated on an elevation that commands a wide view. The former 
house on the site, built about 1750 for Harry Dorsey Gough, was one of the larg- 
est in Maryland; after a fire in 1824 half the structure was rebuilt. 

The first definite record of the place is in an advertisement of April 19, 1783, 
for a gardener. Gough, one of the wealthiest landowners in the State, spent lav- 
ishly both on his home and for the improvement and beautification of his 
grounds. In Gough's time the estate contained several thousand acres, but it now 
has only about 200. 

The thick walls are of brick, now plastered over, and the foundation is massive. 
The main part of the house (see illustration) is three-storied with dormer windows, 
and the wing is two-storied; there was formerly a similar wing on the other side 
and pavilions beyond the wings. In one end was the chapel and in the other an 
elaborate Roman bath, an unusual feature in houses of the period in America. 
A painting of the house, made in 1800 and now in the museum of the Washington 
Monument in Baltimore, shows the house in the days of its glory. At present it 
is merely a large substantial house without special distinction; the paneling and 
other interior woodwork have been taken away. The flooring is fire-proofed with 
a layer of plaster. The wide center hall and fireplaces in each room remain. 

Perry Hall holds a high place in Methodist annals. Through his wife's influ- 
ence, Gough was converted to Methodism, and erected a chapel. His home was a 
center of hospitality for itinerant Methodist preachers, notably Asbury and 
Thomas Coke. Here in December 1784 assembled a group that then rode to 
Baltimore for the Christmas Conference at Lovely Lane Meeting House, where 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in America was organized and Francis Asbury 
was elected superintendent. 

PERRY HALL, 36.7 m. (256 alt., 263 pop.), extends thinly along 
US 1 . Between here and Baltimore the roadside is more closely built 
up, though there are long gaps of open country. 

1 68 U. S. ONE 

At 38.5 m. (L) is the junction with the Joppa Road, originally an 
Indian trail that was used in 1695 by a troop of rangers from the Gar- 
rison Fort. 

Between this point and Baltimore the highway is four lanes wide. 

FULLERTON, 40.5 m. (220 alt., 1,813 pop.), is an old village 
that has developed with Baltimore. The name of the village is now 
loosely applied to the settlement along the highway from this point 
practically to the city line. 

At 45.5 m. is HERRING RUN PARK, extending along the stream 
valley, and at 46 m. (R) is CLIFTON PARK. At 46.7 m. is the junction 
with North Ave. 

US 1 bypasses downtown Baltimore; R. on North Ave.; L. at 50 m. on Monroe 
St., which at the lower end swings L. along Carroll Park; R. at 52.5 m. on what 
is known as the Washington Pike. There is no fast boulevard route through or 
around Baltimore; traffic moves slowly on North Ave. because of the many 
streetcars and traffic lights. Those unfamiliar with the city are advised against 
attempting short cuts because of the ravine that bisects the city, and the narrow, 
some tunes cobblestoned streets in the downtown area. 

To downtown Baltimore: Right on North Ave. to St. Paul St., a 
boulevard, at 48.2 m.; L. on Fayette St. at 49.6 m. to City Hall, 
49.8 m. 

BALTIMORE, 49.8 m. (80 alt., 804,874 pop.), historic and in- 
dustrial city (see MD. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Pennsylvania R.R. and Western Maryland Ry., Pennsyl- 
vania Station, Charles St. S. of North Ave.; Baltimore & Ohio R.R., Mount 
Royal Station, Mount Royal Ave. two blocks W. of Charles St. ; Baltimore & 
Ohio R.R. and Baltimore & Annapolis R.R. (electric), Camden Station (down- 
town), Howard and Camden Sts.; Maryland & Pennsylvania R.R., North Sta- 
tion, two blocks W. of Charles St. 

Points of Interest. Washington Monument, Johns Hopkins University, Walters 
Art Gallery, Baltimore Museum of Art, Fort McHenry, Goucher College, 
Peabody Institute and Conservatory of Music, and others. 

Section 14. Baltimore to Washington, D. C., 39.2 m. 

From City Hall, Baltimore, m., W. on Fayette St. to Monroe 
St.; L. to the foot of Monroe St.; then R. on the Washington Blvd. 
Here the route for a time follows a route that is congested during 
rush hours and on holidays. 

The route between Baltimore and Washington is through a gently 
rolling country, with few steep hills. It is generally lacking in scenic 


interest, though occasionally affording pleasant views. Truck farming 
is predominant, especially in the vicinity of the cities. There are no 
large towns. 

At approximately 4.7 m. is the boundary line between the city of 
Baltimore and Baltimore Co. 

HALETHORPE, 6.7 m. (180 alt., 1,831 pop.), is a suburb the 
majority of whose inhabitants are employed hi Baltimore. 

Between September 24 and October 15, 1929, there was held in a 
large field (L) in Halethorpe the Fair of the Iron Horse, commemo- 
rating the centennial of the introduction of the steam engine in rail 
transportation. The fair was arranged under the auspices of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co., the first to run steam trains out of 

On this same field in 1910 was held what its sponsors claimed to 
be the first major airplane meet in the United States. A group of 
business and professional men financed the exhibition. Among the 
flyers taking part were Hubert Latham, Count de Lesseps, Ely Wil- 
lard, James Radley, Tony Drexel, and Arch Hoxey. It was during 
the meet that Latham in a 50-horsepower monoplane flew over 
Baltimore, in the first successful flight made over a large American 
city. He won a prize of $5,000 and an extra $500 donated by Ross 
Winans, who watched the flight from his home. Virtually every resi- 
dent of Baltimore paused to gape at the marvel of a man-made ma- 
chine piloted by a human being, flying over a city. Thousands of 
visitors came from other cities to witness the breath-taking feats of 
the daring pioneer fliers at Halethorpe Field. Today mail and pas- 
senger planes fly over Baltimore daily without even a passing notice 
from most of the citizens. 

South of Halethorpe US 1 traverses rolling country, with fine farm 
lands on each side. Truck farming is now carried on almost exclu- 
sively, though long ago the section produced much tobacco. 

RELAY, 7.7 m. (200 alt., 2,016 pop.), on the eastern bank of the 
Patapsco River, derives its name from the fact that when the Balti- 
more & Ohio R.R. used horses to draw passenger coaches and freight 
cars over the rails from Baltimore to Ellicott Mills, it was at this 
point that a relay of horses was attached to the train and the journey 
up the Patapsco Valley was resumed. 

THOMAS VIADUCT, the oldest railroad viaduct of its type in the 
world, spans the river at this point. It cannot be seen from US 1, 

170 TJ. S. ONE 

but is reached by a side road from either end of the highway bridge. 
Over this viaduct, which today echoes to the thunderous passage of 
modern giant locomotives, steel passenger cars, and ponderous freight 
trains, a century ago puffed diminutive locomotives drawing tiny 
wooden passenger and freight cars. According to engineers the struc- 
ture, despite its age, is in as good condition today as it was in 1835 
when it was built. It is constructed of native granite from a design by 
Benjamin H. Latrobe, son of the Benjamin Latrobe who designed the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral in Baltimore. The span is 612 ft. long, 
with eight elliptical arches. More than 24,000 cubic yards of masonry 
went into its construction and its cost was approximately $150,000. 
Today it would be impossible, experts say, to duplicate the bridge for 
a sum anywhere near the original cost. It would also be difficult, it 
is said, to procure skilled labor, particularly stone masons, able to do 
this kind of work. The bridge is built in an arc but easily accommo- 
dates the largest modern passenger and freight cars. 

Beneath the structure is one of the best gudgeon fishing spots in 
the State. Anglers of all ages and both sexes come by the hundreds to 
cast their lines for the tiny fish that make such a succulent meal. Few 
bother to pick the small bones from this fish when it is properly 
cooked; there are those who prefer gudgeon to lobster, shad, trout, 
bass, or any other kind of sea food. 

Right from Relay along the stream into the lowest section of the PATAPSCO 
STATE PARK, which lies between Relay and Ellicott City. (Permits for camping may 
be obtained from State Department of Forestry, Fidelity Building, Baltimore, Md.; per- 
mission for a single night's camping obtained 'from the park superintendent at Ilchester.) The 
RIVER ROAD through the park is a scenic drive of exceptional beauty. For almost 
the entire length of the area, the Patapsco River flows through a deep broad gorge, 
the wooded hills on either side rising to an elevation of 250 ft. above the stream. 

From the plateau above flow numerous streams, which produce cascades and 
miniature waterfalls as they tumble over rocky ledges. Foot trails and bridle 
paths have been laid out. The most picturesque is the CASCADE TRAIL along 
Cascade Branch at Orange Grove, halfway between Relay and Ellicott City. 

ELKRIDGE, 8.7 m. (1,556 pop.), is skirted by US 1. The land 
rising from the Patapsco River is hilly and picturesque, and in recent 
times has had considerable development as a residential suburb of 
Baltimore. Elkridge, still important as a trading center for the sur- 
rounding farm area, was in Colonial days, when it was known as Elk 
Ridge Landing, one of the principal shipping points in Maryland for 
tobacco, grain, and timber. The creek has now silted up. From 1750 


until the Revolutionary War it was a port of entry for Anne Arundel 
Co., which at one time included parts of what is now Howard Co. 
Special excise and customs agents were stationed at the port by the 
British for the purpose of assessing the tobacco shipped from there, 
mainly to foreign countries. The tobacco was rolled by Negro slaves 
from the plantations in huge hogsheads, and the route from the N. to 
the landing to this day retains the name of Rolling Road. During the 
Revolutionary War the tobacco trade languished considerably, but 
local forges and furnaces were kept busy turning out arms for the 
Continental Army. 

At Elk Ridge Landing in 1765 Zachariah Hood, British Stamp Act 
agent in Maryland, was hanged in effigy. Lafayette and his troops 
camped here April 17 and 18, 1781, on their way to engage the forces 
of Cornwallis in Virginia. 

At 9.8 m. is the junction with an unnumbered road. 

Right on this road 1 m. to the second paved road R.; then L. at the first fork to 
BELMONT (private), 2 m., a notable place of the past. The brick house, now cov- 
ered with yellow plaster, was built in 1783 by Caleb Dorsey, who had become 
wealthy through trading in iron ore mined near Elk Ridge Landing. He devel- 
oped the place for his bride, born Priscilla Hill, of West River. The low, rambling 
structure has much charm and is surrounded by gardens that were the pride of 
the owner and his wife, who planted the beautiful box hedge that is now 15 ft. 
high in some places. On each door of the house is a huge iron "witch cross" and 
on the main door an iron plate with the inscription "C&P 1783." 

Belmont was until his death in 1829 the home of Alexander Contee Hanson, 
an editor and a Congressman from Maryland, who was the grandson of John 
Hanson, President of the Continental Congress in 1781. 

WATERLOO, 13.7 m., is a crossroads community where once 
stood a famous inn of its day, Spurrier's Tavern, which burned many 
years ago. A small modern house stands on part of the foundations of 
the old structure. The tall cedars that once shaded the tavern and an 
ancient stone smokehouse are still here. Spurrier's Tavern was for 
many years a stopping place for travelers between Washington and 
Baltimore and between Annapolis and Frederick. Here the roads to 
these places crossed, and many famous men came to the tavern for 
food, refreshments, and rest. On June 18, 1795, George Washington 
wrote in his diary "dined and lodged at Spurrier's where my horse 
died (overcome by heat)." 

LAUREL RACE TRACK, 19.2 m. (L), on the northern outskirts of 
the town of Laurel, is one of the best patronized tracks in the United 

172 U. S. ONE 

States. The grandstand, seating about 10,000, is usually well filled 
each day of the fall racing season, which lasts a full month. The track 
was opened in 1912, and is the only one of the four one-mile tracks in 
Maryland that takes its full quota of racing days consecutively. The 
other tracks divide their quotas into spring and fall meets of two 
weeks each. The feature races and prizes here are: Laurel Handicap, 
Maryland Handicap, and Selima Stakes, each for $30,000; Wash- 
ington Handicap, $25,000; Richard Johnson Stakes, Spalding Lowe 
Jenkins Handicap, Governor Ogle Handicap, and Chevy Chase 
Steeplechase Handicap, $10,000 each; and Capital Handicap, 

LAUREL, 19.7 m. (156 alt., 2,532 pop.), is on land once owned 
by Richard Snowden, an officer in Cromwell's army, who came to 
Maryland late in the 17th century. The Snowdens had extensive 
holdings and played an important part in the development of this 
entire section of country. The town apparently derives its name from 
the fact that mountain laurel in profusion covers the hill back of the 
town. In its early history, the town was known as Laurel Factory. 

High-grade iron ore was discovered on the Snowden tract, and the 
Patuxent Iron Ore Co. was formed in 1736 to exploit the find. In 
1811 Nicholas Snowden erected a flour mill; previously, grain grown 
in the section was shipped by water to mills in nearby towns. The 
mill ceased operations in 1824. A brick house standing beside the old 
millrace is pointed out as NICHOLAS SNOWDEN'S MANSION. 

In 1887 David Weems conceived the idea of connecting the larger 
centers of the country with fast electric rail service. His original 
plans were for an electric line between Boston and Washington, pass- 
ing through New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Leading sci- 
entists in the field of electricity became interested in the idea, and at 
Laurel was constructed a circular track several miles in circumfer- 
ence, the superstructure of which carried an inverted overhead T-rail 
to serve as a trolley as well as a guide. The locomotive weighed three 
tons and had three axles, each serving as a shaft for a powerful motor. 
The drivers, 40 in. in diameter, were set to a 28-in. gage track, and 
were connected directly with the motors, no gears being used. 
Built exclusively for speed, it was more or less streamlined; the loco- 
motive actually attained a speed of 120 miles per hour at the trials. 
The locomotive maintained this speed for 22 minutes, when the 
superstructure collapsed under the terrific strain; the huge steel bulk 


hurtled through the air for a distance of more than a hundred 
feet and was demolished. Proponents of the electrification scheme 
dropped the project because funds to continue the experiments were 
not available. 

At the eastern edge of Laurel, along the Patuxent River, have been 
abandoned quarries that were worked long before the coming of the 
white man to this section. The quarries, from which was obtained 
stone especially adapted to the fashioning of cooking utensils and 
ornamental jugs, have yielded many fine products of Indian work- 
manship. In pits and in fields nearby have been found bits of pottery, 
arrowheads, and grooved axes. The fondness of these Indians for 
oysters is also plainly manifested by the presence of huge piles of 
oyster shells, uncovered in the course of digging operations. That 
the Indians who once inhabited this site knew how to extract copper 
from ore and work it is evidenced by the many pieces of crude plates, 
shields, and ornamental bangles found in the vicinity. 

At 20 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this road to (R) the entrance lane of MONTPELIER (private), 2m., which 
stands about a quarter of a mile from the highway. Construction of this large 
brick house, whose walls are laid in Flemish bond, was begun some time before 
1751 by Thomas Snowden and completed by his son, Maj. Thomas Snowden; 
the son himself is said to have done some of the carving in the drawing room. 

The house stands on a little knoll, from which ground falls away so abruptly 
that the floors of the wings, which have octagonal ends, are considerably lower 
than is that of the main section. Near the house are several hundred feet of fine 
old boxwood in double rows, part of it trained to form a cool alley between the 
house and a little gazebo with a charming view. 

The rich garden entrance leads into the center hall, from which open rooms 
ornamented with elaborate carvings. 

At 9 m. is the BOWIE RACE TRACK, constructed by the Southern Maryland 
Agricultural and Breeding Association. The track was completed hi 1914 and 
has been in operation ever since, the pari-mutuel betting system being used. 
Bowie, one of the State's most popular and solvent tracks, is a regulation mile in 
length, with a chute running into the home stretch, making it possible to run 
events of more than a mile if desired. The home stretch is 90 ft. wide, permitting 
the line-up of large fields. The back stretch is 75 ft. wide. The grandstand seats 
14,500 persons. 

The eastern racing season is ushered in at Bowie the first Monday in April. 
Thirteen-day meets are run in the spring and in the fall. Among stake events and 
handicaps on the program are Bryan and O'Hara Memorials, Rowe Inaugural, 
Bowie Memorial, Kindergarten Stakes, Southern Maryland Handicap, Endur- 
ance Handicap, and Thanksgiving Day Handicap. Because of its proximity to 

i 7 4 U. S. ONE 

Washington, the Capital's social set, members of the diplomatic corps, and many 
Government officials are frequently in attendance during the meets. 

At 21.7 m. on US 1 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road 0.3 m. is the entrance lane to OAKLAND (private). The man- 
sion, on an elevated site, can be seen from US 1. It stands on an estate that origi- 
nally contained 2,000 acres and was built in 1798 by Richard Snowden, son of 
Maj. Thomas Snowden of Montpelier. The house is a sturdy brick structure 
distinguished by fine front and rear doorways and by the excellence of the brick- 
work, the customary monotony being varied by heavy, glazed headers. In the 
rear is a charming terraced garden from which the rolling country can be viewed 
for many miles. A wing contains the kitchen, pantry, and servants' quarters. 
In each room of the house is a fireplace across the corner farthest from the en- 
trance door. The ceilings are high and the wainscoting and paneling especially 
attractive. An unusually wide staircase, with a Fairfax clock on the landing, 
ascends from the first floor hall. The remnants of a secret stairway that led from 
the sitting room to the master's bedroom can still be seen. 

This sitting room was a favorite gathering place for notables who liked to play 
cards for high stakes. A favorite legend associated with the place is that one eve- 
ning, during a boisterous game in which the stakes were unusually high, one of the 
players was suddenly called away by an urgent message. As the guest hurriedly 
left to answer the summons, the host, annoyed at the interruption, is said to have 
remarked, "I will play with the devil if he takes your place"; whereupon a tall 
slim man is said to have entered the room and asked that he be allowed to enter 
the game. "Be seated," the host invited, "though we do not know your name." 
The stranger, without deigning a reply, sat down and began to play and soon 
had won all the money in sight. The other players afterward said they had noticed 
a forked tail beneath the visitor's cloak but many to whom they told the story 
were sceptical, remembering the host's possession of a fine wine supply. 

MUIRKIRK, 23.2 m. (109 pop.), was once the center of a large 
iron manufacturing industry, the ore being mined in the nearby 
hills. It is believed that the place was named for a Scot named Muir, 
whose interest in the activities being carried on there was so great 
that he even spent Sundays in the mines or at the furnaces. His home 
later became known as Muir Kirk, or Muir Church. 

The original furnaces were built in 1747. Still standing are Six 
CHARCOAL OVENS of brick, in the shape of beehives, after the manner 
of those in England at that time. Iron produced at Muirkirk mills 
had a remarkable degree of tensile strength, and for that reason was 
much in demand and commanded a high price. The mills outlasted 
practically all other iron forges in Maryland operating during and 
after the Revolutionary War. In Civil War days, the Muirkirk forges 
supplied the Federal Government with a considerable number of 


cannon and cannon balls. Later, with the advent of modern arma- 
ment, the plant manufactured gun carriages, and even engaged in 
the peaceful business of manufacturing car wheels. In 1880 an ex- 
plosion razed the entire plant, but it was immediately rebuilt. 

At about the time of the World War, the plant began manufactur- 
ing a high grade ochre from ores obtained in the vicinity. In 1924 
a firm that made coloring matter took over the business, and now, 
instead of Maryland ores, high grade ores from Spain, Germany, 
Sardinia, France, India, South Africa, and Chile are used in the 
manufacture of pigments sold all over the world. At one time hun- 
dreds of men were employed at the mills and in the nearby mines. 
The population dwindled to slightly more than a hundred, though a 
gradual increase has come in recent years. 

Left from the bridge and across the railroad tracks, opposite the 
railroad station, is the BIG HOUSE (private) . A driveway bordered by 
linden trees leads to the dwelling, a three-story and basement struc- 
ture. Built by William E. Coffin for his son about 1847, it is a double 
dwelling with a central hall and 17 rooms. In the cellar is an artesian 
well that supplies water to the household. There is a private gas plant 
used to light the place before there was electric service. The dining 
room, which runs the entire width of the house, is paneled with wal- 
nut and chestnut boards two inches thick. On the first floor is a ball- 
room with a raised platform that was sometimes used as a stage. 
Legend has it that the Coffin family was exceptionally hospitable 
and diplomatic and that at times during the Civil War Confederates 
were being entertained in one section of the double house, while 
Union leaders were enjoying a feast in another. 

At 23.4 m. (L) is a marker commemorating the first official 
telegram. It recites that this telegram, reading "What hath God 
wrought," passed over the wires on a line of poles along the B. & O. 
R.R. from Washington to Baltimore on May 24, 1844. 

At 24.2 m. (R), on a large estate, is the AMMEMDALE NORMAL 
INSTITUTE. The buildings are visible from the highway, though set 
back several hundred yards. This is the Provincial House and Noviti- 
ate of the Brothers of the Christian Schools for the District of Balti- 
more. The institute prepares young men for the teaching brotherhood 
and also serves as a retreat for members of the order who are physi- 
cally unable to carry on their work. The members of the brotherhood 
cultivate the extensive farm on the estate. The organization was first 

176 U. S. ONE 

established in America at Baltimore by two members who came 
from Canada in 1845. 

At 25.1 m., by the Beltsville Station, is a junction with a paved 

Left on this paved road, which crosses the railroad tracks; there L. on a dirt 
road 0.5 m. to the former VAN HORN'S TAVERN (L), now a run-down private 
dwelling. \ 

On the paved road at 0.5 m. from US 1 is the entrance to the NATIONAL AGRI- 
CULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (best visiting hours 9-4 weekdays, 9-1 Sat.}, largest 
farm demonstration unit in the world; a 14,000-acre testing ground equipped with 
barns, laboratories, and research facilities to accommodate the work of 20 
subdivisions of the Department of Agriculture Bureaus of Soil Conservation, 
Forest Service, Dairy Industry, Animal Industry, Chemistry and Soils, Food and 
Drug Administration, Biological Survey, and Plant Industry. 

The center coordinates the work of local agencies and undertakes basic investi- 
gations. Here scientists are developing new strains of plants and livestock, in- 
venting new farm machines, fighting animal parasites and diseases, improving 
marketing methods, studying nutrition problems, and finding new uses for farm 

Although more than 500 trained people are employed here, and the annual 
cost of their experiments averages approximately a million dollars, the center is 
proving a good investment. One investigation in the storing of sweet potatoes, 
for example, has resulted in an annual saving to potato growers sufficient to pay 
the operating cost of the center for ten years. 

A paved road, East- West Highway, runs through the grounds. 

At 0.8 m. is a DAIRY LABORATORY (R), with nearby homes for maintenance. 

At 0.9 m. is the ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, a two-story light-colored stucco 
building with a red roof. On the first floor are offices; in the basement laboratory 
innumerable white mice used in a nutrition experiment are confined in cages, 
each of which bears the pedigree, health record, and diet of the occupants. Even 
to the untrained observer the difference made in the animals' health and energy 
by the various diets is apparent. 

In back of, and beside, the administration building are the DAIRY INDUSTRY 
BARNS and SILOS, where experiments are proving that sperm cells taken from a 
prize bull can be kept at low temperature and shipped to a distant farm for 
artificial insemination. The last barn in this group contains the bulls, and beside 
it, visible from the highway, is a BULL EXERCISER resembling a huge, rimless 
wheel placed in a horizontal position. For two hours each morning the bulls are 
harnessed to the spokes and a man sitting on the hub, forces them, by means of 
a long whip, to plod in a circle. This forced exercise not only improves the bulls' 
dispositions but also increases the number of years that they can be used for 

At 1 in. is a hard-surfaced drive curving L. in front of an old red-roofed house 
built of brick painted a creamy white. This is BIRMINGHAM MANOR (not open), 
built in 1785 and now the general superintendent's residence. The drive con- 
tinues past two large red brick buildings, the NUTRITION LABORATORIES of the 


Bureau of Animal Industry. Diets are worked out here to increase the fertility of 
cows, to produce hogs with firm flesh, and to prevent perosis or slip tendon in 

At 1.3 m. on East- West Highway is a junction with a dirt road; L. 0.2 m. to a 
junction with a second dirt road; R. a few feet to the SHEEP BARN (L), a two- 
story red brick building with one-story white stucco wings on each side. Here are 
bred sheep superior in wool production and grade karakuls, the offspring of 
Black-faced Corriedale or Highland ewes and Karakul rams. 

At 1.5 m. on East- West Highway is the junction with a hard-surfaced road; 
L. on this 0.1 m. to a dirt road (R) leading to the HOG BARNS. At 0.5 m. are the 
POULTRY LABORATORIES, four large cream-colored stucco and brick buildings. 
Here incubator eggs, just before hatching, are placed in "pedigree bags" to 
help identify the new-born chicks; flocks are tested for tuberculosis; trap nests 
identify good laying hens; and short-legged small- boned early maturing turkeys 
are being bred. 

At 1.9 m. on East- West Highway is (R) a LOG RECREATION BUILDING (kitchen 
facilities, dance hall). Here is a junction with a dirt road; L. on the road a few 
feet are the DOGS' RUNWAYS and HOUSE. Hungarian Pulis are being cross-bred 
in an attempt to produce a superior type of sheep dog. 

At 2.4 m. is the MACHINE SHOP (R); here is a dirt road (R) leading to the 
HORSE BARN built with an unusually high first story and wide center aisle so 
horses can be exercised in bad weather. Insulated ventilation shafts in the loft 
carry off the exhausted air from the stalls below. 

At the end of East- West Highway, 2.5 m., is the junction with a dirt road; R. 
on this 0.2 m. is the center's GOAT BARN. In the goat herd high-grade milk does 
are produced by selective breeding from the Toggenberg and Saanen strains. 
The kids are all bottle fed so that an accurate record can be kept of their mothers' 
milk production. 

At 26.2 m. on US 1 is a junction with a hard-surfaced road. 

Right here to the Bureau of Plant Industry's HORTICULTURAL STATION, 0.2 m., 
a part of the National Agricultural Research Center (see above). Behind the two 
large white-trimmed red-brick laboratories are a series of greenhouses in which 
seedlings are nourished in "manufactured" soil containing carefully measured 
chemicals; experiments are hastened by budding and new varieties achieved by 
crossing. The station has rendered fruit and vegetable growers valuable service 
by developing a lettuce immune to brown blight and mildew, a mildew-resistant 
melon, and the Marglobe tomato that not only resists Fusarium wilt and nailhcad 
rust but produces a fruit so solid it brings a fancy price to the grower. 

At 26.5 m. (R) is RHODES TAVERN, one of the few inns remaining 
from Colonial days. A marker here recites: "Lieutenant General 
George Washington dined at Rhodes Tavern on his last journey 
from Philadelphia to Mt. Vernon December 18, 1798." During the 
stagecoach era, this was the first stopping place for feeding and 
watering horses on the trip from Washington to Baltimore. The 

178 U. S. ONE 

tavern, now operated as a tourist inn, is a three-story structure con- 
taining 17 rooms and 11 fireplaces. The beams are of 14-in. square 
oak timbers and some of the mantels are of unusual design. In the 
kitchen the huge brick fireplace, with built-in oven, occupies the en- 
tire space across one end; the three-cornered cupboard, the hand- 
wrought meat hooks, the original locks which were brought from 
England, and the doorknobs remain. The building stands in a 10- 
acre lot; among the old trees remaining are two English elms, sup- 
posed to have been imported, and some cedar and walnut trees. 
There are six springs on the property, from one of which water is 
piped into the house. 

BERWYN, 28.4 m. (1,000 pop.), is largely a suburb of Washing- 

Left from Berwyn on a paved road 3.5 m. is GREENBELT, officially known 
as the Berwyn Resettlement Project, a model village projected by the Resettle- 
ment Administration. In addition to providing low-priced housing for persons 
with moderate incomes, construction of this model settlement gave work to 
thousands of mechanics and laborers who were previously unemployed. The 
project, begun in October 1935, is scheduled to be completed by the end of 1938 
at a total cost of approximately $9,000,000. It is estimated that eventually a 
thousand family units will be available, of which about 300 will be apart- 
ments. Each group or row of houses accommodates six family units. There are 
a few one-story dwellings, though the majority are two-story structures (see 

The village stands on a gently rolling, wooded tract of 3,800 acres. A small 
stream wending its way through the village to empty into a lake on the outskirts 
has been taken into account in the landscaping of the area and the arrangement 
of the buildings, which have been planned with care to relieve the monotony 
inherent in a development where all houses are being built from two basic plans 
to keep costs low. In the planning of the village the most modern standards of 
construction, ventilation, heating, sanitation, and arrangement have been ob- 
served. A central plant will supply heat to the individual units; the village will 
have all the usual community facilities, including a community hall and library. 
Furniture has been especially planned for the houses, to fit the spaces properly, 
specifications for the several types being based on sound design, solid construc- 
tion, and low cost. 

Underpasses have been built at the highway crossings for the protection of 
pedestrians, and on the fringe of the village is garden space where householders 
may raise their own vegetables; small farms are also available for those who want 
to supply part of the community need for foodstuffs. 

The property is being managed by a non-profit organization, supervised by 
the Federal Government to prevent profiteering and speculation. The commu- 
nity as a whole will pay taxes to the State. No family is permitted to live in the 
village that has more than a certain income, determined by the organization. 


At 28.7 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this side road is LAKELAND, 0.5 m. (300 pop.), a Negro suburban 
community. The place received its name from the large number of artificial lakes, 
in which goldfish are propagated. The site was surveyed and developed into a 
subdivision by Edwin Newman, who built several residences and a large hall, the 
latter for many years serving as a meeting place for fraternal organizations. This 
subdivision was developed in 1890 by white residents, but by 1900 the influx of 
Negro residents had grown to such proportions that the few remaining whites 
moved out. 

At COLLEGE PARK, 29.2 m. (316 pop.), is the seat of the UNI- 
VERSITY OF MARYLAND, a coeducational institution. Chartered in 
1856 as the Maryland Agricultural College, it was the second agri- 
cultural college in the Western Hemisphere, having its inception 
principally through the efforts of a group of enterprising southern 
Maryland farmers, interested in stimulating agricultural research. 
For three years after its charter was granted, it was privately oper- 
ated, but in 1862, under the Land Grant Act passed by the National 
Congress and accepted by the State General Assembly, it became in 
part a State institution. In 1914 it was taken over entirely by the 
State, and in 1916, under a new charter granted by the General As- 
sembly, it became Maryland State College. In 1920, by an act of the 
legislature, the professional schools of the University of Maryland in 
Baltimore were merged with the college under the new name, the 
University of Maryland. 

The university grounds comprise 286 acres. A broad, rolling 
campus is surmounted by a hill overlooking a wide area of surround- 
ing country. On this hill are most of the 26 buildings. 

The LIBRARY BUILDING is situated in the center of the campus on 
a slope commanding a view of the surrounding countryside. Tall 
trees form a setting for the red brick and limestone building. The 
main stairway enters the delivery hall on the second floor, from 
which there is access, through an arched entrance, to the reading 
room, which occupies the entire front of the second floor and seats 
250; the room is attractively decorated with walnut woodwork and 
furnished with pedestal tables and Bank of England chairs. The 
library has about 58,000 volumes. 

In the Student Center are offices of the student publications, the 
Religious Work Council, and the Maryland Christian Association. 
Three student publications are conducted under the supervision of a 
faculty committee: the Diamond Back, a weekly six- to eight-page 

i8o U. S. ONE 

newspaper published by the students; the Terrapin, the student 
annual, published by the junior class; and the Old Time, a comic 
magazine issued quarterly. 

Many of the original forest trees still stand on the grounds, which 
are attractively laid out in lawns and terraces, with ornamental 
shrubbery and flower beds. Below the brow of the hill, on each side 
of the Washington-Baltimore Boulevard, are the drill grounds and 
athletic fields. 

STATION adjoin the boulevard. About 100 acres are used by the 
College of Agriculture for experimental purposes, and for orchards, 
vineyards, and poultry yards. Recently an additional 200 acres were 
purchased about two miles N. of the university campus, to be de- 
voted exclusively to research in horticulture. The station has done 
noteworthy work in the field of tree and plant culture. Experiments 
begun in the apple orchards of western Maryland in 1933 developed 
a great amount of valuable information concerning the nutritional 
changes in fruit trees resulting from the addition of chemicals and 
sugar to the soil. Tobacco yields have been increased and made more 
uniform as the result of a series of experiments lasting over a period of 
21 years. One of the present problems is the eradication of the 
oriental fruit moth, which is causing Maryland fruit growers heavy 

On the university grounds (R), opposite Ritchie Stadium, is 
ROSSBURG INN, now used by the Agricultural Experiment Station, a 
three-story structure of brick that may have come from England, for 
the clay used in their manufacture is different from any found in this 
part of the country. The building had a gabled roof, which was 
changed to a mansard in 1888 when the large front porch was built; 
the upstairs floors, the stairway, the railing, and the archway on the 
first floor are all old. In the days when the house was used as an inn, 
the front room on the left, now a laboratory, was the main reception 
room, with a private stair leading down to the wine cellar. 

The keystone over the door of Rossburg Inn has on it the name T. 
Goad, the date 1798, and a figure that represents Silenus, eldest of 
the satyrs and teacher of Bacchus. General Lafayette, on his last visit 
to America, stopped overnight at Rossburg Inn, and his name has 
been given to a room on the second floor. The inn is said to have 
been the scene of several murders. 


RIVERDALE, 30.7 m. (37 alt., 1,533 pop.), is a community 
many of whose inhabitants are employed in Washington. On Arthur 
Ave. is CALVERT MANSION (private), built about the middle of the 
18th century by Baron Von Stein, a refugee nobleman, for his 
daughter, who married Charles Benedict Calvert, grandson of the 
sixth Lord Baltimore. The stuccoed Georgian building is of brick. 
The boxwood hedges on the terrace have been removed, but an old 
cannon, said to have been one of the four brought over by Maryland 
pilgrims in the Ark, still stands in the rear garden. The mansion has 
been the scene of many distinguished social gatherings, and it is said 
that Henry Clay wrote the Missouri Compromise while a visitor 

HYATTSVILLE, 31.4 m. (46 alt., 4,264 pop.), is the home of 
many Federal employees and business and professional people em- 
ployed in Washington, and is a banking and commercial center for 
the surrounding area. The town, incorporated in 1880, was named 
for Hyatt, who was its first postmaster. Hyatt's home, known as 
HYATT MANOR, Rhode Island and Hyatt Aves., was built in 1850. 
It is a large, square-built brick structure, painted yellow, with 
porches across the front of both the first and second stories. 

The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Wine and Johnson Aves., has a 
silver communion set said to have been sent as a gift by Queen Anne 
in 1707. 

At Hyattsville there are alternate routes into Washington, both 
marked US 1. 

Right on an extension of Rhode Island Ave. which runs to the center of the city; 
Rhode Island Ave. intersects 16th St. NW. eight blocks N. of the White House, 

The older route of US 1 (L) crosses the viaduct and enters the 
District of Columbia on the Bladensburg Road. 

At 32 m. on the Bladensburg Road, just N. of the bridge over the 
Anacostia River, is the junction with a dirt road marked Locust St. 

Right on Locust St. 0.2 m. (L) is an EIGHT-SIDED HOUSE, an odd-looking 
three-story frame structure to which a brick kitchen has been added. A number of 
such houses were built in this area years ago, but most have disappeared. 

BLADENSBURG, 32.4 m. (10 alt., 816 pop.), chartered in 1742, 
was formerly one of the busiest ports in Maryland. Now only a little 
stream at this point, the Anacostia River was once navigable to 

i8a U. S. ONE 

Garrison's Landing, the name by which the town site was then 
known. At the height of its prosperity, it enjoyed a considerable ex- 
port trade in tobacco and flour. There were a number of flour mills, 
wholesale merchandise stores, tobacco warehouses, several firms of 
shipping agents, inns, and other establishments incident to a busy 

Here is the SITE OF THE BATTLE OF BLADENSBURG. Here, in the War 
of 1812, an army of untried militiamen made an unsuccessful attempt 
to save the city of Washington from capture by the British forces 
under General Ross. In August 1814 an enemy fleet commanded by 
Admiral Gockburn, with several thousand veterans of the Napoleonic 
campaigns aboard, arrived in Chesapeake Bay. Commander Barney 
with a small American flotilla had been virtually bottled up in the 
Patuxent River since late in 1813 by another squadron. The British 
plan was to dispose of Barney, land troops, and march overland to 
Washington, which spies had told them was poorly defended. Realiz- 
ing the hopelessness of his position, Barney burned his ships to pre- 
vent their capture by the enemy, first, however, removing the cannon 
which later was used with some effect against the foe. 

Barney marched his men, about 400 in number, to join the defense 
of the Capital, where, in response to a call from President Madison, 
militia from Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia had been con- 
centrated for nearly a year. When news reached the military au- 
thorities at Washington that the British had landed and were on the 
march to take the Capital, this force, numbering about 7,500, was 
sent out under orders to halt the advancing enemy. The raw, un- 
trained men had been denied the necessary preparation and proper 
equipment for their task because of the bickerings and petty jeal- 
ousies. Interposed between the oncoming British and the country's 
Capital, under leaders of whom they knew little and whom they 
trusted less, the militia met Ross' column of experienced soldiers, 
numbering between five and six thousand officers and men, at this 
place on August 24, 1814. Inefficiency of organization, lack of co- 
ordination between units resulting in conflicting orders, and the con- 
sequent loss of morale among the rank and file had the inevitable 
result; in spite of the efforts of their commander, General Winder 
of Maryland, to rally them, the American ranks, after a brief and in- 
effective resistance, broke and fled. What has been called an ordered 
retreat was in reality a rout and Ross continued to the Capital 


unopposed. He entered the city, from which the Government had 
already fled, and burned various parts of the city in retaliation, it 
was said, for the earlier burning of York, Ontario, by American 
troops. The Nation's Capitol was partly destroyed, as were a number 
of other public structures. 

Near Bladensburg was at one time a secluded field to which gentle- 
men frequently resorted to settle their disputes by duels. Among the 
50 or more encounters that are said to have taken place on this spot, 
known as the BLADENSBURG DUELING GROUND, was the one in which 
on March 22, 1 820, Capt. Stephen Decatur lost his life at the hands 
of Commodore James Barron. 

At 33.7 m. is the District of Columbia Line. A marker reads: 
"Maryland. At this point George Washington first entered Prince 
Georges County as it was then constituted, August 1751, and made 
his last exit therefrom December 18, 1798. Ave, Ave, atque Vale: Hail, 
Hail and Farewell" 

A short distance S. of the District Line US 1 follows the recently 
extended New York Ave.; New York Ave. joins Pennsylvania Ave. 
at 15th St. NW. 

On Pennsylvania Ave. at the foot of 16th St. NW. is the WHITE 
HOUSE, 39.2 m. 


WASHINGTON (40 alt., 486,869 pop.), the National Capital 

Railroad Stations. Baltimore & Ohio R.R., Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Pennsylvania 
R.R., Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R., and Southern Ry., Union 
Station, Massachusetts and Delaware Aves. 

Points of Interest. National Capitol (see illustration), White House, Library of Con- 
gress, Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, Washington Cathedral, 
Folger Shakespeare Library, Supreme Court Building, and many others. 


Washington, D.C. Fredericksburg Richmond Petersburg 
N.C. Line, 205.9 m. Mount Vernon Memorial Highway and US 1. 

Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R. parallels this route between Wash- 
ington and Richmond; Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line between Rich- 
mond and Petersburg; and Seaboard Air Line between Petersburg and the 
N.C. Line. 

Well-paved roadbed but in many places too. narrow for the heavy traffic; drivers 
should be particularly watchful for trucks at night because they often stop on the 
highway, and the rolling nature of the country frequently prevents a clear view 
of the road for any considerable distance. 

Accommodations of various kinds at frequent intervals; better hotels principally 
in cities. 

Section 15. Washington, D.C., to Richmond, Va., 113.4 m. 

There are two routes for US 1 between the White House in Wash- 
ington and US 1 S. of the Potomac River: 

By the 14th St. Highway Bridge: E. from White House on Pennsylvania Ave. to 
15th St. NW.; R. on 15th St. to Pennsylvania Ave.; L. on Pennsylvania Ave. to 
14th St. NW.; R. on 14th St. to bridge, 2 m. At the south end of the bridge, 
straight ahead for US 1 or R. in a loop to reach Mount Vernon Memorial High- 
way (US 1-Alt.), which runs under south end of bridge. This route has many 
traffic lights and is apt to be congested between 7 and 9 a.m. and 4 and 6 p.m. 

Between the south end of the 14th St. Highway Bridge and Alexandria, Va., 
and between Alexandria and a point 8 miles S. of that town, two routes are avail- 
able: the Memorial Highway and US 1. The former is a boulevard close to the 
river, passing Mount Vernon; the latter a narrow heavily traveled highway with 
many busses and trucks and few points of interest. 

By Arlington Memorial Bridge: W. on Pennsylvania Ave. to 17th St. 
NW.; L. on 17th St. to Constitution Ave.; R. on Constitution Ave. 
to 23rd St. NW.; L. on 23rd St. and around Lincoln Memorial to 
bridge, 1.5 m.; L. on Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. 

From the Arlington Memorial Bridge, ARLINGTON (open daily 
Apr -Aug. 9-6; March and Sept. 9-5; Oct. -Feb. 9-4:30; adm. free) is 
plainly visible on the bluff ahead. The house was built by Robert E. 
Lee's father-in-law, George Washington Parke Custis. Its stately 
portico affords a superb view of the Potomac and overlooks Arlington 
National Cemetery (see WASHINGTON: CITT AND CAPITAL and 
VA. GUIDE), on its one-time lawn. It was occupied for many years 
after Lee left it to head the armies of the Confederacy, but it is now 


1 86 U. S. ONE 

maintained as a memorial; to him. It is one of the earliest examples 
of the Greek Revival style of architecture. The front of the mansion 
is supposed to have been modeled on the Temple of Theseus at 
Athens; the design of the pediment resembles that of the Temple 
of Athene at Aegina. The stones for its foundation came from the 
land nearby, and the bricks of clay were burned upon the place, 
under the supervision of Custis. The eight large white columns of 
the portico were built of brick and cemented over to give perfectly 
rounded circumferences. 

Construction on the north wing was begun in 1 802, but the man- 
sion was not entirely completed until shortly before the Civil War, 
thus accounting for the asymmetrical arrangement of the interior. 

Mary Ann Randolph Custis, daughter and sole heir of the master 
of the estate, lived at Arlington from the time of her marriage to 
Lt. Robert E. Lee in 1831 until 1861, when the mansion was taken 
over by the Union forces. In 1864 title to the property passed to the 
United States in lieu of unpaid taxes illegally levied. In 1874, one 
year after the death of Mary Ann Custis Lee, the house was returned 
to its rightful heir, George Washington Custis Lee, son of Robert E. 
Lee, who later sold Arlington to the U. S. Government for $150,000. 

After the death of Martha Washington many of the heirlooms at 
Mount Vernon portraits, silver, china, and furniture, including 
the bed upon which George Washington died, the camp tent he used 
throughout the Revolutionary War, and Martha Washington's 
money chest were brought to this house, but many of them have 
since been returned to Mount Vernon. The furnishings of Arlington 
are of the period in which the house was built; some were formerly 
used here. 

The interior, with its high ceilings, large paneled doors with wide 
molded trim, and graceful archways, is in keeping with the simple 
character and scale of the great portico. Its arrangement is typical of 
the Virginia mansions of the era in which it was built; that is, it has 
a broad central hall dividing the rooms. Near the west entrance are 
the family dining room and parlor (L). There is an exceptionally 
long drawing room (R). 

In the south wing of the mansion is the formal dining room, beyond 
which is the study. Along the west wall is the small conservatory, the 
Camellia House. 

From the Memorial Highway, which swings L. at the end of the 


bridge, there are excellent views of the city of Washington; the 
WASHINGTON MONUMENT and the CAPITOL are outstanding land- 
marks, particularly striking at night when they are illuminated. 

At 3.2 m. the boulevard passes under the south end of the 14th St. 
Highway Bridge (see above),, whose roadway runs straight ahead to 
US 1 past the WASHINGTON AIRPORT (R). The boulevard, the alter- 
nate to US 1, is broad and well landscaped, running close to the 
Potomac River for many miles. Just S. of the Highway Bridge it 
passes one of several lagoons along the route, the ROACHES RUN 
SANCTUARY for waterfowl, under the protection of the Federal Gov- 
ernment. Parking places at intervals offer vistas of the city and the 
river. The road swings in broad curves and the conspicuous GEORGE 
seen for some distance before the city is reached. At a traffic circle 
on the northern edge of the city the boulevard is joined by US 1 

ALEXANDRIA, 10 m. (52 alt., 24,140 pop.), historic city (see 

Points of Interest. Christ Church, Gadsby's Tavern, Carlyle House, and many 

At the southern end of the small city US 1 turns R. on Franklin 
St.; the boulevard runs straight ahead, crossing HUNTING CREEK on a 
long, low bridge. In 1676 Governor Berkeley built a fort near the 
creek for defense against the Susquehannock Indians who did not 
accept the European invasion of their lands with complacence. 
South of the creek the boulevard enters 8 miles of wooded parkway 
that is particularly delightful in the spring when the purple blossoms 
of the Judas-tree mingle with the pink and white dogwood blossoms 
and the ground is almost solidly covered with flowering bluets and 
spring beauty. 

COLLINGWOOD, 15.3 m. (L), a remodeled Colonial house that is 
now a tearoom, is on the Old River Farm of the Mount Vernon 
estate. From Johnson Spring, which supplies the restaurant, pre- 
Revolutionary vessels plying out of Alexandria took water for their 
voyages. A secluded corner of the grounds was frequently used for 
duels in Colonial times. 

The entrance to MOUNT VERNON (open daily March-Oct. 9-4:30, 
Nov.-Feb. 9-4; adm. 25f), 18.8 m., for many years the home of George 

i88 U. S. ONE 

Washington, now a museum (see WASHINGTON: CITT AND CAPI- 
TAL and VA. GUIDE), is flanked by a modern building that houses 
a restaurant. 

The boulevard swings R., passing the probable site of one of the 
King's Houses noted on Capt. John Smith's map made a few years 
after the founding of the Colony of Virginia; Thomas Jefferson found 
Indian artifacts in his rambles on the grounds of Mount Vernon and 
made some attempts at exploration of the site but no one has yet con- 
tinued his work, though recent explorations of other sites indicated on 
the Smith map have produced many relics of the pre-settlement 

At 19.3 m. (R) is the restored MOUNT VERNON GRIST MILL (open 
on application to caretaker, next door) ; here grain was ground for market, 
as well as for the estate. 

At 21.2 m. the boulevard again joins US 1 ; L. on US 1 . 

High on a hill opposite the junction is WOODLAWN (open only during 
April Garden Week). The land, formerly part of the Mount Vernon 
estate, was left by Washington to Lawrence Lewis, his nephew, who 
became the husband of Nellie Gustis, granddaughter of Martha 
Washington. The house (see illustration), in Federal Georgian style, 
was designed by William Thornton, architect of the National Capi- 
tol, but has a likeness to Kenmore in Fredericksburg, the home of 
Lawrence Lewis' mother, though Woodlawn was built on a much 
grander scale. The square two-story brick building has the usual 
central hall of the period; it has story-and-a-half wings with story- 
and-a-half connecting pavilions. A high brick wall joins the kitchen 
and library wings with outbuildings. Particularly noteworthy are the 
arched mullioned windows of the pavilions and the hipped floor. 
The broad brick terraces on the river front have beautiful gardens 
and much old boxwood. 

US 1 between Fredericksburg and Washington more or less fol- 
lows an Indian trail established long before the Europeans pene- 
trated the country. Because it provided the shortest route along the 
Virginia bank of the Potomac Rhjer, colonists persisted in using it 
despite the mire, difficult fords, and other obstacles that drew their 
curses. Prior to 1700 a public highway was established here by law 
and landowners whose side fences crossed it were compelled to main- 
tain gates for the convenience of travelers. Several ferries to the 
Maryland shore were operated along the Potomac for the use of 


those who wanted short-cuts to Baltimore and Philadelphia. Almost 
every diary and travel book written by people who used the trail in 
the days when it was known as the Potomac Path, and later as the 
King's Highway, recorded some near-disastrous adventure on it. 
Dr. Coke, an English tourist of the late 18th century, nearly per- 
ished in fording Accotink Creek during a freshet; John Marshall 
spoke feelingly of miring his horse; and Thomas Jefferson bemoaned 
the fact that the best speed he could make was three miles an hour. 
Testy John Randolph of Roanoke likened the Chopowamsic Swamp 
to the Serbonian bog that swallowed the unwary forever. As late as 
1 820 the mail had to leave Alexandria before sunup in order to reach 
Fredericksburg before sundown the same day. The earliest travelers 
went afoot, later ones on horseback. As the colonists prospered, some 
used private coaches and buggies, though the majority still rode 

At 21.6 m. US 1 crosses the boundary of a military reservation 
through which it runs for about a mile. At 21.9 m. is an entrance to 
FORT BELVOIR, formerly Fort Humphreys. 

Left on this road 1.5 m. is the neat parade ground surrounded by administra- 
tive offices and the quarters for officers and men. The reservation occupies a large 
peninsula, part of a huge grant made by Charles II to Lord Gulpeper that came 
into the hands of the fifth Lord Fairfax when he married Gulpeper's daughter. 
The son of this marriage cleared the title and sent his cousin, Col. William Fairfax, 
to America as his agent, granting him 2,500 acres called Belvoir and including the 
peninsula. In 1741 Colonel Fairfax built a^house that Washington described as 
having "nine rooms and suitable outhouses." In 1743 Colonel Fairfax's daughter 
married Lawrence Washington, who built Mount Vernon as his home. George 
Washington was a frequent visitor at Belvoir and there practiced surveying. The 
house, which stood on a bluff above the river, was demolished by gunfire as the 
British fleet came up the river during the War of 1812; the daffodils that bloom 
profusely around the ruins in the spring are thought to be descendants of those 
planted in the Colonial garden. On the northern shore of the peninsula are an 
EXPERIMENT STATION and a FISH HATCHERY of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

AGGOTINK, 23.3 m., a collection of filling stations and lunch- 
rooms, took its name from Accotink Creek (Ind., boat or canoe). 

POHIGK CHURCH of Truro Parish, 24.2 m. (open daily in summer, 
10 a.m.-4 p.m.; in winter on Sat. and Sun.; free), was constructed in 
1769-74 under the supervision of George Washington, George 
Mason, and George William Fairfax, leading landowners of the 
parish. Washington owned two pews here for his family and guests, 
dividing his attendance between Pohick Church and Christ Church, 

i 9 o U. S. ONE 

Alexandria. The well-proportioned building, of brick laid in Flemish 
bond and of Aquia sandstone, went through such a long period of 
neglect and vandalism that the interior is largely a restoration. 
During the Civil War Union soldiers tore out the pews, used the 
baptismal font for a watering trough, and set up a target against one 
wall; the font, found many years later in a neighboring farmyard, is 
almost the only original piece of furnishing. The restored pews are 
unlike the earlier ones, which were high-backed to give privacy to 
the occupants. 

At 24.5 m. is the junction with a paved road, locally called the 
Back Road. 

Right on this road, which follows the old Indian trail used in fording Occoquan 
Creek; the settlers early established a ferry near the river to avoid this detour. 
LORTON, 0.5 m., is the seat of the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WORKHOUSE. 

OCCOQUAN (Ind., hooked inlet), 2.5 m. (221 pop.), a small trading center, 
was founded in 1804. On December 27, 1862, Occoquan was raided by Wade 
Hampton. Right from Occoquan an unpaved road leads 5 m. to MINNIE VILLE, 
near which is BEL AIR, the home, during his married life, of Parson Mason Locke 
Weems, George Washington's first and most imaginative biographer. This house 
was built in pre-Revolutionary days by Col. James Ewell, a classmate of Jeffer- 
son's at William and Mary College, and a prosperous citizen of Dumfries, before 
nature and war combined to ruin the tobacco trade at this point. His widow 
would have lost her home had not her daughter Fannie married the energetic 
author and bookseller. Weems' wife and children lived in the family house, and 
he visited them briefly at intervals as he journeyed N. and S. The square brick 
house is rather small and, as in other Colonial houses, the visitor is moved to 
wonder how it was possible to find sleeping places for the large family and their 
many guests. The house has not suffered from ill-advised restorations and, except 
for the lack of outbuildings, is about as it was in the days when it was Weems' 
legal residence. It is undistinguished in architecture, but the paneled drawing- 
room is attractive; a basement kitchen has a fireplace in which a large hog could 
be roasted. The view from the house is exceptional; on clear days Washington 
landmarks are visible. 

The Back Road returns to the main road at Woodbridge, 4.5 in. (see below). 

At 25.5 m. on US 1 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is GUNSTON HALL, 4 m. (house never open to public; gardens only 
during annual April Garden Week). The house stands on land patented in 1651 by 
Richard Turney, who was hanged for his part in Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, and 
was built by the fourth George Mason, author of the Virginia Bill of Rights. The 
plans were made by William Buckland, probably with the assistance of Thomas 
Mason, brother of the owner, who brought Buckland from England for the work. 
The building is of rectangular story-and-a-half type characteristic of 18th cen- 
tury Virginia architecture, but its details are highly individual. Both front and 


rear porches are noteworthy, the former closely following the lines of the Temple 
of Tyche at Eumeneia in Asia Minor, and the latter being eight-sided, with 
pointed arches, one of the rare examples of Colonial Gothic. The enrichment of 
ornament in the interior is not surpassed in any other house of its day in America; 
the Chinese Chippendale drawing-room represented the most fashionable mode 
in England at the time of the building. Another unusual feature is the staircase, 
with risers so low that it gives almost the effect of a ramp. The gardens are beau- 
tiful and the boxwood is famous. The tenant-owner has deeded the place to the 
State of Virginia for future preservation. 

At WOODBRIDGE, 29.8 m. is the junction with a side road 
(see above). 

On US 1 at 32.3 m. (L) are two gateposts marking the entrance to 
RIPPON LODGE (private). The house, recently much remodeled, was 
designed in 1725 by Richard Blackburn, the British architect, who 
later designed Mount Vernon for Lawrence Washington. During the 
Revolutionary War it was a center of military activities for the region. 

DUMFRIES, 36.8 m. (157 pop.), is hardly a shadow of the port 
that successfully rivaled Alexandria in pre-Revolutionary days. 
Even before the Revolution, Quantico Greek began to fill with silt, 
so that ships were unable to reach the warehouses and wharves where 
tobacco was loaded and the finery and staples of England unloaded. 
English merchants, long envious of the local monopoly attained by 
the Scottish merchants, watched the decline with satisfaction, but it 
spelled ruin to some of the nearby Colonial planters. In the days 
of prosperity, however, many of the planters had resented the Scots' 
practice of meeting twice a year at Dumfries to decide on the rate of 
exchange and the price to be paid for tobacco. There are many 
records of the gay social life of Dumfries in its prime of the tea 
drinkings, balls, and parties. The town even supported drama; 
Washington in his diary noted that he stopped here to see The 
Recruiting Officer. 

At 41.2 m. (R) is one of the entrances to CHOPOWAMSIG PARK, 
which comprises 1 1 ,000 acres of submarginal land being developed 
by the National Park Service into a camping center. 

TRIANGLE, 38.6 m., is at one of the entrances to the QUANTICO 
MARINE BASE, where several thousand marines are stationed. The 
Government reservation is a plot of 2,000 acres on the Potomac. 
After the World War, hundreds of wooden transport ships were 
towed to anchor off the peninsula; some have been burned, while 
others remain rotting in the water. 

i 9 2 U. S. ONE 

CHOPOWAMSIG CREEK, 39.4 m., was long a difficult problem for 
the early road builders, and one of the causes of the near-disappear- 
ance of the road for a time. After the railroad was extended from 
Richmond to Fredericksburg travelers found it more comfortable to 
go between Fredericksburg and Washington by steamboat than to 
endure the hazards of the Potomac Path. The advent of the automo- 
bile stimulated engineers to efforts that eventually brought the road 
back to utility. 

At 43.2 m. is AQUIA CREEK (Ind., bush nut), near which Giles 
Brent and his sisters, Margaret and Mary, built homes after disputes 
with Lord Baltimore caused them to move from Maryland. The 
Brents arrived in Maryland in 1638 and for many years were prom- 
inently identified with affairs there. In 1650 Giles Brent first patented 
land in Virginia. His other patents and those of his sisters followed in 
quick succession. 

Mistress Margaret Brent, who appears in Maryland records as 
"Margaret Brent, Gentleman," was one of the most remarkable 
women in Colonial history. She appears frequently in the records of 
her two States, negotiating transactions of her own and acting as 
attorney for her brother, her sister, and neighbors who needed her 
help. She was the first woman in America to ask for "voyce & vote 
allso." Because Leonard Calvert, Governor of Maryland, made her 
his sole executrix in an oral will that tersely instructed her "to take 
all and pay all," and because the Maryland Council made her ad- 
ministratrix of Lord Baltimore's revenues, she argued before the 
Assembly that she should be given full rights of citizenship. When 
the request was denied by Governor Greene, she declared that she 
would protest all action taken by the Assembly if she were not 
present and granted "as aforesaid voyce & vote allso." Her brother's 
difficulties with Lord Baltimore, arising from Giles Brent's claims to 
land he considered due him because of his marriage to the daughter 
of the Piscataway chief, and Margaret Brent's indignation that Lord 
Baltimore should resent her having paid hired soldiers out of his 
revenues were responsible for the Brents' moving to Virginia and for 
the speedy colonization of the vast territory known then as North- 
umberland County. 

The Brents, however, were not the first settlers on Aquia Creek. 
Much earlier eight Spaniards of the Society of Jesus came from Mex- 
ico and attempted to found a mission at Aquia. They were killed by 




the Indians a few months later. A monument in memory of the 
priests and the early Brents has recently been unveiled beside the 
highway. It is near the site of Brenton, which was planned as a 
sanctuary for peoples of all religious faiths and which was made 
possible by the Charter of Religious Liberty granted in 1686 by 
James II of England. 

Aquia Creek was for ten years after the Indian war of 1676 the 
northern frontier of Virginia. On it was the supply base of the Army 
of the Potomac for the Fredericksburg campaign (1862) and the 
Chancellorsville campaign (1863). 

At 44.2 m. (L) is AQUIA CHURCH on the site of an earlier structure. 
Over the south door of the present building is inscribed: "Built A.D. 
1751, destroyed by fire 1754, and rebuilt in 1757 by Mourning 
Richards, undertaker (contractor); William Copein, Mason." The 
two-story building is in the form of a Greek cross. It has two tiers of 
windows set deep in thick brick walls; the lower windows are square, 
containing 18 panes each, while the upper windows are oval-topped. 
There are three double-door entrances at angles of the cross. Unlike 
most old Virginia churches, it has a bell and clock tower. The com- 
munion service given to the parish in 1739 was buried for safekeeping 
during three wars those of 1776, 1812, and 1861. The construction 
cost of the church was paid in tobacco, the current medium of 

At 45.4 m. stood PEYTON'S ORDINARY, a country tavern at which 
Washington sometimes stopped for meals when journeying to 
Fredericksburg to visit his mother. The place was something of a 
social center for the poorer landowners of the countryside. Rocham- 
beau's army camped near it during the Revolution. 
* STAFFORD COURTHOUSE, 47.5 m., seat of Stafford Co., was occu- 
pied by the Army of the Potomac from November 1862 until June 
1863. The courthouse contains only a few early records. Most of them 
were destroyed or carried off during the Civil War. Some early 
records taken away during the war were found in the New York 
State Library and returned to Stafford within recent years. 

Left of the highway in the section near the mouth of Potomac 
Creek Capt. John Smith in 1 608 saw the Indian village Patawomeck, 
which contained the King's House of Powhatan. From this village 
Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, was kidnaped in 1613 by Captain 
Argall, who planned to hold her as hostage until her father returned 

i 9 4 U. S. ONE 

rifles and other articles he and his followers had stolen. It was during 
this period of captivity that Pocahontas met and married John 
Rolfe; she never returned to the village. 

Travelers landed from steamers near this point to take the stage- 
coach to Fredericksburg, an early railroad terminus. Charles Dickens 
landed here on his way to Richmond, and returned by the same 
route in March 1842. 

On the creek, land was laid off in 1691 for a port and the seat of 
Stafford Co., called Marlborough. Houses were built and the county 
court was held here for several years. The town did not grow, and in 
1747 John Mercer bought the county's rights in it. 

FALMOUTH, 55.4 m., now only a small village, was founded in 
1727 as a trading post for the Northern Neck and became a milling 
center to which ocean ships came to load foodstuffs for England. 
Here were flour mills, tobacco warehouses, and stores. In return for 
foodstuffs sent overseas came English goods to satisfy the needs and 
fancies of a prosperous community. For a brief period Falmouth was 
the rival of Fredericksburg across the Rappahannock River; a bridge 
subsequently built across the river gave Northern Neck territory the 
advantage of greater tonnage that docked a mile downstream, di- 
verting commercial importance to Fredericksburg and the south 
bank and leading to the gradual decline of this early port. In Fal- 
mouth Basil Gordon became one of America's first millionaires. 
George Washington lived near the town as a boy. 

Right 1 m. from Falmouth and visible from US 1 is the HOME OF THE LATE 
GARI MELGHERS, American artist. Trained at Dusseldorf, Melchers achieved a 
reputation in Europe for his paintings of Dutch peasant life. In Virginia his 
favorite subjects were mountaineer types, such as those in The Pot Boils. 

US 1 crosses the Rappahannock River near the spot where a fort 
was built in 1676 to protect the settlers from the Indians. 

FREDERICKSBURG, 56.5 m. (50 alt., 6,819 pop.), Colonial 
port (see VA. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Kenmore, home of Washington's sister; Rising Sun Tavern; 
law office of James Monroe; apothecary shop of Dr. Hugh Mercer; and others. 

1. Right on Canal St. in Fredericksburg; R. at Prince Edward St.; thence on 
the old River Road to power canal; on a bold eminence here (R) is SNOWDEN, 
1.5 m., originally known as Smith's Hill. Snowden was built in 1808 by Yeaman 
Smith, son-in-law of the Reverend James Mayre, Sr., Huguenot, rector of old 
St. George's Church, Fredericksburg, and tutor of George Washington and his 


Shortly before the Battle of Fredericksburg, a hurried conference was held in 
the parlor of this rectangular brick building with white-pillared portico. Not 
long after the Federal advance reached Stafford Heights, Gen. E. V. Sumner, 
commanding the Right Grand Division of the Army of the Potomac, dispatched 
a note to Mayor Slaughter, of Fredericksburg, advising that he would bombard 
the town at daybreak the following morning in retaliation for the firing on Union 
troops from Fredericksburg. Mayor Slaughter communicated with General Lee, 
who could not go to Fredericksburg and arranged to meet the city's chief execu- 
tive here, outside the town limits; Lee was unable to offer protection to the town. 

2. Left from Fredericksburg on State 218 4 m. to WHITE OAK PRIMITIVE 
CHURCH, built in 1789. It is a low building of frame construction, and rests on a 
foundation of rough-hewn stones. A wing for Negroes was added to the original 
building. The interior is plain, the woodwork of pine, and the original wooden 
benches are still in place. 

In Fredericksburg at 56.9 m. US 1 swings (R) into Lafayette 
Blvd., which comes to a dead end at the SUNKEN ROAD, 57.6 m., the 
western city limits. 

Straight ahead is the entrance to the NATIONAL MILITARY CEME- 
TERY on MARYE'S HEIGHTS, where are buried 1 5,296 victims of the 
Civil War, only 3,000 of them identified. 

Fredericksburg and Petersburg, N. and S. of Richmond, received 
the brunt of the four-year drive of the Federal armies to capture the 
Confederate capital. The 100-mile stretch of US 1 S. of Fredericks- 
burg runs through the heart of an area that has seen more bloodshed 
than has any other on the continent of North America; here were 
fought some of the battles that helped to decide whether the land 
between Canada and Mexico should remain under one powerful 
government or should be broken up into two or more governments. 
Had the Federal Government not prevailed, it is possible that Amer- 
ica would have become another constantly embattled Europe. 

The first major drive for the capture of Richmond came in the 
early winter of 1862 when Federal troops moved S. under Gen. 
Ambrose E. Burnside; General Lee had come rapidly E. to block the 
advance, and a delay in the arrival of pontoon bridges needed by the 
Federal forces for crossing the Rappahannock River at Fredericks- 
burg enabled him to concentrate two corps on the heights to the S. 
and W. of the town. On December 12 the Federal troops had crossed 
the river. The following day two attacks were ordered, one at Hamil- 
ton's Crossing, 3 miles S. of Fredericksburg, and one on Marye's 
Heights. The Hamilton Crossing attack was repulsed and the Federal 
troops retired. Behind the Sunken Road at the foot of Marye's 

ig6 U. S. ONE 

Heights ran a stone wall forming a parapet behind which the Con- 
federate troops successfully repulsed seven major attacks. Two days 
later the Federal troops withdrew across the river. The Federal force 
numbered 142,551 and the Confederate 91,760 in this battle; the 
Federal loss was 12,653 and the Confederate 5,309. 

Right from the end of Lafayette Blvd. in Fredericksburg on Sunken Road; 
there are no scars here as reminders of the desperate attacks in which thousands 
fell under heavy fire, their bodies freezing in the bitter north wind. 

At 0.2 m. (L) is the entrance lane to BROMPTON, a two-story brick building 
with one-story wings; its high gabled roof extends forward to form a pedimented 
portico that is supported by four slender Ionic columns. The unusually delicate 
detail of the portico cornice, repeated under the eaves of the wings, and the 
lunette in the pediment are noteworthy. Brompton was built about 1837 by 
John L. Marye and had a peaceful existence prior to the day when its porch was 
used as a Confederate observation post on the progress of Federal troops across the 
city below. 

US 1 turns L. at the end of Lafayette Blvd., 57.6 m., and follows 
Sunken Road. 

At 59.2 m. (L) is an entrance to the FREDERICKSBURG NATIONAL 

Left along this winding road, which follows the line of the Confederate earth- 
works of December 1862; on the heights is HAMILTON'S CROSSING, 5 m., where an 
unsuccessful attack by Federal forces was made on December 13. 

At 61.9 m. is the junction with State 51. 

Right along State 51, a paved road running through thinly settled farming 
country. Here and there, close to the road, are old log cabins, still capable of 
giving shelter. At 5.7 m. (R) is an entrance to the SPOTSYLVANIA NATIONAL 
MILITARY PARK (see VA. GUIDE) leading to the Bloody Angle, where on May 12, 
1864, occurred the severest fighting of the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. 
Over 160,000 men, the Federals outnumbering the Confederates two to one, 
fought in this area from May 7 to May 20, 1864. The Federals left behind 17,555 
dead; the Confederate loss is unknown. The battle was notorious for the bitter- 
ness and hand-to-hand nature of the fighting; survivors reported that the little 
brooks actually ran red with blood. It was from this battlefield that Grant wrote, 
"I intend to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." 

SPOTSYLVANIA, 6.6 m., is little but a green with a courthouse and jail, 
and an old hotel. Spotsylvania Co. was formed by an act of the Virginia Assem- 
bly of 1720 which recited that "the frontiers toward the high mountains are 
exposed to danger from the Indians and the late settlement of the French to the 
westward" and that it was necessary to organize the territory; it provided that 
"fifteen hundred pounds current money of Virginia shall be paid by treasurer to 
the governor for these uses to wit: 500 to be expended in a Church, Court 
House, Prison, Pillory and Stocks, in said county; 1000 to be laid in arms, am- 


munition, etc., of which each Christian Tyetheable is to have one firelock musket, 
one socket, bayonet fixed thereto, one cartouche box, eight pounds bullets and 
two pounds powder." The county was later divided; the seat at first was Ger- 
manna, but it was moved to Fredericksburg in 1732 because Germanna did not 
have accommodations for the justices and others coming to the court. In 1778 
the seat was moved to Andrew's Tavern near the center of the county, and in 
1839 to its present site. 

1 The two-story yellow COURTHOUSE with a porticoed front was built in 1870 to 
replace one that was half destroyed during the battle of 1864; the little jail (R) 
was built in 1854. 

SPOTSYLVANIA TAVERN/opposite a corner of the green, is at the head of State 51 
and forces the highway to turn sharply (L). It is a long rambling two-and-a-half- 
story building; the roof slopes forward to form a portico supported by four large 
pillars that spread out into square bases. The little stoop rises to the front door 
under the portico. This inn, which was also damaged in the battle, sheltered Con- 
federate leaders when Lee occupied the hamlet on the night of May 9, 1864. 

It was in Spotsylvania not far from the courthouse that in 1816 death finally 
stopped the incessant and restless travels of Francis Asbury, first bishop of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in America. 

Between Fredericksburg and Petersburg US 1 follows the Tele- 
graph Road, laid out in 1 847 along the line of the Washington-New 
Orleans Telegraph Co. The earlier and somewhat longer road be- 
tween Fredericksburg and Richmond passing through Hanover is 
now State 2. In the infancy of telegraph lines every additional mile 
was a worry; consequently, when this line was laid out, the shortest 
route between the two cities was used and, the wires being fragile, a 
road was cut along the right-of-way to facilitate repairs. 

THORNBURG, 70.6 m., is a crossroads formerly known as Mud 

Left from Thornburg on a winding asphalt road to a fork at 3.6 m.; L. at the 
fork and R. when the road reaches a dead end at a country road that runs through 
fields and crosses a railroad track, just beyond which at 5.4 m. is the short lane 
(L) leading to the little white house that was the DEATH PLACE OF "STONEWALL" 
JACKSON (open; free). Lee and Jackson, splendid tacticians and hard fighters, had 
held back forces twice the size of those they commanded for a year and a half 
without permitting a single major victory by their opponents. After Jackson's 
surprise attack on the Federal troops at Chancellorsville, in which the Federals 
were completely defeated, he went scouting along the front alone, as was his un- 
wise custom; in the twilight he was shot by his own men. His arm had to be am- 
putated and an attempt was made to send him to Richmond for hospital care. 
By the time he reached the railroad he was too ill to travel farther. His death on 
May 22, 1863, at the age of 39, was a serious loss to the Confederacy. 

The house, the only remaining building of the former Fairfield Plantation at 
Guinea Station, is a memorial to Jackson; in the rear room is the bed in which 

i 9 8 U. S. ONE 

Jackson died and on the walls are various pictures and mementos. For some years 
the house was kept up by the railroad company owning the property but it has 
been given to the Federal Government. 

Every few miles along US 1 in this area are Virginia highway 
markers indicating the sites of various episodes in the movements of 
troops back and forth through the area in the different campaigns. 
At the southern end of Thornburg is a marker at the place where 
Sheridan, attempting a raid on Richmond, was, on May 9, 1864, 
attacked by Wickham's cavalry. 

MT. CARMEL CHURCH, 85.1 m. (R), was organized in 1773. The 
red brick building has a gabled roof extending forward to form a 
pediment as high as are the pillars supporting it. The hamlet now 
called Carmel was formerly called Polecat, because of its proximity 
to Polecat Creek. 

US 1 crosses the SOUTH ANNA RIVER at 86 m. on a double" bridge 
at the point where Lee crossed on May 27, 1 864, on his way to head 
off Grant at Cold Harbor. Heavy concrete paving now covers the 
slick red mud and mire through which the armies of the Civil War 
plodded and stumbled, requiring days to go distances that modern 
motorized armies would traverse in a few hours. The old battle areas, 
like the nearby Colonial homes, are relics of an outmoded past; 
motor cars, airplanes, and long-range guns have changed the condi- 
tions and technique of warfare as much as they have those of civilian 
life. A lone ace in an airplane can today do as much reconnaissance 
in an hour as did hundreds of scouts working for weeks 75 years ago; 
the fighting forces have become machines and there is little place for 
the individual exploits of the past. 

At 88.4 m. (R) stands a pillared white brick house where, accord- 
ing to tradition, Lee stopped to drink buttermilk that made him ill 
for several days. Because of this illness, it is said, he did not attack 
Grant here as had been his intention. The rippled old glass in the 
many-paned windows shows that the house has suffered neither 
attack nor neglect, as have many of its contemporaries. 

DOS WELL, 89.8 m., is a crossroads in an area that was a well- 
known ante-bellum horse-training center, where Negro jockeys 
achieved considerable reputations. 

GUM TAVERN, 92.8 m., is a crossroads hamlet. 

Right from Gum Tavern along State 51, a paved road passing scattered log 
cabins and farmhouses. OLD FORK CHURCH, 6.2 m. (R), was built in 1735. Parish 


records show additions were made to the original building in Colonial times, but 
the brick walls, laid in Flemish bond, show little evidence of the patching. There 
are small porches on the front and one side supported by stone pillars that widen 
considerably toward the base. 

Inside at the rear is a slave gallery, but little else remains to indicate age, pews 
and walls having been renovated at intervals throughout the years. Extending 
along the rear outer wall of the church (R) is a long, narrow brick-walled en- 
closure containing a single row of gravestones. This church was attended by the 
Nelsons and the Pages, and these names appear frequently on the gravestones 
scattered around the building. At the eastern end of the church is buried the wife 
of Thomas Nelson, commander of the Virginia Militia, 1777-81, and a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. Mrs. Nelson was long custodian of the com- 
munion silver of the church in her nearby home, Airwell, which, like many Old 
Dominion homes, has been destroyed by fire. 

ASHLAND, 97.2 m. (221 alt., 1,297 pop.), owes its existence 
chiefly to RANDOLPH-MAGON COLLEGE for men, which has 250 
students. It was the first college in the United States to be founded by 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. The charter was granted at the 
1829-30 session of the Virginia Legislature, and the college was 
opened at Boydton in Mecklenberg Co. in 1832. John Randolph of 
Roanoke, Va., and Nathan Macon of North Carolina were honored 
in the name. In 1868, when the Virginia Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church joined with the Baltimore Conference, the school 
was moved to its present site to please the Maryland group. In 1890 
the Randolph-Macon system was organized; it now includes prepara- 
tory schools for boys at Front Royal and Bedford City, one for girls at 
Danville, and the Randolph-Macon Women's College at Lynchburg. 

The rambling buildings are hidden by tall trees, and the campus is 
particularly delightful in the spring when thousands of yellow daffo- 
dils cover the lawns. 

1. Right from Ashland on State 54, an asphalt-paved road, is NEGRO FOOT, 
8.7 m., a crossroads with a name that is a grim reminder of former days, when 
the members of certain types of offenders were cut off and hung by the wayside as 
a warning to their fellows. 

Right 0.2 m. from this settlement on a dirt road to a fork; R. at the fork to the 
entrance of SCOTCHTOWN, 2.4 m. (L), a house of obscure history but peculiar 
charm. Tradition is that it was built about 1698 or shortly thereafter; when 
William Byrd made his Progress to the Mines in 1732 he stopped here to ask for in- 
formation and advice from Charles Ghiswell, whose father had built the house. 
The land is not particularly fertile and has changed hands frequently; Patrick 
Henry held it from 1771 until 1777, and is said to have bought the place as a 
speculation. The next owner was John Payne, the Quaker, one of whose many 
children, a daughter Dolly, then a young girl, later became the wife of James 

200 U. S. ONE 

Madison. John Payne sold the place in 1783 because his conscience would no 
longer permit him to own the slaves then necessary to operate a plantation. In 
later years Dolly Madison told many stories of her happy life at Scotchtown and 
of the beauty of the grounds and gardens. Now only the tall ragged remnants of a 
box hedge along the lane leading to the front door give evidence of former land- 
scaping. The house is occupied by tenants. 

Scotchtown, standing on a high brick foundation, is unusually large for the 
time in which it was built 100 by 50 ft.; it has four big rooms on each side of a 
wide entrance hall, each room with a fireplace. Above this main floor is an attic 
with 5,000 sq. ft. of floor space receiving light only from small windows in the 
ends. The high roof, pierced only by four chimneys, would give a barren ap- 
pearance if the ends of the ridge were not hipped; at the top of the unpainted 
clapboard walls, now silvery with age, are carefully spaced corbels that give a 
surprising touch of elegance to the otherwise severe-looking building. 

Scotchtown has even more legends than the average old house; the usual story 
is told of Gornwallis' having ridden up the steps and through the halls; there are 
hints of a murder committed here and of an Indian raid said to be responsible 
for the faint brown mark on the hall floor pointed out as a bloodstain. The trap- 
door in the hall is said to have provided Patrick Henry with a hiding place when 
British soldiers appeared to arrest the fiery radical who was inflaming the 

2. Left from Ashland on State 54 at 1.4 m. is the junction with a gravel road; 
L. on this gravel road is the entrance to HICKORY HILL (gardens open during annual 
April Garden Week), 2.8 m., an old estate whose house, built in 1734, was rebuilt 
after destruction by fire in 1875. The present house is a tall irregular structure 
characteristic of the 1870's. The gardens are particularly worth attention, the out- 
standing attraction being the ancient Box WALK, 307 ft. long and arched 30 ft. 
above the broad path. During the Civil War the house was used as a hospital; one 
of Lee's sons, "Rooney," while here recovering from a wound, was captured by 
Federals. It was owned by Gen. W. C. Wickham, Brigadier General of Cavalry in 
the Confederate Army, and is still in the hands of his family. 

East of the junction with the road leading to Hickory Hill, State 54 winds into 
HANOVER, 6.6 m., a settlement that, like other Virginia county seats, exists 
chiefly as court center. Hanover Co. was formed in 1720 and named in honor of 
George I, Elector of Hanover. 

The little T-shaped brick COURTHOUSE, standing on a slight hill, has great 
charm. From the front it appears to be much smaller than it really is, because the 
shallow cross bar is made shallower by a loggia and is pierced on either side of the 
entrance door by windows that are duplicated in the rear wall. The brick walls of 
the cross bar and of part of the stem of the T, which holds the courtroom, are 
beautifully laid in Flemish bond; the pattern was not repeated when the court- 
room was enlarged at the rear. 

The interior lacks distinction and is in no way reminiscent of the day in 1 763 
when Patrick Henry established his reputation by his oratory on the side of the 
vestry in the Parsons' Cause. From the early days of the Colony the clergy had 
received salaries in tobacco, in addition to the use of glebe lands and homesteads; 
in 1748 the Provincial Assembly had set this annual salary at 16,000 pounds of 


tobacco. The salary fluctuated in value as the tobacco market rose and fell. The 
planters of Virginia were growing somewhat restive under the exactions of the 
Established Church and in 1758, a year when the price of tobacco went particu- 
larly high, passed an act, similar to one they had passed in 1755, providing that 
the clergy should be paid that year in currency, at the rate of two pence a pound, 
a price below the market rate for tobacco. The clergy promptly carried their com- 
plaints to the King and the act was disallowed; various clergymen then brought 
suit against the vestries for the remainder of the salaries legally due them in 1758. 
The Reverend James Maury brought such a suit before the court in Hanover Co. 
and the vestry, after trying to get various able lawyers for their defense, selected 
young Patrick Henry to represent them. 

Henry was a young man of poor local reputation a restless fellow who had 
failed at one business after the other. He was living at the time in the tavern 
across the street from the courthouse. Having married the tavernkeeper's daugh- 
ter, he helped his father-in-law at the tavern bar while he waited for the legal 
practice that rarely came. Henry's father was in court when his son rose to speak, 
and it is said that he blushed uncomfortably over his son's stammering introduc- 
tion. But Patrick Henry was a born orator and, as soon as he forgot his neighbors' 
opinion of him, made such an impassioned speech that, though the court sup- 
ported the Crown in disallowing the act of 1758, the fascinated jury awarded the 
suing clergyman only one penny damage. According to contemporary report, 
Henry argued that the King had no right to disallow such an act and by so doing 
"from being a father to his people, degenerates into a tyrant and forfeits all rights 
to his subjects' obedience." The conservatives of the Colony were shocked by this 
radicalism but those who were smarting under the exactions of English business- 
men made Henry a popular hero. 

The COURTHOUSE TAVERN, where Henry lived and worked at times, is a long 
L-shaped building with a veranda filling in the angle of the L. Entrance is now 
through a basement door in the toe of the L, which holds a square room that was 
the bar; it looks now as it probably looked when the justices arrived for court 
sessions 170 years ago. The long dining room (R) is of good proportions, low- 
ceiled, with fireplaces at the ends. The room above was formerly used for as- 
semblies but has been divided into bedrooms. 

Not far from the courthouse is the little COUNTY JAIL where, as is the custom in 
rural Virginia counties, no jailer is in constant attendance and the prisoners talk 
sociably through barred windows to any friends who care to visit them. 

YELLOW TAVERN, 105.6 m., is a hamlet that took its name 
from a former stage house. A short distance N. along US 1 is the SITE 
OF THE BATTLE OF YELLOW TAVERN, in which the brilliant 19-year- 
old cavalry leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, was fatally wounded May 11, 
1864, in a brush with Sheridan's troops in their attempted raid on 
Richmond. His death was a great blow to Lee and to the Confederate 

ST. JOSEPH'S VILLA, 105.9 m. (R), is a Roman Catholic orphanage 
founded by Mrs. James H. Dooley of Richmond. 

202 U. S. ONE 

The HERMITAGE GOLF CLUB, 107 m. (not open to the public), at the 
head of a long green slope (R), has an entrance on a side road. It is 
a smart private club with members chiefly from Richmond. 

BROOK HILL, 107.6 m. (L), a Victorian house nearly hidden by 
trees, stands back from the highway in beautiful grounds. 

This section of US 1 is known locally as Brook Road; Lafayette 
followed it with his troops on April 27, 1781, when he was hurrying 
to oppose the British invasion of Richmond. A month later he fol- 
lowed it in retreating to the N. before Lord Gornwallis' troops. 

At 108.1 m., within the city of Richmond, is the junction (R) with 
BELT BOULEVARD, an alternate route of US 1 that bypasses the center 
of the city and crosses the James River on BOULEVARD BRIDGE (toll, 

At the junction with the Belt Boulevard US 1 swings L. and then 
R. to Capitol Square. 

RICHMOND, 113.4 m. (15-206 alt., 182,929 pop.), State capital 
(see VA. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R., Seaboard Air 
Line Ry., and Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Broad St.; Atlantic Coast Line R.R., 
Main St.; and Southern Ry., Hull St. 

Points of Interest. State Capitol, Confederate and Valentine Museums, St. John's 
Church, St. Paul's Church, and others. 

Section 76. Richmond to North Carolina Line, 92.5 m. 

Four lanes wide between Richmond and Petersburg; S. of latter two lanes wide 
with soft shoulders. Because of heavy traffic, including many busses and trucks, 
great care must be exercised in driving; passing other cars is dangerous because of 
the unbanked edges of the pavement. 

US 1 S. of the State capitol in Richmond runs through a smoky, 
hilly, industrial section of the city. 

At 21st and Broad Sts. is the junction with State 5 (see Side Route 3), 
which follows the north bank of the James River. 

Between the two lanes of US 1 and below their level at 7.3 m. is an 
old bridge spanning Falling Creek, near which the first iron furnace 
in America was built in 1619. This bridge was the work of Col. 
Claude Crozet, a French military engineer who had crossed the Alps 
with Napoleon and later came to America to follow his profession. 
He was a professor of mathematics at West Point and became first 
president of the board of the Virginia Military Institute; twice he 
served the State as a highway engineer. 


At 8.4 m. is an entrance to the RICHMOND NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD 

Left on the park road 1 m. is the river bluff on the James River where Capt. A. 
H. Drewry of the Confederate forces built fortifications that enabled him, on May 
15, 1862, to drive back the Union fleet, which was attempting to reach Richmond. 
Among the Union boats was the ironclad Monitor, which had engaged the Merri- 
mac at the mouth of the James River two months earlier. The crew of the Merrimac 
were among those manning the guns that greeted the Union fleet. The earth- 
works are well preserved and the view of the river is particularly fine. 

Here along US 1 is a mile-long double row of sodium vapor high- 
way lamps; these were installed in February 1936 by the Virginia 
Electric Power Go. as a demonstration of this type of highway 

Visible at the side of the highway (L) at 10.9 m. are parts of the 
earthworks thrown up for the Battle of Drewry 's Bluff of May 14-16, 
1864. At this point the Confederate Army under General Beauregard 
met the Union lines advancing on Richmond from the S. under 
General Butler and drove them (L) into the "Bottle" created by a 
bend of the James River. 

HALF-WAY HOUSE, 11.2 m., is an old-time stagehouse that took 
its name from its position between Richmond and Petersburg. The 
side that now faces the road was originally the rear, the road having 
formerly run a hundred feet or more farther E. During the Battle of 
Drewry's Bluff the place served as Union headquarters, and the 
taproom was used by the staff doctors as an office. The house, 
erected in 1740, has recently been restored to some semblance of its 
earlier appearance and is again an inn; the log cabin and nearby 
wellhouse are recent additions, though the well itself has served 
many generations of travelers. In the early days of the inn notices on 
the walls announced that the charge for a meal was 1 5 Ibs. of tobacco, 
while the charge for lodging for both master and servant was 10 Ibs. 
of tobacco. Local tradition is that the mint julep originated hi this 
place. Today modern murals in the dining room depict early traffic 
on the pike. 

At 12.4 m. is DUTCH GAP. 

Left from Dutch Gap on a dirt road 2 m. is the SITE OF HENRICOPOLIS, a city 
the colonists in 1613 planned to establish inland as a seat of government and a 
college. Since the marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas the settlers had been at 
peace with the Indians and felt safe in moving up the river. The town was laid out 
and construction started on the buildings. 

20 4 U. S. ONE 

Ralph Hamor, the Colonial secretary, described the town: "There is in this 
town three streets of well-framed houses, a handsome church and the foundation 
of a more stately one laid of brick, in length an hundred foote, and fifty foot wide, 
beside store houses, watch houses, and such like; there are also, as ornaments be- 
longing to this town, upon the verge of this river, five faire blockhouses, or com- 
manders wherein live the honestes sort of people, as in farmes in England, and 
there keep continuall centinell for the townes security . . ." 

Suddenly in 1622 came a concerted and well-planned attack on the white set- 
tlements, intended to wipe them out completely. For four years the crafty old 
emperor, Opechancanough, had planned the attack, all the time professing great 
friendship for the English. Only a few months before the massacre, however, he 
sent word to Governor Wyatt that, so dear to him was the peace existing between 
the English and his people, "the sky should fall" before he broke it. On the morn- 
ing of the massacre the Indians visited several plantations, bearing gifts of game, 
and breakfasted with the English in a friendly manner. So skillfully was the affair 
planned that towns and plantations in the region were attacked simultaneously. 
The attack on Jamestown failed, but that on Henricopolis resulted in the wiping 
out of the infant city. 

At 13.4 m. is the junction with State 10. 

Left on this well-paved road, which runs through rolling wooded country and 
fertile fields and crosses the Appomattox River, is HOPEWELL, 8.3 m. (10 alt., 
11,327 pop.), a modern industrial city that has grown up on the site of one of the 
earliest settlements in the Virginia Colony. This settlement was, with Henrico- 
polis, one of the planned cities of 1613. By 1619 the town had a primary prepara- 
tory school for the college being organized at Henricopolis. The massacre of 1 622 
almost obliterated all signs of habitation. In 1635 the land on which the city now 
stands was given by royal grant to Capt. Francis Epps, who built a home and 
named his estate Appomattox Manor. After a time, because the place was at the 
head of deep water on the James River, a settlement grew up on the Epps land 
on what became known as City Point; ships from all over the world came to load 
wheat, cotton, and tobacco and to unload coffee and other foreign products. The 
development of railroads diverted trade to other places and the town gradually 
lost importance; it had a temporary revival during the Civil War when General 
Grant used it as a headquarters and base of supplies in the siege of Petersburg and 
Richmond. In 1912 descendants of Captain Epps, still in possession of the manor, 
sold several thousand acres of their land to the E. I. du Pont de Nemours interests 
as a site for a dynamite plant. The plant, completed in 1914, was used for the 
manufacture of gun-cotton at the outbreak of the World War, and 29,000 people 
were working there by 1918. After the war the population dropped back to 1,300, 
but since that tune there has been a steady peace-time growth as one industry 
after another has reopened the wartime factories or built new ones. Among these 
are manufacturers of cellulose products, paper products, and china. 

At the northern end of the city, on Cedar Lane not far from Broadway, is 
APPOMATTOX MANOR, containing part of the original house built by the Epps 
family; the present two-story structure has fretwork trimmings of the kind associ- 
ated with the General Grant period, a fitting decoration since the house was used 



by Grant as his headquarters. It was here that he received President Abraham 
Lincoln and members of his Cabinet in the anxious week that preceded the sur- 
render at Appomattox. The view of the river from the house is pleasantly rural in 
spite of the nearness of the bustling city. 

Right from Hopewell on State 36 6.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road; R. on 
this road 6.6 m. to MERCHANT'S HOPE CHURCH, built about 1657, in the parish 
of Martins Brandon. This little brick building, undistinguished architecturally, is 
peculiarly forlorn in appearance in spite of the efforts that have been made to 
keep it in repair. 

South of Dutch Gap the highway markers commemorating events 
of the Civil War increase in number because Petersburg was the 
center of the area in which Lee made his last desperate stand, con- 
tending against starvation and discouragement that were causing 
many desertions from his army, as well as against the superior num- 
bers of Grant's army. From May 1864 until April 1, 1865, the taking 
of Petersburg, the key supply city, was a main Union objective. 
Butler had been defeated at the Battle of Drewry's Bluff in May 1864 
and bottled up between the James and the Appomattox Rivers. In 
the following month 1,300 Union cavalrymen made an unsuccessful 
surprise raid on the city. Beauregard was holding off Grant's army 
with a small force when Lee arrived with reinforcements. Grant 
settled down to a siege that lasted nine months; both armies threw up 
extensive earthworks to the E. and S. of Petersburg, and Grant suc- 
ceeded but slowly in his attempt to encircle the city. The dead, 
wounded, and missing on the Union side at the end of these opera- 
tions numbered 42,000 and on the Confederate 25,000. 

At 20.7 m. is a junction with County 626. 

Right on this road 1.5 in. near Swift Creek is (L) COBBS HALL, ancestral home 
of Thomas Boiling, where was established, in 1815, one of the first schools for 
deaf mutes in America. John Boiling, a descendant of Pocahontas, was the first 
pupil to be educated at this school. 

COLONIAL HEIGHTS, 21.1 m. (2,331 pop.), is a residential 
suburb of Petersburg. 

Along the bluff of the Appomattox River at 22 m. (R) is OAK 
HILL, Archer's or Hecter's or Dunn's Hill. A stone marker on the 
lawn at the end of the block indicates the spot near which Lafayette's 
artillery is said to have been placed, overlooking Petersburg and the 
Appomattox River bottom. The gaps in the large boxwood hedge, 
tradition says, mark the holes through which the guns were trained 
on the British forces occupying Petersburg. 

2 o6 U. S. ONE 

US 1 crosses the Appomattox River just N. of Petersburg. 
PETERSBURG, 22.2 m. (14-85 alt., 28,564 pop.), an industrial 
city (see VA. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Old Blandford Church, Seward Mansion, Folly Castle, and 
others connected with the Civil War. 

CENTRAL STATE HOSPITAL, 24.8 m. (L), was the first hospital in 
the country established solely for the treatment of mental diseases in 
Negroes. It was founded in 1869 in temporary quarters near Rich- 
mond and moved to its present site in 1885, the land having been 
purchased and given to the State by the city of Petersburg. Patients 
work on the farm that provides the institution with part of its food. 

At 27.3 m. is a marker (L) indicating where the Confederate Gen. 
A. P. Hill was killed on April 2, 1865, at the age of 40. Hill did not 
know that Lee's line had been broken at last in the siege of Petersburg 
and rode into a party of Union troops advancing on the city. He had 
been one of Lee's most reliable young lieutenants and had taken a 
prominent part in most of the major engagements of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. His is said to have been the last name on the lips 
of both Lee and Jackson, on each occasion being mentioned in 
delirium preceding death. 

This section of US 1 follows what was the BOYDTON PLANK ROAD 
of stagecoach days, a route between Petersburg and an area with 
springs that were very popular in the days when the fashionable 
world spent its summers at mineral water resorts in the hills. The 
sound of the coachman's horn was as familiar to the countryside as 
was later the whistle of the locomotives, though the sounds had differ- 
ent purposes. The locomotives' whistle was chiefly a warning, but the 
coachman's horn was advance notice to would-be passengers and to 
the landlords who were preparing meals; the number of toots indi- 
cated the number of passengers who planned to eat at the long tables 
of the inns. Then, as now, Virginia ham was served at every meal, 
with corn and other hot breads. In addition chicken, sometimes 
venison, crackling bread, black bean soup, and many other foods 
associated with Virginia hospitality were offered. 

The junction with White Oak Road is at 31.1 m. 

Right along this dirt road, which was entrenched in the early spring of 1865 
when Lee's right rested here. The Union General Warren, attacking Lee's works 
on March 31, was driven back, but returned with reinforcements, forcing the 
Confederates to retreat. At FIVE FORKS, 6 m., the two forces met on April 1, 


with overwhelming defeat for the Confederates. The surrender at Appomattox 
took place eight days later. 

DINWIDDIE, 37.4 m. (237 alt., 200 pop.), is the seat of Din- 
widdie Co., formed in 1752 and named for Robert Dinwiddie, at 
that time Royal Governor of the Colony. The white COURTHOUSE 
with porticoed front stands on a slight rise facing the highway. In it 
are preserved a part of the county records that escaped burning and 
pillage during the Civil War. Diagonally across the highway is a 
little frame house in which Winfield Scott, later hero of the War of 
1812 and of the Mexican War, and General in Chief of the U. S. 
Army at the outbreak of the Civil War, practiced law before entering 
the Army. 

DEWITT, 41.6 in., is a crossroads. 

Left from Dewitt on a rough dirt road to SAPONEY CHURCH, 5 m., a small 
wooden structure in a grove of trees far from any house. It was built in 1726 and 
is still in use. "Mr. Banister," the minister at Saponey Church, accompanied 
William Byrd, a leading planter of Colonial times (see Side Route 3} on a trip to 
North Carolina in 1733. At every halt he christened and performed the marriage 
ceremony for wilderness settlers, sometimes having to marry the parents of the 
children he was christening. Byrd reported that the settlers were unconcerned 
over the lack of clergy in their region. 

US 1 crosses NOTTOWAY RIVER at 50.4 m. at the place where Byrd 
crossed it in 1733 when on his way to inspect his North Carolina 
holdings; this trip he described in A Journey to the Land of Eden. South 
of the river the party stopped at a plantation where Byrd indulged a 
penchant by prescribing for the ills of the owner. Lack of physicians 
in the Colony turned many planters into amateur doctors; Byrd's 
large library contained copies of most of the current medical books, 
including some full of quackery. At this stop Byrd called in an old 
Indian, Shacco-Will, who said he knew the location of a silver mine. 
Byrd listened without belief, adding in his diary, "To comfort his 
Heart I gave him a Bottle of Rum, with which he made himself 
happy, and all the Familey very miserable by the horrible Noise he 
made all Night." 

WARFIELD, 56.1 m., is a hamlet that holds the SITE OF BISHOP 
ASBURY'S EBENEZER ACADEMY, founded in 1793. The school passed 
out of existence long ago, but was widely known for several years. 

At 62.7 m. is the junction with State 34, an improved road. 

Left on this road is LAWRENCEVILLE, 7 m. At 9 m. is the SITE OF FORT 
CHRISTANNA, founded in 1714 by Gov. Alexander Spotswood as a protection to 

2 o8 U. S. ONE 

the settlers against the Indians, though it served other than military purposes. 
An officer and 12 men were placed at the fort. Their duties were to patrol the 
district between the Roanoke and Appomattox Rivers and to give warning of any 
encroachment or hostile movement on the part of unfriendly Indians. All trade 
with the Indians of southside Virginia was carried on through Fort Christanna. 
The London Company, which founded the colony, had in its charter as one of the 
purposes of colonization the propagation of the faith among the natives of the 
area. This purpose was never entirely neglected and at intervals attempts were 
made to educate the more friendly Indians with the idea of making them helpful 
to the colonists. Fort Christanna had a chapel and a school in the shadow of its 
five cannon. When the fort was abandoned as the frontier moved westward, the 
school was moved to Williamsburg and became part of William and Mary 

At 72.3 m. (L) is the SITE OF SALEM CHAPEL, one of the pioneer 
Methodist churches of the State; it was destroyed by fire about 1870. 
Francis Asbury described it as "the best house we have in the country 
part of Virginia." He held four sessions of the Virginia Annual Con- 
ference here in November 1795, April 1798, March 1802, and 
April 1804. 

This section of US 1 runs through sparsely settled, eroded red hills 
where the woods are young growth and the farms are small. The 
chief crop is tobacco, but as the highway nears the Roanoke River 
fields of cotton become more frequent. 

SOUTH HILL, 77.4 m. (439 alt., 1,405 pop.), is the third largest 
bright-leaf tobacco market in the State. Auctions are held almost 
daily during the selling season, from October 1 to March 1, in four 
large warehouses, each with its own distinctive name and something 
of an individual atmosphere. There are also several large drying and 
rehandling plants, a large stemmery, and modern facilities for 
handling tobacco of this and other sections. 

Before the coming of the railroad, farmers had to haul their to- 
bacco to the Petersburg market in wagons, often taking a week to 
make the round trip, camping out at night and undergoing many 
hardships. Now early in the morning scores of springless wagons and 
automobile trucks, piled high with the golden leaves, come in 
from the rural districts of southside Virginia and North Carolina. 
Throughout the day buyers, growers, auctioneers, and others thread 
their way through the lanes of tobacco "in the loose" on the ware- 
house floors. The process of auctioning the "weed" is an interesting 
sight. The lingo used by the auctioneers is understood only by the 
buyers, who represent the leading tobacco manufacturers. To the 


uninitiated, it is meaningless jargon. So mysteriously is the auctioning 
process conducted, a price fixed, and a sale made, that only a few 
know the quantity of tobacco sold or the price paid. A sign language 
is used by the auctioneers. The leaves are arranged in rows in large 
flat baskets, the size of the piles varying according to type. So rapid 
are the transactions that sales run about three a minute. The buyers 
are not of the fly-by-night type; they have established their homes 
here and are well known to the operators of the warehouses. 

South Hill is also one of the leading cotton markets in Virginia. 
A lumberyard on its outskirts is one of the town's chief all-year 

Although nearly all business done here during the tobacco selling 
season is on a credit basis, the growers pay cash for their purchases 
after they have disposed of their crops. With the opening of the selling 
season, the town takes on new life; business booms and an air of 
prosperity prevails. 

US 1 crosses the ROAN ORE RIVER at 88.1 m. The Roanoke was the 
first waterway used for transportation to the western part of the 
State; as early as 1825 there was a well-organized stream of flat- 
boats operating on it between Albemarle Sound and Danville. 

The NORTH CAROLINA BOUNDARY is crossed at 92.5 m. The trip 
of the Commissioners of North Carolina and Virginia to settle this 
line is commemorated in Col. William Byrd's History of the Dividing 
Line, a lively account of a prosaic undertaking. 

Byrd had a poor opinion of the North Carolina Commissioners, 
reporting that they stayed with the party only until provisions 
brought from civilization had been eaten up. At the point where 
US 1 crosses the Virginia-North Carolina Line he reported poor 
stony soil and weak vegetation. The party was living on wild animals 
when they could be found, and Byrd reported that "the Paw (of a 
bear) which when stript of the hair, looks like a Human Foot, is ac- 
counted a delicious Morsel by all who are not Shockt at the un- 
gracious Resemblance it bears to a Human Foot." 

An Indian "whose Hunting Name was Bearskin," a member of 
the Saponey tribe who had been sent from Fort Christanna to help 
the party, was a constant source of interest to Byrd, who questioned 
him in detail on the life and habits of his fellow tribesmen. It was this 
Indian who supplied the Commissioners with Indian names for the 
various creeks and rivers they crossed, some of which have survived. 


Va. Line Henderson Raleigh Southern Pines Rocking- 
ham S.C. Line, 180 m. US 1. 

Seaboard Air Line Ry. parallels route between Norlina and Rockingham; Grey- 
hound Line busses follow route throughout. 

Paved highway. Hotels in cities and towns; tourist homes, inns, and camps along 

Section 17. Virginia Line to Raleigh, 66 m. 

Between the Virginia Line, m., and Raleigh US 1 runs through 
rolling farm lands and occasional pine and oak forests; here and there 
is thick undergrowth from which rise such trees as poplar, ash, gum, 
juniper, and linden. 

Bordering the highway are fields of cotton, corn, and tobacco, 
cultivated by white and Negro tenant farmers. In spring wild flowers 
bloom in profusion by the roadside, the white blossoms of dogwood 
contrasting with the tightly closed lavender-to-purple buds of the 
Judas-tree, while the ground beneath is carpeted with a tangle of 
honeysuckle vines. During the autumn goldenrod, asters, and 
gentians flower against a background of brilliant red and tawny 
golden leaves. The wintry scene is characterized by leafless boughs 
against a changing sky, except where evergreens break the monotony 
of grays and browns. 

WISE, 4 m. (389 alt., 265 pop.), named in 1887 for John S. Wise, 
Governor of Virginia, is a farm village of modest houses, a few stores, 
and a small hotel, on top of a low hill. 

NORLINA, 8 m. (437 alt., 761 pop.), the second largest town in 
agricultural Warren Co., was for many years a convenient lunching 
spot for train passengers. Houses are scattered and the town extends 
into the fields surrounding the center. 

Prior to the Civil War this section of northern Warren Co. pro- 
duced wheat in large quantities, though few cereals other than corn 
are planted today. The section is a part of the State's "black belt," 
populated by descendants of slaves numerous in a region of ante- 
bellum plantations. Three families living in this neighborhood are 
said to have owned a thousand Negroes each. 

A predominance of Negroes, except in villages, is immediately 
noticeable. Their tumbling shacks of split logs and pine slabs are 



scattered over the countryside; hundreds of them work in the 

Operating in this section and throughout the slave States prior to 
the Civil War were unofficial groups of men known among the 
Negroes as paddyrollers, who conceived it their duty to check Ne- 
groes on the roads at night to catch those without passes, to punish 
the freed Negroes who became obnoxious or unruly, and to return 
fugitive Negroes to their owners. This complement to the system of 
slavery was naturally inimical to abolitionist societies. 

The name may have been derived from the fact that paddles were 
used in administering punishment, the Negroes being bent over 
barrels for the process. The barrels would roll under impact from the 
blows; hence, paddle-roller, shortened in southern euphony, became 

Another explanation of the derivation is from the word "patroller," 
a southern colloquialism of "patrol," slurred in Negro patois to 

The social status of Negro slaves and ex-slaves, here and else- 
where in the South, depended upon the social and economic status of 
their white masters. A gentleman planter who owned a thousand 
slaves imparted to his Negroes considerably more social prestige 
than that enjoyed by the slaves of a planter whose wealth permitted 
only a dozen or so. An only slave owned by a poor master was social 
trash among his own color. Impecunious whites are still referred to 
as "po' white trash." 

Some Negroes continue to bear the names of the families owning 
their forbears, but many more have assumed surnames that happened 
to appeal to them. There are white families today that take pride in 
the number of Negroes bearing their names, regarding it an indica- 
tion of the families' former wealth. 

RIDGEWAY, 10 m. (415 alt., 250 pop.), is a village of a few small 
homes in the center of a settlement of prosperous colonists of German 
descent who intensively farm small plots and raise fine vegetables, 
berries, fruits, and a variety of cantaloup that takes its name from the 
community. The Ridgeway cantaloup, developed here by W. L. 
Baxter and Charles Peter from England, and the Scott brothers from 
Pennsylvania, has become widely known for its flavor. 

These people came to this area under the leadership of a Lutheran 
minister named Newman. Most of them came from Bavaria, Alsace, 

212 U. S. ONE 

Wurttemberg, or Hesse, by way of New York and Pennsylvania. In 
the vicinity of Ridgeway they purchased parts of POPLAR MOUNT, a 
3,000-acre estate owned by Weldon Nathaniel Edwards and inher- 
ited at Edwards' death in 1 873 by Marmaduke Hawkins, an adopted 
son. In 1880 Hawkins negotiated with Newman for the sale of a part 
of the plantation W. of Ridgeway, and during 1883-85 about 24 
families settled there. 

"They told us all the good points of the land, and the country, 
and the climate, and left out the bad," the colonists declared; but by 
industry and perseverance they were able to reclaim the worn, over- 
worked soil. Knowing nothing of tobacco or cotton culture, and dis- 
gusted with the slipshod, unintensive methods of cultivation in the 
area, the Germans turned to truck gardening and fruit culture, 
planting vineyards and berry patches. Vine blight injured their 
plants and prohibition ruined the grape market, but dewberries and 
later cantaloups became money crops. Since the beginning of the 
settlement, when most of the colonists spoke no English, the Lutheran 
Church has been the center of social life in the community. Dur- 
ing the early days the pastor acted as interpreter. The church also 
served as a schoolhouse, and until the children began attending 
State schools, both English and German were taught. Today church 
services are in German, except on the second and fourth Sunday 
mornings of each month, when the pastor uses English. The first 
generation born in the colony understands the German language but 
uses it little; members of the second generation are little different 
from other young North Carolinians. 

The colonists have won the respect of their neighbors by reason of 
their thrift, cooperative spirit, and hard work. 

Right from Ridgeway on an unpaved road to. POPLAR HOUSE, 4 m., home of 
Weldon Nathaniel Edwards (1788-1875), member of the U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives from North Carolina (1815-27). The antebellum house is not note- 
worthy but the surrounding grounds have hundreds of trees imported from foreign 
lands prior to the Civil War. 

MANSON, 12 m. (428 alt., 70 pop.), is a community of farm 
houses clustered near a flag station. About 1850 the Roanoke Ry. Co. 
built a line running from here to Clarksville, Va. During the Civil 
War General Longstreet sent soldiers who took up the entire railroad 
and laid it between Greensboro and Danville, Va., in order to trans- 
port supplies from western North Carolina to Richmond. Part of the 


road near Manson was rebuilt about 1890 but was not a financial 
success. Manson was originally called Clarksville Junction. Following 
a train wreck caused by misread orders, the name was changed to 
Manson to avoid confusion with Clarksville, Va. 

MIDDLEBURG, 17 m. (461 alt., 138 pop.), another farming 
community, incorporated in 1781, derived its name from the fact 
that it was midway between terminals of the Raleigh and Gaston 
Ry. The crossing was formerly known to railroad employees as Mrs. 
Polly Hawkins 5 Crossing, this sister-in-law of Governor Hawkins 
being the largest landowner in the vicinity when the railroad was 
built in 1840. Another member of the family, Dr. Joseph Hawkins, 
established a medical school at his home here in 1808. When the 
house burned in 1 923 the skeletons used by the school were still in the 

Several granite quarries are operated near Middleburg. 

At 18 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to the ROBIN CARROLL PLACE, 0.5 m., formerly called Pleas- 
ant Hill, once the home of Philemon Hawkins, Jr., and the birthplace in 1777 of 
William Hawkins, Governor of North Carolina (1811-1814). At 6.5 m. is 
ASHLAND, built in 1746 by Samuel Henderson. At 7.5 m. is the grave of Richard 
Henderson, Judge of the Crown (1735-85). 

At 19 m. US 1 passes the edge of GRAYSTONE (L), whose name 
is taken from the color of the granite found nearby. Population 
fluctuates with mining operations in the quarries, which provide the 
chief means of livelihood for inhabitants of the village, though much 
of the work is performed by State convict labor. The stone is used in 
road construction and to some extent in building. 

CAL Co. (L). 

HENDERSON, 23 m. (490 alt., 6,345 pop.), an industrial town in 
the bright-leaf tobacco belt, is the seat of Vance Co. The business 
district is small and cluttered but is traversed by a main street of 
more than average width. Residential streets are shaded and lined 
with attractive houses in marked contrast with dwellings in most 
small cotton-mill towns. 

Huge warehouses lie dark and still in spring and summer, but in 
September bustle with activity. Then lunchrooms and cafes, rooming 
houses and hotels are crowded to capacity as hundreds of farmers 

2i 4 U. S. ONE 

arrive, some of them several days before the market opens. By auto- 
mobile, truck, wagon, and even by cart and buggy, they pour into 
town. Auctions are held daily except Saturdays, and all markets 
remain open until Christmas. The larger ones may be open until 
January or February. 

The sale of tobacco at these auctions, as at others, is accompanied 
by bewildering scenes and jargon intelligible only to warehouses 
habitues. An expert at judging tobacco tells how it is done: "You 
pick out a bunch of tobacco from one of the piles and hold it up to 
your nose, so you can smell it. Then you take one of the leaves and 
smooth it out nicely so you can see how it is formed. You also feel its 
texture. Then you shake your head and say, 'It ought to have brought 
more than that.'" Actually the marketing of the tobacco is a highly 
organized system. The majority of warehousemen in tobacco-growing 
sections have been in the business practically all their lives. They 
have invested large sums in the erection of warehouses and other 
properties, and since everything they own is tied up in the business 
they are eager for the farmers to be satisfied. 

Henderson was laid out in 1 840, when Lewis Reavis gave several 
acres of land to the old Raleigh and Gaston Ry. At his request, the 
town was named for his friend, Chief Justice Leonard Henderson. 
The town grew about the railroad station instead of at Chalk Level 
to the N., where the Raleigh-Richmond and Salisbury-Hillsboro 
stagecoach roads crossed. 

The city was chartered by the legislature in 1 841 ; the bill as en- 
acted provided that the town should be built upon land within a 
radius of 1,200 miles, which would have included Maine, Florida, 
part of Texas, and a considerable section of the Atlantic Ocean. A 
clerk changed the description to read 1,200 yards, as had been 

Vance Co. was formed in 1881 from Granville and parts of Warren 
and Franklin Cos. It was named for Zebulon Baird Vance, three 
times Governor of North Carolina (1863-65, 1876-79, and 1879), 
becoming U.S. Senator (1879-94) early in his third term. 

Industries include cotton mills, a fertilizer plant, an automobile 
factory, and tobacco warehouses. 

There is a golf course at the West End Country Club. 

In this community John Chavis (1763-38), Negro slave, school 
teacher, and preacher, lived and taught both whites and Negroes. 


Chavis was owned by the Bullock family. Demonstrating early in 
life his aptitude to learn, he was sent to Princeton University to be 
educated under Dr. Witherspoon. The story is related that Chavis 
went to the university as the result of a wager to determine whether a 
Negro was capable of receiving higher education. His long and useful 
career attested his unusual qualifications. For many years he served 
as a Presbyterian minister. Following the Nat Turner rebellion in 
Virginia, the North Carolina Legislature passed an act making it 
unlawful to teach a Negro, or any person of African descent, to read 
or write. Upon the advice of friends, Chavis discontinued his work 
and was thereafter compensated by the Presbyterian Church. His 
activities as a teacher and preacher extended, however, over the 
first 30 years of the 19th century. Children of many prominent North 
Carolinians attended his school, among them the two sons of Chief 
Justice Henderson. As a child, U.S. Senator Willie P. Mangum 
(1831-36, 1840-47, President pro tern. 1842-45, 1848-53), who was 
also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1823-26), 
was one of Chavis' pupils; another was Charles Manly, later Gover- 
nor of North Carolina (1849-51). Chavis often preached in white 
churches. One of these, the Nutbush Presbyterian Church, is still 
standing at Townsville. 

Henderson is the home of the Castello family, former circus riders 
and show people, whose real name is Loughlin. Three brothers are in 
business here, but they still give their professional name to their 
children, since it is enough to guarantee holders a job, or at least a 
meal, on any circus lot in America. Any local resident can point out 
the old barn in whose practice ring the family rehearsed on their 
white horses, chosen because they are easy for the performers to see. 
The mother of the family was descended from one of the last jesters 
of the English court. 

Henderson's first hotel, now known as the BECK HOUSE, built in 
1825 by Lewis Reavis, stands on Young St. 

On the courthouse lawn is a marker to the memory of Leonard 
Henderson, for whom the town was named. 

Right from Henderson on State 39, a sand-clay road, is WILLIAMSBORO, 
7m., whose few remaining houses, like its associations, are linked with the past. 
At the close of the 18th century Williamsboro was a thriving community. From 
1820-40 it contained the finest race track in the State. It was just S. of one of the 
best fords across the Roanoke River, used by wild animals in their migrations; 

2i6 U. S. ONE 

Indians who found good hunting had called the place the Lick, but the first 
settlers, arriving about 1740, discovered so many hazelnut trees bordering the 
stream that they named their settlement Nutbush. 

In 1779 Judge John Williams gave all this land to his son-in-law, Robert 
Burton, who changed the name to Williamsboro. In 1789 Burton had the town 
chartered, 1 5 prominent men being appointed to serve as trustees. They laid out 
the present Main St. 90 ft. wide, crossing the Townsville Road at right angles, 
and sold lots for six pounds sterling each, the purchasers agreeing to build houses; 
75 lots were sold, but only a few houses were built. 

Williamsboro was at one time suggested as the site of the State capital, to re- 
place Hillsboro. At another time it received two votes as the proposed seat of the 
State university, but it was considered too far N. The present TOWN SPRING was 
originally called Nutbush Mineral Spring. 

Here is the SITE OF THE SNEED MANSION HOUSE, built by the Sneeds on one of 
the early lots. It remained a popular gathering place, especially for members of 
the legal profession, until about 1860. When court was in session at Oxford, 
judges, lawyers, and "all that could" came here for relaxation, cockfighting, 
horse racing, hunting, dancing, card playing, and drinking. This gave rise to the 
expression "court adjourned to Sneed Mansion House." 

Springer College was established here before 1770. It burned in 1830. Wil- 
liamsboro Academy, under the direction of John Hicks, opened its classes on 
June 5, 1805. The present building of ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH was erected 
during the latter part of the 18th century. It is claimed that brick for the founda- 
tion was brought from England. Funds have been raised (1936) to restore this 

The present LE MAY PLACE is the house occupied by Bishop John Stark 
Ravenscroft in 1828. 

CEDAR WALK, at the end of a lane on the S. side of Main St., is one of the oldest 
houses in Vance Co. As Blooming Hope it was the Burton home, built in 1750 by 
Hutchins Burton for a boarding school. Burton hanged himself from the attic 
stairway. To this day any unusual noise is attributed to Hutchins Burton's ghost. 

1. Left from Main St., at a point half a mile beyond the lane to Cedar Walk, 
on a dirt road to the SITE OF MONTPELIER, 1 m., home of Judge John Williams. 
Here about 1757 he conducted a law school said to have been the first such school 
in North Carolina. The house burned in 1894. 

2. Left from Main St. at the Island Creek Baptist Church on a dirt road to 
BURNSIDE, site of the home in 1760 of Col. Menucan Hunt, first State Treasurer. 
The present house, on the S. side of Flat Creek, built by Dr. Thomas Hunt, son 
of Menucan Hunt, has wide plank wainscoting. 

3. Right from Williamsboro on a dirt road to the REMAINS OF OAKLAND, 1 m., 
the summer home, about 1820, of "lordly" Governor (1802-05) Turner. Only 
the four chimneys remain standing. 

At 9.5 m. on State 39 is the DAVE GLOVER PLACE (L), built about 1800 by Dr. 
Phil Thomas. 

TOWNSVILLE, 15 m. (244 pop.), was named for Capt. Joseph Townes, 
donor of land for a railroad station, though the official spelling now omits the 


"e." Here is the NUTBUSH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, whose congregation was or- 
ganized before 1754. The present building was erected in 1805. This is one of the 
white churches that John Ghavis, Negro slave, teacher, and preacher, frequently 
visited between 1809 and 1832. 

At 28 m. on US 1 is BEARPOND. 

Left from Bearpond on a gravel road is GILLBURG, 2m., site of the plantation 
owned by John D. Hawkins in 1820. Some of the old stone slave houses are still 
standing, though the home of Hawkins was burned in 1905. 

At 30 m. is the ZEB VANCE HIGH SCHOOL (L), named for Governor 
Vance, who is said to have given a $5 bill to every child named for 
him, until their number became too great. North Carolina has many 
citizens who bear the name of Zebulon Vance. 

At 30.5 m. (R) stands KITTRELL COLLEGE (Negro). 

KITTRELL, 31 m. (350 alt., 220 pop.), lies in the midst of flower- 
ing fields and rows of evergreens belonging to the CONTINENTAL 
PLANT NURSERY. The gardens surround the village. 

Right from Kittrell on the unpaved Lynback Road to Ruin Creek, 2m., 
SITE OF POPCASTLE INN, a tavern and gaming house operated from Colonial days 
until about 1860. Local legend says that the immense log and stone structure, 
now gone, was built by a European nobleman, a political refugee, but that its 
second owner, a pirate of great wealth who called himself Captain Pop, gave the 
inn its name. Gaming pits, a race track, and a bar attracted local gamblers. The 
captain is said to have buried bags of gold in the neighborhood before his arrest 
and execution. Records reveal that one William Penner was licensed to operate a 
tavern here in 1800. 

At 33 m. are the rock pillars (L) that once supported iron trestles 
of the SAL Ry. over the Tar River. Masons were brought from Scot- 
land in 1840 to build these trestles for the Raleigh and Gaston Ry. 
At the time it was credited with being the highest railroad bridge in 
the world. Since the present bridge is higher than the original bridge, 
the stone pillars are no longer used. 

At 35 m. US 1 crosses TABBS CREEK, a tributary of the Tar, on 
which John Mask Peace, first known white settler of the region, 
resided in 1713. 

FRANKLINTON, 40 m. (432 alt., 1,320 pop.), is a cotton textile 
and lumber mill town whose business district is crowded, sunbaked, 
and unpretentious. One of the mills manufactures turkish towels. 
The town is the chief shipping point in Franklin Co. for cotton and 
fancy bright-leaf tobacco. 

2i8 U. S. ONE 

Left from Franklinton on State 56 is LOUISBURG, 10 m. (375 alt., 2,182 
pop.)? seat of Franklin Go. The town dates from 1758. Situated at the "old fords 
of the Tar" River, it was named in 1764 in memory of the capture of the French 
fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, by American forces in 1745. The main street 
follows the old highway from Philadelphia to New Orleans once traveled by 
John Marshall and other notables. One of the last remaining bands of Tuscarora 
Indians in North Carolina was exterminated in 1725 at the junction of Lynch's 
Creek and the Tar River, 4 m. NW. of Louisburg. Skeletons of many of these 
Indians have been found nearby. 

Lumber is the principal manufactured product, from 20 to 30 million ft. being 
shipped annually. 

Louisburg is the birthplace of Edwin W. Fuller, author of Angel in the Cloud and 
Other Poems and Sea Gift (published 1873), the latter a novel once so popular at 
the University of North Carolina that it was known as the Freshman's Bible. 

LOUISBURG COLLEGE, situated in a grove of oaks on the summit of the highest 
hill in town, is a standard coeducational junior college. Chartered in 1855, it was 
privately owned until 1907, when it was given to the North Carolina Methodist 
Conference by Benjamin Duke, heir of Washington Duke, into whose possession 
it had come in 1891. From 1902 to 1931 the college was restricted to the educa- 
tion of girls. Under a plan inaugurated in 1935, students are admitted at reduced 
fees in consideration of their performing work about the plant. 

The MARKER AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN on Courthouse Square was erected by 
the North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy, in 1923 "in 
appreciation of the fact that the first flag of the Confederacy, 'The Stars and 
Bars,' was designed by a son of North Carolina, Orren Randolph Smith, and was 
made under his direction by Catherine Rebecca (Murphy) Winborne. Forwarded 
to Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 12, 1861. First displayed in North Carolina at 
Louisburg, March 18, 1861." Smith's portrait, by Mrs. Marshall Williams of 
Faison, N.C., hangs in the Governor's mansion in Raleigh. 

1. Left from Louisburg 5 m. on State 561 is the JOHN ALLEN PLACE, where 
Smith lived when the flag was displayed. This house, one of the show places of 
the country, contains many pieces of old furniture and interesting relics. 

2. Right from Louisburg 1 m. on State 39 to GREEN HILL HOUSE, where in 
1758 Bishop Coke held the first North Carolina Methodist Conference. The 
structure is still in good condition. 

3. Left from Louisburg on State 39-59 at 2 m. is the junction with a dirt road; 
on this road is the point where Lynch Creek enters Tar River, 4 in., site of the 
hanging in 1767 of Major Lynch, a British officer commissioned to collect taxes 
in the frontier Colonies. Because a mob summarily carried out the sentence of a 
mock court, the term "lynch law" is believed by some to have had its origin here. 
It is also contended, however, that the term was derived from the proceedings of 
Judge Charles Lynch, who in 1782 was given immunity by an act of the Virginia 
Assembly for having illegally fined and imprisoned certain Tories in 1780 (see 
Cheraw, S.C.). 

A bridge now spans Lynch Creek near the spot where until a few decades ago 
stood the oak tree from which Major Lynch was hanged. 


YOUNGSVILLE, 46 m. (451 alt., 395 pop.), is a small village, 
L. of the highway, with unpaved bumpy streets. Prior to its incorpo- 
ration in 1875, the town was called Pacific. 

WAKE FOREST, 50 m. (386 alt., 1,527 pop.), is a small com- 
munity centered by one block of business buildings, with streets 
bordered by dwarf magnolias and shrubs around old houses that 
harmonize with the ivy-grown buildings on the wooded campus of 
WAKE FOREST COLLEGE (Baptist) in the heart of the village. The 
thousand young men, many of whom arrive in collegiate old cars 
overflowing with tennis racquets, study lamps, and radios, bring very 
different equipment from that used by the 16 original students of 
Wake Forest Institute, chartered in 1833 and opened in 1834. Then 
an axe and a hoe were required in addition to "two sheets and two 

The early school was established by an act that provided for "a 
college in the Forest of Wake." Wake Co. was heavily wooded and 
students had to help clear the site. The region is still noteworthy 
for its fine trees. 

The college, which dates from 1838, occupies a 25-acre campus. 
Its 13 buildings are set among magnolias, oaks, maples, elms, and 
cedars, giving the impression of an old English park. A border of 
young long-leaf pines rises above the low rock wall surrounding the 
entire college green. Besides offering liberal arts courses, the college 
maintains schools of law and medicine. 

In addition to 200 acres in the vicinity, Wake Forest College 
owns other property of interest. The CALVIN JONES HOUSE, on the 
western edge of the campus, was built sometime before 1 820 on the 
site of present Wait Hall, where it stood until about 1834. While Dr. 
Calvin Jones was its resident, he entertained the distinguished people 
of the day. Dr. Jones owned the tract on which the college stands, 
having bought it in 1820 from Davis Battle, who probably built the 
house, which is still in an excellent state of preservation. 

The NORTH BRICK HOUSE, built in 1838 by C. W. Skinner just off 
the northern edge of the campus, has served as the home of President 
Samuel Wait (1834-45), President William Hooper (1845-49), and 
Prof. W. G. Simmons. 

The SOUTH BRICK HOUSE, also well preserved, was built S. of the 
campus in 1838 by the Reverend Amos J. Battle. 

US 1 between Wake Forest and Raleigh is much traveled by 

220 U. S. ONE 

students going to the city for recreation. Even the college dances are 
held in Raleigh. In 1936 the student body succeeded in gaining per- 
mission to give dances on the campus, but members of the church 
were so loud in their disapproval that the students voted to relinquish 
the privilege rather than risk a schism. 

At 54 m. US 1 crosses the narrow and muddy Neuse River, whose 
falls some 2 miles to the W. operate a cotton mill. 


The SITE OF A TAVERN kept by Isaac Hunter in 1788 is at 60 m. 
By order of the North Carolina Convention the State capitol was to 
be ten miles from this point. 

At 61 m. is CRABTREE CREEK, flowing through a wild cool setting 
of thick green vegetation and tall trees. 

At 62 m., in suburban Raleigh, is a store (L) where native pottery 
from the vicinity of Sanford is displayed. 

RALEIGH, 66 m. (363 alt., 37,379 pop.), State capital (see JV.C. 

Railroad Stations. Seaboard Air Line R.R., Southern Ry., and Norfolk Southern 
R.R., Union Station, Dawson and Martin Sts.; Seaboard Orange Blossom Spe- 
cial, Johnson St. 

Points of Interest. State Capitol (see illustration), Hay ward Mansion, State Su- 
preme Court Building, Birthplace of Andrew Johnson, Shaw University, N.G. 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and others. 

Section 18. Raleigh to South Carolina Line, 114 m. 

South of Raleigh US 1 swings into the rolling eastern slopes of the 
thickly wooded Piedmont Plateau and runs through farming coun- 
try. Cotton, corn, and tobacco are the predominant crops N. of 
Moore Co. South of Little River the highway skirts a region of peach 
orchards. This section is "in the clay," its sandy red soil being par- 
ticularly adapted to fruit growing. Loblolly pine and scrub oak, inter- 
mingled with gum, maple, and poplar, are the chief native growths 
of the Sand Hills, which geologists believe may have been a pre- 
historic ocean beach. 

US 1 turns W. in Raleigh and follows Hillsboro St., becoming at 
3 m. a four-lane highway. 

MEREDITH COLLEGE, 3.5 m. (R), is a Baptist school for girls with a 
four-year course. 

METHOD, 4 m. (446 alt., 300 pop.), an unincorporated Negro 


village (L), owes its growth to a Negro educator, merchant, and 
leader, Berry O'Kelly (d. 1932), who founded the school here that 
bears his name. Three large brick buildings and a church are in- 
cluded in the plant, the pupils coming from the surrounding country 
in school busses. 

The STATE FAIR GROUNDS, 5 m. (R), are thronged with approxi- 
mately 250,000 people each year during the third week in October 
when, under the auspices of the Board of Agriculture, the State of 
North Carolina holds its fair. A metal grandstand and concrete 
bleachers, race tracks, agricultural exhibit buildings, machinery 
sheds, stock barns, offices, and a hospital are included in the equip- 

The STATE HIGHWAY SHOPS, 5 m. (R), have a supply depot, 
garage, and repair shop. Here is the training ground of the State 
highway police. 

At 8 m. US 1 reaches the outskirts of the village of Gary. 

Right from this point on US 70 to the NATHANIEL JONES HOUSE, 2 in., a short 
distance (L) from the highway. The recently discovered diary of Mrs. Nancy 
Anne Jones, widow of Nathaniel Jones, describes a historical incident of which 
several differing accounts have been given. The mistress of this house on the old 
Durham Highway, main thoroughfare of the central section of the State, was ac- 
customed to having distinguished guests. Many travelers between Raleigh and 
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill stopped here, always certain of a 
hospitable welcome and the famous Jones mint julep. Statesmen, scholars, and 
soldiers were among her guests; by accident, however, according to the story, one 
hot summer day in 1838 found the household somewhat unprepared for guests. 

The arrivals were Governor Edward B. Dudley of North Carolina and his 
colleague, Pierce Mason Butler of South Carolina. They were led into the parlor 
and, after some delay, presented with tall frosted glasses of julep topped with 
mint. For some reason there was a long delay before the second round arrived 
and, while members of the household were absent, the maid, Lany, heard the 
Governor of North Carolina say, "It's a damned long time between drinks," and 
his companion echo, "Damn long!" 

The scandalized maid hurried off to report this to her mistress and the house- 
hold was thrown into consternation by this seeming reflection on its hospitality. 
In spite of their efforts to keep the scandal secret, the story leaked out and today 
the North Carolina Governor's remark is hoary American folklore. 

Another version of the origin of the remark has been handed down in the 
family of John Motley Morehead, Minister to Sweden during the Hoover admin- 
istration. Morehead's grandfather was Governor of North Carolina in the early 
1840's, when a political offender a white man, not a Negro, as some versions 
give it escaped from South Carolina, seeking refuge hi the State to the north. 
Governor J. H. Hammond, a Democrat, asked through the usual legal channels 

222 U. S. ONE 

for the man's return. Governor Morehead, a Whig, refused extradition, in part 
because of the intercession of influential friends of the fugitive. 

After much futile correspondence the two officials agreed to meet with their 
staffs and legal advisers for a personal conference. The place chosen was on the 
common State Line, not far from Charlotte, N.G. During the discussion Gov- 
ernor Hammond became much excited and finally announced that further re- 
fusal on the part of North Carolina would result in his sending a military force 
across the border to seize the fugitive. 

"Now, sir," shouted the Governor of South Carolina, crashing his fist upon the 
table, "what is your answer?" 

"My reply, sir," answered the Governor of North Carolina with great de- 
liberation, "is this: It's a damned long time between drinks." 

This unexpected answer had the effect of relieving the tension of the situation, 
even though it did not immediately settle the dispute. In the atmosphere of tol- 
erance that was created the two Governors were able to talk dispassionately and 
eventually to reach a settlement satisfactory to both States. 

GARY, 8.5 m. (496 alt., 900 pop.), is a farming community with a 
few tourist camps. The village, which dates from about 1852, was 
founded by A. Frank Page, father of Walter Hines Page (1855- 
1918), author, editor, and Ambassador to Great Britain during the 
(private) is across the railroad tracks from US 1, half a block from 
Schoolhouse St. The two-story white Colonial dwelling stands in a 
grove of elms, surrounded by an old picket fence. The story is told 
that Page as a boy of 12 walked the railroad tracks 8 miles to Raleigh 
to hear President Andrew Johnson speak. 

Right from Gary at a brick filling station on the Reedy Creek Road to an un- 
painted schoolhouse, 2 m.; R. from this school through a pine forest, where dog- 
wood and other shrubs grow in a tangle of wild phlox and columbine, to the old 
COMPANY MILL, 2.5 m. Walter Hines Page laid some of the scenes of his novel, 
The Southerner, in this neighborhood. The old mill that appears in the story was 
owned by the author's grandfather and was operated as a powder mill during the 
Civil War. Standing on the bank of Crabtree Creek beside a dam, the structure is 
in good condition, its overshot wheel intact after 100 years. The millstone, how- 
ever, lies crumbling on the floor. 

Through the woods in front of the mill are marks of an old trail, probably not 
Cornwallis' route to Hillsboro, as local legend says, since maps fail to bear out 
the supposition; more likely it is part of the old Ramsgate Road cut by Governor 
Tryon on his way to quell the Regulators. Boy Scout cabins and a swimming pool 
now occupy the space in the woods about the mill. The site is part of CRABTREE 
CREEK PARK, a 60,000-acre national recreation and demonstration area. 

APEX, 16 m. (504 alt., 863 pop.), received its name in the early 
1870's when a survey for the Raleigh & Augusta Ry. showed it to be 


the highest point on the right-of-way between Norfolk and San- 
ford. The railroad was later absorbed by the Seaboard Air Line. The 
town gained some attention, after North Carolina had adopted pro- 
hibition in 1907, through the activities of the Baldwin gang, which 
used the place as headquarters for distributing liquor run in from 
"wet" Virginia by a fleet of fast automobiles. Once a tobacco 
market, Apex is now only a trading center for the neighboring farm 

MERRY OAKS, 24 m. (245 alt., 179 pop.), is a rural settlement 
in the red clay belt, named for the forests of majestic oaks that dom- 
inate the region. Inhabitants believe that early settlers held merry 
gatherings under them. 

At 26 m. the route crosses the HAW RIVER, which cuts down 
through the north central part of fertile Chatham Co., across a hilly 
and broken region where the hills attain the elevation of small moun- 
tains and the scenery takes on a rugged aspect seldom found in the 
Piedmont. This is a region of swift-flowing streams, Rocky River, 
Robinson Creek, and Bear Creek furnishing power for many small 
mills that grind the large quantities of wheat grown here. US 1 here 
passes through cotton growing country, but this represents the agri- 
cultural interest of only a small strip of Chatham. 

MONCURE, 27 m. (145 alt., 144 pop.), is a farming village in a 
cotton, tobacco, and grain-growing region. 

At 27.5 m. US 1 crosses DEEP RIVER, which flows from the E., a 
narrow stream winding its tortuous way through green valleys. Its 
high abrupt banks in places become hanging cliffs with a drop of 100 
ft. or more. Deep River is bordered by productive bottom lands, 
much of the area being covered with oak and pine forests. Rabbits, 
squirrels, and birds, as well as larger game, make this region a favored 
hunting ground. 

Deep River flows into the Haw River a mile S. of Moncure, their 
confluence forming the Cape Fear River. 

LOCKVILLE, 41 m., formerly known as Ramsey's Mill, was the 
scene of a British encampment after the Battle of Guilford Court- 
house. General Cornwallis' troops remained here only long enough 
to build a bridge across Deep River. 

At 42 m. the highway crosses a boundary line that was in part 
erased in 1907 when Lee Co. was finally created from Chatham, 
Harnett, and Moore Cos. Known as the LORD GRANVILLE LINE, this 

224 U. S. ONE 

boundary was famous from the beginning of the settlement, since it 
was the generally accepted line separating the Scottish Highlanders 
in Cumberland Go. from the English. 

Established in 1746, the line marked the extent of the grant given 
Lord Granville by King George II. From the Virginia boundary it 
ran S. to parallel 34 35 ' longitude, the old line continuing to 
divide Moore Co., formed in 1734, and Chatham Co., formed in 
1770. It is still the boundary line between several counties lying to 
the E. of Lee Co. 

Although the line was evidently determined by chance, it sepa- 
rates the rich clay hills of the northern part of what is now Lee Co. 
from the sandy lands of the long-leaf pine belt to the S. The Lord 
Granville Line is still well known to the older inhabitants, being 
recognized in old records and title papers of this region. 

From the days when William Byrd wrote The History of the Dividing 
Line, through the years when citizens waged local battles for a unit of 
government whose seat should be within a half-day's journey of 
every settlement, the establishing of lines and boundaries has been an 
important matter to the people of the State. Even today disputes 
over local boundaries, those between farms and pasture lands, 
for example, are among the chief matters coming up in county 

SANFORD, 46 m. (359 alt., 4,253 pop.), seat of Lee Co., is on the 
edge of the pine belt bordering the Sand Hill section of the State. The 
trading center for four adjacent counties, Sanford has several blocks 
of business section, somewhat smoky and dusty because of trains, 
and the cotton mills huddled close together near the railroad crossing. 
Loads of tobacco and cotton en route to the warehouses give the 
streets more animation during autumn and early winter. Wide 
streets bordered by attractive homes standing on well-kept lawns 
characterize the residential section. 

Sanford is in the heart of the pottery district extending through Lee 
and Moore Cos., where descendants of the Staffordshire potters who 
settled here 200 years ago continue this craft. The NORTH STATE 
POTTERY is one of the largest and best known in North Carolina. 
Smaller potteries, operated by the old time kickwheel and using 
mule-power grinding mills, are in the vicinity. Here is the HOME OF 
THE LATE CHARLES D. MC!VER, founder of the Woman's College of 
the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 

J W 

Ji * 




The town was settled by English Protestants, French Huguenots, 
and Scottish Presbyterians, the latter predominating in rural dis- 
tricts over the county. 

At 47.5 m. is the junction with a country road. 

Right on this road to the old BUFFALO PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 100 yds., the 
white building gleaming through a grove of fine oaks on the site of the first church, 
organized in 1796. It was the farthest N. of the churches formed by the Scottish 
settlements on the Cape Fear River and its tributaries. 

CAMERON, 57 m. (300 alt., 300 pop.), is one of the largest dew- 
berry markets in the world. The community hums with activity 
while this crop is being marketed during the first weeks of May. The 
town ships by truck and rail to northern markets an average of 60,000 
crates of berries yearly. Since legalization of alcoholic beverages, the 
demand has increased and prices have risen. 

At 61 m., along the side of the highway (L), is VASS (317 alt., 
602 pop.), likewise a dewberry market. The town, which has a cotton 
mill and a furniture factory, grew up in the 1870's when logs were 
floated down Little River, thence by the Cape Fear River to Wil- 
mington. The place was known as Winder until 1907, when the 
present name was adopted to honor a railway executive. 

At 62 m. the route crosses LITTLE RIVER, leaving the compara- 
tively level lands of upper Moore Co., where the surface is usually 
wet, orange clay, and entering the dry, white rolling ridges of the 
Sand Hills. South of Little River is an area with many peach 
orchards. Forests here are thinner, and trees seem shorter than those 
in more northerly regions of the State. Short-leaf North Carolina 
pines give way to the lighter green, long-leaf variety. Sand dunes, 
long since left bare by the sea, are covered with the pines. Every- 
where is evidence of the planting of long-leaf pines to increase their 

The region abounds with fox, raccoon, opossum, squirrel, rabbit, 
quail, and dove. Many deer stray into this region from the Fort 
Bragg Game Refuge. Several non-resident sportsmen maintain 
private game preserves in this area. 

LAKE VIEW, 63 m., is an unincorporated village of filling sta- 
tions, tourist camps, and picnic grounds lining US 1 and overlooking 
small CRYSTAL LAKE, beyond which, on a sloping green hill, is a 
white-painted resort hotel. There are no bath houses. 

In the section to the E. is the U.S. military reservation at FORT 

226 U. S. ONE 

BRAGG, largest field artillery reservation in point of acreage in the 
Nation (see N.C. GUIDE). 

At 72 m. is SOUTHERN PINES (519 alt., 1,500 pop.), whose 
golf courses, with those of nearby Pinehurst (see N.C. GUIDE), attract 
the foremost professionals and amateurs of the country. The atmos- 
phere is unusually mild, dry, and invigorating, average winter 
temperature being 55 and snow very rare. In the winter season the 
town's normal population swells to about 5,000. Gymkhanas (tourna- 
ments) are among the winter diversions; there are facilities for riding, 
tennis, archery, and other outdoor sports. 

Southern Pines centers around the landscaped railway station. 
Broad St. runs parallel with the railroad tracks, the two-way boule- 
vard being separated from them by a parkway with magnolia trees, 
pines, and blossoming shrubs. Here are gift shops, book stores, news- 
stands, specialty shops, sand-clay tennis courts, and a motion picture 
theater. In the early years of the town, which was incorporated in 
1887, 20 public-spirited women with the tradition of prim New Eng- 
land gardens behind them organized a Village Improvement Society 
to remove stumps from this main street. 

Exploitation of the climatic conditions, coupled with the adapt- 
ability of the Sand Hills to peach-growing, eventually helped to 
develop this region of pine barrens into an asset to the State. The 
original settlers, who arrived in 1774, cultivated the creek bottoms; 
among these immigrants were Flora Macdonald, Scottish Jacobite 
heroine, who appears in many songs and stories, and her husband, 
who returned to England in 1779. As the descendants of the early 
immigrants increased in number the fertile sections were too small to 
support them and many left, parts of the area reverting to near- 
wilderness. Hillsides were clothed with blackjack oak and second- 
growth pine, the "spindling successors of one of the noblest hardwood 
forests of America." 

Later lumbering was the chief industry until the timber was ex- 
hausted. Then railroads stood idle for a time for lack of freight. 
Planters tried growing cotton, then tobacco; peach growing proved 
the solution of the problem. 

The writers' colony of Southern Pines claims as its founders James 
Boyd, author of Drums, a historical novel with a North Carolina 
setting, and his wife, who induced Katherine Newlin Burt, the 
novelist, and Struthers Burt, novelist and essayist, to join them. 


Other members of the colony are Lawrence B. Smith, author of 
hunting and fishing stories; Walter and Bernice Gilkyson, short story 
writers; and Almet Jenks and Maude Parker, contributors to na- 
tional magazines. 

ABERDEEN, 76 m. (500 alt., 1,382 pop.), is a trading center and 
shipping point for the growers of tobacco, vegetables, and fruit of this 
section of the Sand Hills. The town has made little attempt to attract 

Aberdeen is the present home of the Page family, A. F. Page, a 
miller by trade and father of Walter Hines Page, having emigrated 
from Wake Co. and built a dam and lake W. of the town. This family 
built the railroad line that is now part of the Norfolk Southern. 
Originally called Blue's Crossing for a family of turpentine manu- 
facturers and railroad builders, the town became known as Aberdeen 
when it was incorporated in 1893. Many of the early settlers of the 
region were Scottish. Aberdeen Creek was known as Drowning 
Creek in early days. 

As in most of these peach-growing regions, local housewives who 
wish to buy fruit for home canning are offered shipped products from 
other States, at almost prohibitive prices. Practically their only 
glimpse of native fruit comes from loaded trucks speeding to northern 

Left from Aberdeen on a paved route, the old Pee Dee Road, to the old 
BETHESDA CHURCH, standing in BETHESDA CEMETERY, approached through a 
wrought-iron arched gateway, 1 m. (admission by permission of Mrs. Belle Pleasants, 
whose residence (R) is 100 yds. from church). 

Old Bethesda Church, a rectangular white clapboard structure with cupola 
and spire, erected in 1850, preserves its old slave gallery intact. At the end of the 
Civil War a part of General Sherman's army encamped in and around it. 

With a congregation organized in 1790 by the Philadelphia Presbytery, the 
first church, built in that year, was little more than a brush arbor standing in 
the 50-acre tract granted by King George III to John Patterson in 1766. Rose 
bushes near the church are said to have grown in the yard of the Patterson home, 
which is no longer standing. Early services were held in two languages because 
many Scottish settlers spoke only Gaelic. A church built in 1832 served until the 
present building was erected. 

The congregation has long since outgrown the austere little structure. Members 
have been worshipping for years in a much larger brick structure hi Aberdeen. 
Only on Homecoming Sunday, usually the first Sunday in October, is Old 
Bethesda used, though occasionally special exercises are held there. On this day 
some former members and their families travel great distances for the reunion. 
Arriving in automobiles, and wearing clothes in the latest modes, homecoming 

228 U. S. ONE 

throngs step back in spirit to the generation to which the church belongs. 
They sing old hymns to the accompaniment of a hand-pumped organ. Former 
pastors and members speak to the assemblage. Then family picnic baskets yield a 
feast of fried chicken, potato salad, pickled peaches, and an imposing array of 
pies, among other delicacies. Reminiscences begun around the picnic cloth con- 
tinue throughout the afternoon as the older people walk about the churchyard. 

The TOMB OF WALTER HINES PAGE bears a slab of gray granite inscribed with 
his name and the dates: August 15, 1855-December 21, 1918. Page, who became 
ill at his post in London during the closing weeks of the World War, was rushed 
to his home in Pinehurst, where he died shortly afterward. His body, originally 
placed in the new cemetery to the S. of the church, was moved across the narrow 
road and placed under a clump of trees that is surrounded by a low rock wall. 

Beneath the cedars in the older part of Bethesda Cemetery, behind the church, 
lie crumbling, crude, and brown-stained monuments to early settlers. One is 




Another reads: 

"In Memory of 

(an honest man) 

a native of Scotland 

by accident, but a citizen of 

the U. S. from choice 

who died 

March 29, 1820 

Aged 64 years. 

His dust must mingle with the 

Till the last trump's awakening 

It will then arise in sweet 


To meet its saviour in the 

PINEBLUFF, 80 m. (307 alt., 289 pop.), which failed to prosper 
after its establishment as a winter resort, now presents a some- 
what deserted appearance. A few scattered houses, many of them 
winter residences, occupy the wide streets. Since there is no business 
district, the village resembles a rural community. Promoters erected 
a large hotel, which was later unprofitably converted into a club 


offering accommodations to northern visitors. Since 1935 it has been 
used as a sanatorium for chronic alcoholics. 

At 84 m. US 1 crosses the LUMBER RIVER and runs through the 
Sand Hills into the North Carolina and South Carolina flatlands. 
Unlike most of the Sand Hills, this is a region of dark pine forests 
and darker cypress swamps; the cypresses are draped in vines and 
Spanish moss. It has been called "a shadowy underworld, lost to the 
sun; a world of sorrowful twilight, remote, unreal, and lifeless," 
silent except for the chattering of blackbirds, the caw of distant 
crows, and the roar of motor cars on the highway. 

HOFFMAN, 88 m. (335 alt., 569 pop.), is in a low and sparsely 
settled section of the Sand Hills where flowers and shrubs bloom 
throughout the winter. The village, named for a large landholder in 
this region, was settled by Scottish-Irish, German, and Swiss immi- 
grants. Cotton and corn are grown here, but peaches are the chief 
product. A large platform where this fruit is sorted stands close to the 
SAL Ry. track. A sand-clay road leads into the orchards E. and W. 
of the platform. Several modern dwellings, two stores, a filling sta- 
tion, and the small houses occupied by Negroes who work in the 
orchards compose the village. 

MARSTON, 92 m. (335 alt., 125 pop.), lies in the peach-growing 
section of the Sand Hills where the soil is also adapted to such crops 
as melons, peanuts, and sweet potatoes. Negroes make up almost 
half the population. 

ROCKINGHAM, 102 m. (211 alt., 2,906 pop.), seat of Richmond 
Co., lies on a pleasant plateau surmounting a hill. Established hi 
1785, it was named for the Marquis of Rockingham, who befriended 
the Colony before the Revolutionary War. Many of the inhabitants 
are descendants of original settlers, and the corporate limits of the 
town are practically the same as when it was laid out. 

Although Rockingham has retained the air of another generation, 
it has modern facilities and wide well-paved streets. It lies in a rich 
agricultural region where corn, tobacco, melons, and garden produce 
are grown. The county has a million peach trees. Cotton nevertheless 
constitutes 75 percent of the output of the farms, and cotton raising 
is a "Negro-and-mule" job. 

Rockingham is also an industrial center. The 10 mills in the region 
employ white operatives exclusively. Their work ends on Friday, 
and they have normally spent most of their money by Saturday 

23 o U. S. ONE 

afternoon, when certain streets of Rockingham are given over to the 

The Negro population of the Rockingham area is almost equal to 
the white. Since the Negroes live largely on the cotton plantations, 
where the land is level, the rows are long, and the summer sun is 
scorching, public opinion in Rockingham is agreed that part of the 
town should be theirs one day a week. Very few of them fail to be in 
Rockingham on Saturday. White people by common consent usually 
stay off the streets the Negroes frequent for trading, gossiping with 
their friends from other plantations, and learning to imitate the urban 
Negroes. The carnival spirit prevails as entire families stroll about in 
their best clothes, perhaps stopping for crackers, a box of sardines, 
and a bottle of pop at some cafe where a blaring radio has replaced 
the old-fashioned phonograph. But there is a serious side to the occa- 
sion. All these Negroes are sharecroppers; in cotton-picking time 
they must learn the price of cotton and the prices other planters are 
paying for labor, so they can hold their own in bargaining. 

RICHMOND COUNTY COURTHOUSE stands upon a beautifully land- 
scaped bluff E. of the business district. In the public square is a CON- 
FEDERATE MEMORIAL erected hi 1 930 by the United Daughters of the 

US 1 runs southward, E. of and parallel with Pee Dee River, to the 
South Carolina Line, 114 m. 


N.G. Line Cheraw Camden Columbia Aiken Ga. 
Line, 171m. US 1. 

The highway between Cheraw and Columbia is paralleled by the Seaboard Air 

Line Ry., and between Columbia and Batesburg by the Southern Ry. 

Route paved throughout. 

Accommodations of all kinds available at short intervals, with hotels chiefly in 


Section 19. North Carolina Line to Columbia, 96 m. 

US 1 traverses the central section of South Carolina, an area of 
deep sandy ridges with sparse and stunted vegetation. Short-leaf pine 
and blackjack oak are the chief trees. For years this was the most 
poverty-stricken section of the State, redeemed only by the fall-line 
cities and the few towns that were settled mainly as resorts. Now 
many acres are devoted to profitable orchards and fruit farms. 

The highway crosses the Big Pee Dee River, passing through an 
old covered bridge, the only one on US 1 . Each piece of wood was 
cut and numbered, its place being determined in advance of the 
building. During the extreme high water of the spring floods the 
bridge is impassable. 

CHERAW (Ind.,foe town or place of the tall grass), 10 m. (145 alt., 
3,575 pop.), was settled by Welsh emigrants from Pennsylvania in 
1735. The town was carefully planned and remains beautiful today. 
Its distinctive charm is created by its division into large blocks with 
broad streets. Each street is planted with four rows of shade trees. 

The large number of trees in Cheraw is owing to an old town law 
that required anyone seen intoxicated on the street to go to the 
woods, bring back a tree, and plant it. 

The first white settlers in the area made their homes at the head of 
navigation on the Big Pee Dee River. The land they occupied form- 
erly belonged to the Cheraw Indians, hence the name of the town. 
When upper South Carolina was divided into districts, the section in 
which the town was situated became the District of the Old Cheraws. 

The term "lynch law" is said to have originated at Cheraw during 
Revolutionary times (see also Louisburg, JV.C.). Col. Charles Lynch of 
Lynchburg, Va., had been named Judge Advocate to serve at courts- 
martial for Gen. Nathanael Greene, whose camp was nearby. So 



23 2 U. S. ONE 

arbitrary were some of the decisions of Colonel Lynch that the ex- 
pression came to indicate the passing and execution of sentence 
without trial. 

Capt. Moses Rogers, commander of the Savannah, which in 1819 
completed the first trans-Atlantic crossing under steam, came to live 
in Cheraw after the Savannah was destroyed by fire. He commanded a 
steamer plying up and down the Big Pee Dee River between Cheraw 
and Georgetown during the days when this was an important river- 
shipping point for both North and South Carolina. In 1823 he built 
his own steamer, the Great Pee Dee, but on the first voyage down river 
he contracted yellow fever and died aboard ship. The GRAVE OF 
CAPT. ROGERS is in the St. David's Episcopal Churchyard. River 
freighting was a prosperous business at the time, a total of 135,000 
bales of cotton being shipped from the town in 1825. 

Old ST. DAVID'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 1st and Church Sts., named by 
early Welsh settlers for the patron saint of Wales, was built between 
1770 and 1775. In the churchyard are buried soldiers of seven Ameri- 
can wars. The church was used by British soldiers as a smallpox 
hospital in the Revolutionary War, and 50 of those who died here are 
buried in one grave in the yard. Also in the churchyard is a CON- 
FEDERATE MONUMENT, one of the first erected. 

Baptist and Presbyterian congregations of the community, about 
1820, disputed over which was to hold services in St. David's Church. 
Once when the Baptists were holding services there, the Presbyterians 
loaded and fired an old Revolutionary cannon, to the consternation 
of the Baptist preacher, who hurriedly dismissed the congregation. 
Later the Episcopal Church claimed the building, and the Presby- 
terian minister, who was responsible for the cannon episode, wrote: 
"While the lion and the unicorn were fighting for the crown, up came 
the puppy dog and knocked them both down." 

The OLD MARKET HALL, Market and 2nd Sts., built in 1836 for 
the town hall, is now used as the city court. 

The McKAY HOUSE, Kershaw and 3rd Sts., an ante-bellum home, 
was built in 1822. Here Lafayette was entertained in 1825 when he 
visited Cheraw. 

The HARTZEL HOME on Mclver Ave., built in 1790 of hand-hewn 
lumber, is of southern Colonial design. It was used as personal head- 
quarters by General Sherman in 1865. 

A sign (L) indicates the entrance to the 700-acre CHERAW STATE 


PARK (free). The main road diverges into walks and drives through 
the wooded hillsides and valleys. A 10-acre lake, cabins, a barbecue 
pit, camping grounds, fishing, boating, and swimming attract 
tourists to the park. The 5,148 acres of the adjoining CHERAW 
RECREATIONAL AREA are now being developed. Around a 300-acre 
lake, camps of various sizes are to be built, planned to provide suit- 
able recreational facilities for tourists, social service groups, clubs, 
and the like. A wildlife sanctuary at the head of the lake and a game 
preserve are also on the program. There will probably be a small 
up-keep fee for the use of this area. 

From PATRICK, 24 m. (223 alt., 250 pop.), is shipped more tar, 
rosin, pitch, and turpentine than from any other manufacturing point 
in the State. One of its three naval stores plants is the largest of its 
kind in South Carolina. 

At HIGHTOWER, 29 m., is the junction with the Ruby-Harts- 
ville Road. 

Right on this improved road at 5 m. a dirt road leads (R) to SUGAR LOAF and 
HORSESHOE MOUNTAINS, two curious formations. Sugar Loaf, cone-shaped, is 
probably the highest sand mountain of its shape harboring a growth of timber. 

At 36 m. is the intersection with State 95. 

Right on State 95 is the newly planted pine forest of the SAND HILL AGRICUL- 

McBEE, 38 m. (473 alt., 500 pop.), is a fruit growing and shipping 

At 44 m. is the ford on the old INDIAN TRAIL crossing BIG LYNCHES 
RIVER, which divides Chesterfield and Kershaw Cos. A peculiarity of 
the three channels of the Big Lynches is that in the E. and W. chan- 
nels the water flows southward toward the junction with the Big Pee 
Dee, while in the middle channel it flows northward to connect with 
the E. channel. 

A POTTERY PLANT (R) a few hundred yards W. of the bridge, 
produces hand-made flower pots, bowls, pitchers, jugs, and churns 
from a fine clay found near the Big Lynches. The proprietor often 
takes time to demonstrate the dexterous coordination of hands with 
the turns of the potter's wheel required in the formation of pleasing 

BETHUNE, 45 m. (476 alt., 522 pop.), a shady and restful town, 
has a hotel and tourist cabins. 

234 U. S. ONE 

Kershaw Co., organized in 1798 and named in honor of Col. 
Joseph Kershaw, a Revolutionary leader and founder of Camden, 
has an area of 673 sq. m. Its northern part belongs to the Piedmont 
Plateau, with red hills, red clay sub-soil, and outcroppings of superior 
granite. A fine grade of cotton is produced in the county. The middle 
region is in the Sand Hill Belt, a part of the Coastal Plain, and is 
adapted to the culture of peaches and grapes. The southern part, in 
the river terrace region of level, rich, alluvial land, is subject to occa- 
sional overflow in the river valleys. In this region are large and ex- 
cellent plantations. US 1 follows the border of the fall-line through 
slightly rolling lands, with occasional settings of pecan orchards. 

At 61 m. (L) is the CAMDEN AIRPORT. 

CAMDEN, 64 m. (222 alt., 5,183 pop.), a winter resort (see S.C. 

Railroad Stations. Southern Ry., E. DeKalb St.; Seaboard Air Line Ry., Gordon 
and Chestnut Sts. 

Points of Interest. Pantheon; Courthouse, Presbyterian Church (see illustration), 
and Monument to DeKalb, all designed by Robert Mills; "King" Haigler 
Weathervane; Iron Man; and others. 

The FOREST TREE NURSERY, 67 m. (open), jointly maintained by 
the State and Federal Governments, edges the highway (L). This is 
the first and smaller of the experimental projects in this State to con- 
serve lands through reforestation. The larger plant was established 
near Georgetown in 1934. These nurseries utilize the services of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps. In 1935, 15 million forest tree seedlings 
were here made available for planting 1 5 thousand acres of denuded 

A dirt road leads from the nursery grounds. 

Left on this road to an INDIAN MOUND, 1 m., about 30 ft. high and 75 ft. square 
at the base. Some excavations have been made. 

From the basin of the Wateree, 68 m., US 1 climbs to a high ridge 
of the Sand Hills. On both sides lie troughs and crests of ancient shore 
lines with their growths of scrubby blackjacks and stunted pines. 
Here and there among the ranges are ponds fed by springs or wet- 
weather streams. Dotted about are the cabins of the real Sand-Hillers, 
hybrids often of Negro, Indian, and white strains. In the past these 
people, like the blackjacks and the pines, have barely managed to 
exist on what seemed to be nature's waste lands. The unpainted 
cabins that lie in coves between the ancient sand dunes are 


unequipped with modern conveniences, not even stoves for cook- 
ing. Many of the inhabitants are victims of pellagra. In recent years, 
however, science has discovered the potential values of these barren 
sands; new fertilizing formulas introduce inert plant foods, with the 
result that various commercial crops grasses, grains, peaches, and 
grapes are now being produced. 

The SAND HILL EXPERIMENT STATION (R), 81 m. (open), is a joint 
Federal and State agency, under immediate control of Clemson 
College, seeking through research and practical experimentation to 
improve the productivity of lands of this region. The plant, estab- 
lished in 1926, has 887 acres of sand lands, excellent buildings, and a 
chemical laboratory. The experiments cover horticulture, dairying, 
field crops, and soil fertility. Field and laboratory experiments and 
cooperative experiments with farmers in other sections, are carried 
on. This station has already done much toward making the desert 
bloom. Along the highway orchards of peaches and grapes, producing 
luscious fruit, are evidences of the beginning of the conquest of this 

At 91 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to a large WHOLESALE MULE MARKET, 1 m., which supplies 
from six to eight thousand mules a year to concerns in three States. The stock is 
bought from country dealers in the mid-western stock-raising States. 

An almost unbroken line of residences flanks the highway for some 
distance N. of Columbia, on the western edge of Richland Co. The 
county was founded in 1785, and within its area anything from the 
finest cotton to the finest peaches, berries, melons, grains, and grasses 
can be produced. 

COLUMBIA, 96 m. (312 alt., 51,581 pop.), State capital (see 

Railroad Stations. Southern Ry. and Atlantic Coast Line R.R., S. Main St.; 
Seaboard Air Line Ry., Gervais and Lincoln Sts.; Columbia, Newberry & 
Laurens R.R., 630 Wayne St. 

Points of Interest. State House (see illustration), Confederate Monument, Statue 
of Washington, Trinity Church, University of South Carolina, Governor's Man- 
sion, Woodrow Wilson Home, and others. 

Section 20. Columbia to Georgia Line, 75 nt. 

US 1 between Columbia and Aiken continues to follow the fall- 
line, the demarcation between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain 

236 U. S. ONE 

areas of South Carolina. Owing to the dry, sandy nature of the soil, 
for many years the chief vegetation of this Sand Hill section consisted 
of scrub oaks and stunted pines enlivened occasionally by blue lupine 
or other small, hardy flowers. 

When Washington traveled over this route in 1791 he commented: 
"The whole road from Augusta to Columbia is a pine barren of the 
worst sort, being hilly as well as poor." Today instead of pine barrens 
there are peach orchards, grape vines, pecan groves, acres of ferny 
asparagus, cotton, corn, and numerous vegetable patches. Unsightly 
posters and signs rather than the land provoke unfavorable comment 
today from travelers. 

US 1 runs westward from Columbia on Gervais St., crossing the 
CONGAREE BRIDGE, completed in 1927, below the junction of the 
Saluda and Broad Rivers. Named in honor of the Battle of Lexington, 
Lexington Co. is primarily an agricultural region of small farms and 
little tenancy. Early settlers were mostly Germans, industrious, 
thrifty, and cooperative. 

NEW BROOKLAND, 1 m. (243 alt., 1,722 pop.), is largely a 
residential town, being rapidly built up by people who commute 
to Columbia daily for work in the cotton mills. 

US 1 crosses the neck of HORSE SHOE POND, 2 m. (R), notable for 
the fresh-water sponges on its bottom. It is said to dry up every 
seven years. Recently, owing to flocks of wild ducks that stop here 
when immigrating, the pond has been put under protection of the 
State Game Warden. 

The GREEN HILL TOURIST CAMP, 3 m., occupies the unmarked 
site from which Sherman's artillery shelled Columbia on February 
16, 1865. 

LEXINGTON, 12 m. (359 alt., 1,152 pop.), is largely residential. 
On the eastern approach is a unit of a large MILL system (open to 

At the intersection of US 1 and State 6 in Lexington is a MONU- 
MENT to the soldiers, sailors, and marines of the World War. 

1. Right on State 6 to LAKE MURRAY DAM, 5m., one of the largest earthen 
dams in the world. 

2. Left on State 6 is the village of RED BANK, 4 m., which has a TEXTILE 
PLANT (open to public), producing high grade prints and employing 400 to 500 
people. At 9 m. is a KAOLIN MINE. 


Between Lexington and Batesburg US 1 continues along a thin 
strip of the Sand Hill, with the Piedmont on one side and the Coastal 
Plain on the other; Lexington Co. has parts of the three distinct areas 
into which the State is divided and its natural resources are conse- 
quently diversified. This county contains more than half of Lake 
Murray; granite, the only mineral of commercial importance, is 
quarried at Cayce; boxes, baskets, brick, fertilizer, flour, caskets, 
monuments, cotton goods, and cottonseed oil are manufactured; in 
addition large quantities of lumber are cut. 

The ever-present quantities of vegetables, grain, berries, melons, 
peaches, and pecans brought from Lexington Co. to the Columbia 
curb market have given rise to the saying that "Lexington County 
feeds Columbia." 

At LEESVILLE, 29 m. (656 alt., 1,340 pop.), is a casket factory. 
The division between Leesville and Batesburg is negligible; a joint 
public school is on US 1 between the two towns. 

BATESBURG, 31 m. (660 alt., 2,839 pop.), has the highest eleva- 
tion in the county. A casket factory is operated here also. 

The course of US 1 between Batesburg and Augusta cuts through a 
corner of Saluda Co., skirts the edge of the one-time prominent town 
of MONETTA, 37 m., and traverses the W. central Sand Hills of 
Aiken Co. North of Aiken, the county seat, the hills are steep and the 
scenery picturesque. Along the way are occasional handsome old 
country homes, some of which cater to tourists. 

Aiken Co. was formed from Barnwell, Edgefield, Lexington, 
and Orangeburg Cos. in 1872, and is one of the largest and most 
noted in the State. The soil is a light friable, varying from a light 
sandy to a deep fertile loam. The main products are asparagus, 
cotton, corn, melons, oats, sugar cane, and fruits. Large annual ship- 
ments of hogs, chickens, peanuts, and potatoes are made. Lumber- 
ing is a major industry. Here are kaolin mines and many textile 

AIKEN, 59 m. (527 alt., 6,025 pop.), tourist resort (see S.C. 

Points of Interest. Handsome homes, including Edgewood and Let's Pretend. 

HORSE CREEK VALLEY, which US 1 traverses S. of Aiken, 
has sacrificed much scenic beauty to industrial development. Be- 
tween a point 4 miles N. of Aiken and Hamburg runs a zone of fine 

238 U. S. ONE 

sedimentary clays 6 miles wide with beds 5 to 45 ft. deep. There is a 
reserve, according to the U. S. Geological Survey, of 120 million tons 
of high grade kaolin and the largest and purest sedimentary clay 
deposit in the United States. About 30 mines and 7 refining plants 
are regularly in operation, employing 1 ,200 or more people. Through- 
out the valley is a network of textile mills. 

The toes of each town in this valley seem to tread upon the heels of 
the next, and the distinct limits of the many-operation corporations 
are difficult to define. 

At WARRENVILLE, 64 m. (222 alt., 300 pop.), is the intersec- 
tion with a good unpaved country road. 

Right on this road is GRANITEVILLE, 2 m. (215 alt., 2,560 pop.), where 
William Gregg, called the father of southern cotton manufacturing, established 
the Graniteville mill in 1848. From the first this factory made money, and it was 
operated successfully throughout the Civil War. Gregg came to South Carolina 
from what is now West Virginia in 1824. Within ten years he amassed a substan- 
tial fortune as a watchmaker and silversmith in Columbia. He then moved to 
Edgefield, where he became interested in a small, struggling cotton factory, 
Vaucluse, which, with his brother-in-law, he bought and put on a paying basis. 
He moved his residence to Charleston in 1843, becoming a partner in a jewelry 
business there but continuing his interest in cotton manufacture. He interested 
Charleston capitalists in the idea of southern cotton manufacturing and was able 
in 1845 to secure the charter for his Graniteville mill, capitalized at $300,000. 

Gregg had definite economic theories which he both published and practiced. 
He believed that plants should begin with adequate capital, be self-sustaining, 
and have a surplus over local needs, which would make for a sounder system. He 
traveled extensively in New England and European textile centers and wrote ar- 
ticles for the Charleston Courier which were collected and published in pamphlet 

On the same road is VAUCLUSE, 5 m. (289 alt., 900 pop.), where today 
there is still a unit of the Graniteville company mills. 

In LANGLEY, 67 m. (172 alt., 1,688 pop.), are several kaolin 

BATH, 69 m. (170 alt., 1,250 pop.), has textile mills and clay 

HAMBURG, 75 m., once an important town of the Southeast, 
is now a mere hamlet on US 1 on the South Carolina side of the 
Savannah River. It was the northwestern terminal of the Charleston- 
Hamburg Line of the South Carolina R.R. Over this, one of the 
early American railroads, the locomotive, Best Friend, on alternate 
days struggled to pull its load. 


In times when the value of bank notes was questionable, scrip 
from the old Hamburg Bank was readily accepted. During the Re- 
construction period the Hamburg Riot of 1876 started the chain of 
events leading to the Red Shirt organization and the restoration of 
white supremacy in the State. At 75 m. is the Georgia State Line, the 
Savannah River, which is crossed on a free bridge. 


S.G. Line Augusta Waycross Fla. Line, 222.5 m. US 1. 

Paved surface throughout. Cattle and pigs a hazard. 

Hotel and tourist accommodations vary from poor to excellent. 

Section 21. South Carolina Line to Florida Line, 222.5 m. 

In its 222.5-mile course in Georgia, US 1 S. of Augusta passes 
through only one town, Waycross, with a population exceeding 2,500. 
The highway traverses a rural section that is the locale of two out- 
standing works of modern fiction: Erskine CaldwelPs novel, Tobacco 
Road, from which the record-breaking play was adapted ; and Caro- 
line Miller's Pulitzer Prize novel of 1933, Lamb in His Bosom. In the 
extreme southern part of the State, US 1 skirts the Okefenokee 
Swamp, a favorite laboratory for naturalists. 

Between Augusta and Louisville the highway follows an old Uchee 
Indian trail, which later became a stagecoach route. Before the Civil 
War this region was a part of the old plantation belt, slave labor being 
abundant to cultivate the large farms. Charm and mellowed grace 
linger about the old homes, some of which date back almost to the 
Revolution, but more in evidence is the unpainted shack of the share- 
cropper, with sagging porch and paneless windows. 

Winding through the low red clay hills, US 1 bisects fields of white 
cotton, which grows to a height of about 3 ft. In late August and 
September, groups of barefoot Negroes, with red bandannas or wide 
straw hats on their heads and burlap sacks slung from their shoulders, 
bend low over the stalks and pick the soft staple from the boll. When 
the sacks have been filled, the contents are dumped on large sheets 
at the end of the rows. 

Between the fields of cotton, grain, sugar cane, and peanuts are 
farmhouses, some of them shakily balanced on rock supports. Here 
and there are wells with windlasses and oaken buckets, rusty planta- 
tion dinner bells on tall poles, and bee-martin gourds swinging from 
crosspieces on tall posts. These gourds furnish a nesting place for the 
small martins that keep the hawks away from the chickens. Fre- 
quently the porches are boarded up to hold the loose cotton that is 
piled there until enough for a bale has been picked. Instead of plant- 
ing grass on their lawns, the housewives sweep the yards clean with a 
bundle of small branches; but even the shabbiest house is brightened 





I I 

i I " 




with petunias, zinnias, and geraniums growing in the yards and in tin 
cans on the porches. 

A measure of prosperity is reflected in new houses, fresh paint, 
and new farm implements. Gleaming against the sky from the roofs 
of many houses and barns are new lightning rods, some adorned 
with glittering colored balls, others in three-branched effect like the 
devil's fabled pitchfork, all evidences of faith in the shining, twisted 
strands of metal running down into the earth. 

Since cotton is still the principal money crop, Georgia farmers 
suffered from the low price cotton brought for many years; five-cent 
cotton spelt ruin to them. Even when the Federal Government 
pegged the price to 12 cents through loans, and though it some- 
times rose to 15, returns did not always meet production costs. 

Below Swainsboro US 1 stretches through the Piney Woods or 
Wiregrass section, which is pervaded by a strange silence and an air 
of remoteness. The last part of Georgia to be developed, it was 
opened in the mid-1 9th century by small-scale farmers from the 
Carolinas, who were attracted by the lumber of the pine forests. 
Relatively few Negroes live in this country, and the land is worked 
by independent owners whose obscure heroism is celebrated by 
Caroline Miller's Lamb in His Bosom. 

The towns have developed somewhat in recent years, since to- 
bacco has been grown on a commercial basis. The production of 
cigarette tobacco on a large scale was introduced into Georgia after 
1915 as a means of crop diversification in the pine barrens section 
because of the impoverishment of the soil by the growth of cotton. 
In 1936 the planter received approximately 21 ff a pound for his 

As a result of better drainage and improved sanitation, malaria 
and hookworm, which were prevalent in the lower part of the State, 
are to a great extent under control. 

AUGUSTA, 0.5 m. (143 alt., 60,342 pop.), winter resort (see 

Railroad Station. Southern Ry., Atlantic Coast Line R.R., Georgia R.R., 
Charleston & Western Carolina Ry., Georgia & Florida R.R., and Central of 
Georgia R.R., Union Station, Walker St., opposite Barrett Plaza. 

Points of Interest. The Hill, University of Georgia School of Medicine, Junior 
College of Augusta, Paine College (Negro), Haines Institute (Negro), Cotton 
Exchange, Ware's Folly, Meadow Gardens, and others. 

242 U. S. ONE 

Startling religious signs mark the highway near Augusta. These 
thickly clustered signs were erected personally by David Brinkman, a 
young evangelist of that city. Most of the texts give admonitions dis- 
concerting to the motorist: "Prepare to Meet Thy God," "After 
Death the Judgment," and "Because There is Wrath, Beware." 

At 15 m. is the junction with the Bath Road. 

Right on this road is BATH, 0.5 m. (400 alt., 17 pop.), a small village, formerly 
known as Richmond Bath, which was settled in the early 19th century as a 
summer resort because the cold, clear water of the spring supposedly possessed 
medicinal properties. During ante-bellum days this retreat of wealthy planters 
was celebrated for its old mansions and bountiful hospitality. When malaria in 
low-lying Burke Go. caused "third-day chills and fever" many families fled here 
for safety. 

Most of the old homes have been burned; only the decaying MANSE and the 
well-preserved PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH remain. The white clapboard church was 
designed by the architect, James Trowbridge of Boston, and built about 1 820. 
The pulpit and pews were made by hand, and in the NE. side of the church is the 
old slave gallery with its side entrance. The original bell hangs in the square 

For eight years, beginning in 1 843, the Reverend Frank R. Goulding served as 
minister; in the manse next door, now crumbling and weather-beaten, he wrote 
Young Marooners, and tried to perfect a sewing machine before Howe patented his 
invention. He failed, however, because he did not place the eye of the needle near 
its point. 

In the churchyard is the BATH CEMETERY, its oldest stone bearing the date 
September 20, 1816. 

At 31.3 m. (L) is the ABRAHAM (or ABRAM) BEASLEY PLAGE 
(private), an excellent example of the pioneer Georgia home, prob- 
ably built soon after the Revolutionary War. There is no proof of the 
exact date because all Jefferson Co. records were destroyed by Union 
troops during the Civil War. The old house, now in a state of dis- 
repair, is of the "dog- trot" type, an evolution of the earliest log 
house. The two rooms are connected by a roof that covers an open 
space known as a "breezeway" or "dog-trot." It is built of heavy 
hand-hewn timbers held together by wooden pegs. The great logs 
were crudely squared and evened, the beam running along the roof 
of the front porch being a solid piece of timber 60 ft. long. The house 
is occupied by descendants of the original owner. 

WRENS, 33.3 m. (468 alt., 1,085 pop.), was established in 1884, 
when the tracks of the Augusta Southern R.R. were laid. The 
founder, W. J. Wren, inherited the land from his grandfather, John 


Wren, who, according to local tradition, had acquired it in exchange 
for two blind horses. Though predominantly agricultural in its 
interests, the town has several planing mills, a flour mill, and a cotton 

At the eastern edge of town stands POPE HILL (private), a house 
erected about 1850, where Jefferson Davis as a prisoner of Union 
forces was allowed to stop for breakfast. The exterior is covered with 
wide clapboards painted white; although the front has been con- 
siderably altered by the addition of a porch and porte-cochere, the 
outlines of the original small stoop can still be seen in the paneling 
on both sides of the front door. Until the railroad was built, the resi- 
dence served as an inn and a relay station where stagecoaches 
changed horses. 

Wrens was a boyhood home of Erskine Galdwell, who is known for 
Tobacco Road, God's Little Acre, and numerous short stories, including 
Kneel to the Rising Sun, all dealing with the tenant farmer. With his 
father, a Presbyterian minister, Caldwell visited the country people 
throughout the section, and noted the manner in which the share- 
croppers live. When challenged for his presentation, Galdwell re- 
plied: "It is no more obscene than life." Most Georgians, however, 
contend that the conditions described are less general than his work 

Tobacco Road is the name of a dirt road that runs along a ridge 
from northern Georgia to a point on the Savannah River below 
Augusta. Over this road tobacco was hauled in mule-drawn hogs- 
heads to the port where it was loaded on boats. 

At 35 m. (R) is the OLIPHANT HOME (private), a plantation house 
with slave quarters, built between 1820 and 1830. The master's house 
is a story-and-a-half structure of wide clapboards with a center hall 
flanked by two high-ceiled rooms; later rooms have been added on 
each side of the front porch. The kitchen, originally standing some 
distance from the house, has been moved nearer the back porch. 
From the rear of the big house a lane leads between the double row of 
slave cabins, which are sagging and weather-worn but held intact by 
their massive stone chimneys. The old gin house still remains on the 
plantation. Although Sherman's men burned nearby houses on their 
March to the Sea, they left this place unharmed because, the story is 
told, the mistress of the Oliphant house was courteous to the Federal 
soldiers and had food prepared for them. 

244 U. S. ONE 

At 42.3 m. (R) is the J. J. Norton home, known as the OLD 
WHIGHAM PLACE (private). An original grant in the possession of the 
Whigham family shows that the land was owned by that family in 
1790, and it is believed that the house was built shortly afterward. A 
gaunt, high-standing frame structure, it lacks the grace of the Greek 
Revival, the predominant architectural style of the better houses of 
the Old South. A one-story porch juts from the front, and a kitchen 
ell from the side. Massive end chimneys dwindle to narrow, tall flues 
above the roof. After having remained in the hands of the Whigham 
family until 1910, the place became a pecan market catering to the 
tourist trade. 

At 46.3 m. (L) is the GOBERT HOUSE, built between 1796 and 1800 
by Benjamin Gobert, a political refugee from France. The one-storied 
frame house is of comfortable appearance, with a steeply sloping 
shingled roof, and double doors opening on the wide front porch. 
The interior has wide clapboard ceilings, and chair moldings about 
the wall. Only the main part of the house and a few old magnolia 
trees are still standing. 

LOUISVILLE, 48.2 m. (337 alt., 1,650 pop.), seat of Jefferson 
Co., was for a time Georgia's capital. Having been at Savannah, the 
seat of government was moved temporarily to Augusta when Savan- 
nah fell into the hands of the British. Louisville was laid out in 1783 
on a thousand-acre tract purchased by the State. The first statehouse 
was completed in 1796 in time for a session of the legislature, and the 
last session held there was in 1805, after which Milledgeville became 
the capital. The COUNTY COURTHOUSE, built from materials of the 
statehouse, now occupies the statehouse site. 

On Broad St., at a point where two Indian trails intersected, 
stands the old SLAVE MARKET (see illustration), built in 1758 before 
Louisville was founded. Hand-hewn posts support the roof, which is 
approximately 20 ft. square. The market bell, which had been sent in 
1772 to a convent in New Orleans as a gift from the King of France, 
was captured by pirates and sold at Savannah, where it was bought 
for the Louisville market. In addition to giving notice of slave sales, 
it warned settlers of Indian attacks and called them together for 
sheriffs 5 sales after the incorporation of Jefferson Co. This is said to be 
the only slave market in the South still standing as originally built. 

In front of the courthouse, facing E. Broad St., stands the YAZOO 
FRAUD MARKER, indicating the place where the Yazoo papers were 


burned on February 15, 1796, after an impressive ceremony in the 
presence of the Governor and members of both houses. Speculative 
companies had bought from Georgia 15,500,000 acres of land, lying 
in the present States of Mississippi and Alabama, for less than two 
cents an acre. A state- wide wave of indignation caused the passage of 
a legislative act to rescind the sale and to destroy all records of the 

Tradition has handed down a dramatic story of the event. While 
the crowd stood with uncovered heads, a white-haired man, known 
to no one present, galloped up, dismounted, and proclaimed that he 
had come to see justice done. Saying that no earth-born fire, but 
rather fire from heaven, should destroy the works of iniquity, he drew 
a sunglass from his pocket and held it over the pile of wood that had 
been assembled until smoke began to rise. Then he vanished, and 
was seen no more. 

One of the landmarks of Louisville is the old GARVIN HOME 
(private), corner E. 8th and Screven Sts., which was built by Dr. 
Philip Scott about 1840. The house, constructed on square lines 
with veranda columns rising to a second-story roof, has now fallen 
into decay. About it stood many outbuildings and slave cabins, and 
interspersed with tall trees were quantities of mimosa, flowering 
pomegranates, and figs. 

In the Louisville City Cemetery, on W. 7th St., is a tall granite 
monument marking the GRAVE OF HERSGHEL V. JOHNSON, Governor 
of Georgia, a superior court judge, and candidate in 1860 for the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States. 

Near the cemetery is a small granite marker on the SITE OF LOUIS- 
VILLE ACADEMY, chartered in 1796; it was one of the earliest educa- 
tional institutions in the State. 

At frequent intervals along the highway or in the small towns are 
cotton gins, barn-like structures usually made of wood or corrugated 
sheet iron. (The word "gin" is a corruption of the word "engine", 
which was applied to Eli Whitney's invention.) In the fall, wagons 
and trucks filled with cotton stand in line before each of the large 
gins, and the wagons are driven in turn under the metal suction pipe 
that draws the cotton into the gin. There, by means of rollers or 
saws, the white lint is separated from the seed; the lint is then com- 
pressed by power presses, covered with jute bagging, and fastened 
with steel bands. The seeds are blown through pipes into a seed 

246 U. S. ONE 

house, from which they are sold to refineries for use in cooking oils 
and other kitchen products. The hulls and the "cake" from which 
the oil is pressed are sold in large quantities for cattle feed and fer- 
tilizer. After baling, the cotton is stored in warehouses until it is sold. 

SWAINSBORO, 78.7 m. (350 alt., 2,422 pop.), seat of Emanuel 
Co., was incorporated in 1854. Advantageously situated at the in- 
tersection of US 1 and US 80, the town is expanding rapidly, and 
many new stores, public buildings, and residences have been erected. 
Among the industrial plants of the town are sawmills, planing mills, 
cotton gins, turpentine stills, machine shops, and warehouses. Hogs, 
chickens, turkeys, and goats are marketed in large numbers. 

Emanuel County was created in 1812 and named for David 
Emanuel, Revolutionary soldier and Governor of Georgia. Covering 
1,000 square miles, it is so large that its citizens often speak of it as 
the State of Emanuel. Its rolling terrain is particularly suited to the 
growing of cotton, bright-leaf tobacco, sweet potatoes, corn, nuts, 
sugarcane, hay, and velvet beans. This variety makes possible a four- 
year program of crop rotation promoted by the county. The area 
also produces large quantities of naval stores. 

LYONS, 107.6 m. (275 alt., 1,445 pop.), seat of Toombs Co., was 
chartered in 1897. Tobacco, cotton, and corn are cultivated on the 
surrounding farms, and timber lands are extensive in the area. 

The big-stemmed Jersey potato is raised here in large quantities 
for the New York market. New Jersey formerly supplied the market 
with this product. Later Maryland, farther S., realized that it could 
raise these potatoes and, because of its earlier spring, reach the 
market before New Jersey. Virginia in turn superseded Maryland, 
and now Georgia has entered the competition. This variety of sweet 
potato, though akin to the yam, is stringy and not a favorite with 

Left from Lyons on a dirt road is the STATE PENITENTIARY, 17 m. This model 
prison was constructed under supervision of the P.W.A. for the State and the 
Prison Commission of Georgia. Outwardly this massive but dignified white con- 
crete structure with modern lines has the appearance of a handsome manufactur- 
ing plant or office building. With a frontage of 1,020 ft. and a depth of 842 ft. it 
contains eight units and can care for 2,000 prisoners. Above the two fluted col- 
umns of the simple but substantial entrance is a panel in bas-relief by Julian 
Harris, sculptor, portraying various activities, including industrial phases of work 
in which the prisoners engage. The units on the right are for white prisoners and 
those on the left for Negroes. Centering around the central tower on the upper 


floors are cell blocks of a maximum degree of security. Ranging outward from 
these are cells of varying degrees of security, approaching minimum security in 
those farthest away from the center. Young boys throughout are segregated from 
the more hardened criminals. 

Much care has been taken in the design of the kitchen with its cold storage 
facilities and laundry equipment. There are four mess halls for the prison popula- 
tion, two for Negro and white help, one for the guards, and one for the warden 
and his staff. Placed strategically about the various units are sleeping quarters, 
accommodating 75 guards, in close contact with the warden's office and signal 
room. There are two large recreation fields for exercise under close supervision. 

Since the prison is almost completely isolated, the plant was designed as a self- 
contained unit. There is ample storage space not only for daily but also for emer- 
gency needs. Spare parts for all mechanical equipment are kept in stock. Engines 
and dynamos are so placed that they will be entirely separate and safe from the 
approach of any of the inmates. Among the equipment are a telephone system, 
a signal system, and a siren whistle to be used in the event of an escape. 

There is a 980-acre tract of land, surrounding the prison and adjoining the old 
State prison farm, for cultivation in food crops by the prisoners. In a rear unit are 
machine shops where the convicts can learn trades. 

The plans and specifications of the building were reviewed by the U.S. Bureau 
of Prisons, and the building is said to be one of the most modern of its kind. Over 
a period of years the State is to pay 70 percent of the cost, the Federal Govern- 
ment giving 30 percent. The building has been erected at a cost of $1,281,980; 
equipment will bring the total to $1,500,000. 

BAXLEY, 138.4 m. (210 alt., 2,122 pop.), seat of Appling Co., is 
a town of neat homes, good churches, and the usual small-town busi- 
ness houses. Being in a section that was developed late, it was not 
incorporated until 1875. In recent years, however, good transporta- 
tion facilities have made it a marketing and shipping center. The 
county now produces lumber, tobacco, naval stores, pecans, and 
syrup, as well as garden plants and evergreen shrubbery. 

Two warehouses provide ample marketing facilities for the tobacco 
growers of the surrounding district. During the market season, which 
lasts for three or four weeks in late summer, the farmers bring their 
golden aromatic leaves to the red brick or corrugated metal ware- 
house, where they pile them neatly on the floor. The sharp odor is 
stifling in the sweltering air of the warehouse. As the auctioneer goes 
from pile to pile, he rapidly calls prices in a staccato manner unin- 
telligible to the layman, and the buyers signal their competitive bids. 
When the season is over, buyers move on to the North Carolina 
markets, and the people of the town settle down again after the period 
of bustling activity. 

The turpentine stills are also of interest. Resin from the slashed 

248 U. S. ONE 

pines is here converted into hard rosin and crude turpentine. A large 
copper kettle of crude resin is heated gradually, and the hot vapors 
escape through the condensing worm, which is cooled by a stream of 
water. The unpainted frame sheds are crowded with barrels of am- 
ber-colored rosin, and the loading platforms are gummed with resin 

The dross, chips of pine wood covered with inflammable rosin, is 
gathered and sold for kindling. With a few handfuls of dross and a 
few fat pine splinters, the poorest wood and hardest coal can be 
made to blaze quickly. 

Caroline Miller was living here in a small green cottage when she 
wrote Lamb in His Bosom. With no formal education beyond high 
school training and with a background limited to Georgia, she set 
about writing a novel of her own section. Bumping over the country 
roads in her little car, she bought chickens, eggs, and vegetables 
from the farmers to enable her to talk with them. Mrs. Miller was 
about 30 years old and the mother of three small sons when she re- 
ceived the 1933 Pulitzer Prize for her first published work. 

Southern Georgia is not a rich man's country and the farmer is 
the backbone of the area. In the latter part of the 19th century the 
forests of this section were devastated by the lumber industry, but 
now the once barren cut-over pine land, ugly with decaying stumps, 
has been developed into farms. The recent drainage of stagnant 
water and sluggish streams has added much to the healthfulness of 
the section. 

ALMA, 156.7 m. (195 alt., 1,234 pop.), is the seat of Bacon Co., 
an agricultural area with the crops and industries characteristic of 
this section. 

As the highway approaches Waycross, the farmhouses become 
neater, many being painted and provided with electric lights. Each 
has its flower plot in front, vegetable garden to the side or rear, some 
pecan trees for nuts and shade, and a few cattle to provide milk and 
beef for home consumption. 

Throughout the Wiregrass section the poorer tenant farmers are 
often satisfied with the "piney woods" cattle and razorback hogs, 
inferior animals that are allowed to roam and graze as they please. 
Through the efforts of the State Department of Agriculture and other 
agencies, the farmers are being encouraged to improve their livestock 
by proper breeding, care, and sanitation. When a traveler complains 


of the pigs in the road, a south Georgian may answer proudly, "Yes, 
but look how nice and fat they are. You don't puncture your tires the 
way you did when you ran over a razorback." 

HEBARDVILLE, 180.4 m. (148 alt., 309 pop.), centers around 
the CYPRESS Co. MILL, which has a daily sawing capacity of 150 
thousand ft. Timber is cut from the nearby cypress swamps and 
hauled by rail to this place, where it is sawed and planed. 

WAYCROSS, 183.4 m. (140 alt., 18,063 pop.), a fairly new town, 
is given an appearance of age by the large oaks that grow along its 
streets. This clean and well-paved city has a progressive appearance, 
to which the trim parks lend dignity. The city owes much of its 
development, as well as its name to its being at the converging point 
of nine railroads and five highways. 

In 1818 settlers began to claim the land near Kettle Creek, now a 
part of Waycross, and wherever they settled, they built blockhouses 
and fortifications for protection against the Indians. By 1825 the 
land had been acquired from the Indians and was granted to in- 
dividuals under a lottery system. The land lottery system originated 
in Georgia in the early 1 9th century after the disposal of the lands 
lying W. of the Chattahochee River. Staking the future of Georgia 
on people instead of on lands, the officials of the State determined 
that land should be disposed of in small tracts free of charge. Gov- 
ernor Troup expressed the policy in these words: "Men and the soil 
constitute the strength and wealth of the nations, and the faster you 
plant men, the faster you can draw on both." According to this pol- 
icy the land was surveyed and charted into parcels, generally of 
212.5 acres, and offered to the public through lotteries, each citizen 
having one chance and heads of families, two chances. Since there 
were more citizens than parcels of land in every lottery, many people 
drew blanks. 

As late as 1 870, however, the town was merely a railroad junction 
with 50 inhabitants and a few scattered houses; but within the span 
of one generation it has become an important trading and commer- 
cial center of southern Georgia. Because the early settlers were very 
religious, some people have insisted that the name means Way of the 
Cross. When Frank L. Stanton, Georgia poet and journalist, visited 
the town in 1888, it was considered the holiest place in the State. He 
wrote of it that the citizens went to church "six days a week and six 
times on Sunday." Attendance at a Trinity Methodist Church 

250 U. S. ONE 

service inspired him to write his poem, The Love Feast at Waycross. 
Today 15 white and 24 Negro churches provide places of worship. 

Throughout a belt 75 miles wide, beginning at Savannah and 
running through Waycross to Bainbridge, bee culture has come to 
be so extensive that Georgia leads the South in the production of 
honey. The blossoms of the tupelo tree provide a heavy amber- 
colored honey, and the small white blooms of the gall-berry bushes 
give a clear, almost white, variety. The Waycross industry is owned 
by J. J. Wilder, who has 8,500 colonies of bees in 300 apiaries. 

Among the industries of the city are the production of naval stores 
and the marketing of furs brought from the Okefenokee Swamp ; the 
city has two planing mills, a pecan-crushing plant, two tobacco ware- 
houses, and a casket factory. Local tobacco growers take their 
tobacco leaves to the two large warehouses to be hung on long racks 
to dry; in the 1935-36 season, 3 million Ibs. brought $826,000 to 

The Georgia Hide and Fur Co. is the largest exporter of furs and 
alligator hides in the State. Among the skins are those of bear, wild- 
cat, otter, raccoon, opossum, skunk, and muskrat, the prices ranging 
from $1 for the wildcat to as much as $50 for the otter. Most of these 
pelts are obtained from the Okefenokee in the winter by the same 
trappers who hunt for alligator hides in the summer. The alligator 
hides are marketed at prices ranging from 75c for two-foot hides to 
$4.80 for six-foot hides. 

The MUNICIPAL ROSE GARDEN, on Plant Ave. between State and 
Gilmer St., is well cared for by the Waycross Rose Society and the 
Park and Tree Commission. The average yearly temperature of 65 
permits flowers to bloom the year around. 

The ATLANTIC COAST LINE R.R. SHOPS, on US 1 at the southern 
limits of the city, are the largest shops of this company. Covering 
many acres of land and representing an investment of $3,000,000, 
the shops employ hundreds of skilled mechanics and laborers. In con- 
nection with the shops is a diversion yard, where numerous fruit and 
vegetable cars are sent for icing and rerouting. Cars of cattle from 
southern ranges and products of southern fields are shipped from here 
to the markets of the Nation. 

Right from Waycross on State 50 is WINONA PARK, 3 m., which contains a large 
lake surrounded by tall pines. With its beautiful vyinding drives it is a oooular 
recreation center for the citizens of Waycross. 


The varied types of soil of this section produce corn, sugarcane, 
peanuts, beans, cantaloups, watermelons, pecans, grapes, peaches, 
and pears. The pineapple-pear, which has a sweet taste somewhat 
like that of the pineapple, is considered best for canning. 

RACEPOND, 203.4 m., is a station on the Atlantic Coast Line 
R.R. It is said that the settlement received its name from the race 
track built around a cypress pond. During the Seminole War, soldiers 
were sent here to capture the Indians who had hidden in the great 
swamps of the Okefenokee. Having much leisure, the soldiers built 
the race track to enable them to race horses for their own amusement. 

FOLKSTON, 218.2 m. (80 alt., 506 pop.), seat of Charlton Co., 
is the home of Dan Hebard, who controls the Hebard Lumber Co. 

Right from Folkston on an unnumbered dirt road that runs into the OKEFEN- 
OKEE SWAMP (see Side Route 4). 

At 222.5 m. US 1 crosses the ST. MARY'S RIVER, which is the 
Florida Line. 


Ga. Line Jacksonville New Smyrna Fort Pierce West 
Palm Beach Miami Key West, 568 m. US 1, US 1-Alt., and 
State 4. 

Florida East Coast Ry. between Ga. Line and Florida City and Atlantic Coast 
Line R.R. between Ga. Line and Miami parallel route. 

Hard surfaced; few curves. Cattle a hazard, especially at night. Dangerous rail- 
road crossings near Jacksonville. 
Accommodations of all kinds, chiefly in cities. 

Section 22. Georgia Line to Jacksonville, 37.9 m. 

Between the St. Mary's River and Jacksonville US 1 passes over 
the eastern edge of the Trail Ridge, the watershed of the peninsula, 
for approximately eight miles. From here the Ridge section slopes 
into the flat woods area of northeast Florida. Few people live in this 
section of the State, and except in the three small towns, few houses 
are seen along the route. There are dense hammock lands along the 
river at the northern end of the route, and evergreen pinelands 
border the highway. 

From the white concrete bridge spanning the ST. MARY'S RIVER, 
m., an excellent view is afforded of the deep narrow stream and its 
wooded banks. All types of bay vegetation grow along the water's 
edge, the sweet and black gum, magnolia, swamp holly, poplar, 
several varieties of oak, elm, ash, willow, cedar, and some slash pine. 
Bamboo vine, yellow jessamine, Virginia creeper, and wild grape 
enmesh the trees and cling to some of the shrubs and underbrush. 
Here mistletoe is found clinging to the black gum, and palmettos 
grow in profusion. Prickly ash, elbow, and hurrah bushes are com- 
mon. Flood tides have cut deeply into the high banks of the river and 
many of the trees droop precariously over the water. 

Usually the St. Mary's is a peaceful little stream exhibiting tem- 
perament only in swirls and eddies as it twists and turns through the 
semitropical forest; but after a period of rains the river becomes a 
raging torrent lashing at the trees and shrubs along its banks. During 
these times the normal depth of eight ft. at the bridge increases to 1 8 
or 20 ft. 

The drab coffee-colored water was formerly in demand by the 
masters of four-riggers and tramp steamers docking at Fernandina, 



because of the length of time it retained its flavor when placed in 
casks. Regular trips up the river were made by ship chandlers to 
obtain the water, which sold for one cent per gallon. 

Several hundred feet from the bridge a HUGE ARCHWAY has been 
erected by the Jacksonville Motor Club. The name "Florida" ap- 
pears at the apex cast in iron. Just S. of the archway (R) is a small 
granite MONUMENT commemorating Robert E. Lee; the bronze 
plaque states that this highway, here called the Dixie, is dedicated to 
his memory. 

CRYSTAL SPRINGS, 0.1 m. (L), a popular picnic and camping 
ground, is named for a small sulphur spring. The same telltale white 
film and odor indicating the presence of this mineral, are found at 
many Florida springs. A large tourist camp occupies nearby grounds. 
A PRODUCE INSPECTION STATION is beside the highway; all produce 
entering the State must pass inspection. 

In places along the route clay is seen in the otherwise sandy loam. 
Dense growths of oak, gum, bay, and hickory, with the usual lesser 
types of hammock vegetation, shade the road. Here and there are 
pine thickets and cypress ponds. The undergrowth of the drier re- 
gions consists of saw palmetto, gall-berry, and wire grass. At the 
forest's edge are many native grasses and herbs. Wild flowers grow 
profusely in all seasons of the year. A dense section of flat pinelands 
is passed, in which many of the trees have been "streaked" for the 
extraction of turpentine. Several large stills are in the vicinity, 
though none of them is seen from the highway. 

HILLIARD, 7 m. (66 alt., 312 pop.), is a village serving a con- 
siderable rural area in which the livelihoods of the inhabitants are 
derived chiefly from the production of naval stores, from truck farm- 
ing, and from timber cutting. The town has been a trading post 
since the early 1800's but there was little growth until the present 
highway was built. 

The construction of a large mill here in 1881 by the Hilliard and 
Bailey Lumber Co. was also of importance. The place was named for 
one of the firm's members. At that time the Savannah, Florida & 
Western R.R. connected the place with Kings Ferry, where the 
timber, cotton, and other products of the area were snipped N. by 

Consisting mainly of a group of filling stations, a few homes, and 
stores, Hilliard caters to the thousands of tourists who pass through 

254 U. S. ONE 

here annually. Since the repeal of prohibition several merchants in 
the town have profited by the sale of alcoholic beverages, Milliard 
being the nearest village on this heavily traveled highway to Georgia 
which is legally a dry State. 

The King's Highway, once a post road between New Smyrna and 
Savannah, Ga., passed near here; between this point and Jackson- 
ville US 1 follows the old route. 

Except for an occasional filling station, few signs of habitation are 
seen S. of the town, the entire region being a monotonous stretch of 
flat woods. Even flat woods, however, have their charm, for the pines 
are richly colored in deep green and dark brown, and the moist cool- 
ness of these trees enriches the air with a pleasant fragrance. Had 
Caroline Miller lived here, the setting for Lamb in His Bosom would 
have required little change. 

GALLAHAN, 18 m. (20 alt., 637 pop.), a compact rural town, 
derives its revenue from the chicken farms and sawmills nearby. 
Truck farming is the major industry of the back country. Settled 
early in the 19th century by traders and farmers from southern 
Georgia, Callahan's growth is restricted by its nearness to Jackson- 
ville, though the latter city provides a ready market for the former's 
produce. Gallahan is one of the two incorporated municipalities in 
Nassau Go. The town shows an urban aspect, having modern homes, 
stores, and hotels. 

Pine thickets prevail S. of Callahan but scrub oak and bay vegeta- 
tion are occasionally seen. White enameled wire or picket fences 
have been erected along the highway at the edges of the many small 
brooks and streams to safeguard motorists. 

At 20.5 m. (R) is a large outdoor swimming pool drawing the 
patronage of Callahan residents. 

Much of this land is under State forest service protection and oc- 
casional watchtowers are visible from the highway. For nearly 15 
miles the route is bordered by tall broom grass, which is used by the 
natives in making crude brooms. Commercially this type of broom 
grass is used as a filler in regular brooms, and two factories in Jack- 
sonville buy thousands of pounds of it annually. 

At 24.6 m. double railroad tracks are crossed (no watchman or 
signal lights). 

DINSMORE, 25.5 m. (26 alt., 178 pop.), is the popular dairying 
center for Jacksonville. Large pastures with dairy herds are seen N. 


and S. of the town. Massive oaks and magnolias shade the highway, 
softening the prosaic appearance of the scattered homes, stores, and 
gasoline service stations. Several roadside inns specialize in prepar- 
ing chicken dinners. 

The number and frequency of houses and truck farms become 
greater as Jacksonville is approached. 

JACKSONVILLE, 37.9 m. (26 alt., 129,549 pop.), largest city 
in the State (see FLA. GUIDE). 

Railroad Station. Atlantic Coast Line R.R., Seaboard Air Line Ry., Southern 
Ry., Florida East Coast Ry., Union Terminal, 1000 W. Bay St. 

Points of Interest. Naval Stores Yard, Municipal Docks, Cotton Compress, 
Municipal Power Plant, Hemming Park, Confederate Park, Memorial Park, 
Municipal Zoo, and others. 

Caution. Six railroad tracks cross US 1 a block within the city limits (no watch- 
man or signal lights). 

Section 23. Jacksonville to New Smyrna, 112.7 m. 

The northern part of this section of US 1 traverses much unim- 
proved pine land, interrupted by occasional marshes and cypress 
hammocks; the cabbage palm abounds in the regions around rivers 
and creeks where the undergrowth is sometimes dense and impene- 
trable, suggesting the more luxuriant tropical jungles of the section 
farther S. Below the imaginary frost line at Daytona, the tall feathery 
Australian pine is frequently used for windbreaks and hedges, and 
for roadside planting. 

US 1 swings SE. from Jacksonville to St. Augustine on the coast; 
below that point it follows the coast line of the mainland though 
seldom in sight of the ocean because of the barrier reefs and sandbars. 
Florida East Coast and Flagler are almost synonymous names. Henry 
M. Flagler was one of John D. Rockefeller's closest business asso- 
ciates in the Standard Oil business for more than 40 years; about 
1883 he became interested in Florida as a potential resort area and 
shortly afterward bought the little railroad connecting Jacksonville 
and St. Augustine. In 1886 he built the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. 
Augustine. Gradually buying up little logging railroads and extend- 
ing his lines under the name of the Florida East Coast Railway, he 
reached Palm Beach in 1892, Miami in 1896 and Key West in 1912, 
establishing palatial hotels along the coast at intervals. 

Development of the area was slow, however. Palm Beach attained 
a kind of aristocratic prestige after a time but rail service to the 

256 U. S. ONE 

south was so slow that only those with plenty of time to spare thought 
of going down the coast for recreation. Even when the World War 
began the population of Miami was only about 6,000 and, except for 
a few wealthy sportsmen, winter visitors were chiefly elderly people 
who were trying to escape from the cold of the north. Miami Beach 
was a sandspit reached by mo tor boat; the few bathers undressed 
behind the half open walls of a little deserted shack or on the open 

The World War industrial boom and the difficulties in the way of 
foreign travel after the war started the tourist flow to south Florida; 
the discovery of vitamins and the place of fruit and vegetables in the 
year-round diet stimulated the agricultural exploitation of the south- 
ern section for winter fruit and vegetable growing. Then someone 
discovered the new Eldorado the value of Florida real estate 
and the new gold rush was on, with Miami as the shining goal; 
people poured in by train, steamer, and automobile, on muleback 
and on foot. Fortunes were made and lost, but the State gained 50 
percent in population between 1920 and 1930. 

From the business section of Jacksonville, US 1 crosses the St. 
John's River on the municipally owned toll bridge, and continues 
through the South Jacksonville suburban section, with tourist camps 
strung out along the roadside. 

At 8 m. (R) are the BOWDEN FREIGHT YARDS OF THE F.E.C. R.R. 
Fifty miles of tracks at this point, used for the storage, the transfer, 
and the icing of freight shipments, will hold over 2,000 cars. 

BAYARD, 19.5 m. (25 alt., 225 pop.), is a small settlement 
at the junction of US 1 and the old St. Augustine road (formerly 

Between Bayard and St. Augustine the highway closely parallels 
the F.E.C. R.R. All section houses are painted bright yellow with 
green trim. 

In the spring the marshes beside the highway here are blue with 
iris, a plant considered sacred by the Indians, who also used the roots 
medicinally. On high ground beside the road grows the vine of the 
passionflower, so called by Spanish missionaries because to them the 
bloom symbolized the passion of Christ. In the center of the blossom 
is a cross; the stigmas, they said, represented the nails, the anthers 
the wounds and the rays of the corona the crown of thorns. This 
native flower is commonly called the maypop; its succulent, edible 





fruit grows to the size of a hen's egg and is in some cases highly per- 

At 40.8 m. (R), at the city limits, are the F.E.G. R.R. SHOPS AND 
18-hole course at which, for years, Johnny Farrell, has been the pro- 
fessional during the winter months. 

ST. AUGUSTINE, 41.2 m. (7 alt., 12,111 pop.), oldest city in 
United States (see FLA. GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Fort Marion, City Gates, Old Spanish Treasury, Plaza and 
Old Slave Market, Museum of Natural History, old houses, and others. 

Ponce de Leon landed in this vicinity in 1513, and a permanent 
settlement was made by Menendez in 1565. Many present-day citi- 
zens of St. Augustine are descended from early Spanish settlers, and 
from Minorcans who came over during the English period. Hotels 
and buildings have various types of architecture, including Spanish, 
Moorish, and American Colonial. Many of the old streets are very 
narrow, Treasury Street being only 7 ft. wide. Prior to 1910, St. 
Augustine was the leading resort of Florida; today the city still de- 
rives its principal revenue from the tourist trade, though Florida East 
Coast Railway pay rolls and the fishing and shrimping industry also 
help to support the community. An effort is being made to restore the 
old city to its appearance in the early Spanish period. 

Right from the Plaza on King St., passing the Ponce de Leon 
Hotel, Flagler's first hotel venture, and crossing the San Sebastian 
River Bridge; three blocks W. of the river, L. on US 1. 

At 42.2 m. is a sharp turn (L), from which the highway swings 
southward through pine flat woods and scrub palmetto land, with a 
slight rise when it crosses Moultrie Creek. 

MOULTRIE, 47.2 m. (500 pop.), was named for John Moultrie, 
Lieutenant Governor of Florida during the English period, who 
built a large stone mansion on his plantation, Belle Vista, near here. 
In 1784, with many other British settlers, he left Florida and moved 
to the Bahamas. 

Right from Moultrie on a dirt road, the Upper Moultrie Road, through a 
dense and confusing pine woods with many trails. (Trip should not be made without 
a guide.) The SITE OF FORT PEYTON is at 1.5 m. A marker (L), off the trail 0.8 m., 
indicates the spot where Osceola, the great Seminole leader, was captured. 
Approaching Fort Peyton under a flag of truce in October 1837, Osceola and his 
warriors were captured by General Jesup who was reprimanded for violating 

258 U. S. ONE 

the truce but he defended himself by pointing out that Osceola had already 
broken a treaty. It is said that Osceola, perceiving that he was trapped, folded 
his arms scornfully and remained mute. In company with Coacoochee he was 
imprisoned in Fort Marion and later taken to Fort Moultrie at Charleston, S.G., 
where he died. 

Although nothing remains of the old wooden fort and blockhouse, erected in 
1836, a marker has been placed on the site. William Tecumseh Sherman of Civil 
War fame was stationed here as a lieutenant during the last days of the Seminole 

South of Moultrie the highway continues through an almost unin- 
habited district of pine flat woods. 

BUNNELL, 72.7 m. (23 alt., 671 pop.), is a small settlement in the 
heart of the Flagler County potato-growing area. The chief industry 
of the town is the canning of potatoes too small for ordinary ship- 
ment. A more unusual industry, however, is the exporting of pal- 
metto buds; more than 350,000 of these are shipped annually to 
churches throughout the Nation to be used as Easter decorations. 

Left from Bunnell on State 72 is FLAGLER BEACH, 8 m., a small but popu- 
lar bathing and fishing resort. 

KORONA, 78.2 m. (31 alt., 150 pop.), is a farm settlement es- 
tablished in 1912 by a number of Polish families. The 56 families still 
use their native language and retain many Old World customs. 

At Korona is a junction with the old Dixie Highway (US 1-Alt.). 
The route follows the old Dixie Highway, which branches L. at 
Korona and R. at a fork at 80.3 m. 

At 85.2 m. are the RUINS OF ANACAPE (TISSIMI) MISSION, approxi- 
mately 50 yards L. of the highway and almost hidden from view in an 
undergrowth of weeds and vines. This mission was reputedly built by 
Franciscan friars about 1655, as one in a chain of 44 missions. It was 
destroyed by the English in 1706, but later rebuilt and used as a sugar 
mill during the British occupation of Florida (1763-83). 

At 86 m. is the junction with a shell road. 

Right on this road are the NATIONAL GARDENS, 3.5 m., with a 280-acre peat 
deposit of superior grade. The facilities of this small farm project include a nurs- 
ery and a coquina quarry, the products from which are used in development 

of the enterprise. 


A turn of the highway (R) reveals wide stretches of salt marsh. 
At 86.1 m. is TOMOKA RIVER, named for the Indians who formerly 
occupied this territory. Alligators sun on the banks of the stream, 


while cranes and pelicans are seen occasionally. Black bass, perch, 
and bream are caught in large numbers. 

SUNSET PARK, 87.2 m., has two small inns where boats can be 
rented for fishing. 

At 88.2 m. are INDIAN BURIAL MOUNDS, from which the Smith- 
sonian Institution has excavated a number of skulls and other bones. 
South of this point the highway is continuously arched with inter- 
mingling branches of trees that grow on both sides of the road. The 
Halifax River (L) is occasionally seen through the trees. 

ORMOND, 92 m. (6 alt., 1,517 pop.), is a quiet, conservative 
city with limited accommodations. The well-kept lawns and gardens 
of its estates and homes are the pride of the winter residents. The 
town was established in 1 873 by the Corbin Lock Co. of New Britain, 
Conn., as a resort for employees threatened with tuberculosis. Orig- 
inally called New Britain, the town was renamed in 1880 in memory 
of Capt. James Ormond, a local plantation owner who had been 
killed by a runaway slave. 

The ORMOND TROPICAL GARDENS (open daily, adm. 25f), off Division 
St., W. on Granada Ave., a privately owned 116-acre tract, contain 
more than a quarter of a million tropical and subtropical plants. 

Left from Ormond, across a long, wooden bridge spanning the Halifax River, 
is ORMOND BEACH, 0.4 m., resort that was the winter home of the late John 
D. Rockefeller. The oil magnate's estate, THE CASEMENTS, (R) at the end of the 
bridge, is small, with a house notably unpretentious. Guards formerly stood at 
all entrances and gardeners were busy all day long on the landscaped grounds. 

Opposite The Casements is HOTEL ORMOND (open Dec -March), a rambling 
wooden structure painted bright yellow and green, after the fashion of all F.E.C. 
Ry. buildings. The building of the hotel was begun in 1 875 by John Anderson 
and Joseph Price, pioneers in the beach development; it was later sold to Henry 
M. Flagler, who enlarged the structure to its present size. 

A tennis tournament, to which America's leading amateurs are invited, is held 
annually upon the four fine courts of the hotel. 

Adjacent to the hotel are the ORMOND BEACH GOLF LINKS, John D. Rocke- 
feller's favorite course, where he appeared daily to play a round of golf or to dis- 
pense dimes. 

In keeping with the usual charges that prevail at Ormond Beach, the fees for 
the course have been set at $2.50 per day, with "slight" advances during the 
tournaments that are held here each winter and attended by America's leading 

In front of the hotel and paralleling the river runs the JOHN ANDERSON HIGH- 
WAY, a winding, wooded roadway that affords fine views of the Halifax. Many 
of the older estates of the city are here. 

2 6o U. S. ONE 

East of the Ocean Shore Blvd. at Granada Ave. is the HOTEL COQUINA, a large, 
expensive hostelry built in modified Spanish style, its walls covered with coquina. 
It is an imposing building on the very edge of the sea. The two sections of the 
hotel are connected by an arched bridgeway, under which cars pass to one of the 
hotel entrances. 

A ramp leads from the end of Granada Ave., the main street of Ormond Beach, 
to the hard-packed sands (R) over which at low tide motorists can drive to 
DAYTONA BEACH, 5 m. A sign advises against driving N. because of the soft 
sand generally encountered between this point and Flagler Beach. 

At Ormond the old Dixie Highway (US 1-Alt.) runs straight 
ahead, following the river; the newer and wider roadway, the new 
Dixie Highway, is reached by turning R. from the town center two 
blocks and L. on Ridge wood Ave. The routes unite in Daytona 

On the alternate route is HOLLY HILL, 94.9 m. (7 alt., 1,146 
pop.), a suburb of Daytona Beach; it was so named because of the 
abundance of holly that formerly grew here. The town site is a part 
of the old Turnbull land grant. 

Right on llth St., across the railroad tracks, to the HOLLY HILL JUNGLE GAR- 
DENS (open daily, adm. 25$, 1 m., which reputedly contain the largest planting of 
Easter lilies in North America. There are seven solid acres of magnificent blooms, 
producing annually 45,000 bulbs. 

DAYTONA BEACH, 97.7 m. (7 alt., 16,598 pop.), year-round 
resort city (see FLA. GUIDE). 

Airport. Sholtz Field, 2.5 m. W. of city on US 92, Fla. 21 ; Eastern and National 
Air Lines. 

Points of Interest. Speed Course, Casino Burgoyne Civic Center, International 
Temple of Speed, Bethune-Cookman College for Negroes, Burgoyne Home, 
and City Island. 

The old Dixie Highway (US 1-Alt.) and US 1 unite in Daytona 

Daytona Beach, successful as both a summer and winter resort, 
was originally called Daytona for Mathias Day of Ohio, who founded 
the city in 1871. It first attracted Nation-wide attention by automo- 
bile speed tests on the beach in the early years of the 20th century. 
The city is almost entirely dependent upon its tourist trade, though 
the cultivation of bulbs and citrus groves in the environs also supplies 
some income. 

Southward along the east coast grows the coontie or comptie plant. 
The roots of the plant provide sago starch from which the Seminoles 


and the white pioneers made bread when cornmeal was not avail- 
able. Flour is made by pounding the root in water. A fine white 
sediment settles in the bottom of the bowl; and the water and the 
roots are removed. The sediment, dried, is the desired flour. The 
Indians regarded the coontie as sacred to the Great Spirit, and used 
it during the feast at their annual Green Corn Dance. 

PORT ORANGE, 103.1 m. (12 alt., 678 pop.), organized in 
1861, was originally included in the Turnbull land grant. In the 
early part of the 1 9th century the fertile soil of this section produced 
sugarcane and indigo, which were in great demand in the markets of 
Europe. During the Seminole War the pioneers in this area were 
forced to abandon their homes and flee. 

Although the citrus industry, to which the town owes its name, is 
still of some consequence to the community, it has been superseded in 
recent years by the shrimping industry and the cultivation of oyster 
beds that lie offshore in the broad expanse of the Halifax River. 

There is exceptionally fine fishing here, both from the old bridge 
that crosses the river and from boats that can be rented at the 

During the Seminole War the Battle of Dunlawton was fought 
along the river front of Port Orange. The defenders, refugees from 
the neighboring plantations, under General Putnam, were forced to 
withdraw from the vicinity, and the Indians under King Philip de- 
stoyed the old sugar mill and nearby settlements. 

Right from Port Orange on Herbert St., following markers to the ruins of the 
old DUNLAWTON SUGAR MILL (open 6 a.m.-rd p.m., adm. 25), the building of 
which was reputedly begun during English occupation; it was later destroyed, 
rebuilt, and improved many times. It is known to have been used as late as 1880, 
and is one of the largest coquina ruins in the district. Two tall chimneys rise 
above the trees, but the walls of the once important mill are now overrun with 
vines. Most of the machinery remains in place, coated with rust, but imposing. 

During the Civil War Edward Archibald McDonald, who established the 
settlement, transported water from the Halifax River and used the kettles of the 
mill to make salt for the Confederate forces. 

At 104.1 m. is ALLENDALE, a small residential village strung 
out along the highway and the river; it has an inn and the usual as- 
sortment of gas stations and tourist homes. 

At 104.6 m. is Ross BAY, an arm of the Halifax River popular as a 
fishing place (boats for hire). In season the marshlands and mangrove 
swamps provide excellent duck, marsh hen, and reedbird hunting. 

2 6a U. S. ONE 

At 106.2 m. (R), S. of Spruce Creek Bridge, is TURNBULL CASTLE, 
a large frame house overshadowed by tall pines, cedars, and oaks. Its 
foundations are believed to have been used for the home of Dr. 
Andrew Turnbull, since it is known that this plantation at one time 
belonged to the developer of New Smyrna. 

The highway at this point turns E. and is built upon shell-marl 
land, as is evidenced by the exposure of oyster shells along the shoul- 
ders of the road, from which have grown the gnarled old trees that 
shade the highway on the outskirts of New Smyrna. 

NEW SMYRNA, 112.7 m. (10 alt., 4,149 pop.), a little town built 
upon the ruins of one of Florida's oldest settlements, stretches for 4 
miles along the W. bank of the North Indian River. Enormous live- 
oaks, magnolias, and bay trees shade the residential and business 
houses, mainly of post- Victorian frame construction. Most of the 
business district lies near the highway, and the better residential section 
along the winding river, but a few homes have been built W. of US 1 . 

The first known settlement on the site of New Smyrna was the In- 
dian village of Caparaca. The Spanish missionaries were here in 
1696 when the Mission of Aticuimi was founded, a century before 
those of California. In 1767 Dr. Andrew Turnbull brought 1,500 
colonists to Florida. About 1,200 were from the Island of Minorca, 
S. of Spain; the others were Italians and Greeks. The British Govern- 
ment furnished a sloop of war and 4,500 pounds sterling bounty to 
promote the settlement. Lord Grenville, English Secretary of State, 
was a partner in the undertaking, which had many other powerful 
backers. Grants covering more than 100,000 acres of land were made 
to the colony. Though the colonists found pioneering in Florida any- 
thing but idyllic, they accomplished a great deal in the nine years of 
the life of the settlement. An intricate system of canals drained the 
rich hammock land, and the indigo raised in the fertile soil found a 
good market in England. 

Many of the settlers died; dissatisfaction was high and troops were 
brought in to keep the colonists in control. Charges and counter- 
charges against administration of the colony were made by those 
friendly to the English Government and those opposed to it. When a 
new Governor of Florida was appointed in 1776 the remaining 
colonists were permitted to leave the settlement and they migrated 
to St. Augustine, where their descendants still form a part of the 


New Smyrna changed little until 1803, when Spanish grants of 
land were given to the Martin and Murray families. From that time 
on, through periods of Seminole raids and blockade-running in the 
Civil War, the town has made slow progress. During the last 30 years 
it, like other east coast cities, has had stimulation from the advent of 
the railroad, the completion of the Intracoastal Waterway, and high- 
way improvements. 

Citrus groves, packing plants, and the shops of the F.E.C. Ry. 
provide the chief sources of income here, though the fishing and 
shrimping industries furnish employment for a large number of resi- 

The old FORT, Hillsboro St., between Washington and Julian Sts., 
was discovered and partly unearthed in 1854. Buried under a shell 
mound, the blocks of coquina are generally believed to have been the 
foundation of a home intended for Lord Hillsborough, begun at the 
time of the founding of the city in 1767 by Dr. Turnbull. 

The TURNBULL CANAL, in places dug through solid coquina, ex- 
tends 4 miles W. from the boat slip on the river's edge and is still used 
for drainage purposes. The canal is about 10 ft. wide and 10 deep; 
the section that flows through the center of town is covered by side- 
walks and street intersections. 

The CITY Zoo (free), on Lytel Ave. between Palmetto and Live 
Oak Sts., contains a small collection of native birds, alligators, and 
other fauna. 

The YACHT CLUB, a Spanish-type, stuccoed building on an island 
in the Indian River opposite the Fifth St. Bridge, annually holds 
regattas for sail and motor boats. 

The ANGLERS CLUB, opposite Washington St., on the tip of a large 
island in the river, is the headquarters of an active fishing and boat- 
ing organization holding annual meets (Nov. -April). Ways and ample 
docking facilities are provided for small river and ocean craft. 

In New Smyrna on Wayne Ave. and fronting on the river is the 
INDIAN RIVER DUDE RANCH, which has a main building and a number 
of rustic cottages, a large stable, a swimming pool, and a boathouse. 

The INDIAN RIVER SCHOOL, an expensive boys' preparatory insti- 
tution, is under separate management, but occupies ranch buildings 
and uses ranch facilities. 

Left on Washington St. is CORONADO BEACH, 1.5 m., reached by way of 
a roadway that traverses and connects several small islands built up by the 

264 U. S. ONE 

mangroves that grow so prolifically in the Indian River opposite the city. The 
roadsides have been adorned with palms, flowering shrubs, and Australian pines. 
From the drawbridge an excellent and unobstructed view of the river is pre- 
sented. In the broad expanse of the river annual sail and motor boat regattas are 

Across the bridge (R) is a low bluff known as DUMMITT'S MOUND, in reality an 
old Indian shell mound, named for Capt. D. D. Dummitt, New Smyrna's first 
port collector, who at one time lived on top of the bluff. 

Beyond the peninsula, Flagler Ave. leads to a ramp that descends to the beach 
(bathing and boating facilities) . The beach southward is frequented by fishermen 
seeking redfish, better known as channel bass, some of which weigh 40 pounds. 

The PONCE DE LEON LIGHTHOUSE (L) marks the entrance to the inlet of the 
same name. 

At the river's edge is MASSACRE BLUFF, site of the massacre in 1835 of a num- 
ber of French sailors by Seminole Indians. 

Right from the beach on Flagler Ave. to TURTLE MOUND, 6 m., for centuries a 
familiar landmark to sailors. Rising 50 ft. above the beach and called the Mount 
of Surruque by the Indians, it was charted on maps of Florida as early as 1562. 
Spanish galleons stopped here for repairs, wood, and water. Turtle Mound has 
been preserved by the Florida State Historical Society. A fishing camp and picnic 
grounds are provided on the lagoon side of the mound. At 12.5 m. a COAST 
GUARD STATION faces the ocean. So narrow is the peninsula at this point that 
the rear door of the station opens on a lagoon of the Indian River. 

Section 24. New Smyrna to Miami, 247.2 m. 

This stretch of the highway borders the Intracoastal Waterway, 
which separates the Florida mainland from the Atlantic Ocean. 
Numerous side roads from US 1 lead across bridges and causeways to 
outlying peninsulas and keys where facilities for fishing and surf bath- 
ing are available. The foliage becomes more luxuriant and tropical 
S. of the picturesque Indian River. 

Between Fort Pierce and Palm Beach the highway runs through a 
series of modest coast towns; between Palm Beach and Miami, 
Florida's "Gold Coast," landscaped estates and many nurseries line 
the highway, and add to the floral beauty of the region. 

South of New Smyrna, the highway winds through dense palmetto 
growth known as the TURNBULL HAMMOCKS, once broad cleared acres 
of fertile soil. 

A barrier of pines and cabbage palms obscures MOSQUITO LAGOON 
(L), but the numerous signs advertising camps and boats for hire and 
"Tom, Dick and Harry's" camps attest the popularity of fishing at 
the end of the many winding sand trails that run down toward the 


OAK HILL, 12 m. (18 alt., 457 pop.), is a small citrus-packing 

At 14 in . the highway curves (R) across a lowland meadow and 
crosses a new concrete railroad overpass. Descending, the roadway 
follows a fill barely three feet above the water level, and traverses 
part of a vast salt marsh, where grasses are gathered and shipped for 
use as broom fillers. 

Small creeks twist between the islands of palms, cypresses, and 
sweetgums. Throughout the spring months the marsh is an undulat- 
ing field of yellow sunflowers; during September it is pink with rose- 
mallow. In early morning and late afternoon, flocks of ibises, cranes, 
and other water birds feed along the causeway and in the marshes. 
Kingfishers sit on telephone wires, ready to make sudden plunges for 

At 16 m. the highway enters a short stretch of hammock where tall 
cabbage palms predominate. The white bud of this native palm, 
cooked or raw, is considered a great delicacy. When the bud is out, 
however, the tree dies. Commanding features of the landscape are the 
rows of tall, dark green Australian pines that line the highway, form- 
ing windbreaks for adjoining citrus groves. 

MIMS, 27.8 m. (487 pop.), is a small cluster of houses around a 
packing plant. 

At 29.5 m. the highway climbs another new concrete overpass, 
offering a sweeping panorama of a long, palm- and pine-bordered 
sound known as INDIAN RIVER. In the distance (R) the river broadens 
to its greatest width, 7 miles, and the shore of Merritt Island is dimly 
revealed. The FEDERAL RADIO STATION (R) broadcasts hourly 
weather reports for airplane guidance. 

TITUSVILLE, 32.5 m. (14 alt., 2,089 pop.), seat of Brevard 
County, was named for Col. H. T. Titus, an early resident who was 
an antagonist of John Brown in the days of "Bleeding Kansas." 
Louis Coleman, one of the pioneer settlers, owned the Sand Point 
lands in North Titusville that the agent of Henry M. Flagler once 
sought to purchase. Coleman put too great a price on the property 
and the proposed Flagler development took place at Palm Beach 

Between the highway and the river is the SAND POINT IMPROVE- 
MENT PROJECT, which now contains a yacht basin, a swimming pool, a 
diving tower, a ball diamond, tennis courts, and a dirt track for auto 

266 U. S. ONE 

or pony races. The 67-acre park and recreation center is reclaimed 
swampland, a mosquito-control as well as a beautification project. 
Oleanders and hibiscus plantings surround the 19th century frame 
houses and boom-period stucco buildings, which line the west bank 
of the Indian River. 

The city's industrial plants include five citrus-packing houses; the 
State's largest BARREL FACTORY, whose products are used by the fish 
and vegetable shippers of the Indian River country; and a CRABMEAT 

Left from Titusville on State 119, crossing Indian River Bridge to the first 
road L. ; L. here, passing a heavy live-oak hammock with the appearance of a 
park, to the old DUMMITT GROVE, 8 m. Part of it is said to be the oldest living 
citrus grove in Florida, having been planted about 1830. Its trees still bear fruit. 
Since the death of Gapt. Douglas D. Dummitt, the founder, there have been 
many successive owners, including the Italian Duke of Gastalucci, who built the 
present octagonal house, still called the DUKE'S CASTLE. 

Between Titusville and Indian River the highway is bordered with 
tall oleanders. 

INDIAN RIVER CITY, 36.3 m. (19 alt., 120 pop.), frequently 
called Clark's Corner, is a community with several Spanish-type 
houses, and with gas stations, a lunchroom, and a post office in a 
natural park facing the widest part of the Indian River. 

South of Indian River City the highway is slightly elevated and 
parallels Indian River; it is shaded by the growth of tall palms and 
pines. Palmetto thickets, low shrubbery, and scrub pine (R) add to 
the beauty of the water views. 

At 44.6 m. is a junction with the old Dixie Highway, which follows 
the shore of the Indian River through Cocoa and Rockledge, rejoin- 
ing US 1, the express highway, near Bonaventure Station; L. here. 

COCOA, 51.7 m. (26.5 alt., 2,164 pop.), is a tourist city and a 
citrus center. Fruit trees in nearby hammocks are said to have borne 
since 1868. The serenity of palm- and shrub-darkened residential 
sections contrasts with the scattered business section, which appears 
to cover too large an area. Incorporated in 1895, Cocoa is an out- 
growth of Rockledge. It was named for the nut palm that grows in 
the vicinity, one of the most graceful of palms, its trunk curving up- 
ward to the great clusters of nuts at the top. 

Fishermen, casting from the platforms at the sides of the Indian 
River Bridge, make numerous catches of salt-water fishes, among 


which the shark is not uncommon. Schools of porpoise roll through 
the water, and pelicans are often seen to drop vertically and snatch 
fish from the water. 

Good fishing is found in the quiet waters of the Indian and Banana 
Rivers, in the surf along the beach, off the coast (boats for hire at city 
dock, foot of King St.), and in the fresh waters of the upper St. John's 
River and its lakes. 

Woodlands W. of the city offer a variety of game, and LAKE POIN- 
SETT provides good bass fishing (boats and guides available). 

Left from Cocoa, across a free bridge, is MERRITT, 1 m., on Merritt Island. 

This island, stretching along the coast for 42 miles and varying in width from 
9 miles to a strip barely wider than the road, is named for an adventurous Span- 
ish grandee of the early 19th century. 

1. Left from Merritt on a narrow paved road are INDIANOLA, 3 m., 
COURTENAY, 5 m., and ORSINO, 15 m., all citrus-growing communities. 

2. Right from Merritt on a winding paved road through many groves and 
past deserted houses to GEORGINA, 5 m., with old churchyard burial grounds; 
LOTUS, 9 m.; TROPIC, 15 m.; and across Banana River Bridge (toll 25$ 

3. Left from Merritt, then R., crossing a narrow causeway to COCOA 
BEACH, 9 m., offering beach motoring, surf bathing, and beach or pier fishing. 

Left here on the shell and marl road, passing through wild and tangled growth 
to ARTESIA, 17 m., and CANAVERAL HARBOR, 18 m., proposed in 1925 
as a harbor for Orlando. CAPE CANAVERAL (Sp., reedy point), 23 m., was 
noted in 1513 by Ponce de Leon, who called it Cape of the Currents. It appeared 
as Canaveral on LeMoyne's map of 1564. Menendez was wrecked here in July 
1572 and walked to St. Augustine, arriving in the late fall. He saved himself from 
capture by the Indians by telling them that a large Spanish force was following 
him. Canaveral's first lighthouse, built in 1847 and in time endangered by en- 
croaching seas, was replaced in 1868 by the present TOWER. The light, flashing 
every minute from its 139-ft. height, is visible for 17 nautical miles. 

ROCKLEDGE, 53.2 m. (29 alt., 551 pop.), an oak- and palm- 
shaded city that is one of the oldest resorts on the east coast, was 
named for the ledge of coquina, rising from 3 to 20 ft. above the river, 
on which it is situated. 

BONAVENTURE, 56 m. (16 alt.), is a small settlement of citrus 
growers and farmers. At 57.8 m. the alternate route unites with US 1 . 

At 59 m. the shore line of the Indian River is irregular and the 
banks are often relatively high. Small pine- and palm-studded penin- 
sulas jutting into the river create lagoons reflecting everchanging 

268 U. S. ONE 

sky colors and cloud formations. The early name for the river was 
Ais (Ind., deer). The Ais Indians who occupied this area antedated 
other Florida tribes. 

EAU GALLIE, 68.9 m. (19 alt., 871 pop.), named by W. H. 
Gleason with a combination of French and Indian words meaning 
rocky water, is on the coquina shores of the Indian and Gallic Rivers, 
opposite the mouth of the Banana River. Shortly after the Civil War 
Gleason had been appointed to make a topographical and agricul- 
tural survey of the Florida peninsula to ascertain whether it was 
suitable for Negro colonization; finding that the natural resources of 
the country required capital and skilled labor for successful develop- 
ment, he reported adversely. In 1866 he settled in the district. 

River traffic once flourished here; in 1890 all material for Flagler's 
Royal Poinciana Hotel was brought by rail to this point where it 
was trans-shipped for carriage to Palm Beach by water. A State 
agricultural college established nearby in 1874 was one of several 
institutions later merged to form the University of Florida, now at 

Left from Eau Gallic on State 101 across the Indian River are EAU GALLIE 

At the east end of the bridge is the junction (L) with a paved road leading to 
MATHER'S BRIDGE, 4 m., beyond the Banana River, another favorite fishing place. 

South of Eau Gallic the highway runs along the high river bank, 
affording a view of the river to the MELBOURNE BRIDGE and beyond. 

MELBOURNE, 73.5 m. (22 alt., 2,677 pop.), named by a native 
of Australia for the town of his birth, contains buildings more rococo 
in style than are those of the Indian River towns to the N. There is 
an 18-hole GOLF COURSE (open; greens fee $1.50; special weekly, monthly, 
and season rates). 

More than 100 varieties of fresh- and salt-water fishes are caught 
near here. Artificial lures are favored for all types of fishing (infor- 
mation, tackle, guides, and boats available at docks). 

Right from Melbourne on State 24 to CRANE CREEK, 3.5 m., where workers of 
the Smithsonian Institution excavated mastodon remains now on exhibition in 
Washington, D.C. 

MALABAR, 79.9 m. (26 alt., 138 pop.), consists of several white 
families and a Negro colony working at the sawmill W. of the rail- 


GRANT, 85.2 m. (11 alt., 209 pop.), is the site of a factory that 
manufactures small hydroelectric plants for homes. 

Here the highway penetrates several palm jungles, giving empha- 
sis to the increasingly tropical nature of the flora. Frequent views of 
Indian River reveal sand bars swarming with herons and other wa- 

MICCO, 89 m. (25 alt., 274 pop.), consisting of many old houses, 
each with its sulphur-water artesian well, derives its name from the 
Seminole word for chief. 

At 91.5 m. is the SEBASTIAN CREEK BRIDGE, a concrete span re- 
placing the narrow wooden bridge that proved the Waterloo of 
southern Florida's most notorious band of desperados. It was on this 
site that in November 1924 the nucleus of the Ashley gang John 
Ashley, Hanford Mobley, Ray Lynn, and Bob Middleton met 
death in battle with deputy sheriffs. Fleeing their haunts after 14 
years of bank robbing, high jacking, rum running, and bootlegging, 
these four members of the gang were stopped at the bridge by a red 
lantern and a chain, and shot when they resisted arrest. 

The white sandy plot (R) is the SITE OF A FISHING CAMP used prior 
to 1890 by Grover Cleveland, E. C. Ballard, and others. Although 
their winter homes were in Eau Gallic, they came here by boat to 
take advantage of the excellent fishing grounds. South of this bridge 
the highway parallels Indian River for 4 miles. 

Across Indian River (L) is Sebastian Inlet, providing a channel 
between the ocean and the river. This inlet was dredged by the 
united efforts of nearby communities. 

SEBASTIAN, 93.9 m. (21 alt., 386 pop.), in a beautiful area, was 
one of the first trading posts on the east coast. River steamers form- 
erly stopped at the foot of Main St., where some of the pilings of the 
old dock are still visible. The street was first cleared to facilitate the 
hauling of wood to steamers for fuel. 

Sebastian is on the side of a ridge that slopes to the Indian River. 
Practically every residence has a view of the water. The town hav- 
ing no water system, each house has its own artesian well; the water 
is impregnated with sulphur. 

Henry M. Flagler is reputed to have negotiated for a site near 
here, as well as in Titusville, for the proposed resort hotel before 
his railroad reached this point, but was unable ^to obtain a clear 

270 U. S. ONE 

Across the river (L) is PELICAN ISLAND, a Government bird sanctuary in 
which thousands of white pelicans and terns spend the winter months. 

The drying nets, fish docks, and crab-picking shacks, hanging pre- 
cariously over the waters of Indian River (L), are in distinct contrast 
with the neat cottages and landscaped lawns that line the opposite 
side of the highway. 

WABASSO, 98.9 m. (20 alt., 300 pop.), probably named by Guale 
Indians who migrated here from Ossabawa, near Savannah, Ga., 
is a small community sustained by its fishing industry, citrus groves, 
packing houses, and a sawmill. 

At 100.6 m. the highway swings away from the Indian River to 
enter an area devoted largely to the citrus industry. 

GIFFORD, 104.6 m. (19 alt., 500 pop.), was named for F. Charles 
Gifford, who is credited with having selected the site for Vero Beach. 
It is said that he held up the extension of the F.E.C. Ry. by placing 
an excessive price on his land. In retaliation, the railroad started a 
small town exclusively for Negroes and named it for him. The rail- 
road was built around the Gifford holdings, and Gifford is now the 
Negro section of Vero Beach. 

At 106.8 m. both sides of the highway are lined with rows of 
towering Australian pines, which form an attractive entrance to 
Vero Beach from the north and protect the citrus groves (L). 

VERO BEACH, 107.1 m. (19 alt., 2,268 pop.), seat of Indian 
River County, was about 1882 selected as a townsite by W. H. Gif- 
ford, because of the fertility of the soil in the area. The present town 
extends across the Indian River (known as the Narrows at this point) 
to the Atlantic Ocean. Vero Beach is a citrus shipping point and 
popular with winter visitors. 

The skeletal finds of Dr. Sellards (1916) were made in the Van 
Valkenburg's Creek area in the western part of the village during a 
canal excavation. Parts of human skeletons of some antiquity were 
uncovered here and the probable age of the Vero Beach man became 
the subject of much speculation and controversy. 

POCAHONTAS PARK, 14th Ave. and 21st St., offers recrea- 
tional facilities and is a tourist center. 

Left two blocks E. of the center of town onto an avenue lined with royal palms, 
hibiscuses, and oleanders; beyond a drawbridge over the Intracoastal Waterway 
is the ocean shore. There is excellent fishing at this point (boats and guides available). 
A CASINO (open Nov. -May) faces the ocean; beyond it are many private estates. 


At 109 m. US 1 crosses one of several drainage canals that carry 
the overflow from bottom lands lying W. of the road. These canals 
and lateral ditches are part of the Indian River Drainage District 
projects, covering more than 50,000 acres. The drained lands pro- 
duce pineapples and winter vegetables. 

At 109.7 m. (L) are the McKEE JUNGLE GARDENS (adm. $1, chil- 
dren under 14 free; guides for parties), covering 80 acres. They were 
opened in 1931 by Arthur G. McKee, an Ohio industrialist who, 
during many years of world travel, had become interested in tropical 
plant culture. McKee made the gardens in a desire to create an area 
of outstanding beauty. From a virgin tract of jungle growth he 
cleared away only the trees and underbrush necessary for the suc- 
cessful propagation of 2,500 different species of tropical and sub- 
tropical plants; along winding paths now grow thousands of rare 
and exotic plants, gathered from every corner of the globe. In the 
jungle depths are many valuable varieties of orchids, ferns, and 
flowering vines. Growing in the pools and lagoons are water lilies, 
some with pads large enough to support a child. Of special interest 
are the bougainvillea glade, the azalea garden, the mirror pool, the 
watery maze, and the cathedral aisle leading to the lower glen. The 
pools are fed by an artesian well. Alligators, peacocks, parrots, and 
other jungle inhabitants are on display and native birds have found 
the garden a place of sanctuary. A large enclosure contains a number 
of monkeys. 

In the heart of the garden a Seminole Indian village has been built 
with thatched huts that are open at all tunes to those of the race who 
may care to visit here. 

FORT PIERCE, 122 m. (24 alt., 6,376 pop.), seat of St. Lucie 
County, was named for the fort built on the site in 1838 as a link in 
the chain of east coast fortifications to protect settlers from the In- 
dians. The site was doubtless selected because the St. Lucie Inlet 
afforded easy communication by water with the North. Despite the 
Indians, white settlers remained in the area to cultivate pineapples 
and garden truck. Some citrus groves were set out. 

The blight and freeze of 1898 proved a serious setback to farmers 
and grove owners here, but today citrus-growing remains one of the 
principal industries. i 

Fort Pierce is the most important shipping point between Jackson- 
ville and Miami. The city is the transfer point for large cargoes of 

272 U. S. ONE 

citrus, vegetables, fish, lumber, and some phosphate. It is also the 
receiving point for incoming cargoes of general merchandise to be 
distributed along the central east coast. A new $100,000 pier with 
refrigerated citrus-shipping facilities is leased by the Bull Steamship 
Lines, which provide five weekly freight sailings to Baltimore and 
New York. 

One of the principal tourist attractions is fishing. Snook, trout, 
channel bass, and numerous other salt-water fish are caught from 
boats in the Indian River channel, off the jetties at the inlet, along 
the causeway, and from the pier. In nearby back-country streams 
black bass, perch, and other varieties abound. 

An annual Washington's Birthday event is the gathering of the 
"old timers" from the lower Indian River section, who swap yarns 
of the old days. A record of these recollections has been kept for a 
number of years. 

At Fort Pierce is the junction with State 140. 

Left from Fort Pierce on State 140, passing the SITE OF FORT SANTA LUCIA. 
Menendez left a garrison here in 1568, but the Indians killed so many of the 
soldiers that the survivors mutinied and abandoned their fortifications, fleeing 
northward to St. Augustine. 

This narrow though well-paved road parallels Indian River for its entire 
length, affording fine views. Along it are some of the best citrus groves of the 
Indian River country. JENSEN, 15 m., is a small resort for tourists and sports- 
men. At 15.5 m. R. to RIO, 17.5 m., and the junction with US 1 (see below). 

WHITE CITY, 126.9 m. (32 alt., 670 est. pop.), the second 
largest community in St. Lucie Co., was settled shortly after the 
Chicago World's Fair of 1893 by a number of Danish people from 
Chicago who became interested in the opportunities for citrus culti- 
vation in this area after reading a series of articles on the raising of 
citrus fruits, written by a Danish newspaper man covering the fair. 
The citizens named their principal street Midway, commemorating 
the main street at the Chicago Fair. 

White City derives a substantial income from citrus and truck 
farming. Two asparagus ferneries are also in the vicinity. 

Between White City and 129.9 m. US 1 is bordered (L) by the 
JENSEN SAVANNAH, a low grassy plain, in which are lakes, 
ponds, creeks, runs, and branches of the St. Lucie River. This wild 
country, full of game, birds, and fish, is so low that most of it 
is under water after a heavy rain. Guides should be used by those 




unfamiliar with the area (guides and boats available at Jensen or 

At 139.1 m. is the St. Lucie River, the eastern section of the 
CROSS-STATE WATERWAY. This route affords water passage for ships 
and yachts of 6-foot draft or less, from the Atlantic Ocean, by way 
of the St. Lucie Canal, Lake Okeechobee, and the Caloosahatchee 
River, to the Gulf of Mexico (see FLA. GUIDE). 

STUART, 140.1 m. (14 alt., 2,070 pop.), the principal com- 
munity in Martin Co., built on the St. Lucie River, near the inlet 
of the same name, is a quiet town of importance only because of the 
exceptional fishing in its vicinity (guides available for hunting and fishing 
on the Jensen Savannah) . 

Right from Stuart on the N. fork of the St. Lucie River to the GILSON SLIDE 
RULE FACTORY, 3 m. Besides making straight rules for various purposes, the fac- 
tory grinds circular rules and calculators, and prints books of instruction on^their 

At 154.1 m. picturesque HOBE SOUND is seen (L), surrounded by 
Australian pines. This body of water, a part of the Intracoastal 
Waterway, is noted for its good fishing. Its name was apparently 
derived fromjobe (Sp., Jupiter). In 1682 Johnathon Dickenson and a 
number of others were shipwrecked about 5 miles above Jupiter 
Inlet, and were captured by Indians who took them S. to the inlet, 
which the aborigines called Hoe Bay. 

At 156 m. the highway runs on high ground furnishing a delightful 
view of the sound across a wide rolling, treeless country. 

For about 5 miles the highway parallels the ocean, permitting an 
almost unobstructed view of the varicolored waters. 

At 163 m. parking space has been provided for cars, between the 
highway and the high bank of the beach. This spot, popular for surf 
fishing, is used largely by residents of West Palm Beach. 

At 165 m. (R) is a small stone monument commemorating the 
so-called "Celestial Railroad" that connected Jupiter with the van- 
ished settlements of Neptune, Mars, Juno, and Venus. Juno, at the 
northern end of Lake Worth, was the seat of old Dade Co. from 1889 
to 1899, but declined in importance when the seat was transferred to 
Miami. The railroad was abandoned in 1 894, when the through line 
from Jacksonville was opened by Henry M. Flagler. 

At 167 m. (L) is the 18-hole SEMINOLE GOLF CLUB (private). 

Right of the highway at 169 m. is KELSEY CITY (470 pop.), 

274 U. S. ONE 

built during the boom. When it was incorporated in 1923, the citizens 
spent a considerable amount of money promoting it as the future 
"largest industrial city in the South," but it became a tiny suburb 
whose residents commute to West Palm Beach. 

RIVIERA, 174.2 m. (19 alt., 1,629 pop.), on the western shore 
of Lake Worth (three tourist camps, trailer space, and cabins), has a colony 
of Conchs, a people of Spanish, English, Negro, and Indian blood, 
named for the shellfish they are said to eat. Early in the 19th century 
a group of English fishermen established a colony on the Bahama 
Islands; intermarried there with Negroes and Spaniards; then moved, 
in 1900, to Singers Island on Lake Worth opposite Riviera, where 
they intermarried with a nearby band of Seminoles. When a tropical 
hurricane destroyed their settlement in 1919, they moved to their 
present home L. of US 1 . These people have dark skins, kinky hair, 
thick lips, and broad features of Negroes. Although the men confine 
their activities to fishing, the women and children weave palmetto 
baskets, and make flowers and trinkets from fish scales. 

WEST PALM BEACH, 178.9 m. (20 alt., 26,610 pop.), a resort 
(see FLA. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Seaboard Air Line Ry., Tamarind St. between Evernia and 
Datura Sts.; Florida East Coast Ry., 5th St. and Railroad Ave. 

Airport. Eastern Airlines, Municipal Airport, 5 miles W. of city on Southern 
Blvd. Taxi fare 50^, time 15 min. 

Ferries. West Palm Beach to Palm Beach, fare 5. 

Points of Interest. Dockmaster's Home, Ada L. Saunders' Museum, Elisha N. 
Dimick Monument, and others. 

West Palm Beach, founded in 1893 by Henry M. Flagler, is a 
commercial and resort city, stretching for eight and a half miles 
along the west shore of Lake Worth. 

Left from West Palm Beach on Lakeview Avenue across Lake Worth bridge 
to a narrow island, on which at 1 m. is PALM BEACH (14 alt., 1,836 pop.), 
one of the most fashionable winter resorts in America (fishing, bathing; prices in- 
creased during winter). Around the shores of Lake Worth are palatial villas, elegant 
hotels and cottages. Several of the ornate buildings here were designed during the 
boom period by Addison Mizner; a number of beautiful modern homes have 
been built recently. On the grounds of the Royal Poinciana Hotel is a rare 
TAMARIND TREE. The PALM BEACH ART CENTER (free) on Main St. exhibits the 
work of contemporary artists. One of the show places is WHITE HALL, the former 
home of Henry M. Flagler (1830-1913), whose business was a partnership in the 
Standard Oil Co., and hobby was making Florida a winter resort. 


LAKE WORTH, 185.9 m. (21 alt., 5,119 pop.), received its 
name from the lake that stretches along its eastern edge. This body 
of water, 1 8 miles long and separated from the ocean by a narrow 
strip of land, is actually a lagoon; it was named for Maj. Gen. William 
J. Worth, in charge of the American force in the last days of the 
Seminole War. 

Municipally owned ice, cold storage, electric light, and water 
plants pay most of the cost of operating the village. 

The municipal 18-hole GOLF COURSE in on the lake front at the 
foot of Lucerne Ave. (greens fee, 75). On the ocean front is the Lake 
Worth CASINO (dancing and swimming), reached by a bridge. 

LANTANA, 188.2 m. (11 alt., 253 pop.), named for a shrub with 
dense spikes of red and white flowers that grows wild here, has as its 
principal attraction a large OSTRICH AND ALLIGATOR FARM (open 
daily, adm. 25$), near the northern city limits. Here are exhibited 
alligators of all ages, ranging from those just hatched to one veteran 
said to be more than 400 years old. In addition to crocodiles and 
ostriches, the farm has monkeys, lemurs, kangaroos, and snakes. 

BOYNTON BEACH, 192.2 m. (19 alt., 1,053 pop.), a trading 
center, stands on a sandy ridge in an area of rich farm lands. An ex- 
ceptionally fertile soil, composed of marl, muck, and sand, extends 
westward from the town limits to the Everglades. Many Finnish 
farmers have settled here. 

DELRAY BEACH, 196.8 m. (20 alt., 2,706 pop.), is a tourist re- 
sort and center of an area producing beans, peppers, tomatoes, fruits, 
peanuts, and sugar cane. Here is a settlement of Michigan farmers 
of German ancestry. A large PIGEON-BREEDING PLANT furnishes 
squabs for the Palm Beach market. West on Atlantic Ave. is the 
DELRAY CLUBHOUSE and 9-hole GOLF COURSE (open). At Atlantic 
Ave. and the coastal canal is the CITY PARK (picnic and recreation 
grounds, shuffleboard courts, and card pavilions). At the eastern end of 
Atlantic Ave. and Ocean Blvd. is the DELRAY PAVILION AND POOL 
(small fee). Fronting the ocean at this point is a mile-long municipal 
beach (surf fishing; boats rented for deep-sea faking) . 

In Delray is JOURNEY'S END, home of the writer, Nina Wilcox 
Putnam. Its doors, windows, and grillwork were salvaged from 
the old Royal Poinciana Hotel in Palm Beach. Mrs. Putnam, 
assisted by her husband and son, did much of the construction 

276 U. S. ONE 

Left from Delray Beach op Atlantic Ave. to the SUNKEN GARDENS, 1.8 m. 
(open daily, adm. 35; guides). Here is grown a variety of floral curiosities, including 
the dainty lipstick flower, the silk-cotton tree, the pelican flower, the jackfruit 
tree with fruit sometimes 40 pounds in weight, and more than 2,000 other plants. 

At 2 m. is the town of GULF STREAM, a small village centering about the 
wealthy GULF STREAM CLUB (private) and its 18-hole golf course lying between the 
boulevard and the coastal canal. North of the golf course, side roads leading 
from the boulevard are lined with tall Australian pines, coconut palms, and pink 
and white oleanders. Clumps of royal and cabbage palms grow near the fairways. 
On a side road W. of the club are the POLO FIELDS, where, in 1 936, Serge Mdi- 
vani was killed. Winding in and out among the trees and shrubbery are bridle 
paths leading to the stables, maintained primarily for the polo ponies. 

At 201.6 m. is the junction with an asphalt road. 

Right a short distance on this road is YAMATO, settled by Japanese who grew 
tomatoes and pineapples until 1926, when they sold their property to real estate 
promoters and moved to other sections of the State. All that remains of the village 
is a small store and an unused freight station. 

BOCA RATON (Sp., rafs mouth}, 205 m. (17 alt., 784 pop.), is a 
small resort. Its name was first applied to an inlet just S. of the city 
limits. Left of US 1, about half a mile SE. of the town hall, is the 
BOCA RATON CLUB (private), which has a limited membership of 
wealthy people. Additions have been made to the club building, 
originally designed by Addison Mizner as an inn. It now contains 
605 rooms, five patios, an outdoor swimming pool, and a ballroom. 
A cut has been dredged to connect Lake Boca Raton with the ocean 
and allow yachts to moor at the club wharves. The club maintains 
a golf course, gun traps, and a riding stable. 

DEERFIELD, 207.5 m. (15 alt., 1,556 pop.), a farming town 
where quantities of beans and peppers are grown, was originally 
named Hillsboro, but adopted its present name about 1907 when 
deer were plentiful in the vicinity. Negroes, who settled here to work 
in the now extinct pineapple-growing industry, still form two-thirds 
of the population. Many have prospered as landowners. 

POMPANO, 213.7 m. (15 alt., 3,000 pop.), originally a small 
village on the ocean, moved several miles inland to its present site, 
after suffering much damage in the 1928 hurricane. An engineer 
surveying here for the railroad was delighted by the flavor of a fish 
served him at dinner. When he learned that the fish was called 
pompano and abounded in the waters opposite this site he put 
"Pompano" on his map as the village's name. Although pompano 


also known as butter fish, are rare and are considered a luxury in 
other parts of Florida they breed offshore at this point, feeding on the 
shellfish, and can be caught with rod and reel, though a net is usually 
employed. The meat is fine-flaked, with a delicate flavor. 

In spite of the town's name, gardening is of first importance here. 
During the winter months, when beans and green peppers are har- 
vested, New York vegetable buyers come here to purchase crops. 
The town's small crate factories, vegetable-packing platforms, ex- 
press loading platforms, and railroad offices, ordinarily deserted, 
then become centers of activity; on every street corner groups of 
farmers, buyers, and merchants gather to discuss the latest market 
quotations on vegetables. 

Left from Pompano on a paved road at 3.7 m. is HILLSBOROUGH LIGHTHOUSE 
on Hillsborough Inlet, named for the Earl of Hillsborough who owned large 
Florida grants during English occupation. Human bones excavated here are 
said to be pirate remains. 

The Hillsborough light completed in 1907, a 5,500,000 candlepower light 
and one of the most powerful on the South Atlantic coast, marks the northern 
limit of the Florida Reef, an underwater coral formation paralleling the lower 
part of the east coast of Florida. 

North of the light is the HILLSBOROUGH CLUB, a semi-private club-hotel. j 

At 217 m. (R) are recently abandoned rock pits containing sky- 
blue water that contrasts vividly with the uncompromising white of 
the unweathered limestone borders. 

At 217.3 m. is the ornate gilt gateway (L) of the LION FARM (adm. 
adults 35, children 75^), where lions are bred for zoos and circuses. 
Most of the beasts live in unfenced grottos surrounded by water- 
filled moats, across which they are afraid to venture. 

FORT LAUDERDALE, 222.1 m. (10 alt., 9,222 pop.), is the seat 
of Broward Co. and a favorite headquarters of winter yachtsmen. 
It was built on the side of an abandoned military outpost called by 
the same name and established in 1837 during the second Seminole 

Fort Lauderdale is the home of Katherine Rawls, an Olympic 
swimming champion. 

The Indians believed the NEW RIVER, 75 ft. deep and bisecting the 
city from E. to W., was created in a single night. Geologists explain 
that the stream was probably an underground river, suddenly ex- 
posed when surface rock crumbled during an earthquake. The river 
is as black and as deep now as when it was filled with alligators; 

278 U. S. ONE 

but today its dark surface mirrors the white paint, mahogany, and 
gleaming brass of pleasure boats. 

More than 100 miles of natural and artificial waterways wind 
through Fort Lauderdale; some were built to aid commerce and 
agriculture, while others were intended to add to the charms of 
boom-time subdivisions, whose empty artificial islands and un- 
finished Venetian bridges now stand deserted. 

COLEE MONUMENT, in a little wooded park at Tarpon Bend in the 
New River, marks the site of the old fort. Here, in the heart of COLEE 
HAMMOCK, now a prominent residential section, occurred a massacre 
of whites (1842) by Seminole Indians under the leadership of Arpeika 
(Sam Jones-be-Damned). 

Youthful Crop-ear Charlie, a member of Arpeika's tribe, had been 
friendly with the white people. Caught while trying to warn his 
benefactors of the plans he had overheard, he was bound to a tree and 
forced to witness the slaying of the whites. Afterward his tribe pun- 
ished him by cropping his ears, upper right and lower left; depriving 
him of his name and identifying family colors; and exiling him, with 
only a hunting knife and a few rags, in the Everglades. He was told 
that after seven years he might approach the camp and ask for an- 
other trial. Seven years later, in June, at the time of the Green Corn 
Dance, when the annual council again sat to pass on violations of 
tribal laws, warriors examined him and decided that he could live 
near the tribe, but he could not marry nor could he eat, sleep, or 
hunt with his people. He still was denied his Indian name and tribal 
dress. No member of the tribe was allowed to mention his name, but 
answered all questions about him with "I don't know anything." 
Crop-ear Charlie lived to be more than a hundred years old, dying 
in a little shack near the present town of Dania. 

Near Las Olas Blvd. is the HOTEL AMPHITRITE, built in the re- 
modeled superstructure of a passenger steamship that the 1934 hurri- 
cane obligingly moved across the river and beached on this con- 
venient spot. 

U.S. COAST GUARD BASE No. 6, at Las Olas Beach, is an outgrowth 
of one of the houses of refuge that the Federal Government con- 
structed in 1888 at intervals of 25 miles along sections of the lower 
Florida coast. At that time the coast was poorly charted and unpro- 
tected. Built to shelter shipwrecked sailors, these structures were used 
by travelers and by the local populace during hurricanes. 


Beginning at Fort Lauderdale, the old Dixie Highway follows the 
C APRON TRAIL, built during the Seminole Wars; it was cut bit by bit 
through the native jungle, later becoming a 1 6-mile wagon road to 
Miami. Having served its purpose that of enabling the soldiers to 
cut off the flow of supplies from the Seminoles, which were being 
imported from Cuba the Capron Trail was abandoned at the end 
of the war and, in most places, became obliterated. Consequently, 
travel between Palm Beach and Miami, until the establishment of 
the railroad in 1896, was very difficult. The traveler had either to go 
by boat or to walk 66 miles along a lonely beach. If he chose to walk 
he usually accompanied the postman who carried the mail from 
Palm Beach to Miami on foot and he paid five dollars for the priv- 
ilege. Only the postman knew the trail. Hidden at the numerous in- 
lets, the mail carrier had boats in which he ferried his companions 

At 224.1 m. is the intersection with a new rock road. 

Left on this road 3 m. is PORT EVERGLADES, marine shipping point for 
Broward Co., with a fine harbor. The new harbor, built in a shallow lagoon 
known during boom times as Lake Mable, was created by the opening of a deep 
exit to the ocean. With a 35-ft. depth, Port Everglades is a port of call for large 
passenger vessels, and its freight traffic has increased in recent years. 

At 225.1 m. (L) is a BANYAN TREE advertised as the "million- 
dollar tree." This amazing native of East India has a large smooth 
trunk and horizontal limbs from which it sends down slender, vine- 
like branches that take root in the ground and develop into secondary 
trunks attached to the parent and forming in time a whole grove. A 
boom-time yarn relates that a tourist offered the owner a million dol- 
lars for the huge tree, provided that it could be transplanted to his 
northern estate and persuaded to survive the cold. 

DANIA, 227.4 m. (12 alt., 1,674 pop.), a tomato-farming center, 
is in an area known during the Seminole Wars as Five Mile Ham- 
mock. Of the many Danish families who migrated to Dania in 1896, 
and subsequently named the town, little trace remains today. 

South of the business district is Davie Road, paved but unmarked. 

Right on this road is a SEMINOLE INDIAN RESERVATION, 4 m., where Indian 
affairs for the entire State are managed. The office of the Indian agent is in a 
big, gray, frame house with a high gable roof. Its bleak unimaginative architec- 
ture contrasts sharply with the styles common in southern Florida. 

The dozen or so small, white, one-room-and-porch houses of the Seminoles 

2 8o U. S. ONE 

here are totally unlike the palmetto-thatched huts used by the Indians in the 
Everglades, and here are no banana plants, jungle stockades, or mis- 
spelled signs to attract the attention of passing strangers. The reservation has a 
business-like air; here the Seminole works and lives normally; he is not on parade 
with alligators and rattlesnakes as in the amusement areas of Miami and St. 
Petersburg. Jobs are provided for the Indians who live here permanently or for as 
long a time as they desire. The school offers both general education and simple 
vocational training. 

The first modern Seminole church (Baptist) was built by the Indians at the 
reservation with contributed materials, and dedicated in the summer of 1936. 
In charge of the ceremonies was an Indian from Oklahoma named Holy Canard, 
who passed out printed business cards to the effect that he held a formal com- 
mission from the President as "principal chief of the Creek Nation." Church 
officials include Pastor William King and Deacons Jim Gopher and Willie 

DAVIE, 8 m., a conservative, year-round farming community rarely visited 
by tourists, is in the rich muck lands that skirt the edge of the Everglades. 

At 17 m. are the FLAMINGO CITRUS GROVES (open), yielding more than 72 
varieties of tropical fruit. Many tropical plants are on display in the nearby 
botanical gardens. 

HOLLYWOOD-BY-THE-SEA, 230.1 m. (7 alt., 1,674 pop.), 
built in 1921 by a California developer, Joseph W. Young, is directly 
on the ocean shore, where the city owns nearly 6 miles of public 

RIVERSIDE MILITARY ACADEMY, a large privately-owned military 
school, housed in a boom- time hotel, holds winter terms here and fall 
and spring terms in Gainesville, Ga. 

HOLLYWOOD BEACH HOTEL, a large, many-towered structure, at 
the eastern terminus of palm-bordered Hollywood Blvd., is a com- 
plete resort city under one roof. Near the ocean is the municipally- 
owned BATHING CASINO, with three bathing pools, two for children 
and one for adults, in which some nationally famous swimmers have 
been trained. 

maintained for the guests of the Hollywood Beach Hotel; the ballroom 
of the club house has a glass dance floor and a removable ceiling. 

The MUNICIPAL GOLF COURSE is W. of 36th Ave. 

OJUS, 233.9 m. (1 3 alt., 600 est. pop.), was incorporated as a town 
in 1925 but soon acquired so many debts that it was forced to give up 
its corporate existence. 

The one industry is the MAULE Ojus ROCK PLANT, mining lime- 
stone that is used in building and road construction. 


Across the highway (R) is GREYNOLDS PARK in an area of aban- 
doned rock pits. Above stone-block walls rises a castellated observa- 
tion tower; this structure, of native rock with a ramp spiraling to the 
top, was patterned after an Aztec temple. Inside the park, an area of 
sweeping green lawns surrounds a stone pavilion that harmonizes 
architecturally with the English type stone cottage of the caretaker. 
To the W. are picnic grounds in a native hammock, and large groves 
of glossy Caribbean pines. 

NORTH MIAMI BEACH, 236 m. (500 est. pop.), was formerly 
named Fulford for an early settler. It is said the town changed its 
name in the hope of becoming a railway terminal for Miami Beach, 
which has no such facilities. 

At the traffic light is the junction with Golden Glades Road, also 
called Sunny Isles Road. 

Left on this causeway road, crossing salt marshes to the ocean and SUNNY 
ISLES CASINO, 2 m. This building stands at the junction of the Golden Glades 
Road and State 140, the latter winding southward along the ocean beach. 

There are many beautiful homes in this section. Near the Sunny Isles Casino 
is a new fishing pier (nominal charge). 

Right on State 140; at BAKER'S HAULOVER, 3.7 m., a bridge that crosses an 
outlet to upper Biscayne Bay where a long stone jetty extends into the ocean. 
The jetty is a popular fishing place. 

At 237 m. is the junction with a paved road, a remnant of the old 
East Dixie Highway, heavily traveled during the boom, but seldom 
used today. 

Right on this road is ARCH CREEK NATURAL BRIDGE, 0.5 m., carved out of 
native oolitic rock and used for passage since early Spanish days. A hundred 
years ago it was part of the Capron Trail. Over it passed soldiers to end the long, 
bloody Seminole War, which the Indians and their allies were prolonging by 
successfully landing supplies and contraband from Cuba in southern Florida. 
At the SE. end of the bridge, a quiet place with great vine-clad oaks, stood the 
stone house and mill of Luis, part Indian and part Cuban, who served as agent 
in the transactions. Here was fought one of the battles of the war. 

At 237.2 m. US 1 crosses Arch Creek as it flows through a pleasant 

At 241.1 m. is the northern rim of Miami (see illustration). 

At 242.1 m. US 1 broadens, following Biscayne Boulevard. 

MIAMI, 247.2 m. (10 alt., 110,637 pop.), winter resort (see FLA. 

282 U. S. ONE 

Railroad Stations. Seaboard Airline Ry., 2210 NW. 7th Ave.; Florida East 
Coast Ry., 200 NW. 1st Ave. 

Airports. Pan American Airways, Inc., 2500 S. Bayshore Dr., Miami; 5.5 m., 
taxi fare, 50yf, time 1 5 min. Eastern Air Lines, NW. 36th St. at Miami Springs, 
7 m., taxi fare $1.50, time 30 min. Planes for local or short trips, at Chalk's 
Flying Service, County Causeway; Viking Airport, Venetian Causeway. 

Steamship Piers. Clarke Steamship Co., Pier No. 2, foot of NE. 10th St., Clyde- 
Mallory Steamship Co., Pier No. 2, foot of NE. 10th St.; Merchants and Miners 
Trans. Co., Pier No. 1, foot of NE. 12th St.; Munson Steamship Line, Pier No. 
3, foot of NE. 9th St.; Peninsular & Occidental Steamship Co., Pier No. 2, foot 
ofNE. 10th St. 

Points of Interest. Aquarium, Old Fort Dallas, Lummus Park, Musa Island 
Indian Village, Pirate's Cove, Croton Gardens, Ten Million Dollar Hen Hotel, 
and others. 

Section 25. Miami to Key West, 170.2 m. State 4A. 

Ferries. Between Lower Matecumbe and Grassy Key and between Vaca and 
No Name Key; infrequent service. Inquire at Miami Motor Club for schedules 
and to make reservations; $2 to $4 for car and its passengers. Bridges under 
construction will be completed in spring of 1 938. 

Observe speed limits on bridges. 

State 4A, an extension of US 1 known as the Oversea Highway, is 
the only route running down over the curving chain of coral islands 
at the southern end of Florida. For a few miles south of Miami it runs 
through resort suburbs of that city; it then traverses the yellow-green 
savannas whose flatness is broken only by occasional hammocks and 
clumps of mangrove. Herons and cranes feed in the drainage ditch 
beside the highway and far overhead float a few hawks. The route 
leaves the mainland, running for more than 100 miles across small 
keys, which, except in two places, are tied together by bridges. These 
breaks will eventually be spanned. 

The bridges are so long that at times it seems as though the route 
were running over the sea itself; to the right is an arm of the Gulf of 
Mexico, to the left is the Atlantic Ocean. In the clear shallow waters 
beneath the bridges are seen spreading sea fans and fish among 
them the blue mass of the tentacled man-of-war and on the 
horizon the emerald dots of scattered islands. 

East from the City Hall, m., in Miami on Flagler Ave.; R. on S. 
Miami Ave., which State 4A follows. 

SOUTH MIAMI, 9.8m. (1,1 60 est. pop.), formerly called Larkins 
for an early storekeeper, was given its present name the day after he 
died. Large packing houses, characteristic of many in this vicinity, 


handle tomatoes, truck crops, and citrus. South of the city limits are 
(L) abandoned oolitic rockpits, now filled with clear greenish-blue 
water and often used as swimming pools by small fry. 

In KENDAL, 11.5 m. (13 alt., 300 est. pop.), a small citrus- 
growing settlement, are the COUNTY HOME and COUNTY HOSPITAL. 

PERRINE, 17 m. (13 alt., 800 pop.), was named for Dr. Henry 
Perrine, a botanist who obtained a Government grant in 1835 for 
experimentation with tropical plants. Dr. Perrine introduced the 
sisal (Agave rigida), popularly miscalled the "century plant," which 
now has spread over south Florida. 

PETERS, 18 m. (13 alt., 175 est. pop.), is named for Tom Peters, a 
pioneer tomato grower, who in pre-railroad days ran a mule tramline 
to Cutler, from which he shipped his produce N. by boat. 

At 20 m. is the junction with Mainland Drive. 

Right on this paved road to the TROPICAL MONKEY JUNGLE (adm. 25$. Java 
monkeys run wild in a gumbo-limbo hammock; it is the visitors who are caged. 
Monkeys, even though eager for peanuts, will not enter the screen-guarded 
pathways for fear of being trapped. The tribe unites, when new monkeys are 
added to the colony, and drives them away. Some varieties of monkeys and 
apes are kept in cages. 

GOULDS, 22 m. (12 alt., 326 pop.), is at the northern end of an 
area with large citrus groves. 

PRINCETON, 24 m. (12 alt., 255 pop.), was originally called 
Modello. Here several Princeton graduates started a lumber mill in 
1905, and put up a huge sign, Princeton. Although repeatedly re- 
moved, the sign always reappeared, and the F.E.C. Ry. finally 
adopted the name. 

1. Right from Princeton on the Coconut Palm Road to REDLAND FARM LIFE 
SCHOOL, 2.3 m., which collects its pupils from a large area. 

2. Left from Princeton on this road to the ALLSPATTAH (Ind., alligator) GAR- 
DENS, 2 in., where, in winter, several acres of sweet peas are in bloom. 

At NARANJA (Sp., orange), 25 m. (150 pop.), the road is built 
across an old rock pit now filled with water. A float for swimmers is 
moored to the northern bank of the pit. 

At 26 m. is the junction with Newton Road. 

Left on this road to FENNELL ORCHID JUNGLE, 0.5 m. (open daily during winter 
blooming season, adm. 25; guides), a commercial orchid nursery. Hundreds of 
orchids, native and exotic, have been acclimated on hammock trees. Cattleya 

2 8 4 U. S. ONE 

guatemalensis, a beautiful orchid blooming high in live-oaks, is grown in quan- 

HOMESTEAD, 30.2 m. (9 alt., 2,319 pop.), is the commercial 
center of an agricultural area specializing in winter fruit growing. 
With the coming of the railroad in 1 904, Homestead, so named be- 
cause its original settlers were homesteaders, developed rapidly from 
a primitive backwoods town into a modern community. A large 
tract N. of the town is being planted (1938) with 25,000 mahogany 

JOHNSTON'S PALM LODGE (free), Avocado Road and Krome Ave., 
owned by Col. H. W. Johnston, the Burbank of South Florida, con- 
tains one of the largest collections of tropical plants and trees in the 
country. There are 267 different kinds of jellies and marmalades on 

ducts experiments in the raising of citrus fruits, avocados, and winter 
vegetables under subtropical conditions. 

A large AVOCADO GROVE is on Waldin Drive. The Homestead 
Avocado Exchange has shipped about 2,000 carloads of the product 
in one season. 

COCOLOBO CAY CLUB, on an island in Biscayne Bay opposite Homestead, is 
owned by a group of wealthy anglers. It was one of the haunts of Black Caesar, 
the pirate. 

FLORIDA CITY, 31.7 m. (10 alt., 452 pop.), where royal palms 
grow in rows on the main street, was incorporated in 1913. It was 
first called Detroit, but the name was changed when the post office 
department objected. 

Right from Florida City on State 205 to ED'S PLACE (free), 1m., containing 
monolithic garden furniture and large novelties carved by its owner from local 
oolite. This granular variety of limestone is composed of small round concre- 
tions and resembles fish roe in appearance. 

At 14 m. is ROYAL PALM STATE PARK (free), where a 4,000-acre tract of dense 
hammock is preserved in its native state by Florida's women's clubs. It is within 
the borders of the proposed Everglades National Park. The 260 varieties of 
native plant life include tall palms, great oaks many of which harbor orchids 
and 31 varieties of ferns, some 27 ft. high. Here the strangler fig and morning 
glory grow to giant size. Here live multicolored butterflies, including the sleeping 
Heliconia. The area is a bird sanctuary; the giant ibis and pink flamingo live 
among 150 other species of birds. 

PARADISE KEY, within the park, consists of 300 acres of jungle botanically 
similar to those of the West Indies. Here are native royal palms more than 100 


feet tall; rare orchids, air plants, vines, and water plants of many kinds, includ- 
ing the Egyptian lotus. 

ROYAL PALM LODGE (meals and rooms; picnic grounds free) is open the year around. 

Proceeding W. through the park is a road, built along one of the many drain- 
age canals. The banks (R) are covered for nearly 35 miles with buttonwood trees, 
gallberry and elderberry bushes. Beyond are thick mangrove islands and cypress 
hammocks; L. are small patches of cornfield and road construction-camp shacks. 

In some places are great expanses of dead mangrove trees, their trunks twisted 
and denuded of foliage. These are reminders of the devastating hurricane that 
visited this region September 3, 1935. 

Cars can follow the road past BEAR LAKE, a desolate body of water about a 
mile wide and nearly two and a half miles long. This lake is full of many kinds of 
fishes, whose fins are seen cutting the surface of the water early in the morning 
and in the late afternoon. 

The beautiful flamingo formerly existed here in such large numbers that it 
was killed, picked, and salted down as food, chiefly for use on sailing ships. Those 
remaining in the park are now given protection. 

Cranes, herons, raccoons, skunks, otters, brown bears, and wildcats all inhabit 
the lake area, secure in their isolation. 

Great alligators are occasionally visible, their snouts barely above the water. 
They are also seen sunning themselves on muddy banks. 

South of Florida City the highway runs for 10 miles through deso- 
late swamps where dense mangrove patches stretch claw-like roots 
into the water, gathering sediment that in time will form new land. 

At 43.5 m. the road slopes toward CARD SOUND BRIDGE, which 
stretches between the mainland and the northernmost of the group of 
coral islands extending 140 miles into the sea and forming a dividing 
line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. 

The largest, Key Largo, has the usual southern Florida palmetto 
and scrub flatwoods but S. of it the vegetation is increasingly tropical. 
The islands are narrow and level, and the vast blue expanse of the sea 
sweeps to the horizon. Tropical water birds are innumerable. Palms, 
gumbo-limbo, and golden fig and lime trees grow from coral crevices 
so glaringly white that it is painful to look at them without tinted 
glasses. The keys are divided into two groups, the Upper and the 
Lower. North of Bahia Honda they are coral reefs; south of it they are 

It is difficult to determine the total area of the islands, some of 
which are very irregular in shape. The total land area of all probably 
does not exceed 60 square miles; most of them do not rise more than 
6 feet above sea level. 

The most important products of the keys are limes, the juiciest and 

286 U. S. ONE 

largest grown in Florida. The main occupations of the people have 
always been fishing, sponging, and farming. 

At 44 m. (R) is SMITTY'S HOUSEBOAT, moored near the center of 
Card Sound Bridge, and at 44.7 m. (L) is PELICANS ROOST at the 
end of the bridge (boats and tackle available at both places). 

KEY LARGO (Sp., long), the northernmost island (320 pop.), is 
about 30 miles long and at most 1 .5 miles wide. Its elevation is greater 
than that of the other islands in the chain, and it has perhaps the 
most fertile soil. 

At 49.6 m. is the junction with an unpaved road. 

Left on this road to the northern shore, where is the ANGLERS' CLUB CAMP, 
5.8 m., owned by a wealthy group. Offshore here is a group of three large and 
several small islands. These are not, however, the northernmost of the keys; the 
chain extends N. along the coast for 50 miles. 

Among the islands immediately N. of Key Largo of which Old Rhodes, 
Elliott, and Sand Keys are the largest the point of chief interest is BLACK 
CAESAR'S ROCK (accessible only by boat), a tiny island between Old Rhodes and 
Elliott Islands. 

This place was the stronghold and hiding place of Black Caesar, the gigantic 
chief of an African tribe, who had been captured by a slave trader; during a hur- 
ricane off the Florida coast Black Caesar, with a number of others, escaped and 
reached shore safely. He and his followers built a boat of the wreckage they found 
and became pirates. His tremendous strength and natural ferocity made him 
feared along the entire coast. Needing a place to lie in wait for prey and to make 
repairs on his boat, Black Caesar chose this island among the keys as his strong- 

To facilitate the removal of the barnacles from the bottom of his ship, Black 
Caesar had a large iron ring fastened in the coral rock off the western shore of 
the island. A block-and-fall was rigged to the masthead, the rope being reeved 
through another block hooked to the ring; the crew hauled on the rope until the 
vessel lay on her side. After one side had been scraped, the other was treated in 
the same manner. It is said that Black Caesar also used this method to screen his 
boat from view when there were pursuers, and to lie in wait for possible victims. 
The boat would be canted enough to hide the mast in the tree tops. When danger 
was past or when prey was near enough to be pounced upon, a slackening of the 
line would soon right the boat to an even keel. 

When in time Blackbeard joined Black Caesar, the two became the terror of 
the region. Blackbeard added to his ferocious appearance by wearing a long 
black beard braided into many tails, which he looped over his ears. There is little 
doubt that when they boarded a vessel they seemed like devils from "a hell of 
their own," as Blackbeard himself boasted. Both pirates met violent deaths while 
plying their trade. 

At this junction the appearance of the key begins to change. Here 
rolling hammock land contains tall growths of feathery-leaved wild 


tamarind, gumbo-limbo conspicuous by reason of its red bark, 
madeira, dogwood, crabwood, great bird fig, and sapodilla. Wild 
grapevines cover entire trees, often hiding the identity of the support. 
Day glories and moonvines are everywhere, and the shoulders of the 
highway are colored with wild flowers. There are few houses along 
the road, but trails lead through thick hammocks to the ocean and to 
farms and groves. 

The rolling hammock land is soon left behind, and lime groves line 
the highway. Unkempt vegetation, left for windbreaks, makes it 
difficult for persons accustomed to the methodically planted citrus 
groves to recognize the groves as such. Here, on the upper keys, lime 
trees grow in leafmold and thin soil; farther S. where dirt becomes 
scarce the trees seem to flourish equally well in rock crevices. 

At 56.8 m. are MABLE'S PLAGE and KEY INN (lodging and meals). 

KEY LARGO STATION, 59.1 m. (50 est. pop.), was formerly a 
station on the Florida East Coast Ry., which connected Key West 
with the mainland. This once-celebrated oversea section was built in 
1911, the first train running over the route January 22, 1912. At Key 
West passenger cars were shunted on tracks of seagoing ferryboats, 
which carried them to Havana, 90 miles away; thus travelers could 
step into a Pullman in New York and step out of it in Cuba. Unin- 
terrupted service was maintained from 1912 until September 2, 1935, 
when the great hurricane destroyed more than 40 miles of track. 
The F.E.C. Ry. decided against rebuilding the damaged tracks and 
roadbed, and discontinued service below Homestead, on the main- 
land. The dismantling of the line is now complete, the right-of-way 
having been acquired by the Florida State Road Dept. for this 
highway. The ferry service to Cuba is now carried on through Fort 
Lauderdale (see Section 24). 

There is a large LIME PACKING HOUSE (R) near the old station. 

At 61.1 m. (L) is LARGO GARDEN, a refreshment stand built in a 
beautiful grove having many different kinds of plants. Coral boulders 
mark the shoulders of the road here. 

NEWPORT, 63.8 m., is a small settlement of Negroes employed 
in nearby groves. 

ROCK HARBOR, 66 m. (12 alt., 131 est. pop.), is a tiny village 
with a 30-foot OBSERVATION TOWER (L) over its post office. The 
tower is a square stucco structure anchored by cables to bedrock; 
from its railed upper platform is a view of the Atlantic, Florida Bay, 

288 U. S. ONE 

and the Gulf. Eastward is the ocean shore, where are racks for fish 
nets. All around the tiny settlement are extensive lime groves that 
bear through most of the year; to the W. is a mango grove. 

At 66.8 m. is MAG'S PLACE, where cabins, sea foods, gasoline, and 
boats are available. Sportsmen starting out to catch bonefish often 
buy supplies here. 

TA VERNIER, 73.1 m. (10 alt., 91 est. pop.), takes its name from 
a stream that winds past the lower end of Key Largo. The French 
pronunciation of the word has been lost, the natives pronouncing it as 
though it rhymed with beer. 

This waterway is supposed to have been a favorite hiding place for 
Ta vernier, lieutenant of Jean La Fitte, the pirate who was, in 1814, 
promised 30,000 pounds sterling and a commission in the Royal 
Navy if he would assist the British operations against New Orleans. 
Instead La Fitte offered his information and aid to the Americans, 
whom he and his men served in the Battle of New Orleans. After he 
was pardoned by President Madison, La Fitte resumed his piracy 
near the present site of Galveston. When a naval expedition was sent 
against him for attacking American property, he sailed away. Neither 
his destination nor his fate is known. 

Brought into existence as the southernmost railway stop on Key 
Largo, Tavernier was just a railroad station until O. M. Woods ac- 
quired holdings during the boom days, built a lumber shed, a moving- 
picture theater and other facilities. Few of the inhabitants live along 
the highway, but roads lead to homes along the shores. 

At Tavernier are some of the storm-proof houses built along the 
keys by the American Red Cross and the F.E.R.A. Constructed en- 
tirely of reinforced concrete, these homes are anchored to bedrock; 
the massive effect is emphasized by heavy wooden storm shutters and 
the huge slabs of masonry that form the roofs. 

At 73.7 m. is a CAMP on Tavernier Creek, where boats are avail- 
able for fishing in the ocean or the bay. 

At 73.8 m. is the northern end of PLANTATION KEY, named 
for pineapple and banana plantations that flourished in the past. 
This island was first settled by Bahamans who migrated from Key 
Vaca and Indian Key in search of farm land; from the 1870's until 
shortly after the beginning of the present century, it was a very pros- 
perous area. From the road it looks almost uninhabited, but in reality 
there are many homes, hidden behind the hammocks. 


Palms on the lower part of the key show many evidences of the 
1 935 hurricane, the center of which cut a devastated path at this point. 

At 78.6 m. is SNAKE GREEK, scene of one of the major washouts of 
the '35 hurricane. The RAILROAD TRESTLE (R) was temporarily 
rebuilt after the storm for the removal of stranded railroad cars. 

WINDLEY ISLAND, 78.9 m., was named for an old settler. At 
the foot of the bridge (L) is the CROOKED DOOR, a camp with boats 
for hire and bait for sale. Much fine-grained Windley Island coral 
rock has been used for interior trim in building construction. 

A broad expanse of low prairie (L) was the SITE OF THE WORLD 
WAR VETERANS CAMP NUMBER ONE, one of the three camps destroyed 
by the 1935 hurricane with many fatalities. A few yards down the 
road (R) are rock quarries, from which derricks lift huge blocks of 
coral limestone. The rock has a texture suitable for limited use in 
sculpture; when treated, it can be used for tiles. 

At 80.1 m. is WHALE HARBOR. Across Whale Harbor extended 
another railway fill similar to that at Snake Creek, where today bent, 
twisted rails, swept 50 yards from their bed, are testimony to the 
hurricane's violence. 

UPPER MATECUMBE KEY (Sp., bent bushes; pron. matty-cum'- 
bee), 81.6 m., is famous among fishermen. On the ocean front, 
tabbed without much originality by the sun-baked natives as "Mil- 
lionaire's Row," are many attractive homes and private fishing 

ISLAMORADA (Sp., purple isle; pron. i-la-mo~rah r -do), 82.5 m. 
(10 alt., 180 est. pop.), stands in the interior of the key, with flat, 
scrub palm country surrounding it. It was through the efforts of 
Henry M. Flagler that the Matecumbe Keys became popular among 
sportsmen; this place was established by him as a station for the con- 
venience of fishermen. A group of boatmen and skilled guides live 
near the former station. 

At 84.5 m. is a ferry slip (gasoline, refreshments, and boats available). 

Left from the extreme southern shore of Upper Matecumbe is TEA TABLE 
KEY, 1 m. (accessible only by boat), so named because of its flat terrain. Between 
1839 and 1840 it was used as one of several bases for naval vessels engaged in 
Seminole War operations. 

Southwest of Tea Table Key and L. of the bridge is INDIAN KEY, 2 m. It 
is accessible only by water, but can be approached from all sides. This feature, 
combined with its fertile acreage, led to its use as a trading post from the time the 
first Spaniards bartered with the Indians. 

29 o U. S. ONE 

The island, containing only 12 acres, was first settled by Capt. Jacob House- 
man, of Staten Island, N.Y., as a base for wreckers. In 1838 Dr. Henry Perrine, 
a botanist of note, landed here with his family to experiment with the growing 
of tropical plants imported from Yucatan. On the morning of August 7, 1 840, 
the settlement was attacked by 200 Indians; Dr. Perrine and 12 others were killed. 
The Perrine family, whom the doctor had hidden in a turtle pen beneath the 
pier, and several others were finally rescued by a Government cutter. Today 
nothing remains of the settlement except a brick cistern and the gravestone of 
Captain Houseman. 

When the Indian Key massacre was reported, Government troops were sent to 
quell the uprising. With the help of an escaped Negress who had been held in 
slavery by the Indians, the entire band of Galoosas with the exception of a few 
braves who were out hunting, was captured and sent to prison. Fearing revenge 
for having led the soldiers into the Everglades on the trail of the killers, the former 
Negro slave left her home and moved to Key West, where she lived to be more 
than 100 years old. 

The inhabitants of the Matecumbe Keys have many superstitious 
beliefs. One is that sheepshead, a fish with large strong teeth, after 
feeding on barnacles of copper-sheathed wrecks, become poisonous, 
and that persons eating such fish die soon afterward. 

In the Bay of Florida, 2 miles W. of the southern tip of Upper Matecumbe, is 
LIGNUM VITAE KEY, on which grows lignum vitae, a very heavy hardwood 
found nowhere else on the Florida Keys. 

LOWER MATECUMBE, 87.9 m., is the site of two of the three 
World War veterans camps that were swept away by storm in 1935. 

At 92.3 m., conspicuously marked at the lower end of this island, is 
the FERRY SLIP, where automobiles trundle on ferries for the 14-mile 
crossing to Grassy Key. On these boats excellent meals are served, 
with turtle steak a favorite dish. The ferries follow a protected water- 
way, well inside the line of keys, and are never out of sight of the rail- 
way viaduct. 

The name of GRASSY KEY, 105 m., southern terminus of the 
ferry, is said to have been derived from an old settler, not from the 
nature of its grassy growth. The island is two and a half miles long. 

CRAWL KEYS, 107.5 m., was named for the sponge and turtle 
pens, called crawls by the native fishermen. The word is believed to 
be a corruption of "corral" (stock pen). 

Right from Crawl Keys is BAMBOO KEY, 1 in., a small irregularly shaped 
island that is supposed to have fewer mosquitoes than the other keys. This has 
been attributed to the presence of a parasitic plant, Cuscuta umbalata, that thrives 
on the island. Actually, however, the properties of this odoriferous plant as a 
mosquito eradicator have not been proved. 


At 109.5 m. is the junction with an unpaved road. 
Left on this road to a large emergency landing field, 1 m., on land near the 
ocean shore. 

KEY VACA (Sp., cow), 110.4 m., is thought to have been so named 
because of the cattle that roamed on it at one time. 

At 117 m. on Key Vaca is the one-story SOMBRERO LODGE, a well- 
appointed hotel with five large wings. 

The keys here were, in the middle of the last century, the scene of 
an unusual industry. The beche de mer, a sea-slug, was salted down for 
export to the Orient, where it is considered a delicacy. 

MARATHON, 118 m. (7 alt.), is the only settlement of any conse- 
quence on this key. A clubhouse owned by Miami sportsmen is recog- 
nized by its 30,000-gallon water tank. 

The road leading to the ferry landing is well marked. 

South of Key Vaca is BOOT KEY HARBOR, graveyard of a 
number of boats used in constructing the railway, and sunk in these 
waters when their usefulness ended. In the collection of old craft is 
virtually every kind from side-wheeler to barge. 

Visible from the ferry is what was once the longest railway bridge 
in the world crossing ocean waters PIGEON KEY VIADUCT, extend- 
ing 7.6 miles between tiny Pigeon Key and Duck Key. 

South of here the geology of the archipelago changes. From this 
point to Dry Tortugas all islands are of white oolite with a tangle of 
mangroves whose roots stabilize old islands and build new ones, 
simply by retaining the mud washed in by tides. These lower keys 
have a very scant covering of topsoil, and for that reason have not yet 
attracted farmers. It has been found, however, that lime trees will 
grow in the crevices of the limestone; tomatoes, okra, melons, and 
similar produce grow in the few inches of topsoil, accumulated bit by 
bit as the mangrove and buttonwood deposit their rich mold. Papayas 
grow wild here, bearing a small, sweet fruit. 

NO NAME KEY, 132.1 m., is the western terminus of the ferry. 
The scenery on No Name Key, with pines and palmettos, suggests 
certain sections of northern Florida, but sapodilla trees are evidence 
of the subtropical climate. 

At 132.2 m. (R) is No NAME LODGE, a fishing resort. 

BIG PINE KEY, 135 m., contains a grove of comparatively large 
Cuban pines at the place where topsoil is thickest. Cranes and herons 
are numerous. 

292 U. S. ONE 

At 136.2 m. is the junction with a hard-surfaced road. 
Left on this road to BIG PINE INN, 7 m., a quiet hotel with chicken dinners, 
rooms, and fishing boats. 

BIG TORCH KEY, 137.6 m., was so named because of the quan- 
tity of torchwood on the island. This wood is so resinous that a torch 
made of it will burn twice as long as does one of pine. 

At 139.6 m. is MIDDLE TORCH KEY. Here, in addition to 
torchwood, grows the soapberry tree. For years natives have used the 
soapberry for catching fish by hand. The seeds are crushed into a 
gelatinous mass in calm water, when they release a toxic substance 
that stupifies fish swimming near it. While the substance can be used 
for cleansing, it is not commonly utilized for that purpose. 

RAMROD KEY, 139.9 m., has a post office with a picturesque old 
muzzle-loading cannon. 

SUMMERLAND KEY, 142.1 m., has excellent farm land. Ex- 
tensive lime groves are cultivated here and many tropical fruits are 
raised for northern markets. 

At CUDJOE (contraction of Cousin Joe) KEY, 144.3 m., pigeons 
are often seen flying over the road or feasting on the berries of the 
poison- wood tree. When bruised, the tree exudes a gum that blackens 
the trunk. It is one of the first to grow on cut-over and burnt ham- 
mock land. 

the site of successful sponge-culture experiments. Here sponges are 
grown from cuttings and cultivated. The name of the key is derived 
from the sugar-loaf pineapple formerly cultivated on its soil. 

PIRATE'S COVE FISHING CAMP, 149.1 m., is one of the best known 
resorts on the lower keys. During the 1935 hurricane many of its 
buildings were demolished; the place has been rebuilt on a smaller 
scale with more secure construction. 

SADDLEBUNCH KEY, 155.4 m., is an island attractive because 
of Gandolphe Creek, where mangroves are reflected in clear water. 
Mangrove and buttonwood line the road, with flat expanses beyond 

TINY BIRD KEY, 160.2 m., is little more than a mangrove 
swamp, named for the sooty terns that abound under protection of 
the National Park Service. 

GEIGER KEY, 160.6 m., is another of the small islands named for 
an early settler. 


On BOCA CHIGA KEY (Sp., little mouth), 162.5 m., the smooth 
recently built highway is at times less than 75 ft. from the sea. 

At 165.7 m. (R) is BOCA CHIC A FISHING GAMP. 

At 167.4 m. (R) is a BOTANICAL GARDEN with many kinds of trop- 
ical plants. 

At 168.6 m. the highway forks, providing two routes leading into 
KEY WEST, 170.2 m. (6 alt., 12,831 pop.). 

Airports. Miami-Key West Airways, at Yacht Basin, two blocks from center of 
city; taxi 25 per passenger; Pan-American, Roosevelt Blvd., 3 m., taxi 50jf. 

Piers. Gulf side of island for P. & O. Steamers to Tampa & Havana. 

Information Service. Hospitality House, Elks Lodge Bldg., Duval St.; House 
Dept., W.P.A. Bldg., Eton St. 

Key West, seat of Monroe Go., and the southernmost city of the 
United States, covers an entire subtropical coral island, one mile 
wide and half a mile long. Coco-palms flourish, and Spanish limes, 
dates, pomegranates, and sapodillas grow wild. The place was called 
Cayo Hueso (bone key) by Spanish explorers as early as the 16th 
century because many human bones were found here. 

The island was granted, in 1815, by Ferdinand VII to Don Juan 
Pablo Salas as a reward for military service. It was not settled until 
1822, when it became a naval base of the United States. . 

About half the inhabitants are descendants of white people of 
British birth who came here from Virginia, New England, and the 
West Indies; about one-quarter are descendants of Cubans and 
Spaniards; and roughly one-sixth are Negroes who have lived or 
whose parents lived in Bahama or the West Indies. The population 
is bilingual, speaking both Spanish and English. 

The earliest businessmen of the island were pirates; the first legal 
business to develop was wreck salvaging. So many ships were wrecked 
on the nearby reefs and so rich were the cargoes that, in 1 846, a time 
of unusually severe storms, $1,600,000 worth of shipwrecked property 
was brought in. The establishment of the lighthouses gradually ruined 
this source of income. Some return of prosperity came during the Civil 
War when naval activity increased. After the beginning of the Cuban 
revolution in 1868 Cubans, many of them cigar makers, came to Key 
West; in 1874 a modern cigar factory was established, becoming the 
nucleus of an industry that gave the city its next wave of prosperity. 
Sponge fishing also became important. In time labor troubles in the 
cigar industry increased, and by 1906 the business began to move 

294 U. S. ONE 

away to Gulf coast cities. In the meantime the place had begun to lose 
its importance as a supply station for coal-burning ships. The opening 
of the Florida East Coast Ry. in 1912 gave another economic re- 
prieve, but the effect was only temporary as practically all the cigar 
factories had left and the sponge-fishing industry had declined. An- 
other blow came in 1925 when the Federal Government reduced the 
size of the army base; in 1932 the naval base became inactive and the 
Coast Guard headquarters was transferred to St. Petersburg. The 
city is the locale of Ernest Hemingway's novel, To Have and Have Not. 

In 1934 the Governor of the State placed the affairs of the county 
in the hands of the F.E.R.A., which began the rehabilitation of the 
city by developing it as a winter resort. The whole place was cleaned 
up; streets and promenades were landscaped, modern facilities were 
installed, new buildings were erected, and charming old ones were 
repaired. A yacht basin and other tourist attractions were developed. 
During the first resort season more than 35,000 visitors arrived, about 
3,000 remaining throughout the winter. 

The SPONGE DOCK, foot of Grinnell St., is one of the busiest spots 
on the island. The auction here is worth seeing. 

In the TURTLE CRAWLS, N. end of Margaret St., are often seen 
specimens hundreds of years old and weighing several hundred 
pounds. Boats that come to the adjacent dock frequently bring in 
large jewfish, sharks, and the like. Near the crawls are a canning plant 
and a turtle-soup factory. The butchering takes place shortly after 
noon nearly every day. 

In the OPEN-AIR AQUARIUM, foot of Whitehead St., are many bril- 
liantly colored tropical fishes. 

FORT TAYLOR, entered from Angela St., has played an important 
part in the history of the city since its foundations were laid in 1845. 

The ERNEST HEMINGWAY RESIDENCE (private), corner of Olivia and 
Whitehead Sts., was built shortly after the Civil War. 

From KEY WEST LIGHTHOUSE (open dawn to sunset), corner of White- 
head and Division Sts., is an exceptional view of this and nearby 
islands. Aviaries on the grounds hold hundreds of tropical birds. 

The BAHAMA HOUSES stand close together, the Bartlum residence 
on Eaton Street and the Roberts home on Williams Street. The 
former was first built on Green Turtle Key, Bahama Islands, by 
Capt. Joe Bartlum in the early part of the 19th century; when the 
family in the early thirties decided to move here, the house was taken 


apart, loaded aboard a schooner, and rebuilt on its present site. The 
Roberts place was likewise brought from the Bahamas. These houses 
are constructed entirely of white pine and, though unpretentious, 
have a simple dignity and an air of comfort. They differ from most 
Key West buildings in having low ceilings, but are like them in hav- 
ing delicate balustrades on the porches and large shuttered openings. 



Perry Quoddy Village Eastport, 7.3 m. State 190. 
Two-lane tar-surfaced roadbed. 

State 1 90 runs close to the shore of Passamaquoddy Bay, which, in 
sunlight, is intensely blue; beyond the islands dotting the water rise 
the hills of New Brunswick. This route is particularly delightful in the 
early morning, when the thumping of motorboats and the tangy 
aroma of drying fish are reminders of the area's fishing activities. 

State 190 branches SE. from US 1 at Perry (see Section 7), m. 

At 0.7 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Left on this road is PLEASANT POINT, 2 m., a 100-acre reservation established 
about 1 822 and occupied by 300 Passamaquoddy Indians. The State appoints an 
agent to supervise the business affairs of the reservation, but the Indians elect 
their own governor and may send a member of the tribe to represent them before 
the legislature. Houses on the reservation are of modern camp type, and there is 
a fully equipped elementary school. 

These Indians had accepted Roman Catholicism before there was extensive 
white settlement in the State; though they are devout communicants, they retain 
some of their primitive ceremonies. After a conventional church wedding in the 
little brick church, for example, the dark-skinned, sleek-haired Passamaquoddies 
dance to the beating of drums and the chanting of old songs. Discarding ordinary 
dress, which differs little from that of the white people living around them, they 
don ancient costume and headdress, and paint their faces. They welcome visitors 
to these affairs and appreciate applause. While they do not make friends easily, 
once their shyness has worn off they belie their reputation for taciturnity and are 
excellent story-tellers. The Passamaquoddies do some farming and occasionally 
work on the road but their livelihood is derived chiefly from fishing. 

From the time of the Revolution, the men have been active in military service; 
many joined the northern troops in the Civil War. In the INDIAN CEMETERY (R), 
at the top of the hill near the entrance to the reservation, is a monument to 
Moses Neptune, killed at the Argonne in 1918, and another to the memory of 
Charles Nola, who was posthumously awarded the Croix de Guerre for remarkable 
courage and tenacity during the World War in defending an advance post until 
he was killed. Most of the graves are marked by small wooden crosses with carved 

A DAM, a part of the discontinued Passamaquoddy Project, has been built 
between Pleasant Point and Carlow Island. 

At 4.2 m. State 190 crosses a bridge to Moose Island. A short dis- 
tance south of the bridge is QUODDY VILLAGE, in which 250 New 


MAINE 297 

England youths are learning (1938), in a National Youth Adminis- 
tration experiment, to choose careers compatible with their talents 
and abilities. 

The boys occupy 1 20 temporary cottages, nine permanent houses, 
the apartment buildings, the barracks, and the mess halls formerly 
used by the laborers and engineers employed on the gigantic tidal 
project to harness the high tides of the Bay of Fundy. The youths have 
their own municipal government, run a newspaper, and do all the 
maintenance and service work. 

EASTPORT (see illustration), 7.3 m. (80 alt., 3,466 pop.), with 
its neighbor Lubec, has long been important in the fishing industry, 
though it is now less so than formerly. Fishing, like agriculture, has 
fallen on evil days. Centralized control of the marketing end of the 
business, the use of the high-powered beam trawlers that destroy mil- 
lions of young fish, pollution of the streams in which the fish formerly 
spawned, and other factors have reduced many of the fishermen to 
abject poverty. 

In this area the most valuable fish are cod, haddock, cusk, hake, 
pollock, halibut, and herring; the small herring are canned as sar- 
dines. Sardine canning began in Eastport about 1875 and since that 
time the women of the town, young and old, drop whatever they are 
doing, seize their aprons and knives, and rush to the factories when 
the siren announces a new catch. The old folk speak of sardines as 
"little fish biled in ile." 

The once worthless herring scales have become a valued by- 
product of the industry, now being carefully gathered for the making 
of an essence used to give iridescence to artificial pearls. Two plants 
here manufacture the product. 

The town was settled in 1780 but European traders were here a 
hundred years earlier. The port had considerable prosperity after the 
passage of the Embargo Act of 1 807, becoming the center of extensive 
two-way smuggling operations. The British ignored these activities 
until after 1812 when war was declared; in July 1814 they captured 
the town, confiscating several vessels that were about to sail, loaded 
with contraband. 

The SITE OF FORT SULLIVAN, erected in 1 808 for the protection of 
the settlement, is on a high ledge behind the Shead Memorial High 
School; from the ledge is a magnificent view of the coast and islands. 


298 U. S. ONE 

opposite Boynton St. Artists visit Eastport each summer because of 
striking coast views and in spite of the fogs that are frequent in August. 

The EASTPORT COUNTRY CLUB INN, on the outskirts of the city 
(open), maintains a 9-hole golf course. 

Yachting and fishing are popular forms of recreation (boats for 
hire). CAMPOBELLO ISLAND (see Side Route 2) is visible from the 


,V : " ,^;;;;.V- MAINE ." ; .t'v,v ; 

Whiting to Lubec (Treat's and Campobello Islands), 11 m. State 189. 

Two-lane gravel road. 

State 189 runs through an area that demonstrates why "rock- 
bound" always precedes mention of the coast of Maine; on the main- 
land are high cliffs, the land rises abruptly from the rivers and bays, 
and the offshore islands are rugged. The area is particularly fasci- 
nating to inlanders because both the villages and the people have 
distinctive characteristics, developed by long contact with the sea. 
The weathered wharves and canning factories are the center of in- 
terest to visitors, as well as the centers of community life. 

State 189 branches NE. from US 1 at Whiting (see Section 7), m., 
crossing Orange River. 

At 1.6 m. (R) is a free camp site. 

At 5.7 m. is the West Lubec post office. 

1. Left from West Lubec post office on a gravel road, along which are shafts of 
abandoned lead mines, is NORTH TRESGOTT, 5.5 m. (20 alt.; Trescott Town, 
365 pop.), on a point of land formed by the Cobscook River and an arm of Cob- 
scook Bay. 

COBSCOOK FALLS, visible at the road's end, are formed by high tides rushing 
with tremendous force through a narrow gut. 

2. Right from West Lubec post office, on State 191, is CUTLER, 14.1 m. 
(60 alt.; Cutler Town, 492 pop.), a farming and fishing community on a horse- 
shoe-shaped harbor. The town with its irregular coast line has numerous picnic 
grounds and camping spots. 

At 9.8 m. is the junction with a local road. 

1. Left on this road, known as the North Lubec Road, which has many 
excellent views as it runs along a narrow neck of land that extends into Cobscook 
Bay. NORTH LUBEC, 3 m. (80 alt., Lubec Town), gained notoriety from the 
Jernegan gold swindle (1896-98). Jernegan, pastor of a local church, claimed he 
had perfected a method of extracting gold from sea water by electrolysis. A stock 
company was formed and much stock sold throughout the country. A plant was 
erected on the shore; divers were sent to the bottom and came up bringing small 
quantities of gold. Large crews of workmen were imported and operations went on 
for a few months until Jernegan, having collected a considerable sum of money, 

2. Right on the local gravel road is WEST QUODDY HEAD, 8 m. (40 alt.), 
the most easterly point of the United States, where a Coast Guard station and a 


300 U. S. ONE 

lighthouse are maintained. From this point the high cliffs of Grand Manan Island 
are visible on a clear day. 

LUBEC, 11 m. (80 alt.; Lubec Town, 2,983 pop.), had greatly in- 
creased activity from the beginning to the discontinuation of the 
Passamaquoddy Power Project. It is a picturesque seaside village 
with beautiful views of surrounding bays and coves. 

CHALONER TAVERN, Main and Cleaves Sts., formerly a stage line 
terminus, has been used as a public house since 1804. Chaloner's, the 
Golden Ball, and Stearns 5 were the taverns in this harbor town in an 
earlier day when illicit border trade was profitable. Flour, bought in 
Canada for $4 a barrel, sold here for $8. Smuggling was rampant. 
Vessels hailing from Lubec or nearby towns took out papers for Spain 
or Portugal, sailed instead to some Canadian port where' sugar, 
molasses, flour, and rum were loaded, and returned with full cargoes. 
At any time of night innkeepers might be awakened by furtive knocks 
upon their doors. 

The GOLDEN BALL, now the Comstock House, is on Pleasant St. 
It is said the tavern keeper had a special room for deserting British 
sailors whom he recognized by their sea-soaked clothing, for they 
usually swam ashore. Generally they had money and he was glad to 
aid them in boarding a coaster at nearby ports. The story is told of an 
English officer who, looking for a hideout, was tossed into the street 
when he displeased the innkeeper. The keeper's daughter went to the 
officer's assistance and later they were married. 

Most of the old houses here face E., according to the early 

On TREAT'S ISLAND (40 alt., Lubec Town), in Cobscook Bay, reached 
from Lubec by ferry, considerable construction was done in connection with the 
Passamaquoddy Tidal Project. The dam was to have run directly across the 

A large granite shaft near the center of the island is in memory of Col. John 
Allen, Indian Superintendent for the Eastern District during the Revolution, 
who was chiefly responsible for keeping the Passamaquoddy Indians on the side 
of the colonists. Colonel Allen conducted a trading post on this island. 

CAMPOBELLO ISLAND (Ital., beautiful meadow), though Canadian soil, is 
reached by a few minutes ferry ride across Lubec Narrows. The SUMMER HOME 
OF PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, 1.5 m. from the ferry, a large red house, 
is visible from the road. There is good fishing from the island, and the 30 miles 
of improved roads winding over it and passing many beautiful summer homes, 
provide magnificent panoramic views of the sea and the Maine coast. 



Richmond to Westover, 25.6 m. State 5. 
Well-paved route; no accommodations. 

East from the capitol, m., in Richmond on Broad St. (see Section 
75); L. from Broad St. on 21st St. to Main St.; L. from Main St. on 
Lester St., which becomes State 5; this road follows the N. bank of 
the James River, winding through delightful woods and fields that 
are, or once were, parts of the historic estates that line the river 
banks. In the spring the wayside is rich with blossoms; in the fall, 
red, brown, and yellow leaves lend color. In the woods are deer and 
other game, but strangers are warned against attempting to hunt 
because here, as in most of Virginia, the woods and fields are pri- 
vately owned. 

At 8.7 m. (R) is an entrance to the RICHMOND NATIONAL BATTLE- 
FIELD PARK (see VA. GUIDE). In the park is FORT HARRISON, one of 
the principal Richmond defenses in the Civil War before it fell on 
September 29, 1864. The earthworks are particularly well preserved. 

Not far E. of Fort Harrison on the river bank is the site of VARINA, 
the estate to which John Rolfe brought his Indian bride Pocahontas 
after their marriage in 1614 and where they lived until their depart- 
ure for England in 1616. John Rolfe is thought to have made his 
experiments with tobacco here, attempting to cultivate a plant 
stronger in taste and less bitter than that grown by the Indians at 
the time, in order to compete with the better grade tobacco the 
Spanish were sending to Europe. In less than five years after he 
started this work the colonists had given up their search for precious 
metals in favor of tobacco raising, which netted them more wealth 
than the gold of which they had dreamed. 

At 13.7 m. (R) are large gates marking the entrance to CURLES 
NECK, now a private estate with its own race track, owned by a north- 
ern sportsman, but formerly a Colonial estate that was the home of 
the radical young Nathaniel Bacon, who led an uprising in 1676 to 
secure popular control of the Colonial government. Governor Berke- 
ley had failed to act to protect the settlements from Indian attacks; 
Bacon and his followers formed an unauthorized force against the 


302 U. S. ONE 

Indians and succeeded in dispersing them. Bacon was making prog- 
ress toward reforming the government when he was stricken with 
fever and met a premature death (see VA. GUIDE). 

Curies Neck was later owned by Richard Randolph, whose grand- 
son was John Randolph of Roanoke. 

MALVERN HILL, 17.1 m. (R), is crowned by a comfortable old 
farmhouse on the site of the Colonial home of the Cocke family. 
Lafayette camped here in July and August of 1781, while watching 
for Cornwallis. On the north side of the hill McClellan, retreating 
from before Richmond in July 1862, was attacked by Lee, whom 
he repulsed, and fell back to Harrison's Landing on the James 
River (see VA. GUIDE). 

East of Malvern Hill US 1 runs along TURKEY ISLAND, a former 
estate of William Randolph, founder of the numerous American clan 
of Randolphs. A dirt road branches at 19.3 m. 

Left on this road 2 m. is the SITE OF THE FOREST, home of the widow, Martha 
Wayles Skelton, who was here married to Thomas Jefferson on January 1, 1772. 
It is said that the honeymoon journey to Monticello was a hard one, with Jeffer- 
son having to lead the horses through snowdrifts on the road. 

At 21.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road is SHIRLEY, 1.8 m. (gardens open weekdays, adm. 50fc house 
open only during annual April Garden Week). The estate was patented by Maj. Ed- 
ward Hill and descended to his granddaughter, Elizabeth Hill, who became the 
wife of John Garter, son of "King" Robert Carter, in one of those marriages 
carefully planned by the bustling agent of Lord Fairfax to bring under his control 
more rich Virginia acres than he was able to patent in his own name. Anne Hill 
Carter, a granddaughter of John and Elizabeth Hill Carter, was here wooed and 
married by "Light Horse Harry" Lee; the couple became the parents of Robert 
E. Lee. 

The house, built about 1740 by "King" Carter for his son and daughter-in- 
law, is a three-story brick structure with porticoed entrances and gabled roof. 
The third story was added some time after the lower floors were built. The house 
stands clear of shrubbery on a lawn that slopes to the river; the two unusually 
large outbuildings that held the plantation offices and kitchens stand at equal 
distances from the corners of the N. entrance. The interior is not symmetrical. 
The door leads directly into a room that occupies more than a quarter of the 
main floor and holds a three-story staircase. In this entrance hall is an oil portrait 
of "King" Carter, elegant in a bright red coat and looking, in spite of his Colonial 
finery, like a prosperous modern businessman. Portraits of other Carters and of 
Hills line the halls, as they do the walls of the parlor (L). In the parlor is an oil 
portrait of Edward Hill, who died about 1740; he lived in an older house, long 
ago destroyed, situated a short distance from the present building. Over the 


fireplace are fine pastel profiles of a younger Robert Carter and his wife, drawn 
by Saint- Memin. The room also holds some rare old books, among them an early 
edition of Tristram Shandy. The house is owned by Mrs. M. G. Oliver, a lineal 
descendant of John and Elizabeth Carter. 

At 22.5 m. on State 5 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road 1 m. is the HOPEWELL FERRY (leaves the N. bank on the half- 
hour and the S. bank on the hour, 7 a.m.-6 p.m.; fee 65). 

At 23.9 m. (L) is a dirt road entrance to a U.S. FISH HATCHERY. 
East of this entrance are small farms and open fields. There is a 
junction at 25.6 m. with a dirt road, the entrance lane to Westover. 

Right on this road 0.3 m. are the gates to BERKELEY (house and grounds open 
daily; adm. 50$. The approach to this old home of the Benjamin Harrisons is 
a long dirt lane, flanked by a small wood and fields. The large brick house has 
suffered externally from renovations, but is now in the hands of Malcolm Jamie- 
son, who is gradually restoring it to its former appearance for preservation as a 
museum; the ugly porches and porticoes will be removed, since they did not 
belong to the early house; the pink paint is to be scraped from the brick walls; 
the former arched doorways at the ends of the central hall will be replaced to 
match the central arch of the hall. The detached brick buildings at the ends that 
served as offices and kitchens are still intact. 

The interior of Berkeley has suffered fewer changes than has the exterior, 
though partitions have been added between the arches at either side of the cen- 
tral chimney that separates the front and back parlors. The woodwork is deli- 
cately fluted. During the restoration of the walls of the front parlor a piece of the 
rough plaster was exposed and on it was found "B. Harrison" in large script sur- 
rounded by scrolls and flourishes. Which Benjamin Harrison left his mark is a 
matter of conjecture because there have lived here Benjamin Harrison, Attorney 
General and Treasurer of the Colony; Maj. Benjamin Harrison, member of the 
House of Burgesses; and Benjamin Harrison, member of the Continental Con- 
gress and signer of the Declaration of Independence. It might well be the last, 
because the old Signer was a man given to occasional whimsical fancies; it was 
he who shocked Philip Fithian, the serious young tutor of Councillor Carter's 
children, by refusing to discuss the serious aspects of the first Continental Con- 
gress, which he had attended as an observer, and showing more concern over a 
bet that Virginia girls excelled those of Pennsylvania in beauty. 

Opposite the parlor on the river front of the house is a large dining room and 
behind it is a staircase with a broad landing, where, according to tradition, a 
plantation orchestra sometimes played during dinner. 

In this house was born the Signer's son, William Henry, who became ninth 
President of the United States and grandfather of another Benjamin Harrison, 
the twenty-third President. 

The grounds drop in three terraces to the river, but little of their former state is 

The main dirt road continues past the entrance to Berkeley to the mansion of 

3 o 4 U. S. ONE 

the neighboring WESTOVER, 2.1 m. (gardens open weekdays; adm. 57). This old 
place (see illustration), in some ways the most interesting along the James River, 
was built by William Byrd about 1735 on land inherited from his father, who 
was a member of the Virginia Council and a businessman who had built up a 
fortune in the Colony. This fortune had enabled the elder William Byrd to send 
his children to England for their educations; young William Byrd associated 
there with the gentry, studied law, traveled, and learned to enjoy the life of a 
modern young man of his day. At the age of 28 years he was still in London 
when his father died in December 1704; he returned immediately to America 
and soon married and attempted to take a place in Colonial affairs. He came into 
disagreement with Governor Spotswood, however, and finally left for England, 
where he stayed for five years, strengthening his connections with those who 
played an important part in Colony affairs. During this period his first wife died, 
and when he finally returned to the Colony in 1726 he brought with him a wife 
born in England. A few years later he built Westover. 

The original house was burned twice in the next few years but was rebuilt each 
time along the original lines; that built in 1750 stands today, and is considered one 
of the most beautiful examples of Georgian architecture in America. It is a three- 
story brick structure, the third story created by the tall hipped roof with four 
slender dormers on each front. Two slender chimneys rise higher than the ridge 
at each end. Low separate outbuildings stood at the sides; the one to the E., de- 
stroyed during the Civil War, has been replaced by one of ungainly proportions 
with a gambrel roof, in contrast with the sweeping lines of the outbuilding to 
the W. In recent years these outbuildings have been connected with the main 
structure by pavilions. Of particular interest are the high stoop with its broad 
flight of steps, the delicate ornamentation of the entrance, whose broken-scrolled 
pediment is considered one of the finest hi America, and the arched heading of 
the windows. 

The interior of the house has been much changed; in it is furniture that was 
brought from Czechoslovakia by the present owner, Richard Crane, who was 
attracted to the place in part by the beautiful view of the river. The library of 
William Byrd, the finest in the country in his day, was sold long ago. 

Attention of visitors is drawn first to the beautiful wrought-iron gates in the 
iron fence that encloses a small area in front of the N. entrance; these simple 
barred gates are topped by gateheads of elaborate pattern enclosing the cypher 
of the builder. On either side are heavy posts bearing clumsy stone eagles that 
look as though they were trying to fly with clipped wings. Finials on the posts, 
breaking the fence at intervals, are of different patterns. These gates are dupli- 
cated at each end of the shallow ellipse, formed by tall tulip poplars, between the 
house and the river. West of the house lie beautiful old formal gardens, fragrant 
with the odor of boxwood. Where the paths meet in the center is the GRAVE 
OF WILLIAM BYRD, builder of the house, marked by an ornate monument with a 
florid epitaph. The guide explains that Byrd himself wrote this epitaph, but 
authorities disagree with this statement. 

Tunnels running underground to the river bank are a reminder that the house 
was built at a time when there was always danger of Indian attack and a need 
for secret exits. 



Folkston to Okefenokee Swamp, 10 m. 

An unnumbered dirt road branches W. from US 1 (see Section 27) 
at Folkston, Ga., m.; on this is GAMP CORNELIA, 10 m., situ- 
ated on Trail Ridge, which forms one of the boundaries of the 
OKEFENOKEE SWAMP (120 alt.). At Camp Cornelia is an old 
camp belonging to the Hebard Lumber Co. From this point a trip 
can be taken up SUWANEE CANAL, an old drainage canal, into the 
interior of the swamp. 

Permission to enter the swamp is required, and can be obtained from Camp 
Cornelia at Folkston or the refuge headquarters at Waycross. 

Guides necessary; can be hired in Folkston at hotel; service $5 a day, boats 
extra, depending on size. 

Transportation furnished by guides; small motorboats, bateaux, or duck punts. 

Clothing, hunting or fishing togs, or any old clothes. 

Equipment for overnight trip obtained from guides at reasonable cost. 

Accommodations crude. 

Best Season, late fall, winter, or early spring, because flies, mosquitoes, and 
other insects are numerous in warm weather. 

(Since the Okefenokee is bisected by dense cypress growths, passage from one 
side to the other is difficult. An entrance from the W. up the Suwanee River to 
Billy's Island can be made from Fargo.) 

For the biologist and naturalist a trip into the Okefenokee Swamp 
(see illustration) is one of the most interesting that can be taken in 
Georgia, not only because of the jungle-like beauty of the semitropical 
growth but because of the many species of plant and animal life 
rarely found anywhere else. The total area of the swamp is 475,450 
acres, of which 296,000 acres are now owned by the U.S. Bureau of 
Biological Survey. To date 288,000 acres have been developed as a 
refuge for wild animal and bird life. 

The Okefenokee Swamp is larger than the State of Rhode Island. 
Extending from a few miles S. of Waycross to an ill-defined termina- 
tion in Florida several miles S. of the Georgia Line, it is roughly 
45 miles long and 35 miles wide. Its name (Ind., Owaquaphenoga, 
trembling earth) was given when it was the hunting grounds of the 
Lower Creeks and Seminoles. 

In this weird intricate area, large bodies of water stretch through 


3 o6 U. S. ONE 

labyrinths of giant moss-covered cypress trees. White and golden 
water-lilies, locally called "bonnets," purple water hyacinths, and 
other flowering plants form bright varicolored splashes against a 
silver-gray gently-swaying screen of Spanish moss. The great expanse 
of swamp, with cypress and tupelo trees growing out of the water, 
is broken by many acres of submerged trembling earth called 
"prairies," which are covered with a heavy growth of yellow-eyed 
marsh grass. The monotony of the scene is broken by "houses," the 
name given to clumps of bushes and trees growing on more solid 
areas. The prairies are threaded by a maze of water runways, which 
lead from lily-covered cypress bogs to alligator holes. The swamp is 
further broken by several lakes and islands and is drained by two 

A motorboat can be taken up the slow-moving water of the old 
drainage canal, which is bordered by tall tupelo, Dahoon holly, and 
cypress trees draped with Spanish moss. The holly has an abundance 
of bright red berries, but the leaf is rounded like that of the live-oak 
and lacks the usual spines. The water of the canal is clear but dark 
brown, being colored by decaying vegetable matter. At the end of 
the canal is CHASE PRAIRIE, navigable only by the duck punts, 
small and narrow shells that are pushed with long poles by guides 
who stand near the sterns. The poles, usually about 15 ft. long, have 
three prongs with which the submerged masses of vegetation are 
grasped. The punts are shallow, drawing only four inches of water, 
for there are many grassy stretches to be skimmed; they are narrow, 
so that they can thread their way between the enlarged tupelo roots 
and the cypress knees, which are enlarged roots projecting above the 

Other prairies are Grand, New Territory, Durdkin, and Carter's. 
GRAND PRAIRIE, which covers 50 square miles and is perhaps 
the largest, contains Gannett Lake, Buzzards' Roost Lake, Coward 
Lake, Seagrove Lake, and many smaller "bays" and water holes. 

Swamp "houses" are built and bogs are extended in a strange 
manner. A phenomenon, known locally as a "blow-up," occurs 
when gases formed beneath the water by decaying vegetable matter 
force masses of vegetation, sometimes 100 ft. square, from the bot- 
tom of the water. The surface of the mass, resembling muck, rises 
several inches above the surrounding water, and in time is covered 
with grass, briars, small bushes, and water weeds. When it has 


accumulated this debris, the entire mass either sinks again, pushed 
down by the growing cypress roots, or floats until caught by a clump 
of trees. During the floating period this earth-raft collects seed from 
cypress and other trees and in time develops into a "house." Thus 
"houses" are formed from above and below, many never becoming 
stable but swaying and trembling under ordinary weight. From the 
soggy turf grows an impenetrable undergrowth of berries, smilax, 
and muscadines. 

Across Chase Prairie is FLOYD'S ISLAND, on which is a camp 
house belonging to Mr. Hebard, who comes in every year for a hunt- 
ing trip. Here as Mr. Hebard's guest, Samuel Scoville of Philadelphia 
has spent much time studying the wildlife of the Okefenokee and 
hunting particularly for the ivory-billed woodpecker, generally 
regarded as an extinct species but reported to have been seen by the 
natives of the swamp. Constant warfare on snakes during the last 30 
years has greatly reduced their number. Although reptiles are un- 
doubtedly present, only an occasional rattler or moccasin is found, 
and many explorers have made several excursions into the swamp 
without seeing a snake. 

Floyd Island was named for Gen. John Floyd, who in 1813 was 
commissioned to drive the Indians from the larger islands within the 
swamp. It is one of more than 35 flat, white sand islands of the swamp 
that differ little from the surrounding mainland. They are carpeted 
with saw palmetto, huckleberries, blueberries, gall-berries, sedges, 
and various small herbs. The sandy interior supports a growth of 
long-leaf and slash pine, but in the more fertile hammocks along the 
margins grow live-oak, water oak, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum 
trees. Some of the islands are surrounded by bogs of muck and moss 
that are dense enough to walk upon. Here are found great numbers 
of the spotted, greenish pitcher plants, growing to the unusual 
height of three feet. These pitcher plants ensnare small flies into their 
tube-like leaves by means of a sweetish liquid. The plant then im- 
prisons them with a projecting flap, and after they are drowned in the 
liquid, it digests them. Flowers that give variety to the waterways are 
the blue-flowered pickerel weeds, "maiden canes," purple water- 
shields, and dainty white floating hearts. 

Other habitable islands are Honey, Bugaboo, Billy's, and Cow 
House. To these islands a few hardy settlers ventured and made a 
hard living by marketing lumber and pine resin and by raising 

3 o8 U. S. ONE 

cattle. BILLY'S ISLAND, named for Billy Bowlegs, a Seminole 
chief, is the largest of these, four miles long and one mile wide. For 
two generations it was the home of the Jackson Lees, for many years 
the only white family to dwell in the interior of the area. Theirs was 
the frontier life of the early colonists, totally without neighbors or 
ordinary necessities; although 15 children were born, no doctor ever 
visited the island. When timber crews first came into the swamp the 
Lees tried life outside, but returned within a year, homesick for the 
peaceful existence on Billy's Island. For a short time this island was 
the site of a thriving lumber camp, with a store, school, and motion 
picture house, but it is now almost deserted. COW HOUSE ISLAND 
was named during the Civil War; when Federal troops were ap- 
proaching the swamp in search of supplies, the farmers drove their 
cattle to the island to hide them from the enemy. 

No large streams flow into the Okefenokee, but two rivers have 
their headwaters in the interior. The St. Mary's winds eastward to 
the Atlantic Ocean, and the Suwanee, made famous in song by* 
Stephen C. Foster, drifts SW. to empty into the Gulf of Mexico. As 
the Suwanee River courses through the swamp, patches of dense 
shade and brilliant sunshine dapple the dark cypress-stained water. 
Since the swamp is well drained, the water is not stagnant but 
perceptibly in motion, the current being strongest in the runways 
that cut through the "prairies." 

An eerie stillness pervades the swamp, broken occasionally by the 
splashing of waterfowl, the songs of thousands of birds that make it 
their sanctuary, the bellowing of alligators, the hooting and screech- 
ing of owls, the calls of animals, or a faint, rumbling sound. No one 
knows the cause of this rumbling, called by natives the "booming of 
the swamp." 

Waterfowl and birds of many species abound here. Ducks of many 
varieties, black, mallard, buck, and canvasback, migrate here in 
winter. The wood duck, Wilson's snipe, green-winged teal, killdee, 
and hooded merganser are found in lesser numbers. In flight, the rare 
and picturesque white sandhill or whooping crane makes a perfect 
cross against the sky. Many native and migratory birds, robins, 
cardinals, woodpeckers, ruby-crowned kinglets, red-winged black- 
birds, and brown-headed nuthatches, give color and music. Other 
varieties are the barred owl, catbird, red-tailed hawk, marsh hawk, 
Ward's heron, kingfisher, and the pied-bill grebe. 


Alligators, some of them eight feet in length, are found in the 
deeper pools of the prairies and in the many lakes. A familiar sound 
through the swampland is the deep-throated bellowing of these 
saurians, which are generally harmless unless provoked into an 
attack. Since they help keep the mud from accumulating on the lake 
bottoms and build wallows that are inhabited by fish, they are un- 
molested except by the trappers who market their hides in Waycross. 

Native trappers hunt deer, panthers, bear, and wildcats, and trap 
otters, raccoons, and round-tailed muskrats for their pelts, which 
they market in Waycross. These trappers serve as guides for hunters 
who find on the islands a big-game sport in the chase of the Florida 
bear, the largest mammal of the swamp. The hunts are often held at 
night as communal affairs, the men of the surrounding farms bring- 
ing their hounds and joining in the pursuit. Strange little Le Conte 
frogs and pocket gophers are among the animal life of the swamp. 

In the water are found more than 30 species of fish, among which 
are warmouths, stump-knockers, sand-flirters, trout, mudfish, cat- 
fish, jackfish, and large-mouthed bass. The rare rainwater fish 
(Leptolucania ommato) is among the many varieties of tiny subtropical 

There is a legend that some Indian hunters, lost in the swamp, 
saw an island and pressed toward it. At last, fainting from exhaustion 
and hunger, they sank to the ground on it. A group of beautiful 
women suddenly appeared and told them to go no farther. Though 
warning the enraptured hunters of fierce husbands who killed 
intruders, the women were compassionate and placed delicious 
fruits, marsh eggs, and corn pones before the men. Being shown a 
path by which they could return safely to the settlement, the hunters 
went unwillingly, resolving to return with a large force and win 
these mysterious beauties for their wives. But no sooner did they set 
foot on the path than the women vanished. Every later effort to find 
these "daughters of the sun" failed. The island, hidden in the center 
of the swamp, was never seen again. 

Okefenokee remains a wilderness in spite of repeated efforts to 
reclaim it. Fifty years ago a large corporation with steam shovels and 
dredges dug miles of canals, the plan being to drain the swamp into 
the St. Mary's River and, after taking the rich timber, to turn the great 
prairies into farm lands. After more than a million dollars had been 
spent, the corporation became insolvent and abandoned the project. 

3 io U. S. ONE 

The next effort was made by the Hebard Lumber Co., which forced 
into the swamp a railroad built bridge-fashion on piling with branch 
lines leading to the principal islands and "bays." For several years 
the work continued, but in time the mill was shut down because of 
the great expense of cutting and shipping the timber. The railroad is 
now a skeleton of rotting cross ties and piling. 

Geologists say that the Okefenokee was once a salt-water sound 
that became shut off from the ocean by a barrier reef now called 
Trail Ridge, and that in its earlier stages it probably resembled the 
much younger Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia and 
the Everglades of Florida. Swallowing up the concerted efforts of 
men to conquer it, it stands virtually as it was in Colonial days, 
when the Seminoles, driven by the white men, retreated into the 
heart of the great swamp and stole like shadows over the trembling 


January, National Motorcycle Race, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

January, Artists and Writers Golf Tournament, Palm Beach, Florida. 

January, Open Golf Championship, Miami, Florida. 

January, Country Club Amateur Championship, Miami, Florida. 

January, All States Card Club Luncheon, Miami, Florida. 

January, Men's Amateur Golf Championship, Coral Gables, Florida. 

January, State Trap Shooting, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

January, Beaux Arts Black and White Costume Ball, Miami, Florida. 

January, Left Handers' Golf Championship, Coral Gables, Florida. 

January, Women's Title Holders Golf Championship, Augusta, Georgia. 

January, Automobile Exhibition, Portland, Maine. 

January, St. Cecilia Ball, Charleston, South Carolina. 

January 1, Saddle Horse Association Indoor Show, Philadelphia, Penn- 

January 1, Orange Bowl Football Game, Miami, Florida. 

January 1, Mummers Parade, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

January, first Monday, Bachelor's Cotillon (second), Baltimore, Maryland. 

January, second week, Rhode Island Department of the American Legion 
Ice Carnival, Providence, Rhode Island. 

January, second week, Providence Festival Chorus Mid-Winter Concert, 
Providence, Rhode Island. 

January, last week, Mercer County Agricultural Show, Second Regiment 
Armory, Trenton, New Jersey. 

January-April, Dog Races, West Palm Beach, Florida. 

January-May, Garden Season, South Carolina. 

February, Four Ball Golf Tournament, Coral Gables, Florida. 

February, Dixie Amateur Golf Championship, Miami, Florida. 

February, Miami-Biltmore Mixed Foresome Medal Play Tournament, 
Coral Gables, Florida. 

February, Glen Curtis Golf Tournament, Miami Springs, Florida. 

February, Pirates of Penzance Operetta, "Grito de Baire" (Cuban Patriotic 
Day), Key West, Florida. 

February, Art and Artists' Exhibit, Miami, Florida. 

February, Rose Ball, Lake Worth Casino, Lake Worth, Florida. 

February, International Boat Races, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

February, Romany Chorus Outdoor Concert, Palm Beach, Florida. 

February, National Moth Boat Races, Melbourne, Florida. 

February, All State Day, Lake Worth, Florida. 

February, Rotary Senior Golf Tournament, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

February, Frostbite Dingy Races, Miami, Florida. 

3 i2 U. S. ONE 

February, National Championship Stock Car Races, Daytona Beach, 

February, Winter Carnival, Camden, Maine. 

February, Eastern Dog Club Show, Mechanics Building, Boston, Massa- 

February, Chinese New Year Celebration, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

February, Bok Award Presentation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

February, Tropical Fiesta, Hollywood, Florida. 

February 13-14, Outboard Motor Regatta, New Smyrna, Florida. 

February 15, "A Day in Spain," St. Augustine, Florida. 

February 16, Lithuanian Day Festivities, St. Alphonsus Church, Baltimore, 

February 22, Helen Doherty Milk Fund Charity Ball, Coral Gables, Florida. 

February 22, "Old Timers" Annual Picnic, Ft. Pierce, Florida. 

February 22, Washington's Birthday Yacht Club Regatta, Palm Beach, 

February 22, International Music Festival, Symphony Hall, Boston, Massa- 

February 23-29, "La Semana Alegre" (Week of Joy), Key West, Florida. 

February, first Saturday, Boston Athletic Association Games, Boston Gar- 
den, Boston, Massachusetts. 

February, first week, Dog Show, Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Mary- 

February, first week, New England Sportsmen's and Boat Show, Mechanics 
Building, Boston, Massachusetts. 

February, first week, Winter Sports Carnival, Providence, Rhode Island. 

February, third week, National Horse Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

February-May, Thursdays at 8 p.m., Bond Astronomical Club Meetings, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

March, Cineraria Show, East Rock Park, New Haven, Connecticut. 

March, Mid- Winter Sailing Regatta, Miami, Florida. 

March, Cotton Ball, Lake Worth Casino, Lake Worth, Florida. 

March, Miami-St. Petersburg Yacht Race, Miami, Florida. 

March, International Four Ball Championship Tournament, Miami, Flor- 

March, South Atlantic States Tennis Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 

March, National Golf Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 

March, Sand Hill Garden Club Tour, Augusta, Georgia. 

March, Women's Invitation Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 

March, Bowdoin College Interscholastic Track Meet, Brunswick, Maine. 

March, High School Championship Basketball Tournament, Bangor and 
Lewiston (alternately), Maine. 


March, Massachusetts Horticultural Society Spring Flower Show, Mechan- 
ics Building, Boston, Massachusetts. 

March, Charity Horse Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

March, Motorboats and Sportsmen's Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

March, Amateur Field Trials, Gamp Lee, Petersburg, Virginia. 

March 17, Evacuation Day Ceremonies and Parade, South Boston, Massa- 

March 25, Maryland Day. 

March 30, Pioneer Visitors and State Club Night, Miami, Florida. 

March, first or second week, Southern Conference Basketball Tournament, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

March, second week, Exhibition of Works by the Blind, Philadelphia, Penn- 

March, last week, Flower Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

March, River Revelry Celebration, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 

March-April, Seminole Sun Dance, Palm Beach, Florida. 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Service, Coast Guard Academy Bowl, New 
London, Connecticut. 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Service, East Rock Park, New Haven, 

March or April, Easter Monday Egg Hunt, East Rock Park, New Haven, 

March or April, Easter Flower Show, East Rock Park, New Haven, Connec- 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Services, Ribaut Monument, Jacksonville, 

March or April, Metropolitan Opera Company, Lyric Theatre, Baltimore, 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Service, Municipal Stadium, Baltimore, 

March or April, Chickering Anniversary Concert, Jordan Hall, Boston, 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Service, Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

March or April, Easter Sunrise Services, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

April, International Moth Class Regatta, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

April, Miami Beach Pro Tennis Championship, Miami, Florida. 

April, Seminole Sun Dance, Palm Beach, Florida. 

April, Boys' Club Marathon Race, Portland, Maine. 

April, Maine Open Handicap Golf Tournament, Brunswick, Maine. 

April, Maryland Daffodil Society Daffodil Show, Community Center, 
Guilford, Maryland. 

April, Horse Races, Bowie, Maryland. 

3 i4 U. S. ONE 

April, Hutchinson Horse Show, Kentucky Riding Academy, Harrison, New 

April, Exhibition of School Children's Art Work, Swarthmore, Pennsyl- 

April, Federation of Flower Clubs Flower Show, Providence, Rhode Island. 

April, Deep Run Hunt Race Meet, Curies Neck, Richmond, Virginia. 

April, Kennel Club Show, Richmond, Virginia. 

April, Fairfax Hunt Horse Show, Alexandria, Virginia. 

April 14, Pan-American Day, Miami, Florida. 

April 19, Patriot's Day Marathon and Ceremonies, Boston, Massachusetts. 

April, first Saturday, Junior Point-to-Point, Worthington Valley Course, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

April, first week, Ice Carnival, Carlin's Park, Baltimore, Maryland. 

April, first week, Women's Mid-South Championship Golf Tournament, 
Southern Pines, North Carolina. 

April, first week, City Baseball Championship, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

April, second Saturday, My Lady's Manor Point-to-Point, Monkton, 

April, second week, National Homes Show Week, Fifth Regiment Armory, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

April, third Saturday, Grand National Point-to-Point, Hereford, Maryland. 

April, last Saturday, Maryland Hunt Cup Point-to-Point, Worthington 
Valley Course, Baltimore, Maryland. 

April, last week, Boston Symphony Orchestra Pension Fund Concert, Sym- 
phony Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

April, last week, Pennsylvania Relays Carnival, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

April or May, Garden Week, Virginia. 

April-May, Tours of Maryland Gardens and Homes, Federated Garden 
Clubs of Maryland. 

April-May, daily except Sundays, Pimlico Race Track Spring Meeting, Old 
Pimlico Road, Baltimore, Maryland. 

April-May, Azalea Festival, Charleston, South Carolina. 

April-September, Major Leagues Baseball, Fenway Park or National 
League Field, Boston, Massachusetts. 

May, State Intercollegiate Track Meet, Maine. 

May, Bird Dog Field Trial, Bangor, Maine. 

May, Skeet Shooting, New Haven Gun Club, New Haven, Connecticut. 

May, Iris Shows, East Rock Park, New Haven, Connecticut. 

May, University of Maryland Pony Show, College Park, Maryland. 

May, Novelty Park Club Marathon, Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 

May, Interscholastic Track Meet, Providence, Rhode Island. 

May, Horse Races, Narragansett Park, Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 

May, All States Card Club May Breakfast, Miami, Florida. 


May, Iris Field Day, New Jersey College of Agriculture, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 

May, Long Island Sound Yacht Racing Association Opening Regatta, Rye, 
New York. 

May, Hobby League Show and Exhibition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

May, Auto Races, Langhorne, Pennsylvania. 

May, Harrison Horse Show, Kentucky Riding Academy, Harrison, New 

May, Lawridge Horse Show, Port Chester, New York. 

May, Preakness Day, Pimlico Race Track, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, Pimlico Race Track Special Stake Races, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, Azalea Show, Towson Nurseries, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, Catholic Sodality Union Rally, Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, 

May, Dixie Handicap, Pimlico Race Track, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, Baltimore Spring Handicap, Pimlico Race Track, Baltimore, Mary- 

May, Fete of Lights, Maryland Institute Art Ball, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, McDonogh School Horse Show, Reisterstown Road, Baltimore, Mary- 

May, Girl Scouts' Garden Tour, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, Mary Washington (mother of George Washington) Mother's Day 
Celebration, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

May, Spring Races, Media, Pennsylvania. 

May, May Day Celebration, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsyl- 

May, Flower Show, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

May 5, Pioneer Day Dinner, Miami, Florida. 

May 11, Powder House Day Pageant (based on Revolutionary War epi- 
sode), New Haven, Connecticut. 

May 16, Moore Park Play Day, Miami, Florida. 

May 30, Memorial Day Exercises, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. 

May, first Sunday, Boston Music School Settlement Concert, Jordan Hall, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

May, first week, Ringling Brothers-Barnum and Bailey Circus, Boston Gar- 
den, Boston, Massachusetts. 

May, first week, Noncompetitive Boston Music Tournament, Steinert Hall, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

May, first week, Handicraft Club Exhibit, Providence, Rhode Island. 

May, first week, Horse Show, Essex Troop Armory, Newark, New Jersey. 

May, first week, Longwood Gardens Pageant, Kennett Square, Pennsyl- 

3 i6 U. S. ONE 

May, first week, National Music Week Oratorio by Handel Choir, Peabody 
Conservatory of Music, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, first week, Tulip Show, Community Center, Guilford, Maryland. 

May, first week, Musical Festival, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. 

May, second week, Federation of Music Clubs Music Week Festival, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. 

May, second week, Garden Club Flower Show, Third Presbyterian Church, 
Newark, New Jersey. 

May, second week, Philadelphia on Parade, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

May, second week, Dewey Day Celebration, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, 

May, second Wednesday, Women's Civic League Flower Mart, Washington 
Monument, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May, second week, Folklore Festival, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

May, third week, Germantown May Market, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

May, third week, Flower Mart, Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphia, Penn- 

May, last week, Students' Exhibition Concerts, Peabody Conservatory of 
Music, Baltimore, Maryland. 

May 30, Launching of Flower "Ship" on the Delaware in Memory of De- 
ceased Naval Veterans, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

May or June, City Golf Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 

May-June, nightly at 8 p.m., "Pops" Concerts by members of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Symphony Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

May-June, Saturdays, College Crew Races, Charles River, Massachusetts. 

May-September, Water Sports and Fishing, South Carolina. 

June, Boston National Home Show, Mechanics Building, Boston, Massachu- 

June, Skeet Shooting, Great Eastern States and National Telegraphic 
Championship, Remington Gun Club, Inc., Lordship, Connecticut. 

June, Greenwich Country Club Golf Championship, Greenwich, Connecti- 

June, Pony Show, Harford County Fair Grounds, Bel Air, Maryland. 

June, Westchester County Horse Show, Port Chester, New York. 

June, Outdoor Archery Tournament, California Road, Port Chester, New 

June, Providence Festival Chorus Concert, Providence, Rhode Island. 

June, Westchester County Horse Shows, Port Chester, New York, and 
Westchester Country Club, Rye, New York. 

June, American Yacht Club Invitation Overnight Cruise to New London, 
Rye, New York. 

June, Residents' Amateur Golf Championship, Maine. 

June, Maryland Yacht Club Opening, Baltimore, Maryland. 


June, Peony and Rose Show, Horticultural Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

June, Longfellow Garden Club Display, Portland, Maine. 

June, Arundel Garden Club Exhibition, Portland, Maine. 

June 9, Memorial Day, Petersburg, Virginia. 

June 1 3, Festival of St. Anthony of Padua, Baltimore, Maryland. 

June 14, Flag Day Celebration, Betsy Ross House, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

June 17, Bunker Hill Day Celebration, Boston, Massachusetts. 

June, first week,- Greenwich Kennel Club Dog Show, Greenwich, Connecti- 

June, first week, Clothes Line Art Exhibition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

June, first week, Wissahickon Day, Riders and Drivers Meet, Philadelphia, 

June, first week, Field Mass for Police and Firemen, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

June, second week, Historical Pageant and Fete, Old Swede's Church, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

June, third week, State Women's Amateur Golf Title Play, Providence, 
Rhode Island. 

June, third week, American Legion and Auxiliary Pageant, Longwood Gar- 
dens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. 

June, third week, Yale University Commencement, New Haven, Connecti- 

June, last week, Opening of Robin Hood Dell Symphonic Season, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

June, last week, Freshman, Combination, and Junior Varsity Crew Races, 
New London, Connecticut. 

June, last week, Yale-Harvard Baseball Game, Mercer Field, New London, 

June-August, Rose Show, East Rock Park, New Haven, Connecticut. 

June-August, Music Hill Concerts, Greenwich, Connecticut. 

July, Automobile Races, Folly Beach, South Carolina. 

July, Yacht Regatta, Boothbay Harbor, Maine. 

July, Maryland Yacht Club Regatta, Baltimore, Maryland. 

July, Municipal Music Festival, Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, Maryland. 

July, Miller Memorial Race, Gibson Island Club, Baltimore, Maryland. 

July, Horse Races, Old Orchard Beach, Maine. 

July, Yacht Regatta, Kennebunkport, Maine. 

July, Yacht Regatta, Harpswell, Maine. 

July, Casco Bay Regatta, Chebeague Island, Maine. 

July, State Champion Trap Shoot, Maine. 

July, Horse Show, Westchester-Biltmore Country Club, Purchase, New York. 

July, Race Week, Larchmont Yacht Club, Larchmont, New York. 

3 i8 U. S. ONE 

July, Display of Roses, Roger Williams Park, Providence, Rhode Island. 

July, Fairfield County Hunt Horse Show, Westport, Connecticut. 

July 3-4, Volusia County Frolics, Daytona Beach, Florida. 

July 4, People's Regatta, Schuylkill River, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

July 4, Independence Day Celebration, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

July 4, Cla-na-Gael Athletic Games, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

July 4, Scottish Games Association National Competition, Greenwich, 

July 5, Dog Show, Progressive Dog Club, Larchmont, New York. 

July, fourth week, Joint Farmers' Convention and 4-H Clubs Meeting, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

July (odd years), Portland-Halifax Yacht Race, Maine. 

July-August, Horse Races, Bel Air, Maryland. 

August, Children's Gardens Exhibition, Horticultural Hall, Boston, Massa- 

August, Horse Show Association of Maryland Show, Baltimore, Maryland. 

August, State Tennis Championship, Portland, Bar Harbor and Squirrel 
Island (alternately), Maine. 

August, Portland-to-Monhegan-Island Yacht Race, Maine. 

August, Flower Exhibition, Machias, Maine. 

August, Open House Day, Wiscasset, Maine. 

August, Summer Visitors' Day, Maine. 

August, Portland-to-Peaks-Island Swim Contest, Maine. 

August, Three-Quarter Century Club, Maine. 

August, American Yacht Club Invitation Cruise Day, Rye, New York. 

August, Championship Tennis Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 

August, All States Card Club Birthday Party, Miami, Florida. 

August, State Championship Skeet Shoot, Maine. 

August, Open Amateur Golf Championship, Maine. 

August, Art Exhibition, Old Lyme, Connecticut. 

August, Hamburg Fair, Lyme, Connecticut. 

August, Massachusetts Horticultural Society Midsummer Exhibition, Horti- 
cultural Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

August 10, Biennial Celebration of the Battle of Stonington (next in 1939), 
Stonington, Connecticut. 

August, third week, Grange Fair, Old Lyme, Connecticut. 

August, third week, New London County 4-H Fair, North Stonington, 

August, fourth week, Watch Hill Beach Club Water Carnival, Watch Hill, 
Rhode Island. 

August, last week, Tennis Tournament, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. 

September, Debutantes Ball, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

September, National Tobacco Festival and Pageant, South Boston, Virginia. 


September, Cedar Point Race, Gibson Island Yacht Club, Baltimore, Mary- 

September, Horse Show, Greenwich, Connecticut. 

September, Guilford Fair, Guilford, Connecticut. 

September, Grange Horse Fair, Old Saybrook, Connecticut. 

September, Grange Fair, North Stonington, Connecticut. 

September, Topsfield Fair, Treadwell Farm, Topsfield, Massachusetts. 

September, Horse Races, Suffolk Downs, East Boston, Massachusetts. 

September, Bird Dog Field Trials, Damariscotta, Maine. 

September 6, Lafayette Day Celebration, Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 

September 12, Defender's Day, Baltimore, Maryland. 

September 13, Westchester Kennel Club Dog Show, Westchester-Biltmore 
Country Club, Purchase, New York. 

September, daily except Sundays, Horse Races and Fair, Timonium, Mary- 

September, first Monday, Middle States Regatta, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

September, second week, Massachusetts Horticultural Society Late Summer 
Exhibition, Horticultural Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

September, fourth week, Endicott Cup Golf Tournament, Providence, Rhode 

September, fourth week, Rhode Island Women's Golf League Tournament, 
Providence, Rhode Island. 

September, last week, State Fair, Trenton, New Jersey. 

September or October, State Fair, Richmond, Virginia. 

October, Harford County Fair, Bel Air, Maryland. 

October, Chrysanthemum Field Day, New Jersey College of Agriculture, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

October, Food Fair and Better Homes Exposition, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

October, Opening of Philadelphia Forum Season, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

October, Massachusetts Horticultural Society Fruit and Vegetable Exhibi- 
tion, Horticultural Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

October, State Dog Show, Portland, Maine. 

October, Horse Races, Laurel, Maryland. 

October, Virginia Fox Hunters' Association Annual Trials, Petersburg, 

October 10, "Grito de Yara" (Cuban Cry for Freedom), Key West, Florida. 

October 11, Pulaski Memorial Day, Baltimore, Maryland. 

October 12, Columbus Day, Baltimore, Maryland. 

3 2o U. S. ONE 

October 12, Columbus Day International Marathon, Port Chester, New 

October 12, Columbus Day Celebration, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

October 27, Navy Day Celebration, U. S. Submarine Base, Groton, Con- 

October 27, Navy Day, Open House at Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

October, last Sunday, Holy Name Society Rally, Fifth Regiment Armory, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

October, first week, Dahlia Show, Vincent Dahlia Farm, Baltimore, Mary- 

October, first week, Market Day and Country Fair, Lansdowne, Pennsyl- 

October, first week, Electric and Radio Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

October, first week, Dog Parade ("Mutt Show"), Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

October, first week, Rhode Island Golf Association Invitation Tourney, 
Providence, Rhode Island. 

October, second week, Philadelphia Orchestra Symphonic Season Opening, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

October, second week, Fox Hunt, Rose Tree Fox Hunting Club, Media, 

October, third week, State Fair, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

October-November, Thursdays at 8 p.m., Bond Astronomical Club Meet- 
ings, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

October-November, Professional Football Games, Fenway Park, Boston, 

October-May, Sundays at 3 p.m., Old South Forum, Old South Meeting 
House, Boston, Massachusetts. 

October-May, Sundays at 8 p.m., Ford Hall Forum, Boston, Massachusetts. 

October-May, Sundays at 3:30 p.m. and 8 p.m., Thursdays at 8 p.m., 
Public Library Lectures and Concerts, Boston, Massachusetts. 

October-May, Sundays at 10:30 a.m., Community Church of Boston, Sym- 
phony Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. 

October-May, Fridays at 2:15 p.m. and Saturdays at 8:15 p.m. (except 
when on tour), Boston Symphony Orchestra, Symphony Hall, Boston, 

November, Junior Air Meet, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 

November, Chrysanthemum Show, East Rock Park, New Haven, Connec- 

November, Equestrian Sports Field Day, Augusta, Georgia. 
November, Slash Pine Festival, Waycross, Georgia. 
November, Open Golf Tournament, Augusta, Georgia. 


November, Poultry Show, Portland, Maine. 

November, Pomological Seed Exhibit, Maine. 

November, Food Exhibition, Portland, Maine. 

November, Salon of Allied Arts Exhibition, Boston, Massachusetts. 

November, World's Championship Rodeo, Boston Garden, Boston, Massa- 

November, Automobile Show, Mechanics Building, Boston, Massachusetts. 

November, Automobile Show, Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Mary- 

November, Horse Races, Bowie, Maryland. 

November, Kennels Club Dog Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

November, Thanksgiving Day, Santa Glaus and Santa's Son Parade, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. 

November, Thanksgiving Day Toyland Parade, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

November, daily except Sundays, Pimlico Race Track Fall Meeting, Balti- 
more Maryland. 

November, first week, Chrysanthemum Show, Providence, Rhode Island. 

November, first or second week, Amateur Field Trials, Camp Lee, Peters- 
burg, Virginia. 

November, second week, Automobile Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

November, third week, Food Show and Better Homes Exposition, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. 

November, last week, Food Show, Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, 

November, last week, Army-Navy Football Game, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

December, All-American Air Meet, Miami, Florida. 

December, State Grange Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts. 

December, Handell and Haydn Society's "The Messiah," Symphony Hall, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

December, Battle of Trenton Celebration, Trenton, New Jersey. 

December, "The Nativity," Christmas Pageant, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. 

December 24, Christmas Eve Celebration, Beacon Hill, Boston, Massa- 

December 24, Christmas Eve Carol Singing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

December 24, Christmas Ball, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

December 31, Sounding of Liberty Bell at Midnight, Philadelphia, Penn- 

December, first Monday, Bachelor's Cotillon, Baltimore, Maryland. 

December or January, National Winter Sports Exposition, Boston Garden, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

December-March, Tuesdays at 8:15 p.m., National Hockey League, Boston 
Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. 

322 U. S. ONE 

December-March, Horse Races, Hialeah Race Track, Miami, Florida. 
December-April, Dog Races, Jacksonville, Florida. 
December-April, Dog Races, Miami and Hollywood, Florida. 
December-May, Jai Alai, Miami, Florida. 

December-March, Dog Racing, Miami, Jacksonville, and West Palm Beach, 




Aberdeen, N. C 227 

Abnaki Indians 26, 36 

Accotink, Va 189 

Adams, G. J 10 

Agricultural Demonstration 

Project 233 

Agricultural Experiment Station 180 

Agricultural Research Center. . 176 

Aiken, S. G 237 


Newark 129 

Washington 187 

Airway Radio, Elizabeth 130 

Ais Indians 268 

Alabama, The 79 

Alexandria, Va 187 

Allendale, Fla 261 

Allen Place 218 

Allis House 100 

Allspattah Gardens 283 

Alma, Ga 248 

Alna Meeting House 30 

Ammemdale Normal Institute . 175 

Anacape Mission, Ruins of. ... 258 

Anacostia River 181 

Anchor and Hope Farm 156 

Andrew Jackson, The 91 

Annie, The 92 

Antietam Soldier 87 

Anvil Tavern 146 

Apex, N. C 222 

Applecrest Farm 53 

Appomattox Manor 204 

Appomattox River 204 

Apponaug, R. 1 67 

Aquia Church 193 

Aquia Creek 192, 193 

Arch Creek Natural Bridge 281 

Arlington 185 

Arlington Memorial Bridge 185 


Arlington National Cemetery. . . 185 

Arnold Arboretum 63 

Arnold House 69 

Arnold Tavern, Site of 70 

Artesia, Fla 267 

Asbury, Francis 167, 197, 208 

Ashland 213 

Ashland, Va 199 

Ashley Gang 269 

Augusta, Ga 241 

Avocado Grove 284 

Avondale, Pa 148 

Avongrove Consolidated School 148 

Babcock Burial Ground 88 

Babcock House 87 

Bacon, Nathaniel 301 

Bahama Houses 294 

Bailey Island 37 

Baker's Haulover 281 

BaldpateHill 58 

Baltimore, Md 168 

Bamboo Key 290 

Bangor, Me 16 

Baptist Church, East Greenwich 68 

Baptist Church, Easty Lyme ... 94 

Barbour's Heights 77 

Barney's Point 10 

Batesburg, S. C 237 

Bath, Ga 242 

Bath, Me 32 

Bath, S. C 238 


Bladensburg 182 

Drewry's Bluff 203 

Great Swamp Fight 110 

Spotsylvania 196 

Yellow Tavern 201 

Baxley, Ga 247 

Bayard, Fla 256 



U. S. ONE 


Bayonne Bridge 129 

Beal, Aunt Peggy 11 

Beal, Barney 10 

Beals 10 

Beals Island 10 

Bear Lake 285 

Bearpond, N. C 217 

Beasley Place 242 

Beaver Tail Light 78 

Beck House 215 

Beckwith House 94 

Bedford High School 110 

Bel Air 190 

Bel Air Academy 163 

Bel Air, Md 162 

Belfast, Me 19 

Belgrade, The 12 

Bellamy, Samuel 8 

Belmont 171 

Belt Boulevard 202 

Berkeley 303 

Berkeley, Md 159 

Berwyn, Md 178 

Best Friend 238 

Bethel Presbyterian Church 162 

Bethesda Church 227 

Bethune, S. C 233 

Biddeford, Me 40 

Big House 175 

Big Lynches River 233 

Big Pee Dee River 231 

Big Pine Key 291 

Big Torch Key 292 

Bill Memorial Library 93 

Billy's Island 308 

Bingham, William 14 

Birmingham Manor 176 

Black Caesar 286 

Black Horse Inn 143 

Black Horse Tavern 97 

Black Mansion 14 

Black Point.. 39 


Blackstone Memorial Library. . 103 

Bladensburg, Md 181-3 

Blaisdell House, Belfast 19 

Blaisdell House, Winterport. ... 17 

Boardman House 47 

Boca Chica Key 293 

Boca Raton, Fla 276 

Bok, Mary Louise 20 

Bolton Priory 117 

Bonaventure, Fla 267 

Bonhamtown, N. J 132 

Bonnet Point 79 

Boot Key Harbor 291 

Boston, Mass 62 

Botanical Garden, Fla 293 

Botanical Museum, N. Y 120 

Boulevard Bridge 202 

Bourne Mansion 42 

Boxford, Mass 59 

Boydton Plank Road 206 

Boynton Beach, Fla 275 

Brandywine Baptist Church .... 145 

Branford, Conn 103 

Branford Point 103 

Breakheart Reservation 60 

Brent, Giles 192 

Brent, Margaret 192 

Brewer, Me 15 

Bridgeport, Conn 108 

Bridges, H. Styles 4 

Broadway 122 

Brocklebank House 58 

Brompton 196 

Bronx Park 120 

Brook Hill 202 

Brown House 114 

Brunswick, Me 33 

Bryn Athyn, Pa 138 

Bucknam House 12 

Buffalo Presbyterian Church ... 225 

Bull Garrison House, Site of. ... 74 

Bunnell, Fla 258 




Burlingame Reservation 86 

Burnham Tavern $ 

Burnside 216 

Burr House 109 

Bush Homestead 115 

Bushnell, Cornelius Scranton. . . 100 

Bushnell, David 98 

Byram Point 113 

Byram River 113, 115 

Byrd, Col. William. 304, 199, 207, 209 

Calais, Me 2 

Caldwell, Erskine 240, 243 

Calkins Tavern 94 

Callahan, Fla 254 

Calvert, George, Lord Baltimore 150 
Calvert, Leonard, Lord Balti- 
more 192 

Calvert Mansion 181 

Cambridge, Mass 62 

Camden Bowl 21 

Camden, Me 20 

Camden, S. C 234 

Cameron, N. C 225 

Campbell Monument 105 

Camp Cornelia, Ga 305 

Campobello Island 298, 300 

Canaveral Harbor 267 

Canova Ocean Fishing Pier 268 

Cape Canaveral 267 

CapeNeddick 45 

Capitol, The 187 

Capron Trail 279, 281 

Capture of Breakfast Hill, Site 

of 48 

Cardiff, Md 160 

Card Sound Bridge 285 

Carlton Bridge 31 

Carroll Place 213 

Carson House 73 

Carter, "King" Robert 302 

Cary, N. C 222 


Cascade Trail 170 

CascoBay 35,36,37 

Casco Castle, Ruins of 35 

Case House 75 

Casements, The 259 

Casey House 77 

Castello Family 215 

Cedar Knoll 117 

"Celestial Railroad" Monument 273 

Central State Hospital 206 

Chadd's Ford Junction, Pa 146 

Chadd's Ford, Pa 145 

Chaloner Tavern 300 

Chamberlain, Gen. Joshua 16 

Champlain, Samuel de 3, 22, 31 

Charles River 62 

Charlestown, R. 1 85 

Chase Prairie 306 

Chavis, John 214-5,217 

Cheraw Indians 231 

Cheraw, S. C 231 

Cheraw State Park 232-3 

Cherryfield, Me 12 

Cheverus, Father Jean de 27 

Chillicote House 16 

Choate House 59 

Chopowamsic Creek 192 

Chopowamsic Park 191 

Christ Church, Stratford 107 

Cilley House 24 

Clapp House 28 

Clark's Point 7 

Clark Tavern 106 

Clay House 19 

Cliff Island 37 

Clifton Heights, Pa 140 

Clifton Park 168 

Clinton, Conn 98 

Closet Hall 116 

Clough, Capt. Samuel 29 

Coast Guard Academy 94 


U. S. ONE 


Coast Guard Stations 

Great Wass Island 11 

Indian River 264 

Las Olas Beach 278 

Narragansett 80 

Point Judith 81 

Cobb, Col. David 13, 14 

CobbsHall 205 

Cobscook Falls 299 

Cock and Kettle Inn 54 

Cocoa Beach, Fla 267 

Cocoa, Fla 266 

Cocolobo Cay Club 284 

Coggeshall House 71 

Colcord, Lincoln 18 

Colee Hammock 278 

Colee Monument 278 

Cole, Goody 50 

College Bridge 133 

College Park, Md 179 

Collingwood 187 

Colonial Heights, Va 205 

Colonial Village Ill 

Columbia Falls, Me 11 

Columbia, Me 12 

Columbia, S.C 235 

Comedy 110 

Conanicut Island 77 

Concord Meeting House 144 

Concordville, Pa 144 

Congaree Bridge 236 

Congdon House 67 

Congregational Churches 

Boxford 59 

Ellsworth 14 

Greenwich 113 

Guilford 101 

Hampton 50 

Madison 100 

Massachusetts 64 

Old Lyme 95 

OldSaybrook 97 


Orange 105 

Saco 40 

Scarboro 38 

Wells 44 

Weston Ill 

Westport 110 

Connecticut College 94 

Connecticut River 96 

Conowingo Dam 156 

Conowingo, Md 154 

Convent of Holy Angels 125 

Cooper House 75 

Cooper, James Fenimore 116 

Coronado Beach, Fla 263 

Coronation Rock 86 

Coronet, The 34 

Cos Cob, Conn 112 

Courtenay, Fla 267 

Cowesett, R. 1 67 

Cow House Island 308 

Crabtree Creek Park 222 

Cram, Ralph Adams 53 

Crane, Col. John 6 

Crane Creek 268 

Cranston, R. 1 66 

Crawl Keys 290 

Cromwell, Oliver 60 

Crozet, Col. Claude 202 

Crystal Springs 253 

Cudjoe Key 292 

Curies Neck 301 

Curry, John Steuart 110 

Custis, George Washington 

Parke 185 

Custis, Mary Ann Randolph. . . 186 

Cutler, Me 299 

Damariscotta, Me 26 

Dania, Fla 279 

Danish Village 39 

Dante Orphanage 144 

Danvers State Hospital 60 




Darien, Conn Ill 

Darlington, Md 159 

Davenport Memorial Museum. 32 

Davie, Fla 280 

Davis, Jefferson 12, 243 

Day House 31 

Daytona Beach, Fla 260 

Dearborn, John 48 

Dearborn, Samuel 48 

Dedham, Mass , 63 

Deep River 223 

Deer Creek 159, 160, 161 

Deerfield, Fla 276 

Deer Isle 22 

Delaware and Raritan Canal.. . 134 

Delaware River 134, 135 

Delray Beach, Fla 275 

Dennys River 5 

Dennysville, Me 5 

Desert of Maine 35 

Devil's Basin 57 

Devil's Foot Rock 72 

Devon, Conn 107 

Dewitt, Va 207 

Dexter House 66 

Dinsmore, Fla 254 

Dinwiddie, Va 207 

District of Columbia Workhouse 190 

Dix Memorial Park 16 

Dochet Island 3 

Dockray House 83 

Dodge Homestead 53 

Dole House 56 

Doswell, Va 198 

Drewry, Capt. A. H 203 

Drewry's Bluff, Battle of 203 

Dublin, Md 160 

Duck Hole 100 

Dueling Ground, Bladensburg . 183, 24 

Duke's Castle 266 

Dumfries, Va 191 

Dummitt Grove . . 266 


Dummitt's Mound 264 

Dumpling Pond 112 

Dunes Club 80 

Dunlawton Sugar Mill, Ruins of 261 

Dunstan, Me 40 

Dutch Gap, Va 203 

Dutch Island 77 

Eagle Island 37 

Earle, Alice Morse 78 

Eastern Point 92 

East Greenwich Academy 69 

East Greenwich, R. 1 67 

East Haven, Conn 104 

East Holden, Me 15 

East Lyme, Conn 94 

East Machias, Me 6 

Eastport, Me 297 

East River, Conn 100 

Eau Gallic, Fla 268 

Ebenezer Academy, Site of. ... 207 

Eddy, Mary Baker 25 

Ed's Place 284 

Eels House 106 

Eight-Sided House 181 

Eldredge House 67 

Eldredge Memorial Fountain ... 69 

Elizabeth, N.J 130 

Elizabeth River. 130 

Elkridge, Md 170 

Ellsworth, Me 13 

Elmfield 52 

Elnathan Street House 104 

Ennis Art School 297 

Episcopal Chapels 

Falls River 53 

Portsmouth 47 

Episcopal Memorial Church, 

Ogunquit 44 

Everett, Mass 62 

Fairfield, Conn 108 

Fairfield Memorial Library 109 


U. S. ONE 


Fairlea Farms 105 

Fair of the Iron Horse 169 

Fairview, N. J 126 

Falls River Falls 53 

Falmouth Foreside, Me 36 

Falmouth Town Forest 36 

Falmouth, Va 194 

Faulkner's Island 100 

Fennell Orchid Jungle 283 

Field House 19 

Finley, Rev. Samuel 152 

First Church, Lynnfield 60 

First Church, Milford 106 

Fisher's Island 91 

Five Elms 42 

Five Forks 206 

Flagler Beach, Fla 258 

Flagler, Henry M 255, 259, 

269, 274, 289 

Flamingo Citrus Groves 280 

Florida City, Fla 284 

Floyd's Island 307 

Flying Cloud, The 91 

Flying Place 10 

Folkston, Ga 251 

Fones, Daniel 71 

Fordham University 121 

Fore River 37 

Forest Hill, Md 161 

Forest Tree Nursery 234 

Fort Everglades, Fla 279 

Fort Hale Park 104 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 277 

Fort Lee, N. J 124 

Fort Neck Lot 86 

Fort Pierce, Fla 271 


Belvoir 189 

Bragg 225-6 

Greble 77 

Griswold 93 

Harrison . . 301 


Hill 92 

Knox 17 

Philip Kearny 78 

Taylor 294 

Forts, Sites of 

Christanna 207 

Machias ,7 

Mansfield 88 

New Casco 36 

Peyton 257 

Santa Lucia 272 

Sullivan 297 

Washington 122 

Forty-Fifth Parallel Marker 4 

Foster, Benjamin 7, 9 

Foster's Rubicon 9 

Foxborough State Hospital .... 63 

Frankfort, Me 17 

Franklin, Benjamin 48, 74, 99, 110 

Franklin Ferry House 78 

Franklinton, N. C 217 

Fredericksburg 194, 195 

Freeport, Me 34 

Frenchtown, R. 1 71 

Fresh Air Farm 164 

Friendship, Me 25 

Friends' Meeting Houses 

Deer Creek 158 

East Greenwich 69 

Oxford 149 

Friends' Meeting House, Site of, 

Nottingham 149 

Frisbie Homestead 102 

Frisbie House 103 

Frost House 42 

Fuller's Tavern 63 

Fullerton, Md 168 

Galena, The 92 

Galilee 81 

Gardiner House 78 

Garrison Cove. . 39 



Garrison Island 26 

Garvin Home 245 

Geiger Key 292 

General Stanton Inn 85 

Georgetown, Mass 58 

George Washington Bridge .... 1 22 

Georgia Penitentiary 246-7 

Georgia, The 32 

Georgina, Fla 267 

German Meeting House 25 

Gerrish House, Site of 55 

Gifford, Fla 270 

Gilbert, Raleigh 31 

Gillburg 217 

Glebe, The 74 

Glover Place 216 

Gobert House 244 

God's Little Acre 243 

Goethals Bridge. 129 

Golden Ball, The 300 

Gorges, Fernando 31 

Gorton Pond 67 

Gouldsboro, Me 13 

Goulds, Fla 283 

Governor Ames, The 25 

Governor Dummer Mansion ... 57 

Governors, N. C. and S. C 221-2 

Grand Prairie 306 

Grange Hall, Holden 15 

Graniteville, S. C 238 

Grant, Fla 269 

Grant, Gen. U. S 198, 204, 205 

Grassy Key 290 

Graves House 100 

Graystone, N. C 213 

Great Captain's Island 113 

Great Chimney House 84 

Great Pee Dee, The 232 

Great Republic, The 90-91 

Great Swamp Fight, Site of 110 

Great Wass Island 10 

Green Bank Farm . . 148 


Greenbelt, Md 178 

Greene, Gen. Nathanael 68, 71 

Greene Homestead 68 

Greenfield Hill, Conn 110 

Green Hill House 218 

Greenwich, Conn 113 

Greenwood, R. 1 66 

Gregg, William 238 

Greynolds Park 281 

Griswold House 94 

Groton, Conn 93 

Groton Long Point 92 

Groton Monument 93 

Grove Beach 98 

Guale Indians 270 

Guast, Pierre du 3 

Guilford, Conn 100 

Gulf Stream, Fla 276 

Gum Tavern, Va 198 

Gunpowder Falls 167 

Gunston Hall 190 

Hackensack River 127, 128 

Hale, Edward Everett 84 

Halethorpe, Md 169 

Half- Way House 203 

Halifax River 261 

Hall Houses 102 

Hall of Fame, N. Y. U 121 

Hamburg, S. C 238 

Hamilton, R. 1 77 

Hamilton's Crossing 196 

Hammonasset River 99 

Hammonasset State Park 99 

Hampden Highlands, Me 16 

Hampden, Me 16 

Hampton Falls 51 

Hampton, N. H 49 

Hancock, Me 13 

Hanover, Va 200 

Harford Baptist Church 161 

Harlem River. . 121 


U. S. ONE 


Harrington, Me 12 

Harrison, Benjamin 303 

Hartzel Home 232 

Haunted House, Hampton 50 

Haversham Corner 87 

Haviland Inn 116 

Haw River 223 

Hazard Castle 80 

Hazard House, Narragansett ... 79 

Hazard House, Sugar Loaf Hill . 83 

Hazard Memorial Library 82 

Hazard, Thomas 83 

Head Tide, Me 30 

Hebardville, Ga 249 

Hedgerow Theater 142 

Helme House 74 

Hemingway, Ernest 294 

Henderson Marker 215 

Henderson, N. C 213 

Henricopolis, Site of 203 

Henry, Patrick 200, 199 

Hermitage Golf Club 202 

Herring Run Park 168 

Hickory Hill 200 

Hicks House 137 

Higgins Beach 38 

Hightower, S. C 233 

Hill Burying Ground 56 

Hill, Gen. A. P 206 

Hilliard, Fla 253 

History of the Dividing Line 209 

Hive of the Averys, Site of 92 

Kobe Sound 273 

Hockomock Bay 30 

Hoffman, N. C 229 

Hogshead Point 100 

Holden, Me 15 

Holland House 84 

Holland Tunnel 120 

Holly Hill, Fla 260 

Hollywood-by-the Sea, Fla 280 

Holy Ghost and Us Society 33 


Homestead, Fla 284 

Hoodoo Marker 165 

Hopewell, Va 204 

Horse Creek Valley 237 

Horseshoe Mountain 233 

Horse Shoe Pond 236 

Horticultural Station 177 

Housatonic River 107 

House that Tutt Built, The 12 

Howland House 68 

How the Women Went from Dover. 49 

Hubbell House 110 

Hudson River 122 

Hunnewell House 38 

Hunting Creek 187 

Hunts River Bridge 71 

Hutchinson River 118, 119 

Hutchinson River Parkway . . 1 15, 118 

Hyatt Manor 181 

Hyattsville, Md 181 

Hyland House 101 

Increase, The 45 

Indialantic Beach, Fla 267 

Indian Burial Grounds. . .85, 259, 296 

Indian Key 289 

Indian Lake 6 

Indian Maid Mill 85 

Indianola, Fla 267 

Indian River 265 

Indian River City, Fla 266 

Indian River Dude Ranch 263 

Indian River School 263 


Abnaki 26,36 

Ais 268 

Cheraw 231 

Guale 270 

Lenape 137 

Narragansett 70, 79, 86, 90 

Niantic 86 

juoddy 296 




Pequonnock 108 

Pequot 86,91,110 

Red Paint 24 

Sasco 108 

Seminole 264,278 

Siwanoy 117 

Susquehannock 187 

Tuscarora 218 

Indian Trail 61 

International Bridge 2 


Bath 32 

Pembroke 4 

Ironworks House 61 

Islamorada, Fla 289 

Isle au Haut 23 

Islesboro 19 

Ivy Mills, Pa 144 

Jackson, Thomas "Stonewall" .. 197 

Jacksonville, Fla 255 

Jamaica Pond 63 

Jameson's Tavern 34 

James River 203 

Jarrettsville, Md 161 

Jay, John 116 

Jeff Davis Trail 12 

Jefferson, Thomas 188, 302 

Jennersville, Pa 149 

Jensen, Fla 272 

Jensen Savannah 272 

Jersey City, N. J 127 

Jerusalem, Md 166 

Jerusalem Mills 166 

Jewell Island 37 

Johnson House 19 

Johnston's Palm Lodge 284 

Jonesboro, Me 9 

Jones House, Gary 221 

Jones House, Portsmouth 47 

Jones House, Wake Forest 219 

Jones, Ichabod 6 


Jonesport, Me 10 

Jonny-Cake Papers 83 

Journey's End, Boxford 59 

Journey's End, Delray Beach ... 275 

Journey to the Land of Eden 207 

Judson House 107 

Jungle Gardens, Holly Hill .... 260 

Kaolin Mine 236 

Kavanaugh Mansion 27 

Kellogg, Harold 58 

Kelsey City, Fla 273 

Kelsey-Highlands Nursery 59 

Kelsey Point 98 

Kendal, Fla 283 

Kennebec River 31 

Kennebunk, Me 41 

Kennett Square, Pa 147 

Kent County Courthouse 69 

Kent County Jail, First 70 

Kent County Jail, Second 69 

Kentish Artillery Armory 67 

Kentish Guards Armory 68 

Key Largo 285, 286 

Key Largo Station, Fla 287 

Key Vaca 291 

Key West, Fla 293 

Kidd, Captain 37 

Kiddie Keep- Well Camp 131 

Kimball Bird Sanctuary 86 

King Homestead, Scottow's Hill 39 

King House, Saco 40 

Kingsville, Md 166 

King Tom Farm 86 

Kittrell, N. C 217 

Kneel to the Rising Sun 243 

Knox State Arboretum 24 

Korona, Fla 258 

Laddin'sRock 112 

Lafayette Elm 42 

Lafayette House 41 


U. S. ONE 


Lafayette, Marquis de 78, 152, 


La Fitte, Jean 288 

Lakeland, Md 179 

Lake Lucerne 15 

Lake Murray Dam 236 

Lake Poinsett 267 

Lake Saltonstall 103 

Lakeview, N. G 225 

Lake Worth, Fla 275 

Lamb in His Bosom 240, 248 

Lancaster House 38 

Langhorne, Pa 136 

Langley, S. C 238 

Lansdowne, Pa 139, 140 

Lantana, Fla 275 

Lapidea Manor 142 

Larchmont, N. Y 117 

Larkin House 47 

Larrabee Garrison House, Site of 43 

Latrobe, Benjamin H 170 

Latter-Day Saints 10 

Laurel, Md 172 

Lawrenceville, Va 207 

Laysville, Conn 94 

Lee, Capt. Samuel 102 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 186, 195, 


Lee, "Light Horse Harry" 302 

Lee-Payson-Smith House 28 

Leesville, S. C 237 

Leiper, Thomas 142 

Le May Place 216 

Lenape Indians 137 

Lenape Monument 1 37 

Leon, Ponce de 257 

Lexington, S. G 236 

Liberty, The 3 


Bel Air 163 

Bill Memorial 93 

Blackstone Memorial 103 


Boxford 59 

Camden 20 

East Machias 6 

Ellsworth 14 

Fairfield Memorial 109 

Hazard Memorial 82 

Port Chester 114 

Providence 66 

Taylor Memorial 148 

Topsfield 58 

Wiscasset 29 

Lighthouse Point 104 


Faulkner's Island 100 

Hillsborough 277 

Key West 294 

Owl's Head 22 

Point Judith 81 

Ponce de Leon Inlet 264 

Rockland 21 

Stonington 90 

Stratford Point 108 

Lignum Vitae Key 290 

Lincoln, Abraham 205 

Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin 5 

Lincoln University 149 

Linden, N.J 130 

Lindsey Tavern 43 

Lion Farm 277 

Lippincott House 12 

Little Captain's Island 113 

Little Gunpowder Falls 165 

Little River 225 

Lockville, N. C 223 

Longwood Gardens 146 

Longwood Village 147 

Lord Granville Line 223 

Lord House 42 

Lord's Point 91 

Loring Garrison, Site of 36 

Lorton, Va 190 

Lotus, Fla 267 




Louisburg College 218 

Louisburg, N. C 218 

Louisville Academy, Site of. ... 245 

Louisville, Ga 244 

Love Feast at Waycross, The 250 

Lower Matecumbe 290 

Lubec, Me 300 

Lucerne-in-Maine 15 

Lumber River 229 

Lyme Art Gallery 96 

Lynch, Col. Charles 218, 231 

Lynch Creek 218 

Lynnfield, Mass 60 

Lynn Reservoir 60 

Lyon House 113 

Lyons, Ga 246 

Macdonald, Flora 226 

Machias, Me 7 

Machiasport, Me 6 

Machias River 8 

Machias- Whitneyville R.R 7 

Madison, Conn 100 

Madison, Dolly 199 

Magraw, Rev. James 152 

Mahlon Stacy Park 134 

Maine State Prison 24 

Malabar, Fla 268 

Maiden, Mass 61 

Malvern Hill 302 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 116 

Mansion House 81 

Manson, N. C 212 

Man Without a Country, The 84 

Marathon, Fla 291 

Marches Tavern 56 

Margaretta, The 7, 9 

Marie Antoinette House 29 

Marine Historical Museum, 

Mystic 91 

Marine Museum, Penobscot. . . 18 

Market Hall, Cheraw 232 


Markham, Pa 144 

Marston, N. C 229 

Marye's Heights 195-6 

Maryland Canal 155 

Mason-Dixon Line 150 

Mason House 3 

Mason Island 91 

Mason Monument 92 

Massacre Bluff 264 

Massacre Pond 39 

Mather's Bridge 268 

Matunuck Beach 84 

Matunuck Point 84 

May Night 95 

McBee, S. C 233 

Mclntire Garrison House 45 

McKay House 232 

McKee Jungle Gardens 271 

Meddybemps Lake 4 

Media, Pa 143 

Melbourne, Fla 268 

Melchers, Gari 194 

Merchant's Hope Church 205 

Meredith College 220 

Merrimac River 56 

Merrimac, The 203 

Merritt, Fla 267 

Merry Oakes, N. C 223 

Message from the Sea 97 

Methodist Church, East Green- 
wich 70 

Method, N. C 220 

Miami, Fla 281 

Mianus, Conn 112 

Micco, Fla 269 

Middleburg, N. C 213 

Middlesex County Tuberculosis 

Hospital 131 

Middle Torch Key 292 

Milbridge, Me 13 

Milestones 48, 59, 99, 109 

Milford, Conn 105 


U. S. ONE 


Millay, Edna St. Vincent 22, 56 

Miller, Caroline 240, 248 

Miller Tavern 19 

Mims, Fla 265 

Minnieville, Va 190 

Mizner, Addison 274 

Mogg Megone 39 

Momauguin Point 104 

Moncure, N. C 223 

Monetta, S. C 237 

Monitor, The 100, 203 

Monkey Jungle 283 

Monocacy, Battle of 164 

Montpelier, Md 173 

Montpelier, Site of 216 

Montpelier, Thomaston 23 

Monument Park 125 


Carter Jackson 74 

"Celestial Railroad" 273 

Civil War, Saugus 61 

Civil War, Topsfield 58 

Colee 278 

Confederate, Cheraw 232 

Confederate, Rockingham . . . 230 

Groton 93 

Lenape 137 

Mason 92 

Mesheck Weare 52 

Peace 58 

Ponus Ill 

Province of Maine 45 

Soldiers' 61 

War Memorial 133 

Washington 187 

Washington Masonic 187 

William Campbell 105 

World War, Lexington 236 

World War, Ridgefield 125 

Moonstone Beach 84 

Moose Hill, Conn 102 

Moose Hill, Mass 63 


Morris Cove 104 

Morris, Robert 135 

Morrisville, Pa 135 

Morsemere, N. J 125 

Morton, Pa 140 

Mosquito Lagoon 264 

Mosquito Mountain 17 

Mother Bailey House 93 

Mother Brook 63 

Moulton, Gen. Jonathan 50 

Moultrie, Fla 257 

Mount Agamenticus 45 

Mount Battle 21 

Mount Vernon 187, 186 

Mount Waldo 17 

Mount Welcome 154 

Mousam River 41 

Mt. Carmel Church 198 

Muirkirk, Md 174 

Mule Market 235 

Mystic, Conn 91 

Mystic River 62 

Napatree Point 88 

Narragansett Baptist Church ... 78 

Narragansett Church, Wickford 76 
Narragansett Indians. . .70, 79, 86, 90 

Narragansett, R. 1 79 

Narraguagus River 12 

Naranja, Fla 283 

National Battlefield Park, 

Richmond 301, 203 

National Gardens 258 

National Military Cemeteries 

Arlington 185 

Marye's Heights 1 95 

National Military Parks 

Fredericksburg 1 96 

Spotsylvania '. 196 

Negro Foot 199 

Nellie Chapin, The 10 

Nequasset Meeting House 31 




Newark, N. J 129 

New Brookland, S. C 236 

New Brunswick, N. J 133 

Newburyport, Mass 57 

New Canaan, Conn Ill 

Newcastle, Me 27 

New England Rarities 39 

New Haven, Conn 104 

New Jersey College for Women . 1 33 
New Jersey College of 

Agriculture 133 

New Jersey Reformatory 131 

New London, Conn 94 

Newport, Fla 287 

New River 277 

New Rochelle, N. Y 117 

New Smyrna, Fla 262 

New Wifeandthe Old, The 50 

New York City 119 

New York University 121 

Niantic Indians 86 

Niantic River 94 

Nickels House 27 

Ninigret, Thomas 86 

Noank, Conn 92 

Noblesboro, Me 26 

No Name Key 291 

Nonesuch River 38 

Norlina, N. C 210 

Noroton, Conn Ill 

Norsemen 53 

North Attleboro, Mass 64 

North Bergen, N. J 126 

North Brick House 219 

North Burial Ground 66 

North Edgecomb, Me 29 

North Hampton, N. H 48 

North Haven, Me 22 

North Hill 48 

North Indian River 262 

North Kingstown Beach 71 

North Lubec, Me 299 


North Miami Beach, Fla 281 

Northport, Me 20 

North State Pottery 224 

North Trescott, Me 299 

North Yarmouth Academy .... 35 

Norwalk, Conn Ill 

Nottingham Lots 149, 151 

Nottingham, Pa 149 

Nottoway River 207 

Nutbush Presbyterian Church . . 217 

Nut Plains, Conn 102 

Oakford, Pa 138 

Oak Hill, Fla 265 

Oak Hill, Me 38 

Oak Hill, Va 205 

Oakland 174 

Oakland, Remains of 216 

O'Brien, Capt. Jeremiah 7, 9 

Occoquan, Va 190 

Octorara 153 

Octoraro Creek 153 

Ogunquit, Me 44 

Ojus, Fla 280 

Okefenokee Swamp 305,251 

Old Fork Church 198 

Old Lyme, Conn 95 

Old Man of Seabrook 54 

Old Narragansett 78 

Old Saybrook, Conn 96 

Oliphant Home 243 

Olney 164 

Opera House, Camden 20 

Orange, Conn 105 

Orange River 5 

Ormond Beach, Fla 259 

Ormond, Fla 259 

Orphans of the Storm 117 

Orr's Island 37 

Orsino, Fla 267 

Osceola 257 

Otis House.. 19 


U. S. ONE 


Owl's Head, Me 22 

Oxford, Pa 149 

Oxford Valley, Pa 136 

Page, Walter Hines 228, 222, 227 

Palisades, N. J 125 

Palisades, The 122 

Palm Beach, Fla 274 

Palmer House 90 

Palmer Northrup House 72 

Paradise Key 284 

Parker River 57 

Parson Capen House 58 

Parsons' Cause 200 

Passagassawakeag River 18 

Passaic River 128 

Passamaquoddy Bay 296 

Passamaquoddy Indians 296 

Passamaquoddy Project 296, 300 

Pataganset Lake 94 

Patapsco River 169 

Patapsco State Park 170 

Patrick, S. C 233 

Patuxent River 173 

Pawcatuck, Conn 89 

Pawcatuck River 88 

Pawtucket, R. 1 65 

Peace Dale, R. 1 82 

Peaks Island 37 

Pearl of Orr's Island, The 37 

Peck Tavern 95 

Pee Dee River 230 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 117 

Pelican Island 270 

Pelicans Roost 286 

Pembroke, Me 4 

Pennamaquam River 4 

Penn's Neck, N. J 134 

Perm's Treaty with the Indians. ... 141 

Pennsylvania Training School . . 143 

Penn, William 135, 137, 146 

Penobscot Bay 18, 22 


Penobscot River 15, 16 

Pequonnock Indians 108 

Pequot Hill 92 

Pequot Indians 86, 91, 110 

Pequot Path 89 

Perio's Point 11 

Perkins Cove 44 

Perley-Hale-Perkins House 59 

Perrine, Dr. Henry 290 

Perrine, Fla 283 

Perry Hall Mansion 167 

Perry Hall, Md 167 

Perry, Me 4 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 83 

Perry, Samuel 84 

Petersburg, Va 206 

Peters, Fla 283 

Peterson House 33 

Pettaquamscutt Park 80 

Pettaquamscutt Rock 74 

Petuquapaen, Site of 112 

Peyton's Ordinary 193 

Philadelphia, Pa 139 

Phillips House 73 

Phipps Point 30 

Phips, Sir William 30 

Picture Rocks '", >T 

Pidge Tavern 65 

Pierce House 47 

Pigeon Key Viaduct 291 

Fillings Pond 60 

Pinebluff, N. C 228 

Pine Grove Cemetery 59 

Pine Ridge, Pa 142 

Pinkney House, Site of 163 

Pirate's Cove Fishing Camp .... 292 

Piscataqua River 46, 47 

Piscataway, N. J 132 

Pitcairn, John 138 

Plantation Key 288 

Playland, Rye 116 

Pleasant Point, Me 296 




Plum Beach 77 

Plummer House 38 

Plymouth Church, Milford 106 

Pocahontas 193, 203, 301 

Pocahontas Park 270 

Poe, Edgar Allen 121 

PoePark 121 

Pohick Church 189 

Point Judith 81 

Pompano, Fla 276 

Ponus Monument Ill 

Popcastle Inn, Site of 217 

Pope Hill 243 

Popham, George 31 

Popham, Sir John 31 

Poplar House 212 

Poplar Mount 212 

Poquonock Bridge 92 

Port Chester, N. Y 114 

Port Deposit, Md 155 

Porter's Landing 35 

Portland, Me 37 

Port Orange, Fla 261 

Portsmouth, N. H 47 

Post Road 47, 66, 115 

Pot Boils, The 194 

Potomac Path 189 

Potomac River 185 

Potowomut, R. 1 70 

Potter Houses 83 

Potter Pond 83 

Powder House 64 

Presbyterian Churches 

Bath 242 

Elizabeth 130 

Hyattsville 181 

Nottingham 149 

West Nottingham 152 

Priest Neale's Mass House 160 

Primitive Culture, Museum of. . 82 

Princeton, Fla 283 

Princeton University 133 


Progress to the Mines 199 

Prospect, Me 17 

Prout's Neck 39 

Providence, R. 1 65 

Pulaski Skyway 127 

Putnam, Gen. Israel 113, 115 

Putnam, Nina Wilcox 275 

Put's Hill 113 

Pyle Blacksmith Shop 144 

Pylesville, Md 160 

Quakers 49, 69 

Quaker Whipping Stone 55 

Quantico Marine Base 191 

Quiambog Cover. . . 91 

Quidnesset, R. 1 71 

Quimby's Spiritual Science Healing 

Disease 25 

Quoddy ^Village 296 

Quonochontaug Beach 87 

Quonset Point 72 

Racebrook Country Club 105 

Racepond, Ga 251 

Race Tracks 

Bowie 173 

Laurel 171 

Rahway, N.J 131 

Raleigh, N. C 220 

Ramrod Key 292 

Randolph-Macon Men's College 199 

Ranger, The 7 

Rappahannock River 194 

Raritan River 132 

Red Bank, S. C 236 

Red Beach, Me 3 

Redland Farm Life School 283 

Red Paint Indians 24 

Relay, Md 169 

Revere, Paul 47, 89 

Rhodes 8 

Rhodes Tavern .. 177 


U. S. ONE 


Richard's Oak 152 

Richardson House 136 

Richmond, Va 202 

Ridgefield, N. J 126 

Ridgeway, N. C 211 

Rigbie, Col. Nathan 159 

Rio, Fla 272 

Rippon Lodge 191 

Rising Sun, Md 151 

Riverdale, Md 181 

River Road 170 

Riverside Military Academy . . . 280 

Riviera, Fla. 274 

Roaches Run Sanctuary 187 

Roanoke River 209 

Robbinston, Me 4 

Roberts, Kenneth 42 

Robinson, Edwin Arlington 30 

Robinson, Hannah 78, 73 

Rockefeller Institute for Medical 

Research 133 

Rockefeller, John D 259, 255 

Rock Harbor, Fla 287 

Rockingham, N. G 229 

Rockland, Me 21 

Rockledge, Fla 267 

Rockport, Me 21 

Rodman House 82 

Roger Williams Park 66 

Roosevelt Park 131 

Rose Garden, Waycross 250 

Rose Tree Hunt Club 142 

Ross Bay 261 

Rossburg Inn 180 

Rowlandsville, Md 154 

Royall Garrison House, Site of. 36 

Royal Palm State Park 284 

Ruggles House 11 

Rundlett May House 47 

Russell House, Site of 103 

Rye, N. H 48 

Rye, N. Y 115 


Sachem's Head 102 

Saco, Me 40 

Saddlebunch Key 292 

Salem Chapel, Site of 208 

Salisbury, Mass 55 

Sally, The 29-30 

Salt Island 98 

Saltpeter Lot 67 

Sanborn, Franklin B 53 

Sandford, Rev. Frank W 33 

Sand Hill Cove 81 

Sand Hill Experiment Station. . 235 

Sand Hill Nursery 233 

Sand Point Improvement Project 265 

Sanford, N. C 224 

Saponey Church 207 

Sasco Indians 108 

Saugus Center, Mass 60 

Savannah River 239 

Savannah, The 232 

Saxon Woods Park 115 

Scallop Shell 81 

Scarboro Marshes 39 

Scarboro, Me 38 

Scarborough Beach 80 

"Scotch" Boardman House 60 

Scotchtown 199 

Scottow's Hill 39 

Scott, Winfield 207 

Seabrook, N. H 53 

Seacoast Mission Ship 11 

Sea Gift 218 

Searsport, Me 18 

Sebastian Creek Bridge 269 

Sebastian, Fla 269 

Seminole Indian Reservation. . . 279 

Seminole Indians 264, 278, 279 

Sheepscot River 27 

Shelter Harbor 87 

Sherman, William Tecumseh. . . 258 

Shiloh, Me 33 

Shirley 302 



Siwanoy Indians 117 

Slave Market, Louisville 244 

Smith, Capt. John 188, 193 

Smith House 72 

Smith's Falls 154 

Snake Hill 126 

Sneed Mansion House, Site of. . 216 

Snowden 194 

Snowden Mansion 172 

Somerville, Mass 62 

South Anna River 198 

South Brick House 219 

South County Barn Museum ... 76 

Southerner, The 222 

Southern Pines, N. C 226 

South Freeport 35 

South Hill, Va 208 

South Langhorne, Pa 136 

South Lynnfield, Mass 60 

South Miami, Fla 282 

South Norwalk, Conn Ill 

South Walpole, Mass 63 

Spite House 21 

Spotsylvania Court House, 

Battle of 196,197 

Spotsylvania Tavern 197 

Spotsylvania, Va 196 

Sprague Memorial Park 81 

Springfield Meeting House 140 

Sproul Astronomical 

Observatory 141 

Stafford Courthouse 193 

Stamford, Conn 112 

Stanton House, Clinton 98 

Stanton, Joseph, Jr 87 

Starr House 102 

Statue of Columbus 66 

St. Augustine, Fla 257 

St. Croix River 2, 3, 4 

St. David's Episcopal Church . . 232 

Stephenson Tavern 18 

Stevens Farm. . 99 

St. Ignatius Roman Catholic 

Church 161 

St. James Episcopal Church 1 32 

St. John's Church, Kingsville ... 165 
St. John's Episcopal Church, 

Williamsboro 216 

St. John's River 256 

St. John's Roman Catholic 

Church, Jersey City 127 

St. Joseph's Villa 201 

St. Louis School for Boys 40 

St. Lucie River 272, 273 

St. Mary Episcopal Church 36 

St. Mary's Manor 137 

St. Mary's River 251, 252 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic 

Church 160 

Stockton Springs, Me 18 

Stokes Estate 159 

Stone Ranch Military 

Reservation 94 

Stonington, Conn 89 

Storer Garrison House 43 

Storer House 42 

Story of a Sandpile 59 

Story of Kennett 146 

Stow, Capt. Stephen 106 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 37 

St. Patrick's Church, 

Providence 66 

St. Patrick's Roman Catholic 

Church, Newcastle 27 

St. Paul's Church, Hutchinson 

River 118 

St. Paul's (Old Narragansett) 

Church, Site of 73 

Stratford, Conn 107 

Stratford Point, Conn 108 

Strathaven 142 

St. Stephen, N. B 2 

Stuart, Fla 273 

Stuart, Gen. J. E. B 201 


U. S. ONE 


Stuart, Gilbert 77 

Submarine Base, Groton 93 

Subtropical Experiment Station 284 

Success 153 

Sugar Loaf Hill 83 

Sugar Loaf Mountain 233 

Sugar Loaf Sound 292 

Sullivan, Me 13 

Summerland Key 292 

Sunday Night at Seth Parker's 10 

Sunken Gardens 276 

Sunken Road 195 

Sunset Park 259 

Suntaug Lake 60 

Surveying School, M.I.T 6 

Susquehanna and Tidewater 

Canal 157 

Susquehanna River 156 

Susquehannock Indian Fort, 

Site of 154 

Susquehannock Indians 1 87 

Suwanee Canal 305 

Swainsboro, Ga , 246 

Swarthmore, Pa 141 

Swedenborg, Emanuel 138 

Sword of Truth and the Harbinger 

of Peace, The 10 

Sylmar 150,151 

Tavernier, Fla 288 

Taylor, Bayard 147-8, 146 

Taylor House 42 

Taylor Memorial Library 148 

Taylor River 51 

Tea Table Key 289 

Telegram Marker 175 

Telegraph Road 197 

Temple Lutheran Church Rec- 
reation Center 140 

Ten Rod Road 73 

Thames River 93 

Theater-by-the-Sea, Matunuck . 84 


Thomaston, Me 23 

Thomas Viaduct 169 

Thompson House 104 

Thornburg, Va 197 

Thornton Academy 40 

Thornton, William 188 

Tiny Bird Key 292 

Titusville, Fla 265 

Tobacco Auctions 

Baxley 247 

Henderson 214 

South Hill 208 

Tobacco Road 240, 243 

To Have and Have Not 294 

Tome, Jacob 155 

Tomoka River 258 

Toonerville Trolley 117 

Topsfield, Mass 58 

Toughkenamon, Pa 148 

Tower Hill House 81 

Towers, The 80 

Townsville, N. C 216 

Tragedy 110 

Treat's Island 300 

Trenton, N. J 134 

Triangle, Va 191 

Tropical Gardens, Ormond .... 259 

Tropic, Fla 267 

Tucker Mansion 29 

Tuck Memorial House 50 

Turkey Island 302 

Turnbull Canal 263 

Turnbull, Dr. Andrew 262 

Turnbull Hammocks 264 

Turner House 70 

Turnpike Lake 63 

Turtle Mound 264 

Tuscarora Indians 218 

Underwood Spring 36 

Union Canal 157 

Union River. . 14 




Unitarian Church, Kennebunk 41 

University, New York 121 

University of Maryland 179 

Updike House 76 

Upper Matecumbe Key 289 

Varina 301 

Vass, N. G 225 

Valley Forge 117 

Vance High School 217 

Vance, Zebulon Baird 214, 217 

Van Horn's Tavern 176 

Varnum House 68 

Varnum Memorial Armory 68 

Vaucluse, S. C 238 

Vero Beach, Fla 270 

Veterans Camp, Site of 289 

Views Afoot or Europe Seen with a 

Knapsack and Staff 148 

Vinalhaven, Me 22 

Vines, Richard 8, 40 

Wabasso, Fla 270 

Wager Weeden Watering Place . 84 

Wakefield, R. 1 82 

Wake Forest, N. G 219 

Waldoboro, Me 25 

Waldo, Gen. Samuel 25 

Waldo-Hancock Bridge 18 

Waldo Patent 25, 23 

Walker-Gordon Farm 134 

Walking Purchase 137 

Ward, Gen. Andrew 102 

Warfield, Va 207 

War Memorial Boulder 60 

Warren, Me 25 

Warrenville, S. G 238 

Warwick, R. I 66 

Washington Academy 6 

Washington Bridge 107 

Washington, D. G 184 

Washington, George 122, 125, 



Washington Masonic Memorial 187 

Washington Monument 187 

Washington State Normal 

School 7 

Watch Hill, R. 1 88 

Waterloo, Md 171 

Waycross, Ga 249 

Way Down East 117 

Weare, Mesheck 52 

Wedding-Cake House 43 

Weems, Parson Mason Locke. . 190 

Wells Beach 44 

Wells, Me 43 

Wellswoodlnn 52 

Wepawaug River 105 

Wequetequock, Conn 89 

West, Benjamin 140, 141 

Westbrook, Conn 98 

Westerly, R. 1 87 

West Grove, Pa 149 

West Lubec, Me 299 

West Mystic, Conn 92 

West Nottingham Academy. ... 151 

Weston, Conn Ill 

Weston, Hannah 10 

Westover 304 

West Palm Beach, Fla 274 

West Pembroke, Me 4 

Westport, Conn 110 

West Quoddy Head, Me 299 

Whale Harbor 289 

Whale Rock Light 79 

Whaling Museum 90 

Wheeler Park 130 

Wheelwright, Rev. John 44 

Whidaw, The 8 

Whigham Place 244 

White City, Fla 272 

Whiteford, Md 160 

White Hall 274 

White House, Belfast 19 


U. S. ONE 


White House, The 183 

White Oak Primitive Church ... 195 

White Plains, Battle of 118 

Whitfield House 101 

Whiting, Me 5 

Whitneyville, Me 9 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 52, 39, 

49, 50, 51 

Wickford, R. 1 75 

Wilcox Tavern 87 

Williamsboro, N. C 215 

Williams, Roger 70, 73 

Willow Dell 84 

Wilson's Mill 159 

Windley Island 289 

Windmill Cottage 67 

WinonaPark 250 

Winterport, Me 16 

Winthrop, John 60, 104 

Winthrop, John, Jr 70, 71, 96 

Wiscasset, Me 27 

Wise, N. C 210 

Wolf Stones 89 

Woodbridge, Va 191 

Woodcock House.. 63 


Wood House 28 

Woodlawn 188 

Woolwich, Me 31 

Wreck of Rivermouth, The 51 

Wrens, Ga 242 

Wright Homestead 99 

Wright House, Ridgefield 125 

Wright's Lookout 7 

Wrightstown, Pa 137 

Yacht Club, Rockland 22 

Yamato, Fla 276 

Yarmouth Church, Site of 36 

Yarmouth, Me 35 

Yazoo Fraud 244-5 

Yeadon, Pa 140 

Yellow Tavern, Battle of 201 

Yellow Tavern, Va 201 

York Institute 40 

York Island 37 

Youngsville, N. C 219 

Zenger, John Peter 118 

Zoological Park, New York .... 120 

Zoo, New Smyrna 263 


It would cost several thousand dollars to publish a single 
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Modern Age Books, Inc., is printing books in editions of 
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WALL OF MEN, by William Rollins 


Mystery Fans MURDER STRIKES THREE, by David MacDuff 

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Current Affairs KALTENBORN EDITS THE NEWS, by H. V. 


THE LABOR SPY RACKET, by Leo Huberman 
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Biography LAGUARDIA, A BIOGRAPHY, by Jay Franklin 

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Cook Books MEALS ON WHEELS, by Lou Willson and Olive 


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Almanac 1938 ALMANAC FOR NEW YORKERS, by the 
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GOD'S ANGRY MAN, by Leonard Ehrlich 
LIGHTSHIP, by Archie Binns 
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A PASSAGE TO INDIA, by E. M. Forster 
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