UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD-WASTE
THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED.
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF THE SECOND REVISED AND
M. J. SALTER, F.I.C., F.C.S.
MEMBER OF THE GERMAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF BERLIN
YITH FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS
SCOTT, GEEENWOOD & CO.
19 LUDGATE HILL, E.G.
[The sole right of Translation into English rests with the abocefinn.]
PKEFACE TO THE FIEST GEEMAN EDITION.
THE rational utilisation of waste products forms at the
present day, in all industries, a subject of the highest
importance ; by a correct utilisation of the by-products
it is often possible to dispose of the main product at a
lower price, or when prices are more and more lowered
by competition, a profit may even be made from the
In all the industries which employ wood a quantity of
waste material is obtained in such a form that its em-
ployment as wood either for construction or for fuel is
not possible unless special appliances are made use of
for the purpose ; these, however, are in many cases not
generally known, and the result is that a considerable
amount of this valuable material is absolutely wasted.
My object in the compilation of this book is to give infor-
mation as to the most advantageous methods of utilising
all wood-waste, and my endeavour has been to bring
this treatise up to date with respect to practice and
PEEFACE TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION.
WITH the constant advance in the consumption of wood
for building and other technical and industrial purposes,
it naturally follows that the amount of wood-waste has
also undergone an increase, and with the growth in the
stringency of the conditions of production a greater value
has attached to the utilisation of the waste. The ap-
pliances for the combustion of sawdust, partly direct for
the sake of its calorific effect, partly indirect for the
production of charcoal, the manufacture of alcohol and
acetic acid from wood-waste, have been improved in
many ways, whilst other modes of employment have
made a considerable advance.
In revising my work, which in its first edition has
met with a favourable acceptation, I have, to the utmost
of my power, noticed all the novelties relating to the
utilisation of waste materials, and have no doubt that
the new edition will furnish valuable suggestions to
those interested in the subject.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION v
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ....... vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ... xv
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST ... 1
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL, WITH AND WITHOUT SIMUL-
TANEOUS RECOVERY OF CHARCOAL AND THE PRODUCTS OF
DISTILLATION ; 23
Kraft's Sawdust Furnace 28
Andre's Furnace for Sawdust 32
Koch's Sawdust Furnace 34
Sawdust and Tan Combustion-hearths 35
Combustion-hearth of H. Bottger & Co. for Sawdust, Dye-
wood, Tan, etc 41
Sawdust Furnace for Gas Producers ..... 43
Lundin's Furnace 47
Godillot's Pyramidal Grate for Pulverulent Fuel . 49
Swedish Charcoal Furnaces with Condensation ... 53
Sawdust Furnace of C. Walter for the Manufacture of Wood-
tar Oil . . . . . 55
Combustion-hearth of Niederberger & Co. for Damp Wood-
waste and Sawdust 59
Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust, etc., with
Recovery of Volatile Products . . ... .61
Fischer's Apparatus for Carbonising Wood with Recovery of
Volatile Products . . . . _. ..* . .66
Halliday's Apparatus for the Manufacture of Pyroligneous
Columnar Distillation Apparatus . . . . . .70
Waisbein's Still with Producer-gas . . . . . .72
Petri's Process for the Production of Prepared Fuel, with the
Apparatus for that purpose . .... . .76
Manufacture of Illuminating Gas from Sawdust ... 81
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST . . . .84
I. Process with Soda Lye . ... ..* . . . 84
II. Thorn's Process . . . . . ... .87
1. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Fusing Sawdust with
Sodium Hydroxide Alone . . . . 88
2. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Fusing Sawdust with
a Mixture of Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium
Hydroxide in Thick Layers 89
3. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Heating Sawdust with
a Mixture of Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium
Hydroxide in Thin Layers 91
4. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Heating Sawdust with
Alkali Hydroxides in Thin Layers, with Simul-
taneous Application of Hot Air ... . 92
5. Formation of Oxalic Acid with the Co-operation of
Manganese Dioxide . 93
6. Yield of Oxalic Acid from Different Varieties of Wood 94
7. Yield of Oxalic Acid with Varied Proportions of Wood
and Alkali . . 94
(1) Preparation of the Caustic Lye 97
(2) Separation of the Sodium Oxalate from the Lye 97
(3) Conversion of the Sodium Oxalate into Calcium
Oxalate . .... . . . .98
(4) Decomposition of the Calcium Oxalate with Sul-
phuric Acid . . . . . .99
(5) Crystallisation of the Oxalic Acid from the Sul-
phuric Acid Liquor . . '. . . .99
III. Bohlig's Process . . . . . . . . 100
IV. Process of Roberts, Dale & Co. , . . . . 100
V. Production of Oxalic Acid from Lignose .... 102
VI. Zaiher's Method of Preparing Oxalic Acid . . . 103
MANUFACTURE OF SPIRIT (ETHYL ALCOHOL) FROM WOOD-WASTE 105
PATENT DYES (ORGANIC SULPHIDES, SULPHUR-DYES OR MERCAPTO-
ARTIFICIAL WOOD AND PLASTIC COMPOSITIONS FROM SAWDUST . 114
PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL WOOD-COMPOSITIONS FOR MOULDED
DECORATIONS . 114
Various Processes 120
Bois Durci of Latri 121
Gottschalk's Hard Wood 124
Harrass' Wood-composition from Cellulose .... 124
Hurtig's Wood-composition 129
Hurtig's Wood-composition, Improved Process . . . 131
Kletzinsky's Wood-paste 133
Wood Terra-cotta 134
Palmer's Wood-composition . 134
Billefeld's Artificial Wood 134
Ribbach's Coating Compound from Sawdust .... 137
Wiederhold's Artificial Wood-composition .... 139
Artificial Wood of Back and Potin 138
Cohnfeld's Wood-composition 139
Sciffarin (Wood -cement) 139
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST FOR BLASTING POWDERS AND GUN-
1. Sawdust Blasting Powder 140
2. Heraklin . . . 142
3. Lignose 142
4. Robandi's Brise-rocs 142
5. Carbazotine 143
6. Reynaud's Pyronome 143
7. Poch's Poudrolith 143
8. Volkinann's Wood-powder 143
9. Koppel's Safe Blasting Powder . . . . .143
10. Diorrexin 144
11. Pyrolith . ' 145
12. New Dynamite No. III. . . . % . . . .145
13. Powder of Kellow and Short . . . . . .145
14. De Tret's Blasting Powder 146
15. Haloxylin . . . . ,' . . . . .146
16. Oiler's Blasting Powder . . . . . . .146
17. Blasting Powder of Terre and Mercadier . . . . 147
18. Schultze's White Gunpowder and Blasting Powder . . 147
19. Dy's Yellow Gunpowder . . .... . 147
20. Lannoy's White Powder . . . . .147
21. Lithofracteur . . . . .... .148
22. Brain's Blasting Powder 148
EMPLOYMENT OP SAWDUST FOR BRIQUETTES .... 149
Petroleum Briquettes with Sawdust 151
Sawdust Briquettes with Molasses 151
Sawdust Briquettes for Distillation 152
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST IN THE CERAMIC INDUSTRY AND AS
AN ADDITION TO MORTAR ....... 154
Addition of Sawdust to Mortar ...... 156
Stony Composition from Sawdust for a Building and Insu-
lating Material 157
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER-PULP FROM WOOD .... 159
Kapp's Wood-fibre 162
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST AND WOOD-REFUSE . . 164
4... Sawdust as a Material for Preventing Rough-cast from
Flaking off under the Influence of Frost and Rain . 164
Manufacture of Casks from the Waste-wood of Saw-mills . 164
Manufacture of Calcium Carbide from Sawdust . . . 165
Sawdust as Manure . . . . . . . . . 166
1. Richardson's Artificial Manure . . . . . 167
2. Carbonised Sawdust as Manure ..... 167
3. Manure from Tan 168
Wood-mosaic Plaques from Wood-shavings - , . . . 169
Bottle Stoppers from Wood-shavings 170
Employment of Waste-wood from Saw-mills for Parquetry . 170
Fire-lighters from Sawdust and Shavings .... 171
Manufacture of Carborundum from Sawdust .... 172
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL . . . . * . . . 174
Dyeing Wood-wool . . . . . . , . 175
Anthon & Sons' Double-acting Wood-wool Machine . . 176
Quadruple-acting Wood-wool Machine . . . 180
Vertical Wood-wool Machine of Ernst Kirchner & Co. . . 183
Rotating Wood-wool Machine of Otto Camillo Israel . . 186
BABK . ... . ... . . . .186
Utilisation of Birch Bark 187
LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.
1. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Longitudinal Section) ... 28
2. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Cross Section) .... 29
3. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Horizontal Section) ... 30
4. Andre's Sawdust Furnace (Section) 32
5. Andre's Sawdust Furnace (Cross Section through Combustion
6. Furnace for Burning Sawdust or Tan for Heating a Single-
tube Boiler 36
7. Furnace for Burning Sawdust or Tan for Heating a Two-
tube Boiler 36
8. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Truck for
Conveyance of Fuel 37
9. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Feed Plate . 38
10. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Fuel Hopper 38
11. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Charging
12. Sawdust Furnace for Gas Producers (Section through the
Furnace and the Condensers) 44
13. Sawdust Furnace for Gas Producers (Ground Plan of the
Furnace and Condensers) 45
14. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Longitudinal Section) . . 50
15. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Horizontal Section) . . 50
16. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Transverse Section) . . 51
17. Plan of one of Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grates ... 52
18. Section of one of Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grates . . . 52
19. Walter's Sawdust Furnace and Stills (Vertical Section) . . 56
20. Walter's Sawdust Furnace and Stills (Section through Grate) 57
21. Walter's Sawdust Furnace (Oblique Section) .... 58
22. Niederberger's Furnace (Transverse Section) .... 60
23. Niederberger's Furnace (Longitudinal Section) I . . 60
24. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Vertical
Longitudinal Section) ........ 62
XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
25. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Horizontal
26. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Transverse
Section through the Superheater Furnace) .... 64
27. Fischer's Apparatus for Carbonising Wood .... 67
28. Halliday's Carbonisation Apparatus 69
29. Distillation Column for Wood-refuse 71
30. Waisbein's Experimental Apparatus 73
31. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus (Ground Plan) ... 74
32-34. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus . . . .75
35-37. Petri's Combustion Apparatus . . . , ... 77
38,39. Petri's Portable Combustion Apparatus . . . . 79
40,41. Petri's Stationary Combustion Apparatus . . , . . 80
42, 43. Apparatus for Preparing Paper-pulp from Wood-waste . 160
44. Modified Apparatus for Preparing Paper-pulp from Wood-
45. Double-acting Wood-wool Machine of Anthon & Sons . . 177
46. Wood-wool Machine (Front View) 179
47. Wood-wool Machine (Plan) 181
48. Quadruple Wood-wool Machine without Scribing Knives . 182
49. Vertical Wood-wool Machine of Kirchner & Co. ... 184
50. Rotating Wood-wool Machine ....... 185
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION Otf
THE various trades and industries which work up wood,
from the simple mountain or forest saw-pit, in which the
saw is worked by water power and where therefore no
advantage is to be obtained from the combustion of the
refuse as fuel, or from the large, well-arranged saw-mill,
down to the furniture-maker and the cabinet-maker
working on the smallest scale, the cutting up of tree
trunks, the production of beams, and planks, etc., etc., all
produce large quantities of sawdust, which often occasion
serious inconvenience to the producers. The amount of
this waste product is often so enormous that neither
storage room nor means of transport is available, and the
substance, by lying in the open air exposed to all the
vicissitudes of weather, either rots away completely or at
least undergoes very considerable decomposition. The
transport of sawdust, on account of its bulkiness, and the
want of means of communication, is in many cases impos-
sible, and many timber producers are glad if their
neighbours will relieve them of an onerous burden, either
cost free or for a small payment. In the immediate
neighbourhood of railways and roads the value of sawdust
is somewhat enhanced; nevertheless, even with these
appliances, the packing for carriage involves difficulties,
and the substance can neither be so utilised, nor so readily
sold, as according to its real value should be the case.
2 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE,
Sawdust, in form and colour, is a very variable material.
The product from large saw-mills, being for the most part
obtained by the use of large saws, is coarse and fibrous, and
is frequently mixed with fragments of wood and bark;
moreover, in consequence of the use of unseasoned wood,
it is often damp or even wet. The sawdust produced by
those industries which make use of wood is generally
finer, less fibrous, and drier, since it is the product of
thinner saws with finer teeth; finally the waste obtained
by working wood with the rasp is more or less floury.
Only the sawdust of the softer woods (the coniferous
woods, poplar, lime, etc.) is distinctly fibrous; that from
harder woods (oak, beech, walnut) forms a coarser or finer
powder, the condition of which depends nevertheless to
some extent on the kind of saw used. The colour of saw-
dust depends on that of the wood from which it is
obtained. That from hard woods is usually brownish,
that from mahogany, reddish, etc.
Since the coarseness of the sawdust is dependent on the
kind of saw used, and the degree to which the teeth are
set out, as also on the dampness of the wood, it follows that
the percentage of this waste product on the original timber
is very variable; in large saw-mills, where tree trunks are
cut up into baulks and deals, the proportion of sawdust
will naturally be larger than in those industries which
employ the wood already so prepared, and therefore it is
from the former that the largest quantities of sawdust are
obtained, and it is the owners of these who have the
greatest interest in a favourable disposal of the material.
It is of the greatest importance in saw-mills that this
waste product should be preserved in as clean a condition
as possible, that shavings and chips should be kept out of
it, and that it should not be allowed to be injured by
The most obvious application of sawdust is, of course,
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 3
its use as fuel. If only small amounts have to be dealt
with, it may be burnt in the ordinary fire grates by
throwing it a little at a time upon a coal or wood fire
which is in a vigorous state of combustion. The quantity
thrown on the fire at once must never be large, and it
must occasionally be loosened with a poker in order to
give access to the air necessary for the combustion. To
burn larger quantities in the ordinary fire grates is diffi-
cult in consequence of the want of the proper air supply,
for sawdust is a substance which compacts itself together,
and when in a damp condition is utterly unsuited for a
fuel. Special furnaces and fire grates have therefore for
a long time been in use for this purpose, whilst in recent
times attempts have been made to consolidate the sub-
stance into briquettes before burning it, which have met
with a fair amount of success. The furnaces and grates
which have been suggested for burning this material, as
well as the appliances for charging them regularly, with
sawdust, and for preventing the burning mass from
collapsing, are described in a special section of this book,
where the most recent improvements in these appliances
will be found. A further step in the utilisation of this
waste material is found in the combined employment of it
as a fuel and as a source of distillation-products, such as
acetic acid, wood-spirit, acetone, etc., which are obtained
by submitting wood to destructive distillation. In the
same way, exhausted, ground or chipped dye-woods from
extract factories and dye works, as well as spent tan from
the tanneries, can be burnt in any of these furnaces with
a similar efficiency, so that in these industries verv con-
siderable sums can be saved, which otherwise would have
The use of sawdust in combination with binding and
cementing substances, such as glue, albumin, blood, resin, to
form plastic materials, such as the so-called artificial wood,
4 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
is already somewhat old and well known, though it is only
quite recently that it has been discovered how to cement
sawdust together so as to form a really firm decorative
material, capable of resisting changes of temperature and
damp, and in no respect inferior to expensive but fragile
wood carvings. Amongst these materials should be
mentioned that called xylolith, a substance of stony hard-
ness, which, supplied in thin slabs of various colours, is
employed for flooring, wainscot, and similar purposes, and
has proved very satisfactory.
The production of blasting powders and gunpowder from
sawdust has been repeatedly attempted, and although the
results attained do not promise a very extensive con-
sumption, some of the formulae for this purpose may well
find a place in this work. For the manufacture of oxalic
acid sawdust is still almost the only raw material avail-
able, and affords a profit. The accumulation of sawdust
in a great number of localities has, of course, given rise to
numerous proposals for its utilisation, some of which, how-
ever, have never been put into practice.
Thus, in France, sawdust has long been used instead of
sand for drying up ink. Sawdust has the advantage over
sand that it is in no way injurious to books, pens, writing
table, etc. And in countries where the minimum postage
fee is restricted to letters under oz. in weight, the use
of the far heavier sand may easily cause a letter to be
over weight. For this purpose the sawdust oJ hard woods,
cut with fine saws, as for instance in cutting veneers, is
chiefly employed. And this is not used exactly in the
state in which it is first obtained, but is passed through a
coarse sieve so that splinters of wood may be taken out,
and then is freed from dust by shaking it on an extremely
fine gauze. As employed it is therefore in a finely
granular condition, free from coarse particles and not
dusty ; the harder the wood the better is the product.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 5
Sawdust for this purpose is commonly dyed and perfumed
in order to give it a more pleasing appearance. The dyes
used are those obtained from coal-tar; 3 to 5 parts of the
selected dye are dissolved in 100 parts of water, the saw-
dust is stirred into the solution and thoroughly wetted
therewith, so that a uniform dyeing of every particle may
be ensured, and after taking out from the dye-bath it is
dried in moderately heated chambers for the removal of
the excess of moisture. Any desired tint can thus be
given to the powder, after which it is perfumed by placing
it, together with very small quantities of ethereal oils, in
vessels which can be closed and rotated until the perfume
is uniformly absorbed. This mode of utilisation is especi-
ally to be recommended to veneer cutters for working up
their sawdust. If the sawdust from the various woods
used in these workshops can be collected separately, the
mahogany and rosewood could be employed for dyeing the
lighter woods. The dark woods could be boiled with water
containing a little alum, and the filtered extract used for
dyeing alder, cherry, or elm wood, thus communicating to
these light woods a mahogany or rosewood appearance.
Sawdust of any sort may also be used in making plastic
cements (Kitten) for filling up defective places in wood-
work, and it is advantageous for this purpose to use the
sawdust of the same sort of wood as that to be stopped up,
rather than to dye another sort of sawdust so as to match
The use of sawdust as a packing material for fragile
articles, such as those of sheet metal or glass, is too well
known to require remark here ; it may, however, be
noticed that care should be taken to have it well dried
and free from dust. The same is the case with regard to
its use in a damp state for sweeping out the floors of
dwelling rooms. Dry, clean sawdust is a good material
both for packing and for preserving eggs, and is far to be
6 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
preferred to chaff, which is often damp and malodorous.
Less known is its use in paint works, for cleaning the paint
mills, utensils, cans, etc., from the paint residues which
cannot be removed with scrapers. The paint is completely
removed, leaving the mills clean, and the metal work
For the preparation of a substitute for bone ash,
Maxwell Lyte proposes to mix mineral phosphates with
peat, sawdust, tar, etc., or with animal substances such as
blood, and to calcine and pulverise the mixture.
The low conductivity for heat possessed by sawdust is of
importance, and has gained for it extensive employment.
The intermediate spaces between the joists in houses may
advantageously be filled with sawdust instead of with
builders' rubbish, which is often enough deleterious to
health. Its use as a packing material for ice chests and
ice houses is well known, and it may also be used with
immense advantage for preserving the warmth of green-
The well-known linoleum (Kork teppich) consists of
ground cork refuse mixed with linseed oil and rolled out
into sheets ; instead of cork powder, sawdust has often
been used, or rather the wood-meal obtained by grinding
sawdust between mill stones, and, especially for the cheaper
qualities, has given favourable results. Also in the manu-
facture of paper, wood-meal has here and there been used
as a filling material instead of mineral substances. For
laying down floors with cement plates, sawdust is better
than sand, as it makes the floor warmer. When sawdust
is mixed with tar-resin in various proportions, with the aid
of heat, and the mixture is exposed to great pressure in
moulds, a substance is obtained resembling wood, which
can be cut, planed, bored, and polished, and which is very
hard, tough, and imputrescible. The sawdust must first
be baked until it is almost brown-black, after which it
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 7
will be free from water. Plaster and cement planks (saw-
dust boards) may likewise be prepared by mixing plaster
of Paris or cement with sawdust and water and pouring
the mixture into suitable moulds; these form a light and
yet strong building material. Sawdust with plaster of
Paris, or wood-wool refuse with pkister, forms a very suit-
able material for packing steam boilers, steam pipes, etc.
Combined with asphalt, sawdust is used in the damp-
proof course of walls. Roofing felt intended for export is
strewn with sawdust instead of with sand to diminish the
weight and obtain greater elasticity.
Wood-cement is prepared from sawdust, glue, and water-
glass (sodium silicate). The addition of sawdust to clay
intended for brick-making produces light, porous bricks.
These are used for partition walls, and are very bad con-
ductors of heat. By mixing a very large quantity of saw-
dust with clay and kiln-burning the mixture, a cheap
filtering material is obtained, which, as it contains wood-
charcoal, serves as a disinfectant. Sawdust mixed with
gas-tar forms an admirable damp course for the walls
of buildings standing on damp ground. Mixed with
balsam of sulphur it gives an elastic material, and with
asphalt and a little linseed oil a harder mixture for coating
damp walls and cold baths.
In burning black clay pipes, a layer of sawdust and then
a layer of pipes are placed in a muffle, which may hold
500 to 600 pipes ; the muffle is then luted and heated to a
dull red-heat in a furnace for 10 to 12 hours. The sawdust
is carbonised, gives up its products of distillation, which
are absorbed by the pipes and communicate a black colour
to them. About 20 to 50 of the pipes are stuck upon a
round disc furnished with pegs, and are held in the smoke
of burning straw : they acquire an intense black colour,
and are then polished with wax and a stiff brush.
In the manufacture of wall paper, sawdust and even
8 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
wood-meal, instead of the usual chopped wool, have been
used for making low qualities of velvet paper, the pre-
viously dyed sawdust being sifted over the paper which
has been first printed with an adhesive paste ; also in
other industries fine dyed sawdust may with advantage be
employed instead of chopped wool. Wood-meal is used
in the manufacture of artificial flowers to imitate the
pollen, and when dyed in pale soft shades has a very good
Sawdust wetted with sulphuric acid is placed in stables
to absorb ammonia, for which purpose it answers better
than the gypsum formerly employed. For this purpose 1
part of sulphuric acid is diluted with 15 parts of water,
the sawdust is soaked in the mixture, and after draining
from superfluous liquid is spread on shelves in the stable.
Every three days the supply of sawdust is renewed; that
which is saturated with ammonia being thrown on the
manure heap, the value of which is increased thereby.
As litter for cow-sheds sawdust is superior to leaves or
pine needles, as it is capable of absorbing more liquid than
the latter, and nevertheless furnishes a dry bed for the
beasts. Sawdust, especially that consisting of long fibres,
saturated with animal excrement, makes a very good
manure, because it rots easily.
In the preparation of composts for garden work saw-
dust is of great importance. To prepare it for use it is
laid down in an open shady situation in heaps 75 to 100 cm.
(30 to 40 inches) high, and turned over several times a year,
until the whole mass is well rotted. This compost is
lighter than leaf mould, and for some plants, as for
instance orchids, may be used alone, or it may be mixed
with cow dung or garden soil to make it heavier, or with
heath mould or sand to make it lighter. Another use of
sawdust is for the preparation of hot beds, instead of the
tan commonly employed. It gives a higher temperature
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 9
than tan, and maintains the heat for a full year. It is
advisable to mix a little chopped straw with the sawdust
to prevent it from becoming too much consolidated, in
which case the heat would not be given out sufficiently.
Far too little attention is paid to the applicability of
sawdust for giving a loose texture to dense materials, and
lightening heavy ones. Thus the well-known Laming's
mixture employed for the purification of illuminating gas
in gas works would be far too dense by itself, and must
therefore be mixed with a large quantity of sawdust to
give it a coarse, open texture. Both sawdust and wood-
shavings may be used for the purification of coal gas if
they are soaked in a solution of copper vitriol and the gas
then passed over them. Mariot and Sugden proceed as
follows : Instead of purifying coal gas from ammonia by
passing it through sulphuric acid, it may be passed through
vessels resembling dry lime purifiers, namely, boxes con-
taining hurdles on which a loose material containing
sulphuric acid is spread out. Sulphuric acid of 1'425
specific gravity is the most suitable for this purpose. This
sulphuric acid is mixed with sawdust in the proportion of
84 parts of the acid to 50 of sawdust. The mixture is
then heated to about 120 C., so that the sawdust becomes
carbonised and the charcoal absorbs the acid. This yields
a dry, porous material, which, when spread upon hurdles,
allows the gas to pass readily. In charging the purifiers a
layer of old material, already saturated with ammonia, is
placed first on the hurdles in order that they may not be
acted on by the acid, and the fresh mixture is then placed
Croll employs for the purification of coal gas the residue
of manganous chloride from the chlorine stills, which he
mixes with lime and sawdust, and exposes to the gas until
it contains 30 to 40 per cent, of ammonium chloride, which
can then be recovered by lixiviation or sublimation.
f " OF THE ^
10 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
In the cementation process of making steel, the iron
bars are packed with sawdust into an iron box, which is
then closed with a clay luting and moderately heated for
a longer or shorter time, according to the thickness of the
bars. The steel obtained is melted in a closed iron (?)
crucible under a layer of fresh sawdust, and may be poured
into heated iron moulds.
The acetates of potassium and sodium are said by
Sonstadt to be producible from the sulphides of the two
metals by evaporating their solutions to dryness with saw-
dust and carbonising the mixture below a red-heat. The
black mass is boiled down to dryness with milk of lime
until a sample of the liquid is found after nitration to be
free from sulphur. The whole quantity is then filtered,
the filtrate evaporated to dryness and the residue gently
roasted. The product is a tolerably pure acetate.
Mortar made with sawdust has repeatedly been
advocated as a means of getting rid of moisture from damp
walls. This mortar is prepared in the following manner :
Ordinary slaked lime is thinned with water ; sawdust is
at once mixed with the lime instead of sand, using such a
proportion that the lime still retains the necessary binding
power. Solution of water-glass may also be added to this
mixture. Such mortar is not only recommended for the
building of new walls, but also for plastering existing walls,
and is said to be especially suitable for stucco, so that
whole facades may be constructed of it. A very good
roofing material may be produced by mixing melted coal-
tar, flowers of sulphur, finely powdered hydraulic lime, and
sawdust, and pouring the plastic material into moulds or
rolling it out into slabs.
Mortelette has recommended sawdust for the prevention
of boiler scale : the mixture employed consists of sawdust,
soda, pine-wood charcoal, rye meal and clay.
Dyes are manufactured by Croissant and Bretonniere
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 11
from sawdust. The process consists in the removal of
hydrogen from the wood by the action of sulphur at a high
temperature. The products are called by their discoverers
" organic sulphides," in which hydrogen is replaced by
sulphur. These sulphides oxidise when exposed to the air,
and give off sulphuretted hydrogen when treated with
The manufacture of these dyes from sawdust is simple,
requires no complicated apparatus, and little labour; they
are cheaper and more permanent than those most commonly
in use; a kilogram of dye from sawdust, for example,
costing only about half as much as the same quantity of
logwood extract, and possessing four times the dyeing
The property which sawdust possesses of absorbing water
is often utilised in public conveyances, omnibuses, tram-
cars, etc., to keep the floor free from wet ; sawdust is
strewn on pavements in frosty weather to prevent slipping
and serve as a safeguard against accidents.
Sawdust serves as a mild cleaning powder for tarnished
silver, and beech sawdust as a polishing powder for gold.
Sawdust may also serve as a kind of soap for the cleansing
of house linen, since friction with it is very efficacious
for removing the dirt.
The Smith Consolidation Company in Argo undertake
the conversion not only of small coal, but of sawdust,
shavings, cotton wool fibres, etc., into briquettes, in order
to utilise these substances as fuel. In the machine
employed for this purpose a triple mould revolves round a
vertical axis, and is so arranged that when one of the
moulds is under the charging funnel, the second is under
the compressing stamp, and the third is being emptied by
another stamp. The machine is capable of converting 1500
kilos. (H tons) of the sawdust of Weymouth pine-wood
into blocks per hour. This process, the manufacture of
12 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
briquettes from wood-waste, has in quite recent times
made very great progress, both sawdust and wood-shavings
being compressed, either with or without binding materials,
into hard masses which either serve directly as fuel, or are
carbonised in closed vessels for the recovery of the products
For the preparation of wood-pulp (according to Beth)
the sawdust is disintegrated by an edge runner working
in a stone bed ; the material thrown out at one side is
immediately replaced at the other until it has the desired
degree of fineness. The edge runner is arranged exactly
like the beating roller of a paper mill.
For the manufacture of short-fibred cellulose, sawdust
may be treated by the soda, or sulphite processes.
F. W. Wendenburg prepares wood-meal fodder in the
following manner : The wood (sawdust) is ground to a fine
meal, to 50 kilos, of which there is then added 1J kilo,
of rock-salt, and enough hot distiller's wash mixed with
y F kilo, of hydrochloric acid to form a thin pulp. After
boiling for two hours this is ready for use as fodder, but
it may also be dried and pressed into moulds, or can be
baked in the form of dough.
Sawdust finds extensive employment in all the metal
industries, especially for drying articles which have been
treated with acids, no other substance being so effective as
sawdust in drying and cleaning the objects and prevent-
ing subsequent oxidation (rust, or verdegris formation).
Articles made of horn, ivory, tortoise-shell, and bleached
bone cannot be better dried than in sawdust, since they
then neither crack nor warp. For polishing metallic
wares sawdust may be used with the greatest . advantage ;
the articles to be polished are placed, together with a large
quantity of sawdust, in rotating drums, and acquire their
polish from the friction of the sawdust. The sawdust for
this purpose must be perfectly dry.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 13
A very useful product can be obtained by mixing saw-
dust and refuse wood-chips with the residues from the
manufacture of turpentine and rosin, and pressing the
mixture into moulds: it is used for kindling fires. The
same waste materials have also quite recently been utilised
in considerable quantities for the manufacture of car-
borundum and of calcium carbide.
A method of utilisation which will assume very large
dimensions in the future, and which is perhaps even
destined to produce a scarcity of sawdust, is the conver-
sion of that substance into sugar and alcohol, if the
difficulties encountered in carrying out on the large scale
the processes elaborated on the small scale can be overcome.
There are, without doubt, still other methods of making
use of sawdust, some of which are of secondary import-
ance, whilst others have not been made public, and it is
probable that in the future still more uses will be found
for this material.
Most of the methods of utilisation which have been
mentioned above may be applied to extracted dye-woods,
etc., and in some cases, where large amounts of these waste
materials are available, they may be re-extracted, and then
utilised as fuel to evaporate the very weak decoctions so
obtained, for which purpose ordinary fuel would be too
A similar product, to which hitherto far too little
attention has been directed, is tan (oak bark), the complete
utilisation of which in tanneries is not possible with the
primitive methods of extraction generally employed, and
which therefore still contains considerable amounts of
tannin, which by processes similar to that mentioned above
can nevertheless be wholly extracted. A process has
lately been adopted in France analogous to Schiitzenbach's
method of extracting sugar from beet-root, which obtains
all the tannin from oak bark in a perfect manner. A
14 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
large number of round tubs, about 2 metres (6 feet 6|
inches) deep and 1 metre (4 feet 1J inch) in diameter,
in each of which a second perforated bottom is placed 1
decimetre (4 inches) above the floor, are connected by
pipes, each of which is inserted at one end under the false
bottom of one tub and at the other 0'15 metre (6 inches)
below the edge of the next tub. The tubs are filled with
the bark and water is run into one of them ; the extract
passes on to the second, third and fourth, etc., becoming
stronger in its progress, and extracting less and less tannin
from the charge in each succeeding tub. The strong solu-
tion is finally drawn off from the bottom of the last tub.
Supposing n tubs to be in use, the bark in the first tub
will have been extracted n times when that in the last tub
has only been extracted once. When n tubs of water have
been run upon the charge in the first tub that charge will
have been perfectly exhausted. The last water is drawn
off, and the spent tan thrown out. The tub is refilled with
fresh bark and is then made the last of the series. In the
same way each charge as it becomes exhausted is replaced
by fresh bark, and the process goes on continuously. This
process not only exhausts the bark completely, but
furnishes the tanner with extracts of varying degrees of
Extracted bark and other tanning materials may
further be employed for the manufacture of ink. The
spent tan is treated with caustic soda, and the filtered
liquor is mixed with iron vitriol (ferrous sulphate) and
exposed to the air. Spent tan may be very advantageously
used as a fuel if it is mixed with a little nitrate of lead,
made into briquettes with lime, and dried; such fuel is
said to be especially suitable for heating railway carriages.*
*In Germany the passenger carriages are frequently warmed by
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 15
A considerable quantity of spent tan is used for
spreading on riding roads and in equestrian circuses ; it is
used in agriculture partly as a manure, partly for forming
hot beds and keeping up the warmth of greenhouses.
A certain amount is used in pleasure gardens. Flower
beds which contain tan mixed with the earth remain free
from weeds, the soil is kept in a loose condition, in the
dryest season remains damp without any need of watering,
and is altogether free from the larvae of the cockchafer.
The growth of the trees is vigorous, the branches are given
off at short intervals, and both leaf and fruit-bud forma-
tion are strong. Root production is also greatly
augmented. Old trees growing in a tan soil are parti-
cularly fruitful and produce handsome fruit : standards
exhibit the same result. By using spent tan not only is
the cost of weeding saved, but the roots are preserved from
the attack of insects, growth and fruit formation are pro-
moted and therefore profit is increased.
When we come to consider more closely the methods by
which sawdust, waste wood in larger or smaller fragments,
extracted dye-woods, spent tan, bark, nut-galls, etc., can
be utilised, we find that the processes may be divided into
two main groups, one of which may be called the chemical,
the other the mechanical application. The chemical pro-
cesses comprehend :
1. Employment as fuel.
2. Dry distillation.
3. Treatment with various chemical reagents, for the
production of cellulose, vinegar, alcohol, sugar, gum,
The mechanical processes, which, however, must not in all
cases be regarded as strictly mechanical, since many of
them involve chemical changes, embrace :
1. The production of artificial wood.
2. Employment in the manufacture of explosives.
16 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD
3. Use as a means of producing porosity and lightness.
4. The manufacture of manure.
5. A variety of other methods of utilisation.
For the study of the mechanical processes a knowledge of
the chemical constitution of wood is not necessary ; on the
other hand, such knowledge, as well as an acquaintance
with the changes which occur when wood is exposed to a
high temperature, or treated with reagents, is indis-
pensable, and to these points we will here devote a few
Wood, chemically considered, consists of a number of
different substances, the nature and proportions of which
are dependent on the kind and the age of the plant from
which it is derived. Broadly, we may distinguish in all
varieties of wood two constituents, the woody fibres and
the sap, the latter again consisting of water and the sub-
stances held in solution. The woody fibres consist of cellu-
lose or cell-substance, which forms elongated cells grouped
into bundles, and of lignin or the incrusting substance.
Cellulose belongs to the class of carbohydrates. To
prepare it from wood, the wood must be treated with ether,
alcohol, dilute acids and alkalis, and finally be copiously
washed with water. Pure cellulose has the same composi-
tion as starch powder, and in many of its chemical relation-
ships exhibits a similar behaviour, but the one substance
has never yet been converted into the other, although from
either it is possible to prepare a fermentable sugar, and,
from this again, alcohol.
Experiments in this direction have indeed been attended
with the result expected on theoretical grounds, but on the
large scale, in consequence of the carbonisation of much of
the woody substance and the considerable consumption of
sulphuric acid, the process presents great difficulties. The
action of hydrochloric acid on cellulose produces hydro-
cellulose and sugar (wood-sugar) ; nitric acid produces
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 17
nitro-cellulose ; cellulose melted with caustic alkalis yields
compounds of oxalic acid. When cellulose is burnt with
free access of air it leaves an ash ; if heated with exclusion
of air it yields a series of the so-called fatty acids, also
tar and charcoal.
Wood-sap, besides water and mineral constituents, con-
tains a variety of soluble bodies, such as the carbohydrates
(sugar, gum), albuminoids, and pectous substances; also
in individual species of plants, characteristic colouring
matters, tannins, other extractive substances and resin.
When wood is burnt with free access of air, gases are
produced, whilst a certain amount of heat is developed,
and an ash is left which contains the mineral constituents
of the wood, the carbonates of potassium and of sodium,
carbonate and sulphate of calcium, magnesia, phosphates,
etc. In localities where timber is abundant, carbonate of
potassium (potash) may be manufactured from wood-ash.
If, on the contrary, wood is burnt with restricted access
of air, or is heated in vessels from which air is excluded,
which is the case when it is burnt in charcoal heaps
(Meiler), or heated in retorts, it undergoes a more or less
complete dry distillation and other products are obtained.
The dry distillation of wood commences at a temperature
of 100 to 130 C., the first substance to distil over being
water, the proportion of which naturally depends on the
degree of dampness of the wood. The dampness of wood-
waste will largely depend upon whether it has been kept
under cover or been left lying in the open, and this will
materially influence the amount of fuel necessary for its
distillation. It is therefore advisable, where it is practi-
cable, to subject sawdust to a preliminary drying before
it is introduced into the distilling apparatus. As the
temperature is raised from 145 to 500 C. the products
obtained are water, acetic acid, wood-spirit (methyl
alcohol), and tar, as well as various gases, whilst wood-
18 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
charcoal is left in the retort. When the temperature is
rapidly raised acetic acid is the chief product; this must,
however, be quickly removed from the heated vessel, or
it will undergo further decomposition.
The products of the distillation of wood vary both in
kind and in amount according to the degree of heat to
which it is exposed. The higher the temperature the
greater is the proportion of gaseous products, and it is
usual not to exceed an incipient red heat.
With regard to the* process of distillation itself, two
different modes of operating must be distinguished:
1. The wood (sawdust and other refuse) is submitted to
distillation with the object of obtaining the largest pos-
sible yield of acetic acid and tar, with which object the dis-
tillation is carried on slowly and at a low temperature ;
even in this case a considerable amount of gas is produced,
which, however, for the most part consists of carbon
dioxide and carbon monoxide, burns with a very feebly
luminous flame, and can best be utilised for the produc-
tion of heat by passing it first through a layer of incan-
descent carbon, by which the carbon dioxide is reduced to
monoxide. This reduction takes place in those forms of
furnace in which the gases from the distillation are con-
ducted into the space below the fire grate.
2. The wood is distilled with the intention of obtaining
gas and tar, with but little acetic acid; in this case it is
rapidly raised to a very high temperature; the greater
part of the volatile products, consisting of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen is further decomposed with forma-
tion of hydrocarbons, which are partly liquid, partly
gaseous. The gases so obtained have a higher illuminating
power: whilst the yield of tar is considerable and that of
acetic acid small.
The pyroligneous acid resulting from the distillation is
a mixture of methyl alcohol, methyl acetate,, acetone,
OBSEKVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OF SAWDUST. 19
acetic acid and water; the tar contains benzene, toluene,
xylene, cumene, naphthalene, paraffin, phenol, cresol, etc.
According to the temperature the products are :
a. Gases from 160 to 360 : carbon dioxide (carbonic
acid), carbon monoxide, marsh gas (methane) ; from
360 to 432 : hydrogen, acetylene, propylene,
b. Pyroligneous acid from 180 to 300 : formic and acetic
aoids ; from 200 to 360 : propionic acid, butyric
acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, methyl alcohol ; from
250 to 360 : acetone, metacetone, acetic acid, methyl
acetate, methylamine acetate and aldehyde.
c. Tar from 360 to a red heat : the substances mentioned
The charcoal, acetic acid and methyl alcohol obtained
by the distillation of sawdust have hitherto been regarded
as the principal products, the tar being looked upon as a
by-product, and the process of distillation conducted
accordingly. Lately, however, more attention has been
paid to the tar, and from it have been obtained benzene,
toluene, and naphthalene, hydrocarbons which are exten-
sively employed in the manufacture of artificial (or so-
called " aniline ") dyes. In carrying out a distillation it
is therefore necessary in the first place to decide what
products it is desired to obtain, and to arrange accordingly.
To give further details respecting the products of distil-
lation would carry us beyond the limits of this book,
which is intended to deal only with the utilisation of wood-
waste; the reader may be referred to the following special
treatises on this subject : " Das Holz und seine Destilla-
tionsproducte " (Wood and its Products of Distillation), by
Dr. George Thenius ; " Die Verwerthung des Holzes auf
chemischem Wege " (The Utilisation of Wood by Chemical
Methods), by Dr. Jos. Bersch (2nd edition) ; and " Die
20 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Fabrikation der Anilinfarbstoffe " (The Manufacture of the
Aniline Dyes), by the same (published by A. Hartleben).
Altogether different are the products obtained when
wood is acted on by chemical reagents. We have already
seen that wood consists of two principal substances, cellu-
lose, and lignin or the incrusting substance. By suitable
treatment, boiling with nitric, sulphuric, or hydrochloric
acid, with caustic soda, with sulphurous acid, and with
sulphites under pressure, the cellulose may be obtained
more or less pure, the incrusting substances being dis-
solved out. In the decoctions there exist numerous gummy
and saccharine substances, and many attempts have been
made to bring these into use.
By boiling or heating with dilute hydrochloric acid the
cell walls of the wood become broken down, the incrusting
substance is dissolved and converted into grape-sugar
(glucose), whilst a substance called fibre cellulose or lignose
is left, which is more easily attacked and dissolved by
alkalis than cellulose. The following are the results of
some experiments in this direction.
In order to combine the production of grape-sugar and
alcohol with that of wood-fibre, the first step was to
ascertain the best proportion of acid to wood, and the most
suitable concentration, in order to obtain a maximum
quantity of sugar with a minimum quantity of acid. The
following experiments were made with this object :
A. 200 grams of sawdust (pine-wood with 15 per cent, of
hygroscopic moisture) were boiled for 1 to 2 hours
with 2 litres of hydrochloric acid of 5 Baume = 1*04
specific gravity, corresponding to 162'2 grams of HC1.
The sawdust, which acquired a reddish-brown colour,
was thoroughly washed, the liquid neutralised with
soda and mixed with lead acetate. An estimation
with Fehling's solution showed the presence of 18' 12
parts of grape-sugar (glucose) per 100 parts of wood
OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILISATION OP SAWDUST. 21
taken. The greyish-brown lignose dried at 100,
weighed 129 grams, corresponding to 64'5 per cent, of
the wood taken. Erdmann gives for lignose the
formula C 18 H 26 O U , and gives the following equation
for its formation from cellulose :
C 30 H 4r) 21 + 2H 2 = C 18 H 26 11 + 2C fl H 12 O tf .
according to which pure cellulose should yield 5 6' 23
per cent, of lignose.
/?. 100 grams of sawdust similarly treated with 1 litre of
cold hydrochloric acid of 10 Be*. (= 1'075 specific
gravity, or 150 grams of HC1) gave 25 per cent, of
glucose and 51 "6 per cent, of lignose. The colour of the
lignose in the wet state resembled that of rotten oak ;
in the dry state it was reddish-brown. When washed
with dilute soda solution the washings were dark
brown, which is not the case with ordinary wood-fibre.
When thus treated the soda solution penetrates into
the cells in which hydrochloric acid is present. An
evolution of carbonic acid gas takes place, which has a
disruptive action on the fibres, and would perhaps
serve as a preparation for their subsequent employ-
(-. 180 grams of sawdust with 800 cub. centimetres of
hydrochloric acid of 6'5 Be*. (= 1'048 specific gravity,
or 7 6' 8 grams of HC1), boiled for several hours, gave
20'83 per cent, of glucose and 62' 22 per cent, of
Two experiments with fine oak sawdust (6' 5 per cent.
of moisture) gave
Per cent, of glucose. Per cent, of lignose.
The results of the three experiments with pine-wood
were as follows :
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
HC1 used per 100
parts of wood.
Glucose obtained per
100 parts of wood.
Glucose obtained per
100 parts of HC1.
It is said that these proportions are already employed in
practice, and that after the acid solution of the sugar has
been neutralised with lime down to 0'5 of Liidersdorfs
acid scale, a fermentation of the mixture for 24 hours
followed by distillation gives from 450 kilos. (9 cwt.) of
sawdust, 26'5 litres (5'8 gallons) of 50 per cent, alcohol,
free from any turpentine odour and of agreeable flavour.
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL, WITH AND
WITHOUT THE SIMULTANEOUS RECOVERY OF CHAR-
COAL AND THE PRODUCTS OF DISTILLATION.
THE proportion of combustible matter in sawdust, and the
calorific effect obtainable from its combustion, are exactly
the same as those of the wood from which it was derived,
since sawdust is nothing else than wood-fibre very finely
subdivided by artificial means. But sawdust, when used
as fuel, has the property of forming a layer which is very
impervious to air, of falling through the fire grate in con-
sequence of the fineness of its particles, and of giving off a
large amount of water-vapour which impedes vigorous com-
bustion. The compression of the heap of material prevents
the due access of air, the layer of sawdust becomes car-
bonised at the surface, and finally the heap becomes covered
with ash to such an extent that combustion is completely
arrested unless the heap is continually being turned over.
When using sawdust for heating purposes the only object
is to utilise its calorific power. If the sawdust is made
up with peat, tan-refuse, coal slack, etc., into briquettes
and thrown in this form upon the fire grate, its combus-
tible matter can be more efficiently utilised than when
trying to burn it in its loose condition. The making up of
the sawdust into solid . blocks nevertheless makes it more
expensive, and it is also difficult to find a completely
suitable binding material, which will aid rather than
impede the combustion, unless the substance is compacted
by employing an exceedingly high pressure instead of using
24 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
a binding material. The binding material must be so
selected that it not only holds the sawdust together during
transport, loading, and unloading, but possesses sufficient
resistance to heat to prevent the briquettes from falling
to pieces during combustion, and thus reproducing a bed
of fuel impervious to air. Up to the present time there
has very little practical use been made of these compacted
sawdust briquettes ; attention has rather been directed to
devising forms of furnace which will burn the loose saw-,
dust directly. A better mode of utilising sawdust as fuel
is to mix the dry sawdust with J of its weight of coal ;
and it is of especial importance in using this material to
take care to have a vigorous coal fire as a basis on which
the sawdust can be thrown. With such a coal fire for a
basis the following advantages are obtained : (1) The
evaporation of the water in the sawdust, the proportion of
which objectionable constituent may vary from 25 to 40
per cent., is much accelerated ; (2) the combustible gases
are more rapidly evolved and burn with a flame, whilst
the carbon, being converted into carbon dioxide and not
into carbon monoxide, gives a greater heating effect.
A new process for converting sawdust into briquettes
aims at heating the substance so far that the resin natur-
ally contained in the wood (therefore with soft woods only)
is softened, and then, without any further binding
material, pressing into moulds at very high pressure. A
fuel prepared in this manner is easily transportable, has an
essentially higher heating power than brown coal, and is
equally suitable for household and for technical use.
It is obvious that for the advantageous employment of
sawdust as a fuel the first consideration is to give an appro-
priate form to the fire grate. The sawdust is generally
thrown on the grate in a somewhat thick layer, and the
spaces between the fire bars, which serve as channels for
the supply of air, are to a great extent choked by it. But
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 25
since combustion without a sufficient supply of air is quite
impossible, it is obvious that the grate must in all patterns
of furnace be so constructed that there shall be no de-
ficiency of oxygen. The proportional area of the fire
grate must be adapted to the nature of the fuel to be
burnt on it, for a very different area will be required for
burning on the one hand good coal, and on the other hand
sawdust ; the correct proportion must therefore be adapted
to the amount of steam which it is required to raise.
No especial difficulties either in the construction of the
grate or the furnace are required to be overcome, if only
small amounts of sawdust have to be burnt in combination
with other fuels; nothing is then necessary but from time
to time to throw upon the coal fire when it is in a vigorous
state of combustion a few shovelfuls of the well-dried saw-
dust, and let it burn without disturbance, an operation
which can easily be brought into practice in places where
exhausted dye-wood, tan, etc., are obtained as refuse in
amounts which it is easy to dispose of. The matter is,
however, quite different when it is necessary to burn saw-
dust either quite or almost alone.
With this end in view a considerable number of furnaces
for burning sawdust have in the course of time been
invented, the chief of which will be here more minutely
described and elucidated by figures. These are the Kraft
sawdust furnace, the Lundin furnace, Koch's sawdust
furnace, Walter's furnace for making wood-tar, the Andre*
furnace for sawdust, the arrangement of Niederberger &
Co. for burning damp wood-refuse and sawdust, Godillot's
pyramidal grate for pulverulent fuel, gas generators and
condensers for sawdust, "and the Zwillinger apparatus for
carbonising sawdust, as well as a number of newer patterns
which will also be minutely considered. These designs are
exceedingly various in principle; they may nevertheless
be easily divided into two groups :
26 THE UTILISATION otf WOOD WASTE.
1. Patterns which are designed merely with the object
of burning the sawdust for heating purposes, and in
which therefore no value is attached to the condensation
of volatile products derived from the wood.
2. Patterns which are chiefly designed to accomplish the
latter object, and with which, besides tar, wood-spirit, acetic
acid, acetone, etc., a serviceable charcoal is also to be
obtained. In furnaces of the second class it is especially
to be recommended that the gas resulting from the distil-
lation should be conducted into the fire. The apparatus
of Niederberger & Co. allows the employment of damp
material, so that such substances do not have to be dried
first, which would require at least space and labour for
turning the material over, even if no special drying
arrangement was needed. Godillot's pyramidal fire grate
also allows damp material to be employed. Zwillinger's
furnace is constructed on very ingenious principles : the
sawdust and other wood-refuse are not burnt directly, but
are carbonised in closed vessels, so that all the volatile pro-
ducts of the dry distillation of wood can be condensed, and
the gases used either for lighting the works or for heat-
ing purposes, thus utilising very completely this waste
material, which is in the highest degree advantageous in
localities where much timber is felled and cut up. In fact
Zwillinger's furnace has already proved practically success-
ful in several places, especially in G-alicia and Silesia, the
tar and pyroligneous acid being either worked up on the
spot or sent to chemical works. Weiss and Guttler have
proposed to carry out the decomposition of the wood in an
atmosphere of heated gases, heating the retorts from out-
side. Waisbein devised a plan of decomposing sawdust in
an atmosphere of producer-gas, whilst Giittier designed
an apparatus for the preparation of powdered charcoal, in
which the external heating of the retorts was dispensed
with. A. Gustav, for carbonising wood or wood-refuse, in-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF- SAWDUST AS FUEL. 27
troduces the material into tubes or channels and heats it
under pressure, whilst allowing the evolved gases to escape
gradually, so that a continuous solid carbon rod is formed
which retains its coherence after removal from the tube or
channel. G. Scheffer has constructed a special furnace
from ordinary bricks, in which wood-refuse of all kinds,
such as spent tan, sawdust, etc., is submitted to dry distil-
lation by the partial incomplete combustion of the sub-
stances themselves. In trials carried out on the large
scale with tan containing 24 per cent, of water, complete
combustion was effected. The vapours evolved from the
furnace pass first through acetic acid saturated with lime,
and then rise through a coke tower through which milk
of lime is allowed to flow. The gases which escape finally
are either burnt like producer-gas when there are several
furnaces, or are allowed to escape into the chimney. Where
there is no chimney shaft the necessary draught for the
distillation furnaces is produced by a special furnace in
communication with them. F. Frisch of Niederweise in
Saxony likewise manufactures pyroligneous acid from spent
tan, etc. Readfield and Halliday work up sawdust, and
obtain a result which does not in any way agree with the
statement in chemical treatises that resinous woods yield
proportionally little acid. Eight retorts of 45 cm. diameter
(18 inches) produce in 24 hours as much pyroligneous acid
as 16 simple retorts of 1 metre (39 J inches) diameter.
The wood-charcoal which is produced from the sawdust is
employed in large amounts for the manufacture of arti-
ficial manure, and possesses in a high degree the property
of deodorising the urine used in dye works, furnishing
therefore an easy means of getting rid of the disagreeable
odour which escapes from the urine tanks.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
KRAFT'S SAWDUST FURNACE.
This furnace is shown in Figs. 1 to 3 ; Fig. 1 showing
a longitudinal section through the middle ; Fig. 2 a trans-
verse section, and Fig. 3 a horizontal section. The
apparatus consists of retaining walls, A, B. of any desired
FIG. 1. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Longitudinal Section).
form, the simplest being an elongated quadrilateral, which
is also that most easily constructed. The wall B is usually
already existent, being that of the steam boiler or furnace
hearth. The fuel is introduced from above through the
opening c, which is covered by a sheet-iron cover as soon
as the workman ceases to poke. The lifting of this cover
is assisted by a counterbalance. At the level, a, b, the
fireplace is widened out by the walls A and B being re-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
cessed. The lower part of the apparatus forms an ash-
pit, and is furnished with two openings, D, which can be
closed by tile or sheet-iron ash-pit doors. These openings
are closed during the working of the apparatus, and are
only opened for the removal of ashes or slag. Each of the
ash-pit doors may have a small opening in it through which
air can be allowed to enter if for any reason the combustion
requires to be invigorated. In the front part of the
FIG. 2. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Cross Section).
apparatus there is a channel, E, which passes through the
whole length of the brickwork, and is closed at both ends
by wooden or iron discs. This channel communicates with
the combustion chamber by a number of pigeon-holes, f, f,
by which a supply of air is introduced. The combustion
takes place in the lower part of the apparatus, and the
gaseous products of combustion pass through the opening
below the boiler or through the working hearth. The fuel
burns therefore between the openings f and g. It often
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
happens that arches form in the heap of sawdust, and in
that case the whole concave surface of the arch is in a
glowing state; small fragments of the burning matter
detach themselves from the lower surface of the arch, fall
to the floor and burn in the ash-pit.
As it frequently happens that these arches collapse, the
combustion would thereby be arrested or hindered if it
were not for the recesses a and b, which keep the operation
going. If the air is prevented by the collapse of an arch
FIG. 3. Kraft's Sawdust Furnace (Horizontal Section).
from passing directly from f to g, it takes a circular course
round the apparatus and continues the combustion of the
material. A lofty chimney, or a fan, produces a sufficient
draught for this purpose, and in a few minutes the com-
bustion reattains its original intensity. The walls of the
furnace must in fact be of such a height that the falling
in of such an arch does not uncover the channels g, g.
The action of the furnace is a continuous one; the fuel
both takes fire and burns readily, because the lower walls
are very hot and radiate heat from all sides. The com-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 31
bustion is also a complete one, because the openings f, f,
produce a very intimate admixture of combustible gases
with atmospheric air at a high temperature. Together
with the finely divided fuel (sawdust) larger fragments of
the same may be burnt. Thus, in a trial made at a paper
mill, wood billets were burnt along with the sawdust and
with as good a result as with sawdust alone.
After a short time the fire-bricks which line the channels
g, g become white hot, and if dry sawdust is being used
the temperature rises to a point which is sufficient for any
The work of this furnace is continuous and is easily
regulated; ft will burn the very worst kinds of fuel, such
as rotten tree-trunks, pine needles, etc., whilst its erection
is economical, and as the following experiments show, it
seems to present very great advantages. In an experi-
ment on raising steam in a steam boiler, the combustible
material consisted of sawdust and shavings : the former
was J pine, oak, the latter, J oak, J pine and J
poplar. The trial lasted 15 hours. The fuel burnt
amounted to 1544 kilograms of sawdust and 715 kilograms
of shavings, or a total of 2262 kilograms. The quantity of
water used amounted to 3680 litres. The temperature of
the feed water was 18 C., and the tension of the steam
produced was 4' 95 or 5 atmospheres (75 Ibs. per square
inch). The substances burnt as fuel contained 38' 6 and
27 per cent, of water respectively. The fuel lost therefore
791 kilos, of water. Assuming that the heat required to
evaporate this quantity of water in the furnace would have
evaporated an equal quantity in the boiler, we may take it
that 2262-791 = 1471 kilos, of combustible matter evapo-
rated 3680+ 791 =4471 kilos, of water, or 3'04 parts of
water for 1 part of combustible material.
Another experiment with an 8 to 10 horse-power steam
boiler gave the following result : The substances to be burnt
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
were merely air-dry, and consisted of 413 kilos, of pine
bark, 154 kilos, of oak sawdust, 18 kilos, of oak shavings,
and 152 kilos, of oak waste, or in all 717 kilos. The engine
ran for 10 hours and drove 2 water pumps, 3 circular saws,
2 planing machines, and 2 drilling machines. The boiler
was fed with water of 20 C., and a steam pressure of
FIG. 4. Andre's Sawdust Furnace (Section).
75 Ibs. was obtained. Although this experiment is an in-
complete one, it sufficiently demonstrates the value of the
ANDRE'S FURNACE FOR SAWDUST.
This furnace is a modification of that of Kraft, and
differs from tlie latter in having the abrupt widening of
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 33
the combustion chamber replaced by one which increases
gradually from above downwards, and also by the intro-
duction of some structures of prismatic form, built of fire-
bricks, into the lower part of the combustion chamber.
In Fig. 4, A, B represents the front of the boiler which it is
required to heat. The material to be burnt is introduced
from above into the chamber, c, D, and falls on the prism r
shaped walls, p, F, situated above the fire grate, E, which
FIG. 5. Andre's Sawdust Furnace (Cross Section through Combustion
may be replaced by a small arch. The principal com-
bustion takes place in the chamber G with the air which
enters from below the fire grate. With ordinary boilers
this chamber G can be dispensed with.
The following experiments on the efficiency of this
furnace have been made :
1. Spent tan burnt in 12 hours, 1420 kilos.; this had
for several weeks been kept on the top of the boiler and
was thoroughly dry. Water evaporated 1*85 kilos, per
34 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
kilo, of tan; temperature of the gases at throat of
chimney, 256 C.
2. Material employed in the course of 12 hours, 340
kilos, of tan, and 1025 kilos, of sawdust. Water evaporated
T29 kilos, per kilo>. of fuel; temperature of gases, 250 C.
3. Material burnt in 12 hours, 414 kilos, of coal. Water
evaporated, 4'54 kilos, per kilo, of coal; temperature of
gases, 250 C.
KOCH'S SAWDUST FURNACE.
Koch's sawdust furnace is simple in construction, and
when used in tanneries for burning spent tan as fuel may
also be employed for sawdust and peat. The problem to be
solved was the combustion of a wet pulverulent or granular
material without previous drying or agglomeration, as
well as without having to force the air through the fire
grate by mechanical means. Spent tan is a substance of
this character; it is thrown out of the tan-pits saturated
with water and in such a finely divided condition that it
resembles sponge, and rarely contains granular fragments
as large as a pea. In this condition it wo-uld be impossible
to burn it on an ordinary grate without previous drying
in the air, which would require a large space.
In a particular case this apparatus was employed for
heating steam boilers, and the tan, although pressed, con-
tained 40 per cent, of water.
The furnace consists essentially of a rectangular pit
about 1'6 metre long, 1 metre wide, and 1'2 metre deep,
the bottom of which contains two fire grates 0'45 and 0'5
metre wide and 1 metre long. The front wall of the fire-
place has two doors for cleaning the grate, and two flues
for carrying off the products of combustion. Two arches
are thrown across the combustion chamber about 0'3
metre (12 inches) above the fire bars, leaving openings at
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 35
the sides 0'2 to 0'3 metre (8 to 12 inches) wide between the
arches and the walls of the chamber, for the descent of
the fuel. The upper surface of these arches is constructed
roof-shaped, the ridge running parallel with the fire bars.
Iron bars are also stretched across the chamber, to obstruct
the fall of the fuel and prevent it from settling down in a
dense mass. The wet tan, thrown into the furnace, falls
first on the upper surface of these arches, where it dries as
it slides down towards the sides, and having passed through
the side openings, it is delivered upon the fire grate in a
perfectly dry condition. It there forms a layer 0'08 to O'l
metre (3 to 4 inches) thick, which burns freely. There is
no necessity for keeping a cover on the combustion
chamber whilst the furnace is in use, but when work
ceases in the evening the top is closed by cast-iron plates.
The chimney, fire-doors, and ash-pit are likewise closed;
by this means a -dull red heat is maintained during the
night, and when fresh fuel is added combustion recom-
mences immediately. In cases where the substance to be
burnt contains other volatile products than water, the ash-
pit may be closed and the air for the combustion obliged
to pass through the mass of fuel from above downwards.
In this case, however, the water-vapour which is drawn
into the flues with the products of combustion reduces the
heating effect considerably, and, before making any altera-
tion in the original arrangement, it is desirable to con-
sider which is the better mode of burning a material con-
taining a determined proportion of moisture.
SAWDUST AND TAN FURNACES.
The furnaces shown in Figs. 6 and 7 are intended for
dye-woods, tan, and sawdust ; if the wet materials arc well
pressed before use they can generally be employed as the
sole fuel, without any admixture of coal.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Fig. 6 shows the fireplace of a boiler with a single tube :
the grate rises at both sides to meet the channels for the
FIG. 6. Furnace for Burning Sawdust or Tan for Heating a Singh
FIG. 7. Furnace for Burning Sawdust or Tan for Heating a Two-tube
descent of the fuel. These channels widen, out to larg<
reservoirs, which can be closed by a cover.
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS PtTEL. 37
The fuel is charged into the reservoirs and is conducted
to the grate through the side channels, for which purpose
doors are constructed in the front wall of the fire chamber.
Fig. 7 shows a similar construction for a two-tube boiler.
In this case the fire grate is divided by a partition wall
which serves both to strengthen the structure and to
regulate the distribution of the fuel over the grate area,
which in this case is wider. These furnaces are adapted
FIG. 8. Sawdust and Tan Furnace, with Step Grate and Truck for
Conveyance of Fuel.
either to steam boilers with internal flues, or to boilers
which are heated externally. In the latter case the fire-
place must extend 1J to 2 metres (5 to 6J feet) in front of
The furnace shown in Fig. 8 is fitted with a step grate,
such as is used in large works where a number of boilers
are arranged side by side. The fuel is brought in trucks
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
running on tram lines, and is shot from these into a hopper
from which it can be brought down to the grate by a rake.
This method of feeding, as well as the arrangements for
FIG. 9. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Feed Plate.
FIG. 10. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Fuel Hopper.
the removal of the ash, are very suitable for large estab-
lishments, but for small works, where there are only one or
two boilers, it would not pay for the cost of construction.
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
The step grate may, however, be used in a simpler form
of furnace, the fuel hopper being replaced by a feed plate,
from which the fuel is from time to time thrust with a
hoe towards the grate.
In Fig. 11 a construction is shown in which the fuel
is thrown into a shaft, at the bottom of which it is carried
forward by an endless screw to the fire grate. This is a
very costly construction, on account of the mechanical
FIG. 11. Sawdust and Tan Furnace with Step Grate and Charging Slot.
complication and consumption of power, and will not as a
rule prove remunerative.
Respecting the above forms of furnace, the following
remarks may be made : In most furnaces the condition
should be fulfilled that fresh fuel should be placed on the
grate only at such a rate as is required to replace that
which burns away. When the fuel is fed to the grate by
hoppers or shafts this condition is not fulfilled, for in the
narrow parts of these hoppers or shafts the material is
40 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
found to become tightly packed, in the way indicated by
the dotted lines a in Figs. 6 and 7.
Unless the stoker is constantly stirring the fuel, it burns
down on the bars and leaves free spaces through which an
excess of air enters and cools the gases. The steam pressure
falls; the stoker is obliged to drive the fire, and usually
throws a large quantity of fuel on the grate. Then, in
consequence of the layer of fuel on the bars being too thick,
the air supply is deficient, combustion is imperfect and
smoke is produced. These disadvantageous conditions are
repeated at longer or shorter intervals, according to the
care bestowed on the stoking : in addition, cold air obtains
entrance to the fireplace whenever the fire-doors are opened
for the purpose of poking the fuel.
In the earlier forms of furnace mentioned above, the
rate of addition of fresh fuel is entirely dependent on the
.greater or less attention which the stoker gives to the work.
Every time fresh fuel is thrown on, it lowers the tempera-
ture, and the admission of cold air when the fire-door is
opened has the same effect. However careful the stoker
may be it is impossible for him to keep the fire grate
covered with an equally thick layer of burning fuel all
over, or to avoid smothering the burning material by the
addition of the fresh fuel, or the admission of either too
much or too little air.
The arrangement in Fig. 11 is designed to provide for
an automatic supply of fresh fuel, independent of the
stoker, but it does not altogether avoid the above defects.
The supply of fuel by the action of the screws is only
regular if the material itself is perfectly uniform. With a
material of irregular coarseness there is a liability to the
formation of open spaces on the fire grate, and the con-
sumption of steam is never so regular that the supply of
fuel to the grate will exactly keep pace with it; hence, at
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL, 41
times, the air supply is either in excess or deficiency. The
arrangement is likewise costly and complicated.
None of these arrangements supplies the combustible
material exactly at the rate at which it burns away, and
this leads to a waste of fuel, the escape of the invisible gas
carbon monoxide by the chimney being as much a loss of
combustible matter as the production of smoke and soot,
and on the other hand, when the air supply is in excess, the
draught takes place principally through the uncovered
places in the fire grate, whilst the thicker layer of fuel
at other spots will be in a comparatively sluggish state of
FURNACE OF HERM, BOTTGER & Co. OF DRESDEN, FOR
SAWDUST, DYE-WOOD, TAN, ETC.
The principle of this furnace is the establishment of the
correct proportion between fuel and air supply, and the
intimate admixture of the fire-gases in the combustion
chamber. The former object is attained by an automatic
conveyance of the fuel to the grate, the latter by appro-
priate subdivision of the gas currents in the combustion
chamber. By this means a more complete utilisation of
the combustible material is attained, and the formation of
smoke and carbon monoxide, if not altogether prevented,
is reduced to a minimum.
The arrangement of the individual portions of the
furnace aims at fulfilling this fundamental condition. The
grate, which consists of several portions, and is laid with a
certain slope, receives the fuel from a reservoir, and so
distributes the layer of burning material that the air
obtains proper access to it. The fuel reservoir, which is
placed at the upper part of the fire grate, is so constructed
that neither in the reservoir nor at the outlet from it to
the fire grate can the fuel become packed. On the con-
42 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
trary, it allows the fuel to fall gradually on the grate by
its own weight as fast as it burns away.
The fireplace is surrounded on four sides by brick walls at
definite distances apart, with openings so arranged that the
gas currents are subdivided and intimately mixed, thus
ensuring the complete combustion of the hydrocarbons and
carbon monoxide evolved from the layer of fuel.
The fuel reservoir is replenished from time to time to
prevent the amount of burning material on the grate from
undergoing diminution; the layer of fuel on the sloping
face of the grate is in a full state of combustion over the
lower two-thirds of the grate area, whilst at the upper part
water-vapour and combustible gases are escaping. The
combustion is a gradual one, the drying of the material
takes place in the reservoir, and at the outlet from the
reservoir to the grate, the most intense combustion in the
middle, and the complete combustion at the lower part of
The principal advantages of Bottger's furnace are as
1. The proportion between combustible matter and air
supply is the most favourable one, and the mixture of the
gases is thorough.
2. The evolution of smoke and carbon monoxide, if not
completely avoided, is reduced to a minimum, and con-
sequently the utilisation of the combustible matter is on
the average 30 to 45 per cent, higher than in other cases.
3. The supply of the fuel, however large the amount
required, is simple and appropriate, and the labour small.
4. The stoker has a complete view of the fireplace, and
in most cases the fire maintains itself when unattended
for more than 24 hours, so that there is no need to relight
it in the morning.
5. The fire requires less frequent stirring, and less
chimney draught as a rule than other arrangements.
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 43
6. The parts exposed to the action of the fire suffer less
injury, and the fire-brick lining is of a simple character,
consisting of smooth walls and arches which are easily con-
SAWDUST FURNACE FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS.
An improvement in the utilisation of sawdust may be
effected by heating it in an atmosphere of certain gases,
and the experiments which have been made in this direc-
tion have given good results as regards both the products
of distillation and their yield, and the quality of the char-
coal obtained. The gas employed may be either that de-
rived from the sawdust itself or ordinary coal gas intro-
duced into the retort from outside.
In experiments made with coal gas, the gas was passed
into the retort at a certain pressure, and had the effect
of removing the products of distillation more rapidly from
the region of high temperature. The results obtained
were favourable, but the decomposition of the products of
distillation could only be partially prevented. In conse-
quence of this, the method was altered so that the heat,
instead of being applied to the material after passing
through the walls of the containing retort, was generated
inside in direct contact with the substance to be distilled.
All the gases employed in this manner must be completely
free from oxygen, in order that no loss of the valuable pro-
ducts of distillation may take place.
One of the older arrangements is shown in Figs. 12
and 13. The furnace is constructed of slag-bricks with
an inner fire-brick lining, and the heat obtained from
it is employed in roasting the ore in a copper refinery.
The first gas generators constructed were furnished
with charging cylinders of 0'89 metre (3 feet) dia-
meter, since the consolidation of the fuel by the pro-
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
duction of tar was feared, but with these a loss of gas
was found to be unavoidable. At first the cylinders
were closed by cast-iron covers, but small explosions were
apt to occur in the gas tubes, especially with an excess of
air in the refining furnace. For an equable distribution of
the fuel in the generator a sheet-iron tube, a, is fixed with
screws to the cover. A layer of the combustible material
1'5 to 1'8' metre thick (5 to 6 feet) must be kept on the
FIG. 12. Sawdust Furnace for Gas Producers (Section through the
Furnace and the Condensers).
grate; the height of the layer can be regulated by means
of the rod, o x. The air-blast enters the furnace through
a cast-iron pipe, z, which is covered with a cap to prevent
the ash from falling into the air tube, and to subdivide the
blast; above this is a pyramidal grate consisting of eight
segments, on which the fuel rests. For cleaning the grate
there 'are four openingis, c, c, opposite one to another. The
air pressure employed is generally 19 millimetres (f inch) ;
for sawdust it should not exceed 13 mm. (J inch). The
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
older patterns, which had no grate, and in which the air-
blast was introduced through three tuyeres, did not prove
satisfactory. The grate is made of cast-iron; when saw-
dust is used alone the spaces between the upper edges of
the fire bars should be 15 mm. (about f inch) wide; for a
mixture of sawdust and peat 31 mm. (1J inch); and for
peat alone 43 mm. (1^ inch). Above one of the openings,
c, c, there is another opening which serves for withdrawing
the fuel when the work is discontinued.
The openings are so constructed that the fire bars can
be inserted or removed through them. It sometimes
FIG. 13. Sawdust Furnace for Gas Producers (Ground Plan of the
Furnace and Condensers).
happens, especially when small peat is being used, that
soot collects in the channel d which connects the generator
with the condenser ; for the removal of this soot an opening
in the wall of the gas generator is made use of. This
opening is closed by a plate built into the brickwork, and
pierced by a hole through which the shaft of a steel
scraper, which fits the hole, passes. The scraper, when not
in use, is drawn back into a recess in the wall. Through
d the gases pass to the condenser, A, B. This consists of
two cylindrical vessels closed at both ends, and containing
tubes through which the gases are conducted, whilst cold
water, introduced at the bottom and allowed to flow out at
46 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the top, circulates round them. The cylinders are con-
structed of sheet-iron 3'3 mm. (-J inch) thick, the brass
tubes are 2 '97 metres (9 feet 9 inches) long and 48 mm. (1J
inch) in diameter. The water-supply pipe is 72 mm. (2|
inches) in diameter. Usually only one condenser is used for
each generator. When the gases have passed through the
condensers they are conducted by pipes to the furnace.
The water and tar condensed from the gas collect in the
tank, D. This tank is constructed of two thicknesses of
slag-bricks and one of fire-bricks, with intermediate layers
of a mixture of tar and cement. The tar flows over into
store vessels through the pipe g, whilst the water runs
away by a gutter after it has been completely freed from
tar by passing through a straw filter.
A generator consuming 225 hectolitres (620 bushels)
of sawdust daily yields about 20 hectolitres (440 gallons)
of gas-water. When the blast is on, the temperature of the
gas increases considerably ; to protect the brass tubes a jet
of water is introduced through the roof of the vertical
channel which conveys the gas from the generator to the
condensers. The water pipe is inserted through a hole
in the valve into which an iron plug is fitted. For dis-
tributing the water a baffle plate is fixed opposite the jet.
The tubes in the condenser very rarely get choked, but if
this should occur the supply of cold water is diminished so
that the gases may pass through the pipes warm, and the
stoppage is soon cleared away. The apparatus is liable to
the occurrence of small explosions, but these are generally
occasioned by defective working of the generator. If the
sawdust is too damp it often causes explosions; cavities
are formed during the sinking of the charge, and in these
air and gas become mixed. To provide against damage
from these explosions, valves are placed in the roof opposite
to the gas canal. These valves open when an explosion
occurs and immediately close again. They are constructed
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 47
of cast-iron, and are so arranged <that they cannot be lifted
beyond a right angle, and therefore close again by their
own weight. The air-supply pipe is fitted with a safety-
valve, as close to the gas generator as possible, which, in
the event of a stoppage of the blowing apparatus, closes
the air pipe and prevents it from getting filled with the
combustible gas. Such stoppages are very apt to occur
from the driving-belt slipping from the pulley of the
blowing apparatus. This valve consists of a wooden frame
on which leather is stretched ; it is hung by a leather strap
in a wooden valve-box, and the weight of the frame is such
that it is lifted by the air pressure : if on the other hand
a back pressure should occur, the frame falls and closes the
air pipe. The top of the valve-box is formed of a stout
sheet of paper glued down, and above this a wooden cover.
These form a safety-valve in the event of gas obtaining
admission to the tube between the generator and the valve.
The combustible material employed in the generator may
be sawdust, mixed with small coal, peat, etc. If it is
desired to make a change in the material, it is only
necessary to introduce the appropriate fire bars, and to
increase the strength of the blast when the spaces between
the bars are smaller. Each gas generator using sawdust
yields 165 litres (36 J gallons) of tar daily. A special
arrangement is employed for collecting the gases from
several generators in a single main. It consists, for each
of the four generators, of rectangular oast-iron chests of
different sizes. The medium-sized one receives the gases
from the smaller ones and delivers them to the hydraulic
main : all the small chests are fitted with conical valves.
THE LUNDIN FURNACE.
In this furnace an air-blast is used both to supply
the air required for the combustion and to generate gas.
48 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
and a condenser is introduced to cool the gases and the
water-vapour which they contain. The combustible
gases produced in a gas generator fed with sawdust,
and with an air-blast supplied below the fire grate, are
conveyed by a syphon tube into a coffer-shaped condenser,
through the cover of which several fine jets of water are
introduced. The jets of water impinge upon pointed
pieces of metal placed opposite to the openings, and the
water being thus scattered in all directions cools and con-
denses the vapours. In order that the condensation may
be as perfect as possible, the gases, after leaving tne con-
denser, pass upwards through a channel filled with iron
lattice-work over which water is flowing, and thence into
a valve-box from which they are distributed, through
Siemens' regenerators, to the furnaces where they are to
be used. When used to heat puddling furnaces each cwt.
(Centner) of bar iron consumes a quantity of sawdust
equivalent to 0'72 ton of wood-charcoal (2 tons of sawdust
are equal to | of a ton of wood-charcoal).
As the result of various trials the Lundin gas producer
does not seem to be particularly advantageous in the iron
manufacture. This is due to the fact that a producer
worked with a blast furnishes more carbon dioxide and less
monoxide than one worked with a chimney draught, and
that in the condenser, not merely water but also tar is
condensed, which otherwise would have added to the heat
effect. For the complete condensation of the tar very
large quantities of water are required (8640 cubic feet in
It is only as a sawdust furnace that the Lundin
apparatus has any value, this material being obtained in
enormous quantities in Sweden.
The assertion that the system of condensing the tar,
which would else have interfered with the working of the
valves, has alone rendered the regenerative system pos-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWD
sible in Sweden, is not correct, since regenerative furnaces
constructed on other patterns are in full and uninterrupted
The introduction of water je.ts is a new and peculiar
feature of the Lundin condenser. With the exception of
the suitability of Lundin's apparatus for the combustion of
sawdust, a very restricted use of that system is to be
expected in countries where the same conditions do not
obtain as in Sweden, since it would be only an expensive
way of wasting any fuel of greater value.
From another source we have the following report:
" The use of this furnace deserves to spread rapidly; it
permits the direct use of undried, comminuted, and
sulphurous fuel; a considerable economy of combustible
matter, diminished production of scoria, a good quality of
iron, and great durability.
" At Munksors in Warmland, a furnace worked with saw-
dust turns out 50 tons of iron in 6 days, with a consump-
tion of 11 to 14 cubic feet of sawdust per cwt. of finished
iron, and a loss of 11 to 12 per cent. : compared with
former times, the output has doubled, the expenditure of
fuel diminished by i, and the loss of iron by 1 per cent."
GODILLOT'S FURNACE WITH PYRAMIDAL GRATE FOR
This furnace avoids the usual inconveniences of those
which are fed with fuel, especially tan, sawdust, etc.,
through hoppers in the crown of the arch. The pulveru-
lent material, falling on a horizontal grate, forms a heap
which becomes consolidated by its own weight. Under
these circumstances the air penetrates with difficulty into
the interior of the heap and the combustion is incomplete.
The system of pyramidal grates is applicable to all
furnaces in which the fuel is introduced through hoppers.
50 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The grate, which is of pyramidal form, is placed above
the ordinary fire bars, and serves as the support for the
pulverulent fuel which falls on its inclined faces from the
charging hopper above it. By this means a more uniform
FIG. 14. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Longitudinal Section).
layer of fuel is formed, the air penetrates the whole mass
more readily, and the combustion is greatly improved.
Each of the charging orifices in the crown of the furnace
is fitted with a tube, which is somewhat contracted towards
FIG. 15. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Horizontal Section).
the upper part. This tube forms a sort of fuel-reservoir,
which gives a continuous, automatic feed to the fire grate.
The arrangement and mode of working the pyramidal
grate are such that the stoker, without admitting cold air
into the body of the furnace, is able to ascertain the state
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
of the fire, and to remove ash and clinker from the hori-
zontal grate by means of a poker.
Fig. 14 shows a longitudinal section, Fig. 15 a hori-
zontal section, and Fig. 16 a transverse section of the
furnace with the pyramidal grate; Fig. 17 the ground plan
of one of the pyramids, and Fig. 18 a section of the same,
as adapted to a furnace for burning tan, sawdust, etc.
FIG. 16. Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grate (Transverse Section).
The horizontal grate is partly covered by the pyramid.
This pyramid has a number of faces, B, B, B, each of which
constitutes an inclined grate,. It is slightly elevated above
the horizontal grate A, so that a poker can be inserted
between the two for cleaning the fire bars.
For this purpose a cast-iron trunk c (Fig. 16) runs from
the door D of the fireplace to the horizontal grate in
the form of a gutter. The horizontal grate of the furnace
52 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
is interrupted below the pyramidal grate B and the gutter
c, the inner edge of which rests on it, and allows the ash
to collect below the grate in the form of heaps. By this
FIG. 17. Plan of one of Godillot's Pyramidal Fire Grates.
arrangement the fuel slides down the inclined faces B,
since these are inclined at a greater angle than the angle
of repose of the material, that is to say, the inclination
FIG. 18. Section of one of Godillot's Fire Grates.
which the sides of a heap of the substance would naturally
assume. It is therefore never necessary to clean the bars
of the pyramidal grate B. Ash and clinker collect on the
horizontal grate A. The pyramids may be constructed
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 53
with a greater or smaller number of faces than are shown
in Figs. 17 and 18. In these figures six faces are shown
each having the form of a triangle. The triangles are held
together at their bases by screw bolts, but are loose at
their apices, so that they may be able to expand. The
faces may also be of trapezoid shape, and then form a
truncated pyramid, or the grate may be conical and made
in one piece. The form of the grate is to some extent
dependent on the form and situation of the hoppers, which
may be cylindrical, square, etc.
The dry or damp fuel is charged in through the openings
G, G, in the crown, H, of the furnace (Fig. 14), but to pro-
duce an automatic and uninterrupted feed, a tube, i, may
be carried up from each of the openings, contracting some-
what towards the upper part, and serving as a reservoir
SWEDISH WOOD-CHARCOAL FURNACE WITH CONDENSER.
The apparatus employed in Sweden for converting saw-
dust into wood-charcoal consists of rectangular chambers
10 metres (33 feet) long and 6'5 metres (21 feet 4 inches)
wide below, but narrowed to 4 metres in width (13 feet)
at the spring of the semicircular roof, and 6 metres (19 feet
8 inches) high. The side walls have a slight slope in-
wards. The bottom is flat except close to the side walls
where it slopes down to a cast-iron pipe which serves for
carrying off the gases and condensable products. The
former escape through a vertical tube of sheet brass, whilst
the latter form a tar deposit on the floor. A rectangular
hearth, constructed of fire-bricks, covers half the width of
the bottom of the chamber ; this is in communication with
five narrower pipes, which lead to the ends and sides of
the chamber, and by which air is introduced. These pipes
rest on cone-shaped iron supports about 9 inches high.
54 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The crown of the furnace is protected against rain by a
The sawdust and other waste from the saw-mills are
brought by tram lines, and laid down to dry in the air
until wanted for use. The charging takes place through
doors, of which there is one at each end of the chamber.
One of these doors, which is flush with the bottom of the
chamber, measures 175 by 145 centimetres (5 feet 9 inches
by 4 feet 9 inches), the other is at the base of the arch
and measures 150 by 100 cm. (59 by 39J inches). The
lower layer of the charge is formed of the larger waste
pieces of wood for a height of about 30 cm. (1 foot) ; upon
these the other materials are so placed that the length of
the pieces runs parallel to the axis of the chamber. An
experiment in which some of the layers were built up of
pieces laid crosswise did not give a favourable result, but
on the contrary occasioned a higher cost for labour.
As soon as the whole charge of wood, which amounts to
470 cubic metres (16,600 cubic feet), has been introduced,
which can be done in 3 to 4 days by 10 men, the lower
doors are closed and secured with bolts and the fire is lit.
The upper doors are left open until the third day to furnish
a free outlet for the water-vapour given off from the damp
wood. A dark-coloured vapour is evolved up to the middle
of the sixth day, after which it generally becomes bluish.
The combustion is regulated according to the appearance
of the vapour : should the combustion become too vigorous
the pipes are partially closed, or the fire is damped in any
convenient manner. In order to avoid exposing the
building to internal pressure by thus closing the outlets,
the side walls have, passing through them near the upper
part, narrow tubes which are left permanently open.
According to the dryness of the wood the carbonisation
may take from 10 to 18 days; 16 days are required for
cooling down, and the chamber can be emptied by two
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 55
men in a day and a half. After any repairs required have
been executed a new charge is immediately introduced.
The annual output of one of these carbonisers amounts
to 800 lasts (60,800 cubic feet) of charcoal and 160
gallons of tar. The loss on carbonisation varies according
to the dryness of the wood, and may on the average be put
at 100 cubic feet, so that the quantity of the charcoal
amounts to 85 to 90 lasts, or 6460 to 6840 cubic feet, from
which it appears that the yield is 58 to 62 per cent, of the
The charcoal obtained from sawdust is less suitable for
the blast furnace (Hochofen) than for the refinery (Frisch-
feuer), especially when it is mixed with ordinary wood-
charcoal. The carbonising chambers described above have
the advantage over the Meiler (mounds or heaps covered
with turf, extensively used in the German charcoal-pro-
ducing districts) of a smaller cost for labour, and a cleaner
charcoal; besides which the work is independent of the
weather and requires less skill on the part of the workmen.
SAWDUST FURNACE OF C. WALTER FOR THE MANUFACTURE
One of the principal advantages of this furnace is that
the grate can never become choked and cause irregularity
in the combustion; moreover, very fine sawdust can easily
be burnt in this furnace without addition of any coarser
material. It is used as a source of heat for a bench of two
retorts. The fire is regulated by sliding dampers, and can
at will be wholly shut off from either of the retorts. The
products are charcoal, tar, crude tar-oils, and calcium
*The mode of calculation employed is unintelligible, but the
statement of yield must relate to bulk, not to weight, the usual yield
of charcoal from wood being about 25 per cent, by weight. (Note
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
acetate. ^ The retorts are set in pairs, and with a slight
fall towards the back. They have at the back two holes
at opposite sides of the diameter. The lower hole is used
both for rotating the (cylindrical) retort when its lower
side is burnt out, and also in the early stages of the dis-
tillation for drawing off water, and in the latter stages
FIG. 19. Walter's Sawdust Furnace and Stills (Vertical Section).
pitch; the upper hole serves for the escape of gases and
vapours. Very wide tubes are employed for carrying off
the products of distillation. They rise perpendicularly
to a height of 3 metres (10 feet), and are then carried with
a slope of about 10 to the condensing apparatus, which is
placed at a distance of 5 to 6 metres (16 to 19 feet). As
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
the vapours have so long a course through these pipes, the
more readily condensable vapours liquefy in them and
flow back towards the retorts, whilst only the acetic acid
vapours, and the more volatile empyreumatic oils pass on
to the condensers and are collected as pyroligneous acid
and crude tar-oil. In this way two tarry products are
FIG. 20. Walter's Sawdust Furnace (Vertical Section through the
line c D).
obtained, a thick black tar, and a dark-coloured but fluid
tar-oil resembling Finland tar in appearance, which is very
much in demand for tarring ships, since it readily soaks
into the wood and acts as a powerful preservative.
Fig. 19 shows a vertical section of the furnace through
the line E, F, of Fig. 20 ; Fig. 20 a transverse section
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
through c, D, of Fig. 19, and Fig. 21 a section along the
line A, B, of Fig. 19.
Through the charging hopper a, which opens above in
the floor of the factory, so that the material can readily
be brought to it, the sawdust is charged from time to time
into the furnace, a fire having first been lighted with some
other material. The sawdust slides gradually down the
sloping floor of the fire chamber towards the grate c in
FIG. 21. Walter's Sawdust Furnace (Oblique Section through the
line A B).
such quantity as to supply the place of that which burns
away : the amount thrown into the chamber should never
be so large that the grate becomes completely covered.
The heap of sawdust burns at the surface, and all that is
necessary is that from time to time a poker should be
inserted through the door h to spread it about. If the
grate should momentarily get choked, which however can
only happen if too much sawdust has been thrown in, or if
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 59
it is desired to admit more air, the air channels, d, d, d, d,
ait both sides of the furnace, may be opened. The ash falls
partly through the grate, partly also into the channels, d, d,
which therefore must be so arranged as to be easily cleared.
Through the neck e of the combustion chamber the flame
passes into the flues, /", f, /*, and is then distributed to the
retorts. By means of the dampers, Z, /, I (Fig. 19), in the
flues behind the retorts, the flame can be regulated or
shut off from any of the pairs of retorts as required.
A chimney-stack with a good draught is essential. The
uncondensable gas which is evolved from the retorts,
together with the vapours of acetic acid and tar, is returned
from the condenser to the fire by the pipe, k, and contri-
butes materially to the heating effect.
This sawdust furnace differs from others mainly in the
fact that, with the exception of the small quantity lying
on the grate, the heap of sawdust burns only at its upper
surface, so that the obstructions which in other forms of
furnace are caused by the subsidence of the mass of fuel
with which the furnace is filled cannot occur here.
FURNACE OF NIEDEBBEBGEB & Co. FOB DAMP WASTE-
WOOD AND SAWDUST.
This furnace is designed for burning, without previous
drying, the wet and finely subdivided wood-fibre which
remains after the extraction of the dye from dye-woods ;
it is also well adapted for the utilisation of damp sawdust.
Fig. 22 shows the fireplace as arranged for heating a
boiler. Fig. 23 is a transverse section through the line
The upper space, A, open at the top and enclosed by a
wall, serves for the reception of the combustible material,
which is constantly being thrown into it and piled up in
a heap. In the floor of the enclosure. A, there is a row
60 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
of vertical apertures, B, B, B, under each of which an
angle-iron girder, c, with a right-angled, or obtuse-angled
edge placed upwards, is situated. The spaces between the
lower edges of the girders are filled with fire bars, e, e, of
the usual construction. The space H, below c and e, is
FIG. 22. Niederberger's Furnace (Transverse Section).
the ash-pit. In front, before the ends of the fire bars,
there are doors or valves, through which the lower layer of
the refuse wood resting on c and e can be set on fire ; the
doors are tightly closed after this has been done. In the
space above the grates an energetic evolution of gas and
FIG. 23. Niederberger's Furnace (Longitudinal Section).
smoke is produced from the combustible matter, which,
as the lower layers burn away, sinks down on the sloping
faces of the girders. The gases pass through the aperture,
p, into the chamber, R, into which a separate supply of
atmospheric air is admitted through tubes, d, which pass
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 61
through the brickwork of which the bottom of the en-
closure, A, is constructed, and which can be closed by either
slides or valves so as to regulate the supply of air to the
chamber, R. In this chamber the combustion of the gases
takes place, and the flame is then conducted into the flues
where its heating effect is to be expended. The wood as
it descends from the enclosure, A, dries completely before
it reaches the grates, e, and is regularly delivered to the
fire grates by the sloping surfaces of the girders, c, so that
the fire requires no attention as long as a supply of wood
is kept up in the enclosure, A.
ZWILLINGER'S APPARATUS FOR CARBONISING SAWDUST, ETC.,
WITH RECOVERY OF THE VOLATILE PRODUCTS.
The apparatus consists in general of a steam super-
heater (with the requisite boiler for producing the steam),
of a cast-iron cylinder for the carbonisation of the material,
of the ammonia apparatus, hydraulic main, cooler, and lead
vessels, and the apparatus for the illuminating gas, such
as the gas purifier, holder, and tank. The carbonisation
cylinder is filled from above from a charging reservoir of
the same capacity, and it is emptied below into sheet-iron
vessels of similar size. The carbonisation is effected in
the cylinder by means of superheated steam of 750 to
800 C., whilst at the same time the cylinder is surrounded
through its whole length by the waste flue gases from the
superheater, before these pass off by the chimney. A
furnace with four cylinders will require 16 kilos. (35 Ibs.)
of coal and 50 kilos. (110 Ibs.) of steam per hour.
The superheated steam, which is admitted direct to the
cylinders and passes thence through the hydraulic main
and the cooler, raises the pressure in the cylinders and
sweeps out the gases and vapours through the sulphuric
acid absorbers and gas purifiers into the gas holders.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The working of the apparatus is free from danger, pro-
duces no nuisance, and is in the highest degree simple and
The wear of the gas and ammonia apparatus is so small
that its durability for many years without repairs may be
FIG. 24. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Vertical
counted on with certainty. The carbonising cylinder and
the superheater, when worked, continuously, will run for at
least three years without requiring any expenditure for
In order to maintain a uniform heat in the superheater
furnace, and to ensure complete combustion of the fuel,
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
the fireplace is so built, by giving a batter to the side walls,
a, a, lowering the fire bars, and introducing a vertical fire-
brick partition wall, c, that two fireplaces, D, D, are formed,
each of which is furnished with a fire-door, b (Figs. 24
For regulating the air supply, each ash-pit, E, is fitted
with an adjustable door, c.
In the superheating chamber, A, straight tubes, e, e, are
supported on dwarf walls, /', f, and are connected by
elbows, d, d, which project beyond the dwarf walls on
FIG. 25. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Hori-
both sides into narrow channels, f, g, which communicate
with the fireplace by pigeon-holes. The superheating
chamber is not arched over, but covered with flat plates,
which are supported by the walls, f, f. The steam enters
at g, traverses the pipes, e, e, which are kept at a dark red
heat, and is then carried by the pipe, h, in a highly super-
heated condition, to the carbonisers, G, G, G. The cylinder,
G, which holds about 150 to 200 kilos. (330 to 440 Ibs.) of
the material to be carbonised, is constructed of cast-iron,
and is furnished with covers, I and T, at the top and bottom
respectively, for filling and emptying it. Each cylinder
64 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
contains a pipe, taken off from the steam pipe, h, which is
pierced with small holes throughout its entire length, and
through which the superheated steam is passed into the
substance to be carbonised. The carbonisation cylinders,
which are most advantageously 0'3 metre (12 inches) in
diameter, may either be placed vertically or horizontally,
and are so set in the brickwork that a flue is left all round
them, which communicates by pigeon-holes with the super-
heating furnace, A.
FIG. 26. Zwillinger's Apparatus for Carbonising Sawdust (Trans-
verse Section through the Superheater Furnace).
The heated gases issuing from the fireplace, D, are caused
to pass through the superheating chamber, A, and through
the channel, k, into the flue, i, which surrounds the
cylinder, G, by which means the steam pipes, cylinder, and
surrounding brickwork are all raised to a high tempera-
ture ; the products of combustion then pass to the chimney
by the flue, p, p'. The containing walls must b.e thick
enough to prevent any material loss of heait by radiation,
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 65
and the heat of the gases is so far absorbed that they
escape into the chimney at a temperature of about 160 C.
The gases and vapours evolved during the carbonisation
are carried by the pipe, m, m', into a hydraulic main, H,
from which they pass by the pipe, n, to the cooler. A
syphon tube, o, branching off from the hydraulic main,
keeps the ammonia* water in the main always at a con-
stant level. To prevent the iron pipes of the super-
heating apparatus, and the cast-iron carbonisation cylinder
from being burnt out by the oxygen in the hot gases, these
are covered with a fire-resisting packing, which not only
resists high temperatures but adheres firmly to the iron,
does not crack, melt, or peel off. This is composed of 100
parts of fire-clay, 20 parts of common clay, 40 parts of
powdered bone-ash, and 2 parts of cow-hair or barley
chaff. The fire-clay and the bone-ash must be dried and
powdered, and then mixed with enough water to form a
uniform plastic dough of the consistence of glazier's putty,
into which the cow-hair or the barley chaff is then
thoroughly kneaded. With this composition the super-
heater tubes are covered to the thickness of 1 cm. (
inch), and the carbonisation cylinder with 3 cm. (1J inch).
They are allowed to dry for 24 hours, and may then, at
once and without risk, be exposed to a red heat of 1000
C. Carbonisation apparatus, similar to the above, may
advantageously be used for the production of coal gas with
recovery of the by-products.
The carbonisation apparatus serves for the production
of charcoal from the waste materials mentioned above,
and for the recovery of the products of distillation, such
being sulphate of ammonia, pyroligneous acid, acetate of
* There seems to be some confusion of thought here ; the distillation
of wood yields but little ammonia, the chief product, besides tar,
being acetic acid. (TRANS.)
66 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
lime, acetic acid, illuminating gas, tar, Oleum cornu cervi,
etc.; it can be employed for the utilisation of exhausted
dye-woods, tan, sawdust, fir cones, horse chestnuts, fruit
stones, nut and almond shells, etc., and performs the car-
bonisation with superheated steam of a temperature of
750 to 8000 c.
The yield obtained from 100 parts of sawdust, exhausted
dye-wood, or spent tan, is as follows:
Charcoal . . ... . 21 to 23 per cent.
Tar . . . ... . 7'9 8-6 ,,
Pyroligneous acid (5 per cent, of
wood-spirit and 6 per cent, of
acetic acid) . . . 35 ,, 45 ,,
Gas . . . . ,' . . . 20 23
That is, 40 cubic metres (1400 cubic feet) from each charge
of 100 kilo. (220 Ibs.), requiring 60 to 65 minutes to distil.
The tar obtained by distillation with superheated steam
is especially distinguished by the fact that the tar oils
obtained from it are particularly easy to purify, and yield
very pure products ; moreover, this method of carbonisation
gives a larger yield than was the case with any carbonisa-
tion furnace previously in use.
The gas may either be employed for illumination, or,
where there is no demand for such, may be used for raising
steam in the boiler.
FISCHER'S APPABATUS FOB CABBONISING WOOD WITH
KECOVEBY OF THE VOLATILE PBODUCTS.
This apparatus, shown in Fig. 27, consists of three super-
posed portions, namely, two vessels set in brickwork, and
a removable reservoir, which is omitted in the figure.
These three vessels, which can be closed air-tight, are con-
nected with one another by several tubes, carrying stop-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
cocks. Each vessel is furnished with a stirrer and a
thermometer. The upper vessel (" Dryer ") is fitted with
FIG. 27. Fischer's Apparatus for Carbonising Wood.
a supply pipe for the admission of steam superheated by
waste heat, or else of dry warm air; the lower vessel (" The
68 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Carboniser ") is in communication with a vacuum pump.
The tubes which carry off the gas and volatile products
from both vessels are closed at their outer ends by
hydraulic lutes, and at their inner ends with arrangements
for arresting dust. The " Dryer " is kept at as constant
a temperature as possible, by the waste heiat from the
lower vessel, as well as by the combustion of the uncon-
densable gases obtained during the carbonisation. The
" Carboniser " is heated by a direct fire or by producer-gas.
The material to be carbonised is fed into the " Dryer,"
the stirrer of which is kept in motion, and in which a
constant temperature of about 130 C. is maintained,
whilst dry steam or heated air is blown in. By their
direct contact with the wood a rapid drying, and at the
same time a disintegration of the wood are caused. When
the drying is complete the contents of the vessel are trans-
ferred by the stirrer to the " Carboniser," by opening the
valve between the two vessels. The stirrer of the lower
vessel is kept running ; the temperature at the time of
filling will be about 150 C. As soon as the upper vessel
is empty its communication with the lower is closed, and
it is recharged with wood, whilst the lower vessel is now
heated to the carbonisation temperature at such a rate as
gives the largest yield of crude acetic acid and the smallest
proportion of uncondensable gases. Whilst the " Carbon-
iser " is being raised from 150 to the carbonising tempera-
ture, it is evacuated as completely as possible by the
attached air pump, after which dry steam, or an inert gas,
is admitted in place of air until the pressure in the vessel
is again equal to that of the external atmosphere. The
carbonisation then goes on in the absence of air, so that a
partial combustion of the gaseous products of distillation
is rendered impossible. The result is a higher yield,
especially of wood-spirit (methyl alcohol), than is the case
with earlier carbonisers. The volatile products are drawn
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FtJEL.
over into a cooler. When the carbonisation is complete
the stirrer is stopped, and the vessel and its contents are
allowed to cool down to about 150, when the granular
wood-charcoal is discharged by the stirrer into a reservoir
in which it is allowed to get completely cold with exclusion
of air. The " Carboniser " is then filled afresh.
HALLIDAY'S APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
The apparatus constructed by Halliday is a continuous
one, and consists of a cylinder with a feeding screw ; accord-
ing to the speed with which the screw is driven the wood
FIG. 28. Halliday's Carbonisation Apparatus.
can be exposed for a longer or shorter time to the action of
the heat, and thus a larger yield of acetic acid is obtained
than is possible from the charcoal mounds (Scheiter
70 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Meiler). This fact is, however, not to be ascribed to an
especially favourable construction of the apparatus, but
exclusively to the form of the raw material. From small
fragments of wood the distillate is much more rapidly
evolved than from large billets, and the distillate under-
goes less decomposition in the apparatus. 100 kilos.
(220 Ibs.) of sawdust yield 45 to 54 litres (10 to 12 gallons)
of a liquid containing 4 per cent, of acetic acid, besides 6
to 8 litres (1 to Ij gallons) of tar.
The sawdust is thrown into the hopper, B (Fig. 28).
In this hopper a revolving screw, c, delivers the material
at an appropriate rate into the horizontal cylinder. The
latter is heated by the furnace, A. A second screw, D, keeps
the material in the retort in constant motion, and at the
same time conveys it gradually to the other end of the
cylinder. The wood becomes carbonised as it traverses the
cylinder, so that by the time it reaches the further end
it has parted with all its volatile products. Two tubes
are connected with this end of the cylinder. One of these,
F, descends into an air-tight closed cast-iron receiver, or
else into a cistern, G, filled with water ; the other, E, carries
off the products of distillation to the condenser, which con-
sists of tubes surrounded with cold water. Some dye-
wood grinders convert all their waste wood into acetic
ttcid in this manner, with great advantage to themselves.
The yield of acid is almost as large as that obtained from
original wood by the ordinary methods.
COLUMNAR DISTILLATION APPARATUS.
This apparatus, which is also especially suited for saw-
dust, dye-wood, wood-refuse, and tan, consists of a vertical
sheet-iron cylinder 5'3 metres (17 J feet) high and 1'G
metre (5J feet) in diameter, and contains a number of
superposed bell-shaped rings, each 105 to 235 mm. (4 to 9
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
inches) high, and forming thus a kind of annulated
cylinder, the lower end of which has the form of an in-
FIG. 29. Distillation Column for Wood-refuse.
The wood-refuse charged in at the top is heated in the
annulated cylinder and the evolved vapours rise into the
72 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE*
inverted bells, whilst the charcoal is removed at intervals
from the bottom. As the lower part of the cylinder can
be closed by a valve, the distillation can be carried on
without intermission by continuously charging the wood
in at the upper end. The small charcoal obtained from
the distillation of wood-refuse may be made use of in
various ways; one part is burnt on suitable grates (step
grates) to furnish heat in the factory itself ; the remainder,
especially when sawdust is carbonised, forms, in the finely
divided condition in which it is obtained, a very service-
able disinfectant; in Vienna, where charcoal has a high
value as a fuel, it is well adapted for the manufacture of
WAISBEIN'S DISTILLATION APPARATUS WITH PRODUCER GAS.
W>aisbein made experiments on the application of pro-
ducer-gas to the dry distillation of wood. The gas was
generated in the furnace, A, by the combustion of wood-
charcoal, and was drawn by the ventilating fan, B, which
was set in motion by water power, through the retort, c,
cbntaining the material to be distilled. The operation was
carried on in the following manner : After the retort was
charged, the valve, D, and the tap, E (the latter of which
supplied water to the fan), were opened as far as was
necessary to bring the temperature of the entering gases
to 150, the temperature being observed by the thermo-
meter, t. The hot gases traversed the retort, and arrived
at the condensing coil, K, loaded with water-vapour. In
the coil the water-vapour was condensed, and flowed
through the collector, M, into the receiver, N ; the cooled
gases were drawn off by the fan. After the wood had
become dry, the valve, D, and the tap, E, were further
opened, so that the gas reached the retort at a tempera-
ture of 280, and the oxygen compounds were collected
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 73
separately. The valve, D, and the tap, E, were then fully
opened ; the temperature of the gases rose to 430 C., at
which temperature the tar distilled over. The products
from birch-wood containing 15 per cent, of hygroscopic
27 per cent, of water;
27 ,, of pyroligneous acid, containing 21-8 per cent, of
acetic acid ;
1-2 of wood-spirit ;
31 ,, of charcoal.
Pine-wood yielded approximately the same proportions,
but the pyraligneous acid contained only 12'9 per cent,
of acetic acid.
FIG. 30. Waisbein's Experimental Apparatus.
In consequence of these results an experimental plant
was constructed. In Figs. 31 to 34, A is the gas producer:
the fuel is introduced through the doors at the top,
through which also the air necessary for the combustion
enters. B is the chimney, which, however, is only used
when lighting the fire, and is shut off by the slide valve, a,
before beginning the distillation. c is the tube which
conveys the gas from the producer to the retorts, D, D.
From the retorts the gases and volatile products issue by
the tube, K or z, according to whether the valves, i or it,
are opened. The hot gases, together with the gaseous pro-
74 TfiE UTILISATION 0? WOOD WASTE.
ducts of distillation, carried off by the tube, z, enter the
cooler, N. Here the products of the distillation condense
and flow into the receiver, M, whilst the gases pass into the
vessel, P, and from thence are pumped out by a Korting's
injector, which is employed to produce the draught
through the whole system.
The temperature of the gases entering and leaving the
retorts was observed by the thermometers, t, t'. It appeared
at the outset that certain errors in the planning of the
apparatus had been made. It was discovered (1) that the
FIG. 31. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus (Ground Plan).
temperature of the producer-gas where it entered the
retorts was too high ; (2) that the cooling surface of the
condenser was too small, so that the products of the dis-
tillation could not be sufficiently cooled. Moreover, the
sectional form of the retorts was not the most suitable.
In consequence of the disadvantages thus introduced into
the operation, the temperature of the gas which entered the
retorts could not be controlled as completely as was desir-
able. When a temperature of 280 was required the screw
valve, g, could only be opened a very little way (5 turns out
THE EMPLOYMENT OF* SAWDUST AS FUEL. 75
FIG. 32. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus (Section through I., II.).
FIG. 33. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus (Section through III., IV.).
FIG. 34. Waisbein's Distillation Apparatus (Section through V., VI.).
76 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE,
of 35), and the distillation then occupied an unreasonably
long time. If the valve was fully opened the distillation
was finished in 45 to 55 minutes, but the temperature rose
far above 280, and the resulting distillate was then con-
taminated with tar.
The yield obtained in the distillation of birch-wood
amounted to 95'5 per cent, of the theoretical yield.
PETRI'S APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
The portable apparatus constructed by Petri was
designed with the object of burning a pulverulent or
granular fuel by submitting part of it, which was used for
kindling the fire, to a preliminary preparation. This pre-
paration is of such a character that by means of a small
flame the combustible substance can be instantaneously
brought into a condition of vigorous combustion, which is
then transmitted to the whole mass.
The composition of the powder is such that it absorbs
the condensable and combustible vapours given off by
heating the fuel. When the fuel has been sufficiently
heated, and has given up part of its combustible vapour to
the powder, becoming at the same time porous, the latter
has undergone the necessary " preparation," and can be
removed to the combustion chamber and set on fire. The
powder then gives up the vapour of all the volatile hydro-
carbons which it has absorbed with great facility ; these
take fire, and by means of them the whole of the prepared
material is gradually brought into a state of combustion,
the porous condition of the heated wood assisting the
action of the atmospheric oxygen.
The powder consists of dry sawdust, or some other finely
subdivided organic substance such as peat dust, with which
finely powdered colophony, or some other readily combus-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
tible resin, is mixed. The quantity of colophony added is
regulated according to the proportion of volatile constitu-
ents already contained in the fuel, resinous fuels such as
sawdust requiring a very small amount, coal a larger
quantity, and peat and coke the largest of all. The
apparatus for heating the kindling material may either be
connected directly with the combustion chamber, so that
the material which has undergone the necessary prepara-
FIG. 35. Petri's Combustion Apparatus.
tion may be directly transferred to the fire grate, or it may
be entirely separate.
The figures show two forms of the apparatus for the
separate preparation of the material (Figs. 35 to 41). The
forms in which the combustion chamber is connected with
the heating apparatus operate in exactly the same manner
as those we are now considering. In the apparatus shown
in Figures 35, 36, 37 (Figs. 38 and 39 show a portable
apparatus of the same character for locomotives) the fuel
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
is introduced mixed with the powder into the space, a.
The bottom of this space is formed of two four-sided hollow
FIG. 36. Petri's Combustion Apparatus (Transverse Section).
FIG. 37. Petri's Combustion Apparatus (Ground Plan).
prisms, B, open at one side, of which the prismatic faces,
6, c, d, and the base, a, are constructed of sheet-iron, whilst
the fourth prismatic face consists of a fire grate, c.
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 79
FIG. 38. Petri's Portable Combustion Apparatus (Transverse Section).
FIG. 39. Petri's Portable Combustion Apparatus (Ground Plan).
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The prisms, B, can be rotated on a pivot, in, and can be
kept in a horizontal position by the pulley, n. With these
two prisms there is connected the vertical chamber, D, the
walls of which are constructed of grate bars, and which
opens above into the chimney. The fire which heats up
the materials is lit in the chamber, F. The fire gases pass
FIG. 40. Stationary Combustion Apparatus of Petri (Modification).
through the chamber, D, parting with their heat on the
way. When the material has been suitably prepared, that
is to say, heated up, the chains, n, are released and the pre-
pared material falls into cases, which are then transferred
to the combustion chamber, emptied out upon the fire
grate, and their contents set on fire. The forms shown in
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL.
Figs. 38 and 39 can also he adapted to locomotives. In
this case the material falls directly into the fire-box of the
The apparatus shown in Figs. 40 and 41 consists of the
fuel chamber, #, containing a coil filled with calcium
chloride, and a copper tube, N, heated from the combustion
chamber, o. The circulating liquid gives up its heat to
the mixture of fuel and powder.
After sufficient warming the valve, g, is opened by the
rod, p, and the prepared material falls into the cases, p.
FIG. 41. Stationary Combustion Apparatus of Petri (Modification).
This apparatus is more expensive to construct than that
first described, but affords a more uniform warming of the
material and an accurate control of the temperature by
means of a thermometer dipping into the calcium chloride
MANUFACTURE OF ILLUMINATING GAS FROM SAWDUST.
The production of illuminating gas from wood is a
process of dry distillation; as we have seen, this
process yields acetic acid, tar, and charcoal, besides
82 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
gases which consist of. carbon dioxide and monoxide, but
possess little illuminating power when the distillation is
canried on slowly. If, oil the contrary, wood is rapidly
heated to a high temperature, the greater part of the
volatile products undergoes decomposition, and hydro-
carbons are formed which are partly liquid and partly
gaseous. By rapid distillation wood yields large volumes
of gas, which is easily purified, and possesses very consider-
able illuminating power ; charcoal, tar, and small amounts
of acetic acid are obtained as subsidiary products. The
retorts are similar to those used for the distillation of
coal ; they must be filled with wood (sawdust, refuse, etc.)
only to one-third of their capacity. The retorts should be
at a full red-heat before the wood is charged in, and the
charging must be performed as rapidly as possible, because
large volumes of gas are evolved ait an early stage of the
distillation. The time required for working off a charge
is 75 to 120 minutes. In consequence of the rapid de-
composition of the wood a certain amount of pressure is
developed in the retorts, which, however, is rather an
advantage as it keeps the tar-vapours somewhat longer
in contact with the hot walls of the retorts and promotes
their decomposition. In the gas works of H. Walker at
Deseronto (Ontario) illuminating gas has for some time
been manufactured from sawdust, and similar wood-gas
plant is at work in other localities, and is employed for
illuminating the workshops. As raw material, well dried
pine-wood sawdust is used, which yields 20,000 to 30,000
cubic feet of gas per ton. The retorts used are similar to
those ordinarily employed for making coal gas ; the process
of purification is, however, different, since the impurities
in wood-gas are different from those obtained from coal.
Sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonia, which are the chief
troubles of the coal-gas manufacturer, are almost entirely
absent from wood-gas. Resinous wood is, of course, pre-
THE EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST AS FUEL. 83
ferred to other woods for the manufacture of wood-gas, as
it not only gives a larger volume, but yields gas of higher
illuminating power. The drying of the sawdust, which is
one of the most essential conditions of a well-organised
gasification, as well as the other preparation of the raw
material, is, in the works mentioned above, carried out
almost entirely by mechanical appliances. In localities
where sawdust can be cheaply obtained, and where there is
a demand for the by-products, such as charcoal, wood-tar,
wood-vinegar, etc., the manufacture of wood gas is able to
compete advantageously with that of coal gas.
The crude wood-gas contains very considerable amounts
of carbonic acid gas, which it is necessary to remove, since
the presence of carbonic acid markedly diminishes the illu-
minating power of the gas. Since this, however, can only
be effected by the use of lime, and since 1000 cubic feet
(about 30 cubic metres) of gas require 30 to 35 kilos. (66
to 77 Ibs.) of lime, the cost of the gas is materially
enhanced. The lime in the purifiers combines also with
the creosote, and with any acetic acid which has not been
condensed in the coolers. The amount of creosote absorbed
is only small, since its compound with lime is decomposed
by carbonic acid.
100 kilograms (220 Ibs.) of wood yield
34 to 40 cubic metres (1200 to 1400 cubic feet) of gas ;
0-5 to 0-8 kilos, of pyroligneous acid ;
2 kilos, of tar;
15 to 20 kilos, of charcoal.
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST.
THIS technically-important substance was first obtained
in 1773 from salt of sorrel (acid potassium oxalate) by
Savary. Oxalic acid appears not to exist in the free state
in nature, but occurs in combination with potash as acid
potassium oxalate, and in combination with lime as calcium
At one time oxalic acid was manufactured by the very
costly process of oxidising sugar with nitric acid, but at
the present time it is made from cheaper organic sub-
stances without using nitric acid. Among these organic
substances sawdust is the most important, in consequence
of the abundance of the supply and the low cost of this
1. PEOCESS WITH SODA LYE.
To prepare oxalic acid, 30 to 40 parts of sawdust are
mixed with soda lye of specific gravity 1*35, containing 100
parts of actual alkali, and the mixture is heated in shallow
pans to evaporate the water. The temperature to be
employed is variously stated as from 175 to 240 C., but
the higher of these temperatures should not be exceeded,
as the oxalate of soda would be decomposed into carbonate.
As soon as particles of wood can no longer be seen in the
mass, the melting process may be considered to be finished,
and the mixture is allowed to cool. The product contains
sodium oxalate and carbonate, together with substances of
the nature of humus, and the excess of the alkali which
MANUFACTUEE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 85
was originally employed. The mass is lixiviated with the
smallest possible quantity of cold water, taking care that
the solutions which are run off are not weaker than 35
Be. By this operation the more soluble salts are dissolved,
whilst the sodium oxalate is left as the undissolved resi-
due. Another method is to dissolve the mass completely
in the smallest possible quantity of boiling water, adjust
the strength of the solution to 38 Be*., and allow to cool.
Sodium oxalate crystallises out, and can be freed from the
mother liquor by a centrifugal hydro-extractor.
The crystallised sodium oxalate is redissolved in boiling
water and mixed with milk of lime in an iron vessel which
is fitted with a mechanical stirrer : it is by this means con-
verted into calcium oxalate and sodium hydroxide (caustic
soda). To avoid an injurious excess of lime, the amount
of quicklime for each operation is calculated and slaked ;
the greater part is added slowly to the boiling solution of
the sodium oxalate; during the addition of the remainder,
samples are tested at short intervals by filtering, super-
saturating with acetic acid and adding calcium chloride.
As long as this produces a precipitate or turbidity, in-
dicating that sodium oxalate is still present, the addition of
the milk of lime is continued. The precipitate of calcium
oxalate is then allowed to subside, and the supernatant
soda lye is drawn off and used for another melt, so that
no waste of the caustic alkali takes place. The calcium
oxalate is repeatedly washed with water, the washings may
be concentrated to recover the alkali they contain or may
be used for lixiviating. The calcium oxalate is now to be
decomposed : for this purpose it is mixed with water to the
consistence of a thin pulp, heated by steam in a lead-lined
vessel, and treated with sulphuric acid of 15 to 20 Be*.,
meanwhile continuing to pass steam through the liquid
until it boils. The amount of sulphuric acid to be used
is regulated best by the amount of lime which has been
86 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
required for decomposing the sodium oxalate ; 56 parts of
quicklime (calcium oxide) require 98 part* of real
sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) for conversion into calcium sul-
phate. If to 1 part of lime there be taken 2 parts of
sulphuric acid of 66 Be'., or an equivalent quantity of a
weaker acid, it will give an excess which will advan-
tageously assist the decomposition. The oxalic acid solution
is now decanted from the precipitated calcium sulphate, the
precipitate is repeatedly stirred up with water and finally
thrown on a filter or filter press to recover the adhering
solution. A sample of the precipitate is thoroughly
washed with water, treated again with sulphuric acid, and
tested with potassium permanganate for oxalic acid. If
the warm solution, decolorises the permanganate, oxalic
acid is still present, and the precipitate requires a further
treatment with sulphuric acid. The solution of oxalic acid
is evaporated in a shallow lead pan. When the liquid
reaches a specific gravity of 15 Be. the evaporation is
stopped, and the liquid allowed to cool in order to allow
the calcium sulphate, which was present in the weak solu-
tion, to separate. The liquid, separated from the precipi-
tate, is further concentrated in a second pan to about 30
Be., and then run into shallow lead-lined wooden crystal-
lisers. The degrees of concentration here mentioned must
only be regarded as approximate, as they require to be
regulated according to the temperature of the room in
which the crystallisation is to take place. Thus, in winter
the first concentration must be stopped at 10 Be"., other-
wise oxalic acid would crystallise together with the calcium
The mother liquor is separated from the crystals by a
centrifugal machine ; it contains sulphuric acid, and can
be employed in the next decomposition of calcium oxalate.
The remainder of the mother liquor is removed by dissolv-
ing the crystals in a little boiling water and reerystallising.
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FEOM SAWDUST. 87
Considering the relatively high cost of the alkali used,
it is important to use the caustic lyes repeatedly ; they are,
however, highly contaminated with organic matter, from
which they are freed by evaporation and calcination. If,
however, the lyes are merely evaporated and calcined, the
organic matter will not be completely destroyed, however
high a temperature may be employed, since the alkali fuses
and protects the organic matter from the action of the air.
It is better to operate as follows : The liquor is concen-
trated to 40 Be. (sp. gr. 1'386), and then mixed with
enough sawdust to absorb it completely. The mass is then
calcined, either on iron plates or in a reverberatory
furnace, in thin layers, until a sample extracted with warm
water gives only a feebly coloured solution.
The greyish-black calcined mass is a mixture of charcoal
with caustic and carbonated alkali : it is very porous, and
is therefore easily washed out. Instead of washing it with
water, the weak liquors from the decomposition of sodium
oxalate with lime may be used. The lye obtained is
causticised with lime and concentrated to 42 Be*, (sp. gr.
1'407), and is then used again in the process.
2. THORN'S PROCESS.
There has been but little published on the subject of
the most advantageous conditions for acting on sawdust
with alkalies for the production of oxalic acid; it appears
therefore desirable to give the results of the experiments
made by Thorn on this subject.
Thorn's earlier experiments were made in round iron
pots 5 cm. deep, 10 cm. in diameter at the bottom and 13
cm. diameter at the top; the whole quantity of sawdust
taken was thrown into the boiling lye, which was of 30
to 42 Be., and the heating was continued over a free flame,
whilst stirring continuously. When using the more con-
88 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
centrated lye of 42 Be 7 ., the whole of it was at once ab-
sorbed by the sawdust, and the inconvenient splashing of
the liquid was prevented.
In the course of the experiments Thorn observed that
variations in the yield resulted from heating the mixture
in thicker or thinner layers : a second series of experiments
was therefore made in shallow sheet-iron dishes, in which
the mixture formed a layer only 1 to 1 \ cm. (f to | inch)
thick. Pine-wood sawdust, containing 15 per cent, of
hygroscopic moisture, was employed for the experiments.
To estimate the oxalic acid produced, 1 gram of the melt
was treated with warm water, the solution acidified with
acetic acid, boiled to expel carbonic acid, and precipitated
with calcium chloride ; the washed precipitate was con-
verted into calcium sulphate for weighing, and the amount
of crystallised oxalic acid. C 2 H 2 4 + 2H 2 per 100 parts
of wood, was calculated.
1. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Fusing Saiodust with Sodium'
In one series of experiments 1 part of sawdust was added
to a quantity of the soda lye containing 2 parts of sodium
hydroxide; in another series 4 parts of sodium hydroxide
were taken. The following were the results obtained :
50 grams of sawdust with 100 grams of NaHO fused in
the iron pot :
At 200 C. 36-0 parts of oxalic acid per 100 parts of wood.
At 240 C. 33-2
When the mixture was heated in a thin layer :
At 200 C. 34-68 parts of oxalic acid per 100 parts of wood.
At 220 0. 31-60
Using 25 grams of sawdust to 100 grams of NaHO :
In the iron pot :
At 240 C. 42-30 parts of^oxalic acid per 100 parts of wood.
MANUFACTUBE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 89
In thin layers :
At 240 C. 52-14 parts of oxalic acid per 100 parts of wood.
The colour of the melt passed from brown to a bright
turmeric^ yellow ; above 180 the mass assumed a green or
brownish-green colour; at still higher temperatures a
vapour with a disagreeable odour was evolved, indicating
apparently that a more considerable decomposition was
taking place. The heating above 200 required great care
to prevent the temperature from rising too high and
causing the redecomposition of the oxalic acid produced.
This was especially the case with the smaller proportion of
2. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Fusing Sawdust with a
Mixture of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide
in Thick Layers.
Earlier experiments had shown that by using a mixture
of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in certain
proportions the yield of oxalic acid was as large as, or
even larger than, with potassium hydroxide alone.
The proportions which give the most favourable result
have been very variously stated. According to a report by
Fleck, there was employed in an English works a mixture
of 1J parts of potassium hydroxide to 1 part of sodium
hydroxide : according to another statement 1 equivalent
of potassium hydroxide to H equivalents of sodium
hydroxide is taken : at Kunheim's factory in Berlin mole-
cular proportions of KOH and NaOH are regarded as the
most advantageous, which proportions agree approximately
with those first stated above.
Starting with a mixture of 10 parts of potassium
hydroxide, 90 parts of sodium hydroxide, and 50 parts of
sawdust, Thorn observed that with the alkalis in this
ratio the mass underwent a peculiar decomposition.
Whether the mixture was heated up slowly or rapidly the
90 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
colour of the mass passed from brownish-yellow to greenish-
yellow, and when 180 was reached the mixture had the
consistence of stiff dough. A dense smoke now rose from
the melt : the temperature, in spite of the removal of the
flame, increased, at first slowly, then rapidly, in the course
of a few minutes, to above 360. The mass intumesced,
and formed craters from which issued large volumes of
combustible gas : finally it became completely carbonised.
The decomposition could not be arrested by blowing a
strong current of cold air upon the mass. As often as
Thorn repeated the experiment with these proportions he
observed the same phenomena. When a mixture of 20
parts of KOH, 80 of NaOH, and 50 of sawdust was used,
the temperature could be raised to considerably above
200 without the occurrence of this uncontrollable decom-
As the proportion of potash is increased the colour of
the finished melt passes from yellow more and more into
brown, and higher temperatures are required to produce
the same consistence. Above 200 the mixture again
becomes fluid, and froths so violently that it comes over
the edge of the pot; with further heating it again becomes
viscous. It is then difficult to raise its temperature, but
if, after heating to 200, it is cooled to 60 to 80, stirring
all the time to prevent the formation of lumps and to
obtain a loose granular mass, it can readily be reheated to
240 to 250. At this temperature the humus appears to
undergo decomposition to some extent, as is evident from
the paler colour of the solution, compared with that of a
less strongly-heated melt; on the other hand the forma-
tion of oxalic acid increases at this high temperature, as
is shown by the following experiments in which 50 grams
of sawdusit were fused with 100 grams of alkali containing
different proportions of KOH and NaQH. Each fusion
lasted | to 1 hour :
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 91
KOH : NaOH.
240 to 245
240 to 245
60 : 40 200
60 : 40 240 to 245
80:20 200 to 220
80 : 20 240
240 to 245
Very different results were obtained when the mixture
was heated in thin layers.
3. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Heating Sawdust with a
Mixture of Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide
in Thin Layers.
As before, 50 grams of sawdust was thrown into boiling
lye of 42 Be., containing 100 grams of alkali hydroxide ;
the sawdust absorbed the whole of the liquid, and the
mixture was then heated on an iron plate in a layer about
1 cm. thick. By vigorous stirring the melting of the mass
was, as far as possible, prevented, but above 200 a certain
amount of fusion took place, and the mass acquired a
pasty, granular consistence : when both alkalies were used
this tendency to crumble increased, whilst the colour of
the melt remained paler. The mass remained more porous
than when heated in a thick layer, and was therefore
better exposed to the action of the air. The increased
contact with the air is advantageous, inasmuch as it assists
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the evaporation ,of the water, and promotes the oxidation
of the woody fibre, which conduces to the formation of
oxalic acid as is shown by the following results. The
heating lasted 1 to 1J hours:
KOH : NaOH.
200 to 220
240 to 250
240 to 250
240 to 250
240 to 250
240 to 250
This method of heating in thin layers, avoiding fusion
as far as possible, gave therefore a considerably larger
yield of oxalic acid. The experiments showed further that
a mixture of 40 parts of KOH and 60 of NaOH, which
approximates to 1 equivalent of the former to 2 equi-
valents of the latter, gives practically the same yield as
KOH alone. With smaller proportions of potash the yield
rapidly falls off.
4. Formation of Oxalic Acid by Heating Sawdust with
Alkali Hydroxide in Thin Layers in a Current of
If a current of heated air is passed over the mixture
during the heating up, the latter retains its pulverulent
condition for some time, and first begins to soften at about
220. The mass, which up to that temperature was of
a uniform brown colour, began to show isolated black
patches, which rapidly extended throughout the whole.
The mixture was heated to 215 in air warmed to 100;
the temperature then rose of itself to 240, whilst the
MANUFACTUEE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 93
mass became of a dark-brown colour. When a mixture of
KOH and NaOH was used the reaction did not take place
so violently as with KOH alone, and the mass remained
of a paler colour. When air heated to 120 was employed
the temperature rose rapidly from 190 to 250, and the
time required for heating up was materially shortened by
the employment of heated air.
The experiments in which 50 grams of sawdust and 100
grams of KOH were taken gave the following results :
which the Mass
quired by the
Mass after ceas-
ing to apply Heat.
The yield of oxalic acid was therefore no larger than in
the experiments without heated air, but a shorter time of
heating was required for the formation of the oxalic acia.
o. Formation of Oxalic Acid with the Assistance of Manganese
In 1858 Possoz took out an English patent, according
to which the formation of ulmates, acetate, formates, and
carbonates was avoided by heating 100 parts of bran, or
other organic substance, with 100 parts of potassium
hydroxide and 500 parts of potassium manganate to 160
to 240 C., but not exceeding 260.
Instead of potassium manganate, Thorn endeavoured
to act on the heated mixture of sawdust and alkali hydrox-
ide with manganese dioxide. The sawdust (50 grams)
was heated with the alkali in a thin layer, and at 150
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
10 grams of manganese dioxide was scattered over the
surface. When using 50 grams of wood, 100 grams of KOH
and 100 grams of manganese dioxide, the average yield
from four closely concordant experiments was 78' 74 per
cent, of oxalic acid : the addition of the manganic peroxide
was therefore without any influence on the yield, and it
did not appear that the dioxide underwent any change.
6. Yield of Oxalic Acid from Different Kinds of Wood.
To ascertain whether the kind of wood used would
influence the yield of oxalic acid, several different kinds
were tried. For each experiment 50 grams of wood was
heated with 40 grams of KOH and 60 grams of NaOH to
240 to 250 C. in a thin layer, and the following were the
average results of four fairly concordant experiments :
Oxalic Acid on
White deal . . .
Yellow deal . .
The soft woods give therefore a larger yield than the
7. Yield of Oxalic Acid with Different Proportions of Wood
If the quantity of wood is increased in proportion to the
alkali, subsidiary decompositions of the wood take place ;
it is evident that a dry distillation of the wood, and ulti-
mate carbonisation, occur. When 75 grams of wood were
MANUFACTURE OP OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 95
taken together with 100 grams of KOH, the mass began
to fuse at 210, and at 215 some black patches appeared
in the pale-brown mass. The temperature rose slowlv by
itself to 250 and the mass became completely black.
With 100 grams of wood to 100 grams of KOH, the
mixture became dark coloured even below 200. In each
of the following experiments 100 grams of KOH was
employed, and the mass was heated to 250 :
Yield of Oxalic
Acid per 100
Yield of Oxalic
Acid per 100
Mode of Heating.
I Melted in
I thick layers.
I Heated in
f thin layers.
In all the above cases the melting .in thick layers gave a
smaller yield than the corresponding mixture heated in
thin layers. With the former of the two methods of heat-
ing the proportion of 75 of wood to 100 of KOH appears
the most favourable when the yield is calculated on equal
quantities of the potash used : but when heating in a thin
layer, the yield, calculated on the alkali, rises as the pro-
portion of wood is increased. Considering the relatively
low cost of the sawdust compared with that of the potash,
it would appear advisable to take such proportions as would
give the largest yield for a given quantity of alkali ; but
there are practical difficulties in conducting the fusion
and in the subsequent purification of the oxalic acid, which
96 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
prohibit the use of much more than 50 parts of wood to
100 of alkali hydroxide.
The extraction of the oxalic acid from the melt can be
performed in two different ways : the aqueous extract of
the melt may be at once boiled with milk of lime to pre-
cipitate the oxalic acid as calcium oxalate, or, if both
alkalis have been employed, the sodium oxalate may first
be separated out by crystallisation.
Working by the first of the two methods a large quan-
tity of calcium carbonate is precipitated with the calcium
oxalate ; this consumes an equivalent quantity of sulphuric
acid, and therefore occasions a larger expenditure of both
lime and acid than corresponds to the oxalic acid obtained.
The size of the apparatus, and the amount of fuel also have
to be increased, because the amount of washing required,
and therefore the quantity of liquid to be dealt with in-
creases as the quantity of precipitate augments.
Besides this, it is difficult to obtain pure oxalic acid
from the precipitate prepared in this manner, because the
humus substances which the solution contains are pre-
cipitated by the lime and adhere very obstinately to the
precipitate, and on the subsequent decomposition with
sulphuric acid yield a dark-coloured solution of oxalic
acid. The whole of the alkali is recovered in the caustic
state, but the liquor cannot be directly employed for
another melting operation on account of the large quantity
of organic matter which it contains, but must be evapo-
rated, calcined, and again causticised, thus entailing a
second consumption of lime. It is therefore far more
advantageous to first crystallise out the sodium oxalate,
the additional operation being quite compensated for by
the avoidance of the above disadvantages. The process of
manufacturing oxalic acid from the melt may therefore be
divided into the following five operations :
1. Preparation of the solution.
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 97
2. Crystallisation of the sodium oxalate.
3. Conversion of ' the sodium oxalate into calcium
4. Decomposition of the calcium oxalate by sulphuric
5. Crystallisation of the oxalic acid.
1. Preparation of the Solution. -
The mass obtained by melting sawdust with the alkalis
is boiled with water until nearly the whole of it is dis-
solved : the solution is then evaporated to 38 Be.
2. Crystallisation of the Sodium Oxalate.
The solution becomes very slimy during the concentra-
tion, in consequence of the presence of the humus, and this
introduces difficulties into the operation of separating the
finely granular crystals of the sodium salt from the mother
liquor. If 4 parts of alkali are used with only 1 part of
wood, practically the whole of the oxalic acid crystallises
out (as sodium oxalate) from a solution concentrated to
38 Be'., and the mother liquor can be readily run off
from the crystals, which are therefore left at once in a
comparatively pure condition. If, however, only 2 parts
of alkali are used with 1 part of wood the mother liquor
is very syrupy, so that it cannot be removed from the
crystals by decantation or by ordinary filtration, and
special arrangements for the separation become necessary.
In the small-scale experiments a Bunsen filter-pump was
used. By this the mother liquor was sucked out from the
crystalline magma as completely as possible, and the
crystals were then washed with small quantities of cold
waiter until oxalic acid began to appear in the filtrate :
in this way a fairly pure pale brown sodium oxalate was
98 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
obtained. On the large scale filter presses or centrifugal
machines are used for separating the mother liquor from
The sodium oxalate separates out in the form of a sandy
powder which exhibits no definite crystalline forms. It
forms round granules about the size of rape-seed ; the
larger granules are frequently hollow, and at the edges
of the crystalhser scales resembling the husks of hemp-
seed are often observed.
Another method consists in treating the melt with water
of 16 C., by which the caustic and carbonated alkalis are
dissolved whilst the sodium oxalate remains undissolved.
But according to Thorn's experiments, although most of
the sodium oxalate remains behind, a not inconsiderable
amount of oxalic acid passes into solution, probably as
potassium oxalate, which then must be- precipitated with
lime. If on the contrary the melt is dissolved completely
by boiling, and the sodium oxalate allowed to crystallise, it
is possible to obtain a mother liquor practically free from
oxalic acid, because the potassium oxalate present in the
melt is completely converted into sodium oxalate during
3. Conversion of the Sodium Oxalate into Calcium Oxalate.
The sodium salt is dissolved in boiling water, a small
excess of milk of lime is gradually added, and the mixture
is boiled for about 2 hours. It is advisable to thin the
mixture well with water, since otherwise the decomposition
is slow and more lime is necessary. If a filtered sample,
acidified with acetic acid, still gives a precipitate with
calcium chloride, more lime must be added; when the
decomposition is complete, the caustic lye is drawn off,
the precipitate is boiled several times with water, and col-
lected on a filter.
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 99
4. Decomposition of the Calcium Oxalate by Sulphuric Acid.
For this operation a large excess of sulphuric acid is
always necessary, 3 equivalents being required for 1 equi-
valent of the oxalate. It is important in this operation
to add an ample quantity of water to ensure the complete
action of the acid. The calcium oxalate is therefore
stirred up with water to a thin paste, and the requisite
quantity of sulphuric acid of 15 to 20 Be. is added
gradually with stirring. The paste becomes at first some-
what stiff with the calcium sulphate (gypsum) formed, but
after standing for a time becomes thinner and can then be
easily stirred ; more water is added and the mixture is
gently heated for 1 to 2 hours with frequent stirring. Too
high a temperature must be avoided, as the solution would
then acquire a dark colour. When the decomposition is
complete the liquid is filtered off and the precipitated
gypsum washed : it must be well stirred up with the water
as it settles very rapidly.
The gypsum can either be used as manure, or be burnt
and used as a plastering material.
5. Crystallisation of the Oxalic Acid.
The solution obtained contains, besides the oxalic and
sulphuric acids, a small quantity of calcium sulphate. It
is concentrated to 15 Be*, (specific gravity 1'116), and on
standing for 3 to 4 hours the calcium sulphate separates
out in small asbestiform crystals. After removing these,
the liquor is further concentrated to 30 Be', (sp. gr.
1'261) ; the oxalic acid separates on cooling in long crystals,
which are purified by several recrystallisations. The
sulphuric acid is used in the next operation ; if too much
contaminated by organic matter it is purified by con-
100 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
3. BOHLIG'S PBOCESS.
Potash lye, of 36 Be*., is heated to boiling in a stout
iron pan, and common deal sawdust is added until a thick
paste is obtained. The heating is continued with constant
stirring, and, when the water has evaporated, the mixture
again becomes fluid, homogeneous, and of a turmeric
yellow colour. The temperature is maintained at the
same height for 2 to 2J hours; the fire is then drawn
and the mass allowed to cool somewhat. Whilst it is still
warm, so much water is added that a solution of 40 Be*.
is obtained : this is allowed to get cold after it has been
well mixed by stirring. A very considerable yield of
potassium oxalate, which is completely insoluble in potash
lye of 40 Be*., is obtained. This method of preparing
potassium oxalate is not new, although considerably
improved : the subsequent treatment is, however, entirely
The well-washed and r crystallised potassium oxalate is
dissolved in a large quantity of hot water, and the cooled
solution is precipitated with magnesium chloride or
sulphate (waste liquor from the manufacture of carbonic
acid for soda water). The well-washed magnesium oxalate
is heated in a wooden tub by a steam pipe, and concen-
trated hydrochloric acid is added until it is entirely dis-
solved. The clarified solution is run hot into stoneware
pans, and on cooling yields oxalic acid in clean crystals,
which after washing and a single recrystallisation are
chemically pure. This rapid and economical process yields
oxalic acid without any useless residues, so that it presents
an evident advantage compared with previous methods.
4. PROCESS OP EGBERTS, DALE & Co.
Messrs. Roberts, Dale & Co., at their soda works at
Warrington, manufacture oxalic acid by gradually adding
MANUFACTUBE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDtJST. 101
fine sawdust to a lye containing 14 parts of caustic potash
and 1 part of caustic soda, in iron pans. The mixture is
then evaporated witli constant stirring, so as to obtain a
moist powdery residue. The caustic soda is by this means
converted into sparingly soluble sodium oxalate, the
caustic potash into potassium carbonate with small quan-
tities of potassium oxalate. The mass has a brown colour
due to the simultaneous formation of humus compounds.
The material is thrown into iron filter boxes with wire-
gauze false bottoms : water is run upon it, and by the
action of a pump connected with the space below the
gauze, is drawn through the saline mass, dissolving the
potassium salts in its passage. The washed residue, which
consists of sodium oxalate, is decomposed by heating with
milk of lime in an iron pan with a horizontal stirrer, cal-
cium oxalate and caustic soda being formed. The soda
lye is evaporated and used over &gain : the calcium
oxalate, after it has been washed in the same manner as
the sodium oxalate, is decomposed by sulphuric acid in
wooden vats lined with lead. The solution of the potash
salts separated from the sodium oxalate is likewise boiled
with lime, to remove the oxalic acid and causticise the
potassium carbonate, and the caustic potash lye obtained
is used again as before. The solution of oxalic acid
obtained from the decomposition of the calcium oxalate
is evaporated to the crystallising point in lead pans, and
the crystals obtained from the first and second evapora-
tions are repeatedly recrystallised to eliminate the adher-
ing sulphuric acid. The last mother liquor, diluted with
water and mixed with a further quantity of sulphuric acid,
is used for the decomposition of fresh quantities of cal-
J. Dale has introduced an improvement on this process.
It consists in treating the sawdust with a hot solution of
soda or potash before fusing it with the caustic alkalis.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
This preliminary treatment removes most of the impurities
from the wood-cellulose.
5. PREPARATION OP OXALIC ACID FROM LIGNOSE.
(Chemically Prepared Wood.)
The lignose prepared by treating wood with hydro-
chloric acid may also be used as the raw material for the
manufacture of oxalic acid, the process being the same a*
that with sawdust. The action of sodium hycL oxide on
lignose produces a darker mass than when wood is used,
the melts are more fluid and more resemble those in which
a mixture of potash and soda has been used.
According to Bachet and Machard the treatment with
hydrochloric acid dissolves the light spongy cellulose which
forms the envelope of the incrusting substance, so that the
proportion of lignin in the residue is increased, and the
product, freed from the spongy cellulose is more readily
soluble in alkalis. Experiments, in each of which 100
grams of sodium hydroxide were employed, gave the
following results :
50 grams of
per 100 parts
Oxalic Acid per 100
parts of Wood.
10*37 1 Me lted
14-OQ ( in
16-58 f tfaick
29-04 J la y ers -
22-58 \ He ^ d
According to these experiments the yield of oxalic acid
is about 33 to 38 per cent, smaller than when the original
wood is melted with sodium hydroxide. This would seem
MANUFACTURE OF OXALIC ACID FROM SAWDUST. 103
to indicate that the spongy cellulose contributes more to the
formation of oxalic acid than the residue left after treat-
ment with hydrochloric acid, containing a larger propor-
tion of lignin, and more readily soluble in alkalis.
6. MANUFACTURE OP OXALIC ACID BY ZAIHER'S PROCESS.
In this process the formation of humus substances,
which are products of decomposition and oxidation, is
avoided by conducting the fusion in a vacuum. The use
of a vacuum permits the preliminary fusion to .e per-
formed at as low a temperature as 180. It is advan-
tageous to deprive the sawdust of water and air by heating
it in the vacuous vessel before admitting the caustic lye,
as this is then readily absorbed by the dry sawdust, and
the solution of .the cellulose in the alkali takes place more
readily. It is also possible to boil the sawdust in the
apparatus with water or weak alkaline lye (4 to 6 Be*.),
run out this liquor, exhaust the vessel, and then draw in
the strong lye and commence the fusion. The vessel used is
a steam-jacketed boiler fitted with a stirrer, and with wide
valves connected with a condenser or with an air pump,
and which can either be heated by steam or cooled by
water. After heating the boiler to 100-150, the cal-
culated quantity of sawdust, or other material containing
cellulose, is thrown in, the stirrer is set in motion, and the
air is pumped out, by which means the sawdust is freed
from air and water. The concentrated alkaline lye, pre-
viously heated to a temperature not exceeding 130, is
then drawn in, the stirrer is kept in slow rotation, and
whilst maintaining as perfect a vacum as possible, the
temperature is gradually raised to 180. The preliminary
fusion, or preparation of the melt, requires several hours,
but when the raw materials are alike it requires little
attention. The mixture thus obtained is then reheated in
104 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the usual way with access of air, in shallow pans provided
with suitable stirrers, and yields a dry, pulverulent, nearly
260 kilograms of white deal or poplar sawdust, contain-
ing 20 per cent, of moisture, are placed tin the boiler, and
dried at 100 to 150 in an almost perfect vacuum, with
the stirrer in motion, which takes about 30 minutes : 940
kilos, of hot (122) potash lye of 46 Be., containing 6 to
7 per cent, of potassium carbonate, previously concentrated
in a separate vessel, are then admitted, and the pre-
liminary fusion is performed whilst stirring slowly. This
is complete in 3 hours. The mixture is then cooled to
about 160, and by reversing the motion of the stirrer the
pale yellow fluid product is run out into a shallow pan,
also provided with stirring apparatus. It is here slowly
raised to 320, stirring lall the time, the operation requir-
ing about 4 hours. The product is .a light-grey powder,
which readily dissolves to a nearly colourless solution in
which no undissolved cellulose is present. By direct pre-
cipitation with lime it yields a nearly white calcium
oxalate. The melt contains 32 per cent, of oxalic acid.
The best proportions were found to be 2J parts of caustic
potash to 1 part of dry sawdust.
MANUFACTURE OF ALCOHOL FROM WOOD WASTE.
BY the prolonged boiling of wood, especially if first re-
duced to fibres, with dilute mineral acids, part of the cellu-
lose can be converted into sugar. If the saccharine liquid
is suitably neutralised and then fermented, the sugar is
converted into alcohol, which can then be distilled off.
This process has the appearance of being a very simple
and obvious method of manufacturing alcohol, nevertheless
in practice a number of difficulties 'are encountered, so that
hitherto very little use has been made of this property of
Braconnot based his process for preparing alcohol from
wood on the following facts : When dry cellulose, or wood
in a finely divided condition, is mixed with concentrated
sulphuric acid, avoiding heat, the wood is converted into
a pulp. After several hours this is diluted with water
and heated to boiling. After neutralising the acid with
lime, the liquid can be fermented, and the fermented solu-
tion, yields ordinary alcohol on distillation.
In Payen's experiments 500 grams of pine-wood, in
pieces 1 centimetre thick, were boiled for 10 hours with
2 litres of 10 per cent, hydrochloric acid, when the liquid
was found to contain 105 grams of dextrose, or 21 per
cent, on the dry wood : the liquid was neutralised and
106 THE UTILISATION otf WOOD WASTE*
In the process given by Zette/rlund, the sawdust was
heated in a boiler with hydrochloric acid under a pressure
of O'll kilo, per square centimetre (1 Ibs. per square
inch); the liquid was neutralised and fermented in the
usual way. The materials used were
450 kilos, of very damp fir sawdust.
35 of Irydrochloric acid of specific gravity 1-18.
1550 of water.
After boiling for 8 hours the mass contained 3'33 per
cent, of sugar, and after 11 hours 4'38 per cent. : no further
increase could be effected. The whole mass now contained
88'5 kilos, of grape-sugar, equal to 19" 67 per cent, on the
weight of sawdust employed. The acid in the mixture was
then nearly neutralised with lime, leaving only an acidity
equal to J degree of Ludersdorff s acid scale. At a tem-
perature of 30 the yeast from 10 kilos, of malt was added.
The fermentation was complete in 26 hours, and the wort
yielded on distillation 26'5 litres of 50 per cent, alcohol,
of agreeable flavour, and perfectly free from any odour or
taste of turpentine. It may be assumed that the manu-
facture of brandy from sawdust on the large scale will
become a success when experiments have settled the quan-
tity of water to be added to the acid, and the length of
time that the mixture should be boiled, as these two
factors have the greatest influence on the formation of the
sugar. If it were possible to convert the whole of the cel-
lulose otf the sawdust into grape-sugar, 100 kilos, of air-
dried sawdust would yield at least 24 kilos, of 50 per cent,
alcohol. The sawdust of foliage trees would probably give
the best results.
Bachet and Machard employ wood cut into discs, which
they boil with dilute hydrochloric acid, and ferment the
sugar solutions so obtained, after neutralising it with cal-
cium carbonate. The calcium chloride which is formed is
inimical to the complete fermentation of the sugar. This
MANUFACTURE OF ALCOHOL FROM WOOD WASTE. 107
difficulty "may be met by substituting sulphuric acid for
the hydrochloric. The sawdust is boiled for 10 hours
under high pressure in a copper boiler with a liquid con-
taining 1 to 1 J per cent, of concentrated sulphuric acid ;
the dark amber-coloured liquid is neutralised with lime
and submitted to fermentation with yeast.
The calcium sulphate produced by the * neutralisation
with lime opposes no obstacle to the complete fermenta-
tion of the sugar, but it would seem that substances are
formed by the action of the sulphuric acid on the wood
which are antagonistic.
The chief difficulties in the way of employing this pro-
cess on the large scale are that unless we assume a supply
of sawdust to be available very complicated machinery is
required for comminuting the wood to the extent neces-
sary fox obtaining a sufficiently large yield of spirit
(9 litres from 100 kilos, of wood), and that in consequence
of the bulkiness of the material very large vessels are neces-
sary, and it is difficult to make these so that they will
withstand the high pressure and the corrosive action of
the acid fluid.
Quite recently E. Simonsen has manufactured alcohol on
the large scale at the works of Bache-Wiig. A steam
boiler, with a heating surface of 14 square metres (150' 7
square feet), heated by a coal fire, and an autoclave of 7'5
cub. metres (1650 gallons) capacity, lined with lead, were
employed. The autoclave was a cylinder, which could
be rotated, and was furnished with two manholes, steam
pipe, testing and drawing-off taps, and a thermometer.
The pressing was effected with an ordinary hydraulic press.
For the neutralisation, and subsequent fermentation,
wooden tubs of 30 and 40 hectolitres (660 and 880 gallons)
capacity were employed. Two other neutralising tubs,
and six subsidiary tubs of 6J* and 7 hectolitres (143 and
154 gallons) capacity, were required.
108 THE UTILISATION OP WOOD WASTE,
The routine of the work was as follows :
1. The autoclave was charged with 100 kilos. (220 Ibs.)
of sawdust and 300 to 500 kilos, of sulphuric acid of 0*5
2. Steam was admitted until the temperature reached
100 C., part of the air was blown off and the taps were
3. The mixture was heated to 174 C. (135 Ibs. pressure
per square inch), and boiled for half an hour; the steam
was blown off, the autoclave emptied, and the undissolved
4. The saccharine solution was neutralised with lime,
leaving it, however, feebly acid, and then, at 25 C., was
separated from the sediment of gypsum.
5. The necessary yeast, with a small quantity of nutrient
material, was added, and the whole was allowed to ferment.
6. At 25 C. the fermentation was generally complete
in 3 to 5 days, though occasionally it required longer. Its
progress was watched by methodical estimations of the
decrease in the percentage of sugar present.
7. Finally, the alcohol was distilled off : by a single dis-
tillation, spirit of 15 per cent, was obtained; a second dis-
tillation gave alcohol of 75 per cent.
The results obtained may be summarised as follows :
1. It does not seem to be important whether the saw-
dust is fine or coarse; regard must be paid to the amount
of moisture which it contains, and the amount of water
and sulphuric acid regulated accordingly.
2. Pine and fir-wood yield approximately the same
amount of alcohol : birch sawdust gives a larger yield of
3. Wood-shavings are quite as good for the purpose as
sawdust, but they must be cut up small across the grain.
4. The amount of liquid must be in the proportion of
4 parts to 1 part of sawdust.
MANUFACTURE OF ALCOHOL FROM WOOD WASTE. 109
5. The acid must amount to exactly 1'5 per cent, of the
6. The pressed residue may be used as fuel.
7. The quantity of sugar solution obtained varies with
the amount of condensed steam and the temperature of the
liquid run into the autoclave.
8. The proportion of sugar in the liquid generally
approximates to 5 per cent.
9. The total sugar produced amounts to about 22 parts
per 100 of dry sawdust : in a small-scale experiment birch
sawdust gave a yield of 30'8 per cent.
10. The fermented liquor contains I'l to 1'7 per cent,
df alcohol : in the most successful operations 7'2 litres of
absolute alcohol were obtained from 100 kilos, of sawdust
containing 20 per cent, of moisture.
11. The quality of the alcohol is most satisfactory.
PATENT DYE-STUFFS (ORGANIC SULPHIDES, SULPHO-DYES OB
By a process which has not become very generally
known. Croissant and Bretonniere prepare dye-stuffs from
sawdust, rotten wood, horn, bran, starch, gluten, etc.,
which they call organic sulphides because they contain
sulphur replacing hydrogen. For example, to convert
bran into a dye, it is placed in an iron pan which has a
flanged edge ; certain proportions of caustic soda and
flowers of sulphur are added, the whole is worked into a
uniform mixture, the pan is closed with a cover, and heated
to 250 to 300 C,- The sodium sulphide which is formed
acts on the organic substance, removing hydrogen, which
escapes as hydrogen sulphide, and adding sulphur. When
the operation is complete, the pan contains a black, friable,
hygroscopic mass, which dissolves completely in water with
a fine sap-green colour. The solution has the odour of
110 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD -WASTE.
garlic or mercaptan and has a remarkable affinity for
organic fibre, which it dyes without the use of a mordant.
A single organic substance will give several shades accord-
ing to the proportions and the temperature employed.
Certain substances, such as dye-wood extracts, aloes, etc.,
yield dyes even at the temperature of boiling water ;
others, such as wood-fibre, bran, etc., require a higher tem-
perature. We give here two examples :
Aloes . . . s . . ... . 3 kilos.
Caustic soda solution of 40 Be. . . . . 10 litres.
Water .- -. . 10 litres.
Flowers of sulphur . . . . . .3 kilos.
By operating at a boiling temperature a greyish-lilac is
obtained ; at a higher temperature a dark brown.
Humus (or rotten sawdust) 20 kilos.
Normal sulphide 40 litres.
The normal sulphide is made from 70 litres of soda lye of
40 B, 65 litres of water and 20 kilos, of sulphur. By the
combination of sulphur with various organic substances
an almost unlimited series of entirely new dye-stuffs have
been obtained. In some cases the sulphur appears to enter
into direct combination with the organic substance, with-
out displacing any of its constituents; the reaction in
that case takes place at a moderately low temperature,
such as 100 to 120 C. This is the case with aloes. But
in by far the greater number of cases the sulphur com-
bines with the hydrogen of the organic substance ;
hydrogen sulphide is then evolved and the hydrogen is
replaced by an atomic equivalent of sulphur. For this
reaction, temperatures of 250, 300 and even higher are
necessary. In both cases, however, the substance acquires
dyeing properties which it did not previously possess. One
MANUFACTUBE OF ALCOHOL FKOM WOOD WASTE. Ill
and the same material can yield various shades according
to the temperature, . the duration of the heating, and the
proportion of sulphur compound employed. In general
the dye obtained approaches black, or at least brown, is
the more soluble in water, and gives the faster dyes the
higher the temperature and the greater the length of
the heating. The dye obtained from rotten oak is
extremely soluble in water; its odour resembles that of
garlic or petroleum, and it has great affinity for fabrics.
The dye from wheat-bran may be regarded as the type of a
series. It differs somewhat in the mode of its preparation
from that made from humus, for which previously prepared
sulphide is used, the bran being mixed with flowers of
sulphur and caustic soda : when this mixture is heated
sodium sulphide is formed, so that the same conditions are
produced as in the former case. But as this method allows
the proportions of sulphur and soda to be varied, and the
resulting shade to be thereby modified, it is to be preferred
to the other.
The dye obtained from wheat-bran is easily and com-
pletely soluble in water, has a garlic odour, and has great
affinity for fibres, as well as an extraordinary dyeing power.
The dyed fabrics are greenish when taken out of the dye-
bath, but after immersing in a solution of bichromate of
potash acquire a catechu-brown shade, which inclines to
grey after treatment with boiling soda. This change
is characteristic of the products from bran, etc., and
generally of all nitrogenous substances. The tendency to
be changed to grey by soda solution is also influenced by
the amount of sulphide employed ; the larger the quantity
of sulphide, the greener is the solution of the dye, and the
more marked the change to grey produced by soda.
The dyes obtained from sawdust give particularly fast
shades. The best woods for the purpose are oak, beech,
cherry, chestnut, etc., whilst the soft resinous woods are
112 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
unsuitable. The sawdust must be dry, and be finely sifted.
It may be converted into humus by piling it in heaps
which are watered from time to time, and then gives
results almost identical with those of old rotten wood.
Sawdust, which for a few months has been moistened
with urine with the object of rendering it nitrogenous,
yields dyes which behave similarly to those from bran and
other nitrogenous substances. The dye from sawdust is
almost inodorous, and dissolves in water with a brownish-
black colour. The dye is taken up readily by the fibre
which it dyes a dark greenish-grey, not altered by bichro-
mate or by soda. The shade is fast to light, acids, air,
alkalis, and soap.
These dye-stuffs are very hygroscopic ; they must be
protected from damp by keeping them in well-closed tins.
If this is noit done they gradually decompose, absorbing
oxygen and becoming insoluble and therefore unfit for
use. The same is the case if the dye-bath is prepared too
long before it is wanted for use. In a lukewarm bath the
dyes have a great affinity for fibres, and give fast shades
without the use of any mordant. The older the dye-bath
the smaller is the affinity of the dye for fabrics; after 4
to 5 months it is destroyed completely. The baths should
therefore only be made up in sufficient quantity for im-
mediate use. The quality of the water used for the baths
is not unimportant; calcareous waters are quite unfit for
use, since they immediately produce an almost insoluble,
flocculent precipitate. The advantages of these patent
dyes may be stated as follows : (1) Their manufacture is
the simplest possible, requiring neither expensive appli-
ances nor complicated apparatus, and but little labour ;
moreover, the result of the manufacturing operation is per-
fectly certain. (2) The dyeing power of these products is
considerably greater than that of most other dyes. (3)
The dyes are very fast, and resist both acids and alkalis
MANUFACTURE OF ALCOHOL FROM WOOD WASTE. 113
better than any hitherto employed. (4) They are cheaper
than the commonest dyes, especially when their remark-
able strength is taken into account. For example, a kilo,
of dye from sawdust costs little more than half as much
as logwood extract, but will dye four times as much stuff.
The new process is therefore capable of converting into
dyes, by a simple method and at a low cost, materials
which are everywhere accessible and possess little value ;
it is moreover capable of producing directly from these
materials an unlimited series of completely new dye-stuffs
of very varying shades.
ARTIFICIAL WOOD AND PLASTIC MATERIALS FROM
PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL WOOD COMPOSITIONS FOR
THE use of sawdust for the production of plastic com-
positions, which may be shaped either by pouring or by
pressing into moulds, has been known for a considerable
time, and the methods for the preparation of these com-
positions have been so much improved that articles are
now produced by this means which leave nothing to be
desired. Attempts have been made to manufacture
planks, boards, beams, etc., from sawdust, but those
endeavours have never met with success, because the
lacerated wood-fibres, even when reunited by the most
suitable binding materials, no longer possess the elasticity
and strength of the natural wood. It is not to be expected
that sawdust can ever be made to produce a material
equal in all respects to the original wood, and we shall
therefore confine our attention to those products which
possess a practical value.
The idea of replacing wood by artificial products seems
to have originated in China and Japan. Thence the in-
vention reached Europe as long ago as the last century,
and was especially applied in England, where in 1772
Clay took out a patent for the preparation of such
materials. Numerous processes for the production of arti-
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 115
ficial wood have been published, some of which differ
widely from one another. The oldest methods are those in
which finely disintegrated vegetable fibres, paper pulp,
lime and rice starch are mixed. Later, Jennens introduced
improvements, and is said to have had a factory at Bir-
mingham where artificial wood articles were manufactured
in great variety. The basis of these was chiefly a " half-
stuff " paper pulp, which by the addition of glue solution,
chalk, clay, and linseed oil was made into a dough which
could be kneaded and shaped, and which then by drying
acquired great hardness and durability. The product was
employed for the ornamentation of ceilings, mirrors,
picture frames, etc.. A similar material, which could be
poured in the liquid state into moulds, was composed of
sawdust or other finely subdivided vegetable fibre,
refuse hair, and hemp, with glue solution, white of egg,
caoutchouc, pitch, and turpentine. The " Simili bois,"
made in Paris, and used with good effect for imitation
wood-carvings, is a preparation of the same character.
According to a proposal of Brindly, who obtained a patent
for its use in manufacturing lacquered wares, tea-caddies,
etc., a mixture was made of half-stuff, paper waste, hard
soap, and alum.
The general method of preparing these compositions is
to mix sawdust with a binding material, and then, accord-
ing to its consistence, either pour or press the mixture
into moulds. The articles so prepared may be used for
all kinds of decorative work, instead of the more costly
wood-carving, especially for frames, small boxes, and
various fancy articles. Artificial wood is also employed in
making brushes; the bristles are inserted into a slab of
the soft composition, which is then covered with a plate
perforated to let the bunches of bristle pass through.
Pressure is then applied which binds both into a single
mass, and the brushes so made are both cheaper and more
116 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
durable than those made by the methods most commonly
The first artificial wood of this kind consisted of a
mixture of sawdust, glue, and certain tanning solutions,
or of sawdust, turpentine, resin, etc. Latry, in Paris, pre-
pares artificial wood from sawdust and blood albumin by
the application of heat and pressure. Very fine sawdust,
especially that of poplar-wood, is soaked in diluted blood,
and dried at 50 to 60 C. The mixture is submitted to
high pressure in steel moulds, which- at the same time are
heated to 170 to 200 by gas flames. At this temperature
the blood undergoes a sort of fusion, and the whole becomes
a blackish liquid resembling asphalt. The product is a
hard material of woody texture, which can be sawn, glued,
polished, lacquered, and gilt, exactly like wood. Articles
made of this material were sold .as " Sciffarin ware."
According to another formula, wood-fibre prepared as for
paper-making, was saturated with glue solution, pressed,
and dried. This furnished a hard material, which was then
protected from the action of moisture by several coats of
thick linseed oil varnish applied hot.
Another composition, bearing a resemblance to these
artificial woods, is the sio-called wood-marble, which is made
from the sawdust of fine, hard woods, ivory waste and
other waste materials, to which pigments tare often added.
These, by the addition of water-glass, glue, etc., are made
up into a hard mass, from which veneers are then cut,
which naturally are not liable to warp or crack. The
material takes an excellent polish, which gives it the
appearance of the finest marble.
A composition consisting of ^ of sawdust, ^ of calcium
phosphate, and J of .a gelatinous or resinous material, goes
by the name of " Simili bois," and is used for the reproduc-
tion of sculptuary.
Quite recently articles of this character have been made
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 117
from sawdust compositions for the decoration of all kinds
of wood work, such as door lintels, brackets, capitals of
pillars, cornices of cabinets, panels of chests, decorative
mouldings, etc., and it is well known in the furniture trade
that ornamental articles of every kind, and imitation wood-
carvings such as are used for furniture, fancy work, toys,
as well as for house decoration are most extensively pre-
pared by moulding. But whilst these manufactures are
largely employed in France, England and America, they
appear as yet to have obtained little footing in Germany
and Austria. It is difficult to understand why, in spite of
the great advances in cabinet work, very little wood-
carving is employed in furniture.
These products have been so perfected that for cheap
furniture, wall and ceiling decoration, etc., they are capable
of completely replacing wood-carving, and such decorations
in half-relief have especially gained acceptance as sub-
stitutes for wood-carvings. Articles of artificial wood
must fulfil the following requirements :
1. They must resemble wood as closely in appearance
as possible, and have approximately the same specific
2. They ought not to warp with heat or damp, and
must be sufficiently tough, as well as hard, to prevent the
angles from breaking off too readily.
3. They must permit of being bored, filed, sawn, cut,
and carved, without being brittle: they cannot of course
be split, since their structure is perfectly uniform.
4. They must admit of being glued without special
difficulty to the objects to be decorated, and must adhere
In G-ermany, B. Harrass of Bohlen (Thuringia) has for
several years been engaged in the preparation of artificial
wood, and the material which he produces completely
deserves that name, since his manufactures exhibit the
118 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
choicest forms in the various styles, and a great diversity
in the individual articles, which are supplied by him as
complete ornamental fittings both for furniture and house
decoration. The panels and friezes of the Italian Re-
naissance are altogether unlike the unsightly forms which
are still exhibited by the wood-carvings of the German
Renaissance. The ornamental objects supplied by Harrass
have an artistic character of their own, whilst they are
free from the objection to wood-carving which results from
Not furniture alone, but the walls and ceilings of our
dwellings may by the use of artificial wood, at a cost which
scarcely exceeds that of stucco, be decorated with panelling
of high architectural quality. As in the dwelling-houses
of the present day only the skirting boards and base
mouldings are left to us from the heavy panelling of our
predecessors, the patented invention of Harrass supplies
the demand which is arising on all sides for the restora-
tion to favour of wood architecture for chamber decora-
tion, inasmuch as the use of artificial wood furnishes every
builder with the means of producing, at a low cost,
wainscotting equal to the few examples which have come
doiwn to us from the best days of the Florentine School.
The manufacture is, however, in no sense an imitation,
nor, as the name would seem to imply, a substitute for
wood, but in its outward layer consists of natural wood
(walnut, oak, mahogany or rosewood), which Harrass
makes plastic by giving them a basis of wood-fibre bound
together by albumin into a homogeneous, insoluble mass.
The artistic objects produced in this way are far more
durable than those made by carving natural wood, are
far cheaper, and at the same time better finished than
most carvings. To their employment for artistic furniture
and house decoration may be added their use for a great
variety of other objects, as photograph frames, mirror
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 119
frames, all of which are turned out in an equally finished
In the above account I have endeavoured to give a
general idea of the amplitude of the field which is open for
utilising sawdust in the production of artificial wood.
Many have been the attempts made to replace wood-
carvings by other and cheaper forms of ornament, such as
papier-mache", and even cast-zinc, but these, partly on
account of the difficulty of affixing them, partly in conse-
quence of their want of artistic finish, but mainly because
they did not resemble wood in appearance, have never met
with success. An obvious expedient therefore appeared to
be the use of wood itself for such objects, and already a
large number of processes are known, which in recent years
have effected marked advances in this direction by means
of the employment of wood-cellulose.
THE PREPARATION OP ARTIFICIAL WOOD FOR MOULDED
As already mentioned all artificial wood-compositions
consist of sawdust, or exhausted dye-woods, and a binding
material, which may be of various kinds. The binding
material is either soluble in water, remains soluble, or by
special treatment is rendered insoluble, or is insoluble.
According to the nature of the binding material the
mixture is either of the consistence of dough, so that it
can be pressed into moulds by hand, or it may be fluid
and be poured into the mould ; lastly, the binding material
may be used in such small proportion that the product is
merely a more or less dry powder, which can be forced
into moulds by a very high pressure, sometimes with the
assistance of heat. Compositions which are either poured
or gently pressed into moulds generally fill these some-
what imperfectly : on drying, contraction takes place, and
the contours are deficient in sharpness arid more or less
120 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
rounded. On the other hand, compositions which are
pressed into moulds in the form of powder are harder,
more durable, and sharp in detail, because the high pres-
sure fills all the minute depressions of the mould and
causes them to produce their effect in the finished article.
1. The sawdust of soft woods is boiled with a solution of
glue and water-glass, and a further quantity of sawdust i,s
then added and well mixed by kneading so that a plastic
mass of the consistence of dough is produced. This is
pressed between iron plates, then dried and cut up,
yielding slabs of any desired size and thickness, which in
the dry state are very hard, and fairly resistant to damp.
By adding various pigments, as colcothar, vermilion, umber,
etc., coloured tiles suitable for flooring, etc., are produced.
2. A mixture is made of
7 parts of finely sifted sawdust,
1 part of powdered rosin,
and placed on an iron plate covered with a sheet of paper.
The plate has a rim as thick as the finished slab is intended
to be. A second sheet of paper is laid over the mixture
and then a hot iron plate, and the whole is then placed in
a press and exposed to high pressure.
3. The strongly dried and sifted sawdust is mixed to a
suitable consistence with a solution of glue, which is so
hot that it can be scarcely borne by the hand. The glue
solution is made by soaking 5 parts of good pale glue and
1 part of isinglass in water, heating up slowly and filtering
carefully. The quantity of water (variable according to
the quality of the glue) should be just large enough to
prevent the liquid from gelatinising on getting cold. In
some formula? gum-tragacanth and whiting are added to
the glue solution, the former for the purpose of producing
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM 'SAWDUST. 121
a consistence more resembling that of dough, the latter to
give greater hardness. The moulds may be either of metal,
plaster of Paris or sulphur, if oiled ; even wooden moulds
may be employed if they are first varnished with an
alcoholic solution of shellac. A thin layer of the mixture
is first pressed into the mould by hand, the mould is then
filled up with a mixture made with coarser sawdust, the
surface covered with a thick plate and pressed. Before
removal from the mould, which is easily done when the
cast has dried and shrunk a little, the excess of material is
removed by a thin broad knife, so as to give the cast a flat
base. Such casts can then be lacquered, gilt, and in general
treated like carved-wood decorations, but in consequence of
the great shrinkage which occurs during the drying they
have no sharpness, and do not exhibit the finer touches
of the original. These casts require to be protected from
damp, but if slowly dried they are fairly free from any
tendency to warp.
4. A mixture is made of
10 parts of glue dissolved in hot water.
4 ,, ground litharge.
8 ,, white lead.
10 ,, ,, fine sawdust.
1 ,, ,, plaster of Paris.
The mixture is poured into oiled moulds, which are made
in two parts, and when cold is removed from the moulds
and finished by painting, gilding, bronzing, etc.
5. Bois Durci.
This peculiar composition, invented by Latri in
Paris, consists chiefly of fresh blood mixed with sawdust
of hard and resinous woods, which is pressed by a
hydraulic press into iron or steel moulds heated by gas.
Under the combined action of heat and pressure the
122 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
albumin of the blood solidifies to a very hard material,
whilst the^iron in the blood unites with the tannins of the
sawdust to produce a dark colour. If the interior of the
mould is greased before filling, the sticky composition does
not adhere to it and is easily removed. It is also 1 necessary
to press the composition gradually intoi the mould, since
the heat and pressure cause it to shrink considerably.
Some salicylic acid is added to the mixture to prevent the
blood from putrefying and developing a disagreeable
odour. The composition of the mixture may be varied by
adding whiting to the blood and sawdust: this obviates
the addition of salicylic acid, and confers much greater
hardness on the product. An improvement in the process
consists in spreading the mixture on heated iron plates,
and after drying, grinding it to powder and pressing it
into heated metal moulds. Sawdust, especially that of
poplar-wood, is ground to very fine powder, mixed with
diluted blood, and dried at 50 to 60. This produces a
very intimate mixture of the albumin of the blood with
the wood-powder. The moulds consist of rings containing
matrices of highly polished steel, finely and artistically
wrought. The dry powder is filled into the moulds avoid-
ing the use of a superfluity, so> that after pressing no seams
are visible. The pressing is done by very powerful hy-
draulic presses; the moulds are heated by gas, and kept
during the whole operation at a definite temperature. The
moulds run in grooves, which are so arranged as to allow
no lateral shifting, and are arrested by stops in the proper
positions for the presses. Each of the hot plates is fitted
with gas burners which follow its up and down movement.
The gas issues from an annular burner, through the
middle of which a blast of air is blown by a fan: the
regular heat so produced permits the production of very
well-defined castings. The consumption of gas is, however,
very considerable, but the convenience of the work com-
AKTIFIOIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 123
pensates for the cost. The function of the albumin in this
process is not clear. It was for a long time supposed to
correspond with that of the varnish on fabrics, but that
cannot be the case when the wood-powder mixed with
blood albumin has first been dried. A closer investiga-
tion has indicated the presence of a certain quantity of
resin in the sawdust, and resin produces a solid compound
with albumin. If the sawdust of a white, non-resinous
wood, such as beech, is taken, a hard mass may be pro-
duced, but it will have little strength, and will not resist
the action of boiling water. If 33 per cent, of blood
(blood albumin) is added the mass will be harder, but will
fall to pieces after 10 to 15 minutes in boiling water. With
66 per cent, of blood the objects are stronger, browner,
and more durable, but are not equal to those from
resinous wood. It appears therefore that the blood is not
indeed indispensable, but is nevertheless extremely service-
able in the manufacture. The blood is turned a deep
brown colour by the drying, and exhibits glistening
specks, which have a good effect in the finished objects.
When heated to 170 to 200 C. the blood undergoes an
incipient melting, and acquires great adhesive properties.
If the mould is opened whilst hot it is found to contain a
soft, blackish, semifluid mass, resembling asphalt. It is in
this condition, apparently, that it fills all the fine depres-
sions of the mould, which consequently are exhibited
accurately after the cast is cold. The product of the whole
operation is a hard, wood-like material, which can be
worked in every respect like wood itself. Its specific
gravity is 1'3,' that of the dried mixture of sawdust and
albumin being 0'8. This material is worthy of general
attention, not only from a technical but from an artistic
124 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
6. Gottschalk's "Hartholz" (Hard Wood).
Goffctscbalk of Berlin imitates ebony by means of a com-
position similar to that of Latri, which he prepares with
blood albumin and sawdust dyed black. Finely sifted saw-
dust of hard woods is boiled for 10 hours with a solution of
8 parts of logwood extract and 1 part of alum in 40 parts
of water, then drained and immersed for 5 hours in a bath
consisting of 1 part of copper vitriol in 15 parts of water.
After removal from the bath the sawdust is put through a
centrifugal machine and then dried. It is then mixed
with blood albumin, and, in the state of coarse powder,
is pressed into heated moulds by a stamping press.
7. Harrass' Imitation Wood from Cellulose.
The composition employed by Barrass consists mainly
of cellulose, sawdust of sioft woods, and an albuminous
binding material. The chief feature of this composition
is the 'employment, together with sawdust, of wood-fibre
which has been decorticated by chemical treatment, by
which means greater durability and strength are secured.
Harrass, having failed to get completely satisfactory
results when using by itself wood-fibre prepared by merely
mechanical grinding, turned his attention to cellulose, and
with this obtained a most admirable composition. The
cellulose is prepared by cutting up pine-wood, freed from
bark and twigs, into small piece, which are then boiled
with concentrated caustic soda under a pressure of 150 Ibs.
per square inch in large iron boilers. By this treatment
the wood is resolved into its constituent fibres. The
fibrous pulp is thoroughly washed from the adhering
alkali by a stream of water, then bleached by chloride of
lime, rewashed and dried. This treatment removes both
the natural colouring matters of the wood and those
AKTIFICIAL WOOD FROM ' SAWDUST. 125
albuminous and gummy constituents which bind the fibres
together, and the process of Harrass aims at reuniting the
cellulose fibres by the addition of binding materials of
Cellulose, as supplied by various manufacturers, is in
the form of thin, soft slabs, which require to be soaked in
water before using the material for the preparation of
artificial wood. The excess of water is removed by
squeezing the pulpy mass on a fine sieve. A mixture is
then made of 4 parts of the cellulose, 4 parts of sawdust, 2
parts of albumin, and 1 part of powdered galls or ground
oak-bark ; enough water is added to form a stiff paste, and
the whole is stirred until it is thoroughly mixed. The
paste is then passed between rollers, which deliver it in
slabs about half an inch thick and of any convenient
length ; it is then dried, first in the air and then in stoves,
on frames over which netting is stretched. The dried
slabs are now in the form of fairly hard cakes of a greyish-
yellow colour. They have the property of softening by
heat, and therefore when compressed into strongly heated
metal moulds they receive, and when cold retain, the
impress of the dies.
The metal moulds have the design hollowed out in them,
and the presses employed are coining presses with either a
lever or wheel, such as are used for stamping and punching
metals. Larger or smaller presses, and higher or lower
pressure are made use of according to the dimensions of the
article to be produced. The presses most recently adopted
have been on the principle of the mill-stamp, driven by
gearing, and can be attended to by a single workman. The
moulds receive their heat from the tables of the presses, in
each of which there are two or three holes, into which gas
is conveyed by flexible tubing, to produce the heat. The
temperature must be kept uniform by regulating the gas
flames, and must never be so high as a red-heat. The
126 THE UTILISATION OP WOOD WASTE.
temperature is adjusted by observing the melting of certain
metallic alloys, and the entire manipulation, simple as it
appears, requires the greatest experience and precision.
The moulds are either of cast-steel or bronze, and consist
of two parts, the matrix and the core, which also forms the
cover. The former is hollowed out to the exact shape of
the model, whilst the latter has only the general contour
of the model in relief, and when placed on the matrix the
space between the two surfaces is exactly of the dimensions
which the casting is to assume when complete. These
moulds are prepared by casting from the design carved
or modelled by the artist, and are finished by a metal
engraver, to give them the sharpness of detail and smooth-
ness in which the rough casting may be deficient. The
moulds for producing the capitals of pillars, which are
made in four or more portions, require the most exact and
careful finishing, which considerably adds to the cost of
production. The moulds themselves must have a suffi-
cient thickness of metal to resist the high pressure to
which they iare subjected. No definite rule for the neces-
sary thickness can be laid down, as it depends on the depth
of the matrix and the pressure to which it will be ex-
posed. For small objects a thickness of 2 to 3 mm. (y^inch)
is sufficient, whilst for large ones a thickness of 10 mm.
(f inch) may be necessary.
To commence an operation the empty mould is placed
with its cover between the heated table and ram of the
press, and is left there until it has acquired the tempera-
ture of those plates. After the interior surfaces of the
mould and core have been thinly and uniformly greased oo*
oiled, the requisite quantity of the finely powdered com-
position is filled into it, the cover is replaced, and by work-
ing the press the mass is gradually compressed. The
skill and attention of the workman are here called into
play, as he has to judge the moment for ceasing to apply
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 127
pressure, and the time for removing the finished article
from the mould. If, when removed, the surface shows im-
perfections, the object is immediately replaced in the
mould, adding a little composition at the imperfect places,
and is pressed again. Any excess of the composition
escapes between the mould and the core, forming a flat
border surrounding the base of the casting, and requiring
to be removed with a knife or chisel when the casting is
cold. The base or back of the object is then ground down
on a revolving emery wheel, both to reduce the object to
its proper elevation and to give it a flat base for attaching
it by glue or screws. Instead of the emery wheel, a
wooden wheel covered with sand-paper or glass-paper may
be used. To prevent the freshly pressed objects from
warping, it is necessary to lay them, whilst still warm, with
their backs on a flat plate, and either to load them with
weights or to clamp them down and then leave them to
get .perfectly cold.
The objects produced in this manner from the cellulose
composition are in their original state either brownish-
grey or yellowish-grey and have a metallic lustre ; they can
either be coloured in the mass, especially when a black
colour is desired, or by simple processes any desired wood
colour, or other shade, can be given to their surfaces.
The finished objects require, to be kept in dry, well-
aired rooms; the damp, musty air of unventilated rooms
is as injurious to them as to any other wood-work. They
are attached in the same way as wood-carvings; being first
warmed and then coated with moderately thick, freshly-
melted, hot glue, and applied to the wood-surface to which
they are to be attached, which is also previously warmed.
When possible they should be held down with screw
clamps until the glue has thoroughly hardened. When
glueing to polished or lacquered surfaces the polish or
lacquer must first be removed at the places where the
128 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
moulding is to be attached. It is also very advisable to
insert, here and there, small round-headed wood-screws,
and in almost any moulding depressed spots can be found
where the screw heads are out of sight. To obtain as
large a surface for glueing as possible, the hollow at the
back of the object may be filled up; this is best done by
glueing in a piece of wood which fills the hollow exactly,
or the hollow may be filled with a composition consisting
of 2 parts of sawdust and 1 part of plaster of Paris made
into a stiff paste with weak glue, and pressed into the
hollow after the inner surface has been well brushed over
with hot glue. The back is then struck off flat and
smooth, and the composition allowed to get dry before it
is attached to the surface which is to be decorated.
Column and pilaster capitals are best attached if a square
tenon is cut at the top of the wood-column or pilaster
exactly the size of the hollow in the bottom of the moulded
capital. The tenon is well coated with glue, and the
capital attached firmly by screws. Should any of the
objects have become warped, so that the hinder surface is
no longer truly plane, which is generally due to want of
care in storing, the object only needs to be warmed, when
it will become flexible, and in that state can be glued in
the desired situation and screwed down until the glue has
By the same means flat pieces can if desired be bent to
a curved or wavy shape, but the bending must be gradual
and careful to avoid fracture. After cooling, the pieces so
bent retain the form given to them. Small irregularities,
occurring either in the glueing of the pieces to their sup-
ports, or in fitting together the various parts of a moulding,
can be .got rid of, as in the case of ordinary wood, by filing
and filling up with some cement. If in fitting the various
pieces together any small gaps should be left, these may be
filled up with a special wood-cement which is supplied.
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 129
Corners which do not exactly meet may be touched up
with a file. Any smoothing required is best done with fine
sand-paper or glass-paper, but it is advisable first to give
the objects a coat of French polish and allow them to dry
8. Hurtig's Wood- composition for Parquetry, Blocks, Tiles,
and other Decorative Objects.
Hurtig's process for the production of a wood-composi-
tion consists in the manufacture of a waterproof, heat-
resisting, compressible powder, and a special treatment of
natural wood, together with the preparation of the requi-
site waterproof binding material for uniting the two. The
powder, like that of Harrass, when pressed into heated
metal moulds, unites to a solid body of any desired shape.
For the preparation of the powder, sawdust of any kind
of wood is thoroughly incorporated with a strong aqueous
solution of curd soap, and is then thoroughly dried. The
powder is then treated with milk of lime and again dried,
by which means a material is produced which is quite
unaffected by water. To this powder a quantity of air-
slaked lime is added, and the mixture is then thoroughly
saturated with a solution of ordinary water-glass (sodium
silicate), and once more air-dried. The water-glass serves
as the binding material for the powder, and the air-slaked
lime is added to produce an insoluble compound with this
substance. The dry powder prepared in this way possesses
the property of uniting into a solid body when pressed into
heated moulds, 'and is then capable of resisting the action
of water, heat, cold, etc.
The following proportions afford serviceable results : 50
kilograms (1 cwt.) of sawdust of any kind of wood are
soaked in a solution of H kilos. (3 Ibs.) of common curd
soap, with such a quantity of water that the sawdust can
130 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
be thoroughly wetted with the solution. After drying it
is mixed with milk of lime made from 2 kilos. (4J Ibs.) of
slaked lime. It is again dried and then mixed with 2 kilos.
of air-slaked lime. This mixture is then thrown into a
bath prepared with 5 litres (8| pints) of water-glass of 33
Be. and a sufficient quantity of water. The thoroughly
weitted powder is once more dried, and is then ready for
pressing. It yields blocks of stony hardness, which are
particularly suitable for laying down parquet floors, as
they are unaffected by weather and heat, which is not
altogether the case with natural wood. It may also be
used for the production of all sorts of household utensils,
such as plates, cups, basins, etc. For this purpose the
powder is filled into the previously heated moulds and then
submitted to pressure; it penetrates into all the depres-
sions of the mould, and on cooling hardens and retains
the form imposed upon it.
The pressed blocks may be furnished with an upper
layer of natural wood (or any other material), with which
object they are first coated with the following composi-
tion : 2 parts of glue are melted with water, and poured
into 1 part of hot linseed-oil varnish ; 1 part of rosin dis-
solved in spirit, and mixed with J part of turpentine is
then added. This mixture is well stirred together in a
vessel immersed in boiling water, and is laid on hot. This
cement is unaffected by water, and is not liable to the for-
mation of air bubbles. After laying it on the surface of
the pressed block it is allowed 'to cool until it forms a solid
crust, and the block is then ready to receive the upper
layer. This layer, when the blocks are intended for par-
quetry, is a mosaic pattern of wooden slabs, and for other
purposes may consist of thin plates of copper, brass, or
alloy, or of plain veneer or inlaid wood, or of wood with
metal fillets, or tarsiatura work of metal inlaid with
tortoisenshell, or composite work of any desired description.
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 131
When the upper layer is to consist of wood it is neces-
sary that this should be so treated that it will be water-
proof, which is effected in the following manner: A bath
is prepared, consisting of 2 parts of concentrated sulphuric
acid and 1 part of water, and in this the pieces of wood
are immersed. As soon as the liquid has thoroughly pene-
trated the wood, the latter is well washed by soaking in
pure water, rinsed, and dried. It is then immersed in a
solution of common curd soap in a convenient quantity of
water, and when thoroughly saturated with this solution
it is again dried. It is next placed in milk of lime made
up with slaked lime and a quantity of water, which is
adjusted in accordance with the porosity of the wood, and,
when the lime has completely penetrated into it, it is once
more dried. The wood is now perfectly waterproof, and
is ready for employment in the production of parquetry,
tarsiatura, marquetry, etc., or for forming the outer layer
of any of the pressed objects made according to the above
process. To ensure its firm adhesion, it is applied to the
surface of the pressed object which has already been
covered with the waterproof cement, and the composite
object is then replaced in the same heated mould as was
used for the compression of the powder. The heat softens
the cement, and by a prolonged pressure the outer layer of
wood is so firmly joined to the moulded object that after
complete cooling the two cannot be separated.
The articles prepared by the above process are said
neither to swell nor shrink, neither do they get soft; they
also resist the action of moisture and even of rain com-
9. Hur tig's Improved Wood -composition.
Hurtig has recently .improved his process, and now
operates as follows: In the preparation of the powder for
132 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
pressing into forms with a surface exhibiting relief it is
desirable to add materials to the powder which will give
it greater plasticity than is required for objects with
plane surfaces. The mode of preparing the powder is
varied according to whether high relief or low relief is
A. Preparation of the Powder for Low Relief. To the
sawdust, which has been treated with soap and milk of
lime and then air-dried, a mixture of casein and air-
slaked lime is added. The lime and casein should first be
allowed to react until they form a pasty mass or liquid.
After the sawdust has been thoroughly saturated with this
liquid it is air-dried, and is then ready for pressing. Suit-
able proportions are : 5 to 10 litres of sawdust, O'l to 0'5
litre of soap, 3 to 8 litres of casein which has been com-
bined with 0'5 to 3'0 litres of dry air-slaked lime. These
proportions are the limits within which the quantities may
be varied; but we do not assert that these limits are in
no case to be exceeded.
B. Preparation of the Powder for High Relief. For the
production of objects in high relief, from deep moulds,
it is necessary that the powder should not only possess
great plasticity, but that whilst warm it should remain
flexible in order that it may be removed from the mould
without injury, and should harden only when it becomes
cold. This is attained in the following manner : Ripe
potatoes are dried in their skins till they have lost 20 to
30 per cent, of their water. They are then crushed, and
mixed with fine infusorial earth and a little Burgundy
pitch. This mixture is added to the wet sawdust, and
after mixing well the whole is air-dried. It is desirable
to use unpeeled potatoes in order that the corky tissue of
the skins, and the albuminous substances of the layer of
cells immediately below the skin, may remain in the
mixture. The proportions are as follows : 10 to 30 litres
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 133
of prepared sawdust, 15 to 40 litres of crushed potatoes,
1 to 5 litres of infusorial earth, and 0'5 to 2'5 litres of
Burgundy pitch. These proportions also can be varied if
The powder thus prepared has not only the high degree
of plasticity required, but even in very hot moulds it
retains its original pale colour. Any desired colour can
be given to it by the addition of mineral pigments which
are not altered by heat, so that in all cases where the outer
layer is to consist of metal the colour of the body may
harmonise with that of the applied coating. The pressing
and other treatment of this powder is performed exactly
as described above.
10. Kletzinsky's Wood-paste.
One hundred parts of wood-meal, best that of soft
varieties of wood, are well boiled in a solution of
100 parts of .aluminium sulphate, and then left to
become cold : 50 parts of glue are dissolved in 100
parts of boiling water and intimately mixed with the
wood-meal pulp, the paste is rolled out into slabs and some-
what strongly pressed. The slabs, which at first are
very brittle, acquire by slow air-drying an extraordinary
degree of hardness ; as soon as they are hard enough they
are moistened with a 5 per cent, solution of potash in
water three to five times, and are then finally dried; by
this means the individual wood-particles become cemented
together by a compound of gelatin and alumina, which is
insoluble in water, and when dry has the 'hardness of
horn. If it is desired to produce a coloured paste the
meal of raw dye-woods may be used, or any suitable colour-
ing matter may be added, or a mottled appearance may be
given by adding variously coloured wood-meal and mixing
134 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
11. Terra-cotta Wood.
This artificial product is prepared by Gillmann's pro-
cess in the following manner : According to the degree
of porosity which it is desired to obtain, 1 to 2
parts of sawdust of resinous wood are mixed with
1 part of pulped china-clay, and by the addition of a
suitable quantity of water a plastic mass of spongy
texture is prepared, which is then submitted to the
strong pressure of a steel piston in a metallic cylinder.
This produces cylindrical blocks 20 to 30 cm. (8 to 12
inches) in diameter and 1'2 to 1*9 metre (47 to 75 inches)
long. These are first air-dried, then dried in a stove, and
finally burnt at a white-heat in a kiln, and slowly cooled.
The blocks are extraordinarily refractory, and are capable
of being sawn, cut, planed, and poilished. Their density is
about half that of ordinary bricks. These blocks have
great strength, and are employed for architectural
12. Palmer's Wood-composition.
This material, which is alsoi used as a substitute for
wood-carvings, consists of blood, sawdust, bone-dust, and
glue. The blood is dried without coagulating its albumin,
and is then mixed with a suitable quantity of sawdust, 20
per cent, of bone-dust, and 10 per cent, of glue solution,
and is strongly pressed into moulds at a temperature of
13. Billef eld's Artificial Wood.
Ch. Billefeld has produced a number of these com-
positions. That for making casts by pouring in a
liquid state into a mould consists of a mixture of
vegetable fibre, paper half-stuff, caoutchouc, glue, balsam
of sulphur (a solution of sulphur in linseed oil), glycerine,
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 135
and gluten. Another composition for the same pur-
pose consists of half-stuff, vegetable fibre, tannin-gelatin,
gutta-percha, Venetian turpentine, balsam of sulphur,
and gum thus. The tannin-gelatin is prepared by treat-
ing glue with the tannin from oak-bark. A third com-
position, from which billiard-tables and similar articles
can be made, is prepared from a paste of 80 parts of water,
32 parts of flour, 9 parts of alum, and 1 part of iron
vitriol; then 15 parts of rosin and 10 parts of linseed oil
are boiled with 1 part of flake litharge, and finally 35 to
60 parts of tow, or, better, wood-pulp, are added. The
solid constituents are ground as fine as possible, and the
whole paste is well kneaded together and then rolied out.
It is then treated with hot linseed oil to render it water-
proof. Objects, such as bas-reliefs, chapiters, cornices,
etc., were shown by Billefeld in the London Exhibition of
1862. These compositions can be worked up into the
most varied articles. One of their applications is to the
covering of walls, and for this purpose Billefeld's artificial
wood is that mostly employed. Artificial wood presents
the very great advantages of resisting the action of fire, of
being a bad conductor of heat, and of not being attacked
by vermin. Its hardness is equal to that of the hardest
woods, it works well with tools, and can even be bent. On
this account it has been recommended for making furni-
ture, carriages, etc., and in such cases, to give it the power
of resisting weather, it is soaked in a solution of asphalt.
A specimen of such artificial wood was examined by Dr.
Sauerwein. It comes into commerce in slabs of about half
a square metre, and of different thicknesses. The thickest
slabs have a glazed coating of a brownish-red colour on one
side ; three other kinds were without the glazing, but were
coated with coarse linen. The grey, fibrous composition is
fairly hard, so that it can only be cut with some diffi-
culty ; it cannot be bent far without fracture. Its strength
136 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
is about that of fir-wood cut across the grain, as it is
ruptured by a strain of 45 to 46 kilos, per square centi-
metre, whilst the breaking strain of fir-wood cut across the
grain is 39 to 59 kilos. It possesses a slight degree of
flexibility, a slip of it 15 mm. wide, 7 mm. thick, and 33
cm. (13 inches) long, supported at its ends and loaded in
the middle, bent about 10 mm. before breaking. It softens
when soaked in water, slowly if the water is cold, but very
rapidly if hot. The filtered liquid gave on evaporation a
residue which carbonised on heating, and with iodine gave
the characteristic blue colour of starch paste, so that this
substance was probably employed as a cement. Vegetable
fibres consisting of refuse tow were easily recognised in
the pulped mass. The material burnt with difficulty, and
without giving a flame ; it carbonised and finally left about
33 per cent, of ash. This consisted of gypsum, alumina,
ferric oxide, and silica. The brownish-yellow glaze con-
tained chiefly ochre, clay, and a little glue.
Another composition consists likewise of large slabs, but
only 3 to 4 mm. thick. It is covered on both sides with
coarse canvas, does not admit of being bent, but breaks
when this is attempted. It likewise softens in warm water,
giving off a peculiar tarry odour, and the softened mass
can also be recognised as made up of the refuse of tow.
According to these results it appears to have been made
from old rope and sails, with which its tarry odour agrees.
The water in which it has been soaked shows also the
presence of starch. When heated it carbonises, and on
complete combustion leaves about 40 per cent, of ash, con-
sisting of silica, alumina, ferric oxide, with some calcium
sulphate. Clay or cement appears therefore to be one of
its principal constituents. It is therefore composed of
three main constituents; 1, plant fibre, such as waste flax
or hemp ; 2, one or more mineral substances to which the
mass owes its form and strength ; 3, a binding material,
ARTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 137
apparently starch paste. In preparing the material it
seems to be a point of great importance to have the organic
fibres sufficiently finely comminuted, in order that they
may be the more intimately mixed with the other con-
stituents, and that the composition should finally have
been submitted to powerful pressure.
Attempts were made to imitate the material on the
basis of the analysis, by mixing finely chopped tow, plaster
of Paris, clay, sawdust, and starch paste. The plaster and
clay were finely powdered, tempered with the paste and
then mixed with the chopped tow and the sawdust, well
kneaded together, and then quickly pressed with a
hydraulic press. Equal parts of tow and plaster, with \
part of clay, or in another experiment \ part of porcelain
cement instead of clay, gave after drying a very firm
material, closely resembling the commercial one. The
glaze was imitated by laying on a mixture of ochre, cement,
and glue solution. It is, of course, evident that this small-
scale experiment is not absolutely conclusive as to the
best materials and proportions for large-scale manufacture.
14. Ribbach's Sawdust- composition for Coating Floor
Boards, Table Tops, etc.
Sawdust, or finely ground hard wood, powdered glass,
quartz sand or fire-clay, zinc-white, and pigments, are
intimately mixed in proportions appropriate to the
different objects for which the material is to be used,
sifted, and then stirred up with linseed-oil varnish. The
mixture is then spread, under pressure, on the surfaces
to be coated, which previously have been cleaned and
rubbed over with varnish, and is smoothed down. The
surface may first be divided into compartments by fillets,
and the compartments filled with differently coloured com-
positions. Such a flooring, after it has been well scrubbed
with soap, can be waxed and polished.
138 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
15. Wiederhold's Artificial Wood-composition.
Wood-pulp, in the form in which it is supplied to paper-
mills, is regarded by Wiederhold as a suitable material for
making an artificial wood-composition. The simple com-
pression to which this has been submitted confers on it a
remarkable degree of hardness, such as to introduce difficul-
ties into its employment, since the wood-pulp cakes, once
dried, are only with difficulty softened by soaking in water.
The pressed wood-pulp acquires, however, a still greater
degree of firmness when it is wetted with a weak glue solu-
tion. Wood-pulp takes the impression of the moulds accu-
rately. The pressed articles, after drying, are coated with
linseed-oil varnish boiled to a thick consistence, which is
laid on boiling hot. By this treatment, which is repeated
several times, the articles are rendered completely proof
against the action of water; 'after drying they can be
rubbed smooth and polished or painted, and then be
varnished. Wood-pulp can be mordanted and dyed of any
desired tint; the mordant must, of course, be applied
before the linseed-oil varnish, or better still, before press-
ing into the moulds, though this is not absolutely necessary.
The employment of wood-pulp for the manufacture of
moulded articles of the most varied kinds should prove
more advantageous than the use of sawdusit and blood,
and solves the problem of the preparation of wooden
articles by pressing into moulds in a far simpler and mor^
16. Artificial Wood of Back and Potin.
Back and Potin of Paris have invented a process for the
manufacture of artificial wood, which yields very beautiful
products, imitating most closely the different varieties of
natural wood. This artificial wood consists of sawdust and
glue, which by treatment with either tannin or alum has
ABTIFICIAL WOOD FROM SAWDUST. 139
been rendered insoluble in water after drying. In its
original pulp form the product can take any shape or
impression, and the most practised eye cannot distinguish
the moulded objects from actual carvings.
17. Wood-composition of Cohnfeld.
To obtain an artificial wood-composition, Cohnfeld
moistens the more or less finely subdivided waste of
wood, straw, hay, leaves, bark, etc., singly or mixed,
with a solution of zinc chloride of about T028 specific
gravity, and allows the zinc chloride to act on the
raw material until it becomes dry. Thereupon follows
a treatment with basic magnesium chloride solution,
of specific gravity T725 to 1'793, after which the well-
mixed composition is pressed into moulds. The composi-
tion is left under pressure for 10 to 12 hours, during which
time it hardens in consequence of the heat which it de-
velops. The objects are then allowed to dry for several
days in a warm, airy place, and are then placed for 10 or
12 hours in a strong solution of zinc chloride, of specific
gravity about T205, and are finally dried. By this treat-
ment it is said that a material is obtained which can be
worked just like a hard wood, viz., sawn, planed, bored, and
polished, which is fire and waterproof, unattacked by weak
acids or caustic lyes, and not affected by changes of
weather, and is therefore highly suitable for architectural
or decorative use, with the advantage that it does not warp
like wood, but reitains its original form unchanged.
18. Sciffarin (Wood-cement}
is a mixture of sawdust, hemp fibre, starch-meal, gelatinous
and mineral substances, the preparation of which is kept
secret, and which has been used for the production of
ornamental articles. This very strong 1 and elastic com-
position is capable of taking a high polish.
EMPLOYMENT OP SAWDUST FOR EXPLOSIVES AND
IN the manufacture of explosives sawdust is used for
three distinct purposes : (1) The sawdust is wetted with
solutions of various salts, then dried and mixed with sub-
stances which in contact with the salts absorbed by the
sawdust produce an explosive action. (2) It is used for
absorbing nitroglycerine, both on account of its great capa-
city fo<r taking up liquids and of the large quantity of gas
developed by the combustion. (3) The wood-fibre is con-
verted into pyroxyline by nitrating it with nitric acid,
although for this purpose it is usual to employ a purer
cellulose than sawdust. In all cases in which sawdust is
used for absorbing a liquid it must first be strongly dried,
as the presence of any moisture would detract from its
absorptive capacity. When sawdust is to be nitrated it is
generally first boiled repeatedly with solutions suitable for
removing from it as far as possible everything except the
pure cellulose. These processes as well as the nitration are
somewhat complicated and require special apparatus ;
their description lies beyond the limits of the present work,
otn which ^account I confine myself to the mere mention of
some of the products, and a very brief notice of the
methods of manufacture.
1. Sawdust Blasting Powder.
This explosive is made from nitrate of potash, nitrate of
soda, chlorate of potash, sawdust, tan, and sulphur, and is
prepared in the following manner :
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST FOE EXPLOSIVES. 141
The nitrates of potash and soda and the chlorate of
potash are dissolved together in boiling water in a pan.
After boiling for 5 minutes the tan or sawdust, or the
mixture of both, is thrown into the solution and thoroughly
mixed. The mixture is turned over to a trough, mixed
with flowers of sulphur and then dried. If tan is used it
is either sifted and only the finer portions used, or it is
ground. The blasting powder prepared by this process
explodes very sharply, and is suitable for filling bore holes
in rock where it is not possible to ram the powder
down. This powder explodes by concussion, and on this
account there should not be more than 25 per cent, of
chlorate of potash present. To prepare a stronger powder
which will not explode on concussion the two nitrates
may be dissolved together without the chlorate; after
absorbing this solution by sawdust, the boiling solution of
the chlorate prepared apart is poured over the mixture,
and the addition of sulphur, etc., proceeded with as before.
To obtain a slower burning powder the chlorate may be
mixed with the other materials as a fine powder instead of
dissolving it. To obtain a weak powder the chlorate or
the nitrate of potash, or both, may be omitted.
The proportions for 100 kilos, of the mixture are:
30 litres of water.
35 kilos, of nitrate of soda (Chili saltpetre).
4 ,, nitrate of potash.
6 ,, chlorate of potash.
23 ,, sawdust or tan.
30 litres of water.
15 kilos, nitrate of soda.
2 ,, nitrate of potash.
3 ,, chlorate of potash.
25 ,, sawdust or tan.
For the most energetic explosive the quantity of nitrate of
soda is diminished and that of chlorate of potash increased.
142 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
adding the latter either in powder or in solution to the
mixture of the nitrates with the tan.
Another proportion which also gives a powerful ex-
plosive is :
10 kilos, of nitrate of potash.
5 nitrate of soda.
These are dissolved in warm water 'and the solution well
mixed with 20 kilos, of sawdust ; the mixture is then trans-
ferred to a tray, stirred up thoroughly with 5 kilos, of
powdered chlorate of potash, and lastly 5 kilos, of flowers
of sulphur are added and mixed in.
This blasting powder has already been employed in the
Austrian and French coal mines : the gaseous products it
yields are harmless, and it burns somewhat slowly, so that
the rock is merely torn down and not scattered about.
According to the English patent of Dickerhoiff (Vienna)
10 parts of siawdust saturated with a solution of picric acid
and saltpetre and dried, are mixed with 17^ parts of salt-
petre and 7J parts of sulphur. The solution for soaking
the sawdust is made up with 1 part of picric acid and
1 part of saltpetre in 60 parts of water for 30 parts of
A blasting powder made of wood-fibre (sawdust, ground
wood or cellulose) soaked in nitroglycerine is called lignose
by Trutzschler-Faltenstein ; the wood-fibre serves in this
case merely for the absorption of the nitroglycerine instead
of the infusorial earth usually employed.
4. Robandi's Brise-rocs.
This explosive consists of 40 parts of nitrate of potash,
20 parts of nitrate of soda, 15 parts of sulphur, 1 part of
rock-salt, 5 parts of coal, 15 parts of woody substance (saw-
dust or tan).
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST FOR EXPLOSIVES. 143
The explosive known by the name of carbazotine con-
sists of 50 to 60 parts of potassium, sodium, or calcium
nitrate, 13 to 16 parts of tan or sawdust, 14 to 16 parts of
sulphur and 9 to 18 parts of soot.
6. Reynaud's Pyronome.
For the preparation of this explosive 52J parts of sodium
nitrate are dissolved in the least possible quantity of hot
water, 27^ of spent tan or sawdust, and 20 parts of
powdered sulphur are stirred in and the mixture is dried
with the necessary precautions.
7. Poch's Poudrolith.
A mixture is made of 3 parts of spent tan, 5 parts of
sawdust, 3 parts of barium nitrate, 3 parts of sodium
nitrate, 6 parts of wood-charcoal, 12 parts of sulphur, and
68 parts of potassium nitrate. The barium and sodium
nitrates are first dissolved in hot water, the tan and saw-
dust are thrown into the solution, and the mixture
thoroughly dried at a gentle heat. The dried mixture is
powdered and the other constituents, also in fine powder,
are intimately mixed with it in a rotating drum.
8. Volkmanris Wood-powder.
This powder is made by soaking sawdust in solutions of
yellow prussiate of potash (potassium ferrocyanide) and
saltpetre, of which the proportions may be varied, and then
strongly drying the product.
9. KoppeVs Safe Blasting Powder.
Two varieties of this blasting powder are manufactured,
the first for hard, the second for soft rock. Their composi-
tion is as follows :
144 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Potassium nitrate . . . ; . . 35-00 42-00
Sodium nitrate 19-00 22-00
Refined sulphur 11-00 12-50
Sawdust 9-50 19-00
Potassium chlorate .... 9-50
Wood-charcoal . . . . . 6-00 7 -00
Sodium sulphate . . . . 4-25 5*00
Refined sugar . . . . ... 2-25
Picric acid . . . ' . . . 1-25 1-50
Potassium ferrocyanide . . . . 2-25
Each of the materials is pulverised alone and they are then
mixed in a wooden drum. The mixture is moistened with
10 to 15 per cent, of water and stirred until somewhat
large lumps are formed, which are then slowly dried and
freed from dust by a sieve. The advantages of this blast-
ing powder are its cheapness and its indifference to friction
and concussion. It explodes only when brought in contact
with burning or incandescent substances.
According to an analysis by Fels the composition of
this explosive is as follows :
On 100 parts
Picric acid . . . -..'-. 1'50 1-65
Wood-charcoal . . . . . 6'82 7'49
Beech-wood-sawdust . . . . 9-98 10-97
Potassium nitrate . 38-93 42-78
Sodium nitrate . . - . . . 21-07 23-16
Sulphur . . . . . . . 12-20 13-40
Water . . . .... 9-00
Loss . . . . . . . . 0-50 0-55
Equal volumes of diorrexin and ordinary powder exert the
same explosive force. But the fact that diorrexin is 25
per cent, lighter and costs i less than black powder gives it
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST FOK EXPLOSIVES. 145
Wattlen gives the name pyrolith to a blasting powder
of which he makes two kinds, one for hard rock, such as
granite, etc., the other for soft rock, such as limestone,
The variety for hard rock consists of :
12 '5 parts of sawdust.
67'5 ,, ,, potassium nitrate.
20-0 flowers of sulphur.
That for soft rock is composed of :
ll'O parts of sawdust.
50'5 ,, potassium nitrate.
16'0 ,, ,, sodium nitrate.
1'5 ,, ,, powdered charcoal.
20-0 flowers of sulphur.
12. New Dynamite No. III.
Under this name a blasting powder is now manufactured
which is a mixture of charcoal (or wood-meal), sodium
nitrate, and sulphur, impregnated with nitroglycerine.
According to Munch the percentage composition is 20
parts of nitroglycerine and 80 parts of a mixture consisting
of 75 parts of sodium nitrate, 10 of sulphur and 12 of wood-
meal. According to Gohl it contains 12' 15 per cent, of
nitroglycerine, 13'9 per cent, of sulphur, 56'4 per cent, of
sodium nitrate, 13'86 per cent, of charcoal (or wood-meal),
and 4' 16 per cent, of water (inclusive of loss in analysis).
13. Powder of Kellow and Short.
The following formulae are given:
i. n. in.
Potassium chlorate . 12 parts 6 parts 10 parts
Sodium nitrate . . 30 36 10
Potassium nitrate 8 4 20
Sulphur ... 10 10
Tan and sawdust , , 42 50 46
146 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The tan and sawdust are soaked in a solution of the
salts, the flowers of sulphur are then mixed in and the
mixture is dried. According as the potassium chlorate is
employed in the dissolved or solid state, and according as
it is increased or decreased in proportion to the sodium
nitrate, the powder develops more or less energy.
14. De Tret's Blasting Powder.
52'5 parts of sodium nitrate are dissolved in the requisite
quantity of boiling water, and the solution is poured upon
27'5 parts of tan, which is thoroughly saturated therewith.
Then 20 parts of flowers of sulphur are mixed in. The
mixture is dried and packed.
Most kinds of explosives contain sulphur; some, how-
ever, are made without that ingredient, as for example
Fehleisen's haloxylin. It consists of :
45 parts of saltpetre.
3 to 5 parts of wood-charcoal.
9 parts of sawdust.
1 part of potassium ferricyanide.
The sawdust, charcoal, and saltpetre are intimately
mixed, and to each 100 kilos, there is added a solution of
potassium ferricyanide in 2 litres of water, to increase its
explosive energy. The mass is then, like ordinary gun-
powder, pressed, granulated, dried, and if necessary
16. Oiler's Blasting Powder.
Oiler's blasting powder consists of :
66 parts of potassium nitrate.
2 ,, potassium chlorate.
20 ,, ,, sulphur.
2 ,, ,, animal-charcoal.
6 ., sawdust.
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST FOR EXPLOSIVES. 147
17. Blasting Powder of Terre and Mercadier.
51^ parts of potassium nitrate.
16 sodium nitrate.
11 ,, sawdust.
20 ,, sulphur.
18. Schultze's White Gunpowder and Blasting Powder.
Thin slices of wood are cut by a stamp into small cubical
grains of the size of barley-groats. These are then boiled
with dilute soda solution to remove the sap-constituents,
then washed repeatedly, dried, submitted to the action of
bleaching powder and again washed and dried. They are
then nitrated with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids,
the acid is removed by a centrifugal machine, the product
is thoroughly washed and dried, then soaked in a solution of
potassium or barium nitrate and again dried.
Schultze's powder has greater ballistic energy than
common gunpowder, its smoke affects the organs of respira-
tion less, it leaves a very small ash, and it can be stored
and transported without the slightest danger, because it
can be wetted and redried. Although higher in price than
ordinary powder it is more economical in consequence of
its greater efficiency.
19. Dy's Yellow Gunpowder.
This product only differs from Schultze's in the respect
that instead of wood-grains the ground wood prepared for
paper-making is nitrated after granulating. Sawdust may,
of course, be used with the same result.
20. Lannoy's White Powder.
This is a mixture of coarsely powdered sulphur and salt-
petre with addition of some form of pyroxyline such as
nitrated wood, nitrated sawdust, or nitrated bran. It
148 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
dislodges the rock without any considerable shattering or
scattering. It is difficult to ignite and burns slowly. In
hard rock it is more effective than in coal or shale ; it is
more costly to manufacture and gives a suffocating smoke,
so that its freedom from danger is its only recommenda-
tion. According to analysis it contains 65 parts of soda
saltpetre, 13 of sulphur, and 22 of wood-fibre.
The name lithofracteur is used for certain blasting
powders which consist of nitroglycerine absorbed by
materials which are themselves explosive. When exploded
they are converted almost wholly into gases of high tem-
perature and pressure. The absorbing substances are pre-
pared sawdust, coal, bran, etc., and the finished product
contains 55 per cent, of nitroglycerine. The preparation
of the sawdust consists in freeing it from resin and satu-
rating it with saltpetre.
22. Brain's Blasting Powder
consists of a mixture of potassium chlorate, potassium
nitrate, wood-charcoal, and fine oak sawdust; 60 parts of
this mixture are then caused to absorb 40 parts of nitro-
glycerine. Its explosive force is 25 to 30 per cent, higher
than that of an equal weight of dynamite.
~ > A
MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTES FROM SAWDUST.
PAPER-PULP FROM WOOD, AND ITS EMPLOYMENT WITH
MORTAR, AND AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL.
CONSIDERING the relatively high heating value of saw-
dust, and the difficulty of burning it in the loose condition
in ordinary fire grates, the obvious method suggests itself
of bringing it into a compact form by the addition of some
kind of binding material, and submitting it to high pres-
sure, so that a handy, clean, compact fuel may be produced.
The various binding agents, resin, tar, water-glass, Iceland
moss, etc., which are used for making coal, coke, and char-
coal briquettes, may also be used in this case, but as a rule
the cost of converting sawdust into briquettes is too high
to render possible an extensive use of the process. The
making up of sawdust into briquettes, both for burning
into charcoal, and for distillation, has, however, been
adopted of late, and apparently with fairly good results.
One of the most important conditions for the formation
of briquettes is that the sawdust must be as dry as possible,
another condition being that rather powerful presses must
be employed for the mixture of sawdust and binding
In pressing sawdust into briquettes, G. Grimm aims at
obtaining a kind of felting of the material. A quantity
of the sawdust sufficient to form a thin layer is first pressed
into the mould ; a further quantity is then added and the
150 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
pressure reapplied, and so on until the desired thickness
is produced. By this method, in which each block is built
up gradually from thin layers, a very perfect incorporation
of the layers results from their mutual interpene-tration,
and the product possesses a degree of cohesion which
renders it well fitted both for carriage and handling in
general. Moreover, when using the briquettes as fuel, a
certain loosening of the layers is brought about by the
heat, so that the whole mass is brought into a state of
combustion more rapidly than would be the case if its
contexture w.as uniform throughout. This property is
also valuable when the briquettes are submitted to dry
distillation, since the volatilisation of the products of dis-
tillation proceeds more rapidly and uniformly throughout
the whole mass of the briquette than is the case with
those prepared by other processes.
Amongst the newer processes for the manufacture of
briquettes may be mentioned that in which the waste
liquors from the sulphide pulp manufacture is utilised.
The sawdust also small charcoal and charcoal powder is
mixed with the inspissated waste lye by a mixing machine,
and very serviceable briquettes are obtained by pressing
the mixture. The briquettes produced have an agreeable
appearance, are firm, coherent, and do not become damp
as would have been expected from the hygroscopic
character of the dry residue of the lye.
According to Meyer, waste or comminuted wood is
steamed until its elasticity is destroyed, and the blocks
obtained by pressing it are then submitted to distillation,
whereby it is stated that a very solid charcoal is obtained.
Pfropfe prepares briquettes from 2 parts of small wood
and 1 part of tar, by shaping the mixture, either by hand
presses or mechanical presses, into blocks or bricks, which
are then distilled. The condensable products of distilla-
tion separate into aqueous and oily layers which are
MANUFACTURE OP BRIQUETTES FROM SAWDUST. 151
separated automatically. The residue in the retort is said
to be pure charcoal.
PETROLEUM BRIQUETTES WITH SAWDUST.
Resin is dissolved in petroleum by stirring or shaking;
and during this operation, which takes about 40 minutes,
finely powdered caustic soda, or another alkali, is gradually
added. At the same time dry sawdust, or some similar
absorbent material, is put in. The soda may be crushed
under petroleum to prevent it from taking up moisture
from the air. Powdered soda which has been slightly
moistened with water may indeed be used, but the quan-
tity of water must not be large enough to make the soda
pasty. The operation is conducted in a receptacle
furnished with stirring, or better with shaking, machinery.
After thorough blending the mixture is removed from the
receptacle and very soon becomes solid.
SAWDUST BRIQUETTES WITH MOLASSES.
Molasses is a very suitable binding material for the pro-
duction of briquettes from sawdust, small charcoal, and
charcoal powder. Salterey describes his process, which can
be employed for any combustible material, or even for ores,
as follows : Experiments have shown that all kinds of sugar-
molasses, whether dialysed or not, may be used for the pur-
pose. The process is a very simple one. The sawdust, from
which coars3 fragments of wood should be removed, is dried
until at least the greater part of the moisture is removed,
and then moistened with diluted molasses and thoroughly
amalgamated in a mixing machine, such as is commonly
employed for the manufacture of briquettes. The quantity
of the binding material must be adjusted according to the
dampness of the sawdust, only so much being added as to
make the mixture feel moist. After the requisite blending
152 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the powder is strongly compressed into moulds, and the
bricks are allowed to dry for some time in airy situations
before they are put to use.
SAWDUST BRIQUETTES FOR DISTILLATION.
In order to use up wood-waste most advantageously it is
desirable to reduce the loose, pulverulent material to a
compact form, and for this purpose the briquette form is
the most appropriate and obvious. Amongst the newer
processes which endeavour to solve the problem in this
manner may be mentioned that of Bergmann, according to
which the sawdust, after thorough drying, is merely com-
pressed by high hydraulic pressure into the form of solid
briquettes. This proved impracticable, even with a pres-
sure of 300 atmospheres (2 tons per square inch), without
previous heating to 130 C. A new patent prescribes a
pressure of 1000 to 1500 atmospheres (6f to 10 tons per
square inch), but it is obvious that the use of such
enormous pressures is not only attended with many diffi-
culties, high cost, and frequent repairs, but also with con-
siderable danger and inconvenience.
Fr. Arnold of Magdeburg has constructed a knee-press,
in which by a steel lever a very high pressure can be
obtained with a relatively small expenditure of force, and
with which both sawdust and shavings can be compressed
into solid blocks, convenient either for burning or car-
According to a patent taken out by E. Leinhaas of
Freiberg in Saxony (D.R.P. 86143) the preparation of such
briquettes may be accomplished, without either high pres-
sure or heat, by using the lime-mud residue from the dis-
tillation of acetic acid as a binding material for sawdust.
Waste vegetable substances, sawdust, tan, etc., are air-
dried and then mixed with the limenmud in simply con-
MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTES FROM SAWDUST. 153
structed mixing machines. The mixture is made into
briquettes by either screw presses, or other well-known
briquette presses the adoption of the special form of press
depending on the daily output required and is then car-
bonised in a special apparatus (D.R.P. 30338), the gases
being passed through a chamber in which the briquettes
were stacked up before the fire was lit, and working at
first at a low temperature. The tar-vapours are pre-
cipitated on and are absorbed by the briquettes. The
temperature is then gradually raised, whereupon the more
volatile portion of the tar is driven off, whilst the heavier
constituents of the tar carbonise in the interior of the
briquettes and bind together the particles of wood.
Simultaneously with the distillation products from the
sawdust, etc., acetic acid is evolved from the lime-mud,
chiefly in the form of acetone. The gases are freed from
acetic acid, acetone, tar, etc., by cooling, and the uncon-
densable gases are used for heating. The carbonisation is
at an end as soon as the gases are found to be free from
condensable products : the time required is easily judged
after some experience. The carbonised briquettes are
somewhat cooled in the furnace, and are then transferred
to air-tight cooling chambers. These charcoal briquettes
form a far more valuable combustible than ordinary wood-
charcoal, and furnish an incandescent fuel such as is re-
quired for heating railway carriages, flat irons, etc. Such
a fuel was formerly obtained by powdering wood-charcoal,
mixing it with soda, pressing into moulds and heating to
redness. But by the above process the incandescent fuel
is obtained direct at the first carbonisation, and the chief
difference is the introduction of lime from the lime-mud
instead of soda.
154 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST IN THE CERAMIC INDUSTRY
AND AS AN ADDITION TO MORTAR.
The use of sawdust in the manufacture of potttery is con-
nected with its property of lightening clay- the specific
gravity of sawdust is very low and of carbonising or
burning away completely to an ash during the subsequent
firing, in consequence of which a further lightening, and at
the same time porosity, are produced. It is, for instance,
in this way that the Alkarazzas, those porous clay bottles
formerly used by the Arabs for cooling water, which have
continued in use in Spain and have lately been introduced
into Germany, are made from clay with which fine saw-
dust has been mixed. During the firing of the vessels the
sawdust is burnt off, and the clay is left with a multitude of
minute pores, by which the water oozes through the walls.
On the exterior of the vessel the water evaporates, and by
rendering heat latent keeps the contents cool.
In the same way porous plates are manufactured for
drying substances containing much water, as for example,
starch. These plates are capable of absorbing much larger
quantities of water than merely unglazed earthenware.
Bricks of greater or less porosity for building purposes
can be obtained by the addition of a larger or smaller pro-
portion of sawdust to the brick-earth. When such bricks
are used for house walls, they produce far warmer rooms
than common bricks, because the air in the pores is a
worse conductor of heat than the clay. Moreover their
weight is considerably less than that of ordinary bricks,
and they can therefore be used for the construction of fire-
proof walls in situations where a heavy weight is inadmis-
sible, or for building arches which will bear less heiaviiy
on their abutments. The use of such bricks is of high
antiquity ; in ancient Rome pumice was used in making
them, but where that was not procurable clay was mixed
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST IN MORTAR. 155
with substances which became consumed whilst the bricks
were being burnt.
Sawdust is particularly suitable for this purpose, since
the pores can be made larger or smaller according to the
coarseness of the sawdust; moreover, it burns away at a
low temperature, and leaves no detrimental residue, for the
small amount of potash which the ash contains can have
no injurious effect on the quality of the bricks.
A very modern product is the cement composition used
for light partition walls, for plastering ceilings, etc. It
is prepared by mixing cement or plaster or Paris with saw-
dust in various proportions, and casting the mixture into
planks, or mouldings, either with or without a skeleton of
wire netting. The use of sawdust as an addition to mortar
for stuccoing the fronts of houses, etc., is well known, and
such mortar finds various applications. Rohde, for plaster-
ing walls and ceilings, and in damp rooms, employs a
mortar composed of freshly slaked lime and the sawdust
of soft wood, which should be in as fibrous a condition as
possible. The quantity of lime should only be just large
enough to allow the mixture to be laid on. This mortar
forms a felt impregnated with lime, and is so light that if
struck the injury does not extend beyond the spot on
which the blow falls, whilst a coating of it which was laid
on an extremely damp wall showed no change in solidity
or in appearance in the course of eight years. Rohde
especially recommends it for plastering mud walls and pise
work, as well as for roofs coated with clay. Even on the
plank walls of an ice-house, against which the ice was
packed tight, a plaster coating of this material 1 centi-
metre thick adhered firmly and remained sound. Rooms
which have had their walls plastered with this composition
can be papered in a few weeks.
Two American inventors have proposed to use sawdust
instead of sand in stucco and wall plaster, in order to
156 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
lighten the mixture and secure firmer adhesion to the wall,
An old practice was to use sawdust for covering up objects
exposed to rain, cold, etc. ; one of these patents proposes
simply the use of a mixture of equal parts of sawdust
and plaster of Paris or cement; the other gives the
4 parts of a mixture of slaked lime and sawdust.
1 part of plaster of Paris.
ADDITION OF SAWDUST TO MORTAR.
By the use of s<awdust the formation of cracks in wall
plaster may be prevented, and on this subject the following
statement has been made :
" The house in which I dwell lies very high and exposed,
so that the copious rain, which here in the neighbourhood
of the sea falls almost continuously during the equinoxes,
fills every chink in the outer cement on the weather side
of the house, especially on the upper surfaces of the breast-
mouldings and plinth-mouldings, with water. These
crevices are then gradually widened and extended by the
formation of ice, so that in the spring large surfaces of
the cement peel off. To remedy this inconvenience, which
annually repeated itself in the same situations, and which
was the more expensive and troublesome because the
freshly stuccoed surfaces always required painting with
oil, I had, without success, employed the most varied
means, when the idea occurred to me to prevent the forma-
tion of crevices in the stucco by the addition of sawdust,
which I expected to have a felting action similar to that
of calf's hair. The sawdust was strongly dried, then passed
through a common fruit sieve to remove co-arse chips, so
that only the small woolly flocks were used. I made up
the mortar with 1 part of cement, 2 parts of lime, 2 parts
EMPLOYMENT OF SAWDUST IN BUILDING MATERIALS. 157
of sawdust and 3 parts of sharp sand. The sawdust was
first thoroughly mixed with the cement and sand and then
the lime added. This had the desired result, for since that
time even those joints which were not bonded together,
although, in the finishing cement-coat of these, sawdust
could, of course, not be used, no crack has shown itself "
Sawdust therefore fulfils the purpose of matting a plaster,
so as to prevent it from cracking, far better than hair,
and in such cases as the foregoing is strongly to be recom-
Quite recently a commencement has been made in the
use of sawdust as a non-conductor of heat, by mixing it
with plaster of Paris, loam, mortar, hair, cork, etc., and
applying a thick layer to steam pipes, cylinders, heaters,
etc., round which cloth had first been wrapped, and after
drying giving it a coat of oil paint.
STONY COMPOSITION FROM SAWDUST FOB A BUILDING AND
This invention relates to a stony composition which
should be particularly suitable as a building material
for the construction of walls, flooring, for drying damp
rooms, for paving stone, and for the building of reservoirs
and vessels of every kind. It consists principally of wood-
meal and plaster of Paris, or cement. The wood-meal
requires to be so prepared that an intimate union of it with
the plaster or cement may be secured; it also needs to
be made incombustible and prevented from absorbing
moisture. It is used in the proportion of 2 parts of wood-
meal to 1 part of plaster or cement.
The wood-meal requires boiling for a long time with
water-glass, powdered asbestos, and a little glue or other
binding material, in order that the fine particles may be
thoroughly penetrated by the water-glass, and coated with
158 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the asbestos. The meal so prepared is not only incom-
bustible and non-hygroscopic, but, as already mentioned, is
particularly capable of uniting with plaster of Paris to a
homogeneous mass of great hardness, such as has not
hitherto been obtained with wood-meal.
The wood-meal so prepared is mixed with plaster or
cement and water and is poured into a mould, in which if
desired wire netting can previously have been placed. For
applications of the material in which the greatest possible
strength is to be attained, the contents of the mould may
be exposed to pressure whilst hardening.
After the mixture has hardened, the slabs or other
objects are burnt in a kiln, or are dried in a stove specially
constructed for the purpose.
According to the purposes to which it is to be applied,
sand, tar, asphalt, and other substances may be added to
the wood-meal after the boiling with water-glass.
The material obtained by this process is light and has
little porosity; it has the great advantage of not being
hygroscopic or permeable to moisture. Walls built of this
material may have nails driven into them without any
damage to the surrounding parts, whilst the nails, on
account of the firmness of the substance, hold well. More-
over, in consequence of the treatment of the saw-meal
with water-glass and asbestos powder, the material is fire-
proof. The addition of tar acts also as a protection against
vermin, rotting, and growth of mould.
The hardness of the substance and the other properties
mentioned render this material peculiarly fit for paving
stone. It lasts well, deadens sound, and does not wear
out the horses' hoofs.
This material is also a low conductor of electricity, and
is therefore suitable for insulations.
In comparison with the well-known practice of coating
wood with water-glass to secure a better adhesion of
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER-PULP FROM SAWDUST. 159
plaster, it is to be borne in mind that in the new process
each particle of the wood is thoroughly saturated with
water-glass by the process of boiling the sawdust in a solu-
tion of that substance.
MANUFACTURE OP PAPER-PULP FROM WOOD (SAWDUST,
SHAVINGS, ETC.) FOR PAPER-MAKING.
In the employment of wood for paper-making the
endeavour is to obtain a cellulose as pure and as long
fibred as possible; sawdust, however, furnishes only very
short fibres, and is moreover so bulky that the boiling, or
at least the circulation of the liquid in the boiler, is much
The apparatus to be described here is intended to over-
come this difficulty and to render possible the production
of a serviceable wood-pulp from sawdust, shavings, and
waste pieces of wood 5 to 8 mm. thick, by a combined
boiling and grinding process. The apparatus represented
in vertical section in Fig. 42, and in horizontal section
through the line, a, a, by Fig. 43, consists of a steam-tight
cylinder, A, which has a smooth inner surface and in which
there rotates a central axle, H, carrying a number of
forked plates, d, d. The forks are provided with adjust-
able journals, which are connected with the adjusting
screws, N, N, by springs. In these journals revolve the
axles, P, of the rollers, K, which, by the rotation of the
shaft, H, are caused to roll round on the inner surfa/ce of
the cylinder, A, and to exert upon that surface a greater
or less pressure according to the centrifugal force deve-
loped bv a greater or less speed of rotation.
Instead of the bearings with springs, the construction
shown in Fig. 44 may be adopted. Here the rollers, K, are
simply bored out so as to ride loosely on the axles, P, fixed
to the arms, j, so that they press against the interior of
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the cylinder, A, solely by virtue of the centrifugal force
developed by the rotation, and in doing so take up a more
or less excentric position with regard to the axles, P. The
process is as follows : Through a manhole in the cover of
the cylinder an appropriate quantity of sawdust, shavings,
or wood-chips are introduced; water is added in quantity
sufficient to float the charge of wood. The manhole is
closed, and through the tangential pipe, T, steam is
admitted of at least 52 to 53 Ibs. to the inch pressure.
FIG. 42. Apparatus for Preparing Paper-pulp from Wood-waste
The steam throws the mixture into rotation, heats it up,
and produces a pressure in the cylinder. This treatment
causes the fibres to acquire a degree of tenacity which
prevents them from breaking short during the subsequent
action of the rollers. Some lime, soda, or potash may be
added to the mass at the outset, by which the fibres would
be rendered more pliant and be freed from all impurities.
The mass remains exposed to the action of the steam until
the fibres have acquired the requisite toughness and
MANUFACTURE OF PAPEE-PULP FROM SAWDUST. 161
pliancy. This generally bakes two hours, after which for
another two hours the mass is gently worked with the
rollers. The main shaft, which drives the axle, H, by
bevelled gearing, is fitted with pulleys of two sizes, c, c, to
FIG. 43. Apparatus for Preparing Paper-pulp from Wood-waste
(Section through the line a, a).
FIG. 44. Modified Apparatus for Preparing Paper-pulp from
give two different speeds. By running the shaft with the
large pulley, a slow speed and light pressure on the interior
of the cylinder are obtained. The rollers are arranged so
as to bear upon almost the whole surface of the cylinder.
162 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Either a single long roller, or several superposed short
ones may be employed. By reason of the yielding of the
springs, the rollers are able to pass over any hard portions
of the material without injury to the machinery. After
the machine has been driven for two hours at a slow speed,
the driving-belt is shifted to the small pulley and the
rollers thrown into rapid rotation. This throws the wood
outwards towards the walls of the cylinder, where the
fragments become more and more crushed up and dis-
integrated, without, however, any breaking up of the
fibres themselves. And, as the pressure of the rollers on
the cylinder is considerable, and the fragments of wood
pass under them again and again, the individual fibres are
at last completely separated one from the other. The
process may be conducted without the addition of any
alkali, trusting to the action of the steam to produce the
requisite toughening of the fibres. But in that case the
operation would require a much longer time.
The wood-pulp obtained when wood is ground by mill-
stones with addition of water is essentially different from
cellulose. It is merely wood reduced to a fine state of sub-
division, the fibres being still coated with the incrusting
substance, and may be used as an addition to paper-pulp
and rags in making common pasteboard. To grind waste
wood and tail (but not sawdust) to wood-pulp, W. Kapp of
Berk on the Lippe uses a stone mill with horizontal axes,
above which is fixed a feeding-box fitted with plungers.
The material to be ground is filled into the box below the
plungers, the latter being meanwhile raised by a hand-
wheel engaging in a pair of racks, which when raised are
fixed by a ratchet. When the ratchet is released the
plungers are depressed by a counterpoise. The lower
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER-PULP FROM SAWDUST. 163
edges of the feed-box should not actually touch the stones,
but the intermediate space should be as small as possible :
should it become increased by wear, the position of the box
may be adjusted by means of screws, even whilst the
machine is running. To prevent the wood-pulp from
flowing over the ends of the stone rollers, wooden cheek-
blocks are fitted close to the stones. Whereas, in ordinary
mills, the use of hard stone is inadmissible, since such stone
would produce an inelastic, brittle material, in Kapp's
machine it is advantageous, since the disintegration process
is a different one, because the material has already been
partly reduced in size, which produces a much finer fibre.
The stone requires to have a peripheral velocity of about
500 metres (1640 feet) per minute. The water required is
supplied by a pipe as in an ordinary wood-pulping mill.
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST AND WOOD-REFUSE.
SAWDUST AS A MATERIAL FOB PREVENTING BOUGH CAST
FROM FLAKING OFF UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FROST
SAWDUST should serve very much better for this purpose
than the hair commonly employed. It must first be well
dried and then sifted to> remove all coarse particles. A
mixture is then made with 2 parts of sawdust, 5 parts of
sharp sand, and 1 part of cement, which are thoroughly
commingled, and to which 2 parts of lime are then added.
MANUFACTURE OF CASKS FROM THE WASTE-WOOD OF
The outside planks of tree trunks, which are obtained as
a refuse product when cutting the trees into deals, are cut
lengthwise by an ordinary circular saw, and each of the
pieces reduced to the length required for the cask staves.
Each of these pieces is again cut to the proper width by
a multiple circular saw, which is fed with the wood by
means of grooved rollers. Lastly, a circular saw with
vertical spindle and automatic feed cuts the pieces to the
size required for the staves. This saw has a diameter of
600 mm. (23J inches) ; in the middle of the spindle above
the saw-bench there is a guide rod, at each side of which
a grooved feed-roller is situated, by which arrangement
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST. 165
it is possible to cut two pieces of different thickness
simultaneously. These pieces are then conveyed to the
trimming and chine-cutting machines, in order to have
their ends cut to the right bevel and the chine notches
cut out for the reception of the heads. This machine has
an axle carrying the knives for cutting the chine notches,
and two axles for the trimming saws. Both the trimming
saw and the notching knives can be set to the proper
distance apart for staves of any required length.
The staves are fed into the machine by hand, each stave
being laid with its hinder edge on a rod which moves back-
wards and forwards in guides. The pieces so trimmed are
now conveyed to the jointing saw, a machine with a small,
strong circular saw, to which the pieces are brought upon
a carriage which runs on rails. This machine gives the
edges of the staves their exact bevel, no hand work being
afterwards required to fit them together. For cheaper
transport the casks are not made up, but the staves and
heads for each cask are tied into a bundle. The heads are
cut out in the same fashion from shorter waste pieces, and
from pieces not suitable for staves. The head pieces are
dowelled and cut to the circular form by a special machine.
All the machines can be fed by boys. One set of machines
will turn out several hundred casks a day. The demand
for these is almost unlimited, since the users of such casks
cement makers, millers, nail makers, and fruit merchants
are always ready buyers.
MANUFACTURE OF CALCIUM CARBIDE FROM SAWDUST.
For the manufacture of calcium carbide, from which, by
the action of water, acetylene gas is prepared, either coke,
coal, or wood-charcoal may be used. According to a
patent obtained by Wilson of Ontario, the charcoal of saw-
dust and other wood-refuse can be employed. These sub-
166 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
stances are carbonised by heating in suitable furnaces, and
the finely powdered charcoal is then mixed with limestone.
The mixture is then exposed for 10 hours to the heat of an
electric arc, which is sufficiently powerful to< melt iron and
boil lead. The product is calcium carbide, which, reduced
to small fragments, is supplied to consumers in this form
in tin canisters.
SAWDUST AS MANURE.
Sawdust, by itself, has but little value as a manure,
because it is non-nitrogenous, and even by decomposition
in the soil by atmospheric influence is incapable of furnish-
ing any nitrogenous materials to vegetation. Its value as
a manure is far less than that of straw, nevertheless it
would be incorrect to regard it as altogether valueless.
For although the amount of phosphoric acid and potash
in the wood of coniferous trees is extremely small, never-
theless in the soil sawdust is rapidly converted into humus
which for many varieties of soil has at least some value.
On the other hand, however, it must be observed that
the pure wood-fibre such as we have it in wood-meal is
a particularly stable substance, very indisposed to rot
spontaneously, and that it therefore decomposes so slowly
that the carbonic acid which it generates is supplied far
too slowly to have any marked effect on the vegetation
with which it is in contact. If therefore we disregard its
mechanical effect its manurial value is almost nothing.
Its mechanical action, especially its great capacity for
absorbing liquids, is however so considerable, that from
this point of view alone it deserves notice, and as a matter
of fact sawdust is largely used as a mulch. The practice,
therefore, which has been frequently recommended, of
mixing artificial manures with long-fibred, woolly sawdust,
and throwing the mixture into heaps to undergo 1 fermenta-
tion, is by no means to be rejected. One of the great
VAEIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST. 167
advantages of this method is that the powdery manure
when applied at a particular spot does not get blown all
over the place; moreover, the decomposing sawdust ought
to render the manure more soluble and more rapidly
1. Richardson's Artificial Manure.
For the preparation of his artificial manure, Richardson
employs dry, sifted sawdust, which he moistens with
muriatic or sulphuric acid and then heats to 130 F. The
mixture is then either spread on the land as it is, or is
mixed with blood and heated to 140 F., which causes the
blood to coagulate. The dry mixture can be packed in
sacks, distributed to consumers, and used as manure.
Instead of blood, bone-ash, coprolites, animal charcoal, or
natural phosphatic minerals such as phosphorite, etc., may
be added to the mixture of sawdust and sulphuric acid.
The mixture is thrown into heaps which are then covered
with straw, old sacks, etc., whereupon by chemical action
a heat of 100 to 150 F. is developed inside the heaps.
When the temperature of the heaps has fallen to that of
the surrounding atmosphere the process may be regarded
as completed and the product be put to use.
2. Carbonised Sawdust as Manure.
To employ sawdust in agriculture it is most advantageous
that it should be carbonised. With this object charcoal
heaps (Meiler) are constructed of brushwood, such as broom
and other dwarf shrubs, and these are gradually filled up
with sawdust, which is thrown on lightly with the shovel
in such a way as to leave numerous gaps for the admission
of air. When the heap is covered with a layer of saw-
dust, which must not be too thick, the fire is kindled.
Wherever the fire begins to break through, more sawdust
15 thrown on, and when the layer has reached a certain
168 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
thickness the heap is allowed to cool. After complete
cooling the heap is taken apart. The charcoal obtained in
this way is mixed with liquid manure, urine, phosphates,
blood, etc., laid up in heaps, and left to itself for some
weeks. The sawdust must of course be dried before being
carbonised, and the operation must be carried on in a dry
locality. This manure has given excellent results with a
variety of plants.
3. Manure from Tan.
1. The production of the manure depends on fermenta-
tion, and for the formation of the compost heap it is
desirable to select a place exposed to air and moisture.
On the spot selected, a layer of tan about 35 cms. (14 inches)
thick is spread out, and covered with 6 cms. (2| inches) of
slaked lime : above this a second layer of tan is spread,
and likewise covered with lime, and the heap is built up
in this way with alternate layers to a height of 2 metres
(6J feet). The heap is moistened with water until it heats
strongly, and the bark, which, on account of the tannin it
contains, does not readily rot by itself, is brought by the
lime into a decomposed condition. If it is desired to
obtain a strongly forcing manure, a layer of powdered
gypsum (Terra alba) is spread upon the lime, then one of
fresh, undecomposed horse dung, then tan again, and so on
to the desired height. Liquid manure and urine are then
poured into holes made by thrusting a stake into the heap,
and the whole is left to rot.
2. The following mixture also gives an admirable com-
post : 10 parts of well-manured garden soil, 2 parts of
gypsum, 1 part of quicklime, J part rock-salt, 2 parts of
wood-ash, 1 part of tan. The whole is well mixed, and
laid out in a long ridged heap. Whilst mixing, strong
liquid manure (drainage from the dung heap) is added as
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST. 169
long as it can be absorbed without causing the mixture to
cling together. The heap is turned over and moistened
with liquid manure twice a week for a month. It is
necessary that it should heat up if it is to prove an effi-
cient forcing manure. The heating is due to the tan.
If tan is not obtainable, the dust or refuse from thrashing
clover seed, rye, wheat, or buck-wheat may be used
instead; also malt dust, fir sawdust, etc., may be used.
The heap will begin to heat within 24 hours, and if it is
regularly turned over and moistened twice a week it will
be fit for use in a month.
WOOD-MOSAIC PLAQUES FROM WOOD- SHAVINGS.
The curled shavings obtained in planing wood are
flattened out by hand, after soaking in water or steaming.
They are laid one on the other and gently pressed for some
time. They thus become perfectly flat and can easily and
rapidly be piled up in regular layers, after first dipping
into thin glue. Care must be taken that the heaps are
built up perpendicularly, with which object the thin and
thick parts of the shavings are alternated. The block thus
obtained should be pressed until the glue is perfectly dry,
and the result is a solid mass, the thickness of which
depends on the width of the shavings, and its other
dimensions on the length and number of the shavings
These blocks admit of being planed smooth on the sur-
faces which exhibit the edges of the shavings, and several
of them can then be glued together. The planed
surfaces have a very agreeable appearance, and permit
the construction of mosaic patterns of a very special
character. With this object the shavings are dyed with
various colours before they are glued together, care being
taken that the dye penetrates the shavings thoroughly, and
170 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
then after dipping them into glue the differently coloured
shavings are alternated when superposing them one on
By this process very pretty wood-mosaics can be pro-
duced, which show fine, variously coloured veins, and are
specially suited for inlaid work and for many other pur-
BOTTLE STOPPERS MADE FROM WOOD-SHAVINGS.
These can be prepared as follows: The shavings are
wound round a short cylindrical rod of wood, both the
ro$ and the shavings, as well as the exterior of the com-
posite plug, being smeared with a resinous or caoutchouc
cement. The rod should be of the same length as the
width of the shavings, and should have a solid handle by
which to remove the stopper from the neck of the bottle
The stoppers are finally immersed to half their length
in melted paraffin wax, and are then ready for use.
EMPLOYMENT OF WASTE WOOD FROM SAW-MILLS FOR
Parquetry blocks are generally either 59 or 64 cms. (23
or 25 inches) square. The base blocks for veneered par-
quetry are at the present day prepared as follows: Pieces
somewhat shorter than the block to* be made are glued
together, cut to size, and ledge pieces attached to their
ends by grooving and tonguing. In Russia a special
method is in use. The base block is formed of a frame,
two cross rails, and four panels, and the frames are fur-
nished with holes and pegs by which they are fitted
together. The four panels are tongued and grooved into
the rails and frame, and only the pegs require to be glued.
The panels are so arranged that the grain of one runs at
VABIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST. 171
right angles to that of the other. This renders any
warping of the block impossible, and the shrinkage is
reduced to a minimum, since only the two frame pieces,
which lie parallel to one another and the total width of
which is at most 25 cms. (10 inches), are capable, under
the most unfavourable variations of temperature, of slightly
swelling or shrinking. Any waste pieces of wood may be
used for making these base blocks, as the panels are at
most 20 cms. (8 inches) long. By using a circular saw
and a simple drill for boring the holes, these blocks can
be made with the greatest ease.
Wooden roof-shingles are still saleable articles, and are
easily and cheaply cut out with a circular saw.
FIRE-LIGHTERS PROM SAWDUST AND SHAVINGS.
Fire-lighters, which can be used for rapidly kindling
any kind of fuel, are made from sawdust or shavings im-
pregnated with rosin. The sawdust-lighters are made by
melting the rosin (the cheapest, darkest quality) in an iron
pot, adding the requisite quantity of sawdust gradually,
and thoroughly mixing it in with an iron rabble. The
sawdust must first be thoroughly dried or the rosin will
froth up too much. The mixture is then spread out on a
moulding bench which has been well oiled, and a well-
greased roller passed over the mass, which presses the
mixture into the furrows in the bench and at the same
time reduces it to the proper thickness. The individual
fire-lighters can then be separated from one another by
breaking the mass at the indentations, and they are then
packed and sent to market.
Fire-lighters of another kind consist of shavings, which
are unrolled, dipped into melted rosin, and rolled up again.
172 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
MANUFACTURE OF CARBORUNDUM FROM SAWDUST.
Carborundum is prepared by fusing in the electrical
furnace a mixture of coke and sand, to* which some common
salt is added to increase its conductivity, and some saw-
dust to render it porous and furnish an outlet for the gas
evolved (carbon monoxide) so that explosions may not
The dimensions of the furnaces are 2' 7 by 0'575 by 0'575
metres (106 by 22 J by 22 J inches).
The older practice was to establish an arc between the
poles ; at the present time a cylindrical rod made of coke-
powder is laid between them, and this being a bad con-
ductor is heated by the current to intense white-heat, and
this enables the process to be conducted much more
economically. The production of 1 kilo. (2J Ibs.) of car-
borundum requires at the present time 14' 7 horse-power.
The current supplied by the Niagara Falls Power Co. has
a tension of 2200 volts, and is stepped down to one of 185
volts by a transformer, which was the largest in the world
before the installation of the one at Buffalo. The effi-
ciency of the transformer is 96 per cent., therefore out of
each 1000 horse-power 40 are converted into heat, so that
ample cooling appliances have to be provided. The thick
oil with which the transformer is filled is cooled by a
spiral water pipe, and is kept in constant circulation by a
The course of an operation is thus described in the
Journal of the Franklin Institute: During the first half-
hour after charging the furnace and putting on the current,
nothing is to be observed ; a peculiar odour is then deve-
loped and the gas which escapes through the crevices in
the furnace can be kindled. After three to four hours the
walls and the upper part of the furnace are completely
surrounded by the light-blue flame of the carbon monoxide
VAKIOUS APPLICATIONS OF SAWDUST. 173
produced from the coke and the oxygen of the sand. After
four or five hours the crown of the furnace begins to sink
in, and cracks open through which yellow sodium flames
escape. It frequently happens that the uppermost layer
is not sufficiently porous to allow the carbon monoxide to
escape freely : a rent is then formed suddenly, a puff of
burning gas escapes, and a small crater is instantaneously
formed which throws out white-hot ashes, a blinding yellow
flame, and a thick smoke which fills the whole workshop.
In such cases it is often necessary to shut off the current
and allow the furnace to cool slowly, so that the faulty
part can be removed later on and filled up afresh. After
24 hours the current is interrupted, and the charge of the
furnace cleared out down to the amorphous outer layer
of carborundum. This fritted crust, which surrounds the
core, is broken away, and the crystallised carborundum is
found inside. This is reduced to powder of different
degrees of fineness by levigation, much in the same way as
emery. Its price is from two to five times that of emery,
but it is lighter and therefore goes further. The Car-
borundum Co. maintain that their product does its work
more quickly and neatly than emery.
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL.
UTILISATION OF BIRCH BARK.
IN large saw-mills, carpentry and cabinet-making work-
shops, etc., a large amount of wood-refuse accumulates for
which no immediate use can be found, and which in many
cases is simply burnt. Any of these waste pieces
not measuring more than 16 \ by 5| inches may be very
advantageously worked up for wood-wood. Wood-wool
consists of filaments of various degrees of fineness, and
with a correspondingly greater or less elasticity, which in
the comparatively short time that has elapsed since it
was introduced has already acquired an extensive employ-
Wood-wool is a clean, dust-free, light, and very elastic
packing material, and compared with straw, hay, etc., has
the advantage of not rotting so readily. Being specifically
lighter than any other packing material, 30 to 40 per cent,
less of it is required. It is especially suitable for packing
glass, porcelain, fancy goods, hardware, metal ware, per-
fumery, drugs, and medical preparations in glass, and other
vessels, for meat, sausages, fruit, eggs, flowers, etc.
Wood-wool is employed in metal foundries for wrapping
round the loam moulds ; it is also a very serviceable stable
litter where straw is unobtainable, and is much to be pre-
ferred to either leaves or pine needles.
Wood-wool is used with advantage for stuffing. cushions,
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL. 175
and retains its elasticity far better and longer than sea-
weed, hair, etc. The resin contained in the pine- and fir-
woods, which 'are almost exclusively employed, protects
the articles which are stuffed with wood-wool from the
attack of insects; moisture also has but small effect on
this stuffing material. The investigations made by the
Prussian War Office have shown that pine-wood fibre is
a very agreeable, soft, and clean material for stuffing
mattresses for hospitals and barracks, highly appreciated
by the sick and free from all the disadvantages which have
hitherto been unavoidable.
The finest wood-wool has quite recently been employed
for surgical dressings, for which it has been found very
suitable. It also answers the purpose of a flesh brush, as
it opens the pores of the skin and freshens and invigorates
the surface. The very finest, the so-called lint-wool, is
used in hospitals and infirmaries. The shavings produced
by wood-wool machines serve also for filtering materials,
for making vinegar, and for fire kindlings : those made
from hazel-wood are used in breweries; beech-wood
shavings in vinegar factories; and pine-wood shavings for
fire kindlings. Wood-wool is also used instead of cotton-
waste for cleaning machinery, as it is considerably cheaper,
and is far less liable to spontaneous combustion.
The machines employed for producing wood-wool will
turn it out in a coarser or finer condition : the product
may be dyed any colour by simply immersing it in a dye-
bath, draining it on sieves and drying. The various
colours may be obtained by the following formulae :
Three parts of permanganate of potash are dissolved in
200 parts of cold distilled water; the wood-wool is
immersed in the solution for a few minutes and then taken
176 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
Five parts of ground turmeric root are boiled with
150 parts of water and ^ part of 'alum ; the decoction is
strained from the powder through a sieve and is ready for
Two parts of soluble aniline green are dissolved in 250
parts of water.
Two parts of soluble aniline blue are dissolved in 200
parts of water.
Two parts of soluble aniline red (eosin, po-nceau, or
rosein, according to the shade desired) are dissolved in 250
parts of water.
Two parts of aniline violet are dissolved in 250 parts of
The best mode of procedure is to put the wood-wool in a
large sieve, dip the whole into the dye-bath, then take it
out and allow it to drain, after which the dyed wool is
dried on wicker racks in a moderately heated chamber.
One of the best wood-wool machines is that of Anthon
& Sons of Flensburg : it can be made double, triple, or
quadruple acting. In the double-acting machines the
carriage has no movable parts. These double-acting
machines are employed wherever quantity rather than
quality is required in the product; this arise from the
fact that no piece of wood can be planed equally well in
both directions, as any one can assure themselves by trying
the experiment with a hand plane, when it will be found
that whilst cutting against the grain the shavings are not
so smooth as those cut in the opposite direction ; for coarse
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL. 177
wood-wool this is of no consequence. When, on the other
hand, the object is to produce extra fine and delicate wool,
such as the patent carriage of the machine is intended to
yield, it is necessary that the machine should be single-
acting; each piece of wood must then be placed between
the feed-rollers in the right direction for planing with the
grain. A special advantage of this machine is that fila-
ments of various widths can be obtained from it without
the necessity of changing the slitting knives.
FIG. 45. Double Acting Wood-wool Machine of Anthon & Sons.
The whole machine (Fig. 45) is supported on a solid
iron frame, which as a rule is arranged horizontally, being
furnished with iron legs as shown in the figure. It
can, however, where space considerations or the driving
arrangements require it, be set up in a sloping position.
The frame carries the driving-axle with fast and loose
pulleys, a crank and fly-wheel. The crank, by means of a
connecting rod, gives a reciprocating motion to an iron
carriage, which latter carries the very simple cutters, one
or sometimes two broad plane irons, and a set of pointed
knives, which are set to the required width of the fila-
178 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
ments, and which produce longitudinal cuts in the wood,
whilst the plane which follows them takes off a shaving of
the already scored surface, and the resulting wood-wool
falls from the machine. Two toothed rollers arranged
transversely across the carriage, and revolving to a certain
distance backwards for each movement of the carriage,
hold the wood which is to be planed, the roller nearest the
crank being pressed against the wood by a rack and pinion
acted on by a weight hanging from a cord which paisses
over a pulley, and thus bringing the wood up to the plane
through a definite distance at each cut. A lever connected
with the pulley permits a more rapid to and fro motion
of the pulley, and consequently a rapid backwards and
forwards motion of the front roller, so that without
stopping the machine piece of wood of different lengths
can be introduced under the rollers one after another.
The machine can easily be attended by a single work-
man, who, after throwing the driving belt upon the driving-
pulley has merely to thrust one piece of wood after another
between the rollers ; this is done with the left hand, whilst
with the right hand the front roller is moved nearer to or
farther from the back roller, according to the length of
When the rollers have seized the piece of wood it is
unnecessary that it should be held by the hand : the
rollers push it forward automatically, so that unless the
pieces are very small one workman can easily feed two
machines. The machine has a length of 10 J feet and a
breadth of 3 feet 4 inches. The driving-pulley is 20
inches in diameter by 6 inches broad, and should make
about 150 revolutions per minute. The output of a double-
acting machine should amount in 10 hours to 6 to 12 cwt.
of the coarsest wood-wool, according to the kind of wood :
of finer wool a proportionally smaller quantity is produced.
The thickness of the filaments is always the same ; but
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL.
180 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
if desired, different worm-wheels can be supplied at an
extra cost, which render it possible to vary the thickness :
the most usual are 3, 5, 15, and 20 filaments to 1 milli-
metre. The width of the filaments can be regulated by
either clamping the scoring knives close together, or by
inserting distance pieces of any desired thickness between
them. The power required for a wood-wool machine is
1 to 2 horse-power according to the yield.
The machine will take round, square, or flat pieces of
wood of the following maximum dimensions; about 20
inches long by 5-J inches wide, and, of course, pieces which
are smaller in either direction : the thickness is not
restricted, but it is nevertheless not advantageous that it
should exceed 20 inches. The material can be worked
down to pieces of 1 inch in square section ; the waste is
therefore very small.
The machine can be driven equally well by wind, water,
steam, or any other power, and is capable of reducing cane
to wool. It is not clear, however, how far it is advan-
tageous to work up cane into wool, for new cane is too
costly and short thin pieces of waste cane >are not profitable
because the yield is so small, and the wool would be very
irregular; trials have also proved that though cane in
rods is elastic, the wool from it possesses no greater
elasticity than that from beech, oak, and other soft woods.
Another construction is so distinctly shown in elevation
and plan in Figs. 46 and 47 as to require no further expla-
nation. The length of the machine is about 10 \ feet, its
breadth 5J feet, the diameter of the driving-pulley 20
inches and its width 6 inches, and the weight of the whole
machine is about 12 cwt. For 150 revolutions per minute
it requires 1 to 2 horse-power, and in 10 working hours
will turn out 5 to 9 cwt. of wood-wool.
The improved quadruple-acting wood-wool machine of
Anthon & Sons consists of a very strong frame, which fs
THE PEODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
set on a brick foundation, or in cases where a brick founda-
tion cannot be used, a strong wooden frame, or a cast-iron
base may be employed. It is, however, always better
where possible to set it on a brick foundation, as it will
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL. 183
then work steadily and quietly even at a high speed.
Gearing and machine are connected by a wrought-iron
connecting rod. All the axles, etc., are of steel ; the
carriage runs in exchangeable and adjustable guides; the
knives are arranged vertically, and are divided into two
sets, each consisting of a plane cutter and a toothed knife,
which works immediately in front of it, and acts on two
pieces of wood. The one set of knives cuts during the for-
ward motion, the other during the backward motion, but
each of them on a separate piece of wood. The rollers
are divided into three groups, of which the middle one
consists of two fixed rollers covering the whole width of
the carriage, and which take the thrust of the knives,
whilst the two outer groups are divided in the middle so
that each short roller serves for holding a separate piece
of wood, and is separately controlled by a hand-wheel and
screw. A thin plate divides the face of the plane into
upper and lower halves ; this serves at the same time as a
bed for both the upper pieces of wood, and can be removed
if thicker blocks of wood are to be worked up. The follow-
ing additional parts are supplied with each machine :
Interchangeable wheels for producing seven different
sizes of wood-wool, varying from \ to ^ millimetre in
thickness. Two plain and two toothed plane knives of 12
or 13| inches long. The teeth are arranged for producing
filaments 2 millimetres wide. To produce filaments either
wider or narrower toothed knives of different sizes must
VERTICAL WOOD-WOOL MACHINE OF ERNST KIRCHNER & Co
This machine is especially advantageous in places where
there is but little space, or where the driving-shaft is
high up, or where a cheap machine is required, from which
an abundant output is not of special importance.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
The machine is similar to the single-acting machine,
with the difference that it is set up in a vertical position
FIG. 49. Vertical Wood-wool Machine of Kirchner & Co., Leipsic.
and is mounted on a wooden frame. In small establish-
ments, where wood-wool is prepared, not as an article of
THE PRODUCTION OP WOOD-WOOL. 185
commerce but for internal consumption, this machine will
suffice in many cases. The machine is constructed with
either one or two cutters. The figure shows a pattern with
one cutter. In the machine with two cutters the fast and
FIG. 50. Rotating Wood-wool Machine.
loose pulleys are arranged between the two crank-wheels,
so that there are cutters both to the right and left of the
driving-pulley, and two pieces of wood can be worked up
into wool at the same time. The cranks of the two crank-
wheels are set 180 apart.
186 THE OTiLiSAfioisr OP WOOD WASTE.
The machine is manufactured of three different sizes for
pieces of wood up to 20, 24, and 28 inches in length.
Power required is 2 to 4 horse-power.
KOTATING WOOD-WOOL MACHINE OF OTTO CAMILLO ISRAEL
This machine is built with a strong cast-iron base, which
enables it to be run at 250 revolutions per minute. In
the vertical knife-wheel there are 4 sets of toothed
knives, alternately with 4 plain knives. A sheet-iron
screen covers this knife-wheel and protects the workman
from injury. The pieces of wood, 10 inches long by 4|
inches thick, and of any width, are brought by two grooved
wheels into contact with the knives. By changing the
knife-wheels, seven sizes, and by changing the toothed
knives, 14 sizes of wool can be produced. The yield of the
machine is the same as that of a triple-acting one.
Tree bark, especially that of the oak and coniferous
trees, as well as that of the birch, willow, and elm, is not
to be regarded as a waste product, since in many places it
finds extensive application as a tanning material.
Nevertheless, in localities where there are no facilities for
carriage, bark must be looked on as a waste product which
can only be utilised as fuel. In such cases it is, however,
profitable to extract the tannin, the carriage of which pre-
sents less difficulty. This extract can be employed for
tanning with the same result 'as bark itself, and since 100
parts of extract are quite as efficient as 400 to 500 parts of
bark, it follows that its higher commercial value allows it
to be delivered to the consumer at far greater distances
than is the case with bark.
THE PEODUCTION OF WOOD-WOOL. 18?
In his work on " Die Verwerthung des Holzes auf
chemischem Wege " (The Utilisation of Wood by Chemical
Methods) Dr. Bersch says : "In order that tannin extracts
may be generally well received by tanners, at least two
conditions must be fulfilled : The extracts must invariably
be sent out of the same quality and containing a definite
percentage of tannin, and the tanner must be made ac-
quainted with the mode of employing the new material. If
the tanner can be assured that 1 Ib. of the extract will have
exactly the same tanning efficiency as a definite number of
Ibs. of the best coppice bark, practical men will very soon
accustom themselves to employ the extract instead of bark.
The introduction of the extraction process furnishes, how-
ever, the proprietors of forest lands with a means of bring-
ing the one valuable constituent of bark, i.e., the tannin,
into such a form that it can be delivered at great distances,
whilst the use of the extract affords to the tanner the
immense convenience that he is able to work with rapidly
prepared solutions of the material, instead of having as
formerly first to extract the tannin from the bark ; more-
over, the large spaces required for the storage of bark, the
drying of the spent tan, etc., are rendered quite super-
To this intent I here merely indicate the mode in which
the bark, when it has to be regarded as a waste product,
can be utilised, and for further particulars respecting the
preparation of tannin extracts the reader is referred to
the above-mentioned treatise by Dr. Bersch.
Utilisation of Birch-bark.
The bark of the birch can be employed as a tanning
agent in the same way as the barks of other trees. When
birch-bark is submitted to dry distillation the usual pro-
ducts, gases, pyroligneous acid, and tar are obtained, but
188 THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE.
the proportion of tar is somewhat considerable, amounting
to about 60 per cent, of the weight of the bark employed.
Birch-tar, or the product of its redistillation, birch-tar oil,
has a very characteristic odour, which will be recognised
as that of Russian leather, this leather being prepared with
birch-tar. Fancy goods made from fictitious Russian
leather are also treated with birch-tar to give them the
characteristic odour of the genuine article.
The distillation of the bark is best carried on in large
iron pots, with an alembic head and cooling worm coil :
the pyroligneous acid and tar are in this way completely
and easily collected, and the distillate when left in repose
separates into two sharply denned layers. Seeing that the
yield of acetic acid from the distillation of bark is com-
paratively trifling, it is not worth while to work it up for
the production of acetic acid at the spot, but it is col-
lected and sent to factories where the manufacture of wood-
vinegar is a special feature.
Besides these modes of utilising bark, it is used for
architectural and decorative purposes. In forest localities,
summer houses are either wholly built of bark or have
their wood framework covered with bark ; also baskets for
plants in pots, etc., can be made from bark, and command
a ready sale.
Acetates from sawdust, 10.
Acetic acid, 3, 18, 19.
Acetone, 3, 18, 19.
Alcohol from sawdust, 13, 16, 20, 22.
from wood-waste, 105.
Andre's sawdust furnace, 32.
Aniline blue, 176.
Anthon's wood-wool machines, 176-
Artificial flowers, use of wood-meal
Artificial wood, 3, 13, 119.
analysis by Dr. Sauer-
of Back and Potin, 138.
various processes, 120.
Back and Potin's artificial wood,
Balsam of sulphur, 134.
Bersch, " Utilisation of Wood by
Chemical Methods," 187.
Billefeld's artificial wood, 134.
Birch bark, 187.
Black clay pipes, 7.
Blasting powders, 4, 140.
De Tret's, 146.
Koppel's safe, 143.
Terre and Mercadier's, 147.
Blood for binding, 3.
Bohlig's process for manufacture
ot oxalic acid, 100.
Boiler scale, prevention of, 10.
Bois durci, 121.
Bone-ash substitute, 6.
BSttger's sawdust furnace, 41.
Bottle stoppers from shavings, 170.
Brain's blasting powder, 148.
Briquettes from sawdust, 11, 24,
Brise-rocs, Robandi's, 142.
Butyric acid, 19.
Calcium carbide from sawdust, 165.
Caproic acid, 19.
Carbonisation apparatus, 69.
Carbonised sawdust as manure,
Carbon monoxide, 18, 19.
Casks, manufacture from waste-
Cellulose, 12, 16.
Cement, composition containing
Ceramic industry, use of sawdust
Charcoal, yield of, 66.
Chemical methods of utilising
wood-waste, 15, 19.
Coal slack, 23.
Cohnfeld's wood-composition, 139.
Columnar apparatus for distilling
Composts, sawdust for, 8.
Croissant and Bretonniere, dyes
from sawdust, 10, 109.
Croll, purification of coal gas, 9.
Damp course of walls, 7.
De Tret's blasting powder, 146.
Distillation for briquettes, 152.
- of sawdust, 17, 26.
- columnar apparatus, 70.
- Fischer's apparatus, 66.
Halliday's apparatus, 69.
- Waisbein's apparatus, 72.
Zwillinger's apparatus, 61.
Double acting wood-wool machine,
Dye-stuffs from sawdust, 10, 109.
Dyes for sawdust, 5.
Dy's yellow powder, 147.
Explosives, employment of saw-
dust in, 140.
Filtering material, 7.
Fire kindlers, 13, 171.
Fischer's apparatus for distilling
Fodder from wood-meal, 12.
Formic acid, 19.
Furnaces for burning sawdust, 25.
Gas from wood, 18, 19.
- purifiers, use of sawdust in, 9.
Glucose from sawdust, 20.
Godillot's pyramidal grate, 49.
Gottschalk's "Hartholz," 124.
Gunpowder, Dy's yellow, 147.
Gypsum, substitute for, 8.
Halliday's apparatus for distilling
Harrass' artificial wood, 117, 124.
" Hartholz," Gottschalk's, 124.
Hurtig's wood-composition, 129,
Illuminating gas from sawdust, 81.
Insulating material, 149, 157.
Israel's rotating wood-wool ma-
Kapp's wood-pulp, 162.
Kellow and Short's powder, 145.
Kirchner's wood-wool machine, 183.
Kletzinsky's wood-paste, 133.
Koch's sawdust furnace, 34.
Koppel's safe blasting powder, 143.
Kork teppich, 6.
Kraft's sawdust furnace, 28.
Laming's mixture, 9.
Lannoy's white powder, 147.
(blasting powder), 142.
manufacture of oxalic acid
Litter, sawdust as, 8.
Lundin furnace, 47.
Manure, sawdust as, 8, 166.
- tan as, 168.
Mariot and Sugden, purification of
coal gas, 9.
Marsh gas, 19.
Mechanical methods of utilising
Metal wares, sawdust for drying
and polishing, 12.
Methyl acetate, 18, 19.
Methyl alcohol, 17.
Methylamine acetate, 19.
Molasses for binding sawdust, 151.
Mortar containing sawdust, 10,
Mortelette, prevention of boiler
Moulded decorations, use of saw-
dust in, 114.
Niederberger's furnace for sawdust,
Oiler's blasting powder, 146.
Organic sulphides, 109.
Oxalic acid, 4.
manufacture from sawdust,
Bohlig's process, 100.
- Possoz' patent, 93.
Roberts, Dale & Co.'s
Thorn's experiments, 87.
Zaiher's process, 103.
yield of, from sawdust and
different woods, 88, 91,
Packing, use of sawdust in, 5.
Paint mills, cleaning with saw-
Palmer's wood-composition, 134.
Paper-pulp from wood, 159.
apparatus for, 161.
Paper, wood-meal as filling
Parquetry, Hurtig's wood-composi-
tion for, 129.
manufacture from waste- wood,
Patent dyes, 105.
Permanganate of potash, 175.
Petri's apparatus for manufacture
of prepared fuel, 76.
Petroleum briquettes, 151.
Plastic compositions from sawdust,
Poch's poudrolith, 143.
Polishing silver and gold by saw-
Potash from wood, 17.
Pottery, use of sawdust in, 154.
Poudrolith, Poch's, 143.
Powder, Kellow and Short's, 145.
Lannoy's white, 147.
Prepared fuel from sawdust, Petri's
apparatus for, 76.
Propionic acid, 19.
Pyramidal grate furnace, 49.
Pyroligneous acid, 187.
from sawdust, 18.
yield of, 66, 73, 83.
Pyronome, Beynaud's, 143.
Reynaud's pyronome, 143.
Ribbach's sawdust composition,
Richardson's artificial manure, 167.
Robandi's brise-rocs, 142.
Roberts, Dale & Co.'s process for
manufacture of oxalic acid, 100.
Roof shingles, 171.
Roofing felt, 7.
material with sawdust, 10.
Rotating wood-wool machine of
Camillo Israel, 185.
Rough cast, addition of sawdust to,
Sauerwein, analysis of artificial
as absorbing material, 11.
blasting powder, 140.
briquettes, 11, 14, 24, 149.
composition, Ribbach's, 137.
for composts, 8.
- as detergent agent, 11.
for drying and polishing metal
dye-stuffs from, 109.
Sawdust, use of in explosives, 140.
for fire kindlers, 13, 171.
as fuel, 2, 23.
furnace for gas manufacture,
- in gas purifiers, 9.
illuminating gas from, 81.
as litter, 8.
as manure, 8, 166.
as non-conductor of heat, 6.
oxalic acid from, 84.
as packing material, 5.
plastic compositions from, 113.
- in pottery, 154.
- in rough cast, 164.
in stucco, 155.
Schutzenbach's process for exhaust-
ing tan, 13.
Sciffarin, 116, 139.
Shavings, bottle stoppers from, 70.
- mosaic plaques from, 169.
Simili bois, 116.
Smith Consolidation Co., 11.
Soda lye in manufacture of oxalic
Steel, use of sawdust in cementa-
tion of, 10.
Stony composition from sawdust,
Stucco containing sawdust, 10.
Sugar from sawdust, 13, 16, 20.
Superheater tubes, coating for, 65.
Swedish wood-charcoal furnace, 53.
Tan, complete extraction of, 13.
- as manure, 15, 168.
use on riding roads, 15.
Tannin extract, 186.
- gelatine, 135.
Tar from wood distillation, 19.
yield of, 66.
Terra-cotta wood, 134.
Terre and Mercadier's blasting-
Thorn's process of oxalic acid
Turmeric root, 176.
Valeric acid, 19.
Venetian turpentine, 135.
Volkmann's wood-powder, 143.
Waisbein's apparatus for distilling
Wall paper, use of wood-meal in,
Walter's furnace for making wood-
Wiederhold's artificial wood-com-
Wood-cement, 7, 139.
charcoal, Swedish furnace for
chemical composition of, 16.
composition of Cohnfeld, 139.
- dry distillation of, 17.
- marble, 116.
mosaic plaques from shavings,
- paste, Kletzinsky's, 133.
- powder, Volkmann's, 143.
- pulp, 12, 159.
- spirit, 3, 17.
r alter's furnace for, 55.
- wool, 174.
Zaiher's process for manufacture
of oxalic acid, 103.
Zwillinger's apparatus for carbonis-
ing sawdust, 61.
Special Q)eef)nieal (A/orK$
MANUFACTURERS, STUDENTS, AND TECHNICAL
BY EXPERT WRITERS
NDEX TO SUBJECTS.
Agricultural Chemistry ... 10
Air, Industrial Use of ... 11
Dyeing Marble 30
Dyeing Woollen Fabrics ... 22
Pigments, Chemistry of ... 2
Alum and its Sulphates ... 9
Dyers' Materials 23
Plumbers' Work 27
Porcelain Painting 18
Aniline Colours 3
Enamelling Metal ... 19, 20
Pottery Clays 16
Animal Fats 6
Enamels ... ... ... 18
Pottery Manufacture ... 14
Anti- corrosive Paints ... 4
Architecture, Terms in ... 30
Essential Oils 7
Power-loom Weaving ... 20
Preserved Foods 30
Architectural Pottery ... 16
Artificial Perfumes 7
Evaporating Apparatus ... 26
External Plumbing 27
Printing Inks 3
Recipes for Oilmen, etc. .. 3
Balsams ... ... 10
Fats 5, 6
Faults in Woollen Goods... 21
Risks of Occupations .. 12
Bone Products 8
Gas Firing 26
Rivetting China, etc. .. 16
Glass-making Recipes ... 17
Scheele's Essays 9
Brick-making ... 15, 16
Glass Painting 18
Sealing Waxes 11
Burnishing Brass 27
Glue Making and Testing... 8
Silk Dyeing 23
Carpet Yarn Printing ... 21
Silk Throwing .. .. 19
Ceramic Books ... 14, 15
History of Staffs Potteries 17
Smoke Prevention .. .. 25
Chemical Essays 9
Chemistry of Pottery ...17
Hot-water Supply 28
Spinning ... 20
Staining Marble, and Bone 30
Chemistry of Dye-stuffs ... 23
Inks ... 3, 11
Steam Drying ... 11
Clay Analysis 16
Coal-dust Firing 26
Iron-corrosion ... ... 4
Iron, Science of 26
Sugar Refining .. .. 31
Steel Hardening .. .. 26
Colour Matching 21
Japanning ... ... ... 28
Colliery Recovery Work ... 25
Colour-mixing for Dyers ... 21
Lake Pigments 3
Testing Paint Mater als .. 4
Colouring Pottery 15
Colour Theory 22
Lead and its Compounds... 11
Leather Industry 13
Testing Yarns .. ..20
Textile Fabrics .. ..20
Combing Machines 24
Leather-working Materials 14
Textile Materials .. 19,20
Compounding Oils ... ... 6
Condensing Apparatus ... 26
Varnishes ... 4
Manures 8, 10
Vegetable Fats 7
Cotton Dyeing 22
Cotton Spinning 24
Mineral Pigments 2
Mine Ventilation 25
Waste Utilisation 10
Water, Industrial Use ... 12
Damask Weaving 20
Mine Haulage 25
Water-proofing Fabrics ... 32
Dampness in Buildings .. 29
Decorators' Books 28
Oil and Colour Recipes ... 3
Oil Boiling 4
Weaving Calculations ... 32
Wood Waste Utilisation ... 29
Decorative Textiles .. 20
Wood Dyeing 30
Dental Metallurgy 27
Ozone, Industrial Use of.. 12
Wool Dyeing 22
Dictionary of Paint Ma
Paint Manufacture 2
Writing Inks 11
Paint Materials 3
X-Ray Work 13
Drying Oils 5
Paint-material Testing ... 4
Yarn Testing .. ... 20
Drying with Air 11
Paper-pulp Dyeing 18
SCOTT, GREENWOOD & CO.,
19 LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.C.
Tel. Address: "PRINTERIES, LONDON
Tel. No. 5403. Bank-
Paints, Colours and Printing
THE CHEMISTRY OP PIGMENTS. By ERNEST J. PARRY,
B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S., and J. H. COSTE, F.I.C., F.C.S. Demy
8vo. Five Illustrations. 285 pp. 1902. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
Introductory. Light White Light The Spectrum The Invisible Spectrum Normal
Spectrum Simple Nature of Pure Spectral Colour The Recomposition of White Light-
Primary and Complementary Colours Coloured Bodies Absorption Spectra The Appli-
cation of Pigments. Uses of Pigments : Artistic, Decorative, Protective Methods of
Application of Pigments : Pastels and Crayons, Water Colour, Tempera Painting, Fresco,
jirge Vermilion Royal
Zinc, Silver and Mercury Brunswick Green The Ochres Indian Red Venetian Red-
Siennas and Umbers Light Red Cappagh Brown Red Oxides Mars Colours Terre Verte
Prussian Brown Cobalt Colours Coeruleum Smalt Copper Pigments Malachite-
Bremen Green Scheele's Green Emerald Green Verdigris Brunswick Green Non-
arsenical Greens Copper Blues Ultramarine Carbon Pigments Ivory Black Lamp'Black
Bistre Naples Yellow Arsenic Sulphides : Orpiment, Realgar Cadmium Yellow
Vandyck Brown Organic Pigments. Prussian Blue Natural Lakes Cochineal Carmine
Crimson Lac Dye Scarlet Madder Alizarin Campeachy Quercitron Rhamnus
Brazil Wood Alkanet Santal Wood Archil Coal-tar Lakes Red Lakes Alizarin Com-
pounds Orange and Yellow Lakes Green and Blue Lakes Indigo Dragon's Blood
Gamboge Sepia Indian Yellow, Puree Bitumen. Asphaltum, Mummy Index.
THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT. A Practical Handbook
for Paint Manufacturers, Merchants and Painters. By J. CRUICKSHANK
SMITH, B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 1901. 200pp. Sixty Illustrations and One
Large Diagram. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Preparation of Raw Material Storing of Raw Material Testing and Valuation of Raw
Material Paint Plant and Machinery The Grinding of White Lead Grinding of White
Zinc Grinding of other White Pigments Grinding of Oxide Paints Grinding of Staining
Colours Grinding of Black Paints Grinding of Chemical Colours Yellows Grinding of
Chemical Colours Blues Grinding Greens Grinding Reds Grinding Lakes Grinding
Colours in Water Grinding Colours in Turpentine The Uses of Paint Testing and Matching
Paints Economic Considerations Index.
THE MANUFACTURE OF MINERAL AND LAKE
PIGMENTS. Containing Directions for the Manufacture
of all Artificial, Artists and Painters' Colours, Enamel, Soot and Me-
tallic Pigments. A Text-book for Manufacturers, Merchants, Artists
and Painters. By Dr. JOSEF BERSCH. Translated by A. C. WRIGHT,
M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). Forty-three Illustrations. 476 pp., demy
8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies 13s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
Introduction Physico-chemical Behaviour of Pigments Raw Materials Employed in
the Manufacture of Pigments Assistant Materials Metallic Compounds The Manufacture
of Mineral Pigments The Manufacture of White Lead Enamel White Washing Apparatus
Zinc White Yellow Mineral Pigments Chrome Yellow Lead Oxide Pigments
Other Yellow Pigments Mosaic Gold Red Mineral Pigments The Manufacture of Ver-
milionAntimony Vermilion Ferric Oxide Pigments Other Red Mineral Pigments Purple
of Cassius Blue Mineral Pigments Ultramarine Manufacture of Ultramarine Blue
Copper Pigments Blue Cobalt Pigments Smalts Green Mineral Pigments Emerald
Green Verdigris Chromium Oxide Other Green Chromium Pigments Green Cobalt Pig-
ments Green Manganese Pigments Compounded Green Pigments Violet Mineral Pig-
ments Brown Mineral Pigments Brown Decomposition Products Black Pigments Manu-
facture of Soot Pigments Manufacture of Lamp Black The Manufacture of Soot Black
without Chambers Indian Ink Enamel Colours Metallic Pigments Bronze Pigments
Vegetable Bronze Pigments.
PIGMENTS OF ORGANIC ORIGIN Lakes Yellow Lakes Red Lakes Manufacture of
Carmine The Colouring Matter of Lac Safflower or Carthamine Red Madder and
its Colouring Matters Madder Lakes Manjit (Indian Madder) Lichen Colouring Matters
Red Wood Lakes The Colouring Matters of Sandal Wood and Other Dye Woods Blue
Lakes Indigo Carmine The Colouring Matter of Log Wood Green Lakes Brown Organic
Pigments Sap Colours Water Colours Crayons Confectionery Colours The Preparation
of Pigments for Painting The Examination of Pigments Examination of Lakes The
Testing of Dye- Woods The Design of a Colour Works Commercial Names of Pigments
Appendix : Conversion of Metric to English Weights andJMeasures Centigrade and Fahrenheit
Thermometer Scales Index.
DICTIONARY OP CHEMICALS AND RAW PRO-
DUCTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OP
PAINTS, COLOURS, VARNISHES AND ALLIED
PREPARATIONS. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Demy
8vo. 380pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
THE MANUFACTURE OF LAKE PIGMENTS FROM
ARTIFICIAL COLOURS. By FRANCIS H. JENNISON,
F.I.C., F.C.S. Sixteen Coloured Plates, showing Specimens of
Eighty-nine Colours, specially prepared from the Recipes given
in the Book. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
The Groups of the Artificial Colouring Matters The Nature and Manipulation ot Artificial
Colours Lake-forming Bodies for Acid Colours Lake-forming Bodies' Basic Colours Lake
Bases The Principles of Lake Formation Red Lakes Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet
and Black Lakes The Production of Insoluble Azo Colours in the Form of Pigments The
General Properties of Lakes Produced from Artificial Colours Washing, Filtering and Fin-
ishing Matching and Testing Lake Pigments Index.
RECIPES FOR THE COLOUR, PAINT, VARNISH, OIL,
SOAP AND DRYSALTERY TRADES. Compiled by
AN ANALYTICAL CHEMIST. 350 pp. 1902. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ;
India and British Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Pigments or Colours for Paints, Lithographic and Letterpress Printing Inks, etc.
Mixed Paints and Preparations for Paint-making, Painting, Lime-washing, Paperhanging,
etc. Varnishes for Coach-builders, Cabinetmakers, Wood-workers, Metal-workers, Photo-
graphers, etc. Soaps for Toilet, Cleansing, Polishing, etc. Perfumes Lubricating Greases,
Oils, etc. Cements, Pastes, Glues and Other Adhesive Preparations Writing, Marking,
Endorsing and Other Inks Sealing-wax and Office Requisites Preparations for the Laundry,
Kitchen, Stable and General Household Uses Disinfectant Preparations Miscellaneous
OIL COLOURS AND PRINTING INKS. By Louis
EDGAR ANDES. Translated from the German. 215 pp. Crown 8vo.
56 Illustrations. 1903. Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ;
Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly Net.
Linseed Oil Poppy Oil Mechanical Purification of Linseed Oil Chemical Purification of
Linseed Oil Bleaching Linseed Oil Oxidizing Agents for Boiling Linseed Oil Theory of
Oil Boiling Manufacture of Boiled Oil Adulterations of Boiled Oil Chinese Drying Oil and
Other Specialities Pigments for House and Artistic Painting and Inks Pigment for
Printers' Black Inks Substitutes for Lampblack Machinery for Colour Grinding and
Rubbing Machines for mixing Pigments with the Vehicle Paint Mills Manufacture of
House Oil Paints Ship Paints Luminous Paint Artists' Colours Printers' Inks:
VEHICLES Printers' Inks: PIGMF.NTS and MANUFACTURE Index.
(See also Writing Inks, p. n.)
SIMPLE METHODS FOR TESTING PAINTERS'
MATERIALS. By A. C. WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc.
(Lond.). Crown 8vo. 160 pp. 1903. Price 5s. ; India and British
Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly Net.
Necessity for Testing Standards Arrangement The Apparatus The Reagents
Practical Tests Dry Colours Stiff Paints Liquid and Enamel Paints Oil Varnishes
Spirit Varnishes Driers Putty Linseed Oil Turpentine Water Stains The Chemical
Examination Dry Colours and Paints White Pigments and Paints Yellow Pigments and
Paints Blue Pigments and Paints Green Pigments and Paints Red Pigments and Paints
Brown Pigments and Paints Black Pigments and Paints Oil Varnishes Linseed Oil
IRON - CORROSION, ANTI - FOULING AND ANTI-
CORROSIVE PAINTS. Translated from the German of
Louis EDGAR ANDES. Sixty-two Illustrations. 275 pp. Demy 8vo.
1900. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.;
Iron-rust and its Formation Protection from Rusting by Paint Grounding the Iron with
Linseed Oil, etc. Testing Paints Use of Tar for Painting on Iron Anti-corrosive Paints
Linseed Varnish Chinese Wood Oil Lead Pigments Iron Pigments Artificial Iron Oxides
Carbon Preparation of Anti-corrosive Paints Results of Examination of Several Anti-
corrosive Paints Paints for Ship's Bottoms Anti-fouling Compositions Various Anti-cor-
rosive and Ship's Paints Official Standard Specifications for Ironwork Paints Index.
THE TESTING AND VALUATION OP RAW MATE-
RIALS USED IN PAINT AND COLOUR MANU-
FACTURE. By M. W. JONES, F.C.S. A Book for the
Laboratories of Colour Works. 88 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 5s. ;
India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Aluminium Compounds China Clay Iron Compounds Potassium Compounds Sodium
Compounds Ammonium Hydrate Acids Chromium Compounds Tin Compounds Copper
Compounds Lead Compounds Zinc Compounds Manganese Compounds Arsenic
Compounds Antimony Compounds Calcium Compounds Barium Compounds Cadmium
Compounds Mercury Compounds Ultramarine Cobalt and Carbon Compounds Oils
STUDENTS' MANUAL OF PAINTS, COLOURS, OILS
AND VARNISHES. By JOHN FURNELL. Crown 8vo. 10
Illustrations. [In the Press.
Plant Chromes Blues Greens Earth Colours Blacks Reds Lakes Whites-
Painters' Oils Turpentine Oil Varnishes Spirit Varnishes Liquid Paints Enamel Paints.
Varnishes and Drying Oils.
THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISHES, OIL RE-
FINING AND BOILING, AND KINDRED INDUS-
TRIES. Translated from the French of ACH. LIVACHE,
Ingenieur Civil des Mines. Greatly Extended and Adapted to
English Practice, with numerous Original Recipes by JOHN
GEDDES MC!NTOSH. 27 Illustrations. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. 1899.
Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s.;
Resins Solvents : Natural, Artificial, Manufacture, Storage, Special Use Colouring :
Principles, Vegetable, Coal Tar, Coloured Resinates, Coloured Oleates and Linoleates
Gum Running : Melting Pots, Mixing Pans Spirit Varnish Manufacture: Cold Solution Plant,
Mechanical Agitators, Storage Plant Manufacture, Characteristics and Uses of the Spirit
Varnishes Manufacture of Varnish Stains Manufacture of Lacquers Manufacture of
Spirit Enamels Analysis of Spirit Varnishes Physical and Chemical Constants of Resins
Table of Solubility of Resins in different Menstrua Systematic qualitative Analysis of
Resins, Hirschop's tables Drying Oils Oil Refining : Processes Oil Boiling Driers
Liquid Driers Solidified Boiled Oil Manufacture of Linoleum Manufacture of
India Rubber Substitutes Printing Ink Manufacture Lithographic Ink Manufacture
Manufacture of Oil Varnishes Running and Special Treatment of Amber, Copal, Kauri,
Manilla Addition of Oil to Resin Addition of Resin to Oil Mixed Processes Solution in
Cold of previously Fused Resin Dissolving Resins in Oil, etc., under pressure Filtration
Clarification Storage Ageing Coachmakers' Varnishes and Japans Oak Varnishes
Japanners' Stoving Varnishes Japanners' Gold Size Brunswick Black Various Oil Var-
nishes Oil- Varnish Stains Varnishes for "Enamels" India Rubber Varnishes Varnishes
Analysis: Processes, Matching Faults in Varnishes: Cause, Prevention Experiments and
DRYING OILS, BOILED OIL AND SOLID AND
LIQUID DRIERS. By L. E. ANDES. Expressly Written
for this Series of Special Technical Books, and the Publishers hold
the Copyright for English and Foreign Editions. Forty-two Illustra-
tions. 342 pp. 1901. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies,
13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
Properties of the Drying Oils ; Cause of the Drying Property ; Absorption of Oxygen ;
Behaviour towards Metallic Oxides, etc. The Properties of and Methods for obtaining the
Drying Oils Production of the Drying Oils by Expression and Extraction; Refining and
Bleaching; Oil Cakes and Meal; The Refining and Bleaching of the Drying Oils; The
Bleaching of Linseed Oil The Manufacture of Boiled Oil ; The Preparation of Drying Oils
for Use in the Grinding of Paints and Artists' Colours and in the Manufacture of Varnishes
by Heating over a Fire or by Steam, by the Cold Process, by the Action of Air, and by Means
of the Electric Current; The Driers used in Boiling Linseed Oil; The Manufacture of Boiled
Oil and the Apparatus therefor ; Livache's Process for Preparing a Good Drying Oil and its
Practical Application The Preparation of Varnishes for Letterpress, Lithographic and Copper-
plate Printing, for Oilcloth and Waterproof Fabrics ; The Manufacture of Thickened Linseed
Oil, Burnt Oil, Stand Oil by Fire Heat, Superheated Steam, and by a Current of Air Behaviour
of the Drying Oils and Boiled Oils towards Atmospheric Influences, Water, Acids and Alkalies
Boiled Oil Substitutes The Manufacture of Solid and Liquid Driers from Linseed Oil and
Rosin; Linolic Acid Compounds of the Driers The Adulteration and Examination of the
Drying Oils and Boiled Oil.
Oils, Fats, Soaps and Perfumes.
LUBRICATING OILS, FATS AND GREASES: Their
Origin, Preparation, Properties, Uses and Analyses. A Handbook for
Oil Manufacturers, Refiners and Merchants, and the Oil and Fat
Industry in General. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Second Revised
and Enlarged Edition. Sixty-five Illustrations. 317 pp. Demy 8vo.
1902. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lls. ; Other Countries, 12s. ;
Introductory. Oils and Fats, Fatty Oils and Fats, Hydrocarbon Oils, Uses of Oils
Hydrocarbon Oils. Distillation, Simple Distillation, Destructive Distillation, Products of
Distillation, Hydrocarbons, Paraffins, Olefins, Napthenes Scotch Shale Oils. Scotch
Shales, Distillation of Scotch Oils, Shale Retorts, Products of Distilling Shales, Separating
Products, Treating Crude Shale Oil, Refining Shale Oil, Shale Oil Stills, Shale Naphtha
Burning Oils, Lubricating Oils, Wax Petroleum. Occurrence, Geology, Origin, Composition,
Extraction, Refining, Petroleum Stills, Petroleum Products, Cylinder Oils, Russian Petro-
leum, Deblooming Mineral Oils Vegetable and Animal Oils. Introduction, Chemical
Composition of Oils and Fats, Fatty Acids, Glycerine, Extraction of Animal and Vegetable
Fats and Oils, Animal Oils, Vegetable Oils, Rendering, Pressing, Refining, Bleaching, Tallow,
Tallow Oil, Lard Oil, Neatsfoot Oil, Palm Oil, Palm Nut Oil, Cocoanut Oil, Castor Oil,
Olive Oil, Rape and Colza Oils, Arachis Oil, Niger Seed Oil, Sperm Oils, Whale Oil, Seal
Oil, Brown Oils, Lardine, Thickened Rape Oil Testing and Adulteration of Oils. Specific
Gravity, Alkali Tests, Sulphuric Acid Tests, Free Acids in Oils, Viscosity Tests, Flash and
Fire Tests, Evaporation Tests, Iodine and Bromide Tests, Elaidin Test, Melting Point of
Fat, Testing Machines Lubricating Greases. Rosin Oil, Anthracene Oil, Making Greases,
Testing and Analysis of Greases Lubrication. Friction and Lubrication, Lubricant, Lubri-
cation of Ordinary Machinery, Spontaneous Combustion of Oils, Stainless Oils, Lubrication of
Engine Cylinders, Cylinder Oils Appendices. A. Table of Baume's Hydrometer B. Table
of Thermometric Degrees C. Table of Specific Gravities of Oils Index
TECHNOLOGY OF PETROLEUM : Oil Fields of the
World Their History, Geography and Geology Annual Production
and Development Oil-well Drilling Transport. By HENRY NEU-
BERGER and HENRY NOALHAT. Translated from the French by J. G.
MclNTOSH. 550pp. 153 Illustrations. 26 Plates. Super Royal 8vo. 1901.
Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ;
Study of the Petroliferous Strata Petroleum Definition The Genesis or Origin of
Petroleum The Oil Fields of Galicia, their History Physical Geography and Geology of
the Galician Oil Fields Practical Notes on Galician Land Law Economic Hints on Working,
etc. Roumania History, Geography, Geology Petroleum in Russia History Russian
Petroleum (continued) Geography and Geology of the Caucasian Oil Fields Russian Petro-
leum (continued) The Secondary Oil Fields of Europe, Northern Germany, Alsace, Italy, etc.
Petroleum in France Petroleum in Asia Transcaspian and Turkestan Territory Turkestan
Persia British India and Burmah British Burmah or Lower Burmah China Chinese
Thibet Japan, Formosa and Saghalien Petroleum in Oceania Sumatra, Java, Borneo
Isle of Timor Philippine Isles New Zealand The United States of America History-
Physical Geology and Geography of the United States Oil Fields Canadian and other North
American Oil Fields Economic Data of Work in North America Petroleum in the West
Indies and South America Petroleum in the French Colonies.
Excavations Hand Excavation or Hand Digging of Oil Wells.
Methods of Boring Methods of Oil-well Drilling or Boring Boring Oil Wells with the
Rope Drilling with Rigid Rods and a Free-fallFabian System Free-fall Drilling by Steam
Power Oil-well Drilling by the Canadian System Drilling Oil Wells on the Combined
System Comparison between the Combined Fauck System and the Canadian The American
System of Drilling with the Rope Hydraulic Boring with the Drill by Hand and Steam
Power Rotary Drilling of Oil Wells, Bits, Steel-crowned Tools, Diamond Tools Hand
Power and Steam Power Hydraulic Sand-pumping Improvements in and different Systems
of Drilling Oil Wells.
Accidents Boring Accidents Methods of preventing them Methods of remedying them
Explosives and the use of the " Torpedo " Levigation Storing and Transport of Petroleum
General Advice Prospecting, Management and carrying on of Petroleum Boring Operations.
General Data Customary Formulae Memento. Practical Part. General Data
bearing on Petroleum Glossary of Technical Terms used in the Petroleum Industry Copious
THE PRACTICAL COMPOUNDING OF OILS, TAL-
LOW AND GREASE FOR LUBRICATION, ETC.
By AN EXPERT OIL REFINER. 100pp. 1898. DemySvo. Price 7s. 6d. ;
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Introductory Remarks on the General Nomenclature of Oils, Tallow and Greases
suitable for Lubrication Hydrocarbon Oils Animal and Fish Oils Compound
Oils Vegetable Oils Lamp Oils Engine Tallow, Solidified Oils and Petroleum
Jelly Machinery Greases: Loco and Anti=friction Clarifying and Utilisation
of Waste Fats, Oils, Tank Bottoms, Drainings of Barrels and Drums, Pickings
Up, Dregs, etc. The Fixing and Cleaning of Oil Tanks, etc. Appendix and
ANIMAL FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Production,
Purification and Uses for a great Variety of Purposes. Their Pro-
perties, Falsification and Examination. Translated from the German
of Louis EDGAR ANDES. Sixty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. 1898.
Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries,
12s. ; strictly net.
Introduction Occurrence, Origin, Properties and Chemical Constitution of Animal Fats-
Preparation of Animal Fats and Oils Machinery Tallow-melting Plant Extraction Plant
Presses Filtering Apparatus Butter : Raw Material and Preparation, Properties, Adul-
terations, Beef Lard or Remelted Butter, Testing Candle-fish Oil Mutton-Tallow Hare
Fat Goose Fat Neatsfoot Oil Bone Fat: Bone Boiling, Steaming Bones, Extraction,
Refining Bone Oil Artificial Butter: Oleomargarine, Margarine Manufacture in France,
Grasso's Process, " Kaiser's Butter," Jahr & Miinzberg's Method, Filbert's Process, Winter's
Method Human Fat Horse Fat Beef Marrow Turtle Oil Hog's Lard: Raw Material-
Preparation, Properties, Adulterations, Examination Lard Oil Fish Oils Liver Oils
Artificial Train Oil Wool Fat: Properties, Purified Wool Fat Spermaceti : Examination
of Fats and Oils in General
VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Prepara-
tion, Purification and Employment for Various Purposes, their Proper-
ties, Adulteration and Examination. Translated from the German of
Louis EDGAR ANDES. Ninety-four Illustrations. 340 pp. Second
Edition. 1902. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies,
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
General Properties Estimation of the Amount of Oil in Seeds The Preparation
of, Vegetable Fats and Oils Apparatus for Grinding Oil Seeds and Fruits Installation
of Oil and Fat Works Extraction Method of Obtaining Oils and Fats Oil Extraction
Installations Press Moulds Non-drying Vegetable Oils Vegetable drying Oils-
Solid Vegetable Fats Fruits Yielding Oils and Fats Wool-softening Oils Soluble Oils-
Treatment of the Oil after Leaving the Press Improved Methods of Refining Bleaching
Fats and Oils Practical Experiments on the Treatment of Oils with regard to Refining and
Bleaching Testing Oils and Fats.
SOAPS. A Practical Manual of the Manufacture of Domestic,
Toilet and other Soaps. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. 390 pp.
66 Illustrations. 1898. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ;
Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
Introductory Soap-maker's Alkalies Soap Fats and Oils Perfumes Water as
a Soap Material Soap Machinery Technology of Soap-making Glycerine in Soap
Lyes Laying out a Soap Factory Soap Analysis Appendices.
THE CHEMISTRY OP ESSENTIAL OILS AND ARTI-
FICIAL PERFUMES. By ERNEST J. PARRY, B.Sc.
(Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. 411 pp. 20 Illustrations. 1899. Demy 8vo.
Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries. 15s.;
The General Properties of Essential Oils Compounds occurring in Essential Oils
The Preparation of Essential Oils The Analysis of Essential Oils Systematic
Study of the Essential Oils Terpeneless Oils The Chemistry of Artificial Perfumes
Appendix : Table of Constants Index.
COSMETICS : MANUFACTURE, EMPLOYMENT
AND TESTING OF ALL COSMETIC MATERIALS
AND COSMETIC SPECIALITIES. Translated
from the German of Dr. THEODOR ROLLER. Crown 8vo. 262 pp.
1902. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries,
Purposes and Uses of, and Ingredients used in the_Preparation of Cosmetics Preparation of
Perfumes by Pressure, Distillation, Maceration, Absorption or Enfleurage, and Extraction
Methods Chemical and Animal Products used in the Preparation of Cosmetics Oils and Fats
used 'in the Preparation of Cosmetics General Cosmetic Preparations Mouth Washes and
Tooth Pastes Hair Dyes, Hair Restorers and Depilatories Cosmetic Adjuncts and
Specialities Colouring Cosmetic Preparations Antiseptic Washes and Soaps Toilet and
Hygienic Soaps Secret Preparations for Skin, Complexion, Teeth, Mouth, etc. Testing and
Examining the Materials Employed in the Manufacture of Cosmetics Index.
Glue, Bone Products and
GLUE AND GLUE TESTING. By SAMUEL RIDEAL, D.Sc.
(Lond.), F.I.C. Fourteen Engravings. 144pp. DemySvo. 1900. Price
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
Constitution and Properties: Definitions and Sources, Gelatine, Chondrin and Allied
Bodies, Physical and Chemical Properties, Classification, Grades and Commercial Varieties
Raw Materials and Manufacture : Glue Stock, Lining, Extraction, Washing and Clari-
fying, Filter Presses, Water Supply, Use of Alkalies, Action of Bacteria and of Antiseptics,
Various Processes, Cleansing, Forming, Drying, Crushing, etc., Secondary Products Uses
of Glue : Selection and Preparation for Use, Carpentry, Veneering, Paper-Making, Book-
binding, Printing Rollers, Hectographs, Match Manufacture, Sandpaper, etc., Substitutes for
other Materials, Artificial Leather and Caoutchouc Gelatine : General Characters, Liquid
Gelatine, Photographic Uses, Size, Tanno-, Chrome and Formo-Gelatine, Artificial Silk,
Cements, Pneumatic Tyres, Culinary, Meat Extracts, Isinglass, Medicinal and other Uses,
Bacteriology Glue Testing: Review of Processes, Chemical Examination, Adulteration,
Physical Tests, Valuation of Raw Materials Commercial Aspects.
BONE PRODUCTS AND MANURES : An Account of the
most recent Improvements in the Manufacture of Fat, Glue, Animal
Charcoal, Size, Gelatine and Manures. By THOMAS LAMBERT, Techni-
cal and Consulting Chemist. Illustrated by Twenty-one Plans and
Diagrams. 162 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Chemical Composition of Bones Arrangement of Factory Crushing of Bones Treat-
ment with Benzene Benzene in Crude Fat Analyses of Clarified Fats Mechanical
Cleansing of Bones Animal Charcoal Tar and Ammoniacal Liquor, Char and Gases, from
good quality Bones Method of Retorting the Bones Analyses of Chars "Spent" Chars
Cooling of Tar and Ammoniacal Vapours Value of Nitrogen for Cyanide of Potash Bone
Oil Marrow Bones Composition of Marrow Fat Premier Juice Buttons Properties
of Glue Glutin and Chondrin Skin Glue Liming of Skins Washing Boiling of Skins
Clarification of Glue Liquors Acid Steeping of Bones Water System of Boiling Bones
Steam Method of Treating Bones Nitrogen in the Treated Bones Glue-Boiling and Clarify-
ing-House Plan showing Arrangement of Clarifying Vats Plan showing Position of Evapora-
tors Description of Evaporators Sulphurous Acid Generator Clarification of Liquors
Section of Drying-House Specification of a Glue Size Uses and Preparation and Composi-
tion of Size Concentrated Size Properties of Gelatine Preparation of Skin Gelatine
Washing Bleaching Boiling Clarification Evaporation Drying Bone Gelatine Se-
lecting Bones Crushing Dissolving Bleaching Boiling Properties of Glutin and Chondrin
Testing of Glues and Gelatines The Uses of Glue, Gelatine and Size in Various Trades
Soluble and Liquid Glues Steam and Waterproof Glues Manures Importation of Food
Stuffs Soils Germination Plant Life Natural Manures Water and Nitrogen in Farm-
yard Manure Full Analysis of Farmyard Manure Action on Crops Water-Closet System
Sewage Manure Green Manures Artificial Manures Mineral Manures Nitro-
genous Matters Shoddy Hoofs and Horns Leather Waste Dried Meat Dried Blood-
Superphosphates Composition Manufacture Section of Manure-Shed First and Ground
Floor Plans of Manure-Shed Quality of Acid Used Mixings Special Manures Potato
Manure Dissolved Bones Dissolved Bone Compound Enriched Peruvian Guano Special
Manure for Garden Stuffs, etc. Special Manures Analyses of Raw and Finished Products
Common Raw Bones Degreased Bones Crude Fat Refined Fat Degelatinised Bones
Animal Charcoal Bone Superphosphates Guanos Dried Animal Products Potash Com-
poundsSulphate of Ammonia Extraction in Vacuo French and British Gelatines compared
Chemicals, Waste Products and
REISSUE OF CHEMICAL ESSAYS OP C. W.
SCHEELE. First Published in English in 1786. Trans-
lated from the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, with Additions. 300
pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Memoir: C. W. Scheele and his work (written for this edition by J. G. Mclntosh) On
Fluor Mineral and its Acid On Fluor Mineral Chemical Investigation of Fluor Acid,
with a View to the Earth which it Yields, by Mr. Wiegler Additional Information
Concerning Fluor Minerals On Manganese, Magnesium, or Magnesia Vitrariorum On
Arsenic and its Acid Remarks upon Salts of Benzoin On Silex, Clay and Alum Analysis
of the Calculus Vesical .Method of Preparing Mercurius Dulcis Via Humida Cheaper and
more Convenient Method of Preparing Pulvis Algarothi Experiments upon Molybdaena
Experiments on Plumbago Method of Preparing a New Green Colour Of the De-
composition of Neutral Salts by Unslaked Lime and Iron On the Quantity of Pure Air which
is Daily Present in our Atmosphere On Milk and its Acid On the Acid of Saccharum Lactis
On the Constituent Parts of Lapis Ponderosus or Tungsten Experiments and Observations
on Ether Index.
THE MANUFACTURE OP ALUM AND THE SUL-
PHATES AND OTHER SALTS OF ALUMINA AND
IRON. Their Uses and Applications as Mordants in Dyeing
and Calico Printing, and their other Applications in the Arts, Manufac-
tures, Sanitary Engineering, Agriculture and Horticulture. Translated
from the French of LUCIEN GESCHWIND. 195 Illustrations. 400 pp.
Royal 8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
Theoretical Study of Aluminium, Iron, and Compounds of these Metals-
Aluminium and its Compounds Iron and Iron Compounds.
Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphates and Sulphates of Iron Manufacture of
Aluminium Sulphate and the Alums Manufacture of Sulphates of Iron.
Uses of the Sulphates of Aluminium and Iron Uses of Aluminium Sulphate and
Alums Application to Wool and Silk Preparing and using Aluminium Acetates Employment
of Aluminium Sulphate in Carbonising Wool The Manufacture of Lake Pigments Manu-
facture of Prussian Blue Hide and Leather Industry Paper Making Hardening Plaster
Lime Washes Preparation of Non-inflammable Wood, etc. Purification of Waste Waters
Uses and Applications of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferric Sulphates Dyeing Manu-
facture of Pigments Writing Inks Purification of Lighting Gas Agriculture Cotton Dyeing
Disinfectant Purifying Waste Liquors Manufacture of Nordhausen Sulphuric Acid
Chemical Characteristics of Iron and Aluminium Analysis of Various Aluminous
or Ferruginous Products Aluminium Analysing Aluminium Products Alunite
Alumina Sodium Aluminate Aluminium Sulphate Iron Analytical Characteristics of Iron
Salts Analysis of Pyritic Lignite Ferrous and Ferric Sulphates Rouil Mordant Index.
AMMONIA AND ITS COMPOUNDS : Their Manufacture
and Uses. By CAMILLE VINCENT, Professor at the Central School of
Arts and Manufactures, Paris. Translated from the French by M. J.
SALTER. Royal 8vo. 114pp. 1901. Thirty-two Illustrations. Price
5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
General Considerations: Various Sources of Ammoniacal Products; Human Urine
as a Source of Ammonia Extraction of Ammoniacal Products from Sewage-
Extraction of Ammonia from Gas Liquor Manufacture of Ammoniacal Com-
pounds from Bones, Nitrogenous Waste, Beetroot Wash and Peat Manufacture of
Caustic Ammonia, and Ammonium Chloride, Phosphate and Carbonate Recovery
of Ammonia from the Ammonia-Soda Mother Liquors Index.
ANALYSIS OF RESINS AND BALSAMS. Translated
from the German of Dr. KARL DIETERICH. Demy 8vo. 340pp. 1901.
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ;
Definition of Resins in General Definition of Balsams, and especially the Gum Resins
External and Superficial Characteristics of Resinous Bodies Distinction between Resinous
Bodies and Fats and Oils Origin, Occurrence and Collection of Resinous Substances
Classification Chemical Constituents of Resinous Substances Resinols Resinot Annols
Behaviour of Resin Constituents towards the Cholesterine Reactions Uses and Identi-
fication of Resins Melting-point Solvents Acid Value Saponification Value Resin Value
Ester and Ether Values Acetyl and Corbonyl Value Methyl Value Resin Acid Syste-
matic Re"sum of the Performance of the Acid and Saponification Value Tests.
Balsams Introduction Definitions Canada Balsam Copaiba Balsam Angostura
Copaiba Balsam Babia Copaiba Balsam Carthagena Copaiba Balsam Maracaibo
Copaiba Balsam Maturin Copaiba Balsam Gurjum Copaiba Balsam Para Copaiba Balsam
Surinam Copaiba Balsam West African Copaiba Balsam Mecca Balsam Peruvian
Balsam Tolu Balsam Acaroid Resin Amine Amber African and West Indian Kino
Bengal Kino Labdanum Mastic Pine Resin Sandarach Scammonium Shellac Storax
Adulteration of Styrax Liquidus Crudus Purified Storax Styrax Crudus Colatus Taca-
mahac Thapsia Resin Turpentine Chios Turpentine Strassburg Turpentine Turpeth
Turpentine. Gum Resins Ammoniacum Bdellium Euphorbium Galbanum Gamboge
Lactucarium Myrrh Opopanax Sagapenum Olibanum or Incense Acaroid Resin
Amber Thapsia Resin Index.
MANUAL OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. By
HERBERT INGLE, F.I.C., Lecturer on Agricultural Chemistry, the
Yorkshire College; Lecturer in the Victoria University. 388 pp. 11
Illustrations. 1902. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ;
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. net.
Introduction The Atmosphere The Soil The Reactions occurring in Soils The
Analysis of Soils Manures, Natural Manures (continued) The Analysis of Manures The
Constituents of Plants The Plant Crops The Animal Foods and Feeding Milk and Milk
Products The Analysis of Milk and Milk Products Miscellaneous Products used in Agri-
culture Appendix Index.
THE UTILISATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS. A Treatise
on the Rational Utilisation, Recovery and Treatment of Waste Pro-
ducts of all kinds. By Dr. THEODOR KOLLER. Translated from the
Second Revised German Edition. Twenty-two Illustrations. Demy
8vo. 280 pp. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
The Waste of Towns Ammonia and Sal-AmmoniacRational Processes for Obtaining
these Substances by Treating Residues and Waste Residues in the Manufacture of Aniline
Dyes Amber Waste Brewers' Waste Blood and Slaughter-House Refuse Manufactured
Fuels Waste Paper and Bookbinders' Waste Iron Slags Excrement Colouring Matters
from Waste Dyers' Waste Waters Fat from Waste Fish Waste Calamine Sludge-
Tannery Waste Gold and Silver Waste India-rubber and Caoutchouc Waste Residues in
the Manufacture of Rosin Oil Wood Waste Horn Waste Infusorial Earth Iridium from
Goldsmiths' Sweepings Jute Waste Cork Waste Leather Waste Glue Makers' Waste
Illuminating Gas from Waste and the By-Products of the Manufacture of Coal Gas
Meerschum Molasses Metal Waste By-Products in the Manufacture of Mineral Waters
Fruit The By-Products of Paper and Paper Pulp Works By-Products in the Treatment
of Coal Tar Oils Fur Waste The Waste Matter in the Manufacture of Parchment Paper
Mother of Pearl Waste Petroleum Residues Platinum Residues Broken Porcelain.
Earthenware and Glass Salt Waste Slate Waste Sulphur Burnt Pyrites Silk Waste-
Soap Makers' Waste Alkali Waste and the Recovery of Soda Waste Produced in Grinding
Mirrors Waste Products in the Manufacture of Starch Stearic Acid Vegetable Ivory
Waste Turf Waste Waters of Cloth Factories Wine Residues Tinplate Waste Wool
Waste Wool Sweat The Waste Liquids from Sugar Works Index.
Writing Inks and Sealing Waxes
INK MANUFACTURE : Including Writing, Copying, Litho-
fraphic, Marking, Stamping, and Laundry Inks. By SIGMUND LEHNER.
hree Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 162 pp. 1902. Translated from the
German of the Fifth Edition. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ;
Other Countries, 6s. ; net.
Varieties of Ink Writing Inks Raw Materials of Tannin Inks The Chemical Constitution
of the Tannin Inks Recipes for Tannin Inks Logwood Tannin Inks Ferric Inks Alizarine
Inks Extract Inks Logwood Inks Copying Inks Hektographs Hektograph Inks Safety
Inks Ink Extracts and Powders Preserving Inks Changes in Ink and the Restoration of
Faded Writing Coloured Inks Red Inks Blue Inks Violet Inks Yellow Inks Green
Inks Metallic Inks Indian Ink Lithographic Inks and Pencils Ink Pencils Marking Inks
Ink Specialities Sympathetic Inks Stamping Inks Laundry or Washing Blue Index.
SEALING-WAXES, WAFERS AND OTHER ADHES-
IVES FOR THE HOUSEHOLD, OFFICE, WORK-
SHOP AND FACTORY. By H. C. STANDAGE. Crown
8vo. 96 pp. 1902. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Materials Used for Making Sealing- Waxes The Manufacture of Sealing- Waxes-
Wafers Notes on the Nature of the Materials Used in Making Adhesive Compounds Cements
for Use in the Household Office Gums, Pastes and Mucilages Adhesive Compounds for
Factory and Workshop Use.
Lead Ores and Compounds.
LEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS. By THOS. LAMBERT,
Technical and Consulting Chemist. Demy 8vo. 226 pp. Forty Illus-
trations. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries,
8s. 6d. ; net. Plans and Diagrams.
History Ores of Lead Geographical Distribution of the Lead Industry Chemical and
Physical Properties of Lead Alloys of Lead Compounds of Lead Dressing of Lead Ores
Smelting of Lead Ores Smelting in the Scotch or American Ore-hearth Smelting in the
Shaft or Blast Furnace Condensation of Lead Fume Desilverisation, or the Separation
of Silver from Argentiferous Lead Cupellation The Manufacture of Lead Pipes and
Sheets Protoxide of Lead Litharge and Massicot Red Lead or Minium Lead Poisoning
Lead Substitutes Zinc and its Compounds Pumice Stone Drying Oils and Siccatives
Oil of Turpentine Resin Classification of Mineral Pigments Analysis of Raw and Finished
Products Tables Index.
NOTES ON LEAD ORES : Their Distribution and Properties.
By JAS. FAIRIE, F.G.S. Crown 8vo. 1901. 64 pages. Price 2s. 6d. ;
Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net.
Industrial Uses of Air, Steam and
DRYING BY MEANS OF AIR AND STEAM. Explana-
tions, Formulae, and Tables for Use in Practice. Translated from the
German of E. HAUSBRAND. Two folding Diagrams and Thirteen Tables.
Crown 8vo. 1901. 72 pp. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ;
Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
British and Metric Systems Compared Centigrade and Fahr. Thermometers Estimation
of the Maximum Weight of Saturated Aqueous Vapour which can be contained in 1 kilo,
of Air at Different Pressure and Temperatures Calculation of the Necessary Weight and
Volume of Air, and of the Least Expenditure of Heat, per Drying Apparatus with Heated
Air, at the Atmospheric Pressure: A, With the Assumption that the Air is Completely Satur-
ated with Vapour both before Entry and after Exit from the Apparatus B, When the
Atmospheric Air is Completely Saturated before entry, but at its exit is only f , J or J Saturated
C, When the Atmospheric Air is not Saturated with Moisture before Entering the Drying
Apparatus Drying Apparatus, in which, in the Drying Chamber, a Pressure is Artificially
Created, Higher or Lower than that of the Atmosphere Drying by Means of Superheated
Steam, without Air Heating Surface, Velocity of the Air Current, Dimensions of the Drying
Room, Surface of the Drying Material, Losses of Heat Index.
(See also " Evaporating, Condensing and Cooling Apparatus," p. 26.)
PURE AIR, OZONE AND WATER. A Practical Treatise
of their Utilisation and Value in Oil, Grease, Soap, Paint, Glue and
other Industries. By W. B. COWELL. Twelve Illustrations. Crown
8vo. 85 pp. 1900. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Atmospheric Air ; Lifting of Liquids ; Suction Process ; Preparing Blown Oils; Preparing
Siccative Drying Oils Compressed Air; Whitewash Liquid Air; Retrocession Purification
of Water; Water Hardness Fleshings and Bones Ozonised Air in the Bleaching and De-
odorising of Fats, Glues, etc. ; Bleaching Textile Fibres Appendix: Air and Gases; Pressure
of Air at Various Temperatures; Fuel; Table of Combustibles; Saving of Fuel by Heating
Feed Water ; Table of Solubilities of Scale Making Minerals ; British Thermal Units Tables ;
Volume of the Flow of Steam into the Atmosphere; Temperature of Steam Index.
THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF WATER. COMPOSI-
TION EFFECTS TROUBLES REMEDIES RE-
SIDUARY WATERS PURIFICATION ANALYSIS.
By H. DE LA Coux. Royal 8vo. 400 pp. 135 Illustrations. Translated
from the French. [7n the press.
Chemical Action of Water in Nature and in Industrial Use Composition of Waters
Solubility of Certain Salts in Water Considered from the Industrial Point of View Effects on
the Boiling of Water Effects of Water in the Industries Difficulties with Water Feed
Water for Boilers Water in Dyeworks, Print Works, and Bleach Works Water in the
Textile Industries and in Conditioning Water in Soap Works Water in Laundries and
Washhouses Water in Tanning Water in Preparing Tannin and Dyewood Extracts Water
in Papermaking Water in Photography Water in Sugar Refining Water in Making Ices
and Beverages Water in Cider Making Water in Brewing Water in Distilling Preliminary
Treatment and Apparatus Substances Used for Preliminary Chemical Purification Com-
mercial Specialities and their Employment Precipitation of Matters in Suspension in Water
Apparatus for the Preliminary Chemical Purification of Water Industrial Filters Indus-
trial Sterilisation of Water Residuary Waters and their Purification Soil Filtration
Purification by Chemical Processes Analyses Index.
(See Books on Smoke Prevention, Engineering and Metallurgy, p. 26, etc.)
THE RISKS AND DANGERS TO HEALTH OF VARI-
OUS OCCUPATIONS AND THEIR PREVENTION.
By LEONARD A. PARRY, M.D., B.S. (Lond.). 196 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900 .
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly
Occupations which are Accompanied by the Generation and Scattering of Abnormal
Quantities of Dust Trades in which there is Danger of Metallic Poisoning Certain Chemi-
cal Trades Some Miscellaneous Occupations Trades in which Various Poisonous Vapours
are Inhaled General Hygienic Considerations Index.
PRACTICAL X RAY WORK. By FRANK T. ADDYMAN,
B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., Member of the Roentgen Society of London ;
Radiographer to St. George's Hospital ; Demonstrator of Physics and
Chemistry, and Teacher of Radiography in St. George's Hospital
Medical School. Demy 8vo. Twelve Plates from Photographs of X Ray
Work. Fifty-two Illustrations. 200pp. 1901. Price 10s. 6d. ; India
and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net.
Historical Work leading up to the Discovery of the X Rays The Discovery Appara-
tus and its Management Electrical Terms Sources of Electricity Induction Coils
Electrostatic Machines Tubes Air Pumps Tube Holders and Stereoscopic Apparatus-
Fluorescent Screens Practical X Ray Work Installations Radioscopy Radiography
X Rays in Dentistry X Rays in Chemistry X Rays in War Index.
List of Plates.
Frontispiece Congenital Dislocation of Hip-Joint. I., Needle in Finger. II., Needle in
Foot. III., Revolver Bullet in Calf and Leg. IV., A Method of Localisation. V., Stellate
Fracture of Patella showing shadow of " Strapping ".VI., Sarcoma. VII., Six-weeks-old
Injury to Elbow showing new Growth of Bone. VIII., Old Fracture of Tibia and Fibula
badly set. IX., Heart Shadow. X., Fractured Femur showing Grain of Splint. XL. Bar-
rell's Method of Localisation.
India^Rubber and Gutta Percha.
INDIA-RUBBER AND GUTTA PERCHA. Translated
from the French of T. SEELIGMANN, G. LAMY TORVILHON and H.
FALCONNET by JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Royal 8vo. Eighty-six
Illustrations. Three Plates. 412 pages. 1903. Price 12s. 6d. ;
India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
India- Rubber Botanical Origin Climatology Soil Rational Culture and Acclimation
of the Different Species of India-Rubber Plants Methods of Obtaining the Latex Methods
of Preparing Raw or Crude India-Rubber Classification of the Commercial Species of
Raw Rubber Physical and Chemical Properties of the Latex and of India-Rubber
Mechanical Transformation of Natural Caoutchouc into Washed or Normal Caoutchouc
(Purification) and Normal Rubber into Masticated Rubber Softening, Cutting, Washing,
Drying Preliminary Observations Vulcanisation of Normal Rubber Chemical and Physical
Properties of Vulcanised Rubber General Considerations Hardened Rubber or Ebonite-
Considerations on Mineralisation and other Mixtures Coloration and Dyeing Analysis
of Natural or Normal Rubber and Vulcanised Rubber Rubber Substitutes Imitation Rubber.
Gutta Percha Botanical Origin Climatology Soil Rational Culture Methods of
Collection Classification of the Different Species of Commercial Gutta Percha Physical
and Chemical Properties Mechanical Transformation Methods of Analysing Gutta Percha
PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE LEATHER IN-
DUSTRY. By A. M. VILLON. Translated by FRANK T.
ADDYMAN, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. ; and Corrected by an Emi-
nent Member of the Trade. 500 pp., royal 8vo. 1901. 123 Illustra-
tions. Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ;
Preface Translator's Preface List of Illustrations.
Part I., Materials used in Tanning Skins: Skin and its Structure; Skins used in
Tanning; Various Skins and their Uses Tannin and Tanning Substances: Tannin; Barks
(Oak); Barks other than Oak; Tanning Woods: Tannin-bearing Leaves; Excrescences;
Tan-bearing Fruits: Tan-bearing Roots and Bulbs; Tanning Juices; Tanning Substances
used in Various Countries: Tannin Extracts; Estimation of Tannin and Tannin Principles.
Part II., Tanning The Installation of a Tannary: Tan Furnaces; Chimneys, Boilers,
etc.; Steam Engines Grinding and Trituration of Tanning Substances: Cutting up Bark;
Grinding Bark; The Grinding of Tan Woods; Powdering Fruit, Galls and Grains; Notes on
the Grinding of Bark Manufacture of Sole Leather: Soaking; Sweating and Unhairing;
Plumping and Colouring; Handling; Tanning; Tanning Elephants' Hides; Drying;
Striking or Pinning Manufacture of Dressing Leather: Soaking; Depilation ; New Pro-
cesses for the Depilation of Skins; Tanning; Cow Hides; Horse Hides; Goat Skins; Manu-
facture of Split Hides On Various Methods of Tanning: Mechanical Methods; Physical
Methods; Chemical Methods; Tanning with Extracts Quantity and Quality; Quantity;
Net Cost ; Quality of Leather Various Manipulations of Tanned Leather : Second Tanning ;
Grease Stains; Bleaching Leather; Waterproofing Leather; Weighting Tanned Leather;
Preservation of Leather Tanning Various Skins.
Part III., Currying Waxed Calf: Preparation; Shaving; Stretching or Slicking;
Oiling the Grain ; Oiling the Flesh Side ; Whitening and Graining ; Waxing ; Finishing ; Dry
Finishing; Finishing in Colour; Cost White Calf: Finishing in White Cow Hide for
Upper Leathers: Black Cow Hide; White Cow Hide; Coloured Cow Hide Smooth Cow
Hide Black Leather Miscellaneous Hides: Horse; Goat; Waxed Goat Skin; Matt Goat
Skin Russia Leather: Russia Leather; Artificial Russia Leather.
Part IV., Enamelled, Hungary and Chamoy Leather, Morocco, Parchment, Furs
and Artificial Leather Enamelled Leather: Varnish Manufacture; Application of the
Enamel; Enamelling in Colour Hungary Leather: Preliminary; Wet Work or Prepara-
tion; Aluming; Dressing or Loft Work; Tallowing; Hungary Leather from Various Hides
Tawing : Preparatory Operations ; Dressing ; Dyeing Tawed Skins ; Rugs Chamoy Leather
Morocco: Preliminary Operations, Morocco Tanning* Mordants used in Morocco Manu-
facture; Natural Colours used in Morocco Dyeing; Artificial Colours; Different Methods
of Dyeing; Dyeing with Natural Colours; Dyeing with Aniline Colours; Dyeing with
Metallic Salts; Leather Printing ; Finishing Morocco ; Shagreen ; Bronzed Leather Gilding
and Silvering: Gilding; Silvering; Nickel and Cobalt Parchment Furs and Furriery:
Preliminary Remarks; Indigenous Furs; Foreign Furs from Hot Countries; Foreign Furs
from Cold Countries ; Furs from Birds' Skins; Preparation of Furs; Dressing; Colouring;
Preparation of Birds' Skins; Preservation of Furs Artificial Leather: Leather made from
Scraps; Compressed Leather; American Cloth; Papier Mache; Linoleum; Artificial Leather.
Part V., Leather Testing and the Theory of Tanning Testing and Analysis of Leather :
Physical Testing of Tanned Leather; Chemical Analysis The Theory of Tanning and the
other Operations of the Leather and Skin Industry: Theory of Soaking; Theory of Un-
hairing; Theory of Swelling; Theory of Handling; Theory of Tanning; Theory of the
Action of Tannin on the Skin; Theory of Hungary Leather Making; Theory of Tawing;
Theory of Chamoy Leather Making; Theory of Mineral Tanning.
Part VI., Uses of Leather Machine Belts: Manufacture of Belting; Leather Chain
Belts; Various Belts, Use of Belts Boot and Shoe-making: Boots and Shoes; Laces
Saddlery : Composition of a Saddle ; Construction of a Saddle Harness : The Pack Saddle ;
Harness Military Equipment Glove Making Carriage Building Mechanical Uses.
Appendix, The World's Commerce in Leather Europe; America; Asia; Africa;
THE LEATHER WORKER'S MANUAL. Being a Com-
pendium of Practical Recipes and Working Formulae for Curriers,
Bootmakers, Leather Dressers, Blacking Manufacturers, Saddlers,
Fancy Leather Workers. By H. C. STANDAGE. 165 pp. 1900. Price
7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly
Blackings, Polishes, Glosses, Dressings, Renovators, etc., for Boot and Shoe Leather
Harness Blackings, Dressings, Greases, Compositions, Soaps, and Boot-top Powders and
Liquids, etc., etc. Leather Grinders' Sundries Currier's Seasonings, Blacking Compounds,
Dressings, Finishes, Glosses, etc. Dyes and Stains for Leather Miscellaneous Information
Chrome Tannage Index.
Books on Pottery, Bricks,
Tiles, Glass, etc.
THE MANUAL OF PRACTICAL POTTING. Compiled
by Experts, and Edited by CHAS. F. BINNS. Revised Third Edition
and Enlarged. 200 pp. 1901. Price 17s. 6d. ; India and Colonies,
18s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 20s. ; strictly net.
Introduction. The Rise and Progress of the Potter's Art Bodies. China and Porcelain
Bodies, Parian Bodies, Semi-porcelain and Vitreous Bodies, Mortar Bodies, Earthenwares
Granite and C.C. Bodies, Miscellaneous Bodies, Sagger and Crucible Clays, Coloured
Bodies, Jasper Bodies, Coloured Bodies for Mosaic Painting, Encaustic Tile Bodies, Body
Stains, Coloured Dips Glazes. China Glazes, Ironstone Glazes, Earthenware Glazes,
Glazes without Lead, Miscellaneous Glazes, Coloured Glazes, Majolica Colours Gold and
Gold Colours. Gold, Purple of Cassius, Marone and Ruby, Enamel Coloured Bases,
Enamel Colour Fluxes, Enamel Colours, Mixed Enamel Colours, Antique and Vellum
Enamel Colours, Underglaze Colours, Underglaze Colour Fluxes, Mixed Underglaze Colours,
Flow Powders, Oils and Varnishes Means and Methods. Reclamation of Waste Gold,
The Use of Cobalt, Notes on Enamel Colours, Liquid or Bright Gold Classification and
Analysis. Classification of Clay Ware, Lord Playfair's Analysis of Clays, The Markets of
the World, Time and Scale of Firing, Weights of Potter's Material, Decorated Goods
Count Comparative Loss of Weight of Clays Ground Felspar Calculations The Conver-
sion of Slop Body Recipes into Dry Weight The Cost of Prepared Earthenware Clay-
Forms and Tables. Articles of Apprenticeship, Manufacturer's Guide to Stocktaking,
Table of Relative Values of Potter's Materials, Hourly Wages Table, Workman's Settling
Table, Comparative Guide for Earthenware and China Manufacturers in the use of Slop Flint
and Slop Stone, Foreign Terms applied to Earthenware and China Goods, Table for the
Conversion of Metrical Weights and Measures on the Continent and South America Index.
CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY : Being some Aspects of Tech-
nical Science as Applied to Pottery Manufacture. Edited by CHARLES
F. BINNS. 100 pp. Demy 8vo. 1897. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
Preface The Chemistry of Pottery Analysis and Synthesis Clays and their Com-
ponents The Biscuit Oven Pyrometry Glazes and their Composition Colours and
COLOURING AND DECORATION OF CERAMIC
WARE. By ALEX. BRONGNIART. With Notes and Additions
by ALPHONSE SALVETAT. Translated from the French. 200 pp. 1898.
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.
A TREATISE ON THE CERAMIC INDUSTRIES. A
Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works. By EMILE
BOURRY. Translated from the French by WILTON P. Rix, Examiner
in Pottery and Porcelain to the City and Guilds of London Technical
Institute, Pottery Instructor to the Hanley School Board. Royal
8vo. 1901. Over 700 pp. Price 21s.; India and Colonies, 22s.;
Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Part I., General Pottery Methods. Definition and History. Definitions and Classifi-
cation of Ceramic Products Historic Summary of the Ceramic Art Raw Materials of
Bodies. Clays : Pure Clay and Natural Clays Various Raw Materials : Analogous to Clay
Agglomerative and Agglutinative Opening Fusible Refractory Trials of Raw Materials
Plastic Bodies. Properties and Composition Preparation of Raw Materials: Disaggrega-
tion Purification Preparation of Bodies: By Plastic Method By Dry Method By Liquid
Method Formation. Processes of Formation: Throwing Expression Moulding by Hand,
on the Jolley, by Compression, by Slip Casting Slapping Slipping Drying* Drying of
Bodies Processes of Drying : By Evaporation By Aeration By Heating By Ventilation
By Absorption Glazes. Composition and Properties Raw Materials Manufacture
and Application Firing. Properties of the Bodies and Glazes during Firing Description
of the Kilns Working of the Kilns Decoration. Colouring Materials Processes of
Part II., Special Pottery Methods. Terra Cottas. Classification: Plain Ordinary,
Hollow, Ornamental, Vitrified, and Light Bricks Ordinary and Black Tiles Paving Tiles
Pipes Architectural Terra Cottas Vases, Statues and Decorative Objects Common Pottery
Pottery for Water and Filters Tobacco Pipes Lustre Ware Properties and Tests for
Terra Cottas Fireclay Goods. Classification : Argillaceous, Aluminous, Carboniferous,
Silicious and Basic Fireclay Goods Fireclay Mortar (Pug) Tests for Fireclay Goods
Faiences. Varnished Faiences Enamelled Faiences Silicious Faiences Pipeclay Faiences
Pebble Work Feldspathic Faiences Composition, Processes of Manufacture and General
Arrangements of Faience Potteries Stoneware. Stoneware Properly So-called: Paving
Tiles Pipes Sanitary Ware Stoneware for Food Purposes and Chemical Productions
Architectural Stoneware Vases, Statues and other Decorative Objects Fine Stoneware
Porcelain. Hard Porcelain for Table Ware and Decoration, for the Fire, for Electrical
Conduits, for Mechanical Purposes ; Architectural Porcelain, and Dull or Biscuit Porcelain
Soft Phosphated or English Porcelain Soft Vitreous Porcelain, French and New Sevres
Argillaceous Soft or Seger's Porcelain Dull Soft or Parian Porcelain Dull Feldspathic
Soft Porcelain Index.
ARCHITECTURAL POTTERY. Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Ena-
melled Terra-cottas, Ordinary and Incrusted Quarries, Stoneware
Mosaics, Faiences and Architectural Stoneware. By LEON LEFEVRE.
With Five Plates. 950 Illustrations in the Text, and numerous estimates.
500 pp., royal 8vo. 1900. Translated from the French by K. H. BIRD,
M.A., and W. MOORE BINNS. Price 15s. ; India and Colonies, 16s. ;
Other Countries, 17s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Part I. Plain Undecorated Pottery. Clays : Classification ; General Properties and
Composition ; Working of Clay-Pits Open Pits Underground Pits. Preparation of the
Clay. Bricks : Hand and Machine Moulding Expression Machines Dies Cutting-tables
General Remarks on the Choice of Machines Types of Installations Estimates Plenishing,
Hand and Steam Presses Drying, by Exposure to Air, Without Shelter, and Under Sheds
Drying-rooms in Tiers, Closed Drying-rooms, in Tunnels, in Galleries Detailed Estimates
of the Various Drying-rooms, Comparison of Prices Transport from the Machines to
the Drying-rooms Firing In Clamps In Intermittent Kilns Continuous Kilns : with Solid
Fuel : Round Kiln, Rectangular Kiln, Chimneys (Plans and Estimates) With Gas Fuel,
Fillard Kiln (Plans and Estimates), Water-gas Kiln Heat Production of the Kilns ; Dimen-
sions, Shapes, Colours, Decoration, and Quality of Bricks Hollow Bricks, Dimensions and
Prices of Bricks, Various Shapes, Qualities Ube of Bricks Walls, Arches, Pavements, Flues,
Cornices Facing with Coloured Bricks Balustrades. Tiles : Manufacture Moulding, by
Hand, by Machinery : Preparation of the Clay Preparation of the Slabs, Transformation into
Flat Tiles, into Jointed Tiles Screw, Cam and Revolver Presses Particulars of Tile-presses
Drying Planchettes, Shelves, Drying-barrows and Trucks Firing Divided Kilns Instal-
lation of Mechanical Tileworks Estimates; Shapes, Dimensions and Uses of the Principal
Types of Tile Ancient Tiles Foreign Tiles Special Tiles Ridge Tiles. Coping Tiles, Border
Tiles, Frontons, Gutters, Antefixes, Membron, Angular Roofing Accessories : Chimney-pots,
Mitrons, Lanterns, Chimneys Qualities of Tiles Black Tiles Stoneware Tiles Particulars
of Tiles. Pipes : Conduit Pipes Manufacture Moulding : Horizontal Machines, Vertical
Machines Drying Firing Chimney Flues Ventiducts and " Boisseaux," " Waggons "
Particulars of these Products. Quarries: Plain Quarries of Ordinary Clay: of Cleaned
Clay Machines, Cutting, Mixing, Polishing Drying and Firing Applications Particulars of
Quarries. Terra=cotta : History Manufacture Application : Balustrades, Columns,
Pilasters, Capitals, Friezes, Frontons, Medallions, Panels, Rose-windows, Ceilings
Appendix: Official Methods of Testing Terra-cottas.
Part II. Made-up or Decorated Pottery. General Remarks on the Decoration of
Pottery : Dips Glazes : Composition, Colouring, Preparation, Harmony with Pastes
Special Processes of Decoration Enamels, Opaque, Transparent, Colours, Undergiaze,
Over-glaze Other Processes : Crackling, Mottled, Flashing, Metallic Iridescence, Lustres.
Glazed and Enamelled Bricks History: Glazing Enamelling Applications: Ordinary
Enamelled Bricks, Glazed Stoneware, Enamelled Stoneware Enamelled Tiles. Decorated
Quarries: Paving Quarries Decorated with Dips Stoneware: Applications Plain or In-
crusted Stoneware; Manufacture Application Colouring, Manufacture, Moulding, Drying,
Firing Applications Facing Quarries in Faience of Glazed Stoneware of Porcelain
Applications of Facing Quarries Stove Quarries Preparation of the Pastes, Moulding,
Firing, Enamelling, Decoration Applications Faiences for Fireplaces. Architectural De-
corated Pottery: Faiences; Stoneware; Porcelain. Sanitary Pottery: Stoneware Pipes:
Manufacture, Firing Applications Sinks Applications Urinals, Seats and Pans Applica-
tions Drinking-fountains, ^Washstands Index.
THE ART OP RIVETING GLASS, CHINA AND
EARTHENWARE. By J. HOWARTH. Second Edition.
1900. Paper Cover. Price Is. net; by post, home or abroad, Is. Id.
HOW TO ANALYSE CLAY. Practical Methods for Prac-
tical Men. By HOLDEN M. ASHBY, Professor of Organic Chemistry,
Harvey Medical College, U.S.A. Twenty Illustrations. 1898. Price
2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net.
NOTES ON POTTERY CLAYS. Their Distribution, Pro-
perties, Uses and Analyses of Ball Clays, China Clays and China
Stone. By JAS. FAIRIE, F.G.S. 1901. 132 pp. Crown 8vo. Price
SB. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; strictly net.
A Reissue of
THE HISTORY OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE POTTER.
IES; AND THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE
MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.
With References to Genuine Specimens, and Notices of Eminent Pot-
ters. By SIMEON SHAW. (Originally Published in 1829.) 265 pp.
1900. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Introductory Chapter showing the position of the Pottery Trade at the present time
(1899) Preliminary Remarks The Potteries, comprising Tunstall, Brownhills, Green-
field and New Field, Golden Hill, Latebrook, Green Lane, Burslem, Longport and Dale Hall,
Hot Lane and Cobridge, Hanley and Shelton, Etruria, Stoke, Penkhull, Fenton, Lane Delph,
Foley, Lane End On the Origin of the Art, and its Practice among the early Nations-
Manufacture of Pottery, prior to 1700 The Introduction of Red Porcelain by Messrs.
Elers, of Bradwell, 1690 Progress of the Manufacture from 1700 to Mr. Wedgwood's
commencement in 1760 Introduction of Fluid Glaze Extension of the Manufacture of
Cream Colour Mr. Wedgwood's Queen's Ware Jasper, and Appointment of Potter to Her
Majesty Black Printing Introduction of Porcelain. Mr. W. Littler's Porcelain Mr.
Cookworthy's Discovery of Kaolin and Petuntse, and Patent Sold to Mr. Champion re-
sold to the New Hall Com. Extension of Term Blue Printed Pottery. Mr. Turner, Mr.
Spode (1), Mr. Baddeley, Mr. Spode (2), Messrs. Turner, Mr. Wood, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Minton
Great Change in Patterns of Blue Printed Introduction of Lustre Pottery. Improve-
ments in Pottery and Porcelain subsequent to 1800.
A Reissue of
THE CHEMISTRY OF THE SEVERAL NATURAL
AND ARTIFICIAL HETEROGENEOUS COM-
POUNDS USED IN MANUFACTURING POR-
CELAIN, GLASS AND POTTERY. By SIMEON SHAW.
(Originally published in 1837.) 750 pp. 1900. Royal 8vo. Price 14s. ;
India and Colonies, 15s. ; Other Countries, 16s. 6d. ; strictly net.
PART I., ANALYSIS AND MATERIALS. Introduction : Laboratory and Apparatus ;
Elements Temperature Acids and Alkalies The Earths Metals.
PART II., SYNTHESIS AND COMPOUNDS.-Science of Mixing-Bodies : Porcelain
Hard, Porcelain Fritted Bodies, Porcelain Raw Bodies, Porcelain Soft, Fritted Bodies,
Raw Bodies, Stone Bodies, Ironstone, Dry Bodies, Chemical Utensils, Fritted Jasper, Fritted
Pearl, Fritted Drab, Raw Chemical Utensils, Raw Stone, Raw Jasper, Raw Pearl, Raw Mortar,
Raw Drab, Raw Brown, Raw Fawn, Raw Cane, Raw Red Porous, Raw Egyptian, Earthenware,
Queen's Ware, Cream Colour, Blue and Fancy Printed, Dipped and Mocha, Chalky, Rings,
Stilts, etc. Glazes: Porcelain Hard Fritted Porcelain Soft Fritted Porcelain Soft
Raw, Cream Colour Porcelain, Blue Printed Porcelain, Fritted Glazes, Analysis of Fritt,
Analysis of Glaze, Coloured Glazes, Dips, Smears and Washes; Glasses: Flint Glass,
Coloured Glasses, Artificial Garnet, Artificial Emerald, Artificial Amethyst, Artificial Sap-
phire, Artificial Opal, Plate Glass, Crown Glass, Broad Glass, Bottle Glass, Phosphoric Glass,
British Steel Glass, Glass-Staining and Painting, Engraving on Glass, Dr. Faraday's Experi-
mentsColours : Colour Making, Fluxes or Solvents, Components of the Colours; Reds,
etc., from Gold, Carmine or Rose Colour, Purple, Reds, etc., from Iron, Blues, Yellows,
Greens, Blacks, White, Silver for Burnishing, Gold for Burnishing, Printer's Oil, Lustres.
,;. TABLES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES.
Glassware, Glass Staining and
RECIPES FOR FLINT GLASS MAKING. By a British
Glass Master and Mixer. Sixty Recipes. Being Leaves from the
Mixing Book of several experts in the Flint Glass Trade, containing
up-to-date recipes and valuable information as to Crystal, Demi-crystal
and Coloured Glass in its many varieties. It contains the recipes for
cheap metal suited to pressing, blowing, etc., as well as the most costly
crystal and ruby. Price for United Kingdom, 10s. 6d. ; Abroad, 15s. ;
United States, $4; strictly net.
Ruby Ruby from Copper Flint for using with the Ruby for Coating A German Metal
Cornelian, or Alabaster Sapphire Blue Crysophis Opal Turquoise Blue Gold Colour
Dark Green Green (common) Green for Malachite Blue for Malachite Black for Mela-
chite Black Common Canary Batch Canary White Opaque Glass Sealing-wax Red
Flint Flint Glass (Crystal and Demi) Achromatic Glass Paste Glass White Enamel-
Firestone Dead White (for moons) White Agate Canary Canary Enamel Index.
A TREATISE ON THE ART OF GLASS PAINTING.
Prefaced with a Review of Ancient Glass. By ERNEST R. SUPPLING.
With One Coloured Plate and Thirty-seven Illustrations. Demy 8vo.
140 pp. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries,
8s. 6d. net.
A Short History of Stained Glass Designing Scale Drawings Cartoons and the Cut Line
Various Kinds of Glass Cutting for Windows The Colours and Brushes used in Glass
Painting Painting on Glass, Dispersed Patterns Diapered Patterns Aciding Firing
Fret Lead Glazing Index.
PAINTING ON GLASS AND PORCELAIN AND
ENAMEL PAINTING. A Complete Introduction to the
Preparation of all the Colours and Fluxes used for Painting on Porce-
lain, Enamel, Faience and Stoneware, the Coloured Pastes and Col-
oured Glasses, together with a Minute Description of the Firing of
Colours and Enamels. By FELIX HERMANN, Technical Chemist. With
Eighteen Illustrations. 300 pp. Translated from the German second
and enlarged Edition. 1897. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies,
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
History of Glass Painting The Articles to be Painted : Glass, Porcelain, Enamel, Stone-
ware, Faience Pigments: Metallic Pigments: Antimony Oxide, Naples Yellow, Barium
Chromate, Lead Chromate, Silver Chloride, Chromic Oxide Fluxes : Fluxes, Felspar,
Quartz, Purifying Quartz, Sedimentation, Quenching, Borax, Boracic Acid, Potassium and
Sodium Carbonates, Rocaille Flux Preparation of the Colours for Glass Painting The
Colour Pastes The Coloured Glasses Composition of the Porcelain Colours The' Enamel
Colours: Enamels for Artistic Work Metallic Ornamentation: Porcelain Gilding, Glass
Gilding Firing the Colours : Remarks on Firing : Firing Colours on Glass, Firing Colours on
Porcelain; The Muffle Accidents occasionally Supervening during the Process of Firing
Remarks on the Different Methods of Painting on Glass, Porcelain, etc. Appendix : Cleaning
Old Glass Paintings.
THE DYEING OF PAPER PULP. A Practical Treatise for
the use of Papermakers, Paperstainers, Students and others. By
JULIUS ERFURT, Manager of a Paper Mill. Translated into English
and Edited with Additions by JULIUS HUBNER, F.C.S., Lecturer on
Papermaking at the Manchester Municipal Technical School. With
Illustrations and 157 patterns of paper dyed in the pulp. Royal
8vo, 180 pp. 1901. Price 15s. ; India and Colonies. 16s. ; Other
Countries, 20s. ; strictly net. Limited edition.
Behaviour of the Paper Fibres during the Process of Dyeing, Theory of the
Mordant Colour Fixing Mediums (Mordants) Influence of the Quality of the Water
Used Inorganic Colours Organic Colours Practical Application of the Coal Tar
Colours according to their Properties and their Behaviour towards the Different
Paper Fibres Dyed Patterns on Various Pulp Mixtures Dyeing to Shade Index.
Enamelling on Metal.
ENAMELS AND ENAMELLING. For Enamel Makers,
Workers in Gold and Silver, and Manufacturers of Objects of Art.
By PAUL RANDAU. Translated from the German. With Sixteen Illus-
trations. 180pp. 1900. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.;
Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net.
Composition and Properties of Glass Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Enamels
Substances Added to Produce Opacity Fluxes Pigments Decolorising Agents Testing
the Raw Materials with the Blow-pipe Flame Subsidiary Materials Preparing the
Materials for Enamel Making Mixing the Materials The Preparation of Technical Enamels,
The Enamel Mass Appliances for Smelting the Enamel Mass Smelting the Charge-
Composition of Enamel Masses Composition of Masses for Ground Enamels Composition
of Cover Enamels Preparing the Articles for Enamelling Applying the Enamel Firing
the Ground Enamel Applying and Firing the Cover Enamel or Glaze Repairing Defects
in Enamelled Ware Enamelling Articles of Sheet Metal Decorating Enamelled Ware-
Specialities in Enamelling Dial-plate Enamelling Enamels for Artistic Purposes, Recipes
for Enamels of Various Colours Index.
THE ART OF ENAMELLING ON METAL. By W.
NORMAN BROWN. Twenty-eight Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 60 pp.
1900. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net.
SILK THROWING AND WASTE SILK SPINNING.
By ROLLINS RAYNER. Demy 8vo. 130 Illustrations.
[In the Press.
The Silkworm Cocoon Reeling and Qualities of Silk Silk Throwing Silk Wastes The
Preparation of Silk Waste for Degumming Silk Waste Degumming, Schapping and Dis-
chargingThe Opening and Dressing of Wastes Silk Waste "Drawing" or "Preparing"
Machinery Long Spinning Short Spinning Spinning and Finishing Processes Utilisation
of Waste Products Noil Spinning Exhaust Noil Spinning.
Books on Textile and Dyeing
THE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE
FIBRES: Their Origin, Structure, Preparation, Washing,
Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Dressing. By Dr. GEORG VON
GEORGIEVICS. Translated from the German by CHARLES SALTER.
320 pp. Forty-seven Illustrations. Royal Svo. 1902. Price 10s. 6d. ;
India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s. net.
The Textile Fibres Artificial Fibres Mineral Fibres Vegetable Fibres Cellulose-
Cotton Bombax Cotton Vegetable Silk Flax Hemp Jute Ramie, Rhea, China Grass,
Nettle Fibre Distinguishing Tests for the Various Fibres Animal Fibres : Silk Animal
Hairs Sheep's Wool Goat Wool and Camel Wool Artificial Wool (Wool Substitutes)
Conditioning Washing, Bleaching, Carbonising Bleaching Agents Cotton Bleaching
Linen Bleaching Jute Bleaching Hemp Bleaching Ramie Bleaching Scouring and
Bleaching Silk Washing and Bleaching Wool Blueing or White Dyeing Carbonising
Mordants and Mordanting Dyeing Combination of Colours: Dyeing to Pattern
Theory of Dyeing Classification of Dye Stuffs: Methods of Dyeing Application
of Acid Dye Stuffs Application of Basic Dye Stuffs Application of Direct or Substantive
Cotton Dyes Application of the Mordant Dyes Application of the Developing Dyes Dyeing
on a Manufacturing Scale: Selection of Dye Stuffs for Dyeing Silk Dyeing Wool
Dyeing Cotton Dyeing Dyeing Mixed Fabrics Sample Dyeings, Colorimetric Determina-
tions, Reactions of Dye Stuffs on the Fibre, Tests for Fastness Printing Hand Printing
Calico Printing: Reproduction of Pattern by Direct Printing: Thickening Agents Em-
ployment of Mordant Dye Stuffs, Basic, Albumin, Direct, Developing, Vat, Acid Treatment
of the Goods when Printed Combined Printing and Dyeing Discharge Style Printing
Reserve Style Printing Topping Printing Wool Printing Silk Printing Printing Yarns,
Warps, and Combed Sliver Dressing and Finishing Dressing and Finishing Substances
used in Finishing Loading Ingredients Colouring for the Dressing Preparations Metals
or their Sulphites Waterproofing Fireproofing Antiseptics for Prevention of Mould
Application of Dressings Drying Stretching Finishing: Shearing, Damping, Calendering,
Beetling, Moir or Watered Effects, Stamping Finishing Woollens Index,
POWER-LOOM WEAVING AND YARN NUMBERING,
According to Various Systems, with Conversion Tables. Translated
from the German of ANTHON GRUNER. With Twenty-Six Diagrams
in Colours. 150 pp. 1900. Crown 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Power=Loom Weaving in General. Various Systems of Looms Mounting: and
Starting 1 the Power=Loom. English Looms Tappet or Treadle Looms Dobbies
General Remarks on the Numbering, Reeling and Packing of Yarn Appendix Useful
Hints. Calculating Warps Weft Calculations Calculations of Cost Price in Hanks.
TEXTILE RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR CON-
VERSION INTO YARNS. (The Study of the Raw
Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process.) By JULIUS
ZIPSER. Translated from German by CHARLES SALTER. 302 Illus-
trations. 500 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
PART I. The Raw Materials Used in the Textile Industry.
MINERAL RAW MATERIALS. VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS. ANIMAL RAW MATERIALS.
PART II. The Technology of Spinning or the Conversion of Textile Raw
Materials into Yarn.
SPINNING VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS. Cotton Spinning Installation of a Cotton
Mill Spinning Waste Cotton and Waste Cotton Yarns Flax Spinning Fine Spinning Tow
Spinning Hemp Spinning Spinning Hemp Tow String Jute Spinning Spinning Jute Line
Yarn Utilising Jute Waste.
PART III. Spinning Animal Raw Materials.
Spinning Carded Woollen Yarn Finishing Yarn Worsted Spinning Finishing Worsted
Yarn Artificial Wool or Shoddy Spinning Shoddy and Mungo Manufacture Spinning
Shoddy and other Wool Substitutes Spinning Waste Silk Chappe Silk Fine Spinning-
THE TECHNICAL TESTING OF YARNS AND TEX-
TILE FABRICS. With Reference to Official Specifica-
tions. Translated from the German of Dr. J. HERZFELD. Second
Edition. Sixty-nine Illustrations. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 1902. Price
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net.
Yarn Testing. Determining the Yarn Number Testing the Length of Yarns-
Examination of the External Appearance of Yarn Determining the Twist of Yarn
and Twist Determination of Tensile Strength and Elasticity Estimating the
Percentage of Fat in Yarn Determination of Moisture (Conditioning) Appendix.
DECORATIVE AND FANCY TEXTILE FABRICS.
By R. T. LORD. Manufacturers and Designers of Carpets, Damask,
Dress and all Textile Fabrics. 200 pp. 1898. Demy 8vo. 132 Designs
and Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics A Few Hints on Designing Orna-
mental Textile Fabrics (continued) A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics
(continued) A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued) Hints for
Ruled-paper Draughtsmen The Jacquard Machine Brussels and Wilton Carpets Tapestry
Carpets Ingrain Carpets Axminster Carpets Damask and Tapestry Fabrics Scarf Silks
and Ribbons Silk Handkerchiefs Dress Fabrics Mantle Cloths Figured Plush Bed Quilts
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DAMASK WEAVING.
By H. KINZER and K. WALTER. Royal 8vo. Eighteen Plates. Six
Illustrations. Translated from the German. [In the press.
The Various Sorts of Damask Fabrics Drill (Ticking, Handloom-made) Whole
Damask for Tablecloths Damask with Ground- and Connecting-warp Threads Furniture
Damask Lampas or Hangings Church Damasks The Manufacture of Whole Damask
Damask Arrangement with and without Cross-Shedding The Altered Cone-arrangement
The Principle of the Corner Lifting Cord The Roller Principle The Combination of the
Jacquard with the so-called Damask Machine The Special Damask Machine The Combina-
tion of Two Tyings,
FAULTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF WOOLLEN
GOODS AND THEIR PREVENTION. By NICOLAS
REISER. Translated from the Second German Edition. Crown 8vo.
Sixty-three Illustrations. [In the press.
Improperly Chosen Raw Material or Improper Mixtures Wrong Treatment of the
Material in Washing, Carbonisation, Drying, Dyeing and Spinning Improper Spacing of the
Goods in the Loom Wrong Placing of Colours Wrong Weight or Width of the Goods
Breaking of Warp and Weft Threads Presence of Doubles, Singles, Thick, Loose,
and too Hard Twisted Threads as well as Tangles, Thick Knots and the Like Errors in
Cross-weaving Inequalities, i.e., Bands and Stripes Dirty Borders Defective Selvedges
Holes and Buttons Rubbed Places Creases Spots Loose and Bad Colours Badly Dyed
Selvedges Hard Goods Brittle Goods Uneven Goods Removal of Bands, Stripes,
Creases and Spots.
Dyeing, Colour Printing,
Matching and Dye-stuffs.
THE COLOUR PRINTING OF CARPET YARNS. Manual
for Colour Chemists and Textile Printers. By DAVID PATERSON,
F.C.S. Seventeen Illustrations. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price
7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Structure and Constitution of Wool Fibre Yarn Scouring Scouring Materials Water for
Scouring Bleaching Carpet Yarns Colour Making for Yarn Printing Colour Printing
Pastes Colour Recipes for Yarn Printing Science of Colour Mixing Matching of Colours
" Hank " Printing Printing Tapestry Carpet Yarns Yarn Printing Steaming Printed
Yarns Washing of Steamed Yarns Aniline Colours Suitable for Yarn Printing Glossary of
Dyes and Dye-wares used in Wood Yarn Printing Appendix.
THE SCIENCE OF COLOUR MIXING. A Manual in-
tended for the use of Dyers, Calico Printers and Colour Chemists. By
DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Forty-one Illustrations, Five Coloured Plates,
and Four Plates showing Eleven Dyed Specimens of Fabrics. 132
pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Colour a Sensation ; Colours of Illuminated Bodies ; Colours of Opaque and Transparent
Bodies; Surface Colour Analysis of Light; Spectrum: Homogeneous Colours; Ready
Method of Obtaining a Spectrum Examination of Solar Spectrum; The Spectroscope and
Its Construction ; Colounsts' Use of the Spectroscope Colour by Absorption ; Solutions and
Dyed Fabrics; Dichroic Coloured Fabrics in Gaslight Colour Primaries of the Scientist
versus the Dyer and Artist; Colour Mixing by Rotation and Lye Dyeing; Hue, Purity,
Brightness; Tints; Shades, Scales, Tones, Sad and Sombre Colours Colour Mixing; Pure
and Impure Greens, Orange and Violets; Large Variety of Shades from few Colours; Con-
sideration of the Practical Primaries: Red, Yellow and Blue Secondary Colours; Nomen-
clature of Violet and Purple Group ; Tints and Shades of Violet ; Changes in Artificial Light
Tertiary Shades ; Broken Hues; Absorption Spectra of Tertiary Shades Appendix' Four
Plates with Dyed Specimens Illustrating Text Index.
COLOUR MATCHING ON TEXTILES. A Manual in-
tended for the use of Students of Colour Chemistry, Dyeing and
Textile Printing. By DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Coloured Frontis-
piece. Twenty-nine Illustrations and Fourteen Specimens of Dyed
Fabrics. Demy 8vo. 132pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies,
8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Colour Vision and Structure of the Eye Perception of Colour Primary and Comple-
mentary Colour Sensations Daylight for Colour Matching Selection of a Good Pure Light
Diffused Daylight, Direct Sunlight, Blue Skylight, Variability of Daylight, etc., etc.
Matching of Hues Purity and Luminosity of Colours Matching Bright Hues Aid of Tinted
Films Matching Difficulties Arising from Contrast Examination of Colours by Reflected
and Transmitted Lights Effect of Lustre and Transparency of Fibres in Colour Matching
Matching of Colours on Velvet Pile Optical Properties of Dye-stuffs. Dichroism, Fluor-
escence Use of Tinted Mediums Orange Film Defects of the Eye Yellowing of the Lens
Colour Blindness, etc. Matching of Dyed Silk Trimmings and Linings and Bindings Its
Difficulties Behaviour of Shades in Artificial Light Colour Matching of Old Fabrics, etc.
Examination of Dyed Colours under the Artificial Lights Electric Arc, Magnesium and Dufton,
Gardner Lights, Welsbach, Acetylene, etc. Testing Qualities of an Illuminant Influence
of the Absorption Spectrum in Changes of Hue under the Artificial Lights Study of the
Causes of Abnormal Modifications of Hue, etc.
COLOUR: A HANDBOOK OF THE THEORY OF
COLOUR. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. With Ten
Coloured Plates and Seventy-two Illustrations. 160 pp. Demy 8vo.
1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ;
Colour and Its Production. Light, Colour, Dispersion of White Light, Methods of
Producing the Spectrum, Glass Prism and Diffraction Grating Spectroscopes, The Spectrum,
Wave Motion of Light, Recomposition of White Light, Hue, Luminosity, Purity of Colours,
The Polariscope, Phosphorescence, Fluorescence, Interference Cause of Colour in Coloured
Bodies. Transmitted Colours, Absorption Spectra of Colouring Matters Colour Pheno=
mena and Theories. Mixing Colours, White Light from Coloured Lights, Effect of
Coloured Light on Colours, Complementary Colours, Young Helmholtz Theory, Brewster
Theory, Supplementary Colours, Maxwell's Theory, Colour Photography The Physiology
of Light. Structure of the Eye, Persistence of Vision, Subjective Colour Phenomena, Colour
Blindness Contrast. Contrast, Simultaneous Contrast, Successive Contrast, Contrast of
Tone. Contrast of Colours, Modification of Colours by Contrast, Colour Contrast in Decorative
Design Colour in Decoration and Design. Colour Harmonies, Colour Equivalents,
Illumination and Colour, Colour and Textile Fabrics, Surface Structure and Colour
Measurement of Colour. Colour Patch Method, The Tintometer, Chromometer.
THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS: A Practical
Handbook for the Dyer and Student. By FRANKLIN BEECH, Practical
Colourist and Chemist. 272 pp. Forty-four Illustrations of Bleaching
and Dyeing Machinery. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India
and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Structure and Chemistry of the Cotton Fibre Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton Dyeing
Machinery and Dyeing Manipulations Principles and Practice of Cotton Dyeing Direct
Dyeing; Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts; Direct Dyeing followed by
Fixation with Developers ; Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Couplers ; Dyeing on
Tannic Mordant ; Dyeing on Metallic Mordant ; Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton
Fibres ; Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution Dyeing Union (Mixed Cotton
and Wool) Fabrics Dyeing Half Silk (Cotton-Silk, Satin) Fabrics Operations following
Dyeing Washing, Soaping, Drying Testing of the Colour of Dyed Fabrics Experimental
Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing Index.
The book contains numerous recipes for the production on Cotton Fabrics of all kinds of a
great range of colours.
THE DYEING OF WOOLLEN FABRICS. By FRANKLIN
BEECH, Practical Colourist and Chemist. Thirty-three Illustrations.
Demy 8vo. 228 pp. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ;
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. net.
The Wool Fibre Structure, Composition and Properties Prbcesses Preparatory to Dyeing
Scouring and Bleaching of Wool Dyeing Machinery and Dyeing Manipulations Loose
Wool Dyeing, Yarn Dyeing and Piece Dyeing Machinery The Principles and Practice of
Wool Dyeing Properties of Wool Dyeing Methods of Wool Dyeing Groups of Dyes
Dyeing with the Direct Dyes Dyeing with Basic Dyes Dyeing with Acid Dyes Dyeing
with Mordant Dyes Level Dyeing Blacks on Wool Reds on Wool Mordanting of Wool
Orange Shades on Wool Yellow Shades on Wool Green Shades on Wool Blue Shades on
Wool Violet Shades on Wool Brown Shades on Wool Mode Colours on Wool Dyeing
Union (Mixed Cotton Wool) Fabrics Dyeing of Gloria Operations following Dyeing
Washing, Soaping, Drying Experimental Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing Testing of
the Colour of Dyed Fabrics Index,
DYERS' MATERIALS : An Introduction to the Examination,
Evaluation and Application of the most important Substances used in
Dyeing, Printing, Bleaching and Finishing. By PAUL HEERMAN, Ph.D.
Translated from the German by. A C. WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc.
(Lond.). Twenty-four Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 150pp. 1901. Price
5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Indicators Standard Solutions Solutions and Reagents in General Use Water Textile
Fibres Hydrochloric Acid Chlorides Fluorides and Bifluorides Sulphuric Acid Sulphates
Nitric A cid and Nitrates Chlorine-Oxygen Compounds Sulphite Compounds Miscellaneous
Compounds Alkalies Peroxides Zinc Dust Fatty Acids and Their Salts Cyanogen Com-
pounds Derivatives of the Fats Tannins Aniline and Aniline Salts Thickening and
Stiffening Materials : Starch, Prepared and Soluble Starch, Dextrine, Gum Arabic, Gum
Senegal, Gum Tragacanth, Glue, Size Dyes Appendix : Atomic Weights of the Elements
Molecular Weights of Certain Compounds Gravimetric Equivalents Volumetric Equi-
valents Plate I., Microscopic Appearance of the Textile Fibres Plate II., Microscopic
Appearance of the Different Varieties of Starch Index.
THE ART OP DYEING WOOL, SILK AND COTTON.
Translated from the French of M. HELLOT, M. MACQUER and M. LE
PILEUR D'APLIGNY. First Published in English in 1789. Six Plates.
Demy 8vo. 446 pp. 1901. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ;
Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Part I., The Art of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Cloth, Stuffs, Yarn, Worsted, etc.
Part II., The Art of Dyeing Silk. Part III., The Art of Dyeing Cotton and Linen
Thread, together with the Method of Stamping Silks, Cottons, etc.
THE CHEMISTRY OP DYE-STUFFS. By Dr. GEORG VON
GEORGIEVICS. Translated from the Second German Edition. 412 pp.
Demy 8vo. 1903. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other
Countries, 12s. ; strictly net.
Introduction Coal Tar Intermediate Products in the Manufacture of Dye-stuffs The
Artificial Dye-stuffs (Coal-tar Dyes) Nitroso Dye-stuffs Nitro Dye-stuffs Azo Dye-stuffs-
Substantive Cotton Dye-stuffs Azoxystilbene Dye-stuffs Hydrazones Ketoneimides
Triphenylmethane Dye stuffs Rosolic Acid Dye-stuffs Xanthene Dye-stuffs Xanthone Dye-
stuffs Flavones Oxyketone Dye-stuffs Quinoline and Acndine Dye-stuffs Quinonimide
or Diphenylamine Dye-stuffs The Azine Group : Eurhodines, Safranines and Indulines
Eurhodines Safranines Quinoxalines Indigo Dye-stuffs of Unknown Constitution
Sulphur or Sulphine Dye stuffs Development of the Artificial Dye-stuff Industry The
Natural Dye-stuffs Mineral Colours Index.
Bleaching and Washing.
A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE BLEACHING OF
LINEN AND COTTON YARN AND FABRICS. By
L. TAILFER, Chemical and Mechanical Engineer. Translated from the
French by JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Demy 8vo. 303 pp. Twenty
Illusts. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net.
General Considerations on Bleaching Steeping Washing: Its End and Importance
Roller Washing Machines Wash Wheel (Dash Wheel) Stocks or Wash Mill Squeezing
Lye Boiling Lye Boiling with Milk of Lime Lye Boiling with Soda Lyes Description of
Lye Boiling Keirs Operations of Lye Boiling Concentration of Lyes Mather and Platt's
Keir Description of the Keir Saturation of the Fabrics Alkali used in Lye Boiling
Examples of Processes Soap Action of Soap in Bleaching Quality and Quantity of Soaps
to use in the Lye Soap Lyes or Scalds Soap Scouring Stocks Bleaching on Grass or on
the Bleaching Green or Lawn Chemicking Remarks on Chlorides and their Decolour-
Damages arising from the Machines Examples of Methods used in Bleaching Linen
Cotton The Valuation of Caustic and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) and General Information
Regarding these Bodies Object of Alkalimetry Titration of Carbonate of Soda Com-
parative Table of Different Degrees of Alkalimetrical Strength Five Problems relative to
Carbonate of Soda Caustic Soda, its Properties and Uses Mixtures of Carbonated and
Caustic Alkali Note on a Process of Manufacturing Caustic Soda and Mixtures of Caustic
and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) Chlorometry Titration Wagner's Chlorometric Method-
Preparation of Standard Solutions Apparatus for Chlorine Valuation Alkali in Excess in
Decolourising Chlorides Chlorine and Decolourising Chlorides Synopsis Chlorine
Chloride of Lime Hypochlorite of Soda Brochoki's Chlorozone Various Decolourising
Hypochlorites Comparison of Chloride of Lime and Hypochlorite of Soda Water
Qualities of Water Hardness Dervaux's Purifier Testing the Purified Water Different
Plant for Purification Filters Bleaching of Yarn Weight of Yarn Lye Boiling
Chemicking Washing Bleaching of Cotton Yarn The Installation of a Bleach Works-
Water Supply Steam Boilers Steam Distribution Pipes Engines Keirs Washing
Machines Stocks Wash Wheels Chemicking and Souring Cisterns Various Buildings
Addenda Energy of Decolourising Chlorides and Bleaching by Electricity and Ozone
Energy of Decolourising Chlorides Chlorides Production of Chlorine and Hypochlorites
by Electrolysis Lunge's Process for increasing the intensity of the Bleaching Power of
Chloride of Lime Trilfer's Process for Removing the Excess of Lime or Soda from De-
colourising Chlorides Bleaching by Ozone.
Cotton Spinning and Combing.
COTTON SPINNING (First Year). By THOMAS THORNLEY,
Spinning Master, Bolton Technical School. 160 pp. Eighty-four Illus-
trations. Crown 8vo. 1901. Price 3s. ; Abroad, 3s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Syllabus and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute Cultiva-
tion, Classification, Ginning, Baling and Mixing of the Raw Cotton Bale-Breakers, Mixing
Lattices and Hopper Feeders Opening and Scutching Carding Indexes.
COTTON SPINNING (Intermediate, or Second Year). By
THOMAS THORNLEY. 180pp. Seventy Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901.
Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ;
Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute The
Combing Process The Drawing Frame Bobbin and Fly Frames Mule Spinning Ring
Spinning General Indexes.
COTTON SPINNING (Honours, or Third Year). By THOMAS
THORNLEY. 216 pp. Seventy-four Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901.
Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ;
Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute Cotton
The Practical Manipulation of Cotton Spinning Machinery Doubling and Winding Reeling
Warping Production and Costs Main Driving Arrangement of Machinery and Mill
Planning Waste and Waste Spinning Indexes.
COTTON COMBING MACHINES. By THOS. THORNLEY,
Spinning Master, Technical School, Bolton. Demy 8vo. 117 Illustra-
tions. 300 pp. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. net.
The Sliver Lap Machine and the Ribbon Cap Machine General Description of the Heilmann
Comber The Cam Shaft On the Detaching and Attaching Mechanism of the Comber
Resetting of Combers The Erection of a Heilmann Comber Stop Motions : Various Calcu-
lations Various Notes and Discussions Cotton Combing Machines of Continental Make
Collieries and Mines.
RECOVERY WORK AFTER PIT FIRES. A Description
of the Principal Methods Pursued, especially in Fiery Mines, and of
the Various Appliances Employed, such as Respiratory and Rescue
Apparatus, Dams, etc. By ROBERT LAMPRECHT, Mining Engineer and
Manager. Translated from the German. Illustrated by Six large
Plates, containing Seventy-six Illustrations. 175 pp., demy 8vo. 1901.
Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s. ; Other Countries, 12s. ;
Causes of Pit Fires Preventive Regulations : (1) The Outbreak and Rapid Extension
of a Shaft Fire can be most reliably prevented by Employing little or no Combustible Material
in the Construction of the Shaft : (2) Precautions for Rapidly Localising an Outbreak of Fire in
the Shaft ; (3) Precautions to be Adopted in case those under 1 and 2 Fail or Prove Inefficient.
Precautions sg.iinst Spontaneous Ignition of Coal. Precautions for Preventing Explosions of
Fire-damp and Coal Dust. Employment of Electricity in Mining, particularly in Fiery Pits.
Experiments on the ignition of Fire-damp Mixtures and Clouds of Coal Dust by Electricity
Indications of an Existing or Incipient Fire Appliances for Working in Irrespirable
Cases: Respiratory Apparatus; Apparatus with Air Supply Pipes; Reservoir Apparatus;
Oxygen Apparatus Extinguishing Pit Fires : (a) Chemical Means ; (6) Extinction with
Water. Dragging down the Burning Masses and Packing with Clay; (c) Insulating the Seat
of the Fire by Dams. Dam Building. Analyses of Fire Gases. Isolating the Seat of a Fire
with Dams: Working in Irrespirable Gases ("Gas-diving"): Air-Lock Work. Complete
Isolation of the Pit. Flooding a Burning Section isolated by means of Dams. Wooden
Dams: Masonry Dams. Examples of Cylindrical and Dome-shaped Dams. Dam Doors:
Flooding the Whole Pit Rescue Stations : (a) Stations above Ground ; (b) Underground
Rescue Stations Spontaneous Ignition of Coal in Bulk Index.
VENTILATION IN MINES. By ROBERT WABNER, Mining
Engineer. Translated from the German. Royal 8vo. Thirty Plates
and Twenty -two Illustrations. 240 pp. 1903. Price 10s. 6d. ; India
and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.
The Causes of the Contamination of Pit Air The Means of Preventing the
Dangers resulting from the Contamination of Pit Air Calculating the Volume
of Ventilating Current necessary to free Pit Air from Contamination Determination
of the Resistance Opposed to the Passage of Air through the Pit Laws of Re-
sistance and Formulae therefor Fluctuations in the Temperament or Specific Re =
sistance of a Pit Means for Providing a Ventilating Current in the Pit Mechani=
cal Ventilation Ventilators and Fans Determining the Theoretical, Initial, and
True (Effective) Depression of the Centrifugal Fan New Types of Centrifugal Fan
of Small Diameter and High Working Speed Utilising the Ventilating Current to
the utmost Advantage and distributing the same through the Workings Artifici^
ally retarding the Ventilating Current Ventilating Preliminary Workings Blind
Headings Separate Ventilation Supervision of Ventilation INDEX.
HAULAGE AND WINDING APPLIANCES USED IN
MINING. By CARL VOLK. Translated from the German.
Royal 8vo. With Six Plates and 146 Illustrations. [In the press.
Haulage Appliances Ropes Haulage Tubs and Tracks Cages and Winding Appliances-
Winding Engines for Vertical Shafts Winding without Ropes Haulage in Levels and
Inclines The Working of Underground Engines Machinery for Downhill Haulage.
Engineering, Smoke Prevention
THE PREVENTION OF SMOKE. Combined with the
Economical Combustion of Fuel. By W. C. POPPLEWELL, M.Sc.,
A.M.Inst., C.E., Consulting Engineer. Forty-six Illustrations. 190pp.
1901. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Fuel and Combustion Hand Firing in Boiler Furnaces Stoking by Mechanical Means-
Powdered Fuel Gaseous Fuel Efficiency and Smoke Tests of Boilers Some Standard
Smoke Trials The Legal Aspect of the Smoke Question The Best Means to be adopted for
the Prevention of Smoke Index.
GAS AND COAL DUST FIRING. A Critical Review of
the Various Appliances Patented in Germany for this purpose since
1885. By ALBERT PUTSCH. 130 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Translated
from the German. With 103 Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Generators Generators Employing Steam Stirring and Feed Regulating Appliances
Direct Generators Burners Regenerators and Recuperators Glass Smelting Furnaces
Metallurgical Furnaces Pottery Furnace Coal Dust Firing Index.
THE HARDENING AND TEMPERING OP STEEL
IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. By FRIDOLIN REISER.
Translated from the German of the Third Edition. Crown 8vo.
120 pp. 1903. Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net.
Steel Chemical and Physical Properties of Steel, and their Casual Connection-
Classification of Steel according to Use Testing the Quality of Steel Steel-
Hardening -Investigation of the Causes of Failure in Hardening Regeneration of
Steel Spoilt in the Furnace Welding Steel Index.
SIDEROLOGY: THE SCIENCE OP IRON (The Con-
stitution of Iron Alloys and Slags). Translated from German of
HANNS FREIHERR v. JUPTNER. 350 pp. Demy 8vo. Eleven Plates
and Ten Illustrations. 1902. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s. ;
Other Countries, 12s. ; net.
The Theory of Solution. Solutions Molten Alloys Varieties of Solutions Osmotic
Pressure Relation between Osmotic Pressure and other Properties of Solutions Osmotic
Pressure and Molecular Weight of the Dissolved Substance Solutions of Gases Solid Solu-
tions Solubility Diffusion Electrical Conductivity Constitution of Electrolytes and Metals
Thermal Expansion. Micrography. Microstructure The Micrographic Constituents of
Iron Relation between Micrographical Composition, Carbon-Content, and Thermal Treat-
ment of Iron Alloys The Microstructure of Slags. Chemical Composition of the Alloys
Of Iron. Constituents of Iron Alloys Carbon Constituents of the Iron Alloys, Carbon-
Opinions and Researches on Combined Carbon Opinions and Researches on Combined
Carbon Applying the Curves of Solution deduced from the Curves of Recalescence to the De-
termination of the Chemical Composition of the Carbon present in Iron Alloys The Constitu-
ents of Iron Iron The Constituents of Iron Alloys Manganese Remaining Constituents of
Iron Alloys A Silicon Gases. The Chemical Composition of Slag. Silicate Slags
Calculating the Composition of Silicate Slags Phosphate Slags Oxide Slags Appendix
EVAPORATING, CONDENSING AND COOLING AP-
PARATUS. Explanations, Formulae and Tables for Use
in Practice. By E. HAUSBRAND, Engineer. Translated by A. C.
WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). With Twenty-one Illustra-
tions and Seventy-six Tables. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. 1903. Price
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; net.
^Coefficient of Transmission of Heat, k/, and the Mean Temperature Difference, 0/m
Parallel and Opposite Currents Apparatus~or Heating with Direct Fire The Injection of
Saturated Steam Superheated Steam Evaporation by Means of Hot Liquids The Trans-
ference of Heat in General, and Transference by means of Saturated Steam in Particular
The Transference of Heat from Saturated Steam in Pipes (Coils) and Double Bottoms
Evaporation in a Vacuum The Multiple-effect Evaporator Multiple-effect Evaporators
from which Extra Steam is Taken The Weight of Water which must be Evaporated from
100 Kilos, of Liquor in order its Original Percentage of Dry Materials from 1-25 per cent,
up to 20-70 per cent. The Relative Proportion of the Heating Surfaces in the Elements
of the Multiple Evaporator and their Actual Dimensions The Pressure Exerted by Currents
of Steam and Gas upon Floating Drops of Water The Motion of Floating Drops of Water
upon which Press Currents of Steam The Splashing of Evaporating Liquids The Diameter
of Pipes for Steam, Alcohol, Vapour and Air The Diameter of Water Pipes The Loss
of Heat from Apparatus and Pipes to the Surrounding Air, and Means for Preventing
the Loss Condensers Heating Liquids by Means of Steam The Cooling of Liquids
The Volumes to be Exhausted from Condensers by the Air-pumps A Few Remarks on Air-
pumps and the Vacua they Produce The Volumetric Efficiency of Air-pumps The Volumes
of Air which must be Exhausted from a Vessel in order to Reduce its Original Pressure to a
Certain Lower Pressure Index.
DENTAL METALLURGY: MANUAL FOR STUDENTS
AND DENTISTS. By A. B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D. Demy
8vo. Thirty-six Illustrations. 190^ 200 pp. Price 7s. 6d. ; India
and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Introduction Physical Properties of the Metals Action of Certain Agents on Metals
Alloys Action of Oral Bacteria on Alloys Theory and Varieties of Blowpipes Fluxes
Furnaces and Appliances Heat and Temperature Gold Mercury Silver Iron Copper
Zinc Magnesium Cadmium Tin Lead Aluminium Antimony Bismuth Palladium
Platinum Iridium Nickel Practical Work Weights and Measures.
Plumbing, Decorating, Metal
Work, etc., etc.
EXTERNAL PLUMBING WORK. A Treatise on Lead
Work for Roofs. By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. 180 Illustrations. 272
pp. Demy 8vo. Second Edition Revised. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India
and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Cast Sheet Lead Milled Sheet Lead Roof Cesspools Socket Pipes Drips Gutters-
Gutters (continued) Breaks Circular Breaks Flats Flats (continued) Rolls on Flats
Roll Ends Roll Intersections Seam Rolls Seam Rolls (continued) Tack Fixings Step
Flashings Step Flashings (continued) Secret Gutters Soakers Hip and Valley Soakers
Dormer Windows Dormer Windows (continued) Dormer Tops Internal Dormers
Skylights Hips and Ridging Hips and Ridging (continued) Fixings for Hips and Ridging
Ornamental Ridging Ornamental Curb Rolls <Jurb Rolls Cornices Towers and Finials
Towers and Finials (continued) Towers and Finials (continued) Domes Domes (continued)
Ornamental Lead Work Rain Water Heads Rain Water Heads (continued) Rain Water
HINTS TO PLUMBERS ON JOINT WIPING, PIPE
BENDING AND LEAD BURNING. Third Edition,
Revised and Corrected. By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. 184 Illustrations.
313 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Coionies, 8s. ;
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net.
Pipe Bending Pipe Bending (continued) Pipe Bending (continued) Square Pipe
Bendings Half-circular Elbows Curved Bends on Square Pipe Bossed Bends Curved
Plinth Bends Rain-water Shoes on Square Pipe Curved and Angle Bends Square Pipe
Fixings-^Joint-wiping Substitutes for Wiped Joints Preparing Wiped Joints Joint Fixings
Plumbing Irons Joint Fixings Use of "Touch" in Soldering Underhand Joints Blown
and Copper Bit Joints Branch Joints Branch Joints (continued) Block Joints Block
Joints (continued) Block Fixings Astragal Joints Pipe Fixings Large Branch Joints
Large Underhand Joints Solders Autogenous Soldering or Lead Burning Index.
THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OP DIPPING,
BURNISHING, LACQUERING AND BRONZING
BRASS WARE. By W. NORMAN BROWN. 35 pp. Crown
8vo. 1900. Price 2s. ; Abroad, 2s. 6d. ; strictly net.
WORKSHOP WRINKLES for Decorators, Painters, Paper-
hangers and Others. By W. N. BROWN. Crown 8vo. 128 pp. 1901.
Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net.
HOUSE DECORATING AND PAINTING. By W.
NORMAN BROWN. Eighty-eight Illustrations. 150 pp. Crown 8vo.
1900. Price 3s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ;
A HISTORY OP DECORATIVE ART. By W. NORMAN
BROWN. Thirty-nine Illustrations. 96 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price
2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net.
A HANDBOOK ON JAPANNING AND ENAMELLING
FOR CYCLES, BEDSTEADS, TINWARE, ETC. By
WILLIAM NORMAN BROWN. 52 pp. and Illustrations. Crown 8vo.
1901. Price 2s. ; Abroad, 2s. 6d. ; net.
THE PRINCIPLES OP HOT WATER SUPPLY. By
JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. With 129 Illustrations. 1900. 177 pp., demy
8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ;
Water Circulation The Tank System Pipes and Joints The Cylinder System Boilers
for the Cylinder System The Cylinder System The Combined Tank and Cylinder System
Combined Independent and Kitchen Boiler Combined Cylinder and Tank System with
Duplicate Boilers Indirect Heating and Boiler Explosions Pipe Boilers Safety Valves-
Safety Valves The American System Heating Water by Steam Steam Kettles and Jets
Heating Power of Steam Covering for Hot Water Pipes Index.
Brewing and Botanical.
HOPS IN THEIR BOTANICAL, AGRICULTURAL
AND TECHNICAL ASPECT, AND AS AN ARTICLE
OF COMMERCE. By EMMANUEL GROSS, Professor at
the Higher Agricultural College, Tetschen-Liebwerd. Translated
from the German. Seventy-eight Illustrations. 1900. 340 pp. Demy
8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries,
15s. ; strictly net.
HISTORY OF THE HOP THE HOP PLANT Introductory The Roots The Stem
and Leaves Inflorescence and Flower: Inflorescence and Flower of the Male Hop; In-
florescence and Flower of the Female Hop The Fruit and its Glandular Structure : The
Fruit and Seed Propagation and Selection of the Hop Varieties of the Hop: (a) Red Hops;
(b) Green Hops; (c) Pale Green Hops Classification according to the Period of Ripening:
Early August Hops; Medium Early Hops; Late Hops Injuries to Growth Leaves Turning
Yellow, Summer or Sunbrand, Cones Dropping Off, Honey Dew, Damage from Wind, Hail
and Rain ; Vegetable Enemies of the Hop: Animal Enemies of the Hop Beneficial Insects on
Hops CULTIVATION The Requirements of the Hop in Respect of Climate, Soil and
Situation: Climate; Soil; Situation Selection of Variety and Cuttings Planting a Hop
Garden: Drainage; Preparing the Ground; Marking-out for Planting ; Planting; Cultivation
and Cropping of the Hop Garden in the First Year Work to be Performed Annually in the
Hop Garden : Working the Ground ; Cutting ; The Non-cutting System ; The Proper Per-
formance of the Operation of Cutting: Method of Cutting: Close Cutting, Ordinary Cutting,
The Long Cut, The Topping Cut; Proper Se-.son for Cutting: Autumn Cutting, Spring
Cutting; Manuring; Training the Hop Plant: Poled Gardens, Frame Training; Principal
Types of Frames; Pruning, Cropping, Topping, and Leaf Stripping the Hop Plant; Picking,
Drying and Bagging Principal and Subsidiary Utilisation of Hops and Hop Gardens Life
of a Hop Garden ; Subsequent Cropping Cost of Production, Yield and Selling Prices.
Preservation and Storage Physical and Chemical Structure of the Hop Cone Judging
the Value of Hops.
Statistics of Production The Hop Trade Index.
Timber and Wood Waste.
TIMBER : A Comprehensive Study of Wood in all its Aspects
(Commercial and Botanical), showing the Different Applications and
Uses of Timber in Various Trades, etc. Translated from the French
of PAUL CHARPENTIER. Royal 8vo. 437 pp. 178 Illustrations. 1902.
Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ;
Physical and Chemical Properties of Timber Composition of the Vegetable Bodies
Chief Elements M. Fremy's Researches Elementary Organs of Plants and especially of
Forests Different Parts of Wood Anatomically and Chemically Considered General Pro-
perties of Wood Description of the Different Kinds of Wood Principal Essences with
Caducous Leaves Coniferous Resinous Trees Division of the Useful Varieties of Timber
in the Different Countries of the Globe European Timber African Timber Asiatic
Timber American Timber Timber of Oceania Forests General Notes as to Forests ; their
Influence Opinions as to Sylviculture Improvement of Forests Unwooding and Rewoodmg
Preservation of Forests Exploitation of Forests Damage caused to Forests Different
Alterations The Preservation of Timber Generalities Causes and Progress of De-
terioration History of Different Proposed Processes Dessication Superficial Carbonisation
of Timber Processes by Immersion Generalities as to Antiseptics Employed Injection
Processes in Closed Vessels The Boucherie System, Based upon the Displacement of the
Sap Processes for Making Timber Uninflammable Applications of Timber Generalities
Working Timber Paving Timber for Mines Railway Traverses Accessory Products
Gums Works of M. Fremy Resins Barks Tan Application of Cork The Application of
Wood to Art and Dyeing Different Applications of Wood Hard Wood Distillation of
Wood Pyroligneous Acid Oil of Wood Distillation of Resins Index.
THE UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE. Translated from
the German of ERNST HUBBARD. Crown 8vo. 192 pp. 1902. Fifty
Illustrations. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries,
General Remarks on the Utilisation of Sawdust Employment of Sawdust as Fuel,
with and without Simultaneous Recovery of Charcoal and the Products of Distillation
Manufacture of Oxalic Acid from Sawdust Process with Soda Lye ; Thorn's Process ;
Bohlig's Process Manufacture of Spirit (Ethyl Alcohol) from Wood Waste Patent Dyes
(Organic Sulphides, Sulphur Dyes, or Mercapto Dyes) Artificial Wood and Plastic Com-
positions from Sawdust Production of Artificial Wood Compositions for Moulded De-
corations Employment of Sawdust for Blasting Powders and Gunpowders Employment
of Sawdust for Briquettes Employment of Sawdust in the Ceramic Industry and as an
Addition to Mortar Manufacture of Paper Pulp from Wood Casks Various Applications
of Sawdust and Wood Refuse Calcium Carbide Manure Wood Mosaic Plaques Bottle
Stoppers Parquetry Fire-lighters Carborundum The Production of Wood Wool Bark
Building and Architecture.
THE PREVENTION OF DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS ;
with Remarks on the Causes, Nature and Effects of Saline, Efflores-
cences and Dry-rot, for Architects, Builders, Overseers, Plasterers,
Painters and House Owners. By ADOLF WILHELM KEIM. Translated
from the German of the second revised Edition by M. J. SALTER, F.I.C.,
F.C.S. Eight Coloured Plates and Thirteen Illustrations. Crown 8vo.
115pp. 1902. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries,
6s. ; net.
The Various Causes of Dampness and Decay of the Masonry of Buildings, and the
Structural and Hygienic Evils of the Same Precautionary Measures during Building against
Dampness and Efflorescence Methods of Remedying Dampness and Efflorescences in the
Walls of Old Buildings The Artificial Drying of New Houses, as well as Old Damp Dwellings,
and the Theory of the Hardening of Mortar New, Certain and Permanently Efficient
Methods for Drying Old Damp Walls and Dwellings The Cause and Origin of Dry-rot : its
Injurious Effect on Health, its Destructive Action on Buildings, and its Successful Repres-
sion Methods of Preventing Dry-rot to be Adopted During Construction Old Methods
of Preventing Dry-rot Recent and More Efficient Remedies for Dry-rot Index.
GLOSSARY OP TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN ARCHI-
TECTURE, BUILDING, PLUMBING, AND THE
ALLIED TRADES AND SUBJECTS. By AUGUSTINE C.
PASSMORE. Demy 8vo. About 403 pp. [In the press.
Foods and Sweetmeats.
THE MANUFACTURE OF PRESERVED FOODS AND
SWEETMEATS. By A. HAUSNER. With Twenty-eight
Illustrations. Translated from the German of the third enlarged
Edition. Crown 8vo. 225 pp. 1902. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; net.
The Manufacture of Conserves Introduction The Causes of the Putrefaction of Food
The Chemical Composition of Foods The Products of Decomposition The Causes of Fer-
mentation and Putrefaction Preservative Bodies The Various Methods of Preserving Food
The Preservation of Animal Food Preserving Meat by Means of Ice The Preservation
of Meat by Charcoal Preservation of Meat by Drying The Preservation of Meat by the
Exclusion of Air The Appert Method Preserving Flesh by Smoking Quick Smoking Pre-
serving Meat with Salt Quick Salting by Air Pressure Quick Salting by Liquid Pressure
Gamgee's Method of Preserving Meat The Preservation of Eggs Preservation of White
and Yolk of Egg Milk Preservation Condensed Milk The Preservation of Fat Manu-
facture of Soup Tablets Meat Biscuits Extract of Beef The Preservation of Vegetable
Foods in General Compressing Vegetables Preservation of Vegetables by Appert's Method
The Preservation of Fruit Preservation of Fruit by Storage The Preservation of Fruit
by Drying Drying Fruit by Artificial Heat Roasting Fruit The Preservation of Fruit with
Sugar Boiled Preserved Fruit The Preservation of Fruit in Spirit, Acetic Acid or Glycerine
Preservation of Fruit without Boiling Jam Manufacture The Manufacture of Fruit
Jellies The Making of Gelatine Jellies The Manufacture of " Sulzen " The Preservation of
Fermented Beverages The Manufacture of Candies Introduction The Manufacture of
Candied Fruit The Manufacture of Boiled Sugar and Caramel The Candying of Fruit-
Caramelised Fruit The Manufacture of Sugar Sticks, or Barley Sugar Bonbon Making
Fruit Drops The Manufacture of Dragees The Machinery and Appliances used in Candy
Manufacture Dyeing Candies and Bonbons Essential Oils used in Candy Making Fruit
Essences The Manufacture of Filled Bonbons, Liqueur Bonbons and Stamped Lozenges
Recipes for Jams and Jellies Recipes for Bonbon Making Dragees Appendix Index.
Dyeing Fancy Goods.
THE ART OF DYEING AND STAINING MARBLE,
ARTIFICIAL STONE, BONE, HORN, IVORY AND
WOOD, AND OF IMITATING ALL SORTS OF
WOOD. A Practical Handbook for the Use of Joiners,
Turners, Manufacturers of Fancy Goods, Stick and Umbrella Makers,
Comb Makers, etc. Translated from the German of D. H. SOXHLET,
Technical Chemist. Crown 8vo. 168 pp. 1902. Price 5s. ; India and
Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; net.
Mordants and Stains Natural Dyes Artificial Pigments Coal Tar Dyes Staining
Marble and Artificial Stone Dyeing, Bleaching and Imitation of Bone, Horn and Ivory
Imitation of Tortoiseshell for Combs : Yellows, Dyeing Nuts Ivory Wood Dyeing Imitation
of Mahogany : Dark Walnut, Oak, Birch-Bark, Elder-Marquetry, Walnut, Walnut-Marquetry,
Mahogany, Spanish Mahogany, Palisander and Rose Wood, Tortoiseshell, Oak, Ebony, Pear
Tree Black Dyeing Processes with Penetrating Colours Varnishes and Polishes: English
Furniture Polish, Vienna Furniture Polish, Amber Varnish, Copal Varnish, Composition for
Preserving Furniture Index.
Lithography and Engraving.
PRACTICAL LITHOGRAPHY. By JOSEPH KIRKBRIDE.
Demy 8vo. With Plates and Illustrations. [In the press.
StonesTransfer Inks Transfer Papers Transfer Printing Litho Press Press Work-
Machine Printing Colour Printing Substitutes for Lithographic Stones Tin Plate Printing
and Decoration Photo-Lithography.
ENGRAVING FOR ILLUSTRATION. HISTORICAL
AND PRACTICAL NOTES. By J. KIRKBRIDE. 72 pp.
Two Plates and Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad,
3s. ; strictly net.
Its Inception Wood Engraving Metal Engraving Engraving in England Etching
Mezzotint Photo-Process Engraving The Engraver's Task Appreciative Criticism
PRACTICAL BOOKBINDING. By PAUL ADAM. Translated
from;the German. Demy 8vo. With 129 Illustrations. [In the press.
Materials for Sewing and Pasting Materials for Covering the Book Materials For
Decorating and Finishing Tools General Preparatory Work Sewing Forwarding,
Cutting, Rounding and Backing Forwarding, Decoration of Edges and Headbanding
Boarding Preparing the Cover Work with the Blocking Press Treatment of Sewn Books,
Fastening in Covers, and Finishing Off Handtooling and Other Decoration Account Books
School Books, Mounting Maps, Drawings, etc. Index.
THE TECHNOLOGY OP SUGAR: Practical Treatise on
the Modern Methods of Manufacture of Sugar from the Sugar Cane and
Sugar Beet. By JOHN GEDDES MC!NTOSH. Demy 8vo. 83 Illus-
trations. [In the press.
Chemistry of Sucrose,' Lactose, Maltose, Glucose, Invert Sugar, etc. Purchase and
Analysis of Beets Treatment of Beets Diffusion Filtration Concentration Evaporation
Sugar Cane: Cultivation Milling Diffusion Sugar Refining Analysis of Raw Sugars
Chemistry of Molasses, etc.
New Textile Books.
(S^ also pp. 19-24.)
TEXTILE CALCULATIONS, especially relating to Woollens.
From the German of N. REISER. Thirty-four Illustrations. Tables.
[In the press.
Calculating the Raw Material Proportion of Different Grades of Wool to Furnish a
Mixture at a Given Price Quantity to Produce a Given Length Yarn Calculations Yarn
Number Working Calculations Calculating the Reed Count Cost of Weaving, etc,
WATERPROOFING FABRICS AND MATERIALS. By
Dr. S. MICRZINSKI. Twenty-nine Illustrations. [In the press.
Preparing the Fabrics Impregnating the Fabrics Drying Paraffin Cupric Oxide of
Ammonia Size Tannin Metallic Oxides, etc.
SCOTT, GREENWOOD & Co. will forward any of the above Books, post
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