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Logan, Ogden, Provo and Salt Lake Cities. 



Edited and Compiled by ROBERT W. SLOAN. 







Bait Lake City, Utah. 


To the business men of Utah ; to those interested in the development 

of her resources and the estabHshmcnt of a foundation that will insure her 

permanent prosperity, and lo all her inhabitants, this work is respectfully 

dedicated bv the publishers, 




It is with mingled fear and confidence tl^at this work is sent forth — fear 
that it may not meet the standard of excellence which a commonwealth of 
such vast and varied resource merits; confidence that it will, nevertheless, 
give a broader view of the Territory and its capacity for development; and 
convince those who have now made permanent homes here, or who may 
hereafter determine to do .so, that there awaits for Utah a glorious and impcF- 
ishable future. This work was begun by the author and the publishers with 
the hope that the undertaking would be profitable; but not with this idea 
alone. The disposition manifested by many to belittle the capacity of Utah, 
and the indifference shown by many within her borders, and especially 
among her own offspring, those of young blood, active and restless temper- 
ament, to ignore the inducements Utah offers all willing to make an honest 
effort to secure material prosperity, largely influenced the determination to 
publish such a work as this, and had a greater influence on its character 
while in course of preparation than will, in all probability, ever be known. 
The idea has ever been uppermost that no more favored country, the same 
area considered, is to be found on the globe; that true prosperity is not to 
be found in the circulating wealth of a nation, but in the abundance of 
resource that will justify the establishment and operation of industries sufli- 
cient to keep its population employed, and upon the industry and the thrift 
of* that population, and that, while the development of Utah may have been 
retarded by the abuse of moneyed power, whether in railroads or in other 
forms, it is impossible that injury of this kin^ can be permanent. The 
abiding and unshaken faith in the future of Utah, felt at the commencement 
of this work, has grown to a certain and immovable conviction. With 
these views it was impossible that interest should not be felt in showing to 
all, with all truth and candor, and with as much ability as those interested 
possessed, the basis first for the &ith and later for the conviction which a 
greater acquaintance with the subject brought; and, vain though it may 
seem, we cannot avoid the expression of an opinion that any right-minded, 
level-headed young man, who will casually glance at the wealth of resource 
shown even briefly and crudely in this volume, must admit that no place can 
offer greater inducements to him if he desires permanently to live in any 
country, if he is but willing that his position in life shall be that which honest effort 
and perseverance merit as a reward. Nor does the showing appeal with less 
force to men who have already won success in life's battle. It is impossible 
that any man of means, patriotic and public-spirited at heart, who calmly 


and intelligently investigates the resources of this Territory, can fail to 
reach the conclusion that a world of opportunity is here and yet awaits the 
investnient of means that will certainly bring profit; that industries and man- 
ufactures are yet to be founded that will win for Utah a permanent prosperity 
that monopolies and adventurous speculators will find immovable, a rock 
upon which they must split should they sail against it. It is because of such 
thoughts, because Utah can never enjoy anything like certain prosperity 
until the utilization of her manifold resources places her in a position of inde- 
pendence, that such a work as this has become necessary, and of equal value 
to the laborer, the mechanic and the capitalist. All alike — though views 
as to the methods best calculated to bring about general prosperity are at 
variance — are equally interested in the future of Utah. 

Social questions have been avoided. Material and historical Utah have 
only been treated. The conviction is that, all circumstances considered, the 
progress made by Utah since 1847, *^ ^ marvel, an eternal monument that 
will ever point to the unyielding industry of its people and tell a story full of 
the efficacy of labor- and the certain reward of honest toil that can be pon- 
dered over with benefit to future as well as present generations. 

It is not held the work is without errors. Such a claim would be pre- 
posterous. It is simply stated that in comparison with the endless subjects 
discussed and given, there are practically no errors; and that there are no 
errors whatever in spirit, no misrepresentations, and nothing as to material 
facts that existing intelligence and the knowledge now possessed could wish 
to be changed. The most notable errors discovered so far are corrected in 
the Errata. There will no doubt be mistakes as to names, and as to dates, 
and as to other things. It is impossible that such could be avoided, as many 
whose names are published have passed away, and those who furnished the 
information themselves were imperfectly informed and gave only the best 
knowledge at their command. If such a work is undertaken by another in 
later years, the -basis here given will materially assist in securing better and 
more accurate information as regards th'e names of those associated with 
past events and the dates on which these events transpired. 

I am undtr lasting obligation to President Wilford Woodruff, Mr. Jokn 
Jaques, Col. O. J. Hollister, Professor J. E. Clayton and Dr. Wm. Brede- 
meyer and others — presidents of stakes and bishops — throughout the whole 
Territory, without whose valuable and timely assistance many subjects must 
have been omitted or imperfectly given. With whatever success this work 
may meet, much of that success will be due to their kindly and valuable 



Seli Lake City, TTtata,, 



vi »m)tit m m tm$ » it m iummm. 

Having secured the 6est Workmen in the Territory we are prepared 
to take orders for any of the aiove Fabrics and guarantee satis/action. 






Bain Para & Spring lapnj. 


Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah. 



QEMU wioBE m mil mm 




ard^ood ic 4^aqon ^Material. 


We have Branch Houses that handle these Goods at SHOSHONE, GALD- 

gEB^EE, ¥mm 4 WPPFE 00. 

Handle a Fnll Line of these Goods at DILLON, BUTTE OITY 







General Agents for 





m mi: four-spring mountain wigons, 

Buggies and Backboards, 

MoLM, Peiy aud Fmzieb BOAD CARTS, 

The J. Z. Case T. M. Co/s 

AGITATOR Threshers 

And Woodbury Horse Powers, 

THE Mccormick 

Harvesting Machinery, 


Hardwood Lumherj TentSj Wagon Covers^ Team 

and Buggy Harness^ Barb Wire, 

Baling Ties, Etc. 



Situated on the West Side of Utah Lake. 

which are innumerable Hot Springs, which cover about 400 acres. 
The place is watered by these springs and the farm thoroughly 
irrigated. The springs are thus named because of the remarkable 
similarity between them and the famous waters of Saratoga. The 
place was formally opened on the 24th of July, in the presence of fully 1,000 
people, and since then it has been and is now 

m^m\ to m nlacit vx tl|it Mt&i as a flleasurit |[esort. 

The Springs are not over 100 yards from that beautiful sheet of water, 
Utah Lake, where there is excellent acco^imodation for bathers, with all 
incidental accommodations — 100 bath houses, bathing suits. Plunge baths 
in the water from the Springs are also provided; row and sail boats are fur- 
nished, and a steamer will ply the lake next season, together with a railroad 
track connecting with the Utah Central will be laid down. It is also situ- 
ated near the mouth of the Jordan, and thus affords delightful hunting and 
fishing both in the lake and the Jordan River. There is a race track, base- 
ball grounds, shooting galleries, and everything to make life pleasant and 
agreeable. The Tintic mines are in the vicinity, while the site of the 
Saratoga of Utah has long been noted as strikingly picturesque. 

It is open to all. Health and happiness at trifling expense await all 
who visit us. 

JOHN BECK, Proprietor, 








Warehouse: On State Road, between* 
Third and Fourtfi Soutli Streets. 

m im m, mi. 



Hrj QocdSiQroceries, Wines, Liqxion 
and Qeneiral Uercbaadise, 


Wright. Bros. & Seinister, 

Coalville, Utah, 


Musical Instruments of every Variety. 

Handle the United States Orerans, which are 
noted for elerance of desis^, beauty ot style and fin- 
ish, purity ol tone, elasticity of touch and reneial 
construction. No other organs like them. Parties 
desirinfF musical instruments o^ findings will save 
money oy calling: on or addressing us oefore pur- 
chasing elsewhere. 



Conducted by the 


The Course of Study embraces all the branches of a thorough and accomplished 
education. ' 

address as above. 

Small boys — boarders — received in a separate department. 
Half-fare tickets can be procured for the pupils. IRj^For Catalogue, 


Builder €ind Oontz'aotor, 

Manufacturer of 




Dealer in Mojitels, Grates, Tiles and Cement, 



Carries a full line of Best Brands of 

Bran, Shorts, Grain, Chopi^ed Feed, 

And a Large Assortment of 
Give us a call. 

No. 32 Old Constitution Building, opposite Z. C. M. I. 

Telephone No. 387. 

Pioneer Patent Roller Mills, 

Meroliant Millers. 

GRAIN PcRCHASED AND FLOUR Sold in any Quantities. 


Mill. No. 53 North Street, East. Office, 21 South Temple Street, West. 



General appearance; area; boundaries; course of streams; best watered 
valleys; mountain elevations; Wasatch range; fall of snow; physical 
contrasts; Mount Nebo; centre of Territory; population; lakes; division 
of Utah; eastern, western and middle sections; their resources and oppor- 
tunities; Great Salt Lake Basin; its streams; beyond the southern rim of 
the basin; country of the Colorado; Southern Utah ahd its valleys and 
streams; flora; fanua; elevation of 154 cities, towns, mountains and lakes 
in Utah 17 

Chronology of events from 1847 to 1884 22 


Arable lands; acres under cultivation; crops raised; cost of canals; 
reports of 1875; canal mileage; value of farms and products; dry farm-v 
ing; productive capacity of Territory and possibilities; irrigation; its 
benefits; best method of farming; why; cereals; statistics of 1875; fruits 
and flowers; statistics of 1875; stock raising; value of stock to Utah: 
sheep z^j. cattle; increased income; fine stock; mountain bunch grass; 
statistics of 1875; alfalfa, or lucerne; timber; notes 43 


Summary; causes working against development; timidity of capital 
through railroad influence, success of ventures past; statistics of 1875. 
Possibilities; resources upon which manufactures will be established. 
Notes 50 


Summary; mineral formation; possibilities on Prof. J. E. Clayton's 
theory; statistics; iron; where found, etc. ; coal; copper; sulphur; gypsum 
and mica; antimony; shale; mineral wax; oil wells; alum; shale; salt; 
soda; marble, clays, etc. ; notes. List of Utah minerals up lo date. 
Bullion output; smelting, sampling and reduction works. Mountain 
ranges of Utah; mining districts by counties; districts with geological 
formations, names of mines, etc., etc 55 

Mileage; result of local efforts; how far external roads have been bene- 
ficial; Central Pacific; Union Pacific; Denver & Rio Grande; Utah & 
Pleasant Valley; Utah Central; Utah & Northern; Utah & Nevada; Utah 
Eastern; Sanpete Valley; Little Cottonwood and Bingham Canyon; Salt 
Lake & Western; abandoned roads; projections 105 


History of imports and exports; character of exports; permanent 
imports; import statistics; export statistics; general business; insurance; 
banking; railroad indebtedness; banks; bankers and capitals; nlileage 
and bonded indebtedness per mile of road in Utah. Taxation. Public 
business; postoffice receipts; land entries; enlargement of business and 
trade; notes; wealth paid out for imported articles that can be kept in 
Utah Ill 


Counties, physically; economic resources; boundaries; cities; towns; date 
of settlement; first settlers; churches; names of bishops and pastors; 
schools and school statistics; libraries; improvement and benevolent 
societies; mail facilities for twenty-four counties, 120 


Kinds; accessibility; Logan; Provo; Ogden; Salt Lake; mountains and 
canyons; mineral springs; analyses lakes, Utah, Bear and other; Great 
Salt Lake, earliest accounts, discovery; Dr. Gale's analysis; Prof. O. 
Dallem's analysis; Dr. Smart's analysis; Dr. Vallum's analysis of Jor- 
dan water and Great Salt Lake; table of analysis; Prof G. K. Gilbert's 
theory of ancient outlet; Prof. Muir's description of bath in l^ke; islands; 
navigation; old theories; bathing facilities; climate; temperature; sea- 
sons; variations and comparisons; government tables, . . ^ . . .166 


As an industry; advantages; future developments; descriptions of St. 
George, Logan, Manti and Salt Lake temples; tabernacles and churches; 
Tabernacle capacity; Salt Lake Assembly Hall 195 

Notes, 205 


Baptist; Congregational; Plymouth Church; Episcopal; St. Mark's and 
St. Paul's; Methodist; Presbyterian, Reorganized Church L.D.S.; Ro- 
man Catholic; Latter-day Saints — Priesthood, organization, doctrines, 
ordinances, missionary work, presidents of stakes and membership; au- 
thorities. Secret Societies — A. O. U. W., Free Masons, Grand Army; 

I. O. O. F., Knights of Pythias, Temple of Honor. 'Benefit Societies 
— Pioneer Loan Society, Caledonia Society, Firemen's Mutual Aid, 
Railroad Aid Association, Zion's Benefit Building Society. Other or- 
ganizations — Benevolent and improvement societies, Hebrew societies, 
primary associations, relief societies. Turn Verein, Y. L. M. I. A., 
Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations, Women's Work. 
Libraries — Masonic, Territorial, Firemen's, L O. O. F. and others. 
Hospitals — Deseret, Holy Cross and St. Marks *. . . . 208 


Names of 2,090 who came in fall of 1847 and spring of '48: summary; 
original 148, 232 


Federal officials — Governors, Secretaries, Chief Justices, Associate Jus- 
tices, Marshals, Registers and Receivers, District Attorneys, Surveyors- 
General, Assessors and Collectors. Present officials — Commissioners, 
Territorial officers, Court officers, County and Precinct officers by 
Counties, municipal officers, Legislature, 254 




Population; assessed valuation for 1883 *..... 272 




Brigham Young Academy; New West Educational Commission; Row- 
land Hall; Salt Lake Collegiate Institute; Salt Lake Academy; Salt Lake 
Kindergarten and graded school; Salt Lake Seminary; St. Mary's 
Academy; St. Joseph's school for boys; St. Mark's grammar school; St. 
Mark's school for girls; Brigham Young College; Deseret University; 
school for deaf mutes; district schools; table showing school attendance, 
appropriation and school ta* 278 

History of and statistics for thirty- five years 295 


Number of stock; pounds of wool; cereal crops and dairy products; 
farm, garden and orchard products; value of manufactures and pro- 
ducts; population of Utah by counties; table showing assessed value and 
tax of each county for ten years, up to and including 1883; miles of 
railroad, and assessed value of railroad property and tax in counties 
through which roads run. 296 

of Utah, by towns and settlements 3^- 

Loj;yan, Ogclen, Provo^and Salt Lake Cities, 331 


List of County and precinct officers elected August 4th, 1884; Utah 
foreign population as compared with other Territories and States; 
chronological events up to September 4th 615 

To matter and to advertisers 627 



Utah extends from the 37th to the 420! parallel of north latitude, and 
from the 109th to the 114th degree of west longitude. The Territory has 
a length of about 325 miles, a width placed at some 300 miles, with a 
superficial area, in round numbers, of 85,000 square miles, or 55,000,000 
of acres. With the exception of about 8,000 square miles taken out of 
the northeast corner of Utah and given to Wyoming, the boundary lines 
are direct and at right angles. The fragment, thus bitten out, formerly 
belonged to Utah, being then known as Green River County, but is now 
called the Green River Plateau. Utah is bounded on the west by Nevada, 
which also, at one time belonged to Utah and was known as Carson County; 
on the east by Colorado and Wyoming; on the south by Arizona, and 
north by Idaho and Wyoming, and is thus the centre of a vast area of 
country, noted for its immense mineral resource and boundless aericultural 
capacity. The Wasatch range of mountains intersects the Territory prac- 
tically the entire length, and its course is nearly through the centre. All 
streams arising in this range, at least north of a place known as Panguitch, 
in Garfield County, flow either to the east or to the west, the larger number 
flowing to the west. Hence it is that the largest and wealthiest cities in 
the Territory are located on the western side of the Wasatch, and at the 
base of the range, in order that the streams, which are fed and maintained 
by the accumulation of winter snows in the mountain fastnesses may be 
utilized to the greatest advantage and at the least possible expense. 
Below the Panguitch Plateau the streams flow^o the south, and ultimately 
empty into the Gulf of California. At this plateau the Rio Virgin and the 
Sevier Rivers have their source, the former flowing to the south and, receiv- 
ing all the smaller streams that arise below the rim of the Great Basin, grows 
and sweeps on its way to the (julf of California with an ever-changing and 
often treacherous bed. The Sevier River flows northward, breaks through 
the mountains and runs west and south, and ultimately finds its way into the 
Sevier Lake, in Millard County, where it sinks and is forever lost. 

The best watered valleys in Utah are found in Cache, Weber, Salt Lake 
and Utah Counties. One who has traversed the western base of the 
Wasatch Mountains, can readily understand why this should be the case. 
With a single exception, the range attains its highest altitude in these coun- 
ties. As the gorges are deepest, the canyons largest and most rugged, 
and the fall of snow is heaviest and lasts longest where the range is highest, 
it necessarily follows the wealth of water should be greatest in these counties. 
The exception referred to is in the northern part of Juab County; the 

Coint called Mt. Nebo, having an altitude of 11,999 feet. It is also singular 
ut true, that the character of the Wasatch Range changes at this point. 
This change is not confined to the confirmation nor to external appearance 
only, but to the flora and the discoloration of the earth, showing, or seeming 
to show, the action of a different class of minerals — largely indicative of a 
preponderance of iron. Mt. Nebo is cut off from the southern portion of 
the ran^e by Salt Creek Canyon. The range on the south of this canyon is 

perceptibly lower and bears cedar, while Mt. Nebo, and the range on the 


north sustain pine, maple, quaking-asp and cottonwood. It may be here 
remarked that the same physical features first noticeable at this point — Mt. 
Nebo — can be traced as far south as, and even below the rim ot the basin. 

There are several points in Utah still higher than Mt. Nebo, the highest 
being Gilbert's Peak, with an altitude of 13,687 feet, constituting a portion 
of the Uintah spur; and one a trifle lower, Mt. Baldy, with an elevation 
above the sea level of 11,730 feet, and is situated in Beaver County. 

Still following the Wasatch Range, it will be seen that Mt. Nebo, as 
near as may be, is in the centre of the Territory — a little north of the centre 
and a trifle to the east. This being true, reiterating the assertion previ- 
ously made that Cache, Weber, Salt Lake and Utah Counties are best 
watered for the reason that the range in those counties is highest, it follows 
then, that the northern portion of the Territorv has natural advantages for 
agricultural purposes beyond those possessed by Southern Utah. Being 
natural advantages, they have always existed, were consequently sought for 
and invited population both by the reason above given and because 
of assured prosperity. The result of these conditions was the earlier and 
more rapid settlement of the northern half of Utah, a speedier and a more 
certain accumulation of wealth. Another potent factor m the development 
of the north has been railroads, giving ingress and egress; and, in opening a 
market for the exportation of products has placed, as a result, within its 
reach, the power to gratify higher and more refined desires. These 
advantages, there is reason to believe, will yet be counterbalanced by artificial 
means, such as artesian wells and reservoirs, and by the development of 
resources which the south possesses in such abundance as will enable her 
to hold her own in the race with the north. 

The population may be fairly placed at 175,000, over two-thirds living 
north of an imaginary line running cast and west through the centre of 
the Territory. Wasatch County is the highest in the Territory, being 7,716 
feet above sea level; Washington County the lowest, with an altitude of 
2,370 feet. Panguitch Lake, a fresh water body, is 6,220 feet above sea 
level;- Utah Lake, also fr^sh water, 4,500 feet; Great Salt Lake, 4,218 feet, 
with a shore line of 350 miles. The difference in the altitude in the minimum 
and maximum above stated, is so great as to give to Utah a variety ol 
climate possessed by few <x)untries in the world; second only, if second at 
all, to that portion of Asia through which the Himalayas run. So far as 
purely climatic influences are concerned, Utah is as eminently qualified to 
be a self-sustaining country, in the highest degree, as any section of the 
same area wherever found. 

For descriptive purposes it is advisable to divide Ufcih into three parts, 
called the eastern, middle and western sections. The eastern section is that 
portion that lies to the east of the Wasatch; the middle is found between the 
Wasatch and Oquirrh Ranges; the western is that tract to the west of the 
Oquirrh Range. So far, all that has been stated relates practically to the 
middle section, for it is this portion that is mainly, settled. The eastern 
section of Utah is yet in its infancy, so far as settlement is concerned, but as 
the middle portion of the eastern section is similar in character to thait on the 
western base of the Wasatch, possessing water advaptages, rich and pro- 
ductive soil, a temperate climate and all the inherent elements essential to a 
good agricultural country, its future is unquestioned. Of the western por- 
tion less that is favorable can be said. It is even more sparsely settled 
than the eastern half, though better known for years; and the reason why 
it should be slow of developing is just as potent to-day as it was t>^enty 
years ago. That exception is its mineral resource, which in large measure 
justifies legitimate hopes for a future of reasonable prosperity, even in such 
an unpromising and sterile waste. Western Utah is composed mainly of low 
mountains, deserts, sinks, and alkali lakes, with but few pleasant places. 


though it is known to be wealthy in mineral deposits and these are of great 
variety. The 


IS about forty-five or fifty miles wide, by some 200 miles long, and includes 
the Bear River Valley up to the Gap on the north — or that point where the 
Bear River breaks through the range that encircles Cache Valley on the 
west — and the Utah Basin, including Kahara — the most southern settlement 
in Iron County — on the south. All the streams arising in this area, beside 
most of the others which flow into it, such as Bear River, ultimately find 
their way to Great Salt Lake. The notable exceptions are the Sevier River 
and the Beaver River, both of which flow into desert sinks; and such smaller 
streams as are consumed by irrigation or by local evaporation. 

The Basin is so called because of the drainage into Great Salt Lake as 
mentioned. Apart from this it has but one distinguishing characteristic, and 
that is to be found at the rim on the south. Streams arising to the north of 
the Basin ultimately find their way to the Pacific Ocean through the Colum- 
bia River; south of the Basin these streams ultimately reach the same ocean 
through the Colorado River and the Gulf of California. There is no per- 
ceptible difference in the climate from Idaho, north of the Basin, to Kanara, 
on the southern rim — a distance by air line measurement, of some 350 miles; 
but going south or down a narrow gulch called the Black Ridge — a circuit- 
ous route of not over four miles — less than three miles by air line — one 
leaves the temperate climate and enters a semi-tropical region, congenial to 
the growth of cotton and kindred products. Nor is the climatic change by 
any means the most remarkable. It is impossible that two countries could 
be less alike than Southern Utah and portions in the north; neither is the 
change in conformation less rapid than is that of climate. The southern 
portion of Utah, beyond the peradventure of a doubt, has at one period been 
the scene of sedimentary deposits of vast rivers pouring into an inland sea. 
Everywhere there is a sandstone basis. This colossal sedimentary deposit, 
massed and cemented into rock by pressure and by chemical agencies, 
was undoubtedly subject to the most tremendous earthquakes, following 
which came numberless volcanic outbursts, leaving the once level and 
almost solid sandstone bed, a wild and wierd nnd rugged mass, wrought 
into the most fantastic forms, which time, together with the aqueous and 
igneous agencies, has been striving to tone down, and wear into smoother 
shapes, but so far with little success. The valleys, as a natural con- 
sequence, are small, streams few and far between, and lumber almost a thing 
unknown. It is either sandstone or sand. The hillsides are covered with 
volcanic rock, thrown high upon the rugged mountains which, breaking away, 
piece by piece, has rolled down the hills, and formed an immovably packed 
mass. Traces of volcanoes are to be seen wherever the eye rests. Southern 
Utah, and that portion, of Utah on the rim of the Basin and running north, 
could not have been made less alike. 

The Wasatch and the O.quirrh are the only mountain ranges in Utah, 
though there are many spurs, each designated differently from the rest. 
There are numerous rivers, the largest and certainly the longest being the 
Bear River, which follows a remarkably circuitous route of some 300 miles 
before emptying into Great Salt Lake. There are also many lakes, both 
fresh and salt water; of the former, Utah Lake is the largest, its average 
width being ten miles, its length about thirty miles. 

S.uch is Utah — a region of mountain, valley, canyon, desert, river, lake 
and sink. It has not unjustly been called the Switzerland of America. 
There are valleys for the farmer and the horticulturist; hills and grassy 
ranges for the stock raiser; warm skies and genial soil for the vintage; min- 
erals for the miner; resources for the manufacturer; bracing air and mineral 



springs for the invalid; mountains and streams, game and fish and fair 
weather for the j)leiisure seeker, and wealth, health and happiness for all. 


On the mountains and along the water-courses are found the following 
trees, shrubs and vines: Cottonwood, dwarf birch, willow, quaking aspen, 
mountain maple, box elder, scrub cedar, scrub oak, mountain oak, white, red, 
yellow and pinyon pine, white sj)nice, balsam-fir, mountain mahogany, com- 
mon elder, dwarf hawthorn, sumac, wild hop, wild rose, dwarf sunflower, 
and of edible berries, service berry, bull-berry, wild-cherry, wild currant, etc. 
Most of the plants belong to the Composite y Cniciferce, Lrp;uminosa', Dorr 
raginacecB, or Rosacccc, 


Among the animals are the coyote, gray wolf, wolverine, mountain 
sheep, buffalo (now extinct in Utah), antelope, elk, moose; black tailed, 
white tailed, and mule deer; grizzly, black and cinnamon bear; civet cat, 
striped squirrel, gopher, prairie dog, beaver, porcupine, badger, skunk, wild 
cat, lynx, sage and jack-rabbit and cottontail. Birds: (lolden and bald 
eagle and osprey; horned, screech and burrowing owl; duck, [)igeon, spar- 
row, sharp-shinned and goshawk; woodj^ecker, raven, yellow-billed magpie, 
jay, blackbird, ground robin, long sparrow; purple, grass and Gambell's 
finch; fly-catcher, wren, water-ouzel, skylark, English snipe, winter yellow- 
legs, spotted sand piper, great blue heron, bittern, stork, swan, pelican. 
Peale's egret, ground dove, red-shafted flicker, mallard and green-winged 
teal; goose, ptarmigan, humming bird, mountain quail, sage cock and pine 
hen. Reptiles: Rattlesnake, water- snake, harlequin snake and lizards. 
The tarantula and scorpion are found, but are not common. 


The following list, showing the elevation of 154 different points in 
Utah, is compiled from government surveys: 



American Fork, 
Antelope Spring, . 

ELEVA- !' 




Adamsville • 5,600 Lone Peak, 

4,608 Laketown 

4,850! Logan i 4,557 


Big Cottonwood, 


4,457 Lime Rock Valley, 4,400 to 

4,261 Lucin 

5,798 Mcunt Nebo, 

Burro Peak, 12,883 Mount Haldv, 

Bear River Bridge. 



4,543 Mount Belcher I 97^6 

Bear Valley 7»07i Mammoth Mill, 

Bear Lake, 5. 911 Mattin, .... 

Beaver, 6,020 Meadow Creek, . 

Blue Creek, ' 4,319 Mill Creek Station, . 

Bonneville, 4.310 Mill .Spring, . . 

Bovine | 4,34.7 Montpelier, . . . 

Box Canyon Spring, ... I 4,261 Monument, . . 

Brigham City | 4.226 Mountain Meadows. 

Buck Horn Spring, . . . ' 5,688 Mount I^leasant, . 

Centreville, 4,235 Mount Tohkwano j 13.500 

Cox Peak, j 13, 250 ;Nephi 4., 920 to ! 4,938 

Camp Douglas, 4,800 to : 5,024 Ogdc-n : 4,302 

Camp Floyd, . . 4,850 to 4,867 Oak Creek 5. 158 

Camp Stevenson I 5,930 Oak Springs 6,790 

Castle Rock ! 6,260 lOmbey i 4.721 




I 6,090 




Cedar City 

Cedar Spring, . . . . 




Cub River Bridge. . . . 


Divide, Spur of Mountain, 
Davies' Mount, 
Deadman's Spring, 
Deep Creek, .... 
Deseret Spring, .... 
Devil's Gate, .... 


Dedoquiba Spring, . 



Eureka City, 




Faust, . 


Fish Spring 

Fort American, 
Fort Crittendon, 
Fountain Green, . 
(jreat Salt Lake, 
Gilbert's Peak, 
(yould's Ranch, . . . . Valley, .... 


Hayden's Peak, . 
Hanging Rock, .... 
Hawawah Spring, 
Hay Spring, . .* . 
Hay Patch Spring, 



Heusch Spring, .... 

Hyde Park 

Indian Spring, . . . . 

Iron City, 

Joe's Valley 



Kamas Prairie, 




Little Cottonwood, . . 


Logan Peak, .... 



I __ 

5,726 : iPleasant Grove, 

5, loo'.Provo, . . 
























Phillips' Village, . . . . 

jPorteo Valley, 

jPotatoe •' 


Rabbit Vallev, Fort of, . . 




Richmond Prairie, . . . . 


Rush Valley, 

Salt Lake City, .... 



Spanish F'ork 

jSantacjuin, . . . . . . 


iSevier Lake, 

iSt. Mary's, 

'Signal Office, Salt Lake City, 

'San Francisco Spring, . . 


'Sevier Bridge, 

4,052 iSevier City, 

6, 857 1 Skull Valley, 


13,500 "Smithfield, 

5,974 [.Strawberry Valley, . 

4, 255 1 'Sulphur Springs, .... 

5,092 1 'St. George 

5,590 Terrace, 

5,524 Tintic, 

5,474 Tooele Valley 

5'373 .Utah Lake, 

4,553 lUintah, 

5,771 Uintah Agency, .... 

6,099 Wood's Cross 

8,420 'Wasatch, 

4, 298 Wanship, 

6,304 Washie-pah-gun Spring, *. 
6, 225 1 Washington, . . . . . 
4,900 1 1 Weber, 




4. 223 

AVcllsville, . . . , . 
White Sulphur Spring, 
White Vallev. . . . 
WillardCity, . . . 
Willow Spring, 

















4, 250 









At the time of the settlement of Utali by the Mormons, the countiy 
belonged to Mexico, but the year following, in 1848, the territory of which 
Utah forms a part, was ceded to the United States by the treaty of Guad- 
alupe Hidalgo. 

1847. July 7. — The Pioneers arrived at Fort Bridger. 

July 13. — Aj)ostle Orson Pratt was appointed to precede the main body 
of the Pioneers towards Salt Lake Valley, taking with him twenty-three 
wagons and forty-two men. 

July 21. — The advance company encamped in Emigration Canyon. 
Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow entered Salt Lake Valley, made a circuit of 
some ten miles distant from the mouth of the Canyon and returned to the 
tamp late in the evening. 

July 22. — The advance body of the Pioneers advanced into Salt Lake 
Valley, and camped on Canyon Creek. 

July 23. — The advance company moved about three miles and camped 
on what is now called Washington Square. They were immediately organ- 
ized for work, and plowing and planting began, the first furrow being turned 
by Wm. Carter. The work of bringing water out of City Creek for irriga- 
tion purposes also commenced on this day. 

July 24. — President Brigham Young, who had remained at Little Moun- 
tain on the night of the 23d, because of sickness, entered the valley and 
joined the remainder of the Pioneers. 

Thus the entire company of Pioneers, numbering 143 souls, which had 
left the Missouri River during April, arrived safely in Salt Lake Valley. 

July 25. — Religious services were held for the first time in Salt Lake 
Valley, the first discourse being delivered by (jeo. A. Smith. 

July 29. — A portion of the "Mormon Battalion," numbering about 150, 
under command of Captain James Brown, arrive, having come from Pueblo 
to Fort Laramie, and thence west. They were accompanied by a party of 
immigrants from the State of Mississippi. These accessions increased the 
number in the Valley to about 400 souls. 

July 31. — Great Salt Lake City laid out in square blocks of ten acres 
each, eight lots to the block, and streets eight rods wide, running at right 

August 25. — President Brigham Young and about seventy of the 
Pioneers start east for Winter, Quarters, on the Missouri River, to assist 
their immigration forward. Arrived at their destination October 31st. 
While traveling toward Winter Quarters, they met several companies of 
immigrants, who were following the track of the Pioneers. 

August 26. — The colonists had laid off a fort, built twenty-seven log 
houses, plowed and planted eighty-four acres with corn, potatoes, beans, 
l)uckwheat, turnips, etc.. and had manufactured 125 bushels of salt. 

During the Fall of 1847, about 2,000 souls and some 600 wagons reached 
Salt Lake Valley. 


1848. Peregrine Sessions, in the Spring of this year, located at what 
is now called Bountiful or Sessions settlement, and broke the first ground in 
Davis County. 

Captain James Brown located on the present site of Ogden, having 
bought some improvements from an Indian trader. 

May 31. — President Brigham Young organizes the immigrants of the 
faith coming west, at Winter Quarters, into companies for the journey. 

June. — President Young left the Elkhorn in the early part of this month 
for Salt Lake Valley. His company consisted of 1,299 souls and 397 
wagons. Following him* came Heber C. Kimball with a company of 662 
souls and 226 wagons, while the last company, which left Winter Quarters 
on the 3d of July, 1848, was under charge of Willard Richards, and com- 
prised 526 souls, who brought with them 169 wagons. 

August 9. — Great Salt Lake City fort contains 450 buildings, with three 
saw-mills and a flouring mill in the city, and others in course of construc- 

August 10. — Feast given in Great Salt Lake City to celebrate the first 
harvest gathered in the Great Basin. 

September 20. — President Young arrives with his company. 

Davis and Weber Counties were settled this month. 

In the summer of this year myriads of big crickets came down from 
the mountains and began te sweep away fields of grain and corn; and 
were only stayed by the arrival of immense flocks of sea gulls, which 
devoured the crickets. 

During 1848 the population of the Territory was increased about 1,000 
by immigration. 

1849* February 5. — Mercury 33° below zero in Great Salt Lake City. 

March. — The first postoflice established in Great Salt Lake City. 

March 8, 9, 10. — Convention was held in Great Salt Lake City, result- 
ing in the adoption of a Constitution for the propo.sed State of Deseret. A. 
W. Babbitt was chosen as Delegate and soon dispatched to Congress with a 
memorial asking for admission to the Union. 

March 9. — Election held under the Provisional Government of the State 
of Deseret. Brigham Young elected Governor, Willard Richards, Secretary 
of State; N. K. Whitney, Treasurer; H. C. Kimball, Chief Justice; John 
Taylor and N. K. Whitney, Associate Justices: Daniel H. Wells, Attorney - 
(ieneral; Horace S. Eldredge, Marshal; Albert Carrington, Assessor and 
Collector of Taxes, and Joseph L. Heywood, Surveyor of Highways, etc. 
Magistrates were also elected. 

March 28. — Nauvoo Legion partially organized; Daniel H. Wells, 

Ma^ 27. — Parties from the east €7i route for the California gold mines 
first arrive. 

July 24. — First celebration held in Great Salt Lake City in commemora- 
tion of the entrance of the Pioneers into Salt Lake Valley. 

August 28. — Captain H. Stansbur\' arrives to commence his survey. 

October 6. — Perpetual Emigration Fund organized. 

Apostles J ohnTay lor, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow and F. D. Richards 
called at the semi-annual conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints to go on missions to Europe. This was the first call made for 
missionaries from Utah. 

November — Sanpete County settled by Isaac Morley, Seth Taft and 
Chas. Shumway. Manti is the site of their location. 

During the fall of this year Tooele County was located by John Row- 
l)erry; the survey of Great Salt Lake Valley by Captain Stansbury and 
Lieutenant GunnLson was completed, and the first Indian war occurred. 


The increase of population by immigration during 1849 was, about 
1,400, who l^rought with them some 500 wagons. This does not include 
those immigrants who, passing through Great Salt Lake City on their way 
to California, remained and made their homes permanently in the Valley. 

1850. January. — A company of Pioneers, under P. P. Pratt, return 
from Southern Utah, whither they had gone beyond the rim of the basin on 
an exploring journey. 

F*ebruary 10. — Fight between Indians and a company of volunteers, 
at Utah Fort, now Provo; several killed on both sides; Indians forced to 

February 22. — Earthquake shock felt in Great Salt Lake Valley. 

June 15. — Deseret News published. 

July 4. — Parley's Canyon opened for travel under the name of "The 
Golden Pass." 

August 28. — Captain Stansbury completes his surxey. 

Ogden City located by President Young. 

September 9. — Act of Congress organizing Utah Territory approved. 

September 20. — Brigham Young appointed Governor of Utah Terri- 

September 23. — Newel K. Whitney, Presiding Bishop of the Church, 
died in Great Salt Lake City. 

December 8. — Thirty families left Salt Lake City, including 118 men, 
with 600 head of stock and loi wagons, led by Elder Geo. A. Smith, and 
in January following arrived at and settled the County of Iron, by building 
a fort at Parowan. 

The Council House, recently damaged by fire and one of the oldest 
buildings in the Territory, was erected and made ready for occupancy dur- 
ing this fall. 

1851. January 3. — First criminal trial by jury held in the Provisional 
State of Deseret. 

Januar)^ 9. — Great Salt Lake City incorporated. 

January 11. — First municipal election took place at Great Salt Lake 
City. Jedediah M. Grant was chosen Mayor. 

Shortly aft^r this, charters were granted to Ogden, Provo, Manti and 
Parowan Cities. 

April 5. — General Assembly of the Provisional State of Deseret dis- 

April 7. — It was decided to build a temple in Great Salt Lake City. - 

Edward Hunter appointed to succeed to the office of N. K. Whitney, 
deceased, as Presiding Bishop of the Church. 

September 23. — I'^irst Legislative Assembly of Utah Territory met in 
(ireat Salt Lake City. 

October 29. — Fillmore City located as the seat of government for and 
the capital of Utah Territory. 

During the latter part of this year. Millard County was settled by 
Anson Call and thirty families; Box Elder by Simeon A. Carter and others; 
Carson County (now Nevada), by Col. John Reese; and Juab County by 
Joseph L. Heywood and others, who located at Nephi. 

185/2. January 16. — Tabernacle, capable of sitting 3,000 persons, 

February 14. — Territorial Legislature memorialize Congress for a Pacific 
railroad and telegraph line. 

In the spring of this year John D. Lee settled in Washington County, 
on Ash Creek, which is now the site of Harmony, Kane County. 


April 6. — The *'01d Tabernacle** dedicated. It was 126 feet long, 64 
feet wide, with arched roof and no pillar supports. It faced the south; was 
razed a few years back, and on its site the Assembly Hall now stands. 

July 27. — Thermometer 127'' in the sun in Great Salt Lake City. 

August 29. — The revelation concerning plural marriage was first pub- 
licly promulgated. 

September 3. — First company of Perpetual Emigration P'und immi- 
grants arrived from Europe, A. O. Smoot, captain; met by the First 
Presidency, Captain Wm. Pitt's band, and many leading citizens. 

September 4. — Treaty made with the chiefs of the Utes and Shoshones 
in Great Salt Lake City. 

Juab and Washington Counties settled; the latter in the Spring and the 
former in the Fall. 

Post offices established at American Fork, Springville and Pay son. 
Utah County; Salt Creek (Nephi), Juab County, and F'illmore City, Millard 

1853* January i. — The Social Hall, built during the previous year, 
was dedicated. 

February 14. — The Temple Block consecrated, and ground broken for 
the foundation of the Temple. 

April 6. — Comer stones of Temple laid. 

August 29. — Resolution adopted by City Council, in compliance with 
expressed request of the inhabitants, to build a Spanish wall around Great 
Salt Lake City. The wall was twelve feet high, six feet thick at base, taper- 
ing to two feet and six inches, six feet from the ground, and preserving 
that thickness to the top. It was about nine miles in length. 

September 26. — Captain J. W. Gunnison, U. S. Topographical Engin- 
eer, and seven men, killed by Indians near the swamps of the Sevier, twenty 
miles from the Sevier River, in revenge for killing an Indian and the wound- 
ing of two others by a company of emigrants for California. 

Second Indian war. 

It was in this year that President Young purchased a grant for thirty 
square miles of land and some cabins from a Mexican named Bridger, which 
was located as a supply fort. It was the location of Green River count}', at 
one time a portion of Utah. 

Summit County was also settled this year by Samuel Snider who built 
saw milb in Parley's Park. 

1854. January 7. — John C. Fremont, with nine whites and twelve 
Delaware Indians, arrived at Parowan in a state of starvation. One man 
liad fallen dead from his horse near the settlement, and others were nearlv 
dead. Animals and provisions were supplied, and after resting to the 20th, 
they departed. 

March 11. — Dr. Willard Richards, second Counselor to President 
Voung, and editor of the Deserct News, died. 

April 7. — Jedediah M. Grant chosen Counselor in place of Willard 

May 23. — Patriarch John Smith died. 

July. — Grasshoppers make their first appearance and do much damage. 

August 15. — Wall around the Temple block completed. 

The Deseret Alphabet was produced this year ; and the old Seventies 
Hall was built. 

Difficulties with the Ute Indians continued during this year, result- 
ing in the loss of many lives and the destruction of much property : and 
made it necessary for persons to gather into settlements for mutual pro- 


1855* January i. — Iron made by the De^eret Iron Company. 

January 20. — Walker, the celebrated Utah Chief, died at Meadow Creek. 

In the spring of this year Morgan County was settled by Jedediah M. 
Grant, Thos. Thurston, and others. 

May 5. — The Endowment House was consecrated. 

July I. — Molasses made from beet at the sugar factory. 

September. — Deseret Horticultural Society organized. 

Various societies organized during the early part of the year, among 
which, and most prominent, were the ** Universal Scientific Society,*' the 
* * Polysophical Society,** ** Deseret Philharmonic Society,'* and ** Deseret 
Typographical Association.'* 

October 29. — In the thirteenth general epistle of the First Presidency 
of the Church, it was proposed that those of the faith emigrated by the 
Perpetual Emigration fund, should cross the plains in hand-carts. 

December 10. — ^The Territorial Legislative Assembly met at Fillmore, 
the new seat of government, for the first time. In this month the Legis- 
lature, by act, authorized an election of delegates to attend a Territorial 
convention, the object of which was to draft a state constitution, and peti- 
tion Congfress for the admission of Utah into the Union. 

Dunng the Summer grasshoppers do serious damage to crops, destroy- 
ing nearly everything green in many parts of the Territory. The loss and 
suffering was aggravated by drought, the combined evils causing a great 
failure in crops. 

1866. January 26.— Express carrying company organized to carry 
express from Missouri River tb California, and shares taken to stock a 
thousand miles of the road at a mass meeting held in Great Salt Lake City. 

March 17. — Convention met in Great Salt Lake City to prepare consti- 
tution and memorial to Congress for admission as a State. 

March 27. — Constitution and memorial adopted; George A. Smith and 
John Taylor elected delegates to present them to Congress. 

September 26. — First hand-cart companies arrive under charge of 
Captains Edmund Ellsworth and D. D. McArthur. They were met by 
the First Presidency of the Church, a brass band, a company of lancers, 
and a large concourse of influential citizens. 

December i, — ^Jedediah M. Grant died. 

December 8. — Legislature met in Fillmore, organized and adjourned to 
Great Salt Lake City. 

December 18. — Legislature met in the Social Hall, Great Salt Lake 

In this year Cache Valley was settled by Peter Maughan and others, 
who located what is now known as Wellsville. Beaver County was settled 
the same year by Simeon Hbwd and thirteen others from Parowan. 

The Winter of 1856-7 was excessively severe, snow falling to a depth of 
eight feet in places in the valleys. 

1867. January 4. — Daniel H. Wells chosen second Counselor to 
President B. Young, in place of J. M. Grant. 

April 23. — Company of about seventy missionaries start and cross the 
plains east with hand-carts, making the trip in forty-eight days. 

July II. — Alfred Cumming, of Georgia, appointed Governor of Utah. 

July 24. — Judge Stoddard arrives without the mails, the postmaster at 
I ndependence having received orders not to forward them. General Har- 
ney, with two thousand infantry and a proportionate number of artillery and 
cavalry, ordered to Utah. 

August 7. — First part of the "Army of Utah," consisting of the Tenth 
Infantry and Phelps' Battery, arrive at Fort Kearney. 


September 8. — Captain Van Vliet, of General Harney's staff, arrived in 
Great Salt Lake City and held a conference with President Young. 

September 9. — Mountain Meadow massacre. 

September 15. — Territory declared under martial law b^ Governor 
Young; troops forbidden to enter Great Salt Lake Yalley. Militia stationed 
at Echo Canyon and other points to intercept soldiers and prevent their 
access to the vallev. 

November. — The United States army, under General Johnston, reach 
Fort Bridger and take possession of the supply fort of Mormons on Green 

Emigration of members of the Mormon faith takes place this Fall from 
San Bernardino, California. 

During this year the so-called Reformation among members of the Lat- 
ter-day Saint faith takes place. 

1858* January 16. — Mass meeting of citizens of Great Salt Lake City 
held in the Tabernacle; a petition to Congress drawn up and resolutions 
setting forth the condition of affairs in Utah adopted and both ordered for- 
warded to Washington. 

February 24. — Col. Thos. L. Kane arrives in Great Salt Lake City by 
way of California; has an interview with President Young; leaves for Fort 
Bridger where he meets Governor Gumming. 

March 21. — The citizens of Great Salt Lake City and the setdements 
north of it agree to abandon their homes and go south, all the information 
derived from eastern papers being that the approaching formidable army 
was sent to destroy them. Destination, when starting, supposed to be 

April 10. — Governor A. Gumming and Col. T. L. Kane, with a servant 
each, having left the *' Army of Utah to proceed to Salt Lake City, arrive 
with an escort of Mormons whom they accidentally meet on the way. 

April 15. — Governor Gumming reports having arrived and been treated 
everywhere **with respectful attention. 

April 19. — Governor Gumming and Col. Kane visit the Utah Library, 
where J. W. Cummings showed them the records and seal of the United 
Stateis District /Court, said to have been burnt up, which was one of the 
reasons why the army was ordered to Utah. 

May. — Citizens of Utah, residing north of Utah Count}*, leave their 
homes and travel to the south. A few men remain in each settlement, who, 
it is supposed, were instructed to burn homes, and everything else, in the 
event that the approaching troops should prove hostile. 

June 7. — L. W. Powell, of Kentucky, and Ben McCullough, of Texas, 
Peace Commissioners, arrive in Great Salt Lake City. 

June 11. — Peace Commissioners hold session, in Council House, Presi- 
dent Young and others present. 

June 26. — Col. Johnston and army pass through Great Salt Lake, and 
camp on west side of Jordan River. Later on the army proceeded to Cedar 
V^alley and located Camp Floyd, so named still. 

July. — The greater part of the people who had abandoned their homes 
because of the approach of the army, returned and resumed their accus- 
tomed labors. 

In the Spring of 1858 Kane County was settled by J. T. Willis, who 
located at Toquerville. In the Fall of the same year Nephi Johnson and 
six others located at Virgin City. 

Florence, Wyoming, was this year made the outfitting point for emi- 
grants crossing the plains for Utah. 

1859. March 8. — Provo occuj)ied by United States troops. 

March 27. — Governor Gumming issued a proclamation against presence 


of troops in Provo. About this time report of a conspiracy on the part of 
United States officials to secure the arrest of President Young gained cre- 
dence, together with the intimation that Col. Johnston had promised the 
assistance of United States troops under his command to effect the arrest. 
As a consequence Governor Gumming notified General D. H. Wells to hold 
the militia m readiness to prevent the outrage should it he attempted; and 
5,000 troops were placed under arms. 

April 4. — United States troops evacuate Provo. 

August 15. — United States soldiers reported to have set fire to a hay 
stack at Cedar Fort, and fired upon the citizens in the night. 

November. — Cache Valley organized as a Stake of Zion with Peter 
Maughan^as president thereof. 

I860. May. — Main portion of United States troops located at Camp 
Floyd, leave for Arizona and New Mexico. 

August 26. — Geo. Q. Cannon ordained a member of the Quorum of 
Twelve Apostles. 

1861* April 26. — Two hundred wagons, with four yoke of cattle 
each, carrying about 15,000 lbs. of flour, started for the Missouri River to 
bring on the poor of the immigration. 

October 3. — ^John W. Dawson appointed Governor of Utah. 

October 18. — First telegram crosses the overland wire, from Utah, sent 
to President Abraham Lincoln by President Brigham Young. 

October 24. — First telegram sent to San Francisco by President 
Brigham Young. 

In the Fall of 1861, Col. Johnston and remainder of his army, located at 
Camp Floyd, were ordered to the States on account of the war that had 
broken out between the North and South. It is estimated that something 
like $4,000,000 worth of Government property, as a consequence, was dis- 
posed of for about $100,000. 

Quite a large number of persons were called to move southward and 
settle the southern part of the Territory, and they located on the Rio 
Vir^en and Santa Clara Rivers. Thus St George was located, and that 
section soon attained considerable prominence. 

December 7. — John W. Dawson, appointed Governor of Utah in place 
of Alfred Cumming, arrives in Great Salt Lake City. 

186!3« January 22. — Constitution again adopted, with memorial for 
admission of Utah as a State, with the name of **Deseret.*' George Q. 
Cannon and W. H. Hooper elected to present them to Congress. 

March 6. — Salt Lake Theatre dedicated. 

March 31. — Stephen S. Harding appointed Governor of Utah. 

May 21. — Two hundred and sixty-two wagons, 293 teamsters, 2,880 
oxen, carrying 143,315 lbs. of flour, sent from Utah to assist the poor of 
the immigration across the plains and mountains. 

June 12 to 15. — R. T. Burton, with posse, went to the Morrisite Camp on 
Weber River to arrest leaders for depredations. Camp resists, but after 
three days' siege, surrenders. Morris, Banks and four other Morrisites are 
killed, with two of the posse, caused by an attempt at resistance after the 
surrender had occurred. 

^ une 16. — Morrisites brought to Salt Lake City as prisoners. 

, uly I. — Anti-polygamy law passed by Congress. 

, uly 7. — Stepnen S. Harding, fourth Governor of Utah, arrives in 
Great Salt Lake City. 

December 10. — Governor Harding delivers his annual message, extra 
copies of which the Legislature will not publish, viewing it as insulting. 


1863* January 29. — Col. P, E. Connor attacks a band of Shoshone 
Indians in a ravine near Bear River, and defeats them. Known as Bear 

March 3. — A mass meeting held in the Tabernacle, at which protests 
were entered against the course pursued by Governor Harding, and Judges 
Drake and Wait. A petition asking for their removal was drawn up and 
forwarded to President Lincoln. 

President Young was arrested this month under the anti-polygamy law 
of 1862. 

March 22. — Overland mail, with four passengers, attacked by Indians 
near Eight Mile Station, Tooele County. Driver killed and one passenger 
wounded. Judge Mott, who was in the coach, took the reins, drove for life 
and escaped. 

April 5. — Battle of Spanish Fork Canyon, between 140 cavalry (C. V.,) 
under Col. G. S. Evans, and 200 Indians. Lieut. F. A. Teale was killed. 
The Indians were defeated. 

May 18. — Three hundred and eighty-four wagons, 488 teamsters, 3,604 
oxen, tidcing 225,969 lbs. flour, start to assist the poor of the immigration. 
Four thousand three hundred pounds of Utah grown cotton sent East for 
sale with the teams dispatched to assist the immigration. 

June. — Jas. D. Doty, appointed to succeed Stephen S. Harding, as Gov- 
ernor of Utah Territory, arrives in Great Salt Lake City. 

During this year Rich County, in Bear Lake Valley, was setded by C. 
C. Rich. Wasatch County was also settled the same year. 

1864* July 4. — Daily Telegraph issued; T. B. H. Stenhouse, propri- 
etor and editor ; semi-weekly issued October 8, same year. 

This year the Perpetual Emigration Company sent 170 wagons, 1,717 
oxen, and 277 men to assist in the emigration of the poor from the Missouri 
to Utah. 

1865« January. — Sevier and Piute Counties organized. 

April 10. — Proposition made to build a telegraph line in Utah. 

June 5. — ^Treaty made by Col. O. H. Irish with the principal Indian 
chiefs in the Territory, at Spanish Fork Reser\'ation Farm. 

June 8. — Hon. Schuyler Colfax and party arrive. 

June II. — Colfax and party address the citizens in front of the Salt 
Lake House. 

une 13. — Governor Doty died. 

uly 15. — Chas. Durkee appointed Governor of Utah, 
uly 24. — Hon. J. M. Ashley addressed an audience in the Bowery, at 
the celebration on the Territorial anniversary. 

October 7. — Chas. Durkee, Utah's sixth Governor, arrives in Great Salt 
Lake City. 

October 8. — First issue of the Deseret NewSy semi-weekly. 

November. — First Hebrew marriage celebrated in Salt Lake City. - • 

Construction of Deseret Telegraph line commenced this year. 

1866* January i. — First XiwvcAi^r Juvenile Instructor appeared; Geo. 
Q. Cannon editor. 

May 31. — First circumcision of Hebrew child in Salt Lake City. — 

June II. — Indian war. General Wells and militia start for Sanpete to 
protect the settlements there. 

December 2. — Deseret Telegraph Line operated between Logan and St. 

1867* July 19. — Grasshoppers arrive in vast quantities. 
October 6. — First conference held in new Tabernacle. 



October 8. — Jos. F. Smith appointed to fill vacancy in quorum of 
Twelve Apostles, caused by the apostasy of Amasa M. Lyman. 

November 21. — First number of Deserct Evening News appears. 

The Union Pacific was completed as far as Julesburg tnis year and 
emigrants traveled by rail to th^t point. 

1868* January 29. — Act approved changing the names of Great Salt 
Lake City and County to Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County. 

June. — Union Iron Company commence operations at Pinto, Iron 

June 19. — Ground broken on the Union Pacific Railroad in Weber 

June 22. — Heber C. Kimball, First Counselor to President Young, died. 

October 6. — George A. Smith chosen First Counselor in place of 
Heber C. Kimball. 

October 8. — Brigham Young, Jr., set apart as a member of the Quorum 
of Twelve Apostles. 

October 16. — Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution was founded in 
Salt Lake City, with Brigham Young as president. Co-op. Stores were 
shortly after opened in most of the towns and settlements of the Territory. 

1869* January. — First General Directory of Salt Lake City compiled 
by E. L. Sloan. 

February. — Co-operative merchandising introduced in Utah by Presi- 
dent Brigham Young. 

March 8. — University of Deseret opens in Council House. 

May 10.— Completion of the great Pacific Railroad ; last rail laid and 
last spike driven at Promontory, Utah. 

May 17. — Ground broken at Ogden for the Utah Central Railroad. 

May 25. — First company of immigrants arrive in Ogden over the 
Union Pacific Railroad, in charge of Elias Morris. 

July 25. — First shipment of Utah ore, being ten tons from the Monitor 
and Magnet mine. Little Cottonwood, shipped by Woodhull Bros, to T. H. 
Selby , San Francisco, $32. 50 per ton being paid for freighting it to Uintah 
on the Union Pacific Railroad. 

July 31. — Woodhull Bros, make the first shipment of Utah copper ore, 
ten tons, from the Kingston mine, Bingham canyon. 

Augiist. — Grasshoppers destroy a large portion of the growing crops in 
Cache, Washington, Kane, and Iron Counties; other parts of the Territory 
escape the visitation and gather abundant crops. 

September 3. — Apostle E. T. Benson died at Ogden, Utah. . 

October 7. — Mass meeting held in Salt Lake City, with a view of again 
appealing to Congress for the admission of Utah as a State. 

October 8. — One hundred and ninety Mormon missionaries called at the 
General Conference in Salt I^ke City to go to the different States of the 
Union and preach. 

October 31. — Indian raid on town of Kanara, Kane County. 

The Mormon emigration from Europe to Utah during this year was 
about 3,000. 

1870. January i. — First number Ogden /uncfion issued. 

IVeekfy Tribune newspaper issued. 

January 10. — Last rail of the Utah Central Railroad laid and last spike 
driven, at Salt Lake City, by President Brigham Young, in presence of 
15,000 people. 

January 12. — Woodhull Bros, ship the first car-load of ore over the 
Utah Central Railroad. 


January 13. — Large mass meeting of and speeches by Mormon women, 
in the Old Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, to protest against the passage of the 
Cullom anti-polygamy bill. 

February 12. — Woman suffrage bill, passed by the Utah Legislature, is 
approved by Acting-Governor S. A. Mann, and becomes law. 

March 29. — J. Wilson Shaffer, recently appointed Governor of Utah, 

April 27. — Patriarch John Young, President Young's oldest brother, 
died in Salt Lake City. 

May 12. — Amasa M. Lyman, once a member of the Quorum of the 
Twelve Apostles, is excommunicated for apostasy. 

June 5. — First number Salt Lake Daily Herald issued, W. C. Dunbar 
and E. L. Sloan publishers; Edward L. Sloan editor. 

June 23. — Fifteen wagons loaded with machinery for a woolen factory 
at Beaver, leave Salt Lake City. 

June. — During this month the potato bug made its appearance, but 
caused no serious injury. 

July 3. — Albert Carrington was ordained one of the Twelve Apostles. 

July 13. — Lady Franklin visited Salt Lake City, while on the return 
from searching for her husband, the lost Sir John. 

July 18. — Reported that the Uintah Agency was attacked by the Tabby- 
wache Indians, from the White River Reservation. 

July 24. — Hon. Wm. H. Hooper received an ovation on his return 
from Washington. Crowds met the train bearing him from Ogden to Salt 
Lake, at each station, and the demonstrations of approval were most pro- 

July. — S. A. Mann, Secretary, and C. C. Wilson, Chief Justice of 
Utah, removed by President Grant, Jas. B. McKean being appointed Chief 
Justice, and Vernon H. Vaughan, Secretary. 

August 12. — Discussion on polygamy between Rev. J. P. Newman, 
Chaplain of the United States Senate, and Elder Orson Pratt, of the Mor- 
mon Twelve Apostles, commences in the New Tabernacle in Salt Lake City 
and continues three days. 

Au^st 13. — S. D. Woodhull, of the firm of Woodhull Bros., the ear- 
liest active mining operators in Utah, was shot in Little Cottonwood, in a 
difficulty over a claim. He died the evening of the 14th. 

August 27. — The establishment of Paul En^lebrecht was broken up, 
and his stock of liquors destroyed under authority of the City because he 
sold without a license. 

August 28. — Martin Harris, one of the ** witnesses * ' to the Book of 
Mormon, arrived in Salt Lake City. He was 88 years old. 

August 30. — ^Judge Jas. B. McKean arrived in Salt Lake. 

September i. — First issue of the Salt Lake HeraJdy semi-weekly 

September 7. — Jas. B. McKean entered upon his duties as Chief Justice 
of the Territory. 

September 9. — Jones & Robbins began the erection of smelting works 
on the State Road. 

September 15. — Gov. J. W. Shaffer issued a proclamation appointing 
P. Edward Connor Major General of the Utah militia, and Wm. M. 
Johns Assistant Adjutant General. On the same da^ he issued a proclama- 
tion prohibiting all drills, musters and militia gatherings except upon his 
order or that of the United States Mai-shal ; also ordering the delivery of all 
arms belonging to the Territory of Utah or the United States— except in the 
|x>ssession of United States soldiers — to Col. Wm. M. Johns. 

September 19. — Judge McKean decided that the United States Marshal 
for Utah was a United States and not a Territorial officer, hence the summons 


of the grand jury by the Territorial Marshal was illegal and the jury con- 
sequently an illegal body. 

September 20. — First run of crude bullion at the first smelting works 
built in Utah, erected six miles south of Salt Lake by Woodhull Brothers. 

October 12. — Hon. Vincent Colyer, Secretary of the Board of Indian 
Commissioners, Washington, D. C, visited Salt Lake City in the interest 
of Indian affairs. 

October 12. — ^The Old Arsenal building, Salt Lake City, was burned to 
the ground. Incendiary. 

October 14. — A scientific exploring party from Yale Collage under 
direction of Professor Marsh arrived in Salt Lake City. 

October 31. — J. Wilson ShafTer, Governor of Utah, died at his resi- 
dence in Salt Lake City. 

November 4. — Prof. Hayden, United States Geologist, arrived at Salt 
Lake City. 

November 4. — Howland's Crushing and Sampling Works were started 
in Salt Lake City. 

November 8. — General Chas. A. Washburn, United States Minister to • 
Paraguay, and Hon. Alvin Handers, Governor of Washington Territory, 
visited Salt Lake City. • 

November 23. — The ** wooden gun rebellion" occurs. Messrs. C. R. 
Savage, Geo. M. Ottinger, John C. Graham, and others are arrested for 
treason and confined at Camp Douglas. 

December 14. — Senator Stewart, of Nfevada, ofTered a resolution in the 
United States Senate asking the President to inform the Senate how much 
it had cost the Government to guard the overland route, from the annexa- 
tion of California to 1864, from attacks of Indians and Mormons. 

December 21. — Ex-Governor Mann and a party left Salt Lake City to 
represent the mining interests of Utah before the San Francisco Board of 

1871. January 3. — Baron Albrecht Jochmus, of Vienna, Lieutenant 
Field Marshal of Austrian Army, visited Salt Lake City. 

February 3. — Nominations of Geo. L. Woods, of Oregon, for Gov- 
ernor of Utah, and Geo. A. Black, for Secretary', confirmed by the Senate. 

Feburary 12. — First smeltmg works erected in Ophir City. 

February 18. — Pony Express started between Salt Lake and Little Cot- 
tonwood mining camp. 

February 19. — Gov. Woods arrived in Salt Lake City. 

March. — Fire Company organized in Salt Lake City. 

March 18. — Commercial Street opened. 

March 20. — G. R. Maxwell's memorial presented to Congress, praying 
for seat as a contestant against W. H. Hooper. 

March 31. — Emma Mine sold for $1,500,000. 

April 4. — Governor Saunders, of Nebraska, visited Salt Lake City. 

April 8. — Numerous grasshoppers appear in the northern part of 
Cache County. 

April 15. — First number Salt Lake Daily Tribune issued. 

April 19. — Ralph Waldo Emerson, the eminent litterateur , visited Salt 
Lake tity. 

April 24. — Hon. Peter Maughan, founder of Cache Valley, died. 

May I. — Ground broken for the Utah Southern Railroad. 

May I. — Delegation from **Americus" Club, N. Y., on the road to 
San Francisco, arrived in Salt Lake City. 

May 3. — Major Powell and party arrived in Salt Lake City. 

June II. — The first camp-meeting ever held in Utah, took place in 
Salt Lake City, under the auspices oi the Methodists. 


June 25. — A dinner was given in Salt Lake to Senators Wm. M. Stewart 
and Jas. W. Nye, of Nevada, by citizens of Nevada in Salt Lake City at 
that time. 

June 30. — Geo. A. Black, Acting-Governor of Utah, issues a proclama- 
tion against any persons attempting to participate in "any military drill, 
muster or parade at any place," under D. H. Wells, until it shall be 
otherwise ordered. 

July 10. — Hon. S. S. Cox visits Salt Lake City. 

July 20. — Pioneer Mill, Ophir mining district — the first stamp mill 
erected in Utah — commenced running. Walker Brothers proprietors. 

August II. — Prof J. D. Runkle, president of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, is m Salt Lake, and concludes extensive explorations 
in Utah and Colorado. 

August 23. — Utah and Northern Railroad Company organized. 

August 26. — Ground broken on the line of the Utah and Northern Rail- 

September i. — Deseret National Bank commenced business in Salt Lake 

September 24. — Corner stone of the New Catholic Church was laid, 
ceremonies being conducted by Rev. Patrick Walsh. 

October 2. — President Brigham Young and others arrested on indict- 
ments charging them with lascivious cohabitation with their polygamous 

October 7. — Geo. Q. Cannon and Henry W. Lawrence were arrested on 
the same charge as above. , 

October 10. — O. P. Morton, United States Senator from Indiana, arrived 
in Salt Lake with party, Grace Greenwood being a member. 

October 12. — A terrific wind storm visited Salt Lake and vicinity. 

October 28. — Daniel H. Wells, Mayor of Salt Lake City, Hosea Stout 
and W. H. Kimball, arrested, charged with murder on the testimony of the 
outlaw. Bill Hickman. 

October 30. — Mayor Wells is required to give $50,000 bail for his 
appearance on a charge of murder. 

November 9. — Site of St. George Temple dedicated. 

November 19. — Corner stone of the Methodist Episcopal Church laid. 
Rev. G. M. Pierce officiating. 

November 27. — Summit County Railroad Company organized. 

December 30. — First run of iron was made from the Salt Lake Iron 
Works, Salt Lake City. 

According to census returns Utah stands third on the list as a wool-pro- 
ducing region in 1870. 

During this year a type foundry started in connection with the Deseret 
News office. 

The first Utah edition — 2,500 copies — of the Book of Monnon was 

The grasshopper j)lague again appeared during the summer and did 
great damage to crops. 

187!3* January 31. — Concurrent resolution passed the Legislative 
Assembly for the election of delegates to a Convention to adopt a State Con- 

Salt Lake City Street Railroad Company orgartized. 

February 6. — The Japanese embassy, conducted by Hon. Chas.^ E. 
DeLong, visits Salt Lake. 

February 19. — Constitutional Convention met in the City Hall, Salt 
I^ike City. 

March 2. — The Constitutional Convention adopt a Constitution and a 


memorial to Congress, asking for the admission of Utah into the Union as a 

March i8. — Vote taken on adopting the Constitution, and sending the 
memorial for statehood to Congress: **For the Constitution,'* 25,324: 
"Against the Constitution,'* 368. Frank Fuller elected Representative in 
Congress in the event of admission. 

April 6. — W. H. Hooper and Thomas Fitch elected United States Sen- 
ators from the proposed State of Deseret, should it be admitted into the 

April 15. — Engelbrecht decision rendered by the Supreme Court of the 
United States, overturning the judicial proceedings in Utah for a year and 
a half, and declaring null mdictments against over 120 persons. 

May 2. — Constitution of the "State of Deseret*' presented to both 
branches of Congress without favorable action. 

May 20.' — Ground broken for the American Fork (narrow-guage) rail- 

May 25. — Salt Lake City Gas Works Company organized, 
une I. — IVoman's £x/>oneH/ commenced publication, 
une 20. — Street cars began running in Salt Lake City, 
une 22. — (reneral Morrow enters into a treaty with Ute Indians at 
Springville, Utah County. 

June. — First passenger coach nms over the Utah and Northern narrow- 
guage railroad. 

June. — General J as. A. Garfield visits Salt Lake City. 

August 3. — Lieut. Wheeler and party start for southern Utah on a 
scientific exploring expedition. 

August 24. — (jeneral Geo. B. McClellan visits Salt Lake. 

August 30. — Two houses of ill -fame were abated in Salt Lake City, the 
furniture and other effects being demolished. 

September 2. — First .shipment of pipes for Salt Liike City Gas Works 

.September 3. — Ground broken for the .Salt Lake City waterworks up 
City Creek. 

September 10. — Bingham Canyon and Camp Floyd Railroad Company 

October 14. — Wasatch and Jordan V^alley Railroad Company organized. 

October. — Geo. A. Smith, Feramorz Little, Eliza R. Snow Smith, 
Thos. W. Jennings and others left Salt Lake City for Palestine. On the 20th 
of March of the following year the party held solemn ser\'ices on the Mount 
of Olives. 

November 26. — Germania Smelting and. Refining Works, first of the 
kind in Utah, commenced operations. 

American Fork railroad completed to Deer Creek. This road was used 
for pleasure parties for a period and the track subsequently taken up. 

December 26. — A snowslide in Alta, Little Cottonwood, resulted in the 
loss of several lives. 

A dead-lock existed in the United States Courts for a period in 1872 
owing to a lack of means with which to defray current expenses. 

Territorial reports show valuation of taxable property' in Utah in 1872 
at $17,590,560. Exports of ore and bullion for the twelve months, ending 
May ist, $2,947,891; of wool, tallow, hides, pelts, peaches and salt, $127,- 

1873. January 31. — Utah and Northern Railroad completed to 

May 3. — Wasatch and Jordan Valley Railroad completed to Ciranite. 
mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon. 


May 14. — First car load of coal shipped from Coalville over the Sum- 
mit County Railroad. 

May 23. — ^Jas. G. Blaine and party visit Salt Lake City. 
une.9. — Branch of Utah and Northern Railroad to Corinne completed, 
une 18. — Geo. A. Smith and party return from dieir trip to Palestine, 
une 30. — Salt Lake City Gas Works manufacture gas. 
uly 5. — Zion*s Savings 'Bank organized, 
uly 7. — Salt Lake City first lighted by gas. 
uly 30. — Severe shock of earthquake felt at Beaver. 
September 28. — Wasatch and Jordan Valley Railroad makes its ter- 
minus at Fairfield Flat, in Little Cottonwood. 

October i. — Zion's Savings' Bank commenced business, $6,000 depos- 
ited first day. 

October 24. — Clift House burned. Loss $70,000. 
November 21. — Utah Southern Railroad makes its terminus at Provo. 
Bingham Canyon and Camp Floyd Railro?d completed to Bingham. 

December. — Utah Posten, Danish, the first paper in Utah published 
in a foreign tongue, commences to issue. 

1874. April 2o.--=-A party of representative men from Australia vis- 
ited Sak Lake City on a tour of inspection. 

May 2. — F'airview Coal Mining and Coke Company incorporated. 

May 14. — St. Mark's Cathedral in Salt Lake City consecrated. 

May 24. — Mons. Henri Rochefort, the celebrated Communist leader, who 
had then but recently escaped from imprisonment in the French penal set- 
tlement, New Caledonia, arrived in Salt Lake City. 

May 30. — Hurricane resulting in much damage visited Ogden. 

June II. — A party of soldiers from Camp Douglas, under command 
of Major Gordon, break into the jail at Salt Lake City and rescue their com- 
r;ide, Thomas Hackett, who had been confined there for assault on ex- 
Judge S. P. McCurdy, of Utah. 

June 13. — Salt Lake and Coalville Railroad incorporated. 

June 18. — Cadet Willard Young, a Utah cadet at W^est Point Military 
Acac emy, graduated. 

June 23. — Poland's anti-polygamy bill was passed by the United States 

July 4. — General Phil. Sheridan and party arrived in .Salt I^ke City. 

July 24. — The anniversary of the entrance of the Pioneers was cele- 
brated by a grand juvenile jubilee in the Large Tabernacle. Four thou- 
sand singers participated. 

August 2. — Edward L. Sloan, one of the founders of the Salt Lake itej'- 
aid, died at his residence. Salt Lake City. 

August 13. — The Rocky Mountain Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was held in Salt Lake City. 

September ii. — The Lin ited States Marshal seized the County Clerk's 
office, Tooele County, upon an order issued by Chief Justice McKean. 

October 4. — Jay Gould, accompanied by a distinguished party of 
wealthy railroad gentlemen, arrived in Salt Lake City^ 

October 11. — The Presbyterian Church was dedicated at Salt Lake City. 

October 26. — Geo. Reynolds indicted by the grand jury for polygamy. 

December 4. — William Hepworth Dixon visited Salt Lake City. 

December 28. — S. B. Axtell was appointed (Governor of Utah. 

1875. January 10. — The Utah W^estern Railroad (now the L-tah and 
Nevada) was opened for traffic to Black Rock. 

January 12 — Terrible snowslide, resulting in the loss of many lives and 
much proj^erty, occurred in Little Cottonwood Canyon. 


January 22. — Indians were first married according to the ordinances of 
the Mormon Church. 

February 16. — Utah Southern Railroad completed to York. 

March 1 1 . — President Brig-ham Young was sentenced to imprisonment 
in the Penitentiary, by Judge McKean, for contempt of court. After being 
incarcerated for twenty- four hours he was released. 

March 18. — J as. B. McKean, Chief Justice of Utah, superceded by 
David P. Lowe. 

March 29. — The entire tribe of Shebit Indians, numbering 147, was 
baptised into the Mormon faith at St. George. 

March 31. — ^The trial of Geo. Reynolds, for polygamy, began in the 
Third District Court, at Salt Lake City. The day succeeding, April i , a 
verdict of guilty was returned; on the loth day of April he was sentenced 
to one year's imprisonment and a $300 fine ; on the 19th day of the same 
month, the decision of the lower court was reversed on the ground that the 
grand jury which returned the indictment against Reynolds was illegally 

June 16. — James K. Kelly, United States Senator from Oregon, arrived 
in Salt Lake City. 

June 20. — ^The Supreme Court reverses the decision of the lower court 
in the Reynolds polygamy case and orders indictment quashed. 

July 3. — George W. Emery, of Tennessee. pre\'iousIy appointed Gov- 
ernor of Utah, in place of S. B. Axtell, arrived in Salt Lake City. 

July 10. — Martin Harris, one of the three witnesses to the authenticity 
of the Book of Mormon, died at Clarkston, Giche County, Utah. He was 
92 years old. 

August 5. — Jos. A. Young, eldest son of President B. Young, died at 
Manti, Sanpete County. 

September i. — George A. Smith, first counselor to President B. Young, 
died in Salt Lake City. 

October 3. — U. S. Grant, President of the United States, visited Salt 
Lake City. 

October 29. — President Young was arrested by United States Marshal 
Maxwell, upon an order issued by Judge Boreman, charging President 
Young with contempt of court. 

Octol)er 30. — President B. Young deeds the Brigham Young Academy 
property at Provo to the Academy trustees. 

October 30. — Geo. Reynolds was again indicted on a charge of Jjolyg- 

October 31. — Baron Rothschild and party arrived in Salt I-ake City. 

November 16. — The First National Bank building of Salt Lake City 
was destroyed by fire: loss, about $200,000. 

November 18. — J. Alex. White, Chief Jastice of the Supreme Court of 
Utah, reverses decision of the lower court and discharges President B. Young 
from the custody of the United States Marshal. 

Decelnber 14. — A bill was presented to the House of Representatives to 
enable the people of Utah to form a State Government, anci for the admis- 
«ion of Utah into the Union. 

December 21. — After being again tried and convicted for polygamy, 
(»eo. Reynolds was sentenced to two years' imprisonment and to pay a fine 
of $500. 

December 25. — Fatal snow slide in Little Cottonwood Canyon. 

1876. February 18. — The Legislative Assembly of Utah, noted for 
having served out the full period without compensation because the means 
appropriated by Congress to be used for the remuneration of legislators 


had been misappropriated and devoted to the payment of expenses 
incurred by the United States Courts, concludes its session. 

March 15. — Fatal snow slide at Ophir. 

April 5. — Forty tons of powder in magazines on Arsenal Hill, north of 
Salt Lake City, exploded, resulting in the loss of four lives and great des- 
truction of property. Shock felt for miles. 

April 13. — Gilmore, the celebrated leader, gave' a concert in the large 
Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. 

April 22. — Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, and party arrived in Salt 
Lake tity. 

July 13. — The case of Geo. Reynolds, convicted and sentenced to the 
Penitentiary under the anti-polygamy law, was argued belorq the Supreme 
Court of the Territory on appeal and the decision and proceedings of the 
District Court were confirmed. 

September 20. — John D. Lee convicted of murder in the first degree 
for connection with the Mountain Meadow massacre. 

October 10. — ^Judge Boreman sentenced John D. Lee to be shot on 
Friday, January 26, 1877. 

October. — At the general Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, held in Salt Lake City, John W. Young, son of Presi- 
dent Brigham Young, was sustained as first Counselor to the President, in 
the place made vacant by the death of Geo. A. Smith. 

1877. January i. — The lower part of Temple at St. George was 
dedicated. A full organization of the Stakes of Zion throughout the world, 
was commenced. In April following the St. G^rge Temple was fully ded- 

March 23. — ^John D. Lee executed at Mountain Meadows. 

April 25. — The site for the Manti Temple was dedicated. 

May 18. — Site of the Logan Temple was dedicated. 

May 31. — Jerome B. Stillson, correspondent of the New York Herald^ 
alleged that an attempt on his life had been made. The affair was investi- 
gated unsatisfactorily to Stillson. 

July 31. — First cremation in Salt Lake took place. Dr. Chas. F. Wins- 
low, who made provision for this disposition of his body in his will. 

August 29. — President Brigham Youftg died at his residence in Salt 
Lake City. 

September 2. — Funeral of President Young took place from the large 
Tabernacle. A tremendous crowd attended. 

September 1 7. — Corner stones Logan Temple laid. 

1878. January 20. — A marvelous cure reported by Llewellyn Harris, 
a Mormon missionary in a village of theZuni Indians, New Mexico. About 
400 of these Indians, suflfering with small-pox, are said to have been 
healed by his administration. 

June 24. — Eleven persons drowned in Funck*s Lake, a small pond in 
which they were boat riding, six miles south of Manti, Sanpete County. 

July II. — ^John Whitmer, one of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon, 
died at Far West, Missouri. 

August I. — A fire broke out in Alta, Little Cottonwood, and resulted in 
the destruction of the whole camp, with the exception of a few cabins. Loss 

September 24. — Senator John J. Patterson, of South Carolina, and party 
visited Salt Lake City. 

October 8. — ^Trial of Sylvanus Collett for the murder of the Aiken party 
commenced at Provo. Verdict of not guilty returned. 


October i8. — A destructive fire at the Ontario Mine, Park City, causes 
a loss of $100,000, and great consequential damages. 

October 25. — John Miles was arrested for polygamy, Caroline Owen 
being the principal witness, and claiming to be his first wife. 

November 16. — A woman's mass meeting was held in the Salt Lake 
Theatre, numerously attended and addressed by prominent ladies in the 
Mormon faith. Resolutions were adopted with unanimity in which the 
Mormon women claimed ability and the right to represent themselves. 

November 28. — Orson Hyde, one of the Twelve Apostles, died at his 
home in Spring City, Sanpete County. The funeral took place December 1st. 

1879. January 5. — Ex-Judge James B. McKean died at Salt Lake City. 

January 6. — ^The Supreme Court of the United States, at Washington, 
unanimously confirmed the constitutionalty of the anti-polygamy law of 
1862, and also confirmed the sentence of the lower courts upon George 

January 17. — Trial of R. T. Burton for murder of one Mrs. Bowman in 
1862, during what is known as the Morrisite war, and while Burton was 
Sheriff. On March 8th a verdict of **not guilty'* was rendered. 

April 7. — Elder Moses Thatcher was ordained to be one of the Twelve 

April 14. — The comer stones of the Manti Temple were laid. 

April 24. — First Utah wheat shipped by ocean to Liverpool from San 
Francisco, in the sailing vessel hy, by S. W. Sears. 

April 29. — ^Trial of John Miles for polygamy began in the Third District 
Court, Judge Emerson presiding. 

April 30. — Emma Smith, wife of the Prophet Joseph Smith, died at 
Nauvoo, Illinois. 

May 3. — Daniel H. Wells was sentenced by Judge Emerson to two days' 
imprisonment in the Territorial Penitentiary for alleged contempt of court, in 
refusing to answer certain questions. 

May 6. — John Miles convicted on indictment for polygamy. 

May 6. — General Wells was released from prison, and there was a grand 
demonstration in his honor. 

May 6. — Trial of H. C. Shurtliff began in Third District Court for rob- 
bery of Wells, Fargo & Co's express, and resulted in a disagreement of the 

June 14. — George Reynolds was sentenced by the Third District Court 
of Utah, and on the i6th he left Salt Lake City for Lincoln, Nebraska, to be 
confined in the State Penitentiary there. 

June 14. — Suit commenced in the Third District Court by some of Presi- 
dent B. Young's heirs against the executors of the estate ana others. This 
was the beginning of a series of litigations ensuing from this cause. 

July 2. — John A. Hunter, of Missouri, was appointed Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Utah. He arrived in Salt Lake City August 4th. 

July 12. — George Q. Cannon, Brigham Young and Albert Carrington 
were arrested for contempt on an order issued by Judge Boreman. 

July 17. — George Reynolds was returned to Utah to be confined in the 
Territorial Penitentiary. 

July 21. — Joseph Standing was shot and killed by a mob near VarneH's 
Station, Whitefield County, Georgia, where he labored as a Mormon mis- 

July 30. — Order issued by Judge Boreman committing Geo. Q. Can- 
non, B. Young and A. Carrington, to the Penitentiary for contempt. 

August 5. — The Trustee-in-Trust of the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints institutes suit against the heirs, executors, and receivers of the 
estate of Brigham Young, deceased. 


August 9. — Wm. M. Evarts, Secretary of State, issued his noted letter 
of instructions to diplomatic officers of the United States in various countries 
concerning the Mormon emigration. 

August 28. — Order of Judge Boreman, committing Geo. Q. Cannon, 
B. Young and A. Carrington to the Penitentiary for alledged contempt is 
reversed Dy the Supreme Court of the Territory and set aside. The parties 

September 6. — Six men suffocated in the Lavinia mine, Alta, Little 
Cottonwood, three while endeavoring to save the other three. 

September 29. — Major Chas. H. Hempstead died in Salt Lake City. 

September. — The first number of the Logan Leader was published this 

October 4. — The first number of the Contributor was issued in Salt Lake 

December 4. — William Clayton, Territorial Auditor of Public Accounts, 
died in Salt Lake City. 

1880. February 9. — Trial of parties charged with the murder of Dr. 
Robinson in 1862 called, and on motion of Prosecuting Attorney indictments 
dismissed, notwithstanding objection of defendants who demanded a trial. 

February 28. — Eli H. Murray, eleventh Governor of Utah, arrived in 
Salt Lake City. 

March 4. — Salt Lake Weekly Herald issued. 

April 4.— Public meetings were held for the first time in the Salt Lake 
Assemoly Hall. 

April 5. — Salt Lake City decides to build the Salt Lake and Jordan 

May 3. — Corner stone of St. Paul's Chapel laid by Masonic fraternity. 

June 23. — The Utah Southern Railroad completed to Frisco. 

July 20. — According to the census returns Utah had a population of 143,- 
690, showing an increase of 56,904 since 1 870. 

September 6. — R. B. Hayes, President of the United States, and party 
arrived in Salt Lake City. 

September 12. — Electric light exhibition in Salt Lake City. 

October. — At the general Conference, commencing on the 6th, the 
First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was reor- 

fanized with John Taylor as President, and Geo. Q. Cannon and Jos. F.' 
mith as Counselors. The vancancies thus occurring in the quorum of the 
Twelve Apostles were partly filled by the calling of Francis M. Lyman and 
John Henry Smith to the Apostleship. They were ordained Apostles Octo- 
ber 27th. 

October 23. — The First number of the Bear Lake Democrat was issued 
in Paris, Bear Lake County, Idaho. 

November 2. — A general election for Delegate to Congress was held in 
Utah. George Q. Cannon got 18,568 votes and Allan G. Campbell, the Lib- 
eral candidate, 1,357. 

This year the Utah Eastern railroad was built from Coalville to Park City. 

1881. January 8. — Governor Eli H. Murray issued the certificate of 
election as delegate to Congress to Allan (}. Campbell. Geo. Q. Cannon, 
his opponent, had 17,211 majority of the votes cast. 

January 12. — Between this date and the 17th inst. not less than fifteen 
lives were lost through avalanches in Little Cottonwood and American 
Fork canyons; $60,000 worth of property was also destroyed. 

January 20. — Geo. Reynolds released from the Penitentiary, his term of 
imprisonment having expired. 

February' 4. — L, C. M. L building at Ogden dedicated. 

May 13. — Father Gavazzi lectures in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


May 25. — The Old Mill, or Locust Farm, purchased by Salt Lake City 
for a public park. It contains no acres. 

iune. — Three railroads, namely: the Utah Central, Utah Southern and 
Ftah Southern Extension, were consolidated in one corporation under 
by the name of the Utah Central Railway. 

July 16. — Joseph Youngs, Sr., brother of the late President Young and 
first President of all the Seventies, died in Salt Lake City. 

July 18. — Two children while playing were struck by lightning and 
killed at Pay son. 

July 27. — Senator Sherman, General Harrison, Judge Strong and A. 
Bierstadt, the landscape painter, visit Salt Lake City and are serenaded. 

August 4. — Comer stone of the Walker Opera House laid. ThLs build- 
ing was started as "The Academy of Music*' under the auspices of the 
McKenzie Reform Club. It subsequently fell into the hands of the Walker 
Brothers, hence its present name. 

August 28. — Five children burned to a crisp at Stockton, Utah ; ages 
ranged from two months to thirteen vears. 

September 28. — Hon. John M. Bernhisel died in Salt Lake City. 

October 3. — Apostle Orson Pratt died at his residence. Salt Lake City. 

October 14. — Bishop E. D. Woolley died at his home, Salt Lake City. 

October 24. — Geo. D. Watt died at Kaysville, Davis County. 

188!3. January 8. — The Salt Lake Assembly Hall was dedicated. 

February 16. — The Edmunds bill was passed by the United States 
Senate. As soon as this became known in Utah, three petitions asking Con- 
gress to send a deputation to investigate the affairs in the Territory before 
undertaking any hostile legislation against the people, were prepared and 
received about 75,000 signatures. 

February 22. — A family of seven, named Tcckett, was killed by an ava- 
lanche in Big Cottonwood Canyon. 

April 10. — Constitutional Convention assembles in Salt Lake City and 
begins the consideration of a constitution to be adopted in the event of 
Utah's admission as a State. 

May 22. — The constitution adopted by the Constitutional Convention is 
ratified by a general vote of the people of the Territory. 

June 6. — The State convention met in Salt Lake City and prepared 
a petition to Congress for Utah's admission into the Union. The follow- 
ing gentlemen were chosen as delegates to go to Washington to present the 
same to Congress : W. H. Hooper, John T. Caine, James Sharp, W. W. 
Riter, F. S. Richards, D. H. Peery and Wm. D. Johnson, Jr. 

June 17. — Liberty Park, Salt Lake City, was fonnally opened to the 

August I. — The first number of the Utah Journal issued in Logan, 
Cache County, Utah. Logan Leader suspended. 

August 6. — ^J. D. Farmer, a merchant of Salt Lake City, lost in the 
Salt Lake, while bathing. Body never recovered. 

August 18. — The Utah Commission, consisting of five men, appointed 
by the President of the United States in accordance with the Edmunds bill, 
arrived in Salt Lake City, and went to work almost immediately preparing 
for the November election. 

August 19. — A reception tendered the Utah Commissioners at the 
Walker Opera House, Salt Lake City. 

September 16. — Governor Murraj' issued a proclamation appointing a 
great number of men to fill local offices, claimed to be vacant on account 
of the August election not being held. The incumbents refused to recog- 
nize the Governor's appointees as their successors. The case was taken 
into the courts. 


September 24. — The foundation stone of Hamoiind Hall, Salt Lake 
City, was laid. 

October 13. — Georj^^e Teasdel and Heber J. Orant were chosen to 
fill the vacancies in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and Seymour B. 
Young to be one of the first seven Presidents of the Seventies. They 
were ordained on the i6th. 

November 7. — A general election was held in Utah. The People's can- 
didate, John T. Caine, re.^eived 23,039 votes and the Liberal candidate, 
Philip T. VanZile. 4,884 votes. 

December 30. — Hon. Wm. H. Hooper died at his residence in Salt 
Lake City. 

1883. January 3. — Small-pox appears in Lo:jan, Cache County. 

February 17. — Bishop William Bringhurst, of .Springv*lle, died. 

February 18. — ^John Van Cott, one of the first Seven Presidents of the 
Seventies, died at his home, near Salt Lake City. 

February 25. — Phil. Robinson, the noted liUeratciir, and Mr. Sergeant 
Ballentine, the eminent English barrister, visit Salt Lake City. 

March 21. — Two men, loggers, while sleeping under an overhanging 
rock, in Iron County, were killed. The rock fell on them. 

April I. — Denver and Rio Grande Western completed and communica- 
tion established l)etween Salt Lake and Denver by this route. 

April 10. — Constitutit>nal convention met in Salt Lake City and received 
report of committee appointed to present memorial and Constitution upon 
which was based demand for Utah's admission as a State. 

April 30. — Fort Cameron Military Reservation buildings, near Beaver 
City, Beaver County, sold and Fort abandoned. 

May I. — O. F. Due arrested on a charge of polygamy. 

May 17. — Belle Harris committed to the Penitentiary for contempt of 
<rourt in refusing to answer questions before the grand jury of the Second 
Judicial District in a supposed polygamy investigation. 

May 22. — The Kmpire Grist Mill, up City Creek, burned to the ground. 
It was built in 1861. 

June ID. — P'ive young persons, ranging from 12 to 23 years of age. 
drowned while boating on Utah Lake, near Benjamin. 

June 15. — Theodore Thomas, the celebrated orchestral leader, gives 
three concerts in the Large Tabernacle. 

June 20. — Destructive fire and powder explosion occur in Salt Lake 
City. Loss over $100,000. 

July 4. — Two men drowned in Brighton, Big Cottonwood Lake, while 
boat -riding. 

July 6. — Powder magazine ex})lodes in Ogden. One man killed. 

July 10. — Governor Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana, visits Salt Lake 

July 13. — A party of Colorado jourruilists visit Salt Lake City. 

July 29. — Terrible flood at Kanab, Kane County. Masses of earth, 
large as a house, with trees, etc., carried down stream. 

August 25. — Andrew Burt, Captain of Salt Lake City Police force, 
killed while arresting a negro. Negro lynched half an hour later in jail 
yard by a mob. 

August 27. — ^Jack Murphy lynched at Park City for the murder of one 

August 31. — Belle Harris released from custody after a long imprison- 
ment for contempt in refusing to answer questions as to polygamy, put to 
her by the grand jury of the Second District Court. 

October 16. — Edward Hunter, Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus 

Christ of Latter-day Saints, died in Salt Lake Citv. 
5 ^ 


October 22. — Freight war began between the Denver and Rio Grande 
and the Union Pacific, and lasted some months. 

December 10. — General W. S. Hancock visits Salt Lake City. 

December 26. — Death of General Thomas L. Kane, well-known in 
Mormon history, at his home in Philadelphia. 

1884. January 2. — Utah Central coal mines at Pleasant Valley on 
fire. Two men suffocated. 

January 28. — The Brigham Young Academy at Pro vo 'burned. 

February 13. — Wyommg Legislators visit Salt Lake City in a body and 
arc received and entertained by the Utah Legislature, then in session, by the 
City Council of Salt Lake, and by Federal and Military officials. 

February 18. — Three children buried and suffocated beneath an ava- 
lanche at Park City. 

March 9. — Ten men and two women killed by a snowslide at Alta, Lit- 
tle Cottonwood Canyon. 

April I. — Adelina Patti and others gave a grand concert in the Large 

April 22. — A Japanese shoots a woman io Ogden and is lynched. 

April 23. — Pere Hyacinthe visits Salt Lake City. 

April 25. — Rudger Clawson arrested on a charge of polygamy. 

May 5. — Fred Hopt, for a third time, convicted of murder in the first 

May 17. — Temple at Logan dedicated. Immense crowds gather from 
all parts of the Territory to be present. 

May 22. — Nellie White sent to the Penitentiary for contempt of court 
in refusing to answer certain questions to the grand jury in the Third 
Judicial District in a supposed polygamy investigation. 

June I. — Owing to the unusual fall ot snow in the Winter of 1883-4, 
streams are higher than for twenty years. Bridges swept away in different 
parts of the Territory and great danger exists. 



Ix 1867 about 130,000 acres of land were in cultivation in Utah; over 
80,000 were devoted to cereals, some 2,000 to sugar cane, about 6,000 to 
root crops, nearly 200 to cotton, 900 to apple orchards, 1,000 to peaches, 
75 ^o grapes, 195 to currants, and some 30,000 to meadow. Of this land 
close on 94,000 had to be irrigated. During the year mentioned, 1867, the 
cost of irrigating this land, including the making of canals, dams, cleaning 
out ditches, aggregated $247,000. The surveys of public lands in Utah, up 
to June 30, 1878, showed that 8,178,819.97 acres had been surveyed. This 
amount is divided into arable, timber, coal and mineral lands. It is cissumed 
that not less than 2,000,000 acres were sur\'eyed for agricultural purposes. 
Statistics collected under the direction of the Legislative Assembly of the 
Territory, in 1875, showed that 223,300 acres of land were then under culti- 
vation, 77,525 acres requiring no irrigation; 35,706 acres required watering 
once or twice in the year to secure satisfactory productiveness; 87,774 acres, 
three or four waterings; 21,761 from four to ten irrigations during the season. 
According to the statistics then gathered, 10,000 acres were reclaimed that 
year. There were in use 2,095 miles of large or main canals, and 4,888 
of minor canals or ditches — 6,983 miles in all. The census returns 
show that there were 9,452 farms in Utah in 1880, with an acreage of 
655,524, Of this amount, 416,105 was tilled. The value of the farms, 
including buildings, etc., is placed at $14,015,178, and the value of machin- 
ery at $946,753; while the value of all farm products sold that year is 
estimated at $3,337,410. 

Whatever the amount of land under cultivation in Utah may be, at the 
least calculation 25 per cent, of it lies idle, or is summer fallowed the year 
round. The figures given include also the amount cultivated by what is 
known as the *'dry farming" process — that is, without irrigation — and con- 
sequently fails to give a fair idea of the productive capacity of the Territory, 
were anything like a high state of cultivation the rule. The agricultural 
productiveness of the Territory is much more than enough to supply the 
local demand; and, possessing no market outside for a surplus, the occasion for 
greater exertions in agricultural directions does not exist. It may not gen- 
erally be credited, but the belief is firmly entertained by many intelligent 
persons, conversant with Utah's agricultural history and opportunities, that, 
with the higher state of cultivation of which the ground is capable, the pro- 
duct on the same number of acres can be made at least double. This too. 
with practically the same amount of water, and but a trifling increase in the 
percentage of labor. There has been a disposition to belittle the agricul- 
tural capacity of the Territory, by asserting that capacity had reached its 
maximum. In the years gone, naturally enough, men chose the most favor- 


able spots for farms, so that the less desirable locations have been left for 
later comers. Notwithstanding this fact, however, the acreage increased 
each year with astonishing rapidity, and land that in early days wag viewed 
as almost worthless, has proven to be as desirable as could be wished for. 
There are millions of acres of the finest kind of farming land to be seen in 
different parts of the Territory, in the most desirable places, untouched and 
almost unthought of, because of an absence of immediate water opportuni- 
ties. Juab County is a striking illustration of the truth of this assertion. 
The section of country in and below this county contains valley after valley 
of the fairest farming land to be found anywhere. The eye rests on it cov- 
etously, but it remains unused, save for ranges, because of the reason men- 
tioned — lack of easily available water. The proportion of arable land under 
cultivation has not been estimated, but cannot possibly be over one-eighth 
and is perhaps even less than a tenth. In the arable land is included in this 
estimate all that could be farmed were there water — or land that is not min- 
eral, mountain nor absolutely desert. The census statistics show that over 
600,000 acres are under cultivation, but that two-thirds only are productive. 
This 400,000 acres, farmed properly, would produce an equivalent to 800,000 
acres by the present process. Apply the same rule to the 200,000 under cul- 
tivation, but non-productive, and we would have in all 12,000,000 acres capa- 
ble of being farmed were other probable conditions satislactory. But to be 
absolutely certain, reduce the amount one-half of what it could be, and 
instead of 400,000 acres producing $3,500,000 worth of products, the amount 
would be $7,000,000; 600,000 over $8,000,000 per annum, and 6,000,000 
over $80,000,000 in farm products per annum. It is true this is merely spec- 
ulation as to productiveness ; but there is no speculation as to the number of 
acres of land capable of being farmed, provided water could be obtained. 
As Utah is unsurpassed in the extent and variety of her mineral resources, 
so also has she an agricultural capacity that will prove equal to all the 
demands of the colossal industries yet to be founded ujxjn these unlimiteil 
resources. It may be a question how this land shall be brought into use; 
but, as nature never tolerates a waste, there is undoubtedly some means by 
which the land now lying idle can be made productive, and the necessities 
that arise will point out a speedy and infallible remedy for what at present 
may seem to some an insuperable obstacle. 


There are few places in the world where irrigation has been brought to 
such perfection as in this Territory. That this method is an advantage 
rather than a detriment to farming, is susceptible of easy proof. The objec- 
tion to irrigation, and the only objection, is the cost of*^ making canals and 
ditches, and the expense ol maintaining them. These obstacles once over- 
come, and the certainty of crops, resultmg from irrigation, is a ten-fold com- 
pensation for the labors and difficulties it imposes. Rust and smut are 
almost unknown, while the production per acre is much greater. Irriga- 
tion is conducive to industry and energy, for the reason that a man waters 
his crops when they require it. When he sees the grain developed and 
ready for the sickle, his rest is unbroken lest a rainy spell should ensue and 
rob him of the results of months of toil, at the very hour when he hoped to 
realize the reward. The certainty of results is the greatest incentive to 
labor; hence it is that irrigation, being the safest method of farming, is pro- 
ductive of the greatest energy. Moreover, irrigation greatly enriches the 
soil. To the melting of snow in the mountains is due the existence of the 
streams. The water collects from all directions and, coursing down the 
mountain sides, carries with it the fine, rich and unimi)overished particles of 
soil, which, by means of irrigation, are deposited on the cultivated land. 


Tbus the land is constantly being renewed. For the quantity and quality of 
cereals, and for the continuous period the land will yield, the like is 
unknown in countries where agriculture depends upon rains. During cer- 
tain months in the year, the water supply for irrigating purposes is inade- 
quate to the demand. To this, more than to any other cause, is due the 
idea entertained by some that Utah has reached her agricultural capacity.. 
This belief is not the product of reason. A sane person, who knows any- 
thing about the Territory, knows also that enough water runs to waste in 
Utah during the winter and early spring months to irrigate twice the amount 
of arable land in this Territory the year round. It resolves itself simply into 
a question of saving the water. Hydraulic engineers admit nowhere in the 
world are natural opportunities for the storage of water more plentiful than 
in Utah. The building of reservoirs and dams requires money; but money 
thus invested is money well invested. The millions and millions of money 
put into canals in this Territory, added to with each year, pays a larger 
interest than any other money in the Territory, in whatever direction it may 
be utilized. The same results would be true of reservoirs and dams — a fact 
already patent to many, as people are moving determinedly in these direc- 
tions. There should be for Utah Territory' an hydraulic engineer, whose 
knowledge, by study and experience, is specially adapted to a community 
in which irrigation is necessary. This engineer should be paid by the com- 
monwealth. The office should impose upon him the duty of visiting all 
parts of the Territory, with a view to ascertaining the opportunities of each 
section for reser\'oirs aild dams. He should draw up plans, estimate costs, 
and give to the people the benefit of his best judgment, his large knowledge 
and his practical experience. That such an office, even at an exhorbitant 
salar>', would be an investment for the Territory without a parallel, there 
can be no question. Another method of securing water that has been tested 
in later years, is by artesian wells. The success so far attending efforts 
made has awakenecl an unusual degree of interest in this direction. There 
is no tangible reason why artesian wells should not be a success in many, if 
not in all parts of the Territory, and the next two years will thoroughly 
demonstrate the practicability and the utility of this method of irrigation. 
The confidence had in the water capacity of Utah, if successful saving and 
developing methods are introduced, amounts to a conviction. Statistics of 
the coming ten years will show an increase in the acreage of land fanned, in 
the number of persons employed, and in the production, so disproportionate 
to years past, as to render earlier efllbrts — not considering the adverse con- 
ditions which can never be experienced again, and which were then and have 
been powerful opposing agencies to material development — seemingly insig- 
nificant. However, with the same acreage, the same irrigation facilities, 
Utah is still capable of supporting a population three, and even four times 
that of Utah to-day. 


With the exception of Indian com (which does not thrive so well 
because of cool nights) all the products of the same latitude as Utah thrive 
remarkably well. The soil and the climate are peculiarly adapted to the 
raising of wheat and kindred cereals, and to the growth of all kinds of fruit. 
In Southern Utah semi-trophical fruits and vegetation are cultivated with 
marked great success. With the exception of perhaps one or two years 
since 1868, Utah has always had a surplus of wheat, and there is reason to 
believe the ensuing year will see even a greater surplus than usual, as all con- 
ditions are favorable to such an end. The following statistics were compiled 
and published by order of the Legislative Assembly in 1876, as showing the 
material condition of the Territory the year preceding: 




Wheat, 72,020 

Barley 13*847 













Rye, . . . 
Corn, . 
Buckwheat, . 
Peas, . . 
Beans, . . 
Potatoes, . 
Other Roots. 
Seeds, . . 
Broom Corn, 
Sugar Cane, 
Meadow, . . 
Lucern, . . 
Cotton, . . 
Flax, . . 


1,418,783 bis. 






49,501 lbs. 

713 tns. 
103, 164 gals 
112,529 tns. 

13,189 *' 
31,075 lbs. 



i ( 


bush' Is. 






396 lbs. 

3^3 tons. 

72 gals. 

1^4 tons. 

275 lbs. 





The Basin of the Great Salt Lake is pre-eminently a fruit raising sec- 
tion. All the fruits of the temperate clime grow in this region to unusual 
size, while the flavor is unsurpassed. It has become an industry and is the 
source of much wealth in an unostentatious way. Utah fruit, diiid, is a lux- 
ury elsewhere, and thousands of pounds are shipped away annually. The 
care of fruit, as a rule, falls to the lot of women and children, the work not 
being heavy, nor the orchards very large, though they are great in number. 
The result is that dried fruit constitutes an unrecognized source of wealth 
which annually brings thousands of dollars into the Territory, and by which 
the thrifty housewife is enabled to add many comforts to her home, without 
which she would other^'ise be obliged to content herself. Southern Utah, 
below the rim of the Basin, is peculiarly adapted to vineyards, and to the 
manufacture of wine. Vine growing, however, does not flourish as in 
former years, and for two reasons: there is no market for the fruit and none 
for the wine that is worthy the name, because of the proverbial opposition 
of the Monnon people to intoxicating liquors in all forms. Shrubbery and 
flowers and shade trees abound and are growing in numbers and excellence 
yearly. There is no estimate of the value of the latter, but when a sale or 
purchase of land is meditated the number and the kinds of flowers and lawns 
and shade trees mark a vast difference in the commercial values of a place. 
Millions of dollars, unaccounted for in the material value of the Territory, 
exist, observed only as they please the eye and gratify the taste of the 
beholder. The following table from the same source as the above — for 1875 
— will not be uninteresting: 


Apples, . 

Pears, , 





(irapes, . 









358,277 bis. 
10,560 " 

330.535 ** 

43,585 " 
44,160 *' 

4,661 *' 

3,409,200 lbs. 

90 bushels 

75 ** 
120 ** 

165 *' 

145 " 

75 " 
6. 260 * ' 



Next to mining, stock has brought more interchangeable weath, or 
money into the Territory than any other single resource. The pasturage 
for cattle is yearly decreasing, two causes being at work to produce such a 
result: first, land once common for grazing is now being taken up and used 
for agricultural purposes, pure and simple; second, and by far the more 
powerful reason, is tne wonderful increase in sheep. Sheep, at present, are 
much cheaper to keep and give far greater returns, by reason ol their rapid 
increase and because of the wool clip which grows in proportion with the 
numerical strength of the animals. They ruin ranges for cattle; hence, 
when the latter are introduced, the former must give way. Moreover, the 
large stock corportations formed in the past few years, as well as the great 
demand for cattle, has run the price up to a maximum point, beyond which 
it is unlikely ever to go. The result has been the disposition of Utah cattle 
at a high hgure and they have been shipped to other localities. Utah con- 
sequently has fewer cattle to-day than for some years. However, the losses 
arising from these causes are in all probability counterbalanced by the better 
quality of the cattle that remain, while the vast sheep herds and the immense 
wool clips, as compared with former years, mark a clear gain. Not only are 
the people inbreeding a higher strain mto their cattle, but the desire to intro- 
duce finer blood into horses has grown with astonishing rapidity and is bear- 
ing the most pleasing fruits. There is foundation for the assertion that 
Utah is singularly a country qualified to produce a fine and healthy race 
of horses. The reason is to be found in the altitude, with our fine and brac- 
ing air, which is pre-eminently calculated to produce a healthy and large- 
lunged horse. The excellent range is an additional reason. The bunch 
grass growing along the low foot hills and high in the canyon ravines is 
admitted to be as nutricious as any grass known. It produces large 
limbs and superior muscle. These two elements, producing large lungs, 
powerful limbs and strong and elastic muscles, are winning for Utah an envi- 
able reputation as a horse-breeding section. Horses, as well as sheep, are a 
rapidly increasing source of wealth in the Territory; and the desire for a 
better and still better strain of blood is so general as justify the belief that 
Utah will soon boast as fine a quality of horse flesh in general, and in par- 
ticular, as the most favored section of the United States. The appended 
table shows the stock condition of the Territory in 1875: 

Name, Number. 

Stallions, 108 

Mares, 1,349 

Mules, 4.727 

All others not horned, 39,022 

Thoroughbred Homed Stock, 510 

Graded " " 3,511 

All other *' ** 103,447 

Thoroughbred Sheep, 15,620 

Another ** 288,608 

Goats, 1,578 

Graded Swine, i , 397 

Common ** 25,143 

One thin^ that has contributed largely to the success of stock-raising in 
Utah, by making feed cheap and abundant, was the introduction of alfalfa, or 
lucem. Thousands and thousands of acres of land, worthless for meadow, 
are seeded down with lucem. The yield is astonishingly prolific, ranging 
from three to four tons on inferior land and with poor water facilities, to ten 


tons per annum under more favorable conditions. It is an excellent food 
ior cattle, largely increases the flow of milk in cows, and is a substantial and 
fattening feed for work horses. It is the best friend to the stock and dairy 
industries of Utah yet discovered. 


Utah holds an intermediate position, with re.spect to its supply of tim- 
ber, between the Atlantic and Prairie States. Its arable lands are not inter- 
spersed with forests, nor yet is it without an adequate supply of thnber 
within its own limits for building, fencing, mining, and fuel. The valleys or 
plains are destitute of forest growth, and in early times willow brush was 
resorted to for fencing, adobe bricks for building, and sage brush for fuel. 
But the mountains are generally more or less wooded, almost wholly with 
evergreens, however. The best trees furnish lumber not technically clear, but 
the knots are held so fast that they are no real detriment, and the lumber is 
practically clear. The red pine and black balsam, indigenous to the moun- 
tains, m'ake a fence post or railroad tie that will last ten years. The white 
pine is not so good. More than half of the forest growth of the Wasatch 
IS of the white or inferior variety. On the Oquirrh the trees are chiefly red 
pine. Scrub cedar and pinon pine are quite common in the south and west. 
They are of little value for anything but posts, ties and fuel. In 1875 there 
were perhaps 100 saw mills in existence, if not in operation, in the Territory, 
and while the people are not enabled by law to acquire title to timbered 
lands, nor authorized to appropriate the timber on other than mineral lands, 
nor that save for domestic uses, the fact remains that they do so appropriate 
it, always have, and always will, as it is reasonable and right that they 
should. Ordinary rough building and fencing lumber ranges m price from 
$20 to $25 a thousand. Wood is obtained from the canyons for fuel, and 
soft coal of good quantity can be had for $6 to $10 a ton in all Northern 
Utah. When the coal deposits of the Territory shall have been developed 
and made accessible by railroads, the price should be less by one-half, for 
there is an abundant supply and it is widely distributed. * 


The first furrow turned in Utah was done by Willian Carter, now of St. 

There have been held in Utah fifteen Territorial Fairs under the auspices 
of the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society. The last was held 
in October of 1881. Inability to secure permanent grounds and buildings, 
and the personal risks involved by the members of the Society caused them 
to suspend exhibitions. 

In December, 1870, 60,000 pounds of dried peaches were shipped out 
of Utah by Z. C. M. I. alone. 

A pomological exhibition took place at St. George on the 29th of 
December, 1870. Fine samples of wine from local raised grapes were 
exhibited, as well as raisins. 

During 1869 William Jennings shipped to Idaho, Montana and else- 
where, about 200,000 pounds of Utah butter. We cannot, or do not, now 
begin to produce enough for local consumption. Here is a field for the 
enterprising dairj'man and for the establishment of creameries. Cache 
Valley is already unitedly taking hold of the enterprise. ThevTcrritory 
no where affords a better field for such an investment. 

The agricultural products in 1875 were $4,393,222.07; horticultural, 

♦ Resources of Utah. 


$1,170,248.50; animals, $6,642,798.59; animal products, $1,219,094.56; total, 


Cache County produced over 15,000,000 pounds of cereals in 1873. 

The soil, formed to a very large extent from the mountain wasnings, 
consists mainly of a gravelly loam, and is peculiarly adapted to the growth 
of wheat and other cereals and to fruit. 

Wheat is the staple product of the Territory. Over eighty bushels, in 
instances, have been raised to the acre. Oats, barley, rye and flax are culti- 
vated with success. All kinds of vegetables grow astonishingly large, and 
of superior quality. The same is true of fruit. 

Cotton has been cultivated successfully in Washington County. The 
cost of manufacture is so great as to render cotton raising unprofitable. 
Madder, indigo, figs, grapes, and other tropical fruit can be raised in this 

The estimated production of Utah's cereal crop per annum is roughly 
placed at 2, 500,000 bushels. 

It takes about 900,000 to 1,000,000 bushels of wheat per annum to 
bread the people and furnish seed for the succeeding year. 

It is estimated that the population of Utah, all told, requires from six 
to six and a quarter bushels of wheat per capita for bread. 


Considering her economic resources, Utah has made less progress in 
manufacture than in any other direction. The showiog is not satisfactory. 
There are, however, extenuating circumstances in this connection that should 
properly be set forth. Up to date the railroads have been of benefit to 
Utah only so far as inflexible commercial laws compelled them to help the 
Territory materially. As compared with Colorado, we fail to be her super- 
ior in two respects only: in the amount of mineral wealth produced annu- 
ally, and in the establishment of internal industries upon economic 
resources. This admission is the more painful because of the absence of 
any legitimate reason why it should be so. We have mines equal in capa- 
city, richness and extent to any in Colorado. In the materials for manu- 
facture no section of the west can approach Utah. Colorado, however, has 
had the advantage of railroad efforts looking to her upbuilding. It has 
been exactly the opposite with Utah. The history of the only road by 
which for years communication could be had with the east, if written, would 
show unfailing opposition to the material welfare of the Territory; a ten- 
dency to crush inherent independence, and a determination to choke the 
life out of home enterprises. The effect of such potent influence has been 
to kill opposition to its policy by the perpetual dread of ruin which stared 
men incessantly in the face when home industries were thought of It also 
begot a lack of self-reliance, cultivated a dependence on external forces, and 
inculcated a slavish habit of looking to the wrong source for what was 
needed. The same evils exist to-day, aggravated hiy an additional through 
line that pursues the same policy. Nebraska and Colorado are being built 
up at the expense of Utah, Idaho and Montana, the Union Pacific repre- 
senting the Nebraska interests, the Denver and Rio (jrande those of Colo- 
rado. There are, however, internal reasons for the unfortunate conditions 
of Utah in manufacture — though they would probably have been unknown 
had the railroad evils failed to exist. Men of wealth, permanently residing 
in Utah, have made their accumulations slowly; they are proverbially cau- 
tious, and the fire and ambitious desire to have the prosperity' of the country 
they inhabit linked inseparably with the history of their personal pecuniary 
aggrandizements is by no means as pronounced as it might be, taking, as 
examples, instances to be found in territories equally as young and less stable 
than Utah. It is true this caution has not been without good effect. Nothing 
so engenders a lack of confidence as the precipitate inauguration of industries 
destined to fail for the reason that existing conditions are not ripe for the 
industry. It is the absence of failurc*s of any magnitude that inspires such 
perfect confidence in the founding of local enterprises, looking to the utiliza- 
tion of the vast resources that meet the gaz^ of the thoughtful on every 
side, and which constantly suggest to the energetic and the enterprising 
opportunities never dreamed of by those of less active temperaments. The 
success, also, of such industrial enterprises ixs have been inaugurated after 
mature deliberation and proper preliminar>' steps have been taken, is an 
additional and a certain assurance that similar operations in other directions 



would prove equally successful, other conditions being the same. There is 
barely an industry of any moment or note in the world's commerce that has 
not hfeen tried in a limited way in Utah. Results have been unsatisfactor>' 
financially, but as demonstratmg, beyond the shadow of a doubt, the abso- 
lute certainty that industrial developments are possible, the simple efforts 
made were invaluable. It requires means, together with energy, as well as 
educated skill, to succeed in manufactures; but means, too selfish or too 
weak-kneed, have been found unwilling to combine with intelligence, for 
which reason, in large measure, the efforts of the latter have been abortive. 
The United States census returns for 1850 gave $291,220 as the value 
of the product of manufactures, mining, and the mechanic arts in Utah at 
that time. On the same authority it had increased to $900, 153 in i860, and 
to $2,343,019 in 1870. Similar returns for 1875, published by order of the 
Utah Legislature, show it to have reached $3,831,817, as follows: 


Flour mills, . . 
Saw mills, . , . 
Lath and planing mills, 
Wagon shops. . . . 
Stone quarries, . . 
Lime kilns, .... 
Brick yards, . . . 
Woolen mills, . . . 
Potteries, .... 
Tanneries, .... 
Breweries, .... 


Yam and hosier\% 
Paper, ...'.. 
Cements, .... 
Hats arid caps, . . . 


Soap, glue, etc. . . 


Willow-ware, . . . 
Straw Braid, . . . 
Artificial flowers, . . 
Charcoal, ..... 





Fire brick, .... 

Total value, 





311,833 $7. 



20,772,800 feet. 







28, 246 




11,846,759 brick. 














4. 265 

8,674 tons. 


2,070 '* 


3.900 '' 


3»382 ** 


4,600 '' 


41.500 ** 



The product of silver-lead mining for 1875, which does not appear in 
above table, was $2,708,000, making a total of $6,539,817. Exclusive of 
manufactured products, the value of mechanical labor for 1875 was returned 
at $3,715,000. But as such a return is somewhat indefinite, no account is 
made of it here. 

So far as dependent agricultural branches are concerned, the facts given 
do not apply with the sfimc force as to branches dependent upon mining. 


l^e manufacture of cheese, of honey, and of other products is growing rap- 
idly. There are but lour single industries that have been pressed forward 
to anything like satisfactory results: woollen products, shoes, lead pipe and 
white lead, and soaps. The first-named is most important, the others proba- 
bly follow in the order given, the capacity of the Territory for consuming 
these articles considered. Much is done in iron manufactures. Except, how- 
ever, in rare instances the pig iron is imported from the States — ^imported to 
a country that has the greatest iron resources in the world, with every iacil- 
itY for their utilization. As before stated, nearly every industry has been 
tried, and some are doing well on a limited scale and are encouraged less 
than they deserve; but as compared with what the economic opportunities of 
the Territory would warrant, they are as nothing. Reference to the statis- 
tics on manufacture appearing elsewhere will give a clearer and better idea of 
what is really being done, and of the comparative importance as to the actual 
wealth productiveness of the several branches; but it gives no earthly con- 
ception of the untold wealth awaiting the investment of means, and a mar- 
ket that will justify the ouday to make of Utah the peer of any section of 
the globe in the importance of her manufactures. 


Utah has the greatest iron deposits in the known world. Whatever is 
necessary to the successful reduction of iron and its subsequent manufacture 
into articles of commercial value is found in abundance in the immediate 
vicinity. Iron manufacture in all its branches comprises, in round numbers, 
one-third the world's commerce: one-third of all the varied products which 
the world employs is composed of iron in one form or another; one-third 
the wealth ot this Territory, one-third its consumption, is of iron. With 
the greatest iron deposits alone, supplying only the local wants, there would 
be a saving of how much? 

Lead is almost equally as abundant. It is used for sheeting, pipes, cis- 
terns, tanks, white lead, and for a thousand things that enter into tne daily 
requirements of civilized communities. The opportunity for the founda- 
tion of industries upon the resources of Utah is three-fold as large as the 
number of minerals, taking the material resources alone. Agriculturally 
the opportunities may greatly be enhanced. The growing of hops has 
become an industry that bids fair to assume large proportions. Utah is con- 
ceded to raise fruit, the character of which, taking the whole field into 
consideration, is unsurpassed; the same is true of vegetables, and the open- 
ing of canning and pickling establishments would simply be the inau^ra- 
tion of industries calculated to increase the material wealth of the Territory 
largely. The same also is true of dairy products; while starch, wine and 
other manufactured products could be made with equal facility, of as fair a 
quality, and sell as readily as these articles produced elsewhere. Silk also 
can successfully be made; the climate, and other essential features having been 
shown by actual test, to be all that could be desired. Among the other 
things offering the most glowing inducements to manufacturers in addition 
to gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, are soda and salaratus; salt, 
sulphur, gypsum for plaster of Parb; mica; marbles and building rock gen- 
erally; pig and sheet lead, lead pipe, shot; lead, iron and chrome pigments; 
Venetian red; fire-proof paints ;gjeen, yellow and chrome, and red and white 
lead; charcoal, bnck, glue, candles, earthenware, willowware, hats and 
caps, cigars, beer, paper, brooms, brushes; lime and cement, fire brick; 
drugs and chemicals, of every kind; petroleun and other oils; pottery, glass, 
slate — for roofing, sink bottoms, billiard tables — ^marble for mantle pieces, 
bureau tops, pillars; and so on until all the principal industries of the 
world are exhausted, and still the material remains for the establishment of 


new industries. It has been said of Utah: *'The entire basin is a vast labora- 
tory of nature, where all the primitive processes have been carried out on a 
scale so vast as to make man*s dominion, at first sight, seem forever impos- 
sible." In connection herewith two very important considerations must be 
referred to. While it is true nature has blessed Utah beyond measure with 
an abundance of all the resources and opportunities that comprise the actual 
wealth of the world, that alone is not sufficient. They must be available 
and so situated as to admit of their handling at a minimum fi^re. If nature 
has done all in her power to concentrate her wealth of mmerals, she has 
been no less kind in making them readily available. Of the manifold resources 
of the Territory, none is so situated that it is not easy of access. The sound 
and un&iling agricultural basis of the Territory, equal to all the demands 
that can ever be made, is a guaranty to the miner and the manufacturer 
that the foundation or primal mdustry will ever be sufficient, will ever fur- 
nish an abundance of food, thus insuring constant labor and the operation of 
the varied industries at reasonable prices. Still another point, not immedi- 
ately associated with the subject under consideration, but nevertheless bearing 
upon it, is the reliable character of the people. Nearly every person owns 
a home in Utah, and however small the amount each person has invested, 
it is sufficient to cause that person to be staid, politic and judicious. Strikes 
are an unknown occurrence in Utah, and will be just so long as the condi- 
tions in regard to property ownership exist as they do to-day. 

It is not that Utah is deficient in manufactures, but as compared with 
the opportunities existing, those she already enjoys are as nothing. A field 
for manufactures superior to that of Utah does not exist. Whether her 
power and importance in this regard be of slow growth, or rapid development 
cannot be predicted with certainty, but that she will yet be the peer of any 
commonwealth is as certain as that she is the center of a vast section des- 
tined to outstrip the east — as certain as that one day follows another. The 
subject is too broad, too comprehensive to be dealt with in a moment; but 
any one conversant with the world's manufactures, who will calmly view the 
economic resources of Utah, associated with the location of the Territory 
and the future of the great west, must admit the prediction is not over- 


The first carding machine was brought to Utah by President B. Young 
in 1849. I*^ 1852, 1853 and 1854 other machines were imported, one get- 
ting as far south as Cedar City, Iron County, in 1852. Subsequendy they 
were manufactured in Utah. 

The first woolen mills were built by President Young on Big Can- 
yon Creek, and were known as the Deseret Mills; subsequently Hon. A. O. 
Smoot, now of Provo, Hon. John Sharp, of this city and General R. T. 
Burton, also of this city, built the Wasatch Woolen Mills, a short distance 
below the Deseret Mills. 

The Provo Woolen Mills were established in 1870; the same year also 
the mills at Bri^ham City and at Beaver were established. 

Woolen mills were operated near Ogden by Randall, Pugsley & Co., in 

In 1870 the estimated productive capacity of all the woolen mills in 
the Territory was $700,000. 

In the year 1870, George. D. Watts and John W. Young inaugurated 
the manu&cture of silk. 

AVoolen goods, in August of 1870, made at the Deseret Mills, were 
exhibited at a fair held in Indianopolis, Indiana. 


Machinery for the manufacture of cotton was imported from the States 
in 1870. Later on Mr. J. Birch took into Washington County 57,500 
pounds of woolen machinery' and started woolen mills at Washington City, 
which are now in operation. 

The foundry at Logan made a successful run August i, 1871. 

The Brigham City Woolen Mills began operations February 27, 187 1. 

The Southern Utah Iron Manufacturing Company was organized with 
a capital stock of §100,000. Iron County was the scene of operations. 
November 6, 1873, an iron manufacturing company was organized in Ogden 
with a capital stock placed at $250,000. In both these cases iron was made, 
but from some cause the organizations proved valuless. 

May 2, 1873, the Utah Fire Brick Company made an exhibition of its 
manufactured wares. The clay was obtained near Lehi, Utah County. 

The Gemiania Lead Works began operation in 1883. 

The first steam engine built in Utah is now at Richmond, Cache 
County, in the possession of the gentleman by whom it was made, Thomas 
Griffin. In October of 1856, he received a silver medal from the Deseret 
Agricultufal and Manufacturing Society for it. 

The Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society was organized and 
gave its first exhibition in 1856. In the period intervening between that 
date and the present time it has given fifteen exhibitions, the last in 1881. 
The absence of suitable buildings, and the personal risks incurred by the 
managers have put a stop to further efforts. Two years ago last Winter, in 
1882, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 to aid the Society, Salt Lake 
City tendering one hall of Washington Square on which to erect the fair 
and exhibition buildings. Governor Murray, however, saw fit to put his 
veto on the appropriation and the whole thnig fell through. There have 
been no exhibitions since. 


The history of mining in Utah, so far as relates to accuracy of statistics, 
is most unsatisfactory. At best, only a broad approximate can be made. 
For years previous to the existence of a mining excitement it was known 
that precious minerals abounded. The advent of the railroad, however, 
brought an unusually large floating population to Utah. Naturally enough 
there were miners among the numoer, who, upon inquiry, learned of the 
existence of minerals and at once began prospecting. The results were 
astonishing" and inside of a year and a half Utah enjoyed the first and only 
**boom*' ever known here, which lasted for a period of perhaps twelve 
months. Mining speculations ran wild, and though many unfortunate 
results grew out of the conditions, the effect was to establish for Utah a repu- 
tation for the possession of varied and extensive mineral deposits, not only 
superior in numerous respects to any other Territory or State in the west, 
but surpassing in particular instances anything of the kind known in the 
world. Subsequent and more thorough investigations showed that while 
Utah's valleys were pre-eminently fitted for the agriculturist, and her ranges 
seemingly designed for stock-raising, her mountains were no less a source 
of attraction to the miner and manufacturer, for it was impossible to stand 
in the open air at any point anywhere in the Territory from which the eye 
could" not rest upon vast mineral deposits, great in variety, endless in 
extent. The formation of the Territory geologically and with a view to its 
mineral features is that of the Great Basin generally. The following 
regarding this geology is condensed from the reports of Clarence King on 
the subject: 

* * The greater part of the rock of the interior mountain area is a series 
of conformable stratified beds, reaching from the early Azoic to the late 
Jurassic. In the latter these beds were raised, and the Sierras, the Wasatch 
and the parallel ranges of the Great Basin were the consequence. In this 
upheaval important masses of granite broke through, accompanied by 
quartz, porphyries, felsite rocks, and notably sienitic granite with some 
granulite and gretsen occasionally. Then, the Pacific Ocean on the west, 
and the ocean that filled the Mississippi Basin on the east, laid down a 
system of cretaceous and tertiary strata. These outlying shore beds, 
subsequently to the miocene, were themselves raised and folded, forming 
the Pacific Coast Range and the chains east of the Wasatch ; volcanic rocks 
accompanying this upheaval as granite did the former one. Still later a 
final series of disturbances occurred; but these last had but small connection 
with the region under consideration. 

** There is a general parallelism of the mountain chains, and all the 
structural features of local geology, the ranges, strike of great areas of 
upturned strata, larger outbursts of gigantic rocks, etc., are nearly parallel 
with the meridian. So the precious metals arrange themselves in parallel 
longitudinal zones. There is a zone of quicksilver, tin, and chromic iron 
on the coast ranges; one of copper along the foot-hills of the Sierras; one 
of gold further up the Sierras, the gold veins and resultant placers 


extending far into Alaska; one of silver with comparatively little base 
metal, along the east base of the Sierras, stretching into Mexico; silver 
mines with complicated associations through middle Mexico, Arizona, 
middle Nevada, and central Idaho; argentiferous galena through New Mex- 
ico. Utah and western Montana; and still further east, a continuous chain of 
gold deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana. The 
Jurassic disturbances in all probability is the dating point of a large class of 
lodes: a, those wholly enclosed in the granites, and ^, those in metamorphic 
beds of the series extending from the Azoic to the Jurassic. To this period 
may be referred the gold veins of California, those of the Humboldt mines, 
and those of the White Pine, all of class b\ and the Reese River veins, 
partly a, and partly b. The Colorado loads are somewhat unique, and in 
general belong to the ancient type. To the tertiary period may be definitely 
assigned the mineral veins traversing the early volcanic rock; as the Com- 
stock lode and veins of the Owyhee District, Idaho. By far the greater 
number of metalliferous lodes occur in the stratified metamorphic rocks or 
the ancient eruptive rocks of the Jurassic upheaval; yet very important, 
and, perhaps, more wonderfully productive, have been those silver lodes 
which lie wholly in the recent volcanic formations. ' * 

We quote at some length from an article by Professor J. E. Clayton, as 
giving perhaps the clearest general idea of the opportunities of Utah min- 

'*The mining industries of the States and Territories west of the 
Mississippi River have, in the last thirty-four years, produced the vast sum 
of $2,230,447,887 in gold and silver. Thb enormous sum of money has 
been added to the permanent wealth of the country, and given it an impetus 
in eVery branch of national growth and material progress, without a parallel 
in history. It has made our splendid railroad and telegraph systems pos- 
sible in the last half of the present century. It has opened up a vast 
wilderness — with its boundless resources — to settlement and civilized uses, 
that otherwise would have remained a desolate waste for another hundred 

**It is a well-known fact that Utah has never given any official aid, or 
made any united effort to bring her mining resources into prominence before 
the world, and that other States and Territories — having no greater natural 
resources — have outstripped her in this branch of material progress. 

*' Notwithstanding all this, her mining interest has made a splendid 
showing since 1870. In the last thirteen years her mines have produced 
$2,150,000 in gold, $45,790,272 in silver, 258,000 tons of lead, realizing in 
the markets of the seaboard $23,220,000, <ind over 1,000 tons of metallic 
copper worth in New York about $300,000. These items make up a ^and 
total of $71,502,772, since mining became an active industry in Utah thirteen 
years ago. It must be kept in mind that $47,982,272 of the total output 
was in gold and silver — actual money created from the crude ores of our 
mountains, while the lead and copper products were paid for in coin, or its 
equivalent, amounting to the large sum above stated. 

' * Lead and copper do not create money in the same sense that gold and 
silver do, but they bring money to the producer in the markets outside of 
Utah, in the same way as wheat, wool, beef, mutton, hides, coal, salt, and 
other merchantable products, and may be a profitable branch of industry as 
long as lead and copper will bring remunerative prices in the market. 
Their value — like the other products named — depends upon the question of 
demand outside of Utah. With gold and silver tne case is entirely different; 
those metals are real money, only needing the stamp of the mint to make 
them the legal coin of the realm. Their value does not depend upon the 
mere questions of demand or supply, or the fluctuations of trade, like other 
commodities; they have a fixed representative value. There is no such 


thing as an over-production. They form the life blood of all commercial 
transactions among men. Every dollar in gold and silver that is dug out of 
our mountains makes it possible for the farmer, the merchant, the manu- 
ufacturer, the mechanic and the laborer to sell a dollar's worth of whatever 
he has on hand, independent of anv outside market whatever. Every dol- 
lar dug out of our mines is a dollar absolutely gained to the permanent 
wealth of the countr)'. If all of her silver and gold mines were actively 
worked, there would be a home market created that would buy all the sur- 
I)lus food, labor, and manufactures of her entire population. In other 
words, we could create the money and the market for utilizing her entire 
productive industry. When the world's markets demand lead, copper, 
antimony, iron, coal, salt, gypsum, marble, etc., Utah can respond to any 
reasonable demand made for those articles, for in those things her resources 
are boundless. 

**But during times of over-supply, and general depression in those 
branches of trade, the main reliance of Utah for sustaining her local indus- 
tries and general business must rest upon her gold and silver mines, for 
they can create all the money actually needed to carry on almost every 
branch of business necessary to her steady and permanent growth. 

'*In our judgment, the time has arrived when this all-unportant branch 
of national industry in Utah should receive the attention of practical busi- 
ness men, as well as the highest order of statesmanship. The records of its 
magnificent achievements should be preserved in an official form in the 
archives of the Territory. It should be protected and fostered as the industry 
that makes all the other pursuits and labors of her people remunerative and 
prosperous. To do this properly, Utah should have its own bureau of min- 
mg statistics, her own museum of ores, minerals and geological collections, 
her own professors of geology, mining and mechanical engineers and metal- 
lurgical chemists, and her own training schools of the practical sciences for 
the instruction of her young men who are to direct and control — in the near 
future — the greatest source of wealth within her broad areiis. We reiterate, 
that mining industry gives life to every other branch of business in the west. 
It makes farming profitable to our citizens, it creates a home market for all 
kinds of food supplies, it gives profitable employment to a vast army of 
sturdy laborers, it causes the construction of railroads and telegraph lines 
that connect us with the great centers of population and wealth of the east 
and west, it will make every civilized nation, to some extent, tributary to 
Utah, for her metallic productions are welcome in every market on the 
planet. There arc mines enough in Utah to make an annual output of 
$20,000,000 in silver and gold. To do this she must have an investment of 
at least $40,000,000 in addition to what is already invested in her mining 
industries. Can she reasonably expect such an enormous influx of capital 
unless she makes an organized effort to show to the world the great extent 
and richness of her mines? Must she fold her hands and await the slow and 
unsupported efforts of individuals? Or shall she make a united and well 
<lirected effort to make the world comprehend the extent and value of her 
vast stores of the precious and useful metals, and claim her full share of the 
world's capital that is ready to invest in legitimate mining industries?" 

The quotation above made sufficiently shows the capacity of the Terri- 
tory for the production of precious metals, the conditions being favorable. 
Of the base metals that abound in Utah, and of the minerals generally, the 
old saying that *'a volume would afford insufficient room to give a fair idea 
of their variety and extent" is eminently true. Lead and copper and iron, 
however, with coal, constitute the main features. The supply of lead is 
absolutely limitless; and when, in the future, the improvements that are so 
rapidly making in mining shall have reached a point at which it is possible 

to handle profitably the low grade lead-bearing ores with which Utah 


abounds, then will the wealth from this source equal, if indeed it does not 
exceed, that produced from the precious metals. In the matter of copper 
Utah is no less fortunate as to quantity and to quality than in lead. New 
copper claims are being discovered up to this late date, and in instances the 
promises are the best. In Southern Utah, in that portion embraced in 
Washington County, the copper claims of old and recent discovery are 
exceedingly fine and shipments by teams for long distances still pay remuner- 
ative prices. The lead districts are confined to no particular area. The metal 
has, however, been found in greatest quantities in Salt Lake, Tooele, Juab, 
Summit and Millard Counties, in all of which also, silver has been dis- 
covered, and in Silver Reef and Leeds; while copper has been found in 
large and paying quantities in Juab and Salt Lake Counties, and in other 
counties than Washington. It is a safe declaration to make, however, that 
all these minerals, besides many others, can be found in varying quantities 
in any of the mountains in the Territory. 


It is in iron and coal however, that Utah is most abundantly blessed, 
and not only is she favored beyond any western State or Territory in these 
regards, but her iron resources are without comparison in the known world. 
Iron ore has been found in Cache Valley so ricn in silver, that the argen- 
tiferous proportion of metal, according to a test made in St. Louis y^ars ago, 
is sufficient to pay the actual working exjjenses. An area of twenty miles 
about Ogden, particularly to the north, abounds in excellent qualities of 
iron ore, the percentage of metal being unusually large, and invites work 
by its vast quantities. 

Iron ore is found more or less through the Territory, but notably in 
large quantities in certain places. The most important iron deposits occur 
in Iron County, about 200 miles south of Salt Lake City. The iron belt 
here is over three miles wide and commences several miles north of Iron 
Springs, running in a southwesterly direction to Iron City, a distance of 
over sixteen miles. One of the most prominent points in this belt is Iron 
Mountain, 1,500 feet elevation above the surrounding plain. The central 
part of this belt, Desert Mound, is six miles long and three miles wide. 
The country rock is granite, porphyry and limestone. This limestone is 
used as flux. The character of the ore is hematite and magnetite, demon- 
strating in different tests made that they are well qualified for the production 
of fine Bessemer steel. It is estimated there are five hundred million tons 
of good ore in sight in Iron County. An analysis of this ore gives the fol- 
lowmg results: No. i, Iron 64, Phosphorus 0.12, Sulphur 0.13, Silica, 5.2 per 
cent.; No. 2, Iron 62.60, Phosphorus none. Sulphur 0.12, Silica 4.8 percent.: 
No. 3, Iron 60.90, Phosphorus, none, Sulphur 0.08, Silica 5.8 per cent. 
An analysis of the limestone gives 80.35 per cent, carbonate of lime, and 
10.92 per cent, of insoluble silicious material. 

In Cache County, at Smithfield, occur beds of micaceous hematite over 
sixty feet in thickness. Around Ogden, on the Provo, by Kamas, on the 
Weber, in Ogden Canyon, near WiTlard and Bountiful, in the Cotton woods, 
Red Butte and City Creek Canyons, in Tintic, in fact all over Utah iron ore 
in all varieties is found. It accompanies numerous deposits of lead and 
silver ores, being valuable on account of its percentage in gold and silver, 
and its use as flux. At present the smelters derive the supply of iron ore to 
be used in their establishments as flux, from Tintic Mining District. In this 
district the iron ores occur in a belt two miles long and over 1,000 
feet wide, bearing northeast and southwest. The Tintic iron ores occur as 
peroxides and sesquioxides of iron or hematite in strong veins, assaying 
60 to 70 per cent, of iron, and $5 to $15 in gold and silver per ton. These 


ores are principally found in Tintic as bedded deposits in the Silurian lime- 
stone ; they are not suited for any other purpose than flux on account of 
their containing other minerals. Tne principal deposits are in the moun- 
tain-side at and near Dragon Hollow, which leads from Silver City up and 
across the summit of the Oquirrh Mountain Range. The ore breasts here 
are ffom forty to fifty feet hign. Over 100,000 tons of iron ore have been 
already, and from 150 to 200 tons of iron is daily, extracted from the Tintic 
iron mines. Iron ores for the purpose of fluxing silicious lead and silver ores 
are also found on the slopes 01 the Wasatch above Willard; Morgan County 
iron deposits, near the line of the Union Pacific; in the Wah-Wan Mountain 
Range, twenty-five miles southwest of Frisco ; in City Creek Canyon and 
in Iron County. 

But to Southern Utah in general, and Iron County in particular, 
belongs whatever of credit may attach to the possession of the greatest 
and grandest iron mines in the world. Their existence has been known 
for all of twenty-five years, though the extent in comparison with the mines 
of other nations had not been established until later years. There are abso- 
lutely mountains of solid iron, of every variety known in the world. The 
most notable geologists and mineralogists have visited these colossal iron 
deposits and the verdict that they were the most boundless deposits known 
in the world has been unhesitatingly and unequivocally given. Among 
others who have examined these deposits is Prof. J. S. Newberry, principal 
of the Columbia School of Mines, New York, and as his opinion on the 
subject will carry greater weight than that perhaps of any other person, it is 
given below: 

* 'These ore beds have been long known and were to some extent util- 
ized by the Mormons in their first advent, thirty years ago, but no satisfac- 
tory description of them has ever been published. As they constitute, 
perhaps, the most remarkable deposit of iron ore yet discovered on this 
continent, I have thought that some facts in regard to them might not be an 
unimportant addition to what is known of the economic resources of our 
country. The iron region referred to lies nearly two hundred miles directly 
south from Salt Lake City, and is situated in what is really the southern 
prolongation of the Wasatch Mountains. The iron ores occur in the north- 
em portion of a subordinate range, which attains its greatest height in Pine 
Valley Mountain, near Silver Reef. Thirty miles north of this point the 
ridge breaks down into a series of hills from one thousand to two thousand 
feet in height, which consist chiefly of gray, fine-grained granite, with 
dykes and masses of trachyte and here and there outcrops of highly meta- 
morphosed limestone. The ore beds form a series of protruding crests and 
masses set over an area about fifteen miles long in a northeast and south- 
west direction, and having a width of three to five miles. Within this belt 
the iron outcrops are very numerous and striking; perhaps one hundred 
distinct claims have alreacly been located upon them, each one of which 
would make the fortune of a mining company if situated anywhere in the 
Mississippi Valley or the Eastern States. The most iippressive outcrops 
are in the vicinity of Iron Springs, Oak Springs and Iron City, of which 
localities the first and last mentioned are about twelve miles apart. Near 
Iron Springs the Big Blowout, as it is called, is a projecting mass of mag- 
netic ore, which shows a length of perhaps a thousand feet by a width of 
five hundred, and rises in castellated crags one hundred feet or more above 
its base. 

**At Iron Springs a still more striking exhibition is made by the Blair 
mine, which is a ragged crest of magnetite, black as jet, formed by the 
upturned edge of the thickest of a series of sheets of ore, which rises like a 
ledge of bedded rock two or three hundred feet above the adjacent low 
lands. This outcrop is visible as a conspicuous black hill at a distance of 


several miles. The connections between the ore bodies of this great iron 
belt are obscured by the debris from the easily decomposed trachyte and 
granite. It is evident, however, that for some miles the iron ore deposits 
are continuous or separated by very short intervals, as the outcrops occur 
within a stone's throw of each other, and the surface is everywhere strewed 
with blocks of rich magnetic ore, enough in themselves to supply all the 
furnaces of the country for years.. It would seem that the iron forms a 
number of distinct and closely approximated belts, which are the outcrops 
of beds that stand nearly vertical, and go down into the earth like huge 

* There is considerable diversity in the character of the ore, though it is 
about equally divided in quantity between hematite and magnetite. Some 
of the beds of both are exceedingly dense and compact, while others, 
though rich in iron, are soft and can be mined with the pick. Most of the 
ore is apparently very pure, containing a small amount of earthy matter and 
no foreign minerals. Some of the ledges, however, contain a large quantity 
of silica, the magnetite being mottled with white quartz ; and one of the 
largest outcrops, though showing many millions of tons of ore apparently 
cjuite pure, is thickly set along certain zones, evidently strata of decomposi- 
tion, with crystals of apatite from a quarter to half an inch in diameter and 
two or three inches in length. At this location many of the fragments are 
highly magnetic, and loadstone as strong as any known can be obtained 
there in great abundance. A few rods from this great outcrop is another ol 
equal dimensions, in which the magnetite is apparently quite free from all 
impurities, showing neither quartz nor apatite. Near by is another expo- 
sure, perhaps a continuation of the last, of which the mass is half magnetite 
and tne other half fine-grained and dense hematite. Across a narrow \'al- 
ley from this group the hillside is covered with fallen fragments of a rich but 
soft and dark hematite, and at no great distance the soil is covered blood- 
red by the decomposition of a hematite so soft as to make no other show 
above the surface. Near this latter location I noticed a line of outcrop of a 
very jaspery hematite, in some places only a ferruginous jasper, closely 
resembling some of the more silicious ores of the Marquette dfistrict. 

* * As to the age of this remarkable series of iron ore deposits, I cannot 
speak with absolute certainty, though they are apparently Lower Silurian. 

*'The granite of the hills which contain the iron is finer grained and less 
compact than that which forms the great granite axis of the Wasatch, and I 
suspect is the metamorphic condition of tne quartzite beds which rest upon 
the Wasatch granite. Some of the iron ore beds in this granite are dis- 
tinctly interstratified with it, and are certainly, like it. metamorphosed sedi- 
ments. This is plainly shown at the Blair mine, where the principal crest 
of the hill is a distinct sheet of stratified, regularly bedded magnetite, from 
thirty to forty feet in thickness, dipping toward the north at an angle of 
about eighty degrees. Parallel with this principal layer are other sheets of 
magnetite, ^separated by strata of granite, and varying from a quarter of an 
inch to ten feet in thickness, as perfectly parallel and regular as any series of 
sedimentary beds ever seen. 

**On tne whole the Blair mine is the most interesting and instructive 
outcrop of iron known to me, and furnishes the most striking proof of 
the sedimentary' origin of these wonderful ore beds. None of the other 
outcrops is so distinctly stratified, but the Big Blowout at Iron City, 
which affords an equally conclusive argument against the eruptive 
theory ; for it appears to be a huge amorplious mass, like a hill of basalt, 
on examination it is found to be in large part composed of metamorphose<i 

**With the exception of the great iron deposits of Southern Utah, the 
Far West is but imperfectly supplied with this metal. I have found 


magnetite and specular ores in small quantities in several places in the 
mountains of Oregon and California, and in the Rocky Mountain belt, and 
similar ores have been met with by prospectors and explorers in some 
of the districts which I have riot visited. We have no evidence, however, 
that any other great deposits of iron exist in or beyond the Rocky Moun- 
tains. * * 


The coal fields of Utah are also limitless, and give the assurance that 
one hundred years of solid work would merely be a development of them — 
so varied and extensive are they. Let prediction have what value it may, cer- 
tain it is that in comparison with the extent of coal fields embraced by Utah, 
the work so far done is barely a scratch in the earth. It is with Utah's coal 
fields, however, as with many other resources: internal indifference and for- 
eign opposition backed by large railroad interests have largely retarded their 
development by the importation of foreign coal. These obstacles are now 
mainly overcome. In Summit County the coal mines have been most 
largely developed. None of the beefs shows signs of pinching; many 
as yet are hardly opened, while untouched fields yet lie idle awaiting 
the period when the industries of this country will demand the extrac- 
tion of their hidden treasures. In Pleasant Valley, on the line of the Den- 
ver and Rio Grande Railway, vast fields are now being opened, and are 
made to supply a lar^e portion of the local demand. These fields alone 
would prove of sufficient e,\tent to predict for Utah a great industrial future 
in a manufacturing sense were they the only dependence for fuel. But in 
Iron County, the scene of the greatest iron mines in the world, and within 
less than twenty miles, are unlimited coal beds, which, though barely opened, 
are still seen to be of sufficient extent to warrant the location of stu- 
pendous iron furnaces, and the opening of the boundless iron claims found 
within the limits of Iron ^County. Examinations made by experienced pros- 
pectors and coal miners m Castle Valley, Emery County, prove beyond the 
shadow of a doubt, the existence of almost every variety of coal, unless, 
perhaps, anthracite, and this too in endless quantities. In the sections cited 
the existence of certain coal fields has been permanently established, as also 
in Sanpete County ; but indications lead to the belief that these are by no 
means the only sections in which it is to be found. Traces have been found 
for years in almost every part of the Territory, while recent discoveries come 
near demonstrating to a certainty that Piute County, lying south and west 
of Emery, in which the great Castle Valley coal fields exist, is also the loca- 
tion of a superior quality of bituminous coal. 

The coal of Utah has a thickness of more than 200 feet and lies along 
the eastern slope of the great Wasatch Mountain Range, forming an almost 
inexhaustible oelt from the boundaries of Wyoming, through the Uintah 
Reservation, Pleasant Valley, on Huntington Cfreek, Castle Valley, down to 
Kanab and Pahreah. There is excellent coal on Weber River and its tribu- 
taries, for ten to fifteen miles above Echo. These Weber River coal mines 
have been found, opened and developed during the last fifteen years to a 
depth of 1,000 feet, disclosing immense bodies of coal to work upon for 
fifty generations to come. This coal is excellent for fuel in general, and 
engines in particular. The Weber River coal beds are from one to ten 
feet in thickness. A short railroad connects the mines with the main line 
and with Park City. Experiments have demonstrated the fact that this coal 
is of a non-coking character, and hence of little use in connection with the 
smelting of Utah ores. To the north and northeast, in Wyoming, are 
large deposits of a similar lignitic character. Eighty to ninety miles 
southeast of Salt Lake City, in Sanpete valley, a number of seams from 
six inches to six and a half feet in thickness of excellent bitumious coal 


have been found, while a little further to the east and southeast, among the 
mountains, others as wide as ten or eleven feet are worked. The coal is of 
a dark brown color near the surface and deeper down of a dull black color; 
by distillation it makes an excellent coke, as has been demonstrated by using 
the same in the Utah smelting works. All that the mines ijequire is a better 
and more practicable plant for washing and coking. The Sanpete Valley 
Railway Company own eight miles along the strike of a four-foot vein or 
seam of coal, comprising 10,350 acres of coal land. The analysis of the 
Sanpete coal yields as follows for coke: Moisture, 1.8; Bitumen, 44.2; Coke, 
50.7; Ash, 10.3 per cent. 

It is estimated that the coal resources of Utah comprise an area of 
20,000 square miles. With this fact in view we need have no apprehen- 
sion for the future, and the time is fast approaching when Utah will be, as 
a coal producer, the rival of Pennsylvania. 

Up to 1880, the surveys of coal lands were divided in the counties as 

Counfy. Ij)caliiy. Acres, 

Kane, North ol Kanab, 35*696 

Kane, On the Paria, I3»688 

Sanpete, Pleasant Valley, 34»332 

Sevier, Lower Castle Valley, ii»oi3 

Iron, Iron City to Parowan, 6,240 

Wasatch, Green River, 2,840 

Summit, About Coalville, i9)93i 

Tooele, South of Ophir City 1,160 

Box Elder, West of Mendon 800 

Rich, South of Randolph, 160 

Morgan, 120 

Total, - 125,980 

At that time as now, in over half the counties in the Territory, coal had 
been found. The returns of the local Land Office will show that probably 
150,000 acres of coal lands have been surveyed. 


In the extreme northwestern section of the country, within easy dis- 
tance of the railroad, a copper district has been opened. The veins lying in 
micacious shale, associated with porphyry, and varying from five to twenty 
feet in width, appear to carry almost all of the ores of copper, but mainly 
the oxide and glance, which yield sometimes as high as 50 per cent, of the 
pure metal. The mines are considerably developed ana the prospects 
exceedingly good. There also appears copper in Copper Gulch, San Fran- 
cisco District, Tintic, Cottonwood, Snake District, Red Butte Canyon, 
Bingham Canyon, Antelope Island in the Great Salt Lake, all over Beaver 
County, and in fact a great part of Southern Utah, and in the granite ran^e 
between Salt Lake City and Ogden. In view of the proximity to the rail- 
roads and the fine country in which they are situated, these districts bid fair 
to become important in the near future. 

Utah is remarkable no less for the variety and extent of minerals found 
within her borders than for their location, which renders them easy of 
access, and enhances their economic value materially. In both these regards 
she is fortunate as the most favored country on the globe. 



Sulphur beds exist both in the north and south of Utah, the larg- 
est bed Deing found in the southern part of the Tcrritoiy, or in Millard 


County. It comprises an area of about six miles long by one mile wide 
at the point of greatest width, and the average depth or thickness, as shown 
by actual tests in the sinking of shafts, is not less than twenty feet. That 
which, however, is most remarkable in connection with this sulphur bed is 
its unequaled fineness. In purity some of it goes 98, the average, however, 
being about 50, while sulphur from the far-famed Sicilian beds is but 20 in 
fineness. A very important bed is situated about fourteen miles south of 
the Horn Silver Mine, at Frisco, in Beaver County, in the west foothills of 
Star District, and was recently examined by Prof. J. E. Clayton. The sul- 
phur exists in fissures in a large hill of silicious smter and flint, and is of 
extraordinary purity and of abundant quantity. Up to date the resources 
in this direction are untouched even for local consumption. 


Gypsum is found in great quantities both in Washington and Juab 
Counties. In some portions of the former county the hills are almost as 
thickly seamed with layers of gypsum as the blood veins seam the body in 
animal life. It also is found in large quantities in Sanpete County, but is 
especially plentiful in accessible form in Juab County, there being a seam to 
the east of Nephi, County seat of Juab, over 100 feet wide and some 1,200 
feet long. It exists botn in the crystallized and in the massive form. The 
supply is limitless. 

The existence of large quantities of mica has long been known. Until 
recendy it had not been discovered in flakes large enough to give it com- 
mercial value. Later examinations show that it can be found in layers 
ranging from twelve to eighteen inches each way, the result being that it has 
already taken a place among the numerous minerals, found in Utah, available 
and of ready commercial value. It is found in greatest abundance in South- 
em Utah, but is also to be seen in no trifling quantities in Davis and Salt 
Lake Counties. 


This metal has already been shipped from Utah east at a profit. Veins 
of sulphuret of antimony three to six feet thick exist near brigham City, 
Box Elder County; but it has been found purest and in largest quantities m 
Piute and Garfield Counties. The percentage of antimony in the Brigham 
City ore ranges from 20 to 30; in the other localities named, the percent- 
age is considerably greater. There seems no question that this will yet 
prove a mineral of innnite wealth to Utah. 


In the Sanpete, Pleasant and Casde Valleys, in the sandstones and 
conglomerates, with the coal and near to the same, are beds of shale 
containing jet, ozocerite and albertite, and almost enough oily matter to 
bum alone, while in the vicinity are springs bringing to the surface 
considerable quantities of petroleum. Further to the north similar shales 

To aid the miner and prospector descriptions of jet, ozocerite and 
albertite is here given, the latter of which is found in great quantities in 
Southeastern Utah, 200 miles distant from Salt Lake City. Jet, or Gagates, 
is a very valuable mineral. It is in part a true lignite; it is light, looks much 
like smooth, black, glistening woocf is combustible and emits a disagreeable 
odor when rubbed, and burns with a smell of sulphur. It has been found 
in Hungary, Syria, in the rocks of Mount Lebanon, near Beyroo, in beds of 
coal in Asia Minor, on the Irrawaddy River in Burmah, in Utah and in 
New Mexico. 


Ozocerite (native paraffine in part) is like wax, spermaceti, butter-like, 
consistency of soft tallow. Color, greenish, wax yellow, yellowish brown 
to brown and brownish black, often having a greenish opalescence ; translu- 
cent, greasy to the touch; fusing point 56° to 63°, Celsius; colorless to white 
when pure. Ozocerite is partly to wholly soluble in ether, and ^ives a 
yellow or yellowish brown solution ; it is also soluble in oil of turpentnie and 
naptha, and a little soluble in alcohol. Ozocerite occurs in and is associated 
with beds of coal in Utah, Burmah, Slanik in Moldavia, Baryslaw in Galicia, 
beneath a bed of bituminous clay shale ; in masses of 80 to 100 pounds at 
the foot of the Carpathian Mountain Range; Gaming in Australia; in Tran- 
sylvania, in Moldavia; in the Carpathian sandstone; at Uphall in Linlithgow- 
shire, Scotland. It is used for the manufacture of paramne. 

Albertite (Milan asphaltum) occurs as filling irregular fissures in rocks 
of the lower Cretaceous and Tertiary ages in Utah. It has H. 1-2; 
G. =1,007; luster brilliant and pitch -like; color brownish, black to jet 
black. Softens a little in boiling water; shows incipient fusion in the flame 
of a candle; and partly soluble in alcohol and ether, more in oil of turpen- 
tine (about 30 per cent.). It is used in the manufacture of asphaltum 
and gas. 

The shale beds, underlying which, in stratci not exceeding twelve inches 
in thickness, occurs what is called mineral wax, appear to extend over an 
area of a thousand square miles, and to be from sixty to one hundred feet 
thick, the part rich in gas and paraffine oils twenty to forty feet thick, with 
occasional thin seams of coal. They are cut across and exposed by Spanish 
Fork Canyon, and are similar in general characteristics to the wax-bearing 
beds of Galicia, in Austria. Whether these shales are rich enough to justify 
distillation has not been tested on a working scale, but it is believed they 
are. Thorough prospecting with oil-well tools might develop a new petro- 
leum district. The Promontory Range, which projects thirty miles into 
Great Salt Lake from the north, bears vast beds of alum shales, and a simi- 
lar formation is met with in Sanpete County on the Sevier ; while alum, in 
combination with other minerals, is found almost everywhere. It has not 
been put to any use as yet.* Oil wells, or ozocerite, have also been found in 
Emery County. At one point, near a flowing stream, the oil forces its way 
out of the earth ; and even the most trifling opening has served to increase 
the stream. Years ago oil was discovered in the Bear Lake region, but the 
feeble attempts to develop resulted very unsatisfactorily. There seems, 
nevertheless, little reason to doubt that, among UUih's other resources of a 
capacity upon which industries can be established, will be found petroleum. 
Vast beds of alum, almost pure, are found in abundance. 


If Utah were more abundantly supplied in any one regard than in 
another, it would certainly be in the matter of salt. Were Great Salt Lake, 
which itself has a boundless and inexhaustible capacity, absolutely unknown, 
the supply would still be limitless. The lake alone would supply salt for the 
whole United States for a nameless period; added to this, however, are flow- 
ing salt wells, and literal mountains of rock-salt. The wells are found in 
Rich and Juab Counties, rock salt in Sanpete, Sevier, Juab and other coun- 
ties, besides in the north. As fine a quality of salt as the best Liverpool 
has been made from the salt wells in Bear Lake Valley. The brine of Salt 
Lake is almost 17 per cent, solid matter, of which, portions run between 85 
and 95 per cent, pure salt. Other salt lakes, though of trifling extent, are 
found in various parts of the Territory, and for all ordinary purposes, 
excepting perhaps tiible use, salt is taken from the nearest point and used. 

♦ Resources of Utah. 


Saleratus beds are found in all directions, so extensive at times and so thick 
;is to prove a detriment to the husbandman. On the desert west of Salt 
Lake, and in Southern Utah in the western section of the Territory, it Is 
found in quantities calculated to justify the establishment of industries of a 
capacity equal to world-wide demandis. It exudes from the ground in vari- 
ous parts of the Territory ; and more than once in the days of the Pioneers 
was resorted to in its crude form for the making of bread, and was found to 
be admirable. 

All parts of the Territory seem favored alike with an inexhaustible 
abundance of building rock, running from a soft oolite to different degrees 
of hardness, and from limestone and sandstone to marble and even emery. 
There are many varieties of oolite in Sanpete County. The Manti Temple is 
built on an oolite rock, from the same material quarried within half a mile. 
Near Ephraim, the Parry quarry is noted for its fine oolite, while it is found 
in all parts of the valley. The same stone is found at Mendon and else- 
where. Southern Utah is mainly a sandstone formation. Perhaps in the 
whole of the west there is not to be found a more beautiful sandstone quarry 
than is located within a mile and a half of St. George, Washington County. 
A solid sandstone bed, has already been traced for fully half a mile and not 
a seam is to be found in it. The depth is unknown, the color a beautiful 
bright red, and placed near any large city possessed of facilities for exporta- 
tion, would be of incalculable value. Sandstone, however, is confined to no 
especial locality; and within four miles of Salt Lake, it exists in exhaustless 
quantities. A beautiful white marble is found in Juab County; while in 
Utah, Salt Lake, Tooele and Cache Counties white and other varieties 
susceptible of a most perfect polish, are to be found. In Cache County 
especially are found, within easy access, superior qualities of marble, in 
colors — black, white, banded, mottled, gray and cream colored. Antelope 
Island, in the center of Great Salt Lake, contains an immense slate quarry ; 
the colors are green and purple, and tests have demonstrated that no super- 
ior quality is found in ordinary commerce, while much of it is vastly inferior. 
The granite formations are of great extent and confined to no particular 
locality, though the quarries in Little Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake 
Countv, are most noted and developed to the greatest extent. It is from 
this place the granite is taken with which the Salt Lake Temple is being 

The variety of clays is as great as the beds are extensive. It is found 
in Juab, Utah, Beaver, Sevier, Davis and other Counties, and the varieties 
are: Brick, fire, putty, potter's, and porcelain or kaolin, while a fire stone, 
which it is believed will yet supercede fire brick, has been discovered in 
Beaver. It is so soft that it can be cut when first discovered, but subjected 
to heat it becomes incredibly hard. A soap clay, utilized for washing 
sheep, has been found overlying the coal beds in Weber County; red 
and yellow ochres abound, while the number and quantity of mineral fer- 
tilizers is absolutely without end. In addition to these, precious stones 
are found, with petrifactions, meteorological curiosities and fossils of the 
Silurian, Devonian, both Carboniferous and Permian ages, together 
with volcanic outpourings, obsidian, magnetic sand, jet, lithographic 
rock, etc. 

People, especially those of limited experience and information, are slow 
to enter industries with which they are not familiar, and thus too many are 
content to wait for others to prove the value of our great deposits of excel- 
lent iron, copper, coal, salt, gypsums, our immense deposits of sulphur, 
ozocerite, altlertite, veins of graphite, seams of jet, etc. , before they under- 
take to avail themselves of them. An energy, such as is displayed in the 
search for the precious metals, would reveal without fail such an amount of 

tliese minerals as would astonish many at the resources of Utah Territory. 



All of these represent wealth, awaiting but the proper energy and develop- 
ment to become of real value. 


Oil wells were discovered in Bear Lake Valley as early as 1870, at 
which time one barrel of crude oil ran out per day. An abortive attempt 
was made to develop them. 

Flowing oil was discovered in Emery County thirteen years later: 
nothing has been done to develop the last discovery up to date. 

Magnetic ore was found near Salt Lake City in 1870. 

Specimens of marble found their way from Alpine, Utah County, in 

About 1,000 men found employment in and from mines in the Cotton - 
woods during the summer of 1870. 

On the 6th day of Augfust, 1870, the Woodhull Brothers, pioneer 
mining men of this region, exhibited 5,000 pounds of bullion, the nrst run 
from the first smelter operated in Utah, and which was made two days pre- 

The erection of the first smelting works began June 11, 1870, by 
Woodhull Brothers, on Little Cottonwood Creek. 

The cash transactions in mining claims during the month of December, 
1 87 1, amounted to over $500,000. 

Horn silver was discovered in East Canyon by S. R. Bebee, the weight 
of which was about thirty-six ounces. Investigation showed it to be almos t 
entirely pure silver. 

During the week ending January 21. 1870, 650,000 pounds of ore was 
shipped from the Emma Mine, Alta, to the Howland Sampling Works, then 
in operation. 

During 1870, a great many mines were discovered and numerous min- 
ing districts organized. 

On the 13th day of February, 1871, the first smelting works started up 
in Bingham. 

Lithographic rock found in May, 1873. 

Graphite was discovered in July of 1879. 

Petroleum was discovered in Spanish Fork Canyon, June 27, 1878. 

About forty mining companies were organized in Utah in 1879, with 
capital stock ranging from $500,000 per company up to $10,000,000, the 
limit allowed by law. 

in August of 1870 a curious discovery was made by a company of 
niinens in Kanias Prairie, Weber Valley. In digging in a sort of hole filled 
up with loose dirt, they came upon what proved to be an old shaft. The wall 
had been cut by some instrument, and whoever did the work had left a series 
of steps, supposed to have been used for removing the debris of the old 
mine. When the working party reached the lower end of the shaft, they 
found a tunnel running underneath for an indefinite distance, and in remov- 
ing the rubbish specimens of tolerably rich silver ore were found. There is 
reason to believe that it is the work of Mexicans. In 1852 one of a party 
of Mexicans, arrested in this Territory for kidnapping Indians to reduce 
them to slavery, confessed the act to General Wm. H. Kimball, then deputy 
marshal, under whose charge they were, and said it was the best paying 
business they had engaged in from the time they had stopped packing ore. 



On being questioned further, the Mexican said he used to pack ore to Santa 
Fe from a point about fifty miles from what was known as Provo Fort up 
the Timpanogas River. This would be in the neighborhood of where the 
ancient mine was discovered. 



To give an idea of the mineral resources of Utah the following list is 
appended, inasmuch as it will go a long way towards demonstrating the 
confidence of the people in the mining and manufacturing future of the 
Territory. There may be still others, and it is certain new ones are yet to 
be discovered — among others tin. Professor J. E. Clayton giving it as his 
opinion that one migbt reasonably look for this rare metal in the region 
hereabouts — but it is as complete as can be had, and is all sufficient for the 



Agattzed Wood. 



Alum in varieties. 



Amphioole in varieties. 

Anglesite, or Lead Sulphate. 




Argentite, or Sulphide of Silver. 

Argentiferous Galena. 




Atacamite, or Chloride of Copper. 


Azurite, or Copper Carbonate. 





Bird Guano. 



Blende, or Zinc Sulphide. 

Blue Vitriol. 

Bog Iron Ore. 

Bornite, or Purple Copper, 

Bole in varieties. 

Bo.sjemanite, or Manganese Alum. 

Calamine, or Zinc Silicate. 

Calcite in varieties. 

Calecpar. . 

Cats-eye Opal. 

Cerargyrite, or Silver Chloride. 

Cerussite, or Lead Corbonate. 

Chalcanthite, or Copper Sulphate. 


Chalcocite, or Vitreous Copper. 

Chalcopyrite, or Copper Pyrites. 


Chessylite, or Copper Carbonate. 


Chrysocolla, or Copper Silicate. 



Coal in varieties. 


Cuprite, or Red Copper Ore. 



Dog-tooth Spar, (callcte.) 

Embolite, or Chlor-Bromid Silver. 




Feldspar in varieties. 

Floss Ferri. 


Freieslebenite, or Gray Silver Ore. 

Fuller's Earth. 


Garnet in varieties. 





(iranite in varieties. 
Graphite, or Plumbago. 
Gray Copper Ore. 
Halite in varieties. 
Hematite in varieties. 
Horn Blende. 

Horn Silver, or Cerarg>rite. 

Hydrocuprite, or Copper Ore. 
Iron Pyrite. 
Iron Ochres. 
Iron Vitriol, 
asper in varieties, 

Caolinite, or Porcelain Clay. 

Lignite in varieties. 
Limonite, or Iron Ore. 
Linarite, or Cupreous Anglpsite. 
Lodestone, or Magnetic Iron Ore. 

Malachite, or Copper Carbonate. 
Marble in varieties. 
Marcasite, or White Pyrites. 
Marl in varieties. 

Miargyrite, or White Ruby Silver. 
Mica in varieties. 

Micacrous Hematite, or Iron Ore. 
Mineral Wax, see Utahcerite. 
Molybdate of Lead. 
Moss Agate. 
Muscovite, or Mica. 


Ochres in varieties. 

Opal in varieties. 
Opalized Wood. 
Ozocerites, see Utahcerites. 
Paraffine, Native, see Utahcerite 

Pea-stone, see Pisolite. 
Petrified Wood. 

Pickeringite, or Magnesia Alum. 


Prase, or Green Quartz. 

Proustite, or Ruby Silver. 

Pyrargyrite, or Ruby Silver. 

Pyrites in varieties. 

Pyrolusite, or Manganese Ore. 

Pyromorphite, or Lead Phosphate. 

Pyroxene in varieties. 

Quartz in varieties. 

Radiated Calcite. 

Ribbon Jasper. 

Rock Salt. 

Rose Quartz, 

Ruby Silver, see Pyrargyrite. 

Ruby Copper, see Cuprite. 

Sal Ammoniac. 




Satin Spar. 

Selenite, or Transparent Gypsum. 


Siliceous Sinter. 


Smithsonite, or Zinc Carbonate. 

Smoky Quartz. 

Soap-stone in varieties. 

Soda, Carbonate. 

Specular Iron. 

Sphalerite, or Zinc Blende. 



Stephanite, or Black Brittle Silver 

Stibnite, or Antimony Ore. 
Sulphide of Silver. 
Sulphur in varieties. 
Topaz, white, yellow and blue. 
Tufa in varieties. 
Talc in varieties. 

Tetrahedrite, or Gray Copper Ore. 
Utah Mineral Wax, or Utahcerite 

Claytoni, see Paraffine. 
Velvet Copper. 
Vitreous Copper Ore. 
Volcanic Glass. 
Volcanic Scoria. 
Wad, or Manganese Ore. 
Zeolites in varieties. 
Zincite, or Zinc Oxide. 
Zinc Blende. 
Zinc Sulphide. 



The bullion product reported up to 1879 aggregated $46,798, 115. This 
amount includes the total bullion production, and is divided during eleven 
years as follows: 


Year. AmoufiL 

1869, 200,000 

1870, 1,300,000 

1871, 3,000,000 

1872, 2,500,000 

1873, 3,800,000 

1874, 4,000,000 

1875, 7,000,000 

1876, 6,600,000 

i877». ^ 7,113,755 

1878, , 6,064,613 

i879» 5,219,747 

Total, 46,798,115 

As early as July, 1871, there had been organized no less than thirty 
mining districts in this Territory. They were all embraced in an area run- 
ning 100 miles north and south of a central point, less than 100 miles 
running east and west, and were as here given : Logan, Millville, Mineral 
Point, Dry Lake, Willow Creek, Weber, Farmington, Centreville, Church 
Lsland, Hot Springs, New Eldorado, Big Cottonwood, American Fork, 
Uintah, Snake Creek, Deer Creek, Spanish Fork, Mount Nebo, East Tintic, 
West Tintic, Osceola, Pelican Point, Camp Floyd, Lower, West Mountain, 
Ophir, Rush Valley, Tooele, Lake Side. Several of these have passed out 
of active existence. If the others, save perhaps four — Big Cottonwood, 
American Fork, East and West Tintic — continue to exist, it is merely in 
name. Be that as it may, there are over three times the number to-day 
which steadily contribute to the wealth of the country by yielding^ the crude 
metals in their boundaries. At present there are ninety-five mining districts 
in the Territory, which are more or less of note. The bulk of the produc- 
tion is confined to a few, though all contribute in a greater or less degree to 
the annual output. A rough estimate places the annual expenditure on 
mines at $10,000,000, while the output does not reach that figure. It does 
not follow that mining is a loss, but, according to commercial laws, the 
income is a large dividend upon the amount invested. It is also a safe esti- 
mate that each year will see a greater proportionate increase in the output, 
to the amount invested. The bullion output for 1883 b divided as follows: 















January, 1884 

















L*D Pirs. 




« 15.150 














The furnaces used at present are among the finest in the country, 
embracing all the modern improvements, water jackets, excellent blowing 
machinery, and have a reduction capacity from 20 to 160 tons each of ore 
per day. As only the best and most effective can live now, the old and 
small stacks are being replaced by new and larger ones, usin^ all the 
modern improvements. At present there are seventeen establishments, 
using forty-six stacks in the operation of which they turn out over 2,000 
tons of bullion per month. 

There are twenty mills in Utah with about 350 or more stamps, and 
about 100 pans and settlers. The cost of a chloridizing mill is $3,000 to 
$4,000 a stamp. 

Perhaps the Germania is the most systematically run smelter in Utah. 
It is situated in South Cottonwood, seven miles from Salt Lake City, on the 
Utah Central and Denver and Rio Grande railroads. The smelting works 
consist of four shaft and one revcrberatory furnaces. The furnace fumes are 
conducted from the stacks in 'tight iron flues, 6x3^^ feet to a large tight dust 
chamber 25x35 feet, and thence by a flue 300 feet long to a stack 108 feet 
high. In addition the works comprise everything necessary to produce 
fine silver bars, litharge and all kmds of lead — common, refined, white, 
sheet, pipe, shot and test lead. The latter is chemically pure. The four 
stacks have a daily capacity of 180 tons; refining capacity, 40 tons. White 
lead capacity, 10 tons daily, and everything else in proportion. 

Francklyn smelting works are situated one mile north 6f the Germania. 
They consist of five shaft and one revcrberatory furnaces ; capacity of 250 
tons daily. These works, with the Germania, are considered the best in the 

Waterman smelting works, situated at Rush Lake, near Stockton. 
They contain two shaft furnaces connected with a very efficient condensation 
chamber. The furnace is a round one, having at the tuyeres a diameter of 
three feet and four inches. Height from bottom of hearth to slag spout, 
22 inches; to center of tuyeres, 33 inches; from tuyer to charge door, 11 feet. 
There are four water tuyeres with 3-inch nozzles. The furnaces are 9 feet 
high from the slag top to the charging. Their size is 30x40 inches in the 
hearth ; above they are widened by means of a flat bosh to 4x4 feet. 

Chicago smelting works are situated in Slag Town, in Rush Lake, near 
Stockton. They contain three shaft and one revcrberatory furnaces. 

Park City smelter is situated at Park City, Uintah district, and consists 
of two shaft and one revcrberatory furnaces; capacity 60 tons. 

Jordan smelting works, situated on the Utah Central and Denver and 
Rio Grande Railroads. They consist of two revcrberatory and six shaft 
furnaces. Five shaft furnaces are elliptical, 60x30 inches, interior dimen- 
sions, 10x6 inches from tuyeres to feed door, 14 inches from tuyeres to slag 
tap, and 24 inches from tap to sole. A sixth shaft furnace is octagonal, 42 
inches in diameter, 12 feet 6 inches in height, and like the rest in other 
dimensions. All are run with closed fronts, and have water jackets extend- 
ing 14 inches below and 2 feet six inches above the tuyeres. Above the 
water jackets the stack rests on pillars, like a Pilz furnace. The jackets are 
rivetted boiler plate, giving an inner similar space three inches across, which 
is closed at the top by a plate rivetted on. The water is fed in the jacket one 
inch below the top, and the discharge pipe is in the top, and rises one inch 
before turning. This keeps the jacket constantly full, and prevents the 
accumulation of steam. The jackets are separate segments, field in place 
by a strip of thin band iron. When the furnace is run down and has to be 
cleaned, the band is loosened and the front jacket is taken out. This 
arrangement is unsurpassed for convenience. There are two engines of 25 


and 35 horse power respectively, four Mackenzie blowers, a sampling mill, 
concentrating and leaching works, and a water ditch nine and a- half miles 
long, capable of furnishing 250 horse power. 

Saturn smelting works at Sandy, consist of two shaft furnaces. 

Hanauer smeltmg works are situated at Morgan, on the Utah Central 
Railroad about one mile north of Germania. They have two shafts and 
two reverberatory furnaces. 

The Mingo smelting works are situated at Sandy, on the Utah Central 
and the Denver and Rio Grande Railroads. They have four shaft furnaces. 

The Flagstaff smelting works are situated at Sandy. They have 
four shaft and one reverberatory furnaces. Water jackets are used. 

The Pascoe smelter is situated at the northwest side of Salt Lake City, 
and has one shaft furnace. 

The American Antimony Company's smelter in Garfield County. 

In San Francisco district are four smelting works: The Godbe smelter 
with two shaft furnaces; the Campbell & CuUen smelters with three shaft 
furnaces; the Williams smelter with one shaft furnace; The Shauntie smelter 
with one shaft furnace. 

In American Fork is the Sultana smelter, owned by the Miller Mining 
and Smelting Company, with twenty charcoal kilns; this smelter has three 
shaft and one reverberatory furnaces. The shaft furnaces are of the Plitty 
patent, nine feet above the tuyeres. The section of the hearth No. i is 
twenty by thirty-siy inches. It has six water tuyeres, with two and one- half 
inches nozzles. The size of No. 2 and No. 3 in the hearth is twenty-four 
by thirty-two inches. They have four tuyeres each. All the furnaces are 
provided wjth the automatic tap. 

The Tintic Mining and Milling Company's mill is situated about two 
miles northeasterly from Eureka hill. It consists of a ten stamp battery, 
Stedefeldt chloridizing furnace, dry kilns and the necessary appurtenances to 
make a first-class plant. 

The Ontario mill situated at Park City, Uintah District, has forty stamps 
and is provided with all modern improvements. A 250 horse power steam 
engine is required to run the machinery. 

The Marsac mill, situated at Park City, Uintah District, has thirty 
stamps, ten pans, five settlers, a dry crusher and a 150 horse power engine. 

McHenry mill. Parley's Park. 

Pioneer, Enterprise and Fairview mills in Ophir Mining District. 

Stewart No. i and Stewart No. 2 mills in West Mountain Mining Dis- 

Next to the smelters are the sampling works: J. C. Conklin's, at Salt 
Lake City, capacity 200 tons daily. 

Sanay sampling works, at Sandy, owned by Messrs. Scott and Ander- 
son. Capacity up to 500 tons daily; consists of buildings 100 feet in length, 
and ore sheds 100 feet in leAgth. Steam engine of twenty horse power, 
rock-breaker, rotary crusher, dry chamber and track and wagon scales. 
Altogether the plant is first-class. 

The sampling works built by R. Mackintosh have proven and are proving 
a great success. The works embrace a main building forty by one nundred 
and fifty feet, to which is attached the engine and boiler room, twenty-four 
by thirty feet, ore sheds, sixteen by one hundred feet, two office buildings, 
wagon and railway platform scales and platforms to handle the ore upon. 
A Uiirty horse power steam engine works the large crusher, bar and pulp 

All the above works are substantial, convenient and first-class. 



Most of the mining districts of Utah are situated in and confined to the 
two principal mountain ranges of said Territory. These ranges run on either 
side of the Jordan Valley, almost parallel to each other, and are known as 
the Wasatch and Oquirrh Ranges. 

The Wasatch Range extends from the Territory of Idaho, on the north- 
ern boundary of Utah, to the Colorado River on the south, running in a south- 
southwesterly direction through the central portion of Utah, and forming 
the division between the Great Salt Lake Basin on the west-northwest and 
the waters of the Colorado River on the east-southeast. The flanks of 
this range differ materially in their geological structure and appearance; the 
eastern flank is formed either by a scries of broad terraces and plateaus, 
or in long waving ridges and slopes, such as are peculiar to uie apex 
of the coal formations. In the eastern flank we obser\'e mainly the 
sandstones, shales and limestones peculiar to the Cretacious and Tertiary 
ages, in which appear the large coal beds known to exist in Utah Territory. 
The western flank of the Wasatch is very steep and abrupt, and comprises 
the older crystalline rocks of the Silurian, Devonian and the Carboniferous 
ages, in which appear the rich mineral deposits and which are the treasure 
chambers for which Utah is justly celebrated in America. The altitude of 
the Wasatch range varies between 8,000 and 12,500 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is also a peculiar phenomenon that the dislocations of the form- 
ations on the western flank are more numerous and extensive than those of 
the eastern. The principal mining districts, situated in the Wasatch range 
are: Portage, Logan, Millville, Mineral Point, Willard, Bear Canyon, 
Adams, Mill Creek, New Eldorado, Uintah, Blue Ledge, Big and Little 
Cottonwood, American Fork, Silver Lake, Draperville, Snake Creek, 
Provo, Cook, Spanish Fork, Santaquin, Timmons or Mount Nebo, Canal, 
(xordon, Granite, Beaver, Ohio, Warsaw, Antimony, Summer, Iron Spring 
or Magnetic, Silver Belt, Pinto and Harrisburg. 

The Oquirrh Range commences at the south end the Great Salt Lake, 
and extends far into the southern part of the Territor)'. The formations of 
this range are entirely of the rocks peculiar to the Silurian, Devonian and 
Carboniterous ages, and show a series of extensive breaks and faults. The 
mining districts situated in the Oquirrh Mountain Range are: West Moun- 
tain or Bingham, Tooele, Rush Valley or Stockton, Ophir, Camp Floyd, 
Cedar Valley, Osceola, Spring Pass, Utah^ Tintic, Oak Creek, Granite, 
Bradshaw, Lincoln, Gordon and Galena. 

Both mountain ranges are crossed by powerful and extensive dykes ot 
eruptive rock, representing principally granite, syenitic and dioritic prophy- 
ries and diabase. Besides the before- mentioned large and principal mountain 
ranges of Utah are several others of less extent. The first of these is situated 
about eighteen miles west of the Oquirrh Range, and known as the Onoqui, 
or Skull Valley range; this range begins at the western side of the Great 
Salt Lake, and extends into Sevier Valley, where it disappears in the desert 
])lain. The mining districts situated in the Onoqui Mountain Range, are: 
Lake Side, Columbia and Indian Spring Districts. 

West of the Onoqui Range appears the Cedar Mountain Range, which 
is more extensive than the former, commencing on the Central Pacific Rail- 
road by Summit Station, and running southerly through the Great Desert a 


distance of more than three hundred miles. The mining districts situated 
in the Cedar Range are: Dugway, Desert, Granite Mountain, Snake Valley, 
Detroit, Sevier Lake and Saw Back. 

The next is the Snake Range, which forms the western boundary line of 
Utah, between this Territory and the State of Nevada. The mining districts 
situated in the Snake Range and spurs thereof, are: Rosebud, PUot Peak, 
Newfoundland, Silver Islet, Dutch Flat, Clifton, Hastings^ Kern, Pleasant 
X'alley, Wilson, Sacramento and Lexington. 

The formation of the last named two ranges consist chiefly of granite, 
porphyries, basalt, silurian schists, quartzite, lava and limestone. . 

There is as yet little known about the mineral wealth of the last named 
three ranges, as the same has only been explored by the hardy miner in a 
few places, but such explorations as have been made, give great hopes for 
their future. 

In the Beaver River Range, with the Picacho, San Francisco and 
Wah-Wah Mountains are situated the Beaver Lake, North Star, Rocky, 
Star, Preuss, San Francisco and Pine Grove Mining Districts. West of 
the Beaver River Range are the Pinon Mountains, in which is situated 
Washington Mining District. 


Appended are the names of the different mining districts of Utah, as 
given Dy counties. Following this. again is a resume of the characteristics of 
several of the rhore important and noteworthy, together with the principal 
minerals found in each county: 

Beaver County, — Washington, Pine Grove, Preuss, San Francisco, 
Beaver Lake, North Star, Star, Rocky, Galena, Bradshaw, Lincoln, Gordon. 
Granite and Beaver Mining Districts. Silver, lead, iron, copper and anti- 

Box Elder County. — Rose-bud, Pilot Peak, Silver Islet, New Found- 
land, Portage and Willard Mining Districts. Gold, silver, lead, copper, 
sulphur and marble. 

Cache County. — Logan, Millville and Mineral Point Mining Districts. 
Gold, silver, lead, iron, sulphur and marble. 

Davis and Weber Counties. — Ogden, Bear Canyon and Farmington 
Mining Districts. Gold, silver, lead, copper and iron. 

Emery County. — Castle ,Valley Mining District. Coal, ozocerite and 

Iron County. — Silver Belt, Iron Spring, Parowan, Summer and Anti- 
mony Mining Districts. Silver, lead, antimony, copper, iron and coal. 

Juab County. — Kern, Pleasant Valley, Dugway, Snake Valley, Indian 
Spring, Tintic, Timmons and Mt. Nebo Mining Districts, (iold, silver. 
lead, copp>er, iron, bismuth, antimony and cinnabar. 

Kane County. — Contains coal and iron. 

Morgan County. — Mill Creek and Tunnel Mining Districts. 

Millard County. — Lexington, Sacnunento, Wilson, Drum, Sevier Lake, 
Saw Back, Oak Creek, Gordon, (partol) Mining Districts. Lead, silver 
and sulphur. 

Piute County. — Ohio, Marysvalc and Warsaw Mining Districts. Lead, 
copper, antimony, silver and gold. 

Sanpete County. — Cannel, Sanpete and Castle Valley — a part of mining 
districts. Coal, jet, ozocerite, albertite, lead and siKer. 


Summit County, — Uintah, Blue Ledge and Sicily Mining Dbtricts. 
Lead, silver and coal. 

Salt Lake County, — West Mountain, Big and Little Cottonwood, Adams, 
Hot Springs, Draperville, Granite, Red Butte and New Eldorado Mining 
Districts. Gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, marble and salt. 

Tooele County, — Ophir, Rusn Valley, Tooele, Camp Floyd, Osceola, 
Spring Pass, Columbia, Desert, Granite Mountain, Deep Creek, Lake Side. 
Dutch Flat and Hastings Mining Districts. .Silver, lead, copper, iron. 

Utah County, — American Fork, Silver Lake, Pelican Point, Cedar 
Valley,. Utah, Santaquin, Spanish Fork, Cook, Provo and Payson Mining 
Districts. Gold, silver, leacf, copper, iron and marble. 

Wasatch County. — Howland and Snake Creek Mining Districts. Silver, 
lead, iron and marble. 

Washington County, — Harrisburg Mining District. Lead, silver and 


Adams District is situated north and cast of Salt Lake City, and distant 
seven miles. The approach is through City Creek Canyon, over one of the 
best canyon roads m the Territory. Prospecting had been carried on for 
three or four years, but without success until May 21, 1873, when the Julia 
was located. Prospectors immediately flocked in, and a district was formed 
from the Hot Spring Mining District, on July 3, 1873.- The district covers 
an area of forty-nine square miles. Nearly 100 locations have been made 
and about thirty claims worked to good aavantage. The formation is regu- 
lar; general course of the strata is nearly northwest and southeast, bear- 
ing east and west. Principal locations are : 

General Scott, on Scott Hill, located June i, 1873; shaft 300 feet, 
through a four-foot vein of ledge matter containing galena and iron in a 
state of o.xide; extensively developed. From assays made, thirty ounces 
silver, and from 50 to 70 per cent, lead, with a small percentage of anti- 
mony, were obtained. 

Red Bird, the principal location on Scott Hill ; several tunnels and 
drifts ; shaft sixty feet, through a vein averaging three feet, and containing 
galena of low ^rade, with iron averaging 1 5 per cent. 

Summit, sister claim to the Red Bird, and much of the same character, 
although the Summit ore contains less iron. 

Victorine, situated at the head of North Mill Creek Canyon; shaft fifty 
feet sunk through a four-foot ledge of burnt iron and galena. 

The Henry, lying between the Scott and Victorine; shaft 100 feet; 
showing similar to the Scott. The North Star, Great Eastern, Snow Drift, 
Cerro Gordo, Chipmunk and some minor locations have nearly the same 

The Beacon Ledge, the first location made of milling ore ; shows traces 
of copper, silver, gold and lead; formation, sub-carboniferous limestone, 
with an overlying band of friable quartzite; highest assay made was $113. 
Adjoining this claim is the George Q. Cannon. 

San Domingo, principal location in Cottonwood Fork; located July 6, 
1873; situated on the slope leading to Scott Hill; has a vein of decomposed 
galena, giving oxides and carbonates of lead rich in silver, with small per- 
centage of gold. Assays of picked ore run $300 per ton. 


American Fork and .Silver Lake Mining Districts adjoin Little Cotton- 
wood Mining District with the north boundary line by Wellington, Emerald 
;uid Peruvian Hills. The boundary between American Fork on the south 


and Snake Creek District on the north, is formed by Pittsburj^h Hill. The 
principal characteristic geological formations of these districts are: dolomite, 
or magnesian limestone, schist, quartzite or vitreous sandstone of the lower 
Silurian and Devonian periods, and underlying all, the granite, just the 
same as they overlie the eranite of the Cottonwoods on the eastern flank of 
the great granite ridge of Little Cottonwood, and as they overlie the granite 
of Uintah and Blue Ledge Mining Districts. The Silurian and Devonian 
limestones overlie the quartzite, from which they are separated by a thin bed 
of schist, ten to forty feet in thickness. These limestones appear in beds 
and strata, and assume the most grotesque forms, ridges, towers, spires and 
battlements, and represent a mass from i,ooo to 2,000 feet in thickness. 
Through this limestone and quartzite break American Fork, South Fork. 
Deer Creek, Dry Canyon, Mary Ellen, Major Evans and Porcupine Gulch 
as so many large, main and tributary channels fonned by the great ancient 
water courses and upheavals, leaving the broken and twisted line of the 
strata«on either side of the channel facing each other. 

The character of the ores in American Fork and Silver Lake is as 
follows: galena, carbonate, chlorides, bromides, and sulphates of silver. 
Ochreous earth, iron, and porous quartz constitute the greater part of the 
gangue or vein material as a result of the oxidation of argentiferous and 
auriferous minerals. 

The most characteristic ores are : galena, cerussite, silver glance, copper 
glance and free gold. The components of the ore are numerous, and 
comprise galena, sphalerite, pyrites, Jamesonite, argentite, wad, stephanite, 
cer\'antite, boulangerite, mimetite, limonite, bromyrite, anglesite, cotunnite. 
Crookesite, and kaolin. 

The principal mines are : The Miller Mining and Smelting Company 
mines, comprismg the Miller, Wyoming, Alpine, Tonto, Tom Green, Miller 
First West Extension, Sarchfield and Aspinwall, all of which have a United 
States Patent. They are developed by the Car, Lady Annie, Emmeline. 
Alpine, Wyoming, Sarchfield, Comet and Mormon tunnels, crossing the 
entire hill diagonally in an easterly and westerly direction, cutting the lodes 
at various depths to a depth of 400 feet vertical below the surface, and over 
26,000 feet in length of drifts, levels, inclines and shafts. Value of the ore, 
$47 to $130 per ton. Veins from three to thirty-eight feet wide. Produced 
enormous quantities of the above ore. Mary Ellen, Live Yankee, Live 
Yankee First West Extension. Powers and Quartzite mines embrace 
a contact vein between quartzite and limestone. The vein is eight to 
fifty feet wide, developecl extensively by thousands of feet in numerous 
tunnels, drifts, levels, shafts and inchnes. Value of the ore, $20 to $130 
per ton as sold. All the mines have United States Patents. Silver Bell, 
Mona, Eudora, First Chance, Henrietta and Red Cloud have a contact vein 
between quartzite and limestone, one to eight feet wide, containing galena, 
chlorides and bromides, valued at from $80 to $300 per ton as sold. Devel- 
o[)ed by a main incline to a depth of 400 feet, numerous drifts, adits and 
levels, and a tunnel over 1,300 feet long, which tunnel at a length of 
2,200 feet will rap the lodes on the strike at a depth of from 1.200 to 1,600 
feet. Work continues vigorously by contract. Thousands of tons of good 
ore are on the dumps ready for shipment. All the mines have United 
States Patents. Russler, Gerniania and Excelsior are fissure veins in the 
quartzite, three to five feet wide, containing galena, carbonate of lead, and 
free gold. Lead ores sell readily at $47 to $130 per ton. Gold ore 
assays from $130 to $21,000 per ton. Developed by one shaft 200 feet 
deep, two other shafts, each about 100 feet deep, and several drifts 
and adits. Russler and Excelsior have United States Patents. Lady 
Annie, La Belle, Bredemeyer No. 2. Wacht am Rhein. Meacoque, 
Sparrow Hawk, Borussia and Cologne, work on true fissure veins in 


the quartzite; veins from three to eight feet wide, containing galena, carbon- 
ate of lead and free gold ; lead ores sold at from $47 to $87 per ton. They 
are developed by numerous tunnels, drifts, inclines and shafts; one main 
tunnel, now 340 feet long, will tap all the lodes on Miller Hill at a depth of 
from 300 to 2,000 feet. The mines have already produced over j^,ooo 
worth of ore. Most of the mines have United States Patents. 

Lady Katherina and Rudolph are true fissure veins in quartzite and 
embrace the extension of the Live Yankee, Mary Ellen, Milkmaid and 
Silver Bell lodes. Veins are six inches to three feet wide. 

.Sunday, true fissure vein in quartzite, one to three feet wide, containing 
galena and free gold. Average value, $230 per ton ; developed by two 
tunnels and one shaft. 

Treasure group, vein six to eighteen inches wide, rich in lead and silver 
ore and profitably worked. Developed extensively by a long main tunnel 
and several drifts and inclines on the vein. 

_ • 

Little Cloud, Comstock and Mountain Lion group; vein of good,* valu- 
able smelting ore; well developed. 

Amaryllis and New Compromise, situated between the Siver Bell, Cari- 
boo and Russler groups; vein three feet wide, containing galena and carbon- 
ate of lead; sold at from $25 to $87 per ton. Extensively develojjed by 
several shafts, inclines, tunnels and drifts. The mines have United States 

Silver Dipper, vein three feet wide, containing galena and carbonate of 
lead, sold at from $47 to $87 per ton. Developed by many shafts and tun- 
nels. The mine has a United States Patent. 

Wild Dutchman group, vein three to nve feet wide, containing galena 
and carbonate of lead, sold at from $30 to $67 per ton. Developed by over 
16,000 feet in length of tunnels, drifts, shafts and inclines, from which great 
fortunes in ore have been extracted. The property has a United States 

Lost Maid and Wild Dutchman Extension; vein is the extension of 
Bredemeyer's No. 2, and is three feet wide, containing galena and carbonate 
of lead, sold at from $47 to $87 per ton ; well developed. 

Austin, vein of milling ore, three to five feet wide ; extensively devel- 
oped. Austin has a United States Patent. 

Cloud Burst group, vein three to five feet wide; valuable ore; developed 
by and through a main tunnel. 

Knights of Pythias and Oquirrh Encampment; vein three feet wide, has 
I>een traced for. 3,000 feet; developed by a mam incline. Millsites are attached 
to the mines. 

Sierra, vein in limestone, three feet wide, containing galena and carbon- 
ate of lead, sold at from $47 to $67 per ton. The mine has a United States 
Patent and is extensively developed. 

Echo, Plum, Patrick Henry, Silver Wave and Fraction, veins two to 
live feet wide, contain galena and carbonate of lead; considerable devel- 
t jpment done. The property has United States Patents. 

Bellerophon. vein three to five feet wide, containing galena and car- 
bonate of lead: extensively developed. The mine has a United States 

The Atlas Company's mines, situated on Pittsburgh Hill; gash veins in 
limestone; developments consist in several tunnels. 

Missouri, vein of galena and carbonate of lead, three feet wide; well 
developed. The mine has a United States Patent. 

Orphan, Cariboo, Utah, Sunshiae, Anna, Hattie and Diehl, contact 
\ein three feet wide, containing galena valued at from $30 to $130 per ton. 
Considerable work has been done on the Utah, which shows a good vein 
lliat has yielded already considerable fair grade galena. The Orphan shows 


considerable work in shafts and tunnels, demonstrating clearly the existence 
of a strong mother lode; but here the trouble is with surface water, and to 
overcome this difficulty, the company have, in the past year, concluded to 
run a tunnel through the quartzite. This tunnel will first tap the Diehl lode 
at a distance of about 140 feet, and at a depth of from 400 to 500 feet below 
the surface. This tunnel is over 1 1 1 feet long. A shaft in the Anna shows 
a strong vein of good galena. All in all it is easy to pronounce a prosper- 
ous future for the Cariboo Company's mining property. Most of the prop- 
erties have United States Patents. 

Great Western, situated in Dry Gulch; vein one to five feet wide, con- 
taining galena and carbonate of lead. Value of ore, $30 to $130 per ton. 

Comet, on Miller Hill, well developed by a tunnel over 200 feet long, 
and several shafts, cuts and adits. 

Rosebud, Tidy, Modoc and Swiftsure are very promising mines on 
Silver Glance Hill, with considerable development done. 

Pittsburgh, Hudson and Pioneer. These mines work on bed and con-* 
tact veins in the limestone and between the limestone and quartzite. The 
veins are three to eight feet wide, contain galena and carbonate of lead^ sold 
at from $18 to $30 per ton. Developments consist of tunnels, drifts, levels, 
shafts and inclines to an aggregate length of 15,000 feet, from which large 
quantities of ore have been and will yet be extracted. The property is 
secured by United States Patents. 

War Elagle A and B, secured by United States Patent, bed in limestone 
three feet wide; character of ore the same as in the Pittsburgh. The prop- 
erty is well developed. 

Deer Creek Company's mines, comprising the Happy Boy, Ruthven, 
Bertie, Governor Murray and Silver. Value of the ore, $47 to $70 per ton, 
developed by several tunnels, drifts, shafts and cuts. The property is 
secured by United States Patents. 

Milkmaid; vein is the continuation of the Lady Katharina; contains 
galena and carbonate of lead, sold at from $30 to $80 per ton. Shipments 
of ore regular, with fair profits. 

Wasatch King, character and value of the ore same as in the Milkmaid; 
well developed; ore shipments regular and steady. 

Elizabeth Boyd Kelsey, Jane, Kate B. Kelsey, Louisa and McCall; the 
first is a fissure vein bet^'een porphyry as hanging, and granite as foot- wall; 
average ore value, $30 to $50 per ton ; vein is two feet wide. The others 
work u|x>n veins in the quartz containing rich ore. 

Knight Templar and Royal Arch mmes and millsites; vein six inches to 
(i\e feet wide, containing galena, carbonate of lead and chloride of silver. 
Ores sold readily at from $47 to $130 per ton. Developments consist of a 
main tunnel over 300 feet long and several shafts, drifts, inclines and cuts. 
The tunnel at a length of 750 feet will be over 1,000 feet below the surface 
and apex of the vem. 

Other prominent mines of these districts, more or less extensively 
developed, with good pay ore in sight, are: The Conqueror, Queen of 
Sheba, Sultana, Grand View, Fair View, Sarah, May, and many others. 

The foregoing mines of American Fork and Silver Lake have pro- 
duced in the past immense quantities of rich ore, and are beyond doubt 
or dispute capable of producing immense quantities of the best quality 


Beaver County contains, in addition to the Stars and Rocky Mining 
Districts, the Bradshaw, Lincoln, Galena, Gordon, Granite, Beaver, Ohio 
and Warsaw. The nearest principal business places to these districts are 
Frisco, Milford, Minersville and Beaver City. The veins or lodes in these 


districts are from two to six feet wide, carrying from 40 to 54 per cent, 
lead, and from 20 to 130 ounces of silver per ton. There are also other 
lodes which carry from 10 to 27 per cent, copper (mostly as oxides and 
carbonates, and some copper glance) and some gold and silver. Most of 
these lodes lie at and along the base of the mountains, and are easily traced 
along the surface for a considerable distance. Near by Beaver Lake Dis- 
trict immense deposits of sulphurets and oxides average over 40 per cent, of 
pure metal. Copper stain is frequently visible on the hillsides, and there is 
not the least doubt, that many more valuable lodes and mineral deposits 
would be discovered, were proper search made and numerous indi- 
cations followed up as they should be. There seems no doubt that some 
sections of Beaver County will become very important for copper smelting 
in the near future. One of the reasons that hitherto so little attention has 
been paid to this important mineral-bearing section of Utah was tlie 
former great distance from the railroad, and m some places a scarcity of 

Twelve miles west of Beaver City several veins of bismuth ore have 
been found. These lie near together, in a magnesian limestone of Silurian 
age, and vary from one to nine feet in thickness. The gangue is of a ser- 
pentinous character, and carries lime garnets, iron oxides, tremolite and 
other minerals. The ore, a sulphide and oxide, free from arsenic and anti- 
mony, varies from i to 6 per cent, of the total vein matter, but is easily con- 
centrated. In the concentrated product, which gave 30 per cent, of bismuth. 
mol>*bdenum was found, which, in view of the high price of that metal and 
its general use, may prove an important discovery. 

Several shafts sunk upon these properties show strong and well defined 
veins, and on account of the high price of bismuth, and the rarity of its 
being found thus free from arsenic and antimony (a fact that has been amply 
proved), they bid fair to become of very much value. ♦ 

In this same county are veins of graphite and deposits ot sulphur, which 
will, at no distant day, be utilized to their full extent. Indeed, few places 
offer such inducements to capital or have such good prospects of a golden 
future as does Beaver County, or, more correctly, ?.s the mining districts of 
Beaver County. 

About eighteen to twenty miles southeast of Warsaw Mining District 
commences Antimony Mining District, extending t^venty-one miles east and 
twenty miles south, situated formerly in Iron County, now Garfield County. 

The leading mines in the Bradshaw Mining District are: The Cave, 
Houdoo, Cypress, Sherman, Triangle, Governor and Summit mines. In 
Lincoln Mining District, the Creole, December, Donnerberg, Delaware, 
Forest Queen, Galena, Quincy, Rollins, Rattler and Stampede. In Gordon 
Mining District, the Albert, Boston Sulphur, Conqueror, Sulphur Excelsior, 
Mammoth, Mariposa, Prince Albert, Philadelphia, Sulphur, Sulphur King^ 
Utah and New York sulphur mines. In Granite Minmg District, the Bis- 
muth, King Bismuth, Star and San Francisco bismuth mines. In Beaver 
Mining District, the Beaver Lake, No. 2, Big Mountain, Belcher, Copper 
Belt, Fillmore, Monarch and Niagara mines. ' In Ohio Mining District, the 
Belcher, Daniel Webster, Great Western, St. Lawrence, Union and other 

The mines of the American Antimony Company consist of twenty-five 
claims, covering about 430 acres of antimony mineral -bearing ground, situ- 
ated in Coyote Mining District on a tributary of the east fork of the Sevier 
River, at tne south end of Grass Valley in Garfield County. While there is 
in the aggregate a considerable quantity of oxidized ore present, assaying 
upwards of 70 per cent, antimony, the great mass of ore is stibnite or 
sulphide of antimony, carrying about 72 per cent, of antimony and 28 per 
cent' of sulphur. Professor Newbury, of Columbia College, New York, 


speaking of these mines, says: '*The antimony deposits proved to be unique 
in kind, of great geological interest, and of much economic importance, and 
the quality of the ore is equal to any known." The American Antimony 
Company was organized in 1881 by Anthony Godbe, of Salt Lake City, for 
the purpose of acquiring and working this very valuable property, since 
which time it has been engaged in making extensive developments and in 
erecting works for the reduction of the ore mto star metal. These develop- 
ments have resulted in uncovering and opening large bodies of ore sufficient 
for many years' supply for smelting works. The ore lies in almost horizontal 
beds, and is easily and cheaply mined and extracted. At an experimental 
trial of the works lately made, several tons of regulus or star metal were pro- 
duced and shipped to New York, and the quality is said to be superior to 
the best imported metal. This is accounted for by the phenomenal purity 
of the ore, containing, as it does, not even a trace of those objectionable 
features so common in all hitherto known antimony ores. Indeed, as will 
be seen by analysis below, the natural unrefined ores from these Grass 
Valley mines are more free from such ingredients as arsenic, copper, lead 
and zinc, than the admittedly best imported refined metal (Cookson's). 
The analysis was made by Messrs. Booth, Blair and Garrett, of Philadelphia, 
and that of the Grass Valley ores by Professor Lehman, of Baltimore. 

Analysis of Cookson's refined star metal (regulus): Arsenic, 1.008; 
copper, 0.021; lead, 0.410; iron, 0.144; cobalt and nickel, 0.013. 

Analysis of American Antimony Company's sulphide ore: Metallic 
antimony, 71.320; sulphur, 28.130; iron, 00.005; arsenic, none; copper and 
lead, none; quartz, 00.038; total, 90.493. 

The sulphur being eliminated in the process of smelting, this Grass 
Valley antimony ore is necessarily absolutely pure, and will, it would seem, 
take the place of the imported article when its merits become known to con- 
sumers. As soon as railroad facilities, now in contemplation, shall be pro- 
vided, the owners expect to ship the ore in large quantities to the antimony 
smelters in England and other parts of Europe. The reduction works, now 
completed, are perfect of their kind, and were erected under the direction of 
skilled smelters, whose experience was obtained in the business in England 
and Hungary. The present capacity of these works is about two tons of 
metal per day, but they are so arranged that this amount can be increased 
to any required capacity. 

The Star, North Star and Rocky Mining Districts are situated in Beaver 
County, Utah, in the Picacho Mountains. These mountains are a low range 
in the southeastern edge of the LUah and Nevada Desert. This range is 
somewhat isolated in its position. The nearest principal business places are 
Minersville, Milford and Frisco, on the Utah Central Railway. The 
geological structure of the Picacho Range consists of belts of metamorphic 
shale, quartzite and limestone, flanked on both sides by igneous rock, such 
as porphyry, lava and trap, common to the interior ranges of the Great 
Basin and desert between the Sierra Nevada and Wasatch Mountains. The 
metamorphic action on the shale, quartzite and limestone beds was very 
intense, and is distinctly marked along the flanks ot the range, and, in point 
of fact, much more than in the center. The general course of the strata is 
north and south, dipping east to an angle of inclination of from 40° to 60**. 
North Camp, or Shenandoah, is situated on the east flank of the mountain 
facing Beaver Valley. 

This dolomite or magnesian limestone is the chief mineral-bearing rock 
on the east side of the mountain. The veins, lodes and ore deposits are 
more numerous and richer here than in the schists, quartzites and porphy- 
ries. In this limestone belt the ore deposits appear, first, as fissure veins, 
crossing the beds northeast and southwest; second, as bed or strata veins 
conforming entirely to the strike and to the dip of the strata in general. The 


bed or strata veins appear only in the center of this limestone belt, running 
north and south with a dip toward the east. The fissure veins run north- 
east and southwest, with a dip of an angle of inclination of from 50® to 70® 
northwest. This shows that they cross the bed obliquely in a horizontal 
plane, and at right angles on their line of dip as shown in the sections formed 
by nature. The gash or cross veins here continue through the lime beds 
from the quartzite on the north to the slaty schist on the east. The Merri- 
mac is a vein fissure, plainly traceable for several hundred feet in the cal- 
careous, slaty schist east of the limestone belt. There is every evidence that 
the vein fissures do i)enetrate into the quartzite east of. the lime belt. The 
gash veins appear at intervals from twenty to 350 feet, parallel in curves and 
dip all along the course of the limestone beds, which proves that they 
belong to one family of fissures of contemporaneous ages. These veins are 
from three to five feet wide. At such points where they cross the bed veins 
they form rich chambers of ore, which the Shenandoah, Hickory and many 
others verify. 

The deposits are conformable to» the course and the dip of the strata 
bed or strata veins, but they are not so defined as to justify the name well. 
It is possible that they are only spurs and branches from the fissure veins. 
The ores in both arc the same, and it seems that the filling of both occurred 
at the same time. The gangue or vein matter is true quartz; some of this is 
compact and hard, and other portions spongy and porous, called by the 
miners honey-comb quartz. 

The ores are silver, lead, copper and antimony, combined with sulphur. 
Some of the surface ores show carbonate of lead, chlorides of silver, and 
coppjer in combination with the sulphur of these metals. ' The larger part 
of the ore can be milled by dry crushing, and passing it through a Steteieldt 
furnace; also they contain a great deal of base metal. The assays range 
from $37 to $350 per ton. The average assay is $75 per ton. Owing to the 
silicious character of the limestone, mining here is more expensive than in 
some other places; the veins are small, and a part of the wall rocks must be 
consequently removed to give space for working. The average cost of 
mining is, at present, $10 per ton, and can be reduced if mming and 
management are done with more care and system. Hauling, milling, roasting 
and amalgamating will cost, under the best management, $20 per ton. Allow- 
ing 20 per cent, less in reduction, this would leave a net profit of $30 per ton. 

The whole group of mines in this part of the district are able to give a 
constant supply of ore for a loo-stamp mill, say 150 tons of ore per day 
continuously. Outside of this lime belt a large portion of ore ( in fact the most 
of it) is smelting ore; two-thirds of the ore, at least, is better suited for reduc- 
tion in the smelting furnaces. 

The mines in the northern part of the district can, by good manage- 
ment and systematic working, easily be made to supply several hundred 
tons of good smelting ore per day. There need be no hesitancy in declar- 
ing that Star, North Star and Rocky Mining Districts are very good and 
valuable districts, worth the attention of both miner and capitalist. 

The principal mines of the Star Mining District are: Merrimac, Hick- 
ory, Taylor, Mars, Karrington, Flora, Boston, Hoosier Boy, Klephant, 
Uranus, Oneida, Day Dawn, Victory, St. Mary, Kanarah, Lucky Boy, 
Temple, Kemple, Red Warrior and others. 

The leading mines in North Star Mining District are: Hickory, Shen- 
andoah, Merrimac, Temperance, Flora, Cortes, Osceola, Relx?l, Talisman, 
Harrington, Midas, Stalwart, Esmeralda and others. 


This district commences four miles south of Ophir City ( East Canyon ) 
and about thirty miles southwest of Salt Lake City, and is situated on the 


eastern and partly on the western slope of the Oquirrh Mountain Range in 
Tooele County, (jtah. 

The principal mines are situated around the town of Lewiston, near the 
summit of and on the eastern flank of the Oquirrh Range, and produce 
principally free milling ore, which appears in a quartzite bed of strata, over- 
lying the older limestone. 

The ore-bearing quartzite beds have a thickness of nineteen to sixty- 
eight feet. They have a hard limestone floor and a roof of calcareous shale, 
sandstone and cherty limestone, (alternating) and are in their structure and 
appearance entirely different from those underlying the quartzite. The 
snaly limestone is rich in fossils of the Carboniferous ages. The character 
of tne silver-bearing zone or belt of quartzite is very peculiar and different 
in every way from a true fissure vein structure, but it shows a distinct strati- 
fication of ordinary sandstone or quartzite bedding, and is conformable to 
the strata and bedding of the country rock throughout the district, the 
hanging wall being a calcareous lime shale, and the foot wall a dark gray 
limestone. These distinct lines of the quartzite bedding disappear only 
where the bed is crushed or brecciated by the upheaval. 

This (][uartzite bed is a permeable stratum of sandstone, made crystal- 
line and vitreous by the heated vapors and chemical reagents from below, 
before and during the gradual upheavings of the anticlinal ridge. The over- 
lying shale bed being impermeable, the mineralized vapors were confined to 
the permeable and porous sandstone, changing the same slowly into true 
quartzite, and depositing the silver, antimony, cinnabar, lead and copper 
ores in the same. From this it will be seen, and easily understood, that the 
richest ore deposits will be found where the quartzite is most broken and 
crushed under the influence of the upheaval, as the penetrations of the 
mineral solutions at those points are the easiest. 

By a close examination of the rock in the crushed quartzite, deposited 
together with the ore, it will appear that the ore forms in many cases only a 
coating on the fragments, the interior being more or less barren. This 
forming a coating on the fragments without penetrating the same, is clearly 
demonstrated and obser\'able in the Camp Floyd cinnabar deposits. 

There is no reason why impregnated beds formed by sublimation, as 
the above mentioned ones, should not be as rich, valuable and extensive as 
any others. 

The principal mines are the Sparrow Hawk, Marrion, London, Geyser, 
and others of the Camp Floyd Silver Mining Company, developed by 
numerous shafts, inclines, drifts and levels. These mines have produced 
a great amount of silver; which would have been made a great deal more 
profitable if the early management had been more judicious. 

Carrie Steele is largely developed, has produced and is showing quant- 
ities of rich ore. 

The Queen of the West, Silver Cloud, Silver Shield, Antelope, Jenny 
Lind, New Idria No. 2, Last Chance, Camp Douglas, Silver Star, Silver 
Circle, Wandering Boy, Star of the West, Black Hawk, Gentile Belle, 
Mormon Chief, Emory, Grecian Bend, Reno, Midway, Lewiston, Leopard, 
Merour and Alexander are all very promising mines. 


These districts commence about fourteen miles southeast of Salt Lake 
City, and are situated in one of the highest points of the Wasatch Moun- 
tain Range on the western slope thereof, 6,000 to 13,000 feet above the level 
of the sea. Litde Cottonwood is a deep gorge fifteen miles long. Big Cot- 
tonwood Canyon is split into several forks, and is in the aggregate, with 
Its diflferent forks, over forty miles long. The lower part of the Cotton - 

woods cuts through a large mass of granite, extending northerly and 



southerly, and rises in solemn, awe-inspiring grandeur with their gray, 
snow-capped heads more than 12,000 feet above the level of the ocean. 
This granite rises out of and above a mass of schist and crystalline rocks. 
Proceeding easterly up the canyon we begin to turn the pages u|X>n which 
nature has been writing the geological history of her grand and mysterious 
works for thousands of ages; we obser\'e a mass of coarse-grained por- 
phyritic rock, containing quartz veins with galena, copper, silver and 
antimony overlying the granite; we observe a mass of schist 1,200 feet in 
thickness, dipping from east northeast gradually by Emma Hill north. 
Above the schist we observe about 300 feet of crystallme lime, then 250 feet 
of metamorphic sandstone, commonly known as quartzite, then a layer of 
schist varying in thickness from twenty to forty feet, and crowning all is a 
mass of Silurian limestone, consisting of dolomite or magnesian limestone, 
and calcite or carbonate of lime, nearly 2,000 feet in thickness. 

In th'.s lime belt appear the treasure-chambers of the Cottonwoods, 
known as the Antelope, Albion, Butte, Carbonate, Caledonia, Cincinnati. 
City Rock, Davenport, Darlington, Emma, Evergreen, Equitable, Emilie. 
Eclipse, Flagstaff, Grizzly, Hawes, Harkness, General Monk and Ma^, 
Merrill, Minet Light, Moltke, Montezuma, Nabob, Joab Lawrence, Ophir, 
Ohio, Oregon, Prince of Wales, Jupiter, Maxfield, Rough and Ready, 
Richmond, Reed and Benson, Savage, South Star and Titus, Swansea, 
Toledo, Teresa, Utah, North Star, Vanderbilt, Wellington, and many 
others too numerous to mention. 

Advancing further eastward we observe Patsey Marley Hill, a second 
mass of granite adding to the surrounding grandeur, rising of the 
schists, which are highly impregnated with copper. It is the second 
mass of granite, because it is distinct from the first mass of granite in points 
of age and upheaval. This second mass of granite has split the upper part 
of the canyon into a north and south fork. The presence of gneiss as 
boulders, the spurs of schist breaking through this granite, and the mass of 
granite itself being syenitic in structure, and coarse-grained, indicate a more 
recent origin than that of the granite in the lower and western portion of the 
Cottonwood Canyons. 

On the northwest end of the mountain the efforts of the second 
upheaval and disturbances are clearly illustrated by a mass of common 
schist and crystalline lime, appearing at least 2,000 feet above the place 
whence the mass was torn. Tnis second upheaval extends across the canyon 
and is observable on the side of Emma Hill tunnel. Thus we have two 
upheavals; the first from the west, throwing east: the second rises through 
the mass of rock so thrown, and merely exerts a local influence by faulting 
the mass to a certain extent. 

Piissing along the wagon road from Alta to the Emma mine, is observed 
another mass of granite, a fact which, taken together with the other masses 
of granite, should demonstrate beyond dispute, that the granite underlies 
the whole of the Cottonwoods, as it does the whole of American Fork, 
Silver Lake, Snake Creek and Uintah Mining Districts. 

On the Davenport hillside, the second upheavel has raised a series of 
rocks, which contain no quartzite, but schist and copper schist overlying 
the same, a fact which demonstrates the destruction ot the missing strata by 
the action of the upheaval. 

This part of Davenport Hill is very extensively traversed by several 
dykes of a hard compact trap, hardly distinguishable from the surrounding 
lime. Two of these dykes pass within the vicinity of the Victoria tunnel 
mouth; the other dyke nins north, passes the Imp>erial, and crosses the 
divide by the Davenport mine. Another dyke runs across Grizzly Flat 
over the di\ide far into Big Cottonwood Mining District; this dyke is 
plainly visible and illustrated in the City Rock, Butte, Oregon and Evergreen 


Big Cottonwood mines. A fault in the northern part of Emerald Hill 
forms a synclinal curve in the ridge to within a short distance of the Albion 
mine (Wellington in Little Cottonwood,) passing thence over to American 
Fork, crosses the Cariboo Company's mines on Mineral Flat; thence across 
the Utah Consolidated and Miller Company's mines on Miller Hill and down 
American Fork past Forest City, toward Deer Creek. Another fault on the 
southern flank of Patsey Marley Hill corresponds with the norfhem fault 
which causes the absence of sandstone and scnist. 

It is undeniable that the varying character of the Cottonwood ores was 
caused through and by the influence of the different country rocks. Emma 
and Peruvian Hills show carbonates of lead and galena m dolomite, and 
on the contact .between dolomite and calcite; and soft oxides with galena 
and the fetid limestone. 

In the granite is to be found sulphate of silver, galena, iron pyrites, 
oxides and carbonates of copper, such as are found on Davenport Hill, 
Grizzly Flat and Patsey Marley Hill. 

The strikes of the ore deposits in most cases is in conformity with the 
general curves of the dykes. The Emma, Davenport, Wellington, Mans- 
field, Reed and Benson, Albion, City Rock, Butte, Oregon, Evergreen and 
other mines, are connected with" such dykes, and it is very suggestive to 
suppose the dykes instrumental in the formation of the ore deposits, the 
more so, that these defects contain not only traces, but in some places con- 
siderable of the dyke material. 

Passing to the north of the Flagstaff"-Emma ore deposit is a deeply 
marked fault, which identical fault has been traced in the Emma mine througli 
the main shaft and Illinois tunnel, where a level was run by the North Star to 
a length of over 300 feet; and a shaft sunk ninety feet below the tunnel exposes 
the fault for a considerable distance. The grooving of the walls of the fault 
show a throw from above, down the hangmg wall of the fault, so that the 
dislocated part of the ore deposit must be looked for below on the hanging 
wall of said fault. The throw of this fault is furthermore indicated in the 
Flagstaff* and South Star by a so-called dirty trail. The fault has crushed a 
great Quantity of limestone in the lower part of the ore chamber, which part 
is filled therewith, and in time this crushed mass has become so compact, 
that it appears at first sight to be a veritable limestone floor, as it is plainly 
visible to a depth of twenty-five feet in the Flagstaff", forty feet in the South 
Star and Joab Lawrence, ninety feet in the North Star and also in the Emma 
mine. This compact nature has been acquired by heat, generated by the fric- 
tion of the fault surface. It can be traced from the Flagstaff" on the west 
through the South Star, Titus, Joab Lawrence, North Star, Ecjuitable Tunnel 
and Emma. The same eff"ect of this disturbance is also visible m the Magnet, 
Caledonia, and other mines. The hanging wall of the great Flagstaff"- Emma 
ore deposit is dolomite, the foot wall is calcite, both of the Devonian age. 
Both tne Cottonwoods show unmistakable evidence that they were, at 
remote ages, filled by glaciers. These glaciers can be easily traced by the 
marks they left all over the districts. 

The leading mines of Littie Cottonwood District are: Emma, City 
Rock, Flagstaff; Joab Lawrence, North Star, South Star and Titus, Nabob, 
Grizzly, Utah, Lavinia, Wellington, Albion, Moltke, Defiance, Emerald. 
Savage, Montezuma, Mackay, Highland Chief, Revolution, Davenport, 
Kanosh, Emilie, Rou^h and Ready group, Caledonia, Swansea, Hawes, 
Leonard, Vacca, Cincmnati No. i. No. 2, No. 3, BoUes & Collins, Equit- 
able, Evergreen, Vanderbilt, Darlington, Merrill & Sowles, General May, 
General Monk, General Wells, Pocahontas, Hunter, Lady Morehead, 
Mathilda, Bismarck, Enterprise, Excelsior, Imperial, Alice, Daisy, King of 
the West, Tartar, Jacob Astor, Flora Temple, Crown Prince, Stoker, Fred- 
eric, Wabahsa, Langdon, Live Yankee, Oxford, Geneva, West Point 


Dexter, Baldy Fritz, Brilliant Star, Siskiyou, Superior, Marietta, West 
Wind, Upton, Oriental, Cunningham, Leontine, Josephine, Flora, Louisa, 
Fritz, Sedan, Cedar, Murphy, Ogritta, Zacatecas, Sells, Alta, Vol take, 
Ravine, Alpha, Winamuck, Freeland, Queen Dowager, Lexington, Boston, 
Manitoba, Peosta, and many others. 

The leading tunnels for the developement of the above mines are: 
Bay City, TZity Rock, Equitable, Buffalo, Oakland, Illinois, Howland, Lady 
Esten, Phoenix, Grizzly, Emerald and Great Salt Lake. 

Big Cottonwood is a continuation and duplicate of the Little Cotton- 
wood district and formation northwards; it is m every principle a counter- 
part of the other, with the exception that its resources are much greater and 
more extensive, its scenery much grander and more beautifiil. The princi- 
pal mines in this district are: First and foremost, Ma.xfield, Reed & Benson, 
then Wellington, Prince of Wales, Antelope, Harkness, Minet Light, 
Richmond & Teresa, Belshazzar, Butte, Oregon, Jupiter, Carbonate, Sailor 
Jack, Eclipse, Ophir, Ohio, Sacramento, Evergreen, Dolly Varden, Buckeye 
Jr., Geneva, Osceola, Irma, Neptune, Vina, Hayes, Silver Mountain, Horn 
of Plenty, Ulster, Sunny Side, Silver Star, Congress, Homeward Bound, 
Cooper, Genesee, Little Fred, Queen Bess, Stella, Connaught, Little Cora, 
Backer, Bright Point, Umpire, Ogden, Scott, Abbey, Black Bess, Christo- 
pher Columbus, Taylor, Dolphin, Provo, Mammoth, New York, Oskaloosa, 
Ralston, Lone Pine, Little Giant, Relief, Home Picket, Bearson, Balance, 
Seventy Six, Fourth of July, Amanda, Olive Branch, Fairview, Mathilda, 
Great Western, (iranite, Robinson, Monster, Washington, Red Pine, 
Vinnie, Tyler, Thunderer, Nellie, Carrie, Legget, Snow Flake, Yellow 
Jacket, Milt Orr, Augusta, Pickwick, Walker, Elgin, Financier, Poland, 
Exchequer, Chester, Summit, Manhattan and others. 

Most of the above mines are extensively developed. They have pro- 
duced and are still producing thousands and thousands of good ore 
averaging in value from $20 to jtSoo per ton. Many of them have paid 
large dividends, others have been paying mines almost from the day they 
were located. Others need the helping hand of the capitalist to become div- 
idend-paying. • 

The most valuable and renowned of the Cottonwood's treasure chambers 
of the past are: Emma, Flagstaff, Joab Lawrence, Maxfield, City Rock, 
Butte, Oregon, Wellington, Prince of Wales, Antelope, Grizzly, Reed & 
Benson, Albion, Jupiter, South Star, Utah, Richmond & Teresa, Eclipse, 
Vallejo and North Star. 


This district is situated in the Goshute Range of mountains near the 
intersection of the 40th degree of north latitude and the 37th parallel west 
from Washington. The first mineral was discovered there in i860, by M^or 
Howard Egan and other employees of the Overland Mail Company. The 
hostility of the Utes, Piutes, and other marauding bands of Indians retarded 
the development of its mineral resources until the year 1870, when the min- 
ing district of Clifton w^as organized, embracing an area of about seventy-t^'o 
square miles. Most promising mines are: 

The Gilberson, north from Clifton furnace five miles, and from which 
the natural supply of ore is obtained for smelting; developed by an adit level 
begun about fifty feet below the outcrop, and two shafts ; large ore body, 
assaying from $30 to $90 in silver, and 30 per cent, lead per ton ; brown 
carbonate, carrying iron; granite formation. 

Black Jack; shaft and tunnel of fifty feet; ores composite in character; 
assay average $50 in silver and 35 per cent, lead per ton ; pockets of ore 
have been obtained assaying $1,800 in silver; limestone fonnation; quarter 
of a mile from the Clifton furnace. 


Stonewall; vein nearly vertical; milling ore; average assay, $50 per ton 
in silver, trace of gold and a small percentage of lead ; granite formation 
near Clifton. 

Mayflower, adjacent; similar in character of ore and in development. 

Douglas, in Dutch Mountain, eight miles frcm Clifton; milling ore, 
assaying $169 to $223 in silver, 25 per cent, lead, with traces of gold. There 
are several ledges adjacent of equal character and value. , 

Young America, situated on Dutch Mountain; reported to be high grade 
ore; granite and limestone formation. 

About 100 mines have been recorded in the district. The district con- 
tains copper (magnetic), sandstone, fire-clay, and other substances suitable 
for the erection of furnaces, mills, etc. 


This district is located in the mountains that rim the southern boundary 
of the basin of Rush Valley. The mines are about twenty-six miles south- 
west of Ophir, and six miles up in the hills from Vernon settlement. The 
belt or zone extends a distance of about six miles from southeast to north- 
west, and the veins cut the belt nearly at right angles, striking from south- 
west to northeast. The district was organized in the spring of 1872. No 
very great developments have been made en any of the mines, yet enough 
has been done to demonstrate that valuable mines exist there, with galena, 
carbonate and oxide ores. 

The Chanticleer; large vein of ochreous and carbonate ore of low 

The Champion, on a good strong vein of ore, which contains over 40 
per cent, lead, and thirty to forty ounces silver. 

The Augusta ; ores, galena and carbonate, but now in pyrites. The ore 
has had a good grade. 

The Washington ; vein of ochreous ores. 

The North America; when discovered, had an outcrop of pure galena 
at the surface extending in a line about 200 feet and eighteen inches thick, 
the ore running into pyrites ; grade high in lead but low in silver. 

The Smith Boren Mine; on a vein of galena and gray carbonates; high 
l^de in lead, but low in silver. Considerable ore from this mine has been 
taken to Stockton and sold, paying a profit on the working. The hauling 
cost $12 per ton. 

The Dolly Varden is properly in this district, but over the divide from 
the other mines. These mmes are in quartz, had milling ore at the surface, 
but are now running into silver lead ores. 

The Lookout and other claims adjoining are but little worked, but have 
good ore, galena and carbonates, assaying sixty ounces in silver and 50 per 
cent. lead. 

The Hall mines are on a strong vein of carbonates and ochre of low 

The Chimney Comer has but little ore. 

There are many other claims but little worked yet, showing good pros- 
pects for smelting ores. 

Besides the silver-lead ores of the district, are vast deposits of iron ore 
in the hills southeast of the Smith Boren Mine, of the specular variety and 
of good quality. 


The mines of this district are situated about 250 miles southwest of Salt 
Lake City, in Washington County. The east boundary of the district forms 
part of the west boundary of Kane County. 


The geological formation is stratified red and white marl -sandstone, at 
places greatly broken up and eroded ; here and there the sandstone alter- 
nates with thin seams of clay-shale ; the cementing material between the 
sandstone is lime ; petrefactions of trees, branches, leaves tmd ferns, such as 
are peculiar to the coal formation, are everywhere seen in great abundance. 

If we observe and examine the large extinct volcanoes which occupy 
the centre and the southern part of Utah, together with the volcanic rock 
which appears here everywhere, we cannot be surprised at the foldings and 
contortions of the strata. 

The whole basin was certainly at some remote period a great inland 
sea. Since then the strata have been bent, folded and broken by volcanic 
action. The upper portions have been washed away, leaving the reefs as 
the anticlinal cropping, dipping toward each other on opposite sides of the 
valley. Here and there the formation is covered with volcanic material, 
formmg, as it were, a cap to the sandstone. 

These beds of red and white sandstone — in particular the white sand- 
stone, which is of a finer texture than the red — are nnpregnated with chloride 
of silver, carbonate and iron. Some of the latter appear in nodules, and 
assay very high in silver. 

The dissimilarity of ore in these sandstone layers and beds is so great 
that a very careful sampling of all the material is an absolute necessity. 
The assay value varies from $20 up into the thousands. There are 
only two reasons, or causes, to account for the presence of ore in these 
sandstone beds. The first is by sublimation, the mineral vapors ascending 
from below and depositing the ore in the pores, impregnating the sandstone. 
The second is a contemporaneous formation of the ore with the beds in 
which the same appears. In other words, the mineral was precipitated at 
the same time that the beds of sand and clay-shale were formed. This 
mineral must then, of course, have been in solution and mingled with the 
waters which precipitated the mineral among the sand and clay, and at such 
places where tnere was the most vegetable mould, carbon and iron in greatest 
quantities. As both theories have their pro's and con's, it is not found 
necessary to argue about one or the other, nor to adopt either of them at this 
time. Quantity and quality of ore are the only true standards for the cap- 
italist and investor. 

The leading mines in Harrisburg Mining District are: 

Bonanza, which has been very extensively opened and developed by 
numerous shafts, tunnels and drifts, from which great quantities of rich ore 
have been extracted. The main shaft cuts the ore deposit at a depth of, 
forty-five feet. 

The Leeds Mining Company have opened and extensively developed 
their mines and ore deposits in many places; a shaft with double compart- 
ment is continually tending downward. Attached to the mine is a lo-stamp 
mill. The mines are great ore producers. 

Tecumseh and Barbee & Walker are developed very extensively, and 
have and are producing ore largely on a dividend-paying basis. 

Stonewall Jackson. St. Johns, Shephard & Leman, Silver Flat, Scott. 
Silver Paint, Silver Crown, Stormy King, Savage, Stormont, Thompson, 
Vanderbilt, Butte, Bennett, Buckeye, Chloride Chief, California, Duffin, 
Emilie Jane, Great Western, Interval, Kinner, Luna, Leopard, Maggie, 
McNally, Maud, Pride of the West, Regina, Morning Star, North Star and 
several others, more or less extensively developed, are all worthy tlie atten- 
tion of both miner and capitalist. Twenty-two miles north of Leeds is 
Silver Belt Mining District in Iron County; the character of the ore and the 


formation of this district are similar to those described in Harrisburg District. 


This district is located six miles south of Tecoma Station, on the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad, which is 140 miles west of Corinne. The mines are in 
the Lucin Range of Mountains, just on the dividing line between Utah and 
Nevada, the mines, however, being all on the Utah side, in Box Elder 

The Tecoma mine has a shaft over 250 feet deep, and a tunnel of over 
100, with drifts, etc. It has a good mine tramway and other appliances. 
The ore is an ochre, with iron, soft carbonates and galena. 

The Empire Mine, on a strong vein of ochreous ore, with plenty of 
iron for smeltmg. 

The Rising Sun, with the two preceding mines, has been extensively 
worked. These ores are high grade m lead but low in silver. 

The Shanly, Gladstone, Ida, L'Arba, Uncle Sam, and several other 
claims, belong to the Tecoma Silver Mining Company of London. The 
Shanly is on a good vein of ore, and is being developed by a tunnel from 
the L Arbra to strike the vein at a great depth. 

The Gladstone is on a good vein of ore of good grade, and has pro* 
duced consjiderablc. All the mines carry about 50 per cent, lead, and the 
ores are valuable for smelting. 

The Yellow Jacket has good smelting ore; like nearly all others in this 
camp, it produces a molybdate of lead, of very beautiful yellow honeycomb 
crystals. Good vein. 

The Bald Eagle, Central Pacific, Badger, Mary Anna and some other 
veins situated on Copper Hill, constitute a group at the summit of the divide 
of very valuable mmes. The Central Pacific and Bald Eagle are two veins 
that are traced for a long distance on the surface, and divided into three 
sections. These mines contain ochreous ores, with galena and carbon- 
ate, and several varieties of copper ore. Copper, native, in large lumps, 
was found 'on the surface at these mines; and the ore now contains at 
times considerable red oxides and native copper. There is a tunnel 280 
feet on same vein that also crosses the 100 feet ledge. 

The Waddell group of mines lie to the north of these, and are an 
extension of the same great veins, besides which are the Waddell, Iroquois, 
Elam, Natchez, Eureka and several other claims, all of which have been 
worked by shafts, cuts, tunnels and drifts. These have produced native 
copper on the surface, and several tons of rich copper ore from the shafts, 
that has been sold for a high price. They also contain galena and carbon- 

The Hattie Mine produced considerable ore that sampled about $140 
per ton. 

The Hampton lode has an incline of considerable depth, producing ore 
like the Hattie. 

The Lucy Emma has good ore, with a strong vein, the ore being galena, 
carbonates and ochre, that samples $160 per ton. 

The Pittsburg is on a good vein of ochreous ore that runs high and 
has produced considerable. 

The BuUv is on carbonate ore, with good grade lor smelting. 
. The Molly has good ore, showing vein of yellow carbonates, assaying 
about $80. 

The Gennessee; carbonate ore. 

The Myra is on a vein of carbonate ore. 

Kentucky; galena. 

The Osceola ore samples $130; it has produced considerable. 


The Growl has produced considerable chloride ore, and even horn silver. 

The Black Warrior, like the Growl, has produced horn silver, the pure 
article, in considerable quantities, and the shipments of ore have brought 
$600 per ton to $2. per pound; now working in quartz, with vein improving. 

The Good Hope and Orleans are producing considerable good carbon- 
ate and galena ores of good grade, with the vein improving. 

The Treasure Box and Western View have both a strong vein of ore 
with galena and carbonates. 

In the south part of the district are two groups of mines that have been 
considerably worked, producing ores, galena and carbonates, high in lead 
but low in silver. 

In the north part of the district are the American Eagle, Overland and 
other mines, carrying galena and carbonates, with plenty of lead but little 

The future of this district is promising. 


This district was organized February 15, 1873, by miners from Stock- 
ton and Grantsville, Utah. It is located on and embraces the whole of 
Desert Mountain, Box Elder County, Utah, lying about twenty miles 
southerly from Terrace, Central Pacific Railroad, and about .eight miles 
northwesterly from Grantsville, Tooele County, Utah. Almost every 
description of mineral has been found here, such as copper, silver, golcl, 
galena, iron, horn-silver, black sulphurets, carbonates, etc., as well as mar- 
ble, arsenic, salt, etc. The country rock is black lime, quartzite and slate. 

Five miles south of the north side of the Desert Mountain is situated a 
coppar belt, about three miles wide, showing many very prominent veins at 
the surface. The ore will average from ten to twenty -five per cent, copper, 
carrying some silver and gold. Choice specimens have assayed up to 60 
and 70 per cent, copper. Much scattering work has been done. One 
shaft is down eighteen feet, with a four-foot vein mixed with quartzite, and 
another of eight feet, with several tons of ore on the dumps. 

Adjoining this belt south is a galena belt, with an occasional prospect 
of milling ore. Several inclines, shafts and tunnels are down from twenty 
to fifty feet. 

About three miles further south some ver>' good prospects have been 
found, and are undergoing developcment. The ore carries much black 
sulphurets and galena of high grade, having assayed over $2,000 per ton, 
and surface-rock has sampled far up in the hundreds. Only half of the 
district has J^een prospected. The records show about one hundred claims 


The Ohio Mining District is situated about six miles south of west from 
the settlement of Marysvale, on the Sevier River, Piute County, Utah, and 
about 200 miles south of Salt Lake City. The district was organized in 
February, 1868; is about ten miles square, and contains over 500 locations. 
The names of the camps are Bullion and Webster Cities. The character of 
the ores is principally tree milling, and the formation quartzite and granite, 
carrying silver and gold. 

The Piute Mining Company has erected a stamp mill at Webster City, 
with a capacity for crushing thirty tons of rock per day, which has been run 
in the reduction of ores taken from the mines belonging to the company. 
The principal mines arc: Daniel Webster, situated on the south side 01 Pine 
Creek, above Bullion City. Some of the ore has been worked by milling, 
yielding $106 per ton in silver and gold. The lode has been traced by the 


outcropping for a distance of 2,000 feet; vein nearly vertical, witli an 
occasional inclination to the west. 

Homestead — In Pine Gulch; average of ore, $9 in gold and $47.15 in 
silver per ton; vein nearly vertical; in porphyry and trap; is dry, and 
requires no pump ; very promising mine. 

St. Lawrence — Average of several assays gives about $30 in silver per 
ton, and a trace of gold; foot wall, quartzite; hanging wall, granite. 

Great Western — On north side of Pine Gulch, above Webster City, 
lode about seven feet in width; vein dips northwest; ore averages $85 m 
silver per ton; porphyry, trap and granite predominate in the vicinity. 

Niagara — On the south side of Pine Gulch, above Webster City; lode 
can be traced by cropping for several hundred feet; average assay of ore, 
$100 in silver per ton; porphyry and trap in the vicinity; mme accessible by 
a good trail. 

Belcher — South side of pine gulch; improvements consist of two tun- 
nels, respectively twenty-five feet and thirty-five feet long; average assay of 
ore, $120 in silver per ton; prophyry, trap and granite in the vicinity; tim- 
ber abundant. 

Union — South side of Pine Gulch, above Bullion City; average assay 
of ore, $160 in silver per ton. 

Golden Curry — Northwest of Bullion City; said to have the largest 
mineral vein of any mine in the district; ore assays $880 per ton in silver 
and gold. 

Miner's Relief— Situated near Webster City; developed by shafts and 
drifts; extent of works not known; average assay, $160 in silver per ton. 

Yankee Blade — Situated near Pine Canyon ; is one of the oldest loca- 
tions in the camp; considerably developed; average assay, $110 per ton in 

Jackson — An extension of Niagara; assays about $100 per ton, carrying 
$30 m gold. 

Rothschilds — Shows very prominent croppings, which are traceable for 
1,000 feet. 

Young America — Situated east of the Homestead; which taps the vein. 


Ophir and Rush Valley Mining Districts are situated on the western 
slope of the Oquirrh Mountain Range, occupying a very large tract of 
ground of about 200 square miles. Rush Valley Mining District com- 
mences about thirty-four miles southerly from Salt Lake City. Ophir 
Mining District adjoins Rush Valley upon the south line. The formation of 
countr^r rock in these districts is principally limestone, and appears every- 
where in strata, cliffs, reefs and ledges. These strata of limestone dip 
with the slope of the hills toward the valley, losing their course gradually in 
the CT^at upheaval. Through this limestone break Silverado, East, Dry, 
SolcHer, Spring, Soldier Bridge and other canyons. 

Quartz and quartzite are, next to limestone, the most frequent in these 
districts. All the gangue and vein matter are highly silicious. Overlying 
the quartzite is slate, shale and schist, and last, limestone. 

Dolomite, or magnesian limestone, appears in Ophir as a belt west of 
the Chicago and Hidden Treasure mines, and forms in Rush Valley Mining 
District the deposit of some of its best producing mines. 

The general course of the mineral belt in Ophir and Rush Valley Min- 
ing DistrictsTis northeast and southwest, and about two miles wide. All, or 

most, of the veins run at right angles to the belt; that is, northeast and 


southwest. This belt commences in Tintic and runs over Greeley Springs, 
Camp Floyd, Ophir, Jacob City and Soldier Canyon for about twelve miles 
west of Stockton. The ores are divided into smelting and milling ores. The 
first predominate and comprise galena, carbonates, chlorides andsulphurets; 
ochreous earth constitutes the majority of vein material, as a result of the 
oxidation of arp^entiferous minerals containing arsenic and antimony. The 
most characteristic ores are galena, cerussite (carbonate of lead), horn silver 
and silver glance. The components of the ore are numerous, and comprise 
galenite, sphalerite, pyrites, Jamesonite, argentite, stephanite, cervantite, 
boulangerite, minetite, limonite, anglesite, linorite, wad and kaolin. 

The leading mines in Ophir. Mining District are Hidden Treasure, East 
Extension, Sacramento, Cedar, Summit, Western and Ehipee. The ore 
occurs in large bodies to a dq3th of 600 feet on the line of contact between 
the slate and limestone; at a depth of 600 feet the vein cuts through the 
limestone, running through the great porphyry dyke, with which dyke the 
formation of the ore body is more or less in connection.* The vein is opened 
on an incline to a depth of 1,400 feet, and on the strike by thousands of feet 
of drifts and levels. A tunnel cuts the vein at a depth of 600 feet. Another 
tunnel, which is already 1,350 feet long, will tap the vein at a depth of 1,700 
feet. The vein dips at an inclination ot 34° northerly. The ore averages 
twenty-four ounces of silver and 40 to 55 per cent, lead per ton. From the 
mine a tramway 1,200 feet long leads down to the wagon road. These 
mines have produced enormous quantities of ore. The Chicago works on 
the same ore body as the Hidden Treasure, and is largely developed and 
has produced in the past large quantities of ore. Each of the aforesaid 
mines own smelting works — th^ Wattermann and the Chicago, situate nine- 
teen miles distant, on the Rush Lake. 

The Kearsarge vein is two to five feet wide, developed to a depth of 
900 feet, and on the strike by 1,800 feet of drifts and levels. Vein dips at 
an inclination of 25°. The character of the ore is chloride of silver, tellur- 
ium and horn silver, assaying from ninetv dollars to thousands of dollars 
in silver per ton. The mine is developed oy an incline, and has produced 
large quantities of excellent ore. 

The Mono is developed by an incline from which runs an east and west 
branch incline to a depth of 800 feet. This mine has produced in the past 
horn silver and other rich ores in great quantities and is a valuable property. 

Queen of the Hills, Flavilla and Herschel, are developed by an incline, 
and thousands of feet in length of drifts and levels to a depth of over 1,300 feet. 
Vein, two to eight feet wide; assay value of the ore sold, forty to 130 ounces 
in silver and 40 to 54 per cent, in lead. Has produced kirge paying quanti- 
ties of ore of excellent quality'. 

The Deseret, Shoo Fly, Thad. Stevens, Eureka, Miners' Delight, Gray 
Rock, California Bay, Mahogany, Sunny Side, Mountain Tiger, Monarch, 
Silver Chief, Zella, Struck-it, San Joaquin, Green Chloride, Great Western, 
Crisophalis, Fourth of July, Magnolia, jim P'isk, Green-eyed Monster, 
Chloride Gem, ^Mountain Gem and Miami are all mines largely developed, 
prominent as having produced good ore in paying quantities. Among 
the other prominent mines deserve to be noticed the Shamrock, Boston Pet, 
Hattie Evans, Aristotle, Saint Lewis, Converse, Utah Queen, Rockwell, 
Tiger, Elgin. Brooklyn, Grey Eagle, Vesta, Noyes, Henrietta, Trafalgar, 
Sevier, Cooley, Wandering Jew, Crusader, Red Pine, Pocahontas, Poor 
Man, Last Chance, Wild Delirium, Plymouth Rock, Burnett, Bannock, 
Indicator, Silver Treasure, (^rman, I. X. L., Home Stake, Bechtel, Lily 
Rose, Roland, Blue Rock, Rattler, Galena, Buckhorn, Stephen A. Doug- 
las, (irecian Bend, .4itna, Monument, Swansea, Northern Light, Accident, 
American Flag, Ivanhoe, Ira, Jennie, Azure Queen, Emilie, Pine Grove, 


Belfast, Empire, Trave, Banner, Russian, Arabella, Selah, Dixie. MayUn 
and Gas Lii^ht. 

The principal mines in Rush Valley Mining District are: First National, 
Honerine, Great Basin, Quandary and Quandary No, 2, developed to a 
depth of 900 feet, and on the strike for a distance of o\er 3,000 feet b\' 
dnfts, levels, inclines and shafts, in the aggregate about 28,000 feet long. 
These mines are on two parallel true fissure vems, bearing east and west, 
with a dip at an angle of inclination of from 60° to 80° northerly. These 
two veins unite in one large mother lode at a depth of from 350 to 400 feet. 
Large quantities of ore have been and soon will be again extracted from 
these valuable mines. The assay value of the ore is eighteen to sixty-nine 
ounces in silver, 30 to 70 per cent, lead, with a trace in gold. Attached to 
the above mines are concentrating, leaching and smelting works of a large 

Silver King No. 1 and No, 2, developed to a depth of over 500 feet bj- 
numerous shafts, inclines, drifts and levels, disclosing large quantities of 
ore. These mines have been and arc producing well. 

Lion No. 2 and Extension Mines. Vein three to five feet wide. Assay 
value of the ore, twenty-nine to seventy ounces of silver, 50 to 70 per cent, 
lead per ton. Developed to a depth of over 500 feet on an incline by 
numerous extensive inclines, slopes, tunnels and drifts. Have been and are 
producing well. 

The King of Stockton, Muscatine, Centennial, New Year, Atkins, iro- 
quis, Hannah, Calumet and Sentinel work on three parallel veins, two tu 
hve feet wide. They are well developed, have been and are producing good 
ore in paying quantities. 

Prominent in development and ore production among the other mines 
of Rush Valley are: Southport, Vulcan, Hecla, Alps, St. Patrick, Defiance. 
Silver Crown, Silver Queen, Minerva, Katherina, Mervin, Manzanilta, Globe, 
Montezuma, Bullion, No S'ou Can't, Argenta, Protector, Metropolitan. 
Clara, Elizabeth, Emerald, Emelie, Melia, Teresa, Leonore, Argenta No. 
2, Daniel Webster, Legal Tender, War Eagle, Commodore, Chaos. Oscar 
\'on Sweden and Wade Hampton mines. 


Marysvale is the supply town of Ohio and Mount Baldy Districts, on the 
higher tributaries of the Sevier River, in Piute County, one of the best 
endowed parts of Utah; fine water, timber and grass, high up, cool and 

Iileasant, and good air. The Deer Trail, Green-Eyed Monster and Cliff 
ocadons, generally known as the Deer Trail, constitute a valuable property, 
requiring only adequate reduction works to become dividend-paying. The 
ore in general carries about an ounce of gold per ton, and as much value in 
silver, and there are 100,000 tons blocked out by winzes and galleries. The 
Copper Belt is the name of a group of valuable locations incorporated in 
Connecticut. The mine is opened to a depth of 300 feet, and on the strike 
about 150. They have a ten stamp mill just started, and beginning to run 
out bullion. The ore is rich and Is continuous so far, the vein being twelve 
to twenty feet wide. Hoisting is done by a whim. Adjoining the Copper 
Belt are the Mammoth, Copper Chief, Senora and several others, mere 
prospects as yet. In Bullion Canyon there are the Bully Boy and Webster. 
H strong vein of $40 ore, two shafts too fli^|jiHm: Chattanooga, Sunday. 
Red Jacket, Ferris, Giles, Star, Estella, iCfl^^Hfielle of the Vale, Senor 
O'Flannuran, Beecher, Sierra Ne vad a^ J^^^^^B fere, Homestake, Clyde, 
Crystal, Governor Murray, Grant, i/^g^^^^^^Fii\vt^r Hill, Silver Fleece, 
and twice as many more. On g|^|^^^^^^B-r ii It-rabte work has been 
done, rich ore taken out, and^^^^^^^^^^^v^yw [^ ^^MigjiMu Tlie 


district needs capital badly. It is about ninety miles from the Utah Central 
at Juab to Marysvale. 


On* the high dividing ridge between the Beaver Valley and the Wah 
Wah Valley, in Beaver County, Utah, is a short range, running north and 
south, called the San Francisco Mountains, having three princi[>al summits, 
differing more or less in oudine and appearance, and entirely distinct in their 
age and character. Their altitude is not great The one farthest to the 
south is called Grampian; this is the lowest of the three and rises about i,ooo 
feet above the valley. The Grampian Mountains consist of stratified sedi- 
mentary rock, whichis quartzite and limestone, the middle one being granite, 
and the highest and northern-most of the three summits is composed of 
trachytes of volcanic origin. These sedimentary rocks were originally 
deposited under water in horizontal beds or alternating strata of sandstone 
and limestone, which were transformed by g^eat heat and enormous pressure, 
the sandstone to vitreous sandstone or quartzite, and the limestone to dolo- 
mite marble. This whole formation was subsequently rent asunder, one 
part being raised up and tilted by powerful volcanic agencies — thus forming 
the mountain as we obser\'e it at present — the eastern face presenting a 
cross section of these strata, i,ooo feet thick, and now dipping westward mto 
the mountain at an angle of inclination of about 20^ below the horizontal. 
That portion of the formation from which this mountain was detached, either 
remains in its original horizontal position, or sank down and was subsequently 
covered with the trachytes, which flowed over it and against the eastern base 
of the Granite Mountains and the eastern and southern base of the Gram- 
pian Mountains, and now forms a sort of undulating, waving plain, extend- 
mg for some distance eastward. The quartzite and dolomites are in contact 
with the granite on the north, on a line running nearly east and west, 
and also in contact with the trachytes on the east and south side of the 
mountain. The mines are in the latter contact at the eastern base of the 
(Grampian Mountains, the foot wall being massive layers or beds of quartzite 
and dolomite and the hangine wall trachyte. The veins or lodes are dis- 
tinctly traceable over the surface and along the entire eastern base of the 
Cjrampian Mountains to the granite on the north, a distance of about one 
mile and a half, the course of the veins or lodes being north 10** west and 
south 10® east magnetic. The mines are at the very center or focus of this 
great upheaval, where all the geological evidences point to a continuance 
down to a considerable depth. 

The principal mines of San Francisco District, are: The Horn Silver, 
which is the original location on the main lode, having several extensions 
north and south; Carbonate, Cave and Cave Extension, Comet, Morrison, 
New Haven, Cactus, Silveropolis, Rosa, Bradshaw, Woolcott, Dexter, 
Cyprus, Grampian, Jay Hawker, Sherman, Florida, Dolly Mack, Triangle, 
Antwerp, Vanderbilt, Governor, Rattler, Dives, Summit, Hoodoo, Ajnericus, 
Lulu, Massachusetts, Quartzite, Bonanza, Niagara, Morning Star, Hope, 
Grampian, Colburn, Great Republic and Young America. 

As it would take too much space and time to describe all of the 
above mines, a brief description is given of the Horn Silver only, the most 
noted in the district and inferior in point of prominence to none in the Ter- 

The vein is traceable for several miles, from the southeastern end of the 
Grampian Mountains, to the point where the dolomite gives place to gjanite. 
The width of the vein at the Horn Silver discovery is from fifty to sixty 
feet, showing galena in places all through the length of the claim. The vein 
dips north 80** east magnetic at an angle of inclination bf about 70*^ from the 


horizontal. The footwall of the lode consists of quartzite and limestonu 
beds and the hanging wall of partially decomposed trachytic material. From 
these facts it will readily be seen, that the dip and strike must vary at 
points; especially where the softer parts — the dolomite — are more readily 
decomposed and eroded, than the quartzite. Therefore the width of the 
lode varies in places. Both walls are covered with a dry ferruginous clay 
which ser\-es as an indicator of the lode and the walls thereof. The hang- 
ing wall of the lode has been penetrated for a distance of 200 feet or more. 
The following material is thereby disclosed: Adjoining the ore twenty to 
twenty-five feet of clav, stained with oxides of lime, then thirty feet of 
toueh blue clay, meming gradually into a decomposed trachytic mass of a 
reddish gray color. The l(3e itself contains, in its enormous vein fissure, two 
^neral classes of material; the larger portion is what is termed smelting ore. 
This is soft and earthy, consisting of sulphate, oxide and carbonate oHead, 
carrying silver. The smaller portion is heavy spar (sulphate ot baryta) 
carrying chloride of silver, sulphate of silver and ruby silver. The sparry 
ore IS found on the side of the hanging wall in the upper part of the vein, 
and has resisted decomposition on account uf its position in the lode and 
because of the refactory nature of the material composing this kind of ore. 
All the other ore of this immense vein has undergone oxidation and other 
changes. There is no doubt, but as depth is gained, the ore will be found 
in its original condition, that is, in the form of sulphurets. Remarkable is 
the absence of wall material, called "horse," in the vein filling. All is 
ore from wall to wall, and silver bearing. This lode will remain drv to a 
considerable depth. Assay value of the ore is $60 per ton. Daily proauction 
100 to 150 tons of ore. Net profits $20 per ton. The ore body contains 
380,000 tons of ore in sight, representing a value of Ji6,ooo,ooo. The 
amount of ore contracted up to date is 1 50,000 tons. Dividends paid annually 
average about $[,300,000. 


This town is named from the sandstone reef which fronts the Wasatch 
for 100 miles, and contains a stratum or perhaps strata not differing much 
from the enclosing strata in appearance, yet impregnated with silver to the 
extent of $30 to the ton. It is m Harrisburg District, Washington County, 
100 miles south of Milford, in the Rio Colorado Basin. The country is 
sandstone, bare of, vegetation; the mountains precipitous and flaming; the 
lower interspaces abounding in black volcanic roclt; the whole sometimes 
likened to a vast furnace, still red-hot from the cremation of a world. Most 
of the mines are incorporated and consolidated. 

The Christy Mill & Mining Company owns sixteen locations, about a8o 
acres, nearly all adjoining, forming a compact body. The principal mines 
are the Stormy King, Tecumseh, Silver Flat, Maggie and California. The 
last two are equipped with first-class steam hoisting works. The ore is 
sandstone between sandstone walls, and is free milling, mainly chloride. It 
dips from the eastern horizon 15°. In the Tecumseh, Maggie, and Cali- 
fornia it has been followed 900 feet west from the croppings, and at that 
point is but 150 feet below the surface. In four and a naif years the com- 
pany has taken out over 50,000 tons of ore, which has produced (bullion 
940fine) about $1,276,355.79; yield per ton, $27.75; cost of mining, including 
prospecting and hauling to mill, $7; cost of mUling, $4.35. There is a 
live-stamp mill, which for many months crushed forty-eight tons of ore per 
. day — nine and a half tons per stamp. The product for July, i88t|«a^fap|000. 
Prospecting is far ahead, and there is ore in sight to run the q 
It will be seen that this is a fine property. It is incorp 
Cisco; capital $6,000,000, in 60,000 shares. It is a S.^^^^^^^ 
gentlemen owning all the stock. It has never bgadH^^^^^^^' <>gv> 


and from the start has kept clear of debt and earned handsome dividends. 
The enterprise has been exceedingly well conducted, both in San Francisco 
and in Silver Reef 

The Stormont Silver Mining Company is a New York incorporation, 
and owns the Stormont, Thompson, McNally, Last Chance, Buckeye and 
Savage locations. They are worked through t\^'0 shafts, which are well 
equipped with steam pumps and hoist and with safety cages. One shaft, 
245 feet deep, strikes the vein 560 feet (on its dip) from the outcrop. There 
are four levels, each i , 500 feet long, connected by winzes, and sinking for 
the fifth level is well advanced. Much stoping ground above the fourth 
level is yet untouched. The ore is found anywhere within a certain zone, 
from ten to 100 feet thick, limited by red sandstone above and white below, 
often in association with fossil remains and petrifactions of reedd and rushes. 
The deposits vary from a few inches to several feet in thickness, are fifty to 
200 feet long, and 100 to 300 feet deep, sometimes connected with other 
bodies by stringers, sometimes not at all. The common grade of workable 
ore bodies is about $30 a ton. It crushes easily (seven to nine tons per day 
to the stamp) and mills up to 80 or 85 per cent, in bullion 950 to 980 fine. 
The Stormont mill is on the Rio Virgin, a few miles from the mines, is run by 
water, and has ten stamps, thirteen pans and seven settlers. The cost of 
mining is extremely variable, between $8 and $15; of hauling to mill, $2.08; 
of milling, $3.50. In three years the mill has reduced 44,675 tons of ore, 
which has produced 976,934 ounces fine silver — 21.87 ounces to the ton. 
Dividends paid, $150,000. The records of the companvshow a stead)r pro- 
duction with moderate profit, and the prospect is gooa for long-continued 
success in the future. 

The Barbee & Walker Mill and Mining Company is a New York 
organization, incorporated on the consolidated Barbee & Walker locations, 
embracing somewhat more than half a mile in length of the White Reef. 
Hoisting from the mine incline, which is 500 feet deep, is done by steam, 
and the ore is delivered directly on the floor of a five-stamp mill, which has 
pK>unded out in five years a round million. 

The Leeds Silver Mining Company, a San Francisco organization, was 
the pioneer of the district. It owns a group of locations and a ten-stamp 
mill. It has taken out more than $800,000, and paid $78,000 in dividends. 
In all of these mines the silver-bearing rock is remarkably uniform, both as 
to richness and thickness of the stratum. The best geologists differ as to 
whether it came by sublimation or was precipitated from a silver ocean, but 
they do not differ as to the probability of its great extent downward. The 
silver-bearing part of the Reef is known to be fifteen miles long, and Captain 
Lubbock is authority for the statement that there are groups of locations 
practically unimproved and producing nothing of any consequence, which, 
m all probability, are as good as those belonging to the companies men- 
tioned, and which could be purchased at very reasonable figures, consoli- 
dated, provided with a light mill plant, and m«ide dividend-paying properties. 
Amongst these locations may be placed die Lulu, Independence, McKelvy, 
McMuUin, Gisborn, Elmily Jane, Vanderbilt, Butte, Stormy King, Grey 
Elagle, Duffin, Toquerville, Last Chance, May Flower, Lamb & Steele, 
Thomas James, Susan, Romulus, Napoleon, Gibfried, Silver Plume, etc. 

Deposits of rich copper ore are found in the sandstone near the Colorado 
River, from some of which the ores are shipped east ; at Grand Gulch they 
are being smelted on the ground. Certain districts in Northern Arizona — 
the Gold Basin, Mineral Park and Cerbat — find their nearest source of sup- 
plies at Silver Reef Mining in them is reported as in a prosperous condi- 
tion. There are some districts about Silver Reef, but so far thev have done 
nothing in the producing stage. It is almost certain that other parts of the 
White and Buckeye reefs will some day be made as productive as tliat 


herein described, which has produced over $4,000,000 in five years, one- 
third of it profit. 


Nebo is situated in Juab County, eighty-five miles south of Salt Lake 
City, and thirty-five miles from Provo; it lies within a mile and a half of the 
Utah Central Railway, which gives an impetus to mining in that district, 
as the ores are found in immense quantities, but are of too low grade to pay 
for shipment, except by steam power. The district was discovered in the 
spring of 1869 by F. Carter and others. Its boundaries are, commencing at 
willow Creek, running thence easterly to the summit of the Wasatch range, 
thence northerly along the summit of said range to the northern boundary of 
Juab County, then westerly along the line of Juab County to the summit of 
West Range, thence southerly along the summit of West Range to the 
place of beginning. Following are the principal mines and their develop- 

Olive Branch — Situated on the north Twin Mountain; formation, quart- 
zite and limestone; average width of vein, three feet; average value of ore, 
toS per ton. 

Mountain Queen — On north Twin Mountain; formation, limestone; 
average value of ore, $20 per ton; average width of vein, four feet. 

Blue Bird — At the head of Secret Gulch, on the south side of North 
Canyon; formation, quartzite; a true vein of first-class ore. 

Monitor — At the mouth of Twin Canyon, showing a good vein of galena 
ore; average value of ore, $18 per ton. 

Commonwealth — On the north side of North Canyon, showing a good 
body of galena and ochre ore. 

Elephant — In North Canyon, showing a good vein of galena ore. 

Bluff — On North Twin Mountain, showing a good body of galena ore 
of a low grade. 

Knuck — On north side of Twin Canyon, showing a good vein of galena 
ore of a low grade. 

Magpie — On the south side of Bear Canyon; large body of galena ore 
of a very good quality. 

Eureka — On Olive Branch Hill; body of very good ore. 

Sultana — On the south side of South Twin Canyon ; good vein of galena 
ore, low grade. 

Trench — on the south side of North Twin Canyon; ;ralena ore. 

Gray Eagle — On the south side of South Twin Mountain; galena Dre of 
low grade. 

Agnes — On the north side of Twin Canyon ; large vein of galena ore of 

Morse — On the north side of North Canyon, with a vein of galena and 
carbonate ore, two and a half feet wide, increasing as it goes down. 

Great Western — On Mountain Queen Hill ; good vein of galena ore of 
low grade. 

FoUowmg are the names of the principal locations in the district, show- 
ing well on top, but which have not been developed, except enough work to 
hold them: Mount Pleasant, Sonney Boy, Whimbamper, Rip Van Winkle, 
St. Patrick, Lilly, Rising Sun, Clipper, Cooke, Watsike, Mountain Lion, 
Crooked Horn, Honey-Moon, Stonewall Jackson, Wild Dutchman, New 
York, Morning Glory, Montezuma, Black Hawk, Litde Emily, Wandering 
Jew, Flag-Staff, Ground Hog, Keisel, Herald, Silver Star, Home Ticket, 
Hoboken, I. X. L., Wild Frenchman, Mormon Chief, Wild Cat, Octoroon, 
Jersey, Olive Branch No. 2, Live Yankee, Aspinwall, Hagar, Midas, Cat- 


There is no smelter in this district, and for that reason but few of the 
mines are being worked, as the ore from most of them will not pay to ship. 


Is situated in the Oquirrh Mountain Range, Juab County, commencing 
about seventy-five miles south southwesterly from Salt Lake City, thence 
continuing for about ten miles in a southerly direction. The geological 
structure of the Oquirrh is entirely different in character and formation 
from the structure of the Wasatch and belongs to the Palaeozoic age, com- 
prising such rocks as porphyry, granite, syenite, hornblende, quartzite or 
metamorphic sandstone and lower Silurian limestones, (dolomite and caicite). 
The limestone is considerably changed in its appearance by the great masses 
of eruptive igneous rocks. In the western part of the district we observe 
quartzite at the base of the mountain. The ore in the northwestern and 
western part of the district occurs in the fissures, bearing northeast and 
southwesterly and northerly and southerly with a very near verticle dip. 
There appear also numerous gash veins cutting the country rock in diflferent 
directions, and so making the whole appear as a complete net-work of veins. 
Occasionally we observe also ore bodies appearing as contact veins at or 
very near the junction of two formations, and in a few instances as bed or 
strata veins, complying with and parallel to the course and dip of the strat- 
ified formation in which the ore bodies occur. 

The ores here are very rebellious, containing lead, copper, gold, silver, 
bismuth, antimony, iron, arsenic and pyrites of iron and copper, varj'ing in 
value from $20 to $400 per ton. Here and there, in places, the vems are 
barren, the ore appearing in chimneys and pockets only, but some of these 
pockets and chimneys are veritable bonanzas. 

In the southern part of this district the mineral bearing formation is 
principally composed of hornblende, porphyry, syenite, feldspar and por- 
phyry containing kaolin. 

In the eastern and northeastern part of Tintic we observe the ore 
deposits as appearing in granite, quartzite and limestone and as contact 
veins between the formations. Spars of all the different silicious, caicite and 
magnesian varieties abound everywhere as gangue or vein matter, as mag- 
nificent crystals, and as stalactites and stalagmites in caves and crevices. 

Prominent among the Tintic mines is the Mammoth, situated near the 
junction of the limestone and granite of the westerly slope of the Mammoth 
Hill at an altitude of about 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
Mammoth ore deposit is a true fissure vein in the Silurian limestone; 
this limestone is crystalline aifd silicious. The gangue or vein material is 
brecciated quartz. 

The Mammoth is remarkable for its dimensions as well as the great 
value of the ores extracted, which ores are chiefly carbonates of copper 
and oxides of copper, carrying a high percentage in gold, silver and copper. 

The mine is largely developed. Two shafts have been sunk down to 
a depth of 300 feet, at which point they are intersected by a tunnel; from 
this tunnel a winze has reached a depth of 200 feet. Levels, drifts, inclines, 
and cross cuts have developed the lode in various directions, exposing a 
deposit sixty feet in width, containing over $10,000,000 worth ot ore in 
sight as actually established by measure. 

The plant of the Mammoth mine consists of fourteen furnaces, crushing 
and refining works, possessing a capacity for the conversion or separation 
of 200 tons daily of the mixed copper, silver and gold ores of Tintic. The 
daily production of the mine should and could average $10,000, netting an 
annual profit of at least $2,000,000 to the investors. 

Crismon Mammoth, largely developed, ore rich in gold, silver and 


The mines of Eureka Hill in the northern part of Tintic are next in 
prominence, forminjy a series of veins and deposits in the Silurian limestone. 
The limestone is tilted up. These deposits form one large true fissure vein, 
subdivided into a series of veins, irregular in strike and dimensions, by 
stratas or beds of limestone. These veins are connected by numerous 
feeders and spurs. The character of the ores extracted is gray carbonate of 
copper, rich m a considerable percentage of gold and silver. In past times 
rich deposits of horn silver have been found in the mines in Eureka Hill; 
foremost among those veins are those owned by the Eureka Hill Mining 
Company. The property comprises several mining locations, is extensively 
develojjed to a length of 600 teet and 400 feet in depth. The sinking of 
the main shaft is done by steam drills and the hoisting by a fifty horse power 
steam engine. The regular shipments amount to over 1,000 tons of ore per 
month, produced by a working force of seventy men. 

Immediately north of and adjoining to the Eureka Hill Company's 
mines, is the property known as the Bullion, Beck, Champion and Crown 
Point mines, embracmg in length 4, 200 feet, and in width 200 to 300 feet of 
valuable mineral-bearing ground. These veins are developed extensively by 
shafts, tunnels, drifts and levels to a depth of from 1 50 to 300 feet, and an 
aggregate of over 2,000 feet in length. The vein is from a few inches to twelve 
feet wide, containing ore of an assay value of 30 per cent, lead and 30 
to 300 ounces of silver per ton. The daily productions is about twenty 
tons of good ore. A steam engine hoists the ores and a forty-horse power 
engine concentrates the ores of lower grade of the Bullion, 'Beck and 
Champion mines. The character of the ores extracted is galena and gray 
carbonates of lead. 

The Julian Lane mine, situated between Diamond and Silver City, 
developecf to a depth of over 300 feet, and in the strike by over 4,000 feet of 
leveb, drifts and cross-cuts. The ores extracted are bismuth silver, valued 
at from $30 to $2,500 worth in silver and $3 to $10 in gold per ton. This 
property has been and is as yet worked very profitably and is dividend -f>aying 
to the owners, the Consolidated Julian Lane Mining Company. Other 
prominent mines in Tintic Mining District are: Cornucopia, Argenta, Lib- 
erty, Hiden Treasure, Kentucky Jane, Shower, Silver Spur, Silver Wing, 
Sunbeam, Estelle, Elmer Ray, Gemini, Reverse, Montana, Joe Bower, 
Independence, Butcher Boy, Black Dragon, Morning Glory, Isabella Vic- 
toria, Swan, Ocean, Robbins, Golden Treasure, Iron Clad, Diamond, 
Manhatten, Albert Paul, Bobtail, Mormon Chief, Aspinwall, Como, Wyom- 
ing, Susan, Carissa, North Star, Centennial, Eureka, Godiva, Blue Rock, 
Cross Dragoon, Contest, Elise, Governeur, Brooklyn, Ridge, King James, 
Lady Aspmwall, Limited, West Bullion, Red Rose. Red Bird, Golden 
King, Young Mammoth, Jenkins, Three Ply, Silver Coin, Zulu, Valley, 
Midgley, Black Jack, Voltaire, Alpha, Talisman, Eclipse, Iron Clad, 
North End, West Eureka, Key Stone, Kohinoor, California, May Flower, 
Rising Sun, Bri^ham, Undine, Shoebridge. Mary Bell, Southern Bell, Bis- 
muth Chief, Pacific, Lily of the West, Merrimac and Iron Oueen. 

Two and a half miles northeasterly from Eureka Hill is the Tintic Min- 
ing and Milling Company property, consisting of a ten stamp mill and all 
the necessary appurtenances thereto. The ores are worked by the dry 
crushing process and are chloridized before amalgamation. 

In the vicinity of Silver City are situated a number of iron mines which 
are shipping iron to the Horn Silver and other smelting Works, several hun- 
dred tons of iron ore daily. These ores are peroxides and sesquioxides of 
iron or hemitite and occur in strong veins, assaying 60 to 70 per cent, of 
iron and $5 to $15 value in gold and silver per ton. These iron ores are 
principally found in Tintic as bedded deposits in the Silurian limestone; 
they are not suited for any other purpose or use than flux on account of 



their containing other minerals. These iron deposits are the sure indicator 
and apex of gold, silver, lead and other mineral -bearing ledges. 


These are adjacent districts — Park City being the nearest supply point — 
and lie on tributaries of the Weber and Provo Rivers, at a high altitude. 

The great mine is the Ontario, owned by the Ontario Silver Mining 
Company, incorporated in San Francisco: capital, $15,000,000, in 150,000 
shares; J. B. Haggin, of San Francisco, president; R. C. Chambers, of Salt 
Lake, superintendent. It is the Ontario, Switzerland, Last Chance and 
West Ground, consolidated. It is a contact vein between quartzite and 
porphyry (Prof. Clayton holds, in quartzite), strikes east and west, dips 75^ 
from the northern horizon, is opened to the 900- foot level, the pay-chute 
being, so far as known, over 1,600 feet long, and, on an average, perhaps 
three feet thick; the 500 level is 1,630 feet long, the 600 level 1,625 ^^^^* 
the 700 about 1,500, the 800 maybe 1,000. It is equipped with a set of 
hoisting and pumping machinery at both the old and new shafts, and 
has sunk a third shaft, supplied with enormous power and a Cornish 
pump, with twenty-two-inch column. It has a complete forty-stamp 
chloridizing mill, with revolving dryers and two Stetefeldt furnaces and 
other first-class facilities. It has three years* work, for the present mill, 
in sight, in the lower opened levels, and had produced, to the end of May, 
1884, $13,750,000, and paid to the same time, (May dividend pjiid May 
31st), ninety-five monthly dividends of fifty cents a share, sixty-four 
of them on 100,000 shares, thirty-one on 150,000 shares; total dividends, 
$5,525,000. The mine turned out $1,014,996.96 before the company 
was organized (included in above total). Mining and hauling to mill 
has cost $13.90 per dry ton; reduction, $20.83 per dr>' ton. It makes 
water at the rate of 3,000 gallons a minute, which probably accounts 
for one-half the total cost of mining and reduction. Cost of pumping 
will be greatly reduced now the large tunnel is completed. It is the best 
in the lowest workings and the pay-chute grows longer with every level 
opened. A tunnel somewhat more than a mile long has been driven in 
to the 600 level to receive the water there and run it off. It is 5,867 feet 
long. The new shaft is now 1,000 feet deep and will be connected with the 
mine workings on the 900 level. It is a wonderful mine. It has few equals 
on the globe. Its productive period is only fairly begun. There is no 
reason, l^rofcssor Newberrv .savs, whv it should not continue fertile to a 
depth of 3,000 feet or more, and the pay-chute bids fair to double in length. 

Adjoining the Ontario, on the, is the Parley's Park Silver Mining 
Company's property, the Parley's Park, Lady of the Lake and Central, 
each 200 by 1,500 feet in area, incorporated in New York, capital $1,000,000 
in 100,000 shares. A shaft has been sunk within seventv-five feet of the 
Ontario line, 1,000 feet deep. The levels in the mine are 300 feet higher 
than the same levels in the Ontario. The shaft passed through the 
vein, diagonally, above the 300 level, and drifts have been started toward 
the vein on three levels. The shaft and stations are ample and well-sup- 
ported. There are fivG pumps and a double-acting hoisting engine. That 
they have the Ontario vein in this ground has already been demonstrated* 

Further east is the Lowell location, 200 feet by 900. A shaft has been 
sunk 300 feet, the 200- foot level exploited by 600 feet of drifts, and the vein 
cut on the 300 level. Good ore is found, mixed with vein matter, along 
both walls. The walls appear to be approaching each other, and it is 
])robable that the ore will make into a concentrated clean body, deeper. 
There is steam i)ower for hoisting and plenty of pumps for the present amount 
of water. 


The McHenry, Nos. i and 2, lies next east^^'ard on the belt. It is 
owned by a Holland company, is opened to a depth of 400 feet, exploited 
by 2,500 feet of drifts and cross-cuts, makes ore m considerable bodies in 
places, carrying 50 to 100 ounces silver; no lead. It is regarded as sure tc» 
prove a great mine, properly opened up. The company owns a 20-stamp 
mill at Park City, costing $100,000. 

There is beyond this the Hawkeye property,. four locations consolidated, 
incorporated in St. Paul; capital J2, 500,000 in 100,000 shares. It has a 
first-class steam mining plant, shaft 300 feet deep, 200 level extensively 
exploited, vein of highly mineralized rock, fifty feet wide, with high-grade 
ore, more or less clean and concentrated, on both walls. The opening of 
the 300 level has bc^un. The ground in all these mines is wet and the vein 
very wide, and it will take time and money to bring them to the producing 

Next east of the Hawkeye is the Boulder property, a group of locations 
covering 3,000 lineal feet on the fissure, consolidated. In the vicinity are 
the Free Silver claims, with prospecting tunnel in 400 feet; the Homestake, 
Little Giant, Wasatch, Romeo, and a great many others, all being opened 
as the means of their owners permit. All of them have turned out good 
ore, and apparently lack only development to make dividends. The Romeo 
has a heavy vein of smelting ore of good grade, opened by an adit for 
several hundred feet. 

The Barrios property, adjoining the Ontario and Parley's Park on the 
north, is a consolidated incorporated group, considerably exploited and 
regarded as of great promise. 

Westward of the Ontario, the first working company is the Empire, 
organized in New York; capital, $10,000,000 in 100,000 shares. The prop- 
erty is a consolidation of thirteen locations of the ordinary size, making 
sixty to seventy acres. It is developed by a shaft 400 feet deep, with drifts 
to each 100-foot level, and drifts on each level for 400 or 500 feet. The 
vein is a strong, well-defined fissure, traversing a quartzite formation, vary- 
ing in width from four to twenty feet. The ore on the 100 and 200 levels is 
a medium-grade free-milling ore. On the 300 level a large body of high- 
grade ore was run through and this has recently been cut, stronger and 
richer than above, on the 400 level. The machinery is ample for the work — 
power, pumps and tanks capable of handling 3,000 gallons a minute. 

Two miles west of the Ontario is Pinyon Hill, stratified lime, making an 
angle of 15^ or 20° with the northwestern horizon, containing one and 
possibly two bedded veins or strata of smelting ore, broken up by several 
faulting fissures cutting through them. This belt is really two to three miles 
wide and extends from Park City to the head of Big Cottonwood, five miles, 
taking in the Woodside and other mines in that vicinity, Pinyon Hill, with 
the Pinyon, Walker, Buckeye, Climax, Rebellion, Apex, and other groups 
of locations, and Scott Hill. It is perhaps the faulting by the fissures 
spoken of that enriches it on Pinyon Hill. There appears to be a mine 
there, if there are not two of them, 1,500 feet on the strike by 1,000 on the 
dip, from one to six feet and sometimes twenty feet thick ; smelting ore, in 
the Walker & Buckeye about 30 lead and 30 silver; at Scott Hill, about 
the same; in the Pinyon, Climax and Rebellion, 40 lead and 40 silver, on an 
average. In Scott Hill there are two beds at the least from six inches to four 
feet thick. 

The Pinyon, Rebellion, Climax and Walker & Buckeye have been 
consolidated as the Crescent and are now owned by one company. This 
company, having bought the Nettie and an undivided one- eighth interest in 
the Roaring Lion for dumping, has ninety acres of ground. Twenty thou- 
sand feet of openings have developed thirteen acres •of it. Nine thousand 
cubic yards of stoping, requiring i6,c)<X) linear feet of timber for square sets, 


was done for the year ending November i, 1883. Eleven thousand five 
hundred and seventy-five tons of ore were taken out and sold at $30.75 per 
ton. The total expenses for all purposes were $15.95 P^^ ^^^f ^^e profits, 
$14.80. There are 5,000 tons of low grade ore on the dump. Tests have 
shown it to be good concentrating ore. Into wagon roads, tramways and 
buildings, have already gone some $18,000. The tramway to be constructed 
it is estimated will be $18,000. The mine is well opened — 1,000 feet on the 
strike and 600 on the dip; it is well equipped with buildings, and has been 
made accessible. Nearly 8,000 lineal feet of openings were made the last 
year. It is said to look better than ever. The proj)osed concentrating 
works, five jigs with appurtenances, will cost $io,ooo. It is exj>ected that 
these and the tnunway will be completed by July. There is then the sum 
due on the Walker & Buckeye — $42,000 — ^and that is all. There should 
be dividends in the coming fall, unless smelting works are to be erected this 
year, which is not probable. The present output of fifty tons a day will be 
doubled, perhaps, within six months, and the expenses are already much 
less in comparison with the output than formerly. It looks as though the 
mine would be shipping twenty to thirty tons of ore per day this ten years, 
and at the minimum of cost. 

Southwest of the Ontario the ground is also located for two or three 
miles, many supposing the Ontario contact fissure to curve in its trend so as 
to take that direction. The wash or debris is heavy, but the ledge is believed 
to come to the surface again in the White Pine and Utah, from the character 
of the vein matter and ore and enclosing country. The White Pine has 
steam hoisting and pumping machinery, is opened by shaft and level to a 
depth of 400 feet, and is already a producing mine. 

The Utah joins the White Pine westward, and is similar to it in all 
respects. It is owned bv the Utah Silver Mining Company, it and the Ban- 
nister, Monta and Neddie and Midget locations. Tlie capital Is $10,000,000 
in 100,000 shares. They have fine steam hoisting works, have sunk a two- 
compartment shaft 350 feet, and will go 150 feet further before drifting for 
the vein. 

It is thoug^ht that the Ontario fissure extends beyond this property to 
the head of Big Cottonwood. The Mohawk, Moniing Star, McLaughlin, 
Farrish, Keystone, King Solomon, Great Western, Silver Bar and Laka- 
waxen, are locations of promise along the supposed line of the fissure. The 
latter belongs to the New Bedford Silver Mining Company. They are driv- 
ing a tunnel to cut the vein 500 feet below the croppings. The vein is in 
granite and bears fine ore. There is talk of a tunnel from Snake Creek to 
Bonanza Flat, four miles southwest of Park City, crossing and cutting at 
a depth of 3.000 feet the Mohawk, Utah, White Pine, and the entire group 
of which they are the centre. South of Utah is the Jones Bonanza, Nos. i 
and 2, which has steam hoist and pumps, and is opened to it depth of 400 
feet by shafts and levels. 

The Park City Smelting Company is a Michigan organization ; capital 
$200,000. There is one sixty-ton stack, in a fine building, well arranged 
to economize labor, and large enough for two more stacks, with convenient 
charcoal sheds and ore bins. Fluxing iron is brought from the Provo River. 
Limestone is abundant and close at hand. 

The ground east and west of the Ontario, for more than a mile in width 
and for five or six miles long, is all located. There are a score of companies, 
not here named, incorporated on groups of locations, mostly local, and only 
prosecuting work as the owners, generally miners, can earn and spare the 
means. It is a great district, well supplied with wood and water, accessible 
by rail, with the coal mines of the Weber but twenty-five miles distant, and 
two railroads to bring* the coal. The mines (save on Pinyon Hill) are 
located on true fissure veins, of which there are several systems, and give 

. • ■ 



promise of great regularity and permanence. With money and time the dis- 
trict will no doubt show many productive mines beside the Ontario. 


This district commences about twenty-two miles southwest of Salt Lake 
City, and is situated on the eastern slope of the Oquirrh Mountain Range. 
The principal geological structure of this district is quartzite or vitreous 
sandstone, and dolomite, or magnesian limestone. The quartzite appears in 
beds of c^reat dimensions with thin seams or bands of shale which separate 
the strata at intervals of from loo to 500 feet. In the southern, southwestern 
and southeastern portions of the district, two beds of limestone from 100 to 
300 feet in thickness are obser\able from the southeast in most irregular 
foldings and frequent dislocations of the strata, which at present show a 
general strike ot northeast and southwest and dip northwest at angles vary- 
mg from 20** to 80^. In several of the breaks and faults, large dykes of 
dioritic and hornblende porphyries appear. They are extraordinarily 
frequent and well-defined in the southern and southwestern parts of the 
district. The presence of the igneous rocks occupying the breaks of the 
strata, verifies the origin of such disturbances as have upheaved, folded and 
broken the sedimentary beds. Ore deposits appear in this district as beds 
between the strata, forming beds or strata veins, examples of which are: Old 
Telegraph, Spanish Hill, American Flag, Utah, Jordan, Neptune, Revere, 
Lead and others, appearing and situated all in one belt, as contact veins 
between limestone and quartzite, limestone and shale, quartzite and shale, 
syenite and quartzite. syenite and limestone. To this class belong the 
Jordan, Neptune, Grizzly, Ashland, Winnamuck and others, as true 
fissure veins in the syentic porphyry, such as appear at the head of 
main Bingham Canyon beyond the Jordan and Neptune Mines; also as 
true fissure veins in the diabas,^ diorite and syenite, porphyry in Black Jack 
gulch and Butterfield Canyon, 'examples of which are: Bemiss and Hiatt, 
Queen, Old Times, New Times, Boston, Russel, Fisher, Badger, French 
Spy, Summit, Red Cloud, Liberty, Louisa, Zuni, Monterey, Osceola and 
Lucky Boy, Black Jack and Opulent mines. These veins carry ruby and wire* 
silver, as fissures or gashes breaking through the strata to which a great 
number of the Bingham ore deposits bjslong. It would take too much time 
and space to explain the nature, character and merits of the different classes 
of ore dep>osits to their fullest extent and meaning. The quantity and 
quality of ore in an^ of them are the true and only standard of value for 
both miner and capitalist. 

Syenite, diorite, diabas and granite appear first at Black Jack gulch 
and Butterfield Canyon, and a^ain at the head of main Bingham Canyon and 
e.xtend thence over the divide mto Tooele County in a westerly direction. 

The ores in West Mountain Mining District appear principally as 
galena, carbonates and sulphurets of lead, oxides of copper, ruby silver and 
free gold. The latter is found in the alluvium and occasionally in small 
quantities with the ores. 

The impurities in these ores are: pyrites of iron, pyrites of copper, 
decomposed pyrites, oxide of iron and arsenic. The percentage of the ore 
varies from 12 to 120 ounces in silver, from a trace to ^^30 in gold, and from 
30 to 54 per cent, of lead per ton. 

The principal mines are: 

The Old Telegraph, comprising the No You Don't, Nez Perces 
Chief, Montreal, Montana, Old Telegraph, Nos. i, 2 and 3, and Grecian 
Bend mines. This mine could and should be at present very productive. 
The vein is at places over forty-five feet wide, presenting a solid breast of 
ore. The timbering of the works is all that it could be. The greatest 
depth attained is 400 feet below the summit of the hill. 


Jordan and Galena are situated west of the preceding. These mines are 
very extensively developed and have produced great quantities of good ore. 

Revere group, situated east of the Old Telegraph, has attained a 
depth of over 800 feet on the vein. Eight levels have been run east and 
west, 100 feet apart. Thousands of tons of low grade ore are in sight. 
The mine has produced at an average twenty-five to thirty tons of ore 
per day for years; assay 30 to 45 per cent, lead, 10 to 25 ounces of silver 
per ton. 

Attached to the aforesaid mines are the Jordan Smelting and Concen- 
trating Works, consisting of six shaft and one reverberatory furnaces and 
extensive concentrating and leaching works; situated on the Jordan River 
and Canal, near the junction of the Utah Central, Denver and Rio Grande, 
and Bingham Canyon Railroads. The company has at the Old Telegraph 
Mine a steam saw mill. 

Yosemite group, situated east of the Revere, produces, with a force of 
thirty-five men, about 400 to 500 tons of good ore per month. The mines 
are largely developed. The ore averages 50 per cent, of lead and 20 ounces 
of silver per ton. 

Spanish, situated between the Old Telegraph group and the Jordan 
mines. This mine has produced lar^e quantities of ore and is developed by 
about 26,000 feet of tunnels, drifts, mchnes and stopes. The ore is concen- 
trated at the mine. 

Neptune and Kempton, situated southwesterly of the Jordan. These 
mines are developed by about 30,000 feet of inclines, shafts, tunnels, drills 
and stopes. The main tunnel is over 600 feet long and connected by a long 
level on the vein with the main incline which is over 400 feet deep. The 
mine has produced in the past large qi^antities of ore, and produces at pre- 
sent the finest and best ore with profit to the owners. • 

The Stewart Gold mines disclose an enormous body of gold ore to a 
depth of over 200 feet, the body being from 80 to 400 feet wide, averaging 
$5 to $10 per ton. Attached to the mines are two lo-stamp mills. 

The Atlanta, San Francisco and Irish American tap four veins with a 900 
foot tunnel at a depth of Ckx) feet. 

The Lead Mine group has opened an enormous body of galena and 
carbonate of lead ore. The main ore body is from 60 to 100 feet wide, con- 
taining low grade carbonate ore, of which ore fifty tons are reduced in the 
Lead Mine Concentrating Works to twelve tons of ore assaying 62 per 
cent, lead and 6 to 10 ounces in silver per ton. In what was for a long 
time supposed to be the foot-wall, milling ore has been found lately, assay- 
ing I per cent, lead and 40 to 300 ounces in silver per ton. The principal 
works of the mine run toward the Yosemite mine at a rapid rate. Attached 
to the mine is a good boarding house. From the mine to the mill a tram- 
way four and a-half miles long conveys the ore. At the lower end the cars 
dump into the top of the mill 100 feet above the point-where the ore leaves 
as concentrated ore. 

True Fissure group, extensively develoyed; the lower tunnel taps the 
vein at a depth of 500 feet, and is 410 feet long at that point. The vein is 
eighteen inches to five feet wide, contains galena, carbonate and oxide of 
lead, and, in the upper workings, black sulphurets. The True Fissure is 
one of the Old Rehable*s coming treasure chambers. 

The Tiewaukie and Accident mines have opened a large body of rich 
ore, extensively developed, carrying galena, horn silver and wire silver. 

The Winnamuck and Dixon mines group and smelting works belong to 
a Holland Company and are situated just below Bingham. These mines are 
developed by over 40,000 feet of tunnels, shafts, inclines, drifts and stopes; 
they are among the oldest mines of the district and have produced immense 
quantities of ore. 


The Queen, Bemiss and Hiatt, Chubb, Monterey, Russell, Boston, 
Arthur, Fisher, Garfield, Badger, Louisa, Zuni, New Times, Summit, 
Liberty, Red Cloud, Northern Chief, Nellie, French Spy, Eagle Bird, 
Opulent, Lucky Boy and Black Jack are extensively developed to a consid- 
ernble depth by tunnels, drifts, shafts and inclines, disclosing to the eye 
lai^fc bodies of ruby silver and other ores \a!ued at from $20 to $300 per ton. 

The Northern Chief Mining Company are erecting extensive first-class 
reduction works in Butterfield Canyon in connection with their mines. Their 
tunnels are from 200 to 1,400 feet long, tapping the lodes at a depth of from 
100 to 1,500 feet. These mines arc situated in a formation of diabas, diorite 
and syenetic porphyry. 

Last Chance group, extensively developed, with a brilliant prospect for 
the future, if the work is continued. 

Prominent among other valuable mines are the Agnes, Ashiand, Alad- 
din, American Flag, Alameda, Argonaut, Apex, Amanda, Amazon, Al.imo, 
Alice. Ashton, Alta. Austin. Bully Boy, Bargain, Bulldozer, Bret Harte, 
Buckeye, Bullion, Bobtail, Baby, Black Hawk, Benton, Bazouk, BulTalo, 
Backer, Burning Moscow, Caiiby, Commercial, Constitution, Crcesus, Col. 
Sellers, Casco, Colorado, Charles Dana, Centennial No. 2, Chicago Fire, 
Champion, Central City, Caledonia, Carbonate, Dixon, Dartmouth, Dom- 
ingo, Dividend, Dalton, Ely, Elvina, Edison, Extension, Elephant, Eclipse, 
Fraction. Flies.s, Flint. Fanny Bemiss, First Chance, Fairview, February, 
Flyer, Flora. Florence, Fabian, Gray Eagle, Grizzly, Grecian Bend, Grand 
Cross, George, General Shelby, (iiant Chief, Green Grove, Gold and Silver, 
Gold Crown, Golden Era, Georgia, Grand Duke, Grand Duchess. Granite 
State, Gibbons, Henrietta, Hydaspe, Henry M., Hamblin, Horace Greeley, 
Honest Abe, Hampton. Howard, Hooper, Hoogley, Hibemia, Ingersol!, 
Irish- American, Jersey, Kanosh, Kitty, Knickerbocker, Keep-a'pitching-in, 
Live Yankee. Live Pine, Levant, Lucky Boy, Lulu, Miners' Home, Melissa, 
Merrimac, Miner's Dream, Murray, Mill Creek, Mountain Gem, Mountain 
Maid, Martin, Mighty Dollar, Mystic, Maple Tree, .Monitor, Mayflower, 
Nina, Northern Light, Nick of the Woods, Noonday, National Greenback, 
" North Star, NaSt, O. K., Owyhee, Die Bull, Omaha, Osceola, Overland, 
Old Hickorv-, Parma, Peabody, Portland, Providence, Phcenix, Parker, 
Prince of Wales, Parvenue, Pay Roll, Quakingasp, Queen of Sheba, Queen, 
Rough and Ready, Rainbow, Red Warrior, Roman Empire, Red Rover, 
Rattlesnake, Rising Moon, Roman, Railroad, Rustin, Sacred, St. John, St. 
Bartholomew, Sagmaw, Sa\'age. Sturgis, Silver Comstock, Sunrise, Sunset, 
Silver Shield, Silver Maid, St.-ir of the West, Silver Gauntlet, St. James. 
Stanley, Salt Lake, Southside Tunnel, Stevenson, Thomas -Jefferson, Tip- 
perary Boy. Tiger, Tulare, Torpedo, Toronto, Tilden, Utah, Ultra, Venus, 
' Veto, Vespa.sian, Victor, Vanderbilt, What Cheer, Washington, Witle 
Awake, Wide West, Winnelrago, Williams, Yampa, Yankee Blade, Western 
Chief and others. 

We must not fail to mention the placer mines of this district, which 
produce considerable gold and a\'eragc from $3 to $9 per day to the man. 
The principal placer mines are in the main canyon and in Bear Gulch. 

There are a number of other mining districts in Utah, but though the 
discoveries in several of them indicate undoubted wealth, the developments 
are limited compared with those already noticed. The most important are: 


Oi^nized May 7, 1872; lies between the Litdc Cottonwood and Amer- 
ican Fork districts. Not a great deal of work has been done, owing in a 
great measure to owners of lodes lacking capital to develop, There a 
several mines being worked in the distnct, containing copper, silver"^ 
iron. Specimens of pure, native copper have been discovered i~ -^ 


Work can be prosecuted in the district the whole year round, being situated 
in the low hills. The proximity to the railroad at Draper Station makes it 
altogether a very desirable location for mining purposes. 


Organized December 9, 1870; situated northeast of Salt Lake City. Its 
lx)undarics are: Commencing at a point where the south line of Davis 
County intersects the Jordan River and running south up the channel of the 
river to the Sixth Ward bridge ; thence east to Emigration Canyon, and up 
the canyon to the summit of Big Mountain, where the old road crosses ; 
thence north along the ridge of said mountain to the south line of Davis 
County; thence west to the point of beginning. About sixty locations have 
been made, some of them looking well in silver and iron. The Adams 
District has been organized out of the Hot Springs District. 


embraces the whole of Freemont Island, in Great Salt Lake. It was 
organized August 3, 1871. The first developments made on the island were 
under the auspices bi the Utah and Nebraska Mining Company. There are 
thirty-eight lodes located in the district, and considerable work has been 
done there. Among the most notable lodes are the Davis, copper lode ; 
Queen Catherine, siwer; the Island, silver. (k)ld -bearing quartz is found 
ail through the district. A slate quarry has been located on the island, 
which will undoubtedly prove valuable in time. 


Organized April 22, 187 1; in which has been recorded 275 locations, 
none of them worked sufficient to test their real value, except the iron 
mines, which included most of the late locations. There has been as much 
as $1,000 laid out on each of several mines, and some have been sunk to 
the depth of sixty feet. The district contains iron, zinc, antimony and cin- 
nabar, with a small percentage of silver and of copper. The iron ore. of 
which there is plenty, has been tested and pronounced of a good quality. 


in Iron County, may be considered practically the pioneer of iron min- 
ing and manufacturing, although some iron was reduced and worked in 
the same region over thirty years ago. The Gfeat Western Iron Mining 
and Manufacturing Company had, at Iron City, in this district, a blast 
furnace, an air furnace, a foundry, machine shops, drying house, and other 
requisites for carrying on the manufacture of n'on, and once made arrang- 
ments for extensive developments of their property. They owned thirty iron 
locations, one zinc location, with the vein traceable 6,000 feet, and assaying 
50 per cent, metal, and three silver bearing locations, one having a tunnel 
in seventy-five feet, assays from the ore, which is free milling, showing $171 
of silver to the ton. Other claims are located in the district, but little develop- 
ment has been done on them. Coal also exists extensively in this district. 


About thirty miles from Salt Lake City, and some twenty-five miles 
from the Union Pacific Railroad, on the eastern slope of the Divide, between 
the Little and Big Cottonwood. The leading mining claims arc the Lalla, 
with a shaft down some fifty to fifty-five feet, and two other shafts about 
fifteen feet deep, having an open cut of twelve-foot face to the tunnel ; a vein 
over seven feet assays from 12^2 to 62 j)cr cent, copper. The Shark, Emily, 
Hattie, Empress, Blue Jacket, Mary Jane and Matilda are all promising 


Utah's total railroad system abnegates 1,143 niiles. This include^ 
\>oXh broad and narrow gauge roads, and is divided as follows, the Denver 
;iund Rio Grande, as will be seen, having the greatest length: 


Mi/es. Miles. 

Opden to Grand Junction 346 

Bingham Junction to Bingham, 16 

Pleasant Valley Junction to Coal Mine, 8 

Bingham Junction to A]ta« 16 

Total, 386 


Ogden^ to Wasatch (Union Pacific) 65 

Ogden to Franklin (Utah and Northern), .... 81 

Echo to Park City (Echo and Park City), .... 32 

Utah Eastern, 25 

Lehi Junction to Silver City (Salt Lake and Western), 57 

Utah and Nevada, 37 

Total, 297. 


Ogden to Frisco, 280 


Ogden to Dividing line, 150 


Nephi to Wales< 30 

Grand Total, M43 

That the more rapid development of the Territory is due to the existence 
<if railroads is an undeniable fact; but the reflection cannot be overcome 
that whatever of internal development has been accomplished throue^h the 
medium of railroads is due almost entirely to local, rather than to through lines. 
As evidence of the truth of this assertion, it is only necessary to compare 
the history of Utah^s imports with that of her exports. To the local lines 
in general, and to the Pioneer Utah Central line in an especial degree, is due 
whatever of credit belongs to railroads as an instrument tending to assist in 
internal development. It is also true that, until within about a twelvemonth, 
the history of the imports and exports of Utah is inseparably associated 
with the Pioneer line smce the advent of railroads into this Territory. There 
is an evident disposition, less forcibly expressed at the present period than 


previously, on the part of both through lines, to make their power and 
nifluence felt wherever, in the Territory, tliere is a reasonable probability of 
commercial activity which foresight or speculation will enable them to 
<letect. This policy has been carried to an extent to absorb all local rail- 
road enterprises, excepting, perhaps the Utah Central. The Union Pacific, 
or this end of it, was built largely by Utah people. To a still greater extent 
the completion of the western branch of the Denver and Rio Grande is 
indebted to the same source. With these two exceptions, and the Echo and 
Park City, and the Salt Lake and Western, and the Central Pacific, all the 
lines in Utah are the result of local enterprise; and while much of the means 
may have been imported, it came here as a result of the enterprise of resi- 
dents of the Territory. Thus, while the Union Pacific, Central Pacific, 
Denver and Rio Grande and the Echo and Park City, and Salt Lake and 
Western, aggregating 600 miles of road were built by large moneyed 
concerns, the remaining 543 miles, embracing eighty-one miles of the IJtah 
and Northern, thirty miles of the Sanpete Valley, fifty miles of the Pleasant 
Valley, (now incorporated in the Denver and Rio Grande Western), twenty- 
five miles of the Utah Eastern, sixteen miles of the Bingham Canyon, and 
a like amount of the Wasatch and Jordan Valley, thirty-seven miles of the 
Utah and Nevada, eight miles to the Pleasant Valley coal mines from the 
main line of the Denver and Rio Grande, and the 280 miles of the L'tah 
Central, are the result of local energy and enterprise, absorbed in whatever 
direction they may be at the present time. So far as the people of Utah are 
concerned, in a financial way, railroad building has been a decidedly 
unprofitable enterprise. With the exception of the Utah Central, the lines 
built by them have passed entirely into other hands, and now belong to one 
or the other of the large trunk lines that have found their way into Utah. 
Not only have the circumstances under which many of them were built (and 
this involves a discussion out of place here) been of the most trying 
character, but the possession has departed from the original owners almost 
for a song. There is much that is lamentable connected with the history of 
railroad building in Utah, and it would make a very interesting, if not an 
entertaining, chapter in a work treating on inter-territorial commerce. 

Owing to the land subsidy given bv the general government to forward 
the work of securing trans-Atlantic rail communication, both the Central 
Pacific and the Union Pacific urged their lines forward with the utmost 
practicable raj)idity. As the lines approached, the energy displayed by both 
was the greater. The engineers of the two roads clasped hands in Utah at a 
j)oint called the Promontory, some distance north and west of Ogden. By 
mutual consent a joint or union depot was located at Ogden. Through 
communication was established in May of 1869. Since that time the 


has had little interest in Utah, save that which arose because the eastern 
terminus of it sline was located here. ITie 150 miles it owned originally, 
still consitute its entire Utah possession, and though there have been endless 
rumors of impending extensions and changes by this road, none, however, 
have l)cen realized in fact, and there remains no imminent probability of a 
change in the policy heretofore pursued by the Central Pacific Comi>any. 
What developments the ever- increasing railroad complications may bring 
about, no man can tell; nor can he point even to the hour when the whole 
policy may be radically changed. A. G. Fell is division superintendent; 
Jas. Forbes, Ireight and ticket agent, and M. S. Severance, Salt Lake agent. 


from the possession of its original sixty-five miles, extending from Wasatch 
to Ogden, has pressed forward its interests until, to-day, it is in acknowl- 


t'dged control of the Echo and Park City, the Utah Eastern, the Utah, and 
Northern, the Utah and Nevada and the Salt Lake and Western (the three 
Utah named lines being narrow-gauge, the rem^iinder standard); while it is 
presumed to have large interests otherwise. The ?iccessions have been 
5^radual and were undoubtedly necessary, or they would not have been 
acquired. Its admitted mileage in Utah is 279 miles, while its close associa- 
tion with the Utah Central gives it practically 280 miles more. Whatever 
projections it may have, come under its branch lines. Mr. W. C. Borland 
is the present passenger representative of the general Union Pacific interests 
in Utah; Mr. F. R. McConnell is managing and directing its freight interests; 
while Mr. F. C. Gentsch has control of the express system. 


The advent of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railway was hailed 
with much satisfaction, for a variety of reasons, some of which were tangible.' 
while others were not. As a medmm that would assist in the more rapid 
development and settlement of a section of Utah then difficult of access, its 
completion was aiixiouslv desired, and the results have been agreeable to the 
most sanguine expectations; but as an instrument by which a permanent 
reduction in the tariff on importations was to be brought about, and as the 
foundation of a renewed era of prosperity, it has been, as the judicious and 
far-seeing must have known, a failure. It has, to-day, a length in Utah of 863 
miles and, extending from a point near the eastern intersection of Uintah 
and Emery Counties, runs through the whole width and almost length of the 
latter county, and through Utah, Salt Lake, Davis and into Weber Coun- 
ties. Its branch lines are the Little Cottonwood and Bingham Railroads, 
with a small section running to the coal mines in Pleasant Valley. Of this 
road, ninety miles is the work of purely local enterprise, taking in fifty miles 
f)rthe main line formerly built by the inhabitants o! Springville, the Packard 
Brothers investing mainly in the concern, and its completion from Spring- 
ville, in Utah County, being due to the exertion of these gentlemen. This 
fifty miles, which runs up the .Spanish Fork Canyon, was then known as the 


Since that time it has been incorporated by the Denver and Rio Grande and 
become part of its main line. The old organization, naturally, is now 
defunct. The impending extensions of the Denver and Rio Grande are 
very numerous, and at this writing there seems to be no really defined deter- 
mination to push forward in any particular direction. A road to Castle Valley, 
in Emery County, a line extending south and paralleling the Utah Southern, 
another branching north through Cache Valley and running over the same 
country as the Utah and Northern, with spurs both east and west, have been 
talked of, and some promised, and may even be realized, but there is no 
imminent probability of much being done in the immediate future, particu- 
larly in view of the unfavorable cast of the western railroad horizon as it 
appears at present. Mr. W. H. Bancroft is the superintendent for, this divi- 
sion; E, H. Mudgett, passenger agent; Mr. S. W. Eccles has charge of the 
freight department, while J. C. McCadden controls the express department. 


is the pioneer line of Utah, and is the only one which, through the vicissi- 
tudes of railroading in this section, has preserved its original identity. It 
was the necessary outgrowth of the completion of the Central and Union 
Pacific roads, and is singularlv the work of local energy and capital, or that 
portion of it is which extencfs from Salt Lake City to Ogdcn. Connection 
was established over the continent by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific 


on the loth day of May, 1869. One week later, Mav 17th, the Utah Central 
was commenced at Ogden. The company to builcl the line was organized 
on the 8th of March preceding. At the time of its building there was but 
little money in the Territory. It was only by the ready help which came 
from the people in response to the call made by President Brigham Youngs, 
under whose direction the road was pushed forward, that it was possible tc» 
complete the line. The last rail was laid January loth, 1870, less than eight 
months after the work commenced, ancl the event was celebrated by the 
blowing of whisdes, the ringing of bells, firing of cannon and by the assem- 
bling of a vast concourse of people at the site of the present Utah Central 
depot grounds, to whom addresses were made by prominent persons, which 
were responded to by ringing cheers. The length of this branch of the Utah 
Central is thirty-seven mues. In May, of 187 1, the 


was commenced, a new company being organized to accomplish the work. 
The first spike was driven June 5th, of the same year. It was pushed for- 
ward, from point to point, passing through some d the wealthiest and best 
tracts of land in the country, for a period of eight years, when its terminu-s 
was placed at Juab, in Juab County, June 15th, 1879. '^^ distance from 
Salt Lake is 105 miles. In a brief period thereafter the 


was commenced at Juab and rapidly pushed forward to Milford, in Beaver 
County, and thence to Frisco, where the famous Horn Silver mine is situ- 
ated — ^and in the same county — being completed to that point June 23, 
of 1880, or in less than a year. The distance from Juab to Frisco is 138 
miles. This gave the three lines an aggregate extent of 280 miles, running 
from Ogden, in the main, in a southwesterly direction. Finding it would 
be vastly cheaper to operate the roads under one organization, in 1881 the 
three lines were incorporated under the name of the 


which is to-da>r managed practically by the same interests that have been 
identified with it since the beginning of internal railroading in Utah. Among 
the contemplated extensions is one from Spanish Fork to Pleasant Valley, 
where the company has large coal interests. Another and still more proD- 
able extension is to run from Milford, the southern termination of the road, 
iilong the desert to Iron Springs, in Iron County, where the famous iron 
mines are situated. The springs are almost due south from Milford, and the 
road is to run out of Beaver County, and cut along through the desert in 
Iron County. Among possible, but not at present contemplated extensions, 
is one to Castle Valley in Emery County, at which place vast coal fields 
exist. The road is identified with the Union Pacific, and by that associa- 
tion gives its patrons all the advantages of a through trunk line. Much of 
the business wnich the Union Pacific enjoys is due to the popularity of its 
local ally, the Utah Central. John Sharp is its general superintendent; 
James Sharp, assistant superintendent, and Francis Cope, general fi-eight 
and passenger agent. 


The organization of the company to build this road was effected August 
23, 1 87 1, Less than a month later ground was broken at Brigham City, 
Box Elder County. The first rail was laid at Brigham Junction, seventeen 


miles north of Ogden, March 29, 1872; and the road was completed to 
Loean, the county seat of Cache County, January 31, 1873. A branch line 
of four miles, extending the Utah Northern Railroad to Corinne, was com- 
pleted on June 9, 1873; and the road was extended south to Ogden, and 
opened for traffic February 8, 1874, giving a distance of sixty -lour miles 
in operation between Ogden and Logan. It was extended twenty miles 
fiirther north to Franklin, Idaho, by the middle of March. This road was 
built by the people of Northern Utah under the most trying circumstances, 
and was maintained for years at a great expense. Passing mto the hands of 
the Union Pacific for a song in February, 1879, it has smce been pushed 
through Idaho and penetrates the heart of western Montana. It is accounted 
the best paying road of the Union Pacific, and is a narrow-gauge. W. B, 
EKxldridge is superintendent of the road, with W. P. P. St. Clair, division 


This narrow-gauge, which now extends a distance of some thirty-seven 
miles, was originally known as the Salt Lake, Sevier Valley and Pioche 
Railroad. The name will indicate the contemplated object of the road, which 
was designed to tap the extensive mines in that region, and, passing south- 
ward through the mines and agricultural lands of the Sevier Valley region, 
make its terminus finally at Pioche, Southeastern Nevada. It has never 
4 attained the magnitude intended, and unless unforseen circumstances should 
arise, it never will. The road was commenced in 1872; work was suspended 
in 1873, when some twenty miles had been completed, but was resumed again 
later on and pushed as far as Stockton, its present terminus. During the 
summer months the road is greatly used by excursionists who go to the Lake 
to bathe. W. W. Riter, is superintendent; S. F. Fenton, general passen- 
ger agent. 


was a peculiar outgrowth. The Union Pacific supplied the Territorj- 
in the main with coal from its Wyoming mines, notwithstanding the fact 
diat Utah possessed coal fields that would furnish as excellent and generally 
a better quality of coal than was imported. In the severer winter months, 
also, great dimculty was exp^ienced in getting coal sufficient to supply the 
demand, while the figure asked was thought to be exhorbitant. To over- 
come this evil it was proposed to pass a bill through the Legislature, author- 
izing die counties of Salt Lake, Summit, Davis and Tooele to raise, by the 
issue of bonds, money enough to build a line of railroad between Coalville 
and Park Cit)' and Salt Lake City. The effiart proved abortive, George W. 
Emery, then Governor of Utah, vetoing the bill to that effect, which the 
Legislature had passed. Individual efforts were then put forth in 1880, and 
the work prosecuted under the most trying circumstances. The poor, the 
aged, the laborer who had a few dollars, placed their money in the enterprise 
in the belief that coal could be had cheaper. The result was unfortunate. 
The line had to be bonded, and only by the help of the principal owners of 
the Ontario mine, was it made possible to build the road as far as Park 
City — twenty-five miles. The nearest accessible point to Salt Lake City by 
which the road passed is not less than twenty-five miles, and for the advan- 
tage the people living outside of Summit CJounty have ever derfved there- 
from, the Utah Eastern might as well not have been built. It was operated 
for some time by the trustees, carrying coal from Coalville to Park City, but 
was paralleled by a branch belonging to the Union Pacific, and recently the 
control of the little road fell into the hands of the mammoth corporation — 
the Union Pacific — ^by which it is now controlled. Could suffiaent means 


have been raised to push the line to Salt Lake, the result might have been 
vastly different. As it is, the money invested appears to be money irretriev- 
ably lost. 


runs between Nephi, in Juab County, and Wales, in Sanpete County, 
the line following up Salt Creek Canyon. It is narrow -gau::jc and was built 
by an English company, with a view to securing a market tor coking coal, 
which had been found in Sanpete County. The road has never been a 
pronounced success, though projections now seriously discussed will give it 
a much wider influence, and render it of great bcnelit to that section of the 
Territory. It is proposed to push the line south through the valleys into 
Piute County, where it will tap the rich mining interests known to exist at 
Marysvale, in that county. Its present length is thirty miles. Mr. Simon 
Bamberger is the superintendent. 


Both are narrow-gauge, and both somj sixttvn milei long. They 
intersect the Utah Central and the Denver and Rio Grande at a point some 
twelve miles south of Salt Lake City. The Littir Cottonwood runs east into 
the Wasatch Mountains, a distance of about sixteen miles from the starting 
point, the Bingham goes west into the Oquirrh Range the same distance. 
Both were built to facilitate mining, the one in Alta, the other in Bingham, 
and the support they receive to this day is due to the same interests. These 
also are the product of local effort, but they are now controlled and made 
tributary to the Denver and Rio Grande. The company to build the Bing- 
ham Canyon road was organized September lo, 1872; the other, October 
14th, of the same year. 


starts at a point called Lehi Junction, about a mile north of Lehi City, in 
Utah County, and runs southwest as far as Tintic, one of the best mining dis- 
tricts in the Oquirrh Range, and in Juab County. It is fifty-seven miles long. 
The general understanding, when this line was commenced, was that it would 
be pushed through to California, crossing Nevj\da, and tapping some of the 
rich mining districts in that State. The project hius not yet, so far as is 
l^ublicly known, been entirely abandoned, and is still numbered among the 
contemplated projections. At present the line is made to pay by hauling 
ore containing precious metal, and by the conveying of iron ore to the 
smelters for fluxing purposes. It is standard -gauge and is a Union Pacific 
branch. W. W. Ritcr is superintendent. 


Two short lines, at one time operated in Utah, have been abandoned — 
the Summit County road and the American Fork narrow-gauge. The 
former hauled coal from Coalville lo Echo, in Summit County : the latter 
wiis designed to meet the necessities of the mines in the American Fork 
District, and then became an excursion line, the canyon through which it 
runs being noted for its beauty and grandeur. Being excessivelv unprofit- 
able it was ultimately torn up, and the material utilized in other directions. 


Eiich year sees an increase in the number of roads projected, designed 
to operate in different parts of the Ten'itory. Little reliance is to be pLiccd 


on jiiinor efforts, however, in view of the evil results that have attended 
similar investments heretofore. Two, however, likely to be consummated, 
are, the extension of the Utah Central to Iron Springs, and the operation of 
twenty-six miles of narrow-gauge by the Iron Mining and Manufacturing 
Company, to run between the coal and iron mines in Iron County. It is 
not unlikely the near future will see additional lines in Utah, but existing 
indications give no assurance as to their location, save in the two directions 
just mentioned. 


There is little of striking interest connected with the history of Utah's 
commerce. The great bulk of the inhabitants of Utah are engaged in 
agriculture, with a tendency towards manufacture. It is but natural, both 
from the character of the people by whom this Territory was founded and 
because of the circumstances by which they were surrounded, that they 
should have leaned to the cultivation of the soil even in the face of later 
mining temptations ; and for those engaged in mining the result has been 
more dian favorable. It has given Utah an agricultural foundation sufficient 
for an unlimited growth, and, by making an abundance of breadstuff, has 
rendered the cheaper working of mines carrying low grade ores a possibility. 
The agricultural instinct lingers still with the people of Utah, even when, at 
times, other pursuits might be the means of bringing more available money 
into the Territory. While it is easy for Utah to produce vasdy more than 
she requires for local consumption in nearly all agricultural pursuits, the 
need for a surplus, or rather the demand for a surplus, has not existed, 
because of the great distance of Utah farmers from any market, and because, 
also, of the high freight tariff which rendered it impossible, as a rule, to 
export grain and compete with other points. All told, Utah has not 
exported over 1,000,000 bushels of grain. Several efforts have been made to 
open markets, and while each single undertaking was perhaps a success, the 
results were not such as to justify a steady continuance in the direction. S. W. 
Sears, Esq., twice loaded sailing vessels in the San Francisco port, with Utah 
wheat, to be exported to Europe. The first attempt was made in Novem- 
ber, 1878, when the vessel Maulsden was loaded with 64,000 bushels of Utah 
wheat. Before the vessel put to sea, the wheat was sold and its subsequent 
destination was a matter of indifference. Later, in April, 1879, the sailing 
vessel Ivy was chartered by the same gentleman and put out for HuU 
with 78,000 bushels of Utah wheat. It was disposed of without loss on its 
arrival in Europe, but the profits on the undertaking were not sufficient to 
justify a continuance of such operations. Lately, grain, or wheat, has been 
converted into mill stuffs and exported in this form with profit to all con- 
cerned at a time when the wheat would have been a loss. The result is 
advantageous both ways, as it brings in more money, builds up local indus- 
tries and finds internal employment for additional laoor. With the exception 
of the mines, live stock ana wool, nothing is done in the exportation of 
Utah products outside of mill stuffs, dried fruit, potatoes, dairy products 
and hides, pelts and furs. It is within her power, however, to extend 
trade by energy, and secure a profitable market for farm as well as the man- 
uiactunng products which the near future is likely to see created in this 


Territory. As it is, there must be a trifle greater exports than imports 
there is a gradual increase in circulating wealth, which fluctuates, however, 
because of the peculiar effect the building of railroads has had upon Utah 
in the more recent years. 

The West is now endeavoring to secure the trade of Utah as agsunst 
the strong hold the East has, and if backed by the Central Pacific, 
Utah may have the advantage of two markets, with the prestige of rail- 
road favors looking to her assistance in exports with a view to securing 
the bulk of imports. This is possible, but it is a consummation more 
devoutly to be wished than likely to be realized in any reasonable period. 
The great power of railroads in the Territory is exercised to force imports in 
a certain direction, even as against the best judgment of merchants, and the 
better interests of the masses. It can be no worse. Any change, consider- 
ing the rapid growth in population, and the steady advances made in 
material wealth, must be for good. The best method of making circulating 
medium plenty, if it cannot be done by an increase of exports, is to stop, as 
largely as possible, imports through local efforts looking to the upbuilding 
of internal industries. In hundreds of seemingly trifling directions, money 
finds its way out of the Territory that could as well be stopped, by but little 
effort. It is the opinion of many intelligent persons that if Utah farmers put 
their grain into pork products they would realize more per bushel and find a 
cash market constantly opened ; while, in addition to the better price grain 
would bring in the shape of beef, a profit also would be made on pork- 
raising, and thus advantages would be realized both ways. 

In the years preceding the completion of the Pacific railroads, the 
imports of Utah, according to the most careful estimate possible, were 
between 10,000 and 12,000 tons per annum. The exports were almost 
nothing. The overland emigration, the stage lines and the troops, bought 
the farmers' grain and surplus stock, and these were almost the only cash 
resources of the Territory. The railroad, constructed both from the Elast 
and West, joined tracks on Promontory Summit, May 10, 1869, and the 
same year the Utah Central was built from Ogden to Salt Lake City, con- 
necting the capital of Utah with the trans-continental railroad line. The 
second year thereafter, the exports and imports of the Territory, as indi- 
cated by the books of the Utah Central Railroad Company, were 80,000 
tons, a seven-fold increase. Since that they have averaged about 125,000 
tons yearly, two-thirds of which were imports, and about one-half of which 
(coal in part, coke, charcoal, bullion, lead ores, lead, iron ore, machinery 
in part) were incidental to mining. Of the restr the largest items were mer- 
chandise, building material, lumber, railroad material and produce. Sundries, 
includes wagons, live stock, wool, hides, dried fruit, salt, hay, etc. The 
importation of iron ore and charcoal has practically ceased. The Territory 
will always have to import its hard and finishing woods, but in this respect 
f it is no worse off than tne entire prairie and mountain parts of the country, 
including the Pacific Coast. It must also expect to always import, more or 
less, its lumber, sash, doors, blinds, wagons, agricultural implements and 
furniture, for not only does it lack the hard and finishing woods of native 
growth, but the best quality of clear lumber cannot be cut out of native 
timber. The importation of'^produce includes corn, oats, .some other grains 
and seeds; fruits and vegetables from California (out of sea.son in Utah); oys- 
ters, salmon, fresh fish and shell fish. The item of live stock embraces livery 
horses and blooded horned stock, blooded bucks and swine. The making 
of leather, or at least of its products, may be expected to increase, as also 
the manufacture of home-grown wool, and the importition of these kinds 
of merchandise to correspondingly diminish. Our machinery is largely 
made here, exclusive of new silver mills, engines of more than loo-horse 
power, agricultural and railroad machinery. There is no data upon which 



to Strike an accurate balance sheet, but the following is not far out of the 
way, as showing the condition in 1882: 


Books, stationer}', paper, music, musical instruments, 
(Clothing, furnishing, nats, ca|)s, carpets, oil cloths, . 
Cigars, tobaccos, wines, spirituous and malt liquors, . 
Crockery, glassware, watches, clocks, jewelry, 



Dry goods, millinery, fancy good«, notions, 1,740,000 




Drugs, chemicals, paints, oils, photographers' materials, 
( iroceries, provisions, canned goods, confectionery, .... 
Hardware, stoves, gas fixtures, rubber goods, rope, powder, fuse, 
Leather, boots, shoes, harness, saddlery, belting, .... 
X'arieties, sewing machines, brewers' materials, marble, guns, 
t train, feed, fruits, vegetables, seeds, salmon, oysters, . . . 
Lumber, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, upholstery, . . . . 
Wagons, agricultural implements, stock of same, .... 
Coal, coke, charcoal, live stock, machinery, sundries. 

Total, . - . - - 



Silver, lead, gold, copper matte, S 9,000,000 

Wheat, flour, barley, seeds, dried fruit, 

IJve stock and slaughtered beef, 

Wool, hides, pelts, tallow, furs and skins, 

Kggs, butter, poultry, green fruits and vegetables 

Sundries, fire brick, beer, hauled out by peddlers (estimated). 




In making this table, no pains have been spared to get at the facts, 
although it is after all largely an estimate. Returns were solicited and pro- 
cured from 200 persons and firms engaged in all kinds of business, including 
all the heavy dealers in the Territory, of the value of their imports and 
exports, severally, for the calendar year, 1B78. Twenty per cent., subsUm- 
tially, was then added, to represent the increase in four years. It is believed 
the balance in favor of the Territory is too sm ill rather than too lar^e, for 
f»f the mining output probably one-fourth goes to non-residents m the 
shape of profits, while the deposits in the banks grew from $1,021,491 in 
November, 1878, to $3,375,974 in November, 1881, and the people arc 
generally better fixed, showing that cm the whole they art- accumulating a 
surplus, slowly.* 

Merchandise, .... 195,226,618 

Coal, 607,195,043 

Charcoal, 11,260,050 

Ore, 446,742.390 

Lead, 12,350,252 

Building Material, 16,127,618 

Railway Material, . . 99*299,890 

Flour and Mill .Stuffs, 9,892,469 

Coke, 264,843,394 

Bullion, 155,186,664 

Iron Ore. 123,237,795 

Total, ---->- 

* Resources of Ut:ih. 


Tem[)le Rock. . . . 37,757,199 

Lumber, 117,902,608 

Miitte 4.669,995 

CVrain, 50,946,561 

Livestock, .... 3,791,155 
Green Fruit and Vegf- 

tablcs 11,042,327 

Wool and Hides. . . 9,618,391 

F'ire Brick and Clay. . 10,152,302 

Sundries 364,216,562 



The preceding items arc taken from the Utah Central Railroad books, 
and give the totals of the articles enumerated for four years and four months, 
from January, 1880, up to May of 1884, inclusive. The importations are: 
merchandise, charcoal, building material, railroad material, coke, lumber, 
live stock, and most of the fire brick and clay. The exports are: lead, flour 
and mill stuffs, bullion, matte, grain, green fruit and vegetables — mainly 
potatoes — and wool and hides. The ore, iron ore and temple rock, together 
with some of the sundries, are of local handling only. The item sundries, 
however, Ls composed mainly of importations — of grain and flour and mill 
stuffs; while a small amount was imported during the cut rates which 
prevailed into Utah over both through lines from the east in 1883. that 
amount was so triflHng as to be scarcely worthy mention. Oats and flour 
were the only articles; and, of the latter, barely any; eastern houses, with tht* 
advantages of tremendous cuts, being unable successfully to compete with 
local millers in supplying the demands of the home market. The annual 
output of hides is about 600,000 pounds; the average value per pound not 
being less than 13 cents, the income from this source is $78,000, while not less 
than 150,000 pounds are used in home tanneries. The shipments of pelts and 
furs will probably swell the income for this department of commerce, including 
hides, to about $1 25,000 annually. Wool, next to the mines and to live stock, 
it would seem, brings more wealth into the Territory than any other branch 
of commerce, and the output and consequent income from this source grows 
with astonishing rapidity. Not less than 3,000,000 pounds of wool wen* 
exported in 1883, the average value of which would be 15 cents per pound, 
at which figure it would realize to the Territory, in interchangeable wealth, 
$450,000. The wool clip for 1884 will exceed that for the preceding year 
not less than 500,000, increasing the income to fully half a million dollars. 
Not less than 500,000 pounds of wool are used annually in local manufac- 
tures, and the demand for it in home departments grows yearly. The above 
figures do not comprise all the freight brought into the Territory by a very 
considerable amount. Freight for points north of and including Ogden and 
sections both east and west are not accredited in this statement; nor is there 
included the amount shipped over the Denver and Rio Grande, which 
touches most of the area through which the Utah Central runs, and a grow- 
ing country where the latter road does not reach. This would swell the 
amount imported for a year past not less than one-half, and would greatly 
increase the aggregate ol the tonnage. Twelve million dollars will represent 
the amount of money that leaves the Territory annually for imported articles, 
while the income must be somewhat larger as wealth is being steadily accumu- 
lated. By far the greatest income is derived from mines, though they do not 
touch the ?.mount of real value annually produced. The latter is less notice- 
able because less easy of conversion into coin. The absence of any authentic 
source from which to secure information on this topic, or on any other touch- 
ing Utah's productive capacity outside her mines, is lamentable in the 
extreme, and shows how indispensible is a bureau of statistics in a country 
where legislation is supposed to enhance, in as large a manner as possible, 
the material welfare of the commonwealth. 


It is assumed that the amount of business done by jobbers and retailers, 
aimually, would be fairly represented by adding 20 per cent, to the above 
total of imports, making it about $14,000,000. There is doubtless all of 
$5,000,000 engaged in the business. No merchants stand higher in the East 
on the score of credit than those of Utah. Not, perhaps, that they are more 
upright than other merchants, but from the situation and circumstances a 
larger percentage of cash than usual is employed in doing the same amount 
uf busmess. .Some of the heavier houses have paid cash down altogether. 


I'robably the mean lime on all goods bought by Utah buyers would be but 
little more than double that required for them to make the trip out. say sixty 
davs; and 20 per cent, of their value, delivered, is freight cliarges, always 
liaid in cash on delivery. There have been but 119 failures, with aggregate 
liabilitieK of 51,358,000, in the last eight ytars and a half, according to the 
reports of R. Ci. Dun & Co's Agency. A good many houses import in a 
small way, but the weight of the business with the outside Is done by a 
very few houseii, which hlive ample cajjital and do not require long cretlit 
On^ of the heaviest of these is Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution, of 
Salt Lake City, which, with its branch houses at O^deii and Logan, imports 
one-third of all the merchandise used in the Territory. It has 800 .stock- 
holders and a cash capital of $1,000,000, with a surplus of 5150,000. There 
Is a co-operative institution in nearly every farming settlement, buying in 
general from the "parent" institution at Salt Lake City, and selling through 
it the produce they take in irside, but they are not branches. They were 
organized about fifteen year^ agio and everybody able to earn or buy a share 
of stock took one. Their anxiety to earn and disburse big dividends has 
created opposition in many places, and in others the large owners in the 
start have oeconie almost the sole owners. Still they have thousands of 
stockholders, and perhaps two-thirds of the jjeople patronize them. 


About fifty insurance companies carry 55500,000 worth of insurance on 
stores in Salt Lake City and Ogden, and S3, 500,000 worth on merchandise 
in stock, which is believed to represent one-half the value of the goods 
insured in the two cities, and three-fourths of the value of all die goods in 
stock in the Territory on the avtrrage. 

The banking business of L'tah is done \>y twelve commercial banks, 
and five national banks. Theirnggregatc|>aid-incapit;d is about $1,000,000; 
average deposits, 83,500,000; average loans ifi3,000,ooo; amount of exchange 
drawn, perhaps $12,000,000 to $15,000,000 annually. 

Appended is given a list of the banks doing business in Utah. Th<: 
first five are national, the remaining twelve, private banks: 

Vnnkj CluilH, Pi 

Thalcher Bnnbm & Co. 
Weill, Farm *C»..Pr)T; 
Wsllwr BiMIkti. [>rimc. 
Wnsllo, I.und S Juild. 

..,«-.,T..,«. 1 FKKSHDBNI. 



OKtlln, , 

II, S.Kl.lrr.lBC 

n s. KUrtdi;.- 

J. W. (Inlknc. 



"- K. Hill ;.' 


Sail [..kv i:iiT, 
Suit l.ake (, iLy, 

I. W. (iaihrl., 

A. a. KIchunlKo, 

Salt Ijihr atr 


ii. li. ii»ich. 


Of the bonded indebtedness of railroads in Utah, the appended table 
will probably give a fair idea. It is impossible to ascertain what proportion 
f)f the bonds are held in this Territory, but the amount is pahifully insignifi- 
cant. The Utah Central, the only hue of any lengtli in Utah which is viewed 
;is a local enterprise, is owned by parties outside of Utah. Very litde ovei- 
one-tenth, if any at all, of the bonds, are held by parties livig '"" " 
Territory-. Outside of this, nearly all the bonds of the road, tl 
value of which is $25,716,725, arc owned by parties bovi 
no other interests in the Territory. 



The boncied debt of Utah's railroads, as j^ivon by Poor's Railroa«l 
Manual, is: 


Central I*acific, . . . 
Denver and Rio ( »randc, 
l^Iciio and Park City, . 
Sanpete Valley, . . . 
Salt Lake and Western, 

Union Pacific 

Utah and Northern, 
Utah and Nevada. . . . 
Utah Central. .... 
Utah Eastern 


. — 







1 $ 8, 100,000 



















> - - . 




Utah Territory is practically free from debt. Nowhere is taxation lighter 
lither in principle or in j)ractice. The rate of taxation is three mills for 
school and three mills for Territorial purposes. Counties are g^iven discre- 
tion as to the amount of tax to be assessed for county purposes, provided 
the amount shall not exceed six mills on the dollar. Cities are curtailed 
to an assessment of five mills on the dollar for ordinary expenses, 
and live for openinjj; and keeping in repair streets. In school dis- 
tricts, upon a two-thirds majorit}' vote of property owners in the district, 
a property lax not excoirdinji^ 2 per cent, may be levied to build and 
make improvements for schools, within the provisions of the law. The 
revenue law recjuires that property shall be assessed at a fair cash valuation. 
An examination into the subject, however, will show that, taken altogether, 
property is assessed at less than 50 j:)er cent, of the cash valuation. The 
limit of taxation for Territorial, sclu;ol, county and city, not includinjt;- 
special taxation for school |>urj>oses and other uses provided for in city 
charters, is twenty-two mills on the dollar. Allowing- it to be taxed at 50 
per cent, only, which is a hiiLjh estimate, the real tax would be but eleven 
mills on the dollar. Hach county assessor, however, makes his own 
standard, the county court ar(juiescin|L^, and the result is that the tax levie<l 
varies all the way from 20 to 50 per cent, of thec^ash valuati(Mi only, accord- 
ing to the county and the idea of the assessor. The result is that a steer in 
one county may be valued at 515, while in another it is but $6 to" $8, ami 
with other animals and real j>roperty at the same rate: whereas, as a m«itter 
of fact, the fair cash valuati(»n of cattle — not includinjr sucking" calves 
which are not counted by stock men — is from S2 5 to $30 per head. The 
table of the assessed valuation of railroads, a|)pearing elsewhere, will illus- 
trate the matter still better. Roads bonded at an amount ranging from 
516,000 to over ^56,000 per mile, are assessed at a valuation ranging from 
,^i,75<» to 5s, (.xx) pt'r mile according to the county, the highest tax failing t«> 
e(iual one-sixth the bonded indel)tednc^s of the road. Notwithstanding 
this variation, however, the Territory keeps free from debt, and reasonable^ 
progress is made in public improvements. The assessed valuation of the 
entire Territory, as shown in the ofiice of Auditor Clayton, in 1883. was 
530,834.425. The Territorial and school tax on this amount — six mills on 
the dollar — was 5i85,<x)6.55. Thirty milli(m dollars would not begin lt> 



a>vcr a fair cash valuation of Salt Lake County alone. Here the liberality 
i){ the revenue law can not be questioned. Mines and the product of 
mines are not taxable; though surface improvements are liable to taxation. 
The revenue from this source, however, is so insignificant as to be unworthy 
of mention. 


The receipts from Utah on account of United States Internal Revenue 
taxes have averaged $40,670 a year for the past twenty- two years. For 
the last fiscal year they were $48,512. No spirituous liquors are manu- 
factured, nor any tobacco. About 18,000 barrels of malt liquors and 
230,000 cigars were made in the last fiscal year, worth, together, $250,000, 
and paying $18,097 revenue. Aside from these two items the bulk of th<' 
internal revenue receipts are from special taxes (license). 

The following is furnished by Postmaster John T. Lynch, showing the 
business done in the Salt Lake City Postoffice during the years named, from 
1878 to March 31, 1884: 



Kxpensc f>f Maintaining 

Profit of the Department 

Ileceipts of Monev Order Department 

V.ilue of Postafre Sbiraps Oancelled 

f^rttersand Postal raids Received 

IjcUers and Postal Cards Dispatched 

Piece* of Third and Fourth Class Mail Dispatched 

Weight of ToUl Mail Dispatched 

Keg-ititered Packagx's Handled 















67,4 w 

The United States Land Office at Salt Lake City was opcn(.'d in March, 
1869, and the following summary of its business from that date to, and 
including March 31, 1884, embraces nearly all the lands in the Territory to 
which the title has either passed out of the Government or been applied 
for. All moneys for sales, fees, or commissions are p)aid over to the Unite<l 
States. They are included under the heading of receipts: 



Homesteads, First Entries 

Homesteads, Final Proofs 

Declaratory Statements, for Pre-emption. 

Ca»h Entries thereunder 

Desert Entries, First Payment, at j;c. 
Desert Entries, Final Pavment, at $r. 

Aflrricultural Colleec Scrip 

Military Bounty Warrant Entries 

Valentfne Scrip Entries 

Porterfield Scrip Entiies 

Supreme Court Scrip I^ocation 

Chi ppevya Scrip FIntries 

Sinax Scrip Entries 

Timber-Culture Entries 

Mineral Entries 

Coal Land Entries 

Declaratory Statements, Soldiers and Sailors 

TVclaratory Statements for Coal Land 

Applications for Mineral Lands 

Adyervc Claims Filed 

Timber Depredations 

Railroad Selections, Central Pacific 

Testimony Fees 








ToUl Receipts. 


373 ^^ 






32, /02 




$ 91,838.50 


27,411 'OO 




1 3^,050. fx^ 

4 A .00 

2,05s. 00 




627 .(JO 

$83 1, 209 .OS 



Heretofore the trade of Utah has been largely confined within itself, but 
that is rapidly changing. Its central loaition and fine climate have always 
made it more or less the headquarters of the mountaijn people. The ten- 
dency is on the increase. Our citizens are beginning to wake up to the 
natural advantages of their position; in the center of the only habitable 
transverse belt of the mountams, moderata in altitude, with a delightful and 
saluberious climate, full of rich valleys easily watered, and of mineral 
mountains covered with timber, and affording limitless pasture and water 
power; giving rise to a mixed industry, farming, stock -growing, fruit- raising, 
mining, smelting, and manufacturing; the products being coal, iron, gold, 
silver, lead; the cereals, fruits, and vegetables common to the latitude; 
butter, cheese, and various manufactured articles; presenting the natural 
route of trade and commerce, containing already 160,000 people, and rap- 
idly filling up. They are begining to see the advantages in a commercial 
sense of holding the key to such a country, and the tendency to grasp and 
improve them is growing. Our railroad system is being rapidly extended, 
drawing after it into an ever widening field our capital, our trade, our man- 
ufactures, and business enterprise. Ogden, situated on the intersection of 
the trans-continental and transverse railroads, has a large trade along the 
lines of these thoroughfares and in the section they traverse. There is little 
agricultural or manufacturing save in this central trough-like depression in 
the mountains between Nebraska and California, and the adjoining sections, 
east and west, chiefly mineral or grazing in resources, afford an ample 
market for Utah's products of all kinds, and a good field for the displajr of 
business enterprise and ability. Our citizens are more and more engaging 
in extensive business operations beyond the confines of Utah, such as min- 
ing, smelting, lumbering, and stock- raisii>^, and this naturally enlarges the 
scope of our commercial fnfluence. Yearly our tnide is finding new chan- 
nels and broadening and extending on every, hand the theatre of its opera- 
tions. All that is needed to give Utah unquestioned coniercial pre-eminence 
among the rising young commonwealths of the mountains is a comprehen- 
sive view of the situation and a resolute grasping and improvement of the 
opportunities at presents existing.* 


Perhaps no State or Territory in the West pays out as much money for 
articles, the importation of which could be stopped without inconvenience 
and the manufacture of which could be commenced with unquestioned 
profit, as does Utah. 

Between $300,000 and $350,000 goes out annually for pork products 
that could as well be kept in Utah. 

In pickles the cost *to the Territory is from $8,500 to $10,000 per 
annum. Scarce any capital would be required to supply this demand, and 
the profits, with reasonable management, would be certain. 

Utah, the best fruit raising country, taking in fruit generally, pays to 
other commonwealths annually, $30,000 for canned fruits. For vegetables, 
where, if possible, there is really less excuse, the annual outlay is $25,000. 

The item paid by the Territory each year for boots and shoes is $250,- 
ixx). This amount is sent out by a country which exports annually 6<do»oOo 

* Resources of Utah, 


pounds of hides, and gets as an offset $78,000, besides (x-iying railroad 
freights both ytays on the iiides. 

It is among the reasonable possibilities for Utah to manufacture her own 
clothing, even againbt eastern figures. In this then alone fijily $500,000 
could be saved yearly. 

Oats to an unknown amount are imported into Utah, when a better 
article is raised here. It is admitted by competent persons that, even at the 
higher figure which Utah oats bring, they are still cneaper for the consumer 
than the imported cereal. 

Tons of apples rot on the ground each summer, where waste should be 
intolerable, ana from which e.xcellent liiiegar, superior to the articlf 
imported, could be made — enough for exportation. As it is, fully $zo,ooo 
goes out of Utah each year fur the simple article of vinegar. 

Colorado gets ?3.00o a year from L.'tah for crocks. Colorado never had 
and never will have the opportunities Utah has for the making of this article 
of c 

In a country from which tallow is regularly shipped, where manufac- 
tures exist with a capacity to employ more than the internal demand for 
.soap, and where tlie so.ip ranks as nigh, if not higher, than does the 
imported article — in such a country, in Ufah — there is an annual expenditure 
of $40,000 for foreign soaps. This is a sin. 

Fifteen air loa<ls of manilla paper are imported into Utah yearly, at a 
cost of $150 per ton, $22,500; six car loads ot butcher paper, at over $&a 
j>er ton, $5,000; fifteen car loads of newspaper, at $180 per ton, $27,000, and 
between ten to lifteen car loads of book and job paper — say twelve car loads 
— at $300 per ton, S36.000; not less than $90,000 per annum, which could 
just as well be kept in Utah. 

Figures are not given for the money expended for brooms, brushes, 
hops, nor for articles the figure on which is greater, as on glass, and iron, 
and other things. Nor do they include the importation of butler, which 
alone is a very imporUint item. Iowa and Nebraska furnish Utah with 
butter, when neither place is better qualified for the manufacture of dairy 
pro<Iucts; and when over 1,000 miles stands in favor of Utah. In cheese 
alone is the home market most generally supplied, and this enterprise has 
driven out foreign comiietition. It is not always possible to force exportji- 
tion, but it i.s possible for Utah to save, by protjuciiig some of the articles 
.she now imports, about $1,500,000 annually. Not one of the articles enum- 
erated but can be made here at a figure to compete with imported figures. 
The money thus saved would amount to one-half the money brought into 
the Territory yearly by exports, if the pro<lucts of mines are not included. 


In general, there is a great similarity in all the counties in Utah. The 
notable exception is in those counties lying below the rim of the Great 
Basin. In all parts of the Territory the general and characteristic economic 
resources are practically the same. The country is mountainous. The val- 
leys lie between and in the mountain ranges. Irrigation is ever>'wherc 
necessary, and agriculture is the pursuit of much the larger portion of the 
population. All the counties are surrounded by mountain ranges; in all the 
mountains minerals are found so that, as above stated, there is no great 
diversity in the economic resources. So far as developments, made up to 
the present period, show the condition of the Terriiory, some sections are 
favored with richer mineral deposits, and with varieties of minerals not 
found in others. But, at best, the country is yet imperfectly developed; and 
even as regards farming, in which the greatest progress has been made, 
results are as nothing compared with what later years must see realized. 
Information has been solicited from each county regarding that county; from 
every city, concerning the corporation, and from every town and hamlet. 
It is given as fully as has been returned. Negligence, or inability, or both. 
in responding, have rendered it impossible to give every place in detail; but 
the fault is on the part of responsible i>arties in each place, as all have been 
requested alike to furnish the same general character of information. The 
county, physically; as to settlement, to development, to industries and to 
economic resources, is first considered; then as to cities and towns and other 
details that are of value. The information is as complete as could be 
secured. If any is wanting, it is the rc^sult of indifterence on the part of 
persons applied to, or their unwillingness to furnish the information solicited. 


This county was settled in the fall of 1851 by Simeon A. Carter and 
others; and, while making no very great pretentions, has always been con- 
sidered a section in w-hich there was a steady increase in material and a 
constant improvement in social conditions. It was among the first counties 
to inaugurate manufactures, particularly of woolen goods, and for a time 
occupied an enviable position because of its manufacturing energy. It 
(embraces perhaps as fine farming land as is to be found anywhere in the 
Territory, and a ride through its length, over the Utah and Northern, dur- 
ing any of the summer months is most pleasurable. It covers a large area 
and encircles the northern part of Great Salt Lake, which runs far into the 
county. It is bounded on the north by Idaho, on the east by Cache, 
south by Weber and Great Salt Lake, and on the west by Nevada. The 
Utah and Northern skirts the eastern part of the county and passes the 
larger and more populous towns, while the Central Pacific runs through the 
entire county in a sort of westerly direction for a distance of about 150 
miles. Considerable of the area of the county is made up of the Great 
American Desert, on the west side of the Great Salt Lake. The county is 


noted lor its L-xcellent grazing advantages, not only because so extensive but 
niso on account of mildness of the seasons, the severity of winter being 
largely mitigated by the warm breezes blowing from the lake and the salt 
the air contains as a consequence. Though excellent farming land is found 
^-verywhere in the county, that which has been most cultivated and 
which is most tempting lies between the, lake and the range of mountains 
separating Cache and Box Elder Counties. It is wonderfully fertile and 
greatly resembles Davis County in this respect. There are vast tracts of 
land in the county at present useless save for pasturage, because of absense 
of water facilities. The principal towns are located at the biise of the range 
skirting the county on the east. Some smaller ones are found on the Bear 
River, which runs through this county into Great Salt Lake, while hamlets 
are dotted in all directions and wherever opiK)rtunity is afforded. Like nearly 
all other counties, Box Elder is rich in mineral deposits though but little 
has been done looking to their development, (jold, silver, lead, cx>pper, etc., 
have been found, but so far not in such quantities as to excite very great 
interest. The county, because of the lake, is supplied with inexhaustible salt 
resources, and considerable is shipped north over the Utah and Northern 
and west over the Central Pacific. Large iron deposits, the ore being of 
several varieties, also exist in this county, and are of acknowledged value; 
it being simply a matter of time when they will come into use. Next to the 
deposites of antimony found in Piute County, those in Box Elder, and near 
Bngham City, are second in importance. Tests have been made and the 
results were most satisfactory, giving to the mineral, which is found in a three 
foot vein, a commercial value from the start, and making its coming 
development a reasonably assured success. This county also has its min- 
eral springs which are greatly resorted to by invalids, and by people seeking 
rest and inland bathing opportunities. These waters flow hot from the earth 
in the extreme southeastern part of the county, and have been collected 
so as to afford healthful and pleasurable bathing. The county seat is at 
Brigham City, the largest and the wealthiest town m the county. A fine court 
house is located here. The county is embraced in the Second Judicial 
District, which holds its sessions in Ogden, Weber County. Several years 
ago, before the Utah and Northern was carried beyond Franklin, Corinne 
made very considerable pretensions, being on the line of the Central Pacific 
and the point at which all freight to be hauled by team to Montana was 
depositee!. The continuation of the narrow guage, however, took from 
Corinne this business, since which time it has not been so prosperous. The 
county is remarkably wealthy in natural advantages; its people are thrift) and 
enterprising, and it is growing as fast as permanent development will justify. 

Brigham City, the county seat of Box Elder County, is one of the 
prettiest and best situated towns in the Territory. It is on the line of the 
Utah and Northern Railway and occupies a portion of the "bench'* lands 
east of Great Salt Lake, and near the mouth of Box Elder and Wellsville 
Canyons. The principal industry of the citizens is farming and bee culture. 
It has a woolen mill, a flour mill, a saw mill, and a dairy farm, where a large 
quantity of butter and cheese are made for home consumi)tion and exporta- 
tion. The city was incorporated February lo, 1867, and has an area of ten 
square miles. Elections are held bieiuiially. There are three churches — two 
Latter-dav Saints churches; four ecclesiastical wards, A. Nichols, A. Mad- 
sen, J. Walsh and H. Tingey, bishops; one Presbyterian church, Rev. 
L. S. Gillespie, pastor; six schools and three schoolhouses — two District 
and one Presbyterian — with an average attendance of 360. The places of 
amusement are the Social Hall and Court House Hall, Y. M. M. I. A. and 
Sunday School libraries. It has also a Female Relief Society and Young 
Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. 


WiLLARD City, situated on the line of the Utah and Northern Rail- 
road, seven miles south of Brigham City, was first settled in March, 1851, by 
J. S. Wells, John M. iMcCrary, Elisha Mallory, Lyman B. Wells, Alfred 
Walton and Samuel Meecham: the place was then known as North Willow 
Creek and was included in Weber County. When Box Elder County was 
established the namci was changed to Willard City. There is one church. 
Latter-day Saints, George Facer bishop; one district school, one Sunday 
school, a library and the following societies: Female Relief Society and 
Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associations, and 
a Primary Association. Willard City ranks second in importance in the 
county. Mail received every day, except Sunday. 

Grouse Creek, laying in the northwestern part of the county, was 
settled in the spring of 1876 by the following f)ersons and their families: 
T. Atkinson, B. F. Cooke, S. Fletcher, M. Grover, E. T. Hubbard, C. 
Kimber, Sr., H. Merrill, W. C. Thomas, C. Kimber, Jr., A. Tanner and 
R. E. Warburton. A ward of the Latter-day Saints* Church was organ- 
ized July 16, 1879, S. H. Kimball, bishop. Mail is received once a week 
from Terrace on the Central Pacific Railroad, arriving Fridays and depart- 
ing Thursdays. 

Calls F'ort, on the line of the Utah and Northern Railway, was first 
settled in the spring of 1852 by Anson Call, John Gibbs and a Mr. Grover. 
At present it numbers about thirty-five families. Thomas Harper is bishop. 
There is a mail twice a week. 

HoNEVViLLE, also on the Utah and Northern Railway, were settled in 
1865 by Abraham Hansucker and organized a ward in 1877. There is a daily 
mail , Sundays excepted. 

Snowville, situated fifty miles northwest from Corinne, was settled in 
1876 by A- Goodliffe and a few others. It is surrounded by a country well 
adapted for grazing, and the chief industry of the citizens is stock-raising. 
There is a hotel, feed stable and general store. Mail arrives from Kelton 
on the Central Pacific Railroad on Wednesday and Saturday, and departs 
Tuesday and Friday of each week. 

Bear River City, situated about dve miles north of Corinne, wa** 
settled by S. Smith in 1866. It has a population of 350, one co-oi>erativc 
store, and receives mail daily. Carl Jensen is bishop of the ward. 

West Portage, located in the'j[l^rtheastern part of the county near 
the Idaho line, was first settled and oi^nized in 1867, with Thomas Green 
as bishop. It has a co-operative store; mail is received three times a week. 
The present bishop is O. C. Harkins. 

Dewevville was first settled by J. C. Dewey in the fall of 1869: 
organized a ward, September 9, 1877, with John C. Dewey bishop. It has 
a daily mail. 

Park Valley was settled by C. Thomas and T. Dunn in 1869; ward 
organized July 14, 1879. E- ^- Mechamsen is bishop. There is a mail 
Thursday of each week. 

Kelton and Terrace, next to Corinne, are the principal railroad 
towns, on the Central Pacific Railroad, in the county. The inhabitants of 
each town are principally engaged in railroading and freighting, as both 
places are outfiting and starting points for the mining country north of 

There are also Promontory, Blue Creek, Seco, Matlin, Bovine, Lucin. 
and other small towns lying along the line of the Central Pacific Railroad ; 


also Plymouth, Blue Springs, Curlew, North Ward, Three Mile Creek, 
Point Lookout, and a number of others scattered throughout the county. 


Beaver County was settled in 1856. Simeon Howard and some thir- 
teen others were the first residents, having left Parowan, the capital of Iron 
County, for the purpose of locating the new section. Beaver is rich in 
many respects, its great distance, however, from large centres, and the 
absence, until very recently, of a railroad, materially retarded its develop- 
ment. About ten yenrs ago rich mines were discovered in the region, 
which brought this county into importance and gave it an impetus which 
it still retams, but not to such a degree as at first. The operation of the 
Horn Silver mine, located in this county, one of the most famous in the 
west, for a time caused a large distribution of money, not only in Beaver, 
but throughout the whole of the south. The completion of the railroad to 
the mine brought in outside competition and resulted in the taking away of 
.1 ^ood market for grain and farm products, which found a ready sale in 
Frisco from Sanpete, Sevier and other counties besides Beaver. The county 
has been and is still wealthy in timber of excellent quality, and supplies the 
mines, and it is thereby yet enabled to keep considerable interchangeable 
wealth in circulation. The county is second to none in the importance of 
its mineral opportunities, not only as to quantity, but as to variety, and the 
output from the Horn Silver and the Cave is yearly adding largely to the 
wealth production of the Territory. Reference to the chapter on mining, 
under the head of this county, will give some idea of the richness of the 
minerals and the vast number of claims located there. The whole county 
is a vast mineral laboratory so extensive that the work at present done 
seems as nothing. 

The existence of the county and its prosperity is due to its agricultural 
and pastural features. It was settled by agriculturists, and its population, 
excepting those of an itinerant character, always to be found in mining sec- 
tions, is made up almost entirely of agriculturists and those who Ibllow 
branches of industry dependent upon agriculture. The water supply, as in 
all the more southern counties, is insuflicient, for which reason the increase 
in pcipulation has not been as rapid as it would otherwise have been. The 
land, however, is rich, and, where water can be obtained, the product per 
acre is the equal of any section of the Territory. Though higher than Salt 
Lake, Cache and other counties, nevertheless cereals and fruits of the tem- 
perate clime grow with great rapidity and of superior quality. Efforts now 
i>eing made, K)oking to the storage of water, will certamly prove successiul, 
in which event the large tracts of land bordering the Beaver River and in the 
vicinity of the mountain ravines whence streams come, will be made pro- 
<iuctive and increase the wealth of the county. The western part ol the 
county embraces much of the desert of which the western part of Utah is 
mainly composed. The mountain ranges are not as high above the level of 
the valleys as in other places, but they are of considerable width. In the 
eastern part of the county and in the mountains are numerous ravines and 
some lakes, in and along which grows in rich profusion the bunch grass 
j>eculiar to the Wasatch and kindred ranges, and noted for its nutritious 
character. These two conditions — the desert and depth of mountain range 
— make Beaver an excellent county for stock-raising, and the people, as a 
natural consequence, possess much wealth in this form. The large herds 
range along the desert hills in the winter months, the snow not being so 
deep nor the cold so severe, and with the gradual merging into spring and 
from spring into summer, the cattle are driven around the hills from the 
west to the east and into the mountain ravines, to return to the desert in 


winter. Perhaps no county in the Territory suq^asses Beaver for its 
natural stock-raising opportunities. This county was among the first to 
begin the manufacture of woolen goods, mills being operated to-day which 
were established in 1870. Beaver County is directly south of Salt I-^ake 
about 150 miles. The county is bounded on the north by Millard County, 
on the east by Piute, on the south by Iron, and on the west by the State 
of Nevada. Its area is about 3,000 square miles, a small portion of which 
only is arable, because of the absence of water. The Beaver River is thi- 
principal stream. Beaver City is the capital of the county. 

Beaver City. — It is situated in the extreme eastern part of the county 
in a lovely valley, and is supplied by water from the lieaver River. Its 

Copulation is less than 2,000. The County Court House, a fine, .substantial 
rick building, is located in this city; and in this building, beside the 
offices of the several officials of the county, are held the sessions of the 
Second Judicial District Court, the district embracing largely over one-third 
the area of the Territory. It was within a mile of the city, to the east, and 
in the mouth of the amyon from which the Beaver River flows, that 
the now abandoned Fort Cameron Militiiry Reservation was located. The 
. site Ls one of the loveliest imaginable, and the desires and efforts of the 
people to have the grounds and buildings hereafter do service for an educa- 
tional institution is not only praiseworthy, but should result in a sp>eedy 
and practical consummation. Beaver City has an area of six square miles, 
is aamirably situated and is possessed of first-class water facilities, which 
may be utilized in the carrying on of manufacturing industries, and. with 
the enterprise that exists, is destined to become the supply centre for the 
section of country by which it is surrounded. Here is located the Beaver 
Co-operative Woolen Factory, with a capital stock of $100,000, the factors- 
having a capacity of 360 spindles, and turning out a very excellent quality 
of woolen fabrics. There are also grist mills, saw mills, planing mills, turn- 
ing shop and a tannery, all of which are constantly in operation. It sup- 
ports two weekly papers, the Beaver Record, F. R. Clayton, editor and pro- 
prietor; and the Utonian, Daniel Tyler and (George Hales, proprietors. 
There are three churches, two Latter-day Saints, of which Charles White 
and John H. Smith are bishops, and the Episcopal, Rev. Mr. 
Brock, pastor; two schools, district and Methodist, with an average attend- 
ance of 200. The places of amusement consist of two libraries and a theatre. 
There are also the following societies: Relief Societies, Young Men's and 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations and Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. The city was incorporated January 10, 1867. Elec- 
tions are held biennially. At present the principal occujjation of the inhab- 
itants is farming. It has daily mails, Sundays excepted, arriving from 
the north and the south. 

MiNERSViLLK, situated on the Beaver River at the mouth of Miners ville 
Canyon, in the southern part of the county, is next in importance to Beaver 
City. It was first settled in 1859 by J. (jundy, T. Lewis, W. Barton, E. 
Bingham. J. Blackburn and J. H. Rollins, the latter gentleman being the 
first bishop of the ward. It has now one church, Latter-day Saints, J. 
McKnight, bishop; one school and two schoolhoiises, district, with an 
average attendance of forty; a library, the property of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association. There is a Female Relief Society and 
Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. The 
principal industry of the citizens is farming and stock-raising. A grist mill 
is located here. It is situated about fifteen miles west from Beaver; mail, 
daily, both from the north and the south. 

Mii-FORi) is the southern terminus of the Utah Central Railway, and is 
i;l importance on this account, and because located in the center of the 


mining districts of Beaver County. The population is not a settled one, 
depending mainly on the tenure of employment given jiersons because of 
the railroad having its terminus there. It has two hotels and quite a num- 
ber of business houses. 

Frisco is the .scene of the Horn Silver mine, and whatever of import- 
ance it enjoys at present is due to the magnitude of that property. It is 
essentially a mining camp, with the consequent fluctuations in population 
and prospects. It is seventeen miles from Milford, and a branch line of the 
Utah Central runs there. 

Adamsville was first settled in the spring of 1866 by D. B. Adams, J. 
Simkins, J. Baker, J. H. Joseph, Thomas (mnn, A. G. Wilson, A. G. 
Ingram, W. Reese, R. <;riffiths, J. J. Griffiths, J. Harris, C. Wilden, I. 
Armstrong, t). D. Reese, George Cutte, J. TatersoU, H. Tatersoll. 
Thomas Richanls, D. C. Adams, W. Hallgate and W. Hall. The inhabi- 
tants are principally engaged in lamiing and stockraising. It has one 
church, Latter-day Saints, Joseph Joseph bishop, one school and om- 
schoolhousc, district, with an average attendance ol forty; also the follow- 
ing societies: Female Relief Society and Young Men's and Young Ladies" 
Mutual Improvement Associations. It has a daily mail (Sunday excepted). 
It is eight miles southwest from Beaver. 

Green VI 1. 1. 1: is situated between Beaver and Adamsville, and resem- 
bles the latter place. It is five miles from Beaver. J. Lilywhite is bishop. 
It also has a daily mail ( Sunday excepted ). 

There are several other small places in the county, such as Cave, 
Biadshaw, Shauntee, Pine Creek, etc. 

cache county. 

Cache Valley wa-s first settled by I'eter Muughan, W. K. Maughan, 
George Bryant, John Tail, Morgan Morgan and Zial Riggs. They entered 
the valley in July ot 1856, and located at what is to-day Wellsville. They 
left the valley for a jieriod, returning September 17th of the same year, 
John Maughan, Francis Gunnell and A. D. Thompson being among the 
number at the latter date, and being amcmg those wno permanently located 
and assisted in the Ibimding of this sterling county. Cache ranks as one of 
the lorcmost and certainly as one of the most promising of the counties in 
the Territory. For some years it disputed with Sanpete the right to the 
title of the "Granary of Utah," but was ultimately accorded the unques- 
tioned right to the appellation. The county was oi^janizctl April 4. 1857. 
Wellsville b<;ing the county seat. The area at that time was greater than ii 
is to-day. It now, as near as may be estimated, embraces alxnil 900 stjuare 
miles. The assessed valuation of property at the date of org-anization wa.s 
$12,400, the total tax amounting to $93. 

Cache County is bounded mirth' by Idaho, south by Weber Countj-, 
west by Box Elder and east by Rich County. Excepting in the n<vlh it is 
'• ■ Lgh. 1 

completely surrounded by mountains, generally high, ni^ed and precipit- 
ous, not only attractive to the eye, but forming, up to the present period, 
the mainstay of the county. The winter snows accumulate in the mountain 
recesses, and linger far into the autiimnaljgUfi^^^^^ia some places, the 
snow remains year after ye:ir. This ^^^^^^^ttStt'Ot snow, duo 
entirely to the height and broken charafi^^^^^^^^^^^Bj^isqjecially on 
the east — secures an abundance of water^u^^^^^^^^^Hb thus mak- 
ing the cultivation of the farms even more 'i^tSrnir^^^^^Bdes where 
the &tl of rain has to be relied upon (br l' - — ■■ 
and the Blacksmith Fork are the p ' '~~' 


though the Bear River, which runs through the northwestern portion of the 
county and ultimately finds its way into Great Salt Lake by breaking 
through the low range of mountains skirting Cache Valley on the northwest, 
is being considerably utilized in the interest of agriculture. Both the Logan 
and the Blacksmith Fork come from the mountains east, flow down canyons 
within a few miles of each other, and ultimately join and find their way into 
the Bear. These two streams are the main feeders of the numerous canals 
for which Cache is celebrated and to the existence of which — built at great 
cost and under trying circumstances — so much of this valley's prosperity is 
due. The eastern side of the valley is also noted for its unusual facilities 
for the operation of water power industries, which render the working of 
flouring mills, saw mills, and other power industries, practicable at a mini- 
mum expense. The opportunity thus afforded by nature, has not been 
slighted; while the growth of kindred industries yearly becoities more per- 
ceptible, and gives foundation for the prediction that Cache will yet become 
one of the foremost manufacturing counties as it is now the principal agri- 
cultural county. An industry which has already proven of great value to 
Cache County, and which is likely still to add to its fast accumulating wealth, 
is its timber resources. Millions of ties have been and are still being taken 
from the mountains skirting the east, while the whole county is practically 
supplied with lumber and wood therefrom. The supply seems almost 
extiaustless, for there are yet places in the mountains — accessible too — where 
the sunlight scarce penetrates, and where few people have ever been. There 
are several saw mills in these mountains, the principal ones being those 
owned by the United Order Company and others known as Temple Mills, 
where all the lumber used for the Stake Tabernacle and for the Temple is 
secured. Gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, lime rock, granite, marble and 
sandstone have already been discovered in considerable quantities, though 
the mountains have been but imperfectly prospected. Some mining has 
been done, but 66 far no striking developments have been made of precious 
metal deposits. This is partially due to the fact that the outcroppings have 
not shown any remarkable characteristics, but more particularly for the 
reason that the people of that county have wisely bent their energies in 
agricultural pursuits, thus securing a permanent basis for whatever indus- 
trial superstructures the resources of the county, minerally and in a manu- 
facturing sense — with the enterprise of its inhabitants — may yet warrant. 
In the matter of building* rock Cache Valley occupies a position as enviable 
as that of the most favored county in the Territory. Not only do all kinds 
of building rock abound, but granite, and some of the most remarkable 
specimens of marble are to be found in the area which the county embraces. 
Some of the rock is almost of the hardness of emefry, and cannot be dressed 
by the ordinary methods. The marble is of several varieties, white, mottled 
and black, all being susceptible of a high polish, and when so finished is 
very rich in appearance. Iron exists here, as in other parts of the Territory, 
in vast quantities, and if a test made several years ago should still prove a 
fair cne, there 5s little doubt that time will see pig iron lar^Tfely manufactured 
in this county. The test, or analysis referred to, was made at St. Louis, 
when it was shown that the percentage of silver contained in the ore was 
large enough to pay the necessary expenses of reducing it to iron. Cache 
is admitted to be one of the most attractive and healthful of the counties. 
The valley is br )ad and clear, traversed by several streams in the centre, 
while cities and villages, dotting the sides ana nestling under the lofty moun- 
tains, present to the eye a picture at all seasons delightful. In the spring 
it is green with the green meadows and thriving grain, and sweet and beau- 
tiful with the perfume of wild and natural flowers, and those of the trees. 
The midsummer is relieved of the excess of heat by the mountains and the 
canyon breezes, while the eye feasts with that delight which grows of intelli- 


gent appreciation as it rests upon the evidence of peaceful thiift everywhere 
visible. The fall is no less attractive, when the mountains, resplendent with 
the foliage that has been turned into all the hues of the rainbow by the 
silent and mysterious touch of frost, are relieved by the brown of the fields 
from which the bounteous harvest has just been reaped. Such a country 
should be a fine one for the fisher in the early summer, and for the hunter 
in the fall and winter; and so it is, excelled by few. F'ood is cheap, every 
accommodation and comfort available, civilized comforts plentiful. The 
county is growing with great rapidity, and is a potent factor in the develop- 
ment and population of Northern Idaho. There are six cities in it, Logan 
being the principal one and county seat, and numbered yith the three prin- 
cipal cities of the Territory outside of Salt Lake. It is described more fully 
in connection with the general directory of the city appearing elsewhere. 

HvRUM. — In point of population Hyrum is next in importance to 
Logan. Its population is placed at perhaps 1,700. Farming is the princi- 
pal occupation, though the manufacture of lumber and dairy operations are 
also prominent branches of industry. The city is situated in the southern 
end of the valley. It was incorporated February 10, 1870, and has an area 
of three square miles. Elections are held biennially. There are two 
churches: Latter-day Saints, S. M. Molen, bishop; Presbyterian, Rev. 
Phillip Bohback, pastor; four schools, three district and one Presby- 
terian, with an average attendance of 200; two libraries, Sunday School 
and Young Men*s Mutual Improvement Assocuition. Of societies, 
there are the Relief Society, Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual 
Improvement Associations and three Primary Associations. Hyrum is a 
growing and a thriving place. Its population is comprised principally of 
Scandinavians. It was settled in April of i860 by Alva Benson, Ira Allen, 
and some twenty families, and for a time much difficulty was experienced in 
securing an adequate water supply. This obstacle overcome, the place grew 
rapidly until it has reached the position of a place second in importance to 
the county seat. The town is very pleasantly located and is some eight 
miles south of Logan. The mail is tri-weekly. 

Wellsville is situated in the southwest part of Cache County, nini' 
miles southwest from Logan, and has an area 01 twelve and three-quarter 
square miles; its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture. It was 
incorporated January 19, 1866; elections are held biennially. It has twc» 
churches, Latter-day Saints, W. H. Maughan, bishop, and Presbyterian 
in charge of Miss Kate Best. There are three district schools and one 
Presbyterian mission school, with an average attendance of 170. The 
Wellsville Hall is used for entertainments, and the Young Men's Mtitual 
Improvement Association have a library containing 118 volumes. The socie- 
ties are Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations 
and the Relief Society. The manufacture of lumber is also carried on here- 
to some extent. Wellsville is the oldest and to-day one of the most important 
towns in Cache County. Its inhabitants are thrifty and enterprising. Thi* 
city is very pleasantly located. It has a tri-weekly mail. 

Smithfield is pleasantly situated on the line of the Utah and North- 
cm Railroad. It has an area of four square miles; the principal occupation 
of its inhabitants is agriculture. A charter was granted February 6, 1868; 
elections are held biennially. It has two churches, the Latter-day Saints, 
Geoige L. Farrell, bishop, and Presbyterian, Rev. Mr. Parks, pastor; it has 
also district and Presbyterian schools to the number of six with an average. 
attendance of 325. The societies are Young Men's and Young Ladies' 
Mutual Improvement Associations and the Female Relief Society; there arc 
two libraries^ in the place. A tannery, grist mill, and a lumber, lath and 


shingle mill are also located here. It is eight miles north of Logan and has 
a daily mail. The inhabitants are noted for kindness and enterprise. 

Richmond, also situated on the line of the Utah and Northern Rail- 
way, four miles north of Smithfield, was incorporated February 6, 1868; 
elections are held biennially. In it are located two lumber anci two grist 
mills. There are two churches, Latter-day Saints, W. L. Skidmore, 
bishop and one Presbyterian, Rev. Mr. Parks, pastor; four schools — 
three district and one Presbyterian — with an average attendance of 155, 
There is a theatre, a Sabbath school library and the following societies: 
Relief Society and Young Men and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement 
Associations. The f)rincipal industry of the citizens is farming. It is admitted 
that some of the finest farming land in Cache Valley is located about 
this prosperous settlement. In population it ranks with Smithfield. Its 
inhabitants are accounted among the wealthiest in the county. It also has 
a daily mail. 

Mendon is the first city or settlement reached in entering Cache Valley 
from the west. It is on the line of the Utah and Northern, eight miles 
almost due west from Logan. It was first settled May 2, 1859, by Robert 
Hill, Roger Luckham, Robert Sweeten, James H. Hill, Pe^er Latsen, Isaac 
and Peter SOrensen, Alexander Hill and Alexander H. Hill. There is one 
church. Latter-day Saints; William Hughes is bishop. The city is not 
very large. There is also but one school — district. There are Young 
Men's, Young Ladies' and Primary Associations and a Relief Society in the 
city. The occupation of the people is principally farming, but owing to 
unfavorable conditions in regard to water for irrigation the population has 
not grown as rapidly as it would have done otherwise. It has a daily mail. 

Hyde Park, on the line of the Utah and Northern Railway, five miles 
north of Logan, was settled in the spring of i860 by William Hyde, S. M. 
Molen, Robert Daines, P. D. Griffith, H. Ashcroft, E. Seamon and others. 
They have a daily mail, Sunday excepted. 

Providence, situated two miles south from Logan, the county seat, 
was first settled April 20, 1859, by Ira Rich, John F. Maddison, Hopkin 
Mathews, Sr., William Fife, John Lane, Henry Gates and Joseph H. Camp- 
bell. There is one church, Latter-day Saints, M. M. Hammond, bishop; 
one school and one school house, district, with an average attendance of 
100; there is also a Sunday School and Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Library, a- Relief Society and Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual 
Improvement Associations. The citizens are principally engaged in farming. 
They receive mail three times a week. 

MiLLViLLE, located four miles south of Logan, was first settled Junt- 
27, i860, by Ezra T. Benson, P. Mau^han, Joseph G. Hovey, George W. 
Pitkin, E. Edwards, F. Weaver, Martin Wood and Garr Brothers. J. G. 
Hovey was appointed bishop. The present bishop, George O. Pitkin, was 
appointed March 12, 1862. They receive mail three times a week, Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday. 

Lewiston, situated on the west bank of the Bear River, opposite and 
west of Richmond, was first settled in October, 1871, by Peter E. Van 
Orden, Robert Wall, P. Griffith, John Buxton and T. Huff, and was organ- 
ized an ecclesiastical ward October 20, 1872. William H. Lew-is is bishop. 
The setdement receives mail three times a week. 

Benson, about eight miles northwest from Logan, was settled by I. J. 
Clark and sons. Alma Harris, Charles Rees, George Thomas and William 
Ricks, May 3, 1871. Alma Harris, bishop. Mail twice a week. 


Clarkston, located in the northwestern part of the county, was settled 
in 1864 with Israel J. Clark, bishop. The present bishop is John Jardine. 
They have a semi-weekly mail. 

Newton is also a growing town, situated northwest of Logan with Hans 
Funk as bishop. It is a thriving settlement. Paradise is a neat settlement, 
situated on the extreme southern part of the valley, with Orson Smith as 
biihop. Cub Hill is a growing place; and there are several smaller tovins in 
this valley, all prospenn^, and evidencing inherent vitality likely to give 
them much greater prommence than they now enjoy. 

Franklin, though now in Idado and Oneida County, was for many 
years considered in Cache County, and the affiliation of its inhabitants are 
with the people of the latter county. Its people are very enterprising, and 
they have given a large and growing population to the surrounding country. 
It is frbout twenty miles from Logan, and is not over a mile on the north of 
the boundary line of Utah and Idaho. L. L. Hatch is bishop, the town 
having one Latter-day Saints Church, and one district school with an average 
attendance of perhaps seventy-five. It has a daily mail and is the point to 
which the Utah and Northern was completed by the people of Utan before 
that line fell into the hands of the Union Pacific Company. Farming is the 
principal occupation, though the sawing of lumber in an important industry, 
.while It is here the noted Star Woolen Mills are located. Varied branches 
of industry are operated here. Franklin, to all intents and purposes, is a 
Utah town, though located in Idaho. 


is second only to Salt Lake County in point of age. It was settled in 
the spring of 1848 by Peregrine Sessions, who located at what is now 
called Bountiful. For a long time that section was known as Ses- 
.sions settlement. Davis is the most fertile section in the Territory, or that 
portion of it is which lies be ween the Sand Ridge a few miles south of Ogden. 
The Sand Ridge extends from the Wasatch Range on the east, to the lake on 
the west, and embraces as near as can be roughly estimated, one-third the 
area of the county. The area is 250 square miles, tlie smallest of any 
county in the Territory. The land lying between Salt Lake County and the 
Sand Ridge is accounted as well watered, is all taken up, has been farmed for 
years and ranks among the best cultivated sections in Utah. This is due to 
its location and to the fact that the same people have owned and have been 
working it for years. It is amply supplied with water, and the lake, which 
skirts it on the west, furnishes a constant saline breeze that quickly melts 
the winter snows and brings it into a state for early cultivation surpassed by 
rto section in the Basin. The Sand Ridge is by no means a section incapable 
of cultivation. Little better farming land is to be found anywhere; but the 
- absence of water has rendered it impracticable to cultivate the land to any 
satisfactory degree. '*Dry farming,'* that is, farming without irrigation, 
has been carried on here with more success than anywhere else in the Terri- 
tory, and during favorable seasons the production of grain per acre, has 
exceeded that of many of the old farming districts in Virginia. As high as 
twenty and twenty-five bushels per acre has been raised. It averages, how- 
ever, ten to twelve bushels per acre. Large tracts have been farmed in this 
manner, and arc still being cultivated with profit. There is good ground 
for the opinion that most, if not entirely all this valuable land will be 
brought under cultivation within a reasonable period, canals tapping the 
Weber River with a view to irrigating this land, now being constructed. 
There has been no perceptible increase in the population of Davis County 
these fifteen years. The county is filled with a peculiar, quiet, pastoral 


people, who have manifested no particular desire to spread out rapidly. 
They have flour mills, but the fact that they were so close to Salt Lake City. 
at which point they could secure what they were unable to raise, rendered 
manufacturing enterprises less necessary, while the acknowledged excellence 
of the county for gardening and the ready market at Salt Lake offered for 
their products did not impel them to look in other directions. So they 
have continued in the ola fashion, paying strict attention to their farms, 
steadily growing wealthy and becommg a typical agricultural community. 
Eftbrts have been made in this county, by Mr. Arthur Stayner, looking to 
the manufacture of sugar; and as indications of a strong possibility for suc- 
cessful results, the attempt was gratifying in the extreme. The whole of 
the county, with the exception of the section referred to as the Sand Ridge, Ls 
a garden, filled with a prosperous people. Silver, gold, copper, leaa and 
mica have been found in tne county and some work has been done, but 
not enough to justify especial notice. Davis County has but one city, Ka>'s- 
ville. Farmington is the county scat. Kaysville is the lai^est in point of 
population and is also the wealthiest. Farmington, however, is near the centre 
of the populated portion of the county and is second in importance only to 

Farmington, the county seat, situated on the line of the Utah Cen- 
tral Railway, was first settled m 1848, by D. A. Miller, Thomas Grover, W. 
Smith and Allen Buck; they were followed by several more in 1849 when 
an eclesastical ward was organized with Joseph S. Robinson, bishop. 
They have one church. Latter-day Saints, J. M. Secrest, bishop; six schools 
and six schoolhouses, five district and one mission school. The only place 
of amusement is the Social Hall, which is used for dances, theatricals, con- 
certs, etc. The societies are: Relief Society, Primary Association and the 
Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associations. The 
citizens are chiefly engaged in farming, stock-raising and milling. Mail ' Ls 
received daily from the north and south. 

Kaysville is situated on the line of the Utah Central Railway, about 
eighteen miles north of Salt Lake. It was incorporated in the year 1868, and 
has an area of seven souare miles. Elections are held biennially. The city 
is surrounded with well cultivated and productive farming lands, the princi- 
pal industries of the citizens are farming and the raising of horses, sheep, 
cows and bees. In it are located two grist mills and a bnck kiln. There Ls 
but' one church. Latter-day Saints, with Peter Barton, bishop; six schools 
and five schoolhouses, Latter-day Saints and Presbyterian, with an average 
attendance of 225; there are also a music hall and a library of 250 volumes, 
belonging to the Mutual Improvement Association; a Benevolent and 
Improvement Society, the Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Associations, Primary and Relief Societies. Kaysville has 
two mails daily. 

Centreville, situated on the line of the Utah Central Railroad, was 
first settled in the spring of 1848. There is one church. Latter-day Saints. 
Nathan Cheeney^ bishop; a district school with an average attendance of 
forty-five; there is also a Relief Society, Primary and Young Men's and 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. The citizens are chiefly 
engaged in farming and stock-raising. They have a daily mail. 

South Bountiful, situated on the line' of the Utah Central Railway, 
about eight miles north of Salt Lake City, was first settled by George 
Meeyers and Edwin Pace. They have a daily mail from north and souui. 
William Brown is bishop. 

East Bountiful, also on the line of the Utih Central Railway, was 
first settled in the spring of 1848 by P. Sessions. There is a daily mail to 


and from the town, Chester Call, bishop. There is one church — Latter-day 
Saints; one school and one schoolhouse — district school — with an average 
attendance of fifty; also a Relief Society, Primary and Young Men's and 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. The principal industr}' 
of the inhabitants is farming. 

West Bountiful, or Wood's Cross, is eight miles n9rth of Salt Lake 
City and the first station on the line of the Utah Central Railway. Was 
first setded by James Fackrell and family. November 15, 1848. The citizens 
are chiefly engaged in farming and gardening; a large quantity of grain, 
\egetables and u'uit is raised and shipped to Salt Lake, where it finds a 
ready market. West Bountiful has one church — Latter-day Saints — of 
which W. S. Muir, Jr., is bishop; a district school; Young Men's and Young 
Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. There is a daily mail to and 
from the place. 

Kays Creek, on the line of the Utah Central Railway, and about two 
miles north of Kaysville, is an adjunct of that place, being under the same 
precinct officers. 


ITiis county was organized in 1880, and was named after George W. 
Emery, for several years Governor of Utah. The section of country 
embraced by Emery is noted for its rich '•agricultural area, no less than for 
its vast mineral deposits. Nearly all the minerals so far found in the Terri- 
tory have been discovered here, while in any particular the section is but 
imperfectly known. There arc large tracts of farming land ; areas singularly 
fitted for pasturage; while the coal fields are absolutely limitless. It is in 
this county that flowing oil, which it is believed will make excellent petroleum 
and could be made to yield prolificly, has been discovered. The Denver 
and Rio Grande runs through the county diagonally from the southeast to 
the northwest corner, and is assisting materially in its development. At 
jiresent the towns are small and widely apart, but such a favored area as the 
l>oundary lines of Emery County embrace, cannot be long in filling up,wifh 
a mixed and energetic population, such as agriculture and mining are cer- 
tain to jbring about. Its mherent wealth and economic resources are literally 
boundless, and a successful future awaits it. The county is bounded on the 
east by Colorado and Uintah County; west by Piute. Sevier and Sanpete: 
north by Uintah, Wasatch and Utah; and south by Piute and !San Juan. 
The county seat is located at Castle Dale. 

Castle Dale is the county seat, located in the western part of the 
county. It was first settled November 2, 1877, by Onmge Seely, Jasper 
Pederson, N. P. Miller and James Wilcox, from Mount Pleasant, and Eras- 
tus Curtis and a few others from Fountain Green, Sanpete County. Henning 
Olsen is bi^K>p of the ward. Farming and stock-raising are the main pursuits 
of the inhabitants, though some mining is done. They have a daily mail. 

Orangeville was first settled in 1878 by E, Curtis, Sr., and J. K, 
Reid. It has a population of between 300 and 400; one church. Latter-day 
Saints, Jasper Robertson, bishop. They receive mail three times a week. 

Huntington was first settled by William Huey, E. H. Cox, E. Cox, 
!». Jones, D, Cheeney, H. O. Crandal, W. Caldwell and J. Cox, and was 
organized as an ecclesiasticiil ward October 7, 1879, when E. Cox was 
appointed bishop. 

MoAB, located in the southeastern part of the county, was first settled 
in L879 by A. G. Wilson, W. A. and James Peirce and L. and J. Hatch. 
VV^as organized as a ward Eebruary 15, 1881, with R. H. Stewart, bishop. 


There are also the following small settlements located in different sec- 
tions of the county: Blake City, Ferron City, Muddy, Price, Green River, 
and a small place called- Mormon Fort. 


This county, was organized March 9th, 18S2, and is the youngest 
county in the Territory. It originally formed part of Iron County which 
lies west of the Wasatch Range separating both. The county is bounded 
on the north by Piute County, south by Kane County, east by San Juan and 
west by Iron. The county seat is Panguitch, situated at the extreme 
western section of the county, high in the mountains. It is in this couiitj' 
that both the Sevier and the Rio Virgin Rivers have their source. A high 
table land, called the Panguitch and the Sevier Plateaus exist where the 
snow falls heavy and deep, and are the scene of the head waters of the rivers 
named, the Sevier flowing to the north, then west and then south and sinks 
into the Sevier Lake. The Rio Virgin flows to the south and west and ultim- 
ately empties into the Colorado River. Cataract Canyon and the Colorado 
River divide Garfield and San Juan Counties. The Colorado River is formed 
some miles above the northeast comer of Garfield County, by the meeting 
of Green and Grand Rivers. In Garfield County is the beginning of thai 
wild and weird scenery for which the country along the Colorado River is so 
noted. The western section lying in and near to the Wasatch Range, is the 
most thickly populated, though the county is still young. The elevation of 
Panguitch is some 6,000 feet, and other parts of the county in the w^t are 
proportionate. Farming is prosecuted with success and the county is rich 
m minerals, though but little developed. Not a great deal is known pon- 
ceming the county, save that it belongs to that peculiar section of which the 
Colorado River country i^ the most remarkable. Its altitude is rather too 
great for farming, but it forms an excellent grazing country. There are 
several small towns scattered throughout the western portion of the county, 
all reasonably prosperous. Panguitch is by far the largest town in the county. 
Like Emery County, Garfield contains no corporated cities. 

Panguitch, the county seat, located in the extreme eastern part of th*: 
county, was first settled in 1871 by Allen Miller, Geo. W. Sevy and Albert 
DeLong. There are two churches, Latter-day Saints, Joseph C. Davis* 
bishop of First Ward, and Hirum S. Church, bishop of Second Ward. Mai! 
is received from the north three times a week and from the south once 
a week. 

Besides Panguitch and Cannonville, other settlements are Antimony, 
Coyote, Escalante, Henrieville, Hillsdale and Tebbsdale. 

Cannon VI LLE, located in the extreme southern part of the county on 
the head waters of the Pahreah River, was first settled in the spring of 1875 
by D. O. Littlefield, Samuel Littlefield. E. W. Littlefield, O. D. Bliss, John 
Thompson, J. B. Thompson, Jasper Thompson, William Thompson, Lacy 
Laramie and Joseph Spencer; the ward was organized in 1876 with J. D. 
Packer bishop. The present bishop is Ira B. Elmer. The soil here is of 
excellent Quality, and grain, vegetables and fruit are quite extensively culti- 
vated. There is a mail twice a week, Tuesdays and Saturdays. 


This county was settled on the thirteenth day of January, 1851, by 
Apostle George A. Smith, Bishops Wm. H. Dame and H. Lunt, and about 
115 men and boys, with some thirty women and children. The place at 
which they located was then called Little Salt Lake Valley, because of a 


small lake of salt water situated in the valley and which is now nearly dut' 
west from Paragoonah. The county was organized the same year. Garfield 
County was, until 1882, embraced m Iron County, with Hamilton's Fort as 
the southernmost vilLige. Latterly, however, Kanara has been incorpor- 
ated in this county. Iron is bounded on the east by Garfield, on the west 
by Nevada, on the north by Beaver, and south by Kane and Washington 
Counties. Its southern boundary -embraces the southern rim of the Great 
Basin. Nearly all the land in the county is of a reddish color, giving 
unquestioned evidence of the presence of iron in great quantities. The 
mountains in the east, through the whole of the county, convey the 
same idea. They are low and of a reddish hue. The county was named 
because of these iron indications. It is in this county that the greatest iron 
mines in the world exist, and which are more fully described under the 
appropriate heading. Coal also exists in large quantities in this county in 
the mountains east of Cedar City, and though definite tests have not yet 
been made, the impression is that some of it will coke well. The county 
contains an immense amount of beautiful farming land, the like of which is 
rarely found; but it mainly lies idle because of the absence of water facilities 
that will enable it to be irrigated. The people, moreover, live a great distance 
from railroad communication and have no immediate market for grain or 
other farm products. As a consequence, the incentive is not given for 
greater exertion, nor does the occasion justify a rapid increase in population. 
There is little doubt, the iron mines once permanently operated and the 
manufacture of iron determinedly undertaken, that the county will find itsell 
eanal to the cultivation of much larger areas than are now deemed possible, 
while water-saving means will be introduced for which, at present, there is 
no pressing need. Considerable stock is owned by parties living in the 
county, and this has proven a source of much wealth. The soil and 
temperature are also well adapted to the growth of fruit, particularly of 
apples. The inhabitants do not feel very wealthy, but in many respects 
they are really well off. Their farms are not as valuable as those located 
near business centres, and they have not the ready money that some can 
command; but mortgages are almost unknown, and what the people are 
surrounded with belongs to them alone. There is little doubt of a remark- 
able future before Iron County. It is also reasonably certain that the Utah 
Central will be extended far enough into the county to tap the remarkably 
rich iron deposits that exist there. The western part of the county is com- 
posed of so-called **descrt'* land, barren, only because of the absence ot* 
water. Its altitude is less than that of Garfield County. In addition to iron 
and coal, silver, lead, fire clay, lime rock, salt, sulphur, sandstone, and 
other minerals have been found. The county contains two prosperous cities, 
Parawon and Cedar, about fifteen miles apart, and several settlements. The 
county seat is at Parowan, where there is a fine brick court house, which is 
not yet completely finished. At the same place is a fine district schoolhouse. 
The people are quiet, industrious, thrifty and economical, and will become 
wealthy rapidly, iron manufactures once established. 

Parowan, the county seat, is situated in the eastern portio nof the 
county. The cily was first incorporated February 6, 1851; a charter being 
granted by the Legislative Assemblv of the Provisional Government of the 
State of Deseret, subsequently ratified by the Legislative Assembly.of Utah. 
Exceptions being taken, the charter was abrogated and a new one granted 
February 13th, 1868. The city has an area of six square miles; elections 
are held biennially. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in farming, stock- 
raising and bee culture. Here are located a mill, saw mill and tannery. 
There are two churches. Latter-day Saints, J. E. Dalley and W. Mitchell 
bishops, and Presbyterian, U. C. Cert pastor; four schools and four school- 


houses, three district and one Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 
240. There is one library, the property of the Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Association; three societies, the Female Relief Society, Pri- 
mary and Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associa- 

Cedar City was incorporated in 1852 and has an area of six square 
miles; elections are held biennally. Farming and stock-raising are the 
principal industries of the inhabitants. The town has a tannery and grist 
mill located here. It has a Latter-day Saints' church. C. J. Arthur, bishop; 
and a Presbyterian, with U. C. Cert as pastor; three schools and three 
.schoolhouses, Latter-day Saints and Presbyterian, with an average attend- 
ance of 200; also a Female Relief Society, Primary', and Young Rlen's and 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. It has a daily mail. 
Cedar City has had a peculiar career. The town has been moved twice and 
still Ls very prosperous and bids fair to run away with its more populous 
neighbor on the north. Its proximity to the coal beds and iron mines, in 
the development of both, will assist its more rapid growth materially. 

Paragoonah, located about five miles from Parowan, is the most north- 
ern setdement in Iron County. It was first settled by Bishop W. H. Dame. 
Charles Hall, Job Hall, B. Watts and C. Y. Webb in 1851, but owing to 
Indian troubles was abandoned. In 1853 *^ was permanently setded by W. 
H. Dame, O. B. Adams, J. R. Robinson, J. Topham, B. Watts, Job Hall, 
Charles Hall, M. Ensign, K. £. Miller and William Barton. It now numbers 
about forty families who are chiefly engaged in farming and stock-raising. 
There is one church. Latter-day Saints, William E. Jones, bishop; one 
district school with an average attendance of fifty; also a Relief Society 
Primary, and Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement 
Associations. They have a daily mail, Sundays excepted. 

Summit issituated about six miles southwest of Parowan, the county seat; 
the citizens are principally engaged in farming. There is one church. Latter- 
day Saints, S. C. Hufet, bishop ; one school and one schoolhouse, district, 
with an average attendance of twenty-five; there is also a Relief Society, 
Primary, and Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associ- 
ations. ^ 

Kanara was formerly part of Washington County, but in subsequent 
changes made in the boundary line, became a part of Iron County. It is 
the southernmost town in the county and is situated on the rim of the 
(ireat Basin. From this point the streams flow both to the north and to the 
south. A two-hours' ride takes one from Kanara in the temperate, down 
into a semi-tropical country. It is a substantial village. Has one church, 
latter-day Samts, and one school, district. Primar}', Relief, Young 
i-adies' and Young Men's Improvement organizations are here also. 

There are a number of small settlements scattered through the count>% 
such as Iron Springs, Johnson's Fort, Deseret Springs, Iron City, Hamil- 
ton's Fort and a few other very small places whose mhabitants arc engaged in 
stock-raising and farming. 


Is one of the most noted and yet smallest counties in the Territory, in 
point of population. On its north are Utah and Tooele Counties, on its 
cast, Utah and Sanpete Counties, south, Sanpete and Millard, and west, the 
.State of Nevada. By far the greater portion of the county is composed of 
<lesert, and like Box Elder and Tooele, Beaver and Iron, incorporates a 
considerable area of the so-called Great American Desert, The populated 


section is less than one-third of the area of the county. The richest mining 
districts so far discovered in the Oquirrh Range, are situated in Juab County, 
the famous Mammoth being among the properties. There is a perceptible 
break, or decrease in* the height of the Wasatch Range, where it reaches 
Juab County, which is the more noticeable because of the elevation it attains 
It Utah, the county adjoining on the north. Mount Nebo, the highest point 
on the western side of the Wasatch — 11,999 ^^^^ above sea level — is situated 
in this county, at a point where Sanpete, Utah and Juab Counties join. 
South of this point is Salt Creek Canyon, and below this canyon. the range 
is much lower and sustains a growth of cedar which does not appear on the 
north in anything like so marked a degree. The character of the range 
thus changed, remains the same all tne way south to the rim of the 
Basin. The mountains being lower, the canyons fewer, and the ravines less 
nigged, the snowfall does not last as long and the water supply is conse- 
quently limited. The evil of Juab County is that of all southern Utah. 
There are endless acres of the fairest farmmg land in the world, were there 
but enough water for irrigating purposes. Juab, however, is largely com- 
pensated for the absence of water, by the existence of boundless mineral 
deposits of great variety. Her iron deposits have for years, and to-day do 
supplv smelters with iron ore for tluxing. The Mammoth Mine is unex- 
cellea. The contribution of Juab to the mineral wealth of the Terrritory is 
exceeded perhaps by one or two counties only. Gold, silver, iron and cop- 
per in inexhaustible quantities are found ; beside which are excellent marble 
quarries, salt -wells and salt mines, and a vein of gypsum, the equal of 
which is not in the Territory. No county in the Territory is more for- 
ward in this respect. The Utah Central and the Salt Lake and Western, 
both broad-gauge, run through the county, the former passing all the farm- 
ing sections, the latter tapping the rich mining section. The Sevier River 
cuts through a small portion of the county, but is valueless to Juab for 
agricultunu purposes. The county is singularly prosperous and free from 
debt, and makes a showing, financially — as regards taxes — not inferior to the 
best Nephi is the county seat, and though it has a population bordering 
on 2,000, several attempts to secure its incorporation as a city have been 
futile because of executive objection. However, there is no suffering 
because of the refusal. Juab promises to become one of the most important 
counties in the Territory, if not on account of agriculture, because of the 
\'astness of its mineral resources. It is not improbable that systematic 
artesian well-boring may bring under cultivation much of the desirable land 
now tempting the farmers, whik. water-saving facilities may do much more. 

Nephi, the county seat, is located at the extreme eastern part of the 
county, almost at the foot of Mount Nebo. and directly west of Salt Creek 
Canyon. The town is on the line of the Utah Central Railroad, and is filled 
with a thriving population whose principal industry is farming. Consider- 
able enterprise is exhibited by the citizens, and whenever attention is turned 
in a particular direction, the obiect sought to be accomplished is realized 
mthout any possible delay. The salt wells existing in Salt Creek Canvon 
are owned and operated by citizens in Nephi, who also have flour, lumber, 
and other mills. 

Levan, located about seven miles east of Juab, was first setded by a 
small company from Chicken Creek, in 1868. The principal industry of the 
inhabitants is &rming. There is one church — Latter-day Saints; Neils 
Aagaard, bishop. The town has a daily mail, Sundays excepted. 

MoNA is situated some eight miles north of Nephi, and at the base of 
Mount Nebo, a little north of west. The Utah Central runs past this town, 
which contains about 300 inhabitants. The people of this place have had a 



severe struggle for community existence against lawless classes, but liave 
succeeded in enforcing respect and are now beginning to prosper. They 
have one church, Latter-day Saints, which is also used as a schoolhouse. 
John M. Hawes is bishop. Farming is the occupation of the people 
generally. Daily mail. 

Juab is named after the county. It is a railroad town and was at 
one time the terminus of the Utah Central Railroad, until the extension 
to Milford was conipleted. Its population is mainly composed of rail- 
road employees. There is no meeting nor schoolhouse in the place, 
though a Latter-day Saints* organization exists there. Daily mail. In 
addition to the above there are several mining towns, or camps in Tintic, 
which resemble other mining towns in the main. Among them are Tintic, 
Silver City, Diamond, Homansville and Eureka. These camps furnish a 
ready market for much of the agricultural products of the farmers in Juab, 
and nave contributed largely to her success. 


There are contradictory statements as to the date of the settlement of 
this county, due to the change in its boundary lines. Kane County at one 
time included all that part of Washington County which lies west of a line 
running due south from Old Harmony, or Harmony as it was at one time 
called. This included Old Harmony, Toquerville, Virgin City, and other 
towns now belonging to Washington County. If Old Harmony is included 
in Kane, then the county was first settled in the spring of 1852, by John D. 
Lee and others, who settled on Ash Creek, and called the place Harmony. 
If Harmony is not included then the first settlers were J. T. Willis and 
Nephi Johnson, who settled at Toquerville and Virgin City respectively in 
1858. Kane is one of the three southernmost counties in the Territory. It 
is bounded on the east by San Juan County, the Colorado River dividing 
the two counties; on the west by Washington; north by Garfield and a por- 
tion of Iron, and south by Arizona. The country embraced by this county 
is also of that peculiar character which marks the land on either side of the 
Colorado River. It has, however, some excellent farming land, which, by 
great labor and unyielding perseverance, has been made very productive. 
There is a long stretch of country between Kane County and a railroad 
point, difficult of access because of its being broken and uneven almost 
beyond comprehension. The result is that only a local market was had for 
products, and the power to export has not been achieved. The range is 
excellent and cattle have been a source of wealth to the people of the 
county, because beef could be raised and driven out at a profit. Despite the 
difficulties with which the people have had to contend — any county in the 
Territory, unless it be San Juan, having greater advantages in point of 
communication — the people are determined and thriving well. That there 
is mineral in quantities is hardly to be questioned, but up to date little has 
been discovered. None of the precious metals have been found, nor copper 
nor lead. Gypsum, coal, lime rock, and endless areas of sandstone nave 
been discovered. Latterly large mica deposits are reported to have been 
found in Kane County, but to what extent the report is based on truth is not 
known. There are several notable peaks in tne county and a number of 
elevated table lands or plateaus, all confirming the opinion expressed in the 
chapter on * 'Physical Utah" descriptive of that country lying below the rim 
of tne Great Basin. This county was named in honor of the late Col. 
Thomas L. Kane, well and favoraWy known in the history of tlie Latter-day 

Kanab is the county seat of Kane County. It is situated in the south- 
western part of the county, and is perhaps as near the main line of the mail 


route of Southern Utah as any place of note in the county. It is largest in 
point of population in the county. The place was first settled in 1870. 
There is but one church, Latter-day Saints, with a school. There are also 
Mutual Improvement and Relief Society organizations in the place, W. D. 
Johnson, |r., is bishop. 

Johnson, situated about ten miles northeast of Kanab, the county seat, 
was settled in the spring of 1871, by J. H., J. E., B. F. and W. D. Johnson. 
There is one church. Latter-day Saints, with W. D. Johnson, presiding 
elder. Mail, semi-wteklv. 

Glendale was permanently settled March 7, 1871, by R. J. Cutler. 
W. Foot, W. D. Kartchner, James Leithead, A. S. Gibbons and others. 
They have one church, Latter-day Saints, with Royal J. Cutler, bishop. 
Mail three times a week. 

Pahreah, situated near the junction of Pahreah River and Cottonwood 
Creek, was first settled in 1872 by Thomas W. Smith, A. F. Smith, James 
Wilkins and others. There is a Latter-day Saints church, with Thomas W. 
Smith, bishop. Mail twice a week. 

Order vhxe, located on the western bank of the Rio Virgin, in the 
western part of the county, was first settled in 1875. There is but one church — 
Latter-day Saints. Thomas Chamberlain is bishop. Mail three times a week. 

There are also Mount Carmel, Windsor, Adairville, Ranch, Upper 
Kanab, and a few other small settlements in the county, whose inhabitants 
are eng^ed in farming and stock-raising. 


Is one of the largest counties in the Territory in point of area. Like 
Box Elder, Tooele and Juab the extreme western portion of the county 
incorporates a large tract of the Great American Desert. Millard is 
bounded on the north by Juab, east by Juab, Sanpete and Sevier, south by 
Beaver and west by the State of Nevada. It was settled during the spring 
of 1 85 1, by Anson Call and some thirty families, who located at Fillmore. 
About this time the first Legislative Assembly of Utah Territory met in 
** Great'* Salt Lake City, as it was then called, and Fillmore, in Millard 
County, was settled as the capital of the Territory. Throuj>h the eastern 
half of Millard County the Utah Central Railroad runs. The mail, to a 
majority of the towns, however, has to be carried over tlie mountains by 
coach or buckboard. Millard is quite a rich Arming area, the land being 
very productive where water can be obtained, while the whole county is 
noted for the excellence of the fruit raised in it. The habitable portion is 
the eastern section, lying close to the Wasatch Range. The Sevier Lake 
or Sink, as it is sometimes called, is in this county. After rising in Garfield 
County, and flowing south through Piute, Sevier and part of Sanpete 
Counties, the Sevier River runs north, then west and then south through 
Juab County, and finally after flowing a considerable distance in a south- 
easterly direction through Millard empties into the Sevier Lake, and as 
there is no outlet, it is called the Sevier Sink. The lake is about forty 
miles long, by some eight miles wide on an average, and, there being 
no outlet, its waters arc naturally salt. Millard is a county exceedingly 
rich in mineral deposits. Gold, silver, lead, copper, fireclay, coal, lime 
rock, iron, sulphur, sandstone, mica, gypsum, alluminum and zinc are 
among the minerals discovered up to date. The output of ore or t^ullion 
forms no very important factor at the present time, but that the county has 
the capacity there is not even opportunity for a doubt. The large sulphur 
deposits elsewhere referred to exist in this county, the like of which has not 
been found anywhere else so far up to date. Though much talk has been 



indulged in, little decisive action has been taken towards bringing the beds 
into that productive position which their extent and purity, or fineness, would 
warrant However, like others, this difficulty time will speedily overcome. 
MiMard County embraces also some excellent grazing country and stock- 
raising is among the profitable industries, while farming is the mainstay of 
the population. Millard is in a position to become a populous and a 
wealthy county, her natural resources not agriculturally alone, but miner- 
ally to an unusual degree, warranting such a position for the county within 
a reasonable period. 

Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County, has an area of sixteen 
•quare miles and was incorporated January 12th, 1867. At the time of 
incorporation it had an area of thirty-six square miles; elections are helc 
biennially. The citizens are chiefly engag^ed in farming and stock-raising. 
Here are located two saw and two grist mills. There is but one church, the 
Latler-day Saints; J. D. Smith is bishop; four .school sand four school- 
houses, district and Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 200. 
The places of amusement are a theatre and three libraries, Sunday 
school, Mutual Improvement and Liberal. It has also the following socie- 
ties: Relief Society, Primary, Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual 
Mutual Improvement Associations and Union of the People's Party. 

Deseret is a station on the line of the Utah Central Railway, but the 
town proper lies about one and one-half miles from the railroad. The place 
was first settled in 185S, by Messrs. Croft, Cropper, Robinson and others, 
but owing to the loss of the dam placed acro.^s the river to supply the town 
with water, was abandoned in 1867; it was re-settled by J. S. Black, Gilbert 
Webb and others in the spring of 1875; organized a ward, with J. S. Black 
bishop, July 24th, 1877. The citizens are principally engaged in farming 
and stock-raising. They receive a daily mail. 

SciPio, located in the northeastern part of the county, was first settled 
March loth, i860, by T. F. Robins, Wm. Robins, Elias Pearson, John 
Brown, Samuel Kershaw, B. H. Johnson and James Mathews. Thomas 
Yates is the present bishop. Mail is received daily, Sundays excepted. 


Kanosh is situated in the southeastern part of the county, and was first 
•ettled by W. C. Penny in October, 1868; in the spring of 1869 the town of 
Petersburg, or String Town, lyin^ one-half mile distant, was incorporated 
in Kanosh with Culbert King as bishop. There is one church. Latter-day 
Saints, the present bishop being A. A. Kimball. The place has a daily 
mail to and from the town. 

Meadow, located on the Corn Creek Indian Reservation, about seven 
miles north of Kanosh, was first settled in 1863, by Wm. H. Stott, James 
Duncan, H. B. Bennett, James Fisher, William Stott, E. Thompkjnson, 
Ralph Rowley, Edwin Stott, A. Greenhalgh and John Breshnell. There is 
one Latter-day Saints* Church, of which H. B. Bennett is bishop. The>- 
receive a daily mail. 

There are also, lying along the line of the Utah Central Railway, a 
number of small railroad stations: Leamington, Riverside, Neels. Black 
Rock and a few others of no great importance, beside others not in the line; 
Cove Creek, Oak City, Holden, Chapin Springs, Cedar Springs, Orderville 
and a number of smaller settlements scattered throughout the county. The 
principal industry of the inhabitants being farming and the raising of stock. 


Morgan County was settled in the spring of 1879. The late President 
Jedediah M. Grant, with Thomas Thurston and others, was the first settler. 


The county is peculiarly shaped, beinjy elongated, and lying lengthwise 
northeast and sojuthwest. Weber and Rich Counties bound it on the north, 
Summit and Salt Lake on the south, Wyoming and Summit on the east, 
and Davis, Weber and Salt Lake Counties on the west. It is a farming and 
stock-raising section, though it is not without mineral deposits and mines. 
The Union Pacific cuts through the southwestern part of the county, and on 
its line are several towns. The populated portion of the county is confined 
to the southwestern half, the other half being devoted to ranges, the excel- 
lence of which is unsuq^assed. These ranges are utilized with profit, not 
only by the inhabitants of the county, but by persons living in other sections. 
The county was organized in 1862, at which date its area was 614,400 acres. 
The present area is 588,800 acres, a large portion of which is mountainous 
country. The minerals, found in any quantities, are silver, lead, copper, 
coal, lime rock, iron, sulphur and mica. The best farming land is found 
along the banks of the Weber River, which sweeps through what might be 
termed a continuous valley, though at times it is so narrow as to afford 
room only for^he river. This land is very rich and is a beautiful picture 
during the grain season to the appreciative as they ride over the Union 
Pacific, which follows the course of the Weber River through this county. 
The population of Morgan is not very large, but the proximity of farming 
lands to the Union Pacific affords a ready market for all products and keeps 
as a result ready money in circulation. The county seat is at Morgan City, 
the largest and most populous place in the county. It is a portion of the 
First Judicial District, sessions of which are held at Ogden, Weber County. 

Morgan City, county seat, situated on the line of the Union Pacific 
Railway, was incorporated February, 1868, and has an area of five square 
miles. Elections are held biennially. There is one church, Latter-day 
Saints. Charles Turner is bishop of South Morgan Ward, and O. B. Ander- 
son of North Morgan Ward. Four schools and four schoolhouses, three 
district and one missionary, with an average attendance of 105. The city 
has three libraries and the following societies: Young Men's and Young 
Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations and a Relief Society. The 
citizens are chiefly engaged in agriculture. The manufacture of boots and 
shoes, brick and lime, is also carried on to some extent. Morgan City has 
a daily mail. 

Enterprise, also situated on the line of the Union Pacific Railroad, 
was first settled in 1862 by Roswell Stevens, Thomas Palmer and Jessie 
Haven. It was organized into an ecclesiastical ward in 1877. It has one 
church. Latter-day Saints, J. K. Hall, bishop. They receive a daily mail, 
the postoffice address being Peterson, which is about two miles west on the 
line of the railroad. 

Milton was first settled in 1856 by Thomas J. Thurston. The present 
bishop of the ward is Eli Whitear. There is no postoflice here, the citizens 
securing their mail at Morgan City, five miles distant. The principal indus- 
try is farming and gardening. 

Mountain Green. Peterson, Mount Joy, Croyden, and a number of 
other small settlements lie along the line of the l^nion Pacific Railroad, and 
are shipping points for the grain, fruit and vegetables raised in the adjoining 

PIUTE county. 

The Green and the Grand Rivers join at a point, as near as may be, in 
the centre of the eastern boundary line of Piute County and form the Colo- 
rado River, which begins here. The county is bounded on the east by San 
Juan» south by Garfield,^ west by Beaver and north by Sevier and Emery. 


Piute County is one of the wealthiest mineral sections in the Territory. It 
is not as^otable for the abundance of such minerals as ^old, silver, copper, 
lead and so on as it is for the possession of unusual minerals in a state of 
remarkable purity. It is especially for the magnificent antimony deposits 
that have been found in this county, that it is most noted, and they place it 
on a footing for antimony deposits that Iron County occupies because of its 
vast iron mountains. It is an opinion entertained by the most competent 
judges, that the purity of the antimony ore found in this county, is so great 
as to justify its shipment to manufacturing centres in Europe at a profit to 
all concerned. Prospecting recently done in the county, in a section known 
as Blue Valley, has resulted in the discovery of vast coal beds of a peculiar 
character; while some of it is of a character between albertite and jet. It 
burns readily, and it is believed will be valuable if it can be had in (quantities 
and can be gotten without much difficulty. The fracture is conchoidal, and 
the surface highly lustrous. In this it resembles jet; but it burns quite 
readily with a yellow light and there are frequent appearances of jets of name 
when subjecteti to heat. The fields are located within fiifp miles of the 
Denver and Rio Grande, over a country in which a little money would 
make a reasonably good road. Piute County has no railroad, the line 
mentioned being the most accessible, and the nearest. Up to the present 
the main industry of the population is farming and stock-raising. No incon- 
siderable amount of money has been spent in the county in pushing forward 
the mining interests, and when the time arrives, as it is certain to do 
within a reasonable period, that the active utilization of the varied mineral 
deposits shall have been permanentlv undertaken, a new era of prosperity 
will set in, likely to grow with each succeeding year. The county was 
organized at Marys vale, in 1869. The date of the first settlement of the 
county cannot be ascertiined definitely. It was, however, some years prior 
to 1868; but the settlers were driven away by Indians. It has incidentally 
been reported that a man named Black — William, the impression is — was 
the first to locate in the county. 

J UNCTION is the county seat. Is is situated in the southwestern corner 
of the county on the mail route to Arizona. The mail passes north and 
south three limes a week each way; south, Monday, Wednesday and Fri- 
day; north, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 

CiRCLEViLLE was permanently settled in i860, prior to that several, 
attempts were made to settle the place, but owing to the hostility of the 
Indians it was abandoned until the year mentioned. The inhabitants are 
chiefly engaged in (arming and stock-raising. It is now a thriving little 

Kingston, situated about four miles south of Junction City, the 
county seat, and in the extreme southern portion of the county, was settled 
in 1877, William King, bishop. They receive mail three times a week. 

Greenwich, located on the west bank of Otter Creek, was first settled 
in 1874, by A. K. Thurber. There is mail twice a week. 

There are also Burrville, Koosharem, Clover Flat, Fremont, Loa, 
Boltonheim, Webster, Bullion City and a number of other small and thriving 
settlements located in the county. 


Is situated at the northwestern extremity of the Territory. The Terri- 
tory of Idaho bounds it on the north, Wyoming Territory on the east, 
Weber and Morgan Counties on the south, and Cache Valley on the west- 
The later years of the life of C. C. Rich, an Apostle in the Mormon Church, 


were identified with this county. He was the first, in company with other par- 
ties, to locate in the county, and it proved for quite a perioa, up-hill work to 
batde against the then inclement seasons. However, determined efforts 
overcame the obstacles and the whole valley, is to-day, dotted with pleasant 
settlements, the inhabitants of which are generally prosperous. While the 
country is well adapted to farming, it is not so favored in this respect as it is 
to stock-raising. The valley of the Bear Lake, of which the Utah portion 
is in Rich County, is very beautiful at all seasons of the year, particularly 
that portion of it bordering on the lake. There are long reaches north and 
south, excellent both for farming and pasturage. The winters are pretty 
severe, and while this fact does not retard the growth of wheat, it affects 
some other cereals unfavorably. The abundance of rich mountain grass, 
noted for being nutritious, compensates for many draw backs by favoring 
the rapid and full growth of stock. The county is named after its founder. 
General C. C. Rich. A large portion of the county formerly considered in 
Utah, including Paris, St. Charles, Bloomington, etc., by a change in 
territorial boundary lines, is now a part of Idaho. Thus the larger cities 
have been taken from Rich County. The remaining settlements are grow- 
ing rapidly, however. Like Cache, Rich County is wealthy in timber. The 
Wasatch Range at this point is very high ancl at places twenty to thirty 
miles through, and is wooded with a prolific growth of pine at which much 
work has been done for years, without appearing to diminish the supply. 
Until the completion of the Oregon Short Line, which does not touch Rich 
County, however, the county had its most accessible railroad outlet through 
Morgan County, to the Union Pacific. Now it is possible to take the Ore- 
gon Short Line road and go to Granger by the broad-gauge, or go on to the 
point of intersection with the Utah and Northern, and thence north or south 
by that route. ^ • 

Randolph; the county .seat, is situated nearly in the centre of the 
county, and has considerable land under cultivation, and is surrounded by 
excellent grazing land. It has one church, Latter-day Saints, of which A. 
McKinnon is bishop. 

Garden City is located in the extreme northwestern part, on the shore 
of Bear Lake. Meadowville and Lake Town are located near the southern 
end of the lake. 

Woodruff is situated in the southeastern part of the county, on the 
Bear River. 


San Juan is the country of the Colorado. It embraces a large tract of 
land which forms the southeast comer of the Territory. Colorado forms 
the east boundary, Arizona the south, Emery County the north and Piute, 
Garfield and Kane Counties the west boundary. The Colorado River, 
as previously stated, is formed by the junction of the Green and Grand 
Rivers at a point near the centre of the eastern boundary line of Piute 
County, and at the northwestern part of San Juan. From this point, the 
Colorado River sweeps along and practically divides San Juan Count>' 
from the remainder of Utah Territory. San Juan is never likely to be a 
populous county ; though portions of*^ it are excellent both for grazing and 
farming. It is, in the main, a wild, wierd county, resembling no other part of 
the Territory. There are endless stretches of solid sandstone, without a drop 
of water or a blade of grass to be seen for miles. Coming to the Colorado 
River, one can look down over tremendous cliffs and see the river gliding 
along through pleasant valleys thousands of feet below, and with no visible 
means of descending the perpendicular height. Running towards the 
river are ravines from all directions. A few lead by gradual ascent to the 


river, others lead on to a point where there is a sudden break, forming a 
precipice hundreds of feet deep, down which it is absolutely impossible to 
descend without certain loss of life. Frequently large herds are driven in 
that country to winter, and the cattle becoming thirsty, will stand on one of 
these tremendous cliffs, looking at the coveted waters, thousands of feet 
below, until they drop dead, or drop over the cliff in their endeavor to get 
down, and are mashed to a pulp on the rocks beneath, or in the waters. There 
are a few settlements in the county; but so far little progress has been made. 
The inhabitants maintain intercourse with the Indians on the Navajo Reser- 
vation in Arizona and with other tribes. Sheep and goat herds are among 
the most profitable pursuits. As before stated there are some excellent 
pieces of farming land, and where it is found the salubrious climate ensures 
a profitable yield. A fact of interest worthy of mention, is the remarkable 
evidences of the historical cliff builders, which are to be seen along the Col- 
orado River in the San Juan County. If wild and romantic scenery were 
a desirable condition, no place in the world could excel San Juan County; 
and for those interested in the history of the aborigines, few places offer 
such temptations as the cliffs overhanging the old bed of the Colorado 

t Bluff City, the county seat. La Sal, Montezuma and McElmo are the 
only towns in the county, the principal occupation of the inhabitants being 


Sanpete ranks among the oldest and most prosperous counties in the 
Territory. Until the unprecedented development of Cache County it was 
called the "Granary of Utah," and even to-day is scarcely inferior ^^ thit 
section in the extent and the quality of its cereal crop. *Th« county was 
settled as early as 1849, Isaac Morley, Seth Taft and Charles Thummayr 
being the origmal locators. Manti, now the county seat, was the site chosen 
by them, and from the commencement it has been populated by an indus- 
trious and a thrifty people. The area has been reduced considerably in later 
years by the creating of new counties; until to-day, the county is confined 
within a well-defined section. Of course the community is agricultural in ia 
character; but they make the pursuit a profit where, in many other section % 
people would bemoan the lack of a market. In all that is ailculated to 
enhance their material welfare in the principal industry they manifest unusual 
shrewdness and skill. They inbreed the best strain of blood into cattle and 
horses; they take the very best care of their stock; they own large herds of 
cattle, and the numerical strength of their flocks of sheep is greater perhaps 
than in any other section of the same area in the Territory. The county is 
by no means without mineral deposits. It has vast coal beds, and the opin- 
ion is expressed by a thoroughly posted gentleman that it would be impos- 
sible to sink a deptn of 500 feet along any of the foothills of the mountains 
on the east of the valley without strikmg coal. The coal is of a coking 
character, and the expectation of securing a market for coke and establishing 
coking works was the motive that induced the construction of the Sanpete 
Valley Railroad. The most remarkable oolite deposits exist in this county 
and the stone is very largely used. The magnificent Temple at Manti, in 
this county, which is now nearing completion, is built on an oolite hill, from 
stone of the same character within half a mile. It is found all over the 
valley and is beyond question a resource that will yet prove of great com- 
mercial value. Other minerals are also found, such as gold, silver, lead, 
gypsum, jet, and almost literal mountains of salt. The proverbial caution 
of the people, however, keeps them from taking any risks, but when the 
period arrives that the articles within the limits of the county are demanded* 
ner inhabitants will not be found slow in filling sucii demands, 'i lie county 


has railroad connection with the Utah Central by means of the Sanpete 
X'alley narrow-gauge. The road, however, touches only at Wales, a small 
town in the northwestern part of the county. A contemplated extension, 
likely to be carried into effect in a brief period, will carry the terminus as 
for as Manti, if not into Sevier County, and thus open a market for two of 
the best wheat-raising sections in the Territory. Coal is found in several- 
directions and is used by the people lor ordinary domestic purposes. The 
county is bounded on the north by Utah County, south by Sevier, west by 
Millard and Juab, and east by Emery. The Sevier River runs through the 
western part of the county. The Sanpitch is the only other stream of 
importance that runs through the county. The stream sinks into the ground 
opposite Ephraim west, and does not rise again until nearly opposite Manti 
west, a distance of about six miles south of the point where it disappears. 
The people of this county suffered greatly for years on account of grass- 
hoppers and Indian raids. The population is growing very rapidly. Th^rc 
are several cities and any number of thriving settlements in the county. 

Manti, the county seat of Sanpete county, was incorporated February 
6, 1851,'with an area of ten square miles. Klections are held biennially. In 
it are located four saw mills, three grist mills and two carding machines. It 
has three churches, Latter-day Saints, W. T. Reid and Hans Jensen, bishops; 
and one Presbyterian, Rev. G. W. Martin, pastor; four schools and four 
schoolhouses, district and Presbyterian; one theatre and two libraries — the 
Manti libniryand Young Men's library; also three societies: Relief Society, 
Young Men*s and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. 
The citizens are principally eng.i^ed in farming. Manti is located very 
nearly the centre of the county, is most important in point of population, 
and perhaps in wealth. It is here, also, the Manti Temple is beinjr erected. 
The city is thriving and growing rapidly. It has mail communication daily, 
Sundays expected. ^ 

Ephraim City is the third city in the county in point of popula- 
tion, and is perhaps the equal of any in importance. It is centrally located 
on the east side of the valley, being seven miles northeast of Manti. The 
people are principally Europeans and mainly belong to the Scandinavian 
race. They are very thrifty, and exceedingly well-to-do. While no colossal 
fortunes are possessed by any of its inhabitants, the people are nearly all in 
comparatively affluent circumstances, and it is a question if there is another 
city m the Territory where the distribution of wealth is so nearly equal. Its 
population is about 2,300. It was incorporated February 14, 1868, with an 
area of one and a-half square miles. Elections are held biennially. The 
principal industry of the citizens is farming. There are three churches, 
Latter-day Saints — C. C. N. Dorius and L. S. Anderson, bishops — and one 
Presbyterian, Rev. Mr. Martin, pastor; fivQ schools and three schoolhouses, 
with an average attendance of 250. The societies are: Young Men's and 
Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Associations. The Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association has also a library. Mail daily, Sunda}'S 

Spring City was incorporated February 11, 1870. Elections are held 
biennially. The principal industry of the inhabitants is farming. In this 
city there is a lumber and shingle mill. There is but one church, that of 
the Latter-day Saints, of which James A. Allred is bishop; four schools and 
three schoolhouses, district and Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 
135. Spring City has also a Relief Society, Young Men's and Young Ladies' 
Mutual Improvement and Primary Associations. The city is situated about 
nine miles northeast of Ephraim and some six miles south of Mount 


Mount Pleasant, situated in the northern part of the county, is a flour- 
ishing town, second only to Manti. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged 
in agriculture. Coal in abundance exists close by. The city was incorpor- 
ated February 20, 1868, and has an area of thirty square miles. Elections 
are held biennially, the first Monday in May. There are four churches, 
Latter-day Saints; W. S. Seely is bisnop of South Ward and M. P. Madsen 
of North Ward; and one Presbyterian and one Methodist; five schools and 
five schoolhouses, three district and one Presbyterian and one Methodist, 
with an average attendance of 225 pupils; one library, and the following, 
societies: Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associations 
and a Relief Society. 

Fairview, situated in the northern part of the county, was first setded 
under the name of the North Bend, in the winter of 1859-60, by James N. 
Jones, Lindsay A. Brady, Sr., Jehu Cox, Sr., Henry W. Sanderson and 
others. When a postoffice was established the name was changed to Fair- 
view. The city was incorporated February 16, 1872, and has an area of 
twenty square miles. Elections are held biennially, the first Monday in 
August. The principal industry of the citizens is farming. In it is located 
a large co-operative grist mill, which is in constant operation. There is one 
church. Latter-day Saints, Amasa Tucker, bishop; two schools and two 
schoolhouses, one district and one Presbyterian, with an average attendance 
of 164. Fairview Social Hall is where theatricals and other entertainments 
are held; Sunday school and Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associa- 
tion libraries exist. The societies are: Relief Society, Primary and Young 
Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. Fairview has 
a daily mail (Sundays excepted), via Sanpete Valley from the north, and 
semi-weekly via Denver and Rio Grande from the east. 

MoRor^i, located in the western part of the county, was first settled 
March 19, 1859, by G. W. Bradley, J. Woolf, I. Morley, H. Gustin, G. H. 
Bradley and Niels Cummings. The city was incorporated January 17, 1866, 
and has an area of twenty-one square miles; elections are held biennially. 
The citizens are chiefly engaged in farming; they receive a daily mail, Sun- 
days excepted. There are two churches, Latter-day Saints, John W. Irons, 
bishop, and a Presbyterian church ; five schools and five schoolhouses, four 
district and one Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 175. Moroni 
has also a library and the following societies: Relief Society, Young Men's 
and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations and a Primary 

Fayette, located on the west side of Sevier River, in the southwestern 
part of the county, was first settled, April 8, 1861, by James Bartholomew, 
James Mellon, Jacob Mackerdy, W. Wood and J. Draper. The present 
bishop of the ward is John Bartholomew. They have a tri-weekly mail. 

Mayfield, situated about ten miles south of Manti, the county seat, 
was first settled by a few persons from Gunnison in 1873, in 1874-75 over 
twenty families moved in from Ephraim and other parts of the county. It 
was then known as Aripeen, in honor of an old Indian chief who farmed 
there twenty years previous. July 10, 1877, the place was permanently 
organized and the name changed to the present one. O. C. Olsen is the 
present bishop. Mail b received three times a week. 

Gunnison, situated in the southwestern part of the county, was settled 
in i860; organized a ward with Jacob Kudgerson, bishop, 1861. The pres- 
ent bishop is C. A. Madsen. There is a daily mail. 

Chester, located about four miles west of Spring City, was setded in 
X882, by R. N. AUred, Joseph S. AUred, I. N. AJlred, H. C. H. Beek, 


George Farnworth, J. L. Ivie, David Candland, Sidney R. Allred, R. R. 
AUred and John Tilby. The present bishop of the ward is Redick N. Allred. 
They have a daily mail. 

Wales, the present terminus of the Sanpete Valley Railroad, and the 
shipping point for the c6al mines in the vicinity, was first settled in 1857, ^y 
John E. Kees, John H. Price, Thomas Campbell, George Mimer, David 
Hutchsen, Moses Gifford and Daniel Washburn. The present bishop of 
the ward is J. E. Rees. Mail is received daily. 

There are also Fountain Green, Connelsville, Draper, Dover, Petty- 
ville, Birch Creek and a few other small farming settlements located m 
different parts of the county. 

salt lake county. 

Salt Lake is the oldest, most populous and most important county 
in the Territory. The Valley of the Salt Lake is by no means comprised in 
this county, for it extends far beyond its borders. The Pioneeis were the 
first who settied in the valley, on that portion of it now embraced in the 
corporate limits of Salt Lake City. It has always been the most important, 
and there is no reason at present existing why it should not continue to hold 
that position in coming years. The county has almost double the popula- 
tion of any other, while its capital, Salt Lake City, has about four times the 
number of inhabitants that the next largest city boasts. The area of the 
county is not very large — it is less than one-third that of some other coun- 
ties, but it is much more thickly settled. Its area is not much over 1,200 
square miles. Salt Lake is a practical embodiment, or representative, of all 
the counties north of the southern rim of the Salt Lake Basin. It contains 
a great number of farms, which are utilized to the best advantage; its irri- 
gating system is the most perfect; all the minerals that have contributed to 
the wealth of other communities, excepting, perhaps, coal, are found in Salt 
Lake in great abundance and are unusually easy of excess. These conditions 
are a natural result, and while the energy and industry of the inhabitants 
have contributed in a large measure to the fortunate circumstances by which 
they are surrounded, the people of other sections are certainly deserving of 
more credit for the achievement of success in the face of greater difficulties 
than in this county where success has been comparatively easy — such a 
thing as ea^ being admitted as possible in connection with the development 
of any part ol the Territory. The natural tendency of wealth has been and 
still -is to concentrate here, where the capital of the Territory is; and trade 
has consequently followed, or come with it hand in hand. The earliest, and 
perhaps the richest mining districts in which ^old and silver, and lead and 
copper were found in abundance in the Territory, and which first excited 
attention, were discovered in this county. The Bingham or West Mountain 
and Ophir Mining Districts are inferior, il inferior at all, only to the Tintic 
Districts, in which it is admitted some of. the finest properties in the Oquirrh 
Range, in fact in the Territory, are located. There are also the Little Cot- 
tonwood and Big Cottonwood districts in the Wasatch Range, in both of which 
are hundreds of good properties, resembling the famous Park City districts. 
In this Territory no mmes have attracted such attention as the Emma and 
Flagstaff, and though for a long time they have fallen into disrepute, never- 
theless there are persons who believe the unfortunate cloud now overhanging 
these sections will yet pass away and that Big and Little Cottonwood Dis- 
tricts will prove to be the Comstocks of Utah. Even should this prediction 
fail of fulhlment Salt Lake County still has endless mineral deposits, which 
must contribute to her wealth, will still bring money into the county and 
help the development of all parts of the Territory. The most remarkable 
granite deposit exists in this county, and in Little Cottonwood Canyon. 


This has for years been a source of wealth. The Salt Lake Temple is built 
of granite quarried from this deposit, while frequent demands are made for 
it for other purposes. The Salt Lake Assembly Hall is also constructed 01 
the same stone. There are two woolen mills in the county; the largest tan- 
nery and shoe factory in the Territory ; numerous smelting and reduction 
and sampling works, lead pipe and white lead works — in fact every branch 
of industry known in the Territory will find itself represented to a 
greater or less extent in Salt Lake County by a similar industry. 
The only surprise, considering the great wealth of its population, 
the pro-ximity to the market, and the better knowledge of the people 
regarding the requirements of the Territory and what local indus- 
tries it will justify, is that a much greater interest has not been 
taken in manufactures. Of a population bordering on 35,000 souls, Salt 
Lake City itself has close on 25,000, which leaves 10,000 for the farming, 
mining and stock-raising inhabitants of the county. The east side of the valley 
is most thickly settled, because the Wasatch Range yields an abundance 
of water which is utilized for farming; while the low Oquirrh Range on the 
western side of the valley affords but few and insufficient streams. Canals 
are being constructed and artesian wells bored, which are assisting very 
materially in the more rapid settlement of the western half of the county, 
and give promise that, in a few years, it will not be behind the eastern half, 
with all Its natural advantages. The Jordan River, the outlet for Utah 
Lake, nms almost through the centre of the county and finds its way to 
Great Salt Lake. Considering the age of the county, its wealth and posi- 
tion, its public Courthouse is very inferior. The building is old, and while 
it answers the purpose, counties with one-seventh the population and one- 
tenth the income boast much more permanent and better-looking structures. 
The people, however, are very wealthy. They are wealthy in homes, in 
excellent farms, in a fine grade of cattle and horses, in manufactures, wealthv 
in fact in all that contributes to wealth and to its {permanent increase through 
economic resources. The mineral springs — I lot and Warm so called — are 
among the most noted in the West* while the Great Salt Lake is yearly 
visited by thousands who pass through this county to reach its shores- 
Davis and Morgan Counties bound Salt Lake on the north, Great Salt Lake 
and '^ooele on the west, Summit and Morgan on the east, and Utah County 
on the south. It is the centre of the richest, most thickly populated and 
best noted section of the Territory, and is a central point for nearly all the 
railroads in the Territory. Salt Lake City is not only the capital of the 
county, but of the Territory, and will be found more fully described -else- 
where, in connection with the general directory. 

Alta, the business centre of the Little Cottonwood Mining District, b 
situated near the summit of Little Cottonwood Canyon, at the foot of the 
famous Kmma Hill. At one time Alta was a populous and influential city, 
but a disastrous fire almost swept it away in the spring of 1878, and it has 
not been extensively rebuilt. It is seventeen miles from Sandy, twenty- 
eight miles, by rail, from Salt Lake, and is reached by the Alta branch of 
the Denver and Rio Grande Railway from Sandy. 

Bingham is situated about twenty-eight miles southwest of Salt Lake 
City, in Bingham Canyon, and is the central point of the West Mountain 
Mining District. In past years it enjoyed the reputation of being one of the 
most solid and reliable mining camps in the country, and through the enter- 
prise of the citizens and their pluck in combatting hard times, it has gained 
the appellation of the *'01d Reliable." The town is surrounded by numer- 
ous mines, the majority of which are turning out large quantities of paying 
ore. Bingham is reached by the Bingham branch of the Denver and Rio 
Grande Railway, of which it is the terminus. 


Sandy is situated twelve miles south of Salt Lake City, on the line of 
the Utah Central Railway and Denver and Rio Grande Railway at its junc- 
tion with the Alta and B;nghani branches. Although a small town, it is one 
of considerable importance. A largj portion of the ores from the Cotton - 
woods and Bingham Canyon are shipped there for sampling. After being 
tested, mucli of the ore remains in Sandy until sold, and the business of 
handling, transferring and shipping ores is the principal enterprise of the 
inhabitants. A number of smelters are located in the vicinity and in times 
of mining activity are in general operation, giving employment to a large 
number of men. It has one church. Latter-day Saints, £. Holman, bishop. 
Daily mail from north and south. 

Mill Creek was first settled in 1848; at that time Mill Creek and East 
Mill Creek were one ward. In 1849 the following parties moved in: John 
Neff and family, W. Park and family, Alexander Hill, William Casper and 
family, Robert Gardiner, Sr., Robert Gardiner, Jr., A. Gardiner, John 
Baroman, John Scott and Stephen Chipman. The present bishop is James C. 
Hamilton. Mail is received daily. 

Besides these there are in the county a number of thriving and rapidly 

f rowing settlements, including: Sugar House Ward, A. G. Driggs, bishop; 
armers* Ward, L. H. Mousley, bishop; East Mill Creek, John Neft* bishop; 
Big Cottonwood, D. B. Brinton, bishop; Union, I. Phillips, bishop; South 
Cottonwood, J. S. Rawlins, bishop; Granite, S. J. Despain, bishop; D/aper, 
I. M. Stewart, bishop; South Jordan, W. A. Bills, bishop; Herriman, James 
Crane, bishop; West Jordan, A. Gardiner, bishop; North Jordan, S. Ben- 
nion, bishop; Brighton, F. Schoenfield, bishop; Mountain Dell, W. B. 
Hardy, bishop; Pleasant Green, L. M. Hardman, bishop; Highland^ 
Argenta, Butlerville, North and Wasatch. 


Sevier and Sanpete Counties probably suffered more than any oth'er 
portions of the Territory from Indian attacks. Any one who lived m those 
places seventeen or eighteen years ago will well recollect the dread in which 
the Indians were held; how many lives were lost and how much property 
destroyed. At one time all the settlements in Sevier County south of Rich- 
field were broken up and deserted before the arrival of the Militia which 
assisted in restoring order. The effect of these constant and aggravated 
assaults was materially to retard developments in these sections and particu- 
larly in Sevier, where the population was not so great as in Sanpete. Sevier 
County is so named because of the river which runs through it. The 
county is excellent in grazing country, and is inferior only to Sanpete in its 
capacity for the raising of grain. For years the horses of Sevier Coun«^y 
have been noted, and until within a recent period were accounted, among 
the best breed in the Territory. The Sevier River runs northwest along 
the eastern part of the county, and it is on either side of the river that 
excellent pasturage is found, while in the same valley is also the best farm- 
ing section of the county. The mines in Marysville District and elsewhere, 
have been of the greatest benefit to Sevier, as it has no other outlet. Grain 
trom Sevier to be brought up to the general market, has to be hauled a very 
long distance by wagon before railroad can be reached. This lack of ready 
and cheap transportation has operated seriously against the more rapid 
growth and development of the county. The opening of the mines in 
Marysville and the active operation of the antimony works, both in Piute 
County, would overcome, in a large measure, these drawbacks ; but the dis- 
advantages arising to the former because of the absence of cheap transpor- 
tation, effect the mining interests similarly, and until the one is relieved, 
unless there should be a great deal more profit in mining, the other is likely 


also to be dull. The pushing forward of the Sanpete Valley Railroad, as is 
at present contemplated, through Sanpete, into and through Sevier, and as 
far as the mines of Piute county, would relieve both interests. If it be 
taken for^'ard to Manti even, some twenty miles will have been cut off which 
will be of great benefit. It has long been thought that both Sevier and San- 
pete, were there railroad intercourse with markets, could raise vegetables 
very profitably, the soil in both instances being well adapted to them, and it 
would give rest to land that has been strained in yielding cereals. Be that 
as it may, a railroad, to live in that section, would have to be moderate in 
its tariffs and moderate tariffs with the rapid transformation rail communi- 
cation gives, would go far towards obliterating the geographical conditions 
now operating against Sevier Valley. Sevier and Piute Counties were set- 
tled the same year, 1865. The greater part of and the more important towns 
lie along and follow the course of the Sevier River. Sevier County is 
bounded by Sanpete on the north, Emery on the east, Piute on the south 
and Millard on the west. 

Richfield was incorporated February 22d, 1878, with an area of two 
miles square. It is the county^ seat of Sevier County; elections are held 
biennially, on the first Monday in August; the chief industry of the citizens 
is tinning and stock-raising. There are four churches, latter-day Saints, 
J. S. Horn, P. Poulson, bishops; Presbyterian, Rev. P. I). Stoops, pastor: 
and Josephite, or Reorganized Church of latter-day Saints, J. C. Christian- 
sen, president; two schools and three schoolhouses, district and Presbyterian, 
with an average attendance of 150; two libraries, Sunday school and Young" 
Men's Mutual Improvement Association. The societies are: Relief 
Society and Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Asso- 

Salina is situated on the Sevier River, at the north end of the county, 
and is a place of growing importance. The principal industry of the citizens 
is that of the inhabitants of the county generally. The Mutual Improve- 
ment, Relief and other societies have bninches m Salina. Jens Jensen is 
bishop of the Latter-day Saints' Church here. 

Vermillion was first settled in 1873, by Henry Nebeker, who located 
on the east side of the Sevier River, but the town proper was not settled 
until March i8th, 1874, on the west side of the river, by Peter Gottfredson, 
Isaac Smith, David Lufelt, R. Lufelt, Frank Beal and J. K. Sampson. It 
was organized as a ward October 8th, 1876, and Peter Gottfredson was 
appointed bishop. 

Cii-ENVVooi), situated on the east side of Sevier River, and about four 
miles directly east from Richfield, the county seat, was first settled in 1864, by 
Robert W. (rlen. The present bishop is A. T. Oldroyd. It has a daily mail. 

Joseph, located in the extreme southwestern comer of the county, 011 
the west side of Sevier River, was first settled in 1865, but owing to the 
Indian war was abandoned, and re-scttled in 1873 by a company sent out by 
Joseph A. Young. There is one church, Latter-day Saints, G. A. Murdock 
bishop, and a district school with an average attendance of forty. Mail is 
received three times per week. 

There are also Monroe, Elsinore, Aurora, Annabella, Inverury and 
several other small settlements in the county. 


Summit County was settled, in 1S53, by Samuel Snider, who built saw 
mills in Parley's Park. The county was organized in 1861. There arc few 
better known sections of Utah, oiitside of Salt Lake and Weber Counties, 




perhaps, than is embraced in Summit. It is known because of the vastness 
and the varied character of the mineral resources found within its bound- 
aries. Among other minerals are gold, silver, lead, copper, fire clay, coal, 
limestone, salt, iron, sulphur, sandstone, mica. etc. Its coal fields first, 
however, brought it into prominence and were the occasion for the building 
of a short line of railroad, known as the Summit County Railroad, which 
was subsequently dismantled and abandoned. The coal fielcjs in this county 
have been more thoroughly developed than in any other part of the Terri- 
tory, and are apparently inexhaustible. Orass Creek and Coalville are in the 
vicmity of large coal deposits, which are likely to yield as heavily as the 
demands require for an indefinite period. The discovery of precious metals, 
however, was the occasion for a heavy influx of miners and men with capital, 
and the county is to-day the scene of more active mining operations than 
any other place in Utah. It is in this county that the famous Ontario mine 
is situated; while the yield of metals aggregates a larger amount than is 
derived from any other place of the same area in the west. There are any 
number of paying mines in the district, and the work throughout is most 
thorough, rark City was the outgrowth of precious metal discoveries, as Coal- 
\^ille was the outgrowth of the coal deposits. The prominence attained by 
Park City and the demand for coal, not only there, but for cheaper fuel else- 
where, resulted in the building of the Utah Eastern Railroad from Coalville 
to Park City, a distance of twenty-five miles, referred to more fully in the 
chapter on Railroads. The outgrowth of the Utah Eastern was the building 
of a branch line of the Union Pacific from Echo to Park City, a distance of 
thirty-two miles, which is still in operation, w^hile the Utah Eastern has fallen 
into the hands of the Union Pacific. Be that as it may, the discovery of so 
many valuable mines called into the county a vast amount of money, 
created new classes of employment, requiring additional laborers, and gave 
a ready cash market for the products of the farming population of the 
county. It also gave value to the coal mines that were practically valueless 
before, because the Union Pacific saw fit not to haul Summit County coal 
into the market, and it could not be done by wagon at a competitive figure. 
In this way Summit County has largely been built up; and while the greater 
part of its population is agricultural, the money brought in by the mines 
has been invaluable. Wyoming Territory and Morgan County bound Sum- 
mit County on the north, Uintah on the east, Wasatch on the south, and 
Salt Lake and Morgan on the west. Besides the two roads mentioned, the 
main line of the Union Pacific cuts through the northwestern part of Summit 
County. The Bear River runs through this county, while the Weber River 
and a number of smaller streams give ample opportunities for irrigating 
purposes. This county also contains a large area of excellent grazing land, 
and is blessed with a variety of favorable conditions that few localities can 
boast. It should be wealthy, thickly populated and very prosperous. 

Coalville is the county seat of Summit County. This city was first 
settled in 1859, by Henry B. Wild, A. B. Williams, William H. Smith and 
others. The city was incorporated January 16, 1867, and has an area of 
twenty square miles. Elections are held biennially. The Utah Eastern has 
its terminus here, and the Echo and Park City Railroad passes through it. 
It is the supply centre for the large coal mines adjacent; consequently the 
chief industry of the inhabitants is coal mining. There is but one church 
here, Latter-aay Saints, Robert Salmon, bishop; but occasionally Congrega- 
tional services are held in the schoolhouse. It has three schools and three 
schoolhouses, two district and one New West Educational Association, with 
an average attendance of 200. It has also one subscription library and the 
following societies: Relief Society, Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement and Primary Associations. It has a daily mail. 


Park City is an incorporated city. It is essentially a mining town. 
It is not only by long odds the largest, but it gives evidence of the p^reatest 
permanence ol any place in the Tei ritory, the inhabitants of which -rely 
upon mining and dejjendent industries for a livelihood. Its great feeder is 
the Ontario, though it is the supply town for innumerable smaller mining 
camps in the districts by which it is surrounded. Miners, having families, 
have secured homes in Park City and vicinity if their work justifies, and it is 
here the miners gather when released from labor. The result is a large 
amount of money is in circulation. It has two or three churches and some 
schools, but the uncertain character of a majority of the people, while they 
do not affect the prosperity of the city— as their places are filled upon 
departure, if work is good — still prevents that more perfect organization jol 
society which results from the assurance of permanence. Park City is a 
marvel in its way. Its population, however, is a mining population, with the 
addition of industries dependent upon mining and upon community exist- 

Peoa, located on the east side of the Weber River, about seven miles 
northwest of Kamas, was first settled in April, 1860 by James Garne**^ 
William Milliner, David O. Rideout, John Neel, C. W. Shippen, IS. 
A. Miles. Orrin S. Lee, Henry Barnum, John Barnum and Jacob M. 
Truman. The first house was built by H. Barnum and J. Truman. The 
town has a population of between 300 and 400 people; during the year 
about 17,000 bushels of small grain is raised, and about 800 tons of hay cut 
and stacked. There are two business houses, a flour mill, two steam saw 
mills, one lath and one shingle mill and two water-power saw mills, but 
owing to the length and severity of the winter little progress is made. 
Stephen Walker is the present bishop of the ward. Mail is received on 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday of each week. 

Kamas, situated about twelve miles east of Park City, was first designed 
in 1858 as a herd ground by Thomas Rhoads and was known as Rhoads' 
Valley; in i860, he, with a few families, settled there and in 1862 a ward was 
organized with William G. Russell as presiding eider. The people lived in 
a lort until 1870 when a city survey was made and they moved out on their 
lots. S. F. Atwood is the present bishop. Mail is received three times a 

Parley's Park was first settled by Samuel Snider, in 1855. George M. 
Pace is at present bishop of the ward. The nearest postoffice is Park City. 

Upton was settled June 17, 1865, by Joseph Huff. Upton mail is 
received at Coalville, the nearest post office. John Clark is bishop of the 

Woodland Ward was organized July 24, 1881. The ward consists 
of thirty-seven families, twelve on the south bank of Provo River, in Wasatch 
County, and twenty-five on the north bank, in Summit County. The nearest 
postoffice is Kamas, five miles distant. 

Wanship is a flourishing little town on the Hne of the Echo and Park 
and Utah Eastern Railways. It has one church, Latter-day Saints, with 
Jared C. Roundy bishop. 

Echo is essentially a railroad town, and is situated at the junction of 
the Utah Eastern, Echo and Park City and Union Pacific Railways. The 
only church is the Latter-day Saints', of which Elias Asper is bishop. 

There are also Wasatch, Castle Rock, Emory, Hoytsville and Hen- 
nefer; also Hailstone, Rockport and a few smaller setdements in different 
sections of the county. 



Tooele, also, is one of those counties a large porti )n of which is 
composed of the Great American Desert, as is the case with Box Elder, 
Millard and other counties; that is, at a distant date it was the bed of a por- 
tion of what is now Great Salt Lake. The county was first settled in 1849 
by John Rowbery; the same year the survey of Great Salt Lake was made 
by Captain Stansbury and Lieutenant Gunnison. A very large portion oi 
it is composed of the desert, which renders it absolutely uninhabitable by 
the agriculturist. Like the whole of the country lying in the vicinity of the 
Oquirrh Range, however, it is rich in mirerals of great varieties. Besides 
eold, silver, lead and similar metals, large beds of saleratus and unusual 
depos'ts of ochre have been found, not to mention fertilizers and other 
articles of great value ir commerce in some portions of the world. Some of 
the earliest mining developments are connected with this county, and Ophir 
District — in its boundaries — was for a period one of the most prominent min- 
ing sections in the Territory. In area, Tooele is one of the largest counties 
in the Territory. The State of Nevada forms its western boundary line; 
Juab County is on the south. Box P21der on the north and Salt Lake and 
Utah Counties on the east. Great Salt Lake runs into the northeast corner 
of the county. Through Millard, Juab and Tooele can be found the dry 
bed of an old river, which found its outlet into Great Salt Lake. This bed 
can be traced from Great Salt Lake to Sevier Lake, and beyond question at 
one time the waters of the Sevier River and other streams, after being gath- 
ered into the Sevier Lake basin, were carried off through this now dry river 
bed into Great Salt Lake. It is said, •ven now, if the waters of Sevier 
Lake should raise ten or fifteen feet above the present usual line, the dry 
river bed would again receive the waters of the lake, which would once more 
find their way to the Dead Sea of America. Such an event is as highly 
improbable as anything that can well be imagined; but if it ever were real- 
ized in fact, Sevier Lake would become a fresh water body, and large tracts 
of land along the old river course would become valuable for farming pur- 
poses. Tooele has been noted more for its grazing than for its agricultural 
resources: but for the amount of arable land that exists in the county, there 
is little better. Since mining has ceased to be as prominent an industry as 
heretofore, stock-raising has been the means of bringing much wealth mto 
the county. It is remarkable both for the number and excellence of its 
horses, and for its cattle. The proximity to the lake, with the saline breezes 
coming from it, prevents a very deep accumulation of snow, while the large 
tracts of desert land make admirable pasturage in the spring and a reason- 
ably mild grazing ground, in the winter. The populated portion of the 
county lies along the Oquirrh Range, or between the Oquirrh and the Cedar 
Ranges. A small sheet of water, called Rush Lake, lies some distance 
southwest from Tooele» the capital of the county, and near Stockton, at 
which latter place, in years past, •there was a good deal of activity on 
account of the mines in the vicmity. S:ileratus is a very prominent mineral 
in the county and exists in such quantities that profitable industrial utiliza- 
tion could be made of it. Sulphur is also found in considerable quantities, 
together with iron, coaI, copper, fire clav, lime rock, salt, granite, sand- 
stone, marble, mica and any quantities of ochres, from which paints can be 
manufactured. As a county possessiuT" general natural resources, few places 
exceed Tooele, while its proximity to Salt Lake City makes it a little sur- 
prising that some of these resources have not been uulized in manufactures 
before this date. The materials also exist in this county, as in others, to 
manufacture glass and crockery-ware in any quantities. When the manu- 
facturing interests of Utiih shall begin to receive that interest and attention 
which her economic resources will justify, Tooele County, because of its 


resources and because of its location, must attain an importance few expect 
for it now. Tooele County has two incorporated cities, one by the same 
name as the county and the capital, and Grantsville, some distance north- 
west and nearer the lake. The Utah and Nevada Railway, narrow-gauge, 
runs some distance into the county, its terminus being at a point near Stock- 
ton, and a few miles beyond Tooele. The Salt Lake and Western Railroad, 
broad-gauge, runs through a portion of the southeastern part of the county. 

Tooele City, county seat of Tooele County, was incorporated January 
13, 1853. It has an area of three mile;s scjuare. and is situated on the line of 
the Utah and Nevada Railway. Its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agri- 
culture and stock-raising. It has two churches. Latter-day Saints, Thomas 
Atkin, Jr., bishop, and Methodist, J. D. Gillilan, pastor. Two common 
schools, and three schoolhouses with an average attendance of 190. The 
Social and Spiers* Halls are used as places of amusement. It has one pub- 
lic library. The societies are Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual 
Improvement Associations, and the Relief Society. Elections are held 
biennially. Daily mail. 

Grantsville was . incorporated January 12, 1867, and has an area of 
eighteen square miles; elections arc held biennially. The only church is 
Latter-day Saints, with Edward Hunter, bishop. There are tour schools 
and three schoolhouses, three district and one Methodist, with an average 
attendance of 150. The two places of amusement are the City and 
Anderson's Hall. There are two libraries, the Sunday school and Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Association. The Relief Society and Young 
Men*s and Young Ladies' MutuaT Improvement Associations constitute the 
benevolent and intellectual organizations of the city. Mail, daily. 

E. T. City was first settled in 1854, by Peter Maughan, G. W. Biyan, 
George Baker, Mr. Leavitt and others. William F. Moss is bishop of Ae 
ward. l1iey have a daily mail. 

Lake View was first settled in i860, by Orson Pratt, George Marshall, 
Moses Martin, John B. Smith, Adam Smitn, A. C. Shields and R. Shields. 
There is no postoffice at this point; Tooele is the nearest postoffice. Moses 
Martin is bishop. 

St. John, situated about eight miles southwest of Stockton, was first 
settled in 1858, by Luke Johnson, who was appointed bishop when the ward 
was first organized. The present bishop is George W. Burridge. Mail 
three times a week. 

Stockton, near the terminus of the Utah and Nevada Railway, situ- 
ated about six miles southwest of Tooele, the county seat, was at one time 
a flourishing mining town, but owing to the suspension of work, to a large 
extent, in the adjacent mines, it has gradually declined in activity. In it 
are located two smelters, the Watennan and Chicago, both of which are 
lying idle. 

There arc also in the county, Erda, lakeside, Vernon, Cannon, Centre, 
Rush Lake, Ophir, Lewiston, Jacob City, Knowlton, Deep Creek, Clover, 
Bullionville, Hooper, Rock Sprmgs, Beckwith and a few other small places, 
besides numerous ranches scattered throughout the eastern half of the 


Uintah is a county with excellent prospects. The county was organ- 
ized in 1880. It is bounded on the east by Colorado Territory, south by 
Emery County, north by Wyoming, and on the west by Summit, Wasatch and 


Emery Counties. One thin y that has tended to retard its development is 
that the Uncompahgre and Ute Indian Agencies are located in this county and 
the uncertainty that attached, for a long time, because o\ their presence. This- 
feeling is now abating on account of the continued peaceful relations main- 
tained between the Indians and settlers. Though but liitle used, and 
consequently imperfectly developed, there are immerse coal beds in this 
county, and coal of several varieties. Many other minerals are known to 
exist, but none have been brought into conunercial value any more than 
has coal. In this county, as in Lmery, ozocerite has been discovered, while 
crude petroleum forces its way out of the ground. It is to be regretted 
that no attempts have been made to develop these natural resources, seem- 
ingly trying to force themselves on the attention. There is no reason why 
petroleum in quantities could not be found in these counties and none what- 
ever why, in the event of its being discovered in sufficient quantities, it 
should not become a source of profit and the means of forwarding the 
development of the counties in which it is found. Certainly no large amount 
of money would be required to demonstrate the practicability of making 
petroleum from these flowing wells, and the results, in case the tests were 
favorable, would more than justify the e.\periment. The disposition to 
depend on outside help for internal developments will result unfortunately 
in days when the evil of such a course cannot be rectified. Mineral wax is 
is also found in the county, and there is little doubt that the more precious 
metals afe among the discoveries time is likely to see realized. For 
years past Uintah County has been almost exclusively a stock-raising sec- 
tion, and by many was considered one of the best ranges in the Territory. 
Lately, farming has been more generally introduced by the inflowing of a 
new class of people — agriculturists rather than stockmen — and the county is 
making an aamirable showing in the amount of grain raised per acre. Thb 
is another instance of the abundance of room Utah affords for further set- 
tlement, notwithstanding the very unfortunate surmise that her sustaining 
capacity had been attained. What with the vast tracts of land yet 
untouched, the endless variety and inexhaustible character of the minerals 
found within her borders, and the manifold industries that will yet be estab- 
lished upon the resources to be found in Uintah and every other county in 
the Territory, the population of each of the counties should range into the 
hundreds of thousands. Be that as it may, Uintah, like most of the other 
outlying counties, particularly those touching the eastern boundary line of 
the Territory, is rapidly being developed, and bids fair soon to rival many 
of the older counties with greater advantages. There are several streams in 
the county, the White River being among the number. The Green River^ 
one of the largest rivers in the Territory, runs through Uintah County from 
the northeast to the southwest, and for some distance, at the southwestern 
comer, divides Emery from Uintah County. There are ample water facili- 
ties, and ample room for growth. 

Ashley is the principal place in Uintah, and is the capital of the 
county. It is situated near the centre of the northern half of the county, 
and is a place of considerable prospects. ♦None of the settlements are large, 
and such as do exist are generally in the northern portion of the county. 
Besides Ashley there are Brown's Park, White Rocks and some other 
small places. A few years will see marked changes in the map of this 


Utah County is second only to Salt Lake County in point of popula- 
tion and importance. The first settlers in Utah County built a fort near the 
present site of Provo City, the parties being about thirty in number, and 
ambng them, John and Isaac Higbee. Safe as this county is to-day, the 


arly inhabitants were not without trouble from the Indians. The natural 
idvantiges this section presented, however, were so g^reat that it was impos- 
sible it should be of slow growth. Taken throughout, Utah stands on 
the same plane as Salt Lake and Cache Counties for the excellence of its 
forming areas and the variety and quantity of crops grown. It resembles 
the latter county in the determined efforts making to raise the standard ol 
stock, and its inhabitants are perhaps wealthier. Of course, it is much 
older and has had whatever advantage might be derived from a closer prox- 
imity to the capital of the Territory. It is bounded on the north by Salt 
Lake County, cast by Wasatch, south by Juab and Sanpete and west by Juab 
and Tooele. Gold, $ilvcr, lead, copper, fire clay, coal, lime rock, some 
salt, mineral wax, iron, sulphur, granite, sandstone, marble, mica, gypsum, 
ozocerite, peat, etc. , are among the metals and metalloids discovered up to 
date. Like Cache County, however, no material developments have been 
made in the mining industry, and for the same rea.sons. The proximity of 
the county to the siines of Tintic, in Juab County, have helped the already 
excellent market which the people of Utah County enjoyed. While the 
progress of Utah County has ever been marked, the last two or three years 
nas seen an unusual awakening of energy and interest and developments in 
material directions to an unusual degree. Part of this awakening is undoubt- 
edly due to the completion of the Denver and Rio Grande, and the 
opportunities given the business men of Provo City and the county in gen- 
eral to enter into active competition with the merchants of Salt Lake, with 
a view to building up their own trade. By far the most important branch 
of industry in the Territory has been carried on in Provo City for a number 
of years — the Provo Woolen Manufacturing Compiiny's Mills. These milb 
were built at a tremendous expense, considering the condition of 
the Territory when the colossal enterprise was undertaken. Its capacity is 
equal to that of nearly all the other mills in the Territory combined 
Under active and energetic management it has done much to bring articles 
of IoctI manufacture into a repute calculated largely to exclude importations; 
and while the characteristic indifference of communities has given only too 
little encouragement, the mills have still, by energy of the management 
and excellence of the wares, arrived at a b^isis at which it is possible to 
compete with imported goods and still make a profit. This undertaking 
alone and its successful battling against such a fatal obstacle as indifference 
are evidence of the energy and determination that have become character- 
istics of its thrifty community. Fifty miles of railroad, running from 
Springville up Spanish Fork Canyon to Pleasant Valley, now incorporated 
in the Denver jyid Rio Grande main line, were built by citizens of Spring- 
ville. and mainly through the efforts of N. and M. Packard. Such a single- 
handed undertaking is a further evidence. The county has exceptional 
water advantigcs and they have been made the most of. Flour, lumber, 
shingle and different industries of a power chanacter have been founded all 
over the county and have grvAvn to be sources of profit and means of independ- 
ence. Utah' County is also singularly independent; that is, it is withm her 
power to be as much so as any section of the Territory. The Utah Central 
Railroad runs through the entire length of the county and almost through 
the centre, while the Denver and Rio Grande comes down Spanish Fork 
Canyon, from that point also runs through the whole length of the county. 
These two roads give this section unusual facilities for trans[K>rtation. The 
county itself affords a most excellent market for much of its own products, 
the result being that fair prices are maintained. Other counties less fortunate 
as to location are glad to get lo to 20 per cent, less for the same article. 
The greatest fresh water body in the Territory is situated here — Utah Lake. 
Its length is almost forty miles, and its average width ten miles. The larger 
cities and towns are situated in close pro.ximity to this lake. The best farm- 


ing land in the county, unexcelled for general purposes, in the Territory, 
lies between this lake and the Wasatch Range, close to which most of tne 
towns nestle. The range here is unusually high, the elevation culminating 
at the southern extremity of the county in Mount Nebo. Several fine 
streams flow from these mountains into the county and make its water facili- 
ities unsurpassed. The main stream, or river, is the Timpanogos, which' 
rises in Wasatch County and flows through the Provo Canyon, noted for its 
beauty and grandeur, into the valley, and is the principal feeder of the lake. 
This lake is the receptacle for all the waters flowing into the county when 
they are not consumed in irrigation. In point of population, Utah is the. 
second county in the Territory, and it is consequently making the greatest 
strides in puolic directions. It has a fine County Court House, at which. 
the sessions of the First Judicial District are held, for the southern half of 
the district. The court house is in Provo City. The Territorial Insane 
Asylum, the finest building in the Territory, is also being erected in Utah 
County. One wing is ready for occupancy. The site is beautiful. It 
nestles under a high bluflfof the Wasatch Range, directly east of the prin- 
cipal street in Provo City, and commands a fine view of that city and of. 
most of the valley; while the lake lies calm and peaceful within half an 
hour's ride. The whole county is full of beauty ; along the windings of the 
Timpanogos, or Provo River, up the canyon through which it rushes; on 
the borders of the lake, or in the pleasant fields made rich and fair by the- 
energy of an industrious people, m any light, the county is beautiful, is 
wealthy. It has all the elements essential to prosperity, and the impetus. 
now manifested continued for a few years will aemonsirate how powerful is. 
the latent energy in its boundaries. Manufacturing and agriculture should 
go hand in hand in this county as they have commenced. Provo City is 
the capital of the county and is one of the four principal cities of the Terri- 
ritory. A more complete description of this city is given in connection, 
with the general directory appearing in another part of the work. 

Alpine City was first settled in 1850, by Isaac Houston, M. Phelps, 
William Nisewanger, Charles S. Petterson, Hyrum Nelson, George Pickup,. 
William Wardsworth, John M. Wiser, George Patten. James Holmes and 
Isaac H. Vail. The city was incorporated January 19, 1855, and has an 
area of two miles square. Elections are held biennially. The principal 
industry of the citizens is farming and stock-raising. The only churcn ia 
Latter-day Saints, Thomas J. McCullough, bishop. There is one school 
and one schoolhouse, district, with an average attendance of forty-two; also 
a theatre and public library consisting of 400 volumes. The societies are: 
Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement and Primary Associ- 
ations, Relief Society and Alpine Literary Association. 

American Fork, situated on the line of the Utah Central and Denver 
and Rio Grande Railways, was first settled in the fall of 1850; was organ- 
ized as a Latter-day Saints' ward May 25, 1851, with L. E. Harrington^ 
bishop. Following are the names of the first settlers : Arza Adams, Stephen 
Chipman, N. Guyman; James Guyman, L. E. Harrington, J. S. Eldredge, M, 
Caldwell, Hyrum* Mott, Sr., Israel Mott, Stephen Mott, John Cole, Berrit 
Covington, Solomon Thomas, Captain Lorenzo Clark, John Mercer, Will- 
iam Greenwood, James Crooks, David Dixon, William Dixon — each one 
accompanied by his family — and Thomas Crooks and George Crooks. The 
dty was incorporated June 4, 1853, and has an area of twenty-two square 
miles. Elections are held biennially, on the second Monday in February. 
The citizens are chiefly engaged in farming and stock-raising. It has twa 
churches, Latter-day Saints, W. M. Bromley, bishop, and Presbyterian^ 
Rev* T. F. Day, pastor; five schools and three schoofhouses, four district 
and one Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 425. Entertainments 


are given in the City Hall, and a theatre, erected last winter by a company. 
ThLTo are two libraries, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association and 
Sunday school. The societies are: Young M^n's and Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Associations, Relief Society and Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. Two mails are received daily, one via Utah Central Railway, 
the other via Denver and Rio Grande Railway. 

Benjamin, situated about midway between Utah Lake and Payson, on 
the Utah Central Railway, was first se^^tled by parties from Payson m 1668. 
Progress was slow until 1870, when setders came from other parts of the 
county. Since then it has been in a prosperous condition. It has a popu- 
lation of about 350 and is under the same bishopric and has the same post- 
office address as l^ayson. There is one church. Latter-day Saints, 6. F*. 
Stewart, presiding elder; one school and one schoolhouse, district, with an 
average attendance of thirty-five. There arc also Young Men's and Young 
Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associations and a Relief Society. 

Cedar Fort, situated in the northwestern part of the county, was first 
•ettleJ by Alfred BjU, C. Fhom is, Allen Weeks, Eli Bennetc and others, in 
October, 1852; was organized a ward in 1853, with Allen Weeks, bishop, 
but owing to ill health he resigned and was succeeded by H. F. Cook. 
After his death, Eli liennett, the present bishop, was appointed. Mail three 
times a week. 

Clinton was first settled by Orvil Cox, Hyrum Seely, James Burne, 
John Spencer and John Cox. Was orgm.zed a \\<\Vs\, August 16, 1880, 
with John Spencer, bishop. Mail is received from north twice a week, and 
twice from the south. 

Goshen, located in the southwestern part of tlie county, was first 
settled in 1856, by Phineas Cook and a few others, who built a small fort. 
In 1859 they moved out of the fort and built in city form: owing to ihe poor 
quality of the soil they moved a tew miles larther north in i86j, but fojnd 
it not much better. In 1869 the present site was located by President 
Brigham Y-oung. William Price is bishop of the ward. Mail is brought 
from Payson on horseback three times a week. 

Lehi City, situated on the line of the Utah Central and Denver and 
Rio Grando, was incorporated February 5th, 1852, and has an area of 
fifteen square miles. Elections are held biennially the second Monday in 
February. The principal industry of the inhabitants is iarming. There are 
two churches. Latter-day Saints, Thomas R. Cutler, bishop, and a Congre- 
gational church. Two schools and ^\<i schoolhouses, district and New West 
Educational Association, with an average attendance of 375. It has also a 
music hall and Young People's Library; the Relief Socieiy, Young Men's 
and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement and Primary are the associations* 
Daily mail. 

Payson City, situated on the line of the Utah Central Railroad, was 
incorporated January 21st, 1853, ^"^ '^^i> a" ^^rea of nine square miles. 
Elections are held biennially the second Monday in February. The princi- 
pal-industry of the citizens is Iarming and stock-raising. In it are located 
two grist mills, one machine shop and one steam saw mill, all of which are 
constantly in operation. There are two churches, Latter-day Saints; Joseph 
S. Tanner, bishop, and Presbyterian, J. A. L. Smith, pastor; six sclK>ob 
and six schoolhouses, (i\/Q district and one Presbyterian, with an average 
attendance of 240. The places of amusement are: Payson Opera House» 
50x80 feet, with a seating capacity of 800. It is the finest and best equipped 
theatre outside of Salt Lake City, in Utah; and Huish's Hall. Payson has 


libraries belonging to the Sunday school and Mutual Improvement Associa- 
tions. There are also a Relief Society, and Young Men*s and Young* 
Mutual Improvement Associations. Mail, daily. 

Pleasant Grove, situated on the line of the Utah Central Railway, 
was first settled September 13, 1850, by G. S. Clark, J. G. Holman, Lewis 
Harry, Charles Pine, Lewis Robison and C. W. Moore. The city was 
incorporateil January 19, 1855, and- has an area of sixteen square miles. 
Elections are held biennially, the second Monday in February. The prin- 
cipal industry of the citizens is farming, though stock-raising is carried on 
to some extent. There is but one church, the Latter-day Saints, John 
Brown, bishop. There are four schools and four schoolhouses, three dibtrict 
and one Presbyterian Mission, with an average attendance of 300. The 
building known as Clark's Hall is used as a place of amusement. There is 
also a library. The societies are: Primary and Young Men's and Young 
Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations, and a Relief Society. Daily 

Spanish Fork, situated on the line of the Utah Central Railway, was 
incorporated January 19, 1855, and has an area of nine square miles. Elec- 
tions are held biennially. The citizens are chiefly enjj.iged in farming. 
There are two churches. Latter-day Saints, G. D. Snell, bishop, and Presby- 
terian, Rev. Mr. Leonard, pastor; six schools and five schoolhouses, (\we 
district and one Presbyterian. Morrison's Theatre and City Hall are 
the two places of amusement. There are also Sunday .school and Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Association libraries. The societies are: Relief 
Society, and Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Asso- 
ciations. Spanish Fork is one of the most populous and prosperous cities 
in Utah County. Mail is received daily. 

Spri.vgville was first settled October i, 1850, by A. Johnson, M. N. 
Crandal, W. Miller and John M. Deal. The city was mcorporated in 1852. 
Elections are held biennially. There are two churches. Latter-day Saints, 
Neph*i Packard, bishop, and Presbyterian, Rev. George Leonard, parson; 
six schools and Hwe schoolhouses, five district and one Presbyterian, with an 
average attendance of 300. They have two libraries, Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Association and City Library. The societies are as follows: 
Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations, Relief 
Society and Ancient Order of United Workmen. The city is pleasantly 
located six miles south of Provo, the county seat, on the'line of the Utah 
Central and Denver and Rio Grande Railways. In it are located a flouring 
mill and woolen factory. It has also a fine theatre, erected by the Spring- 
ville Theatrical Company. The building is large and commodious, having 
a seating capacity of 600, large stage and good scenery. The citizens are 
principally engaged in iarmmg. Mail is received daily from north and 

Salem, situated a short distance northeast of Payson, was first settled 
in 1856, by Royal Durfee, Truman Tryon, A. Hopper, Cyrus Hillman, 

{acob Killion, Jacob Hawes and Thomas Killion. It was then known as 
*ond Town. There is a Latter-day Saints' Church, C. D. Evans, bishop ; a 
district school, with an average attendance of sixty; a Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Assodation Library; also a Primary Association, Relief 
Society and Young Men's and Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associ- 
ations. The citizens are engaged in larming and stock-raising. Some atten- 
tion is also paid to the cultivation of fish in the waters near by. Mail, three 
times a week. 

Santaquin, on the line of the Utah Central Railway, was first settled 
in 1852; owing to Indian hostilities was abandoned in 1853 and permanently 


settled in 1856 by B. F. Johnson, A. Sherman, J. Hollman, Isaac Morley, 
W. B. Maxwell, M. Rowe, William Goddard, A. BuUerfield, C. Montrose, 
R. Openshaw, Eli Openshaw, Robert Collett, Thomas Morgan, W. Head, 
William Black, George Black, Joseph Black, John Mathews, W. Dowdley, 
George Johnson, James Rister, Joseph Allen, Joseph McFate and David 
LeBaron. George Halliday is the present bishop. They have a daily 

There are also Lake View, Fairview, Mill Fork, Thistle, Deer Creek, 
Forest City and a few other small farming settlements in the county. 


This county was settled in 1862, according to the best available infor- 
mation, by Wm. M. Wall, E. Garr and James Laird. Wasatch has the 
highest general elevation of any county in the Territory, being over 7,000 
feet above the sea level. Many of the valleys, however, are lower, though 
the altitude is still great. This fact, however, does not seem to materially 
retard the prosperity of the population, who are mainly engaged in farming. 
A very small portion of the county is populated, one of the rei sons being 
the height of the valleys, which renders it impossible to carry on farming 
successfully, the great length and unusual .severity of the winters and the 
frequent frosts in the summer months rendering farming impracticable, save 
in a few places. This detriment, however, is one of the very things that 
makes Wasatch County during the summer months, especially unsurp«issed 
as a stock range. Stock roam at will during the milder months, and are 
unable to exhaust the rich ranges to be found in all directions. Hence, those 
who live in the county, in addition to farming, find profit in stock-raising. 
The populated part of the county is within a few miles of both Salt Lake and 
Summit Counties, and is less than one-tenth of the whole area. It includes 
the Heber and a beautiful section on one of the tributaries of the Provo 
River. The proximity o( the farming section to that part of Summit County 
in which the mines are located, gives an outlet for produce and grain, and 
in a large measure compensates for the absence of railroad facilities in the 
• county. The county is bounded on the west by Uintah County, south by 
Emery, north by Summit and west by Utah and a small portion of Salt 
Lake Counties. The great elevation of the county, the heavy fall of snow 
thereon as a consequence, and the subsequent melting, makes Wasatch County 
prolific of streams. Three of the most noted rivers in the Territory rise in this 
county and within a short distance of each other. One is the Weber, which 
flows through Summit, Morgan, Weber, passing Ogden on its way, and 
ultimately empties into Great Salt Lake. The second is Bear River, which 
flows north through Summit County, through southwestern Wyoming, into 
Bear Lake, cuts through southeastern Idaho, then flows south into Cache 
Valley, and cutting through the western part of that county, flows through the 
southeastern corner of Box Elder County into Great Salt Lake. The third 
is the Timpanogos, or Provo River, which maintains a course almost directly 
southwest until it finds its way into Utah Lake, and as the -Jordan River is 
the outlet for Utah Lake, and its waters ultimately flow into Great Salt 
Lake, the three large streams arising in the same section of country, and 
pursuing vastly different directions, at last meet in the same grand reservoir. 
A number of smaller streams flow from the high ranges in Wasatch, in a 
southeasterly direction into Green River, and thus,, through the Colorado 
River, ultimately reach the Pacific Oceaii. Wasatch County, like the others, 
is by no means without its minenil deposits, though it is not noted in this 
respect, nor have any especial eflforts been made looking to their develop- 
ment. What the future may develop in this section, of course, cannot be 
surmised, but there certainly could be occasioned no surprise if it were 


shown that Wasatch was favored in the quantity and variety of its minerals 
with the most fortunate. It is in immediate proximity to the most noted 
mineral section in the Territory, and there is no apparent reason why it 
should not, with Salt Lake County, be a sharer in that good fortune. There 
are no cities in the county, Heber being the largest town. One other 
resource of Wasatch is lumber, and though i, coo, 000 feet, produced in 1883, 
was about the total, yet the material is there for a much larger amount for a 
protracted period. 

Hrber City, the county seat, is situated in the extreme northwestern ' 
part of the county, on a tributary of the Provo River, and is surrouuded by 
excellent grazing country. There are four churches, two Latter-day Saints, 
Thomas Kasband, bishop of East Heber, and William Forman, bishop of 
West Heber; Methodist — recently erected — and Reorganized Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; six schools, district and New West Edu- 
cational Commission. Mail is received from Provo Tuesday and Friday, < 
and from Park City daily.. 

Wallsburgh, situated about seven miles south of Heber City, was 
first settled in the spring of 1862 by William M. Wall, E. Qarr and James 
Laird; was organized a ward in 1866. W. K. Nuttall is the present bishop 
of the ward. Mail Monday, Wednesday and Saturday of each week. 

There are also Midway, Charleston and Timpanogos, situated in the 
northwestern, and Shimah Springs in the southeastern part ol the county. 


Washington County was settled long before the county was organized. 
George W. Sevy, John D. Lee, and James, William and Harvey A. Pace, in 
the spring of 1852, settled Harmony — now called Old Harmony, because 
the settlement was subsequently moved. For some years it was in Kane 
County, but by changes made m the boundary lines later, it was incorpor- 
ated in Washmgton County with .several places much more important in 
which county they remain to-day. Of counties in Southern Utah, Wash- 
ington is by long odds the most prosperous and wealthy. It is included 
in the Colorado Basin, lying below the rim of the Great Basin, and conse- 
quently resembles all of that country drained by the Colorado River — sand- 
stone and sand, with few arable spots along the banks of streams, with nar- 
row valleys, and sloping tracts whence rivers have long since departed. As 
Wasatch is the highest, so Washington is the lowest county in the Territory, 
and the maximum and minimum altitude, as represented m these two coun- 
ties, gives the best idea of the climatic scope of Utah: a climate where frost 
is almost constantly felt to a section where it is as rarely known — less than 
300 miles apart. The valleys being small, farms, as a natural consequence, 
are also small, particularly along the Rio Virgin, in the Santa Clara, and about 
St. George and Washington cities. This county rarely, if ever, raises 
enough grain to bread the inhabitants; not that it is impossible, but that 
water is uncertain. The Clara and other streams, while they are roaring 
torrents in the spring, become puny streams long before the summer months 
have passed away. The treacherous character of the streams most available 
for agricultural purposes, makes the building of dams very uncertain, as a 
freshet, at any time of likely occurrence, is liable to destroy thousands of 
dollars, while the same evil may be expected to occur by the shifting of the 
river bed. Were there ample water facilities, the lack of land could be 
counterbalanced in a large measure by the long seasons, in which two crops 
can be raised, where one only can be raised in the climate of the greater 
portion of Utah. There is an abundance of water; it can be saved; the 


county has ample land on which to raise enough for sustenance; but the 
people of that section have had to carry a heavy load. Removed by a long 
stretch of bad country from rapid communication, the struggle has been a 

' hard one, and the mastery is not yet complete. The industries for which 
the country and climate are most suited do not thrive, because there is no 
market. No finer grape country is to be iound. The fruit cannot be taken 
into market for there is no rail communication within 150 miles, and that 
over poor roads that have been built at great expense and only with great 

. labor. Wine cannot be made because the sentiment of a majority of the 
people are opposed to intoxicating drinks in any form whatever, while those 
who do manufacture have not the encouragement to strive to produce a sala- 
ble and palatable article, because a certain market cannot be had. Fruit gen- 
erally grows of the best flavor and to the most unusual size. Cotton grows 
readily and of fine quality, as tet-ts have shown. Some years ago it was 
exported at a profit from this county, but its production became unprofitable 
and the farms were abandoned because exports could not be maintained and 
because its manufacture at home without loss wks nn impossibility. Thus 
tlie people have been working in the face of insuperable obstacles, and 
the struggle does not appear to have terminated. I^ conditions should ever 
justify a general following of the two industries mentioned and to which the 
climate and soil of the county is best adapted, no section could become 
more prosperous. The county is not the same all through. In the Pine 
Mountains, a prolongation of the VVaFatch Range, there is some excellent 
farming land that is being utilized to very good effect. In some parts, also, 
are excellent ranges, in which stock thrive unusually well; the winters being 
short and mild. Washington County is also rich in minerals, and some 
remarkable deposits have been found, particularly in the Reefs and at Leeds, 
where argentiferous bearing sandstone in inexhaustible abundance has been 
found. There is less activity at present than for some years, but compete nt 
experts, amon^^ them Professor Clayton, declare there is almost no limit to 
the ore. Whether it can be worked profitably is another matter. These 
mines, and the employment of a great many persons in the vicinity, fur- 
nished a ready market for the spare produce of the people of Washington 
County generally, and as these decrease in production the money paid out 
decreases, and the loss is felt by the agriculturists to a very considerable 
extent. In different parts of the county precious metals have been found, 
and some ten miles west of St. George, a new district — the Tutsagubet — 
reveals the presence of gold, silver, lead and copper, in such quantities and 
in such form that it pays for hauling to the ra'lroad. Mica is also a resource 
of the county, while gypsum abounds. There are also other minerals of 
more or less importance. As much for the agriculturis tand the horticulturist 
depends on the existence and operation of mines, these mineral resources 
are an assurance of the ultimate realization of that prosperity which the 
industry and determined labors in the face of great obstacles of the people 
of Washington County merit. At Washington City a woolen factory is still 
and has been in operation for more than twelve years. Other industries are 
contemplated, such as the canning of fruit. The latter could and certainly 
should become a most profitable industry, the quality of the fruit being sur- 
passed by none. The county is full of natural curiosities, which make it 
attractive; and with all its drawbacks, those who live there know there b 
that within the county which should win for it prosperity and prominence, 
and they are willing to await the arrival of a period that will see such 
a condition attained. The capital is at St. George, a beautiful city. There 
is quite a fine court house in this city, where the officers have their offices. 
The county is in the Second Judicial District. The county is bounded by 
Arizona on the south, Nevada on the west, Iron on the north, and Kane on 
the east. The Rio Virgin cuts through the southeastern part of the county 


and within a mile and a half of St. George. The Santa Clara and Le Verkin 
are the only other streams of certain life throughout the whole year. 

St. George, the county seat of Washington County, is located near 
the junction qf the Rio Virgin and Santa Clara rivers, and about six miles 
north of the Arizona line. It is the principal city of Southern Utah, and is 
noted for fine gardens and rare fruits, although in many instances the earth 
had to be hauled miles to make the gardens on the alkaline sands. The 
principal occupation of the citizens is farming and gardening. Grapes are 
cultivated quite extensively, and a considerable amount of wme is made. It 
was incorporated January 17, 1862. Elections are held biennially, on the 
firtt Monday in March. There are five churches. Latter-day Saints, Thomas 
Judd, W. Granger, Charles H. Terry and David H. Cannon, bishops; and 
one Presbyterian, Rev. A. B. Court, pastor; five schools and six school- 
houses, four district and one Presbyterian, with an average attendance of 
167. The places of amusement are the St. George Social Hall and Court 
House ball room. The Sunday school has a library, while there is also a 
Lyceum and Reading Room, which the Young Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Association maintains for public use. The societies are: Relief Society 
and Young Men's and Yonng Ladies' Mutual Improvement and Primary 
Associations. The Stake church is also located here, a beautiful structure 
built of native sandstone, taken from a magnificent quarry in the vicinity 
and cut and dressed into uniform size. A prettier building is not to 
be found in the Territory. A fine clock in the tower of the Tabernacle tells 
the hours for the public. St. George is certainly one of the most enter- 

E rising places in Southern Utah and its population deserve great prosperity, 
ike other cities in the county, it is also a sweet flower garden in the s^pring 
and its flowers and verdant vegetation is in striking contrast with the 
country above the rim of the Basin, where winter still reigns supreme. It 
has a daily mail. 

Washington was incorporated February 18, 1870, and has an area of 
two and a half square miles. Elections are neld biennially. The citizens 
are chiefly engaged in gardening and farming. It has one church, that of 
the Latter-day Saints, Marcus Funk, bishop; two schook and one school- 
house, district, with an average attendance of sixty-three ; also a Sunday 
school library. It is about six miles from St. Geoi^e, is beautifiilly located, 
and is a garden spot in every respect. 

Duncan's Retreat, located on the north bank of the Rio Virgin 
River, was first settled in December, 1861, by Chapman Duncan, who aban- 
doned it It was resettled by William Theooald, Joseph Wright, Claybome 
Elder, David B. Ott, Robert W. Reeve, J. B. Pratt and Thomas Burgess. 
It has a Latter-day Saints' church, D. B. Ott, presiding priest. Mail 
received six times a week. 

GuNLOCK, situated in the western part of the county, on the Santa 
Clara River, was first settled by W. Hamblin in 1857. J. S. Huntsman is 
bishop of the ward. Mail, four times a week. 

Harmony, located in the northern part of the county, was fin,t settled 
by James Pace, William Pace, George W. Sevy, Harvey A. Pace and John 
D. Lee. Mail received daily. 

Harrisburo, situated about twelve miles northeast of St. George, was 
first setded in i860 by Moses Harris. Samuel Gould, Silas Harris, E. K. 
Fuller, Milton Daily, John Newton, William Robb, David Ellsworth, James 
Lewb, William Leary. Orson B. Adams, Allen Stout, John McCleve and 
John Gould. It has a branch of the Latter-day Saints* church, O. B. Adams, 
presiding priest. Mail received daily. 


Leeds, about three miles north of Harrisburg, was first settled in 
1868-9 by R. H. Ashley, W. E. Jones. J. S. Harris, Silas Harris, B. J. 
Stringham. S. A. Angell. William StirlinR^. E. Thomas, Charles A. Con- 
nelly. Wilber Earl, John Brown and William Jolley. George H. Crosby is 
bishop of the ward. The postoffice is at Silver Reef, from which place mail 
is received daily. 

Pinto, situated in the northern part of the county, was first settled in 
1866, by Jacob Hamblin, Lorenzo Roundy and R. S. Robinson. There is 
one church, Latter-day Saints. Robert Knell, bishop. Mail is received from 
St. (ieorge Mondays and Fridays, and the mail to Pioche, Nevada, from 
Salt Lake and Silver Reef, Monday, Wednesday and Friday of each week. 

Price was first settled in 1858 by a company formed by President 
Brigham Young and others for the purpose of raising cotton, with Joseph 
Horn as superintendent. After three vears occupancy as a cotton farm, tne 
place was submerged bv the great flood of 1861 and abandoned; it was 
resettled in 1863 by a farming company. In 1874 it was organized as a 
United Order Company with George Baker superintendent. It has one 
Latter-day Saints* church, Nephi R. Fawsett, bishop. The postoSice 
address is St. George, five miles distant. 

RocKViLLE is a growing little town on the Rio Virgin River, about 

nine miles east of Virgin City. Farming and grape-raising are the principal 

industries of the inhabitants. Charles N. Smith is bishop of the Latter-day 

Saints' Church there. 


Santa Clara, located about five miles northwest of St. George, on 

the Santa Clara River, was first settled in 1853, by Jacob Hamblin and a 

company of Indian missionaries. Marcus Ensign is bishop of the ward. 

Mail is received semi- weekly. 

Springdale, situated in the eastern part of the county, a branch of 
Rockville Ward, was first settled in 1862; was abandoned on account of 
Indian wars, and resettled in 1873. Squire Hepworth is presiding priest. 
Mail is received at Rockville. 

Shoensburg, located on the Rio Virgin River, at the mouth of Spring- 
dale Fork, was first setded by Oliver DeMill, George Petty, H. Whitlock, 
Hyrum Stevens and Alma Millett, January 20, 1862. There is a branch of 
the Latter-day Saints* church, Oliver DeMill, presiding priest. Mail six 
times a week. 

Silver Reef is a mining camp in every respect. It is situated one 
mile from Leeds and about seven or eight miles west of Toquerville. For a 
long time, and during the great prosperity of the mines at Silver Reef, it 
hacT quite a large population, more or less of a floating character. Since, 
there has been a general closing dowTi on work in the Reef, and life has gone 
out from the camp. It is not unlikely, however, the camp will resume its 
former importance; certainly it will if the idea of geologists and mining 
experts is borne out, that the Reef is barely touched instead of being worked 

ToQUERVii.LE, a beautiful little town located about twenty-four miles 
northeast ot St. Cieorge and nestling under a high mountain, was first 
settled in the tall of 1857, by J. T. Willis, Wesley Willis, Samuel Pollock 
and Josiah Reeves. There is one church, Latter-day Saints, William A. 
Bringhurst, bishop. Mail is received daily. 

Virgin City, located on the north side of the Virgin River, was first, 
settled in 1857, by Nephi Johnson, Anthony Stratton, A. J. Workman, 


James Bay, Samuel Bradshaw, William Haslam, Carl Shirts and Henry 
Barney. There is a Latter-day Saints* church, John Parker, bishop. 

There are also Hebron, Pine Valley, Bellevue, Glen Edwin, Graftoi, 
Hamblin, Middleton, Mountiiin Dell, Northup, Milltown, Old Harmony, 
Blue Spring, and a few other small settlements in the county. 


Weber is one of the four principal counties of Utah, in each of 
which is located one of the four principal cities in the Territory. The settle- 
ment of Weber County followed the settlement of the Territory by the 
Mormon people one year. The founding of the county began by the 
purchase by Captain James Brown, of the improvements of an old and at 
present unknown Indian trader. Captain Brown located on the present site 
of Ogden.and thus the foundation of this prosperous county was comtnenced. 
It is a fact worthy of note, that these four ceunties — Cache, Salt Lake, Utah 
and Weber- -are noted for a remarkable similarity in one respect, at least: 
they embrace the best watered valleys in the Territory. The Wasatch 
Range is highest, the fall of snow heaviest, and the steady flow of water the 
year round is greatest in these counties. It is impossible that such con- 
ditions should not have contributed in a very marked degree to their 
upbuilding. O^den City is sec(md to Salt Lake in point of population, yet 
Weber County is behina all. three in the number of inhabitants. The county 
is so naified because of the Weber River, which is referred to fully in Wasatcti 
County. It is in the centre, almost, of the most thickly populated portion 
of the Territor)", and is possessed of most remarkable advantages, both natural 
and artificial. One important factor in the development ol Weber County 
was the completion of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads, the 
eastern terminus of the one road and the western of the other being at Ogden.' 
The subsequent construction of the Utah Central from Ogden to Salt Lake, and 
of the Utah and Northern from Ogden into Montana, with the recent com- 

Sletion of the Denver and Rio Grande to the same general point, make of 
k^eber County a centre which cannot fail materially to assist in its upbuild- 
ing. In addition to this the county abounds on all sides in rich agricultural 
lands, generally occupied and farmed to the best advantage. A market is 
afibrded for the various products of the ag^riculturist at a fair rate, and 
money is kept in circulation at all times, which, in no small way, renders the 
more rapid development of a section easy, where the absence of money 
would make the task slow and diflicult. The most populous portion of the 
county is the western section, the eastern half being more mountainous and 
better adapted to stock-raising, for which it is very generally utilized. The 
farmers are well-to-do, because of their proximity to a fair market, and the 
result is they are taking more pride in securing better breeds of cattle and 
horses, and are thus adding to the wealth of the countv in an unostentatious 
way. All the metals of importance are found in \Veber County: Goldj 
silver, lead, copper, iron, etc. The iron deposits in this vicinity have been 
long and are now widely known. Their extent and richness is not a matter of 
dispute; it has been so favorably settled that iron works were established and 
have been operated, and pig iron of an excellent quality run out; but for 
some reason, at present not a matter of public knowledge, it was found 
unprofitable to continue them; and they are now lying idle, awaiting 
greater capital, though certainly not greater energy nor enterprise. In no 
county is there a greater enterprise nor energy ol a community displayed 
than here; and many branches of industry flourish because of the determined 
efforts of the investors and the disposition of the people to help those who 
"are their neighbors. The mill products of the county are very great, while 
the fiict that railrords enter from the north and south, giving access to all 


Koints of the compass, is of great value in assisting millers to secure and to 
old markets. Mining has not been carried on to an extent to demonstrate 
the character of the mining resources of the county, whether rich or not^ 
save in iron, the value of which, as before stated, has been fully established; 
but the fact that minerals have been found makes it among the probabilities 
that more thorough prospecting may develop precious metals in a form »:hat 
will invite heavier mining operations. However, Weber County does not 
require such a condition to insure her prosperity. If the mountains sur- 
rounding this valley contained no minerals whatever, still Weber County 
would be prosperous. The wealth of the farming land, miles of canals secur- 
ing irrigation facilities, the industries of citizens, and the unfailing market 
which the five railroads centering in the county give the people, all 
insure the Weberites against any permanent drawbacks. Penods of 
decreasing activity may be encountered, but they must of necessity be short- 
lived, and the people will grow \yealthy and more numerous with each year, 
so long as the present relations are maintained, so long as the existing energy 
characterizes future community exertions. Weber County has Box Elder, 
Cache and Rich Counties on its north; Morgan east, Davis and Morgan 
south, while the waters of the Great S ilt L^ke wash its entire western 
boundary. Besides the Weber, the Ogden River flows down a cannon of 
the same name of singular beauty and grandeur, and what remains of it after 
doing service to the husbandman finds its way into the lake. A splendid 
County Court House is in Ogden City, in which the county oflSfirs are 
located, while the clerk of the First Judicial District Court, for the northern 
]ialf of the district, also has his office in this building, in which court holds 
Its sessions. Ogden City is the cap! til of the county, and as a general 
directory of the city is given, a more detailed description will be found with 
that directory. 

Eden, located in the centre of the county and about ten miles northeast 
of Ogden, was first settled in i860, by John Beddle and Joseph Grover. 
There is a Latter-day Saints' Church, John Farrell, bishop. Mail is received 
Monday and Wednesday of each week. 

Harrisville, located on the line of the Utah and Northern Railway, 
a few miles north of Ogden, was first settled in the spring of 1850, by Ivm 
Stewart. In the fall of this year Stewart killed an Indian Chief named 
Parrakee, mistaking him for a thief in his corn. This caused a general 
uprising of the Indians and Stewart was forced to seek safety in California. 
The place was re-settled in 1851, by P. G. Taylor, W. W. Dixon, Martin H. 
Harris, L. A. Shurtliff and others. The present bishop is P. G. Taylor. 
Mail is received six times a week.. 

HuNTSViLLE, situated abuot twelve miles east of Ogden, was first set- 
tied, in i860, by Jefferson Hunt and sons, Charles Wood and a few others. 
A branch of the Latter-day Saints* Church was organized in 1861 with J. 
Hunt bishop. It was organized a bishop's ward in 1877, with F. A. Ham- 
mond, bishop. 

Lynne, located a short distance northwest of Ogden on the line of 
the Central Pacific Railroad, was first settled in 1849 by James Brown, 
,E. Rice, George and Frederick Barker, Charies Burke and others; it 
was then known as Bingham Fort; E^ Bingham was bishop. Lvnne was 
organized a ward in 1877 and Daniel F. Thomas was appointea bishop. 
Mail is received at Ogden, as the settlement is within the corporate limits of 
that city. 

Mound Fort, situated within the corporate limits of Ogden City, on 
the north side of the Ogden River, was first settled by Ezra Qiase, Charies^ 


Hubbard, Ambrose Shaw, William Shaw and their families; was or^^nized 
a ward, with Erastus Bingfham, bishop, in the fall of 1850; the present 
bishop is David Moore. The postoffice address is Ogden City, of which it 
b a precinct. 

North Ogden is situated about five miles directly north of Ogden 
City; it was first settled in the fall of 1850, by Jonathan and Samuel Camp- 
bell and John Riddle; but, on account of the uprising of the Indians, caused 
by the killing of their chief at Harrisville, the settlers moved back to the 
fort at Ogden. la the spring of 185 1 they returned, accompanied by Thomas 
Dunn, S. Mallory, David Garner and several other families. Thomas Dunn 
was appointed bishop. They have one church, Latter-day Saints, Thomas 
Wallace, bishop. 

Plain City, situated about nine miles northwest of Ogden, was first 
settled in March, 1859, by J. Spiers, J. S. Skeens, D. Collet, John Carver 
and a few others. In May of the same year a branch of the Latter* day 
Saints' church was organized with W. W. Raymond, bishop. In 1877 it 
was organized a ward, L. W. Shurtliff, bishop. The present bishop is G. 
W. Bramwell, Jr., 

RiVERDALE was first settled in 1852, by S. Graham, O. Kilbum and C. 
Canfield. It formed a part of Ogden City until 1877, when it was organized 
a distinct ward. Sanford Bingham is bishop. Mail is received at Ogdeii 

South Heber was first settled in November, 1 851, by Robert Watts 
mnd family, E. C. Cherry, Levi H immond, James Heath, B. Bybee, John 
Bybee, Thomas Kin^on, George W. Hickerson, S. Canfield and Hyrum 
Parker. Mail is received either at Ogden or at Uintah. 

Slaterville was first settled by Alexander Kelley and family in the 
^1 of 1850. They were subsequently followed by Stephen Parry and family, 
Tnomus McCan, Thomas Virgo, John Knight, Richard Slater, J. Bateman, 
Thomas Corbett and others. Owing to Indian difficulties — the Walker war 
— it\ iS^\, it was abandoned, the people taking refuge in Bingham Fort, 
three miles distant. It was re-settled in 1854. The present bishop is John 
A. Allred. They have a tri-weekly mail. 

Uintah, situated at the west entrance of Weber Canyon, was first set* 
tied by Daniel Smith, John M. Bybee, Lewis Hardy, Henry Beckerstead. 
W. G. McMuUen and others, in 1850. It was then known as East Weber; 
in 1867 the name was changed to Easton. On the fourth of March the 
Union Pacific Railroad was finished to this place, and during this year the 
present name of the town was adopted. Samuel Dye and Robert Gale are 
presiding elders. Mail is received daily from east and west 

West Weber was first settled in the spring of 1859, by William 
McFarland and son, John I. Hart, John Douglass, Robert Hallwell, H. D. 
Petterson, William Royal, James Rivie, A. Greenwell, John Highbey, W. 
Gibson, Robert Tilford, Ralph Blanch, James Barup, and William Kay, the 
latter being appointed president of the settlement. May 28, 1877, it was 
organized a ward with John I. Hart, bishop. Mail is received Wednesday 
and Saturday of each week. 

There are besides these: Marriotts, Hooper, Wilson, Pleasant VieW> 
Alma and Van Zile. 


Attractions are of two kinds: natural and artificial. They are desir- 
able as they are easy of access, and essential in proportion as they are calcu- 
lated to promote pleasure and health. It must seem an exaggerated claim 
that an area some 325 miles by 30:) should possess such a wonderful variety 
of resources and in such unlimited abundance as Utah does; and it is no less 
remarkable that all these economic resources should be so easy of access 
and constantly invite the attention of thegapltilist and tlie manufacturer, with 
all the assurance possible, save where actuil and crude tests have dem-m- 
strated absolute possibilities, if these conditions are cause for surprise and 
remark, then the variety of climate to be found in the area given, the mani- 
fold and striking, dissimilar attractions, an J th2 health-glvin;^^ of the atmos- 
phere, of mineral springs and of watering places, must certainly occasion 
astonishment to the unacquainted, and admiration in those best posted, par- 
ticularly when all are within such easy access, with the comforts of life, and 
the coavenience^ of civilization ever at hand. Utah is a place fall of attrac- 
tion<}, taken in any light whatsoever; whether historically, and as to develop- 
ment, as to natural condicions and effects, or as to artificial efforts. There 
is everywhere food for thought for those interested in material development, 
and for the person desirous of investing capital ; promises health to those 
broken down with care and labor, and cause for constant admiration to 
those who love the beauties of nature in all forms, from the pastoral and 
rustic to the grand and sublime. 

All cities in Utah are attractively located and present new and interest- 
ing features. The most striking, however, are the four principal ones — Salt 
Lake, Logan, Provo and Ogden. The three last named are situated at the 
mouths of canyons noted for the beauty and grandeur of their scenery. 
Salt Lake City is similarly situated. A stream flows down the canyon at 
the mouth of which it is located, and while it also is full of rare and pictur- 
esque scenery, it is less noted than those above, and its stream is much smaller 
than those which flow down the Logan, the Provo and the Ogden Canyons. 


Logan City is the capital of Cache County and nestles at the western base 
of the Wasatch Mountains. It is one of the best located cities and is admitted 
to be in one of the most beautiful valleys in the Territory. It is at the mouth 
of the Logan Canyon, while a clear and magnificent stream of the same 
name sweeps past and through the city. There are several hotels affording 
ample accommodation. The city has water works supplying an excellent 
quality of mountain water, while streams of clear, cold water, nemmed in by 
grassy banks, flow down each side of the streets, and give life to large and 
ambrageous trees, mitigating the heat of the day. These two items. are 
characteristic of all Utah cities, and give a most delightful, fresh and 
invigorating sensation to the beholder. There are denominational churches, 
schools, two places of amusement, and while the effect is country life, all 
civilized comforts can be had, and there is railroad communication daily. 
Here also the magnificent Logan Temple, situated on the brow of an eleva- 
tion overtopping part of the city, is situated. It commands a magnificent 


View of the broad and lovely valley. Most of the cities of the county can 
be seen, while the Logan, Blacksmith Fork, Muddy, and even in places, the 
Bear River may be seen meandering through the long and lovely stretches of 
farming and bottom lands. It is an excellent g.ime locality, while the high and 
precipitous mountains on the east, capped the year round with snow, and 
overhanging the fair and lovely valley, where peaceful herds browse and 
where field after field of green and brown, showing the varying stages of 
the natural development of crops, watered by miles and miles of canals, all 
present a picture to the eye that cannot help to invigorate and gladden the 
heart. Tne altitude of Logan is 4,557 feet, about 300 feet higher than Salt 
Lake. The air is wonderfully pure and clear, the nights naturally pleasant 
and made cooler by the canyon breeze which sweeps down the ravines from 
ofT the snow, high in the fastnesses, refreshes the body and compensates for 
the heat of day. Logan City has every advantage. There is no city or 
place in the Territory, so far as is generally known, where the mortality is 
lighter. The snowfall is heavier and lasts long enough to admit of sleigh- 
ing in the winter for somewhat portracted periods, but the weather is not 
unduly severe, and it is healthful and bracing. Food is very cheap; all 
accommodations the most reasonable, and certainly a more lovely spot offer- 
ing greater advantages cannot be found. 


Provo is the capital of Utah County. It lies a few miles south of the 
canyon of the same name. A high embankment on the north forces the 
river to sweep in a semi-circle towards the south and thus throws the river to 
the north of the city and gives it water for all purposes. Along the course 
of this river has grown a beautiful grove, interspersed with pleasant fields 
and meadows, around which are lovely and cjuiet drives and lanes with 
wild roses and flowers and shrubs growmg in rich profusion on either side. 
On the west is Utah Lake the largest fresh water body in the Territory, into 
which the Provo River runs. It is within twenty minutes drive of the city, 
and viewed from any point north, south or east, adds to the effectiveness 
of the scene. It receives the American, Provo, and Spanish Rivers, and 
discharges into Great Salt Lake through the Jordan River. It abounds in 
fish, principally speckled trout, of large size and good flavor. This made 
it a noted resort of the Utah Indians in former days, after whom the lake, 
the county, and the Territory seem to have been named. It is a pity the 
other Indian names of springs and creeks in this pretty basin have not been 
likewise preserved — Timpanogos, Pomontquint, Waketeke, Pimquan, 
Pequinnetta, Petenete, Pungun, Watage, Onapah, Timpa, Mouna, and so 
on. They have all been superseded and their memory is fast passing away 
as the Indians themselves have done. From elevateci places in proximity 
to the city several of the cities and towns in the county can be seen, 
and one could hardly wish to sec fairer stretches of farming land than lie 
between the grand mountains on the east and the beautiful sheet of water on 
the west. It is essentially pastoral in its air, quiet and pastoral in its sur- 
roundings. The Territorial Insane Asylum rests immediately under some of 
the most lovely and precipitous mountains in the Wasatch Range. It faces 
the principal street, and a drive from the door of the Asylum can be taken 
down through the town to the shore of the lake. The scene is lovely 
beyond the power of words to describe. As in Logan and Salt Lake, there 
are lanes in all directions, inviting quiet walks and drives, and hunting and 
fishing almost in the city. Provo has several hotels and the very best of 
accommodations. The Utah Central and the Denver and Rio Grande pass 
through the town, while within easy proximity are other cities also offering 

r'et, comfort, rest, contentment and pleasure. A fine new theatre ia 
ost completed; the court house is a good, substantial building, from the 


roof of which a grand view is to be had. Fruits of all kinds are abundant in 
season. Everything combined makes this city a very desirable place. Every- 
thing is reasonable and accessible to all. The climate more resembles that 
of Salt Lake City, though the difference in the elevation between Logan and 
Provo cities is very tririing — but thirty-seven feet. The water courses, abund- 
ance of trees, high mountains, from which the cool night winds find an outlet 
through the canyons, make the nights delicious and roh the day of that 
intensity of heat which is dreaded in this latitude in the summer months. 


is also one of the most picturesque in the Territory. It resembles Salt 
Lake more than either of the others and has many metropolitan luxuries 
and comforts, such as water works, the electric light, street cars, etc. The 
position it occupies as a town where so many railroads centre, gives it a 
prominence and notoriety that few Utah cities enjoy. It has a very large 
floating population. Like the others,* it also' is situated at the mouth of a 
grand canyon, not so long, but no less striking than the others. It is second 
to Salt Lake in point of population and is the centre of a lovely and beauti- 
ful section of country. Tne Weber River sweeps past the town on the 
south, while the Ogden River comes in from the east and rolls by it on 
the north and finally joins the Weber River. The city is built partly on an 
elevated bench, which is devoted to elegant residences, while the part below 
the bench is devoted to business, though it also contains many beautiful 
homes. About, and being a part of Ogden, are several beautiful .suburban 
settlements, while in all directions are long and winding lanes, through charm- 
ingly fertile spots, meadows and well-cultivated farms. To the southeast is 
a long stretch of beautiful country bounding the Weber River. From 
some of the bench lands and from the top of the court house. Great Salt 
Lake and settlements dotting the plain in all directions with green fields and 
shadjr groves intervening, meet the eye. Ogden has the finest hotel in the 
Territory, to-day; churches of nearly all denominations have organized 
bodies in that city. There are several places of amusement and recreation; 
while for those in search of health and pleasure few better places can be 
thought of Within ten miles are the Hot Springs of Box Elder County. 
The water is mineral and warm and is used by invalids for bathing and for 
drinking. Ample accommodations exist, so that persons can remain there, 
and the waters and delightful air and cool evenings are much sought for. 
Prices are nowhere extravagant and opportunities for entertainment, amuse- 
ment, study and exercise are abundant. Ogden Canyon is frequented by 
visitors or strangers during the summer months more than any other, per- 
haps, unless it be in some of the Cottonwood Canyons. 

There are any number of places scattered throughout the Territory 
offering inducements and each having attractions peculiar to itself. Beaver 
is one of the prettiest places in the Territory and has some magnificent 
scenery within easy distance. St. George and Washington cities in Wash- 
ington County, in the spring of the year, are without parallel in picturesque- 
ness. The climate there is semi-tropical and the winters mild and brief, and 
few places are better suited to the invalid desiring to escape the rigors of 
winter. Bear Lake Valley, with the Bear Lake and River, is also a charm- 
ing spot; Brigham City, Box Elder County, is another; in iact, it makes 
little difference where one turns, the evidences of thrift, coupled with 
natural grandeur, give the whole country a charming and pleasing air. 


Salt Lake is the capital of the Territory and is visited more gener- 
ally by travelers than all the other cities in Utah put together. It has all 
the comforts and conveniences of metropolitan towns and is full of artificial 


and, in the vicinity, natural attractions. The Warm and Hot Sprinj^s, 
noted as health -j^ivm^ mineral waters and for the healing effect upon bathers, 
are within its con>orate limits, the first bein<^ c«>nnected with ail parts of the 
city by street cars. Persons visiting the Great Salt Lake, either for the 
benefit of the breeze, fi)r the advantacjes of bathing, or simply for the pur- 
pose of visiting its shores, first go to Salt Lake City, from wliich point there 
IS rail communication to the lake, and, in the warmer months, twice* daily. 
The distance from the city to that portion of the lake visited is about twenty 
miles. Thousands upon thousands of persons visit the lake yearly, not only 
of the floating po{)ulation, but of residents, who find a relief from the heat 
of summer and the cares of the day by a ride to the lake in the evening and 
a plunge in its exhilarating waters. The j^laces at which bath houses and 
general accommodations are to be had, are at Black Kock and Garfield, and 
are reached by the Utah and Nevada, and at Lake Side, accessible by the 
Utah Central. Invalids can find accommodations at these f)laces, though they 
aie anything rather than what the importance of the lake as a watering 
point, or the patronage would justify. Garfield and Black Rock arc within '. 
a mile of each other and belong to the railroad company, which, for reasons 
best known to the owners, have made no effort to put tlie unequaled oppor- 
tunities they have into execution in making a great inlantl watering resort on 
the shores of this remarkable dead sea. "Salt Lake City is located on ^Jie 
biir ot a fine mountain stream, which tips it up genii v toward the setting 
winter sun; the streets are spacious and wide apart, bordv^red with trees and 
purling brooks, giving ample room for buildings, gardens, orchards, slirub- 
bery, and ornamental grounds. Foliage largely conceals the houses in 
summer, and as the country is naturally destitute of trees, the contrast is 
striking and pleasing. The mean summer temperature is about 74, but on 
account of the dry and rare atmosphere it is not more oppressive than a mean 
. five degrees lower would be on the sea level. Although the mercury olten 
reads above 90 in Julv and August, sunstroke is almost unknown, severe 
thunders and lightnings are infrecjuent, the nights are uniformly cool, and 
denizens of the city who are obliged to visit the East in the hot months are 
exceedingly glad to get back again. Tliere is no comparison between the 
comfort 01 the average Salt Lake and the average Lastern climate in the 
same latitude, and it is equally noticeable at all seasons of the year. The 
mean temperature in winter is aoout 32, and the Salt Laker often has occasion 
to felicitate himself on the enjoyment of the pleasantest of winter weather, 
when the great eastern railroads are blocked uj) by snow, or the mercury at 
the chief centres of population day afier day reads from i.s to 30 below zero. 
The real winter holds from three to six weeks only. The annual mean is 
51**, and a residence in the city is worth the while solely for the agreeable- 
ness of the climate. 

**The city has pleasant hotel accommodations and a good market, insur- 
ing comfort at reasonable prices; it has the electric light, gas, excellent 
water, supplied from City Creek by means of piping laid under the streets, 
with frequent hydrants and head sufficient to force it over the tops of the 
highest buildings; it has churches of the principal Christian denominations 
and fair schools; twelve miles of street car lines, and two fine theatres. It is 
peaceful and orderly; taxes are very moderate; and from it the most popu- 
lar places of resort — the Warm Sprmgs, Great Salt Lake, the Cottonwoods, 
Bingham and American Fork Canyons and Parley's Park — are easily access- 
ible: that is, one can visit most of these places and return the same day if 
he chooses. One goes to Alta, in Little Cottonwood, by rail, in twenty-five 
miles; thence horseback into Big Cottonwood, Parley's Park, or American 
Fork. The first two are reached by wagon in a few hours' ride, if prefi rrjd; 
the last by rail to the village of American Fork, and then by horses or car- 
riages. Bingham Canyon is the same distance from the city by rail as Alta. 



'*One of the most interesting points in the vicinity is Fort Douglas, a 
well-built, full -regiment post, located on a plateau about three miles east of 
and 500 feet above the city. The post and grounds are laid out with taste, 
a small stream of mountain water making the culture of trees, shrubbery, 
grass, and flowers possible. The elevation gives almost a bird's-eye view 
of the city and valley. In the distance lies the Dead Sea of America, a 
blue band drawn along the base of island mountains, the vistas between 
which are closed by more distant ranges. In the north the Promontory 
divides the waters, extending far out in the lake. Across Jordan Valley the 
Oquirrh rises, white with snow -part of the year, and often veiled by clouds. 
On the south, low hills, appearing to be thrown out in echelon, complete the 
enclosure of Jordan Valley, which lies an unrolled map at one*s feet. An 
even finer view, and one much sought, is afforded from Ensign Peak, north 
of tlie city — one might say at the head of Main Street. Its ascent may be 
made on horseback. Among the dttractive objects in the city are the Tab- 
^ ernacle, a unique structure, with its immense org m and seating capacity of 
. over 8,000; the rising white walls of the Temple, 100x200 feet on the ground; 
the Salt Lake Museum, and the Mining Institute in Commercial Block, valu- 
able collections of Utah's minerals and of curiosities from many lands; and 
the Warm Springs, with conveniences for all sorts of bathing. There are 
some good public buildings and many fine private residences and beautiful 
grounds. A drive round the city. and to Fort Douglas is interesting and 
enjoyable. It might well extend to Emigration Canyon, near the Fort, or 
to Parley's Canyon, further south. The country on the Cottonwoods, 
adjoining the city southward, is highly improved for several miles out. The 
system of city streets, making blocks of ten acres, is extended over this 
rural suburb, where they become countr>^ lanes, and afford delightful drives 
through cultivated fields, orchards, and improvised groves of trees. Occa- 
sionally there is a small sheet of artificial or natural water, which has been 
improved and beautified with especial reference to the wants of pleasure 
seekers. Street cars run to Liberty Park, a locust grove of no acres, 
belonging to the city.'* 


It is a serious question whether all the cities in tlie Territory combined, 
with all the attractions that ingenious artificers and the industry of a people 
have contributed, manifold and remarkable though they be, can equal the 
effect on the mind open to sensation, the presence of novelty, beauty and 
grandeur, that the mountains of the Wasatch and its canyons produce. 
This range presents a momentarily varying picture, never the same for two 
moments, and on which the eye, educated to the perception of artistic beau- 
ties, can forever rest unwearied; while the heart, sensible to the nobility and 
grandeur of the Creator's works, drinks deep of sentiments beyond the 
capacity of words clearly to express. These mountains rise from varying 
elevations to a height of 8,000 feet above the valley, with no accompaniment 
of foot hills to conceal or dwarf their proportions. ** Much of the year it is 
white with snow. In the autum it wears all the colors of the rainbow in 
succession as its shrubbery is touched more and more se\'erely by the frosts. 
In the spring only do its lower slopes present a green appearance. On north- 
ern exposures it is dark with pines. Its general summer hue is gray, 
although its light and shade and color are as variable as the wind that plays 
about its craggy summits, invades their recesses, and in its persistent efforts 
to crumble them, has chisled out gorges in the solid rock thousands of feet 
deep, giving infinite Nariety of iorm and outline. These are but surface 
aspects, however. The interest in them is ever renewed, because they per- 
petually change with the seasons or with the point of ^'icw. The range gets 
a deeper hold of one from its suggestions of primary forces and principles. 


such as had to do with the forming of the globe itself, and are now busying 
themselves with its destiny. It seems to materialize the idea of endurance, 
to be the emblem of strength, from everlasting to everlasting the same. Yet 
it has been gas in the ferv'ent heat of the sun. It has been an ocean of liquid fire. 
It has been held in solution by primeval seas. They laid its foundation rela- 
tively six miles deeper than they now stand. The crust of the earth was 
broken through when it was upraised and this enormous fault made. The 
impalpable ether which bathes its lofty heights has reduced them by many 
miles and will, in few years, spread its entire mass upou the floor of the 
ocean where it has rested before. We must look to the sun for immutability, 
and may not find it even there. 'But thou art, perhaps, like me, for a sea- 
son; thy years will have an end. Thou shalt sleep in th) clouds, careless of 
the voice of the morning.* The basic rocks ol tne Wasatch are quartzose, 
mica and hornblendic schists. Next above these is a heavy bed of stratified 
quartzites. Next above, a bed of gray limestone, probably of Silurian age, 
and a group of shales, clays and quartzites intervenes between this and 
another limestone formation which belongs to the Carboniferous age. The 
range extends throughout Utah and far into Montana* but it is seen to 
greatest advantage from Salt Lake City and from the valley for 200 miles 
north and south. Its canyons are the result of erosion, and are due to the 
quantity of snow precipitated upon its higher regions. Many of its summits 
exceed 12,000 feet in altitude. The Twin Peaks, overshadowing Jordan 
Valley, rise 12,000 feet above the sea. Some reaching an elevation of 13,500. 
Everywhere it is an imposing and picturesque object, but overlooking the 
Salt Lake Basin from Mount Nebo to Bear River Gates, it is a Titanic mon- 
ument of nature's rearing upon which, with incomparable touch, a new 
picture is painted by the same great artist every day."* 

An attempt to picture the evanescent beauty of the mountains in 
autumn, the grandeur of the evening sky, with its manifold cloud-towers of 
gorgeous hues, the effects of light and shade, the reflections of the sinking 
sun cast from the tinted trees and shrubs on mountain and hill, ser\'e only 
to show how limited are human powers and how painful is the poverty of 
language to express that which the eye beholds on all sides, and which dis- 
plays, in marvelous wonder and magnificence, the works of the Great Father. 

The Wasatch Mountains, like other great chains, are in many places a 
series of parallel ranges enclosinjj^ the head of lateral streams, which form 
canyons only occasionally in breakmg through into the Great Basin or the Col- 
orado River or Snake River Basins. The divide between the waters flowing 
into the Colorado and the Great Basin is crossed by the Union Pacific Rail- 
road at Reed's Summit, 7,463 feet above the sea. Descending a few miles it 
crosses Bear River at an altitude of 6,969 feet, here flowing generally north- 
ward, follows it down ten miles, leaving it 6,656 feet above the sea, thence 
surmounting Echo Pass, 6,785 in height, it begins the direct descent into 
the Great Basin, through Echo and Weber Canyons, crossing Weber River 
at an elevation of 5,240 feet, and striking the level of Salt Lake at Ogden, 
4, 290 feet. Echo Canyon is no canyon in the true sense. A wall of sand- 
stone rises perpendicularly on the north 300 or 400 feet ; on the south there 
is no wall and little rock, but a succession of grassy ridges sloping smoothly 
toward the stream. It strikes Weber River, another northward -flowing 
stream, about midway of its course, and the railroad follows it down through 
a valley for five or six miles below Echo City to the "Thousand Mile Tree," 
where the mountains draw together and the first canyon commences. The 
valley suddenly narrows to a gorge, the rendcd rocks tower to the sky and 
almost overhang the train. Through tunnels and over bridges this is cleared 
in half a dozen miles, the mountains recede again and soften down into 
mere hills in comparison. An oval valley like the one above is passed, the 

'Resources of Utah. 


mountains again close in on the river, and the train enters Devil's Gate 
Canyon, wliere the naked rocks rise half a mile in the air. Aj^^es ago they 
presented a fixed rock dam which it seems tlie river could never have con- 
quered, but it has, and through the passage made by its persistence, the 
road soon emerges from Devil's Gate into the summer airs of the valley. 
The scenery has been described and illustrated until the traveling public is 
fiimiliar with it. Hut one gets only a slight idea of its be:uity and grandeur 
from a ride through it on the rails. He must stop off and, on foot or horse- 
back, explore iheside streams and reach various elevations half a mile above 
the river before he can be said to have seen it all.* 

Logan Canyon has long been noted as remarkable for its beautiful scen- 
ery, and the whole county excellent as a country for the sportsman. No 
better trout stream is to be found in the Territor)'; and there is excellent 
fishing from the mouth to a j^oint up the canyon eighteen to twenty- five 
miles distant. An excellent road is maintained and a ride up this sublime 
gorge over the divide and down into the valley of the Bear Lake is a trip full 
of great pleasure. Various kinds of winged game abound, while deer 
and bear are frequently met with, and the latter at times when an acquaint- 
anceship is anything but desirable. Not only is the canyon scenery sublime 
and awe-inspiring, but in following the course of some of the tributaries of 
the Logan River, the most delightful bits of country, long groves of thick 
pines and charming recesses, are met with. No canyon in the Territory is 
more generally visited by parties desiring to leave toil and heat behind 
them for ten days to two weeks than Log-an, and it is never possible to 
return without having seen new places and been awakened to beauties the 
most familiar had not previously observed. 

Ogden Canyon is shorter than any of the others of note. There is a 
good carriage road through the canyon, which is ten or twelve miles long^ 
and the passage presents the same variety of immense, close, toweriiij^ 
rocky walls, broken apart by the full roaring stream, common to all the 
Wasatch canyons. Power of resistance on the one hand and of attack on 
the other are well symbolized. There are minerals and mineral springs 
along the way. Through the outlying range one enters Ogden Valley, an 
enclosed park, with its settlements and farms, beyond which the drive 
extends into both Bear Lake and Cache Valleys. All the streams in that 
pi\rt of the Territory afford good sport for the angler, and the valleys and 
hills are grass grown and alive with grouse and snipe, sage hens and prairie 

*'From Salt Lake City, Parley's Park, Big Cottonwood Lake and 
American Fork Canyons are the favorite resorts. The Park is about twenty- 
five miles from Salt Lake City, just over the crest of the Wasatch on the 
sources of the Weber and nearly as high as the mountains themselves. The 
road a.^cends through Parley's Canyon and is a fine drive. There is a hotel 
in the Park, but visitors usually prefer taking along with their teams their 
own camping outfit. The elevation insures refreshing coolness, especially 
of the nights. The Park is quite extensive in area, affords good drives, 
fishing and hunting, stretches for horseback riding, and. among other objects 
of interest, Park City and the Ontario mill and mine. One can get a fair 
idea of the ways and means of mining by a visit to this town, mine and 
mining district. Excursions may be made eastward to the sources of the 
Weber and Provo Rivers, the whole region being full of interest. It is an 
old formation, apparently, giving evidence of the mighty action of water or 
ice, or both, geological ages ago. 

**There are a series of small lakes at the head of Big Cottonwood, at 
the most picturesque of which, named Mary's, a hotel has been built 
for the accommodation of summer visitors. For many years it has 

* Re&ources of Utah. 


been a famous mountain resort, and the number of persons seeking its cool, 
fresl) air, and ihe enjoyment 10 be derived from a study of nature in its 
grandest aspects, is yearly increasing. Excursions must be afout or horse- 
back. They may include visits 10 Park City, to Heber City, Midway or 
Kamas; to the Big and Little Cottonwood mines, to other rock-bound tarns, 
and to sightly peaks. From any ol these one can look out over Jordan 
Valley, the lower section of the Ociuirrh, Ru^h Valley, and in clear weather, 
upon the lar sunuuits ot the Deep Creek Mountains, glittering like silver 
points in the distance. lV*rhaps the tinest view is from Bald IVak, among 
thtr highest of the range. Standing on its top, twenty thousand square 
miles 01 mountains, gorge, lake and valley may be swept by the eye. 
Eighty m les south, Mvumt Nebvj bou.uls the view. Beneath lies Utah Lake, 
a clear mirror bordered by grassy slopes, and Salt Lake City embowered in 
foliage, with Salt Lake roiiing its white caps and glittering in the sunshine 
beyond, its islands and all the valley ranges dwarled to hills. Northward, 
the higher points of the Wasatch cati h the eye until they are lost in the dis- 
tance. Ejistward, the .sources of the Weber and Provo Rivers fill the fore- 
f round, while successive mountain ranges bound the view in that direction. 
V^ords can give but a faint idea of the magnificence of the outlook from Bald 
Peak, or Kesler's Peak, or Mount Clayton, the corner of three counties, 
and Ironi whose bare sides start Snake Creek, the Cotton wooils and Ameri- 
can Fork, or any other of the higher summits in the vicinity of Mary's 

"South of theCottonwoods, American Fork Canyon opens into the Utah 
Lake Basin. It has been called the Yosemite of Utah, and undoubtedly its 
succession of wild gorges and timi>ered vales make it the most picturesque 
and interesting of any of the canyons of the Wasatch. Formerly a narrow- 
gauge r.iilroad, intersecting the Utah Sjuthern at the city of American 
Fork, thirty-two miles south of Salt Lake City, enabled the visitor to see a 
part of it with little trouble. This canyon is noted not only for the tower- 
mg altitude of its enclosing walls, but for the picturesqueness of the infinite 
shapes, resembling artificial objects, towers, pinnacles, and minarets chiefly, 
into which the elements have worn them. At first the formation is granite 
and the cliffs rise to a lofty height almost vertically. Then come quartzite 
or rocks of looser texture, conglomerates and sandstones; the canyon opens 
to the sky and you enter a long gallery, the sides of which recede at an 
angle of 45° to a dizzy height, profusely set with these elemental sculptures 
in endless variety of size and pattern, often stained with rich colors. 
'Towers, battlements, shattered castles, and the images ol mighty sentinels,' 
says one, 'exhibit their outlines against the sky. Rocks twisted, gnarled, 
and distorted; here a mass Hke the skeleton of some colossal tree which 
lightning had wrenched and burnt to fixed cinder; there another, vast and 
overhanging, apparently crumbling and threatening to fall and ruin.* At 
Deer Creek the canyon proper ceiises, the road having climbed out of it, 2,500 
feet in eight miles. This is the main resort of pleasure parties. Since the 
railroad was taken up, its bed has become a wagon road, which continues 
to Forest City, eight miles above. The surroundings are still mountainous, 
but there are breaks where the brooks come in, grassy hills, aspens and 
pines. Forest City has been a great charcoaling station for many years. 

**To the sublimity of the canyon scenery in summer an indescribable 
beauty is added in the autumn, when the deciduous trees and shrubbery on 
a thousand slopes, touched by the frost, present the colors of a rich painting 
and meet the eye wherever it rests. To get the full benefit of this, one 
must go up and up till there is nothing higher to climb. In winter another 
and very diffcrrent phase succeeds. The snows, descending for days and 
days in blinding clouds, bury the forests and fill the canyons. Accumulating 
to a great depth on high and steep acclivities, it starts without warning and 


buries in ruin whatever may be in its track. Hardly a year passes that 
miners and teamsters, wagons and cabins are not swept away and buried 
out of sight for months. The avalanche of the Wasatch is as formidable as 
that of the Alps. Probably forty feet of snow falls on the main range 
every winter." 

The Provo Canyon is another of the same series. Down it flows the 
Timpanogos or Provo River, a magnificent stream not inferior to any 
for the beauty of scenery through which it passes, nor as a trout stream. 
It breaks through the mountains into the valley about three miles north of 
Provo City, from which point there is an excellent road all the way up the 
canyon to a succession of settled Alpine Valleys to Kamas Prairie, which 
Captain Stansbury describes as * 'a most lovely, fertile, level prairie, ten or 
twelve miles long and six or seven miles wide, ' ' where the afliuents of the 
Provo and Weber interlock. The drive may proceed down the Weber to 
Ogden if one desired, with the same alternation of land-locked valleys and 
mountain gorges. Many fine and lovely scenes will have been passed and rare 
water effects observed by the interested. A few miles up the canyon is a 
small tributary which falls over a cliff and breaks in a white spray, hover- 
ing over which is ever to be seen a miniature rainbow. It is very appropri- 
ately termed ** Bridal Veil." 

Utah Lake Basin may be said to end in the vicinity of Nephi, under 
Mount Nebo, where Onapah (Salt Creek) Canyon opens the way for 
another side railroad into Sanpete Valley, with its eighteen settlements • 
and 15,000 to 16,000 inhabitants. From the head of Sanpete one may find 
his way northward into Spanish Fork, or eastward over a mountain into 
Thistle or Castle Valleys. Southward the valley opens on the Sevier River, 
a world in itself, with passes of the. most majestic grandeur through ranees 
on either hand into adjoining valleys. A journey up the Sevier in fine 
w^eather is very interesting, and so is the region about its heads, where the 
waters divide and flow apart. The town of Kanara makes the crest of the 
rim, the waters flowing from the village north and south. The character of 
the Colorado River scenery is well known. A high sandstone plateau, cut 
by the river and side streams a mile in depth, too dry for animal or vejj- 
etable life, worthless for the most part unless for minerals. The river is 
hardly navigable above Fort Yuma. The scenery is described as more ter- 
rible than beautiful, and traveling through the country is difficult, and not 
at times without danger. For those in search of scenery wild and weird 
beyond description no place will afford greater satisfaction than the basin of 
the Colorado River. The river runs through pleasant valleys made by the 
erosion of the river itself, over which hang solid sandstone cliffs, rising 
thousands of feet into the air, almost perpendicular, without a blade of grass 
or the vestige of a shrub to relieve the monotony of color. From some of 
these heights the stream glides through its green and verdure-covered banks 
in endless windings, and seems as a silver thread, so far is it below. The 
existence of the historical cliff builders, evidenced by remains yet to be seen in 
the clifls overhanging the Colorado River Valley, make another interesting 
feature and are full of matter fraught with thought to the antiquarian and to 
those interested in the history of the aboriginees who inhabited this section 
centuries ago. The great distance from any centre, and the difficulty and 
sometimes danger of visiting the scene, preserves it in that original condition 
which is found only in places of note and especial interest removed from the 
sphere of the idle traveler whose only desire is to say he has seen. 


The mineral springs of Utah alone arc sufficient to give her world-wide 
celebrity, were they advertised properly and made the most of A painfiil 
indifference in this regard has made their reputation of slow growth^ and to 


the present date no efforts have been taken to show that their health-giving 
properties are excelled by none. Not only are the waters from these springs 
recommended iis excellent for drinking, but they are no less desirable 
because of their exhilarating effect upon bathers. There is no legitimate 
reason why, if proper steps were taken, the mineral springs should not 
yearly attract thousands in search of rest and health, while an industry could 
be built up by shipping to all parts of the world, bottled mineral water. 
Analyses snow it to contain elements, the general effect of which is health- 
producing upon all, while in specific cases the effect is unsurpassed. As it 
IS, they are visited more as a matter of curiosity than as a natural condition 
calculated to benefit mankind. The indifference of persons interested is 
something shameful. The same is true of the Great Salt Lake, of world- 
wide reputation, both as to pleasureable and to healthful effects resulting 
from bathing in its dense waters, and yet inadequate and few accommoda- 
tions are offered those who might reside months every year on its shore, 
were surroimdings made pleasant and comfortable. The mineral springs are 
various: Salt, sulphur, soda and iron. There are, also, calcareous springs 
in different parts of the Territory, notably in Wasatch County, in the vicinity 
of Heber City, where the deposits have created a number of vessel-shaped 
calcareous formations, known as the 'Tots." Of the varieties of springs in 
the Territory, the most noted and the best known are the Warm Springs, 
within the corporate limits of Salt Lake City. The waters are limpid and 
smell very strongly of sulphureted hydrogen, and are charged with gas, as 
combined with the mineral basis and as absorbed by the waters themselves. 
Dr. Gale is authority for the assertion that it is a Harrowgate water, abound- 
ing in sulphur. Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of Boston, gives the appended 

** Three fluid ounces of the water, on evaporation to entire dryness in a 
platina capsule, gave 8.25 grains of solid, dry, saline matter, as follows: 

Carbonate of lime and magnesia, o. 240 

Peroxide of iron, 0.040 

Lime, , 0.545 ' 

Chlorine, 3.454 

Soda, 2.877 

Magnesia, 0.370 

Sulphuric acid, 0.703 

*'It is slightly charged with hydro-sulphuric acid gas, and with carbonic 
acid gas, and is a pleasant, saline mineral water, having the valuable proper- 
ties belonging to saline sulphur springs." 

It issues from the mountain side in large volume; temperature, 95° to 
104°. The water is conveyed in pipes into two or three bathing houses, 
containing plunge, shower and tub baths and dressing and waiting rooms. 
The property is owned by the city, is connected with the leading hotels by 
the street cars, and is visited very generally, the waters being very effica- 
cious in the cure of many diseases, notably paralytic, rheumatic and scrofu- 

A mile and a half beyond the Warm Springs are the Hot Springs, 
which boil up from under a huge rock, forming a clear and transparent pool 
of a bluish shade. The water runs off into a lake, formed mainly by these 
waters, which is about two miles square. The temperature is about 1.28, 
and the waters smell strongly of sulphur as they emerge from their cavern- 
ous source. They are not utilized for any purpose, though their healing 
properties are admitted by citizens, and the waters are often used in cases 
where experience has shown them to be efficacious. 


About eight miles north of O.^^den, on the line of the Utah and Northern, 
exist what are known as the Red Sprinc^s, which c.)ver quite an extended 
area of ground. They are in B )x Eldir County, bat the ride there from 
O/den is very pleasant and throiT^h a most delightful tr.ict of country. The 
water is so stronglv impregnated with iron that verv little vegetition grows 
in the vicinity. They flow from the base of the Wasatch R inge, at a tem- 
perature of 131° Fahrenheit. Professor Spencer F. Baird, of the Smith- 
sonian Institute, gives the following analysis of the water : 

Grain* t*> tkf Gaitom, 

Silica, 2.687 

Alumina, 0.234 

Calcium sulphate, 18.074 

Calcium chloride 170.498 

Potassium chloride, 97-741 

Sodium chloride 1,052.475 

Magnesium chloride, 8. 167 

Magnesium carbonate, 11.776 

And carbonate of iron in heavy deposits. 

The springs are in the hands of private parties who are making exten- 
sive improvements, and are rapidly attracting a desirable '^lass of people 
anxious to profit by whatever medicinal properties the waters may contain. 

Further north, twelve miles from Bc:ir River Gates, is a group of 
springs issuing from between strata ot conglomerate and limestone, within a 
few feet of each other, of which one is a hot sulphur, a second warm salt, and 
the third, cool drinkable water. The volume from these springs is copious, 
but they run some distance before they become thoroughly mixed, although 
in the same channel. 


The greatest attraction in Utah, both for the traveler and the invalid, is 
Great Salt Lake — the Dead Sea of America. It is not the only salt lake in 
the Territory, but it is the largest body of water of the kind known in the 
world. The Sevier Lake, or Sevier Sink, as it is called because the waters 
of the Sevier River flow into it and sink and evaporate, is over forty miles 
long, by some eight miles wide: while there are a number of .;maller bodies of 
water, also salt, in other parts of the Territory. In the tops of the mountains 
in the most delightful and unexpected places, lovely sheets of water are to 
be found. This is the case in the Cottonwoods in Salt Lake County, near 
Mount Baldy, in Beaver County, in the mountains east of Cache Valley, in 
Garfield County — where a beautiful sheet of water, called Fish Lake exists — 
and in other places. The Bear Lake and Utah Lake are the largest fresh 
water bodies in the Territory, and they are so situated as to be sources of 
profit, while lending an enchantment to the scene that cannot be measured. 
The attention centres first on 


and retains of it the strongest and most liusting impression. The first men- 
tion of Great Salt Lake Wiis by the Biron La Hontan in 1689, who g.ith;:red 
from the Wt-stern Indians some vague notions of its existence. He 
romanced at length about the Tahuglauk, numerous as the leaves of trees, 
dwelling on its fertile shores and navigating it in large crafts. Captain B jn- 
neville sent a party from Green River, in 1833, to make its circuit, but they 
seem to have given it up on striking the desert on the north^vest. lost their 
way, and after some aimless wandering found themselves in Lower California. 
Until Colonel Fremont visited it, in 1842, on his way to Oregon, it is prob- 
able that its cl^ad waters had never been invaded or the solemn stillness of 


its islands broken. He pulled out from near the mouth of the Weber River 
in a rubber boat eighteen feet long for the nearest island, which, when he had 
climbed it and found it a mere rock, as he says, fourteen miles in circuit, he 
named it * 'Disappointment Island." Captain Stansbury re-christened it 
"Fremont Island,** and by common consent such it is called. Captain 
Stansbury found neither timber nor water on it, but luxuriant grass, wild 
onions, parsnips and sego. Near the summit the sagebrush were eight feet 
high and six or eight inches in diameter. Concerning this inland sea are 
various stories; there is conflict in dates, but they serve to show the interest 
that has ever been maintained regarding it. Among other writings of the sup- 
posed inland sea, is one recorded in thejourneyingsof the company of Jacob 
Aston, in 1820. when a few of the party, under the direction of a Mr. Miller, 
came into Cache Valley, on which occasion that gentleman discovered the 
Great Salt Lake, to which the whole party proceeded, and finding the 
water salt they concluded it was an arm of the ocean. In 1825 it was again 
discovered by a Mr. John Bedyear, and again in 1831 by Captain Bonneville, 
from which circumstances the ancient lake, when defined by the United 
States exploring party, received the name of Lake Bonneville, a great fossil 
lake of the Quarternacy j)eriod, the shores of which may be seen on the 
mountain slopes throughout the valleys. In 1836, Captain Stansbury made 
an exploration of the lake. General Fremont also visited it in 1846. From 
this time this region ceased to be a terra incognita. But, in April, 1849, an 
expedition was fitted out by direction of the government, and placed under 
the command of Captain Howard Stansbury of the United States Topograph- 
ical Corps of Engineers. The results of this expedition were that a regular 
exploration of this region was made, a very large amount of infonnation 
obtained respecting the Rocky Mountains generally, a complete survey 
made of the Great Salt Lake, and a report of the same published by order o 
the House of Representatives in 1851. 

There have been many analyses made of the Great Salt Lake. All of 
them agree that it is a solution consisting mainly of chloride of sodium, or 
common salt. The sulphates of soda, potash and lime and chloride of 
magnesium are variously reported by different analysts, the variation in 
results probably arising, in part, from the difference of locality where the 
waters were obtained. In many results our lake water differs from that of 
other salt lakes. This may arise from the fact that it is the residuum of the 
larger ancient lakes referred to above, its soluble constituents being concen- 
trated and continually added to by the influx of saline springs and the 
drainage of a large mineral region. 

The analysis given by Dr. Gale, as found in the Stansbury report, is as 
follows: One hundred parts, by weight, gave a solid residuum of 22.422, or 
in simpler terms, water rather more than 77^ per cent, solid matter, nearly 
22)4 per cent. This solid matter was found to be : 

Chloride of sodium (common salt), 20.196 

Sulphate of soda (glaubers salt) 1-834 

Chloride of magnesium 0.252 

Chloride of calcium, a trace, 

Total, 22.282 

The specific gravity of the water was then found to be 1.170. 
To institute a comparison, subjoined are the main result i of several 

Sotul ComteuU Sptrife 

per ceMi. Gravity* 

Great Salt Lake water 13.8 1.107 

Dead Sea water, 21.0 1.116 

Ocean water, 3.5 1.026 


One of the most recent reliable analysis of the waters of the Greit Sail 
Lake, by Professor O. D. Allem, of New Haven, g^ave the following; results: 

Per cent. 

Chloride of sodium, 79- n 

Chloride of mig-iiesia, 9.95 

Sulphate of soda, 6.22 

Sulphate of potasia, , . . . . 3. 58 

Sulphate of lime, 0.57 

Excess of chlorine, 0.57 

Total, 100.00 

The following analysis was made by Dr. Smart, U. S. A. : 

y or dan Water, 

The Jordan River sample, which Dr. Vallum stated mig^ht be viewed as 
identical with that of Utah Lake, contained thirty-three grains of saline 
matter per gallon, the constituents being as follows: 

Grains f^rr Gatimm. 

Lime carbonate, 3. 654 

Lime sulphate, 9-1^4 

Ma.ofnesia carbonate, 5- 761 

Sodium chloride, 10.500 

Silica, 1-729 

Iron and phosphates, 2. 191 

Total, 33-019 

This water was tainted with sulphureted hydrogen; it w^s also very 
turbid, on account of rain and snow meltings, containing twenty-one grains 
of sediment i>er gallon, mainly consisting of inorganic matter washed down 
from the mountains; and containing many diatoms and infusorial animalcules. 

Great Sa/t Lake Wafer, 

The Salt Lake water, on the contrary, was clear and free from odor. 
Its specific gravity was 1.107, distilled water, being unity; this den.sity 
being given to it by the 10.683 grains, or nearly twenty-four and a half 
ounces avoirdupois of saline matters which each imperial gallon held in solution : 

Grail* f^r G*tllam» 

Common salt, 9091.0 

Lime carbonate, -^-9 

Lime sulphate, 56.8 

Epsom salt, 870.0 

Magnesian chloride, ^53-5 

Iron, etc., traces, 

Total, 10.683.2 

As these large numbers of grains per gallon present a rather vague idea 
to the mind, the analysis is herewith given in grains of solids per 100 grains 
of the water sample; that is, in percentage by weight; 

Grtiim^ >Vr Hnmdrtd 

Common salt, 1 1-735 

Lime carbonate, 016 

Lime sulphate, 073 

£p.som salt, 1.123 

Chloride of magnesia, 843 

Percentage of solids, i3-790 

Water, 86.210 

Total, 100.000 


The dry salt in every hundred grains contains: 

Common salt, 85.089 

Lime carbonate 117 

Lime sulphate, 531 

Epsom salts, 8- ' 45 

Xlagnesia chloride, 6. 118 

Total, 100.000 

Thus, according to this analysis, the water of the Great Salt Lake gives 
nearly 14 per cent, of solid matter, or, in other words, seven pounds ol lake 
M*ater yields one pound of salt, 85 per cent, of which is common salt. 

This by no means agrees with the popular idea of the strength of the 
Salt Lake brine. On the street any day, in discussing the lake question, 
we may hear the assertion made, that five gallons of water yield one gallon 
of salt, (that is 20 j)er cent, instead of fourteen as given by the above 
analysis). Yet this may have been the result of an honest experiment, but 
it is to be remembered that a 7ncasure of salt is not the accurate test of 
quantity which the above stated weight of salt claims to be. The crystal- 
hne particles of the salt always preserving the same weight may occupy 
more or less space according to the mode of aggregation of their crystals. 
Every one knows that by filling a bottle or measure with a rough-grained 
angular powder, it may be made, when apparently filled, to hold an additional 
quantity by knocking it on the table so as to cause the particles to adjust 
themselves closer to each other and exclude air lacunar. And in this con- 
nection due weight must be given to the tendency of the human mind to 
exaggeration. On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that the salt 
waler of the ocean is markedly less salt for miles around a fresh water 
estuary, and even near a coast line, than it is in midocean; and that in the 
absc-nce of personal knowledge concerning the point whence the sample 
analyzed was collected, it might be possible that another sample less diluted 
by the fresh water inflow from the land would yield a large percentage of 
saline ingredients. 

It has been claimed that of late years the rainfall on the mountains 
which dominate the Salt Lake valley has increased to such extent as to 
raise the level of the lake at certain points, and to flood parts of the country 
which in former years were dry. Were this so it would account for a 
diminbhed percentage of salt in the lake brine, but it is doubtiul if the 
obiervations on which this opinion is based are accurate enough to sustain 
it. Rain gauge reports from Fort Douglas and city observers are of no 
value in the question for many a thunder-cloud discharges its waters into the 
lake by means of the mountain slopes and rivulets, without, as this present 
summer has demonstrated, giving a drop to lay the dust either at the Post 
or the city; while on the other hand, the slightest tilt of the lake bottom by 
volcanic action would account for a local overflow or an unbound margin, or 
an increased depth where the waters were confined. 

The popular idea that the salt of the lake is a pure one, or consisting 
mainly of common salt, is borne out by the analysis, which gives 85 per 
cent, of chloride of sodium. Erroneous ideas as to the strength and char- 
acter of the Salt Lake brine have also been propagated by some of our best 
chemical text books — as witness, Brand and Taylor give the saline matter 
in the lake at 22 per cent, (authority not stated), or somewhat more than is 
claimed by our most enthusiastic citizens. The same passage states only 20 
per cent, of the total solids to be pure salt. Imagine the chagrin, on read- 
mg this, of the said citizens who conceive that every crystalline particle 
which they see on the evaporation of the water is pure salt, without thinking 


of the presence of 8 per cent, of Epsom salt and six of the bitter chloride 
of magnesia. 

The Jordan river carries into the Great Salt Lake ten grains of salt per 
gallon of water, which is no doubt owing to the concentration by evapora- 
tion which takes place from the surface of Utah Lake, for the Fort Douglas 
brook, which may be looked upon as an average sample of the mountain 
feeders of the valley lakes, brings down but half a grain of common salt per 
gallon of water. 

Few of the rivers which run into the ocean contain more than one or 
two grains of chloride of sodium per gallon, but they all contain a much 
larger proportion of salt, lime and magnesia. Repeated analyses of the 
ocean water have shown the persistence of common salt carried down by 
the rivers, as also of the soluble ma^esia salt, the sulphate and chloride — 
with diminution of the lime by precipitation. The same holds good in the case 
of Great Salt Lake; the common salt and the soluble magnesian salts accumu- 
late, while the insoluble lime salts are deposited at the bottom. In view of 
this it would seem that the waters of our Salt Lake are only a concentration 
of the waters of the ocean ; and this is what the above analysis shows. The 
practical deduction from this (for which, however, I am indebted to Major 
Goodspeed) is that by diluting the lake water with that of the Jordan River 
the ocean water can be approximated, and such life as the ocean can support 
can be cultivated in the Salt Lake Valley,, if citizens are energetic enough to 
mix the one with the other in due proportion, and stock the admixture with 
the oysters and fish required. 

It compares with other saline waters about as follows: 

Atlantic Ocean, 96.5 3.5 

Mediterranean, 96.2 3.8 

ueaci k>ea, • 1^* ^4* 

Great Salt Lake, . 86. 14. 

And in specific gravity, distilled water being unity: 

Ocean water, 1.026 

Dead Sea, . , i. 116 

Great Salt Lake 1.170 





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The appended is Professor G. K. Gilbert's theory of the ancient outlet 
of Great Salt Lake: 

"Great Stlt Lake has no outlet, and its fluctuating levee is determined 
by the balance betvvei-n inflowing streams and solar evaporation. On the 
surrounding mountains there are water lines rising in steps to a thousand 
feet above its surface, and showing that in ancient times a great body of 
water occupied its basin. This ancient body, known as Lake Bonneville, 
was 345 miles long, from north to south, and 135 miles broad, and its ves- 
tiges are on so grand a scale that they have attracted the attention not only 
of geologists, but of every observant traveler. It naturally occurred to many 
persons to inquire whether the lake waters did not. in their flood stage, find 
an outlet, and several theories have been advanced in regard to it; but pre- 
vious to 1876 the outlet was not discovered, or if discovered its position was 
not announced. In the summer of that year I left Ogden for the purpose 
of seeking the outlet at the north, and in a few days had the great pleiisure 
of finding it in Idaho, at the north end of Cache Valley, the locality being 
known as Red Rock Pass. The circumstances were such as to leave no 
doubt in my mind that I had determined the actual point of outflow, and on 
my return to the East I made the announcement, without reservation, 
in a communication to the lliilosophical Society of Washington. The 
announcement was also made for me in the same unequivocal manner 
by Professor Joseph Henry, in the Smithsonian report for 1876 
(page bi), and by Professor J. W. Powell, in Baird's Annual of 
Scientific Discoveries for 1876 (page 260 , and there seemed no 
occasion for further publication until the matter should receive its 
full discussion in the reports of the survey of which Professor Powell has 
charge. But in the American Journal of Science for January. 1878 (page 
65), there appears a statement — apparently on the authority of Dr. F". V. Hav- 
den, but without signature — that *it is believed that the explorations of the 
survey, under the direction of Dr. Hayden, the past season, have deter- 
mined the probable ancient outlet of the great lake that once filled Salt 
Lake Basin;' and there is so much doubt implied by the use of the phrases; 
*it is believed' and * probable outlet' that it seems proper for me to defend 
my positive assertions by setting forth the facts which appear to me to place 
the existence and position of the ancient outlet beyond question. 

**If Lake Erie were to drv away, and a geologist of the future .should 
examine its basin, he would easily trace the former shore line around it. At 
two points he would find this line interrupted. At Detroit and at Buflfalo 
he would meet with narrow, trough-like passes, depressed somewhat below 
the level of the shore line, and leading to other basins. Following the 
Detroit Pass he would be led to the Huron Basin and would find there a 
shore line .so nearly on a level with the Erie that he could not readily deter- 
mine which was the higher. Following the Buflfalo Piiss he would find a 
continuous descent for many miles to the Ontario Basin, and in that ba.sin 
he would find no water line at the level of the Erie shore. In each case he 
would learn from the form of the pjissage that it had been the channel of 
a river, and in the latter case he would learn from the direction and continu- 
ity of descent, and from the absence of corresponding shore lines, that it 
had been the channel of an oiitjloiving river. 

** So in regard to Lake Bonneville. To discover its outlet it was necessary 
to find a point where the Bonneville shore line was interrupted by a pass of 
which the floor was lower than the shore line, and which led to a valley not 
marked by a continuation of the shore line. These conditions are satisfied 
at Red Rock Pass, and, in addition, there is continuous descent from the 
Pass to the Pacific Ocean. All about Cache Valley the Bonneville shore 
line has been traced, and it is well marked within a half mile of the Pass. 
The floor of the Pass at the divide is 340 feet below the level of the shore 


line, and its form is that of a river channel. The gentle alluvial slopes from 
the mountains at the east and west, which appear once to have united at the 
Pass, are divided for several miles by a steep-sided, flat-bottomed, trench- 
like passage, 1,000 feet broad, and descending northward from the divide. 
At the divide. Marsh Creek enters the old channel from the east, and turning 
northward runs through Marsh Valley to the Portneuf River, a tributary to 
tlie Columbii. In Marsh the eye seeks in vain for the familiar shore lines of 
the Salt L:ike Basin, and the conclusion is irresistible that here the ancient 
lake outflowed. 

** At the divide a portion of each wall of the ancient channel is composed 
of solid limestone, and its flow is internipttd by knolls of the same material. 
It is evident, too. that the channel has lost .•something in depth, for Mar.'-h 
Creek and some smaller streams at the south have thrown so much debris 
into it as to divide it into several little basins occupied by ponds and 
marshes. It is not improbable that twenty or thirty feet have thus been 
built upon the floor and that the original bed of the channel, where it crosses 
the limestone, is 360 or 370 feet lowxr than the highest Bonneville beach. 
Still we must not sui)pose that the floor of the outlet was ever 270 feet 
below a cocxistant level of the lake, but rather that during the existence of 
the outlet the channel was slowly excavated to that extent, while the lake 
was to the same extent drained. This view is sustained in a very striking 
manner by the phenomena of the shore line. 

**From the highest shore line, known as the 'Bonneville Beach,' down 
to the level of the modern lake, there is a continuous series of wave-wrought 
terraces recording the slow recession of the water. As many as twenty Ave 
have been counted on a single slope. Some are strongly marked and others 
faintly, and some that are conspicuous at one point lail to appear at other 
points; but there is one that under all circumstances asserts supremacy and 
clearly marks the longest lingering of the water. It has been called the * Provo 
Beach,* an J it rans about 3^5 miles bolow the Bi)nneville beach. When the 
discharge of the lake began, its level was that recorded by the Bonneville Beach, 
The outflowing stream crossed the unconsolidated gravels that overlay the 
limestt^ne at Red Rock Pass, and cut them away raj^idly. The lake surface 
was lowered with comparative rapidity until the limestone was exi)osed, but 
from that time the progress was exceedingly slow. For a long period the 
water was held at nearly the same level and the Provo Beach was produced. 
Then came the drying of the climate, and the outflow ceased; and slowly, 
with many lingerings, the lake has shrunk to its present size. 

**In Dr. Hayden's preliminary report of the field work of his survey for 
tlie seasoii of 1877, noticed on page 56 of the current volume of the 
journal, there is no mention of the observation at Red Rock P.iss, but the 
omission appears to have been accidental, for on page 7 he says: *At the 
divide between the Malad and Marsh Creeks is another of the old outlets of 
the ancient Salt Lake when its waters were at the highest level.* This 
passage occurs in a summary of Dr. A. C. Peale's geological observations, 
but it is to be hoped that the idea will not be advocated in that gentleman's 
report. The divide referred to is near Malad Citv, and separates Malad 
Valley from Marsh Valley. The Bonneville Beach is well marked all about 
Mai; d Valley, and nowhere more strongly than in the vicinity of Malad 
Citv. It runs between that place and the divide at an altitude of about 400 
feet (by barometer) above the city, while the divide, as determined by Dr. 
Hayden's assistants, has an altitude above the city of 950 feet. After mak- 
ing every allow-ance for the errors incident to barometric determinations of 
altitude, it must be conceded that the divide is several hundred feet higher 
than the water line. It appears so evident from a distant view that the lake 
did not overflow this ridge, that I did not ascend to the summit, although I 
had undertaken last summer to examine every divide between the Columbia 


and Salt Lake Basins that might possibly have afTorded passage to the water. 
I am aware that Professor F. H. Bradley, who visited the locality in 1872, 
expressed the half-formed opinion that it had been a point of outflow, but 
he described no channel of outflow; and it is evident, moreover, that he 
gave little thought to the subject, for he made the somewhat astonishing 
suggestion that four outflowing streams might have coexisted — one at the 
Soda Spring Pass, one at Red Rftck, one near Malad City, and one at the 
head of the Malad River. If he had seen the channel at Red Rock, I do 
not doubt that he would have recognized it as the real avenue of discharge. 
It is proper to add in this connection, that I have been able to demon- 
strate that certain small orographic movements have transpired in the 
Bonneville Basin, not only since its desiccation but during its flooding, and 
that it is perfectly conceivable that such movements shifted the outflow from 
point to point. To ascertain whether they actually did so, I have traced 
out during the past summer all of the shore line that had not previously 
been explored, and in so doing I have satisfied myself that the only oudet 
of Lake Bonneville was Red Rock Pass. ' ' 

Professor John Muir gives this description of a bath in Great Salt Lake: 
** When the north wind blows bathing in Salt Lake is a glorious bap- 
tism, for then it is all wildly awake with waves, blooming like a prairie m 
snowy crystal foam. Plunging confidently into the midst of the grand 
uproar you are hugged and welcomed, and swim without effort, rocking and 
whirling up and down, round and round in delightful rhythm, while the 
wind sings in chorus and the cool, fragrant brine searches every fibre of your 
bodv, and at the end of your excursion you are tossed ashore with glad 
God -speed, braced and salted, and clean as a saint. The nearest point on 
the shore line is distant about ten miles from Salt Lake City, and is almost 
inaccessible on account of the boggy character of the ground; but by tak- 
ing the Utah and Nevada Railroad, at a distance of twenty miles you reach 
what is called Lake Point, where the shore is gravelly and wholesome, and 
abounds in fine retreating bays, that seem to have been made on purpose for 
bathing. Here the northern peaks of the Oquirrh Range plant their feet in 
the clear blue brine, with fine curving insteps, leaving no space for muddy 
levels. The crystal brightness of the water, the wild flowers and lovely 
mountain scenery make this a favorite summer resort for pleasure and 
health seekers. Numerous excursion trains are run from the city, and 
parties, some of them numbering upwards of a thousand, come to bathe, 
and dance, and roam the flowery hillsides together. But at the time of my 
first visit in May, I fortunately found myself alone. The hotel and bath- 
houses, which form the principal improvements of the place, were asleep in 
winter silence, notwithstanding the year was in full bloom. It was one of 
those genial Sundays when flowers and flies come thronging to the light, 
and birds sing their best. The mountain ranges, stretching majestically 
north and south, were piled with pearly cumuli, the sky overhead was pure 
azure, and the wind-swept lake was all aroU and aroar with white caps. I 
sauntered along the shore until I came to a cove, where buttercups and 
wild peas were blooming close down to the limit reached by the waves. 
Here, I thought, is just the place for a bath; but the breakers seemed terri- 
blv boisterous and forbidding as they came rolling up the beach, or dashed 
wnite against the black rocks that bounded the cove on the east. The outer 
ranks, ever broken, ever builded, formed a magnificent rampart, sculptured 
and corniced like the hanging wall of a bergschliuht^ appearing hopelessly 
insurmountable, however easily one might ride the swelhng waves beyona. 
1 feasted awhile on their surpassing beauty, watching their coming in from 
afar like faithful messengers, to tell their stories one by one; then I turned 
reluctantly away, to botanize and await a calm. But tne calm did no tcome 
that day, nor did I wait long. In an hour or two I was back again to that 


same little cove. The waves still sang the old storm song and rose in high 
crystal walls, seemingly hard enough to be cut in angular sections like ice. 

•'Without any definite determination I fmnd myself undressed, as if 
some one else had taken me in hand; and while one of the largest waves 
was ringing out its message and sj^cnding itself on the beach, I ran out 
with open arms in the next, and received a hearty salute. Then I was fairly 
launched and at home, tossed into right lusty relationship with the brave 
old lake. Away I sped, in free glad motion, as if like a fish I had been 
afloat all my life, now low out of sight in the smooth glassy valley, now 
aloft on firm combing crest, while the crystal foam beat against my breast 
with keen, crisp clashing, as if composed of pure, crisp salt. I bowed to 
every wave, and each lifted me right royally to their shoulders, almost set- 
ting me erect on my feet, while they went speeding by like living creatures, 
blooming and rejoicing in the brightness of the day, and chanting the his- 
tory of their grand old mountain home. 

** A good deal of nonsense has been written concerning the difficulty of 
swimming in this heavy water. ' One's head would go down, and heels come 
up, and the acrid brine would burn like fire.' I was conscious only of a 
joyous exhilaration, my limbs seemingly heeding their own business, with- 
out any discomfort or confusion, so much so, that without any previous 
knowledge my experience on this occasion would not have led me to detect 
anything peculiar. In calm weather, however, the sustaining power of the 
water might probably be more marked. This was, by far, the most exciting and 
effective wave excursion I ever made this side of the Rocky Mountains; and 
when, at its close, I was heaved ashore among the sunny grasses and flowers, 
I found myself a new creature indeed, and went bounding along the beach 
with blood all aglow, reinforced by the best lil'e salts of the mountains, and 
ready for any race. 

"Since the completion of the trans-continental and Utah railways, this 
magnificent lake in the heart of the continent has become as accessible 
as any watering place on either coast; and I am sure that thousands of 
travelers, sick and well, would throng its shores every suNiimer were its 
merits but half known. Lake Point is only an hour or two from the city, 
and has good hotel accommodations, and a steamboat for excursions; and 
then, besides the bracing waters, its climate is delightful. The mountains 
rise into the cool sky, furrowed with canyons almost Yosemitic in grandeur, 
and filled with a glorious profusion of flowers and trees. Lovers of science, 
lovers of wildness, lovers of pure rest will find here more than they ever 
may hope for." 

The principal Islands are Antelope and Stansbury, rocky ridges, rang- 
ing north and south, rising abruptly from the lake to an altitude of 3,000 
feet. Antelope is the nearest to Salt Lake City, and is sixteen miles long. 
Stansbury is twenty miles to the westward of Antelope, and twelve miles 
long. Both at one time were accessible from the southern shore by wagon. 
Both had springs of sweet water and good grass for stock. The view from 
the summit of Antelope is described as '*grand and magnificent, embracing 
the whole lake, the islands, and the encircling mountains covered with snow 
— a superb picture set in a framework of silver.'* Mention is made of the 
scenery on the eastern side of Stansbury. * * Peak towers above peak, and 
cliff beyond cliff, in lofty magnificence, while, crowning the summit, the 
dome frowns in gloomy solitude upon the varied scene of bright waters, 
scattered verdure, and boundless plain (western shore) of arid desolation 
below. Descending one day from the dome, the gorge, at first almost 
shut up between perpendicular cliffs of white sandstone, opened out into a 
superb, wide, and gently sloping valley, sheltered on each side to the very 
water's edge by belting cliffs, effectually protected from all winds, except on 
the east, and covered with a most luxuriaint growth of bunch-grass. Near 


the shore were abundant springs of pure, soft water, ' ' probably covered by 
the lake now. There was no sweet water on the western side of the island. 
Of minor islands, there are Fremont, Carrington, Gunnison, Dolphin, Mud, 
Egg, Hat, and several islets without names. With the ranges enclosinj; 
the valley they present water marks at different heights, one principal ont." 
800 feet above the present lake level, indicating a comparatively recent 
receding of the waters, either from change of climate or the relative level of 
of the mountains and basin. 

In all probability the whole area between the Sierra Nevada and the 
Wasatch was once a lake, in which the mountains rose as islands, and of 
which the lakes now existing, large and small, are the remains. The depos- 
its which cover the lowlands are chiefly calcareous and arenaceous, and 
often filled with fresh water and land shells, indicating a very modern origin. 
The formation of the islands and shore ranges adjoining Salt Lake is meta-* 
morphic; the strata distinctly marked and highly mclincd, but attaining no 
great elevation; generally overlaid with sandstones and limestones of the 
carboniferous age, both partly altered, the former constituting the loftier 
eminences; in places highly fossiliferous, in others, losing their granular 
character and becoming sub-cr}'stalline, or threaded by veins of calcareous 
spar; the sandstones often, from metamorphic action, taking the chanicter of 
quartz. In places on the islands, the surface is changed rocks, tiilcose and 
mica slates, hornblende and sienite. Captain Stansbury found the top of an 
island twenty miles west of the northern point of Antelope to consist of fine 
roofing slate. A nail could be driven through it almost as easily as through 
a shingle. It was in unlimited quantity. On another small island he found 
cubic crystals of iron pyrites in seams of ferruginous quartz. Near the point 
of Promontory Range he noticed a cliff of alum shale nearly a mile in 
length, traversed by dykes of trap, the shale containing numerous veins of 
very pure fibrous alum. Close by were .strata of alum, slate, fine grindstone- 
grit, sandstone and albite. It is a manganese instead of an alk<iline or true 
alum, but may be substituted for common alum in tanning leather, and, also, 
iis a coloring agent in dyeing. Some of the islands are crowned with ledges 
of black and cream -colored marble. 

Captain Stansbury navigated and examined the lake thoroughly, and 
was often oppressed by its solitude, nothing living in the water, although 
aquatic birds cover the shores and islands in the breeding season, either 
carrying their food from the fresh water streams that feed the lake or feeding 
on the larva* of diptera, which accumulates in great quantity on or near the 
beaches. His boat was named the " Salicornia," contracted to "Sally" for 
common use, but he left no data as to its style and tonnage, except that it 
was flat-bottomed. Next in order among the navigators of the lake were 
the Walker Brothers, merchants of Salt Lake City, who sailed a lonesome 
pleasure yacht for some years. There is now a considerable yachting fleet. 
In 1868 General Connor built and launched the *' Kate Connor," a small 
steamer, for the purpose of transporting railroad ties and telegraph poles 
from the southern to the northern shore. The next spring he built a 
schooner of 100 tons burthen, called the *'Pluribustah." These were fol- 
lowed by a pleasure steamer, brought on by John W. Young from New 
York, *'The Lady of the Lake," and in 1870 by the building and launching^ 
of a first-class boat, costing $45,000, by Fox Diefendorf, called, at first, the 
'*City of Corinne," aften\ards changed to " Cieneral Garfield." This boat 
was used chiefly for excursions, there being no business 'to justify Salt 
Lake navigiition. The industries of its shores are not so magnificent, it 
seems, as those of the Tahuglauk in La Hontan's lime, or i)erhaps railroads 
serve them better. The "Kate Connor" and her kindred long ago found 
A resting place at the bottom of the lake. 

Though the land in sight is for the most part brown and sunburnt, an 


excursion on the lake is exceedingly interesting. The reader is supposed 
to have gone out to the south shore via the Utah and Nevada, the distance- 
being about twenty miles, and to have embarked at Garfield Landing. Our 
course is northward, between Antelope and Stansbury. The water is of a 
beautiful aquamarine, and so clear that the bottom is seen through four 
fathoms of it. Behind, on shore, arc the Oquirrh and Spring Valley Ranges, 
with Tooele (Tu ilia) Valley intervening and rising as it recedes so as to hide 
Rush Valley, into which the Dry and Ophir Canyons open. A few miles 
from shore the village of Tooele is indicated by an oasis of foliage, while far 
to the west, under the gleaming Spring Valley Range, high enough to 
retain a few snow banks, although it is July, lies the village of Grantsville. 
Abreast of Antelope Island we distinguish grazing herds. If boring on this 
island would bring plenty of sweet water what a fruit plantation it might be 
made, with the lake to keep off the frosts. 

Between two and three hours out, having passed Stansbury, the view 
northwestward enlarges, and we might imagine ourselves standing out to 
sea but for an islet or two breaking the horizon. Through notches in the 
Cedar Mountains on the west the eve catches the snowv foreheads of the 
(roshoot and Deep Creek Ranges; while on the east the Wasatch rises 8,000 
feet, a rugged, massive, gray wall of weather-sculptured rock 200 miles in 
length. Soon we have run past Antelope and are abreast of Fremont, 
which may be known by a rock upon its crest, resemblintr a castle. Con- 
tinuing northward, we shall soon have the Promontory Range on our left, 
with the water shoaling from fifteen to six or seven feet in our run of twenty 
miles, where we enter the channel of the Bear River. Forty years ago 
Fremont could not enter great Salt Lake from Bear River in a rubber boat 
eighteen feet fong, for want of water. Now a boat of 250 tons burthen 
I>asses from the lake into the river over the bank twenty miles from the lake 
shore. We can proceed up the river to Corinne, where the Central Pacific 
Railroad crosses it, but the lake excursions do not extend so lar, or even as 
far as we have come. They usually go fifteen or twenty miles, far enough 
to get a good view of the surroundings, and there are few more interesting 
sights to be seen anywhere, and then return. The steamer ''(jcneral Gar- 
field'* has been dismantled, and is used as a house on the bathing ground of 
Garfield Landin^^. A small steamer, called the "Whirlwind," now affords a 
cheap opportunity for an excursion in the lake. 

Great Salt Lake covers an area of 2,500 square miles, and its surface is 
higher than the average Alleghany Mountains. Its mean depth, probably, 
does not exceed twenty feet, the deepest place, between Antelope and Stans- 
bury, being sixty feet. The two principal islands used to be accessible from 
the shore by wagon; but the lake gradually filled ^\(i or six feet, from 1847 
to 1856, and then slowly receded to its old level. In 1863 it began to fill 
again, and in tour or five years had attained a stage considerably higher 
than its present level, perhajjs four or (wn feet. In 1875 a pillar was set up 
at Black Rock, by which to measure this rise and fall, resembling a tide, but 
having no ascertained time. It is very slight compared with what it form- 
erly was. Professor Gilbert, of the Geological Survey, says that twice 
within recent geological time, it has risen nearly a thousand feet higher than 
its present stage, and, of course, covered vastly more ground. He calls the 
lake after Captain Bonneville, the original explorer of these regions, whom 
Irving has immortalized, Lake Bonneville. Causes which learned men 
assign as producing what they call a glacial period might easily fill the lake 
until it extended nearly the whole length of Utah. 

It was once popularly supposed that the lake communicated with the 
CK!ean by a subteixanean river, which made a terrible whirlpool somewhere 
on its surface. Needless to say, neither has been found. Receiving so 
many streams and having no outlet, it has become very saline from evapor- 


ation and the inflow of salt springs. The saline or solid matter held in 
solution by the water varies as the lake rises or subsides. In 1842 Fremont 
obtained 'fourteen pints oi very white salt*' from five gallons of the water 
evaporated over a camp fire. '1 he salt was also very pure, assaying 97.80 
fine. The solid matter in the water varies between spnng and fall, between 
dry and wet seasons, and also between different jiarts of the lake, for nearly 
all the fresh water is received from the Wasatch on the east. It is the opin- 
ion of salt makers that an average of the lake at its present stage would 
show the presence of 16 per cent, of solid matter. It is undoubtedly a con- 
centration of the waters of the ocean, in which, as in Salt Lake, says Dr. 
Smart, the common and magnesian salts arc held in solution, while the 
insoluble lime salts are precipitated to the bottom. Captain Stansbury found 
by exp)eriment that it answered perfectly for preserving meats. 

Within the last few years the lake has become of great interest as a 
watering place. In the long sunny days of July and August the water 
becomes deliciously warm, and it is much warmer than ocean water a month 
earlier and later. It is so dense that one sustains himself indefinitely with- 
out effort, and vigorous constitutions experience no inconvenience from 
remaining in it a long time. A more delightful and healthy exercise than 
bufifbting its waves when a little rough can hardly be imagined. But for its 
tendency to float the limbs to the surface and the necessity of keeping it out 
of the nostrils, it would afford the best swimming school in the world. As 
it is, all ages and sexes in Salt Lake are fast mastering the art. Experience 
has proved its hygienic benefits. Whether it be the stimulating effect of the 
brine upon the skin, of the saline air on the lungs, or the exercise of the 
muscles involved in swimming, or all of them together, many have come to 
the conclusion that a few weeks' sojourn on the lake shore in the hot season 
is absolutely essential to their weathering the year. The lake coast at the 
north end of the Oquirrh for two or three miles is sandy, soft to the feet, 
clean and shelving. During the hot months cheap trains leave for the bath- 
ing ground daily at the close of business. The run is made in forty minutes, 
and the excursion, aside from the bathing, is not unpleasant. Some day 
this shore will be built up with private watering-place cottages, plentifully 
interspersed by large, airy hotels, with water and trees for the grounds; and 
it will be thronged in the bathing season as no ordinary seaside resort ever 
Is; for it offers unparalleled attractions in i^s way — rest, comfort, saline air, 
and the most delightful and invigorating exercise, calling* into play all the 
muscles. Never tiring, the water is so buoyant; never chilling, it is so warm; 
free from danger; recreating and invigorating; a tonic for all; a remedy lor 
many ills; health -restoring and strength-renewing. The east shore of the 
lake, on the line of the Utah Central and Central Pacific Railroads, is 
resorted to for bathing. It is becoming understood that for the renewal of 
life and energy there is nothing like a few weeks of Salt Lake bathing inter- 
spersed with visits to the medicinal springs and the mountain canyons and 


Perfect climate, like perfect humanity, is perfect nonsense. The most 
desirable climate is that which, while still calculated to promote health, is 
also adapted to outdoor employment the greatest possible number of days 
in the year. Generally, however, climate is considered excellent, accora- 
ing to the proportion of deaths among those who live in it The 
climate of New Zealand is considered f>ar excellence, because of the prevail- 
ing health of the people; in fact, it is called the * 'Sanitarium of the World,' 
the proportion of deaths to the population bein^ so extremely low. And 
yet if people living in Utah were subject to the terrible rains that are of 



common occurrence there, or should be forced to endure one of the long, 
strong and steady winds which blow, with such force as to carry clouds of 
gravel when it is not raining, they would pronounce the climate the most 
abominable under the sun. The climate of Utah is not perfect, it is too hot 
in summer for the most cold-blooded, too cold in winter for those of warm- 
est blood ; and yet during the greater part of the year it is delightful. 

The following table is from observations made by the Fort Douglas 

Errison for the first twelve years, and by the Signal Service officer at Salt 
ike for seven years: 











1970 , 

.f :::::::::::;::::::;:•:::: 

1880 , 


Mraa far Nineteen Years 




5» 87 











































17. a$ 



18. 13 



• S1.07 






Among the highest observed temperatures are 121^ at Fort Miller, 
California, and 132^ in India; while the thermometer has been known to fall 
to 76' below zero in Siberia, and to 40^ below in some parts of the United 
States.* At places in the East and West Indies, the entire annual range of 
the thermometer is 14^; at Montreal it is 140^; at New York, 114^; at St. 
Louis, 133^; at Chicago, 132**; at Denver, 126°. At Salt Lake City, as will 
be seen, it has exceeded 100^ but twice in nineteen years. It has gone to 
100^ to 104** five times in those years, and to 3^ to 10° below three times. 
The range has been less than 90^ in that time cftener than it has been 100* 
or more. 

The appended table will give an idea of the seasonal and annual means: 





Mean of 

50. » 


Mean of 

tlie Max. 






Mean of 
tlie Min. 
tut es. 



























Kain fell. 





The annual mean of Salt Lake City places it verj' near the isotheniinl 
line of 50^, which crosses nearly 15** of latitude on each continent, owinjj U» 
the influences of oceans, winds and elevations, starting on Pugfet Sound 
and passing near or through Salt Lake City, Santa Fe. Denver, Burlington. 
PittsDurg, New Haven, Dublin, Brussels, Vienna and Pekin. The summer 
and winter means describe the same undulations in traversing the continents, 
and they are more indicative of the climate in its relations to animal and 
vegetable life than the usual mean. The mean annual temperature of New 
Vork and Liverpool are the same, yet throughout England the heat <»!' 
summer is insufficient to ripen Indian corn, while the ivy, which grows lu.x- 
uriantly in England, cm scarcely survive the severe wintei's of New York. 
In both the East and West Indies the mean temperature of the hottest 
month in the year differs very little (at Singapore 3J''i°) from that of the 
coldest. At Quebec, on the other hand, the difference is 60®, and at some 
places in Siberia, 100°. At Salt Lake City it is about 47*^. 

A summer mean of 73.4° may be thought high. To the extremes i)f 
summer heat, in nearly all j)arts of the United States, the lower valleys of 
Utah offer no very unusual excej)tion. The higher valleys and mountains 
are always at hand, however, and Great Salt Lake exercises a mollifying 
oceanic influence on the extremes of temperature. **Some travelers have 
imagined that on its shores is to be found the most unique and wonderful 
climate on the face of the globe, combining, as it does, the light pure air of 
the neighboring snow-capped mountains with that of the briny lake itself: 
and it is fancied by many that, at certain points, one may inhale an atmos- 
phere salty and marine, like that of the shores of the Atlantic, happily com- 
bined with a cool, fresh, mountain air,'^ike the breath of the Alps themselves. 
Owing to the absence of marine vegetation about the shores, however, then- 
are none of the pleasant odors ol the seashore."* At all events, the dry 
and absorbent character of the atmojiphere relieves the oppression felt in 
humid climates at high temperatures. 

The same may be said with reference to extremes of cold, although tht- 
average humidity in winter is more, than twice as great as in summer. For 
the year it is 43; at Denver it is 46; at Philadelphia, 73. For spring, sum- 
mer and fall, it is 37, while for summer it is 28.5. The rainfall averages 
17.3 inches a year, 40 per cent, of which is in the spring, 9 in the summer. 
25 in the fall, and 25 in the winter. In latitude 40® there should be, un 
general princii)les, thirty inches in a year. Fort Laramie, Sacramento, and 
Santa Fe have about the same as Salt Lake City; Denver, a little less; while 
over the entire area of the United States east ut the looth meridian west 
from Greenwich, the average annual rainfall is forty inches, t 60 per cent, of 
which is at (mce thrown off in the river drainage. Nothing in the mete- 
orological register of the last seven years indicates that the climate of Utah 
is growing moister; but Rush Lake rolls its blue waves over what was ;i 
meadow twenty years ago, and Great Salt Lake hiis at least ten feet of brine 
where wagons were driven to and fro in 1863. It has not gained any in 
contents in the last decade, however, and it would be nowise surprising were 
it to recede again to its old level. If the rainfall has increased because of tht* 
greater area of land cultivated and quantity of water diffused by irrigation 
as well as by the currents tapped in opening mines, the lake may be expected 
to retain its present level. Increased humidity has followed the settlement 
and cultivation of the Mississippi Valley prairies, and it is not unlikely that 
it is doing so in Utah, alth6ugh there :is not sufficient data as yet upon which 
to assert it. A peculiarity of the climate is the preponderance of rainfall in 
the spring, when it is most needed. Could a part of the moisture that is 
precipitated in winter be transferred to summer, there would l)e no necessity 

♦Surircon K. I*. VolI»:::i, I,'. S. A, 


tor irrigation. The days on which there is precipitation average one in four, 
hut not half of them are really stormy days. There is hardly ever a cloud 
in the skies of Utah through which the sun is not looking. 

The mean air-pressure at Salt Lake City is 25.63 inches; water boils at 
204°. The prevailing winds are from the north-northwest, and the most 
windy months are March, July, August, and September. The mean 
velocity of the winds during the entire year is 53<3 miles an hour. 
()n the ocean it is 18; at Liverpool it is 13; at Toronto, 9; at Philadel- 
phia, II. The climate of Utah on the whole is not unlike that of 
northwestern Texas and New Mexico, and is agreeable except for a 
month or so in winter, and then the temperature seldom falls to zero or 
snow to a greater depth than a foot; and it soon melts away; although it 
sometimes affords a few days' .sleighing. The spring opens in March, the 
atmosphere becomes clear as a dewdrop, deciduous trees burst into leafy 
bloom, and the green of the valleys pursues the retiring snow-line up the 
mountain slopes. The summer is pleasant in its onset, accompanied by 
fnigrant airs and full streams. Springs of sweet water, fed largely from 
the surface, bubble forth everywhere. But as the season advances the heat 
increases, the winds become laden with dust, the storms are mainly dry, the 
springs fail or become brackish from concentration of their mineral salts, 
the streams run low, and vegetation parches unless artificially watered. 
.Still, from the rapid radiation at the earth's surface, the nights are agreeably 
cool and give strength to bear the heal of the days. In October the air 
clears up again as in spring, and the landscape softens with the rich colors 
of the dying vegetation, which reaches up the mountain sides to the sum- 
mits in places, but on them the gcjrgeous picture is soon overlaid by the first 
snows of approaching winter. Tiic fall is delightful and generally lingers 
nearly to the end of the year. 

The dry air and slight rainfall peculiarly adapt Utah to that out-of-door 
living, tramping, and camping which so quickly renovates a broken-down 
nerve apparatus, and through that all organic processes. Pure water and 
wholesome food are abundant. One has a choice of altitude ranging 
between 2,300 and 12,000 feet above sea, access to a variety of mineral 
.springs with remedial qualities for many ills, and in Salt Lake Basin, con- 
taining 50 per cent, of the population, the ameliorating influences of 2,500 
square miles of salt water. Hardly any form of disease originates or pro- 
ceeds to the chronic stage in the Territory, and upon many who come here 
diseased, if not too far gone, mere residence has a very beneficial effect. 

The result of these conditions is a race of people healthy in every way, 
and while much talk is wildly indulged in regarding death rates and propor- 
tions, actual comparisons show .Salt Lake City to Vjc one of the healthiest in 
the country; while in smaller towns the proportion is even less. All is 
healthful and health-promoting. The air of summer never distresses; that 
of spring and fall and winter is bracing and invigorating; it is jnire at all 
seasons and subject to none of those fatal poisons common in many atmos- 
pheres and causing the death of thousands, unable to comprehend the 
source of that which is destroying them. Contiigious diseases are almost 
unknown, the plain inference being that few places can be healthier. In 
addition to this first and foremost condition — climate — are the mineial 
springs and the eternal mountains, the one medicine, the other lungs for 
all. All contribute, in some way, to enhance the importance or add to the 
In^auty. The natural condition of mountiiins and valleys, with the growth 
of artificial attractions, such as cities and villages, combine to make Utah 
a(imittedly one of the most attractive quarters of the globe. Edwin Dcakin, 
the rising and gifted artist, after seven years' traveling in countries noted 
for the rare opportunities, their grandeur and picturesqueness afford artists. 
came to Salt Lake City, and after spen<Jing three months, during which time 


he took between fifty and sixty sketches, declared, in all his travels, he had 
never seen a place so full of material for the artist as he had found in Salt 
Lake City alone; and he could see no reason why Utah should not give 
birth to noted poets and painters, such as the surroundings of grand, beautiful 
and sublime scenery should produce in communities. Salt Lake is typical 
only of hundreds of places in Utah, some of them more rural, more beau- 
tiful, gninder and of incomparably greater sublimity. These simply serve to 
show that, combined with all that could be desired for healthfulness, is a 
variety of scenery such as is seldom found iissociated together 

The physical features of Utah, mountiin and desert and salt sea, are 
peculiar and of perennial interest. The Territory has all the resources of an 
empire within itself. Its climate is healthful and agreeable. It is in the 
heart of the mountain country. Railroads radiate hence to the four cardinal 
points. The great routes of inland commerce between the oceans, and 
between Mexico and British America, intersect at Ogden. The valleys are 
of inexhaustible fertility and the mountains full of minerals. The farms and 
mines are but a step from each other. Every valley and mining canyon hi\» 
Its railroad or its rushing stream. Labor and food are as cheap as they 
ever ought to be. No better mines or facilities for working them exist any- 
where. There is no more handy or profitable market for jhe farmer. There 
is unlimited water power, and a fine start in manufacturing has been made. 
Timber, coal, iron and good building stone are everywhere. Nature has 
richly endowed the Territory in many respects. A hardy and industrious 
population of 170,000 is on the ground. No State or Territory offers greater 
mducements to the enterprising capitalist, artisan, laborer or to the agricul- 

The tables which follow give the meteorological summary for Salt Lake 
City for 1 880-1, from which can be learned the extremes and means of the 
barometer and thermometer, the relative humidity, average cloudiness, rain- 
fall, total movement, direction and velocity of the wind, and other interest- 
ing data regarding the ruling weather for that period, which can be taken 
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Temple, or church building, is an industry in Utah. For over twenty- 
five years persons have found constant employment on what is known as 
**the church works*' — that is, engaged in building edifices intended for 
devotional purposes. Until later years, as a rule, the people of Utah have 
done but little m Temple building, save on the one located in Salt Lake City, 
a structure commenced as early as April 6, 1853, ^"^ which, while the work 
on it has been prosecuted without interruption, will still require some years 
to bring about its completion. In this connection, and under this heading 
can with propriety be brought the subject of meeting-houses in the various 
settlements; and Tabernacles or ** Stake Meeting Houses'* throughout the 
Territory, or wherever a Mormon community is found in or west of the 
Rocky Mountains. These structures are erected by donations, and by 
tithing contributions; and however much may be said against the custom, it 
was, as a matter of fact, a practice no less common in ancient times, than 
now. Though prosecuted under a different form and at even greater 
expense, all conditions considered, Temple building, or the erection of 
places of worship, occupies in Utah the same position, with a single excep- 
tion, as did the great public works carried on by the ancients, even now 
famous for their grandeur and magnificence; and as do the public works, 
pushed fon^'ard by existing nations, the evidence of which is seen in varied 
sources of pleasure and recreation, as in parks and drives, etc. The exception 
is that public improvements are frequently inau^^urated to give employment 
to a population suffering from enforced idleness ; while church, Tabernacle and 
Temple building in Utah are a natural outgrowth of the religion professed 
and practiced by a large majority of its inhabitants. The politicial econo- 
mist will declare that money expended in the erection of churches is a waste 
of wealth. As a matter of cool reason, based upon the science of political 
economy, this is true, for churches have practically no marketable value. 
They are worth only what the material in them will bring: while the wealth 
paid out for labor performed, so far as all immediate pecuniary benefits to be 
derived therefrom are concerned, might as well have been cast into a sea, as 
its original productive power is for ever lost. But churches are demanded 
not only by the civilized world, but by heathen nations. The human family 
must have them; so here the discussion might as well terminate. This being 
true, the greatest consideration following is that the money employed in the 
construction of such buildings, may be turned in a channel through which it 
will flow back to the source whence it came. In this regard, Utah is exem- 
[)lary in the manner of her church, Tabernacle and Temple building. In 
Salt Lake, in Washington, in Sanpete and in Cache Counties, hundreds of 
homes have been built from these structures. The money given flows back 
to the people who gave it as donations or tithing. It is thus made to sustain 
families, and appears in neat homes, which enhance the value of old prop- 
erty and adjoinmg sites. Being then in a form in which it can readily oe 
taxed, these donations become sources of revenue to the state, and by shar- 
ing taxation, the burden becomes the lighter on all. Herein is found an 
explanation, for what is viewed as a mar\'el in the rapidity with which sacred 
structures are erected in Utah and in their grandeur and magnificence. 
The like is not found in Christian nations. In large measure the money 


j^iven by the people is returned to them as ])ayinent fur labor, so that, as a J 
matter ol' fact, it is really a labor donation that is ^iven, and that labor is 
often contributed when the j)arty has no availai)le money and when his timt* 
would be otherwise wasted. Thus, labor becomes an interchangeable com- 
modity, i- the absence of coin; neat residences have j;onc up and are- 
owned by persons who othenvise would never have secured pennaneni 
homes, and the whole country luis (leveloj)ed rapidly, under what, to thf 
casual observer, has the api)earance of beinj^ a continual and impovcnshinj^' 
drain, crealiniqf the most tryinj^ circumstances; but which, wIkmi viewed in 
closer lii^ht, arc very simple and the natural outgrowth of conditions peculiar 
to a Mormon community. There are, however, deeper reasons why, under 
the so-called steady drain, the people of Utah have j^rown wealthy in such a 
few years, but a discussion of those reasons does not come within the scope 
of this work. 

The church orj^anization provides for a distinct division into what is 
called Stakes, over which a i)resident presides. This stake is composed of 
a number of wards, in each of which the bishop is the leading ecclesiastical 
personat^c. There may be several wards in a city or town, and each ward 
has its own meeting-house or general j:)lace of worshij). Flach stake has or 
will have a Tabernacle, or*a place built by contributions from the churcli 
members in the several wards, and in which general meetings for the stake 
are held, as distinguished from the ward meeting-houses. These Taber- 
nacles are generally large and somewhat expensive buildings, second in cost 
only to the Temples, and as a rule, are the most costly structures in the 
stakes. .Salt Lake, Cache, Box I^lder, Weber, Utah, Juab, Wiishington. 
Summit and other Stakes all have Tabernacles, while remaining stakes will 
possess them in the near future. In addition to this the Relief Society organ- 
izations which comprise nearly all the adult lady meml>ers of the church, and 
whose organizations, following the same rule as the Young Men's and Young 
Ladies' Associations, have structures in a numl)er of places; while in some 
instances the rm[U'ovem(Mit Associaticms possess buildings which are used for 
the purposes of the societies to which they belong. These are all religious 
organizations, though the structure's of the Relief Societies and Improve- 
ment Associations arc not of so sacred a character as either ward meeting- 
houses, Tal)ernacles or Temples. The vast amount expended in religious 
buildings, therefore, can better be imagined than estimated, but reflection 
will readily convince any intelligent |)erson that the building of religious 
structures — churches or Temples — in Utah, is not only a permanent industry, 
but is second in importance, in the amount of money used, or in the number 
of persons sustained thereby, to few in the Territory. It is, therefore, no 
unwarranted assum])tion to ])lace it among the industries of the Territory. 
( )f all these, however — unless the great Tabernacle at Salt Lake City is 
included — the largest, the costliest, and certainly the most magnificent, are 
the Temples. Two of these edifices are now completed and two are nearing 
completion. Though many sites are chosen for other Temples, these four 
are the only ones now commenced. lilverything that will add to the eflfect 
on the eye or inspire a sense of grandeur and magnificence, has received 
consideration: and no expense has been spared to carry out any plans that 
will contribute to this gre.itly desired end. The 

ST. (;eor(;e tkmple 

presents a magnificent sight to the eye, and the effect on the mind can be 
understood only by those who have come suddenly upon the grand and 
solemn structure. The vallcvs in "Dixie" are verv small: in fact, as a rule, 
they are merely river valleys, of somewhat more than the usual width. 
Coming from the north, within half a mile of St. (icorge, the county road 
makes a sudden turn around a knf>ll on the general descent, when a full view 


of the Temple, standinjr on the level plain — ^raiul, solemn, silent and white 
;is the driven snow in contrast to the red mountains l)v wliich it is surr(Mmdetl 
— bursts upon the delighted vision. The siji^ht is one never to be forgotten. 
At the same moment the eye turns to the rij^ht and falls upon the city after 
which the Temple is named, and which nestles amoni^ the red hills. The 
eye never tires of the view, but while it rests on the scene, the Temj)le 
constitutes the y)rincipal feature. 

The .St. (ieorc^e Temple was completed a number of years ago. It is 
near the centre of the valley in which it is situated, and is some 330 miles 
s<.)uth of Salt Lake City, measuring by the customary route and nut by air 
line, and is but six miles north of the boundary line dividing Utah and 
Wyoming. Ground for the site was broken by Pn.\sidents Brigham Young 
and George A. Smith, on the 9th day of April, 1.S71. The foimdation 
corner stones were laid March loth, 1873. After the excavation had 
been made for the foundation it was discovered that the soil was softer 
in some places than in others; and a solid basis was secured by ram- 
ming volcanic rocks into the earth by the use of a 900-pound driver. On 
this footing were laid large flat volcanic rocks, which abound in this 
region. These rocks range from seven to twelve feet long, three to four feet 
wide and from twelve to fourteen inches thick, and weigh from 4,000 to 7.500 
pounds each. The foundation is ten feet in dej)th. The width at the bot- 
tom is twelve feet; and diminishes gradually from the bottom to the ground 
level. From the ground level to the top of the basement and water table, 
the wall is three feet eight inches thick. The length of the building is 144 
feet eight inches; width, ninety-three feet four inches; height from grade of 
ground to top of parapet, eighty-four feet. The building is surmounted by 
a tower on the east end wliich has a square base, with octagon dome, the 
base being thirty-one feet square; and the tower is 175 feet from the ground 
to tlie top of the panipct van(». The structure is of volcanic rock and red 
.sandstone, the foundation being of the former, the superstructure of the 
laltpr. The volcanic or foundation quarry is on the highest ridge west of 
St. George, and was rendered accessible only after a road had been made 
winding about the mountain side, a distance of some two miles, at a cost of 
over $3,000. It is no regular quarrv; the road simply leads to a point on 
the mountain side where the volcanic rock is in greatest abundance. The 
rocks are detached and lay on the hillside, but some of them are of colossal 
size, and have to be drilled and blasted .so that the fragments even can be 
handled. It seems to partake of the hardness of quartz, and the outside 
often resembles slag, indicating that it has been subject to great heat, if it is 
not actually lava. Within a few miles is what is called the " lava wash,*' 
which can be seen a great distance and which runs some twelve miles, where 
its source can be traced to the npuths of craters. Tlie red sandstone — and 
it is a beautiful red — is taken from one of the most remarkable quarries 
imaginable. It is situated about a mile and a half from the temple, almost, 
if not entirely', due north, and is exceedingly easy of access. Here, for 
almost any distance, can be traced a solid sandstone formation. I'or nearly 
half a mile it has been opened without showing break or a flaw, while its 
depth is as yet unascertained. The supposition seems reasonable that it 
should be a mountain of solid and unbroken sandstone, for the whole country 
is composed of sand, sandstone and volcanic rock. Blocks of any size can 
be cut out, and it is susceptible of a beautiful and a smooth dressing. This 
quarry has not a like in Utah. These quarries are referred to in this con- 
nection because it is to the temple that their opening and development is 
due, and they are a natural and an immediate outgrowth of temple-building. 
The quantity of rock used is 1,900 cords, or 17,000 tons. The structure 
from the water table up is plastered and whitewashed and stands grand and 
solemn in the centre of the plain. Perhaps the greatest exertion enforced 


by the building of the St. George Temple, was made necessary in securing 
the timber, which had to be hauled a distance of some eighty miles — over 
sand, broken mountains and through sandy plains — from Mount Trumbull, 
in Arizona. Fully 1,000,000 feet was used in the building. The 
basement cpntains fourteen rooms. The first main room is ninety-nine feet 
by seventy-seven feet. The ceiling is elliptical, and the centre of the ceiling 
is twenty-seven feet above the floor. On each side of the upper of this main 
room, eighteen feet from the floor, are eight rooms, each being eleven feet six 
inches by thirteen feet four inches and ten feet in height. The second 
main room and side rooms are duplicates of the first. The baptismal font 
in the basement is of iron, and cost at the foundry in Salt Lake City, $5,000, 
being a donation made by President Brigham Young. The weight of this 
font complete is 18,000 pounds. The temple was finished and received its 
preliminary dedication January ist, 1877; and was opened for ceremonial 
purposes on the 9th day of January of the same year; and in the following 
April, on the 6th day of the month, at the general conference of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held therein, the temple was fully dedi- 
cated. The architect was Truman O. Angell, W. H. Kulsom, assistant, and 
George Romney, master mechanic. 

It stands in the plain a thing of magnificence and beauty, and inspires 
awe, no less on account of its magnitude than because of the difficulties 
mastered, the obstacles surmounted and the sacrifices endured by the people 
in its building, and which necessarily grew out of the adverse conditions and 
the poverty of the people by whom it was erected. 


is situated on the edge of a commanding eminence which skirts Logan City 
on the east, sloping gently to the north, while the descent on the south 
and the west is abrupt. It is within half a mile of the Tabernacle and the 
same distance from the principal street. The hill rises abruptly; while, 
seeming to grow out of the brow, is a huge structure, pleasing and sym- 
metrical in shape. The position of the building is calculated to add to its 
magnificence as giving a wider general view and enhancing in a remarkable 
degree, and in a metaphysical way, the dimensions which, even cold and 
unrelieved, are colossal. But it is only when one stands at the foot of the 
stupendous and splendid edifice, only when he compares his own stature — 
with all his boasted pride and egotism — that his insignificance and the 
insignificance of surrounding edifices dawn fully and forcibly upon 
him. Nestling at the base of this hill lies the ^harming city of Logan, 
plainly visible as one runs down the divide between Box Elder and Cache 
County. After gazing on the city, the eye, lifted to the magnificent 
mountains still further east, is arrested by a huge building that seems to 
st;ind as an eternal sentinel to watch the peaceful habitations of men at its 
feet. It is the first view the stranger has of the building, and the eye seems 
never to tire as its outlines become clearer and more distinct with the rapid 
approach of the great iron civilizer, gliding through the long stretcnes 
of meadow and farm land lying in the centre of the valley between Mendon, 
the first setdement reached, and Logan, the capital of the county. The 
picture of the valley as seen from the top of the great structure and — ^as 
framed by the chain of low mountains on the south and east, and stretchings 
away to the north a distance of sixty miles into dim and undefined outlines, 
while at hand and almost perpendicular rear the heads of the highest 
Wasatch towers — is one of surpassing beauty. Far away to the south lies 
Paradise, resting in a calm and lovely little valley; nearer, and on a hill slop- 
ing towards the structure, is Hyrum, the next largest settlement to Logan in 
the county; still nearer are Millville and Providence. To the southwest and 
lining the foothills of the chain hiding Brigham City, is Wellsville, the spot 


where the Pioneers to the valley first settled, at which time perhaps little 
was dreamed of the imposinjif ceremonies a later day was to witness ; six 
miles north and almost west of Logan is Mendon, one of the oldest cities in 
the county. To the north the eye falls on Hyde Park and Smithfield, 
Franklin and Richmond being hidden by inter\'ening hills, and to the 
northwest, Newton, Benson Ward. Lewiston and Oxford in Idaho. The 
radical changes of the season can never drstroy the beauty Cache Valley 
presents viewed from the top of the Temple: in whatever garb coy Nature 
may choose to attire herself, whether the uncertain tints of summer, the 
bright red and the dark brown of autumn, the spotless robe of winter or the 
verdant hue of a tardy spring, whatever be her choice, this valley can never 
be other than beautiful. But that which pleases most the eye and leaves 
the deepest and most lasting impression on the mind of the intelligent spec- 
tator is the pleasant homes that surround this splendid monument to the 
efficacy of the united industry and public-spirited sentiment of Cache Valley's 
people. It is not that the homes are so pleasant, not that they are sur- 
rounded by thriving orchards, not that they are located in Logan alone; it 
is that out of this one structure many on which the eye rests in Logan and 
elsewhere have jjrown and do exist in a real and a taxable form, enriching 
the county and lightening the burden of taxation by sharing that burden. 
Not only is it parental as a matter of fact, but it is typical both as to struc- 
ture and to its commanding location. 

The site is 4,650 feet above the level of the sea. In 1877, during the 
visit of the late President Brighani Young and his Counselors, together 
with some of the Twelve Apostles, the site was chosen. He is accredited 
with having then made the assertion that a finer location could not have 
been chosen, and he knew not where to look for a better one in the Terri- 
tory. The choice made, the ground was surveyed by Jesse W. Fox, of 
Salt Lake, and James H. Martineau, of Logan. This Temple district, 
so-called, then — as now — embraced Cache, Box Klder, Bear Lake and Rich 
Counties, and C. O. Card, now President of the Cache Valley Stake, was 
appointed Superintendent of the Temple work, being also in charge of the 
Tabernacle building then in progress of construction. On the seventeenth 
day of May ground was broken, the First Presidency of the Church, mem- 
bers of the Quorum of the Twelve and quite an assemblage of others being 
in attendance. The dedicatory prayer was offered by Apostle Orson Pratt. 
On the twenty-eighth day of May, of the same year, excavations for the 
foundation began. The corner-stones were laid on the 19th of September 
following, there being a large assemblage of the Church authorities present 
at that time. The dedication took place May 17, 1884, the event being the 
occasion for an immense gathering of people from every part of the Territory. 

The Temple is 171 feet long, 95 feet wide, and 86 feet high. At the 
east and west ends are large towers, that on the east being 170 feet high to 
the top of the vane, the western one being a few feet lower. At each corner 
is a tower, octagon in shape .ind with a height of 100 feet. It is understood 
there are something over forty rooms in the building, the main or assembly 
room being 80 feet wide, 104 teet long and some 30 feet from the floor to the 
ceiling. In addition to the Temple, a one-story building has been erected 
on the north side, the object for which is to provide offices, reception rooms, 
a kitchen and a department for the janitor. Rock laying on this extension, 
which is 80 feet long by 36 wide by 23 feet high, began in July of 1877. 
The structure is of solid rock, and one of the most commendable features 
connected with this building is the fact that, as largely as possible, the 
materials used in the construction have been drawn from the resources of 
the county. Thus the vast rock deposits of Cache County were developed 
while, at the same time, a local structure was being built from local material. 
Some of the stone is almost of the hardness of emery, and is barely suscep- 


tible of beinj»; dressed. It is surmounted by an iron roof, while the walls out- 
side have been plastered and washed, or painted, a tinted color — the tenderest, 
softest pink, or tlesh tint — that ^ives the whole edifice a warm and cheerful 
appearance, at the same time producin*^ a most aj^reeable, yet stranj^^e sensa- 
tion to the eye. The interior is elej^antly finished, much care having been 
taken and the highest perfection of the decorator's art, no less than the skill 
and ardent fire of the artist, have been enlisted in the cause and have, by 
their coml)ined efiforts, contributed to make the interior as pleasinj»: and 
charming to the eye as the e.xterior conveys the idea of massivencss and 
durability — an idea that is materially ^"nhanced by the heavy buttresses or 
pilasters that give light and shade to and break the monotony of the build- 
ing. A furnace, from which flues radiate in all directions, furnishes warmth 
and adds to convenience and cleanliness. The building lengthwise is east 
and west, the result being a very imposing appearance viewed at a distance 
either from the north or the south. The plans for the grounds are calcu- 
lated to contrii)Ute materially to the attractiveness of the building, which, in 
return, will give a finish to the landscai)e decorations contemplated in the 
near future. The grounds are ample, and are to be seeded down in lawn 
grass, inplanted with shrubs and flowers and cut through with walks where 
a pleasant stroll may be indulged in when so desired. The fact that the 
Temple grounds go over the brow of the hill, or bench, or plateau, upon 
which the Temjjle is built, affords an unusual opportunity for the display of 
taste and care in this direction, which, if what is already to be seen may be 
taken as an evidence, will be well considered, properly and determinedly 
acted upon by the enterprising inhabitants of this fair and prosperous valley. 


was commenceil next after the St. George. It is situated in Sanpete Val- 
ley at a point nineteen miles southeast of the terminus of the Sanpete Valley 
Railroad and skirts the northeastern edge of the city of Manti, the largest 
town in the Valley. It is a superb structure and is of certain durability 
from the foundation. One thing neculiar about this Temple is the fact that 
it is built on a solid hill or mountam of rock. All through the eastern part 
of Sanpete Valluy there are indications of an underlying white oolitic 
stratum. Knolls or hills covered with a few feet of dirt show themselves in 
all directions, having unquestionably been left while the earth, which at one 
time surrounded them, was washed away by primeval floods and rivers. 
It is on one of these mountains that the Nianti Temple is built. It is from 
the same mountain that the rock, of which the structure is built, has been 
taken. Like all Mormon Temples, and all Tabernacles, that at Manti faces 
the east. It is elevated a considerable height above the surrounding country 
and presents a noble sight, as, grandly and solemnly, it rises from the hill 
top in lonely magnificence. In fair weather, it can be seen a great distance. 
I'rom the top of the hill in the rear, and at the east end, entrance can be 
gained to the uj)j)er story, or l.irge assembly room. The face of the mountain 
has been cut down and one portion of the Temple and a passage leading 
from one of the upper floors is built into the solid rock of the mountain. 
Underneath this passage, and below the solid mountain wall is a beautiful 
archway giving room for a splendid drive around the Tem])le, which is 
reached by a gradual ascent of the hill from the north. There are two 
(juarries, both within half a mile of the Temple, and from both of which an 
excellent quality (A' oolitic rock can be taken. There are also places at 
the (juarries, where the stone is so soft and pliant that it forms an admind^le 
and even perfei:t cement. Running a line south direjt from the .Salt Lake 
(.^ity Temjjle to a point opjiosite the Manti Temi)le, it will be found the 
latter is just twelve miles east of the former. The site was settled by Presi- 
dent Hrigham Young, and ground was broken on the last day of April, 


1877. Rock-laying began on the 14th day ol* April, 1879. The build- 
ing is 171 feet 6 inches lonii^ and 95 feet wide. The distance from the 
ground to the top o[ the parapet is 92 feet 6 inches. On the east and 
and the west ends there are towers, the distance to the top of that on the 
east being 179 feet and to the top of that on the west side 169 feet. Both 
these towers are thirty feet square at tlie biise. The walls are 3 feet 6 
inches at the bottom and 3 feet at the top. The interior of all these 
Temples is practically the same, though a difference is understood to exist 
in some of these details. Adjoining and connected with the Temple is a 
structure 100 feet long, 40 feet wide and two stories high, in which the 
apparatus designed to heat the whole building is placed. The side building 
is occupied by the janitor and assistimts, and' is also a reception room. The 
buildings are heated by .steam, while water is conveyed through pipes. A 
spring, the water from which is carried a considerable distance through 
pipes, will supply the Temple with what water is needed. 

The opportunities for enhancing the external attractions of this temple 
are manifold, and will be taken advantage of Elevated as it is, above the 
valley, it cannot fail to attract and even command attention. The countv 
road runs at the foot of the hill upon which it is erected. The side hill leaa- 
ing up to the temple is laid off into four terraces, each 17 feet high. 
These terraces are walled a distance of about 1,000 feet each, on the eastern 
and southern descents. At every terrace is a landing 16 feet in width, 
while from the first to the top one, there arc 163 steps. The walls surround- 
ing the terraces are of considerable width, and will be used as walks, while 
the space intervening between the top of one wall and the base of the other 
will be planted in grass and flowers and shrubbery, and be made as attract- 
ive as art can devise and means insure. Beginning at the north end of the 
terraces, will be the drive, referred to before, and it will lead to the temple, 
which is east of the terraces. On the south, the hill on which the temple is 
buih, turns abruptly to the east, giving a full and splendid view of the whole 
length of the structure from the south. No grander sight can well be 
imagined than this temple will present, on a clear day, when it is completely 
tinished, and when the artificial improvements referred to above are com- 
pleted. It will be a spectacle well worth a pilgrimage. The valley itself is 
not without attractiveness, but there is nothing to compare with this. The 
scene presented to the eye from the top of the temple cannot even be 
imagined. Spread out beneath and a little to the south is Manti; seven miles 
north is Kphraim. and up the valley still other .streams. West, the Sanpitch 
River, which sinks into the ground opposite Kphraim, reappears and winds 
through stretches of meadow land until lost to the view. To the south lies a 
long stretch of fair country running into Sevier county; west a range of 
mountains blends the vision, while immediately at the east, rise the mount- 
ains on the foot hills of which the temple stands. On a clear day the 
sight is beautiful beyond descriinion. The sides of the building are broken 
by frequent buttresses, which relieve it from bare monotony; while the pure 
and clear color of the rock of which it is built, needs no paint nor plaster nor 
artificial coating to add to its beauty or effect. It is superl> in every respect. 
It is 1 25 miles from Salt Lake by rail over the Utah Central and San Pete 
Valley, and some nineteen miles by stage or team. The trip can easily be 
made in a day, and the drive in fair weather and with dry roads is a delight- 
ful one. the traveler passing through Wales, Chester, Ephraim and staying 
at Manti, while Fountain Green, Moroni, Spring City and Mount Pleas- 
ant are visible on the opposite side of the valley from Wales. 


Of the four temples, completed and in course of construction, in Utah, 
the largest, most substantial, and by long odds the most costly, is the one 


being erected in Salt Lake City. The Tabernacle, the Salt Lake Assembly 
Hall, and the Temple are all on the one block, surrounded by a high wall, 
and from the fact that the Temple is being erected m this square, it has 
become familiarly known as the Temple Block. The ground enclosed 
within the wall was consecrated and set apart for a Temple building, that 
ceremony taking place on the 14th day of February, 1853. O" ^^® ^* 
day of the following April, the corner stones of this magnificent edifice were 
laid with imposing ceremonies, all the leading dignitaries of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints participating and a large concourse of 
people witnessing the event. For fully twenty years the work moved along 
slowly, owing to the great difficulty in securing material and the less wealthy 
condition of the people than latterly. The material chosen as that of whicn 
the Temple should be built, is a gray granite, found in inexhaustible abun- 
dance in the Wasatch Range, near. In the days when work began the 
quarries were imperfectly opened; new roads had to be built; facilities were 
few, money not very plentiful and the stone had to be hauled by wagon 
eighteen to twenty miles. Under such difficulties, decreasing as the popu- 
lation increased, the construction of the Salt Lake Temple commenced. 
Progress was necessarily slow, as a consequence the great difficulty and cost 
of hauling by team such massive rocks as were necessary in the building. 
President Brigham Young conceived the idea of constructing a canal m 
which to haul the rock by boats. The ides: was carried out and the canal 
now known as the old canal, following for a distance the route and being 
incorporated as a j)art of the Salt Lake and Jordan Canal was constructed^ 
In the desire to carry the water too high above the cicy on the north, the 
water did not run in a small portion of this end. Before, however, the 
evil was remedied, trans- Atlantic rail communication was effected and the 
building of the Utah Central Railroad commenced. When this was com- 
pleted to Sandy, fourteen miles south of Salt Lake City, the rock was hauled 
from that point by rail; and when the Wasatch and Jordan Valley was built 
it was made possible to bring the rock the whole distance from the quarry 
into the Temple block by rail. Since that time work has gone on with a 
great deal more rapidity than previously. Some seven years ago unusual 
efforts were put forward to push the work ahead, and the progress made 
since that date has been most satisfactory. About ten years ago the build- 
ing was pushed along to the base ; during the intervening period it has 
been carried up to the battlements. The rock is cut to a plan or to 
given dimensions at the quarry at Granite, some twenty-four miles by rail 
from Salt Lake. In the rough state it is brought to the Temple block, 
where every piece is dressed and numbered, placed in a certain locality, so 
that it is taken, laid and fit into the exact spot for which it was designed 
and fashioned. It is estimated that one-sixth the stcne is lost in dressing it. 
The largest blocks weigh not less than three and a half tons, from which 
they run down to a minimum figure. Not less than 5,000 cords of rock will 
be used in this colossal structure. Of the rockwork — both in dressing 
and laying, perhaps one- fifteenth yet remains to be done; and it wiU 
take not less than four years to complete this part of the work. The walls 
are 16 feet at the foundation; the main walls at the base are 8 feet 
thick, tapering to 6 feet in thickness at the point where they receive the 
weight of the roof The length of the building is 184 feet; width, 116 feet, 
and in height it is 102 feet to the top of the battlement. The principal part 
or front of the Temple is the cast; it is the same with all the Temples, the 
figurative idea being that from the east comes the greatest light. There are 
to be three towers at the east and three at the west ends of the structure, 
the principal tower on the east will be 196 feet from the ground to the ball; 
the towers on either side will be 171 feet in height from the ground. The 
towers at the west end will hold the same relative heights as those on the 


east, but will all be six feet lower. When the mason work is finished, a 
vast amount of carpentering labor will have to be done, and it is roughly 
thought that it will take from two to three years to complete this part, after 
which considerable time will be required to finish it. It will, in ail proba- 
bility, be eijjht years before the Salt Lake Temple is finished and re.idy to be 

It is unlike the rest in one respect. It does not, and never will com- 
mand the marked attention that the others do. It is a larger and vastly 
more imposing structure, its size is not so noticeable, for the reason that it is 
not elevated above the surrounding country as are the Logan and Manti, 
while it does not stand alone in a plain, in solemn and imposing whiteness, as 
does that at St. George. It is in a city filled with large buildings; but is 
much sought by the stranger and always will be. It was the first great 
undertaking of the kind by the ftjormons, has grown with them in Utah, 
and much of their most important history has developed with its growth. 
It is full of historical associations, and is likely ever to remain one of the 
most imposing and interesting structures in the Territory of Utah. It was 
commenced in 1853, ^"^ ^^9^ will have been passed before it is finished. 
The probabilities are that forty years of events in the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints will have passed into history while this Temple 
was being constructed. Truman O. Angell is the architect ; Truman O. 
Aneell, Jr., assistant architect; and the work of construction has gone on 
under their direction. 


The Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, is by long odds the largest building 
in the Territory. It is situated in the Temple Block, less than a stone- 
throw from the Salt Lake Temple. It is elliptical in shape, the roof is con- 
vex and unsupported by pillars. A gallery runs around the south, north 
and east ends, while the stand and large organ occupy the west end of the 
structure. The interior of the building presents an oval arch, without any 
centre support, and is said to be the largest self-supporting arch in America, 
with the exception of that of the Central Depot, New York, and probably 
the largest in the world which is constructed wholly of wood. The bents of 
the roof are composed of a latin truss, and rest upon forty-four sand- 
stone piers, each 3 feet by 9 in size, and from 14 to 20 feet in height. 
The gallery, which extends around the building, except at the west 
end, is 480 feet long by 30 feet in width. It has twenty doors, most of 
which are 9 feet wide and all open outwards so that an audience of 7,000 
or 8,000 could gain egress, in case of an accident, in a very few minutes. 
The large organ, second to none in the United Slates, in appearance and 
sweetness of tone, and exceeded in size by but one, was constructed 
entirely by Utah mechanics, under the direction of Joseph Ridges, Ksq. A 
small amount of the material used in its construction was imported, but the 
principal part of it was produced at home. To hear the full tones of the 
organ richlv repays a visit to the Tabernacle. The front lowers of the or^an 
have an altitude of 58 feet, and contain the 32 feet gilded pipes; the side 
towers are nearly the same height as the front. The dimensions of the 
organ are 30 by 33 feet, and it requires four blowers. 

It has long been the idea that the structure had a seating capacity of 
12,000. Later estimates, however, place the capacity at something like 
one-third less. The building was principally designed by the late President 
Brigham Young and is a marvel of its kind. It is not [)leasing in appear- 
ance externally, the walls being low, the roof heavy. The interior, how- 
ever, affects one differently in every respect. It is light, airy, wonderfully 
roomy, and considering the purpose for which it was designed it is as nearly 
perfect as can be conceived. It is 250 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 70 


feet from floor to ceiling, while the height to the top of the roof is 80 
feet. A magnificent view is obtained from the top of the structure. Work 
on It was commenced July 26, 1864 — about twenty years ago; and it was 
dedicated on the 6th day of August, 1867, at which time the regular confer- 
ence of the Church was held in it. Henry Grow had charge of the con- 


On the site of the Salt Lalce Assembly' Hall, in former years, stood 
what was called the **01d Tabernacle," in distinction to the building which 
is now known as the " Large Tabernacle. * ' This *' Old Tabernacle" was 
completed in 1852, and dedicated. Its seating capacity was placed at 
3,000. It was a low building, running north and south, as to length, with 
the stand at the north end. The Assembly Hall is the Stake House for the 
Salt Lake Stake of Zion. It is 120 feet long, 6S feet wide and the height to 
the top of the tower rising from the centre of the building is 130 feet. The 
roof has four gables, each surrounded by an ornamental spire, while there 
are also spires on each of the four corners of the building. There is on each 
side an entrance, four in all, from which are stairways leading; to a gallery . 
that extends around the north, south and east sides of the building. The 
stand, a large organ of unusual sweetness of tone, and a place for a choir of 
lOD. fill the west end of the structure. It is, perhaps, the most attractive 
public building in the city, both as to exterior and as to interior. The 
ornamental work is very fair, and some attempts have been made at paint 
ings on the ceiling, historical of events connected with the Latter-day Saints' 
faith. The building is of cut granite, the stone being taken from the same 
quarry as that from wiiich the Temple is being erected. It is heated by 
steam and lighted by gas. The acoustic properties are perfect. The seat- 
ing capacity is over 3,000. It was dedicated and opened for public use in 
the spring of 1880. Obed Taylor was the architect, Henry Grow, the 

There are, in the different ecclesiastical wards, churches, some of hand- 
some design, substantial and convenient. The ]irincipal churches, however. 
belon<^ to the Latter-day Saints. Tlie Episcoj^al have two fine churches, 
the M:tho.iist, Presbyterian, Congregational and other denominations also 
have buildings noted for their imposing and attractive appearances. The 
Stake Houses heretofore referred to, come next in importance to Temples; and 
while some of the stakes do not possess such structures at present, it is contem- 
plated that each will build one as soon as the membership and wealth of the 
stake will justify it. Church buildings, other thdn those belonging to the 
Latter-day S lints, are treated elsewhere more fully, for the reason that they 
hardly come within the scope of this chapter, which was designed to show 
that church, tabernacle and temple building constitute an industry in a Mor- 
mon community. 


[The appended sketch of Mormonism is taken from the Gazetteer of 
Utah, edited by Edward L. Sloan, and published by the Herald Printing 
and Publishing Company, in 1874]: 

Joseph Smith, the founder of the organization, was born in Sharon, 
Windsor County, Vermont, December 23d, 1805. His father's name w^s 
Joseph and his mother's Lucy; and their family consisted of six sons and 
three daughters, of whom the future prophet was the third son. When he 
was in his fourteenth year his father moved to Manchester, Ontario County, 
New York, having previously resided four years in Palmyra, in the same 
county. While in Manchester, and during a religious revival, he was, as he 
states in his autobiography, the subject of religious impressions; during 
which, while praying in the woods one day, he had the first vision, — two 
glorious personages appearing to him, who communed with him. Some 
three and a half years afterwards, on the 21st of September, 1823, he had a 
second vision, and received a communication relative to the plates on which 
the Book of Mormon was inscribed. These plates, his history states, he 
obtained possession of on the 22d of September, 1827, from the place of their 
deposit, on the west side of the hill convenient to Manchester, the village 
where he resided. The plates were inclosed in a box, covered with a stone, 
and had been there for some 1,400 years, having been buried by an ancient 
inhabitant of this continent named Moroni. The characters on them had 
been principally inscribed by Mormon; hence the title of the work. 

Being poor, and with the work of translating the records before him, in 
his exigencies lie obtained the assistance from a gentleman named Martin 
Harris; and in April, 1829, he made the accjuaintan-e of Oliver Cowdery, a 
school teacher, who became his amanuensis, and the work of translating 
commenced immediately. The Book of Mormon was put in the hands of 
the printers; but before it was published a church was organized on the 6th 
day of April, 1830, in the house of Mr. Peter Whitmer, Fayette, Seneca 
County, New York. Thus the Empire State not only produced the plates 
from which the book was translated, but can claim the honor of the organiza- 
tion of that society which is the greatest problem of the century. Six mem- 
bers composed this church on its organization — a small beginning for the 
thousands into which it has grown, and the power and influence acquired in 
the short space of fifty odd years. The Book of Mormon was published, 
preaching and proselytizing was prosecuted with vigor, though the mission- 
aries' of tne new faith were mostly uneducated, and churches were raised up 
in a number of places in a few oionths. 

Early in 1831, a settlement was made at Kirtland, Ohio, and this may 
be called the first ''gathering place" of the church — a central point towards 
which all who received the faith should converge. In July of the same year 
a lot was selected, and dedicated for a temple, at Independence, Jackson 
County, Missouri. Here a printing press was set in operation, and a period- 
ical, the Evening and Morning Star^ was published by Judge W. W. 
Phelps. Trouble broke out at Independence, between the settlers of the 
new faith and others inhabiting that region, and a mob tore down the print- 
ing office, tarred and feathered some of the prominent Mormons, abused 


Others, and inflicted losses on the fraternity, in the destruction of property 
to a very large amount. The Mormons were obliged to leave, and most of 
them fled into and settled in Clay County, in the same State. The Jackson 
County mob influenced the citizens of Clay County, and after a time the 
refugees had again to leave, this time settling in unoccupied territory, which 
received the name of Caldwell County, as well as in Davis and other adjacent 
counties, in Missouri. In three years they made wonderful improvements 
in their new location, for industry has ever been a prominent characteristic of 
the organization. At this time they were viewed with suspicion by many 
pro-slavery citizens there, who classed them as abolitionists, many of them 
naving come from the States where the abolition theory was gaining ground. 
For this cause, and because of their industrious habits conflicting with the 
dissipated customs of a class always too well known in frontier settlements, as 
well as for religious reasons, troubles again broke out, and the entire Mormon 
community was compelled to leave the State. Their ne.xt settlement was at 
Commerce, Hancock County? Illinois, where, in a short time, they built the 
City of Nauvoo, which was duly chartered by the State Legislature. They 
had built a temple at Kirtland, which was an immense eflTort in its size and 
costliness for so small and poor a body of people as they then were. But in 
Nauvoo one was commenced on a scale proportionately greater, to corre- 
spond with their increased numbers, wealth and importance. This they fin- 
ished; but before it was completed, their prophet, Joseph Smith, and his 
brother Hyrum Smith, the patriarch of the church, were murdered in Carth- 
age, where they were imprisoned on a charge of treason. The Missouri 
enemies of the prophet and his followers had never ceased their efforts 
against him and nis people, preferring charge after charge, which were dis- 
posed of by the courts, he always obtaining an acquittal; until this last charge, 
when the mob would not wait for the result of a trial, but shot him and his 
brother dead while in prison under guard, wounding at the same Elder John 
Taylor, one of the Twelve Apostles, and now President of the church. They 
held Governor Ford's pledge for their safety at the time. This was on the 
27th of June, 1844. 

Soon after the Mormons were compelled to leave Illinois, and took up 
their line of march in February, 1846, for the then almost unknown West. 
That fall and winter the main body of the refugee saints located in the 
neighborhood of the Missouri River, near what is now called Council BluflSi 
and Omaha, where temporary settlements were formed. Next sprine. 
President Brigham Young started westward with 143 pioneers, broke a road, 
forded streams and built bridges from the Missouri over the great plains and 
through the Rocky Mountains, arriving in Salt Lake Valley on the 21st day 
of July, 1847. As soon after as possible the main body followed, a provis- 
ional State government was formed, gentlemen were sent to Washington to 
represent the new colony; and in 1849 a territorial government was granted 
to them for the Territory of Utah. Since that time they have prospered 
exceedingly; their cities, towns and settlements number about 200, with a pop- 
ulation of nearly 175,000 souls. Besides these there are branches of the church 
in many parts of the United States; and in Europe the communicants of the 
faith number 20,000. Their missionary eflTorts have been directed to every 
country where religious toleration would permit them to carry and dissem- 
inate their views. Most European and some Asiatic nations, as well as 
Australia and several of the Pacific Islands, have given proselytes to the faith. 

The church is organized with a First Presidency; a Council of Twelve 
Apostles; a Patriarch; a quorum of High Priests of indefinite number; sixty- 
four quorums of Seventies; an Elders* Quorum; a Presidency of three and a 
High Council for each Stake of Zion; a Presiding Bishop for the Church 
with two Counselors; a Bishop for each Ward; a Priests' Quorum; a Teach- 
ers' Quorum, and a Deacons' Quorum. 



1793. Sidney Rigdon born in St. Clair, Pennsylvania. 

1801. Brigham Young born in Whitinghara, Vermont. 

1805. Joseph Smith born in Sharon, Vermont. 

1823. Joseph Smith living with his father in Ontario, County, New 
York, has his first vision. 

1827. Joseph Smith claims to receive sacred oracles from an '*angel 
of the Lord." 

1829. Sidney Rigdon associates himself with Smith. 

1830. Book of Mormon printed, as dictated by Smith. 

1830, April 6. First Mormon Church regularly organized at Man- 
chester, New York. 

1831. January. Smith leads his followers to Kirtland, Ohio. 

1 83 1. August. Smith dedicates the site of a Mormon Temple, at 
Independence, Missouri. 

1832. March. Smith and Rigdon suspected at Kirtland of counter- 
feiting, and tarred and feathered by a mob. 

1832. Brigham Young joins the Mormon Church at Kirtland. 

1835. Twelve Mormon Apostles ordained, Brigham Young for one. 

1836. A large and costly Temple dedicated at Kirtland. 

1837. Orson Hyde and Heber C. Kimball sent as missionaries to Eng- 

1838. The Mormon Church in Ohio obliged to flee to Missouri, and 
there assumes a defiant and lawless attitude. 

1838. The Mormons driven over into Illinois and settled at Nauvoo, 
under a favorable charter granted by the Legislature. 

1838. Smith begins the practice of polygamy. 

1843- JSmith claims to nave received a revelation sanctioning polyg- 

1845. The heads of the church repudiate this revelation. 

1844. Smith killed by a pistol shot in a riot growing out of internal 

1844. Brigham Young elevated to the Presidency, after a fierce con- 
tention with Rigdon. 

1845. The charter of Nauvoo revoked by the Legislature, and the 
Mormons prepare to move. 

1846. Nauvoo bombarded for three days by the anti- Mormons. 

1847. Brigham Young plants his banner at Salt Lake. 

1847. July 25. Religious service was held for the first time in Great 
Salt Lake Valley. George A. Smith preached the first public discourse, and 
the sacrament was administered for the first time in the valley. 

1848. Salt Lake City founded. 

1849. State of Deseret organized, but Congress withholds its recogni- 

1849. Congress organizes the Mormons' district into the Territory of 
Utah, and Brigham Young appointed Governor by President Fillmore. 

1850. Bngham Young throws off the authority of the United States. 
1852. Polygamy formally sanctioned by the church. 

1854. Col. Steptoe appointed Governor of Utah and arrives at Salt 
Lake City with a small military force, but abandons the enterprise. 

1856. President Buchanan determines to put the Mormons down. 

1857. Alfred Cumming appointed Governor, and sent out with a force 
of 2,500 men to back him, Col. A. S. Johnston in command. 

1858. Peace arranged. 

i860. United States troops withdraw from Utah, 
1877. August 29. Death of Brigham Young. 



In Utah, all Christian Churches, of any importance as to membership 
in the United States, have representative branches. Proselyting efforts are 
being made, while membership in all directions is increased by immigration. 
The appended is a brief summary of the work done and the present status 
of the several denominations in Utah Territory to-day. The information is 
reliable, as it is furnished from each denomination by the person most 
prominently identified with the church concerning which the matter is 
given : 


The First Baptist Church, of Salt Lake City, was organized in 
August, 1883, with a membership of 16. The number has been steadily 
increased until now it has a membership of 42. August 26, 1883, 
the corner-stone of the Baptist meeting-house, on the comer of Second 
South and F*irst West Streets, was laid with appropriate ceremony; and in 
March, the house was dedicated, the dedicatory prayer and sermon bein^; 
delivered by Rev. Dwight Spencer. Rev. Henry DeWitt is the present 
pastor; Professor A. E. Sawyer and Mrs. Sawyer are his assistants. Charles 
A. Clark is superintendent of the Sunday school, which now numbers 100. 

There is also a Baptist Church at Ogden, Rev. Richard Hartley, pastor; 
Miss Mary E. Allen, teacher. 


First Congregational Church. — On January i, 1864, Rev. Nor- 
man McLeod was transferred, by the American Home Missionary Society, 
from Denver to Salt Lake, to labor in the cause of the Congregational 
Church. A few days later he arrived in the city and opened religi(ius ser- 
vices at once in Daft's flail, and also at Camp Douglas. Two Sunday 
schools were established, and the enrollment of the one in the city presently 
showed an attendance of 250. P'ebruary 14th, a church was organized witn 
17 members. Before the close of the year a lot had been purchased 
and an adobe structure (an addition to Independence Hall), 33 by 59 feet, 
had been erected at a cost for land and building of $7,500. Of this sum 
more than $2,000 wiis raised in California by Mr. McLcod. Most of the 
remainder was raised in Salt Lake. Mr. McLeod labored perseveringly 
until early in the spring of 1866, when he was called cast. The city Sunday 
school was continued several years, and until absorbed by those of other 
denominations — which, in the meantime, had opened mission work in Utah. 
In 1872 Mr. McLeod returned and spent a year in the effort to re-gather 
the scattered fragments of the church and .Sunday schools, but he resigned 
before its accomplishment. Rev. Walter M. Barrows was chosen his suc- 
cessor, and on May 24, 1874, a church of 24 members was formed- 
From that day steady growth and prosperity followed. In 1880 self-support 
was reached, and when Mr. Barrows resigned, June, 1881, the membership 
was nearly 150. In November, 1882, Rev. F. T. Lee entered upon the 


pastorate of the Salt Lake Church, which had been vacant for nearly a year 
and a half. December 28th, the General Association of Utah was formed 
in Salt Lake, and its sessions were attended by 22 members, 5 ministers and 
16 teachers. Since 1874 the church has made rapid progress. Organiza- 
tions have been effected in Ogden, Park City, Bountiful, Coalville, Echo. 
Bingham, and a number of other towns in Utah. Day schools have also 
l>een started in a number of towns by the church and are now under the 
management of the New West Educational Commission, of which Isaac 
Huse, Jr., is field agent. The year 1883 closed with 7 churches, and another 
soon to be added, 7 ministers, 16 stations occupied, 21 Sunday schools, 29 
schools and 38 teachers. The church is now without a pastor. The active 
membership is about sixty. The Sabbath school is still carried on; and 
efforts are being made to secure a pastor. 

Plymouth Congregational Church, — On March 20, 1884, over 
sixty of the members of the First Congregational Church withdrew in a 
lx)dy from it, and formed a temporary organization, with Rev. F. T. Lee as 
temporary pastor. They rented the Jewish Synagogue, one of the most 
beautiful cnurch edifices in the city, situated on the corner of Third South 
and First West streets, and held services immediately. The illness of the 
pastor made his release imperative, and on June 20th he was, at his own 
request, released from the pastorate. On June 30th, a Congregational 
council met at the Synagogue pursuant to letters missive sent to all the 
Congregational Churches in Utah, except the old church. This council, 
after looking over the whole field and taking everything into consideration, 
voted unanimously to organize and recognize it under the name of the 
Plymouth Congregational Church. The membership, at its organization. 
was 55 and Ls now 65. The church called the Rev. J. H. Kyle, an enthusi- 
astic and strong man, to be its pastor. He accepted the call and began his 
labors at once. The Sabbath school is in a flourishing condition and has a 
membership of 100, C. J. Smith, Superintendent, and various branches of 
church works arc in successful operation. 


St. Mark's Cathedral. — This .structure is situated on the north side 
of First South street, between Second and Third East. It is a handsome 
edifice, built entirely of stone, and cost $45,000. The foundation of this 
church was commenced in April, 1867, and through the united efforts and 
iK:rsistent zeal of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Tuttle and Reverends Foote and 
Haskins, it has grown to be one of the permanent and popular organizations 
of Salt Lake City. Its membership has steadily increjLsed, which at present 
numbers 257. The Sunday school has an enrollment of 350. Rt. Rev. D. 
S. Tuttle is rector; Reverends N. F. Putnam and Ci. D. B. Miller, assistant 

St. Paul's Chapel, on the corner of Main and Fourth South .streets, 
has a membership of 49, and the Sunday school membership numbers 147. 
Rev. C. M. Armstrong is minister. 

Churches have also been established in Corinne, Ogden, Logan, Plain 
City and Silver Reef. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church began in Utah, 1870. In June of the 
following year a grand camp meeting was held under the auspices of this 
church, and the site at which the meeting was held is that, or in the imme- 
diate vicinity of that on which the Methodist Episcopal Church now stands. 


The missionary work of this church during the fourteen years has been very 
earnest. There are churches in Salt Lake, Ogdcn, Corinne, Tooele, Beaver, 
Minersville, Provo, and a Norwegian Church in Salt I^ke City. The total 
membership reported is 226. The officers of the mission are. Bishop I. W. 
Wiley, D. D., president; Rev. T. C. Iliff, superintendent; Rev. G. M. Jef- 
frey, Rev. T. W. Lincoln, Rev. M. Nelson, Salt Lake City; Rev. A. W. 
Adkinson, Ogden; Rev. E. Smith, Provo; Rev. F. Brock, Beaver; Rev. 
George E. Jayne, Park City; Rev. J. D. Gillilan, Tooele; Rev. P. A. H. 
Franklin, Mount Pleasant. Assistant missionaries: Mrs. T. C. Iliff, Mrs. 
M. Nelson, Mrs. T. W. Lincoln, Mrs. A. W. Adkinson, Mrs. E. Smith, Mrs. 
F. Brock, Mrs. (^orge E. Payne, Mrs. J. D. Gillilan, Mrs. P. A. H. 

Statistical and financial report of the Utah Mission of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church for 1883 shows: Missionaries, 10; assistant missionaries, 9: 
communicants, 235; number of day schools, 9; number of teachers, 23; 
number of day scholars, 607 ; number of Sunday schools, 8 ; number of 
Sunday school teachers, 40; number of Sunday school scholars, 
592 ; number of churches, 7 ; number of parsonages. 3 ; number 
of children in day schools, of Mormon parentage, 349 ; probable 
value of church property is estimated at $66,000: probable value of 
parsonages, $1,650; probable value of boarding hall, $10,000; value of other 
school property, $3, 150; raised for support of ministers, $1,242: raised for 
improvements, $4,265; paid on indebtedness, $2,650; paid on church 
incidental expenses, $1,386; paid on school incidental expenses, $1,904: 
raised for benevolence, etc., $311. 

In addition to the amount raised in the mission for the several objects 
named above, the work has been liberally sustained by societies and friends 
in the East, as the following indicates: General Missionary Society, $12,800; 
Board of Church Extension, $1,500; Women's Home Missionary Society* 
$5,800; Mrs. General Fisk, $i,ooo; total, $21,000. 


The Presbyterian Church first held meetings in the Liberal Institute: 
Rev. Mr. Welsh pastor. The present church is on the corner of Second East 
and Second South streets. The Sunday school has an enrollment of 221. 
The following are the churches and ministers in the Territory: 
American Fork, Rev. T. F. Day; Box Elder, Rev. S. L. Gillespie: 
Hyrum, Rev. Philip Bohbeck; Logan, Rev. C. M. Parks; Manti, Rev. G. 
W. Martin; Mount Pleasant, Rev. E. N. Murphy; Payson, Rev. J. A. L. 
Smith; Richfield, Rev. P. D. Stoops; Salt Lake, Rev. R. G. McNiecc, 
D. D., and H. A. Newell; Springville, Rev. G. W. Leonard; St. George, 
Rev. A. B. Cort. 


The **Josephite,'* or Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, was established in this Territory in 1863, with Joseph Smith, 
president of the church, and W. W. Blair, president of the mission. Since 
then branch churches have been organized ; and the following list comprises 
the name of the town and city where such organizations have been effectwl, 
with the number of members in each: Union Fort, 29; Beaver City, 20; Lehi 
City, 51; Heber City, 18; Provo City, 26; Sprin^'ille, 26; Hennelerville, 33; 
Wanship, 29; Santaquin, 10; Kay*s Creek, 7; Richfield, 35; Salt LakeCit}*. 
102; giving a total membership of 386 for the Territory. R. J. Anthony is. 
at present, president of the mission, and, while absent. Elder E. C. Brand 
acts as president. The church has built a chapel on Second South street, 
where public services are held every Sunday afternoon and evening. They 
have, also, a Sunday school, which convenes every Sunday, and is well 



St. Mary Magdalene's Church, in Salt Lake City, is situated on 
the west side of Second East street, between South Temple and First South 
streets. It is a neat structure, built of brick, in the Gothic style, and was 
erected in 1871, at a cost of $iOyOOO. The first effort made to found the 
Catholic Church in Salt Lake City was in 1866, by Rev. Father Kelly. 
Through the efforts and persistent zeal of Very Rev. L. Scanlan, the church 
has prospered, and to-day Ls in a flourishing condition, and has a member- 
ship of 400. Very Rev. L. Scanlan is rector, assisted bv Rev. D. Keily and 
Rev. J. B. Ruddy. 

Church of the Assumption, Park City, has a membership of 800; 
Rev. P. Blake, rector. 

St. Patrick's Church, Frisco, attended from Salt Lake, has about 
300 members in that district. 

St. Iohn's Church, Silver Reef, Rev. P. Galligan, rector, has a 
membership of 100. 

St. Joseph's Church, Ogden was built in 1875. The edifice is on 
Fifth street, between Young and Franklin streets, and is now used by them as 
a place of public worship. Rev. Father Cushnahan is rector. 


'"Mormonism," or the faith of the members of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, was brought into Utah by the Pioneers, and it 
Ls referred to at some length, because of the great interest that attaches to 
the subject. The following, as to the priesthood, organization, doctrines 
and orainances of the church, are from a small work prepared by Elder John 


In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints there are two Priest- 
hoods — the Melchisedek and the Aaronic, the latter including the Levitical. 

The Melchisedek is the higher Priesthood, comprising apostles, patri- 
archs, high priests, seventies and elders, and holds the right of presidency, 
with the authority to administer in all or any of the offices, ordmances and 
affairs of the Church. **The power and authonty of the higher or Melchisedek 
Priesthood is to hold the keys of all the spiritual blessings of the Church, 
to have the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, 
to have the neavens opened unto them, to commune with the general assem- 
bly and church of the First-born, and to enjoy the communion and presence 
of God the Father, and Jesus the mediator of the new covenant." 

An apostle has the right to administer in the various offices of the 
Church, especially in spiritual things. So also, according to their respective 
callings, have a patriarch, a high priest, a seventy, an elder. But the special 
office of a patriarch is to give patriarchal blessings, and the particular calling 
of a seventy is to travel and preach the Gospel and to be an especial witness 
in all the world, building up the Church and regulating the affairs of the 
same in all nations, under the direction of the higher authorities of the 


All officers superior to elders are frequently termed elders. The duties 
(if an elder are thus defined: *'An apostle is an elder, and it is his calling to 
baptize; and to ordain other elders, priests, teachers and deacons; and to 
administer bread and wine, the emblems of the flesh and blood of Christ: 
and to confinn those who ?re baptized into the Church, by the laying on of 
hands for the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost, according to the Scrip- 
tures; and to teach, expound, exhort, baptize, and watch over the Church: 
and to confirm the Church by the laying on of the hands, and the giving of the 
Holy Ghost; and to take the lead of all meetings. The elders are to conduct 
the meetings as they are led by. the Holy Ghost, according to the command- 
ments and revelations of God." 

The Aaronic, with the Levitical Priesthood, is a subordinate priesthoocl. 
It is called the lesser Priesthood, because it is an appendage to the Melchis- 
edek or higher Priesthood, and acts under its direction and sui>er\'^ision. 

The Aaronic Priesthood comprises bishops, priests, teachers and deii- 
cons, and has power to administer m certain ordinances and in the temporal 
affairs of the Church. **The power and authority of the lesser or Aaronic 
Priesthood is to hold the keys of the ministering of angels, and to administer 
in outward ordinances, the letter of the Gospel — the baptism of repentance 
for the remission of sins:" also to sit as a common judge in Israel. 

The bishopric is the presidency of the Aaronic Priesthood, and holds 
the keys or authority of the same. "The office of a bishop is in adminis- 
tering all temporal things." First born sons, literal descendants of Aaron, 
have a legal right to the bishopric. No other man has a legal right to the 
presidency of this Priesthooci, and a first-borh descendant of Aaron must 
be designated by the First Presidency of the Melchisedek Priesthood, '*and 
found worthy, and anointed, and ordained under the hands of this presi- 
dency," before he is legally authorized to officiate in the Priesthood. **But 
as a nigh priest of the Melchisedek Priesthood has authority to officiate in 
all the lesser offices, he may officiate in the office of bishop when no literal 
descendant of Aaron can be found, provided he is called and set apart and 
ordained unto this power under the hands of the First Presidenc)'- of the 
Melchi.sedek Priesthood. ' ' 

A bishop who is a first-born descendant of Aaron can sit as a common 
judge in the Church without counselors, except when a president of the High 
Priesthood is tried. But a bishop from the High Priesthood must not sit as 
a judge without his two counselors. In both cases the jurisdiction of bishops 
is original, but not exclusive. 

Over all the other bishops in the Church there is a presiding bishop, 
with two counselors. William B. Preston is the present presiding bishop, 
and Leonard W. Hardy and Robert T. Burton are his counselors. 

The duties of a priest are "to preach, teach, expound, exhort and bap- 
tize, and administer the .sacrament, and visit the house of each member, and 
exhort them to pray vocally and in .secret, and attend to all family duties; 
and he may ordain other priests, teachers and deacons : and he is to take the ' 
lead of meetings when there is no elder present; but when there is an elder 
present he is only to preach, teach, expouad, exhort and baptize, and visit 
the house of each member, exhorting them to pray vocally and in secret, 
and attend to all family duties. In all these duties the priest is to assist the 
elder, if occasion requires." 

The duties of a teacher are *' to watch over the Church always, and be 
with and strengthen them, and see that there is no iniquity in the Church, 
neither with each other, neither lying, backbiting nor evil speaking; 
and see that the Church meet together often, and also see that all the mem- 
bers do their duty; and he is to take the lead of meetings in the absence of 
the elder or priest.' * 

The duties of a deacon are to assist the teiicher in his duties in the 


Church, if occasion requires. But deacons have more especially to do with 
temporalities, and are expected to see that the meeting-houses are in com- 
fortable condition for the use of the officers and members of the Church in 
their various meetings. It is also the duty of the deacons, under the direc- 
tion of the bishops, to look after the welfare of the poor, and endeavor to 
supply their necessities. 

Teachers and deacons are "appointed to watch over the Church, to be 
standing ministers unto the Church." "But neither teachers nor deacons 
have authority to baptize, administer the sacrament, or lay on hands. They 
;ire, however, to warn, expound, exhort, and teach, and invite all to come 
unto Christ." 

No man can hold any office in the Priesthood, in either kind, unless by 
authoritative call and ordination, or by special appointment of God. 

As a general rule though, with some limitations, an officer in the Priest- 
hood has power to ordain men to the same office that he holds, when tlie 
candidates are properly called and vouched for. 


The First Presidency of the Church, also known as the First Presidency 
of the High Priesthood, ccjnsists of a president and two counselors. John 
Taylor Ls the present president, and George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. 
Smith are his two counselors. It is the duty of the First Presidency to 
preside over the affairs of the Church, and they can officiate in any or all 
of its offices. "Of the Melchisedek Priesthood, three presiding high 
priests, chosen by the body, appointed and ordained to that office, and 
upheld by the confidence, faith, and prayer of the Church, form a quorum 
of the presidency of the Church." "The duty of the President of the 
office of the High Priesthood is to preside over the whole Church, and to 
be like unto Moses. " " Yea, to be a seer, a revclator, a translator, and a 
prophet, having all the gifts of God which he bestows upon the head of the 

The Twelve Apostles are a traveling presiding high council, next in 
order of authorit>' to the First Presidency. On the death of the President 
of the Church, the presiding authority falls on the next council in pre- 
cedence, which is the council of the Twelve Aj)ostles, and continues with 
that council until another P'irst Presidency is installed. The presidencv of 
the council of the Twelve Apostles is decided by seniority or ordination. 
The duties of the Twelve Apostles are to preach the Gospel and build up 
the Church and regulate the affairs of the same in all nations, under the 
direction of the First Presidency. It is the privilege and duty of the coun* 
oil of the Twelve Apostles, when sent out, to open the Gospel door to the 
various nations of the earth, and, when they need assistance, it is their duty 
to call preferentially on the Seventies to fill the calls for preaching and 
administering the Gospel. 

The Seventies are organized into various councils of seventy, com- 
monly termed quorums. E^ch council of seventy has seven presidents, 
chosen out of the seventy, one of the seven presiding over the others and 
over the whole seventy. The seven presidents of the first council of seven- 
ties also preside over all the councils of seventies. There are now seventy - 
six councils of seventies, seventy members in each council when it is full. 

In each Stake of Zion the High Priests assemble in council at stated 
times, perhaps once a month, for counsel and instruction in their duties, 
with a presicfent and two counselors presiding over them. 

Elders are organized in councils of ninety-six, each council with a pres- 
ident and two counselors. 

Priests are organized in councils of forty-eight, each with a president 
and two counselors. This president must be a bishop. 


Teachers are organized in councils of twenty-four, each with a president 
and two counselors. 

Deacons are organized in councils of twelve, each with a president and 
two counselors. 

At the gathering places of the Latter-day Saints, the branches of the 
Church are organized into Stakes of Zion. In Utah these stakes are gener- 
ally, but not necessarily, co-extensive with counties. Each stake has a pres- 
ident, with his two counselors, and has also a high council, consisting of 
twelve High Priests. The president of a stake, with his two counselors, 
presides over the high council of that stake. The jurisdiction of the high 
council of a stake is appellate in most cases, but original in some. The 
decisions of a high council are usually, but not invariably, final. On an 
appeal from the decision of a high council, a hearing and decision can be 
had from a general assembly of the various councils of the Priesthood, 
which is the end of controversy in the Church, but such appeals are very 
rarely taken. 

The jurisdiction of all councils in the Church is ecclesiastical, extending 
to fellowship and standing only, the extreme judgment in all cases being 

Each stake is divided into an irregular number of wards, over each of 
which a bishop, with his two counselors presides. 

Each ward has its own meeting-house, as a rule. 

Each stake has also its own meeting-house generally, for the holding of 
conferences and other meetings. In Utah and adjacent Territories there are 
twenty-two stakes, comprising about 280 bishops' wards. Salt Lake City is 
divided into twenty-one wards, the usual size of each of which is a square 
of nine ten-acre blocks, though most of the wards in the outskirts are con- 
siderably larger. 

Each stake, as a rule, holds a quarterly conference, usually continuing 
two days. 

The Church holds two general conferences yearly. They are held 
almost invariably in April and October, commencing on the sixth day of 
each of those months, and generally lasting three or four days. Occasion- 
ally special general conferences are held. 


The Latter-day Saints believe in the Bible as an inspired record of the 
dealings of God with men in the eastern hemisphere, and consequently 
believe in the creation or organization of the heavens and the earth by the 
word of God. 

They believe that God placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, 
and that they were cast out therefrom for transgression, thereby bringing 
suffering and death into the world, including banishment from the presence 
of God. 

That Jesus Christ was the Son of God, and that by his death he made 
atonement for the sins of Adam and of the whole world, so that men, by 
individual acceptance of the terms, can have their own sins forgiven or 
remitted and be reconciled to God. 

That in order to obtain this forgiveness or remission and reconciliation, 
men must have faith in God and in Jesus Christ, repent of and forsake their 
sins, be baptized for the remission of them, have hands laid upon them by 
authorized ministers for the reception of the Holy Ghost, and live a pure 
life, keeping the commandments of God and walking in holiness before him. 

That members of the Church should partake of the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, at stated times, and assemble frequently to worship God 
and to be instructed in regard to their duties and privileges. 

That it is the duty of members of the Church to pay first a tenth part of 



their property, and afterward a tenth of their increase or income for the 
advancement of the work of God. 

That revelations from God and miraculous manifestations of his power 
were not confined to the apostolic and earlier ages, nor to the eastern hemi- 
sphere, but may be enjoyed in this age or in any dispensation or country. 

That the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are revelations from God, the 
former being an inspired record of his dealings with the ancient inhabitants 
of this continent, and the latter consisting of revelations fr6m him in this dis- 

That he eave revelations to Joseph Smith and inspired him to translate 
the Book of Mormon and to organize the Church of Christ anew upon the 
earth in our da^. 

That this is the dispensation of the fulness of times, in which all things 
will be gathered together in one, both which are in heaven and which are 
on the earth. 

That the gospel must be preached in all the world for a witness, and 
then the end shall come. 

That those who believe in the gospel and receive the testimony of the 
servants of God should gather themselves together as one people upon this 
continent, to build up communities, cities, and temples to the name of the 
Lord, and to establish Zion, that they may escape the judgments which God 
is about to send upon the wicked, and be prepared for the coming of Jesus 
Christ to take upon him his power and reign on the earth as King of Kings 
and Lord of Lords. 

That men and women should not indulge in the lusts of the flesh, and 
thereby corrupt, debase and destroy themselves and others. 

That marriage, whether monogamic or polygamic, is honorable in all, 
and the bed undefiled, when such marriage is contracted and carried out in 
accordance with the law of God. 

That the ten commandments are as binding now as when delivered to 
Moses on Mount Sinai, and that the two supreme commandments, into 
which Jesus Christ resolved the ten, are, with the ten, as binding now as 
when he was upon the earth in the flesh, which two commandments are as 
follows: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all 
thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the 6rst and great commandment. 
And the second is like unto it. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyselC 
On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.'' 

That every man is free to accept or reject the Gospel, but that he cannot 
receive remission of sins, nor be reconciled to God, nor enjoy eternal life in 
his presence, on any other terms than obedience to the Gospel. 

That men will be rewarded or punished according to their works, 
whether good or evil. 

That the dead, who did not obey the Gospel in this life, can hear and 
accept of it in the spirit world, their mortal relatives or friends attending to 
the ordinances of the gospel in their behalf 

That all mankind will be resurrected from the dead and will come forth 
to judgment and receive either reward or punishment, which will be various 
in d^ree. according to capacity, merit or demerit. 

That the earth glorified will be the dwelling place of resurrected, glori- 
fied and immortal beings, who will have previously passed their mortal 
Probation thereon, and that they will dwell upon it forever in the light and 
nowledge and glory of God. 


There are certain ordinances connected with the Gospel, most of which 
are essential to complete salvation, and all are desirable to be observed under 
proper circumstances. 


The first ordinance is baptism of water for the remission of sins. ** Bap- 
tism is to be administered in the following manner unto all those who repent; 
The person who is called of God, and has authority from Jesus Chrtst to 
baptize, shall go down into the water with the person who has presented him 
or herself for baptism, and shall say, calling him or her by name, ' Having 
been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Cihost. Amen.' Then shall he immerse 
him or her in the water, and come forth again out of the water.*' 

Baptism is analogous to the door of the Church. No person can become 
a member without baptism, and no person is eligible for baptism without 
repentance of sins committed. Consequently the candidate must have 
arrived at the years of accountability, ana be capable of repentance. "All 
those who humble themselves before God, and desire to be baptized and 
come forth with broken hearts and contrite spirits, and witness before the 
Church that they have truly repented of all their sins, and are willing to take 
upon them the name of Jesus Christ, having a determination to serve him 
to the end, and truly manifest by the works that thev have received of the 
spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins, shall fee received by baptism 
into his Church.*' 

Children are eligible for baptism on attaining the age of eight years, 
previous to which age they are not considered accountable before God for 
their transgressions. 

No person who has been excommunicated from the Church can be 
readmitted without repentance and baptism as at first. 

Baptism for the dead is administered in a similar manner to baptism for 
the living, a living person acting as proxy for the dead person on whose 
account the baptism is administered. 

After baptism the candidates are confirmed members of the Church by 
the laying on of hands, that they may receive the Holy Ghost. 

The duty of every "member of the Church of Christ having children, 
is to bring them unto the elders, before the Church, who are to lay their 
hands upon them in the name of Jesus Christ, and bless them in his name.'*' 

The laying on of hands is an ordinance also in the giving of patriarchal 
or other blessings to members of the Church, in ordination to office in the 
Priesthood, in settings persons apart to particular duties or callings or mis- 
sions, and in administering to the sick in connection with anointing with 
consecrating oil and the prayer of faith. 

In regard to the ordinance or sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the mem- 
bers of the Church are required to meet together often to partake of the 
bread and wine (or water, when pure home-made grape wine cannot be had) 
in remembrance of the Lord Jesus. An elder or a priest can admin- 
ister it. Usually the elder or the priest officiating breaks the bread into 
small pieces, kneels with members of the Church assembled ; and calls upon 
God, the Father, in solemn prayer, saying "O God, the eternal Father, we 
ask in the name of thy Son, Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this bread to 
the souls of all those who partike of it, that they may eat in remembrance 
of the body of thy Son, and witness unto thee, O God, the eternal Father, 
that they are willing to take upon them the name of thy Son, and always 
remember him and keen his commandments which he has g^ven them, that 
they may always have his Spirit to be with them. Amen." 

After the members have partaken of the bread, the person officiating 
takes the cup and engages in prayer, saying, "O CkxI, the eternal Father, 
we ask thee in the name of thy Son, Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this 
wine (or water) to the souls of all those who drink of it, that they may do it 
in remembrance of the blood of thy Son, which was shed for them; that 
they may witness unto thee, O God, the eternal Father, tl'at they do always 
remember him, that they may have his Spirit to be with them. Amen." 


There is also the ordinance of marriage. 

No person has authority to preach the Gospel, or administer in any 
ordinance thereof, unless he holds the Priesthood, and then only in sucn 
ordinances as the particular office to which he has been ordained empowers 
him, and often only by special calliiif^ and appointment. 

A regularly organized system of proselytizing is carried on in which all 
members are expected to assist when called upon by the authorides: 

During the last twenty-two years, about three thousand missionaries, 
and previously, since the organization of the Church, probably about one 
thousand five hundred more, have been sent to the various nations to preach 
the Gospel, besides hundreds of native elders, traveling and preaching 
more locally, in the several missions thus established. Missionary elders 
went to Canada as early as 1833; England in 1837; Wales, Scotland, Isle 
of Man, Ireland, Australia and East Indies in 1840; Palestine in 1841. 
Elder Orson Hyde passing through the Netherlands, Bavaria, Austria, 
Turkey and Egypt, on his way; Society Islands in 1844; the Channel 
Islands and France in 1849; Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Switzerland and the 
Sandwich Islands in 1850; Norway, Iceland, Germany and Chili in 1851; 
Malta, the Ca]>e of Good Hope, Burmah and the Crimea in 1852; Gibraltar, 
Prussia, China, Ceylon and the West Indies in 1853; Siam and Turkey in 
1854; Brazil in 1855; the Netherlands in 1861; Austria in 1864; Mexico in 

Previous to the settling of the Church in Salt Lake Valley, about five 
thousand Latter-day Saints had emigrated fron> Europe to America, mostly 
to Nauvoo. Since that time the emigration of Latter-day Saints from 
Europe has amounted to nearly seventy thousand souls, makmg an average 
of about two thousand annually, nearly all coming to Utah. 

The Book of Mormon was publisned in England in 1841; in Danish in 
1851; in Welsh, French, German and Italian in 1852; in Hawaiian in 1855; in 
Swedish in 1878. Several years ago it was translated into Hindostanee 
and into Dutch. In 1876 portions of it were published in Spanish, and the 
whole is now pre})ared for publication in that language. It is said that it 
was published in Russian in New York, in 1872, by a gentleman not in the 

The Book of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church, in addition to 
numerous editions in English, in America and England, was ])ublished in 
Welsh in 185 1, Danish in 1852, and German in 1876. Many regular periodi- 
cals, advocating the doctrines of the Church, have been published in 
America, England, Wales, Denmark, Sweden, France, Germany, Switzer- 
land, Australia, and India. Hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of 
other books and tracts have been published by the elders in various 
languages in the different quarters of the globe. 

The following temples were built by the Latter-day Saints outside of 

Kirtland, Ohio, 80 by 60 feet; corner stones laid July 23, 1833; dedi- 
cated March 27, 1836. 

Nauvoo, Illinois, 128 by 88 feet; corner stones laid April 6, 1841; dedi- 
cated October 5 and November 30, 1845, and February 8 and April 30 and 
May I, 1846; burned by an incendiary November 19, 1848. 

The site for a temple was dedicated at Independence, Jackson County, 
Missouri, August 3, 1831. 

The corner stones of a temple, no by 80 feet, were laid at Far West, 
Caldwell County. Missouri, July 4, 1838. 

There are twenty-one stake organizations of the Church in Utah, each 
of which has a president and two counselors. The following gives the 
name of each stake, the name of its president, and its membership, as 
reported less than six months ago. The membership reported is believed 


somewhat under, though the estimates arc carefully made and arc as accur- 
ate as it is possible to get them : 

Sfake. President. Membership. 

Bear Lake, William Budge, 4.324 

Beaver J. R. Murdock, 1,711 

Box Elder, O. G. Snow, 7.414 

Cache CO. Card, 18,239 

Davis W. R. Smiih, 5.373 

Emery, C. G. Larsen, 1.827 

Juab, William Paxman 2,649 

Kanab L. J. Nuttall, ii495 

Millard, Ira N. Hinckley 2,894 

Morgan, Willard G. Smith ii554 

Pangultch, Je;se W. Cr>sby, Jr 1.747 

Parowan Thomas J. Jones, 2,228 

Salt Lake, Angus M. Cannon 23,759 

Sanpete, Canute Petersen, ii»673 

St. George, J. D. T. McAllister 4.397 

Sevier Franklin Spencer 4*854 

Summit, W. W. Cluff, 3,064 

Tooele, Hugh S. Go wans, 2,984 

Utah A. O. Smoot, 16,770 

Wasjitch, Abram Hatch 3,323 

Weberj L. W. Shurtliff, 9.37^ 

Total membership 149,600 

The present authorities of the Church are: John Taylor, President; 
George Q. C umon, Joseph F. Smith, counselors to the President; Wilford 
Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, Franklin D. Riqliards, Brigham Young, Albert Car- 
rington, Moses Thatcher, Francis M. Lyman, John Henry Smith. George 
Teasdale, HeberJ. Grant and John W. Taylor, Twelve Apostles; Daniel H. 
Wells and John W. Young, counselors to the Twelve Apostles; John Smith. 
Patriarch; Elias Smith, President of the High Priests* Quorum; Henry Har- 
riman, Horace S. Eldredge, Jacob Gates, \V. W. Taylor, Abraham H. Can- 
non, Seymour B. Young and Christian I). FJclsted, First Seven Presidents of 
the Seventies; William B. Preston, presidmg bishop of the Church, with 
Leonard W. Hardy and Robert T. Burton as counselors; John Taylor, 
Trustee- in -Trust for the Church; Wilford Woodruff, Church Historian, 
with F. D. Richards as assistant; Albert Carrington, President of the Per- 
petual Emigrating Fund; Truman O. Angell, church architect, with T. O. 
Angell, Jr., and VVilliam H. Folsom as assistants. 

In addition, there are German and Scandinavian branches of the church. 
at which rervices are held in those languages. The Indian mission, also a 
branch work of the Latter-day Saints, has lor its object the conversion of 
the Indians to the Latter-day Saint faith, and their civilization. There are 
several of these missions, one in Malad Valley, another in Thistle Valley, 
another in Tooele County, and still others elsewhere. 



The Ancient Order of United Workmen is a general organization for 
the mutual benefit of its members and their families. It embraces in its mem- 
bership men of every vocation, profession and occupation — employers and 


«:mployccs — workers of all classes, whether their labor be mental or physi- 
cal, it has no connection with any relig^ious sect, political party, or orj^an- 
ization for affccling the prices of labor or commo lities, but is d 'j-igned to 
promote fraternity, mental and social improvement and mutual assi-t in?j. 

The most distinctive feature of the Order is what is designated as the 
Beneficiary Fund, by means of which the sum of $2,000 is secured to each 
member's family, or such person or persons as he may choi se to designate. 

Each person who becomes a member of the Order pays to the 1* inan- 
cier of his Lodge $1 for the Beneliciary Fund. The Lodges are notified at 
the first of the month to for.vard their portion of the F*und on h md (^i for 
each member), and an asse.-sment is made to re|)]ace the amount forwarded. 

In the first year in the working of the Supreme Lodge ( 1873-4) the 
number of assessments made upon the members of the Lodge directly under 
its jurisdiction was 20: second yeir, 14; third year, i5;.fourih year, 15; 
fifth year (1877-8^. 14; sixth year, 16; seventh year, 22; eighth year, 21. 
The average cost to each member, therefore, has been $17. 12^:: per year, 
being a little more than 4I2 cents per day as the cost of a completely secured 
guaranty of $2,000, to be paid on the death of the member. 

No distinction is made on account of age in the cost of membership or 
insurance in the Order, but the average cost to individual members in- Grand 
Lodge Beneficiary Jurisdictions, is about twenty dollars per year for carrj'ing 

The Ancient Order of Ui^.ited Workmen beneficial system is simple, 
easily understood, economical in its workings, and in all its deails comes 
under the direct observation and care of the members, who meet we.'kly in 
their Lodges, where the business is transacted, and where they enjoy 
the advantages of social and fraternal intercource, and of mental 

All money paid on assessments for the Beneficiary Fund goes to the 

^xiyment of death benefits, without reduction even for expenses, these being 

provided for out of a General Fund raised in each Lodge. There are no 

commissions, fees or salaries to be paid out of it, but the entire amount 

paid in goes to the widows, orphans, or other heirs of deceased brethren. 

A medical examination is 'required, under such rules as are generally 
adopted by life insurance companies. The character of the applicant must 
also be investigated and the Lodge pass upon his application by ballot 
Persons between the ages of 21 and 50"only are admitted. 

The Order is composed of Subordinate Lodges, Grand Lodges, and 
a Supreme Lodge. Subordinate Lodges in States or Territories where no 
Grand Lodge has been established are under the immediate jurisdiction of, 
and report to, the Supreme Lodge until a Grand Lodge is established. A 
Grand Lodge for Nevada was instituted on May 19, 1881, with eleven 
I^odgcs represented. 

When a Grand Lodge has over 2,000 members under its jurisdiction, 
it can be set apart as a separate Beneficiary District if desired. In this case 
the members are assessed only for the deaths which occur within such Dis- 
trict or Jurisdiction, and the Grand Lodge collects the assessments and pays 
the death benefits under the laws and regulations adopted by the Supreme 

The organization has had a representative Lodge in Salt Lake City 
since July 20, 1882, but since October, 1883, the order has commenced to 
grow in that city, until its present membership foots up 52. There are 
lodges organized in Provo, Ogden. American Fork, Park City. Frisco, 
Silver Reef, Beaver, Kelton, Bingham and Terrace, in Utah Territory, 
ivhich, with the lodges in Nevada, Montana, Idaho and Wyoming, form the 
Grand Lodge of this jurisdiction. 

Total membership on March ist, 1884: Pennsylvania, 14,000; Ohio, 3,622; 


Kentucky, 1,474; Indiana, 2,300; Iowa, 2,000; New York, 18,535; Illinois. 
i3»459; Missouri,, 11,370; Minnesota, 2,000; Wisconsin, 4,970; Tennessee, 
2,098; Michigan, 7,635; California, 16,121; Georgfia. Alabama, Mississippi, 
North and South Carolina and Florida, 870; Kansas,5,429; Ontario, 7,679; 
Oregon and Washington, 3,744; Massachusetts, 5,100; Maryland. New 

{ersey and Delaware, 3,338; Texas, 1,807; Nevada, 2,300; Colorado, New 
lexico and Arizona, 728; Subordinate Lodges under the immediate juris- 
diction of Supreme Lodge, 251; total, 131,722. 


The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Utah was 
organized January 17th, 1872, by the three Lodges then existing in the 
Territory, viz: Wasatch, No. i, with 48 members; Mount Moriah, No. 2, 
with 52, and Argenta, No. 3, with 24; toUil, 124 members. At the first 
annual communication, held October 7th, 1872, the Grand Secretary, 
Joseph F. Nounnan, reported four Lodges on the roll, with 165 members 
and $2,321.80 in their treasuries. At this communication, R. H. Robertson, 
Esq., (died January 4th, 1879), was elected Grand Master and Christopher 
Diehl, Grand Secretary. The Grand Lodge now holds its communications 
on the third Tuesday in January of each year. At the thirteenth annual 
communication, held January 16th. 1884, P. H. Emerson, Grand Master, 
presiding, the Grand Secretary, Christopher Diehl, reported eight Lodges 
in the jurisdiction, with a membership of 469. The amount of funds in the 
Lodge treasuries was $11,685.55, and their property was valued at $7,900. 
During the year they exi>ended for charity, $1,201, and paid for Grand 
Lodge dues, $1,477. James Lowe was elected Grand Master, Samuel Kahn, 
Grand Treasurer, and Christopher Diehl, Grand Secretary. The following 
arc the Lodges under the supremacy of the Grand Lodge of Utah: 

Wasatch Lodge, No. i, at Salt Lake City, 100 members; Samuel Paul, 
Worshipful Master; Julius Malsh, Secretary. Regular meeting the second 
Friday of each month. 

Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 2, Salt Lake City, 103 members; John F. 
Hardie, Master; Hugh Anderson, Secretary. Regular meeting the second 
Monday of each month. ^ 

Argenta Lodge, No. 3, Salt Lake City, 72 members; John S. Scott. 
Master; Moses Casper Phillips, Secretary. Regular meeting the first Tues- 
day of each month. 

Story Lodge, No. 4, Provo, chartered October 8th. 1872, 44 members: 
A. G. Sutherland, Miister; Benjamin Bachman, Secretary. Regular meet- 
ings the first and third Tuesday of each month. 

Corinne Lodge, No. 5, Corinne, chartered November nth, 1873; 21 
members; Alexander Toponce, Master; John Kendrick Fowler, Secretary. 
Regular meetings the first Tuesday in each month. 

Weber Lodge, No. 6, Ogden, chartered November 12th, 1874; 58 mem- 
bers; John D. Carnahan, Master; George F. Brown, Secretary. Regular 
meetings the first and third Tuesdays of each month. 

Uintah Lodge, No. 7, Park City, chartered November 24th. 1880; 35 
members; A. M. Grant, Master; A. B. Emery, Secretary. Regular meet- 
ings the second and fourth Wednesdays of each month. 

St. John's Lodge, No. 8, Frisco, chartered January i8th, 1882, 33 
members; Harry Craig Hill, Master; George Wilson Crozier, Secrctarj\ 
Regular meetings the second Thursday of each month. 


The James B.McKean Post, No. i. Department of Utah, located in Salt 
Lake City, was organized September 18, 1878, with General George R. 
Maxwell as Post Commander, and with eighteen charter members. The 


object of the organization, as stated in the constitution, was to preserve and 
strengthen those eternal feelings which bind together comrades in the war of 
the late rebellion, to perpetuate the memory of the dead, to assist comrades and 
the widows and orphans of those who fell in the war, to maintain true allegi- 
ance to the United States of America, to discountenance whatever tends to 
weaken loyalty or incite to treason or rebellion, and to encourage the spread 
of universal liberty, equal rights and justice to all men. All soldiers or 
sailors of the United States army or navy who served between April 12. 
1861, and April 9, 1865, in the war for the suppression of the rebellion, and 
who have not borne arms ag^ainst tl e United States, are eligible for member- 
ship. The present name ot the Post was given in honor of Hon. James B. 
McKean — for a time Chief Justice of Utah Territory — after his decease. 
Since the organization of the Grand Army in Utah, now six years past, the 
membership has been constantly increasing, and the roster of the Post 
to-day shows a membership of nearly 100, with the following officers: Post 
Commander, E. ISells; Senior Vice-Commander, F. Hoffman; Junior Vice- 
Commander, J. C. Witherill; Adjutant, T. W. Lincoln; Quartermaster, T. 
C. Bailey; Officer of the Day, E. Michaelis; Officer 0? Guard, George 
Cooley; Surgeon, M. M. Bane; Chaplain. T. C. Ilitf. 

The headquarters of the Post are in Castle Hall. Walker Opera House. 
The regular business meetings are held the second Saturday night, and its 
Camp Fires the fourth Saturday night of each month. 

I. o. o. F. 

The first Lodge of the Indepenc'eit Order of Odd Fellows instituted in 
the Territory, was Utah, No. i, which received its dispensation from the 
Grand Lodge of the United States (now the Sovereign Grand Lodge) on the 
fouith day of May, 1865, the charter members being R. T. Westbrook, 
Pest Grand; J. M. Ellis, Past Grand; Willard Kittredgc, Past Grand; Max 
Wohlgemuth, Fred. Auerbach, L. J. Whitney, Charles Popper and Joseph 
E. Merrill. This Lodge struggled along alone for years, and at one time it 
was thought the members would have to abandon it entirely. In the early 
part of 1872, however, an application was made for a dispensation to organ- 
ize Salt Lake Lodge, No. 2, with the following charter members: William 
Haydon, Past Grand Master, W. A. Perkins, A. Leebes, Past Grand, E. 
M. Bamum, Past Grand Master, and H. A. Reid. This Lodge was duly 
instituted on the twenty-eighth day of March, 1872, under and by authority 
of the Grand Lodge of the United States. In the following year Jordan 
Lod^e, No. 3, was brought to life with the following charter members: 
William Samson, Julius Jordan, Fred. G. Willis, Alexander Czoniser, George 
Arbogast and A. J. Kent, Past Grand. This Lodge was duly instituted on 
the seventeenth day of November, 1873, ^X ^^^ same authority as the pre- 
ceding Lodges. The order now having been firmly planted, the advisability 
of forming a Grand Lodge was taken mto consideration — the three Lodges 
above mentioned being attached to the Grand Lodge of Nevada for work- 
ing purposes made it somewhat inconvenient, 'i'he following year, 1874, 
brought Corinne Lodge, No. 4, into existence, which was instituted on the 
twenty-seventh day of February, when the Past Grands petitioned the Grand 
Lod^e of the United States for a charter to es'.ablish a urand Lodge in this 
Territory. The petition was received and a dispensation granted, and the 
Grand Lodge of Utah was duly instituted on the twenty-ninth day of June, 
1874, by special Deputy Grand Secretary J. C. Hemingray, Fred. H. Auer- 
bach being the first Grand Master, William Sampson, Grand Secretary, and 
J. C. Hemingray the Representative to the Grand Lodge ot the United 
States. Since the institution of the Grand Lodge of the Territory, the 
order has been steadily increasing until it now numbers 10 lodges, with a 
membership of 550, scattered in aJl parts of the Territory, there being 3 


Lodjrcs in Ogdcn, 2 in Park City, i in Bingham, and the balance in 
Salt Lake City. The Lodges in this city have recently leased the upper 
story of tl^ new Union Block, on Main Street, for a term of ten years, and 
fitted it up with great taste. 

During the past year the order has distributed over $4,000 for the relief 
of its members— in sickness and distress. To have a true conception of the 
amount of charity this order bestows on its members throu^^hout the coim- 
try, one need but read the following statement taken from the report of the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge, of 1S82: 

From J 8 JO to December jr, iSSi. 

Supreme Lodges (Sovereign, German Empire, Australasia) 3 

Subordinate Grand Lodges, 60 

Subordinate Grand Encampments 42 

Subordinate Encampments, 1.851 

Subordinate Lodges, ' 7.557 

Encampment members, 81,195 

Lodge members ^ 489,363 

Lodge initiations * 1,224,869 

Members relieved, 996*459 

Widowed families relieved, 132,791 

Members deceased, 96,119 

Total relief, $32.777* 554- 34 

Total receipts, 87.574,260.03 

The present elective officers of the Grand Lodge of Utah are: Henry 
Cohn. Grand Master; E. Pearce, Deputy Grand Master; William H. Turner, 
Grand Warden; Louis Hyams, Grand Secretary; L. L. Baumgarten. Grand 
Treasurer; E. H. Murphy, (}rand Representative. The ne.xt session of the 
Grand Lodge will convene in Salt Lake City on the 21st of April, 1885. 


On the i5ih day of Februiry, 1864, a number of gentlemen assembled 
for the purpose of organizing or founding a society to be of a secret 
character, its ultimate object being friendship, charity and benevolence, and 
on the 19th of February, 1864, the first member of the order took the obli- 
gation and oath of brotherhood. The first Lodge of the order was instituted 
February 19th, 1864, at Wiushington, D. C; the first Grand Lodge on April 
Sth, 1865. The Supreme Lodge of the Knights of Pythias was organized 
and established as the head of the order, the nth day of August, 1868. 
During the years 1867 and 1868, Lodges were iustituted in several states, 
and it has continued to spread until it has obtained a footing in every civil- 
ized quarter of the globe. In August, 1877, at the session of the Supreme 
Lodge, held at Cleveland, Ohio, an Endowment Rank was adopted. The 
object of this rank is to secure to families of deceased members of the rank 
a sufficient sum to keep them from immediate want. The Endowment fund 
has paid to families of deceased Knights in five years, ending March 
3d, 1884, $2,135,936. The number of policy holders March, 1884, was 
26,947. The Uniform Rank shows a membership of 4.319 Sir Knights. 
The total membership of the order is 139,230, and they have a surplus in the 
exchequer of $1,427,624.06. 

There are 43 Grand Lodges; 1.866 subordinate Lodges and 82 subordi- 
nate Lodges under control of the Supreme Lodge, with a total membership 
of 139,230. The last report shows that the subordinate Lodges in the 
Grand jurisdiction have a surplus of $408,904.25, and those under the 
supervision of the Supreme Lodge, $18,719.81 ; cash held in the exchequer's 
hands of the subordinate and Grand Lodges is $1,235,591.61, makmg a 
total of $1,427,624.06. 


The Utah Lodges arc as follows, with membership and date of organ- 

A'*». of 

Myrtle Lodge, No. i, Salt Lake City. Instituted November 

I5ih, 1873, 100 

Rocky Mountain Lodge, No. 3, Salt Lake City. Instituted Sep- 
tember 22d, 1881 70 

Calanthc Lodge, No. 5, Salt Lake City. Instituted June 26lh, 

1883, 66 

Ogden Lodgv*. No. 2. OgJen City. Instituted May 23d, 18S1, 64 

Park Lodge. No. 4, Park City. Instituted October i6th, 1882, 66 

Total, 360 

On March 27th, 1884, the Representatives of the several Lodges met in 
Castle Hall, Walker Opera House, and organized the Grand Lodge of Utah, 
with 29 Past Chancellors. 


On D:;ccmber 5th, 1877, under th? jurisdiction of the Supreme Council 
of the Templars of Honor and Temperance, an organization was effected by 
Rev. G. S. Alien, in this Territory, under the name of Salt Lake Temple, 
No. I. He .was commissioned Deputy Worthy Grand Templar, with 
instructions to organize Temples in different parts of the Union while on his 
lecturing tour, as he was at thit time Iciborinqr in behalf of an organization 
called the Blue Ribbon Brigade. Through the efforts of Rev. Allen and 
some eight or ten persons who were desirous of advancing the cause of tem- 
perance and sustaining the organization, money was raised to procure the 
charter, and it was granted. The first regular meeting was held in Cisler's 
Hall, on Friday, January 9th, 1878. Since the organization of Salt Lake 
Temple, No. i. other branches have been added to the order, and the roll 
call of the different branches show a membership of between 150 and 175. 
On the 2ist of December, 1880, Fidelity Social, No. i, was organized, with 
a membership of about 30. One of the principal features of this order is 
the admitting of ladies. This department is under the management and 
control of ladies. A subordinate Temple was organized March 26th, 1881, 
which is known by the name of Temple, No. 2. At its organization there 
were 18 charter members, and the number is steadily increasing. January 
2 1st, 1882, a Council of .select members was formed, under the name of 
Western Star Council of Templars, No. i. It consists of 18 members. In 
this department the three degrees of Love, Purity and Fidelity are conferred; 
also those of Tried, Approved and Selected Templars. On May 2d, 1883, 
was organized the Salt Lake Junior .Section, No. i, of Temple of Honor and 
Temperance, which admits of children and youths, aged from 12 years 
upward. This department is officered and managed by boys belonging to 
the order, under the guidance of a Governor appointed by the Temple. At 
the age of 18 years they are qualified to join either of the subordinate Lodges. 



There are three building societies in the Territory; one in Ogden and 
two in Salt Lake. The object of all is similar, though the details are some- 
what different. 

The Pioneer Loan and Building Association was organized in 


March, 1884. It is a co-operative savings institution, its general features 
and principles of operation being the same as those which now govern such 
organizations everywhere. By its articles the association is authorized to 
Issue up to 5,000 shares of stock, each holder of shares to pay into the 
treasury $1 per share per month. The income thus obtained is loaned out 
on real estate security, thus earning interest; and as the interest is also 
regularly loaned out month after month, the result is that compound interest 
is practically earned upon the investment. The income and earnings are 
accumulated until the total amount under the control of the association 19 
sufficient to pay to each member $200 for every share he holds. When this 
point is reached, a general division of the funds is made. The association 
Degan business in April, 1883. It has averaged a membership of about 900 
shares; has outstanding loans of about $14,000, and has made a profit of 
over 18 per cent, upon the investment during the twelve months ending 
April, 1884. Directors: George Cullins, M. Kirkpatrick, J. Harnett, Henry 
Stratford, S. Bamberger, Zera Snow, Theodore J. Baker, G. F. Culmer, R. 
Shelton, John Dull, Thomas Carter, F. K. Morris. Officers: S. Bamberger, 
president; Henry Stratford, vice-president; J. Bamett, treasurer; F. K. 
Morris, secretary. Principal place of business: 227 Main Street, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 


This society was organized on the 9th day of February, 1884. The 
object of the society is recreation, amusement, social gathering, out-door 
pastimes and intellectual development. It has no amliation with other 
associations and is purely a local affair. No nationality standard is imposed, 
the only conditions being good moral character and the acceptation of the 
applicant by the members of the society. The initiation fee is $1, and a 
quarterly due of $1 constitutes the income. Grounds have been secured and 
arrangements made for out-door exercises on South Temple street A 
library and reading room are to be established, and a committee lookine 
after the intellectual welfare of the members, will provide for lectures and 
other seasonable and intelligent entertainments. Upon the death of a full 
member, a given sum is paid to any person the deceased may designate. 
The officers are: D. O. Calder (deceased), president; W. C. Dunbar, first 
vice-president; D. A. Swan, second vice-president; D. M. McAllister, secre- 
tary; D. L. Murdock, treasurer; and George Swan, W. H Rowe, R. T. 
McEwan, D. C. Dunbar and R. R. Anderson, directors. 

firemen's mutual aid society. 

In 1870, the Firemen organized a Mutual Aid Society. This was prior 
to there being a paid fire department for Salt Lake City, and the design was 
to form a closer organization among the volunteers, and to render each 
other help in case of sickness, not resulting from immorality or excesses, or 
where accident might occur at a fire. The initiation fee is $3, and montlily 
dues $1. A member sick receives $8 per week. It is purely a Firemen's 
society, and therefore does not grow. The officers are: R. Simpson, presi- 
dent; R. H. Hardy, secretary; H. Brewer, treasurer, and W. G. Workman, 
H. Arnold, W. R. Adkins and W. J. Hooper, directors. 


Some years ago the employees of the Utah Central Railway Company 
organized a Mutual Aid Association. Its object is to assist members who 
may be sick and render help to the families and relatives of those who lose 
their lives or die while still members. The organization is divided into 
classes, and amounts are paid in regularly, according to the cLiss to which 
the individual belongs, and he receives from the society in case of sickness 


or withdrawal from the association, or his family does in the event of death, 
an amount proportionate to the sum he contributes and to the class in which 
he is numbered. Its operation has been full of benefit, and for the amount 
of charity done in a quiet way no local society Ls its superior. It becomes 
stronger each year, and its power to do good is proportionately increased. 
Membership in the society requires that the person shall be an employee of 
the Utah Central Railway Company. The officers are: President, George 
Swan; vice-president, G. G. By water; secretary and treasurer, R. C. Bad- 
ger; directors, James Sharp, J. H. Rumel, Jr., Francis Cope, Joseph Sharp, 
/eb. Jacobs, James Latimer and Peter Larsen. 

zion's benefit building society. 

This society was duly incorporated under the laws of the Territory, by 
the filing of articles with the County Clerk of Salt Lake County, on the 26th 
dav of June, 1883. The original incorporators are: Thomas G. Webber, 
William Langton, H. W. Naisbitt, James Watson, Charles W. Stayncr, 
Francis Cope, John Schofield, Arthur Parsons, W. J. Bateman, L. S. Hills, 
J. T. Little, James Sharp, H. Dinwoodey, John Nicholson, William H. 
Rowc, George Romney, Abraham H. Cannon, A. W. Carlson, George G. 
By water, David James, John C. Cutler and John H. Rumel, Jr. This 
society is in every respect a benefit organization. Its capital stock is placed at 
$1,000,000, divided into 10,000 shares of $100 each. No member is entitled 
to hold more than fifty shares in his own name, nor more than fifty shares as 
a trustee. The ultimate value of each share is to be realized by accumu- 
lating subscriptions, together with the i)rofits declared as dividends by the 
board of trustees as provided for in the by-laws. Loans are made to stock- 
holders of the society only, and as near as can the interest on the money 
loaned is to take the place of rental; so that, instead of paying rent, the 
.stockholders to whom a loan is made is expending only the same sum as for 
rent, and at the same time paying for his own building and the interest on 
the money borrowed. Everything that could be thought of which would 
make the stockholder safer and prove of more benefit to him has been, 
taken into consideration and provided for. Its membership is very exten- 
,sive; its loan system absolutely safe; the interest as reasonable as can be; 
and the society is one of the best of the kind known. 

In addition to these there are also a Typographical Union, a Telegraph 
Association, a Locomotive Engineers* and Fireniens* Society, and an 
organization of conductors and brakemen on the railroads, a Plasterers* 
Union and other societies, besides a number of clubs and purely social 
organizations, not, however, of as widely known a character as are those 
referred to above. 



The Hebrews of Salt Lake City have two societies, both of a religious 
and benevolent character, the B'Nai Israel and the Ladies* Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society, The former has a membership of 55, with the following 
ofliceis: M. C. Phillips, President; L. Hyams, Secretary: E. Kahn, Treas- 
urer. The above, with M. Hirschman, H. Bamberger and Charles Popper, 
form the board of directors. The latter society has 30 members; Mrs. N. 
Boukofskv is President; Mrs. L. W^oolf, Secretary; and Mrs. S. Kahn, Treas- 


urer. The objects of these societies are similar to those of other benevolent 
organizations. The Jewish Synagogue, on the corner of Third South and 
First West Streets, is the property of the two societies, the value of 
which is placed at $15,000. They are also the owners of the Jewish Ceme- 
tery that adjoins the city cemetery on the south, and which has been consid- 
erably improved. 


The first Primary Association was organized in Fannington, August 11, 
1878, by Bishop Hess and his counselors at the suggestion of Mrs. E. R. 
Snow Smith, Mrs. Aurelia S. Rogers and Mrs. E. B. Wells, Mri. AureliaS. 
Rogers being elected president. The first in Salt Lake City was in the 
Eleventh Ward, in September of the same year, Mrs. Louie Felt being 
appointed president. The stake organizations of Salt Lake Stake was 
made afterwards, and Mrs. Ellen C. Clawson w^is chosen president, and a 
Central Board was formed June 19, 1880, Mrs. M. M. Barrett and Clara C. 
Cannon, counselors; Mrs. Lillie Freeze, secretary, and Miss Minnie Felt, 
treasurer. Th's association is more especially designed to inculcate a 
tender and growing appreciation for the doctrines and tenets of the Latter- 
day Saint faith, and which are calculated to grow upon the young as they 
advance in years and progress in understanding. 


The first Relief Societies were organized by counsel of Brigham Young — 
each wcrd having a society of its own — according to the manner in which 
Joseph Smith dr^cte 1 m Nauvoo. The first association formed was in the 
Fifteenth Ward, Salt Lake City, February 7, 1857, under the supervision of 
Bishop Benjamin Mitchell, assisted by Richard Ballantyne and others. Mrs. 
Sarah M. Kimball was elected president and has held the position ever 
since. This society used the hair of animals, which they obtained from the 
tannery, and made socks and other articles, and one blanket. They also 
knitted quilts of rags, and articles were, some of them, sent to the 
men in what is known as the Echo Canyon war. From the time the first 
organization of the Relief S :)ciety was etfected, it has extended into every 
ward and settlement in the Territory, until there are now included in the 
organizations about 350 societies. They are also further organized in a 
stake capacity in each stake of Zion, with a president, two counselors, sec- 
retary and treasurer, the first one having been organized by Brigham Young, 
on the 19th of Julv, 1876. at Ogden, and was made to include all the 
branches in Weber Stake, Mrs. Jane S. Richards being chosen president by 
the vote of the meeting. 

A similar organization was effected in the Salt Lake Stake, December 
22, 1876, by Mrs. Eliza R. Snow Smith, Mrs. E. B. Wells acting as secre- 
tary. Subsequently each Stake was thus organized, Mrs. E. R. S. Smith 
officiating witli the presidents of stakes in many of the different counties as 
she had also with the bishops in many wards and .settlements by appoint- 
ment and authority of Brigham Young, Mrs. Zina D. H. Young actmg as 
assistant by the sam i authority. On June 19, i83o, at a special meeting 
at the Assembly Hall in Salt Lake City, a central organization over all the 
branches of the Relief Society (in all the world) was made b)^ appointing 
Mrs. E. R. S. Smith, President, Mrs. Zina D. A. Young and Elizaoeth Ann 
Whitney Counselors, and Mrs. Sarah M. Kimball and Mrs. M. Isabella 
Home, Treasurers. This completed the organization making it perfect in 
every department. The object of the society is benevolent and extends into 
every department of charitable work : the poor are relieved, the sick are 
ad m mistered to or comforted, and the dead are prepared for burial, the 
sorrowing comforted, the distressed soothed. 



This society was organized November 28th, 1883, with 15 charter 
members. It is a German society and has for its objects social enjoyment 
and physical extrcise. The questions of politics or religion are not a 1 >wed to 
b^ discussed at any meeting. The society n3w numbers 6o members, and 
meetings are held the tirst and second Thursdays of each montli. The 
officers of the society are: A. Nink, president; A. Franke, vice-president; 
Jacob Bertsch, first secretary; B. Wiegand, second secretiry; A. Fischer, 
cashier; George Nink, first turnwart; A. Kucheman, second turnwart; H. 
Wagner, Louis Ordner and H. Breisacker, trustees. 

Y. L. M. I. A. 

The Younqr Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations are auxiliary 
to the Relief Societies and similar in purpose to the Young Men's. They 
were first suggested by Brigham Young in May, 1867, at the Lion House, 
and the first organization was in his own family, at which Mrs. Eliza R. S. 
Smith officiated by his request. Shortly after associations wt re cffec t -d in the 
different wards of the city and from these to the whole Territory, until each 
town and ward has an association for improvement — moral, mutual and 
spiritual. The first stake organization was effected in Salt Lake City, on 
September 21, 1878, and a central organization secured June 19, 1880, Mrs, 
Elmira L. Taylor as President; Mrs. MajBfgie B. Taylor and Miss Mattie 
Home, Counselors, and Miss Louise M. Wells, Secretary and Mrs. Fannie 
B. Thatcher, Treasurer. 


Among the most prominent organizations in the Territory is that of the 
Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association. It is a literary and mutual 
improvement society in all its tendencies, but it has a religious basis, and is 
the outgrowth of tlie system of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. It it considered one of the ''helps'' or an aid to the young men to 
become more intelligent, and to obtain a better idea of the i)nnciples of the 
Latter-day flints' faith. Its membership is very numerous and its influence 
great in proportion. It occupies an important position, and receives much 

The general organization of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
AssocLition was commenced on June loth, 1875, under the direction of 
President Brigham Young, by Junius F. Wells, who was called to that 
labor. He organized an association in the Thirteenth Ward, Salt Lake 
City, and several others immediately after, in various parts of the Territory. 
Milton H. Hardy, John Henry Smith and B. Morris Young were soon after 
appointed to take up and continue the work thus begun, and within a year 
these gentlemen effected the organization of about 100 associations. In the 
fall of 1876, a central committee, to preside over and direct the affairs of the 
associations, was organized in Salt Lake City; officers: President, J. F. 
Wells; counselors, M. H. Hardy and R. C. Badger: secretary, John 
Nicholson; assistant secretary, R. W. Young; treasurer, William S. Burton. 
Under direction of this committee a large amount of missionary work was 
done, and about 100 more associations formed. In the summer of 1878, 
Messrs. Wells and Hardy made a tour of the Territory and established stake 
superintendencies in each of the twenty stakes. In April, 1S80, the organi- 
zation having attained such importance, numbering over 200 associations 
and about 9,000 members, it was considered advisable to further strengthen 
it, and for this purpose a general suporintendency was organized, as follows: 
General superintendent, Wilford Woodruff; counselors, Joseph F. Smith 
and Moses Thatcher; assistants, Junius F. Wells, Milton H. Hardy and 


Rodney C. Badfjfcr; secretary, HeberJ. Grant; treasurer, William S. Burton. 
They are the present incumbents, except Joseph A. West, who is in M. H. 
Hardy's place, and N. W. Clayton in place of H. J. Grant. There are 
now over 250 associations, 25 stake organizations and about 11,000 mem- 

women's work. 

The Deseret Silk Association was organized June 15, 1875, Mrs. Zina 
D. Young, president; Mrs. M. Isabella Home, vice-president; Reuben 
Simpson, secretary; Paul Schettler, treasurer; Judge Pyper, superintendent; 
and A. Milton Musser. 

The Grain Association was organized November 13, 1876, Mrs. Emme- 
line B. Wells, president. This association has for its object the storing of 
grain and money. 


The largest and best regulated library, not only in Salt Lake City, but 
in the Territory, is that under the direction of the Masonic fraternity. 
There are other libraries of a public character and some of them quite impor- 
tant. The Odd Fellows have the foundation for a fine library; the Terri- 
torial Library, while sadly neglected and not placed on a footing where it is 
calculated to excite much interest or do any particular good, has an admir- 
able basis, and with additions could be made very valuable indeed. Dr. J. 
R. Park, principal of the University of Deseret also has a fine library, which 
he places at the disposal of University students, and for a long time, some 
years back, was opened to the public with good results. Besides these, the 
Firemen's organization in Salt Lake have a library, rapidly assuming impor- 
tant proportions, while nearly all the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Associations own libraries containing from 50 to 600 volumes in each. 
Library organizations also exist independent of these in different parts of 
the Territory, but so far they have assumed no importance. 


The foundation to this institution was laid in 1873, by collecting books 
of a purely Masonic character, which, in 1876, amounted to 305 volumes. 
In 1875, Grand Master Charles W. Bennett recommended in his annual 
address to improve the library by adding books of a general character to 
the works on Masonry, and thereby make the library beneficial and useful 
to all who would desire to read and improve themselves in knowledge. The 
suggestion of Mr. Bennett was well received, but could not be carried out 
at the time for want of means, though more especially for want of a proper 
room. In 1876 the Masonic Lodges moved to the rooms over the First 
National Bank, and then rented a large room on the second floor for library 
purposes. In the spring of 1877 ^he former Ladies' Library Association 
donated to the Masonic fraternity the books left by them when closing their 
library in 1872. This was considered a nucleus for the library, and induced 
the Grand Lodge to increase the number of volumes. The library was 
opened to the public, for the first time, on the ist of September, 1877, when 
it had on the shelves 1,786 volumes. The first year 6,387 books were 
loaned out for home reading. Since then the number of books has con- 
stmtly increased, so that on December i, 1883, the Grand Librarian 


could report 5,955 books on the shelves, of which number 5,300 were 
of a general and 655 of a Masonic character. During the 
year 700 books were added, and 18,764 loaned out for home read- 
ing. Every department of literature is represented, and a student need not 
leave it without finding the particular branch of knowledge he is searching 
for. A specialty is made of geology, and mining, farming, silk and bee cul- 
ture — ^all industries foremost in Utah. The works of almost every popular 
and standard American and European author are represented. The sub- 
scription prices are so reasonable that almost any one can avail himself of 
the advantages this library offers. One year's subscription is #3; six months, 
$2; three months, §1 ; one month, 50 cents. The subscriber can take out 
books for home reading, subject to the rules, which are similar to those in 
larger cities. In connection with the library is a reading room, which is free 
to everybody. The visitors have the privilege to read any book in the 
room. Besides, there are all the American and European magazines and a 
number of daily journals, together with an extensive and large collection of 
books on reference, all of which are extensively consulted. During 1883, 
the average daily attendance in the reading room was thirty-seven persons. 
The library committee is annually appointed by the Grand Lodge, and is 
composed this year of the following gentlemen: John S. Scott, C. W. 
Bennett, W. K. James, John T. Lynch and H. C. Hill. Christopher Diehl 
is Grand Librarian and Miss Ida E. Hill, Assistant Librarian. The library 
is open daily, Sundays excepted, from 10 o'clock a.m. to i p.m. and from 
4 p.m. to 9 m the evening. 

The Territorial Library is the oldest institution of the kind in the 
Territory. A number of years ago it was very generally resorted to by the 
citizens of Salt Lake. It failed, however, to keep up with the times, there 
being no ^ippropriations to secure more recent literature and no provisions 
made for its maintenance, and it fell into bad favor. Other libraries were 
started on a more modern basis, which were maintained and kept constantly 
supplied with more modern as well as the older literature. An appropria- 
tion was made by the Legislative Assembly in 1882, for the purchase of 
additional books; a librarian has received a salary for years, and while the 
library has been open to the public at such hours as the librarian provided, 
the arrangements have been imperfect, and the Territorial appropriations 
insufRcient to maintain it in anything like a proper condition. It had much 
better be given to some library association, where some good might be done 
with it, rather than that it should continue as it is, when it contains so many 
useful works, some of which are very valuable. The number of volumes in . 
the library- is about 3,400. N. W. Clayton is Territorial Librarian. The 
library is connected with the office of the Territorial Auditor. 

The Firemen of Salt Lake have a library, which is operated in con- 
nection with the Salt Lake City Firemen. It contains between 600 and 700 
volumes, and R. Simpson is librarian. By contributions from Firemen and 
others, and by dances and other social gatherings, money is obtained to 
add to the number of volumes yearly. It is in the Firemen's Hall, next 
door east of the Citv Hall. 

As before stated, the Odd Fellows have a library, which was estab- 
lished at a recent date. This library, at present, is for the use and benefit 
of members of the Odd Fellows' association, and it is under the control of 
the Grand Lodge of the Territory. Balls and other social gatherings are 
frequently gotten up for the benefit of this library. The books are well 
selected, and at present the number of volumes is about 1,500. 


In addition to these there are numerous other libraries throughout the 
Territory belonging to the various improvement and benefit associations, 
and while the aggregate number of volumes would be very large, they are 
divided among so many organizations as to make a poor showing when 
scattered. However, they are generally well selected, and are sought after. 



In May of 188 1, an association of ladies was formed in Salt Lake City, 
for the purpose of establishing a hospital for the sick and injured, where they 
might receive the best medical attention and careful nursing. The officers 
then elected were: President Eliza R. Snow Smith; vice-president, Zina D. 
H. Young; secretary, M:s. Emmeline B. Wells; treasurer, Mrs. M. M. 
Barratt; with an executive committee of nine, and a committee on ways and 
means. Subsequently Eliza R. Snow Smith re^ijned the presidency, and 
Bishop H. B. Ciawson was chosen in her stead. 

The hospital building is situated in the Twelfth Ward, and was 
previously occupied by the Holy Cross Hospitil for the same purpose. It 
was dedicated by President John Taylor, for an invalids* home, on the 17th 
of July, 1881. Dr. Ellen B. Furgeson was installed as resident surgeon. 
Subsequently, Dr. Mattie Paul Hughes succeeded Dr. Furgeson as resident 
surgeon, with Dr. W. F. Anderson as consulting physician; Drs. R. B. 
Pratt, E. R. Shipp and E. S. Barney as visiting physicians. The house will 
accommodate between thirty and forty patients, and has all modern facilities. 
The average attendance thus far has been about sixteen. So far the income 
from patients has not been much over one-fifih of the expenses of the hos- 
pital. Members of the Hospital Association pay an annual subscription of 
$1 each, as well as branches of the Relief Society $1 per month, and a like 
amount tow: r Js defraying the expenses of the institutio.i is given by both 
Young Ladies' and Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations. A 
gre:it many donations by private persons have been made, and public enter- 
tainments for the benefit of the hospital have materially helped in its main- 
tenance, while contributions of clothing, bedding and the like are being 
received from time to time from the various organizations in sympathy with 
the institution. Religious services of the Latter-day Saints* faith are held 
in tlie buikling, and the sacrament is administered to such of the inmates as 
are members of the church. 


The Hospital of the Holy Cross was founded in 1S75, occupying the 
building at the present time used by the Deseret Hospital. In i88r a mag- 
nificent building was erected on a ten-acre block, at the extreme eastern 
part of the city, in a delightful location and on the line of the street cars. 
This buikling is 164 feet long by 65 feet wide, and is three stories high with 
basement. There is a ladies' department and private rooms, with every 
modern accommodation and convenience. From the d.ite of the founding 
of the hospital up to the end of 1883, no less than 3,328 patients had been 
entered. Of this number, 473 were charity patients and 50 were buried by 
the hospital. In die total given as the patients entered, 397 were females 
and the remainder males. The hospital is sustained by contributions made 
by miuL-rs, who are consequently entitled to the benefits thereof, and by 
liberal donations which are ever to be secured in behalf of such worthy 


institutions. The building, with appliances, is one of the most perfect in 
the West. Dr. Benedict is the physician, with Dr. Fowler assistant, and 
some very noted surgical operations have taken place, patients coming from 
long distances to be treated at this hospital. The cases treated embrace 
nearly all the evils that befall humanity. The favorable results in treating 
cases of lead poisoning and typhoid fever is remarkable, deaths following 
less than one case in 585. 

ST. mark's hospital. 

Since its foundation, now ten years ago, St. Mark's Hospital has been 
steadily increasing in usefulness. Each year more patients are received 
than in the year before. Supported by dues paid by the miners of this Ter- 
ritory, it is pre-eminently a miner's hospital; each miner and laborer in the 
mines has $1 deducted I'rom his month's wagei-', which is paid into the Hos- 
pital, and this entitles him to care in the Hospital if sick or injured. The 
benefit to the miner of such an arrangement is obvious, for it insures him, at 
the nominal charge of $1 a month, board, lodging, washing, medical attend- 
ance, nursing and medicine, during his illness. In July and August of last 
year the Hospital jxas enlarged by four new rooms — a reading room, a ward 
28x36 feet, a dining room and a kitchen. This was a gready needed 
improvement, for since last June, even with the increased facilities, it has 
at times been difficult to find room to put up beds enough to accommodate 
the numerous patients who have been sent in by the mines. During the 
last year the Hospital treated over eight hundred patients; while the death 
rate was only one in one hundred, a record which speaks well for the judi- 
cious treatment and careful nursing, which patients receive in St. Mark's. 
Few hospitals in the country can show better success than the pioneer hos- 
pital of Utah. For the first five months of the last fiscal year, which began 
on June ist, on an average eighty patients a month had been received. 
Many of these, at least one-eighth, are charity patients. The only claim 
which they have is that they are men in need of medical care; they are 
taken in irrespective of creed, or no creed, ind are given the best the hos- 
pital can bestow until they are well enough to discharge. Dr. J. F. Ham- 
ilton is the physician. 


The following is a complete list of the Pioneers who came to UUih In 
the years 1847 and 1848, and as correct, as to spelling of names, as could be 

Those who joined the Mormon Battalion are designated by a capital 
letter representing the company to which they belonged in the Battalion. 

The asterisk represents the births on the way and immediately after 
arrival in the valley; that one opposite the name of Lorenzo Dow Young 
signifies that he was the first male child born in Salt Lal^e City; the date of 
his birth was 7 p.m., September 26, 1847. 

The t represents the deaths. 

Adams, Barnabas L. 
Allen, Rufus 
Angell, Truman O. 
Atwood, Millen . 
Allred, James T. — A 
All red, Reuben — A 
Adams, Orson B. — C 
Abbott, Joshua— D 
Avcrett, Jedutha — D 
Allen, F'ranklin — B 
Abbott, Lewis . 
Abbott, Ann 
Abbott, Abigail 
Abbott, Thomas. 
Abbott, Joseph 
Abbott, Rufus 
Abbott, Anna . 
Andrews, Simeon 
Andrews, Dorcas 
Arrowsmith, Elizabeth 
Arrowsmith, John . 
Angus, John O. 
Allen, Charles. 
Allen, Elihu 
Allen, Lola 
Allen, Hellen 
Allen, Phebe . 
Allen, Charles 
Allen, Lola 
Allen, Elihu 
Allen, John 
Allen, Joseph 
Ashby, Martha E. 
Ashby, Susan Ann 
Allen, Hellen . 


Allen, Charles W. 

Allen, Andrew J. 
I Allen, Delia 
i Allen, Martha . 
i Allen, Purmacy F. 

Allen, William C. 

Allen, Margaret M. 

Allen, Martha E. 

Armstrong, John 

Armstrong, Mary 

Armstrong, Joseph H. 

Adams, John . 

Adair, Joseph 

Adair, Rebecca 

Adair, Lucinda J. 

Adair, George W. 

Adair, Meridam . 

Adair, Emcline R. 

Abbott, Ruth— C 

Adams, Susannah — C 

Allred, Eliza B.— C . 

Allred, Elzida E. — C 

Alstone, Joseph . 

Adams, William Henry 

Adams, Martha . 

Adams, William Henry 

Adams, Eliza 

Allen, Ann 

Badger, Rodney 

Barnham, Charles D. 

Barney, Lewis . 

Benson, Ezra T. 

Billings, George 

Boggs, Francis 

Brown, George . 



I » 

t * 

• 4 

• ( 




< » 

I * 




t • 








( i 

« • 


k • 



( ( 

1 1 






Brown, John 
Brown, Nathaniel Thos. 
Bullock, Thomas 
Burke, Charles 
Bumham, Jacob D. 
B/iird, Robert 
Bevnn, James — A 
Blan chard, Marvin — A 
Binf^ham, Erastus — B . 
Bingham. Thomas — B 
Bird. William— B 
Bybee. John— B . 
Babcock, Loren^-O — C 
Beckslead William— C 
Birt William- C 
Blackburn, Abner — C 
Brimhalljohn— C . 
Brown, Alexander— C 
Brown, James — C 
Brown, Jesse S.—C 
Brown, Daniel and wife— 
Badham. Samuel D 
Brazier. Richard E . 
Bums, Thomas R. — E 
Brown. Isaac 
Brown. Hannah Jane . 
Brown, Isaac, Jr. 
Bumham, Isaac 
Beck, John 
Beer. John 
Burglow . Luther V. 
Brinktrhoof, James 
Brinkerhoof, Sally Ann 
Brinkerhoof, Genett . 
Brinkerhoof, Mary Ann , 
Beach, Rufus 
Beach, L:^uni Ann , 
Beach, Cordelia . 
Beach, Sarah Cole 
Beach, Alfred C. 
Barton, Asa 
Barton, Mary 
Browett, Elizabeth . 
Browett, Harriett 
Bog)^. Kvelina 
Bogf^i Mary 
Baxter, Joseph G. 
Brown, Fsther . 
Brown, Ann E. 
Boss, David 
Boss, Martha 
Boss, Alexander 
BOS.S, Alfred, 
Boss, Calvin 
Boss, David 
Brown, WiUiam 
Brown, Phebe N. 

Brown, Mary Jane 

Brown, Adelia Ann 

Brown, Naamah 

Brimhall, Ann . 

Bond, Folly , . 

Bingham, Krastus 

Bingham, Lucinda 

Bingham, Stinford 

Bingham, Maria 
I Bingham, Harriet 
! Bingham. Willard 

Bingham, Edwin 

Bingham, Olive.H. 

Bingham, Urigham 
I Bingham, Olive L. 

Bingham, Ferry E. 

Boice, George 

Roice, Willi.nn . 

Boice, Thomas 

Boice, Elizabeth . 

Boice, Henry . 

Boice, Margaret . 

Brower, Arich C. 

Brower, Margaret E. 

Brower, Ann Elizabeth 

Brower, Victoria Adelaide 

Brower, Arieh 

HriiiK''>'f'''' Samuel . 

Bringhurat, Helenor 

Kringhurst, William A, 

Bringhurst, Ann . 

Brinfihursl. Robert P. 

Bringhi-rsl, William 

Bringhurst, Ann D. . 

Bradfrrd, Abigail 

Bradfc rd, Morganna 

Bradford, Rawsell 

Bradford. Sylvester . 

Bradford, Pleasant 

Bradford. Triphena . 

Hennion. John 

Benn ion, Esther 

Bennion, Samuel 

Bennion, Mary 

Hennion. Ann 

Bennion, Angel ine R. 

Bennion, Samuel 

Bennion, Mary 

Bennion, John . 

Bennion, Hyrum 

Babcock, Dolphus 

Babcock, Jeruslia 

Babcock, George 

Babcock, Lucy 

Babcock, Pamelia 

Babcock, Albern 

Babcock, John 



Blackhurst, William 
Blackhurst, Eilen 
Blackhufht, David . 
Blackhurst, Joseph B. 
Boswell, Abraham . 
Brown. Kninklin 
Brown, Henry Jacob 
Bainbricige. Fiediick 
Bronson, Lemon 
Bronson, Wilmcr 
Bron.^on, Martha 
Bronson, Lorinda 
Boyinglon, Joseph .♦ 
Black^oin, Thomas 
Baker, Simon . 
Baker, Charlotte 
Baker, Jarvis . 
Baker, Amingo . 
Baker. Albert . 
Baker, Betsey 
Baker, Georjjc 
Baker, Joseph 
Baker, Rebecca 
Baker, S irah 
Baker, Abigail 
Baker, Benjamin 
Baldwin, Willi;im . 
Bird, Samui.4 
Bean, d-orge W. 
Badger, Mary 
Badger, Nancy M. . 
Brown, S.unuel . 
Bowk, Johna 
Bowk. Euphemia 
Blackburn. Jehu 
Blackburn, Julia Ann 
Blackburn, Elizabeth 
Benbow, Thomas 
Benbow, S.irah 
Bedredge. Frederick 
Bryson, Margaret . 
Bigley, S^'th 
Blacksom, Emma . 
Beard, H mnah E. 
Beard, John 
Benson, Adaline B. 
Benson. Samuel G. . 
Bevin, Jane 
Brown, James, second 
Brown, Mary 
Brown, Divid B. 
Brown, Harriet . 
Brown, Eunice 
Brown, Newman . 
Brown, Robert 
Brown, Sarah Jane 
Brown, Mary Ann . 


Brown, John T. . 
Huchanan, John 
Button, Montgomery E 
Button, Mary 



anies H. 

udson H. . 
Button, Louisa M. 
Button, Samuel 
Bryant, William . 
Brown, Samuel 
Barrow, Joseph . 
Barrow, Maria 
Barrow, Robert . 
Barrow, James 
Barrow, Anna Nelson . 
Barrow, Elizabeth Ellen 
Barrow, John 
Baker, Benjamin 
Baker, Sarah Jane 
Bloscom. Robert 
Bvbee, Bvram 
Bank head, John 
Bankhead, Nancy 
Bankhead, George . 
Bankhead, John . 
Bankhead, a child . 
B mkhead, George 
Carrington, Albert . 
Carter, William . 
Case, James . 
Chamberlain Solomon . 
Chcssley, Alexander P. 
Clayton. William 
Cloward, Thomas P. 
Coltrin, Zebedee . 
Craig, James . 
Curtis, Lyman . 
Cushing, Hosea 
Crosby, Oscar . 
Crow, Robert . 
Crow, Elizabeth . 
Crow, Benjamin B. . 
Oow, Harriet 
Crow, Elizabeth Jane 
Crow, John McHenry . 
Crow, Walter H. 
Crow William Parker . 
Crow, Ira Vinda Exene 
Crow, Iraminda Almarene 
Chesney, James A — A 
Calkins, James — A 
Calkins, Alva — A . 
Curtis, Josiah — A 
Calvert, John — C 
Camp, James — B 
Carpenter, Isaac — C 
Carpenter, William H — C 

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Casto, William — D . 
Cazier, James — E 
Cazicr, John — K 
Church. Hadcn W— B 
Chase, John D — B . 
Chase, Almira — B 
Clark, Albert — K . 
Clark, George S — B 
Compton, Allen — D 
Cummings, George — E 
Crosby, Jesse W 
Crosby, Hannah. 
Crosby, George Henry 
Clements, James . 
Collister, 1 homas . 
Collisier, Caroline 
Collister, Helen M . 
Collisier, Helen M 
Conrad, Caroline 
Curtis, Catherine A 
Crandell, Albert 
Crandell, Mar^ . 
Crandel\ Melissa 
Clement, Eliza . 
Cummings, Benjamin 
Cummings, Mary 
Cummings, Alva 
Cannon, George Q 
Cannon, Ann . 
Cain, Joseph 
Cain, Elizabeth 
Correy, George 
Correy, Margaret 
Correy, Janet 
Correy, Andrew 
Cole, William 
Cole, John 
Cole, Jane . 
Cole, Mary Ann 
Covington, Berrill 
Calkins, Louisa 
Collins, Albert W 
Collins, Susan . 
Collins, Adeline . 
Covington, Robert D 
Covington, Elizabeth 
Covington, John T . 
Covington, Emily J 
Covington, Robert L* 
Chase, Isaac 
Chase, Phebc . 
Chase, George 
Chase, Harriet L 
Cloward, Jacob . 
^ Camogg, William B 
Casper, Sarah Ann 
Casper, Sarah . 

1847 I 



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Casper, Mary 
Case, Solomon 
Case, Emily 
Case, Hannah . 
Cook, Washington N 
Cook, Mary . 
Cook, Jane . 
Cook, Wiley . 
Cook, Matison, . 
Carrington, Khoda M 
Carrington, Merriah 
Caul, Hicmsel . 
Cherry, Elam 
Cherry, Hannah 
Crismon, Charles 
Crismon, Mary 
Crismon, Martha Jane 
Crismon, George 
Crismon, Hector Ann 
Crismon, Semantha. 
Crismon, Mary Ann 
Crismon, Charles 
Crismon, Hemily 
Clifford, Elijah 
Chase, Charles . 
Chase, Susan S 
Chase, Charles S. 
Chase, Sarah M 
Carter, Sarah Allen 
Church, Sarah Ann. 
Church, Hyrum S 
Calvet, William 
Chipman, Stephen 
Chipman, Amande . 
Chipman, Beiilah 
Chipman, Washburn 
Chipman, Zina . 
Chipman. Henry . 
Chipman, James . 
Chipman, Martha . 
Cherry, Ebenczer G 
Cherry, Susannah . 
Cherry, Mary R . 
Cherry, Edward R . 
Cherry, Nancy A 
Cherry, Aaron B 
Cherry, E G. Jr . 
Cherry, C W . 
Cherry, Aaron B. 
Cherry, Margaret . 
Cherry, Mary R . 
Cherry, Sarah I 
Cherry, John J . 
Cherry, Mary M 
Cherry, Amelia M 
Cherry, Jesse Y 
Cherry, Thomas R 




Cherry, CiroHne S . 
Cherry, J S 
Clark, H irvey 
Cox, Orville S . 
Cox, El vim P , 
Cox, Acldia B . 
Cox, Alma 
Conover, Airon H 
Conklin, H mnah 
Campbell. Robert L 
Curtis, Hiram . 
Charleisworth, Thomas 
Charlesworth, Alice. 
Charlesvvorth, Thomas 
C'lllihan, Lucinda . 
Callah III, Andrew 
Callahan, Agones A . 
Qawson, George 
Cone.stt. Everett 
Conover, Charles 
Cushing:, Hlen T . 
Dewey, Franklin B 
Dixon, John 
Drigq^s, Starling. 
Dykes, William 
Davenport, James 
Davis, James — D . 
DouT^lass, Ralph — D 
Dunn, James — C 
Durphy, F'randllo — D 
Dalton, Edward — D 
Dalton, Harry 
Denton, Benjamin . 
DeWitt, M irtin . 
DeAVitt, Sarah Ann. 
Davison, Maria . 
Deming, Moses 
Deming, Maria . 
Deming, Wayne 
Deming, Henrietta 
Drake, D.miel . 
Drake, Patience . 
Drake, Orson P 
Drake, Horace . 
Doremus, Henry I. 
Dorcmus, Harriet 
Doremus, Martha Z. 
Dodge, Sarah 
Dodge, Nathaniel . 
Duncan, James G. 
Decker, Charles F. 
Decker, Vilate 
Decker, Harriet 
Decker, George E. 
Dilworth, Eliza, 
Dilworth, John 
Dilworth, Maria L. 



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Dilworth, Mary Jane, - 
Dilworth, M irtha Ann 
Dod^e, Zenos, 
Davis, Joseph M. 
Djnlap, Joseph, . 
Danlap, Sarah, 
D ivisoii, James J. 
Dewey, AlbL»rt 
Djwey, Maria 
Dewey, Harriet, 
Dewey, John H. 
D.ivis, Elizabeth, 
Davis, Maria 
Devvell, Osman M. . 
Dewell, Mary 
Dewell, Ainos C. 
Dewell. William H. . 
Dewell, Eliza Ann . 
Dewell, Minerva 
Dewell, Mercy Ann 
Dickens, James . 
Davis, Hyram 
Dowdle, Absolom Porter 
Dowdle, Sirah Aim 
Dowdle, &irah Catharine 
Davison, Peter M. . 
Davison, Susan E. 
Davis, Daniel 
Dalle, Andrew, . 
Day, George . 
Eirl, Sylvester H. 
Eastman, Ozro 
Egan, Howard 
Egbert, Joseph, 
EkI ridge, Jonn S. 
Ellsworth, Eldmund 
Empy, William A. 
Ensign, Datus 
Everett, Addison 
Earl, James C. — A . 
Eastman, Marcus — B . 
Flverett, John 
Everett, Sarah Ann 
Eldredge, Alanson 
Eldredge, Ira 
Eldredge, Nancy 
Eldredge, Edmond 
Eldredge, Diana . 
Eldredge, Esther Ann 
Eldredge, Alma . 
Eldredge, Hiram, 
Elldredge, Alanson A. . 
Ensign, Luther 
Ensign, Samuel . 
Ensign, Mary E. 
Ensign, Julia S. . 
Ensign, Samuel L. 


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Ensign, Mary B. . 1847 

Farrar, William . . 1847 

Ensign, Luman A. 

Foutz, Jacob 

Ensign, John C. . . 
Ens-ign, Rufus B. . . 

F'outz, Margaret 

Foutz, Anna 

Ensign, Lv<i:a !■:. 

Fou;z, Catharine 

Ellsworth.' Elizaheih, . 

Foutz, Joseph L. 

Ellsworth, Charlotte E. 

Foutz, Maryaret, . 

EIlFWorth. EdmondW. . 

Foutz, Jacob . - . 

Ewirfj, Samuel . 

Fellows, Alljcrt G. . 

Ewint;. Esther! 

Fellows, Cornelia 

Ewing, Harvey . . " 
Ewing. Riichel 

Fellows. WiUi;uii G. 


Fellows, Amelia M. 


Ewinjr, Adatinc . . " 

Fellows, I'hebe L. . 


EwiUKi Jackson . . " 

Frink, John R. . 

Ewing. Porter . . " 

Fairbanks. John B. 


Ewing, Anderson . ■ " 

I'airbanks, Sarah 

Ewinjf, Maiilda . 

Fairbanks, Harriet . 

Everett, Orplia M . 
Everett. Kliza Adelaide 

Fail-banks, Polly 

Fairbanks, David . 

Everi;tt, Alanson. . " 

F'airbaiiks Susan 

Everett, Marv D . 

Fairbanks. William Henr 

Eldrdye, Ruth " 

Fairbank.s. Mary Jane . 

ElHrdge, Joseph U . " 

Fairbank.«, Cornelius M 

Eldrid,i;e. Siibra . " 

Fairbanks, Susan I . 

Eldridge, E nathan " 

Fosgren, Mary A . 

Eldridao. Sirah 

Fitzwald. Barbary 

Earl. Nancy M . 

Fitzgerald, Mary Ann 

Edmunds, |ohn 

Fitzgerald. John. 

Eddins, Jihn . . 1848 

Fisher, Fliny . 


Edwanls. Franklin E 

Fields. William . 

Egan, Hon-ard . 

I-arr. Lorin . 


Egan, T;inison 

Farr, Nancy 


Egan, Mar>' Ann Tuttle 

Farr. Enoch . 


Egan, Howard E . 

I-arr, Persis 

Egan, Ki:harJE 

Farr, Celestia Ann . 

Eian. Harriet 

Famsworili. Philo T . 

1 84* 

Farr, Aaron 184,7 

Fox, Charlotte 

Faiibanky, Nathaniel 

Foxall. James . 

Fitzgerald, Perry 

Fullmer, John S 

Fowler, John S. . . 

Fullmer, Mar^ A 

Fox, Samuel 

Fullmer, l^vmia 

Freeman, John M. 

Fullmer, Joanna . 

Frink, Monro ... 

Fullmer, Anne A . 

Fnwt, Burr ..." 

Fullmer, F'rancis B . 

Flake, Green . 

Fullmer, John S, Jr. 

Frederick, David— A . 

Fullmer, Olive A 

Fuller, Elijah K. 

F'ullmer, Chauncey . 

Fuller, Catharine . 

F'ullmer. Marj- Ann 

Fuller. Wyllis D. 

p'ulimer. Peter 

Fuller, Cornelius . 

Fullmer. Susanna 

Fuller, Revilo 

Fullmer. David 

Fuller, Elijah ..." 

F'ullmer, Dcsdemona . 

Frost, Mary E. . . " 

Fullmer. Ann A Kimball 


Frost, Emeiine 

Fullmer, Evert Ossar . 


Frost, Edwin . . 

Gibbons, Andrew . 


Freeman, Mary . , " 

Gleason, John S . 

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Freeman, Elijah 

Goddard, Stephen H 




Grant, David 
Grant, George R 
Greene, John Y . 
Grover, 'riiomas 
Glenis, Eric 
Gamer, David — A . 
Garner, Phillip — B 
Ghnes, James H — A 
Gould, John — C . 
Gould, Samuel — C . 
Gifford, William H— D 
Glazier, Luther W — E 
Gribl)le, William— D 
Gribble, Sophia 
Gu^tin, Thomas . 
Gustin, Mary . 
Gustin, Amos 
Gustin, Jane R 
Gustin, Susan 
Gustin, Thomas J , 
Gustin, Mary 
Gustin, Nancy B 
Gustin, George W 
Gates, George. 
Gates, Elizabeth . 
Green, Alphonzo 
Green, Betsy 
Green, Alva . 
Green, Sarah 
Green, Robert 
Green, Fanny 
Green, Alvin . 
Green, Austin 
Green, Harriet A . 
Gates, Thomas . 
Goodale, Isaac Newton 
Gardner, Archibald 
Gardner, Margaret . 
Gardner, Robert, third 
Gardner, Nile . 
Gardner, Robert, first 
Gardner, Margaret . 
Gardner, William, first 
Gardner, Janet 
Gardner, John . 
Gardner, Janet 
Gardner, Margaret 
Gardner, Nile . 
Gardner, Robert 
Gardner, Jane . 
Gardner, Robert R 
Gardner, Mary J 
Gardner, Margaret 
Gardner, William, second 
Gifford, Moaes . 
Grant, J M . 
Grant, Caroline . 



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Grant, Margaret S 
Grant, Caroline . 
Garr, Fielding 
Garr, John F 
(}arr, William H 
Garr, Abel W . 
Garr, Caroline 
Garr, Sarah A . 
Garr, Mary V . 
Garr, Benjamin F 
Gates, Jacob . 
Gales, Mary 
Grundy, Isaac 
Grundy, Elizabeth 
Greenwood, William 
Greenwood, Alice 
Greenwood, Joseph . 
Greenwood, Benjamin 
Greenwood, Margaret A 
C Granger, Lafayette 
Gibbs, Gideon H C 
(jibbs, Ai)igail \i 
Grover, Hannah 
Grover, Loduska 
Grover, Adaline 
Grover, Caroline 
Grover, liUzn Ann 
Grover, Thomas, Jr 
Grover, I-Iannah 
Grover, Mary E . 
Hancock, Joseph 
Hanson, Hans C. 
Hanks, Alvarus 
Harmon, Appleton M. 
Harper, Charles A 
Henrie, William . 
Higbee, John S 
Holman, John 
Howd, Simeon 
Hewett, Eli B — A 
H olden, Elijah E — A 
Hulet, Schuyler — A . 
Hinckley, Arza E — B 
H irons, James P — D . 
Higgins, Alfred — D 
Hoagland, Lucas — D . 
Hess, John W — K . 
Hopkins, Charles A — E 
Hanks, Ebenezer — E 
Holden, William 
Holden, Elizabeth . 
Henderson, Samuel • 
Holden, Sarah 
Hunter, Keziah . 
Hunter, Asa B 
Hunter, Mary B . 
Hunter, Jesse . 





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Hunter, Samuel . 
KunttT, Martha 
Haight, U:iac C . 
Haight, Eliza A 
Haii>hl, Caro'.iiic E 
roTi;ht, Tt-mpL-raiicc 
Kai^lit, Cak'b . 
I-aijilit, Sirah. 
Faiuhl, Hector C 
l-'aiitht, Julia . 
HaiRht, Horton . 
Fainiit, Miry . 
Faijihl. Williiiin. 
Hainb'L'ion, Madison D 
Hamblctun, Chelnico 
Fambli.-toii, Zerucin 
Hainbk-toii, Lucv Ann 
H it'Kfnluoper, XVilliain 
Hickenloqper, S.jrah , 
Kickenloo[)er, Uelinila 
Kickenlooper, John T. 
Ho'.mcs, Simucl O . 
Holmc'i, Kliza . 
Holme*, Oliver 
Holmes, Gcoi^e 
Holmes, Eileii 
Holmes, Hyrum . 
Hoiitz. Jacob O 
Houtz, Lvilia 

Homt', Joseph 
Home, Mary Isabella 
Home, H.fiiry I 
HornL', Joseph S 
Home, Richard S . 
Horne, Elizabeth A 
Holmes, Robert 
Holmes, Elizabeth 
Hoafrlaiirl, Abraham 
Hoagliml, Margaret 
Hoagland, Peter . 
Hoagland, John . 
Ho»frlanil, Elizabeth 
Hoigland, Emily 
Harker, Joseph 
Barker, Susan 
Harker, Job 
Hunter, Edward . 
Hunter, Ann Eliza . 
Hunter, Ann 
Hunter. Mary Ann . 
Hunter, Surah Ann 
Heath, Thomas 
Heath, Frederic . 
Heath. Henry . 
Hall, Newton D . 

li Hall, Sarah J. . 

Hall, Louisa J. . 
!' Hall, Newton D. . 
I Hadlotk, Mary E. 
'' Hendricks, James . 
'i Hendricks, l)rusilla 
■I Hemlneks, Elizabeth 
J 1 k-ndricks, Katherine 
I Hendricks, Rebecca 
r Hendricks, Joseph S. 
I Howd. I.ncmda 
! Howd, Martha Jane 
\ Holmes, Elvira 
,1 Holmes. Sarah E. 

Hiiyt, Israel . 

How, Miltrm 

Hawkins, James 

Hawkins, Sarah . 

Hendrix, .Sarah 

Hyde, William . 

HutTaker, Simpson 

Hiiff.kcr, Betsy M. 

Huff.ikcr. Rozella 

HufCiker. Sarah M. 

Hulfaker, Sidney 

Hnffakir, S:irah 

Hiiffaker, Granville 
!i Huft'.ikcr, Lewis Albert 
il, Hales H. 
il H iscal. Ursula B. 
]' Harris, Mary E. . 
!l Higbee, Judith H. 
ji Higbee. S irah . 
i Higbee, Sarah 
; Higb:e, Harriet . 

Higbee, Silas . 

Hanson, P^tcr 

Hart, Charles . 

Hill, Archibald . 

Hcndor«)n, Martha A. 

Harris, Emily . 

Harris, William 

Halt, John . 

Hill, George W. . 

Hill, Cvntha 

Hill, George, Jr. 

Harding, Alwin . 

Harding, Violetta . 

Harding, Joseph L. 

Harringutn, Leonard 

Harrington, Lois 

Harrington, Theodore 

Harrington, Emma B. 

Henderson, John 

Ilolman, Jaines S. 

Herrin, Orlando 

Hoflheins, Mary E. 


Hanks, Jane . 
Hendrixon, James 
Hess, Enieline 
Higfjins, Nelson . 
Higgins, Sarah 
Hi^^ins, Alfred . 
Hi^Kiiis, Dnidlla 
Higgins, Nelson D, 
Higgins, Heber Kimball 
Higgins, Carlos Smith 
Higgins, Wealthy M. 
HLronp. Mary Ann 
Hunt, Gilbert . 
Hunt, Celia 
Hunt. Jane 
Hunt, John 
Hunt, Joseph 
Hunt, Hiram 
Hunt, Harriet 
Hunt, Mary 
Hunt, Lidia 
Huntington, Dimictc B 
Huntington, Martha 
Huntington, Fanny 
Huntington, Clark A. 
Huntington, Lot E. 
Harmon, James 
Holliday, John . 
Holliday, Catherine 
Hollidav, Karon H. 
Hollidav, Kczia D. . 
Holliday, David H. , 
Holliday, Thomas M. 
Holliday, Lenora M. 
Hunt, I.idin Ann 
Harwood, Lucy C. 
Ham'ood, Jonas 
Heywood, Joseph L, 
Heywood, Sarepta . 
Heywood, Alice G, 
Heywood, T. A. Case 
Heywood, Sarah Very 
Hevwood, Mary Bell 
Hollingshead, Nelson 
Hickerson, George W. 
Hickerson, Sarah 
Hickerson, Isaac 
Hickerson, Susanna 
Hickerson. George . 
Holms, Homin . 
Hovey, Joseph G, . 
Hovey, Sarah 
Hovey, Elizabeth W. 
Hovey, Joseph G. 
Harmon, Ancil T. . 
Ivory, Matthew . 
Jackman, Levi 


A.— A 

Jacobs, Morton . 

Johnson, Artemas 
ohnson, Luke . 
Johnson, Philo 
Jackson, Charles 
lohnson, Jcrvis — C . 
Johnson. Jesse W. — C 
Jacob Bj iiev — E 
Johnson, Warner 
James, Isaac . 
James, Jane E. . 
James, Sylvester 
James, Siliis 
Jones, Mary . 
Jacobs, Christopher 
Judson, Timothy . 
Judson, Mary J. , 
Jackman, Ann 
Jaques, Vienna . 
Johnson, Abiah 
Jones, Hannah . 
Jolly, Henry , 

Jolty, Barbara 
oily, Lnmb . 
Johnson, Benjamin 

Johnson, Melissa 
ohnson, Benjamin K. 
ohnson, Melissa 
Johnson, Julia . 
Johnson, Edith 
lohnson, Mary Ann 
Jenne, Louisa . 
Johnson, Joel H. 
Johnson, Susan 

Johnson, Sextus 
ohnson, Sariah 
Johnson, Ncphi . 
Johnson, Seth 
Johnson, Jennettc Fife 
Johnson, Clarinda Gleason 
Johnson, Clarinda H. 
Johnson, Julia A. 
Kelsey, Stephen 
Kendall. Levin 
Kimball, Heber C. 
Kimball. Ellen Sanders 
King. Wi liam A. . 
Klineman. Conrad 
Kenney Lorin E — C 
Kernes. Thomas — E 
King, Rosetla 
Kelley, Ann 
Keeler, Alva . 
Keeler, Roxcy . 
Keeler. Nancy Ann 
Kimball, Hazen . 
Kimball, Decinda . 




Kimball, Helen . . 1847 

Kimb^ill, George H. 

Kelsey, Vienna . 

Knight. Samuel 

Kingsbury, Jcjseph C. 

Kingsbury, Dorcas A. 

Kingsbury, Lorenza A. 

Kleinman*s wife, Conrad 

Kelltjgg, Kzekiel 

Kinyon, Famum 

Kinyon, Louisa . 

Kinyon, William H. 

Kinyon, George B. 

Kinyon, Hyram 

Kelfey, Nicholas 

Kelley, Melinda 

Kelley, Melinda C. 

Kellev, Sarah . 

Kelley. R. Parley 

Kelley. Betsev 

Kartchner, Wm — D . 

Kartchner, Margaret Jane 

Kartchner, Sarah Emma 

Kay, William 

Kay, Miry 

Kay, Mary Ann 

Kay, James 

Kay, Jenette . 

Kimball, Heber C. 

Kimball, Vilate 

Kimball, Heber P. 

Kimball, David P. . 

Kimball, Charles S. . 

Kimball, Brigham W. 

Kimball, Solomon F. . 

Kimball, Sarah A. Whitney 

Kimball, Lu'^v . 

Kimball, Adifah Woodward 

Kimball, WilUam H. . 

Kimball, Mary M. . 

Kimball, Helen . 

Kimball, Hannah 

Kimball, Jane Walker 

Kimball, Pricinda Buel . 

Kimball, Oliver N. Buel 

Kimball, Sarah P. Noon . 

Kimball, Harriet F. Noon 

Kimball, Betsy Noon 

Kimball, Sarah H. Noon 

Kimball, Hannah T. Gheen 

Kimball, Harriet Saunders 

Kimball, Laura L. Pitkin 

Kimball, Christeen Golding 

Kimball, Lucy Walker 

Kimball, Frances T. Swan 

Lewis, Tarlton 1847 

Little, Jesse C • . 

Losee, John G 
Loveland, Chancey 
Lyman, Amasa 
Lay, Hark . 
Litle, Archibald 
Lake, Barnabas — A 
Larson, Thurston — C 
Lamb, Lisbon — D 
Laughlin, David S — D 
Luddington. Elam — B 
Lemon, William M 
Lemon. Katherine 
Lemon, Alexandra 
Lemon, Elizabeth 
Lemon, Mary Ann 
Lemon, Margaretta 
Lemon, John . 
Lemon, Alfred B 
Lemon, Melissa J 
Lemon, Melissa J 
Leffingwell, William 
LefBngwell, Eunice 
Leffingwell, Cynthia 
Leffingwell, Joseph L 
Leffingwell, Roxana 
Leffingwell, Caroline M 
Leffingwell, Mary J 
Leffingwell, William 
Leffingwell, Adam . 
Lewis, Beeson . 
Lewis, Elizabeth 
Lewis, William C 
Lewis, Martha A 
Lewis, Sariah £ . 
Leach, James . 
Leach, Isabella . 
Luckham, Roger . 
Luckham, Mary . 
Luckham, Mary 
Leaney, Isaac 
Leaney, Sarah Ann 
Leaney, Margaret E 
Leaney, George C . 
Leaney, William 
Leaney, Elizabeth 
Leaney, Sarah Ann 
Lowry, John . 
Lowry, Mary 
Lowry, John, Jr 
Lowry, Abner 
Lowry, Susan L 
Lowry, Mary A . 
Lowry, George 
Lowry, Sarah Jane 
Lathrop, Asahcl 
Lathrop, Jane 
Lathrop, Hannah 











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Lattirop, S^rah . 
Latlirap, Hannah C 
Latlirup, Horace K 
Lattin)]), M.iry Jane 
Lathrop, A~ahd A 
Li^nard. John 
Leavitt, Piiclje . 
Leafiti, (Jtorye 
Leavitt, I-2niineiiii 
Leavitt, Louisa 
Love, Andrew 
LovLv Nancy M 
Love, Elizabeth . 
Law-suii, Jainui 
Leonard, Lvinan 
Leonard, Abigail 
Linz 1-, John 
I-ee, Eliza 
Lee. M.inlia A . 
Lane, William P 
Lane, Maria 
Lewis, I>jvid , 
Lud'lin^on, Miry E . 
Luddinfrton, Aniline E 
Loiigstro h, S.ephen . 
LotiKXtroth, Ann 
Long.itruth, George , 
Lon^strolh, Ann , 
LunjTritroth, William . 
I^moreaux Andrew L 
Laninreaux I'-abel 
Lamureaux, Mary Rogers 
Lamjreiiux, Anne . 
Lainnreaiix, Ciroline R 
Laiuoreaiix, William G. 
M irole, Samuel H. 
Mdriiham, Stephen . 
Matthews, Joseph 
Mills, George . 
Murray, Carloss . 
M.txwell, Maxey — A 
Mecham, Erastus — D 
Messick, Peter I.— D 
McLciiand. William E.— E 
Miller, Daniel — E 
Moore, Samuel . 
Moore, Eunice S. . 
Moore, Sophia . 
Moorf, Stephen B. . 
M^x)re, Harriet . 
Moore, Tliomazin W. 
Matthews, William 
Matthewi), Elizabeth 
Matt'ieus, Thomas 
Mattiiews, Elizabeth Jane 
Matthews, John . 
Matthews, Ezekiel C. 


Matthews, Maria C. 
Matthews, Norissa . 
M-itthews, Emma L. 
McClcnnahan, James K 
McClennahan, Nancy 
Miller, Armenu S, . 
Miller. Silas 
Martin, Kuth . 
.Mclntyrc, Kiisannah 
Mcintyre, James N. 
Mclntyre, William F. 
Miirdock, Jo-ieph . 
.Murdock, Eunice 
M'.irdock, Mary 
Murdock, Sally . 
Murdock, Nymphas 
Mackay, John 
I Mackay, Thomas . 

Mackay, Ann 
Mackay, John 
Mackay, Ann 
Merrill, Simuel 
Merrill, Pliebe 
Merrill, W.lliam Wallace 
McBride, Samuel 
McUridc, Leiiura .' 
McBride, Lydia . 
Mt;Bride, Samuel . 
McBride, Abigail 
McBride, John 
Maurice, Sarah . 
Matthews, James M. 
Matthcn-s, Mary C. 
Manhews, Sarah A. 
Morris, Jc-inima . 
Moscfl, Julian . 
Moses, Barbara M. 
Miller, Josiah . 
Miller, Harriet . 
Miiltr, Emily . 
Miller, Clarissa . 
Miller, l.amoni 
Miller, Amanda . 
Maran, William 
M;trble, Celestia . 
Miles, William 
Meeks, Loo^lane 
Maylwrry, Qtbriel . 
Morris, Daniel , 
Molcn, Jesse . 
Molen, Lurana . 
Molen, Margaret A. 
Molen, Alexander C. 
Molen, Simpson M . 
Molen, DotiaE . 
Molcn, Sophronia . 
Molen, James W 


Molm, Francis M . 
Muleii, Hannah E 
Moien, Michael W . 
Mo en, Geneva E 
Molen, Martha M 
Molen, Mary E . 
MathewK, Jane 
Moor, Thomas . 
Moor, Mahala 
Moor, Eiiz<ibeth . 
Moor, Mary L 
Ml or, George W 
Mo')r, Aniiis L 
Moor, Charles H 
Mount, Joseph 
Mi>unt, Elizabeth 
Mount, Mary Jane . 
Merrill, Lemuel . 
Murdock, John 
Murdock, Sarah . 
Muiduck, Giiieon A 
Murdock, Mary C 
Murdock, George . 
Miles, John ■ 

McDonald, Adam 
McMine:i, James . 
McMines, Ann 
M. Mines, WiiUam 
McMines, Emily Ann 
Meeks, Priddy . 
Heeks, Sarah . 
Meek5, Elizabeth 
Mite, P^ggyJ 
Miles, 'Ihumas 
Mangum, James 
Mangum, Eliza Jane . 
Man^lielO, Ma.tnew, 
Hanstield, Morgan 
Miles, Ira S . 
HLes, Maty 
Maylield, Andrew J . 
Maylield, John 
Maylield, Sarah 
Merrill, Phoebe Lodema 
Merrill, Margaret Llizabeth 
Morey, Mantia . 
Morey, Arlay , , 
Mathews, Benjamin F. 
Matthews, Temperance 
Matthews, Sarah Jane . 
Matthews, Mary b-lizabetb 
Matthews, Solly E . 
Ht^rccr, John . 
Mercer, Ann 
Mercer, Louisa Ann 
Mercer, Miriam . 
McBride^ William . 

McBride, Elizabeth . 
McBride, Mary Jane 
McBride, Susan Allen 
McBride, Relwcca Ann 
McBride, James Andrew 
Miles, Josiah . 
Milts, Calvin 
Miles, Electa . 
Mo..n, Hugh . 
Moon, Maria A 
Moon, Carlos M . 
Miion, Hut>li . 
Moss, Elizabeth . 
Moss, Archibald Bell 
Matthews. William E 
Martin, Edward 
Martin, Alice 
Martin, Marv E 
McKcown, Francis 
McKcown, Margiiret 
McKeown, William 
McKeown, Sampson 
McKi-own, James 
McKeown, Jane 
McKeown, Martha 
McKeown, Mary 
McKeown, George 
McKeown, Francis 
Newman, Elijah . 
Norton, John W 
N o w Ian , J abez — C 
Nowlin, Bryan W 
Nowlin, Mary 
Nnwiin, Amanda 
Noah, Martha 
Neff. John 
Neff, Mary . 
Neff, Barbiira . 
Neff, Amos H 
Neff, Mary Ann 
Neff, Susanna 
Neff, Benjamin B 
Neff, John, Jr 
Neff, Elizabeth 
Noble, Joseph B 
Noble, Mary A* 
Noble, Edward A 
Noble, Anna . 
Noble, George G 
Norwood, Richard 
Nebeker, John 
Ncbeker, Lurena 
Nebeker, WillUm P 
Nebeker, Ira 
Nebeker, Aaron 
Nebeker, Ashton 
Nebeker, Rosella 



Nebeker, George 
Nebeker, Peter 
Neboker, Elizabeth 
Nebeker, Henry 
Nebeker, Ann . 
Nebeker, Ann 
Nebeker, William H 
Nebeker, Mary Ann 
Noble, Susan 
Norris, Louisa 
Ness, Peter 
Ness, Ellen 
Ness, Miitilda 
Owen, Seeley . 
Oakley, James— D 
Ostrander, Elliza 
Ostrander, Elizabeth 
Ostrander, Caroline 
Orr, James J. 
Oakley, Ezra 
Oakley, Elizabeth 
Oakley, Margaret S. 
Oakley, John 
Oakley, Mary M 
O.ikl-, MaryE 
Orr, Thomas 
Orr, Catherine 
Orr, Thomas Jr . 
Orr, Isabella . 
Orr, Mary Ann . 
Owens, Catherine Ann 
Owens, Jerome . 
Owens, Nephi 
Owen, Elizabeth 
Owen, Ann J 
Oakey, Eldward . 
Oakey, John E 
Oakey, Charles R 
Oakey, Heber B 
Orton, tilias 
Oviatt, Henry H . 
Pack, John 
Pierce, Eli Harvey . 
Ponierov, Francis M 
Powell, I>avid 
Pratt, Orson 
Persons, Harmond D — B 
Persons, Judson A — C 
Park, William A— E 
Pugmire, Jonathan — E 
Perkins, David — C . 
Perkins, John — C 
Pratt, Paricy P 
Pratt, Elizabeth . 
Pratt, Mary 
Pratt, Hannahetta 
Pratt, Belinda . 






• « 

• « 

• f 

• I 

• « 



I C 

Pratt, Phebe E 
Pratt, Sarah . 
Prati, A'<aiha 
Pratt, Martha . 
Pratt, Parley P 
Pratt, Alma 
Pratt, Nephi 
Pratt, Helaman 
Pratt, Julia . 
Parrish. Samuel 
Parrlsh, Fanny 
Parrish, Joel . 
PtU^rish, Pt'iscilla 
Pollock, James 
Pollock, Priscilla 
Pollock, Clarinda 
Pollock, Thomas 
Potter, William 
Potter, John H . 
Potter, Anna* 
Pugmire, Jonathan 
Pugmire, Mary 
Pugmire, Elizabeth 
Pugmire, John. 
Pugmire, Hannah 
Pugmire, Hyram J 
Park, William, Sr 
Park, Jane 
Park, Agnes 
Park, James Jr 
Park, John, second 
Park, Marion . 
Park, Jane . 
Park, William, Jr 
Park, Hugh 
Park, Mary 
Park, Andrew 
Park, John, first 
Park, Louisa 
Park, Jane 
Park, Mary Ann 
Park, Marion . 
Park, Louisa 
Pitchforth, Samuel 
Pitchforth, Mary 
Pitchforth, Mercy 
Pitchforth, Sarah 
Pitchforth, Ann 
Pullin, Francis . 
Pullin, Hannah 
Potter, William W 
Potter, Sarah Ann 
Potter, George W. 
Potter, Gardiner G 
Pettit, Edwin 
Peirce, Robert 
Peirce, Hannah , 




• « 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• 4 



Peirce, Thomas 
Peirce, William . 
Peirce, Edith E. 
Peirce, Margaret W 
Pomeroy, Irene 
Pomero\, Francillo 
Peacock, John 
Pearsons, Elias F 
Pond, Sullman 
Pond, Almira E . 
Peacock, William 
Persons, Betsy . 
Portor, John P 
Portor, Nancy . 
Portor, Jaseph R 
Por;or, Sandford C 
Porior, Sandiord 
Ponor, Nancy . 
Por or, Nathan T 
Portor, Lyman . 
Perry, John 
Perrj', Ann 
Perry, Beisyjane 
'^uail, John, Sr . 

|uail, Catharine 

juail, John, Jr . 

|uail, Thomas 

fuail, Catharine 

faail, William 

(uail, Henry 

Lappelyee, lunis 
Redding, Jackson 
Richards, Willard 
Rockwell, Orrin Porter 
Rockwood, Albert P 
Rolfe, Benjamin W 
Rooker, Joseph 
Roundk', Shadrach 
Roe, Cfaratat C — A 
Roe. William—D 
Richmond Benjamin — C 
Rust, William W— C . 
Roberts, Benjamin — D 
Rust, George 
Richardson, Thomas — E 
Richardson, Darwin . 
Richardson, Jane C. 
Richardson, Solon D . 
Richardson, Arthur. 
Richardson, Olive 
Rogers, Isaac . 
Rogers, Mary M 
Rogers, Francenia . 
Rogers, Isaac 
Roper, Ann Elizabeth 
Randolph, Edwin 
Ralston, John • 


Ralston, Hannah 
Ralston, Josephine . 
Rigby, James 
Rice, Asaph . 
Robinson, John, Sr 
Robinson, Abby 
Robertson, John, Jr 
Robertson, Sarah A 
Robertson, Isaac 
Robertson, Lawrence 
Rich, Agnes 
Rich, John 
Rich, Elizabeth . 
Rich, Samuel . 
Rice, William R 
Rice, Lucy W 
Rice, Ellen M 
Robertson, John 
Riter, Levi E 
Riter, Rebecca 
Riter, Samuel W 
Riter, William W 
Riter, Ann Elizabeth 
Rosecranz, Eliza 
Richey, James . 
Richey, Lucinda 
Robinson, Rosetta 
Rolfe, Samuel . 
Rolfe, Elizabeth . 
Rolfe, Lydia . 
Rolfe, Horace M 
Rolfe, Samuel I 
Rolfe, William I . 
Rolfe, Mary A E 
Riser, Georgje C . 
Riser, Christiana 
Riser, Mary Ann 
Riser, Joseph H 
Rice, Ira . 
Roundy, Lorin H 
Roundy, Betsy . 
Roundy, Lorenzo W 
Roundy, Susannah 
Roundy, lared C 
Roundy, Nancy J 
Roundy, Byron 
Roundy, Myron S 
Roundy, William H 
Russell, Samuel . 
Russell, Fisther 
Russell, Helen M 
Russell, Maria. 
Russell, Valasco. 
Russell, Abigail 
Russell, Francis . 
Russell, Henry 
Russell, Amasa . 





Russell, Hannah 

Russell, Henry M 

Russell, David I) 

Russell, Semanthy 

Russell, Andrew J 

Rigby, Seth 

Rich, Charles C 

Rich, Joseph D , 

Rich, Eliza Ann 

Rich, Sarah Jane 

Rich, Mary Ann 

Rich, Emeline . 

Rich, Hiirriet . 

Rich, Sarah Jane 

Rich, Joseph C 

Rich, Charles C, Jr 

Rich, John T . 

Rich, Mary B 

Rich, Tl o.Tias J 

Rich, Joseph 

Rich, Nancy . 

Robinson, Lewis 

Robinson, Clarissa M 

Rob'n on, Solon W 

R«>binson, Charles E 

Reer, Mary Ann 

Reor, Perri 1 E 

Reer, James 

Reer, Sally Ann 

Reer, Josephine . 

Ritter, William C . 

Ritter, Sarah Ann 

Ritter, Anderson Taylor 

Richards, Willard 

Richards, Susaimah 

Richards, Amelia 

Richards, Sarah 

Richards, Nanny 

Richards, Jane 

Richards, Susan . 

Richards, Anne 

Richards, Augusta Braddock 

Richards, Heberjohn 

Richards, Rhoda Ann J 

Richards, Willard Brigham 

Richards, Rhoda 

Richards, Levi Willard 

Richards, Phinehas • 

Richards, Wealthy . 

Richards, Franklin D. 

Richards, Jane S 

Richards, Henry P 

Ricliards, Sarah J Jenny 

Reid, Samuel 

Rowe, David • 

Rowe, Hannah • 

Rowe, Margaret 



f I 
f ( 



f I 


f c 
f f 




f ( 



Rowe, William . 
Rowc», Ruth . 
Rowe, M inning . 
Rhodes, George 
Roundv, Shadrach 
Scoles, George 
ScoSeld, Josffph F 
Sherwood, Henry G 
Shumway, Andrew 
Shumwav, Ch irles . 
S:nit!i, (»; or^e A 
Smoot, Wil'iKini A . 
Snow, Erastus 
Stevens, Rjswell— E 
Stewart, Frankh'n B . 
Stewart, James W . 
Stringam, Bryant 
Si mime, Gilburd 
Session, John — A 
Stepliens. Lyman — B 
Stillm ni, Dcxer — B . 
Shipley, Joseph — Z . 
Shupe, Andrew J — C . 
Shupe, James M — C 
S luires, Will am — C . 
Smith, Richard D — C 
S irgent, Abel, M — D . 
S inderson. Henry W — D 
Sharp, Albert — D 
Smith, John G — D . 
Stillman, Albert Clark— D 
Stuart, Benjamin — D 
Sturirt, Jame.-i — D 
Skeen, Joseph — E - 
Steele, John and wife — D 
Sessions, David 
Sessions, Patty . 
Sessions, Peregrine 
Sessions, Lucina. 
Sessions, Mary 
Sessions, Martha Ann. 
Sessions, Carlos 
Sheets, Elijah F . 
Sheets, Susanna 
Stratton, Joseph A 
Stratton, Mary Ann 
Smith, John (patriarch) 
Smith, Clarissa 
Smith, John L 
Smith, Augusta B 
Smith, Mary 
Smith, Silas S 
Smith, Jesse N . 
Sears, William 
Sears, Margaret . 
Savage, David 
Savage, Mary A • 




Savage, Amanda 
Savajjo, Mury T . 
SiiiKky. Nicholas 
Singley. Marjjart-t 
Spencer, Daniel 
StHiicer. Imily . 
S|»enctT, Charles 
Sj)encer, AniDt . 
Spencer, Tliprese 
Spniccr. Amanda 
S|K>ncer, Eiiuin Eugene 
Speiictr, Fntncis E 
Spenct-T, (lilbert H . 
Spencer, Mary L 
Spencer, Clauilius V 
Spencer. Maria A 
Staiidace, Elizabeth 
Snedaker. Morris J 
Snidaker, Ann 
S.aines, William C 
Sliuw, Ambrose 
SIrt'.v. IVnnelia . 
St ers, Phrebe 
5ymonds, William 
S.. iii-jnds, Helenora 
SA-Ci-'ler, M.irgjret 
SACeter, Robert 
Spra^uc. Hezekiah 
Sprajjue, Dolly 
Spr^gue, Lhanier 
Scjnst, Jacob F 
Secrist, Ann Eliza 
Sixrist, Loulza 
Slump, Le >nard . 
Scearec, William 
Sturret, William 
Shurtlcir, Vinson 
S mnleff, Elizabeth 
Shuitlelf, Emerson 
ShurtlefT, Harrison 
Shartleft. Hiram C 
Shurileff, Susan E 
Shurttetf, Su:>an 
Shining. Qiartes W 
Seelye, Justus . 
S-^1 -e, Meh^iabel 
Seelye, WiiianS 
S-ecj, Eli.abeth 
Seeley, Elizabeth 
Seeley, Emily . 
Seeley, Justus W 
Seeley, jane 
Seeley, Oninge 
Sseley. S irah 
Seeley, Carlos 
Setley, David . 
SccIq', Mary . 

Snow, Eliza R 
Shaw. James . 
Shaw, I^ura A 
Shaw. Laura Almira,Jr* 
Sidwell, Job 
Si.twell, Susan 
Sidwell, I'eggy Ann 
Sidwell, Georue 
Sidwell, John 
Sidwell, Relwcca 
Stow, William . 
Stow, Samuel 
Shockley, Richard 
Shedd, Franklin K 
Shumway, Louisa 
Shumway. Mary 
St. John, Folly . 
St. John, Marpett 
St. John. Clannda 
Snow, Willard 
Snuw, Matvina . 
Snow, Susiin . 
Snow, Amanda M 
Snow, Lycnrgus 
Smith, James H . 
Smith, Hannah 
Smith, Alma 
Smith, Josiah . 
Smith, Hiram 
Smith, John 
Smith, Sarah Ann 
Smith, Emma 
Sperry, William , 
S perry, Charles 
Sperry, Elizabeth 
Sperry, Harrison 
S|>err)', Josephine 
Summe, Sarah 
Smith Ann 
Smithier, James 
Smithier, Ann . 
Smithier, Mary 
Smithier, Robert 
Savage, Levi . 
Savage. Matthew 
Stewart. Urban 
Stewart, Lydia . 
Stewart, £dna 
Stewart, Urban Jr 
Stidham, David 
Stidham, Ann 
Stidham, William 
Stewart, Polly . 
Stewart, David 
Stewart, Alameda 
Stewart, Benjamin F 
Stewart, James W 



Stewart, George R . 
-Smoot, A. O. 
Smoot, Mar^ret 
Steward, William . 
Steward, Delpha 
Steward, Mary J. 
Steward, Caroline 
Steward, Randolph H 
Steward, Elizabeth 
Sieward, John C. 
Steward, Joshua 
Steward, China 
Steward, Wm. A. 
Steward, Eliza J. 
Sieward, Mary E. 
Steward, Isaiah 
Steward, Joseph . 
Steward, Nancy L. 
Steward, Ruthina E. 
S lockley, E ijih 
Shockley, Mary . 
Shockley, James D. 
Shockley, Richard 
Shockley, Mary E. 
Shockley, Matilda Ann 
Shockley, Elijah S. 
Shockley, Lidia F. 
Shockley, Elijah H. 
Shepherd, Samuel 
Shepherd, Charity . 
Shepherd, Carlos 
Shepherd, Lydia 
Swarthout, Truman 
Swarthout, Horley 
Swanhout, Charles 
S -varihout, George W 
Shomaker, Jezreel 
Shoinaker, Nancy 
SI o iiaker, Sara*i 
Shumaker, Theophilus 
Shomaker, Marion 
Si oiiaker, Je.)htha 
Shomaker, Jerusha 
Shomaker, Ezra 
Shomaker, Alexander M 
Shomaker, Margaret 
Shomaker, LucmdaJane 
Stevenson, Edward 
Stevenson, Nancy , 
Stevenson, Nephi 
Sherwood, Jane 
Stoddard, Arvin 
Stoddard, Albert Q. 
Sidwell, Joseph . 
Shelton, Sebert C. • 
Shelton, Elizabeth 
Shelton, Emily C. . 


Shelton, Marion J. 
Shelton, Abraham C. 
Shelton, Thomas H. B. 
Shelton, Mary Elizabeth 
Steele, Catherine 
Sieele, Mary . 
Steele, Elizabeth* 
Shupe, Sarah . 
Sessions, Emiline 
Sargent, Caroline . 
Sharpe, Sarah Ellen . 
Smithson, Wm. C. . 
Smithson, Lucinda 
Smithson, Sarah Elizabeth 
Smithson, John Hartley 
Smithson, M.irtha Senlda 
Smithson, Almira . 
Smithson, Elvira 
Smithson, Elzira 
Smithson, Allen . 
Smithson, Letitia . 
Smithson, John Hartley 
Smithson, Catherine 
Smithson, James D. . 
Smithson « Mary Emma 
Sparks, George . 
Sparks, Louana 
Sparks, Wm. Thomas 
Sparks, Mary Ann . 
Shipley, Joseph . 
Steel, James W. 
Sangiovani, Sophronia 
Taft. Seth . 
Tanner, Thomas 
Taylor, Norman 
Thomas, Robert T. ^ . 
Thornton, Horace / 
Thoyne, Marcus B. 
Tippetts, John H — D 
Therlkill, Martilla Jane 
Therlkill, George W. 
Therlkill, Milton Howard 
Therlkill, James William 
Terrill, Joel J — C . « 
Thomas, Nathan — C . 
Tindall, Solomon — C 
Tanner, Mvron — D 
Thomas, Hayward — D . 
Tubbs, WiUiam R— D 
Terry, Thomas 
Thomas, Isaac . 
Thomas, Matilda . « 
Thatcher, Hezekiah . 
Thatcher, Alley . , 
Thatcher, Joseph W . 
Thatcher, Katherine , 
Thatcher, John B 





Thatcher, Aaron D . 
Thatcher. Harriet A 
Thatcher, George W 
Thatcher, Moses 
Thatcher, Hyrum S 
Taft, Harriet 
Taft, Almira . 
TaTt, Edwin 
Taylor, John . 
Taylor, Leonora . 
Taylor, George J 
Taylor, Mary Ann 
Taylor, Joseph 
Taylor, Elizabeth K. 
Taylor, Josephine K. 
Taylor, Jane Ball.intyne 
Taylor, Mary Ann Oakley 
Taylor, Annie Ballantyne 
Taylor, Sophia Whituker 
Taylor, William 
Taylor, Lovinia . 
Taylor, James . 
Taylor, A};nes . 
Topham.John , 
Turbet, Thomas . 
Turbet, Eleanor 
Turbet. Catharine 
Turbet, John . 
Turbet, Nephi 
Turbet, Thomas, Jr . 
Tattersall, Edwardt 
Tuttle, Henry . 
Tuttle, Hubbard . 
Tuttle, Lucy . 
Tuttle, Francenia L 
Thomas, Daniel M . 
Thomas, Ann 
Thomas, Philemon . 
Thomas, Tennessee 
Thomas, Henry 
Thomas, Catherine 
Tanner, Martha Jane 
Thomas, John P. 
Thomas, Mahala J . 
Thomas, Ann 
Thompson, Mercy R 
Thompson, Mary Jane 
Thurston, Thomas J 
Thurston, Rosctta 
Thurston^ Harriet . 
Thurston, George 
Thuraton, Smith 
ThUTSton, Sarah Ann 
Thurston, Johnson . 
Thurston, Julia . 
Thurston, Caroline . 
Thurston, Cordelia 

Thurston, Moses 
Thurston, Lucy Jane 
Thomas, Jane . 
Thomas, Wiley . 
Thomas, Madison . 
Terry, Joshua 
Turner, Chancy 
Turner, Hannah . 
Turner, John . 
Turner, Harriet . 
Turner, Julia . 
Turner, Henry . 
Train, Charlotte 
Turn bow, Samuel 
Turnbow, Silvira 
Tumbow, John , 
Turnbow, Epsy A . 
Turnbow. RoK-rt F 
Turnbow, Sophronia 
Turnbow, Milton A . 
Tumbow, Margaret Ann* 
Thorn, Joseph 
Thor.i. Lorena , 
Thorn, Josqih C 
Thorn, Helen S . 
Terrill, William 
Thompson, Miles 
Vance, William 
Van Cott. John . 
Van Cott, Lucy L 
Van Cott, Lovina 
Van Cott, Martlia 
Van Cott, Mary , 
Van Colt, Losee* 
Vance, John 
Vance, Elizabeth 
Vance, Margaret 
Vance, lames 
Vance, Nancy Am 
Vance, John, Jr 
Vance, Martha Jane , 
Vance, Mary Itlizabeth 
Vance, Isaac V . 
Vance, Martha 
Vance, Sarah I' . 
Vance, Mary F 
Vance, John Alma 
Walker, Henson . 
Wardel, George . 
Weiler, Jacob 
Wheeler, John . 
Whipple, Edson 
Whitney, Horace K 
Whitney, Orson K . 
Williams. Almon M 
Woodruff, Wilford . 
Woodward, George 


Woolsey, Thomas — E 
Wordsworth, William . 
Wriston, Isnac N — A 
Wriston, John P— A . 
Woodworth. Lysander- 
Walkcr, William— B , 
Wright, Charles— B 
Welsh, Madison — C . 
Wilkie, David— C . 
Williams, Thomas S— D 
Whitinfi:, Almoii— D 
Whiting, Edmond — D 
Whitney, Francis T — D 
Wilson, George — E 


Willes, W W (Lieut. 
Williams, Norman S 
West, Alva 
Whitney, Ephraim 
Whitney, Harriet 
Woodward, Mary L 
Wright, Alexander 
West, Chauncey . 
West, Mary . 
West, Adelia 
Woodworth, Louis: 
Whittaker, Harriet 
Whittaker, George 
Whittaker, EmeUne 
Wann, Susan . 
Woolf, John A . 
Woolf, Sarah Ann 
Woolf, Absalom . 
Woolf, Sarah Ann 
Woolf, James 
Woolf, Hannah Eliza 
Woolf, IsJiac 
Woolf, John A 
Woolf, Andrew , 
Warrick, I'homas 
Warrick, Louisa . 
Warrick, CadistaW 
Wilcox, Sarah 
Wilcox, Henry 
West, Israel 
Weiler, Jacob 
Weiler, Maria 
Weiler, Githerine 
Weiler, Joseph . 
Weiler, Eliza M 
Weiler, LydiaAnn 
Weeks, Loren 
Whitehead, Margaret 
Weeks, William 
Weeks, Caroline 
Weeks, Kophenah 
Willie, James G . 
Willie, Elizabeth 


Woodard, JedS 
Woodard, Emily 
Woodard, Charles 
Woodard, Henry . 
Woodard, Emily Jane 
Woodard, Martha . 
Williams, Francis M 
Williams, Martha 
Williams. Nathaniel. 
Wattis, Edmond 
Wattis, John . 
Wardsworth, Nancy, 
Wandsworth Hannah 
Wallace, George B. 
Wallace, Melissa M. 
Wallace, Mary M. 
Wixom, John 
Walker. Elizabeth 
Wooley, John M. . 
Wooley, Maria L. 
Wooley, Joan D. . 
Woodberry, Jeremiah 
Wood berry, Elizabeth 
Woodberry, John S. 
Woodberry, Orrin N. 
Woodberry, Hannah M. 
Woodberry, Thomas H. 
Woodberry, Catherine 
Woodberry, Malinda . 
Woodberry, John . 
Whitney, Henrietta . 
Whitney, Samuel 
Wood, Andrew . 
Wood, Jane . 
Wheeler, Thomas J. . 
Wheeler, Martha 
Wheeler, Margaret 
Wheeler, William W. 
Wheeler, Daniel D. . 
Wheeler, John J. 
Wheeler, Lucy Ann . 
Wheeler, Joseph S. 
Willis, J. T. 
Willis, Margaret 
Willis, Margaret 
Willis, Ann C. 
Willis, Lucretia . 
Willis, John H. 
Willis, ThomasJ. 
Willis, Josephine 
Willis, Wm. W. 
Woodruff, Apheck . 
Woodruff, Mary Jackson 
Woodruff, James J. 
Windward, Peter 
Walker, Oliver H. 
Wingate, Cyrus . 



Wingate, Catherine 
Wingate, Zenos . 
Wingate, Malvina . 
Wingate, Alphonzo 
Workman, Cornelius 
Wilson, Lucinda 
Williams, Albina M. 
Williams, Caroline M. 
Williams, Ephraim T. 
Williams, Phcebe Isabelle 
Wilson, Lewis D. 
Wilson, Nancy 
Wilson, Lovina . 
Wilson, Lemuel (i. . 
Wilson, Alvira 
Wilson, Almeda 
Wilson, Lewis D. 
Wilson, David 
Wilson, Mary M. 
Whittaker, Moses . 
Whittaker, Alice 
Washburn, Abraham 
Washburn, Tamer 
Washburn, Mary Ann 
Washburn, Mary Elizabeth 
Washburn, Amy Jane 
Washburn, Daniel A. 
Washburn, Susanna 
Washburn, Artimesia M. 
Washburn, Catherine A. V. 
Wilson, Grow 


i ( 

1 1 

1 1 

4 < 

< i 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

< t 

( ( 

< I 

i % 

t \ 


4 t 


4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

< I 

4 • 

4 4 


4 4 

4 4 

Wilson, Robert 
Warner, John E. 
Young, Brigham 
Young, Clarissa Decker 
Young, Lorenzo D. 
Young, Harriet Decker 
Young, Perry 
Young, Zobriskie 
Young, Lorenzo Dow* 
Young, Phinehas 
York, Tabitha 


Mary . 
Betsey . 
John . 
Joseph W. 
Brigham H. 
Cedenia C. 
Seraph C. 

Mary Ann 
James R. 

Yates, Margaret 





4 4 

• 4 

4 f 



4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

t 4 

4 < 

4 t 


» 4 


» « 

4 4 

4 4 

t 4 

4 4 

4 I 


t 4 

Of the above there were twenty colored people, who came either as 
servants or as members of the companies. 


The accompanying table gives, in concise form, the totals of persons, 
wagons, horses, mules, oxen, cows, sheep, swine and poultry in each of the 
eleven companies which came to Salt Lake Valley m the years 1847-48. 
The total number of the first column shows th^ number ol individuals to 
have been 2,09a 





























• • • 


• • 


Battalion, etc., 

• • • 

Spencer's Company, . . 




. « 






P. P. Pratt's 

• • . • 




« . 






A. 0. Smoot's * 











C C Rich's ' 









« • 


G. B. Wallace's * 

. • . 










Ed. Hunter's * 











Jos. Home's * 
I B. Noble's • 





• • 






• • • . 







• • • 



W. Snow's ' 

■ 1 





• • 



• • « 



J. M. Grant's '* . . . . 




■ • 



• • • 


• • • 




Following are the names of those who constituted the fourteen com- 
panies as they entered Salt Lake Valley on the 24th day of July, 1847: 

Wilford Woodruff, 
Jacob Burnham, 
Joseph Egbert, 

Thomas Grover, 
Barnabas L. Adams, 
Amasa Lyman, 
Thomas Bullock, 

Phinehas Young, 
Thomas Tanner, 
Addison Everet, 
Lorenzo D. Young, 

Luke Johnson, 
Edmund Ellsworth, 
George R. Grant, 
Samuel Fox, 


Stephen H. Goddard, 
Henry G. Sherwood. 
Sylvester H. Earl, 
Samuel H. Marble, 

Charles Shumway, 
Chancey Lovcland, 
James Craig, 

Tames Case, 
William C. A. Smoot, 
William Carter, 
Burr Frost, 

Seth Taft, 
Stephen Kekey, 
Charles D. Bamhani, 
Rufus Allen, 
David Grant. 

Heber C. Kimball, 
William A. King, 
Hosea Gushing, 
Carlos Murray, 

A. M. Harmon, 
H. K. Whitney, 
O. P. Rockwell, 
J. C. Redden, 

First Ten, 

Marcus B. Thorpe, 
John S. Fowler, 
Orson Pratt, 

Second Ten, 

Willard Richards, 
Ezra T. Benson, 
Roswell Stevens, 
Stirling Driggs, 

Third Ten, 

Albert P. Rockwood, 
John Y. Green, 
Brigham Young, 

Fourth Ten, 

Harvey Pierce, 
John Holman, 
Alvarus Hanks, 
Millen At wood, 

Fifth Ten. 

William Henry, 
Tarlton Lewis, 
Zebedee Coltrin, 

Sixth Ten. 

William Vance, 
Thomas Woolsey, 
Erastus Snow, 

Seventh Teti. 

Franklin B. Stuart, 
Eric Glines, 
Artemus Johnson, 
Franklin B. Dewey, 

Eighth Ten. 

James W. Stewart, 
Levy N. Kendall, 
Horace Thornton, 
John S. Eldridge, 

Ninth Ten. 

George D. Billings, 
Philo Johnson, 
Howard Egan, 

Tenth Ten. 

F. M. Pomeroy, 
William Clayton, 
Orson K. Whitney, 
N. T. Brown, 

John M. Freeman, 
George A. Smith, 
George Wardell. 

George Brown, 
Jesse C. Litde, 
Albert Carrington. 

Truman O. Angell, 
Briant Stringam, 
Joseph S. Scofield. 

Tunis Rapplyee, 
William Uvlces, 
Jacob Weifer. 

John Dixon, 
George Scholes, 
William Empy. 

William Wardsworth, 
Simeon Howd, 
Seely Owen, 

Franklin, G. Losee, 
Datus Ensign, 
Monroe Fnnk, 
Ozro Eastman. 

Alman M. Williams. 
Robert T. Thomas, 
Elijah Newman, 
Francis Boggs, 

Thomas Cloward, 
Robert Byard, 
Edson Whipple, 

John Pack, 
Aaron Farr, 
Nathaniel Fairbanks. 

John S. Higbee, 
S. Chamberlain, 
Joseph Rooker, 
John H. Tibbetts, 

Norton Jacobs, 
George Woodward, 
Louis Barney, 

Shadrach Roundy, 
Levi Jackman, 
John Brown, 
uavid Power, 
O. Crossby (colored), 
Gilburd Summe, 

Oara D. Young, 

Zabriskie Young, 


Eleventh Ten, 

Henson Walker, 
John Wheeler, 
Conrad Kleinman, 

Twelfth Ten, 

Andrew Gibbons, 
Charles A. Harper, 
Stephen Markham, 

Thirteenth Ten, 

Charles Burke, 
Rodney Badger, 
Hans C. Hanson, 
Lyman Curtis, 
Mathew Ivory, 
H. Lay (colored), 

Ellen S. Kimball, 

Perry Decker. 


Perry Fitzgerald, 
James Davenport, 
Benjamin Roue. 

George Mills, 
Joseph Hancock, 
John W. Norton. 

Joseph Mathews, 
John S. Gleason, 
A. P. Chesley, 
Norman Taylor, 
Greea F'lake (colored). 

Harriet P. W. Young. 


The following lists contain the names of all Federal, Territorial, County, 
Precinct and Municipal Officers, with dates of appointment and expiration of 
terms, salaries, etc. The lists of T'ederal appointees will be found to 
embrace all, from the organization of the Territory: 

fp:deral officers. 

The earliest form of government known in Utah was a provisional State 
govertiment. The advent of the Pioneers into the Territory now known as 
Utah occurred at a period when much of the country surrounding and com- 

C rising Utah, belonged to Mexico, being ceded the year following — 1848 — 
y the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States. The Stars and 
Stripes were planted on Ensign Peak in the winter of 1848-9, at which time 
steps were taken to establish a State government, "^he result was the founding 
of the Provisional Government of the State of Deseret, with the appended 
officers. Most of the commissions bore the date of March 12, 1849: Gov- 
ernor, Brigham Young; Secretary, Willard Richards; Treasurer, N. K. 
Whitney; Chief Justice, Heber C. Kimball; Associate Justices, John Taylor 
and N. K. Whitney; Marshal, Horace S. Eldredge; Attorney General, 
Daniel H. Wells; Assessor and Collector, A. Carrington; Sun'eyor, Joseph 
L. Heywood. A State Legislature was also elected, which provided for 
the operation of government by the passage of many laws. Salt Lake, 
Davis, Weber, Utah, Sanpete and Iron Counties were organized by this 
Legislature. Almon W. Babbitt was elected Representative to Congress 
and made application for the admission of Utah — or Deseret — as a State. 
In 1850, September 9, Congress passed the act creating the Territory of 
Utah and confirming many of the laws passed by the provisional govern- 
ment. A few days later. President Fillmore appointed the following officers 
for the Territory of Utah, and they were confirmed by the Senate: Gov- 
ernor, Brigham Young; Secretary, Bough ton D. Harris, of Vermont; Chief 
iustice, Joseph Buffington, of Pennsylvania; Associate Justices, Perry E. 
Jrocchus, of Alabama, and Z. Snow, of Ohio; District Attorney, SethM. 
Blair, of Utah; Marshal, Joseph L. Heywood, of Utah. Buffington declined 
the Chief Justiceship and Lemuel G. Brandebury, of Pennsylvania, was 
appointed to the place. Governor Young took the oath of office, February 
3, 1851, his commission being dated September 28, of the year preceding. 
Brigham Young was reappointed by President Pierce, September 28, 1854, 
and held the office four years longer, making it eight years in all. Follow- 
ing are the names of the other Governors, with dates, etc., up to date: 


Alfred Gumming, of Georgia, from January 18, 1858, till May 17, 1861. 

Francis H. Wooton,* of Maryland, from May 18, 1861, till September 
10, I 861. 

Frank Fuller,* of New Hampshire, from September 11, 1861, till 
December 9, 1861. 


John W. Dawson, of Indiana, from December lo, 1861, till December 
31, 1861. 

Frank Fuller,* of New Hampshire, from December 31, 1861, till 
August 3, 1862. 

Stephen S. Harding, of Indiana, from August 14, 1862, till June 18, 

James Duane Doty,t of Wisconsin, June 2, 1863, June 13, 1865. 

Amos Reid,* of Wisconsin, was acting Governor in 1863-4, in Gov- 
ernor Doty's absence, and from July 22, 1865. till October 2, 1865. 

Charles Durkee, of Wisconsin, October 3. 1865, till January 9, 1869. 

Edwin Higgins,* of Michigan, January 9, 1869, till May, 1869. 

Si A. Mann,* of Nevada, May 20, 1869, till June, 1870. 

J. Wilson Shaffer,! of Illinois, June, 1870, till October 30, 1870. 

Vernon H. Vaughan,* of Alabama, October 31, 1870, till November, 

Vernon H. Vaughan, of Alabama, November 1870, till February, 

George L. Woods, of Oregon, February 2, 1871, till December 28, 

S. B. Axtell, of California, December 28, 1874, till June 8, 1875. 

George B. Emery, of Tennessee, June 8, 1875, till January 28, 1880. 

Eli H. Murray, J January 28, 1880, till January 28, 1884. 

* Secretaries, who, in the absence of the Governor, became actinjc Governors. 
t Died in office. 
i Reappointed. 


Broughton D. Harris, o( Vermont, arrived in Salt Lake City, July 19, 
1 85 1. Left the Territory in October. 

Willard Richards, of Utah, pro tern., appointed by Governor Young, 
October 15, 1851. 

Benjamin G. Ferris, of New York, commissioned by President Fillmore, 
June 4, 1852. 

Almon W. Babbitt, of Illinois, (no commission recorded) 1853-4-5*. 

William H. Hooper, of Utah, pro iem,, commissioned by Governor 
Young (on account of the death of the late incumbent) November 4, 1856. 

John Hartnett, of Missouri, commission dated January 18, 1858. 

Washington J. McCormick, protem,^ from April 5, till May 21, 1858. 

Francis H. Wooton, of Maryland, (no commission recorded) first 
official act recorded, June 26, 186 1. 

Frank Fuller, of New Hampshire, commission dated July 15, 1861. 

Amos Reed, of Wisconsin, commission dated September 4, 1863, 

Edwin Higgins, of Michigan, commission dated December 20, 1867. 

S. A. Mann, of Nevada, commission dated, April 7, 1869. 

Vernon H. Vaughan, commission dated September, 1870. 

George A. Black, commission dated November 8, 1870. 

tGeorge A. Black, of Illinois, commissioned November i, 1870. 

M. M. Bane, of Illinois, commissioned June 10, 1876. 

Levi P. Lucky, of Illinois, commissioned February 26, 1877. 

tA. L. Thomas, of Pennsylvania, commissioned April 19, 1879. 

C. C. Crow, of Alabama, was confirmed as Secretary of Utah, on Fri- 
«lay, June 17, 1870, died at his home, on Saturday mornmg, June 18, 1870. 

*I>ied in office. 


L. G. Brandebury, of Pennsylvania, appointed March 12, 1851. 
L. H. Reed, of New York, appointed August 31, 1852. 
John F. Kinney, of Iowa, appointed August 24, 1854. 


.• « • 


Delaney R. Eccles, of Indiana, appointed July 13, 1857. 
ohn F. Kinney, of Iowa, appointed June 27, i860, 
ohn Titus, of rennsylvania, appointed May 6, 1862. 
Zharles C. Wilson, of Illinois, appointed July 27, 1868. 

iames B. McKean, of New York, appointed June 17, 1870. 
)avid P. Lowe, of Kansas, appointed March 19, 1875. 
Alexander White, appointed September 11, 1875. 
Michael Schaeffer, of Illinois, appointed April 20, 1876. 
John A. Hunter, of Missouri, appointed, August 13, 1879. 
Of the above James B. McKean was reappointed and subsequently 


P. E. Brocchus, of Alabama, appointed September 28, 1851. 

Z. Snow, of Ohio, appointed September 28, 1851. 

Leonidus Shaver, of Missouri, appointed August 31, 1852. 

Geo. P. Stiles, of Iowa, apponited August 6, 1854. 

C. W. Drummond, of Illinois, appointed September 12, 1854. 

E. D. Potter, appointed July 6, 1857. 

Chas. Sinclair, of Virginia, appointed August 25, 1857. 

John Cradlebaugh, of Ohio, appointed June 4, 1858. 

R. P. Flennicker, of Pennsylvania, appointed May ii, i860. 

H. R. Crosby, of Washington Territory, appointed August i, i860. 

Chas. B. Waite, of Illinois, appointed February 3, 1862. 

Thos. J. Drake, of Michigan, appointed February 3, 1862. 

S. P. McCurdy, of Missouri, appointed April 21, 1864. 

Enos D. Hoge, of Illinois, appomted July 27, 1868. 

O. F. Strickland, of Michigan, appointed April 5, 1869. 

C. M. Hawley, of Illinois, appointed April 19, 1869. 

P. H. Emerson, of Michigan, appointed March 10, 1873. 

J. S. Boreman, of West Virginia, appointed March 20, 1873. 

S. P. Twiss, of West Virginia, appomted May 10, 1881. 

Of the above Thos. R. Drake was reappointed, P. H. Emerson u-as 
reppointed three times, and J. S. Boreman once. 


Joseph L. Hey wood, July 30, 1851; Peter Dotson; Isaac L. Cibbs, 
May 24, 1862; Josiah Hosmer, March 22, 1866; Joseph M. Orr, September 

28, 1869; M. T. Patrick, 1870; George R. Maxwell, 1873; William Nelson, 
March 15, 1876; M. Shaughnessy, February 19, 1878; A. E. Ireland, April 

29, 1882. 


The following are given in the order in which they were appointed, but 
the date of their commissions are omitted in consequence of the incom- 
plete records: 

Registers. — C. C. Clements, George R. Maxwell, W. Pottenger, O. 
R. Patton, Barbour Lewis, John B. Neil, H. McMaster. 

Receivers. — L. S. Hills, G. B. Overton, V. M. C. Silva, M. M. Bane. 

DISTRICT attorneys. 

Seth M. Blair was appointed September 20, 1850; Joseph Hosmer, of 
Missouri, March i, 1854; A. Wilson, of Pennsylvania, December 15, 1858; 
Hosea Stout was appointed in 1862; C. H. Hempstead, 1868; George 
C. Bates, of Illinois, 1870; William Carey, 1873; Sumner Howard, April 
25, 1876; P. T. Van Zile, March 15, 1878; W. H. Dickson, March 13, 1884. 



The United States Surveyor-General's Office in Utah was established 
on February 17, 1855. On March 13. 1855, David H. Burr was appointed 
the first Surveyor-General. He was succeeded on June 18, 1859, ^y Samuel 
C. Stambaugh, who was followed on August i, 1861, by S. R. Fox. On 
June 30, 1862, the oflice of Surveyor-General of Utah was discontinued and 
was consolidated with that of Colorado, the records, etc., being sent to 
Denver. In 1868 the ofiice was re-established and on October 5, of that 
year, John A. Clark, was appointed Surveyor-General, followed by C. C. 
Clements on August 2, 1869; Nathan Kimball, January 20, 1874; Frd. 
Salomon, March 22, 1878, and again on March 30, 1882. 


J. T. Little. John E. Smith, A. T. Chetland, John P. Taggart, James 
(^oey, John P. Taggart, Assessors Internal Revenue. 

R. T. Burton, O. J. Hollister, Collectors Internal Revenue. 


Governor, Eli H. Murray, of Kentucky ; salary, $2,600; term expires, 
January 29, 1888. 

Secretary, Arthur L. Thomas, of Pennsylvania; salary, $1,800; term 
expires, May i, 1S87. 

Chief Justice, John A. Hunter, of Missouri;* salary, $3,000; term 
expired, July 5, 1883. 

Associate Justice, P. H. Emerson, of Michigan; salary, $3,000; term 
expires, March, 1885. 

Associate Justice, S. P. Twiss, of Missouri ; salary, $3,000 ; term 
expires, December, 1884. 

District Attorney, W. H. Dickson, of Utah ; salary. $250 and fees. 

Marshal, E. A. Ireland, of Utah ; salary, $200 and fees : term expires, 
March, 1886. 

Register, M. M. Banc, of Illinois ; salary, $200 and fees ; term expires, 
March, 1885. 

Receiver, H. McMaster, of New York ; salary-, $3.000 ; term expires, 
August, 1884. 

Deputy Collector, O. J. Hollister, of Indiana. 

Surveyor- General, F. Salomon, of Missouri; salary, $2,500; term 
expires, Januar>'. 1886. 


Ujider the Edmunds Anti- Polygamy Act. 

Alexander Ramsey, of Minnesota, President; salary, $5,000. 

A. B. Carleton, of Indiana; salary, $5,000. 

G. L. Godfrey, of Iowa; salary, $5,006. 

A. S. Paddock, of Nebraska ; salary, $5,000. 

J. R. Pettigrew, of Arkansas ; salary, $5,000. 


Superintendent of District Schools, L. John Nuttall, Salt Lake; salary, 
$1,500; term expired, 1883. 

Auditor, Nephi W. Clayton, Salt Lake; salary, $1,500; term expired, 


Recorder of Marks and Brands, Nephi W. Qayton, Salt Lake ; salary, 
fees; tenn expired, 1882. 

Treasurer, Tames Jack, Salt Lake ; salary, $600 ; term expires, 1882. 

Librarian, Nephi W. Clayton, Salt Lake ; salary, $200 ; term expired, 

The regular election for filling these offices lapsed by the reason of the 
non-arrival in season of the Commissioners. The former incumbents are 
exercising the functions of the offices by authority of the hold-over pro- 
vision in the law. ^ 

*Judge Zaoc, of Florida, was appointed to this position, hut had not qualified. 



The Supreme Court of the Territory holds two terms a year, convening 
in Salt Lake City, at i p.m., on the second Monday of January and first 
Monday of June. The clerk is Ezra T. Sprague. 


First Judicial Dis/n'c/— Presiding Jud^re. Philip H. Emerson; Qcrk, 
A. E. Emerson. Terms — Provo, Utah County: Third Monday in February 
and third Monday in September; Ogden, Weber County: First Monday in 
May, second Monday in November. 

Second Judicial Z7/j/r/V/— Presiding Judge, Stephen P. Twiss; Qerk. 
J. R. Wilkins. Terms — Beaver, Beaver County: First Monday in March* 
first Monday in May, first Monday in September, first Monday in December. 

Third Judicial Z^w/r/V/— Presiding Judge, John A. Hunter; Clerk, O. 
J. Averill. Terms— Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County: First Monday in 
February, second Monday in April, fourth Thursday in September, first 
Monday in December. 


Following are the names and residences of United States Commission- 
ers appointed by the Supreme Court of the Territory: 

Beaver County — Beaver, J. R. Wilkins ; Frisco, R. S. Lipscomb. 

Box Elder County — Corinne, E. C. Jacobs. 

Salt Lake G?tt«/r— Salt Lake City, Charles K. Gilchrist, Ezra T. 
Sprague. William McKay, E. P. Sutherland. 

Sanpete County — Mount Pleasant, Jacob Johnson. 

Summit County — Wanship, Ebenezer R. Young ; Park City, Thomas 

Utah County — Provo City, A. O. Smoot, Jr. 

Uintah County — White Rocks, Howard Miller, Pardon Dodds, J. B. 

Washington County — ^Julius D. Hickox. 

Weber County — Ogden, Duane W. Felshaw, A. H. Nelson. 


rmnnritinr ■> rrmplele I1>l nf rhe Cnunlv, Pt 

l«l(v of )' 
(.terk ■'■ 


Qsma MtKniKht AoB. iWs. 

■' JoKEDhfl Jiwrpli.'Anic. ihKn. 

iiMinnr |?ia'l X Slnp|thl«.Aiij(. ■«( . 

Ullcrtur Sa'l X Rljuuh tr , " „, 

lawvlM 'tt I. McDnnouuli'ADK. l^^ 

bllStiimrr... ...AuK.iSS,. 

- ftvBiiiii.(hini.jf ;; 

IK All'r..)B Kef«ii«iB I " 

GRcnillle . 

IT U TuTlor . . . . 



hidn of Prolvte 
Clerk at Co. Coil 


..'illliim Il»r 
□ C l^cUw 
II lljonw... 

. Autr-iSSi. 

MI.KulKn I •■ 

urvnor ft' I* Andtrinti Aui. iSSt. 

ap«.1)l»t.T *choiil«J nhnD Ptirr* . ...i 
«» tM«- Cm-i, Prmrli. 


■Huili Mmhawi. 


IH Tiiliiwn... 

) W lloldjway 


H II Cnnli 

F Allitfl 

W A ThuinpUD 

till Smith 


Vm It Mwh^iii 
E OWlIcnx.... 
G Wolnnnn... 

kMcph llalltird. 


TltHM HP. 











AuR. 18S5. 






id CnlJ . 1. K StarllBf: 


|.(«r Auk- ■<«• 

)ohn M BamUx 

liH llumpliiica.. 

11 Slliil« 



PurailiK tiRicn IjilibtniH 

1> Itii'liinan .... 

jtimn 'Kirkhr?dc 

John lllnKham.! 
fnhn Munrthorir. . 





JudKC oCl'roluu. 






Henry I.Mced.. 


/teni £«■■/>< Prtimrli. 





Centre*! IJr . 
El BounUru 

C W l<Mk<^(wd. 


A«K;. .as 

AuB^ 1884 



Farmineton. . iT J Steed , 

W V Haiirht ... 
IhnnMs Abbott. 
I'hoinas U:i)j^n., 

Kavsvillt'....|CC llydc 
Sth Bountiful 

South Hooper 

South Weber 
W BounUful 

jLcvi Taylor 

lU K K^.»n 

|Kric Iloiran 

Joseph Moss 

ilosrph I'arkin. ., 
I.«vi II amnion . ., 
licber C Smiti*., 

Joseph Mesery . . 
K J ward Parker., 
I*r Prophet 

James II Cook. ., 
Lewis Nf (irant., 
Thoma.s Roberts 

MP Ausr. iSSs 
■Cons Au)r. 1SS4 

;F Vr 


' Jl' 

; h Vr I 

F Vr I 

'Cons =Aujf. 1RS5 
iFVrlAujf. 18S4 

J P Aug. 1.SS5 
Cons j 


Cons I 


• « 


• — 




Jud^-e ot Piobato.. 
Clerk of Co. Court 


I It 


Orange Seelcv . 

Job II Whitney 

William Taylor 

A Neilson lAu^'. 



Assessor and Coll. 




Prosecuting^ Att'y. 


Surveyor ".. 

Supt. l) Schools 


• 4 

J W Seelcv I Au^. 

IJ OKiJpack.... '* 
ijob II Whitnev 
!C C; Larsen, Jr. 
John C Snow. .. 
John K Keid . . . 
ii> WHoUlawav 
lElias H I'ox. Jr., 
|K n Cox ....'Aug. 





Emery Coumiy PrertHcts 


Castle Dale.. 





Moab . 


1 K Keid 


Eph Homer 

Josi:nh S Stephens 

.\ 11 Stevens 

J E Johnson 

O W Warner.... 

W II Allred 

S J llarkncss 

KJ Wright 




( ons 




Aujj. 1SS4 

• i 


Aug. iS<»5 




Judge of Probate., j David Cameron.. 

Clerk of Co. Court jjohii M Dimnmg. 

Selectman Allen Miller 

I Erastus Beck 

.James Moiision... 

Assessor and Coll.: Robert P Allen . 

Recorder James A Worlhen 

Treasurer John .Me vers 

Sheriff JJi^seph Marshall. 

Pro.secuting Att'y. John Huston 

Coroner R (' Pinney 

Survevor James \\ I lay wood 

Supt. ^>ist. Schools.James B Haywood 

Garfield County Precincts. 

TKKM F.xr. 
Aug. iS^S 


.\ug. i.*«4 

Ant. 1SS5 

Aug. iS.S/3 

Aug. iSSs 




Hillsdale ..., 
Panguitch . . 


lOffirei TF.KM KXP. 

W S Lew man 

W A Thompson. 

C) W Allen 

Jt»?eph S Barney. 
James F Johnson. 
L Van Lewven.. 

M WFoy 

J C Myers 

J W Pace 



J I' 


J I' 


lAug. tSSs 


Aug. iJi«?4 

Aug. iS8^ 




TfeKM I'.XP. 

Judge of Probate.. I Wm C McGregor Aug 

Clerk of Co. Court John E Dallev 


Selectman j Wm Davenport . . 

John Parrv.. 

!M Richards, Ir. .. Aug. 1S86 


Aug. 1SS5 

Assessor ICharles Adams ..lAng'. iSSf 

C<illector ICMarles Adams . . ; •' 

Recorder |W H Holvouk ...|Aug. 

1 reasurer John H Henderson, Auie. 

Sheriff i'lugh L Adams... *' 

Prosecuting Att'y,. J W Brown ' 

Coroner '...IF W Pendleton . . I 


• 4 

Surveyor MH IVilley | " 

Supt. bist. SclioolsiM H Dalley Aug. 


Iron toiiuty Precimrts, 



Cedar John Chaiterl v . . 

('C Bladen...'... 
William Tucker. 
William D l^e.. 

Kannrrah 1 William Ford. .. 

jWni K Williams 

Paragoonah. . John R Robinson 

il> A Lamoreaux. 

jjohn R Robinson 

|S T Tapham 

Purowan Jno H Henderson 

IE Warden 

I William (ierr.... 
W W P.ndlelon. 

Summit 'lo.seph II Duiiey. 

William .*«milh.. 

S S Hulett 

Joseph B Daller. 

Office TRKM KXP. 




F Vr 





F Vr 

F Vr 



F Vr 

F Vr 


F Vr 

F Vr 



Judge of Probate.. 
C'lt-rk of Co. Court 



Assessor and Coll. 




Prosecuting Att'y. 



Joel Giover 

j W A C Brvan .... 

Eli Curtis.' 

Joseph A Ifvfle .. 

I hos Wright. Jr.. 

W AC Bryan.... 

Alma Hagiie 

K.iwin Harley... 

Samuel Cazier.... 


Henry Adams 

John Foote 

Aug. iitS4 


Aug. 18S5 

Aug. 18S6 

Aug. iS8i 

Supt. Dist. Schools! F W i happell _ 
*Juah CoMMty Precimelx. 


4 4 
• I 



Office! TKKM KXP. 

Mona . 


A L Jackman.. .. 

H W Hartley,... 
<Chas Mangelson 

,S PEwing 

iK W Williams .. 
JiHjl Bascombe. .. 

lames Jer man.. .. 

I.vman L Hudson 
John Si H well.... 

W P Borrow man 
J<»scph Shearer., 
llohn Martensen. 

j) Howell 

■ I W Reid 


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Aug. 1SS5 


Aug. tS$4 

Aug. iS^q 

Aug. 1SS4 

Aug. 1S85 


Aug. 1SS4 
Aug. 1SS5 


Aug. 1SS4 




Judge of Probate . . John Rider 

Clerk of Co. Court Joel II Johnson... 
•Iman 'BY Baird 


Assessor and Coll 




Prosecuting Att'y 



Robert Monoir. .jAug. 

W D Johnson 


Aug'. 1S84 

,W H Roundy... 

loci H Johnson, . 
John E Riggs. . . 

Haskell Jollv.... 

Willard Carroll, 


(.'oroner ..." 'Z K Judd 

Survevoi IH A Douton 

Supt. l>ist. Schools Jos McAllister... 

Kane County Precinct x^ 












Silas Brinkerhoff Cons 

Silas Harris. 



Au^. 1885 





Upper Kaiub 



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Alpine. — Mayor, S. W. Brown; Aldermen, R. T. Booth, S. Moyle; 
Councilors, E. Nash, W. J. Strong, F. Beck; Recorder, J. A. Vance; 
Treasurer, F. C. Clark; Assessor and Collector, I. J. H. Thompson; Marshal, 
Thomas Whiiby. 

Anurican Fork, — Mayor, O. F. Hunter; Aldermen, George Cunning- 
ham, T. E. Steele; Councilors, James Gardner, W. S. Robinson, S. Mis- 
ner; Recorder, E. A. Henroid; Treasurer, S. D. Chipman; Assessor and 
Collector, George Oler; Marshal; C. H. Roberts. 

Beaver, — Mayor, P. T. Farnsworth; Councilors, F. Frazer, H. A. 
White, E. Wiiden, D. L. McDonough, F. R. Clayton; Recorder, R. 
Fotheringham ; Treasurer, C. P. Bird; Assessor and Collector, A. S. Good- 
win; Marshal, E. O. Puffer; Justices of the Peace, F. R. Clayton, W. P. 

Brigham City, — Mayor, A. Madsen; Councilors, J. M. Tippets, E. J. 
Hailing, J. M. Jensen, L. S. Wright, Peter Baird; Recorder, George Gradd; 
Treasurer, William Horsley; Assessor and Collector, J. Matthias; Marshal^ 

C. C. Loveland; Justices ol the Peace, M. L. Ensign, P. E. Madsen. 

Cedar City, — Mayor, J. Perry; Councilors, B. Nelson, J. Thurley, W, 

D. Leigh, E. C. Cox, R. W. Hey borne; Recorder, E. Parry; Treasurer, 
H. Leigh; Assessor and Collector, Lehi Jones; Marshal, C. C. Blanden; 
Justices of the Peace, J. Chatterly, L. Root. 

Coalville. — May r A. Eldridge; Councilors, W. W. Cluff, H. Evans, 
A. L. Smitii, J. Salmon, rhomas Beard; Recorder, J. Boyden; Treasurer, 
T. H. Wright; Assessor and Collector, J. Cherry; Marshal, T. H. Beech; 
Justices of the Peace, Thomas Ball, T. L. Allen. 

Corinne, — Mayor, J. W. Guthrie; Councilors, D. H. Spencer,* J. K. 
jFowler.* H Foxly,* F. Dehler, I. M. Walker, A. Toponce, William Hues- 
ing, D. D. Ryan, Henry Lewis,* M. E. Campbell.* 

* New election Auj^ust 4, i$S4, for some officers. 

Ephraim. — Mayor, P. McFarlane; Councilors, J. E. Christiansen, L. 
M. Olson, J. H. Hansen, H. Jensen, H. Oviatt; Recorder, P. Greaves; 
Treasurer, L. M. Olsen; Assessor and Collector, J. A. Anderson; Marshal, 
F. Christansen; Justices of the Peace, J. P. Mcilstrop, W. A. Larsen. 

Fillmore,— yizy or, T. C. Callister; Councilors, H. T. McCullough, A. 
Gull, W. H. King, J. Greenwood, H. Mace; Recorder, W. H. King; Treas- 
urer, J. Starley; Assessor and Collecior. W. H. King; Marshal, H. Peter- 
son; Justices of the Peace, T. C. Callister, J. Greenwood. 

Fairview. — Mayor, Niels Larsen; Councilors, S. Bills, J. Anderson, P. 
Peterson, C. Olsen, E. L. Terry, J. Anderson; Recorder, J. M. Pyper; 
Treasurer, C. K. Hansen; Assessor and Collector, W. S. Taylor; Marshal, 
C Peterson. 

GranisvilU. — Mayor, A. G. Johnson; Aldermen, W. C. Rydalch, A. 
V. Millward, W. H. Green; Councilors, E. W. McBride, C. P. Anderson, 
R. M. Barrus, George Hammond, C. L. Anderson; Recorder, A. Fawson; 
Treasurer, C. G. Parkinson; Assessor and Collector, R. Orr, Jr.; Marshal, 
O. E. Barrus; Justice of the Peace, W. H. Green. 

Hyrum. — Mayor, A. P. Rose; Councilors, J. McBride, J. Nielsen^ A. 


B. Nielson, L. P. Christiansen, A. C. Dille, T. Liljenquist; Recorder, C. C. 
Shaw; Treasurer, J. S. Allen; Assessor and Collector, I. C. Thoreson; Mar- 
shal, J. MacSmith; Justices of the Peace, C. C. Shaw, J. J. Hansen. 

Kaysvillc. — Mayor, J. H. Linforth; Aldermen, James Marsden, W. 
W. Naldee; Councilors, \V. Blasley, W. Koxley, J. Smith, C. S. Tingey. 

Lchi. — Mayor, O. KUingsen; Aldermen, Georufo Webb, A. J. Evans; 
.Councilors, A. A. Petersun, B. \V. Brown, J. J. Child; Recorder, J. E. 
Ross; Treasurer, W. Roeker; Assessor and Collector, Thomas Fowler; 
Marshal, Thomas Fowler. 

Lojran City. — Mayor, R. S. Camj^bell; Aldermen, T. Irvine, William 
Walterson, T. B. CarcFon, A. Anderson; Councilors, O. C. Ormsby, F. 
Turner, George T. Benson, James Adams; Recorder, Joseph Quinney; 
Treasurer, George Hvmers; M;irshal, N. Crookston; Assessor and Collector, 
R. Yates. 

Manti. — Mayor, J. H. Hougaard; Aldermen, F. R. Kenncr, J. Reid; 
Councilors, W. Luke, A. W. Bessey, C. Larsen; Rec«>rder, A. E. Merriam; 
Treasurer, J. H. Lowry; Assessor and Collector, Ci. E. Bensch; Marshal, 
J. Lowry, Jr. 

Afendon. — Mayor, J. DonaUlson; Councilors, O. Sonne, C. Sorensen, 
M. Bird, J. Hughes, Peter Larsen: Recorder, L Sorensen; Marshal, R. 
Sweeter; Justices of the Peace. H. ( larder, R. Forster. 

Morgan, — Mayor, S. Francis; Councilors, J. Tucker, J. R. Stewart, J. 
E. Stevenson, W. Henning, D. Ro;)inson: Recorder, T. R. G. Welch; 
Justices of the Peace, J. F Welch, (.ieorgL^ Heiner. 

Moroni. — Mayor, J. C. Nielson: Councilors, P. Lauretzen. N. ChrLsten- 
sen, Sr., L. Johnson. J. Blackhouse, W. L. Irons; Recorder, D. C. Nielson; 
Treasurer, A. A. Bradley; Assessor, A. A. Bradley: Collector, G. F. Mor- 
ley; Marshal, L. J. Anderson; Justice of the Peace, G. P. Simpson. 

Mount Pleasant. — Mayor, C. N. Lund; Councilors, A. Madsen, J. 
Carter, H. Wintei*s, S. Jacobstn, M. Ra^musson; Recorder, A. Johnson; 
Treasurer. C. Madsen; Assessor and Collector, N. j\I<idsen; Marshal, Thomas 
Price; Justices of the Peace, L. Larson, J. K. McClenahan. 

Ogden. — Mayor, D. H. Peery: Aldermen, E. Stratford, N. Tanner, Jr., 
J. F*arr, F. A. Miller; Councilors, A. Folker, J. A. Boyle, S. Horrocks, J. 
Pincock, R. J. Taylor: Recorder, P. J. .Stevens; Treasurer, R. McQuarrie; 
Assessor and Collector, Thomas D. Dee; Marshal, W. W. Fife. 

Park City. — Mayor, F. W. Hayt; Aldermen, F2. Pearce, O. L. Brown, 
M. S. Aschheim; Councilors, J. VV. Stevens, George Morrison, Henry 
Newell; Recorder, B. A. Bowman; Treasurer, A. B. Richardson: Marshal, 
James Keschel: Justice of the lY^ace, Frank E. James. 

Paro7van. — Mayor, C. Adams; Councilors, N. Benson, W. W. Pendle- 
ton, W. Holyoak, John Bentley, M. Ricliards, Jr.; Recorder, W. 
Davenport; Treasurer, Tiioinas Davenport; Assessor and Collector, A. 
Matlierson; Marshal, R. H. Benscju; Justices of the Peace, J. li. Henderson, 
W^ Marsden. 

Payson. — Mayor, J. Finlaysnn; Aldermen, H. W. Bamett, J. S. Taylor, 
J. J. MoClellan; Councilors, J. S. Tanner, B. Wride, C. Brewerton, J. E. 
Huish, S. Hancock; Recorder, J. S. Page, Jr.; Treasurer, J. Robinson; 
Assessor and C:>llector, S. Marsh; Marshal, J. C. Harper.* 


Pleasant Grove. — Mayor, H. Winter; Aldermen, J. O. Bullock, C. P. 
Wamick ; Councilors, J. Harvey, A. G. Kectch, C. P. Larsen; Recorder, 
L. A. VVilson; Treasurer, W. H. Adams; Assessor and Collector, R. 
Thorne; Marshal, J. Koutz. 

Provo. — Mayor, W. H. Duscnherry; Aldermen, A. O. Smoot, Jr., 
James Dunn, W. D. Roberts, A. 1). Holdaway; Councilors, R. Tliarer, Jr., 
Ncl Johnson, A. G. Conovcr, W. Scott, Mads P. Madsen, D. Holda- 
way, P. M. Wentz, J. T. Mcluvan; Recorder, V. L. Halliday; Treasurer, J. 
R. Twelves; Assessor and Collector, K. L. Jones; Marshal, J. W. Turner. 

Richmond, — Mayor. J. C. Whittle; Councilors, R. M. Kerr, W. K. 
Burnham, L. J. Petty, L. P. Swendson, PI. Webb; Recorder, J. O. Gooch; 
Treasurer, C. Traveller; Assessor and Collector, Rli Webb; Marshal, J. 
Richardson; Justices of the Peace, F. A. Bair, W. D. Van Noy. 

Richfield. — Mayor, J. M. Peterson; Councilors, A. D. Thurber, N. 
Poulson, J. Bu'dcr, fe. Bean, S. C. Christensen, I. K. Wright, H. Hansen; 
Recorder, J. B. Morrison: Treasurer, H. O. Hansen; Assessor and Col- 
lector, W. H. Clark: Marshal, W. H. Clark; Justice of the Peace, G. F. 

St. Georfre.. — Marshal, R. C. Lund: Aldermen, M. Snow, E. B. Snow; 
Councilors, R. Morris, R. G. McOuarrie, T. P. Cottam, J. C. Bentley, W. 
Nelson; Recorder, J. M. Gates; Treasurer, J. C. Bentley; Assessor and Col- 
lector, D. H. Morris: Marshal, G. P. Hardy. 

Salt Lake City. — Mayor, James Sharp; Aldermen, A. Spiers, I. M. 
Waddell, Jc^seph il. Dean, Robert Patrick, George D. Pyper; Councilors, 
George Stringfellow, O. H. Pettit, John Clark, Thomas G. Webber, A. W. 
Davis, Joseph A. Jennings, A. N. McFarlane, Ileber J. Grant, Junius F. 
Wells; City Recorder, H. M. Wells; Treasurer, P. A. Schettler; Marshal, 
W. G. Phillips; Assessor and Collector, W^ W. Taylor. 

Sniithjield. — Mayor, P. T. Morehead; Councilors, A. Chambers, R. 
Meikle, R. Harper, J. Kirk bride, J. Cantwell; Recorder, J. P. Lowe; 
Treasurer, J. J. l*lowman; Assessor and Collector, R. Nelson; Marshal, S. 

Spanish Fork. — Mayor, W. Creer; Aldermen, J. Moor, A. Ferguson; 
Councilors, B. Arg>'le, S. Peterson, G. G. Hales, T. C. Martell, J. W. 
Robertson; Recorder, S. Cornaby; Treasurer, W. Robertson; Assessor and 
Collector, J. P. Jones; Marshal, W. O. Creer. 

SpringzHlc. — Mayor, L. S. Wood; Aldermen, A. Noe, L. D. Crandall; 
Councilors, N. Packard, A. Robertson, N. Stewart; Recorder, J. Caffrey; 
Treasurer, J. W. Bissell; Assessor and Collector, M. C. Crandall; Marshal, 
O. M. Mower. 

Spring City. — Mayor, L M. Benhanin; Councilors, J. Larsen, L E. 
Allred, H. L. Rasmussen, L. M. Christansen, N. B. Adler, J. Downard; 
Recorder, J. R. Baxter; Treasurer, H. W. Puzey; Assessor and Col- 
lector. W. H. Allred; Marshal, S. H. Allred; Justices of the Peace, L N. 
Allred, L. Burdick. 

Tooele, — Mayor, G. Atkins; Aldermen, J. McLaws, S. F. Lee; 
Councilors. B. Phister, T. W. Lee, J. W. Taite; Recorder, J. Dunn; 
Treasuer, G. Craner; Assessor and Collector, T. Nix; Marshal, P. Clegg. 

Washington, — Mayor, S. Connell; Councilors, J. P. Chidester, A. 
Larson, H. Larson, D. Paxman, L NeilsOn, N. Nisson; Recorder, P. E. 


Van Orden; Assessor and Collector, G. W. G. Overett; Marshal, G. C. 
Dewey; Justices of the Peace, J. H. Crawford, L. N. Harmon. 

Wellsville. — Mayor, J. Howell; Councilors, E. Owens, W. Haslam, D. 
Murray, T. A. Kerr, H. Parker, S. Perkins; Recorder, W. S. Fophton; 
Treasurer, W. S. Poppleton; Assessor and Collector, P. M. Maughc^n, 
Marshall L. Garrett; Justices of the Peace, J. H. Hall, W. S. Poppleton. 


The Legislature of Utah comprises 12 Councilors and 24 Representa- 
tives, who are elected for two years, at the general election held on the first 
Monday in August of odd years, as in 1881, 1883, and so on. The sessions 
of the Legislature are biennial, beginning on the second Monday in January 
of even years, and may continue for a period of sixty days, including Sun- 
days. The members are paid by the Federal Government, $4 each per day 
during the session. The bills, in order to become law, must pass both 
houses and receive the approval of the Governor, (whose veto is absolute,) 
after which they are subject to annulment by Congress. Following are the 
members of the Legislative Assembly for 1884, together with the Districts 
they represent: 


Beaver, Garfield, Iron, Millard and Piute Counties — Robert W. Hey- 

Box Elder and Weber — F. S. Richards. 

Cache and Rich — James T. Hammond. 

Davis, Salt Lake and Tooele — H. J. Grant, Heber J. Richards, William 
W. Taylor and Joseph Barton. 

Emery, Sanpete and Sevier — Luther T. Tuttle. 

{uab and Utah — Joel Grover and John S. Page, 
kane, San Juan and Washington — Edwin G. Woolley. 
Morgan, Summit, Uintah and Wasatch — W. W. Clun. 


Beaver and Piute Counties — P. T. Farnsworth. 

Box Elder — O. G. Snow. 

Cache and Rich — B. F. Cummings, Jr. and Joseph HowelL 

Davis, Morgan and Salt Lake — ^James Sharp, John Morgan, John Clark, 
D. C. Young, Caleb T. Brinton and Samuel Francis. 

Emery, Sanpete and Sevier — R. R. Llewellyn and A. B. Thurber. 

Garfield, Iron and San Juan — John Houston. 

Kane and Washington — John Rider. 

Millard — Joseph V. Robmson. 

Summit— John Boyden. 

Tooele — Charles L. Anderson. 

Uintah and Wasatch — A. Hatch. 

Utah — William Creer, W. H. Dusenberry, S. R. Thurman and George 

Weber — D. H. Peery and Joseph Stanford. 




City or Town, 

Deseret — 


f « 

Deseret — 




American Fork. 
Western Un. — Bingham. 

Bingham Junction. 

Blue Creek. 


Brigham City. 

Cedar City. 

Cove Creek. 
Western Un. — Cisco. 

Castle Valley. 

Clear Creek. 

Coal Mines. 





Deep Creek. 

Western Un. — Echo. 
Doeret — Fillmore. 



Francklyn Smelter. 


Western Un. — Green River. 
** Hot Springs. 

Deseret — Hebron. 

Western Un. — Ironton. 
Deseret — luab. 


Western Un. — Kelton. 

Deseret — 






Deseret — 

Lower Crossing. 



Lehi Junction. 




Mount Pleasant 



Deseret — 

City or Town. 


I f 

f C 


Pine Valley. 
Pleasant Grove. 
Western Un.— Park City. 

P. V. Junction, 
Salt Lake City. 

St. CJeoijfe. 
Silver City. 
Spring City, 
Spanish Fork. 
Silver Reef. 
Western Un. — Simpson Springsi 

Soldier Summit 
Thistle Station. 
Woods CrosSi 

Western Un. 




The names in small capitals are County Seats. 

Town or City. County. 

Adamsville, Beaver 

Alma, Weber 

Alpine City, Utah'! 

Alta, Salt Lake ' 

American Fork, Utah • 

Annabella, Sevier j 

Antimony, Garfield' 

Argenta, Salt Lake | 

Ashley, Uintah j 

Aurora, Sevier i 

Bear River City, . . . Box Elder!' 

Beaver, Beaver 

Benson, Cache 

Binghiim Canyon, . . . Salt Lake 

Blake, Emery 

Bluff San Juan 

Bountiful, Davis 

Brigham City, . . . Box Elder 

Brinton, Salt Lake 

Brown's Park, Uintah 

Burbank, ..... Millard 

Burrville, Sevier 

Butlerville Salt Lake j 

Bradshaw, Beaver, 

Call's Eort Box Elder; 

Cannonville, .... Garfield 

Castle D.ile Emery 1 

Cedar City Iron , 

Cedar Valley, Utah , 

Centreville, Davis j 

Centre, Tooele 

Charleston, Wasatch 

Chester, Sanpete 

Circleville, Piute 

Clarkston, Cache 

Clinton, Utah 

Clover Flat, Piute 

Coalville, Summit 

Collinston, .... Box Elder 

Colton, Wasatch 

Corinne, Box Elder 

Coyote Girfield 

Croydon, Morgan 

Cub Hill Cache 

Duncan, Washington 

Descret, Millard 

Detroit, Millard 

Deweyville, .... Box Elder 

Diamond, Juab 

Dover, Sanpete 

Draper, Salt Lake 

Echo City Summit 

Town or City. 



Eden Weber 

Elsinor Sevier 

Ephraim, Sanpete 

Erda, Tooele 

Escalante, Garfield 

Eureka, Juab 

Enoch, Iron 

Fairfield, Utah 

Fairview, Sanpete 

Farmin(;ton, Divis 

Fayette, Sanpete 

Ferron City, ..... Emery 
Fillmore City, . . . Millard 
F'ountain Green, .... Sanpete 

Fremont, Piute 

Frisco, Beaver 

Garden City, Rich 

Glendale, Kane 

Glenwood, Sevier 

Goshen, Utah 

Granite Sair Lake 

Grantsville, Tooele 

(jreenville, Beaver 

Greenwich, Piute 

Grouse Creek, . . . Box Elder 

Gunlock, Washington 

Gunnison, Sanpete 

Hamblin, .... Washington 

Harrisville, Weber 

Herer, Was;itch 

Hebron, Washington 

Henefer, Summit 

Henrieville, Garfield 

Herriman, .... Salt Lake 

Hillsdale, Garfield 

Holden, Millard 

Homansville, Utah 

Honcyville, .... Box Elder 

Hooper Weber 

Hoytsville, Summit 

Huntington, .... Emery 

Huntsville, Weber 

Hyde Park, Cache 

Hyrum, Cache 

Ingersoll, Millard 

Iron City Iron 

Ibepah. Tooele 

Indianola, Sanpete 

Inverury, . . . . . . Sevier 

Jackson, Washington 

Johnson, Kane 

Joseph, Sevier 



TJton or City. 

Juab, . 
Junction, . 
Kamas, . . 
Kanara, . . 
Kaysville, . 
Kelton, . . 
Kingston, . 
Koosharem, . 
Lake Point, . 
Laketown, . 
La Sal, . 
Leamington, • 
Lehi City, 
Milford, . 
Mill Creek, . 
Mona, . 
Monroe, . 
Mount Carmel, 
Mount Pleasant, 
Muddy, . 
North. . 
New Harmony, 
North Ogden, . 
Oak City, 

Ogden City 

Orangeville, . 
Ouray, . 
Pahreah, . 
Paradise, . 
Paragoonah, . 




. . Juab 
Iron I 
. Millard:: 


Box Elder 
. Piute . 
San Juan 
. Millard 
. Utah 
Cache ' 
San Juan 
. Sanpete i 
Millard ' 
. Rich ; 
Cache ' 
Beaver ' 
Salt Lake | 
Cache ' 
. Beaver ' 
. Juab , 
San Juan , 
Morgan , 
Sanpete \ 
Kane I 
Sanpete i 
Emery | 
Salt I^ke I 
Salt Lake , 
Washington i 
. Cache j 
Weber i 
Millard ! 
Millard I 
Weber i 

Town or City. 

Park City, 
Park Valley, . 
Pine Valley, 
Pinto, . 
Plain City, 


. Summit 

. Box Elder 


. Utah 

. Summit 





Pleasant Grove, Utah 

Plymouth, .... Box Elder 

Portage, Box Elder 

Price, Emery 

Providence, Cache 

Provo City, Utah 

Ranch, Kane 

Randolph, Rich 

RiCHFiKLD, Sevier 

Richmond Cache 

Rockport, Summit 

Rockville Washington 

Santa Clara, . . . Washington 
St. George, .... Washington 

St. John, Tooele 

Salem, Utah 

Salina, Sevier 

Salt Lake City, . . . Salt Lake 

Sandy, Salt Lake 

Santaquin, Utah 

Scipio, Millard' 

Scofield, Sanpete' 

Silver City, Juab ' 

Silver Reef, .... Wasliington 

Slaterville, Weber 

Smithfield, Cache 

Snowville, Box Elder 

South Jordan, .... Salt Lake 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Spring City, Sanpete ' 

SpringviUe, Utah 

Sterling, Sanpete 

Stockton, Tooele 

Sugar Salt Lake* 

Summit. Iron 

Taylorville, Iron 

Tebbsdale, Garfield 

Terrace, Box Elder 

Thistle Utah 

Thurber Piute 

Tintic, Juab 

Tooele, Tooele 

Toquerville, . . . Washington 

Trenton, Cache 

Tucker, Utah 

Tyner, . ^ . . . . Box Elder 
Teasdak Piute 



Town or Cify. Caunfy. 

Uintah, Weber 

Union, Salt Lake 

Van Zile, Weber 

Vernon Tooele 

Virgin City, . . . Washington 

Washakie, Box Elder 

Wales, Sanpete 

Wallsburgh, .... Wasatch 

Wanship, ...... Summit 

Wasatch, Salt Lake 



Tortm or City. 

Washington, . . . 
Wellington, .... 


West Jordan, .... Salt Lake 
West Portage, . . . Box Elder 

White Rock Uintah 

Willard Box Elder 

Wilson, Weber 

Woodruff, Rich 


Of the Territory for 1883. 


Beaver, • . 
Box Elder, . 
Cache, . . . 
Davis, . . 
Emery, . . 
Garfield, . 
Iron, . . 

{uab, . . . 
Cane, . . , 
Millard, . . 
Morgan, . 
Piute, . . 
Rich, . . 
Salt Lake, . 
San Juan, 
Uintah, • . 
Utah, . . 
Wasatch, . 
Weber, . . 

Total, . 














































$ 769,860 

not reported 




not reported 


11,165,800 i 










Prepared expressly for Martindale^s United States Law Directory^ June ist, 
1877, by Sidney W. Darke, Esq., of Salt Lake City. 

Actions, — Where Commenced. — Actions for the recovery of real estate 
or interest therein, or for the determination in any form of such right or 
interest; or for injury to real property; for the partition thereof; for the fore* 
closure of a mortgage or other hen; must be brought in the district in which 
the land or some part thereof is situated. 

Actions for the recovery of a penalty or forfeiture imposed by statute 
(except that when it is imposed for an onense committed on a lake, river, or 
other stream of water situated in two or more counties, the action may be 
brought in any county bordering on such lake, river, or stream, and oppo- 
site to the place where such offense was committed); against a public omcer 
or pnerson specially appointed to execute his duties, for an act aone by him 
in virtue of his omce, or against a person who, by his command or in his 
aid, does anything touching the duties of such officer, shall be tried in the 
district where the cause or some part of it arose. 

Actions in all other cases shall be tried in the district where the cause 
of action originated, or in which the defendants or any one of them may 
reside at the commencement of the action; or, if none of the defendants 
rcs'de in the Territory, or if residing in the Territory the district in which 
they reside be unknown to the plaintiff, the cause maybe tried in any district 
which the plaintiff may designate in the complaint. If the district so named 
be not the proper district, the defendant can, in writing, at the time for 
answering, demand a trial in the proper district, when the place of trial may 
be changed by consent of the parties or by order of the court, for the fol- 
lowing causes: 

ist. When the district designated in the complaint is not the proper 

2d. When there is reason to believe that an impartial trial cannot be had 

3d. When convenience of witnesses and the ends of justice would be 
promoted by the change. 

4th. When from any cause the judge is di&qualified from acting in the 

Arrests, — No arrest in civil cases except when the defendant is about to 
leave the Territorv with intent to defraud creditors; when the property on 
which action has been brought to recover possession has been concealed or 
disposed of; when the defendant has been guilty of a fraud in contracting 
the debt; when the defendant has fraudulently converted to his own use money 
or other property of which he had charge. 

AtUuhmenis. — By filing bond of not less than two hundred dollars, nor 
exceeding the amount claimed, the plaintiff may have an attachment against 
the property of the defendant in the following cases: 

1st. In an action upon a contract which is not secured by mortgage or 
lien im real or personal property. 


2d. When such security (if given) is rendered nugatory by the act of the 

3d. Against a defendant not residing in the Territory. 

4lh. VVhen the defendant has departed or is about to de'^art from fhe 
Territory or county wherein the action is l)rought. 

5th. When the defendant has concealed himself so tliat process cannot 
be served on him. 

6th. When the defendant is disposing of his property with intent to 
defraud his creditors. 

All property, both real and personal, and debts due defendant may be 
attached, except such as are exempt from execution. 

C 'f r/)orations. — All corporations for mining, manufacturing, commercial 
or f t'ler industrial pursuits, must be organized under the general laws of the 
Terr tory. 

Conveyances by Deed must be signed by the person from whom the 
estate or interest is intended to pass, or his lawful aj»ent or attorney, and by 
one or more credible witnesses, and must be acknowledged or proved and 
recorded in the office of the recorder for the county in which the estate is 

Any person claiming title to any real estate may, notwithstanding there 
may be an adverse possession thereof, sell and convey his interest therein, 
in the same manner and with the same effect as if he were in the actual pos- 
se.ssion thereof. 

Every conveyance of real estate not properly recorded is void as 
against any subsequent purchaser in good faith, and for a valuable consider- 
ation, of the same real estate or any portion thereof, where his conveyance 
is first duly recorded. 

ylcknoivled^ment. — Proof or acknowledgment of any conveyance of real 
estate must be taken before and certified to by one of the following officers: 

ist. If acknowledged or proved within the Territory, by some judge or 
clerk of a court having a seal, or some notary public or county recorder, or 
by a justice of the peace of the county where the conveyance is executed 
and to be recorded. 

2d. If acknowledged or proved without the Territory and within any 
State or Territory in the United States, by some judge or clerk of any court 
of the United States, or of any State or Territory, having a seal, or bv a 
notary public, or by a commissioner appointed by the Governor of this Ter- 
ritory for that purpose. 

3d. If acknowledged or proved without the United States, by some 
judge or clerk of any court of^any state, kingdom, or empire having a seal, 
or any notary public therein, or any minister, commissioner, or consul of 
the United Stales appointed to reside therein. 

When any of the officers above mentioned are authorized by law to 
appoint a deputy such acknowledgment or proof may be taken by any such 
deputy in the name of his principal. 

A married woman may convey any of her real estate, or any interest 
therein by conveyance thereof, executed, acknowledged and certified to in 
the same manner as other persons. 

Testimony, — Persons against whom judgment has been rendered upon 
a conviction for felony, unless pardoned by the Governor, or unless the 
judgemnt has been reversed on appeal, cannot api)ear as witnesses. 

A husband cannot be a witness for or against his wife, nor a wife for or 
a^inst her husband; nor can either, during the marriage or afterwards, be, 
without the consent of the other, examined as to any communication made 
by one to the other during the marriage. But this rule does not apply to 
an action or proceeding brought by one against the other. 

Divorce, — The probate courts have jurisdiction in divorce and alimony, 


and actions must be brought in the court for the county in which plaintiff 
resides. The petition for a bill of divorce must be in writing, upon oath or 
affiriuition, and must state clearly and specifically the causes on account of 
which the plaintiff seeks relief If the court is satisfied that the person so 
applying has been for one year next prior to the commencement of the pro- 
ceedings a resident of the count)', a divorce from the bonds of m itrimony 
will be decreed for any of the following causes: Impotency of the defendant 
at the time of m:irriage. Adultery committed by defendant subsequent to 
the time of marriage. Wilful desertion of his wife by the defendant, for 
morj thin a year. Habitual drunkenness of defendant. Conviction of 
defendant for felony, cruel treatment of plaintiff to the extent of causing 
great bodily or mental distress. 

No right of dower exists in this Territory. 

Frauduleni Conveyances. — Every conveyance of any real estate or 
interest in lands, or the rents or profits of lands, and every charge upon 
lands, or the rents, or profits thereof made or created with intent to defraud 
prior or subsecjuent purchasers thereof for a valuable consideration, is void 
as against such purchasers. 

All deeds of ^ift, all conveyances, transfers, or assignments, verbal or 
written, of goods, chattels, or things in action made in trust for the use for 
the person making the same is void as against the creditors existing or sub- 
sequent of such person. 

In the following cases every agreement is void, unless such agreement 
or even note or memorandum thereof expressing the consideration be in 
writing and subscribed by the party to be charged therewith : 

1st. Every agreement that by its terms is not to be performed within 
one year from the making thereof. 

2d. Every promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of 

3d. Every agreement, promise, or undertaking made upon considera- 
tion of marriage, except mutual promises to marry. 

Every contract for the sale of any goods, chattels or things in action, 
for the price of three hundred dollars or over, is void unless a note or mem- 
orandum of such contract be made in writing and subscribed by the parties 
to be cliarged therewith ; or unless the buyer shall accept or receive part of 
such gi)0(is, or the evidences, or some of them of such things in action; 
or unless the buyer shall at the time pay some part of the purchase money. 

Judgments. — In an action against several defendants, the court may 
render judgment against one or more of them, leaving the action to pro- 
ceed against the others whenever a several judgment is proper. If there 
be no answer to the complaint, the relief granted to the plaintiff shall in no 
case exceed that demanded in his complaint, but in any other case, the 
court may grant relief consistent with the case made by the complaint and 
embraced by the issue. 

Judgment may be had on the failure of defendant to answer the com- 
plaint — 

In an action arising upon the contract for the recovery of money or 
damages only, if no answer has been filed with the clerk of the court within 
the time specified in the summons or such further time as may have been 
granted by the court. 

In otner actions if no answer has been filed with the clerk of the court 
within the time specified in the summons, or such further time as may have 
been granted, the clerk shall enter the default of the defendant, and there- 
after the plaintiff may apply at the first or any subsequent term of the court 
for the relief demanded in the complaint. Where the action is for the 
recovery of damages in whole or in part the court may order the damages 
asscssei by a jury. 


Exeniiions, — Executions may issue from courts of record within three 
years from the rendition of judgment to the territorial marshal or the sheriff 
of the county. 

Executfons may issue to different counties at the same time. 

Executions may be made returnable at any time, not less than, nor 
more tlian ninety days after its receipt by the proper officer. 

Exemptions, — Chairs, tables, desks, and books, to the value of two 
hundred dollars; necessary household, table and kitchen furniture, wearing 
apparel, one bed and bedstead, and the necessary bedding for every two 
members of the family; provisions and fuel for sixty days; the farming 
utensils and implements ol husbandry, two oxen, horses or mules, and their 
harness; two cows and calves, with their food for ninety days; and one cart 
or wagon; the tools of a mechanic, the instruments ana chests of a surgeon, 
physician, surveyor, or dentist, with their scientific and professional 
libraries; the law library of an attorney; and the libraries of clergymen; the 
tent or cabin of a miner, and tools used in mining, to the value of two 
hundred dollars, not exceeding in value five hundred dollars, and provi- 
sions for sixty days; the team and cart or wagon of a person who earns 
his living by their labor, and their food for sixty days; the horse, harness, 
and vehicle of a physician, surgeon, or clergyman; the sewing machine in 
actual use by the debtor or his family; two hogs and all sucking pigs; one- 
half of the earnings of such debtor by his personal services for sixty days 
next preceding the levy; a homestead not exceeding in value one thousand 
dollars for the judgment debtor, and two hundred and fifty dollars for each 
other member of the family. 

The property of fire companies, etc., and the lot of land on which 
they are situated, parks, tremetery, and church property. 

No property owned by non-residents is exempt. 

Jurisdiction. — ^Justices* courts have jurisdiction of the following cases, 
where the amount involved does not exceed $300: 

Of an action arising on contract for the recovery of money only; of an 
action for damages for injury to the person or for taking or detaining 
personal property, or for injuring real or personal property; of an action for 
a fine, penalty, or forfeiture; of an action upon a surety, bond, or undertak- 
ing; of an action to recover the possession of personal property, and of suits 
for the collection of taxes. 

Of an action upon a bond conditioned for the payment of money of any 
sum less than $300, though the penalty exceed that sum; the judgment tofaie 
given for the sum actually due. When the payments are made by install- 
ments an action may be brought for each instalimant as it becomes due. 

Of actions for the possession of lands and tenements when the relation 
of landlord and tenant exists. 

Probate courts are courts of record, and have original jurisdiction in all 
matters relating to the settlement of the estates of decedents; in matters of 
guardianship; and in granting divorces and alimony. 

District courts are courts of record, and have exclusive original juris- 
diction in proceedings quo ivarranto^ mandamus, and in all suits or pro- 
ceeding in chancery; and in all actions at law. In all controversies where 
the title, possession, or boundaries of land, or mines, or mining claims shall 
be in dispute, whatever their value, except in actions for forcible entry, or 
forcible or unlawful detainer; in suits for divorce and o{ habeas corpus. 

The Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all cases of appeal and proceed- 
ings in error from the district courts. 

Liens. — Any person who shall, under contract from the owner, or his 
agent, of any building or other improvement, perform any labor upon or 
furnish any material for the construction or repairing of such buildine or 
improvement, shall have a lien upon such building or improvement, and the 


riyrht of possession of the ground upon which the same is situated, with 
right of way to and from the same. 

Any sub- contractor, journe)'man, or hiborer employed in the construc- 
tion or repairing of any building or other improvement, or in furnishing any 
material lor the same, may give the owner notice in writing, setting forth 
the amount of his claim and the service rendered for which his employer is 
indebted to him, and that he holds the owner responsible for the same, 
whereupon the owner of the building or other improvement shall be liable 
for the claim if indebted to the emi)loyer for the amount; if not, then for 
the amount due from him to the said em])loyer at the same time said notice 
was served. 

All common carriers have a lien upon any goods, wares, merchandise, 
or other property in their possession as such carriers for freight or transpor- 
tation thereof, including back charges \y<iid by such carriers to connecting 
lines. Any goods, wares, merchandise, or other property remaining in 
the possession of common carriers for six months may be sold at public 
auction to defray charges on the same on giving proper notice of sale. 

All baggage, goods, and effects of every person boarding or lodging at 
a hotel, inn, or boarding house shall be subject to the lien of such hotel, mn, 
or boarding house keeper for all such sums as shall at any time be due to 
the keeT:)er for l)oard or lodjjing from the owner on such baggage. Sales of 
such effects must be at public auction. 

Lunitations, — Actions to enforce mechanics' or laborers' lien must be 
brought within one year from the completion of work such mechanic or 
laborer was employed on. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, or the possession thereof, 
must be commenced within seven years from the date of losing such real 
property, or the possession thereof. 

Actions upon a judgment or decree of any court of record must be 
brought within ^\(t years. 

Actions upon any contract, obligation, or liability, founded on a written 
instrument, must be brought within four years. 

Actions for trespass upon real property, for taking, detaining, or 
injuring any goods or chattels, and for the recovery of personal property, 
must be brought within three years. 

Actions upon a contract, obligation or liability, not founded on an 
instrument of writing, on open account for goods or merchandise, must be 
brought within two years. Such accounts being barred item by item. In 
actions brought to recover a balance due upon a mutual open and current 
account, where there have been reciprocal demands between the parties, the 
<:ause of action shall be deemed to have accrued from the time of the last 
item proved in the account oa either side. 


The District School system is the i)0|)ul;ir method of education in Utah. 
There is no marked difTercnce between it and the systems in vogue else- 
where, save that a State or Territorial tiix is imposed. A ^iven number of 
sections of the public lands in the United States is secured for the benefit 
of common schools, or in sup])ort of the popular method in vogue in each 
State. These lands, while they are set apart all over the country, are only 
available in States, and thus it is that, where assistance is most needed in, the 
matter of education, as in Territories, assistance is unavailable; while a State, 
which has reached a degree of independence, influence and wealthy the help 
that was before needed only comes to hand when it is less necessary. These 
lands, which exist in Utah as elsewhere, are either rented or sold, and the 
rental or interest on the money is used to forward the common educational 
system In Utah, such aid being out of the question, the Territory 
is forced to step in and render what assistance it can. Notwithstanding such 
a condition — peculiar, however, to all Territories — educational work has 
always been urged forward in Utah, and the showing, a just comparison 
being made, is an enviable one. Mission work by denominational churches 
has been done, as will be seen by what follows. The result Is a healthy 
educational showing throughout the Territory, and the interest is growing 
rapidly with each recurring year. 


On the i6th day of Ootober, 1875, President Brighani Young deeded 
buildings and grounds situated in Provo City to a Board of Trustees, to be 
used for the establishment of a Latter-day Saints' institution of learning. 
In pursuance to a rc*solution adopted at the first meeting of the Trustees — 
that the provisions of the deed should at once be carried out — the first ses- 
sion of the Hrigham Young Academy began in January, 1876, with Professor 
W. N. Dusenberry as Principal. In April, of the same year, Professor 
Karl ( J. Maeser assumed permanently the position of Principal, though 
both this tenn and the preceding, are regarded as strictly preparatory, and 
the Academic period is considered as beginning August, 1876. From 
the date hist named till the present, the institution has held its constant 
stated sessions; and during this time the accommodations and tacilities have 
been greatly augmented to meet the demands made by the ever- increasing 
attendance; there l)eing, during the Academy year last past, students 
enrolled from every county of the Territory, as well as from Idaho, Ari- 
zona, Nevada and Nc\v Mexico. At first the institution included all grades 
of the ordinary school courses, as well as the Academic and Normal depart- 
ments; but necessity has since compelled the lower departments to be dis- 
continued. At present there are comprised, J^reparatory Department, (Fourth 
Reader grade), Intermediate Department, (Fifth Reader grade). Academic 
Department, Commercial Department, Normal Department; and in addition 
to these regular grades, a Musiciil Department, ancl a Ladies' Work Depart- 
ment. Efforts have been continuallv made to realize the wishes and intentions 
ol the donor — that facilities should be offered for training in the mechanical art 
as well as in strictly scholastic directions — but as yet no definite steps have 


been taken in that direction. The exercises of the Academy were con- 
ducted from the time of its foundation till January 27, 18S4, on the premises 
of the original endowment; but on the day last named all the buildings were 
totally destroyed by fire, together with a large portion of the furniture and 
other movable property oi the institution. Classes were conducte^.1 in 
private buildings till the close of the summer. At present, a commodious 
building is being rapidly fitted up for the ensuing Academic year, to answer 
temporarily. Plans are out and a splendid building is to be erected for the 
Academy on a new site, which is to be paid for by the subscriptions of the 

The organization of the original Board of Trustees is given below. In 
it no changes have occurred except those wrought by the hand of death, 
which has removed three: A. O. Smoot. President; Wilson H. Dusenberry, 
Harvey H. Clutf, Myron Tanner. William Bringhurst, Leonard E. Har- 
rington and Mrs. M. J. Coray, deceased. 

The Faculty at present is as follows: Karl G. Maeser. principal; Normal 
Department and Theology, fames E. Talmage; Scientific Course and 
Phonography, Benjamin Clurf, Jr.; Commercial Department and Mathe- 
matics, Nels L. Nelson; Academic Department and Language.*:, Josej)h B. 
Keeler; Intermediate Department, Willard Done; Preparatory Department, 
Ferdinand Lara; Spanish and Drawing, Zina Y. Williams. The Ladies* 
Department has not been filled for the ensuing year. The Musical Depart- 
ment Ls, as yet, unfilled. The excellent system enforced at this academy ; 
the reasonable tuition fee asked ; the cheap living and the many advantages 
offered by Provo for such an institution, have won for the Provo B. Y. 
Academy an enviable reputation, such as insures long life and the power to 
do much good — the conditions at present operating, remaining in force 
hereafter, as they assuredly will. 


This Educational Commission has schools not only in Utah, but also in 
Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. In Utah it has under its super- 
vision and control, more or less, academies at Salt Lake City, Ogden, Park 
City and Lehi. Tributary to and feeders for these academies are schools at 
the following places: 

Provo, Utah County — Teacher, Miss E. M. Clapp. 

Sandy, Salt Lake County — Teacher, Miss Gertrude Sampson, 

Bingnam, Salt I^ke County — Teacher, Miss E. S. Robinson. 

Stockton, Tooele County — Teacher, Miss E. J. Colby. 

Burlington School, Salt Lake City — Teacher, Mrs. H. M. Scruton. 

Plymouth School, Salt Lake City — Teacher, Miss Anna Baker. 

Pilgrim School, Salt Lake City — Teacher, Miss M. M. Winslow. 

Bountiful, Davis County — Teacher, Miss Jennie Claflin. 

Centreville, Davis County — Teacher, Miss Carrie Peebles. 

Farmington, Davis County — Teacher, Miss S. J. Leester. 

Hooper, Weber County — Teachers, Miss H, M. Loomis and Abbey E. 

Lynne, Weber County — Teacher, Miss Stella F. Hutchins, 

Trenton, Cache County — Teacher, Miss Carrie W. Hunt. 

Oxford, Idaho — Teacher, Miss Virginia Dox. 

South Weber, Weber County — Teacher, Miss M. D. Shute. 

Morgan, Morgan County — Teacher, S. C. Hervey. 

Hennefer, Summit County — Teacher, Miss Anna Ruel. 

Echo, Summit County — Teacher, Grace A. T. Wilson. 

Coalville, Summit County — Teacher, Miss Rhoda O. Beard. 

Hoytsville — Teacher, Miss Abby J, Benedict. 

Wanship, Summit County — Teacher, Miss Clara Lancaster. 


Oak Creek — Teacher, Miss Vesta Bridges. 

Heber, Wasatch County — Teacher, Miss A. L. Steele. 

Midway, Wasatch County — Teacher. Miss E. R. Abbott. 

During the academic year just closed, the Ogden Academy was under 
charge of Professor H. W. Rung, with Mrs. V. W. Ludden as assistant. 

Park City Academy under Professor D. W. Bartlctt and MLss Alicir 

Lehi Academy under Miss A. M. Warren, assisted by Mrs. L. P. Ross 
and Miss Adelaide Cooley. 

The Commission has during the year had under its teachers about 2,000 
pupils. Part of its schools are free and in part tuition is recjuired. 

Mr. Isaac Huse is agent for Utah of the Commission, whose labors are 
associated with the missionar}^ work of the Congregational Church in Utah. 


** Rowland Hall, a Home School for Girls,*' is operated as a school by 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. It is situated in the Eighteenth Ward of 
Salt Lake City in a large building, and is a l>oarding scho<jl for girls. The 
situation is a very desirable one in every respect. The design of the school 
is for the convenience of those who desire to give their daughters a finished 
education without sending them to the East; and it is claimed that Rowland 
Hall has been established with advantages equal to those of schools of the 
same character in the States. The school was commenced in 1880 and has 
been very successful; students coming from States and Territories adjoining 
Utah. Rt. Rev. D. S. Tuttle, S. T. D., is Rector; Rev. G. D. B. Miller. 
A. M., Head Master; Miss Lucia M. Marsh, principal; Miss Isabella E. 
Douglas, natural science and history'; Miss Julia E. Blakelee, mathematics: 
Miss C. E. Hayde^, principal preparatory and primary department; Professor 
T. Radcliffe, Miss Abby S. Marsh, piano: Mrs. J. F. Hamilton, vocal 
culture; Madame Fitzgerald, PVench; Mrs. A. Meier, German; Miss Abby 
Marsh, drawing and painting. 


This educational institution has been in operation several years and has 
grown very rapidly. It is an academy wnder the direction of the Presbyterian 
mission work in Utah. The Institute is a large two-story brick structure 
north of, and in close proximity to the Presbyterian Church. The school is 
thoroughly graded in four departments, and carries the course of study far 
enough to prepare young men for the best eastern colleges. Several of its 
students have graduated with high honor from the College of New Jersey, at 
Princeton. Ste{)s are being taken to put the institution on a college basis. 
It has the'following corps of instructors: John Kl. Coyner, Ph. D., Super- 
intendent and Professor of Mathematics; J. F. Millspaugh, A.M., Professor 
of German and Natural Science; William Boyle, A.M., Professor of Ancient 
Lan^iages and Belles Lettres; Miss E. J. Kelly, Botany, Elocution and 
Music; Miss M. E. Moore, Grammar Department: Mrs. S. A. Dall, Inter- 
mediate Department; Mrs. M. W. Coyner, Primary Department. There 
have been 245 pupils in attendance during the year 1883-4. The Board is 
preparing to open a large Kindergarten department in .September. Miss 
Sadie Reed and Mrs. William Boyle have charge of the West Side school, in 
two departments, which has enrolled during the year over 100 pupils. 

The Presbyterian denomination has schools m thirty-one other towns in 
the Territory, employing 47 teachers and educating about 1,900 pupils, 
making in all 56 teachers, 33 schools and about 2,200 pupils. Ic costs the 
denomination for this educational work over $25,000 a year more than it 
receives inside the Territory. 

The names of teachers are as follows: American Fork, Misses Clara 


Pierce and Laura Simons; Box Elder, Miss Mary A. Dayton; Cedar City, 
Miss Eliza Hartford; Ej)hraim, Miss S. C. Rea; Eillmorc, Miss M. E. 
Campbell and Miss Knox; Gunnison, Miss Clara Sanford ; Hyrum, Miss 
Carrie Nutting; Kavsville, Miss Ella McDonald; Lo^an, Mrs. C. M. Parks 
and Mrs. M. A. Shirley ; Manti, Misses Fannie Galbraith and Capitola 
Slade; Marysvale, Miss Maria Fishback ; Millville, Miss Nannie J. Hall: 
Monroe, Miss Carrie C. Decker: Moroni, Miss Sadie L. Brown; Mount 
Pleasant, Miss Mary Crowell and Miss Lottie E. Leonard ; Nephi, Miss Lucie 
L. Lockwood; O^den, Misses Vauf^hn and Flora Campbell: Parowan, Misses 
L. J. Morton and Josie Curtis : Payson, Misses Florence C. Morse and Anna 
L. Burlin; Pleasant Grove, Misses Laura B. Work and Lulu I vie; Richfield, 
Miss Julia A. Olmstead; Richmond, Miss Jennie McGintie; Salt Lake, Prof. 

i. M. Coyner, Prof. J. F. Millspaugh, Prof. William Boyle, Misses E. J. 
Celley and ^L E. Moore, Mrs. John Dull, Mrs. M. W. Coyner, Miss Sadie 
Reed and Mrs. William Boyle ; Scipio. Miss Maggie A. Ramsay ; Smithfield, 
Miss Woodruff; Spanish Fork, Miss Lucy B. Perley; Springville, Misses 
Eugenic Manger and Tillie Wray: St. George, Mrs. A. E. Blackburn; 
Toquerv^ille, Miss Fannie Burke ; Washington, Sirs. A. S. Mitchell ; Wells- 
ville, Miss Kate Best. 


While the Salt Lake Academy is identified in large measure with the 
work of the New West Educational Commission, it has a history outside the 
work of that organization. The Board of Trustees to found the Salt Lake 
Academy was organized in 1873, the idea being that an educational institu- 
tion would facilitate the work of the Congregational Church in Utah. Three 
rooms were added to Independence Hall — then and still used as the Congre- 
gational Church — ^at a cost of $1,500. The academy opened September 9th, 
of 1878, as an adjunct or feeder of the Colorado College, with Professor E. 
Benner as principal, and John D. S. Riggs and Miss Fanny C. Adams as 
assistants. The academy soon had an attendance of 1,800. In the year 
following, 1879, some of the scholars now included in the list under the 
work of the New W^est Educational Commission were as an outgrowth of 
the academy. In the .second year R. M. Barrows and Miss Alice M. Keith 
were Mr. Benner*s assistants. In the third year Marcus E. Jones became 
teacher of botany in the academy. The institution grew with increasing 
rapidity, and the old accommodations were found to be inadequate. The 
Board of Trustees, in 1881, purchased a suitable spot of ground on the 
comer of Third South and Third I^ist Streets, and the Hammond Hall 
was erected thereon. In September of 1883 the Salt Lake Academy began 
operations in its new building, with Professor E. Benner as principal, and 
Professor C. E. Allen, Miss Mina L. Van Voorhis, Mrs. Kate M. Ashley, 
Miss Minnie Emerson and Miss Lizzie Almy as assistants. By December of 
this year the enrollment numbered 240. The course of the institution is 


This school was opened on September 3d, 1880, w^ith twenty pupils, by 
Mrs. Marcus E. Jones, who was a graduate and afterwards active lady 
principal of Iowa College. Being the only school of its kind in the city, 
and the only one using Kindergarten methods in the instruction of older 
pupils it grew rapidly. In Ma^, 1882, the school was moved to 133 W. 
Fifth South street, where it remained till April, 1884. It had then outgrown 
its accommodations, the attendance numbering about fifty, and was moved 
to the Jewish Synagogue on the corner of Third South and First West. 
The attendance nearly doubled at once, three teachers being employed. 
The Kindergarten material and work are always open for inspection. 


The school is also thoroughly graded from the smallest Kindergartens up 
to those who are prepared to enter any fii-st class college in the Ciist. 
Special facilities are oftered those who wish to pursue professional studies in 
any of the natural sciences. Industrial classes are organized for older pupils. 
Scholars from a distance are cared for specially. 


This school is located in Salt Lake City, near the corner of Main and 
Third South streets, and is under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, as a mission school. It was first opened as the Rocky Mountain 
Seminary September 12, 1870, by Rev. E. Smith. It gained rapidly in 
favor and influence, and for a time its permanent success .seemed assured; 
but by reason of untoward circumstances it lost its prestige and reached a 
very low ebb and was abandoned. However, under the pastorate of Rev. 
H. D. Fisher, D. D., it was reopened in 1879, and has smce been growing 
slowly in popular favor. The large Methodist Church has been remodelled 
and provides pleasant recitation rooms. The new wing of a proposed 
college building htus been completed and is devoted to the boarding depart- 
ment exclusively. The following departments are sustained: Primary, inter- 
mediate, grammar, academic, college preparatory, art and music. A full 
corps of teachers is employed as here given : Professor T. W. Lincoln, A. 
M., Rev. G. M. Jeffrey, A. M., Mrs. T. W. Lincoln, Miss A. C. Sowles, 
Miss E. R. Anderson, Mrs. G. M. Peirce, Mrs. W. B. Wilson, Mr. Leon- 
ard. The denomination also has schools and teachers as follows: Teachens — 
Beaver, Mrs. Brock and Miss Woodhouse; Ogden, Rev. A. W. Adkinson, 
principal; Mrs. K. Updegraff and Mrs. Martha Skewes; Provo, Rev. E. 
Smith and Miss Dakin; Salt Lake, Rev. T. C. Iliff, superintendent, Pro- 
fessor T. W. Lincoln, Rev. G. M. Jeffrey and Misses A. C. Sowles, E. R. 
Anderson and A. M. Locke; Tooele, Rev. J. D. Gillilan. Scandinavian 
Teachers — Salt Lake, Mart. Nelson, principal; Miss E. L. Anderson. 

ST. Mary's academy. 

This is a day and boarding school for young ladies, and has been very 
popular in years past, and is to-day. A brick building is the Academy, 
situated on First West street, in Salt Lake City, between First and Second 
South streets. It is a Catholic institution and is under the charge of the 
principal pastor. The Faculty is composed entirely of Sisters, and the work 
done m all directions, calculated to fit young ladies for admission into society 
and into more thorough details of the arts and sciences, has been very 
successful. It is looked upon as the most successful institution of the kind 
in the west. Sister M. Joseph is Superior. The number of boarders during 
the last academic year was 25 ; day scholars, 50. 

ST. Joseph's school for small boys 

is operated by the same Faculty and on the same general principles as the 
school above. While the school is a Catholic denomination, the religious 
views of that churcli are not forced upon those of different faiths ; and for 
this reason it draws largely from sources that are not Catholic. There is 
also a Catholic school of importance in Ogden, the Sacred Heart ; one at 
Park City, St. Mary's, Sister Elise Superior, at which the attendance is 150; 
and St. John's, at Silver Reef, the attendance being 40, with Sister Regis 

Other denominational schools exist in different parts of the Territory, 
but as a rule, they are branches, and will be found referred to with the place 
to which they belong. 




This school was founded in 1S67. It was instituted for the purpose pf 
supplying in a limited degree the want of free schools in this city, by admit- 
ting without charge the children of such as are unable to pay tuidon. The 
aim of the school is to give a thorough and practical English education, pre- 
paring for any station m life. The graduating course conforms to that of 
public high schools and academies. A library is connected with the school 
called the Spencer-Smith Library, in commemoration of the late Spencer 
Smith, of Missouri, by the beneficence of whose widow 150 volumes were 
donated, and the nucleus of a library formed. It contains at present some 
650 volumes, and is open for the scholars and teachers of the school free; to 
others, at $5 per annum. 

Books for the library and specimens for the cabinet solicited. Through 
the liberality of the citizens of Salt Lake City, and by means of the proceeds 
of the exhibitions given by the pupils, a philosophical apparatus has been 
added to the school, at a cost of nearly $500. 

The religious teachings have always been the doctrines as held and 
taught in the faith and practice of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States. No religious standing is recjuired to gain admission. 

The body of directors is: Rt. Rev. D. S. Tuttle, D. D., President; Rev. 
R. M. Kirby, Vice-President; Rev. G. D. B. Miller, Secretary; William H. 
Shearman, Howard Sebree, G. Y. Wallace, Boyd Park, Frederick Auerbach 
and Henry W. Lawrence. 

ST. mark's school for girls. 

This school was established in the year 1871, and is subject to the same 
direction and denominational influence as the Grammar School. Its aims 
are to furnish a solid and thorough education, and maintain a standard of 
efficiency to meet the wants of its patrons. Boys under 1 2 years of age are 
received. The school, in the Sunday School rooms of St. Mark's Chuich, 
contains three ample apartments, provided with comfortable school furniture. 
The object aimed at is to so develop the physical, mental and moral abilities 
of the pupils as to train healthy, companionable and self-reliant Christian 
women. Verj'- few rules of government are laid down, it being the endeavor 
to instruct the conscience, to instil just principles of action, and cultivate a 
love of doing right, making government easy by teaching the pupils to 

fovern themselves. The studies conform as far as possible to those m St. 
lark's Grammar School, and pupils passing through the required course 
receive diplomas. 


July 24, 1877, President Brigham Young, deceased, deeded to a Board 
of Trustees a tract of land consisting of 9,642 7-100 acres, situated south of 
Logan City, the rents, profits and issues of said tract to be used for the 
support of an institution of learning to be known as the Brigham Young 

The deed of trust states that " the beneficiaries of the College shall be 
members in good standing in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, or the children of such members, and the students who take a full 
course shall be taught, if their physical ability permit, some branch of 
mechanism that shall be suitable to their taste and capacity — and all pupils 
shall be instructed in reading, penmanship, orthography, gnimmar, geogra- 
phy, and mathematics, together with such other branches as are usually 
taught in an institution of learning. And the Old and New Testament, 
Book of Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants, shall be standard text books 
in the College ; and further, no book shall be used that misrepresents or 


speaks lightly of the Divine mission of our Savior, or the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, or in any manner advances ideas antagonistic to the principles of the 
gospel as it is taught in the Bible, Book of Mormon, and Doctrine and Cov- 

The parties named in the deud of trust met August 7, 1877, accepted 
the trust and organized as a Board, with the following officers: Brig ham 
Young, Jr., President; M. D. Hammond, Treasurer; Miss I. I. Cook, Sec- 

Although President Young had been very anxious to have the college 
opened in September, 1877,' and to that end had arranged for a building 
which could" be used for school and boarding institution, owing to the 
unavoidable delay in renting the land and the transaction of business before 
any income from the land could be handled, it was not opened until September 
9, 1878. The Board rented rooms in the Logan City Hall, where the 
college was opened, with Miss Ida I. Cook as Principal. During the year 
1878-9, seventy-one pupils were enrolled. During the year 1879-80 the 
attendance w?.s 198, ol which forty-nine were of primer and first reader grade, 
admitted for the purpose of giving normal students practical experience 
under supervision of the principal. Rhetoric, natural philosophy', physiol- 
ogy. United States history, bookkeeping, algebra and ancient history were 
added to the subjects enumerated in the deed of trust, and the services of 
W. H. Appcrly engaged for three quarters of the year. 

The enrollment for the year 18S0-81, was 160 pupils, lowest grade, 
Fourth Reader. Mr. H. Cummin^, assistant. 

The endowment designed for the support of the college could 
not at once be made to yield revenue sufficient to justify the carr>'ing out of 
the wishes of the Trustees in respect to capacity and facility, and as regards 
other matters. The growth, however, has been very rapid all things considered ; 
and to-day the college rests on a broad and solid foundation. In the summer 
of 1883 work on the new college building was commenced, one of the best 
possible locations for the purpose having been secured. The building is of 
modern design, and while centrally located, is yet retired and peculiarly 
adapted to the purpose for which it was chosen. The cut published here- 
with gives an excellent idea of the structure as it stands at present, though 
but one wing is completed — the east. The west wing is yet to be finish^, 
while the centre — most imposing and most costly portion — is also untouched, 
but will be constructed as occasion and the attendance of pupils demand it. 
The portion already completed affords ample accommodation for immediate 
and demands likely to be felt for near period. The construction of the 
remainder of the building, when necessity requires it, will not entail any 
great additional cost, while its absence does not attract attention from any 
absence of symmetry or completeness on the part of that now standing. 
The college is situated on the brow of a hill skirting the principal part of 
Logan on the south side. Near it, the Logan River breaks into two streams 
and forms what is termed *'The Island,*' now being built up rapidly. The 
site of the college commands a magnificent view of the mountains to the east, 
of the Logan River, and of the valley on the south and west, while the north of 
the whole valley is open to view, and a scene commanding admiration 
reveals itself from the top of the building. It is expected the cost 
of this wing will be $20,000, and it is to be opened the approaching 
September. It will have a capacity for 300 pupils, and will undoubt- 
edly be well and numerously attended for a variety of reasons. The 
grades run from the intermediate to the academic or collegiate, the 
tuition fee ranging from $6 to $12 per quarter, including all branches taught. 
Food is unusually cheap ; the city is one of the most ple.isant and healthiest 
in the Territory ; and tne College is located in the centre of a large, a very 
prosperous and a rapidly growing country. It is certain to oecome a 


Splendid institution with a wide and popular reputation. Its ground dimen- 
sions are 36x70 feet, and it contains the equivalent of four stories. The 
l^asement will contain a kitchen, dining-room, bath rooms, laboratories for 
boys and girls, and the heating apparatus. The two stories above will be 
used for recitation and study apartments. D. C. Young is the architect. 

Students, to gain admission, must be at least 15 years old and healthful, 
in addition to the other conditions. Those who do not live in Logan City 
are required to board at the College and be under the direction of the 
Faculty, so that a strict observance of the rules may be enforced, and in 
order that parents may be satisfied that their children will be properly 
watched. Every price is put at the min'mum in order to give every possi- 
ble advantage to the pupil ; and to make the cost come as light as possible. 

The primary departments have been discontinued, they being no longer 
neccessary to the success of the College, while the extensive country, for 
which Logan is a central point, will afford an abundance of material for the 
College, while the confidence of the people, strong in this institution, and 
likely to grow with each succeeding year, will make it popular and successful 
from the day of its opening in the new structure. 

The course complete is four years, divided into preparatory and aca- 
demic periods. The first year studies embrace arithmetic, grammar, 
geography, reading, spelling and defining, writing and composition. The 
second year, in addition to the above, embraces United States history, draw- 
ing, writing, composition and familiar talks on elementary science. 

The academic course for the first year provides instructions in algebra, 
Knglish analyses, physical geography, elocution and bookkeeping, compo- 
sition, geometry, zoology, physiology, natural philosophy and mineral 
geography. In the second year of the academic course the studies are 
iistronomy, universal history, rhetoric and English chemistry, mental and 
moral philosophy, Constitution of the United States and civil government. 

In addition to these studies, there arc special instructions in theology, 
in Spanish, F'rench, German and Latin, in music and drawing, and in 
industricU pursuits. Every detail has been carefully provided for, and those 
who enter do so conditionally upon the faithful observance of rules calculated 
to insure good order, discipline, the best results iis to studies and the pro- 
motion of good morals. The Board of Trustees chosen by President Brignam 
Young is the same to-day. Vacancies are to be filled by the heirs of Presi- 
dent Young and the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. The present board is composed of Apostles Brigham Young and 
Moses Thatcher, Presiding Bishop of the Church, W. B. Preston, Miss I. I. 
Cook, George W. Thatcher, Esq., President of Cache .Stake, C. O. Card, 
and Bishop M. D. Hammond. 




This is the State institution of learning in Utah. It is entitled to the 
benefit of governmental appropriations of public lands, but up to date has 
been unable to realize this aid, for which reason the Territory has been com- 
pelled to give assistance. There are set apart for the University of the 
Territory, by the United States government, two townships, or 46,080 acres 
of land. Tnis land has been selected, but a previous Commissioner of the 
Land Office held that these lands could only be utilized when the Territory 
became a State. A later Commissioner holds a different view, and asserts 
there is nothing in the law making the donation which prevents the imme- 
diate realization of the lands to the use of the University ; provided the 
Territorial Legislature passes an act to the effect that the rentals from these 
lands, or proceeds from sales, shall go to the maintenance of the University 
of Deseret. This endowment, when it is secured, will place the institution 
on a footing above and beyond the power of individuals to harm. 

On the 28th of February, £850, about two years and a half subsequent 
to the settlement of this Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the then 
Provisional Government passed an act incorporating the '* University of the 
State of Deseret." This act, among others of the Provisional Government, 
was ratified by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, October 
4th, 1 85 1. According to the charter thus obtained, all authority in respect 
to property, government and administration was vested in a Chancellor and 
Board of twelve Regents, elected by the Legislature, who, as provided, 
were to hold office for the term of one year and until their successors were 
qualified. The first meeting of the Board of Regents, presided over by 
Chancellor Orson Spencer, was held March I3lh. 1850. At this meeting 
three members were appointed as a committee to select, in connection with 
the Governor, a site for the University building, and also locations for houses 
for primary schools. From this initiative action of the Board it may be 
inferred that its powers were more comprehensive than what seem to be 
defined in the charter, or even implied in the name University, for it is not 
customary that universities have jurisdiction over primary schools. Cir- 
cumstances, however, are sometimes made to interpret the most definite 
enactments. And as, at this time, no Common School law had been passed 
by the Legislature, and as the future patronage of the institution would . 
depend in a great measure on the existence of preparatory schools, the 
Board might very reasonably assume an active interest in their establish- 
ment. Moreover, subsequent legislation plainly shows that jurisdiction in 
some degree over Common Schools was intended to be given to the Uni- 
versity;forin the act of the Legislature of Utah approved October 4th, 1851, 
the Chancellor and Board of Regents of the University of Deseret were 
authorized to appoint a superintendent of primary schools, to be under their 
supervision and discretionary control, and to award him such salary for his 
services, at the expense of the Territory, as they might deem expedient, 
providedy such salary should not exceed $1 ,000 per annum. That the Legis- 
lature, when incorporating the University, had mainly in view a practical 
msHtuiian of learning, is indicated by one section of the charter, appropri- 
ating $5,000 annually for its support; and it can signify nothing contrary to 
this idea that this section was subsequently repealed when a separate pro- 
vision had been made for common schools and the patronage of higher 
education was found to be very limited. 

^ On the second Monday in November following its incorporation, the 
University was for the first time opened for the reception of students under 
the name of the " Parent School." Dr. Cyrus Collins was placed in charge, 
but was succeeded during the same year by Professor Orson Spencer, M. A., 
and W. W. Phelps. Owing, however, to the immature condition of its 


finances, as well as the limited patronage it received, notwithstanding it had 
been made a free school institution, the department of instruction was soon 
discontinued, the " University '' continuing for many years in abeyance and 
having but a nominal existence until November, 1867. The department was 
then reorganized under the supervision of Mr. D. O. Calder, but was con- 
ducted chiefly as a Commercial College until the 8th of March, 1869, when, 
under the superintendence of Dr. John R. Park, a graduate of the New 
York University, it received newness of life and was rapidly organized for 
scientific and classical instruction. 

Upon the resignation of Mr. Calder, Dr. Park, having been elected bv 
the Board of Regents to succeed as principal, opened the school with 
additional courses of study, making in all fivt, viz. : commercial, prepara- 
tory, normal, scientific and classical. The patronage, however, during the 
first year, which amounted to 223 students, male and female, was divided 
chiefly among the commercial, preparatory and scientific courses, the clas- 
sical course being too advanced for any preparation found among the 
students, and the business of teaching not having attained sufficient promi- 
nence as a profession, or legitimate calling, to encourage manv to make it 
an object of special training. At this time a preparatory or Model School, 
as it was then called, was organized with the double purpose of supplying a 
graded course that might fit pupils for entering any of the more advanced 
courses of study in the institution, and to afford the means of exhibitine the 
best methods of teaching, discipline and classification in connection with the 
Normal Department of the University, the principles taught therein being 
practically illustrated and an opportunity given to Normal students for 
observation. This school was divided into three departments of three grades 
each — primary, intermediate and academic — and proved to be a valuable 
adjunct to the University. 

The number of pupils was more than doubled the second year, aggre- 
gating 546, of whom 307 were males and 239 females. During this year 
Professor Karl G. Maeser was added to the Faculty as German professor, O. 
H. Riggs as professor of Mathematics, and C. L. Bellerive as professor of 
French. F. D. Benedict, M.D., took the chair of analytical chemistry and 
metallurgy, and Professor John Morgan assumed the charge of the Com- 
mercial Department. During the third year the number of pupils increased 
to 580, with a slight excess of females. 

In the fall of 1873 the primary and intermediate divisions, being thought 
no longer necessary for the patronage of the institution, were abandoned, 
since which time three courses — a preliminary, a scientific and classical pre- 
paratory — have been successfully conducted and encouragingly patronized. 

In accordance with the provisions of the charter, a beneficiary founda- 
tion is connected with the University, youth of both sexes who are unable to 
bear the cost of tuition being admitted /ree of charge y on application to the 
President of the Faculty. A daily record is kept of all the students in such 
a way as to afford a full exhibit of their habits in regard to attendance and 
regularity and punctuality in their duties. The government of the institu- 
tion is mild, yet decided and firm, seeking to maintain harmony and pre- 
serve order rather by an inculcation of the principles of morality, honor and 
self-respect, than by the infliction of punishment. In the departments, 
especially of modern languages and chemistry, every effort is made to 
render these studies as practical and interesting as possible. The laboratory' 
is well supplied: practical instruction in qualitative and quantitative anal^'ses 
being given by Professor Kingsbury. The mathematical, philosophical and 
chemical apparatus in possession of the University, costing several thousand 
dollars, is sufficiently complete to illustrate, with a good degree of fulness, 
the subjects of natural science, and a cabinet containing several hundred 
specimens forms a valuable aid to illustration in this important department. 


Literary societies are organized among the students, for training in 
Oratory, debate, composition and parliamentary usage. The library which 
President Park has attached to this institution, and which forms one of its 
most attractive features, already comprises some 3,300 volumes of standard 
and miscellaneous works, while the tables of the reading room are furnished 
with the principal popular and scientific journals and periodicals. 

The aim of the conductors of the University has been and is to make it 
an institution suited to the current needs of the community, so that whatever 
high purposes may be implied in its name, they will only be approximated 
or reached practically as demand is made for advanced education. While 
the facilities of the University now exceed any it has heretofore offered, and 
are fully equal, it is believed, to present requirements, further advancement 
only awaits the certain growth of encouraging sentiment and the material 
prosperity of the country. 

A department of instruction has been established in connection with the 
University of Deserct for the purpose of giving special training to such 
students as may design to teach in the common schools of the Territory. 
The want of competent teachers for our schools has been sorely felt, and 
the demand for them at present cannot be fully met. The essential pro- 
fessional training for teachers is provided for by the establishment of a 
normal department in connection with the University. The department 
provides a two years* course, the special study being the theory and practice 
of teaching. The studies in the first year are, vocal music, penmanship, 
geography, grammar, bookkeeping, arithmetic, orthography and punctu- 
ation, reading and elocution; in the second year, free-hand drawing, physics, 
rhetoric, psychology, zoology, civil government, botany, geology and history 
of 'civilization. 

Besides the Normal, there are also Preliminary, Winter, Scientific and 
Qassical Preparatory courses. The Preliminary course embraces all the 
common school studies and a successful examination in each must be passed 
before the student can graduate in any of the other departments; while the 
successful examination in the Preliminary course is the test by which the 
scholar gains admission to the Scientific and Classical Preparatory courses. 
The Scientific course (which includes Latin and German) embraces studies, 
to complete which and graduate, requires four years of constant study. 
This is the time usually allotted in the best institutions of the country. Not 
only have new studies been introduced, but those formerly included have 
been so extended as to give the student as complete information on the 
various subjects as can be expected in such a course, without making spe- 
cialties of them. Every effort has been made to arrange the course so as to 
place the studies in the natural order, and thus each new one becomes in 
part a review and supplement of the study just completed. But in cases 
where no such natural relation exists, the studies have been so arranged 
that when a knowledge of one will be of any assistance to the aquisition 
of another, the order in which they occur will secure this end. When the 
student has passed a successful examination in all the studies of this course, 
he will have conferred upon him the degree of Bachelor of Science and will 
receive a diploma. 

The Wmter Course is specially arranged with a view to the accommo- 
dation of students who can attend school during the winter months only. 

The Classical Course is intended to prepare students for entering the 
freshman year of any of our best classical institutions. While this object is 
a primary one, and has served as a basis for the selection and arrangement 
of it<5 studies, still the course is complete in itself. It furnishes an amount 
of Latin and Greek sufficient for ordinary philological purposes, and of 
great practical utility in the study and application of the sciences, as well as 
in the study and pursuit of the higher professions. 


Prior to 1880, efforts were made to secure from the Legislature an 
appropriation with which to purchase suitable grounds and to erect a build- 
ing for university purposes. The effort was partially successful, and the 
sum of $20,000 was appropriated for the object named. This amount 
being scarcely more than sufficient to purchase the necessary grounds, 
an appeal was made to the Municipal Council of Salt Lake City for 
aid in this direction. The result was a generous donation to the institu- 
tion for university purposes, of the finest public square in the city. 
The appropriation from the Legislature, or the greater part of it, was 
immediately expended towards the erection of the new building, which it 
raised to the height of the basement story. It was confidently expected 
that an amount sufficient to complete the building would be appropriated by 
the Legislature at its next session, in 1882, but a bill for that purpose failed 
to receive the Governor's approval. The officers of the institution were 
thus left without means to continue the work begun. In view of the facts 
that the school was suffering through the want of sufficient room to accom- 
modate its students and to carry on its work of instruction, and that the 
unfinished building was in danger of waste and destruction through exposure 
and want of care, and that the entire grounds donated conditionally by the 
city, together with the work done upon the building, were liable to forfeiture, 
they determined to make an effort to raise means to relieve these unfortunate 
conditions. In this effort they were successful. By loans and voluntary 
contributions from citizens, a sufficient amount was raised to erect the entire 
walls and roof the building in, and even to prepare two rooms in it to 
accommodate a large class of students during the winter just passed. It was 
again hopefully expected that the Legislative appropriation would come to 
the reliel of the institution in 1884, and not only re-imburse those 
citizens who had so generously contributed to aid the institution, but pro- 
vide a sufficient fund to complete the structure. Executive disapproval, how- 
ever, of a bill for that purpose has again left the school without that much- 
needed support. .Nevertheless, the chancellor and regents have decided to 
go on with the work of constructing the building and to look for a material 
endorsement of their course from those who favor liberal education and free 
institutions. The new building, therefore, will be occu|)ied by the school 
at the beginning of the academic year of 1884-5, though not more than a 
sufficient number of rooms for this purpose will be completed. 

The attendance at one time last year was 290, and it is steadily growing. 
The new structure, a cut of which is here ^iven, will accommodate a larger 
number, and provision for additional room was necessary in view of the 
rapid increase made yearly in the attendance. F'oUowing are the chancellor 
and board of regents: 

Chancellor, George Q. Cannon; Board of Regents — William Jennings, 
James Sharp, Robert T. Burton, David O. Calder, John T. Caine, Horace 
S. Eldredge, George J. Taylor, John R. Park, Joseph F. Smith, Feramorz 
Littie, Henry Dinwoodey, L. John Nuttall. 

Faculty and Board of hisiruction. — ^John R. Park, M. D., President, 
English Language, and Theory and Practice of Teaching; Joseph B. 
Toronto, Ancient Languages, Mathematics, and History; Joseph T. Kings- 
bury, Physics and Chemistry; Orson Howard, B. S., Zoology and Botany; 
Joshua H. Paul, Elocution and Grammar; George M. Ottingcr, Free-Hand 
Drawing; Evan Stephens, Music; Joseph L. Rawlins, Law; Don Carlos 
Young, C. E., Architecture and Mechanical Drawing; Alfred Andre, 


At the last session of the Utah Legislature an appropriation was made 
to the University of Deseret to assist in establishing in connection with the 


Institution a department for the reception of students on August 18, 1884. 
It cannot yet be definitely announced to what extent instruction and train- 
ing will be carried in the department. The provision to be made in this 
respect will depend upon the probable patronaj^e the school will receive at 
the commencement of, or during the year, of which nothing is yet definitely 
known. It is quite probable, however, that two classes will be organizea, 
one of children, say those under fourteen years of age, who have had but 
little or no instrucnon of any kind ; the other, of those over fourteen years 
of age, who have acquired some facility in communication and who may 
have some knowledge of the common branches of study. It is hardly 
probable that at present or during the first year, instruction will extend 
beyond training the pupils in methods of ready communication, and giving 
them some knowledge of the elementary branches of study as taught in the 
common school, that is, reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, geography, 
and grammar. Parents or guardians of deaf-mutes and others interested in 
behalf of any of this class of persons, who wish to avail themselves of this 
provision in the University in behalf of their wards or friends, should com- 
municate with the President of the University at once, giving the name, 
age, and sex of the deaf-mute, and stating whether or not he or she has 
received any education, and if so, to what extent, and such other informa- 
tion as may seem important. The Institution provides only instruction for 
the pupils, so that the parent or guardian must see that they have suitable 
boarding places and other necessary facilities while attending the school. It 
is proposed, however, to establish a boarding place or home for the pupils 
of this department to be under the strict surveillance, if not control, of the 
officers of the University, and to have the teachers of the deaf-mute classes 
also live there with their pupils. This arrangement, if effected, will be of 
great advantage to the pupils, since they will be under the constant care and 
tuition of their teachers, and so be secure, in a great measure, from any evil 
influence that it might not be in the power of the University otherwise to 
prevent. This plan carried out will also avoid the inconvenience that must 
be incident to a mute associated with those with whom he can have little or 
no communication; and, at the same time, it will no doubt, considerably 
reduce the ordinary cost of board. However, before any definite steps can 
be taken in this direction by the officers of the University, they must know 
how many will probably avail themselves of the arrangement if made. The 
President of the Institution, therefore, should be advised at once on this 
point. It will be understood now, from what has been said, that this provision 
m the University for deaf-mutes is not for an asylum to support the unfor- 
tunates, nor to furnish them medical treatment, but is for a school for their 
instruction only. Candidates for admission into the department should be 
of ordinary intelligence and constitutional vigor, as no one will be received 
who is imbecile or idiotic, or affected with any offensive or contagious 

The University building is 130 feet in length, 100 feet in width; height, 
to top of highest tower 96 teet, to top of small towers 76 feet. 




The machinery by which the District School system is operated in Utah 
provides for the election of a Territorial Superintendent of District Schools, 
for a Superintendent of the District Schools in each county, and for three 
Trustees for each district. The Territorial and County Superintendents are 
elected biennially, while there is an election each year for one Trustee, 
whose term of office is three years. The duty of the Territorial Superinten- 
dent is to visit the schools, receive reports, and make the distribution of the 
money collected by taxation for District School purposes. The County 
Superintendents have supervision i.i the counties, as the Superintendent 
has of the Territory, while the Trustees control school matters in their 
districts. They employ teachers, make the rate of tuition, take charge of 
the building, improving and management of the schoolhouses, provide 
furniture and appliances, and upon a two-thirds majority vote of the 
property owners of the district, they may levy a tax not to exceed 2 per 
cent, for building or other purposes inmicdiately connected with the 
improvement of school property. In the absence of any means by which 
the land — provided for by the United States to be held and ultimately 
devoted *o popular .school purposes — can be utilized, a Territorial tax of 3 
mills on the dollar is assessed, to be distributed among tliC various districts 
according to the attendance of children at each district during the school 
year. This 3 mills on the dollar is collected with the Territorial tax, and 
amounts to about $90,000 per annum, which is devoted to the assistance of 
common schools. Its effect is to reduce the cost of tuition, as the propor- 
tion of the tax given to each district goes to defraying the cost of securing 
teachers. This tax is uniform: and the distribution is always proportionate to 
the attendance at school of children whoso ages are prescribed by the law. In 
several of the counties the money received from the Territory for school 
purposes exceeds the amount these counties pay into the fund. This may arise 
from one or all of three causes. The poverty of the county, or the number 
of children, or the low assessment. In Sanpete County the amount received 
from the Territory for school purposes exceeds the sum that county pays in 
for both school and Territorial purposes — 6 mills on the dollar for the two — 
yet Sanpete is an unusually prosperous county. It shows that while the tax 
IS uniform, the assessment is anything but uniform. In 1883 there were 318 
school districts in the Territory, with 411 district schools; of these, 11 1 
were primary schools, 60 were intermediate and 240 mixed; 246 male 
teachers were employed, 245 females, total 667. The attendance of school 
children between the ages of six and eighteen years was 45,908 — 23f355 
boys and 22,553 girls. The percentage of the school population enrolled was 
62.5; average daily attendance, 17,787; average number of terms taught, 
2^; average number of days on which school has been taught, 130. _The 
average monthly pay of male teachers is $46.80; of female teachers, $28.3 r. 
The value of district school property in the Territory, including land, build- 
ings, furniture and apparatus is $408,728. The appended table shows the 
attendance in each county, the appropriation to each county, and the amount 
of school tax paid by each county for the year 1883: 





1 <^ 












Beaver, . 
Box Elder, . 
Cache, . . 
Davis, . . 
Emery, . 
Iron, . . 

iuab, . . . 
Cane, . . 
Millard, . . 
Morgan, . 
Piute, . . 
Rich. . . 
Salt Lake, . 
San Juan, 
Uintah, . . 
Utah, . . , 
Wasatch, . 
Weber, . . 

Total, - 

$ 2.309 58 
6,043 58 

5,726 72 

3.233 82 

not rep'td 

not rep'td 

1,128 99 

2,463 69 

363 42 
2,039 08 

1,193 19 
not rep'td 

901 16 

33,497 42 

339 92 

3,187 35 
1,670 91 

3,946 80 

2.400 69 

331 64 
8,295 33 
1,049 17 

2.401 00 

9,485 40 

$9i,8i6$92,oo8 86 



Immigration to Utah has been carried on systematically for the last 
forty-three years. The result has been not oni^' to add largely to the indus- 
trial population of Utah, but to assist materially m the development of adjacent 
States and Territories. The Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company — 
organized and operated by Territorial enactment — has been the instrument 
by which a large number of immigrants have been brought to Utah. 
Thousands, however, have paid their own way, taking advantage only of 
the opportunities which association with the Perpetual Emigrating Company 
offered in system and arrangement and cheap fares. Thousands also have 
been helped by friends and private parties, who have sent money from Utah 
to assist persons in foreign countries to the United States. The "Mormon** 
immigration — so-called — has not been confined solely to the Latter-day 
Saints. Yearly reports show that persons not of the faith do emigrate from 
foreign nations under Latter-day Saints* emigration organizations, and find 
it safer and more profitable to do so. The statistics given below shows that in 
the last forty- three years the Church immigration has helped to the United 
States from foreign countries, 78,225. From this number, admitting they 
all came to Utah, there must have been a large natural increase in the pop- 
ulation; and yet the population statistics shows that, of the inhabitants of 
Utah to-day 54,615 only are foreigners. The difference is to be accounted 
for by the fact that many who are emigrated do not stay in Utah. Some 
reported, never reached Utah, as they stopped on the way. Moreover, the 
78,225 does not show the total immigration through the instrumentality of 
the Mormon Church by a considerable number. The immigration to Utah 
from the United States, from Australia, from Islands in the Pacific Ocean is 
not included in this estimate. The figures show — while Utah is filled with a 
hardy and industrious agricultural population, to a considerable extent the 
result of immigration — that neighboring communities have been developed to 
a considerable extent through the same instrumentality and that the material 
interests of these adjacent commonwealths have been assisted by the col- 
onies planted in them and brought to Utah through the Mormon system 
of imm'gration. Whatever may be said of the policy of bringing 
foreigners, those so far immigrated into Utah have been of vast benefit in 
developing inter-territorial resources, and, as a rule, are sober, industrious and 
thrifty. The following will show the immigration since 1 848 up to and including 
1883. There have been employed in this time to transport the immigrants 
240 sailing and steam vessels. 

1848 754 1850-CO 2,4a3 1873 2.537 

1849 2,078 1861-2 5,556 1874 x 2,006 

1850 1,612 1863 SMG 1875 1,523 

1851 1,370 1864 2.097 1876 1,184 

1852 760 1865 1,301 1877 1,532 

1853 2.62(3 1866 3,;iS5 1878 1,864 

1854 3,167 1867 6<50 1879 1,514 

18541^ 500 1868 3,232 1880 1,780 

1855' 4.294 1869 2,300 1881 2.293 

1856 3,.533 1870 917 1882 1,776 

1857 2,181 1871 ..... . 1,500 1883 2,460 

1858 none 1872 1,^31 

Total, 72,651 

Mistfionaries and others, 6,674 

Grand T^tal, 78,225 


The tables on the next few pages give the totals of the results of the 
various industries of the Territory for the year 1883, carefully compiled 
from reliable reports obtained from the several counties. From them may 
be gleaned the values of manufactures and products; the yields of farm, 
garden, orchard and dairy; number of stock in Utah; pounds of wool 
raised; population by counties; assessed valuation and tax on prop>erty for 
ten years; railroad property in the Territory, etc.: 



1 ^ 


1 a 



' 3 in 

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1 ^ 


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Beaver, . 
Box Mlder, 
Emery, . 
Garfield, . 
Iron. . . 


Juab, . . 
Millard, . 
Piute, . . 
Rich, . . 
Salt Lake, 
San Juan, 
Sanpete, . 
Summit, . 
Tooele, . 
Utah, . . 
Wasatch. . 

Weber, • . • 






1, 248! 





I 3»752 

i 1.224 

i i»o77 
i I' 3631 
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Females above 
15 years. 


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Total Wages 

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Value of 
Materials Used. 


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Box Elder, 
Davis, . , 

Millard, . 
Salt Lake, 
Summit, . 
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94,650$ 12,504 

986,200' 471,088 













1 24, 1 54 



95, 164 










1,321 86 

16,429 05 

1,312 08 



4.017 73 
200 46 










In the preparation of the following: Business Directory, the publisher.* 
of the Gazetteer have been at considerable pains in collecting the names, 
occupations and trades of the several business houses and people. Every 
villajje, town and city of the Territory has been visited and the information 
obtained direct. As a reference for mercantile men it will be found the 
most complete and accurate ever published. 

ADAMSVILLE, Beaver County. 

J. T. Evans, blai^ksniith. 

J. II. Joseph, general store and P. M. 

ALMA, Weber County. 
Joliii Hall, general st<5re. 

ALPINE, Utah County. 

Co-cm Institute, general store. 
W. uevey <fe Sons, blackHuuths, lumber. 
J. Duvey, lumlier, lath and shingles. 
Wm. Na^li, lAill. 

ALT A, Salt Lake County. 

<?'. II. (.'ollins, saloon and lodging house. 

<'harle.s M. 8icklar, .saloon. 

John Strickley, general store. 

Albert Thomas, hotel. 

Tucker ife Wallace, general store. 

ANNABELLA, .Sevier County. 
James Herring, general store. 

AMTIMONY (^ITY, (larfield County. 
American Antimony Company. 

AMERICAN FOItK, Utah County. 

Arza Adams, groceries. 

American Fork Co-op. Mercantile Inst., 

W. B. Hmith, Su(ierintendent. 
H. Bate, general store. 
Wm. Bates, notions, music, etc. 
Frank Birk, (Forest City), brewer. 
James (barter, milhvriglit. 
Henry Chipmnn, live stock. 
James Chi])man, general store. 
W. Chipman, live stock. 
Mrs. E. D. Clark, millinery. 
A. Dunkley, general st^)re. 
Dunn & Peters, general store. 
Robert Evans, nnllwright. 
J. Francis, cooper. 
W. Grant, music, jewelry and mdsc. 
Alva A. (Jreen, live stock. 
W. G. Higley, jewelry. 
John Hindley. furniture. 
Mrs. May JacKson. resUiurant. 
Wm. M. Jackson, lumber. 
Samuel Julian, tailor. 
R. Kippernick, hotel and saloon. 
E. B. l^ee, painter. 
C. Logic, cari>enter. 
A. lUdtield, millinery. 
Roberts Bros., general store and drugs. 

















W. D. Robinson, miller. 

Mrs. Rowley, notions. 

J. L. Snow, groceries and dry good?. 

T. Steele, sewing machinci and notioii». 

A. K. Thc)nirton, general store. 
Robert Walker, blacksmith. 

ARGENTA. Salt Lake County. 

Alvin Butler, saw mill. 
P^Ui.son (& McOhie, saw mill. 
Tangwall <& Spillet, saw mill. 
Nelson W. Whipple, saw mill. 

AURORA, Sevier County. 
Daniel Morgan, books and stationery. 

ASHLEY, Uintah County. 

John Bowden, meat. 

Britt, Dilman & Co., general store. 

J. B. (jlil>son, general store. 

Hatch i\: <^o., saloon. 

L. Johnson & Co., general store. 

M. Monahan, saloon. 

F. R. Moore, saloon. 
J. Porter, saloon. 

Bear River Ct>-op. Ass'n., general store. 

BENJAMIN. Utah County. 

J. J. Cook, physician. 

Jitnjamin Vo-op. D. F. f^tevKirtj mgr. 

G. W. Hickman, physician. 
Thos. Herbert, merchandise. 

B. F. Stewart i& Sons, stock breeders. 

BENSON, Cache County. 

II. J. Peterson, books and stationery. 
II. I). Williams, cari>enter and builder. 


Jno. F. Beesley.brickmaker. 
Jas. Neilson, general store. 

BLACK ROCK, Salt Lake County. 
Dourls & Anderson, saloon, etc. 

BLUFF, San Juan Couuty. 
Bluff Co-op. Mercantile Institution. 

BRADSHAW, Beaver County. 
W. S. Godbe, general store. 



BINQIIAM. Salt Lake County. 

l^ou^Jtrd AC)., meat. 

Mrs, rlK-righ-iio. snloon. 

Daniel riav, saloon. 

M. I)ri>(Mill, RMUTal store. 

A. KloiK»nstine, liutol. 

K. I). M(;l)onaM. wagons. 

M*: I line*. I.>un.'an A: Co., genoral store. 

Ir*a«U)re Mor^i^ A Co., Rcnoral ntore. 

Phelan <^ Haves, jjeneral store. 

Geo. S. Sniitll, lir»tel. 

J no. Stricklev. jrvneral store. 

1>. N. Swan, livery. 

Teter Tavey, Agt.', stationery and drugs. 

HLAKE CITY. Kmery < -ounty. 

.\lden lUirdick, .»«aloon. 

Junies L)ohl>ins, restaurant. 

J. T. Farren i^' Co, general store. 

Thomas Farren Jfc i^un, saloon. 

If all 1^ Dunn, saloon. 

A. A. Marsliall, saloon. 

Salt & llartriclm, saloon. 

lUJRBANK, Millard County. 
W. H. Jones, slicep ranch. 

BOVNTIFIIL, Davis County. 

Bountiful Co-op iStore. A. O. Call, Supt. 

CALL ^ THOMAS, furniture. 

Kichard Durden, general store. 

Janied Green, hriokniaker. 

.'iwphrn IltiUn, 1*. M. and general store. 

R. Lauder, grist mill. 

Koljert Moss, saw mill. 

Mary Pearson, general store. 

0. E*. i*earson, attorney at law. 

1'. S?c.-".sions. saw mill. 

John Thurgood, general store. 

BUINTON, ISalt Lake County. 

J. G. Arnold, saloon. 

Bi^ Cottonwood Co-op, Brinton Bros. 

Bnnton A Butler, saw mill. 

Brinton Bros, general store. 

R. Miller (t Son, nullers & machine agts. 

F. McDonald, general store. 

Ncl:«on & Co., general store. 

BRIGIIAM CITY, Box f:ider County 

K. C. Bmlin, cigars and tobacco. 

Box Klder Wagon and Hardware Co. 

Boothe, Wilson tfc Co., general store. 

J. M. Bott, marble. 

tl. E. Bowring, saddlery. 

E. A. Box, music and stationarv. 

Brlghain City (?oop. Woolen Mills. 

Bri^ham City Mercantile and Mfg. <kj. 

Christenson A Borgstrom, tailors. 

W. II. ('raigheud, nifr. .salt. 

J no. Forest, marble. 

Geo. Gidney, groceries. 

Orahel Bros., produce. 

Mrs. Mary llalling, produce. 

Christian Iloltz, i>eddler. 

L. P. Johnson, produce. 

Knudsen Bros., produce. 

J. C. Neilson, books and stationary. 

J. C. KeiNoii, furniture. 

riuni'l timith, boots and shoes. 

A. E. bnow, groceries. 

Inquire, Fosgreen & McMaster, bui dcrs. 

BURRVILLE, Sevier County. 

G. C. Burr, general store. 

BROWN'S PARK, Uintah County. 
Is, Allen, live stock and farmer. 




A. 11. Brtssett, live stock and farmer. 
Brigg it Morey, live stock and farmer. 
<\ ("rouse, live stock and farmer. 
Tho**. i.)avenj)ort,live stock and farmer. 
Hay liro's, live stock and farmers. 
C. tiasllng. live .stock and farmer. 
K. V. (ioo(ln)an, live stock and farmer. 
•John Jarvie. Ferry, grauj store and P. .M. 
T. P»)well, live s'to<;k and farmer. 
K. II. llifc, livestock and farmer. 
!S. ]\oair, live stock and farmer. 
C. li. Sear", live stock ami farmer. 
J. Warren, live stock and farmer. 

BKAVKU CITY, Beaver County. 

(}. A. Alcoit, barlK?r. 

William IJurt, j>lasterer. 

A. Boyter, builder. 

William II. Bakes, furniture. 

II'. (i. iiirUfif^ notions it mu.sicnl inst's. 

Beaver (;jo-oi>, P. F. Farnswortli Supt. 

Beaver Co-op Wool Mfg Co, 

Joseph Bettenson, hotel. 

C. 1». IMni. builder. 

JoJin \V. Christian, attorney at law, 

F. B. Clayton, pubr. Beaver lirmrd. 

J. A. Cartwright, blacrksmith. 

('cnfnniiol ihtlnl, I]. C. Mathews prop. 

F<|uality Co-op as«;n, J. P. l>»e mgr. 

Thomas Fraxer, mason and builder. 

Jobn Fotheringhum, builder. 

J. Fenneniore i Co., st<jre, photogra])h. 

S. Fcnuemore, courccrtionerj^tc. 

K. Fernlev, blacks mitli. 

J. Field, harness and planing mill. 

C. C. Harris, saw mill. 

George il. Herbert, drugs, stationcrv. 

W. (i. Holt, furniture. 

J. Huntington, saw mill. 

Robert Keys, saw mill. 

J. K. Liiid.say, saloon. 

McDonougii & lilackner, .saw mill. 

Murdock tt Farii>worth, stock rai.scrs. 

Monahan (^ Christian, <lrugs, saloon. 

J. K. Murdwk, Prest. Beaver Wool. Co, 

(i. Owen, painter and paper hanger. 

Wm. Pearson, builder. 

S. Koberts, blacksmith. 

M. L. Sbei)panl, live stock. 

Tsniu/i 7'(/M /or, harness. 

Utonian Ptg & Pub. Co. 

KUiott Wihfen, hides and wool. 

C. C. gen'l store and P. M. 
M. J. Walton, variety store. 

CASTLE DALE, Emery County. 
Co-op, C. (1. Larsen, supt. 

CEDAR FORT, Utah County. 
Cedar Fort Co-op Store. 

CENTREVILLE, Davis County. 

T. J. Hrniuhm^ attorney-at-law. 

M. E. Brandon, dry goods and groceries. 

Centreville Co-op Inst., J. Adams, supt, 

J.J. Harris, <*abinet maker. 

W. Reeves, organs, pianos, etc. 

Henry Rampton, blacksmith. 

D. G. Winn, grist mill. 

CENTRE, Tooele County. 
Wm. Ajax, general store. 

CEDAR CITY, Iron County. 

Richard Albridge, shoemaker. 

A. Bauer, wheelwright. 

Cedar City Co-op. Inst., general store. 

Samuel Leigh, furniture. 

Harry Lunt, hotel. 



R. Palmer, blacksmith. 
John I'arri/. mayor. 
Anson R(K)t, ^hIooh. 
IjCwIs Root, painter. 
Ocorge Wood, general store. 

CIFAULRSTON, Wassitch County. 
N. C. Miinlock, Co-op store. 

CiiKS noil. Sanpete County. 
Chester Co-oj* Store. 

CLAlUvSTON, (^aclic County. 

Clarkston I'o-op., Jolm .laniine, prest. 
W. V. <). t.'urbini?, po.-tniaster. 

CLKAU LAKi:, Millard County. 
Z. G. Wotnlhouhie, Jr., general store. 

CLOVKll FLAT, Piute County. 
Albert Clayton, grt)ceries. 

CLINTON, i:t:jh County. 

Fisher it Bcieb, n\eat. 
George A. Jlii.'ks, postnni'^ter. 
Mrd. K. Julia iSimuns, niillijiery. 

COLLINSTON, IJox Elder County. 
H. O. J emmet t, saloon. 

rUOYDON, Mor-an (kninty. 

Craydnn ('oal Mining Co. 
Oroydtm (.'o-oj) ^tt^^e. 
Mrs'. John H<)i)kin'', general store. 
F. II. Walker tk Son, general .'jtore. 

COALVILLE. Summit Cvmnty. 

0. A. Carlan(ier, shoemaker. 

C-oalville Cu-np. Institution. 

CoHjp. (iri-t Mill, John SjiriggM, miller. 

Samuel (unitry, bhirksmith. 

Home (N)al Conipanv. 

J. S. Sahtion. jreneral storr. 

Simp>on iV: Swanson, jreneral store. 

Sinister it Wri.i^iit, nnisio. 

J.;Jl. Stalling."!, wagon and farm imiil's. 

COLTON' P. O.. Wasateh County. 

E. Covington, hoteL 

W. II. Liter, saloon. 

Fred. Meakin. saloon. 

P. A. Smitli. saloon. 

jl. C. Soutiiworth, postmaster. 

Peter Stnbbs, general store. 

A. M. Tliomas. saloon. 

Anio.s Wing, saKwm. 

COUINNE, n..x Elder County. 

Bcier (fc Uelder, brewery. 
A. E. Harne-^, live st(H*lc. 

F. 11. (!liurch, pro* lure. 

Corinne Mill.C. it S. Vd. (inc*oqx>rated). 

Henrv Foxlev, live stoek. 

1.'. P. (iratt. livt' stork. 

J. W. G tit brie, banker and forwarder. 

Peter Ilolmgrecn, blacksmith. 

J. Keller, pnuhne. 

Krigbauni it ('o., wholesale produce. 

John Land rick, tinner. 

Ilenrv Lewis tt Co., groceries, etc. 

Mrs. \V. Lovimcr, millinery. 

F. M. Merrill, blacksmith. 

I>. I). Hyan, <Nud denier. 

H. H. Smith, general store. 

Smitli it (!«)il, general store. 

I). II. Spericer, Jr., architect. 

II. W. i*. Spencer, news, etc. 

Mrs. Alex. Foponce. fancy goodt. 





'. ■^ 

■ v^ ■ 

■ C 

: c=i 

I f^ 




! te I 


CUB HILL P. O., Cache Coanty. 

Frink it lUair, builders. 
II. Ham]), shoemaker. 
Jame-J M. Ij:irson, notion.^^). 
Ijowiston Co-op. Mercantile In^«tLtutiOIl. 
S. Allen, supt. 

D. S. Uobbins, black.-iniith. 
liichard Taylor it liro., builders. 

L>EEP CREEK, Tootle County. 
John C. Devine, general store. 

DRSEliET, Millard County. 

J. S. lilack, general store. 
W. A. Itay, postmaster and gen. stor*. . 
rtah F«»rwarding Company. 
Ei»\VAiiii W. Wi:iui, liotel. 

DETUOIT, Millard County. 

I)e«^erct (Jold and Silver Mining Co, 
Iloward Mining and Sinelling Co. 

DOVER, S;inpetc County. 

C. Alston, carjienter. 

E. Errickson, jilasterer. 
L. ICrrick.>on, jJasterer. 

F. <.-. Orundtvig, carpenter. 
J. (ioodall, sawver. 

R. Ho<lge, blacksmith. 

C. (J. I^untlrylK'rry, stonema!»oii. 

J. J. Naigley, shoemaker. 

John Nyhren, shoemaker. 

W. F. Potter, gunsmith. 

C. W. Perkins, sawyer. 

E. Reid. tailor. 

J. RtMlingion, taniker. 
W. Robinson, postmaster. 
W. II. Scott, bootmaker. 
O. W. Shiner, sawver. 
A. T. Toft, architect. 

l)i:WEYVILLE, Bt)x FJdcr County. 

J. C. Dewey, general store. 

J. (.:. Dewey, Jr., carpenter. 

1 )ewey ville* ('o-op. I nstitutiou. 

Dewey ville Relief Society. 

Williank Howard, b<»ok^ and stationcr>. 

Denjamin Fritchd, variety. 

DIAMOND CITY, Juab County. 

11. S. l»n.)oks. lx>ots and shoes. 
Robert A. Hill, general store. 
Simon Stewart, blacksmith. 
John Tlnirmoml. general store. 
Williams it (!ussac, general store. 

DRAPER, Salt I*i»ke County. 

N. Robery, blacksmith. 

Draper C<>-op. Ass'n, general .store. 

lU-Mijamin Oreen, general store. 

II. Pierson. cabinet maker. 

Ji. Smith, blacksmith. 

F. M. Snvith, wheelwright. 
C. Sorensen, carpenter. 

R. W. Reeves, geiieral store. 

E(;H0, Sun\mit County. 

A. Asper, hotel and ranch. 
Re.rk\\it}i it Lauder, general store. 
J. <;. RROMLEY, hotvl, etc. 
William Turpin, mill. 
]{. Wickler, confectionery. 

EDEN, Welwr County. 

J. Farrell. general store. 
E. R. Fuller, lumber. 



EI.SINOUE, Sevier Coiiiitv. 

A. HertCiMiti ct Sum, ^ri-t mill. 
KNiin>rt' Cii-m;). >ti.n-;mtil<i iii^iituJinn. 

KMKJKAN r Sl'JIiN<;rf, Wnx KUIvt Cm. 
J. Williaiii^oii, >al()u:i. 

1:1: DA. T.i<.LU;(:..iiuty. 

J. jr. (t;i11;ii:Ikt iV: Soli, l)lai:k>iiiitlis. 
W. J-.. Wlu-i'Kirk. TciMh-r. 

EriIJtAlM, Siini.iti- County. 

Christ ijMiM.'ii tV: l):iJil. bhu-k^iniths. 

J. 1*. < 'iiri<ii:iii on, wn/on'^. 

<'. (.'. .A. t.'liri •ti.iri'it n. priintor. 

K]iliTaiin I'o-oji. >:j\v .Mill. 

Ejiliniiin Co-oi). s.ion'. 

<:|iiirl(;.- l-reiifrick^on, wlioclwrif^ht. 

V. ijii-AW"-, |iru'lu(-('. 

J^^riU Ilan-on. ji.jinrcr. 

J. 1*. II;tri>-(Mi. ciMiju'r. 

Mr>. H.llaii-i'n, niillincr. 

<itMir:;(* r. .U-n^iM). M;i(k>niith. 

i\ .liMHiiii, ^•riirral -Ior?. 

M. .k'n-i-n. pljoto'Tiupiirr. 

H. IL. .li'ri-rn. hlackNiuitti. 

J. *_". .liMi-vii. \vlif,I\vrij-'lit. 

(Jeorjrt' I. .k'n-cn. iiInHo^'rajilitT. 

C. A. Larson, l* njoncy UMnler. 

J. 1*. Meil'tniji. mncral -tore;! 

PettT ymrtfn-rn.coniVrtinnery. 

P. MoFaiJnno. •<loni'rutt«*r. 

(^'Iiri-itlno l*rtfr-«uM. niillinory. 

K. 1*011 1 -I'M, lurnifnre. 

Mrs, <;. IViir-on. Jiotel. 

I*. SrhwalU'. painter. 

T. TljoriK', mill. 

('. Willanlsoii. ;,'riMt mill. 

Gliarlo."* Whiiloi'k, liariioss ami oinldler. 

El'IlKKA, Jual><;ounty. 

J. Beck, penvra! store. 

I). <. -ant lion, rf> tan runt. 

lloj) i^in^r, liinndry. 

M. ('. I^vtham. Iil»tel. 

W. M<'(iinni>, hntelier slioj». 

Moi'hrystnl tV < 'o.. j:en'l store nnd suloon. 

W. Maxtield. l>arl)er ylioi). 

Mr.Mnri'liy iV Ilently, saloon. 

('. H. Montague, sliite slit)]). 

J. Q. I'aekard, milliner. 

r. I'aynter. hiiteher shop. 

Prusser it Connor, saloon. 

8uni Hop. laundry. 

J. Itobbins <\: Son, ^on'l store and laloon. 

P.. Shea, hotel. 

H. K. Tompkins, hotel. 

J. W. Tuttlc, livery stable. 

FAIUFIKIJ). rtah County. 

Fairfield Co-op. Mereantile Institution. 
H. Snyder, i;enenil store. 

FAIIIVIKW, Sanpete (Vmnty. 

A. Danielson. <'ar