Skip to main content

Full text of "Valentine's manual of old New York"

See other formats


















f T » » » T » 


\^'M, K*'« »l«l >.,-;< »N., \r;iHf,.r, 

Is receiving cargo at Pier 19 If. R.. 

1 .►.. I «M <• % I III N I < \ • 

SUlTl^ON & LiK, JO 00 u III 61., cor. Wuii. 

- , I i!.!- r.idc iii.oiir^i a( H;<- i.nv.-.t t.h. .-,. ;iiiil an: di'-jiali liiil ijui< k<-r 
it\ i.iii. > ffin ><^ \'<>rk tu >au l-i^u<f»<-'> 

1850. Advertising card in colors which created the craze for "chromo 
cards'" that raged in New York in the 80s. 


Old New -York. 



Edited By , 

New York 1919. 

Valentine's Manual Inc. 

\5East^"' St. 

Copyright. 1918 


Henry Collins Brown. 

Press of 

The Chauncey Holt Comp.^ny 

New York City 


Mtvtl^nntB nnh Mutinns 
at mh ^m 1 0rk 
iv tI|iB volume ie afffrtionatelg 

5 briirateii 








William S. M. Silber 44 

OLD CHELSEA. Robert Hall S3 


YORK 69 































Pelham Bolton 138 



Stephen Wray 146 




John Crawford Brown 173 


JEWS OF OLD NEW YORK. Prof. A. S. Isaacs 216 

PLY. A. J. Wall 225 


PACIFISTS IN 1776 242 















EARLY HISTORY OF RIVERDALE. Eugene L. Delafield 287 




W. L. Calver 293 





SION. John Quincy Adams 322 

TION 334 







MENT 361 





List of the Rare Old Prints, Engravings, Photographs 

and Colored Lithographs Contained 

in this Volume. 


































"BRONX" 155 















MORRIS. 1895 207 



COLOR) 220 


HOOD 227 


























LINE, 1850. (IN COLOR) 324 



BRIDGE ROAD, 1849 337 



(Famous in the California and Chinese Trade, 1853.) 



Now the most fashionable residential section in the downtown 


Showing stoops of the old-time residences, still standing, and the 
old V. ^rehouse, corner Broad and Wall, now the Morgan comer. 
An exceptionally interesting photograph. 


Vol. Ill 





Old New York 


IN a recent entertaining volume on "American His- 
torians of the Middle Period," a most interesting 
glimpse is given of the actual physical labor in- 
volved in the compilation of a standard historical work 
and also some very intimate figures concerning the 
monetary reward — or lack of it — enjoyed by the authors. 
The account of Bancroft's "History of the United States" 
contained one reference which to us was of more than 
passing interest. When the first volume of this work was 
offered to the public, it was received with comparative 
indifference; when the second volume appeared, a few 
years later, it seemed to revive interest in the undertaking, 
but with the appearance of the third volume, the sales of 
the two preceding numbers were greatly accelerated and 
the success of the book was fully assured. 

[ 1] 


With this number of the Manual, we face a similar 
crucial period in our own work. The second issue ap- 
peared when our country had engaged in a world war of 
unparalleled magnitude and the thoughts of our friends 
were centered not on old New York, but on the battle 
fields of France. The sales of the Manual were, there- 
fore, somewhat curtailed. Nevertheless we successfully 
weathered the gale and our advance sales for the third 
number, to our great delight, assures us that the lack of 
interest in our work was merely temporary, and that the 
New Yorker is still interested in his city and in the 
countless valuable memorabilia which we are collecting. 

Time passes so rapidly that in a few years subscribers 
to the Manual will be amazed at the amount of valuable 
material concerning New York which will be in their 
possession. No single volume can adequately show the 
extent of the work, but when a dozen issues have been 
completed we think our friends will be more than pleased 
with the result of the investment. Interest in New York 
is growing with every passing day, and after the War it 
will be even greater than ever before. 

The present management of the Manual does not look 
upon it as a private venture ; it is more in the nature of a 
public enterprise. We sometimes regret the lack of sup- 
port by our Municipal authorities, even in a modified de- 
gree. On the other hand, we enjoy a measure of editorial 
freedom which must in the end tend to the advantage of 
the Manual, as it enables us to select such material as 
commends itself to our judgment with no obligation from 

any quarter. 


The City of New York, always of first importance in 
the new world, has within the past year or two suddenly 



assumed the leading position among the capitals of both 
Europe and America. There is a quickening interest in 
all its annals, and in the course of a few years these 
volumes should become a veritable storehouse of antiqua- 
rian lore concerning its origin and progress. We think 
our readers will agree with us that each number so far 
has been an improvement upon its predecessor, and that 
will ever be the policy under the present management. 
We sometimes feel that we deprive ourselves of many 
things in this life that are really worth while simply 
because they do not pay. The time, labor and expense 
involved in obtaining even material for one number of the 
Manual is very considerable. It must be always local in 
its interest and in spite of the great population, it appeals 
to merely a limited number. Its value to posterity, how- 
ever, so we are informed by competent authorities, is 
incalculable. We had an amusing experience of the truth 
of this fact at the Crimmins sale in March, when a copy of 
the second number brought $17.00 at auction. In view 
of the fact that we were advertising and using every exer- 
tion to notify the public that this book was a current 
number and could be purchased for $10.00, it was rather 
discouraging to find it so little known that it was eagerly 
purchased at 70 per cent, over our subscribers' price. 
Perhaps our advertising department is at fault; perhaps 
some of our readers can tell us how to improve this de- 
fect. Not having the opulent city of New York at our 
back, as was the case with our distinguished predecessor, 
we are naturally circumscribed in our methods of public- 
ity. For some time to come we shall be obliged to de- 
pend upon the formula prescribed by Governor Stuyve- 
sant, whose public proclamations invariably ended with 



the solemn injunction that "each one should tell the 


That the Manual is slowly making its way into the 
affections of the people of New York is evidenced in 
many directions. In spite of the war we have frequent 
orders from London, Paris and other European points. 
The sale outside of New York is confined to no single 
state in the Union, but numbers a friend in almost each 
one. We are also painfully conscious that our own 
efforts do not realize our expectations as yet, but as our 
acquaintance expands and our ramifications become 
wider, we are confident that many treasures of old Nevf 
York will ultimately find their way to the public through 
the pages of the Manual. The volume of our correspond- 
ence grows daily and in normal times we think the sale 
of the Manual would be greatly increased. 

We consider ourselves peculiarly fortunate in being 
able to present to our readers in this number, through 
the courtesy of Mr. Simeon Ford, a splendid colored 
supplement showing the afternoon promenade at the Bat- 
tery, from the only perfect known copy of this lithograph 
published by Thos. Thompson in 1829. 

At the time our picture was taken the population of 
New York was 129,000 — considerably less than Philadel- 
phia, which was still the first city in the Union. Fifteen 
years were yet to elapse before running water would be 
introduced into the houses, the supply still being obtained 
from pumps at the street corners and in the middle of 
road ways. Anthracite coal, or as it was called, "sea 
coal," was yet unheard of and illuminating gas while 
discovered, was not yet in general use. Pigs were still 
th€ most important branch of the Street Cleaning. 



Department and together it was a strangely different city 
from the one of today. The costumes are deHghtfully 
quaint and represent quite a radical change from the col- 
orful dress of Colonial days. The trousers had finally 
been stretched below the knee and caught with a strap on 
the instep of the foot. They were skin tight. The coats 
and vests still rivaled Jacob's garments in their various 
hues and brilliancy. Huge brass buttons shone conspic- 
uously and the high stocks of mufiflers served to impart 
an imposing appearance to the wearer. The tall and 
somewhat ponderous beaver hat was a radical departure 
from the three cornered cockade and had not yet assumed 
the smartness which it subsequently achieved. In fact 
the high hat seemed to have bothered our grandfathers 
quite considerably, and relics are still found in our attics 
measuring eighteen inches in height, several inches in the 
brim and covered with a coat of long beaver. Strange 
to relate the dress of the women was still suggestive of 
the Colonial dame, although the beginning of hoop skirts 
was plainly indicated. The old time poke bonnet, much 
ridiculed in our day, was still an effective attribute of the 
woman of fashion of 1830. Her shawl was of exquisite 
fineness, being largely imported from China and the far 
East, and made of the most exquisitely soft materials. 
One can imagine the excitement which would be created 
in a group of this character by the sudden appearance 
among them of a modern woman dressed in the height 

of the present fashion. 

He ***** * 

The structural features of the Battery, as it then ex- 
isted and which have long since disappeared also com- 
mand our attention. It is quite apparent that there was a 
boardwalk built over the shore line which extended from 



Pier 1 to South Ferry. At the time this drawing was 
made the shore line skirted along what is now Battery 
Place, following State Street within fifty feet of the 
houses and ended in front of the Eagle Hotel, oppo- 
site Hamilton Ferry. What is now the Aquarium was 
then Castle Clinton and was a substantial fortification 
erected prior to the War of 1812. It was not until 1854 
that the land was filled in to conform to the present ap- 
pearance of Battery Park. (We printed a picture of the 
filling in process in Vol. H — one of the earliest outdoor 
photographs of the city known to exist.) When this 
filling in was completed. Castle Clinton became part of 
the main land. It was formerly reached by a bridge and 
stood some two hundred feet from the shore. The pres- 
ent sea wall and some slight additions to the land have 
been made quite recently, so there has been a very radical 
change in the old Battery since the time of this quaint 
lithograph. Governor's Island and Castle William to the 
left was still seen in their original formation. The pres- 
ent aviation field and the numerous additions made to the 
island in the last fifty years have more than quadrupled 
its original size. The old fort, however, remains as it 
was, with the difference, however, that as a fort today it 
is of no more use than a band box. Bedloe's Island, 
now adorned with the Statue of Liberty, shows as merely 
a very small obstruction, one might say, and in no wise 
resembles the substantial island of today. To the left 
is Ellis Island with a single building upon it, which was 
later used as a powder magazine. It seems very much 
smaller than our present Emigrant Station, but that also 
is due to the additions made to it in the years that have 
intervened. A vast amount of dredging work has always 
been conducted in the harbor and the deepening of the 

[8 ] 


Channel has provided abundant material for the addition 

to these islands which originally were very small. 

But the most interesting feature of all is the animated 
marine picture in the Bay itself. The three-masted ship 
to the extreme left with the black ball on the sail is one of 
the famous Black Ball China tea ships, making harbor 
after a voyage from the Orient. The other ships in the 
picture are distinguished members of our long lost mer- 
chant marine — Red Cross, Swallow Tail and other packet 
lines — which made regular sailings to Liverpool and 
Australian ports. A notable feature of these ships is 
the fact that they are beating their way up the Bay under 
their own sail. In those days no tugs or other assistance 
was available. The ships came out of the ocean and 
made their way to their berths unaided, and with naught 
but the skill of the captain to guide them. 

The persons shown are supposed to be from the ranks 
of the most fashionable society of the day. This section 
of New York was easily the most exclusive at the time 
and corresponded with our present Fifth Avenue east of 
Central Park. There is still no more animated picture 
in the world than the view from this selfsame Battery 
and it is the delight and admiration of strangers from 
everywhere. Apparently we who live in the City do not 
appreciate the many attractions of this spot, otherwise 
the Battery would be thronged of a summer evening, as 
it was in the olden time. This rare lithograph is just one 
more reminder of the vast changes which have occurred 
in our city in a comparatively brief period. It is a highly 
important contribution to the annals of old New York 
and too much cannot be said of Mr. Ford's generosity in 
placing it at the disposal of our readers. We regret ex- 



ceedingly to be unable to give more details of the firm 
which published this remarkable picture. Beyond the 
fact that the name was Thos. Thompson and that the 
sketch was drawn on stone by Thompson himself, we 
have no other details. It would be interesting to know 
more about this man and his work. If any of our friends 
should be in possession of information that would en- 
lighten us on this subject, it would afford us pleasure to 
place it on record. 

We are glad to note that the proposed use of Battery 
Park by the Federal Government has been abandoned in 
deference to the protest lodged by the Women's Auxiliary 
of the American Defense Society. Miss Elisabeth Mar- 
bury sent a stirring appeal to the City and Government 
on the subject with this splendid result. 

Good work ! Now will Miss Marbury please lend her 
aid to remove the old post office and restore the City Hall 
Park to its original dimensions? 

A column of Victory in place of this old building would 
be a great improvement. We hope to work on this 
project during the coming year and invite suggestions 
from our readers. 

Another view of extraordinary interest is the pano- 
ramic supplement, showing both sides of Broadway from 
the Battery to Rector Street. With painstaking care 
the artist has pictured every building as it then stood, 
exactly as it appeared in 1848. We still see the private 
residences which lined State Street and which were 
among the very earliest erected under American auspices. 
The three houses shown on this block were occupied 
respectively by Robt. Lenox, J. B. Coles and Moses 
Rogers. Directly facing us is the end of the row of houses 

[ 10 ] 

Baxtns'x^n of tl|p Bm^ IB 52 

Perhaps the most celebrated of all 
the California clippers and among the 
largest, 2,421 tons. She was com- 
manded by Capt. Lauchlan McKay, 
brother of Donald McKay the builder. 
Some idea of the profits of the Cali- 
fornia trade may be gauged from the 
receipts of her "first voyage, $84,000. 

She returned by way of Honolulu 
and hung up the reniarkalile run of 
1,478 miles in four daj's or an aver- 
age of 378 miles per day. Her best 
day's run, March 18th, 1853, was 411 
miles and for 11 days she averaged 
330 miles steady or 13% knots per 
hour. Allowing for difl'erence in lati- 
tude and longitude her run of 411 
miles was actually 424 miles land 
measure. She was a remarkable ship 
whose memory still lingers in New 
York.— Collection of Mr. M. Williams. 


which stood on Battery Place where the Custom 
House now is, and which in later days was known as 
"Steamship Row." Opposite State Street is a view of 
the Bay and old Fort Clinton, now changed into an emi- 
grant receiving station, Castle Garden, and known to 
probably more men and women than any other building in 
the country. Through its portals passed all immigrants 
who landed on these shores between 1855 and 1891. It 
will thus be seen that our statement, which may surprise 
many, that it is the best known building in the United 
States has a firm foundation of truth. Not alone have 
millions of men and women passed through this building, 
but they have described it and spoken of it to their chil- 
dren and thus increased its fame throughout not only 
New York but all the cities of the West. If corrobora- 
tion of this remark is needed, inquire among the post 
card men and view makers of New York and also of the 
Inquiry Department in our various Historical Societies 
and they will all state that the most in demand of all the 
buildings in New York City is old Castle Garden. 

Beginning at No. 1, west side, each building is shown 
in numerical order. On the east side it starts at Beaver 
Street with the old Adelphi Hotel and follows the same 
arrangement as the other. In many instances the owners 
of the buildings paid for their insertion and some tenants 
paid for their signs which appeared on the building. We 
may therefore conclude that the drawings are absolutely 
correct and as a result we have a most extraordinarily 
valuable picture of our principal street at the time when 
it was just beginning to emerge from a residential thor- 
oughfare into the most important commercial artery of 
the leading city of the new world. 

[ 15 ] 


The publishers were apparently among the first lithog- 
raphers in the city of New York. They had their shop 
at 128 Fulton Street, which appears to have been the 
favorite location for this new business, as we find the 
imprints of several other lithographers also in this neigh- 
borhood — Endicott & Co., N. Currier and several others 
whose work appears in the original Manual. 

Jones and Newman made a serious attempt to portray 
every important street in the City of New York at that 
particular time. In addition to the Broadway views, 
there is known to be a set depicting William Street, 
Maiden Lane and Fulton Street. It is also said that 
Broadway was continued north from the Hospital which 
was then at Worth Street, clear up to Grace Church. 
Whether or not this statement was true cannot now be 
determined. These views were originally in pamphlet 
form and the size was 8x11 inches. The workmanship 
is crude as is shown in our reproduction, which is an 
exact facsimile, but was considered good at that time. 
They sold at a very modest price — 25c. per copy. Most 
of the revenue was apparently obtained from the adver- 
tisements, the covers of the pamphlet being filled with the 
names of the various merchants whose stores and shops 
were shown in the illustrations. On account of their 
cheapness, it is quite evident that most of the copies were 
not highly prized, as few of them are now in existence. 
Their importance today, however, is of the highest, and 
a complete set of these little pamphlets, which could have 
been purchased for $1.00 in 1848, is now considered cheap 
at $600.00. This is only one more illustration of the fact 
that historically speaking "the trash of today becomes 
the treasure of tomorrow." It is quite impossible to state 
the sum of money that would be given today for the con- 

[ 16] 


tinuation of Broadway; for Wall Street and for other 
important streets, such as Pearl Street, then the leading 
retail section, which might thus have been preserved to 
posterity. We are indebted to the New York Historical 
Society for the privilege of presenting these views in the 
Manual. We have reproduced them with every fidelity 
to size, color and form. There are three additional 
pamphlets in the set and these will be duly presented in 
succeeding issues of the Manual. Our readers will then 
have a complete set of what is conceded to be one of the 
most interesting items of old New York views. 

Views of Wall Street, such as this one of Broadway 
of this period, are extremely rare. Sections of certain 
localities, notably at the corner of Broad and Wall, are 
occasionally encountered, but an entire prospective from 
Broadway to the East River does not apparently exist. 
We have, however, closely examined the pencil sketch 
drawn by Reinagle about 1825, which adorns the margin 
of a view of Wall Street, looking from Broadway. In a 
note on this lithograph the artist states that he has "drawn 
in the margin each house as it then appeared and every 
building (at that time standing), is represented." Upon 
close examination, we are glad to state that the artist 
is quite correct in his statement. There are, however, 
one or two spots which seem to be incorrectly rendered, 
but which no doubt could be readily supplied from other 
data. We are now at work upon this interesting dis- 
covery and in an early number of the Manual we shall 
present a redraft of this drawing, which we are sure 
will be greatly enjoyed by our readers. 

Our third supplement shows a view of New York look- 
ing south from Forty-second Street. This admirable 

[ 17] 


drawing is the work of John W. Hill, evidences of whose 
talent are found in several directions, notably in the view 
of Broadway looking north from Canal Street, which is 
familiar to most of our readers. Mr. Hill, it appears, 
came from England, commissioned to make the portraits 
of most of our distinguished citizens, but no record of his 
portraiture has survived. He found employment, how- 
ever, in various enterprises, in which his ability as an 
artist was used to good effect. He was also a colorist 
of rare skill and his view of New York from Brooklyn 
Heights gives abundant evidence of his talent in this 
direction. He was an experienced workman in the pro- 
duction of aquatints, a process of engraving which is now 
obsolete. Many of the color prints of this period were 
produced by this method and there is a singular softness 
and charm in them which is not obtained by present day 
methods. Impressions were taken from a copper plate 
which could be printed either in black or in colors at the 
artist's discretion. It was evidently a slow and laborious 
process, the entire subject having to be painted by the art- 
ist in colors directly on the copper. Notwithstanding the 
number of colors used in the process, they were all printed 
at one impression. This is in striking contrast to our 
present methods, which call for the superimposing of one 
color over another, the final result being the blending of 
all of the other colors in proper register. These aqua- 
tints of Hill's have gained much renown and are ex- 
tremely valuable, the Broadway view being held at 
$400.00 to $500.00, according to condition. Mr. Hill was 
also employed in the production of the Hudson River 
portfolio of views and is said to have collaborated with 
Benson J. Lossing in the many illustrations which em- 
bellished his "Field book of the Revolution." He is, 

[ 18 ] 

Broadway south from Houston Street (18(50). Old St. 'riioniiu 

Church in the foreground. Note the awnings, tlie stages 

and the trees. Collection of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider. 


however, chiefly remembered by the plates depicting New 
York; and the example which we have reproduced, by 
reason of the extent of the view and the importance of 
the territory represented is becoming one of his most 
valuable contributions. It was made at the time of the 
opening of the Crystal Palace (which was the forerunner 
of all the World's Fairs), which was located in Bryant 
Park on Sixth Avenue from 40th to 42nd Streets. The 
other part of this square extended to Fifth Avenue and 
was occupied by the Croton Aqueduct, which at that time 
was the eighth wonder of the world, in our eyes. 

Directly opposite the Crystal Palace, on the north side 
of 42nd Street had been erected a towering structure 
named after its designer, Latting's Observatory. It was 
the Eififel Tower of its day. Visitors to the Exposition 
were wont to ascend this Observatory to the top floor, 
thus gaining a comprehensive view of the Metropolis 
stretching out from its base. The corner, now occupied 
by the Astor Trust Company, was then a vacant lot. It 
was valued at about $1,500. On the next block is a 
private residence surrounded by a garden of roses, and 
on the corner of 40th Street, where Arnold Constable & 
Company is, stands the Croton Cottage, the only building 
approaching a hotel in the neighborhood. It was possible 
to obtain refreshments for man and beast at this hostlery 
and also to remain over night if desired. The luxuriant 
trees which lined Fifth Avenue in those days are still 
plainly seen and in the neighborhood of Thirty-fourth 
Street are the first evidences of the approaching city. 
There are still a number of the houses with ample yards, 
extending half way toward Madison Avenue. Below 
Thirty-fourth Street begins the monotonous array of 
brown stond fronts, so characteristic of New York. 

[21 1 


When the Crystal Palace was first opened, its location 
was considered quite far out of town and the Sixth Ave- 
nue street car line had to be extended to complete com- 
munication. The entire neighborhood from river to 
river, as will be seen, was sparsely populated, many of 
the most densely populated squares of today being then 
open lots. The Harlem Railroad with its wood-burning 
locomotives came down Park Avenue on a single track 
to Madison Square Garden, where the engine was 
dropped and the remainder of the journey to City Hall 
was continued by means of horses. The Hudson River 
Road had its station at Thirtieth Street and Eleventh 
Avenue and likewise continued its journey to its main 
depot at Chambers Street and West Broadway by horse 
power. By reference to this old drawing and a com- 
parison with the many storied structures which now 
cover the same section, a striking contrast is presented. 
This old drawing of Hill's, therefore is of rare interest, 
rendering as it does a contemporaneous birdseye view of 
our great city up to its most northern limits as it appeared 
sixty years ago. In this connection, it is somewhat pa- 
thetic to recall the remark of the architect of the Croton 
Reservoir who died in the firm belief that no matter what 
else might happen he had left an enduring monument to 
his memory, in the Egyptian structure which housed the 
city's water supply at the corner of Forty-second Street 

and Fifth Avenue, and of which he was the designer. 

This great world war has brought many changes, not 
the least of which is the revived interest in shipping. In 
another chapter we have tried to tell briefly the glory of 
New York in the days of the Clipper. These old ships 
will be affectionately recalled by many old New Yorkers, 



as they were a picturesque feature of this busy port for 
nearly a century. As we have said before New York is 
fortunate in possessing written records or tangible evi- 
dences of many of her most important developments. 
The first Dutch settlers, as we know, were scarcely 
allowed to draw breath without a specific order from the 
State's General, with the result that no city enjoys a more 
complete record of its early days. To a very great ex- 
tent this is also true of her shipping. It is quite impos- 
sible at the present day to reproduce the spirit and the 
atmosphere which clustered around these fliers of the 
"roaring forties." The affection of a man for a ship may 
be likened to the same feeling which he has for a horse. 
To this personal liking for those old ships we no doubt 
owe the fact that many of the favorites of the day en- 
joyed the honor of being lithographed and sold to their 
admirers. This honor, however, was reserved only for 
the more famous of the group, yet there exist many paint- 
ings equally authentic and likewise contemporaneous of 
many vessels which never reached the dignity of publica- 
tion. It would not be wholly impossible, were it deemed 
necessary, to secure an almost complete collectipn of 150 
or more clipper ships hailing from the Port of New 

It is our great pleasure to commence this collection 
with this volume. We have presented twelve of the best 
known craft of their day, together with some of the 
fancy colored cards which used to be distributed to ship- 
pers by Hussey's Post. There are still many men living 
in New York who as boys played on their decks 
and climbed their masts. It was the golden age of our 
maritime commerce and the like of our square rigged 
beauties may never be seen again. The renaissance of 

[23 ] 


our merchant marine is nevertheless a strong probability. 
At the close of the war, our Navy will have been aug- 
mented to incredible numbers, both in men and ships. 
The importance of sea power has never before been 
brought home so strikingly as it has in the past year or 
two. Small wonder is it, therefore, that our Govern- 
ment should be giving serious thought to the development 
of her long lost supremacy on the high seas. 

Another installment of these famous old ships will fol- 
low the first and be continued until the series is com- 
pleted. It will embrace practically every well-known ship 
sailing from this port up to the outbreak of the Civil War 
and the opening of the Suez Canal, which marked the end 
of a period forever glorious in the history of American 

[24 ] 

The Masonic Temple at Sixth Avenue and 23rd Street, 1876. The 

Dows residence, the fourth house above, was the 

site of the Eden Musee. 


Taken ftom the Latting Observatory, 42nd Street opposite the Crystal Palace, Looking South 

Dr>wn from N.ture By J. W. Hill in 1855 


Recollections of Old Sixth Avenue 

Walter C. Reid 

"Dear to my heart are the 
Scenes of my Childhood" 

IT is difficult to realize the wonderful changes in our 
great city during the past fifty years until we look 
over publications such as this. Without such 
corroborative evidence, the stories of the early days that 
we "to the manner born" are fond of repeating, are open 
to suspicion as it seems hardly possible that such great 
changes could occur in so short a period. 

In the Manual for 1916 was shown a cottage that stood 
at the corner of Broadway and Twenty-ninth Street at 
the rear of which in my boyhood days I have picked 
sickel pears, and I am not yet sixty. My grandfather 
had greenhouses on Thirtieth Street between Broadway 
and Fifth Avenue, with adjoining city lots covering a 
space 250 x 100, for which at one time he paid only the 
taxes as rent. 



I was born in a house on Sixth Avenue, and many fond 
recollections center around that thoroughfare. That 
rapid transit decreed that its beauty should be marred by 
the elevated railroad has always been a cause of regret. 
The Avenue never developed as fully as it might have 
done had it been a direct artery from down town, but 
was handicapped almost as much as Seventh Avenue has 
been, by entrance from Canal Street and the South by 
Varick Street and its extension Carmine Street. Coming 
North, as you leave Bleecker Street at Carmine, you enter 
Sixth Avenue, and your view is immediately met by the 
Sixth Avenue Elevated Road as it turns in from West 
Third Street, formerly known as Amity Street. The 
old Avenue here is almost as it was fifty years ago. 

The firm of J. & R. Lamb had its warerooms for 
church furniture a short distance above on the left. There 
were the usual sprinkling of grocery stores and butcher 
shops with the liquor saloons placed, as now, on prominent 
corners. The grocers were usually Germans who also 
sold garden truck and at any of them you might buy a 
penny pickle if you preferred that to candy. In those 
days the grocers sprinkled their floors with sea sand, and 
the butchers theirs with saw dust. Why the diflference, 
I never knew. The butchers in those days made their 
deliveries in two-wheeled carts drawn usually by a fast 
horse, which horse in the afternoon was used by the 
owner for racing purposes in Harlem Lane. The but- 
chers and grocers both displayed half their wares on the 
sidewalk, and the fronts of their stores were protected 
by tin sheds extending to the edge of the walk. 

I was born over a "Dutch" grocery. My father was 
in the provision business across the Avenue. I was a 
convenient receptacle for spotted bananas, which in those 



days were red, not yellow, and occasionally a luscious 
orange. My first recollection of a Sixth Avenue horse 
car was when, as a little chap in kilts, I dropped one of 
said oranges while running across to avoid being run 
over, and my dear orange was smashed into pulp. These 
first cars were shaped like the old Fifth Avenue busses, 
except that they were on car wheels, and were drawn by 
one horse. The driver sat on top, and there was no con- 
ductor. You passed your fare up through a little hole 
to the driver. The fare was six cents. 

While we did not live long at this place, nearly all my 
life up to my twentieth year I lived on or near Sixth 
Avenue. Living as I did above Twenty-third Street, my 
recollections of lower Sixth Avenue forty to fifty years 
ago are not very clear. 

The chief buildings that I recall South of Twenty-third 
Street are the old Catholic Church on the Northwest cor- 
ner of West Washington Place ; the Greenwich Savings 
Bank at the Southwest corner of Waverly Place, a modest 
but massive building that made you feel that your money 
there deposited was safe ; Jefferson Market at the triangle 
made by Sixth Avenue, Greenwich Avenue and West 
Tenth Street (the entire triangle was covered by the mar- 
ket in those days, with a story above in which Court was 
held. This is now taken up largely by the brick court 
house) ; at Twelfth Street there was a saloon over the 
door of which there was an immense bunch of gold 
grapes. This was called "The Grapevine" (the title may 
have been suggested by the steps of the departing guests) ; 
at Thirteenth Street, just off the Avenue, was old Gram 
mar School No. 35, at which Thomas Hunter (later of 
the girls' Normal School or Hunter College, as it is called 
now) presided; Shepard Knapp, the carped man, had a 



store on one corner ; Silsbee's oyster saloon was half way 
up the block ; across the Avenue at Fourteenth Street was 
the beginning of R. H. Macy & Co., operated by Webster 
& Wheeler in three small stores, each 25 x 100, with the 
accompanying basements. 

On the Northerly corner across from Macy's, in the 
basement, Thorley & Son sold flowers and plants. Thor- 
ley Jr., now operates on Fifth Avenue at Forty-sixth 
Street. Frankfield had a jewelry store on the North- 
westerly corner. 

The large store with iron front formerly occupied by 
Altman & Co. at the corner of Nineteenth Street was not 
in existence at that time, the site being covered by two 
story buildings with small stores. Altman and his mother 
had a small store on the block above between Nineteenth 
and Twentieth Streets. A short distance above was 
Deshler's bakery, the delight of the boys of West Twenti- 
eth Street Public School, where they spent their spare 
change at lunch time. 

The Episcopal Church at the corner of Twentieth 
Street is still there to-day. Several private houses ad- 
joined this. It was here I had my first really painful 
loss. A dentist residing in one of these removed an 
aching tooth and I never forgave him. Wall's bakery was 
on the corner of Twenty-first Street, — a bakery in the 
days when bakers' mince pie was real mince pie. Diago- 
nally opposite was Jackson's grocery, at that time one of 
the best uptown. 

Stern Brothers occupied a little store just below Twen- 
ty-third Street for their dry goods business, and William 
Moir had a jewelry store on the corner. Booth's Theatre 
was opposite. The Masonic Temple had not yet arrived, 
but Roome's Real Estate oflfice and the Excelsior Savings 



Bank were already on the site. The Northwest corner 
was occupied by Alexander's Shoe Store. The early rec- 
ollections of a boy are apt to center around a candy shop 
or a bakery, and I have pleasant recollections of a little 
candy store on the West side, just above Twenty-third 
Street, the name of the proprietor of which I have for- 

The bake shop of John Crawford adjoined my father's 
place above Twenty- fourth Street. The recollection of 
those cream puffs clings to me still. They were so full 
that your tongue had to play tag with your teeth to pre- 
vent that cream from dripping over the edges. And the 
bath buns, filled with raisins and citron and colored a rich 
yellow with real eggs, Um ! Um ! I can taste them now. 

Next door to my birthplace on the Westerly side of the 
Avenue, John C. Devens, who afterwards designed the 
Pansy Corset and moved to Broadway and Twenty-eighth 
Street, operated a fancy store. Mr. Devens was a brother 
of General Devens, for whom the military camp at Ayer, 
Mass., is named. 

At the Northeast corner of Twenty-fifth Street was a 
store occupied by a furniture dealer which subsequently 
became a headquarters for the Thomson-Houston Electric 
Light Company. This was in the early days of the arc 
light, when it was necessary for it to sizz and splutter to 
show what an improvement it was over gas illumination. 

Just north of this store was Mrs. Hopkins' Pie Bakery. 
Her business was serving groceries with pies, and the 
wagons used were the first, I think, for carrying pies, 
arranged with rows of shelves on each side in cabinets, 
with a passageway down the middle. Mrs. Hopkins fur- 
nished a very popular pie. 



I think the old Racquet Club Building- on the corner of 
Twenty-sixth Street has been built more than forty years. 
Adjoining this was the tailor shop of John Patterson, a 
leading custom tailor of those days. 

Paisley's Shoe Store occupied the Northwest corner of 
Twenty-seventh Street. This was one of the largest up- 
town, at the time. Diagonally opposite, between Twenty- 
seventh and Twenty-eighth Streets was and still is the old 
Knickerbocker Cottage, an old road house, now very 
much shut in. 

Next to Paisley's was Doctor Giles' drug store. Doc- 
tor Giles manufactured a liniment that had a large sale, 
and was advertised on the rocks all around the country. 

Between Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Streets was 
George Finkenauer's Paint Store. This is where we got 
our putty for our putty blowers, and just above, on the 
same block, was Davis' Stationery Store, where we bought 
our school supplies. Mrs. Davis was the boss. She 
never appeared without her bonnet made of wire covered 
with brown cloth. It was rumored among the boys that 
she had no hair. Anyway, she always wore the bonnet. 

On the corner above stood Niess' Bakery, with fresh 
Washington pie and ginger bread in chunks at noon time 
school recess, pumpkin pie with the tops done brown, cur- 
rant pie so full of currants that you just couldn't catch 
it all. What boy that went to old School No. 26 in those 
days does not remember? 

Silsbie's Oyster Saloon was across the way, half way up 
the block, and adjoining this was a place that had a very 
varied career, and was the start of making the Twentieth 
Precinct the tenderloin of New York. It was first a 
bathing pavilion, then an aquarium, then was known as 
the Argyle and subsequently the Cremorne Gardens, a 



rather troublesome dancehall. On the block above, a little 
later, Billy Borst startedt+te>.^nmi;^ fiarden, another all 
night dancehall. * -' "^ ^ ^^ 

Captain Steers was Captain of the precinct previous to 
the regime of Captain Alexander Williams, and you had 
better believe the boys steered clear of his patrolmen, 
especially when hooking barrels for bonfires on election 
night. It was a common thing to gather in as many as 
fifty barrels to send up in smoke. 

On the corner of Thirty-second Street was a marble 
works. The property was owned by R. A. Witthaus, the 
father of the celebrated poison expert who died a short 
time ago. This is the property facing Greeley Square. 
Mr. Witthaus afterwards sold this property at what he 
considered a high figure to the Union Dime Savings 
Bank, which erected an imposing building on the site, but 
long since abandoned by the bank for the present site at 
the corner of Fortieth Street. The Sixth Avenue side of 
Greeley Square is now called Broadway as well as the 
Easterly side, but I will assume for my purpose that it 
was all Sixth Avenue. 

On the upper Northeasterly corner of Thirty-second 
Street was a two story building used by D. Martin for 
storage purposes. This was one of the first storage ware- 
houses for household furniture in New York. The build- 
ing was afterwards torn down and a brick apartment was 
erected. Rogers, Peet & Co. had their first uptown 
branch clothing house on this corner. 

At the rear of this building were two small English 
basement houses. In the window of one was the sign 
"Dr. Mary Putnam." We boys then thought it wonder- 
ful that a woman should be a doctor. This lady later be- 
came Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, the wife of Dr. Abram 

[ 35 ] 


Jacobi, the celebrated physician, who is still living at 
a ripe old age. At this time, Dr. Jacobi himself lived 
in Thirty-fourth Street just West of Sixth Avenue. A 
little farther down the street on the upperside was a 
marble yard operated by the man whom it was claimed 
chiseled the Cardiff Giant, which was subsequently dug 
up at Cardiff, Missouri, and was supposed to be a petrified 
giant of a prehistoric age. 

Adjoining the Rogers Peet establishment to the North, 
was a building with a hall upstairs. In this Madame 
Krause held the first Kindergarten school, I believe, in 
this country. 

Above Thirty-second Street, on the Westerly side, was 
Bates' Milk Dairy, afterwards. Decker's. For five cents 
you could get a schooner of real milk with the cream on 
top, not the blue milk of the present day. Decker was 
the original Decker of the Sheffield Farms, Slawson- 
Decker milk combine. 

A short time after, a few doors above, was erected the 
Standard Theatre for William Henderson. This the- 
atre opened with the first performance of Gilbert & Sulli- 
van's H. M. S. Pinafore, which occupied the boards for 
a long time. Minnie Maddern, now Minnie Maddern 
Fiske, made her debut here. Harrison Gray Fiske was 
the treasurer for Henderson. 

I am forgetting the Southwesterly corner of Thirty- 
second Street. This was occupied by an unpretentious 
saloon, with the customary horse watering trough in front, 
but this was the starting point of the old Manhattanville 
stage line. In Winter, when snow was on the ground, 
four horse sleighs were substituted for stages, and these 
were filled every trip, at ten cents per passenger. Their 
route was up Broadway to Manhattanville. 

[ 56 ] 


fuuttg Ammra IB53 

One of the most successful clippers 
ever built by Wm. H. Webb of New 
York. Commanded by Capt. David 
Babcock. She made the run from San 
Francisco to New York in 92 days. 
Her best performance was her record 
run from 50° S. in the Atlantic to 
50° S. in the Pacific in 6 days. She 
rounded Cape Horn over fifty times. 
In 1888 she foundered with all hands 
while on a voyage from Philadelphia 
to a European port. 

This was one of the famous fleet 
owned by A. A. Low & Bro., perhaps 
the leading merchants of New York 
in the foreign trade. Among other 
famous ships owned by this firm were 
the Nat B. Palmer, Houquali, Samuel 
Russell, Surprise, Contest and others 
The late Seth Low was of this family. 


On the West side, between Thirty-third and Thirty- 
fourth Streets was L. W. Parker's Restaurant and Hotel, 
the Parker House, which was quite a popular resort of 
the sports of the neighborhood. 

On the lower Easterly corner at Thirty- fourth Street 
was a two story building owned by Peter B. Sweeney of 
Tammany Ring fame. This was later purchased by D. 
H. McAlpin, and is now part of the site of the Hotel 
McAlpin. The ground floor was occupied by small stores, 
the second story by artists and sculptors. Constant May- 
er, Beard Minor and Wilson McDonald had studios here. 
At the easterly end of this building was a dancing academy 
owned by an Austrian, Hlasko by name, where all the 
young bloods of the neighborhood were taught the proper 
use of the light fantastic toe. On the upper Easterly 
corner was the Broadway Tabernacle of which Dr. Tay- 
lor was then pastor. 

An interesting place to us boys was a lot on the North- 
west corner of Thirty-fifth Street, now Broadway. In 
the Summer and Fall this was covered by a tent, said tent 
being used by a horse trainer who for a consideration 
taught the spectators how to train horses. My father 
was very proud when he had taught a pony we owned to 
walk on his hind legs, and stand on top of a cask. This 
place was as good as a circus to the boys of the neigh- 
borhood. This site was afterwards occupied by a cyclo- 
rama of the Franco-Prussian War, a combination of wax 
works and panorama viewed from a central tower. 

Where the Herald building now stands was a two 
story brick building. On the ground floor at the Thirty- 
fifth Street end, Albro the grocer and the Sixth National 
Bank at different times occupied the premises. Further 
up Lewis & Conger had a house furnishing store through 

[41 ] 


to Broadway. They have long since moved further up- 
town. The Colwell-Lead Company, later at the corner 
of Thirty-ninth Street, occupied the Thirty-sixth Street 
end. The second story was occupied by the Seventy- 
first Regiment as their Armory. 

Across the street, upstairs, was the training quarters 
of Professor Judd. Judd was one of the first to take 
up the challenge of Edward Pay son Weston for a six 
days' walk at Old Madison Square Garden. A few doors 
above Thirty-sixth Street was Murray's Bellhanging 
Shop. Murray on the West side and Haggerty on the 
East side of the town were the first two to invent and 
install the combination letter boxes, bell pulls and speaking 
tubes in apartment houses. In the apartments the tubes 
were fitted with a whistle, and the boys would blow up 
the tube, sound the whistle, and then would watch the 
front door mysteriously open, pulled by a wire from 
upstairs. Many a sneak thief has made good use of this 
ingenious contrivance. 

Hazzard & Massey's Drug Store was for a long time 
on the lower Easterly corner of Thirty-ninth Street. This 
was then one of the finest drug stores uptown. At the 
corner of Fortieth Street, opposite Bryant Park, was the 
Hotel Royal, operated by Richard Mears, who had previ- 
ously operated a fancy store in the neighborhood of Nine- 
teenth Street. A terrible fire destroyed this hotel, with 
much loss of life. On the Westerly side, near Forty- 
second Street, was Trenor's Lyric Hall, the scene of many 
a meeting and dance. 

From Forty-third to Forty-fourth Streets, on the East- 
erly side, where the Hippodrome now stands, was the 
Sixth Avenue Car Barn. At the time, the cars stopped 
at the car barn. If you wished to go further, you changed 

[ 42 ] 


cars, and an occasional car was run from the barn to 
Fifty-ninth Street, with only a driver. No fares were 
collected for this short ride. It was very convenient for 
the boys who had been at the park skating all day who 
had spent all of their money for bollivers and such, to ride 
down for nothing as far as Forty-fifth Street, jump off 
the car and walk home the balance of the way. It was 
not deemed necessary to heat the cars in those days. You 
bedded your feet down in a layer of straw and let it go 
at that. I do not recall that there was any more pneumo- 
cocci and other bacteria in those days than there are 
to-day. Of course, we didn't have so many other kinds 
of foreigners either. 

I have recently read that the verses : 

"Punch, brothers, punch, punch with care, 
Punch in the presence of the passenger," etc. 

have been ascribed to Mark Twain. But long before we 
ever heard of Mark Twain the Sixth Avenue car con- 
ductors carried a punch shaped like a large pistol, having 
a small gong with two or three strips of different colored 
pasteboard pinned to their coats, and as you paid your 
fare a hole was punched in the ticket and the gong 
sounded. Children under twelve were charged half fare. 
J. B. Bidgood was the Superintendent of this line, — a tall 
gray man resembhng Brother Jonathan. He knew how 
to run a horse car line. His cars were always clean, and 
the horses were real horses, well groomed. 

Sixth Avenue in these early days above the car bam 
did not amount to much. About Fiftieth Street you ar- 
rived at shanty town with the squatters' shanties on top 
of the rocks, with one or more goats to each shanty. At 
Fifty-eighth Street the vacant lots were below the level 



of the street, and in winter the entire block through to 
Fifth Avenue was flowed over with water and was used 
as a skating rink, entrance to which was had on payment 
of a small fee. 

At Fifty-ninth Street we entered the Park, as now. 
The Park was then to us more beautiful than now. Every 
Saturday we spent all day there. We had a good time. 
"Them was the happy days." 

The Beinhauer Garden Farm 

Now the Site of the Twin Vanderbilt Houses on 

Fifth Avenue 

William S. M. Silber 
his great grandson 

The group of buildings shown in the annexed engrav- 
ing represents the homestead of Frederick Beinhauer as it 
appeared in 1832 at the time of his decease. The entire 
plot owned by him comprised the present two city blocks 
on the west side of Fifth Avenue extending to Sixth 
Avenue from the north side of 51st Street to the south 
side of 53rd Street. Mr. Beinhauer was a successful 
garden farmer who was able to create a modest fortune 
from this area of land now forming a very prominent part 
of one of the most valuable sections of the old City of 
New York. 

Frederick Beinhauer was born in Marburg, Germany, 
and arrived in America during the latter part of the 18th 
century. He was practically penniless when he reached 
this country, but he cast around to see what opportunity 
the New World afforded him, and finally decided upon the 

[44 ] 

i c; 


production of vegetable food products. For several years 
he found employment with the market gardeners of the 
fertile lands of Kings County during which time he care- 
fully studied the metropolitan market and, with char- 
acteristic German thrift, diligently accumulated his sav- 
ings for bolder flights. 

Mr. Beinhauer finally decided that Manhattan Island 
offered better prospects for a market as well as greater 
rewards for patient industry and enterprise, besides giv- 
ing more direct access to a larger number of consumers. 
Shortly after the close of the Revolutionary War a con- 
siderable tract of unoccupied land formerly belonging to 
the Colony and lying generally between the Boston Post 
Road on the east and the Bloomingdale Road on the west 
was vested in the City of New York, and was in due 
course offered for sale or lease to buyers. This tract was 
designated on the maps of that period as "The New York 
Common Lands." Mr. Beinhauer secured the lease of 
a section of this land and proceeded to devote it to his 
chosen occupation. The boundary line of the plot so 
occupied began at the southwest corner of the present 
Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street, and ran due west several 
hundred feet. It then turned diagonally to the south and 
ran due west to the Bloomingdale Road, passing over 
the road-bed of the present Sixth Avenue. The plot was 
irregular in size and. quite wide in certain portions. The 
boundary line ended on the east in the middle of the 
present Fifth Avenue, and returned from that point in 
a diagonal direction to the place of beginning. The plot 
thus covered a large portion of the site now occupied by 
the Public Library and Bryant Park. It was regarded as 
a very valuable concession, but the terms of the lease are 
not now available. 

[47 1 


While located there Frederick Beinhauer married So- 
phia Wilhelmina Christina Zeiss, a daughter of John 
William Zeiss, M.D., a prominent physician and surgeon 
of that period. Dr. Zeiss lived on the lower east side, 
and was a large land owner, and a trustee of the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons from 1808 to 1811. His 
daughter had been educated in Europe, and was esteemed 
a woman of marked talent and ability. 

In 1800 Mr. Beinhauer acquired the site on which his 
homestead was situated. It was part of the Common 
Lands, and was known as Lot No. 66. The plot was lo- 
cated on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and 51st 
Street, a short distance north of his original location on 
Manhattan Island. The purchase price was £430, 
equivalent to about $2100.00, and included some of the 
buildings shown in the illustration. The sale was made 
subject to a curious incumbrance in the form of a quit- 
claim reservation that had survived from Colonial times. 
This required the payment to the City authorities of an 
annual quit-rent "of four bushels of good, merchantable 
wheat on the first day of May in each and every year" 
under penalty of drastic action at law in the event of non- 
compliance. This reservation was finally commuted and 
discharged in 1816 by the payment of $133.33. 

Additional land was soon required for Mr. Beinhauer's 
operations and in 1803 he leased from the City the plot 
immediately adjoining his original purchase on the north 
and known as Lot No. 67, at the rental of $10.00 per 
annum. This lease expired in 1823 and was renewed for 
an annual rental of $25.00. The plot as originally laid 
out was purchased outright in 1825 for $1500.00. 

Ten years subsequent to the date of this lease and 
twelve years before its purchase Mr. Beinhauer rounded 

[ 48 ] 


out his holdings on the above plot by the purchase of 
about half an acre on the west end which brought the 
western boundary up to the present Sixth Avenue line. 
It was purchased from Cornelius Harsen who sold it in 
1813 to Frederick Beinhauer for $678.23. The southern 
plot was allowed to keep its original length and a trace 
of the difference in size is still found on the maps. 

This last purchase gave Mr. Beinhauer a frontage of 
520 feet on Fifth Avenue. The cross streets were not 
cut through, but the right of way for them was reserved 
to the City and the adjoining owners had the use of the 
additional space while the domain rights were not exer- 
cised. In Mr. Beinhauer's farm the width of 200 feet in 
each plot plus the reserved width of 60 feet each for 
51st, 52nd and 53rd Streets, gave him a uniform frontage 
on both Fifth and Sixth Avenues of 520 feet. He thus 
had an acreage, subject to modification as above, of over 
ten acres. The total cost of this compact little garden 
farm was slightly over $4400.00. It was held in fee 
simple, unencumbered, and had been all purchased by the 
proceeds of the sale of garden produce, grown in the 
City of New York, and on Fifth Avenue lands, besides. 
From this now prominent and centrally located plot the 
market wagon made its daily trip to Washington Market 
and the "Fly" Market, and sold Manhattan produced 
vegetables in competition with the farmers of Long Island 
and New Jersey. 

Mr. Beinhauer's holdings were bounded on the north 
by property owned by Thomas Addis Emmett; the land 
of the heirs of the Cozine, Horn, Harsen and Hopper 
families bordered on the west, and to the south lay the 
plot donated by Dr. Hosack to the Botanic Gardens, now 
a Columbia University leasehold. 



The Fifth Avenue frontage of the Beinhauer garden 
farm between 51st and 52nd Streets is now occupied by 
the twin Vanderbilt houses. The dwelling house stood 
at a point that was exactly in front of the court that 
formerly divided the two buildings, and it remained 
standing after all the other farm buildings had been re- 
moved, and until the contractors began excavating for 
these modern palatial residences. The block fronting 
between 52nd and 53rd Streets contains the residences 
of William K. Vanderbilt and his son. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral is diagonally opposite the old 
plot, and the Union Club, the residence of Captain W. B. 
Osgood Field and several fine business buildings front it 
on the east side of Fifth Avenue. The streets cut 
through it are filled with elegant private residences, and 
the imposing Church of St. Thomas and part of the resi- 
dence of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., are opposite the north- 
ern boundary of the plot on 53rd Street. 

Mr. Beinhauer and his wife were devout members of 
the Lutheran Church. They regularly rode in the old 
family gig to and from their homestead to service on Sun- 
day in the church of their choice, and stopped at the 
homes of their children in turn on the way home for the 
noonday meal of the rest day. 

Mr. Beinhauer died on August 23rd, 1832, from an 
attack of cholera, which was then epidemic in the City, 
after an illness of only a few hours. He is buried in 
The Greenwood Cemetery. Mrs. Beinhauer died in 1829, 
and is buried in the same plot. 

Mr. Beinhauer's heirs were his eight surviving daugh- 
ters, and several grandchildren, among them the children 
of his widowed daughter Susannah Loss. His other chil- 
dren were: Catharine Harsen, Elizabeth Loss, Sophia 

[ 50 ] 


Silber, Margaret Shrady, Ann Eliza Feitner, Louisa 
Metzler and Maria Sakmeister. An only son died in 

The estate was settled under the administration of 
John Shrady by private sale. The plot that was accumu- 
lated at a cost of slightly over $4400.00 was sold for about 
$21,000.00, and is now worth more than that many mil- 
lions. A large part of the land was bought by Benjamin 
Stephens in 1834. 

Old Chelsea 

Robert Hall 

Beginning at the north side of Fourteenth Street 
directly opposite the boundary of Greenwich village is 
the next of the two villages of Old New York, which re- 
tains to this day some of its old individuality, though per- 
haps in a less degree than its more famous neighbor to 
the south. 

Like Greenwich it too was founded by an English sea- 
faring man and like his friend Admiral Warren, Capt. 
Clark named his estate after another English village — 
Chelsea; and so to these two Englishmen we owe the 
perpetuation on Manhattan Island of these well known 
towns of the mother country. 

The very early history of Chelsea village is not within 
the province of the present article. I am to write merely 
my own recollections of the place where I was born and 
where I spent perhaps the happiest years of my life. If 

[ 53 ] 


I can recall to absent friends of the old village some pleas- 
ant memories of other and now half forgotten days, I 
shall feel richly rewarded. For many men of distinction 
were born and reared in the Sixteenth Ward but fate has 
a curious way of scattering them and they seldom revisit 
the scenes of their childhood. When they do they find 
that the old houses and the gardens and the trees have 
all disappeared and nothing remains to remind them of 
the days that are no more. 

The village ended at the south side of Twenty-seventh 
Street. Seventh Avenue and the North River completed 
its boundaries. Mayor A. Oakey Hall lived on Fourteenth 
Street close to Ninth Avenue in the hey-dey of his power. 
The two lamps that are always placed in front of the 
residence of the citizen elected to this high office may still 
be seen. No hint of the ruin and disgrace that afterward 
engulfed the Tweed ring was present in the days when 
Oakey Hall lived in Chelsea. 

Some time ago my attention was called to a series of 
articles in the Sun on old New York, and being interested 
in the subject I made bold to ask the editor if he would 
inform me of the author's name. A few days later a tall 
and rather poorly clad gentleman entered my office bear- 
ing in his hand my letter to the Sun. It was self-explan- 
atory of his visit and I spoke warmly in praise of his 
work and offered to engage him to complete a series of 
similar reminiscences. The conversation drifted from 
one thing to another and the longer I talked the more I 
was impressed with my new found friend's ability to fur- 
nish me with just such manuscript as I wanted. I stum- 
bled once or twice in addressing him, as the letter he had 
was addressed to the Sun. I thought nothing of his 
failure to mention his name, but as he rose to go I pre- 



pared to make a note of his name and address. He 
paused a moment and a look of sadness came to his face 
as he said quietly, "I am Oakey Hall." 

The two banks which face each other on the southwest 
and the northwest corners of Eighth Avenue and Four- 
teenth Street — the New York Savings and the New York 
National Banks — once figured in as sensational a robbery 
— or near robbery — as ever was recorded. A gang of 
professionals hired the house on Eighth Avenue adjoin- 
ing the banks. Both were then in the one building — one 
in the basement, the other upstairs, one flight. The 
Eighth Avenue house had an ell that opened on Four- 
teenth Street. The bank was therefore completely sur- 
rounded. The Fourteenth Street building was used as 
a pool room and a dance hall. The undulating floor was 
put in the latter place — a very new idea, the floor sway- 
ing gently to the rhythm of the dancers. The pool room 
added to the noise. Under cover of the natural noises 
and disturbances the burglars had worked for weeks tun- 
nelling to the safes of the bank. All the debris coming 
from this operation — dirt, brick, mortar, etc., was raised 
by a pulley and dumped on the second floor of the Eighth 
Avenue building and there was almost enough weight to 
sink the floor. 

Plans were made to blow open the safes on the night 
of the Fourth of July. Arrangements had been made 
also to create such a racket on the street with cannons, 
pistols and fire crackers that the noise of blowing open 
the safes would be drowned. It was a carefully planned 
scheme and came very near being successful. The tip- 
tap of the drill however had reached the ear of the janitor 
and aroused his suspicions. He walked around to the 
Twentieth Street Police Station and reported what he 

[ 55 1 


suspected. A force of men was dispatched, the building 
completely surrounded and the entire gang arrested. I 
think the leader's name was Gilmore. They all received' 
heavy sentences, as they were old offenders. The great 
ingenuity they had displayed in carrying out the plan 
showed them to be an unusually dangerous gang and the 
banking interests saw to it that they got the full penalty 
of their crime. 

On Ninth Avenue on the west side where the National 
Biscuit Company's building now stands there was a fine 
old house standing in the middle of what must have been 
the remains of an old country estate. It was of consid- 
erable size — extending from Ninth Avenue to the river. 
There were beautiful large trees on it and a fence all 
around. The occupant was said to be feeble-minded and 
was always in charge of an attendant. He was said to 
belong to a well known family. It is about the earliest 
recollection I have and I can only remember that any one 
so afflicted appealed to my boyish mind as something 
ghostly and I never cared to go very near the place. The 
old house seemed to disappear quite suddenly, for I do 
not recall any particular circumstance connected with its 

On Fifteenth Street between Seventh and Eighth Ave- 
nues there was a very well liked Catholic institution 
known as the Sisters' Home. It was a prominent build- 
ing in those days. It is there yet, but somewhat over- 
shadowed by its tall neighbors. But they can never 
dwarf what those splendid sisters have done, which after 
after all is the important thing. On this same street is a 
row of red brick houses with white marble trimmings. 
They were all private residence houses in those days. 
They were built in the 40's by the Astors and are nice 

[ 56 ] 

Lincoln's funeral, 1863. Part of the procession at Broadway and 

14th Street. The large house on the corner was tlie home of 

ex-President Roosevelt's uncle, Cornelius Roosevelt. 

Collection of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider. 


looking houses today. They are quite different from 
what we are accustomed to nowadays, but they still charm 

On Sixteenth Street there still remains the old Baptist 
Church, Dr. Michael, minister. Its congregation changes 
but it always houses a considerable audience. As if to 
emphasize the old saying, "the nearer to church the fur- 
ther from grace," we might record that the well known 
dance hall keeper Billy McGlory lived in the block below. 
But that was before he adopted the career which made 
him so unfavorably known. 

The old Weber piano buildings are still standing on 
Seventh Avenue and Seventeenth Street. They were built 
long before I was born ; and pianos were made in 
them for years and years. I remember that Mr. Weber 
was highly spoken of and his piano was considered by 
musicians one of the best in the country. We took a 
great deal of pride in this reputation and considered the 
factory one of the important buildings of New York. 

Down from Weber's on Eighth Avenue between 
Seventeenth and Nineteenth Streets was the funeral es- 
tablishment of Stephen Merritt. He buried General 
Grant and that was a very high honor, I always thought. 
But then Stephen Merritt was no ordinary undertaker. 
He was a regularly ordained preacher and held services 
every Sunday for years in the old Methodist Church on 
Eighteenth Street. He performed the same service in 
the old Jane Street Church as well, and never accepted 
a salary from either. He was a large-hearted man. 
Many a poor person was buried by him without a cent of 
expense. He was greatly beloved in the neighborhood 
and I always thought he was one of the finest characters 
known to New York. He was known all over the city 

[ 59] 


and he numbered among his friends most of the people 
worth knowing in all walks of life. It was not at all sur- 
prising that he was chosen for the final offices for General 

On the corner of Nineteenth Street just above Merritt's 
was the largest department store then in the city — Owen 
Jones. The building covered half the block and relatively 
was about as Altman's is today. Ehrich Bros, were also 
on Eighth Avenue, but further up. Everybody however 
knew Jones' store and for years it was the leading place 
of its kind in town. 

On Twentieth Street still stands St. Peter's Episcopal 
Church, which recently celebrated its 75th birthday. The 
records of this old church deserve a chapter by them- 
selves, for they contain the marriages, births and deaths 
of many of the best known families in the city. It may 
no longer rank as one of the fashionable churches, but it 
remains one of the oldest and most interesting. It has 
served old Chelsea faithfully and well and its present 
rector. Dr. Roach, will some day tell us all about it, I 

There was one peculiarity about Chelsea which did not 
I think exist in any other part of the city. Certain blocks 
seemed to be reserved for certain nationalities. Thus 
there was Scotch Row for the "ladies from hell" ; London 
Row for the blarsted Britisher ; and Yankee Row for the 
native Americans who had the hardihood to intrude 
themselves among these foreigners. And oh! I forgot 
the Irish and the fine little party they had on a certain 
12th of July, '71. Vulgar historians refer to it as a 
"riot," simply because a few people were killed and 
some heads broken. There was quite a bit of excitement 
I will admit. I was riding in a street car at the time. I 



distinctly remember that we all threw ourselves flat on 
the floor to escape the fusillade of sticks, stones and bul- 
lets that made things lively for the time being. 

It was in July, 1871. The Orangemen of New York city 
had arranged to parade on the anniversary of the battle 
ol the Boyne. The Governor of New York, fearing 
trouble from the Celtic Irish, ordered out several regi- 
ments of the National Guard, and these were stationed 
up and down Eighth Avenue, as the line of march was 
from Twenty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue, down 

If my recollection serves me, it was between Twenty- 
fourth and Twenty-sixth streets that stones and other 
missiles began to rain down upon the paraders, and shots 
were fired from the tops of buildings at the Twenty- 
fifth Street comer. The Ninth regiment was stationed 
in this particular locality under command of Colonel 
James Fisk. Some one threw a missile and disabled the 
Colonel, and the regiment was then under command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Braine and Major Hitchcock. 

The Colonel, who was one of the biggest bluffs New 
York has ever known, is said to have been merely 
scratched by a brick. However he beat a hasty retreat 
over a wooden fence nearby and for a long time after- 
wards there was a great discussion over the incident. 

An order was given to fire after some soldiers had been 
hurt. The shots took effect on the buildings opposite 
and brought down some snipers on top of the corner 
building at Twenty-fifth Street, and also some in the 
crowd. There was but one volley fired, and the crowd 
dispersed quickly, after which the procession proceeded 
without further molestation. 



The Grand Opera House in which the Erie offices 
were installed, revives some stirring scenes, days of in- 
junctions, mandamuses, seizures with court orders and 
without them, and battles in the hallways between sher- 
iff's deputies and Fisk's and Gould's henchmen, which 
gave special interest to the daily papers and were fol- 
lowed by the readers as they do the war news of today. 
Every morning the public looked first at the Fisk-Erie 
headlines to see what the opposing armies had accom- 
plished the day and night before, because many of Fisk's 
and Gould's smartest moves were executed at night 
through injunctions granted overnight by the complaisance 
of Judges before whom Fisk always managed to have the 
Erie's affairs brought. 

Injunctions followed injunctions so rapidly that the_y 
were the laughing topic of the town and all sorts of jokes 
on them were in order. In the play of "Richelieu" it will 
be remembered that the Cardinal boldly faces his enemies, 
and Booth was so grand in this, defying them, and sweep- 
ing his hand in the air around his frightened ward he tells 
them that if they enter the charmed circle he has so drawn 
around her he will "hurl at them the curse of Rome." 

In the burlesque of the play Fox produced a lump of 
"chalk" as big as a watermelon, and handling it with both 
hands drew an imaginary ring around the harassed girl, 
imaginary, for it made no mark, and then, imitating 
Booth's grand style, said, "Step but one foot within yon 
charmed circle and I hurl at you an Erie injunction," at 
which they all fled so precipitately that they carried away 
parts of the scenery in their rush. 

But one day the tables were turned on Fisk by the in- 
vestigating committee getting an injunction from an up- 
State Judge dissolving all previous injunctions and en- 

[62 ] 

all|? Srrabttowgtit 1853 

Perhaps the most famous of all the 
clipper ships in the early 50's. Com- 
manded by Capt. Samuel Samuels, 
still remembered by many New York- 
ers and one of the most celebrated 
deep sea skippers sailing from this 
port. She was originally a Red Cross 
Packet Liner and later in the Cali- 
fornia trade. Few sliips ever enjoyed 
such popularity. 

On February 4th, 1859, she logged 
313 miles on a single day's run on a 
famous voyage from Liverpool to New 
York, completed in 13 days 8 hours. 

She was finally lost among the 
rugged cliffs and roaring breakers of 
Cape Horn. Her crew was rescued. 
She was a strikingly handsome ship 
and for years was the pride of the 

She was owned by Governor E. D. 
Morgan, Francis B. Cutting, Daniel 
Ogden and others. 


joining, or "injuncting," them from preventing a full 
inspection of the Erie's books, which act they were in- 
formed of by telegraph the same afternoon, and that 
night, before service of it, they got all the company's 
books, loaded them in rowboats and took them over to 
Taylor's Hotel in Jersey City, which for a while was the 
Erie's offices and headquarters. It is said that Tom 
Lynch supplied the wagons in which the books were hasti- 
ly packed. The sight of so many books being rushed out 
of the building at night and trucked in wild haste down 
Twenty-third Street to the river started an alarm which 
caused some sheriff's deputies to get to work, and they 
set out in a rowboat after the last one, in which was Fisk 
himself guarding the most treasured books, probably the 
records of stock issues, but when the officers of the law 
saw the malefactors' boat pass the center of the Hudson, 
thus technically putting them in New Jersey boundaries, 
they gave it up. 

Many were the fights in the building and around the 
corner of Twenty-third Street on Eighth Avenue with 
fists, clubs and bludgeons, in addition to the legal struggle 
always going on. These scrimmages were managed in 
Fisk's interest by his favorite lieutenant, one Tommy 
Lynch, a man well known around that section of Eighth 
Avenue. He was Johnny on the spot all the time for the 
Colonel, and at the shortest possible notice could assemble 
a crowd of fighters to do battle for his employers. His 
name was as much in every one's mouth as was Fisk's, 
and people would hasten to look at the morning paper to 
see what Tommy Lynch had done overnight. 

For many years after Fisk's death Lynch was a familiar 
figure on Eighth Avenue, generally to be seen sunning 
himself in front of the Old Homestead, between Twenty- 



second and Twenty-third Streets, which was his favorite 
place of rendezvous with his men during the years of 
active operations on his part in helping to fight Jim Fisk's 
Erie battles. 

It was many years ago that I last saw him, a slender, 
medium-sized man, frail rather than robust, but with 
snappy black eyes denoting fierceness and determination 
even then, although his hair was turning white and he 
walked heavily and rheumatically with a cane. 

Those certainly were picturesque days, but it is a com- 
fort for investors in railroad stocks and bonds that they 
are no more. 

In this connection my friend, J. B. Curtis, sends me 
the following particulars regarding the old Ninth Regi- 

After the return of the Ninth Regiment in '65, with 
less than 200 of the original number of its members that 
enlisted for three years, or the war, a movement was 
started to reorganize the regiment and put it back in its 
old position as a unit of the N. G. S. N. Y. A number 
of the young men of Greenwich Village, among whom 
were Thomas C. Dunham, afterward State Senator; John 
S. Huyler, the founder of the Huyler Candy Company, 
and myself, became interested and helped to reorganize 
Company E. Our first captain was Johnny Gaffney, 
well known in Greenwich Village, and John S. Huyler 
was one of our lieutenants. The first commandant of the 
regiment was Colonel Wilcox, a manufacturer of mat- 
tresses and bedding in Chatham Square. Charlie Braine 
was lieutenant-colonel, and Hitchcock (I forget his first 
name) was major. Henry S. Brooks of Brooks Bros., 
clothiers, was adjutant. On the retirement of Colonel 
Wilcox, Jim Fisk was made colonel and took command 

[68 ] 


of the regiment. He was very popular, and the regiment 
flourished. He organized a band of 100 pieces, led by 
the well-known Bowling, with Levy the famous cornetist, 
as one of its members. 

I remember when the present site of the Grand Opera 
House was occupied by the Knickerbocker stage line as 
a stable, and also remember when the first elevated road 
was built on Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue. It 
was first operated by endless cable, but afterward changed 
to steam dummies as motive power. One of the cable 
stations was located at Ninth Avenue and Twenty-second 

Beekman Street 
The Old Paper Market of New York 

We clip the following item from an afternoon paper 
published in our city in 1802: 


On Thursday afternoon as a man of genteel appearance was 
passing along Beekman street, he was attacked by a cow and 
notwithstanding his endeavors to avoid her, and the means he 
used to beat her off, we are sorry to say that he was so much 
injured as to be taken up for dead. 

In the early part of the 19th Century Beekman Street 
was considered a very aristocratic neighborhood. St. 
George's chapel at the corner of Cliff Street was one of 
the fashionable churches. It was founded in 1748, the 
first of Trinity's chapels. President Washington often 
heard the sacred text read and expounded within its 
walls. Its old grey flag stones were worn by the feet 



of Schuylers, Livingstons, Reades, Van Cliffs, Beekmans, 
Van Rensselaers, Cortlandts, Morris' and others. The 
late J. P. Morgan was married here and here Washington 
Irving was baptized. Admiral Sir Peter Warren and 
the Archbishop of Canterbury were among the first 
donors for its erection and it preserved its high social 
position to the end. 

A very interesting story is told about the material of 
which part of the church furniture was made. New 
York was a great port for sailing vessels in those days 
and it so happened that a sea captain whose vessel lost 
its masts in a violent storm on a coast where no other 
wood than heavy mahogany could be procured came into 
port at the time the church was being finished. The top 
heavy mahogany masts of the wrecked vessels were re- 
placed by a more suitable wood and the captain donated 
the mahogany masts to St. George's. This was solid 
construction indeed and the pulpit, desk and chancel rail 
made from this old mahogany are still in existence and 
doing valiant service. They were removed many years 
ago and now serve in a like capacity in Christ church 
in the little town of Manhasset, Long Island. 

The beautiful marble font which adorned this church 
had also a romantic history. Originally intended for a 
Catholic church in South America it was captured on its 
way to its destination on a French ship by the English 
during the French and Indian war and brought to this 
city. It was a beautiful piece of workmanship made 
entirely of white marble. It was supposed to have been 
destroyed during the fire of 1814, but some fifty years 
later was found in a remote part of the church where it 
had evidently been removed during the conflagration. It 
was repaired and cleaned and for many years afterward 

[ 70 1 


was in constant use. It was removed uptown in 1869 
where it still exists as one of the most cherished relics 
of this historic old edifice. 

Among those who lived in Beekman Street near the 
church were Mr. C. Schermerhorn at No. 39 ; Mr. James 
W. Bleecker at No. 41 ; Mr. Cornelius Bogart at No. 18 ; 
Mr. Robert Hayward at No. 20; Mr. David Lydig at No. 
63 ; Mr. Robert Ludlow at No. 97 ; Mr. John de Peyster 
at No. 22; and Mr. Robert Nesbit, the revolutionary 
printer at No. 112. Most of those names are still promi- 
nent in New York life. 

As business extended steadily northward the old street 
experienced the fate of many another erstwhile fashion- 
able neighborhood in New York. It became a shabby 
genteel boarding house locality, gradually improving how- 
ever, from a business point of view, till finally the board- 
ing houses gave way to a splendid hotel on the corner of 
Nassau Street known as the Clinton house. This hotel 
was advertised as a particularly attractive resort facing 
the open space of the City Hall Park. At that time the 
grounds of the old Brick Church extended from Spruce 
Street to Beekman Street and permitted an unobstructed 
view to the north across the tree-embowered park. A 
picture taken from an old billhead of the hotel gives a 
fairly good idea of how this old hostelry looked. It was 
managed by the famous Leland Bros., Warren and 
Charles, who afterward rose to great celebrity as owners 
of the Long Branch hotel. After a while another hotel 
appeared opposite the Clinton on the corner of Park 
Row — Lovejoy's — which is still remembered by some of 
the old Beekman Street contingent although it disappeared 
many years ago. 

[ n 1 


In later years other famous restaurateurs joined the 
goodly company of Beekman Street. Billy Hitchcock of 
happy memory kept a beanery on the corner of Beekman 
Street and Park Row. His "ham and — " was famous 
throughout the city and Billy's clientele numbered many 
prominent men in politics, law and journalism. Nash 
and Crook, who kept a restaurant where the Park Row 
building now stands, were also very popular, while 
French's hotel, which stood on the present site of the 
World building was known the country over. The story 
goes that Joseph Pulitzer was once ordered out of this 
hotel in the days of his poverty along with other hangers- 
on. Pulitzer took a savage delight in tearing down the 
old structure to make way for the imposing building with 
its classic dome which now bears his honored name. 

But perhaps the most celebrated structure on Beekman 
Street was the old Shot Tower which stood right back of 
No. 66. For over a quarter of a century this building 
divided honors with Trinity Church as the most promi- 
nent feature in the landscape of New York. During the 
Civil War the proprietors made a fortune. Although the 
Tower was conspicuous for its great height it lived to 
see its cloud piercing achievements completely overshad- 
owed by the new Schieren building and others which 
were erected on its site. There are still many views of 
the Shot Tower in old pictures of the city. Our country 
cousins were always taken to this famous Tower as one 
of the marvels of the Metropolis. 

The Morse building on the corner of Nassau and Beek- 
man Streets was in its day the most imposing and gigantic 
structure in the neighborhood. Its walls are four feet 
thick and it enjoys the distinction of being the first ex- 
clusively office building erected in the city. At the time 



of the World fire it was the thickness of these walls that 
saved the rest of Beekman Street. This was before the 
days of skeleton steel construction. 

The great changes which rapidly obliterated the last 
vestiges of Beekman Street as a social center culminated 
about 1868 when old St. George's abandoned the site it 
had occupied for over a century and moved uptown. 
Paper dealers appeared in greater numbers than ever and 
soon it became and remained for half a century, the paper 
market of New York. It is still the most important sec- 
tion of the city for this industry although the vast extent 
of the town has made it desirable for some of the larger 
firms to seek quarters in other localities far removed from 
this historic spot. But the recent erection of a special 
building exclusively for the paper business by Henry 
Lindenmeyr & Sons seems destined to check a further 
decline of this street as the center of this most important 
industry and to restore it to its pristine dignity. 

Many well known names appeared among the paper 
merchants of Beekman Street from time to time but the 
one who brought the most renown to the neighborhood 
was undoubtedly Cyrus W. Field. Prior to his connec- 
tion with the Atlantic cable Mr. Field conducted a rag 
and waste paper business at No. 91 and some of his old 
advertisements can still be seen wherein he sets forth the 
entire line of his activities which besides rags and waste 
paper included old iron, metals and second hand junk 
generally. It was certainly a modest beginning for a 
career that was not only to bring fame to the scene of his 
early activities but also to be a lasting credit to the 
sagacity and enterprise of the American merchant. No 
matter in what station of life he might begin, Mr. Field's 



great success was not infrequently mentioned as a sig- 
nificant demonstration of the possibilities of democracy. 
A great celebration attended the formal opening of the 
Atlantic cable and the whole city gave itself up to rejoic- 
ing. A parade was formed bearing parts of the huge 
cable which now reached from America to London and 
the sailors who did the work marched in the procession 
in which all the different interests of the city were rep- 
resented. In the evening a great display of fireworks 
was made at the City Hall and the city was brilliantly 
illuminated. Beekman Street had no small part in the 
display being one of the streets that led into the park. 
The present post office was not then in existence. 

This exploit of Mr, Field's identified the old paper 
market with what was undoubtedly the greatest improve- 
ment business had ever received up to that moment. To 
the day of his death Mr. Field was proud of his connec- 
tion with the paper trade and of his old store in Beekman 
Street. His firm name remained in Beekman Street till 
late in the 60's. 

Other firms in Beekman Street who have made an 
enviable record for themselves in the annals of old New 
York were R. E. Dietz and Herman Behr & Co. R. E. 
Dietz is the famous lamp maker whose shop was at No. 
66. Mr. Dietz made the first kerosene oil lamp ever de- 
signed and the business which he then established has 
grown to be the largest of its kind in the country. Her- 
man Behr & Co., whose shop was at No. 75 has also be- 
come the leader in their line. 

Among the most treasured items of old New York are 
the lithographs of street scenes in the early 50's and the 
quaint little plates which appeared in Valentine's Manual 
about the same time. These old records are all we now 

[ 76] 

Foot of Whitehall Street in 1859. Terminal of tlie old Broadway 

stage lines. Robert Fulton lived in the house on the left. 

Trinity steeple is seen in the background. Collection 

of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider. 


have to show what New York looked like in the 50's and 
are now very precious and very expensive. Firms whose 
names are lettered on the views no doubt purchased their 
allotment at a cost not to exceed ten cents per copy. 
Many of these views were the product of a Beekman 
Street lithographer, William Endicott & Co., one of the 
pioneers in this now enormous industry. 

Abendroth Bros., a landmark in Beekman Street for 
over half a century, have only recently forsaken their 
original habitat for an uptown location. In 1851 they were 
recorded as Iron Founders. David Graham, one of the 
great criminal lawyers of the day had his office at No. 20. 
The great watch firm of A. C. Hugeuian was at No. 19. 
Numbers 15 and 17, for so many years the home of H. 
Lindenmeyr & Brother, was a private residence. The 
Mercantile Library was at Nos. 7 and 9 and the offices 
of the Independent were at No. 24. 

Around the corner on Tryon Row was the depot of 
the Harlem and the New Haven Railroads of which Mr. 
Robert Schuyler was president. The Hudson River R. R. 
had an office in the same building and Mr. James Boorman 
was then president. 

The city was still largely residential beyond Beekman 
Street in 1859. City Hall Place, running from Centre 
Street to Pearl Street, was a quiet, attractive neighbor- 
hood on the outskirts of what was once the fashionable 
section of New York — Pearl Street, Marion Street and 
Chatham Square. At No. 18 lived a new arrival in New 
York who during the next half century was destined to 
play an important part in the paper trade of New York — 
Mr. Henry Lindenmeyr. Mr. Lindenmeyr had for his 
neighbors in the same trade for many years some old 
friends whose names are worth recalling. Besides Cyrus 

[ 79 1 


W. Field & Co., of whom we have already spoken, there 
were Smith Ely who later became Mayor of the city ; J. & 
L. Dejonge & Co., who are still in business; the great 
house of Vernon Bros., Hand & Ellsworth, Edward A. 
Dickinson, Doty & Ad^acFarlane, Campbell Hall, Harris 
Bros., H. C. & M. Hurlburt, George J. Kraft, Bulkley 
Bros. & Co., Cornell Hayward & Co., W. H. Parsons & 
Bro., now the Parsons Trading Co., large exporters of 
paper; Seymour & Co., Sage & Livingston and many 

Quite a number of the successors of these old firms 
are still in business but are now scattered throughout the 
city. The recent erection of a building specially designed 
for the paper trade indicates that its old time prestige is 
coming back. 


Henry Theodore Lutz 

While reading Mr. Dunham's article on Bond Street 
in the Manual, I happened to glance at the wall and 
saw hanging there the key of old St. John's Park. My 
mind instantly reverted to my boyhood days and I could 
see myself learning to skate on my first little tumed-up 
hollow skates, and the other pleasures that I enjoyed in 
the old park. I can well remember a little boy trying to 
get into the park, before father paid the yearly fee for the 
key, and whose head went through between the iron rail- 
ing all right, but on seeing the keeper he could not get 
his head out again on account of his ears. I can also re- 
call the switching I received not only from the keeper 
but also from "Daddy." 






I roni rhr S ifist i:i 

I < r. 



1-..I I 


Consignees in MelbQiirnc, 


One of tlu' earliest and rarest colored advertising cards sent out 
by sliii)l)ers to customers (1840). 


I was born in the old two-story and attic building, HI 
Hudson Street, June 21, 1859; from there we moved to 
Rose Street and in 1861 to 56 Lispenard Street ; here my 
earliest memories are still fresh. The house was owned 
and the lower part occupied by a French jeweler, Mr. 
Victor Marchand. Next door was Moon's stable, where 
the express wagons of Harndon's express were kept, and 
next to 58 was John Ireland's chop house, occupying 60 
and 62. Mr. Ireland's daughter and my sister were great 
chums and on one occasion, while playing around the 
attic, went into one of the rooms and somehow became 
locked in. Not being able to make themselves heard they 
crawled out of the dormer window and walked along 
the gutter to the next house, to the great consternation of 
the few passersby on the street. 

Nearer to Church Street at about No. 40 was Oaks' 
Hotel. On the southwest corner of Broadway and Canal 
Street was the Brandreth House; on the northeast cor- 
ner Baldwin's Clothing Store; Arnold, Constable & Co., 
corner Canal and Mercer; Lord & Taylor, corner Grand 
and Broadway; Wild's Candy Store, corner Broome and 
Broadway; Lockwood's bookstore on Broadway between 
Lispenard and Walker; Taylor's Restaurant, corner 
Broadway and Franklin; the old German Church in 
Walker Street near Broadway. 

My earliest recollections are of the Rebellion, and are 
vivid, as I was very much interested and had the best op- 
portunities to see the soldiers marching down Broadway 
and my father always took me with him on walks to see 
the sights. Among Other things during the Draft Riots 
in 1863 we saw the crowds but did not see the body of the 
negro said to have been hanged on a lamp post at the cor- 
ner of York Street and West Broadway ; the funeral of 

[81 1 


Lincoln from the corner of Lispenard Street and the 
burning of Barnum's at Ann and Broadway. 

A favorite trip was down to City Hall Park to see the 
soldiers and I can recall the gate with its four square 
pillars and the fountain at the lower end where the post- 
office now stands : the old lady with her ballads hung up 
on the railing opposite Murray Street ; the mulberry trees 
on the sidewalk near Chambers Street and Barnum's 
Museum corner of Ann Street. 

How many can recall the six-horse sleighs that were 
used instead of the stages in winter? How many can 
remember the paving stones with the diagonal groove? 
and how many in New York today have any idea that 
these same stones, twelve inches square, over which the 
gallant Seventh and Sixty-ninth marched and Lincoln's 
body passed in 1865 are still in use in the old Fifth 
Ward ? Go down some day to the St. John's Freight Sta- 
tion and you will find them there used for the sidewalks. 

Church Street during the war was lined with wooden 
shanties and each was supposedly a cigar store ; at Worth 
Street extending down to West Broadway and south to 
Duane Street were many wooden houses occupied by 
negroes, who later moved to Thompson Street. The old 
New York Hospital, fronting on Broadway, was directly 
opposite this block, which is now occupied by the building 
of H. B. Claflin & Co. 

As children we went to a Sunday School corner of 
Franklin Street, conducted by a Mr. Austin and for sev- 
eral years, on May day, we all marched down Center 
Street to the old church on William Street, between Ann 
and Fulton Streets, where after service each child was 
presented with a bag of fruit, candy, nuts, etc. Mr. 
Austin was employed by Bechstein & Co., pork butchers, 

[82 ] 


on Hudson Street, between Franklin and Leonard Streets 
and later became missionary to Alaska. 

In 1865 we moved to 131 Hudson Street, a two-story 
and attic brick building, next door to an old ramshackle 
wooden house, corner Beach Street. Diagonally oppo- 
site was the pride of the Fifth Ward — St. John's Park — 
the picnic ground of Trinity parish. Many times have I 
watched the children playing there with battledore and 
shuttlecock, the girls wearing frilled pantalettes and some 
of the boys in boots with red label, with a golden eagle 
at the top and copper toes. 

All around the park were neat brick buildings with 
high stoops and all had the same violet panes of glass in 
the windows. 

When the Hudson River Railroad took the lease for 
ninety-nine years on the park property the best families 
moved farther up-town; John Ericsson, the designer of 
the Monitor, stayed in Beach Street until his death. His 
apparatus, in his rear yard, for generating power from 
the sun's rays was a source of great curiosity to the neigh- 
bors. When the freight station was dedicated, a great 
number of carriages filled all the surrounding streets and 
we were all interested in the unveiling of the statue of 
old Commodore Vanderbilt and the great bronze pedi- 
ment on the Hudson Street side, facing Hubert Street. 
This interesting piece of work is still in place and shows 
the styles of locomotives and steamships in use at that 

Commencing at the lower end of Hudson Street, on 
the south side of Chambers Street, was the passenger 
station of the H. R. R. R. This was used principally 
for immigrants ; at No. 1 Hudson Street was the old two- 
story and attic building occupied by Ridley, the candy 

[ 85 ] 


man; on the southeast corner of Worth Street the freight 
station. The American Express Building with their 
trademark (a dog reclining on a safe), on a large sign, 
corner of Jay Street ; further north on the northeast cor- 
ner of North Moore Street, the then celebrated silk retail 
store of John Atwill, which was patronized by the wealthy 
people even after the neighborhood had fallen from its 
aristocratic heights. On the west side, No. 113, blind 
Mr. Waters' stationery and news store, Pitman's grocery 
on the northwest corner North Moore Street and next 
door Odell's (the originator of ice cream soda). Two 
blocks north at Hubert Street, turning west, the residen- 
tial section ended abruptly and from Collister Street to 
the river most of the space was occupied by sugar re- 
fineries ; at West Street, then a narrow street, most of the 
piers from North Moore Street to Vestry Street were 
used by vessels bringing in cane and raw sugar. Every 
kind of sailing vessels could be seen and the vicinity 
looked as South Street did in later years. 

Below this section down to Washington Market im- 
mense quantities of watermelons and vegetables arrived 
from the South and to the north above Christopher Street 
were the oyster barges and sloops. 

I regret that I can not recall the date of the great fire 
(about 1867), that swept these piers, but I will never 
forget how the flames ran up the tarred stays and hal- 
yards and how they jumped from one ship to another. 

Some fires that I witnessed were very spectacular: 
444 Broadway, Barnum's Museum just above Spring 
Street, Lent's Circus Fourteenth Street, opposite Irving 
Place, and a second fire later at 444 Broadway, where 
many firemen were killed and injured — the injured ones 
were taken in to Dowd's restaurant just above Howard 



Street — and in 1876 the fire corner Grand Street and 
Broadway (afterwards Mills and Gibbs Building), just 
below the old Mercantile Library Building. 

Speaking of fires brings back to me the school in 
North Moore Street, that I attended until 1873— dear old 
44. Opposite the school was the firehouse of the Met- 
ropolitan Fire Department, later H. & L. No. 8, and it 
was a great treat for the boys when the various engines 
would have competitions to see which could throw a 
stream over the Liberty pole in the Franklin Street 

My first recollection of old 44 is the infant class in 
the West Broadway wing, where an old Frenchman 
taught us to spell by the phonetic system — f-a-t; c-a-t; 
and I can hear him yet. Later when I reached the high- 
est primary grade. Prof. Bristow, who was the singing 
instructor, and a Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin selected the bet- 
ter singers from various schools and gave a patriotic con- 
cert at Steinway's in Fourteenth Street. I can remember 
getting a red, white and blue badge for selling a certain 
number of tickets and also recall one of the choruses : 

Laugh and grow fat is a saying of old; 

Whether or not it's the cause of obesity 
This I beUeve — in the physical man — 

Laughter's demands are a kind of necessity. 

' " ' — Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha, 

Let the home ring again 
Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha, 

Care will take wing again 
Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha, 

Laughter will drive care away. 

Looking back on the old happy school days it seems too 
bad that we cannot meet our old friends in periodical 
gatherings and keep alive old memories. Dear old Dr. 



Belden — how many remember him? We all loved him, 
even if he did once in awhile take us into his private 
room and lay us over his knee and give us a few whacks 
with a rattan. No doubt we deserved it. The other 
teachers were : 

Mr. Conklin Class A 

Mr. Hamilton Class B 

Mr. Bates Class B, Jr. 

(in later years "Baldy" Briggs) 

Miss Hopps Class C 

Miss Bates Class C, Jr. 

Miss Ransom Class D 

Miss Albro Class D, Jr. 

Miss Held Class E 

Miss Rumbel Class F 

Mr. Briggs certainly did not have an enviable job, as 
the boys looked upon him as a joke, as he would hear 
the lessons of any pupil who would come in early and 
then for the balance of the day they would play all kinds 
of pranks. He was, however, a very able man and well 
known as an astronomical mathematician. 

I do not meet many of the old schoolmates, but a few 
still are in little old New York — Oscar J. Gude, William 
Maloy, John Ready, Ben Maxwell, — but many have 
crossed the border, among the latest Diamond Jim Brady. 

Next door to the school, corner of Franklin Street, was 
a little drug store, principally remembered by a sign in 
the window advertising some remedy for headache or 
neuralgia. I can still see the agonized expression on the 
face of a man, on whose head a dozen or more devils were 
boring holes and driving spikes and pickaxes. I wonder 
what the remedy was. 

[ 88 ] 

statue of Joan of Arc, Riverside Drive and 93rd Street. 

The statue of Joan of Arc by Miss A. V. Hyatt has very naturally 
become one of the most conspicuous in the city for the time being. 
Marshall Joffre visited it May 10th, 1917, and took part in a brief 
ceremony. It was also the scene of a great gathering on Bastile 
Day, July 14th, 1918, under the auspices of the Joan of Arc statue 
committee. The gathering was addressed by M. Jusserand, the 
French Ambassador and other notable men. 

The statue is a beautiful and inspiring work of art and a fine 
example of equestrian statuary. The pedestal is the design of 
John J. Van Pelt. Part of the stone of the pedestal was brought 
from the prison in Rouen where the brave and pure hearted girl 
was confined till her death. Back of the statue in the pavement 
is a stone from the Cathedral of Rheims. 

The originator of the idea of the statue is Mr. J. Sanford Saltus, 
vice-president of the Museum of French Art, by whose untiring 
efforts and generosity this fine work of art was accomplished. He 
was assisted notably in this country by Dr. Geo. Frederick Kunz 
president of the Joan of Arc statue committee, tlie Museum of 
French Art in New York, and the American Numismatic Society. 
M. and Mme. Frank Edwin Scott of Paris, both well known artists, 
were untiring in their efforts to secure pictures and photographs 
of statues made in Europe. They also contributed and collected 
important contributions to the fund. The statue was unveiled 
Dec. 6th, 1915. 


One of the interesting happenings in the old Fifth was 
the building and testing of the first elevated railroad in 
Greenwich Street. This extended up to Houston Street 
when the structure was tested. It did not test up to 
mark, for the loaded flat car broke through ; luckily no one 
was injured. The motive power was an endless cable 
running on wheels between the tracks, the cable being pro- 
pelled by an engine underground at Franklin Street. On 
the corner of Franklin and Washington Streets was the 
factory of James Pyle, who manufactured lemon sugar 
and later on soaps and pearline. 

Before the completion of the Sixth Avenue L we were 
compelled to make long trips if we wanted to go skating, 
sometimes to the Capitoline grounds in Brooklyn or 
to the St. George cricket grounds in Hoboken, near the 
Eysian field, or in the Sixth or Eighth Avenue horse cars 
to Central Park, or by stage to the open air rink on Madi- 
son Avenue just back of where the old Windsor Hotel 
was afterward built. In both stages and cars the floors 
were covered with straw. 

With the widening of Laurens Street and the comple- 
tion of the Sixth Avenue L changes took place rapidly 
and today most of the old landmarks are gone. Old St. 
John's Church still stands, but it is dilapidated and is a 
sorry reminder of this once beautiful section. 

The corner of Hudson and Canal Streets at the present 
time looks very much as it did in 1870 when I stood on 
this corner and bared my head as the body of Admiral 
Farragut passed by, followed by Gen. U. S. Grant, Ben 
Butler and many other war heroes. 

[ 93 ] 

: ; OLD NEW YORK : : 

©HERE are still many men in New York who can 
recall the forest of masts in South Street thirty 
and forty years ago. The long bowsprits with 
their grotesque figures, that stretched clear across the 
street almost to the windows opposite ; the fragrant odor 
of tar, Norway pine, spices and what not ; the wheezy 
donkey engine, the creaking windlass and the strange 
oaths of the stevedores and truckmen — all were charac- 
teristic of South Street in the reign of the "Clipper." 

One by one these old Champions of the Seas disap- 
peared. The "Young America" was last seen lying off 
Gibraltar as a coal hulk ; and that superb old greyhound 
of the ocean, the "Flying Cloud" suffered a similar ig- 
nominious ending. She was not even spared the humilia- 
tion of concealing her tragic end from the eyes of her 
former envious rivals, but was condemned to end her days 
as a New Haven scow towed up the Sound with a load of 
brick and concrete behind a stuck up parvenu tug. Ever 
and anon as if to emphasize her newly acquired im- 
portance, the tug would bury the old-time square-rigged 



beauty in a cloud of filthy smoke. Imagine the feelings of 
an ex-Cape Horner under such conditions ! There should 
have been a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Old 
Clippers. Everybody who knows anything about ships, 
knows that they have feelings just the same as anybody 

Romance has temporarily at least been driven from the 
sea, and the Ship of our Dreams is gone. You may 
haunt the wharves in these piping times of steam — 

Yet never see those proud ones swaying home, 
With mainyards backed and bows acream with foam. 

As once long since, when all the docks were filled 
With that set beauty man has ceased to build. 


They mark our passage as a race of men, 
Earth will not see such ships again — 

Many strange things are happening nowadays how- 
ever and perhaps a renaissance of our old time merchant 
marine may be among the wonders of the next few 

Exactly why a ship is called "she" has never been de- 
termined, but any man who has experienced her coquetry 
and exasperating deviltry at times is convinced that she is 
properly classed with the female of the species. Records 
abound of ships built for speed and speed alone, but 
which when complete positively refuse to get out of their 
own way. And per contra, some third-class common- 
place design purposely planned as a slow plodding carrier, 
suddenly decides to become a flier; and develops a burst 
of speed that astounds the builder and transports the 
owner into a seventh heaven. Such things, you say, 
ought not to be. One would imagine that with all of our 
modern science, long experience and boasted efficiency, 
it would no longer be a matter of guess-work to build a 

[ 95 ] 


ship that would be the peer of any other ship ever built. 
Why not ? The faults in one ship are now known and can 
be easily corrected in the new one. Simple enough, isn't 

Well, that is just what mere men can not do and prob- 
ably never will do, — and no one knows why either ; as 
Lord Dundreary remarked "it is one of these things no 
fellah can find out." It is among the few things beyond 
human skill and comprehension. A ship is likewise sen- 
sitive in other respects. She is keenly conscious when 
she is in the hands of a true sailor. To him she yields 
everything. He knows all her varying moods and loves 
her for them. He treats her kindly and in his hour of 
danger she never fails. Should she, however, be in 
charge of a deep sea canaler, she will at once begin to cut 
up tantrums. Everything you can think of will happen 
to that ship in no time and unless help comes to her speed- 
ily, she will have literally thrashed herself to pieces. In 
this particular, there is a wonderful similarity between 
a Queen of the Seas and a Queen of the Turf. Both are 
thoroughbreds and both are high strung to an inordinate 
degree and both need skillful and daring drivers. 

There are still many records performed by these Old 
Clipper Ships that have never been surpassed even by 
steam. We except, of course, the five-day trips by mon- 
ster liners between New York and Liverpool which were 
merely short excursions compared with the run from 
New York around Cape Horn to San Francisco, or from 
Java Head to New York. We have in mind for example 
the run of the Dreadnought from this port to Liverpool 
commencing Nov. 20th, 1854. Her log shows 300 miles 
on the 24th, 270 on the 30th with three other days over 
260 average. Or the Flying Cloud in her famous record 


James Duane 

First Mayor of New York, 1784-9. Painted from life by 

Trumbull, from the original in the City Hall. 


run of 374 miles on her voyage to San Francisco in June, 
1851. This splendid showing remained unbeaten even 
by steam for many years thereafter and. it would be a 
safe wager that no steamer even today could equal this 
time on a straight away voyage from New York to her 
anchorage in the Golden Gate. 

It is quite difificult at this late day to recreate the at- 
mosphere which surrounded the departure of a Packet 
or a Clipper in those days. A glance at the files of the 
New York Mirror of 1839, the fashionable paper of its 
day gives us a very clear idea however of the importance 
of that event in the life of our city. 

"One of the many exciting scenes that transpire in our 
busy metropolis ; one of the most interesting and charac- 
teristic is of that which occurs on the occasion known 
to our citizens as "Packet-Day." It is a day full of bus- 
tle and business to the brokers, the banks, the passen- 
gers, the friends of the passengers and to all who have 
any communications with the "Old World." Taking ad- 
vantage of the earliest breeze that may be propitious, the 
packet ship spreads her white wings to the wind and drops 
down our noble harbor toward the Narrows. At length 
she has reached her destination and the steamer, which 
is to bear the friends of the passengers who have ac- 
companied them thus far back to the city, is puffing and 
wheezing along side the packet. After due farewell, the 
proud ship, careening to the breeze, bows her white sails 
and tapering masts to the wind and speeds away over the 
unfathomed deep. Soon she fades and dwindles to a 
speck in the distance and the steamer, regardless of wind 
or tides, glides back to the city and lands her passengers." 

This reference to the return of the steamer "regardless 
of wind or tides" is an allusion to the superior power of 



the steam driven vessel against the. sail, in those days still 
a novelty. The Liverpool Packets of the Collins Line, 
the Black Ball, Swallow Tail, Red Cross, Dramatic, and 
State Lines made regular sailings to Liverpool and some 
years later attained the dignity of a weekly schedule 
maintained as the ocean liners do today. 

Notwithstanding the successful introduction by Ful- 
ton of the steam propelled vessel as early as 1809 the 
art seems to have languished till late in the 30s. One 
reason for this was doubtless the exclusive right granted 
by the Government to Fulton and Livingston whereby 
the coastwise waters, lakes and inland rivers were handed 
over to these worthies in fee simple so far as steatn nav- 
igation was concerned. Daniel Webster took up the 
matter on the broad ground of public policy and finally 
succeeded in destroying the monopoly. After that prog- 
ress began in real earnest. 

The departure of a California or China Clipper was 
even a more important event than the shorter voyage to 
England, and always attracted a great crowd to the Bat- 
tery. After she had finished loading at her pier on the 
East River it was the custom for her to drop down to 
the Battery then to receive her crew, take on some gun- 
powder from Ellis Island and finally set sail for her far 
off destination. 

Perhaps the greatest attraction for the people who 
gathered to see her off — and the fashionable promenade 
around the Park at the Battery was always crowded — 
was the delight in hearing the sailors sing their sea songs 
as the ship made ready. These cheering, rollicking 
"chanties" were unlike anything ever heard elsewhere 
and in fact were apparently untransplantable. They 
could only be rendered in their proper environment amid 



the bustle and excitement of Battery Boat men, deliver- 
ing belated sailors, the mate sizing up his crew; the hoist- 
ing of the sails and the thousand and one things going on 
at the same time. 

It certainly imparted an air of cheerfulness to the de- 
parting ship. It used to be said that a good Chanty man 
was worth four men in a watch. This was more than 
true for when a crew knocked off chantying it seemed 
as if the ship and all hands were dead. And the effect 
upon the crew was equally depressing. 

Where these songs came from originally, who wrote 
them and how they came to be the peculiar property of 
the CHpper ship has never been quite satisfactorily ex- 
plained. There seems to be no particular sense in the 
words though in that respect they are not so different 
from the average popular song of our day. But they 
are certainly far from rhyme or reason. Captain Clark in 
his "Clipper Ship Era" goes into this in splendid detail. 
One that was always sung with great gusto ran some- 
thing like this : 

"In eighteen hundred and forty six 

I found myself in a hell of a fix 

A working on the railway, the railway, the railway, 

Oh ! poor Paddy works on the railway." 

"In eighteen hundred and forty seven 

When Dan O'Connolly went to Heaven, 

He worked upon the railway, the railway, the railway. 

Poor Paddy works on the railway, the railway." 

There were verses enough to keep the crew busy till 
the particular sail in hand was properly set. It might re- 
quire the prolongation of the trials of poor Paddy all 
through the nineteenth century and well into the next. 
He never seemed to do anything or get anywhere except 
on the railway. His ultimate fate was evidently a mat- 

[ 101 ] 


ter of indifference to the salts, as they would promptly 
dispose of Paddy and his adventures the moment the 
mate sung out "Avast there — Hold it" signifying that the 
task was done. 

It generally took one or two songs to wake the crew up, 
but when they were finally under way the music of their 
songs could be heard far up on Beaver Street. 

Another chorus that would be sung to the hauling of 
the three topsail halliards was : 

"Away, way, way, you 

We'll kill Paddy Doyle for his boots." 

And another which likewise enjoyed the distinction of 
interminable length began : 

"Then up aloft that yard must go 

Whiskey for my Johnny ! 

Ohl whiskey is the life of man, 

Whiskey Johnny ! 

I thought I heard the old man say, 

Whiskey for my Johnny." 

And so on. Why this ballad on whisky should be so 
popular is another mystery. For strange as it may seem 
the crews of American Clipper ships carried no grog 
aboard — in contradistinction to almost every other na- 
tion — and served only hot coffee to the watch even in 
the Antarctic waters of the Cape. 

As the whole world is now giving attention to this 
"booze" question, it is not inapropos to recall the tem- 
perance policy of the old merchant marine. This may 
or may not have been a factor in its success. You may 
decide for yourself. But it cannot be denied that the 
insurance companies, guided no doubt by their experi- 
ence with American Clippers, made a standing offer to 
any other merchantman of a reduction of 10% provided 
coffee was substituted for grog. 

[ 102 1 

Richard Varick 

Second Mayor of New York, 1789-1801. Painted from life by 

Trumbull, from the original in the City Hall. 


"The ship, however, is tugging at her anchor. The 
tide is ebb and the white sails ghsten in the sun. The 
anchor is brought to the rail, head sheets begin to draw 
and the ship gathers way in the slack water. A scramble 
is made by the longshoremen and extra hands for the 
trim little Whitehall boats alongside; the crowd on the 
Battery shore give three hearty cheers. The ensign is 
dipped and the graceful clipper with a smother of foam 
at her fire peak is away for the Golden Gate and the 
perils of Cape Horn. 

"Once clear of the Bay and hull down on the horizon 
the voyage was fairly begun. A more beautiful sight 
can hardly be imagined than the dawn breaking with 
possibly two or three of these magnificent vessels in sight 
of each other at once and a mid ocean race as a natural 
sequence. The sun bursts through the morning mists 
tinging the clouds with gold. Dancing white caps fleck 
the dark blue waters of the sparkling sea. The graceful 
yachtlike hulls of the racers send a spume of foam 
athwart their bows. The tapering masts, white with 
clouds of snowy canvass straining at every turn and 
buckle. All hands are now on deck. The officers keen 
and alert the crew ready and willing to obey the slightest 
wish of the captain. The weather door of the galley us- 
ually frames the happy grinning woolly head of the 
Cook whose presence is absolutely essential to the win- 
ning of the race. And as night comes on and one after 
another disappears in the lengthening shadows the day 
is one long to be remembered." More than one old New 
Yorker still living has enjoyed such an experience as a 
guest or before the mast in search of health. 


Some of the Famous Fliers 

Some idea may be had of the speed of these Clippers 
when it is remembered that the ordinary cargo ship con- 
sumed upon an average about 300 days from New 
York and Boston to San Francisco. There is a list of 
some hundred and twenty-five voyages made between 
1850 and 1860 in which the time is 110 days or less. 
The Flying Cloud and the Andrew Jackson both of 
whose pictures are shown have each a voyage of 
89 days to their credit. For consistency of perfor- 
mance, however, the Flying Cloud has the best sustained 
record. The former made it in 1851 and again in '54 
while it was not until 1860 that the Jackson equalled the 
mark. Both of them used these splendid records with 
telling effect in their advertising and it gives us gi'eat 
pleasure to reproduce elsewhere one of these old sailing 
cards issued by the Jackson. Many old firms will recall 
these highly ornate affairs. They were very striking 
and the very first use made of brilliant colors on purely 
commercial cards. Their popularity was great. And a 
few years later a craze for lithographed cards set in that 
practically created the present vast industry of lithog- 
raphy. All sorts of businesses used these attractive col- 
ored cards and collecting them became quite a craze. 
Their origin, however, was in these early Clipper Cards 
as we have just related. A very nice collection has been 
presented by Mr. P. A. S. Franklin to the India House 
where they may be seen in the Franklin room. Almost 
all the old firms are represented — Sutton & Co., Cooley, 
Wm. T. Coleman & Co. and others. They are a very inter- 
esting relic of Clipper days and used to be delivered by 

[ 106] 


Hussey's Post by hand. Hussey had a sort of rival to 
the postoffice which he built up while the Government 
had its hands full with the Civil War. He enjoyed quite 
a lucrative trade with the down town merchants who 
wanted immediate delivery and at less cost than postal 

The Government finally got after him and Webster 
told him to quit and save what he had. Hussey was ob- 
stinate however and would not take the great expound- 
er's advice. As a result the litigation which followed 
cost him all his fortune and he died poor. 

After the records we have just cited came the run 
of the Sword Fish also in '51 of 90 days. Two years 
later the Flying Fish did it in 92, the John Gilpin in 93. 

In '56 the Siveepstakes in 94. In '51 the Surprise in 
96 ; the Romance of the Seas '54 in 96. The Sea Witch 
'50 in 97 ; the Contest 97 ; the Witchcraft '54 in 97. The 
Antelope '56 in 97. The Flying Dragon '57 in 97 and 
the Sierra Nevada '59 in 97. 

Two made it in 98 days : the Flying Fish and David 
Brown. The Herald of the Morning 99 days. 

Capt. Arthur H. Clark, one of the few surviving Cap- 
tains of the Clipper Era, has compiled in his well known 
book "The Clipper Ship Era" the following table of such 
other voyages as came within a 110 day limit — each of 
which was a remarkable performance notwithstanding the 
fact that it was occasionally bettered by a particularly 
favorable run of wind and weather lasting throughout an 
entire voyage — which was the exception and not the rule. 

[ 107 ] 

Clipper Runs New York to San Francisco 




Race Horse 

Samuel Russell 


N. B. Palmer 106 

Raven 1^5 

Sea Witch HO 

Seaman 107 

Stag-Hound 107 

Typhoon 106 

Witchcraft 103 

Comet 103 

Courser 108 

Eclipse 104 

Northern Light 109 

Staffordshire 101 

John Bertram 105 

Shooting Star 105 

White Squall HO 

Wild Pigeon 104 

Sovereign of the Seas.. 103 

Bald Eagle 107 

Contest 108 

Flying Cloud 105 

Flying Dutchman 104 

Golden Age 103 

Golden Gate 102 

Hornet 105 

Invincible 110 

Meteor HO 

Oriental 100 

Phantom 104 

Rebekah 106 

Sea Serpent 107 

Sword-Fish 105 

Storm 109 

Tornado 109 

Trade-Wind 102 

Westward-Ho 103 

[ 108 ] 


Young America 110 

Archer 106 

Challenger 110 

Courier 108 

Eagle 103 

Eagle Wing 106 

Golden City 105 

Herald of the Morning. 106 

Matchless 109 

Pamparo 105 

Polynesia 104 

Ringleader 109 

San Francisco 105 

Boston Light 102 

Cleopatra 107 

Don Quixote 108 

Electric 109 

Governor Morton 104 

Greenfield 110 

Neptune's Car 100 

Red Rover 107 

Telegraph 109 

David Brown 103 

Electric Spark 106 

Flyaway 106 

Mary L. Sutton 110 

North Wind 110 

Phantom 101 

Reporter 107 

Wild Hunter 108 

Andrew Jackson 100 

John Land 104 

Dashing Wave 107 

Esther May 103 

Twilight 100 

Robin Hood 107 

Lookout 108 

Ocean Telegraph 109 

White Swallow 110 

Winged Racer IDS 

Hon. John F. Hylax 
Ninety-eighth Mayor of New York City, 1918-21. 


Mr. Hylan Succeeds Mr. Mitchell as Mayor 

IN the old Manuals it was customary to include the 
names of all employes on the City's pay roll and 
also a brief reference to every activity in which 
the City had a direct interest. These included the Public 
Schools, Hospitals, Reformatory Buildings, Parks, Fire 
and Hose Companies, Docks, Piers and every other pub- 
lic or semi-public institution. The early numbers con- 
tained the individual names of the High Constables and 
all the members of the rattle watch ; the school teachers, 
the charwomen, the licensed public victuallers, pedlers and 
so on. Some of our friends think we should approximate 
this plan in the present Manuals. 

All of this information however is published in the 
City Record. The pay roll alone contains usually eighty 
to ninety thousand names, sometimes rising to the formid- 
able total of over one hundred and twenty thousand on 
special occasions. Such a task is therefore entirely be- 
yond the scope of the present Manual. Even as it is we 
cannot do justice to all the Boroughs. 

[ 111 ] 


The City has grown since Valentine's day. That is a 
very mild way in which to speak of this change. Time has 
proven, however, that the old Manual is esteemed more for 
the quaint old pictures, reminiscent and historical articles 
than for the technical details of City management. If 
we can succeed in placing before our readers an adequate 
idea of old New York from past contemporary records, 
we shall have to be content, and leave the details of the 
present day to our esteemed contemporary, the City 

With the advent of each succeeding administration 
there comes a complete change in the personnel of the 
offices. We give below the names of the new heads of the 
respective departments and the principal officers elected 
January 1, 1918. In the first volume of Valentine's 
Manual, 1916-17 we gave a synopsis of the City Govern- 
ment in all its details and particulars under the Mitchel 


John F. Hylan Mayor 

Term expires Dec. 31, 1921. Salary $15,000. 
Grover A. Whalen Secretary to the Mayor 

John F. Sinnott Executive Secretary 

Frances W. Rokus Acting Executive Secretary 


Charles L. Craig Comptroller 

Term expires Dec. 31, 1921. Salary $15,000. 
Charles F. Kerrigan Secretary 


Frank L. Dowling Manhattan 

Edward Riegelmann Brooklyn 

Henry Bruckner Bronx 

Maurice E. Connolly Queens 

Calvin D. Van Name Richmond 

This board consists of the Mayor, Comptroller, President of 
the Board of Aldermen, and the five Borough Presidents. 

I 112] 



Alfred E. Smith President 

Robert L. Moran Vice Chairman 

Francis P. Kenney Chairman Com. on Finance 

Besides these officers there are IZ Aldermen representing the 
city — one from each district, elected for two years. 


The Mayor, Comptroller, Chamberlain, President of the Board 
of Aldermen, and the Chairman of the Finance Committee. 

Custodian of the public money; appointed by the Mayor. 

Alfred J. Johnson Chamberlain 

Edward J. Glennon Deputy Chamberlain 


Jacob A. Cantor President 

Jos. F. O'Grady Arthur H. Murphy 

James P. Sinnott George H. Payne 

Richard H. Williams Lewis M. Swasey 


Arthur S. Somers President 

Frank D. Wilsey Vice President 

Anning S. Prall Mrs. Ruth F. Russell 

George J. Ryan Mrs. Emma L. Murray 

Joseph Yeska 


William F. Grell, Commis'ner for Manh'n. and R'mond. 

John N. Harman Commissioner for Brooklyn 

Joseph P. Hennessy Commissioner for Bronx 

Albert C. Benninger Commissioner for Queens 


Dr. Royal S. Copeland President 

Dr. Leland E. Cofer Health Officer of Port 

Richard E. Enright Police Commissioner 

[ 113 1 



Arnold B. MacStay Commissioner 

H. Warren Hubbard, Deputy Commissioner, Manhattan 

Machael Laura Deputy Commissioner, Brooklyn 

James W. Brown Deputy Commissioner, Bronx 


Richard E. Enright Commissioner 

John A. Leach First Deputy Commissioner 

William J. Lahey Second Deputy Commissioner 

John W. Goff Thiird Deputy Commissioner 

Fred A. Wallis Fourth Deputy Commissioner 

Mrs. Ellen A. O'Grady Fifth Deputy Commissioner 

John A. Harris Special Deputy Commissioner 

Rodman Wanamaker Special Deputy Commissioner 

Allan A. Ryan Special Deputy Commissioner 


John F. Galvin President 

Chas. N. Chadwick L. J. O'Reilly 


Nicholas J. Hayes Commissioner 

John J. Dietz Deputy Commissioner 

Ajlbert H. Libenau Deputy Commissioner, Bronx 

C. M. Sheehan Deputy Commissioner, Brooklyn 

James C. Butler Deputy Commissioner, Queens 

James L. Vail Deputy Commissioner, Richmond 


Robert W. De Forest President 

A. Augustus Healy Vice President 

Jules Guerin Secretary 

John Quincy Adams Assistant Secretary 


Murray Hulbert Commissioner 

Michael Cosgrove Deputy Commissioner 

Henry A. Meyer Deputy Commissioner 


Bird S. Coler Commissioner 

S. A. Nugent First Deputy Commissioner 

P. J. Carlin Second Deputy Commissioner 

Rev. Dr. S. Buchler Third Deputy Commissioner 

[ 114 ] 

^lUff^islakrB 1B53 

This beautiful clipper made the 
fastest voyage to California in 1856 — 
94 days and an abstract from her log 
on this trip gives an interesting side- 
light of the run in its various stages. 

From Sandy Hook to the Equator. . . 18 

From the Equator to 50o S 23 

From 50° S. Atlantic to 50° S. Pacific 15 

From 50° S. to the Equator 17 

From the Equator to San Francisco. . 23 

Total 94 

No more beautiful sight was ever 
seen than the Sweepstakes coming up 
the bay all sails set and a big bone 
in her teetli. It is well worth remem- 


The Posthumous Diary 
of Diedrick Knickerbocker 

My erstwhile and now classic friend, boniface Seth 
Handyside, he of the Independent Columbian Hotel in 
Cortlandt Street who caused to be published my "certain 
kind of a curious written book" to satisfy him of my be- 
holding for board and lodging, little dreamed that he 
would render his obscure and impecunious guest one of 
the great men of his time. For such I now understand 
is the judgment of mankind on my modest effort to set 
forth in simple language the origin and progress of the 
great city of my birth. Whimsical though it be, yet truth 
was ever my hand maiden, and despite its many short 
comings, my humble work has been accorded exceeding 
high praise, at which my friend Handyside marvelled no 
more than I. 

I come again amongst you — to record my observations 
of the great city which has ever been dominent in my af- 
fections and never absent from my thoughts. These 
kindly comments will be interspersed, as my good friend 
Handyside truly remarked, with philosophical specula- 
tions and moral precepts which he claimed did so much 
to make my former book so greatly esteemed. 

When I was last among you my amiable friend Richard 
Varick was the Mayor. We chose him above all other 
citizens for his sterling character, his proven ability and 
his strict integrity. So high an honor could not be 
lightly bestowed nor could it be openly sought. It was 
as it should be. 

But the old days are passed and new modes and prac- 
tices prevail. Methought the Hon. John Purroy Mitchel, 
and so the papers told me, was one citizen among a mil- 

[ 119 ] 


lion. So much praise, so much adulation was this young 
man's portion that I was fearful lest the effect should be 
evil. But I was assured, and was to discover it soon 
myself, that the young man was unaffected by this lavish 
flattery. I deemed the city thrice blessed which had a 
Mayor whom all so delighted to honor. And it were 
folly, quoth I, to dispose of the services of so able and 
faithful a public servant. 

Nor was I alone in this opinion. With possibly one 
or two exceptions, the papers, and especially the one 
edited by my old friend Coleman, were a unit in his 
favor. Nor among my learned friends was there ought 
of dissent. Methought the selection was unanimous and 
the casting of the ballots a mere formality. For the mo- 
ment I put aside all thought of the mutability of human 
affairs and the great uncertainty of the best laid plans of 
mice and men. 

Far be it from me to do aught but faithfully and truth- 
fully portray events as they occurred. Nor shall I pre- 
sume to cite other than the documents in the case. Novel 
weapons are now in use that were strangers to my days. 
The skilful limners — cartoonists I believe they are called 
— drew most mirth provoking pictures of our worthy 
Mayor participating in what is known in polite so- 
ciety as "Tea Dansants" — a function but little under- 
stood by the people and too often unthinkingly allied to 
conduct of great reprehensibility in their eyes, albeit of 
an innocent and harmless nature. And when his Honor 
was further described as being translated in to a state of 
ecstasy because, forsooth, a certain citizen of great wealth 
called him by his christian name, thereby revealing a de- 
gree of personal intimacy but little short of criminal — 

[ 120 ] 


the day was lost irretrievably and I retired to my study 
in a maze of perplexity. 

Rising betimes I bethought me of the fortunate one 
among our millions whom the citizens had chosen to pre- 
side over them for the coming four years. Mr. Hylan's first 
public utterance upholding our President in his War aims 
made an immediate appeal to my good sense. Old and 
experienced scrivener though I am, yet am I still swayed 
by the power of the written thought ; and my knowledge 
of the character and attainments of the new Mayor, 
gained in most part from the columns of the papers 
which did so mightily support his opponent, was far from 
being correct. The very preponderance of his vote — ^his 
majority being 170,000 over two competitors — was in it- 
self highly impressive, and upon further reading of his 
biography it speedily became clear that the choice of the 
people was no mean citizen. His splendid achievements 
in the face of great obstacles are an inspiration to young 
men not only in our own great city but everywhere else 
in the nation. A letter which he addressed to the people 
of our city at Christmas time when the spirit of saving, 
aroused by the war, threatened to deprive the children of 
their peculiar rights, won for him many well deserved 
plaudits and further strengthened him in the esteem of 
the people. 

[ 121 ] 


Diedrich Knickerbocker Meets the Mayor 
and His Cabinet 

'Twas truly a most gracious proceeding on the part of 
his Honor Mayor Hylan, to present me to the worthy 
gentlemen who were associated with him in the exceeding 
great task of governing this mighty city, grown so large 
and multitudinous since this humble citizen dwelt within 
its bounds. When I reminded his Honor that the last 
time I did ascend these stairs to this very council hall, 
I was assured with most grave and potent asseverations 
that no other building in all this land was of such goodly 
proportions and such excellent beauty of design, he did 
remark with courtly grace, that it was all very true and 
it was yet esteemed an honor to the age that built it. My 
old friend McComb would have been deeply touched by 
this gracious compliment to his genius, for truly he la- 
bored with exceeding great patience and desire, to the 
end that this goodly city should possess a public building 
worthy of its importance. 

But I must not wander away from these excellent gen- 
tlemen who are to occupy the seats of the mighty and to 
hold up the hands, if I may quote holy writ, of his Honor 
in the exceeding difficult tasks of his office. There is the 
comptroller Mr. Chas. L. Craig into whose hands the af- 
fluent stream of public moneys flows, verily a stream to 
make my dim old eyes scintillate as they never before did, 
and I am told that mighty sums — hundreds of millions — 
pass through his hands to pay for the needs of the city. 
Truly miracles will never cease, and certes, the careful 
and saving inhabitants of old New York could never have 
comprehended such wonderful large sums. 'Tis evident 
his Honor has a strong support in this man of finance. 

[ 122 ] 


The office of President of the Board of Aldermen which 
is a new office since the days when I intermingled with the 
city fathers is occupied by a worthy gentleman, Mr. Al- 
fred E. Smith, whose frank manner and prudent conver- 
sation well befit him for this high office, and must give the 
citizens exceeding great confidence in his ability. And 
here I became much confused, for I met other estimable 
gentlemen who were addressed as president of this hon- 
orable body or of that, and I was greatly put to it to dis- 
tinguish these gentlemen in their proper relation, and to 
honor them with the titles which duly pertain to their 
respective offices. Albeit I inquired diligently, as one 
greatly anxious to know the true scope and meaning of 
this marvellous expansion of the city government, for 
verily it caused me much wonderment. Betimes it was 
borne in upon me that the little old New York of my day 
had grown to be an exceeding great city, so great indeed 
that it behooved the people to divide it into parts for the 
better governance thereof. Hence these estimable gen- 
tlemen who respectively devote their powers and talents to 
this task — the President of the Borough of Manhattan 
Mr. Frank L. Dowling ; of the Bronx Mr. Henry Bruck- 
ner ; of Brooklyn Mr. Edward Riegelman ; of Queens Mr. 
M. E. Connolly; and of Richmond Mr. Calvin D. Van 
Name — all most intelligent gentlemen who have com- 
mended themselves to the electors by their ability in mat- 
ters pertaining to public office, and herein doth the author- 
ity of this great city reside, for I see by diligently scru- 
tinizing the public press that these various gentlemen I 
have named compose what is styled in the popular 
phraseology, the Mayor's Cabinet from which doth flow 
the power that directs and governs the city. 

[ 125 ] 


My long absence from the city has put me sadly out 
of touch with the new methods and customs that now 
prevail. I confess that I thought the comments in the 
press pertaining to both candidates during the late cam- 
paign were not always couched in language that seemed 
to me fitting to the exalted personages whom they dis- 
cussed. Most of all was I shocked at the sacrilegious 
levity used in discussing that venerable and eminently re- 
spectable body of citizens known as the Columbian Order 
of the Society of Tammany. I doubted the evidence of 
my own eyes. It was positively shocking! Imagine 
them talking in such an outrageous fashion of the St. 
Nicholas Society! Yet they might just as well. But in 
this case public opinion would operate to prevent any re- 
flection upon the intelligence and good breeding of the 
members of St. Nicholas. I am not able to perceive any 
difference between the two organizations in point of 
respectability. General Washington and Alexander Ham- 
ilton were everywhere considered to be gentleman of 
culture and refinement, but so also were DeWitt Clinton 
and Chancellor Livingston. They and their friends and 
associates made up the membership of St. Nicholas and 
Tammany in the days when I was last in New York and 
no one ever drew a distinction between their social aims, 
though their political aims were admitted to be widely 
different, which was of course quite permissible. 

I made a note of some of the most particularly offen- 
sive remarks, and one that gave me especial pain was to 
have the leader of this historic organization referred to as 
at one time a bar-keeper in divers sorts of places where 
ale, spirits and beer were sold. These were called saloons 
but it was surely an error to call him a bar-keeper as he 
was more truly a licensed victualler. In my day that sort 

[ 126 ] 


of inferior persons were never consulted on matters of 
public import, and I refuse to believe that any such char- 
acter can have influence in municipal affairs. I doubt 
not that when I have finished my reading I will find that 
some envious scribe from Boston or Philadelphia, desiring 
to besmirch the fair fame of their chief rival, is re- 
sponsible for these libels. 

Speaking of liquors suggest the insertion here of an- 
other great change which my readers will hardly credit. 
Nevertheless, doubting Thomas though I be, yet I cannot 
refuse to credit the evidence of my own senses. The 
good old custom of drinking is no longer considered cor- 
rect usage in polite society. They tell me also that gentle- 
men are no longer distinguished by reason of their ability 
to punish Port and Madeira as in my day, and that when 
dinner is over the gentlemen at once join the ladies, and 
are not left alone to finish their libations in peace and 
comfort. In fact I have been told that in certain sections 
of our country it is altogether against the law to have 
liquor in your possession at any time ! I am told that the 
Capital City, Washington, is one of these places and that 
not even a club or hotel can supply anything stronger than 
tea. But perhaps that is an over statement similar to the 
one that soldiers may not be sold intoxicants while in uni- 
form, yet I make it on very excellent authority. So many 
changes have evidently taken place since I was last here 
that I am prepared to believe almost anything and I am 
greatly surprised thereby. 

Other great and striking changes are to be noted in 
every direction, and as the citizen a hundred years hence 
may be impressed with the contrasts of his day, as I am 
with this ; perhaps it may be fitting for me to set down 

[ 127] 


for his guidance some further changes that I particularly 
noted. I cannot begin to record them all. The whole 
world seems topsy turvy, but some of these changes I 
must mention. 

When I was last in New York most merchants either 
lived over their stores or had their residence within easy 
walking distance. There were very few of the latter. 
There were not many private carriages kept and such as 
existed were known and recognized by every one. There 
were a few stages running out in the country to Green- 
wich, Chelsea and other villages, but most of the travel 
was on foot. The city was mostly below Chambers 
Street, so that one could walk from about any section to 
another in a very short time. Now all this is changed. 
They tell me that the railroad operated by electricity and 
running entirely underground extends for fifteen miles — 
to the Kings Bridge at the very end of the Island, and 
that the time consumed in the journey is less than 50 
minutes. When I went to the Kings Bridge in my day 
it took the greater part of ten hours to make the journey. 

The sin of prolixity is ever present in an old man such 
as I am. Having recorded another milestone in the His- 
tory of old New York I will now subside. 

[ 128 ] 

: : : : SOCIETY : : : : 

Some Notable Activities During the Past Year — 
Field Exploration Committee Appointed 

The year just closed was marked by unusual activity 
in the work of this organization. At the annual meeting 
last January steps were taken to bring the Constitution 
and By-Laws more into harmony with the practice of sim- 
ilar institutions, and the new arrangement seems to work 
well. In accordance with the conservative spirit of this 
Society these changes need not be considered abso- 
lutely permanent until by experience they have been 
proved a practical improvement over the former rules. 

Many other suggestions were made at the meeting all 
in the line of greater efficiency. The establishment of a 
Quarterly Bulletin was ordered and provision made for 
the re-cataloging and arranging of the Egyptian Collec- 
tion. A complete catalogue will soon be issued to the 
members, quite a few of whom will learn for the first 
time the wide scope and richness of the Society's Egyp- 
tian Treasures. 

[131 ] 


Of greater general interest, however, was the work 
of the Society in collecting for the first time a complete 
file of New York's first weekly newspaper — Bradford's 
New York Gazette. So scarce had those old papers be- 
come that no one organization possessed a file complete. 
The Society corresponded with all other organizations 
known to have copies of the Gazette needed to com- 
plete the file. Some of these old issues were carefully 
preserved in Safe Deposit Vaults. Others in special fire 
proof cases in carefully guarded sections of public insti- 
tutions. All were finally secured and photographed, the 
precious originals thereupon being returned to the own- 
ers. The New York Society Library and the Mercantile 
Library Association and others were among the societies 
co-operating in this work and all are entitled to the thanks 
of old New Yorkers for thus securing the records of New 
York as reflected in its first newspaper. 

William Bradford was a man of undoubted importance 
in the little village of New York in the year 1725. At 
that time our city had a population of about 7000. Nev- 
ertheless it rejoiced in its weekly paper very much as do 
villages of modern times. But Bradford's Gazette had 
this distinction, — it recorded the events of the Baby 
Days of a hamlet which was destined to become the lead- 
ing city of the world. His paper, with its personal items, 
its local gossip, its quaint advertisements, and its news of 
the day is naturally therefore of the greatest interest, 
and Bradford himself in consequence has also grown in 
importance as a pioneer printer and publisher. The 
printers of New York make a yearly pilgrimage to his 
grave in Trinity churchyard on the anniversary of his 

I 132] 


We have asked Mr. Hy. F, De Puy who greatly aided 
the Society in this Bradford restoration and an ardent 
admirer of this old New York publisher, to prepare for 
our readers a paper on the Life and Times of William 
Bradford. Mr. De Puy's library of Bradfordiana is 
without a rival in this country. His contribution will be of 
great value and of great historical interest. It will ap- 
pear in our next number. 

The appointment by the Executive Committee of the 
Society of a group of its members as an exploring or- 
ganization, lends the aid and influence of The New York 
Historical Society to a form of historical research which 
has been heretofore conducted by individuals and the step 
will undoubtedly bring results in discoveries within our 
own State, that will. add to the service which the Society 
is rendering to the cause of historic preservation and 

For many years a group of energetic workers, under 
the leadership of Mr. W. L. Calver, Mr. Reginald P. 
Bolton and Dr. William S. Thomas, have devoted the 
spare hours available from duty and livelihood to the 
physical search of the soil for relics of aboriginal Colonial 
and Revolutionary War remains, chiefly in the upper part 
of the Island of Manhattan and the Borough of the 
Bronx. In recognition of this devoted service extending 
over thirty years, the Society last year unanimously 
elected Messrs. Calver and Bolton life members. A similar 
honor would have been conferred upon Dr. Thomas but 
he was already a member. The successful results of this 
work have become of increasing interest and historical 
value, and the experience of the party is now to be de- 
voted to the continuance and extension of their work 

[ 133] 


under the auspices of the Society, as its Committee on 
Field Exploration. 

The Committee includes the following members of the 
Society : 

Mr. William L. Calver, Chairman 
Mr. Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, Vice-Chairman 
Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton, Secretary 
Mr, Alexander J. Wall, Treasurer 
Mr. Charles M. Lefiferts 
Dr. William S. Thomas 
The Committee was authorized to add to its member- 
ship other workers willing to agree to the condition that 
objects and facts discovered by the Committee's opera- 
tions should be regarded as the property of the Society. 
They have thus elected as Associates: 
Mr. John Ward Dunsmore 
Mr. Charles H. Thurston 
Mr. R. T. Webster 
Mr. Oscar T. Barck 
who have for some time past aided in this line of re- 

The Committee plans to continue the active work of the 
past and to extend their field of operations to the region 
of the Highlands of the Hudson and the counties of 
Dutchess, Putnam, and Westchester, covering Indian, Co- 
lonial, and Revolutionary sites. 

The Committee have in view the enlistment of other 
workers in their home localities, who may be added to 
its circle and would be in a position, due to their resi- 
dence in and familiarity with a certain area, to contribute 
effective efforts in local explorations and surveys. 

This brief review of the projected operations of the 
Committee, it is hoped may not only interest the general 

[ 134 ] 

Fourteenth Street, west from Fifth Avenue in 18G0, wiien it was 

a street of fine private residences. Remarkably rare 

and interesting picture . 


membership, but may bring about an accession to the 
force of explorers from among their circle, who may be 
able to aid, not perhaps with the muscular labor of the 
field, but by information as to maps, documents, and sites, 
and by securing permission to examine them in the in- 
terests of our Society. 

Our city, it is needless to say is, in the eyes of the 
Manual, the most fascinating, interesting and worth 
while city in the world. Confessing this prejudice at the 
start, our readers will be prepared for our lukewarmness 
toward Egyptian and other antiquities which absorb so 
important a share of the energy, time and devotion of 
the Society. 

On the other hand it must be borne in mind that the 
charter of the Society, granted in 1804, did not confine 
it to the limited work of one city only. It embraced a 
wide area of activities. For more than three-quarters of 
a century it was the only institution in the city devoting 
its energies to the preservation of the country's historical 
interests. The great Metropolitan Museum and the Mu- 
seum of Natural History are mere infants compared with 
the venerable Historical Society. As a result many ob- 
jects which now seem out of place in a Society whose 
chief interest is the History of the City of New York, 
came into its possession quite naturally. The Egyptian 
collection is a case in point. The Abbott collection of 
Primates is another. In the opinion of many friends of 
the Society these particular items could now very well be 
disposed of to make room for other items directly con- 
nected with the city. 

The unexampled growth of New York — its tremendous 
importance and interest from the historical point of view 

[ 137 ] 


suggests the adoption of a policy more in keeping with 
the Society's manifest destiny. If New York were an 
ordinary city the question might be viewed differently, 
but its immense size and importance together with the 
incalculable richness of its historical lore make it a suffi- 
ciently large proposition for any one institution. At the 
time of the Historical Society's organization there were 
fewer people in the whole United States than there are in 
the city to-day. The adoption of the Field Exploration 
work was a progressive step which pleased the friends of 
the Society, and such work as the placing of Markers, 
Tablets, etc., in many places throughout the city offers 
another field in which the Society could achieve won- 
derful results. 

Mr. Bolton, the historian of the exploration work has 
kindly given us a short account of the work performed 
this year which we are glad to place on record. 

Explorations of this nature, while not exactly fatiguing, 
cannot be classed wholly in the line of physical repose. 
There is quite a little manual labor to be performed but 
the fascination of unearthing some long forgotten treas- 
ure is a great stimulus. Already the collection of but- 
tons, belts, muskets, kitchen utensils and other items is 
assuming important proportions and all future objects 
thus obtained become the property of the Society. 

Exploration of Historical Sites 

Reginald Pelham Bolton 

This work, of which some description was given in 
the last issue of the Manual, has been continued during 
the past year by a band of active explorers, who have now 

[ 138 1 


been formed into a committee of the New York Historical 
Society, and have been designated by the Executive Com- 
mittee of that Society as its Committee on Field Ex- 

The work of exploring sites has somewhat widened in 
scope, and has been extended to the region of the High- 
lands of the Hudson where the party joined hands with 
the Martlaer's Rock Association, and undertook some 
investigation of the sites of fortifications on Constitution 
Island with a considerable degree of success. The orig- 
inal site of Fort Constitution has been located and the 
ground covered by the barracks built by the American 
forces and destroyed by the British, has been searched 
with the result of the discovery of a number of interesting 
military buttons showing the presence on the Island of 
the Massachusetts and Continental troops, as well as an 
occasional British soldier's button. 

The search of the Island has resulted in the discovery 
of a large number of the remains of the stone huts oc- 
cupied by the soldiers, the fireplaces of which are in 
some cases still standing. 

The party has also turned its attention to the discovery 
of camp sites of the American troops in the West Point 
region, and has located one of them, built and occupied 
by the Connecticut troops, about a mile and a half east of 
Garrisons, on the Cat Rock road. This camp has been 
explored very carefully, and the sites of some forty huts 
have been located, within which have been found many 
traces of their occupation, including pewter buttons of 
the Connecticut soldiery. 

The work of exploring the large military camp on the 
Dyckman farm near Broadway and Dyckman Street, has 
been carried forward to a point where a survey of the 

[ 139 ] 


position of these huts has been completed, indicating that 
the camp probably included as many as one hundred dug- 
out huts, of which upwards of fifty have been actually 
located and explored. 

The winter season was occupied by the final arrange- 
ment of the objects thus recovered from the soil, at 
Washington's Headquarters, commonly known as the 
Jumel Mansion, in which building the collection of local 
military relics is now in complete form, and has been 
carefully re-arranged, numbered, and catalogued. 

One of the interesting features of discovery in these 
explorations has been the pottery and porcelain ware used 
by the soldiers and their officers, and cast away after 
being fractured. The study and comparison of the speci- 
mens of materials have brought out some extremely inter- 
esting facts as to the class of manufacture and the locality 
of origin of these wares. A number of them have been, 
with much patience, restored to a practically complete 
form and arranged in suitable cases, so that the interested 
visitor may readily study the objects, both in regard to 
their character and their design. 

[ 140] 

<^%^ X^r. 




(§tmn iExpr?0H 1B55 

Another of the California beauties 
of the early 50's. She was among the 
record-holders of the run from Cape 
ist. Koque to 50° S. made along with 
the Bald Eagle, Comet, Electric, Hur- 
ricane and Raven in 18 days. 

She was for many years a familiar 
figure in lower South Street around 
Pier 9 and was one of the noted clip- 
pers during the gold rush to the 
Coast. Capt. Cunningham was in 
command. — Collection of Mr. M. Wil- 


IT seems as if it were only yesterday that the open- 
ing of the subway focussed attention upon a hith- 
erto unknown country — the woods and fields of 
West Farms, Fordham and other sylvan regions now 
brought within the city limits. No such rapid develop- 
ment has been hitherto recorded even in this land of 
lightning-like changes. In the twinkling of an eye, so to 
speak, a population almost as great as that of Boston, 
went to dwell above the Harlem River and the Borough 
of the Bronx came into being with scarcely the formality 
of growth. 

We have asked some of our friends to tell us about this 
land of Rodman Drake, Fitz-Greene Halleck, the DeLan- 
ceys, Hunts, Lydigs, Lorillards, etc., and we think our 
readers will enjoy these memories of an older and more 
stately period in the romantic country seat days of the 
Bronx. Mr. Wray's article begins the series. 

[ 145 ] 


The Passing of the Delancey Pine of Bronx Park 
— History and Romance 

Stephen Wray 
On the easterly bank of the Bronx River in Bronx 
Park, within a few feet of the Lower Falls and nearly 
opposite the present Boat-House, there stands erect, like 
a sentinel on post, the mast-like stump of a large tree, 
sawed off fully twenty feet above the ground. Huge 
among its neighboring trees, near its base it is over four 
and a half feet from bark to bark and twelve feet in cir- 
cumference ; prone on the ground at its foot lies a large 
section of the trunk, stripped of its branches and bark. 
This is all that remains of the last of the great forest-trees 
that once lined the banks of the Bronx, trees that in their 
span of life covered many generations of men ; for this tree 
has seen 'beneath its arching boughs the events of the 
centuries shape the destiny of men; saw the Indian run- 
ner glide past, saw the coming of the white colonist, saw 
farmer and miller. Continental soldier and Redcoat Brit- 
ish, Washington himself, the brilliantly uniformed officers 
of Howe's headquarters staff, the assembly of the aristo- 
cratic fox-hunt, the gathering of the wedding-guests, poet 
and dull negro-slave, all manners of men, times of peace 
and times of terror, for this tree is the Delancey Pine, 
celebrated in song and story; 

"WHERE gentle Bronx clear-winding flows, 

The shadowy banks between, 
Where blossomed bell or wilding rose 

Adorns the brighest green, 
Memorial of the fallen great, 

The rich and honored line. 
Stands high, in solitary state, 

DELANCEY'S ancient pine." 
So sang the poet a century ago, for even then it was a 

tree with a long history, and beneath its shade stood the 

old homestead once the residence of Peter Delancey, son 

[ 146] 


of Stephen Delancey, the Huguenot, and brother of the 
Lieutenant-Governor James Delancey. 

Before the coming of the white man, this tree stood 
near the fording-place of the Indian tribes whose trail 
passed nearby ; down through a gap between rock ledges 
dashed the stream in a rapid to the point where the fresh 
water mingled with the salt, for then the tide rose and 
fell at that point, and the Indians found that at the join- 
ing of the waters, there was at all tides a shoal place 
suitable for wading the stream. The Indians, on their 
way to the summer camps at what was afterwards Hunts 
Point, crossed over to the west bank of the stream and 
continued southward on a trail following the windings 
of the stream, and this stream they named the "Stream of 
the High Banks" or "Aquehung" on account of the ledges 
near the big pine. 

Then came the white men, Jonas Bronk and his friend 
Captain Kuyter ; disappointed on their arrival at their 
plantations on the Harlem River in the summer of 1639 
at finding that their brooks flowed through meadows and 
could not readily be dammed for use with the saw-mill 
they had brought from Holland, they inquired of some 
of their Indians whether there was not some stream in the 
vicinity with high banks, and the Indians led them over 
their trails to the big-pine and Bronk at once saw that it 
was an ideal place for his mill; so shortly afterward; 
Bronk and his men arrived by boat, built their log-dam 
at the head of tidewater and between the ledges near the 
big pine, and soon the mill was set up and in operation, 
and the beams and boards were being shipped by every 
tide to be used on the Harlem in building the dwellings 
and tobacco-barns of Bronk and Kuyter ; the Indian name 
of the river was dropped, and it became known among 

[ 147 1 


the settlers as Bronk's River, which name, spelt "Bronx" 
it has retained. 

But Bronk's mill was short-lived, for the year 1643 
saw the outbreak of the Indian war, and soon a band of 
painted and greased warriors leveled the dam and fired 
the mill, and so passed Bronk's connection with the 

Years passed, and one day a group of stocky white 
men. Englishmen, the Town Trustees of the little settle- 
ment of Westchester, came over the old trail looking for 
a site for their town-mill. The site was satisfactory, and 
soon the woods rang with the axes as the settlers cleared 
the old trail from Westchester into a rough wood road, 
and then built a new dam and a grist-mill and saw-mill, 
with a dwelling for the miller on the high bank ; and here, 
in 1680, came William Richardson, the town's first miller, 
with his family, and his two negro-slaves, Jack and Dick, 
his six yokes of oxen, and all his possessions. 

William Richardson agreed to live in the wilderness 
at the mills that he might always be ready to operate 
them; for his compensation, not only did the town give 
him the exclusive right to maintain mills on the lower 
Bronx, and to cut certain kinds of timber, and to occupy 
and use twenty acres of land, but he might from those 
who patronized the mills, keep all timber sawed "to the 
halves" and all corn ground "to the fourteenth part." 

After the death of Richardson in 1693, the mills passed 
to two Dutchmen, Evert Byvanck, who had lately married 
the wealthy widow, Wyntie Van Exveen, and his brother- 
in-law, Johannes Hogelandt; but the latter did not long 
remain, for he found that a tide-mill had begun opera- 
tions on Westchester Creek and that most of the grind- 
ing of the Westchester settlers would naturally go there ; 

[ 148] 


so he sold his interest to Evert Byvanck, and thereafter 
the latter, an elderly man with no children, charmed by 
the quietness and sylvan beauty of the place, could be seen 
seated on his stoop, calmly smoking his long pipe, as he 
watched his negroes at work in the mills below and the 
river glide over the dam and past the ford. 

In turn, Evert Byvanck died and his widow inherited 
the mills, but could not live alone in the woods, so sold 
the property to William Provoost, who had married her 
daughter, Aegie Van Exveen. 

William Provoost at this time, in 1711, was a rising 
merchant of New York City, and could not spend his 
time attending mills, so he turned them over to Nicholas 
Brouwer who came from Kings County; and although 
for a few years they passed into the hands of Daniel 
Tourneur, they eventually came again to Brouwer, but 
probably all the while William Provoost had an interest 
in the property. 

Provoost became wealthy, one of the leading mer- 
chants of New York, and a member of the Council of 
the Royal Governor. Finding that he could become no 
greater in New York, but that further opportunities of- 
fered in the Colony of New Jersey about to become sep- 
arated from New York, and desiring to remove to 
Hackensack, he seems to have made, about 1731, a sale 
of these mills to Stephen Delancey, the Huguenot mer- 
chant, then his fellow member in the Council of the 

It was during the time of Evert Byvanck that the mills 
became more of a neighborhood center, for in 1704 the 
Road Commissioners of Westchester not only widened 
and improved the road to Westchester and also the old 
trail along the west bank of the Bronx to Hunts Point 

[ 151 ] 


(now West Farms Road), making them roads four rods 
wide, but put through a new road over to Kingsbridge 
(now 182d Street), thus doing away with the roads that 
had heretofore run "according to marked trees"; and 
in 1716, another road was laid out to follow the 
course of the present Morris Park Avenue and White 
Plains Road, in parts, thus opening the way to the Boston 
Road at Williamsbridge ; and about the same time (1716) 
a new wooden bridge spanned the old fording-place near 
the mills. 

The purchase of the mill-property by Delancey, al- 
though at first regarded as a business venture, soon 
proved to be of vast importance to the fortunes of the 
Delancey family, for the possession of these mills con- 
tributed largely to placing the family in power over the 
Colonial government of New York for the fifty years 
preceding the Revolution. The Royal Governor Cosby 
had arrived in New York, had acted the tyrant, had been 
checked by Chief-Justice Lewis Morris, and had deposed 
Morris and, to further humiliate him, placed young James 
Delancey, fresh from his law-studies in England, in his 
place on the Bench; Morris had retaliated by contesting 
an election for member of the Provincial Assembly, and 
becoming elected through the votes of his tenants of the 
Manor of Morrisania and the free small farmers living 
in the Manor of Fordham, the Borough Town of West- 
chester, and the Patent of West Farms, over the violent 
opposition of the Delancey and Philipse families who con- 
trolled the votes of all other sections of the lower West- 
chester district. Morris speedily made himself leader of 
the Provincial Assembly, which was the only lawful body 
with the right to raise money by taxation and say how 
it should be spent, and so blocked all efforts of the avari- 

[ 152] 


cious Governor to handle any of the public funds or 
carry out any of his enterprises at public cost. 

A way had to be found to defeat Morris at future 
elections; and after a deep study of the case, it was de- 
cided that some young and popular member of the De- 
lancey family should be sent to live at the Mills, one 
who could be hail-fellow-well-met with the farmers of 
the neighborhood and who could be counted on to form 
their acquaintance as they came to the Mills, the gather- 
ing place of many each day and a place where mcJst must 
come sooner or later, and thus change their vote from 
Morris, whom they all knew but did not altogether like, 
to a Delancey, who was popular. So Peter Delancey, sec- 
ond son of Stephen Delancey the Huguenot, took up his 
residence at the Mills, he being then twenty-nine years 
of age, a fine, athletic, good-looking man, well calculated 
to make a favorable impression on his farmer constitu- 
ents ; and at the next election, Lewis Morris was the de- 
feated candidate and Peter Delancey became Member of 
the Provincial Assembly from Westchester County ; and 
thereafter, Morris spent practically all of his remaining 
years on his estates in New Jersey ; and Peter Delancey 
continued to hold this office until an old man, when he 
retired in favor of his son John. 

Peter Delancey fell under the charm of the "Mills" 
and a few years later, in 1738, he brought there his bride, 
Elizabeth Colden, daughter of Dr.' Cadwallader Colden, 
later to achieve fame as the Stamp-Act Governor of New 
York ; and here they were to spend their lives ; for old 
Stephen Delancey, seeing how pleased both were with the 
place, left it to them in his Will in 1741. Here they ruled, 
he as political ruler of lower Westchester County, widely 
known as "Peter-of-the-Mills," Sheriff and County Mem- 

[ 153] 


ber, and resident representative of the Delancey and 
Colden families, than whom there were none of greater 
power in the half-century before the passing of the British 
rule; she, ruling in social affairs, the supreme lady-of- 
quality of the region; and here their twelve children 
were born and became in turn powers in the affairs of 
their country. Peter loved the quaintness and charm of 
the place, and as he made money, bought farm after farm 
until his holdings extended along the Bronx from the big 
bend south of Tremont Avenue to north of Pelham 
Parkway, and from Van-Nest station on the east to 
Fordham Square on the west ; and he improved his prop- 
erty, putting an arched bridge of stone over the old 
fording-place in place of the wooden bridge, building be- 
neath the big-pine a homestead for his family, and in- 
creasing his mills until he had several grinding the dif- 
ferent kinds of grains, for at the time of the French and 
Indian war, with armies in the City and up the Hudson 
to be supplied, the mills were full of activity and the 
slaves had little rest. 

Then the children began to reach their majority and 
their friends began to assemble under the old pine, with 
all sorts of social diversions and activities, and it is of this 
period that the unknown poet again writes of the pine- 
tree, the fox-hunt, and youthful nature ; 

"THERE once at early dawn arrayed 

The rural sport to lead, 
The gallant master of the glade 

Bedecks his eager steed. 
And once the lightfoot maiden came, 

In loveliness divine, 
To sculpture with the dearest name 

DELANCEY'S ancient pine." 

Then came young and comely Ralph Izard, the wealthy 
young planter from South Carolina, who, having just 

[ 154 ] 


completed his studies in Europe, stopped at New York at 
his father's request to learn from Lieutenant Governor 
James Delancey the practical application to American 
colonists of some of the book precepts he had studied ; 
but he found more than law-precepts and governmental 
practice at New York, for at a garden party which Gov- 
ernor Delancey gave at his Bowery country-seat, Ralph 
Izard met little Alice Delancey from the "Mills," a mere 
child at the time, allowed to attend her first party ; Ralph 
Izard thereafter, whenever in New York, and he came 
north with tolerable frequency, was sure to spend a por- 
tion, in fact much, of his time at the "Mills," and in due 
course, when she became twenty, all social New York 
arose very early one morning and donned its traveling 
clothes to attend the wedding of Ralph Izard and Alice 
Delancey at the "Mills" ; and such a procession as there 
was up the old Bloomingdale Road and across Kings- 
bridge, ladies in old family-coaches with their negroes in 
finest livery, each lady masked to preserve her delicate 
complexion from the perils of the sun and dust; gentle- 
men on their hunters, riding at the coach-wheel or canter- 
ing together along the road, body-servants in their chaises, 
and the negro-slaves with the carts containing the trunks 
filled with the gorgeous silks and satins to be hastily 
donned in some West Farms farm house commanded for 
the occasion ; it was the social event of that year in New 
York, and for years people talked of the procession of 
vehicles over a mile in length ; and then came the arrival 
at the "Mills," with the grinning slaves, each in a new 
suit, waiting to see to the wants of the guests, and then 
the wedding-ceremony held on the lawn under the wide- 
spreading boughs of the giant pinetree, for the house 
would never hold such a company, nor would little St. 

[ 157 ] 


Peter's church at Westchester, for that would barely 
accommodate fifty people anyway, and so the pastor, the 
Reverend Dr. Seabury, had consented to perform the 
ceremony in the open; and then came the jollity which 
lasted till even the strongest were tired; that surely was 
a wedding to remember. 

But times were to change, and the Izards were in the 
hands of the Fates. Who could have then predicted that 
the Revolution would have made them the associates 
in Paris of Franklin and later, represent at the Court 
of an Italian sovereign the newly created Republic of the 
United States, or that he should pledge his fortune for 
the expenses of building our first naval vessels, become 
the honored friend of Washington, the early Senator 
from his native state of South Carolina; and who could 
have predicted that their portraits, painted by Copley in 
Rome, should one day adorn the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts as one of its most cherished possessions. 

And now, changes occur at the Mills — Old Peter De- 
lancey passed away in 1770, having provided for all of his 
children who had reached their majority; and now his 
widow, to whom he had willed his possessions with di- 
rections to provide for the others, transferred to her sons 
Oliver and James the mills and lands along the Bronx, and 
both sons brought their brides to reside, one at the old 
homestead, the other at the smaller house just across the 
road from the mills ; Oliver is a naval officer on one of the 
King's ships ; James fills the position of Sheriff of West- 
chester County; the other children have scattered over 
the colonies or are with their mother at her new home 
called "Union Hill," (near Fordham of to-day) ; the Rev- 
olution is fast approaching, and trouble is in store for the 
family ; Oliver refused to fight his own countrymen, broke 

[ 158] 


his sword and resigned from the navy ; Stephen, the eld- 
est son, occupying a governmental position at Albany, 
made himself so obnoxious at a dinner on the King's 
Birthday that the Liberty Boys kidnapped him; two sis- 
ters were married at a double wedding, Jane Delancey 
to her cousin John Watts, and Susannah Delancey to 
Thomas Barclay, afterwards to be the British Consul- 
General at New York; the brother, John Delancey, had 
become the Member of Assembly when his father re- 
tired; the brother, Peter Delancey, once Stamp-Officer, 
had fallen in a duel in the South; Elizabeth Delancey, 
another daughter, died just before the War; and the re- 
maining two of the children who once played beneath the 
pinetree, Ann and the youngest, Warren, lived at Union 
Hill with the mother. 

Then came the Revolution, and with the other Tories, 
the Delanceys kept quiet until the King's troops should 
put an end to the rebels ; August of 1776 came, the battle 
of Long Island was fought and the rebels were beaten; 
Old Cadwallader Golden, now 88, in his home at Spring 
Hill near Flushing, heard the news and it caused a stroke ; 
the Delanceys were summoned to his death-bed, but he 
lingered for quite a while; and then, when the funeral 
was over and the Delanceys sought to return to their 
Bronx home, it was only to find that the East River had 
been closed by the British, who were about to move their 
army in that direction; and so, to most of them, the old 
life on the Bronx was of the past, for the widow of Peter 
died while still at Flushing, and the homestead was never 
again occupied by a Delancey family. 

The family were still absent and the slaves were in 
charge of the homestead, when messenger after messen- 
ger in the Continental uniform spurred past, carrying to 

[ 159 1 


Headquarters the news that Howe's army was passing 
the different points of land along the East River; then 
came the squads and afterwards whole companies of 
the American troops on their way to hold the Westchester 
Causeway against the British advance ; soon other troops 
arrived, and the sound of their axes filled the air as they 
felled the trees across the roads to render more difficult 
passage of artillery and baggage-train; and lastly came 
the worried, anxious Washington himself, to see that 
all was done and that a second line of resistance was 
made along the Bronx in case the British succeeded in 
passing the Westchester Creek ; with his staff, he stayed 
for a few meals at the old homestead beneath the pine- 
tree; and then, the British crossing Pelham Bay, he de- 
parted to meet the new dangers in the north ; 

A few days more, and the wondering slaves one morn- 
ing receive a visit from a squad of British troopers; Sir 
William Howe, they say, with the whole British Army, 
will be here presently, and while he is conducting the 
siege of Fort Washington, intends to make the home- 
stead at Delancey's Mills his army headquarters; and 
shortly after, with clank of sabre and jingle of spurs; 
up rides the General with his staff, for a three weeks stay. 
The meadow to the south soon blossoms with tents of the 
Headquarters troop, and then arrives all of the army not 
actively engaged in the siege, and pitch their camp, thou- 
sands of men, the red-coat British on the Mapes Estate, 
the Hessians on the Morris Park tract, and the kilted 
Highlanders near Westchester Village in which they sieze 
St. Peter's Church for their hospital. 

The homestead in now gay with brightly-colored uni- 
forms as Howe sits at a table beneath the old pine and 
receives the reports of his officers as to the progress of 

[ 160] 


the siege ; and of how many trees, or of how many houses, 
can it be said that in the short space of one month they 
have sheltered the headquarters of the Commanders of 
two hostile armies? But in a few weeks this passes, and 
the siege being over, one day General Howe, with his 
staff and headquarters troop, pass over the stone bridge 
and disappear, and after them, for days pass the thirty 
thousand people of the camps, with their artillery and 
camp-wains, and disappear towards Kingsbridge in a 
great cloud of dust; and for a space, peace again settles 
on the homestead. 

But not for long, for the Spring of 1777 sees the ar- 
rival of the youthful James Delancey, not to bring his 
family to again reside at the house, but to turn it into a 
barrack for a troop of horse to be recruited from the 
young men of the Tory families of the district; "The 
Elite of the County" was its first name, officially, but its 
friends soon knew it as "Delancey's Horse" and its enemies 
as "The Cow-Boys"; and presently, a picket-line was 
stretched beneath the pine-tree and it looked down on the 
long-line of tethered horses of the troopers. 

Now this Headquarters offered a tempting bait for 
a raid by the Continentals alert to exterminate, or at 
least scatter, these Cow-Boys, and to give timely warning 
of such a visit. In the top of the big pine-tree, over a 
hundred feet in the air, and so far topping the neighbor- 
ing trees that a clear view could be had at a distance 
of the roads which converged at the "Mills," a sentry- 
box was erected, where a lookout was maintained when- 
ever the troop was at home. 

But despite the lookout, a determined farmer, whose 
cows had been taken by Delancey's men to make British 
beef-stew, managed to get his revenge by taking from 

[ 163 ] 


the meadow on the opposite side of the Bronx, now the 
buffalo-range of Bronx Park, the celebrated stallion, 
"True Britain," which was the pride of the troops' com- 
mander, James Delancey, and getting away so success- 
fully during a thunder-shower that the horse was 
lost forever to that part of the country, but in New Eng- 
land became celebrated as the ancestor of the famous 
"Morgan" line of horses, now bred in Vermont by the 
United States Government, and destined soon to furnish 
to Japan a new stock of horseflesh. 

So, to overcome the contingencies of rain, fog and 
darkness, a blockhouse of logs was built as an outpost 
just across the river ; and one dark winter's night in 1779, 
Aaron Burr and his men made some history by a sur- 
prise attack, with their short port-hole ladders and their 
hand-grenades and fire-balls, and soon the block-house, 
lighting up the surrounding scene with its flames, passed 
out of existence. 

Then, one night, James Delancey, his men killed or 
scattered, came back like a hunted animal to find a place 
at the old homestead where he could have a few hours 
rest; but that night, dark forms assembled near the old 
pine, all in the Continental blue and buff, a raiding-party 
of General Putnam's ; they search the house, and find 
Delancey in his hiding-place, and away he rides, a pris- 
oner, to be later exchanged, but only to find that he is 
definitely out of the war. 

And now, the war is ended, and with its end comes 
the close of the career of James Delancey in the Valley 
of the Bronx; proscribed by the Legislature of New 
York as a traitor, his lands have been confiscated and he 
has been ordered into exile; the morning comes when he 
must bid good-by to the scenes of his youth ; he wanders 

I 164 ] 


for a last time around the homestead and beneath the 
old pine-tree; he walks through the terraces of the flower- 
garden nearby and looks down into the sunken road just 
beyond where as a boy he rode, guided by an old black 
retainer, on his way to the stables ; all the familiar spots 
in turn were passed, and then, swinging into the saddle, 
he slowly made his way past the mills to the old stone 
bridge ; there some of his neighbors, headed by his farmer 
friend, Theophilus Hunt, had gathered for a last part- 
ing ; he bade all farewell, and with a last long look at the 
beautiful scene, the falls, the mills, homestead and pine- 
tree, until the tears blinded his eyes, the "Outlaw of the 
Bronx" took his way to Nova Scotia. 

Years passed, and the brother Oliver was now in charge 
of the "Mills," living not at the homestead, but in the 
house across the road. He was having poor success with 
the mills; for his slaves were now old, and laws had 
been passed preventing him buying others ; so he decided 
to turn the active management to someone else, and when, 
in 1801, James Bathgate, a young Scotch millwright, with 
his widowed mother, applied for the place, Oliver Delan- 
cey was only too glad to accept his services; so the 
widow Bathgate and her son came to live at the home- 
stead of the Delanceys ; and the neighboring farmers 
again brought their grist to be ground. 

But in 1803, David Lydig, the owner of the great mill 
at Highland Falls near West Point, whose sloops cruised 
the Hudson and brought the farmers' grain to that mill 
and took the flour to New York for export, believing that 
some day his business would outgrow the mill in the 
Highlands, purchased the water-power at West Farms 
from Oliver Delancey, and the old mills, for three-quar- 
ters of a century known as "Delancey's," now became 

[ 165] 


"Lydig's Mills," Bathgate continuing as tenant to operate 

Lydig had new ideas; he believed it better to bring 
grain by sloop to be ground rather than depend entirely 
on the neighboring farmers; that the sloops could not 
approach the mill because of a dam lower on the stream, 
(just below where Tremont Avenue now is) was to him 
of no consequence; he bought the land on both sides 
of the river at the lower dam, and cut in the eastern 
bank of a canal around one end, placing in it a lock; 
below, in the bend of the river, he built a wharf, ware- 
house, and large grain-elevator, the hoisting machinery 
operated by power from the lower dam. 

So when the tide was at flood, flat-boats laden with 
barrels of flour were poled through the lock to the wharf 
and the flour stored in the warehouse until removed by 
sloop, and on the return trip, a load of grain from the 
elevator carried through the lock Ito the mill ; at the 
homestead, Bathgate still lived, while in summer, across 
the road, to the house where Oliver Delancey once lived, 
David Lydig brought his family to spend the sultry 

Once more the scene is shifted; along the road across 
the bridge, and past the mill races a graceful girl with 
the bloom of the country air in her cheeks, surrounded 
by a group of dogs, and behind, more at his leisure, comes 
a young man obviously, by his taste in dress, from the 
City; the young Diana is Nancy Leggett and her com- 
panion, Joseph Rodman Drake, now spending his vaca- 
tion at his grandmother's at the "Grange" on Hunts 
Point; beneath the old pine-tree they rest awhile; and 
many are familiar with the lines which were the result 
of that outing : 

[ 166] 








Attbr^m 3lark00« 1B55 

In 1860 she made the run to San 
Francisco in 89 days. She was com- 
manded by Captain John E. Williams 
of Mystic, Conn., where she was built 
by Irons & Grinnell. She was owned 
by J. H. Brower & Co., of New York. 
At the close of her brilliant career — 
she had four consecutive passages 
averaging 98% days — the splendid 
career of the American clipper came 
to an end as a result of the Civil War. 

Her captain received much attention 
for his record run of 89 days, the own- 
ers and merchants of both New York 
and San Francisco paying him signal 
honors and presenting him with a 
watch. A picture of the Andrew Jack- 
son is used to-day by the Maritime 
Exchange on its letter-heads. 


"I sat me down upon a green bankside' 

Skirting the smooth edge of a gentle river, 

Whose waters seemed unwilHngly to glide, 

Like parting friends, who linger while they sever." 

And may Drake not have had the old pine-tree of the 
Delanceys in mind when he wrote the verse 

"Yet will I look upon thy face again, 

My own romantic Bronx^ and it will be 
A face more pleasant than the face of men ; 

Thy waves are old companions ; I shall see 
A well-remembered face in each old tree, 

And hear a voice long loved in thy wild minstrelsy." 

The river flows on, winds of many winters whistle 
through the tree-boughs and great changes take place; 
the old sawmill on the opposite bank of the river becomes 
the place where a genius named Skinner sets up a new 
machine to make veneers, and thus revolutionize the 
woodworking industry of the country; fire takes away 
the old flour-mills of the Delanceys. and the old home- 
stead; then comes the big brick mill on the west bank, 
with its commercial millers, and the site of the former 
homestead is left in solitude; and one spring, with the 
going of the snows in 1853, the Bronx becomes a raging 
torrent tearing out all dams, carrying away trees and 
buildings, an uncontrolled tawny monster ; and away with 
it went all that the fires had spared, the stone-bridge of the 
first peter Delancey, the old overshot-wheel of the mills in 
which the little boys of West Farms for generations had 
longed to take a ride as it slowly revolved, every vestige 
of the old regime, save the terraces of the rose-garden 
and the old Delancey pine. 

And now, the throng of daily visitors at Bronx Park, 
watching the gaily-awninged launch as it takes its load 
from the Boat-House, may notice a log on which sits an 

[ 171 1 


old man, or possibly a mother with her baby playing at 
her feet, not knowing that in the old log lying there is 
carried out the prophecy made so long ago that soon, 
notwithstanding its past glories, unknown, or at least 

"In equalizing dust may lie, 
Delancey's Ancient Pine." 

History on Blue China Plates 

By the Editor 

An entirely unexplored field for sketches of Old New 
York of the rarest and most interesting character is to 
be found in the old blue China of early days, specimens 
of which can be more or less readily obtained. 

"The Opening of the Erie Canal," "Lafayette Landing 
at the Battery," "The City Hall," etc., are only a few 
subjects that occur to the writer but there are many 
more as our readers well know. 

Beginning with the next issue, the Manual will com- 
mence the reproduction of some of these more important 
plates. Our accomplished friend Mr. E. P. Mitchell, 
editor of The Sun, is responsible for this happy sugges- 
tion and has kindly placed his splendid collection at our 
disposal for the purpose. We should be glad to hear 
from any other of our readers who have this material 
and who would like to cooperate. 

I 172] 


HLMOST coincident with the founding of New York 
began the establishment of Brooklyn. For many 
years our sister borough preserved her separate 
identity, but is now merged in the greater city. 

The old Manual rarely went outside of Manhattan 
Island. These new volumes, however, must take cogni- 
zance of what now constitutes the modern city of New 
York. We cannot of course find space for all to which 
Brooklyn is entitled in this publication. At best all we 
can do for our sister boroughs at present is to say that 
arrangements are under consideration whereby all may be 
represented in these pages. 

Many of our readers in the City of Churches will recall 
the pleasant old county roads described in the following 

Old Brooklyn and Its Vanishing Roads 

John Crawford Brown 
The ancient Greeks had a beautiful way of endowing 
all things in nature with a mystic personality which to 
them was very real and living. The dawn of day was 

[ 173] 


personified in an angel of light and this being, rising from 
the horizon in the chariot of the sun, spread the be- 
neficences of the morning far and wide. If the angel of 
the dawn which swept over the little settlement of simple 
and primitive folks constituting the village of Flatbush 
about the end of the seventeenth century, should revisit 
the scenes of those early days, we wonder whether he 
would sigh for the quaint old times that have departed, or 
rejoice in the bustling, gay and busy life of the Flatbush 
of to-day. We wonder indeed if this mysterious visitant 
would even recognize the scenes that were familiar to 
him then? Of course some of the old landmarks are 
still there. The great stretches of flat lands extending to 
the ocean, with the remnants of woods that covered them 
so abundantly in those far-off days, and the elevations that 
varied the topography are still there, and so are the old 
roadways that connected the little settlements, and here 
and there one of the old homesteads in the midst of new 
and marvellous surroundings, but all else has vanished 
and the dear old Flatbush of our forefathers is now only 
a pleasant and romantic dream of the long ago. 

The most permanent possessions of a country are its 
roads. We still have the Appian way in Rome, Watling 
Street in England, and the famous road around the Bay 
of Naples over which the distressed and terror-stricken 
inhabitants of Pompeii fled from the wrath of Vesuvius. 
And coming down to our own times there is the famous 
road between Concord and Lexington and the road along 
which Paul Revere galloped to rouse the brave soldiers 
of the revolution. These are all famous and permanent 
and national, but every country-side has its roads with 
their little bits of history and their intimate connection 
with the people as they come and go, and although they 

[ 174] 



may be only the roadways of the humble and obscure and 
have no world-wide importance, they are none the less 
dear and close to the life of the people who have traversed 
them and who regard them with a very intimate and 
tender feeling. For have they not passed over these 
roads in moments of anxious care or of exuberant joy, in 
the stilly hours of the night and in the garish hours of 
the day, in tempest and in sunshine, in joy and sorrow 
both. And have not these roads borne them in all their 
ways and in all their moods even as a very dear friend who 
changes not. 

And it is the roads that put the familiar aspect on the 
landscape. There may be hills and valleys, woods and 
rivulets, all objects of familiarity and endearment, but it 
is the roads leading to our dwellings and linking the little 
homesteads together that make the landscape familiar 
and invest it with that quality which makes us call it our 
land — our home. And these old Flatbush roads are still 
there — and yet they are not there, for the transforming 
hand of man has changed them from old country roads 
into the broad avenues and busy streets of our modern 

It is recorded in an old history how the traveller on his 
way to the ferry was admonished to keep to the left of the 
trees blazed for his guidance, and from this fact we can 
realize that this road was then only a rough, straggling 
trail through the woods. Roads are not built in a day 
any more than cities, and this embryo thoroughfare, 
known to us now as Flatbush Avenue, went through all 
the stages of development before it became the great 
artery of city life it is to-day and one of the most im- 
portant highways of Greater New York. With a bridge 
of magnificent proportions at one end, and the most popu- 

[ 177 ] 


lar and amusing seaside resort in the world at the other 
this modern Highway to the sea may fairly claim a place 
among the immortals. But the old path through the 
woods has vanished and in its place has appeared this 
blazing, throbbing, restless city street. 

It was about the middle of the eighteenth century that 
this old road began to take shape as a road of some con- 
sequence and as being of just a little more importance 
than the other roads and by-ways that crossed and re- 
crossed the land from one group of habitants to another, 
for it was decreed that a highway should be laid out con- 
necting the Ferry Settlement with the outlying village of 
Flatbush and beyond. Already a highway existed to 
Jamaica which followed the general line of Fulton Street 
to Flatbush Avenue and thence up Flatbush Avenue to 
Atlantic Avenue. At this point the road branched out in 
two directions, the one continuing up Atlantic Avenue 
in an irregular line corresponding to our present Atlantic 
Avenue, cutting through to Fulton Street at certain points 
and making many turns and deviations before terminating 
at Jamaica. This road was known later as the Brooklyn 
and Jamaica Turnpike and is the Jamaica road of to-day. 
The other branch was the road to Flatbush. This road 
branched ofif at about where now is So. Eliot Place and 
Atlantic Avenue. This road was also known as King's 
Highway, a name commonly given to roads laid out to 
connect different points in the colony. It would be diffi- 
cult to trace this road exactly in all its turns and windings 
and it is not the purpose of this article to be technical. In 
a general way, however, this road was intended to make 
the most direct route for such traffic as there was in those 
days from New York through Flatbush to the ferry at the 

[ 178 ] 


Narrows, and thence to points in Staten Island, New Jer- 
sey and further south as far as Philadelphia. 

After passing through the village of Flatbush it curved 
around to the west making what is still known as Kings 
Highway, which in those days continued on to the ferry 
at the Narrows. The old highway, however, is entirely 
obliterated beyond 21st Avenue and to the antiquarian 
presents a curiously interesting but pathetic spectacle as 
it disappears into a district of modern streets and dwell- 
ing houses. One thing, however, is very pleasing, and 
that is that a long stretch of several miles of this ancient 
highway is still extant and bids fair to become again a 
road of first importance and a fine residential section of 
our beautiful borough. 

Coming back to Atlantic Avenue where the Flatbush 
road branches off, it continued along the present course 
of the avenue to the lands now enclosed in Prospect Park, 
finding its way by turns and curves through that hilly 
section and along what is now the beautiful East Drive, 
emerging at a point near where the Willink entrance now 
is and where Ocean Avenue begins. From this point to 
the old Dutch Reformed Church and probably as far as 
the intersection of Foster Avenue the old road was identi- 
cal with the present line of Flatbush Avenue. Along this 
part of the road, too, most of the settlers had built their 
homes, so that even as early as the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century there were quite a number of substantial 
homes and a considerable group of inhabitants. Here the 
old road was known locally as the Main Road, although it 
was only an important section of the great highway from 
ferry to ferry, and was wider, better defined and in better 
condition than any other part. 

[ 179 ] 


This, too, was the center of whatever social, religious 
or political life there was in the village. The old church 
which still stands as the central attraction of this busy 
street was then the only building of consequence and 
within its sacred precincts everything of importance to the 
small community took place. On Sundays you could see 
the serious but deeply sincere farmers and peasant folks 
wending their way from all directions toward the sacred 
edifice. They came through the lanes and by-ways and 
across the fields in little companies of two's and three's, 
while some traversed the Main Road embowered as it was 
then in stately trees, making a quaintly interesting picture 
of the hallowed Sabbath morning as it was observed and 
revered in those days. The old church still stands there 
surrounded now as then with the sacred memorials of the 
generations who have worshipped in it. But what a 
change in the people of to-day, and how those lovely old 
country roads have changed. And the good old Dominie 
who included everybody in his flock then — I wonder what 
he would say if he came to life in Flatbush to-day and 
saw the eager crowds hurrying hither and thither bent 
on all sorts of objects. 

But even in the quiet and seeming peacefulness of those 
times there were little comedies and tragedies going on and 
perhaps the old Dominie who was in everybody's confi- 
dence could unfold many a tale that would stir our hearts 
and prove again the truth of the old adage that one touch 
of nature makes the whole world kin. And we might 
realize that after all the world is not so dififerent now 
from what it was then, notwithstanding our lofty sky 
scrapers and crowded subways. 

Along this road the gay and convivial Colonel Axtel 
was often seen, and his home, Melrose Hall — a stately 

[ 180] 

The house in which Washington Irving lived, 17th Street and 

Irving Place, opposite the Washington Irving 

High School. 


mansion for those days — was the scene of many a festive 
gathering. It was here the loyalists foregathered in the 
days of the revolution and no doubt many a plot was 
hatched for the undoing of that great movement. But 
what has given Melrose Hall a foremost place in the tradi- 
tions of the village is the love story of his wife's niece, 
Eliza Shipton. In this complication of the tender pas- 
sion and politics there was naturally a turning of every- 
thing topsy-turvy, bringing storm as well as sunshine to 
the dwellers in Melrose Hall and to the community gen- 
erally, for the fair lady dwelt in the halls of loyalty while 
the gallant swain was a patriot and revolutionist of the 
most strenuous kind. Acquilla Giles was a welcome guest 
at Melrose Hall before his revolutionary leanings were 
known, and participated in its gay and festive scenes. 
It was at one of these he met the fair Miss Shipton and 
the acquaintance rapidly developed into true love. She 
gave him all she had to give, and all he asked — her heart. 
But 'tis said the course of true love never does run smooth 
and theirs was unusually tempestuous and stormy. The 
Colonel would have none of it and young Giles was ban- 
ished from the Hall. But the stars in their courses 
worked for the young couple, as the sad fortunes of the 
Colonel bore witness. The revolution was successful and 
the discomfiture of the Colonel was complete. Melrose 
Hall with all its fine lawns and surroundings was confis- 
cated. In the meantime Acquilla Giles had risen to the 
proud position of Colonel of his regiment and took his 
place among the local heroes of the revolution. When 
Melrose Hall was sold Col. Giles became its owner and 
had the intense pleasure of leading his bride back to the 
old home where they had first plighted their troth, and 
there they lived happily for many years. Col. Axtel hav- 

[ 183 ] 


ing lost his all returned to England where he died in 1795. 

The Brooklynite who remembers Flatbush Avenue as 
it was forty years ago when the old toll gate stretched 
across the side path into the road just beyond the Lefferts 
house, and who saw the long vista of stately trees stretch- 
ing out before him can easily understand how romance 
and legend hovered about the quaint old houses that dotted 
each side of the road. Most of the old houses have dis- 
appeared, but this one, the Lefferts house, perhaps the 
oldest of them all, is still standing, and has been in posses- 
sion of some member of the Lefferts family since the be- 
ginning to the present time. The original house was built 
in 1660, but was destroyed by fire and the present house 
was erected on the old foundations in 1730 and is intact 
to-day. In the hey-day of old Flatbush this beautiful 
homestead was a center of social life and one of the most 
delightful homes in the village. About it legend has 
twined some strange but harmless stories just as it has 
about many others, but most of those old houses have dis- 
appeared, leaving the legends and stories as a fragrant 
memory of the past. The Lefferts house has just been 
moved from its original site at Flatbush Avenue and 
Maple Street into Prospect Park near the Willink en- 
trance where it will be preserved for all time. 

If another Washington Irving or Nathaniel Hawthorne 
should arise he would find in the folk lore of this delight- 
ful old village material enough to spin a series of thrilling 
and heart stirring stories that would vie with the romantic 
tales of a hundred years ago. Some time a genius will 
appear no doubt and weave for us out of this homely ma- 
terial tales that will rival the House of the Seven Gables 
or even the Heart of Mid-Lothian. Supposing such a 

[ 184] 


writer should take for his theme the story of Abigail Lef- 
ferts and her sweetheart Bateman Lloyd. In the quaint 
old Zabriskie homestead at the Cross roads this little melo- 
drama of real heart interest was enacted. This, too, was 
in the days of the revolution. Bateman Lloyd — a patriot 
and lieutenant in the army — was a prisoner of the loyalists 
and lodged in Flatbush jail. He was billeted for his 
meals at the home of Jacob Lefferts, known as the Za- 
briskie homestead, but was allowed the freedom of walk- 
ing about the village within certain prescribed limits, and 
often met the lovely daughter of his host. Mr. Lefferts 
was a Tory and had no sympathy with his boarder, but his 
daughter had none of his scruples and regarded the young 
officer with the maidenly passion of first love. All the 
world loves a lover and a kindly disposed uncle of the 
fair Abigail got into the secret somehow. Our little 
friend Cupid, too, saw an opportunity of creating a situa- 
tion to stir up the quiet circles of the village. 'Twas al- 
ways thus with this scheming little fellow and in this 
instance the drama moved on to its denouement under 
the very nose — if we may say so — of the unsuspecting 
father. By a strange accident the young couple met at 
the home of the kind-hearted uncle and also by accident 
the Dominie stopped in. Of course there could be only 
one ending to such a happy combination of events and the 
marriage knot was tied. We will not attempt to describe 
the storm that was raised in the Lefferts household. Suf- 
fice it to say that when calm was restored and forgiveness 
extended the loyalist father-in-law found in the young 
patriot and revolutionist not only a brave soldier but a 
devoted and affectionate son. 

In other respects besides the sentimental this old road 
commands our interest. When the country settled down 

[ 185] 


after the revolution a new era began. It was an era born 
of the youth of the nation, full of ambition and eagerness 
to advance. The little Flatbush community, fired with 
this spirit determined to found a school of learning. Eras- 
mus Hall Academy was the result. At first it was pro- 
jected as a theological seminary but finally became a sec- 
ondary school, obtaining its Charter as such in 1787, and 
was the first on the list of secondary schools chartered 
by the University of the State of New York. It was 
built on ground near the Cross roads facing Flatbush Ave- 
nue with fine lawns around it, and stands on the same spot 
to-day, but is now a part of Erasmus Hall High School, 
occupying the quadrangle formed by the handsome build- 
ings of that school. The building itself is just as it was 
when opened in 1787, and is treasured by the pupils and 
faculty as the source of Flatbush's educational eminence 
and achievement. Its founder and first principal was Dr. 
John Henry Livingston, a man of learning and of fine 
character who inspired the people with his own ambitions 
and possessed their confidence and support. His influ- 
ence has come down to his successors and has given 
Erasmus Hall a unique place in educational annals. Dr. 
Walter B. Gunnison, the late principal, inherited the devo- 
tion to learning and the inspiriting personality which were 
characteristic of the founder, and under his guidance 
Erasmus Hall High School has grown to its present influ- 
ence and importance. The contrast between the old build- 
ing in the quadrangle and the substantial and classic 
buildings that surround it marks the wonderful growth 
and progress of Flatbush, and indeed of our entire coun- 
try, from its inception to the present time — a span of only 
one hundred and thirty years. 

[ 186] 


There are many more interesting landmarks along this 
old road. There is the old Dutch Reformed Church, also 
at the Cross roads, originally built in 1654, which has 
housed as worshippers people of Dutch, then English and 
now American origin, having witnessed all the changes 
from one people to another since the first settlers came 
here, and now sees a rather polyglot community settling 
around it. The same bell rings out on the sabbath morn- 
ing now as hailed the birth of a new nation in 1776. 
Amid all its modern surroundings the old church retains 
still the delightful flavor of its ancient past. A little 
further on there was the Vanderveer homestead which 
disappeared only a few years ago and dated back to a 
period long before the revolution. It was the owner of 
this house, Capt. Cornelius Vanderveer who made such a 
heroic fight against the British just before the Battle of 
Long Island, and who came pretty near forfeiting his 
life for his country when he fell into the hands of the 
enemy ; but by a miraculous turn of fortune he was spared 
the hanging and was granted a protection on his promise 
to fight no more. It was in this house the flag was made 
which was raised on the liberty pole in Flatbush when 
the British evacuated Long Island. 

There are many old Dutch houses scattered about on 
either side of the road which date back to pre-revolution- 
ary times, and to the early days of last century, but their 
history is not recorded in the annals of Flatbush and we 
may suppose they were the homes of the obscure and 
humble folks of whom a poet has written that they are 
unwept, unhonored and unsung. Nevertheless those peo- 
ple were the strong basic element of our country without 
which our statesmen could not have builded the perma- 
nent structure we see to-day. Their little homes, old and 

[ 189] 


dilapidated, are swept out of the path of progress without 
a thought of the unpretentious but noble lives that have 
been lived in them. 

The old road or highway curved around sharply to the 
west as it approached what is now Flatlands Avenue, and 
exists to-day from this point under the old appelation of 
Kings Highway. It is the same road it was a hundred 
and sixty years ago with the improvement of the road 
bed, but without any change in its course. It runs for 
a short distance almost parallel with Flatlands Avenue 
and offers an interesting contrast with that thoroughfare. 
The one is a perfectly straight line, absolutely undeviat- 
ing in its course — a symbol of the systematic, business-like 
and practical age in which we live. The other is entirely 
unconventional, sweeping along in graceful curves and 
easy convolutions — emblematic of a people who loved 
nature and were free from the constraining influences of 
all mechanical arts. It appeals to us yet — the old road — 
even to us of the practical mind for something within 
responds to its careless swing and to the ever changing 
and varying outlook it presents. We are glad to be re- 
lieved from the measured and undeviating exactness of 
our modern streets stretching away out to the horizon and 
showing no variableness neither shadow of turning. 

A little west of Flatbush Avenue we come upon Kim- 
ball's Lane now dignified to Kimball's Road and evidently 
to be broadened and straightened a la Flatlands Avenue. 
Kimball's Lane in the olden time was the common road 
for the farmers of Flatlands and Flatbush to the old 
Tide Mill in Gerritsen's basin. This was the focal point 
for most of the roads in all this section of the country. 
There are still many old houses in this locality, the most 
famous being the Lott homestead which was considered in 

[ 190 ] 


its day the finest in that part of Long Island. The pres- 
ent house was built in 1800, but the original homestead 
dated back to the beginning of the eighteenth century, and 
a part of the old house is still intact beside the more re- 
cent one. It is an interesting example of what was then 
a house of great distinction. There are a few twentieth 
century houses already to be seen in this neighborhood, 
the advance guard of a great population which it is easy 
to predict will soon occupy this beautiful section of our 

Going still further west on Kings Highway we come 
to Ryder's Lane which was the highway to the Tide Mill 
for all the farmers in what is now the southwestern part 
of Brooklyn. This is one of those old roads whose origin 
is hidden in antiquity. It probably originated in what we 
may be allowed to call pre-historic times. It bears the 
name of Ryder but was no doubt in existence long before 
Mr. Ryder saw the light of day, and it is safe to say 
that it was one of those "trodden paths" mentioned in 
very old documentary papers. Although the old road 
and the farmers' wagons jogging along to the mill have 
long ago vanished, Ryder's Lane still lives in a fine auto- 
mobile road, swinging around near the old mill into Neck 
Road and thence past the grounds of the Coney Island 
Jockey Club where the automobile races take place, to 
Gravesend and New Utrecht. Just at the curve near the 
old mill is the Stillwell house, a century old, but still in 
fine condition and beautifully situated. In front of the 
house is the old milestone bearing the inscription, "Eight 
and three-quarter miles to Brooklyn ferry." 

Gerritsen's basin is a beautiful stretch of water from 
the sea, reaching away inland for about half a mile. It 
runs under the old bridge which the farmers crossed on 

[ 191 1 


their way to the Tide Mill and which now connects the old 
Neck Road with our fine modern avenue known to the 
world by the esthetic and inspiring name of U. The Tide 
Mill, or Gerritsen's Mill as it is commonly called, the 
oldest part of which was built in 1650, is still standing on 
the same spot upon which it was originally erected on the 
edge of the land, a last remaining relic of the pioneers 
who settled about this important water way. At the pres- 
ent time it is enclosed in the fine grounds of the Whitney 
estate. It is this land, all about Gerritsen's basin — mid- 
way between the Jamaica Bay ends of Flatbush and 
Nostrand Avenues, extending on both sides of Avenue U, 
which has been offered to the city for a park by Frederick 
B. Pratt and Alfred T. White both of Brooklyn. The 
gift consists of 146 acres of land and includes the beauti- 
ful inlet from the ocean. The value of the land is esti- 
mated at $280,755, to which is to be added 23 acres yet to 
be purchased by the donors. We can hardly imagine a 
more desirable site for a park, and when rapid transit 
offers its facilities to the people, this part of Brooklyn 
which is naturally a beautiful and healthful section will 
become one of the most attractive residential districts in 
Greater New York. Kings Highway, that old road which 
has done service for centuries, will become the great cir- 
cuit boulevard of this entire district, regaining once more 
the supremacy it possessed in the good old colonial days. 
It is strange how some old things last. The old bridge 
over Gerritsen's inlet is the same old bridge the farmers 
crossed on their way to the busy little mill on the creek, 
and the mill itself still stands just as of yore. There is 
even an occasional old-time farm wagon to be seen lazily 
jolting along, with the farm-hand slowly plodding by its 
side all unconscious of the precious passing hours. But 

[ 192] 

Portrait of Gen. Washington l)y Gilbert Stuart. From the origi- 
nal painting owned by Mr. Jame9 Speyer. 


Portrait by 

Gilbert Stuart 

From the private collection of Mr. James Speyer, New York 

According to Mason's "Lift of Stuart," there were three por- 
traits of General \Yashington painted by Gilbert Stuart from life. 
The one of which this is a photograph (painted in 1795), showing 
the right side of the face. Then the sa-called "Lansdowne por- 
trait," painted in 1796, and the picture in the Boston Athenaeum, 
both of whicli show the left side of the face. It is from the last 
mentioned picture that the many well-known copies of "Stuart's 
Washington" are made. 

Of the first picture, and its history prior to 1815, little is known 
generally. It is not known for whom it was painted, but there 
are five known replicas of it. According to an article in "The 
Curio" for September, 1887, the original had been in the possession 
of a Mr. Michael Little, of Greenwich Street, New York, from 
whom, in 1815, Mr. Samuel Betts purchased it when he bought the 
house in which it was hanging, together with the other contents 
of the building. The picture remained in the Betts family until 
1912, when Messrs. Knoedler & Co. secured it from Miss Emily 
H. Betts, of Jamaica, L. I., a daughter of Mr. Samuel Betts. 
Messrs. Knoedler, in 1913, sold the painting to the present owner, 
Mr. James Speyer, of New York, and it now hangs in his Library 
at 1058 Fifth Avenue. 

Mr. George H. Storey, formerly Curator of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York, in a letter regarding this painting, 
dated June 5th, 1912, says: 

"After a careful examination of the Betts portrait of George 
Washington I have no hesitancy in stating it to be an original 
work by Gilbert Stuart. The General is represented standing 
with uncovered head and is seen to the knees. He is dressed in 
full uniform. The gloved right hand rests upon the hip. The 
left arm is extended with the hand resting lightly upon a tele- 
scope which is supported by a rock at his side. In the background 
are seen lines of tree trunks which have evidently been painted 
out to simplify the composition and obtain greater relief for the 
figure. The portrait possesses in an eminent degree the quiet 
dignity and repose which was so characteristic of George Wash- 
ington and which no other painter than Stuart has so adequately 
preserved, and represented so well." 

In his "Life of Stuart," Mason writes, concerning this picture: 
"Regarded merely as a work of art, the head and face are 
very fine, and would seem to justify the observation of the 
venerable A. B. Durand, who, when he saw (this) the first por- 
trait, is said to have expressed himself: "That is a likeness. 
It is much superior in character to the Athenaeum portrait, and 
should be considered the standard. Both the artist and the 
subject would gain by it.' " 


most interesting of all is the keeper of the old bridge who 
emerges from his rickety shelter just like a figure out of 
an old print and gazes at you as you whirl past as if you 
were an apparition from another sphere. But the fast 
moving current of events will soon sweep all of these 
relics away, and if the projected plans are carried out a 
splendid new public park will arise in their place, and we 
shall see happy little children sailing their play boats in the 
waters of the inlet, and hilarious young people cavorting 
over what used to be the grain fields and pastures green 
of our good old Dutch and English forefathers. 

The old bridge leads directly into Neck Road. This 
road was the highway for the settlers about Gravesend 
Bay and was the main roadway of the village. It has 
taken on a new lease of life in our time and bids fair to 
regain its old importance as the main thoroughfare of 
this part of Brooklyn. It is trimmed off and dressed up 
as nicely as its immediate neighbors of the alphabetical 
order T and U, but is quite easily distinguished from these 
mechanically precise avenues by its hap-hazard windings 
and its general go-as-you-please indifference to our pres- 
ent day theories of road making. It has gone through 
all the evolutions from an Indian path to a Dutch road, 
an English road, a Turnpike and lastly a modern city 
road, and in each period has held the first place of im- 
portance and service, and is now not only historically, but 
geographically and soon to be residentially, the King-pin 
thoroughfare of all this splendid and growing section of 
our great city. 

What a beautiful old road it is in any season of the 
year, winter or summer. And it is not altogether the 
beauty of nature, for the landscape here is peculiarly flat 
and monotonous. Nevertheless it is beautiful and the 

[ 197 ] 


sense of its beauty permeates one unconsciously, and leads 
you to wonder why the road has so much charm. A walk 
along Avenue T or U creates no such feeling. It seems 
as if this old road has been humanized by the generations 
who have trod it and it is this mysterious influence that 
gives it all its charm. On either side are the old homes 
of the settlers with the overhanging roofs, and the quaint 
doorways, and the dormer windows with the little panes 
of glass, and they have been so long there that the old 
road has become a source of perpetual charm and senti- 

Near the present end of the road is the house where 
lived the gifted and versatile Lady Deborah Moody more 
than two and a half centuries ago. At least legend says 
so, although some controversialists have it that she lived 
in a house further east on Neck Road. We prefer the 
legend. It has the hall-mark of truth, and being two and 
a half centuries old has a fairly good claim on our 
credence. Moreover the old house looks as if it had been 
the home of a gentle woman, and even to-day in its old 
age presents the outward and visible evidences of refine- 
ment and gentility. Lady Moody settled in Gravesend 
in 1643 and this house was built in that year, probably 
under her own supervision, for she was a woman of 
forceful character and great ability. The old road van- 
ishes from the earth only a few hundred feet from this 
beautiful and historic old house, but let us hope that the 
old home will be preserved for generations yet to come 
as an essential feature of the old road it has been asso- 
ciated with so long. It received as an honored guest 
Governor Kiefft; and the rugged Governor Peter Stuy- 
vesant came here to take counsel and advice from the 
sagacious and resourceful woman who lived in it. It is 

[ 198 ] 


also said that Washington stopped here on one of his 
visits to this part of Long Island. 

Not far from here — about a half a mile north — is the 
historically interesting part of Kings Highway, just as it 
reaches what used to be the old village of New Utrecht 
but is now a beautiful suburb of Brooklyn. Kings High- 
way at the time of the revolution was a well used road 
and the stage coaches to and from the south covered it 
several times each week. New Utrecht was one of the 
chief stations on the route and the first stopping place 
after Flatbush. All the travel and business for the south 
came by way of Brooklyn ferry and over this road to 
the ferry at Fort Hamilton, and in the stirring times of 
the revolution it was an important artery for the passage 
of troops and supplies. It was in fact as well as in name 
the Kings Highway, for British troops and not American 
traversed it almost exclusively during the period of the 
revolution. The old Van Pelt Manor house which was 
used by British officers as a headquarters, during all these 
years, still stands facing on Kings Highway, and any 
traveller passing that way would be attracted at once by 
the distinguished appearance and beautiful surroundings 
of this fine old house. This ancient Highway was an 
old road long before it was raised to the dignity of a 
Kings Highway, and in fact was in the elemental stage 
of a path when the early settlers came to make their 
homes here. It has grown up with the people, shared 
with them in their adventures, seen their encounters with 
the hostile forces of both nature and man, taken part 
in their triumphs, and now basks in the distinction of be- 
ing a beautiful and important suburban thoroughfare. 

There are many interesting old houses along the road 
— the homes of the settlers ; and their descendents — many 

[ 199 ] 


of them — are still living in these houses. Near by is the 
old Dutch church which was organized as early as 1677. 
On the grounds in front of the church is the Liberty 
pole, first erected in 1783 when the British evacuated 
the town, a unique memorial of the joy of the inhabitants 
when they found themselves really independent. Along 
the old road came the farmers and settlers on foot, on 
horseback and in wagons to take part in the rejoicings — 
a very different procession from the Limousines and 
Fords which we see dashing along the same road to-day. 

Two offshoots from Kings Highway near the old 
church were De Bruynes Lane which ran in the general 
direction of our present Twentieth Avenue to the bay, 
and Courtelyou Lane, a little further west, which also 
ran to the bay along the line of our present Sixteenth 
Avenue. These were the favorite routes for the New 
Utrecht fishermen when they were bent on a day's sport. 
And in those days the waters of the bay were pelucid 
and clear and the fish less coy and more abundant. Bank- 
ers and Sluyter state that the fish were particularly plenti- 
ful and that the oysters were frequently a foot long. 
This was in 1679. Fish stories were evidently enjoyed 
in those days as much as they are in our own. In 1664 
Gen. Nichols landed a detachment of British troops at 
Gravesend Bay and marched them up to New Utrecht, 
presumably by Bennetts Lane, making a peaceful demon- 
stration there, and continued British headquarters there 
until the end of the war. 

Communication between New Utrecht and Flatbush 
was conducted chiefly by way of what was then called 
the road to Flatbush and which we now know as New 
Utrecht Avenue. Another way of reaching Flatbush was 
by Kings Highway. The former, however, being the 

[ 200 ] 


more direct and shorter was the one commonly used. 
Distances in our day have been annihilated, but in the 
days when the traveller had to go on foot, or in such 
accommodation as a farmer's wagon, a trip to Flatbush 
or Brooklyn was quite a formidable undertaking and 
the good-byes were said with as much ceremony as they 
would be to-day to a friend setting out for a distant 
point. We certainly travel swiftly as compared with 
our good old dads but swiftness should not be the only 
consideration. When we survey the cars jammed with 
their human freight, speeding to and from New Utrecht 
to-day, one may be forgiven for the heresy that our 
slow-footed forefathers had the best of it in the matter 
of transportation at least. They got there just the same ! 
And they got there in better condition than we do, for 
they always arrived with their clothes on and that can- 
not always be said of us. 

The road to Flatbush as it was known to our revolu- 
tionary predecessors has entirely changed. We can im- 
agine what it was then with tall trees lining both sides 
of the way and cosy little Dutch farm houses enlivening 
the landscape here and there. The land almost every- 
where was under cultivation and farmers' wagons could 
be seen rumbling along the road almost constantly. 
When the weather was good the road was delectable, but 
in the Spring thaws there were ruts and depressions in 
it numerous enough and deep enough to make driving a 
strenuous and even dangerous occupation. It was not 
until 1852 that an attempt was made to lay out the road 
as a public highway. In that year it was decreed that a 
road should be laid out from the Dutch Reformed church 
at New Utrecht to 38th Street. It connected with Church 
Lane at this point and thence to Flatbush. About 20 

[ 203 ] 


years earlier the road had been extended from the old 
church to the bay, so that when the Thirty-eighth Street 
section was finished we had the beginning of one of our 
most important thoroughfares from New York to the 
sea. This road was known as the Brooklyn, Greenwood 
and Bath Plank Road until New Utrecht was incor- 
porated into the city. 

Church Lane or Church Avenue, as we know it, is a 
very old road. As early as 1659 it was spoken of as a 
highway by the settlers, and no doubt long before they 
came it was a path or trail used by the Indians. It is 
interesting to note how these roads spring up quite natur- 
ally, so to speak, from the soil, and become roads by 
virtue of their topographical advantages and the actual 
necessities of man. This old road was the highway 
through which the farmers of Midwout drove their cattle 
to the salt marshes bordering on Jamaica Bay and from 
this fact it was known among the farmers as Cow Lane. 
It was an important road in the little settlement and con- 
nected it with New Lots in one direction and Gowanus 
and New Utrecht in the other. Church Avenue is one 
of the very old roads that retain their original topograph- 
ical disposition. West of Flatbush Avenue its windings 
and turnings are just about as they were when the hay 
wagons and straggling cattle made their way through it 
in the later years of the seventeenth century. And east 
of Flatbush the same is true. Any one interested in 
roads will see that in this direction Church Avenue is a 
long stretch of straight road over the flat lands that ob- 
tain here, bearing eloquent testimony to the human in- 
stinct of taking the easiest and most direct way to a given 
point. It is not until we get nearer to the hilly parts of 
the land east and south that we find the turnings and 

[204 ] 


windings in the road resumed. It finally runs into New 
Lots Avenue and merges with the Jamaica Plank Road 
further south. 

Two old roads often referred to in local histories — 
Clove Road and Cripplebush Road — have entirely van- 
ished from the earth, or to use Count von Luxburg's ex- 
pressive phrase "spurlos versenkt." Those two roads 
were practically one, being intersected by the road to 
Jamaica at Bedford corners. Clove Road ran south in 
the general direction of Nostrand Avenue making a wide 
curve to the west as it approached our present Malbone 
Street and reaching Flatbush Avenue near the old Lef- 
ferts house at Maple Street. There is nothing of it left 
at all now. The course of Clove Road was very irregu- 
lar and probably this accounts for the fact that no part 
of it was used in laying out the plan of streets of this 
part of Brooklyn. 

Cripplebush Road ran in the opposite direction begin- 
ning at Bedford corners, and was the main road of the 
old settlement of Cripplebush which lay to the north and 
east of Bedford. The general course of this old road 
was very irregular. It ran almost on the line of Bedford 
Avenue as far as Dekalb Avenue, when it made a turn 
eastward to Nostrand Avenue following that line to 
Myrtle Avenue and from there formed a snake-like course 
to Flushing Avenue at its intersection with Broadway. 
This part of the old road to Newtown is now Flushing 
Avenue and its course is the same as it was of old. It 
bore the name of Cripplebush Road only from Bedford 
corners to the limits of the old settlement and was in 
reality only a section of what was known as the road to 
Newtown — one of the old highways which linked the 
various settlements together, 

I 205 ] 


By way of Clove Road and Cripplebush Road com- 
munication was carried on between Flatbush and New- 
town. This old road to Newtown passed through what 
is now one of the most thickly populated districts of 
Brooklyn, the nineteenth and sixteenth wards and that 
part of the city which is familiarly known as Dutchtown. 
At its intersection with Broadway some of the largest 
retail establishments and department stores are situated, 
and a great population of foreigners of almost every 
nationality — including the Bolsheviki — are settled here. 
Not so many decades ago it was a quiet country road 
and there are those living who can remember the old 
toll gate on the way. In those days the revolutionary 
flavor still lingered, but now this great section has be- 
come a melting pot, and people from every quarter of 
the globe are being made over to look like Americans 
and let us hope to be Americans of the real kind. 

The old town of Newtown is still there but the name 
has disappeared and the more fragrant and aristocratic 
one of Elmhurst takes its place. Once upon a time this 
old town was famous for its splendid apples. The New- 
town pippin was known all over the world and was 
shipped to every port. Newtown pippins are still grown 
and their name will never be changed, and herein lies the 
surety that the name and fame of the old town will be 

We are apt to think of the first settlers as people who 
came to a land entirely primeval and untouched by the 
foot of man and that they made their way through un- 
inhabited areas until they found a place where they could 
settle. But the fact is that long before those new comers 
saw the commanding heights of Brooklyn or the long 
narrow strip of land between two waters we now call 

[ 206 ] 



Manhattan, there were well trodden paths, stretching 
from the shores away inland and reaching by the most 
convenient way the points of vantage in the hinterland. 
How long those paths had been there we do not know, 
but we do know they had been trodden by generations of 
Indians, and although only foot paths aid in some places 
mere trails they were invaluable to the early settlers as 
guides to the most suitable lands where they might estab- 
lish themselves permanently. 

It is quite natural therefore to suppose that the first 
comers availed themselves of such help as those immature 
roadways offered, and we may conclude that the path up 
the hill from the ferry to where Borough Hall now is 
was soon a definitely formed road and the first on all 
Long Island. In their further settlement of our end of 
the Island the settlers made use of those paths and in 
time they became the common roads of intercommunica- 
tion between the various towns and villages of Colonial 

The road of first importance as the settlers increased 
seems to have been the road to Jamaica with its branch 
to Flatbush. This was just a rough unmade road at 
first, in most parts over unsettled lands, for it was not 
until the early part of the eighteenth century that the 
road was laid out and became a public highway. It be- 
came the channel for such traffic as those little settle- 
ments had, and linked them all together either directly 
or by roads connecting it with them, and grew in im- 
portance as the settlers became more numerous and their 
activities greater. The entire road from the ferry to 
Jamaica follows closely the original course, except at a 
few points where the curve of the old road took a wide 
sweep. From the ferry to the point of intersection of 

[ 209 ] 


Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues the course is the same, 
but from this point the old road described an irregular 
line between what is now Atlantic Avenue and Fulton 
Street until it reached Bedford corners, and there it 
veered a little to the north and finally made a sweeping 
curve beyond MacDonough Street coming back to the 
line of Atlantic Avenue near what is now Reid Avenue 
and thence along this line to East New York and Jamaica 
Avenue. Those widely irregular parts of the old road 
have disappeared in the new streets and avenues of this 
section of Brooklyn, but the old road re-appears in all its 
pristine importance in Jamaica avenue, leading to the in- 
teresting suburb of Jamaica, which is now not only a most 
attractive residential section but also a rapidly developing 
center of railroad activity. 

There are still on this road some of the very old houses 
of colonial times, but the one which stands out pre-emi- 
nently and historically is the King mansion — a fine old 
house set in beautiful grounds. This was the home of 
Rufus King, one of the first two senators to represent 
the state of New York in congress. It was also the resi- 
dence of his son John A. King, governor of the state from 
1856 to 1858. This house is now public property and 
the grounds have been converted into a park, so that this 
fine old mansion with its historic associations and its 
relics of a period that is dear to us will be preserved from 
the iconoclasm of modern times and handed down to 
future generations as a heritage well worthy of their 
care and reverence. The beautiful houses on Hillcrest 
avenue just above are no doubt more comfortable to live 
in, but they do not appeal either to the eye or to the 
heart as does this fine old mansion of a bye-gone age. 

[ 210 ] 


In ye olden time there was a road intimately connected 
with the road to Jamaica as a link between it and the bay 
at Canarsie. This old road commenced somewhere near 
the road to Newtown, now Flushing avenue, and follow- 
ing the general line of the present Reid avenue crossed 
the Jamaica road and continued in a southeasterly direc- 
tion to New Lots avenue and thence south to the bay. 
This was the old Hunterfly road. When it got this name 
and why is not known, but the name is not quite so 
ancient as the road. It was known to the early settlers 
as a hay path and used by them as the way most accessible 
to the meadow lands of the bay. Those settlers came 
from Bedford, New Lots, Wallabout and parts of 
Jamaica, so that this hay path was a much used road and 
of great importance to the little communities near it. 
But there is not a trace of it left. It has vanished as 
have the hay wagons and their owners and even the 
meadows where the salt hay was gathered in. And if we 
turn from retrospect and peer into the future we can see 
those meadows blossoming with homes and the shores 
of the bay crowded with the argosies of the world, for 
the long arm of business is stretching out and claiming 
the entire district for its own. 

The junction of Flatbush and Atlantic avenues where 
the Long Island Railroad station is situated bids fair to 
become the heart of Brooklyn. Here is the entrance and 
the exit for the multitudinous towns and villages of Long 
Island, and if traffic continues to increase we may be able 
to refer to it as that ever changing but difficult to locate 
"busiest corner" in the city. Long ago it seems to have 
been, too, the focus for travel, for here we find with 
others, the old Gowanus road taking its start. There is 
nothing of it there now unless we consider the beginning 

[211 ] 


of Fifth avenue a part of it. But the old road was too 
sinuous to identify with that street, as it followed an ir- 
regular course between Fifth and Third avenues as far as 
the narrows. All along the shore there were little settle- 
ments and this old road connected them like links in a 
chain from Fort Hamilton to Fulton ferry. It was a well 
developed road at the time of the revolution and was used 
by the British in their march from Gravesend bay to the 
battle fields about Prospect hills. 

The old Bushwick road is about the only road that pre- 
serves its course today almost as it was originally. It 
began at what is now Richardson street and Kingsland 
avenue and ran south to the old Bushwick church. From 
there its course was almost identical with Bushwick ave- 
nue as it is today. It crossed the old Newtown road at 
the same point it crosses Flushing avenue now and ran in 
a southeasterly line into Jamaica road at the present point 
of junction. It is one of the few very old roads that have 
survived the destroying hand of time and has taken on 
a new lease of life that promises to stretch far into the 
future. Today it is a splendid highway, constantly 
thronged with all sorts of vehicles from automobiles to 
delivery wagons, and is rapidly being built up on both 
sides with fine residences. Already it occupies an im- 
portant place among the great thoroughfares of the me- 
tropolis, and has become somewhat distinguished since 
the election of Mayor Hylan, whose residence is at No. 

Flushing avenue from Navy street to the intersection 
of Broadway runs nearly parallel with the old Wallabout 
road and from Washington avenue to Broadway is identi- 
cal with it. Beyond that point Flushing avenue is the old 
Newtown road as shown above. The Wallabout road 

[ 212 ] 

Gen. Grant's house, 3 E. 66th Street, where the great soldier 
lived for many years. 


made a considerable digression from the present straight 
line of Flushing avenue to the south between the Navy 
yard and Washington avenue, and again a slight bend to 
the south near Marcy avenue just before merging with 
the Newtown road at Broadway. In laying out new 
streets these "kinks" and irregularities in the old roads 
were straightened out and the most direct way from 
point to point chosen, but in this instance the course of the 
old road and the new avenue is almost similar. 

[215 1 


Jews of Old New York 

Prof. A. S. Isaacs, New York University 

XN the marvelous growth of our metropolis, in which 
all creeds and nationalities are proud to share, as 
landslides of immigration reach our shores in 
swift succession — now from Ireland, now from Italy, now 
from Russia and now Scandinavia, Holland, and the far 
East, — the Jews have naturally participated. Conditions 
abroad, never the most hopeful, within recent decades 
have compelled their exodus to the only country in the 
world which assures its people full civil and religious 
liberty. Although special efforts have been made to scat- 
ter the incoming thousands of all types and classes, partly 
by the state and partly by private agencies, the majority 
seem to prefer New York and its vicinity, as if there was 
safety in numbers as well as an indescribable home at- 
mosphere in the local groups and class which meet them. 
The old cry "Go West !" is not so generally obeyed as it 
should be by the newcomers from distant lands. The 
European war, which is serving happily to unify our 



country and is giving the death-blow to hyphenated Amer- 
icans, with their special centres, jargons, and foreign 
predilections, will tend as unmistakably to unify our great 
cities and weaken, if not entirely dissolve alien atmosphere 
and associations. 

While the earliest Jewish settlement occurred in 1654, 
when Peter Stuyvesant and the Dutch West Indies Com- 
pany were guiding the destinies of New Amsterdam, — 
the immigrants were then less than thirty, earlier arrivals 
had been limited to a few individuals, — it was in the 
Colonial and pre-Revolutionary period that their growth 
was sufficiently marked for the local historian. The con- 
ditions under which they were admitted by the Dutch au- 
thorities were to engage in no retail trade, to "exercise 
in all quietness their religion within their houses," and 
to take care of their own poor. Otherwise they were to 
enjoy in New Netherlands all the civil and political rights 
which they possessed in Amsterdam. It was fortunate 
in some respects that their energies were restricted to 
foreign and international trade; for this very limitation 
broadened their activities and gave a keener edge to their 
ambition. As a result, they became rapidly among the 
leading importers and exporters in various lines. In 
1656, they obtained a site for a cemetery — on New Bow- 
ery, near Oliver, whose oldest inscription is dated 1683. 
The earliest synagogue or pro-synagogue stood on Mill 
Street before 1700, close to ground where a house of 
worship was erected in 1729. These were unpretentious 
structures, whose builders never thought of the temples 
which were to follow, to vie in number and architectural 
beauty with the churches of later generations. 

Among familiar names in social and mercantile life in 
New York before the 18th century were families like the 

[ 217 ] 


Gomez, Hendricks, Henriques, Hays, Seixas, whose 
descendants are still among us. Perhaps the most promi- 
nent Jewish personality in pre-Revolutionary days was 
Sampson Simson, who died in 1773. He is termed the 
elder, to distinguish him from his nephew of the same 
name, who was equally famous decades later. His firm 
in Stone Street imported beaver coating and other ar- 
ticles, and he was the owner of many vessels in the foreign 
trade. His standing as merchant is best indicated by the 
menu card at the 125th anniversary of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce whose frontispiece bore his name 
among the eight delegates who secured its charter. Be- 
sides serving on many important committees of the Cham- 
ber, he was active in local affairs and enjoyed general 
esteem. His nephew of the same name (1780-1857) was 
a man of ability and standing, with certain picturesque 
qualities that were due, perhaps, to his being a wealthy 
bachelor with the leisure to adopt hobbies. An Amer- 
ican by birth and of the third generation of Americans, he 
was the founder of Jews', now Mt. Sinai Hospital, and 
active in benevolence. In the early fifties he resided at 
208 Thompson Street, in an era when that section of the 
city, near Washington Square, with long rows of modest 
houses on Fourth, Bleecker and Houston Streets, was a 
dignified social centre. He was ready to aid worthy 
causes without distinction of creed — churches of all de- 
nominations numbered him among their donors. My 
brother, the late Judge Isaacs, recalls Mr. Simson's ap- 
pearance in a paper before the American Jewish His- 
torical Soicety (1902) : "He affected the old fashioned 
costume, sometimes wearing knee breeches and buckles. 
He was above the average height, very stiff and upright 
in his bearing. His hair was white and worn in long 

[ 218 ] 

HiUtmn % ilarg 

One of the early traders and a dis- 
tinguished member of the group 
which created the era known as the 
"Roaring Forties." A staunch trim 
looking ship she was as well known 
in Liverpool and the Orient as she 
was in New York. 

Wm. H. Macy the owner was a 
member of the Free School Society 
from which came our present public 
school system. He was a representa- 
tive of the high grade type of men 
who built and sailed the merchant 
ships of Old New York. Mr. V. 
Everit Macy is his grandson. 


wavy locks. His spectacles were of great size. His 
habitual walk was in short, quick steps — and he carried 
a silver-headed cane, upon which he would lean when 
seated. He was exacting and even tyrannical, would not 
endure criticism or contradiction. He wrote a good hand ; 
his signature was of the John Hancock style." 

The small but influential body of New York Jews be- 
fore the Revolution could point to another merchant of 
character — Hayman Levy (1721-1789), who carried on 
an extensive trade among the Indians and became the 
largest fur dealer in the colonies. His place of business 
was on Mill Street. On his failure in 1768, as the late 
Judge Daly states in his work on "The Settlement of the 
Jews in North America" (edited by Max J. Kohler, 
1893), due to the general colonial policy pursued by the 
English government, which injuriously affected the com- 
merce and industries of New York, his assignees were 
enabled to discharge the whole of his indebtedness with 
interest, owing to the productiveness of his estate and 
admirable management of his business. Eight years later 
the great fire destroyed all his property, but he continued 
nevertheless to carry on business until his death. It is 
of interest to note that upon his books are entries of 
amounts paid to John Jacob Astor for beating furs at the 
rate of one dollar a day. Mr. Levy left for Philadelphia 
on the occupancy of New York by the British, returning 
in 1784. He had sixteen children, some of whom were 
prominent in their day. 

Another worthy in the years after the Revolution was 
Bernard Hart (1764-1855), a native of England who 
came to New York from Canada in 1777. First an in- 
surance broker, he developed into the auction and com- 
mission business — his firm Lispenard & Hart being noted 

[ 223 ] 


in commercial circles. In Scovill's "Old Merchants of 
New York" (Vol. IL 125) his social influence, business 
prestige, and kindliness are described as "towering aloft 
among the magnates of the city of the last and present 
century." During the yellow fever outbreak of 1795, he 
took a leading part in the efforts for relief, sparing him- 
self no personal sacrifice. His popularity was shown by 
his active participation in club life and his holding the 
office of secretary of the board of brokers from its incep- 
tion in 1818 to the close of his life. His son, the late 
Emanuel B. Hart, was a leader in the Jewish community 
as well as prominent in Tammany Hall, for many years. 

The Jewish ministers of that era — Gershom Seixas, 
M. L. M. Peixotto, J. J. Lyons and Samuel M. Isaacs — 
the two last died in 1877 and 1878, and are still held in 
loving memory — wielded a happy social influence, al- 
though the centre of prominence was gradually changing 
from the English and American element to the German 
and German-American in the sixties and seventies after 
the Civil War. For a time, Mordecai M. Noah, who 
settled in New York in 1816 from the South, after a 
varied career as editor, playwright, and U. S. Consular 
Agent in the Barbary States, became a leading figure in 
the Metropolis and contributed much if unintentionally, to 
its gayety. Prominent in politics, as sheriflf, surveyor, 
and judge, he was a powerful journalist, and a fairly 
successful dramatist, such was the versatility of his geni- 
us. He died in 1851. 

Within present limitations we can only mention briefly 
the Hendricks family, whose representatives continue 
honored and helpful as their fathers, or the Nathans, Kur- 
sheedts, Phillips, Lazarus, and their connections. • With 
the Civil War, the German- American element made rapid 

[224 ] 


strides forward — ^the Bernheimers, Einsteins, Fatmans, 
Goldsmiths, Herzogs, Loebs, Lehmans, Lehmaiers, Mays, 
Reckendorfers, Schiffs, Straus's, Scholles, Sternbergers, 
Walters, Wormsers, being among the best known fami- 
lies. Of the earlier generation. Judge Dittenhoefer, now 
in his eighty-third year is the sole survivor. 

In the publications of the American Jewish Publication 
Society, which was organized in 1892, much interesting 
and authoritative information is given as to the status of 
the Jews of New York in the early periods of its history 
down to more recent decades. 

Christopher Colles 
and New York's Water Supply 

A. J. Wall 
Ass't Librarian New York Historical Society 

With the advent of the Catskill Aqueduct this year and 
the wonderful resources for supplying the great City of 
New York with water, the old Croton Water Aqueduct 
takes second place in the matter of importance and wel- 
fare to this ever growing community. But the memory 
and history of that feat, the introduction of croton water 
into the City of New York on October 14, 1842, still lives 
with old New Yorkers and always will hold an important 
place in the annals of our city. 

The awakening spirit for the need of a proper water 
supply system for the city may be traced to Christopher 
Colles, an engineer little known in this day and genera- 
tion, but whose record in practical achievement ranks 
with the foremost men of his time. He was born in 
Ireland about 1738 and died in New York City in 1821. 



In 1765 he emigrated to America and in 1773 delivered 
a series of lectures in New York on inland lock naviga- 
tion. The following year he proposed to erect a reser- 
voir for the city and convey water through the streets 
in wooden pipes made of pine logs. Up to this time wells 
were the only source of water supply and these produced 
(with but one exception) water which as early as 1748 
Peter Kalm described as "very bad." The exception be- 
ing the famous "Tea Water Pump" well situated in a 
hollow near the junction of the present Chatham and 
Roosevelt Streets, which continued to supply good water 
for many years. 

On August 1st, 1774 The New York Gazette and 
Weekly Mercury published the following : 

"Last Thursday sen'night the Corporation of this City 
met, and agreed to Mr. Christopher CoUes's proposal for 
supplying this city with fresh water, by means of a steam 
engine, reservoir, and conduit pipes ; and in order to carry 
the said useful and laudable design into immediate execu- 
tion, they resolved to issue promissory notes as the work 
shall advance. 

"According to this design, the water will be conveyed 
through every street and lane in this city, with a perpen- 
dicular conduit pipe, at every hundred yards, at which 
water may be drawn at any time of the day or night and 
in case of fire, each conduit pipe will be so contrived as to 
communicate with the extinguishing fire-engines, whereby 
a speedy and plentiful supply of water may be had in that 
calamitous situation." 

On September 5, 1774, the same paper published the 
following advertisement : 

[ 226 ] 


"New York Water Works 
"Notice is hereby given, that a large quantity of pitch 
pine logs will be wanting for the New York water works. 
Such persons as are willing to engage to furnish the same, 
are desired to send their proposals, in writing, before the 
20th of October next, to Christopher Colles, contractor 
for said works. 

"These logs must be of good pitch pine, straight and 
free from large knots of 12 inches diameter, exclusive of 
sap, at the small end; and the remaining three- fourths of 
9 inches diameter, exclusive of sap, at the small end." 

On October 8th, 1774, the city purchased from Augus- 
tus and Frederick Van Cortlandt a site on the east side 
of Broadway between the present Pearl and White 
Streets, and the erection of the reservoir to carry out 
Colles' plan, was there carried into effect, but the Revolu- 
tionary War and the occupation of the city by the British 
prevented the completion of the scheme. 

On January 29th, 1788, a petition to the Common Coun- 
cil appeared in The New York Packet, praying that houses 
might be supplied with water through pipes, viz. : 
Water Works 
"The following petition is now handling about this city 
in order to take the sense of the inhabitants whether they 
would wish the city should be furnished with a plentiful 
supply of fresh water, by means of water works and 
conduit-pipes, as proposed (and partly executed), before 
the war. 

"To the Hon. the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of 
the City of New York in Common Council convened : 
The petition of the subscribers, inhabitants of the said 

[ 229 ] 


Respectfully sheweth, 

"That as the present mode of furnishing this city and 
shipping with water, is in many respects subject to many 
inconveniences, we do hereby declare our approbation of 
a design for supplying the same by means of water works 
and conduit-pipes and will (as soon as the same shall 
be completed) be satisfied to pay our respective propor- 
tion of a tax for the purpose, provided the same does not 
exceed twenty-six shillings for each house per annum, at 
an average. 

"May it therefore please your honors to take the prem- 
ises into consideration, and to adopt such measures for 
effecting the same as you shall judge most expedient, for 
the advantage, convenience and safety of the city. 

"Supposing 3200 houses in the city, at 26s is £4160 

of which 

1000 houses rated at 45s per ann 2250 

1000 houses rated at 26 1300 

1200 houses rated at 10 2d 610 


Nothing, however, came from this petition and "tea 
water men" continued to carry water around the city in 
carts built for the purpose, selling the same at 3d. a hogs- 
head of 130 gallons at the pump. The well in which this 
pump stood was fed from the Collect Pond and was 
about twenty feet deep and four feet in diameter. 

From 1789 to 1798 various propositions were made to 
thfi city for an adequate water supply all of which held 
the Collect Pond for the source of supply. 

[ 230 ] 


On July 2, 1798 Dr. Joseph Browne proposed furnish- 
ing the city with water from the Bronx River and with 
far-sightedness and good judgment argued his point in 
the following language: 

"The large stagnating, filthy pond, commonly called 
the Collect, which now is, or soon will be, the centre of 
the city, has been looked to by some of the people as a 
fund from whence an adequate supply might be obtained, 
by means of a steam engine, for the purposes already 
spoken of. I cannot undertake to say that this source 
would at present be incompetent to all the preceding pur- 
poses for which a supply of water is wanted; but if the 
quantity naturally discharged from this pond be the 
whole that is furnished by its springs, then I might say 
with propriety, it is infinitely too small for those uses. 
But admitting that at present it might be competent, the 
time will come, and that very shortly, from the growth 
of the city, when this source will most certainly be very 
inadequate to the demand. And again, supposing the 
pond to contain and furnish enough, it is a consideration 
well deserving attention, whether a pond, into which the 
filth from many of the streets must, without very great 
expense and care, be constantly discharged, and to which 
the contents of vaults, etc., will continually drain, is a 
desirable source from whence we should like to take water 
for drinking, cooking, etc., without taking into account 
its noxious qualities, medically considered; although it 
may be laid down as a general rule that the health of a 
city depends more on its water than on all the rest of 
the eatables and drinkables put together." 

Dr. Browne's plan met with approval and Mr. William 
Weston, an engineer, was engaged by the city to study the 
proposed plan. His report favored the tapping of the 

[ 231 ] 


Bronx River and was adopted by the Common Council 
and a bill was prepared and introduced in the Legislature 
granting the City of New York the necessary powers for 
constructing water works. At this point opposition arose 
from such men as Alexander Hamilton and Gulian Ver- 
plank, and from Aaron Burr and others who had in mind 
the forming of a private company and on April 2, 1799, 
the Legislature passed an act for supplying the City of 
New York with pure and wholesome water, and incor- 
porated the Manhattan Company with a capital stock not 
to exceed two million dollars divided in shares of fifty 
dollars each, to which the city subscribed for two thousand 
shares. The water was to be introduced into the city 
within ten years of the passage of the act. 

Although the charter of the Manhattan Company gave 
them the right "to erect any dams or other works across 
or upon any stream or streams of water, river or rivers, 
or any other place or places" in order to obtain an ample 
supply of water for the city, it did not avail itself of the 
privileges granted and only sank a large well twenty- 
five feet in diameter at the corner of the present Reade 
and Centre Streets and pumped the water into a reservoir 
on Chambers Street from which it was distributed through 
wooden pipes. 

From this time until the construction of the Croton 
Reservoir a period of over thirty years, nothing of per- 
manent good was accomplished toward solving the ques- 
tion of supplying the city with pure and wholesome water 
in abundance and during all these years its need was ever 
apparent. In 1819 Robert Macomb was granted the 
privilege of bringing water from the Bronx River to a 
reservoir on Manhattan Island but nothing came of it. 
In 1821 a committee with Mayor Stephen Allen as chair- 

[ 232 ] 



man again considered securing water from the same 
source, without result. The next proposition was to con- 
struct an open canal from the Housatonic River, and an- 
other scheme suggested a canal from the Oblong River 
at Sharon, Conn., to New York, a distance of fifty miles. 
In 1825 the New York Water Works Company was in- 
corporated to carry out the plan of Mr. Canvass White 
who was selected in 1822, as engineer to make investiga- 
tions concerning the Bronx River supply on which he 
had reported favorably. This company dissolved in 1827 
as its charter conflicted with those of the Sharon Canal 
Company and of the Manhattan Company. In 1827 the 
New York Wells Company was incorporated to bore 
wells, but soon abandoned the task realizing that sufficient 
water could not be obtained from that source. Several 
wells were bored by Levi Disbrow who had invented and 
patented improved tools for the work, but it was estimated 
that two hundred wells would be necessary to obtain a 
sufficient supply of water and the expense of operating 
pumps for the same ended further consideration of that 

In 1829 Alderman Samuel Stevens urged the city to 
build a reservoir for fire purposes on high ground on 
Thirteenth Street, and to lay an iron pipe line down the 
Bowery and Chatham Square and another down Broad- 
way to Canal Street. This was actually carried out and 
the reservoir constructed on the South side of Thirteenth 
Street near the present Fourth Avenue, and it was the 
first public reservoir and the beginning of the public water 
works of the City of New York. It had a capacity of 
233,169 gallons. Twelve inch mains were used with 
branches of ten and six inches and by January, 1833, 
34,646 feet of pipe had been laid. 

[ 235 ] 


It was not until 1830 that the Croton River had been 
mentioned as a possible source for the city's water supply 
and in that year Mr. Francis B. Phelps suggested it in a 
memorial, as one of four sources, the others being Rye 
Ponds, Passaic River and wells on Manhattan Island. 

On November 10, 1832, a joint committee of the Com- 
mon Council on Fire and Water engaged DeWitt Clinton 
to examine the various sources and routes of water supply 
thus far suggested. His conclusions determined upon an 
aqueduct from the Croton Valley to the city and on May 
2, 1834 the final act for constructing the Croton Aqueduct 
was passed. Work was begun in 1837 and completed in 
1842 when on October 14th a great civic celebration was 
held in honor of the event. The Murray Hill Reservoir 
now the site of the New York Public Library was com- 
pleted that year and served as the distributing reservoir 
for the city. On June 1, 1883 the Legislature passed an 
act authorizing the construction of a new aqueduct, reser- 
voirs and dams "for the purpose of supplying the City of 
New York with an increased supply of pure and whole- 
some water." On July 15, 1890 water was turned into the 
new aqueduct from Croton Lake to the Central Park 

Eastchester — A Half Forgotten Capitol 

Eastchester Creek in the early days was very different 
from what it is to-day. Then its waters, rising and fall- 
ing with the tides of the ocean, were pure and limpid 
and on its surface could be seen the shallops of the settlers 
floating calmly toward the East River. It was sometimes 
dignified by the name of Hutchinson River although only 
2L little shallow stream. The country all about was di 

I 236 ] 


beautiful landscape and the little hamlet of Eastchester 
nestled amid the low hills and wooded lands forming its 
source. Scattered over the plains on either side were 
the homes of the settlers and the lands were well under 
cultivation. Quite an ideal settlement was gathered here 
comprising the descendants of several nationalities all 
compounded into 100 per cent. Americans. 

The quaint old church of St. Paul's which is still stand- 
ing — a relic of a beautiful and romantic past — was the 
center of the life and activity of the surrounding country. 
History records how this old church, which had minis- 
tered to the wants of the people away back in Colonial 
times, fell on evil days during the Revolution and was 
used by the Hessian troops as a hospital. Disease broke 
out among them and many died. Thousands were buried 
unceremoniously in what is designated as the sand pit in 
the grounds of the church. When the trouble was all 
over and the young republic got fairly under way the 
church was rehabilitated and stands to-day a beautiful 
and enduring monument of Christian faith and service. 
The bell, the bible and the prayer book which were used 
in Colonial days may still be seen in the church. The 
old bell still sounds the call to prayer and the groups of 
worshippers still wend their way to the old church just 
as of yore. 

Perhaps some of our readers will be surprised to know 
that the village of Eastchester was the seat of govern- 
ment for a brief period during the administration of the 
second President. A fearful epidemic fell upon Philadel- 
phia and President John Adams with many other officials 
took refuge in places far removed from the scourge. 
Here in the home of his daughter the wife of Col. William 
Stephen Smith the President lived tmtil it was safe to 

I 237 ] 


return to the capital. In this house many state papers 
were written, and those referring to the calling of Con- 
gress to meet in New York City were of a specially inter- 
esting nature. There is still a house in Eastchester which 
goes by the name of the Adams house, but it is only in 
part an old house and of the one the President lived in 
nothing remains. 

Eastchester was the latter day home of Anne Hutchin- 
son after the stress and storm of her life in Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island. For years she had kept these two 
neighboring states in a turmoil by her ceaseless zeal in 
the propagation of new and peculiar doctrines. But it 
availed her little in spreading the new faith. Her struggle 
however brought her into a position she did not seek and 
did not even know she occupied — that of a torch bearer 
in the great movement for liberty of conscience and lib- 
erty of speech. The saying that a prophet has honor 
except in his own country was exemplified in this in- 
stance, for this devoted woman was banished from her 
former homes and sought shelter in her later years within 
the peaceful borders of Eastchester. Strange is it not 
that this quiet and unobtrusive little settlement should 
become, even in this indirect way, connected with the 
great principle of freedom of speech and conscience, or 
"soul liberty" as it was called, which ultimately found its 
complete expression in the constitution of the United 
States. The house in Eastchester was burned by the 
Indians in their raid against the Dutch and the entire fam- 
ily, with the exception of one daughter, met their fate 
in the flames. 

There still remains in Eastchester the old homestead of 
Col. Joseph Fay who fought under Washington and was 
commended by him for loyalty and devotion to the cause. 

[ 238 1 


The old house is still occupied, although showing the 
marks of time and age, but should be preserved for its 
connection with the early history of our country. It was 
one of the few houses that constituted the original hamlet 
of Eastchester and is the only one remaining. It had its 
trials during the revolution, being a tavern for a while, 
and being used by the Hessians in connection with their 
hospital in St. Paul's just opposite. 

The most exciting event which happened in Eastchester 
in those early days was the arrival and departure of the 
coaches that plied between New York and Boston. At 
Guion's Inn on the Boston Post Road where they stopped, 
a group of people, eager to hear the news was always 
gathered, and for the moment there was bustle and excite- 
ment, then all was quiet again until the arrival of the next 
coach. Mr. Guion's reputation for good cheer spread 
far and wide, and he certainly must have been worthy of 
his good repute, for it is related that Washington slept 
there one night and referred to his visit afterward in a 
letter, saying "I proceeded to Eastchester where I slept 
all night in a good bed at Mr. Guion's." 

[241 1 


Pacifists in 1776 Refuse to Declare for 

The first movement toward the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was set afoot in some of the colonies by com- 
piling a list of those who were in favor of this action and 
giving the reasons of those who were opposed to it. The 
excuses these pacifists of 1776 give, bear a close resem- 
blance to what we are accustomed to hear to-day, and let 
us hope their influence on the result may be as innocuous : 

"Benjamin Herbert, Jr., refuses to sign through religious prin- 

"Richard T. Hargrove refuses to sign through religious prin- 

"William Wilson, son of John, refuses to sign through re- 
ligious principles. 

"Benjamin Harboard refuses to sign through religious prin- 

"Michael Bosed don't sign by reason he signed before. 

"Thomas Gilbert don't sign by reason he don't chose. 

"Thomas West don't sign by reason it is a mystery to him. 

"Philip Cummins don't sign by reason he don't understand 
the matter. 

"John Ward don't sign by reason the congress don't sign and 
by reason he thinks that if the English gain the day then the 
congress and the great people will turn the scale and say the 
commonality of people forced them to stand in opposition to 
the English. 

"John Clark don't sign by no reason he can give. 

"Ephraim Arnold don't sign for fear it would fetch him into 
a scrape. 

"Isaac Penrose don't sign for reason he don't choose to fight 
for liberty and never will. 

"Benj. Fleetwood refuses to sign. He says he will go in a 
vessel, will not fight for land. 

"Samuel Gallion says if he should sign he may fetch on him- 
self that he cannot go through. 

"Richard Spencer says he can not write nor read and shall not 
sign any paper." 

[242 ] 


Random Notes 

To the Old New Yorker the items given below will 
bring back memories of a very different city from the one 
we live in to-day, and yet it must be quite apparent that 
the spirit which animated the people then was not very 
different from that which animates them to-day — a spirit 
of striving after progress and improvement. These items 
are from an old New York note book of 1858 in the pos- 
session of Mr. George H. Sargent of Chicago, made by 
his father. 

Packet and Clipper-Ships 

The ships of New York, and especially the clippers, 
are objects of interest to the stranger. Splendid vessels 
of both kinds are always to be found at our docks, and 
may be examined at all times without inconvenience. 
Their elegant cabins, vast size and exquisite models, ex- 
cite the admiration and wonder of those unused to such 
things. Their cabins are often fitted up at a vast expense, 
and their whole build and finish render them superior to 
any other vessels in the commercial world. 

Among the finest of the packets may be mentioned the 
American Congress, Star of the West, and Alfred the 
Great. The largest and finest clippers are the Challenge, 
The Invincible, The Flying Cloud, The White Squall, and 
The Queen of the Clippers. 


A remarkably neat village of New York county, situ- 
ated on the left bank of the Hudson, five miles above the 
City Hall. The New York Asylum for the Insane and 
the Orphans Asylum are established here. The village 
consists chiefly of country-seats. Many persons are 
tempted to drive in this direction by the beauty of the 

[ 243 ] 


road. About two miles from Bloomingdale, on the same 
side of the river, is Manhattanville. 

St. George's 

On the corner of East Sixteenth Street and Rutherford 
Place is St. George's Church (Episcopal), under the pas- 
toral charge of Rev. Dr. Tyng. The church itself is very 
fine, containing seats for about three thousand persons, 
whose view of the preacher is not hindered by the inter- 
ference of a single column. The whole interior is there- 
fore quite unique, and has been well compared by a 
nautical friend to the strong, well timbered frame-work 
of a great ship. The eloquent divine who here officiates, 
possesses a voice capable of filling the house apparently 
without effort. 

Ship Yards 

The extensive ship yards in the Northeast part of the 
city, in the region called Dry Dock, are very interesting 
places of resort. Here may be found ships of the largest 
class, and steamers of every dimension in progress, and 
a vast variety of naval operations, rendering it a scene 
of infinite variety and interest. Extensive machine-shops, 
for steam engines, will be found here also. 

The Pavements 
The citizen of New York, weary at length of being 
jolted over the old fashioned pavements of cobble-stones 
which still maintain possession of most of the streets, 
determined to find relief. In 1846, a great improvement 
was made by the introduction of what was called, from 
the name of its inventor, the Russ pavement ; and which, 
thus far, has met all the opposition of heat and cold, sud- 
den changes and immense use, without injury. 

[244 ] 

Mtxtk irtttr^ 1B54 

The home of the clipper is originally 
said to be Baltimore, and the Ann Mc- 
Kin, the first of the new type, hailed 
from that port in 1832. She was pur- 
chased by Howland and Aspinwall of 
New York, who added the Rainbow 
of similar design. To the success of 
these two ships is credited the begin- 
ning of the clipper ship Era, and New 
York as the port which created the 

The Black Prince is a type of the 
clipper ship built in Baltimore at a 
later date and sailed in tlie China Tea 
and California trade. 

From the private collection of Mr. 
Robert Bacon. 


The plan, however, is very expensive. It requires 
large blocks of stone about ten inches in depth, laid diago- 
nally with the wheel track, and resting on a substratum 
of concrete, which again rests upon a foundation of 
granite chips; the whole forming a consolidated mass 
eighteen inches thick, so arranged as to afford access to 
the gas and water pipes. It has been fairly tested on 
Broadway. Another pavement is called, also from the 
name of its inventor, the Perrine. The popularity of 
this consists in combining a smooth wheel-track with a 
rough way for the horses, as may be seen, should there 
be any yet remaining, in Broadway, between Franklin and 
Canal Streets. 

The cobble-stone portion of the Perrine is to be re- 
placed with granite block, laid by Deghue ; an experiment, 
the success of which is yet to be achieved. 

The cost of the Deghue is $3.85 a yard; that of the 
Perrine, about $6.00; while the Russ, costing nearly as 
much as both together, is probably the cheapest of the 



American Artists and the War 

A. E. Gallatin 

XN the olden days, the sphere of action in which the 
artist, in times of war, could make use of his tal- 
ents was extremely limited ; to-day the situation is 
vastly different. As one writer on art matters has said : 
"Art never has had a more inspiring opportunity, and 
artists are gaining constantly in appreciation of the ser- 
vice possible for them to render." Another has written : 
"Never since the Middle Ages, when the church taught 
its lessons by means of pictures to people who could not 
read the written word, has art been called upon to serve 
in so many ways." 

Leonardo da Vinci is probably the most conspicuous 
example of the artist of the Middle Ages who, while his 
country was at war, was able to be of service. Leonardo 
always considered that he attained a greater excellence 
as an engineer than as a painter or a sculptor. His de- 
signs for fortifications may be found by searching 
through a set of Ravaisson-Mollien's folio volumes en- 



titled "Les Manuscripts de Leonard de Vinci" (Paris, 
1883). Among these many sketches will be discovered 
even a design for an aeroplane. Diirer was another artist 
much interested in military matters ; a work by him, 
printed in Nuremberg in 1527, contains many engravings 
which he drew on the wood, depicting fortifications, can- 
non and various military objects. This book, which is of 
great interest to the student, was reprinted in Paris in 
1535, but has not been reprinted since. 

American painters and illustrators, it is gratifying to 
know, have come forward with an eagerness to be of 
service to the country that has not been excelled by any 
other group. The services that they can render are mani- 
fold, as I shall endeavor to suggest. 

In the first place, many artists are needed for the de- 
signing of the innumerable posters required by the gov- 
ernment for recruiting purposes, for Liberty Loan, War 
Savings Stamp, Red Cross and other drives, for posters 
to speed up ship-building, as well as to urge the conser- 
vation of food and coal. And it is scarcely an exaggera- 
tion to say that every prominent artist in America has 
designed at least one poster to be used for patriotic pur- 

Last spring a group of illustrators and painters went 
to Washington and offered their services gratis to the 
government. At that time commercial artists and firms 
of lithographers were getting the orders for posters. 
At first the efforts of these artists did not meet with much 
encouragement, but finally George Creel, chairman of the 
Committee on Public Information, became interested, 
with the result that he established a Division of Pictorial 
Publicity. Charles Dana Gibson is the chairman of this 
committee, which has headquarters at 200 Fifth Avenue, 

[251 ] 


New York, while F. D. Casey, art editor of Collier's 
Weekly, is vice-chairman and secretary. Artists wish- 
ing to draw posters for the navy should communicate with 
the U. S. Navy Publicity Bureau, whose offices are at 
318 West 39th Street, New York. 

Owing to the efforts of the Division of Pictorial Pub- 
licity, our posters, which in the beginning of the war 
were most inartistic and made but a small appeal, have 
steadily improved. Many of the posters now being is- 
sued in this country reach quite a high plane of artistic 
excellence, although extremely few bear comparison with 
those which have been issued in France and in Italy. 
Among the finest posters which have been designed in 
this country are the "Feed a Fighter" by Wallace Mor- 
gan and Henry Raleigh's "Halt the Hun" : their fine 
draughtsmanship reminds one of Steinlen. Excellent 
also is Albert Sterner's "Over There" poster for the 
navy, Henry Reuterdahl's "Help Your Country" and 
W. T. Benda's "Stand Behind the Country's Girlhood," 
which was drawn for the Y. W. C. A. Others worthy 
of note have been drawn by Adolph Treidler, C. B. Falls, 
Charles Livingston Bull, and Joseph Pennell. Over the 
New York Treasury Building, N. C. Wyeth and Henry 
Reuterdahl painted a decoration for the Third Liberty 
Loan, a canvas measuring ninety by twenty-five feet. 
Robert Reid painted a large poster on a Chicago hoard- 
ing for the Navy League. 

Eight members of the committee of which Mr. Gibson 
is chairman were commissioned captains in the Engineers' 
Reserve Corps of the army and they are now in France 
depicting our activities. Ernest Peixotto, Walter En- 
right, W. J. Aylward, Harry Townsend, Wallace Mor- 
gan, Walter J. Duncan, Harvey Dunn and Andre Smith 

[ 252 ] 


are the men whom the government has selected to make 
what should prove to be an invaluable historical record. 

The Camouflage unit of the Corps of Engineers of the 
National Army has attracted many artists, and a number 
also have taken up naval camouflage, which in these days 
of the submarine is an extremely important study. In 
making her famous fleet of dummy battleships, England's 
naval camoufleurs certainly showed great ingenuity. 
Every regiment has its camouflage squad, and already 
over five hundred men belonging to this corps are in 
France with our armies. I understand that each regi- 
ment in each training camp in America has sixteen cam- 
oufleurs to train other men. In this unit, are artists, ar- 
chitects, sculptors, scene painters, sign painters, house 
painters, carpenters, ornamental iron workers, tinsmiths, 
plasterers, photographers, stage carpenters and property 
men. Their work in general, the War Department in- 
forms me, deals with the concealment of gun emplace- 
ments, trenches and sheds of military value; the screen- 
ing of roads and the manufacture of materials for this 
purpose ; the painting of roofs and large areas of canvas 
for the covering of ammunition storage and the like ; the 
making of various devices and clothing for the conceal- 
ment of observers and snipers and occasionally the paint- 
ing of a scenic drop or screen. 

Abbott Thayer and Louis Fuertes, two painters, as 
well as Dr. Chapman, of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, have studied bird life and protective col- 
oration; modern camouflage is based upon their studies 
and conclusions. Some familiar examples of nature's 
camouflage is the frog, spotted like a tree ; the polar bear, 
with his white coat, and the tiger, striped in such a way 
as to make him invisible in a bamboo forest. 

[255 ] 


At present no more enlistments are being made in 
the Camouflage corps and no expansion in this service 
is contemplated in this country. One of the several 
schools of camouflage which have been established is 
that at Columbia University, which is directed by the 
School of Architecture. In it are taught, under the in- 
struction of Lieut. H. Ledyard Towle, N. Y. G., the ele- 
ments of military concealment and military training. The 
extremely interesting Military Camouflage float in the In- 
dependence Day Pageant-Parade held in New York this 
year, under the direction of the Mayor's Committee on 
National Defense, was constructed by this school. This 
parade with its one hundred and nine thousand marchers, 
representing forty-two different nationalities, but carry- 
ing only the American flag, was the greatest and most 
impressive parade ever held in New York. Artists, deco- 
rators, sculptors, sign painters and property men co- 
operated in making the very beautiful and instructive 
floats, about one hundred in number, as well as the deco- 

Still another way in which the artist may employ his 
talents is the painting of what are known as designation 
targets. These are large landscapes depicting typical 
French rural scenery and are used in our military schools 
to train the embryo artillery officer to locate quickly a 
given point in the landscape. The sine quo non is cor- 
rect perspective. The prominent features should appear 
to be at two hundred, three hundred, and five hundred 
yards from the observer. The Art War Relief, whose 
offices are at 661 Fifth Avenue, New York, has directed 
much of this great work, which is in charge of Mrs. 
H. Van Buren Magonigle. 

[ 256 1 


The cartoonist wields a most powerful weapon. It 
can be truly said of him, as of the author, that "the pen 
is mightier than the sword." I doubt if any general has 
better served the Allied cause than Louis Raemaekers. 
His wonderful drawings have penetrated to all the cor- 
ners of the world, showing Germany in her true light 
as have no other pictures or books. The French gov- 
ernment has circulated two million sets of Raemaekers' 
cartoons among the army. The drawings of Forain and 
Steinlen are valuable documents, besides being works of 
art of a high order. It is to such pictures as these that 
the historian of the future, overwhelmed with conflicting 
material, will turn for guidance. The best history of the 
Napoleonic wars are the contemporary broadsides and 
no one could ask for a better political and social history 
of England than the drawings in Punch. 

Nor should one forget to mention a way the artist, 
at least in England, has found to use his talents for war 
work. At several of the Red Cross sales held in London 
blank canvases have been contributed by some of the most 
famous portrait painters and the highest bidder is en- 
titled to have his or her portrait painted by the artist 
contributing the canvas. Last April Sargent contributed 
a picture of this character. Early in the war a canvas 
contributed by him was bought by the late Sir Hugh 
Lane, who perished on board the Lusitania, and on it he 
commissioned Sargent to paint one of the now famous 
portaits of President Wilson, paying $50,000 for it. 

The chance for the sculptor is in the designing of war 
medals and memorials. Very recently Congress has au- 
thorized a Congressional Medal of Honor, a Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross and a Distinguished Service 
Medal. These were designed by Captain Andre Smith 



and Captain Aymar Embury, 2d, and modelled by Gae- 
tano Cecere. Paul Manship has recently modelled three 
medals— "Kultur," "French Heroes Fund" and "Red 
Cross." An English artist, Captain Derwent Wood, has 
constructed masks to cover facial injuries. Professor 
Henry Tonks also has worked with the plastic surgeon. 

Many architects have found employment in the Bureau 
of Industrial Housing and Transportation, of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, for problems of industrial housing — and 
these towns for ship-builders and munition makers con- 
tain churches, schools and hospitals. Others, who have 
commissions in the Engineer Corps, have designed port- 
able houses for the Red Cross and the army, which have 
been sent to France and to England. 

I understand that plans have been submitted to the 
Committee on Public Information with regard to estab- 
lishing in this country a department of exhibitions. The 
British government has already created such an organiza- 
tion. Last March there was held in New York an official 
exhibition of lithographs under the auspices of the British 
government. This exhibition reflected Britain's eflforts 
and ideals in the great war. The section of the exhibi- 
tion showing Britain's efforts contained such titles as 
"Making Soldiers/' "Making Sailors," "Making Guns," 
"Building Ships," "Women's Work," "Work on the 
Land," and "Tending the Wounded." The section en- 
titled "Britain's Ideals" contained such subjects as "The 
Triumph of Democracy," "Poland, a Nation," and "The 
Re-birth of the Arts." These lithographs, some in black 
and white, others in color, were drawn by some of the 
most highly gifted of England's artists, including William 
Rothenstein, Charles H. Shannon, Muirhead Bone, Ed- 
mund Dulac, C. R. W. Nevinson, Charles Ricketts, Wil- 



liam Nicholson, Frank Brangwyn, and Augustus John. 
During June this exhibition was held at the Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Art, and during the first two weeks of August 
it was shown at the Print Room of the Jesup Memorial 
Library in Bar Harbor, Maine. 

For the past two years William Orpen, one of Eng- 
land's greatest painters and draughtsmen, has been de- 
picting events at the front. These drawings and paint- 
ings, which were shown in London recently, have been 
presented by the artist to the nation and are destined for 
Great Britain's ultimate War Museum. 

The French, too, have been fully alive to the great 
value of pictorial propaganda. Extremely interesting 
were the paintings by Lieutenant Farre of actual engage- 
ments in aerial combat, and most valuable as records 
because technically accurate, which were exhibited in 
New York last winter. These pictures I believe are now 
being shown throughout the country under the auspices 
of the Aero Club of America. At the Library of Con- 
gress last winter were shown the lithographs by Lucien 
Jonas entitled "Les Grandes Vertues Frangaises." Such 
drawings as these, with those of Frangois Flameng, 
Georges Scott, and Charles Huard, all official artists, to- 
gether with the drawings which have been published in 
L' Illustration, form one of the most valuable histories of 
the war. They are comparable in some ways to the etch- 
ings of war scenes by Callot and Goya. Certainly they 
command much more attention than the studio-painted 
works of Meissonier, Detaille and Neuville. 

In this country but little has been done so far as re- 
gards the holdings of exhibitions of what may be termed 
war pictures, if we exclude posters. An excellent move 
in this direction was the exhibition of pictures of this 

[261 1 


character shown in New York last spring; the artists 
represented were Augustus Vincent Tack, John Sloan, 
W. Ritschel, Charles S. Chapman, I. Mortimer Block, 
H. B. Fuller, Guy Pene du Bois and George Luks. In- 
teresting also are the lithographs by Joseph Pennell 
showing America's war preparations, which have been 
shown at many of the art museums throughout the 

At my suggestion, in August, 1918, the Division of 
Pictorial Publicity established a department of exhibi- 
tions. This was an excellent move, for in the words of 
Mr. Duncan Phillips : "More important even than the 
issue of pamphlets which the Committee on Public In- 
formation is already dispensing, more important than 
the war photographs supplied by the Divisions of Films 
and Pictures, is the distribution of original drawings, 
paintings and prints which minister to the morale of our 

As chairman of the Committee on Arts and Decoration of 
the Mayor's Committee on National Defense Mr. A. E. Gallatin 
supervised the floats and decorations of the Independence Day 
Pageant-Parade and established a bureau to direct and advise 
artists desiring to apply their talents to war work. He is also 
associate chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions of the 
Division of Pictorial Publicity. 

At the request of the British Government, Mr. Gallatin ar- 
ranged an official exhibition of British lithographs reflecting 
Britain's Efforts and Ideals in the Great War, at Bar Harbor, 
Me., in August. He also plans exhibitions of war pictures by 
American artists, designed to acquaint the American public with 
the extent of our activities and to strengthen their morale. 

The members of the Committee are as follows : 

Albert Eugene Gallatin, Chairman 

Lloyd Warren, Vice Chairman 

Edward P. Gaston, Secretary 



Executive Committee 

Butler, Nicholas Murray Manship, Paul 

du Bois, Guy Pene Phillips, Duncan 

Glackens, William J. Sedgwick, Henry Renwick 

Hastings, Thomas Sherrill, Adj. Gen. Chas. H. 

General Committee 

Abbe, Robert Hassam, Childe 

Alexander, Charles B. Hoppin, William Warner 

Adams, Herbert Huntington, Archer M. 

Adams, John Quincy Iselin, Ernest 

Bartlett, Paul W. James, Arthur Curtiss 

Bertron, S. Reading Knoedler, Roland F. 

Burroughs, Bryson Kunz, George F. 

Chamber, Robert W. Lawson, Ernest 

Clark, WiUiam A Mackay, Clarence H. 

Crowninshield, Francis W. Mansfield, Howard 

Cutting, R. Fulton Nelson, W. H. de B. 

de Forest, Robert W. Scribner, Arthur H. 

Gay, Capt. Charles M. Schieffelin, WilHam Jay 

Gibson, Charles Dana Sloane, John 

Guerin, Jules Stevens, Joseph E. 

Tack, Augustus V. 

The Brick Presbyterian Church 
150th Anniversary 

In 1706 Presbyter ianism in this city had its birth when 
a few persons assembled in private houses to worship. 
They were mostly Scotch. Their numbers increased until 
they were able in 1719 to 'build the first Presbyterian 
church in this city. It was erected in Wall Street on the 
North side between Broadway and Nassau Street about 
where the Astor building now stands. This church may 
be regarded as the mother church of the Presbyterian 
denomination in New York. The Brick church branched 
off from this church and, according to the interesting his- 
torical review of Dr. Albert R. Ledoux, consisted of the 
more liberal and aggressively American element of the 
congregation. The building was erected on Beekman 
Street at the corner of Nassau Street in 1767 and became 

[263 ] 


known as the Brick church in contradistinction to the 
Stone church in Wall Street. It was dedicated January 
1st, 1768 and from the beginning took a leading position 
in the religious life of the city — a position it has held ever 

The movement of population up-town and the encroach- 
ment of business rendered it necessary to move from the 
Beekman Street site to a more suitable location and the 
present site at Fifth Avenue and Thirty-seventh Street 
was chosen. The building erected there is almost a du- 
plicate of the original and in the material of its construc- 
tion is the same, preserving its prerogative to the name of 
the Brick church. It was dedicated October 1st, 1858. 

On January 6th and 10th, 1918, the 150th anniversary 
of the dedication of the church was celebrated. On Sun- 
day, the 6th, appropriate services were held ; Dr. Henry 
van Dyck, who was the minister of the church from 1883 
to 1900, and very recently United States minister to 
Holland, preached in the morning, and the present min- 
ister Dr. William Pierson Merrill in the afternoon. On 
the evening of the 10th a special historical service was 
held and the church was filled to its capacity. 

Robert Fulton Cutting delivered the opening address at 
the evening service and made some interesting references 
to the changed spirit of the church since it was first organ- 
ized. In contrasting the early with the later period Mr. 
Cutting very strikingly showed how the leaven of democ- 
racy had permeated the religious life of the people and 
changed the attitude of the church from the paternalism 
of its early years to the fraternal spirit and co-operation 
which we find to-day, or to use his own words "instead of 
working upon the people working with them." 


The First Brick Church, Beekman and Nassau Sts., 1767 


Dr. Albert R. Ledoux in an interesting address on the 
history of the church in its relation to the nation, showed 
how closely our governmental structure corresponds to 
that of the Presbyterian church. He also gave an account 
of the work of the ministers who have served the church 
and of the more prominent members of the congregation ; 
and perhaps it will not be without interest to that large 
body of Scots who still exert a great influence in the 
Presbyterian fold to know that the petitioners for the 
first charter described themselves as the "Undersigned 
Scots of North Britain." 

The churches of those days seem to have had their little 
differences just as they have to-day. In this case it proves 
the old contention that differences and friction promote 
growth and progress, for the Brick Presbyterian church 
is surely a fine testimony to its truth. To those who are 
connected with this church and in fact to all Presbyte- 
rians, Dr. Ledoux's historical address will be not only 
interesting and informative, but most valuable as a rec- 
ord of one of the most important religious institutions of 
our city. 

Dr. Merrill concluded the celebration in an eloquent 
address on the Invisible Brick Church, which is the spirit 
of "a broad and generous fellowship of men who differ 
widely on details, but are one in loyalty to some great 
essential principle." The address was one which hon- 
ored the occasion and stamped Dr. Merrill as a preacher 
who abundantly sustains the traditional force and elo- 
quence of the Brick Presbyterian Church pulpit. 

Perhaps the thing that appeals most strongly to the 
average layman in a celebration of this kind is not so 
much the evidence of power and influence, as shown by 

[267 ] 


the crowded audiences and the demonstrations of appre- 
ciation, but rather the humble and unobtrusive beginnings 
of the church and the simple faith of its founders. Dr. 
Howard Dufifield in whose opening prayer these words 
occur "we thank Thee for the great city in which Thou 
hast placed us to solve the problems and perform the 
duties of this mortal life" epitomizes not only what the 
founders had in mind, but also what their successors have 
in great part accomplished. 

India House; New York's Reminder of our 
Ancient Maritime Supremacy 

John Foord 
of the American Asiatic Association 

London has had its East India House since the early 
seventeenth century. Amsterdam has been the home of 
the Dutch East India Company since 1595. Salem, 
Mass., still maintains its East India Marine Hall, and 
now New York has also its India House. The building 
has for three-quarters of a century occupied the block 
on the south side of Hanover Square. In other days the 
structure looked out upon the collection of tiny brick 
buildings that lined Old Slip. Across this vista could 
be seen the thicket of spars and masts that marked the 
docking place of the clipper ships. But the spars and 
masts are gone for the most part, and in their place today 
may be found the sooty funnels of the coasters and the 
globe-girdling tramp steamers. The little, dormered brick 
neighbors of what is now India House have given way 



to tall business structures, and the elevated railroad suc- 
ceeds in hiding in its shadows what is left of the past. 
This structure of seventy odd years ago was once the 
home of the Cotton Exchange, and later, when that insti- 
tution moved to its new quarters a little way up William 
Street, it housed the firm of William R. Grace & Com- 
pany. New York's India House is the headquarters of 
men who represent the leading foreign trade interests of 
the country; a place where these men can gather and 
talk over trade conditions, formally or informally as the 
case may be. It is the club house of the import and ex- 
port merchants of today, and one of the direct results 
of the creation of the National Foreign Trade Council 
whose executive officers are, indeed, housed within its 

To the question of "Why India House?" perhaps the 
best answer that can be given is that for centuries, to 
men of our race, "India" and the "Indies" stood for all 
that was greatest, boldest, most alluring and most prof- 
itable in commerce. It was in seeking the western route 
to that older and more spacious world the fame of whose 
surpassing riches had stirred the imagination of adven- 
turers, navigators and traders for long generations be- 
fore, that Columbus stumbled on America. To the Eliz- 
abethans, the Indies, East and West, were a synonym 
for all that was rare and precious, and the names were 
constantly at the end of their tongue and pen. It was 
not long before any place to which a profitable voyage 
could be made came to be known as the Indies, and it 
was a natural sequence that they should have also in- 
cluded Far Cathay. An atmosphere has been created 
in India House of the old days when American ships 
were the carriers of the world. Its walls are covered 



with pictures of the most famous clipper ships, like the 
"Sovereign of the Seas" that covered the distance be- 
tween Hongkong and New York in ninety days, and the 
gallery is rich in representations of the ocean greyhounds 
of the 50s. It has been eloquently said by one of the 
expositors of this collection: "You may conjure romance 
from these walls, and you may also derive from the 
story they tell inspiration for a greater, broader, more 
prosperous future for American shipping and American 
commerce. They have in Salem the original home of 
the romance of the old seafaring life of the United 
States. * * * The East India Marine Hall of Salem 
is the abode of great memories ; this India House is to 
be the home of new achievement." 

As a matter of fact, in organizing a club whose domi- 
nant idea should be that of seagoing commerce, the found- 
ers of India Houses builded better than they knew. They 
had a robust faith in the revival of the American Mer- 
chant Marine, and it was quickly demonstrated that their 
faith was, in sober truth, the substance of things hoped 
for, the evidence of things not seen. It must be said 
that it was by feeling, rather than by sight, that they 
were assured of the coming of the new day. The re- 
crudescence of the old spirit of maritime adventure was 
felt like a stirring in the blood ; a quickening of the pulse 
of enterprise ; a new capacity to respond to the influences 
that had gone to the making of a glorious past, and which 
had only to reassert themselves to be contributory to a 
more glorious future. In India House the scene was set 
in preparation for the approaching event ; in India House 
was spoken the prologue to the swelling act; from the 
great organization domiciled in India House emanated 
the wise counsel and sympathetic co-operation which re- 

[ 270 ] 

mhtWa 1B4B 

Another of the great Black Ball 
line's famous fliers. The opening of 
the Erie Canal in 1825 gave great im- 
petus to the packet ships and several 
lines were started to compete with 
the Black Ball— the Red Cross, the 
Collins, the State, the Swallow Tail, 
the Dramatic. 

Blow high, blow low, one of the 
Black Ball liners sailed from New 
York to Liverpool the first and six- 
teenth of every month. These dates 
for years were known as "steamer 
days" throughout the whole country. 
— Collection of Mrs. C. H. Marshall. 


moved some serious perils from the coming to life of our 
new merchant fleet. And so, when the shipyards of the 
United States became resonant with the din of prepara- 
tion for a new mercantile marine, the men who had longed 
and labored for just such a consummation, were prone 
to rub their eyes and wonder if it was not too good to be 

Nowhere is it realized more clearly than in India House 
that there will be something of the miraculous in the ap- 
parition of the myriad hulls of steel and wood bearing 
the American flag once more to every port of the seven 
seas. For the war period of course their function has 
already been prescribed; the demand for their employ- 
ment is only too imperative. This first act of our renas- 
cent sea-power has been carefully rehearsed, and each 
actor knows his part. The second act will open with the 
transfer of all this tonnage to the control of private own- 
ers, and with its employment in carrying the products 
of the United States to the markets of a world at peace. 
The vital question is, and this is one to which even the 
sages of India House can give no confident answer ; "Will 
the impulse that called it into being lose none of its 
strength, and will a new generation of owners, captains 
and sailors prove equal to the task that for over half a 
century another generation of Americans successfully 
performed ?" There can be no question that all the exter- 
nal conditions favor a magnificent send-ofT in the coming 
year of peace for our merchant fleet. It may be hoped 
that, profiting by past experience, the Congress and Gov- 
ernment of the United States will impose on the business 
of owning and operating American ships no needless bur- 
dens. The determination to keep the flag on the ocean, 

[ 275 ] 


even as it was when the Republic was still young, is deep- 
seated and pervasive. Let any one who is in danger of 
faltering in this faith be sent for his better edification to 
breathe the bracing air of India House. 

A Winter Long to Be Remembered 

The winter of 1917-18 will be remembered as one 
of the coldest and most severe ever experienced in this 
city. It is in the class with the extraordinarily cold win- 
ters we have read about in the annals of the early settle- 
ment of the country. We have to go back to tradition 
to find its equal, for our official records have nothing to 
match it. In snowfall too this winter ranks high among 
the bHzzard years. It commenced early and lasted long. 
The high winds and low temperature of the early days 
of December gave us a foretaste of what was coming and 
these conditions continued with increasing severity until 
the climax of 13 below zero was reached, marking the 
lowest temperature in the coldest winter since the weather 
bureau was established forty-seven years ago. This low 
record was made just as the year was expiring, December 
30, 1917, a date to be remembered. 

It is something unusual for the coast cities to experi- 
ence such extreme cold, and it should be borne in mind 
that zero weather with us, accompanied as it almost in- 
variably is with high winds, makes the cold here of quite 
a different quality from that of the interior places. The 
biting and cutting winds of our zero weather are far more 
trying than the still cold which obtains in interior parts of 
the country. 

This winter too was remarkable for the lack of thaws. 
The mid-winter breathing space, when the New Yorker 



gets a chance to primp up his feathers a little and sort of 
loosen out before another hibernation, was entirely cut 
out. He was simply snowed under and never got a 
chance of coming out like the ground hog to size things 
up. Blast after blast swept over the city with cumulative 
destructiveness. Railroads were tied up, water ways 
were choked with ice, tow boats and barges were caught 
in the ice floes and damaged or carried away altogether, 
elevateds, subways and street cars were hampered for 
want of power and ran irregularly. Our transportation 
facilities were all higgledy-piggledy, sometimes running 
and sometimes not, very often stopping between points 
without any apparent reason, and then crawling along at 
a snail's pace toward their goal. And all this without any 
heat in the cars, for coal was scarce and in fact could not 
be had at any price. The black diamond was certainly a 
precious article during the winter of 1917-18 and the New 
Yorker who struggled through that remarkable period 
will ever have a keen appreciation of the tremendous 
value and indispensability of our friend King Coal. Start- 
ing out shivering from a coalless home and facing the 
wintry blast at the corner while waiting for a car was 
enough to try the patience of the most long suffering citi- 
zen, but amid all his unprecedented discomfort and suf- 
fering the New Yorker was rarely heard to make a com- 
plaint. Sometimes he would say complaisantly "these 
are war times, you know, and we've just got to stand it." 
And it was true, for the weather and the war together 
made a large draught on his patience and endurance. It 
was the most trying winter the New Yorker has ever gone 
through — and the most memorable. 

On February 5th, just at a time when the government 
was making herculean efforts to ship food and other sup- 



plies to our men in France and to the Allies, another and 
fiercer blast swept over the country rendering transporta- 
tion of all kinds almost impossible. The temperature this 
time fell to seven degrees below zero and the wind raged 
at the rate of 50 miles an hour. Freight trains were im- 
peded by the piles of snow and railroad cuttings were so 
full that even snow ploughs stuck in them. Switches were 
frozen, freight depots and terminals were congested, ships 
were tied up in the harbor for want of coal and every- 
thing was in a tangle. The splendid courage and en- 
durance of our workingmen and the fine genius of the 
management ultimately conquered all difficulties, as these 
same qualities will ultimately overcome the enemies in 
the field. 

Heatless Days and the Coal Famine 
The coal famine was one that came very close to us 
all. There was scarcely a family that did not suffer and 
many, both rich and poor, were obliged to use one or two 
rooms of their home as living apartments which could be 
kept moderately warm by the use of oil stoves. Of 
course oil was scarce too and had to be used with care. 
Coal dealers had a constant stream of people trying to 
buy even a little portion of the precious mineral, and any 
day one could hear entreaties for the babies and the old 
and sick. These of course were cared for first. Oc- 
casionally some coal yard would offer what little they 
could obtain to the poor in small quantities, and a long 
line would form to get 50 or 100 pounds and carry it 
home in boys' sleds or baby carriages or in bags. Per- 
haps the most memorable thing of all was the visit of the 
policeman to examine your stock of coal and see if you 
could spare any for those who needed it most. The re- 

[ 278 ] 





















suit was to show that the famine had reached almost . 
every home. 

This condition was largely the result of underproduc- 
tion to which was added an unprecedented ice jam in the 
North River stopping delivery from the mines completely. 
This seemed the acme of discomfort and suffering, but 
as if to show that we could endure still further misery 
the Government suddenly ordered the cessation of all 
business activities requiring the use of coal. Office build- 
ings, theatres, public institutions and to a very great ex- 
tent apartment houses and homes were compelled to exist 
without heat. These Heatless Days will long be remem- 
bered. Nothing in modern experience had ever happened 
like it before and the discomfort experienced by New 
Yorkers was something better imagined than described. 
After a few cruel Heatless Days the Government added 
the last straw by compelling a general shut down of all 
activities for a period of ten days. With Heatless and 
Workless Days the town shivered and suffered. And it 
was astonishing to see with what philosophy and public 
spirit this privation was endured. A great volume of 
protest was expected but to the credit of New York be 
it said that the Government's request was complied with 
almost without a murmur. 

Added to the heatless and workless days came light- 
less nights. The great White Way became a yawning 
black chasm. Streets like Fifth Avenue which fairly 
blazed with brightness and good cheer by reason of their 
myriad electric lights, suddenly became bleak, desolate 
and forbidding. The change was a great shock. For 
awhile it almost seemed as if we were doomed to live 
in Philadelphia. 

[ 281 ] 


It seemed as if the limit of inconvenience had now been 
reached when the Government suddenly decided to ask 
certain additional sacrifices, this time in the direction of 
another creature comfort — eating. 

Not only were we asked to eat less but to abstain 
entirely frorh just those things we liked best — nice hot 
Parker house rolls, fat juicy steaks, etc., etc. 

Nevertheless all these requests were lived up to and 
if any one thinks the fighting line never reached New 
York, he surely didn't know New York during the winter 
of our first year in the great World War. 

The reward of this self denial came in the middle of 
the present summer when the first great offensive of the 
Allies proved successful. But for this sacrifice by all 
the people of our country it is now clear that we could 
never have prepared the way for the great blow which 
fell on the Boche in July. 

New York's Water Supply System 

The value of the city's entire water works system is $367,000,000 
— this includes the Catskills, Croton and Brooklyn water- 

The water revenue is approximately $13,455,000. 

The Catskill Aqueduct 
The Esopus water-shed in the Catskill Mountains is 257 square 

miles in area. 
The waters of the Esopus water-shed are collected, in the Asho- 

kan Reservoir. 
The Ashokan Reservoir has a capacity of 128,000 million gallons. 
The water of Ashokan is sent by gravity to the five boroughs of 

the city. 
The Catskill Aqueduct is 92 miles in length from the Ashokan 

Reservoir to the northern city limits. 
The tunnel of the aqueduct at Storm King Mountain is 1,114 

feet below sea level. 
The aqueduct is known as the City Tunnel from the city limits 

through Bronx and Manhattan. 
The City Tunnel is 200 to 750 feet below the street surface. 
The City Tunnel runs under the East River to Brooklyn. 

[ 282 ] 


There are two terminal shafts of the City Tunnel in Brooklyn. 
Steel and iron conduits carry the Catskill water from the ter- 
minal shafts in Brooklyn to Queens and Richmond boroughs. 
The terminal of the Catskill water system is Silver Lake Reser- 
voir, Staten Island. 
The Catskill Aqueduct from Ashokan Reservoir to Silver Lake 

is 120 miles in length. 
The water takes three days to pass through the Aqueduct from 

Ashokan to Silver Lake. 
The water flows through the Aqueduct at the rate of 1^4 miles 

per hour. 
The Kensico Reservoir has a capacity of 29,000 million gallons. 
The Kensico Reservoir holds enough water to supply the city 

for two months. 
Hill View Reservoir in Yonkers holds 900 million gallons. 
Hill View Reservoir regulates the flow of water as between the 
Aqueduct where it is steady and the city mains where it 
varies greatly from hour to hour. 
Hill View Reservoir has an elevation of 295 feet and determines 

the "head" of the Catskill supply. 
The "head" of the Catskill supply is 2j4 times greater than the 

The Catskill Aqueduct is circular or horse-shoe on sections with 

a maximum height of 17j^ feet. 
Its capacity is 500 million gallons daily at the lowest. 
There are nineteen waterway shafts to deliver water in Man- 
hattan and Bronx. 
The Catskill Aqueduct is three times as long as the Panama 
Canal, and twice as long as the most famous Roman Aque- 
Its construction covered a period of ten years — from June 20, 

1907 until January, 1917. 
The total length of water mains in Greater New York is 2,955 

The mains vary from 4 to 66 inches in diameter. 
The mains are controlled by 66,300 gates. 
There are 45,100 fire hydrants. 
The mains are estimated to last 100 years — they are made of 

cast iron. 
The cost of laying 8 in. mains is about $6,000 a mile. 
Seventeen repair companies, with 675 men employees are re- 
quired to keep the mains in condition. 
Greater New York consumes 600 million gallons of water daily 

— over 100 gallons for each person. 
The water-sheds are all patrolled by a uniformed force. 
All water is treated with chlorine to destroy bacteria. 
Two laboratories are constantly examining samples of the water 

taken at eight separate points. 
Pumping stations are maintained at 179th Street and Harlem 
River and at 98th Street and Columbus Avenue. 
[283 ] 


Earlier Systems 

In 1880 a private company — the Manhattan Company — sunk a 
well at Reade and Centre Streets, and pumped the water into 
a reservoir on Chambers Street. The water was distributed 
through wooden mains to a part of the community. The 
amount supplied was 700,000 gallons a day. 

The initial step for public water works was taken in 1830. 

The first reservoir was constructed at 13th Street and Broadway 
in 1830. 

Brooklyn's public water supply system began in 1859. 

The Croton Aqueduct was opened in 1842. 

The second, or new Croton Aqueduct was opened in 1893. 

The first, or old has a capacity of 90 millions of gallons daily. 

The second, or new has a capacity of 300 millions of gallons daily. 

The water-shed has an area of 375 square miles. 

It yields an average of 400 million gallons daily. 

Its waters are collected through ten reservoirs, the largest being 
Croton Lake. 

The total capacity of these ten reservoirs is 104,400 million gal- 

The two Croton (old and new) Aqueducts have a capacity of 390 
million gallons daily. 

The length of each to the city limits is 24 miles. 

The old Croton Aqueduct crosses the Harlem at High Bridge. 

The new Croton Aqueduct passes under the Harlem at 180th 
Street, 300 feet below the surface of the river. 

The Central Park Reservoirs have an elevation of 119 feet. 

Wells of a depth of 30 to 100 feet yielded IZ millions of gallons 
daily in Brooklyn in 1916. 

There are still 400,000 people in Brooklyn dependent on private 
water companies. They consume 40 million gallons daily. 

The Flatbush Water Works Company and the Blythebourne 
Water Company supply these people. 

In Queens the Citizens' Water Supply Company and the Urban 
Water Company furnish water for the second ward and the 
Jamaica Water Supply Company and the Woodhaven Water 
Supply Company for the fourth ward and the Queens County 
Water Company for the fifth ward. 

These companies in time will be embraced in the city's great 

There are 49,200 fire hydrants in Greater New York — 4,100 on 
the high pressure service. 

One high pressure hydrant equals five fire-engines. 

The pressure is great enough to reach the top of a 40-story 

The length of the high pressure mains in Manhattan is 128 miles 
— in Brooklyn 44J/2 miles. 

A pressure of 125 pounds per square inch can be maintained, and 
may be increased to 300 pounds when necessary. 
[ 284 ] 


Early History of Riverdale 

Eugene L. Delafield 
The first historical mention that we have of the River- 
dale section of the city is by Henry Hudson, who speaks 
in his diary of the Indians from the heights of Nipinichsen 
coming out in their canoes to attack the "Half Moon." 
The title history begins with the purchase from the In- 
dians by Dr. Adrian Van der Donck, of all that vast tract 
bounded approximately, by the Croton River, the Bronx 
River, the Harlem River and the Hudson River, and con- 
firmed to him by a patent by Governor Kieft in 1645. 
After Van der Donck's death, his widow married Hugh 
O'Neale, and he and Alias Doughty her brother, divided 
the property by an east and west line and transferred the 
lower half to William Betts and George Tippett, and the 
northerly portion to Thomas Delaval, Frederick Philips 
and Thomas Lewis. This latter portion formed part of 
the Philipse Patent and Manor of Philipsburgh. This 
east and west line the southerly boundary of the manor, 
ran from a point on the Albany Post Road, opposite the 
parade grounds of Van Cortlandt Park to a point on the 
Hudson River some 300 feet south of the Dogwood 
brook. The line is even now, in many places well de- 
fined, as it was marked by a stone wall of immense 
boulders that must have required two yoke of oxen to 
move. The property on both sides of this line was again 
brought under one ownership by William Hadley by deed 
from James Van Cortlandt and by purchase from the 
Commissioners of Forfeiture of the Philipse Manor after 
the Revolution; the title to most of the property in the 
Riverdale section goes back to this William Hadley. 

[ 287 ] 


When the blue pigeon — now but a memory in the sport- 
ing world — were flying, a certain rich man who lived in 
New York City would make the long journey (for of 
.course there were no motor cars or subways in those 
days) out to this enchanting grove and spend a few days 
with his friends in a small lodge. He loved that high 
ridge carpeted with moss, ground pine and partridge ber- 
ries, painted with wild pinks, trilliums and violets, with 
its views of the silver flowing Hudson between white 
birch trunks or beneath dark pine boughs and obtained 
the possession of it, determining to hold its beauty in- 
violate — for all time. The city has now burrowed and 
pushed its way up to the outer edge of this wild retreat, 
but cannot penetrate within ; its dust and noise, its rush 
and confusion are held at bay by the will of that man who 
insisted upon reserving it as a sanctuary for man as well 
as birds, trees and flowers. 

Few people know that within the limits of New York 
City is a grove lovely as it was before man first discov- 
ered it, where dogwoods and every native plant and tree 
grow luxuriously in their own chosen way, untrained by 

This man's descendants have set aside this grove as a 
retreat for men who love the silence, who love to sleep 
within the sound of rustling leaves yet who must spend 
their days in the thick of Broadway and Wall Street 

Ehiring the Revolution this section of the city saw its 
share of fighting, for both the Americans and the British 
had their forts at Tippett's Hill and on Valentine Hill, 
to the easterly, but the central part of Riverdale was a 
ground more for the activity of the so-called cow-boys 
who found refuge among the trees, hills and rocks of the 

[ 288 ] 


district. Possibly the best known action was when the 
Stockbridge Indians after their defeat by Emery's Eng- 
Hsh chasseurs, hid themselves on the steep hillsides where 
the cavalry could not follow them. Although there was 
no well known action of this time, relics of those days 
are still quite frequently found, such as small cannon 
ball, rifle bullets and a few Indian skeletons besides many 
Indian arrow heads, ax heads, etc. 

High Cost of 
Living During the War of 1812 

The following excerpts are from a letter written Oc- 
tober 25th, 1813, by a member of the Brick Church to her 
sister, and were read by Dr. Albert R. Ledoux in his 
address at the 150th Anniversary celebration reviewing 
the history of the church, January 10, 1918: 
"My Dear Sister : 

"The times are very hard. Money almost an impossi- 
bility. The necessaries of life are very high. Brown 
sugar $25.00 per cwt.. Hyson tea, 17 shillings per lb. 
. , . We are obliged to use beans steeped in hot mo- 
lasses. Many people are living upon black butter-pears, 
apples and quinces stewed together." 

* * * 

"It is high time that this cruel war was at an end . . . 
Many have been made widows and orphans through the 
cruel realities of this war. Provisions dear, the neces- 
saries of life so high that the poverty in the city is great; 
so I think that the money had better be distributed among 
them than wasted on tallow, sperm, and candlesticks" ( for 
the illuminations in honor of Perry's victories), 

[ 289 ] 


Isham Park 

Isham Park is one of the most beautiful of all the lesser 
sized parks of the city and occupies an unparalleled site 
on the Hudson, a region noted for its rare beauty and 
magnificent views, and it is doubtful if a more desirable 
acquisition by the city could have been made. It com- 
mands a splendid view across Spuyten Duyvil and up 
along the river. The Palisades opposite are also in full 
view. On the east the valley of the Harlem stretches 
out with University Heights beyond and Fort George 
Hill. The park is the gift of Mrs. Julia Isham Taylor 
and was presented to the city in 1911, to be called Isham 
Park in memory of her father William B. Isham, who 
purchased the property in 1864 and used it as a place of 
residence till his death in 1909. It is situated west of 
Broadway on the crest of the hill between Isham Street 
and 214th Street. About a year after Mrs. Taylor pre- 
sented the land to the city Miss Flora E. Isham, an- 
other daughter of William B. Isham, in order to preserve 
the view of Inwood Hill and of the Palisades, purchased 
several acres of land contiguous and presented it to the 
city as an addition to the park. And now this beautiful 
little park is complete and compact in itself and is a real 
joy to many New Yorkers who have found its shaded 
walks and splendid prospects a constant and continuing 

It is still the hope of New Yorkers that the city will 
take possession of that superbly beautiful piece of land 
known as Inwood Hill comprising about 150 acres of fine 
wooded land, and make of it a park for the nature loving 
New Yorker. It not only retains most of its original 
wooded character which makes it peculiarly attractive for 

[ 290 ] 

Pottery found in pit at the site of the Van Oi)lienis house, 176th 

Street and Ft. Washington Avenue, 1913. Ecstored hv INIr. 

R. P. Bolton. Collection of INIr. W. L. Calver.*^ 






Porcelain found in the vault of the original Lewis Morris mansion, 

near Willis Avenue, 1912. Restored hv JMr. R. P. 

Bolton. Collection of Mr. W. L. Culver. 


a public park, but it also possesses historical interest as 
the site of the Cock Hill Fort during the revolution 
and shelters interesting archaeological remains of the 
aboriginal inhabitants. It is the most commanding hill 
on Manhattan Island and would supplement and enhance 
the value of beautiful Isham Park. 

Old English Pottery 

W. L. Calver 

The interesting subject of ceramics has many phases. 
The study and collection of old chinawares cover a wide 
range of periods and materials, but there is an additional 
interest to be gained by the association of some particular 
class of manufacture or special ware, with a locality such 
as New York. Such materials are usually sought in 
homes where they may have been preserved, or in stores 
where a business is made of their purchase and sale. The 
objects gain in value as their associations or record are 
more definite, and the assurance of their genuine char- 
acter becomes more decided. But complete as that may 
be, they are no more valuable than some less perfect ob- 
ject, the possession of which can be traced with positive- 
ness to some period, that may thus decide its antique 

The discovery of such objects in excavations on ancient 
sites, whether complete or capable of partial restoration, 
lends peculiar value to them. Thus the unearthing of 
numerous fragments of wares among the military debris 
found in the barrack and camp sites of the War of Inde- 
pendence, indicated that the precision with which the 
period of their use was thus determined, would make 

[ 293 1 


them of special value, if enough could be secured to af- 
ford the means of comparison with other objects of 
similar character. 

A systematic preservation of all scraps, so located, was 
therefore followed in explorations made in such places, 
and the results have been both successful and instructive. 

The wares used, fractured and cast away by the officers 
and soldiery of the American, British, and Hessian troops 
are found to represent a variety of those utilized in house- 
holds of the Colonial period. Some of them were evi- 
dently abstracted by the soldiers from abandoned, homes, 
being too fragile and expensive for regular camp service, 
for which much of the dainty ware was indeed wholly 
unsuited. The treasures of the housewives of many a 
Colonial residence and farm homestead are doubtless rep- 
resented by these fragmentary remains, and could tell 
a tale of the raid of Westchester County, or the neglected 
homes of the village of Harlem, and abandoned residences 
of New York. 

A gradual accumulation of materials afforded an educa- 
tion in the nature of the wares and designs, and also 
sharpened the eyesight, and added to the interest of the 
explorers, so that more attention was devoted to pursuit 
of the whole of the parts of broken vessels, with the 
result that not a few have been secured whole, or nearly 

The wares found on these military sites have been 
supplemented by a number of objects and fragments 
found on the sites of dismantled dwellings on the Heights, 
the Bronx, and elsewhere. The age of these materials is 
also definable, by the known history of the dwelling, the 
date of its original occupation and abandonment. 

[ 294] 


Sometimes such an old site will yield from its garden 
plot, its rubbish hole, or even its cess pits, a variety of 
pottery and chinawares, extending over a long period of 
time. In the case of the Oblienis farmhouse, built in 
1703-4, and burnt during the War of Independence, the 
wares discovered, buried around the old site, are limited 
in their one-time use to the period of about seventy years 
of Colonial life, and gain greatly in definiteness by that 

Another farm building having a parallel history, was 
that of the Kortright family at Sherman Avenue and 
Arden Street, also destroyed in the early years of the 
war. Its occupants were poor, and therefore, the broken 
household- ware is found to be of much humbler char- 
acter than that of their neighbors. 

The site of the Lewis Morris Mansion, near Willis 
Avenue, Bronx, afforded wares of much more expensive 
character, and as they had been cast into a cess-pit, some 
of them were remarkably preserved. They included 
choice porcelains, china and wedgwood basaltic ware, of 
character and period later than the Revolution, as the 
occupation of the house continued into the nineteenth 

In this way the history of a dwelling-place is associated 
with and confirmed by the ceramic materials of its occu- 
pancy, and the waste and broken vessels assume an in- 
terest and acquire a definite antiquity. 

The pleasure and interest of china collection is en- 
hanced by the circumstances of discovery in such out-of- 
the-way places as a soldiers' dug-out, a camp kitchen- 
midden, or an ancient well or waste pit. The fractured 
ware may not have the intrinsic value of a complete 
piece, but it has a history all its own, and in a restored 

[ 295 ] 


state is equally as valuable as a demonstration of form, 
color and material. To the joy of possession is added 
the pleasure of restoration, often involving much patience 
and labor, but resulting in an artistic production that be- 
speaks the interest of the observer and the collector. It 
is observable that such restored objects are very attractive 
of the attention of visitors in the museums in which they 
have been placed. The evidence thus given of the value 
placed upon the fragments appeals to the imagination in 
a way that a complete object would fail to do. 

The wares found around camp sites and old dwellings 
of the Colonial period, comprise : 

(1) Hard paste white porcelain of Chinese or Japanese manu- 
facture and decoration. 

(2) Dutch and English Delft-ware, in soft paste pottery, 
over-glazed and decorated to imitate the Chinese porce- 

(3) Stoneware, glazed with lead, Flemish, German and Eng- 
lish, and some of pater period, glazed with salt. 

(4) Slip-decorated pottery, English and American, including 
"sgratiato" decorations. 

(5) Opaque red and black hard paste pottery, unglazed and 

(6) Salt-glaze ware, of white and cream clays, including 
"scratched blue" decorations. 

(7) "Tortoise-shell" earthenware, or decorated pottery. 
Agate-ware or marbled clays. 

(8) Cream-ware, of clay with flint admixture, also "Cauli- 
flower" ware, colored by stains of green and yellow. 

Most of the foregoing are English manufactures or 
processes, and all of them antedated the development of 
modern porcelain ware. 

The latest form of ceramic art, at the time of the War 
of Independence, was the cream-ware, which Astbury's 
invention of the use of flint as a binder, rendered pos- 

[ 296 ] 

Qlljarl^s % HaraljaU 1B45 

One of the later day ships of the 
famous Black Ball line, the pioneer of 
all packet ships to Liverpool. Estab- 
lished in 1816 by Benjamin Marshall, 
this line grew in number and im- 
portance of ships till its Black Ball on 
the foresails was known the world 
over. The first ships were only of 
300 or 400 tons register but became 
larger as trade increased. 

For years the Black Ball line main- 
tained its supremacy in the packet 
trade and its ships were found in all 
the ports of the civilized world. It 
was perhaps the best known line sail- 
ing from New York. — Collection of 
Mrs. C. H. Marshall. 


Study of these processes, and of the products of old 
time potters, as represented by the examples discovered 
in our city, is now made possible by the accumulation and 
comparison of specimens, the result of the past ten years 
of exploration, in the Jumel Mansion, the Dyckman 
house, and the Lorillard Mansion collections, formed by 
the writer. 

Educational Features 
of the American Museum of Natural History 

One of the institutions of New York which is becom- 
ing daily a more popular resort for the New Yorker is 
the American Museum of Natural History. Visitors to 
the city flock to this most interesting place in ever-increas- 
ing numbers, which shows that its fame has spread abroad 
and that its wonderful collection of rare and interesting 
objects has a value and influence extending far beyond 
the city itself. While many people go there simply to 
spend an hour or two pleasantly, they never come away 
without feeling that the time has been well spent. 

Could anyone, for instance, view the exhibit which illus- 
trates the habits and habitats of every species and variety 
of birds without feeling a broadening of his mental hori- 
zon which is well worth his while to acquire? Or is 
there any child or young person who would not be per- 
fectly fascinated to see these beautiful denizens of the 
air, just as they are in real life with their brood of little 
ones about them, and their carefully built and guarded 
little homes just as they appear far up in the tree tops, 
or snugly tucked away in rocky crevasses, or hidden in 
the tall thick grasses of the field? There is also the 

[ 301 ] 


realistic representation of Indian life which has a special 
and peculiar interest. Here is the tent or adobe house 
with the totem pole in front, and the chief sitting at the 
entrance on a rude bench smoking his famous pipe of 
peace. His wife with her papoose strapped to her back 
is lumbering toward the hut with a load of some kind, 
gathered from the field, and the youngsters just like chil- 
dren everywhere romping and jumping about the door. 
A section of the Museum that attracts the curious on 
the one hand and the studious on the other, is the collec- 
tion of manlike animals of which there are specimens 
of every kind. Some of them are so much like ourselves 
that it gives one good cause to think, or wonder, or laugh 
according to his humor. How often we have seen old 
men in the country leaning on their sticks and looking up, 
just like one of those anthropoids in the case. Is the use 
of the stick any proof of our lineage from these mar- 
vellously human looking animals? The great collection 
of woods and minerals have an interest and an educational 
value for everyone. But perhaps a department which 
appeals to our wonder and imagination more than these 
is the marvellous specimens of animal life of pre-historic 
ages, which have been built up by the wonderful genius 
of man from fossil remains found in various parts of the 
world. It is something to be able to look at these huge 
animals, which lived perhaps a million years ago, as for 
instance the Dinosaur, even though they are only made up 
by the art of man. The Museum is managed by a body 
of public-spirited men who are alive to every means of 
increasing its usefulness. Architecturally it is one of the 
fine buildings of New York. 

[ 302 ] 


A Few Salient Features of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art 

When one views the magnificent buildings of this great 
institution and considers their extent as well as their 
architectural beauty and significance, together with the 
priceless collection of objects within, one is amazed to 
learn that only forty-seven years ago the institution was 
organized and the first officers elected. There was no 
building, not even a site, no collections as a nucleus, only 
a small body of officers with the clearly defined purpose of 
creating a museum of art and the will to accomplish it. 
How well the purpose was conceived and carried to its 
present point of development is attested by the size and 
beauty of the buildings as we see them to-day. There 
are no great buildings in our city more artistically de- 
signed and none that add more to the architectural en- 
chancement of New York. 

But it is of course the interior which makes the Mu- 
seum of priceless value to the people and a tour through 
the various departments is a liberal education. The col- 
lection of sculptures includes examples of ancient and 
modern art, and where it has been possible replicas of the 
most famous works have been procured. Paintings of 
the modern schools fill several rooms, whole collections 
having been bequeathed to the Museum by collectors. 
Many examples of the most famous French painters are 
to be seen in the Wolfe collection. And the recent gift 
of Mr. Altman contains some of the most famous paint- 
ings of the Dutch and Flemish schools. The old masters 
are also represented. 

It is perhaps the section containing reproductions of 
ancient architecture which attracts the greatest number 

[ 303 ] 


of people. Those are made in quite a large size, some 
of the models being almost like little houses. These are 
intensely interesting and have the rather pleasing effect 
of transporting you back to the days of ancient Greece, 
when the youths and maidens used to loiter in the beauti- 
ful gardens of their homes and listen to the recitals of 
Homer's tales or the story of the brave deeds of Theseus. 
Here you can see the Parthenon and other edifices as they 
were in the hey-day of their glory. There are also rep- 
licas of many famous buildings still extant. The room 
of antiquities and the collection of Egyptian relics are 
greatly interesting, revealing many phases of life in the 
long long ago. The site of the Museum was excellently 
chosen, facing Fifth Avenue and within the Park, where 
no other structures can interpose to destroy the view. 
The city is proud of this institution. Its work is of the 
highest practical value, and the officers are deservedly 
held in high esteem. 

[ 304 ] 


New York City's War Activities 

'ARLY in the morning of April 6th, 1917—3:12 
A. M. — the Senate of the United States passed 
the resolution that a state of war existed between 
the United States and the Imperial German Government. 
The House of Representatives took similar action as soon 
as the resolution was received from the Senate. This 
ioint resolution was signed by the President at 1 :11 P. M. 
The same afternoon the President issued the proclama- 
tion to the American people announcing the existence of 
a state of war. The Secretary of the Navy signed the 
order to mobilize the navy and the Secretary of War 
conferred with the House Military Committee in regard 
to army plans. Thus we formally entered Armageddon. 
Our declaration of war was made on Good Friday — 
the most sacred and solemn day in Christian chronology 
— a coincidence which many good people think augurs 
well for our cause. Far-seeing statesmen believe that it 
is the most momentous event in the history of the United 
States and marks the beginning of a new time for the 
entire world. The task we have undertaken in conjunc- 
tion with our brave Allies is not alone the defeat of the 
Central Powers, but also the liberation of many nation- 
alities and the creation of several new and independent 
States. This is to be done without any aggrandizement to 
ourselves. We shall pay the price in lives and treasure 
without reimbursement in any form. This is a new prin- 
ciple in international relations, and indicates that the fu- 
ture place of the United States may be that of molder 
and director of world politics and policies. The poets' 
dream that some time the world would be controlled by 
peaceful influences and love of right and justice is coming 

[ 307 ] 


near of realization, and we who live in this wonderful 
though sorrowing age may see the first gleams t>f this 
beneficent and all-pervading power through the inter- 
mediary of our own country. 

President Wilson is the incarnation of this spirit and 
is recognized all over the world as such. He has formu- 
lated and expressed in most clear and forceful phrases 
what was in the heart of the American people and for 
which they have willingly pledged their all. 

We are putting in chronological form the events and 
activities of New York City in its relation to the great 
World War, as a record not only for our present readers 
but also for those who are to come. We begin from 
April 6th, 1917 — the date of the declaration of war: 


April 7 — 27 German ships were seized in the harbor of New York 
— 91 in all in the country. 

April 7 — 19 German spies were arrested. 

April 20 — The great "Wake Up, America I" parade on Fifth Ave- 
nue took place ; 60,000 people paraded — men, women, and 
some children. 

April 21 — Announcement was made that Great Britain's War 
Commission had arrived, but at what port is not named. 

April 24 — The French War Commission was announced as hav- 
ing arrived in America. 

May 5 — The Home Defense League, 8,500 strong, paraded down 
Fifth Avenue, preceded by the Honor Regiment of the 
Police Department. Sixteen regiments took part. They were 
reviewed by the Mayor and officers of the Army. 

May 9 — Marshall Joflfre, M. Rene Viviana, and the other members 
of the French War Commission arrived from Washington at 
the Battery, Pier A, accompanied by Mr. Joseph H. Choate 
and the committee appointed by the Maj-or to welcome them. 
They proceeded by Battery Place and Broadway to the City 
Hall, where Mayor Mitchell received them in the Governor's 
Room, assisted by General Wood, General Bell and Admiral 
Usher and the civilian members of the Mayor's committee. 
On leaving the City Hall, they proceeded up Broadway and 
Fifth Avenue through cheering crowds to the residence of 
Mr. Henry Qay Frick at Fifth Avenue and Seventieth 

[ 308 ] 


May 10 — Henry P. Davison, of the firm of J. P. Morgan & 
Co., was appointed chairman of the Red Cross War Council 
by President Wilson. 

Presentation was made of a golden miniature of the Statue 
of Liberty to Marshall Joffre in the North Meadow of Cen- 
tral Park, 60,000 people participating. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on 
Marshall Joffre, M. Viviana, Lord Cunliff and by proxy on 
Mr. A. J. Balfour by President Nicholas Murray Butler at 
Columbia University. 

Marshall Joffre visited Brooklyn and unveiled the statue 
of Lafayette in Prospect Park. He lunched with the Mer- 
chants' Association. He visited Grant's Tomb and placed a 
wreath upon it, and then attended a brief ceremony at the 
Jeanne d'Arc statue. 

In the evening the "Joffre Cheque" was presented to the 
Marshall at the Metropolitan Opera House. The cheque was 
for $100,000, to be used for the Commission of Relief in 
Belgium and the Society for Relief of French War Orphans. 
Marshall Joffre and AL Viviana received cordial greetings of 
their own people at the reception in the Public Library, just 
previous to the Metropolitan Opera House event. 
May 11 — Right Hon. Arthur J. Balfour and the other members 
of the British War Commission arrived from Washington at 
the Battery, Pier A, and proceeded up Broadway, which was 
lined on both sides with enthusiastic, cheering crowds, to the 
City Hall. Troops E and F, First Cavalry, and a number of 
mounted policemen escorted them. Mayor Mitchell received 
them at the head of the steps and escorted them to the 
Aldermanic Chamber, where Mr. Balfour took his place in 
the centre of the dais. The Mayor made an eloquent speech 
of welcome from the floor, and Mr. Balfour replied in 
words which convinced his hearers of the warm feelingsof 
friendship he had for this country and his deep appreciation 
of the enthusiastic reception the Commission had received. 
Mr. Choate, head of the welcoming committee, then led the 
party to the waiting automobiles, which proceeded through 
great crowds of enthusiastic spectators, waving flags and 
cheering as they passed, up Center Street to Broadway and 
Fifth Avenue to the residence of Mr. Vincent Astor at Fifth 
Avenue and Sixty-fifth Street. 

In the evening a great banquet was given by the Mayor's 
committee at the Waldorf-Astoria to the French and British 
War Commissions. Mayor Mitchell spoke for America, Mr. 
Balfour for Great Britain, M. Viviana for France, and Mr. 
Joseph H. Choate for the citizenry of New York. Ex-Presi- 
dwit Roosevelt and ex-President Taft were present. 
May 12— Mr. A. J. Balfour addressed the Chamber of Commerce 
in the Assembly Room of the Chamber at noon, and spoke of 

[ 309 ] 


the dream of his life, which had now been realized, that the 5 

two "English-speaking, freedom-loving branches of the hu- 
man race" might be drawn closer together and past differ- 
ences seen in their true proportions. The guests included the 
members of the British Commission, Mayor Mitchell, Mr. 
Joseph H. Choate, Military and Naval officers, and a host of 
representative New Yorkers, crowding the Assembly Room 
to its capacity. Mr. E. H. Outerbridge, president of the 
Chamber, presided. 

May 13 — Mr. A. J. Balfour visited Col. E. M. House and after- 
ward motored to Oyster Bay to see Colonel Roosevelt. 

May 14 — Joseph H. Choate, head of the Mayor's committee to 
welcome the War Commissions, died suddenly at the age of 

May 15 — Elihu Root was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary 
of the United States on special mission. 

May 21 — Captain Franz von Rintelen was convicted of conspir- 
acy in the Federal District Court. 

May 22 — Mayor Mitchell named the War Draft Boards — a Cen- 
tral Board of Control and five subordinate boards, one for 
each Borough. 

June 1 — The first arrests for violation of the Selective Draft Act 
were made. Five men were arrested. 

June 4 — First Liberty Loan campaign commenced, to last one 
week; $2,000,000,000 to be raised; New York's quota, $600,- 

June S — Registration day for all males born between the 6th day 
of June, 1886, and the 5th day of June, 1896, citizens and 

June 11 — State Military Census began. Every man and woman 
between the ages of 16 and 50 were registered. 

Cleveland H. Dodge contributed $1,000,000 to the Red 
Cross Fund. 

June 18— Red Cross Fund campaign for $100,000,000 began ; New 
York's quota, $40,000,000. 

June 21 — The Italian War Commission arrived from Washington 
at the Battery, Pier A. headed by the Prince of Udine. The 
Commission was received by >ficholas Murray Butler and 
Lloyd C. Griscom, former Ambassador to Italy, and the other 
members of the Mayor's Committee. They proceeded by 
way of Battery Place and Broadway to the City Hall, where 
they were received by the Mayor and Senator Marconi. 

June 22— The Merchants' Association entertained the Italian War 
Commission at luncheon. Many prominent business men 
were present. 

In the evening a dinner was given at the Waldorf-Astoria 
by the Mayor. Nearly a thousand representative citizens 

[ 310] 


Whtra tliey are now prep; 

42d STREET, 

Opposite the Crystal Palace^ 


Would gi^e notice to the public that thoy liave fitted up tire 
second floor of the 



Ic6 CiGam & RBfreshment 

; Wie-s a.iJ gentlei 


Kw\ ixW th« variuua kinds of refreshmentd of Uie best tlie market aflorda. 

Private Parties served oa the shortest notice. 

N. B. — 'this it the largest and beat ventilated Saloon in the city."ei- 
tending from 42d to 43d fltreets, 200 feet in depth. 



Vfrii Vorli: July 121*. 1853. 

cr, Ooilwin it Cc. Printers Tribune BurHrnji 1 3pniM StreiH, Nw^^Yajt 

Latting Observatory, north side of 42nd Street, opposite Crystal 

Palace, 1855. Interesting old hand bill of the period. 

The bird's-eye view of New York by Hill, shown in 

our supplement, was made from this tower. 


June 23 — Announcement was made that New York City sub- 
scribed the total of $1,186,788,400 for the First Liberty Loan, 
being $586,788,400 over her quota. The total for the coun- 
try was $3,035,226,850, being $1,035,226,850 oversubscribed. 

June 27 — The Red Cross Campaign closed with the full amount 
subscribed— $100,000,000, New York's quota being well over- 

July 3 — New York City's registration in the State Miliary Census 
reached the total of 3,100,000 persons, not including New 
Yorkers who were out of the city. These were estimated at 

July 4^The most serious celebration of Independence Day in 
half a century. No exultation or festivity was shown. Meet- 
ings were held in all parts of the city, making appeal to the 
patriotic sentiments of the people. Mayor Mitchell ad- 
dressed a large assemblage at the City Hall. 

July 5 — A test mobilization of the Home Defense League was 
made. Of Class A, comprising 16,000 men, 8,258 reported 
ready for duty in four hours. Qass B, numbering 5,000, 
comprising special organizations of employees of large mer- 
cantile concerns ; and another class of 4,000 assigned to cleri- 
cal work on account of physical disabilities were later. The 
League numbers 25,000 members. 

July 6 — The city welcomed Russia's War Commission, headed by 
Ambassador Boris A. Bakhmetieff. The Commission was 
entertained at dinner at the Ritz-Carlton. Mayor Mitchell 

July 7 — A great meeting was held at the Madison Square Garden 
to honor the Russian Mission ; 12,000 persons were present. 

July 9 — The Socialist Party gave evidence of disruption. The 
Phelps-Stokes' resigned, following the example of John 
Spargo and other leading members. 

July 14 — Orders for the mobilization of the entire National 
Guard of New York were received by Gen. John F. O'Ryan. 

July 16 — The Canadian Highlanders, 200 strong, arrived and re- 
ceived an enthusiastic welcome. 

July 24 — The Local Exemption Boards, numbering 189, began 
their work. 

July 25 — The Independent War Relief Organizations announced 
their willingness to become auxiliaries of the American Red 

July 27 — Sixty Dutch ships were refused export licenses by the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, most of them 
in the port of New York. 

July 30 — The first men to appear for examination as to fitness 
for service in the First National Army reported at Board 145, 
which met in the main building of the College of the City of 
New York. 



Aug. 7 — Number of persons in the city between 16 and 50 years 
of age registered in the State Military Census was 3,277,366. 
Number of male citizens between 18 and 45 years of age 
eligible for service in the State Militia was 798,005. Alien 
males between 16 and 50 was 443,545. 

Aug. 11 — Board of Appeals for drafted men met in the Federal 
Building and organized for work. 

Aug. 14 — The Twenty-third Infantry, formerly the 23rd N. G. 
S. N. Y., of Brooklyn, pitched their tents in Van Cortlandt 
Park preparatory to going to Camp Wadsworth, Spartan- 
burg, S. C. 

Aug. 15 — Elihu Root and his colleagues of the Special Mission to 
Russia were welcomed home by the city. 

Aug. 20— The 165th Infantry Regiment, formerly the "Fighting 
Sixty-ninth," N. G. S. N. Y., started for Camp Mills, Mineola. 

Aug. 21 — The Belgian Commission, headed by Baron Moncheur, 
was received in the Aldermanic Chamber by Mayor Mitchell 
and the chairman of the Committee of Welcome, Mr. Fred- 
eric R. Coudert. 

Aug. 23 — Baron Moncheur and members of the Belgian Mission 
reviewed the 7th Regiment on South Field, Central Park. 

Aug. 28 — President Wilson's reply to the Pope was published. 

Aug. 30 — Great parade of New York troops. The 27th Division 
of the United States Army, comprising 25,000 men, marched 
down Fifth Avenue from 110th Street to Washington Square. 
About 2,000,000 people crowded the sidewalks to bid them 

Sept. 1 — The city's army quota of 38,572 men was filled. 

Sept. 4 — National Army Day. Great parade of drafted men, 
about 20,000, marched down Fifth Avenue. In Brooklyn 
about 8,000 marched. 

Sept. 6— Lafayette Day. Exercises were held at Lafayette Monu- 
ment, Union Square. 

Sept. 7 — Soap box rioters were sent to prison. 

Sept. 10 — New York's first contingent for the National Army 
left for Camp Upton. 

Sept. 11 — The 7th Regiment paraded down Fifth Avenue on their 
way to Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S. C. 

Sept. 27 — The Imperial Japanese Commission arrived and were 
enthusiastically welcomed. Viscount Ishii headed the Com- 
mission. Two troops of Squadron A escorted the Commis- 
sion from the Battery to the City Hall, where they were 
received by the Mayor. 

Oct. 1— The Second Liberty Loan campaign opened. Soon after 
midnight church bells were rung in all parts of the city. 
The bonds salesmen marched from Wall Street to the City 
Hall, where a great assemblage was gathered. Mayor 
Mitchell, Allen B. Forbes and Mortimer L. Schiff made 

brief addresses. 



Oct. 4 — A great parade of the Red Cross War Nurses on Fifth 
Avenue. The most picturesque spectacle seen in New York 
during these war times. The paraders were all dressed in 
white, while occasional units wore the Red Cross navy blue 
coats with red lining. The War Council headed the proces- 
sion, with the chairman, H. P. Davison, leading. Fifth Ave- 
nue was ablaze with red crosses, and banners fluttered every- 
where. The flags of the Allies were conspicuous all along 
the route. 

Oct. 24 — The President proclaimed this day as Liberty Day, but 
on account of the weather it was postponed to the 25th. 
About 20,000 persons marched up Fifth Avenue from Wash- 
ington Square with flags and banners and various devices, 
many of them having strikingly clever and interesting mottos. 
Almost all trades were represented. The big British tank 
Britannia caterpillared all the way up to the Sheep Meadow 
in Central Park to the great amusement of the onlookers. 
The Liberty Loan Committee, comprising many business men 
of the city, among them Benjamin Strong, governor of the 
Federal Reserve Bank, J. P. Morgan, Jacob Schifif and other 
well-known men, marched in the procession. 

Oct. 27 — The Second Liberty Loan campaign ended with the 
city's quota of $900,000,000 greatly oversubscribed. The en- 
tire amount for the country, namely, $3,000,000,000, was also 
well oversubscribed. There were several large single sub- 
scriptions, the greatest being that of J. P. Morgan & Co. for 

Nov. 1 — The new War Taxes became effective for the first time. 

Nov. 3 — A statue to commemorate the victory of the Marne, to 
be presented to France, was decided upon by a committee of 
representative citizens, Thomas W. Lamont, chairman. Fred- 
eric MacMonnies was commissioned to do the work. 

Nov. 8 — Complete figures for the Second Liberty Loan were an- 
nounced as follows : The city subscribed $1,550,453,450 as 
against its quota of $900,000,000. Total for the country, 
$4,617,532,300, or $1,617,532,300 oversubscribed. Number of 
persons subscribing, 9,500,000. 

Nov. 8 — The Hamburg-American Line Building, 45 Broadway, 
was seized. 

Nov. 9 — Broadway lights were ordered to be out hereafter by 
11 P. M. 

Nov. 13 — Work on the Cathedral of St. John the Divine was 
stopped until the end of the war. 

Nov. 20 — The city's subscriptions to the Y. M. C. A. War Fund 
of $35,000,000 was $10,518,592. Total for the country, $49,- 
209,411. Amount asked, $35,000,000. 

Nov. 24 — Orders to place New York's piers under military guard 
were issued. 



Nov. 27 — Thanksgiving Day. Citizens welcomed men from the 
Army and Navy to their homes for Thanksgiving dinner. 
They were also feted in clubs, hotels, and restaurants. The 
entertaining of these men was general and most generous in 
every quarter of the city. 

Nov. 28— Enemy insurance companies were prohibited from doing 

Dec. 3 — ^Jewish War Relief Fund campaign for $5,000,000 opened. 

Dec. 5 — City papers published President Wilson's address to 
Congress calling for war with Austria. 

Dec. 7 — President Wilson signed the Resolution passed by Con- 
gress declaring that a state of war existed between the 
United States and Austria-Hungary. 

Dec. 10— First news received of the capture of Jerusalem by the 

Dec. 14 — Coal shortage becomes acute. 

Dec. 15 — New draft rules go into effect. 

Dec. 16 — The Red Cross campaign for 500,000 new members 

Dec. 30 — Coldest day on record — 13 below zero. All war activi- 
ties hampered and shipping suspended. 


Jan. 1 — The Bush Terminal Buildings in Brooklyn were requisi- 
tioned by the Government. 
Jan. 3 — Seventy-five schools were closed for lack of coal. 
Jan. 4 — War activities absorb labor so that railroads have to 

eliminate parlor cars. 
Jan. 6 — Passenger trains were cut one-fifth. 
Jan. 7 — Liberty Week was declared by labor organizations. 
Jan. 12 — Railroad traffic was completely tied up everywhere by a 

great blizzard and extreme cold, and all war activities were 

greatly hampered. 
Jan. 14 — Crippled railroad service and coal shortage compelled 

the Director General of Railroads to issue orders for the 

movement of food and coal to New York City to avert a 

threatened famine. 
Jan. 16 — The Fuel Administrator ordered the suspension of all 

businesses consuming coal for one week. Also that no fuel 

should be used on Mondays from Jan. 21st till March 25th — 

otherwise heatless Mondays. 
Jan. 21 — Only food and drug stores were open — no heat or light. 
Jan. 23 — Ships which were unable to sail on account of want of 

coal were supplied with sufficient to send them on their way 

at last. 
Jan. 22 — Not a theater or place of amusement was opened and 

Broadway was dark. 

[ 316 1 

Broadway below Trinity Church. Replacing of the old cable with 
the underground trolley. (1900.) 


Jan. 26 — All one-cent newspapers were advanced to two cents. 

Feb. 1 — Regional Director of Railroads Smith reported that 
"coal is still frozen in cars and heavy drift ice prevents 

Feb. 2 — Fifteen hundred soldiers' wives applied for work at the 
U. S. Employment Service office. 

Feb. 4 — The Merchants' Association asked the War Department 
for troops to guard ship construction plants. 

Feb. 5 — Parade of the 308th Infantry on Fifth Avenue. 

Feb. 16 — The Food Board appointed committees to promote the 
City Garden Movement for the increase of food. 

Feb. 2(>— The reorganization of the Home Defense League into 
regiments to assist the police was begun. 

Feb. 22 — Great parade of the city's Selective Draft soldiers on 

Fifth Avenue took place; 10,000 men were in the procession. 

The capture of Jericho by the British created great interest. 

March 1 — The Archbishop of York arrived in response to the 
invitation of the War Commission of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, seconded by Ambassador Page. 

March 9 — Fifty-seven restaurant men were punished for violat- 
ing meatless days. 

March 11 — Plans were made for another Red Cross Fund of 
$100,000,000 at a meeting in the library of J. P. Morgan, 33 
East Thirty-sixth Street. 

March 12 — The First Regular Naval Reserves from Pelham Bay 
marched down Fifth Avenue. 

March 18 — All Dutch vessels in New York harbor were comman- 

March 26 — The Catholic War Fund drive for the Knights of 
Columbus ended with over $4,000,000 contributed. 

March 27 — The German Club was seized by the government. 

March 28— $20,000 was raised at the Strand Theater by Miss 
Anne Morgan for the Committee on Rebuilding Devastated 

March 29 — All preparations were completed for floating the 
Third Liberty Loan. 

March 31 — Easter Sunday. The church throngs on Fifth Ave- 
nue were marked by simplicity in dress, and every third or 
fourth man was in uniform. 

April 6 — The Third Liberty Loan opened. New York City's 
quota, $667,125,300; New York Federal Reserve District, 

April 6— The anniversary of the declaration of war. The Presi- 
dent made his famous "force to the utmost" speech at Balti- 

April 11 — The Director General of Railroads took control of all 
coastwise steamship lines. 

April 16 — Charles M. Schwab was placed in full control of ship- 

[ 319] 


April 20 — First parade of the new State National Guard on 

Fifth Avenue, Gen. George R. Dyer, Commander. 
April 26 — Great "Win the War" parade on Fifth Avenue. Fifty 
mayors were in the procession besides Naval Reserves, Po- 
lice Divisions, Wall Street bankers, representative business 
men, employees of all industries and a great representation 
of the mothers of soldiers. 

April 30 — The "Blue Devils" of France — every one a wearer of 
the French War Cross — arrived and were received at the 
City Hall. 

May 6— The Salvation Army opened a campaign for $250,000 for 
war purposes. 

May 7 — President Wilson issued a proclamation appealing on be- 
half of the Red Cross Fund for $100,000,000, and fixing the 
week of May 20th as Red Cross Week. New York City's 
quota, $25,000,000. 

May 15 — First airplane mail service in the world was inaugurated 
between New York and Washington. 

May 18 — Red Cross Parade — the most dramatic spectacle ever 
witnessed in the city. President Wilson unexpectedly headed 
the procession and created immense enthusiasm. John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr., headed the bankers and brokers' division. 

May 18 — President Wilson made a stirring appeal for general 
support for the Red Cross War Fund at the Metropolitan 
Opera House. A great audience was inside the building and 
an enormous concourse of people kept moving about on the 
outside trying to get in. 

May 23 — The final figures for the Third Liberty Loan were given 
out. New York City subscribed $773,641,850 — oversubscribed 
$106,516,300. New York Federal Reserve District, $1,114,930,- 
700— oversubscribed $214,930,700. 

June 3 — The Herbert L. Pratt was sunk by a submarine. 

The American Red Cross Mercy Fund totaled $166,439,291. 
The city's quota was oversubscribed $8,455,764, totalling 

June 4 — The port of New York was closed to shipping by order 
of the government on account of submarines. 

June 14 — Flag Day was celebrated by local parades and meetings 
in school buildings. The Sons of the Revolution met on the 
steps of the Sub-Treasury Building and sang "The Star- 
Spangled Banner." A great throng of bankers and brokers 
took part and Wall Street was crowded. 

June 15 — The city's Income Tax was estimated to net $700,- 

June 21 — President Wilson proclaimed the day as National War 
Savings Day. New York's quota, $100,000,000. The whole 
country, $2,000,000,000. Noon-day rallies were held at the 
Public Lilarary Building, Fifth Avenue. 

[ 320 ] 


June 27 — Italian Festa was held on the terrace of the Public 
Library for the benefit of blinded soldiers. 

June 29— New York City troops — the 77th Division, trained by 
Maj.-Gen. J. Franklin Bell and commanded by Maj.-Gen. 
Evan Johnston took over a sector of the front in France — 
the first of the National Army to have this honor. 

The War Savings Stamp campaign ended with New York's 
quota of 2,000,000 regular weekly purchasers registered, as- 
suring the United States Treasury $1,000,000 weekly to the 
end of the year. 

July 4 — Independence Day was celebrated by a great parade of 
over 100,000 persons, comprising 42 nationalities. The city 
was gay with flags and bunting, and the streets thronged with 
enthusiastic crowds. The bells of old St. Paul's in London 
rang out simultaneously with those of old St. Paul's in New 
York. Seven countries officially named July 4 as a national 
festival for all time. President Wilson's speech at the Tomb 
of Washington was published in the afternoon and eagerly 
read by the people. 

July 5 — Lieut. Commander Bruce R. Ware, who fired the first 
shot of the war, April 19, 1917, was presented a bronze medal 
at the Yale Club by the American Defence Society. 

July 6 — ^John Purroy Mitchell, former mayor of the city, was 
killed by falling from his airplane at Gerstner's Field, Lake 
Charles, La. He was a major in the service of the United 

July 8 — Dr. Edward A. Rumely, publisher of the Evening Mail, 
was arrested. 

July 11 — The military funeral of former Mayor Mitchell took 
place. The cortege made its slow progress from the City 
Hall to St. Patrick's Cathedral, while flowers were dropped 
from airplanes all along the way. The body was taken to 
Woodlawn and buried with military honors. 

July 14 — Bastile Day was celebrated by a great meeting at Madi- 
son Square Garden, attended by representative men, and at 
the Statue of Joan of Arc, where the committee, headed by 
J. Sanford Saltus and George F. Kunz and a great concourse 
of people were addressed by the French Ambassador. 

July 14 — Lieut. Quentin Roosevelt was killed in action in an 

July 28 — The old 69th (now the 165th Infantry) were the first 
to cross the Ourcq River in the pursuit of the Germans in 
their precipitate retreat from the Marne. 

Aug. 3 — A number of brigadier generals were ordered back from 
France for the purpose of instructing new units of the U. S. 
Army. Among them was Brig.-Gen. Cornelius Vanderbilt. 

Aug. 4 — Remembrance Day — anniversary of Great Britain's en- 
trance into the war. It was generally observed by all na- 

[321 1 


Aug. 7 — Quentin Roosevelt's grave was found at the edge of a 
wood near Chamery, east of Fere-en-Tardenois. On a 
wooden cross at the head of the grave is this inscription: 
"Lieutenant Quentin Roosevelt, Buried by the Germans." 

Long lists of the heroes fallen in the Second Battle of the 
Marne were published, including New York and Brooklyn 

The day was the hottest in the history of the city — 102 
degrees in the shade. 

Growth and Work of the Municipal Art 

John Quincy Adams 

When the Art Commission was established by the first 
Greater New York Charter it was practically a new de- 
parture in municipal government in the United States. 
Although Connecticut had organized a State Capitol Com- 
mission, Boston had made provision for an Art Com- 
mission in 1890, and Baltimore in 1895, these last two 
were only in the experimental stage, not yet having been 
accepted as integral parts of the city government. Con- 
sequently, there was no data by which to judge of the 
effect and efficiency of such a body. True, there were 
the examples of nearly all large European cities which 
had departments to pass on the artistic quality of designs 
of monuments and buildings. For years they had con- 
sidered such a department as a necessary branch of gov- 
ernment and upon the recommendation largely of Mr. 
John M. Carrere the present Commission was established. 
During the first four years the Art Commission had 
very little regular work. 

While to-day its work is esteemed not only in our own 
city but highly appreciated throughout the country, in its 
early years it was regarded with distrust. The general 

I 322 ] 



iii # 



N^m i|ampBl|tr? 1B45 

One of the early Liverpool packets, 
contemporaneous with the Black Ball 
and other lines (1830-50). A beauti- 
ful ship and for a long time one of 
the noted square rigged beauties of 
South Street. She belonged to a line 
whose ships were all named after the 

Afterwards in the California and 
Australian trade. Her sister ship, the 
Louisiana, commanded by Capt. Icha- 
bod Sherman, is well remembered. 


public supposed it to be composed of men with their 
heads in the clouds, far removed from practical affairs. 
The press usually referred to it in a gay and light-hearted 
manner as "The Beauty Commission." A prominent 
city officer recently said, in speaking of the value of its 
work and of the position it now holds: "Why, in the 
beginning the Art Commission was looked upon as a 
joke." Being an innovation in municipal government, 
without precedents, supposedly composed of impractical 
dilettante, it was naturally expected to set up ideal and 
impossible standards and to be exacting on unimportant 
details. The small number of matters which came be- 
fore it during these years was not sufficient evidence to 
change preconceived notions as to its character. Al- 
though the Commission had but little work, was without 
any clerical staff, and had only peripatetic meeting places, 
nevertheless it cheerfully accepted its full responsibilities 
and conscientiously performed the duties imposed upon it 
by the City Charter. This charter, in constituting the 
Commission, provided that when a structure is under the 
special jurisdiction of a commissioner or a department of 
the City, such commissioner or head of department shall 
be a member of the Art Commission during the consider- 
ation of the designs. 

This provision was an important factor in establishing 
confidence in the Commission among City officers. Be- 
ginning in 1902, when it was settled in offices in the City 
Hall, and the Mayor began to request it to pass on the de- 
signs for many public structures, opportunities were con- 
tinually offered for heads of departments to attend the 
meetings of the Commission, and they availed themselves 
of these occasions in constantly increasing numbers. 
These meetings together soon made it plain to City officers 

[ 327 ] 


that the Art Commission was not an obstructionist. It 
was evident that it did not expect nor attempt to secure 
masterpieces and that its requirements were not based 
solely on ideal and artistic qualities, but that it always 
took into account the practical questions involved. More- 
over, it was soon seen that what the Commission did ac- 
complish was to prevent the erection of the ugly and un- 
suitable, and in each case to secure the best possible struc- 
ture under the circumstances. Even when their designs 
were disapproved, they perceived that it was not an arbi- 
trary and perfunctory judgment, but that good reasons 
were given for the adverse decision. Moreover, it was 
a pleasant surprise for them to find that for utilitarian 
structures the simple, dignified and well-proportioned 
buildings desired by the Commission not only were more 
attractive, but cost less than they would have if built ac- 
cording to the more ornate designs at first proposed. Con- 
sequently, the aim of the City officers responsible for the 
buildings and of the Art Commission was the same, 
which was to get the best possible for the funds avail- 
able. In all of this work heads of departments soon 
learned that they could always depend upon a cordial 
spirit of cooperation from the Commission. Perhaps the 
best testimonial to the discretion and wisdom shown in 
the exercise of its powers was an amendment to the 
Charter, which went into effect on January 1, 1902, ex- 
tending the jurisdiction of the Commission to the de- 
signs of all structures which were to cost one million 
dollars or more. Additional evidence of the growing con- 
fidence in the value of the Art Commission's work was 
shown by the Mayor, who requested the Commission to 
pass upon the designs of no less than 36 structures during 
the year 1902. 

[ 328 ] 


While the Commission passed upon only 5 matters in 
1901, in 1902 the number rose to 64, so that in the fifth 
year the number of matters was nearly three times as 
many as had been submitted during the first four years, 
the aggregate of which was only twenty-three. 

During the year 1903 the Commission passed upon 117 
matters submitted to it — nearly double the number of the 
previous year. The number of submissions continued to 
increase yearly. 

An amendment to the Charter, which went into effect 
in July, 1907, extended the mandatory jurisdiction of the 
Art Commission to the designs and locations of all struc- 
tures, public or private, which were to be built over or 
upon land belonging to the City, except that in case of 
any such structure which shall hereafter be erected or 
contracted for at a total expense not exceeding $250,000 
the approval of said Commission shall not be required, 
if the Mayor or Board of Aldermen shall request said 
Commission not to act.* This was in no sense an aca- 
demic innovation, as it merely embodied a common prac- 
tice into law. For it has become an established custom 
for the Mayor to request the Art Commission to pass 
upon the designs for nearly all public structures. 

The number of submissions does not tell the whole 
story of the growth of the Commission's work. Experi- 
ence led to many improvements in procedure, which were 
all in the direction of greater thoroughness and a more 
cordial cooperation with the various City departments. 

For more than 100 years there had gradually been 
assembled in the public buildings, on the streets, and in 
the parks many works of art, consisting of portraits, mural 

* Only one such request has ever been made. 
[ 329 ] 


decorations, monuments, statues, fountains and tablets. 
In all, there were about 400 of these. Important as this 
collection had been, no attempt had ever been made to 
keep or prepare an authentic record of them. Portraits 
were acquired by the City by purchase or gift and hung 
in public offices ; statues and monuments were dedicated, 
but records of such acquisitions were only to be found 
scattered through the public documents of the past 120 

Lists of the portraits and monuments in the City's col- 
lection had appeared from time to time as a page or two 
in some guide or manual. In recent years similar lists of 
the sculpture had been given in some of the almanacs 
issued by newspapers. 

When this investigation was begun very little was 
known concerning the one hundred and seventy-five por- 
traits, and nothing was known concerning the monuments, 
except the information contained in the inscriptions, and 
these in many cases were lacking. In order to establish 
the time and method of acquisition, the year painted, and 
name of the artist, a thorough search was made through 
the proceedings of the Common Councils of New York 
and Brooklyn, which was corroborated and supplemented 
by an examination of the books in the office of the Comp- 
troller. To procure the biographical data concerning the 
subjects and artists, every available source of information 
was made use of, such as descendants, wills, and letters of 
administration, newspaper files, genealogies, and biograph- 
ical dictionaries almost without number. As much time 
was devoted to the investigation as could be spared from 
the regular work of the Commission, so that this catalogue 
is the culmination of several years work. The catalogue 
for the Borough of Manhattan was published in 1904, 

[ 330 ] 

An old Fire Tower in Mt. Morris Park. One of the last relics 
of Volunteer Firemen days. 


and a similar list for the Borough of Brooklyn was pub- 
lished in 1905. 

In the year 1902 the Commission began also to as- 
semble a reference library, primarily for the use of its 
members, but also for the use of the public. Naturally, 
this library is limited in the scope of the subjects, dealing 
mostly with art, artists, architecture, sculpture, city plan- 
ning and history of New York City. It now consists of 
about 1,000 volumes. 

The Commission also has collected and has on file in 
its office one thousand photographs of views, in American 
and foreign cities, dealing chiefly with civic improvement. 

In 1913 the Commission engaged an expert to photo- 
graph fifty Colonial buildings still standing in the vari- 
ous boroughs of New York City. These photographs are 
on file in the Art Commission library and have been fre- 
quently consulted by architects and others. 

This brief account of the development of the Art Com- 
mission would not be complete without a paragraph on its 
effect on the Art Commission movement. Its success has 
influenced many other cities to establish similar depart- 
ments, many of them using the New York City Charter 
provision as a model, and often copying its language ver- 
batim. Members of legislatures and public-spirited citi- 
zens, in advocating a bill for this purpose, have pointed to 
the achievements of the New York Art Commission as 
one of their chief arguments. After a new commission 
has been established, it has used our experience in meth- 
ods of procedure as a guide for conducting its business. 
As may be readily surmised, the Art Commission's office 
has been a bureau of information for cities desiring to 
exercise control over public art and architecture. In or- 
der to further assist such cities, in May, 1913, upon the 

[ 333 ] 


invitation of the Art Commission of the City of New 
York, members of nine city, two state, one national art 
commission and delegates from seven cities met for a 
conference in New York. Before the close of this meet- 
ing a representative committee was appointed to draft 
model laws for cities of different classes and also for 
States. This report was printed by the New York Art 
Commission and has been in great demand. 

The Museum of the American Indian — Hey^ 

This recently established museum has become one of 
the most important institutions of research in American 
ethnology and archaeology on the continent, and is of par- 
ticular interest to the people of the Latin- American repub- 
Hcs because its interests and activities are confined ex- 
clusively to the aborigines of the two Americas. The 
Museum had its inception about fifteen years ago, when 
its founder, Mr. George G. Heye, of New York City, 
first reaHzed the importance of gathering objects illus- 
trating every phase of the life of the American Indian. 
It was not until 1916, however, that the Museum was 
definitely organized under a board of trustees, with Mr. 
Heye as chairman and director. About this time a gift 
of land by Mr. Archer M. Huntington, founder of the 
Hispanic Society, made possible the erection of a build- 
ing which forms one of the harmonious and beautiful 
group of structures occupied in addition by the Hispanic 
Society, the American Geographical Society, and the 
American Numismatic Society, besides a Spanish church. 

The collections in this Museum, notwithstanding the 
brief period of its existence, number nearly a million ob- 



jects illustrative of the arts, customs, religions, and cere- 
monies of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas from 
the Arctic shores to Patagonia. Many of the objects 
have been gathered from obscure and unexpected places, 
including Europe, where they have been sent many 
years ago; others have been collected from the Indians 
themselves after many difficulties, for Indians are usually 
averse to parting with sacred objects that seem to form 
a part of their very lives. The advent of civilization 
throughout the North American continent long ago re- 
sulted in the replacement of many aboriginal artifacts 
with objects of trade, and in numerous instances wars 
with the Indian tribes in former times caused the de- 
struction of thousands of specimens that can never be 

The Museum realizes the importance of its task of 
gathering the material illustrative of the life of one of 
the great races of man before it is too late. Not alone 
have its endeavors been directed toward the preservation 
of the comparatively modern things, for these relate only 
a part of the story of the Indian ; but it has done much 
toward archaeological research in North America, Central 
America, South America and the West Indies. Com- 
mencing in 1904, expeditions were sent to Porto Rico, 
Mexico, Panama, and Costa Rica, and two years later the 
first systematic scientific work of the Museum was initi- 
ated in South America by Professor Marshall H. Saville, 
of Columbia University, New York, the object of which 
was an exhaustive survey of a portion of the Andean and 
coast regions beginning with the southernmost limits of 
Ecuador and extending northward to the Isthmus of 
Panama, and ultimately to include the northern and north- 
eastern portion of the continent as well as the West 

[ 335 ] 


Indies. Altogether, six expeditions have been sent to 
the Ecuadorian and Colombian fields, the expedition of 
1910 being assisted by Seiior Dr. Manuel Gamio, now 
inspector of Ancient Monuments in Mexico. While 
these archaeological researches were being conducted, eth- 
nological investigations were not neglected, for in IPOS- 
OP Dr. S. A. Barrett was commissioned to study the 
habits, customs, and language of the Cayapa Indians, an 
Ecuadorian coast tribe which still retains its aboriginal 
traits in marked degree. Some of the results of Pro- 
fessor Saville's investigations are embodied in two illus- 
trated quarto volumes of "Contributions," and the ethno- 
logical material gathered by Dr. Barrett is ready for 

While archaeological researches were in progress in 
northwestern South America, similar investigations were 
conducted in Venezuela and the West Indies, almost every 
island inhabited in early times being visited for the pur- 
pose of locating and mapping sites of occupancy, and of 
gathering collections. Excavations of equal, if not of 
greater, importance have been conducted also in many 
parts of the United States, as well as in Central America, 
notably in British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, and 
Costa Rica, so that the collections in the Museum are 
already adequately representative of numerous American 
aboriginal culture areas. Notably among the collections 
from Costa Rica is one of several thousand specimens of 
ancient earthenware vessels presented by Mr. Minor C. 
Keith. In its work in Central America, as well as in Ven- 
ezuela, the Museum has had the fortunate cooperation of 
the president of those republics. 

In addition to the researches in Ecuador, Colombia, 
and Venezuela, archaeological work has been done also 

[ 336 ] 


in Peru and Chile, but thus far this has been of limited 
extent. As time goes on, however, it is expected that 
the Museum will extend its operations in these as well as 
in other fields of scientific promise in South America, in 
order that its collections may illustrate every distinctive 
Indian culture throughout the Western Hemisphere. 

John Purroy Mitchell 

Death on the field of honor came to our young ex- 
Mayor a few short months after leaving his high office 
as Chief Magistrate of New York. The following partial 
account of his funeral is taken from the New York Sun: 

Perhaps it were worth dying to gain in death such 
honor as New York paid yesterday to the body of John 
Purroy Mitchell, for his was probably the greatest funeral 
ever given to an American citizen. 

Nothing is or ever can be so impressive as the perfect 
silence of a great mass of human beings, for it is an ex- 
pression which sounds higher than the rolling of drums 
or the crying of bugles. In Fifth Avenue, a little after 
10 o'clock, on the morning of Thursday, July 11th, 
when the black-draped gun caisson, drawn by eight black- 
draped horses and bearing the coffin so significantly out- 
lined by the folds of the Stars and Stripes, rolled slowly 
and heavily between the masses banked from curb to wall 
and extending for half a block back into the side streets, 
there was silence extraordinary. Not even the figure of 
men nationally or even internationally distinguished could 
divert the reverence of these people. Once, far down- 
town, when Colonel Theodore Roosevelt passed among 
the honorary pallbearers, something like a cheer and a 
stir of handclapping was heard, but it needed not the 

[ 339 ] 


Colonel's reproving glance to silence the thoughtless ones. 
They were thrust back into their crowd, submerged by 
swift indignation. 

This bearing, this attitude, was obvious to the most 
casual observer from the hour that City Hall Park began 
to fill with those having the opportunity to view the de- 
parture of Major Mitchell's body from the City Hall and 
the ceremonies attendant thereupon. 

It was 1 :30 when the funeral party grouped about the 
grave and the eight soldier pallbearers lifted the heavy 
casket and bore it to the edge. 

The Rev. Father Terence S. Shealy, Father J. H. Smith 
of St. Francis Xavier's, and Father Thomas White sprin- 
kled holy water over the casket, the flag and the dead 
Major's service cap were removed, the Catholic burial 
service was intoned by the priests, and at 1 :47 the body 
was lowered into the grave. 

Mrs. John Purroy Mitchell, supported by the Rev. John 
Mitchel Page, and Mrs. James Mitchell, the mother, on 
the arm of Justice George V. Mullan, stood near the head 
of the grave, other relatives and friends behind them and 
at their side. 

As the last Latin phrase was sounded by the officiating 
priest a detail of seventeen soldiers from Company B, 
Twenty-second Infantry, commanded by Lieut. W. T. 
French, who had been standing at attention, responded 
with automatic precision to the quiet commands of their 
officer : 

"Load !" 
"Ready !" 

[ 340 ] 


The volley rang out, disturbing the echoes of the Bronx 
River Valley, and then came a second and a third volley. 

"Unload. Attention !" was the next command, and 
Bugler James O. Painter, of Company B, Twenty-second 
Infantry, walked to the edge of the flower-covered grave. 

Two airplanes had been circling over the gathering, and 
as Painter sounded "Taps" the burial service for John 
Purroy Mitchell came to an end. 

Old Time Marriage and Death Notices 

Compiled by A. J. Wall 

Assistant Librarian of The New York Historical Society 
The following list of the marriage and death notices 
which appeared in The Weekly Museum from January 
6th to May 5th, 1798 inclusive, is a continuation from 
page 314 of the previous Manual. They were copied from 
the file in The New York Historical Society which is 
complete covering this period : 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. Dunlap James and Mrs. Mauricia Rodman, 
widow of the late John Rodman of Flushing, L. I., both of this city, 
married some time since. 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. Jacob Rozeo and Lucy Homes, both of Staten 
Island, married at Staten Island. 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. John Beatty and Betsey Lake, married at 
Staten Island. 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. Justice Hall, of this city, and Lydia Orcutt, 
of Boston, married . 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. Eden Haydock, merchant of this city, and 
Margaret Shotwell, daughter of John Shotwell, merchant, of Bridge- 
ton, N. J., married Thursday the 28th. 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. William Thomson and Jane Warner, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 6. David Lyons, of Fairfield, and Hanah War- 
sin, of Stamford, married Sunday last. 

179g — Saturday, January 13. Rear Admiral Murray, formerly commander 
of the British squadron on the Halifax Station. Died lately in 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Benjamin Holmes, died Monday, the Ist, 
inst., in this city. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Mary Henshaw, late of this city. Died 
Friday last week, at her house in New Rochelle, in her 48th year. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Jane Houseal, wife of Michael Houseal, 
Captain in his Britannic Majesty's service, died on Saturday last 
at Bedford, L, I., in the 24th year of her age. 

[341 ] 


1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Van Pelt, died on Sunday last in 
her 70th year. This is the unfortunate lady who was run over in 
Vesey Street, on the 24th ult. through the carelessness of M. Gerard's 

179g — Saturday, January 13. Solomon Hewett and Patty Eams, married 
at Norwich, Conn., after a short, and, it is expected, agreeable, 
courtship of 22 years. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Captain Thompson Baxter, of Quincy, aged 
66 years, and Ann Whitman, of Bridgewater, aged 37, married at 
Bridgewater on the 16th. After a long and tedious courtship of 28 
years, which they both have borne with uncommon Christian forti- 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. John Cruger, son of Henry Cruger, and 
Patty Ramsay, daughter of John Ramsay, of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Col. Samuel Green, editor of Connecticut 
Gazette, and Sally Pool, daughter of Thomas Pool, of this city, 
married Thursday, the 4th, at New London. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Jesse Hunt and Lydia Hallett, both of this 
city, married Monday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Peter Townsend and Alice Cornell, both 
of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 13. Capt. John King, of England, and Mary 
Doughty, daughter of Charles Doughty of Flushing, married Thurs- 
day last at the Friends' Meeting House, Flushing. 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. John Young, author of several pieces against 
the Christian Religion," died Sunday, December 17th, at Concord, 
N. H. 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Benjamin Townsend. Died in the city of 
Hartford, aged 62. 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Thomas H. Smith and Margaret Master- 
ton, both of this city, married Sunday, the 7th. 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Amasa Jackson, of this city, and Mary 
Phelps, daughter of Hon. Oliver Phelps, married Wednesday, the 
10th, at Suffield, Conn. 

1798 — Saturday, Januarv 20. Francis Titus and Ruth Crooker, daughter 
of William Crooker, both of Wheatly, L. I., married Friday, the 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Nicholas Brower, of Fishkill, and Ruth 
Prince, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Henry Jager and Jane Van Gelder, both of 
this city, married Saturday last. 

1798 — Saturday. January 20. Nicholas Schweighauser, merchant, of this 
city, and Madame Dumyrat, late of Bourdeaux, married Monday 

1798 — Saturday, January 20. Eliakim Raymond and Pamela Ketchom, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. Hanjoost, an Indian warrior, died at Al- 
bany, Sunday, the 14th. This Chief distinguished himself as a 
volunteer, under General Gansevoort, during the siege of Fort Stan- 

1798 — Saturday. January 27. Mrs. Lucetta Graham, wife of Dr. C. Gra- 
ham of this city, died on Monday, the 15th, at Newark. 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. Hon. Lewis Morris, Major General of the 
Southern Division of the State, died Monday last at his seat at 
Morrissania in his 72d year. Interred in the family vault at Mor- 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. Capt. Henry King and Polly Jerry, both of 
Oyster Ponds, L. I., married Sunday, the 14th, at the Oyster Ponds. 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. David L. Haight and Ann Kip, both of 
this city, married Saturday last. 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. Uriah Swain, of Nantucket, and Maky 
Haswell, of this city, married Saturday last. 


f""" *|i 


1798 — Saturday, January 27. Capt. Oliver Smith, of the schooner Eglan- 
tine, and Patty Uanmer, of Wethersfield, Conn., married Wednesday 

1798 — Saturday, January 27. William Robertson, Esq., of Canada, and 

Miss Brookes, daughter of the late Captain Brookes, in the British 

service, married Thursday. 
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Smith Van De Water and Nancy Sharp, 

daughter of Jacob Sharp, both of that place, married Thursday last 

at Brooklyn. 
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Jacob Duryee and Fanny Sutphen, both of 

Bushwick, married Thursday last at Bushwick. 
1798 — Saturday, February 3. G. O. Lansing and Catlina Schermerhorn, 

both of Schodack, married Saturday, the 20th. 
1798 — Saturday, February 3. Robert Bulliod, printer, and Jane Kip, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 3. William Minaugh and Maria Radan, both 

of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Julia Wadsworth Knox, second daughter 

to General Knox. Died at Boston in her 14th year. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Miss Meriam Combes, died Sunday, the 

28th, aged 23 years 6 months. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Elsie Dunscomb, an old and respect- 
able inhabitant, died on Monday, the 29th. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Abraham Ogden, Attorney for the United 

States for the district of New Jersey, died Thursday, the 1st, in his 

55th year. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Jane Ustick, died Thursday, the 1st, 

aged 65 years. 
1798 — Saturday, March 24. John Leary, Jr., died Monday, the 12th, at 

his house, near the five-mile stone in the 7th Ward of this city. 
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Nicholas Bayard, died Saturday last m the 

63rd year of his age. 
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Capt. Thomas Roach, wine merchant, died 

Saturday last, aged 67 years. 
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Lewis A. Scott, Secretary of State, died 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. George Garland, died Monday, aged 63 years. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Obadiah Brown, merchant, of Providence, and 
Dorcas Hadwen, married at the Friends Meeting-House in Newport. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Ebenezer Briggs and Polly Hunt, both of 
this city, married some time since. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Barlow Rowe, of Canaan, and Abigail Ben- 
nett, of Stockbridge, Mass., married Thursday, the 15th. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Dr. Zeiss and Mrs. M'Gill, both of this city, 
married Thursday, the 22d. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Richard Ward and Deborah Briggs, of West- 
chester, married Tuesday, the 6th, at Westchester. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Daniel Hull and Deborah Brown, both of 
Mendham, N. J., married Thursday, the 8th, at Mendham, N. J. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Capt. John Gray and Mary Chapman, mar- 
ried Sunday, the 11th, at Boston. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Richard Slack, of this city, and Catharine 
Conway, of Woodbridge, married Thursday, the 15th. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. William Smith, of Rhode Island, and Ann 
Kennedy, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Dr. Ebenezer Graham and Mrs. Graham, of 
Greenwich, Conn., married Sunday, at West-Chester. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Eldad Porter and Urana Abanather, both of 
this city, married Sunday last. 

1798 — Saturday, March 31. Mrs. Charles M'Carty, died Friday, the 23d. 

1798 — Saturday, March 31. Capt. John Stakes, died Saturday, a brave 
and gallant officer in the late American Army. 

1798 — Saturday, March 31. James H. Hurtin, merchant, and Cornelia 
Paine, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

[ 345 ] 


1798 — Saturday, March 31. William Richardson and Miss Bardin, 

daughter of Edward Bardin, of Beaver Hill, married Saturday last 

at Beaver Pond. 
1798 — Saturday, March 31. John Matheson and Mrs. Catharine Gray, 

married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 31. Robert Stew^art and Abigail Crane, both of 

this city, married last evening. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Josiah Frost and Abby Jones, both of Orange, 

N. J., married Sunday, the 2Sth. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Capt. Ebenezer Tuttle, of Mount Pleasant, and 

Mrs. Wbrts, widow of John Wurts, married Tuesday, the 27th. 
1798 — Saturday April 7. James Grieg and Maria Margaret Catharine 

Heaford, both of this city, married Tuesday, the 27th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Noah Beach, of Hanover, and Elizabeth 

LiNDSLY, of Orange, married Tuesday, the 27th, at Newark. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. David Bowers, of North Farms, and Comfort 

Sayres, of Orange, married Tuesday, the 27th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Hon. Peter Brown, of this city, and Perthenea 

Dusenbury, married Tuesday, the 27th, at Harrisontown. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abraham Purdy and Rebecca Cronk, married 

Thursday, the 29th, at Mount Pleasant. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. VVaterhouse, of Colchester, and Mrs. Lois 

Woodbridge, of Lyme, married Thursday, the 29th, at Lyme. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. James Campbell and Rebecca Crane, both of 

Newark, N. J., married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abraham Duryee and Abigail Glean, both of 

this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. John Raper and Catharine Fink, both of this 

city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. George Minuse and Maria Craig, both of this 

city, married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. Daniel D. Waters and Abigail Allen, both 

of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. William Hamersley, of this city, and Eliz- 
abeth Depuyster, of Jamaica, l^. L, married Wednesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abel Clarkson, of Woodbridge, and Sally 

Langstaff, married at Piscataway, N. J. 
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Rev. John Clarke, D.D., died at Boston, Mon- 
day, the 2d. Minister of the First Congregational Church. 
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Mrs. Benjamin Gatfield, died Monday last in 

this city. 
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Mrs. Jane Mott, died Wednesday, at Brooklyn. 
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Joshua Smith, Jr., and Deborah Smith, both 

of Smithtown, L. I., married Wednesday, the 4th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Don Carlos Martinez D'Yrujo and Maria 

Theresa Sarah M'Kean, daughter of Hon. Thomas M'Kean, married 

Tuesday last at Philadelphia in the Domicil of the Minister of Por- 
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Peter Sharpe, of Brooklyn, and Christina 

NosTRAND, daughter of the late John Nostrand, of Cripple Bush, 

married Thursday, the 12th, at Cripple Bush. 
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Ephriam T. Silver, merchant, and Eliza 

Rogers, both of Allentown, N. J., married Thursday, the 12th inst. 
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Mrs. Ann Sands, wife of Capt. Philip Sands, of 

this city, died Sunday last, in her 21st year. 
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Maria Robinson, daughter of Colonel Robinson, 

died Tuesday last at Shawangunk, Ulster County. 
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Josiah Furman, died Thursday last, aged 43. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Commodore H. Mowat, died Saturday, the 14th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Capt. Elisha Durfee, died Monday, the 16th, 

at Freetown, Mass., aged 77 years and 5 months. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mrs. Cornelia Dennis, died Wednesday, the 

18th, at New-Brunswick, N. J., aged 31 years, wife of John Dennis, 

merchant, of that place. 

[ 346] 


1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mrs. Mary Peckwell, died Sunday last in this 

city, aged 67. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Richard M. Malcom, of this city, and Ann 

Henry, of Princeton, married Saturday, the 14th, at Princeton. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mr. Paterson, of this city, and Louisa De 

Hart, of Ehzabethtown, married Wednesday, the 18th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Charles Stewart and Maria Davis, both of 

this city, married Wednesday, the 18th. 
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Jacob Simonton and Ann Harrison, both of 

this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, May 5. John Robertson, of this city, and Eliza Haugh- 

TON, married at Falmouth (Jam.) on March 18th. 
1798 — Saturday, Mav 5. Garret B. Van Nest, of Redhood, and Sarah 

Tappen, daughter of the late Peter Tappen, of Poughkeepsie, mar- 
ried Wednesday, the 18th, at Poughkeepsie. 
1798 — Saturday, May S. George Shimeall and Ann Fleeming, both of 

this city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, May 5. James Davison and Ann Cox, daughter of 

Nicholas Cox, all of this city, married Monday last. 
1798 — Saturday, May 5. John H. Remsen and Maria Brinckerhoff, 

both of this city, married Wednesday. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Braine, mother of Capt. H. Braine, 

of the ship Fanny of this port, died Sunday, in an advanced age. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Madame Dessources, consort of Col. Des- 

sources, of St Domingo, died Monday last, aged 26 years. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Thomas Fairfax and Louisa Washington, 

married at Fairfield. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Jacob Hays and Catharine Conry, both of 

this city, married Sunday, the 14th. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Israel Horsefield, of North Hempstead, 

and Deborah Tovv^nsend, daughter of the Hon. Richard Townsend, 

of Cedar Swamp, married Wednesday, the 24th, at Long Island. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Joshua Cock, merchant, of this city, and 

Mary Ann Townsend, daughter of Henry Townsend, of New Corn- 
wall, married Monday, the 29th, at New Cornwall. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. John Morrison and Ruth Borrel, both of 

this city, married Thursday, the 1st. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Thomas M'Carty and Polly Peltrow, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James C. Wilkinson and Patience Barns, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James I. Margarum and Rebecca Thomp- 
son, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Peter Strong and Jane Falling, both of 

this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James Fereshe and Deborah Mead, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. John Darley, of this city, died at Boston. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Mrs. Joseph Backhouse, died lately near 

Ribton Hall, Cumberland, England, aged 86. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. John Ackerman and Elizabeth Peluse, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Edward Meeks, Jr., and Hetty Gomez, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. William Sands, formerly of Boston, and 

Margaret Garrison, of this city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Robert Barnes and Nancy Willis, both of 

this city, married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 17. William Ferguson and Elizabeth Oliver, 

both of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. William Frederick; died in the City of 

Berlin, the capital of Prussia, His Royal Highness , King of 

Prussia and Elector of Brandenburgh, aged 53 years. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. G. Hunter, merchant, died at Alexandria, 


[347 1 


1798 — Saturday, February 24. Mrs. Rachel M'Laughlin, consort of 

Edward M'Laughlin and daughter of the Rev. Amzi Lewis, died 

Sunday, the Uth, at N. Stanford, Conn., aged 19 years. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Mrs. Mary Fox, consort of John Fox, col- 
lector of the Sixth Ward of this city, aged 34 years, died Thursday 

1798 — Saturday, February 24. Francis De Pau and Sylvia De Grasse, 

daughter of the late Count de Grasse, married at Charleston, S. C, 

on Tuesday, the 23d. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. William Isaacs, of this city, and Polly 

Riley, of Goshen, Conn., married at Goshen, Conn. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Col. Theodorus Baily and Rebecca Tal- 

MADGE, daughter of Col. James Talmadge, of this city, married at 

Poughkeepsie, Thursday, the 15th. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Dr. John Nelson, of New Brunswick, 

N. J., and Abigail Bleeker, daughter of Anthony L. Bleeker, of 

this city, married Monday last. 
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Daniel Tompkins, of Westchester County, 

and Hannah Minthorne, daughter of Mangle Minthorne, of this 

city, married Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Capt. Jonathan Malthie, commander of the 

Revenue Cutter of that District, died at Fairfield, Conn. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. John Patterson, of Lansingburgh, formerly an 

officer in the British Army, died at Philadelphia in the 57th year. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mary Arden, eldest daughter of James Arden, 

merchant, died Wednesday, the 21st, in this city. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Charlotte B. Childs, wife of John 

Childs, printer, died Friday, the 23d, in her 19th year. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Mary Watson, wife of Samuel Watson, 

merchant, died Tuesday last, aged 17 years. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Hannah Shelmerdine, wife of John 

Shelmerdine, hatter, died Tuesday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3 (contradicted March 10). Benjamin Bates 

Smith and Sally Van Zandt, daughter of Peter P. Van Zandt, all 

of this city, married Sunday, the 18th. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Samuel Pennington and Sally Hays, youngest 

daughter of Major Samuel Hays, of Newark, married Sunday, the 

18th, at Newark [N. J.]. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. John Buel, printer, of this city, and Catharine 

Carpenter, of Brooklyn, L. I., married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Ebenezer Doughty and Rachel French, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Samuel Corp and Ann Cramond, both of this 

city, married Monday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. John Wilks, died in the City of London, 

aged 71 years. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Mrs. Jane Nichols, consort of Walter Nichols, 

died Thursday, the 1st, in this city, in the 50th year of her age. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Mrs. Maria Scriba, wife of George Scriba, 

of this city, died Sunday last. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Amos Munson and Hannah Humbert, both 

of this city, married Tuesday, the 27th. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Isaac Dodd and Mrs. Jane Smith, both of 

Bloomfield, N. J., married Thursday, the 1st. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. John Haydock, Jr., and Mary Wright, both 

of Bridgetown, N. J., married Thursday 1st. 
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Samuel Gedney, merchant, and Nelly Peters, 

daughter of Harry Peters, merchant, of this city, married Saturday 

1798 — Saturday, March 10. Thomas Ten Eyck, of this city, and Mar- 
garet De Peyster, daughter of Nicholas De Peyster, married Tues- 
day last at Bloomingdale. 
1798 — Saturday, March 17. Merritt Brown, of this city, and Hannah 

Pine, of Kingstreet, Conn., married Sunday, the 4th, at Kingstreet, 


[ 348 ] 

'^ r s- 

, \ 


®I|f (Etialbttg? 1851 

A famous China Tea ship owned by 
N. L. & G. Griswold, built by Webb, 
N. Y. Commanded by Capt. Water- 
man, another of the famous sailors 
and a man of remarkable ability. She 
later engaged in the California trade 
and made her voyages around 108 

Capt. Waterman was one of the 
most remarkable captains of his day. 
He retired and founded the town of 
Fairfield in California where he died 
in 1884. 

The Challenge was a beautiful ship 
and enjoyed a great reputation and 
brought much profit to hv-r owners. 


1798 — Saturday, March 17. Dr. Nicholas S. Bayard and Ann Livingston 
Bayard, daughter of Nicholas Bayard, all of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1798 — Saturday, March 24. Philip Van Rensselaer, died Saturday, the 
3rd inst., at his seat at Cherry Hill, near Albany. 

The Old Mayors of New York 

With this issue we begin the pubHcation of all the 
Mayors of our city, taken from the portraits now in the 
City Hall, beginning in 1784 with Duane, Varick, Living- 
ston and Clinton, This does not include the Dutch or 
Colonial periods, which will be considered at a later 
time. The full list of American Mayors is as follows : 

Mayors Terms 

James Duane 1784-1789 

Richard Varick 1789-1801 

Edward Livingston 1801-1803 

De Witt Clinton 1803-1807 

Marinus Willett 1807-1808 

De Witt Clinton 1808-1810 

Jacob Radcliff 1810-1811 

De Witt Clinton 1811-1815 

John Ferguson 1815 

Jacob Radcliff 1815-1818 

Cadwallader D. Golden. 1818-1821 

Stephen Allen 1821-1824 

William Paulding 1825-1826 

Philip Hone 1826-1827 

William Paulding 1827-1829 

Walter Bowne 1829-1833 

Gideon Lee 1833-1834 

Cornelius W. Lawrence. 1834-1837 

Aaron Clark 1837-1839 

Isaac L. Varian 1839-1841 

Robert H. Morris 1841-1844 

James Harper 1844-1845 

Wm. F. Havemeyer. ..1845-1846 

Andrew H. Mickle 1846-1847 

William V. Brady 1847-1848 

Wm. F. Havemeyer 1848-1849 

Caleb S. WoodhuU 1849-1851 

Ambrose C. Kingsland. 1851-1853 

Mayors Terms 

Jacob A. Westervelt... 1853-1855 

Fernando Wood 1855-1858 

Daniel F. Tiemann 1858-1860 

Fernando Wood 1860-1862 

George Opdyke 1862-1864 

C. Godfrey Gunther. ..1864-1866 

John T. Hoffman 1866-1868 

T. Coman (act'g Mayor) 1868 

A. Oakey Hall 1869-1872 

Wm. F. Havemeyer 1873-1874 

S. B. H. Vance (Acting) 1874 
William H. Wickham. .1875-1876 

Smith Ely 1877-1878 

Edward Cooper 1879-1880 

William R. Grace 1881-1882 

Franklin Edson 1883-1884 

William R. Grace 1885-1886 

Abram S. Hewitt 1887-1888 

Hugh J. Grant 1889-1892 

Thomas F. Gilroy 1893-1894 

William L. Strong 1895-1897 

Robert A. Van Wyck. .1898-1901 

Seth Low 1902-1903 

George B. McClellan. . .1904-1909 

William J. Gaynor 1910-1913 

Ardolph L. Kline 1913 

John Purroy Mitchel. . .1914-1917 
John F. Hylan 1918- 

Before the Revolution the Mayor was appointed by the Governor 
of the Province; and from 1784 to 1820 by the Appointing Board of 
the State of New York, of which the Governor was the chief mem- 
ber. From 1820 to the amendment of the Charter, in 1830, the 
Mayor was appointed by the Common Council. In 1898 the term of 
the first Mayor of Greater New York (Van Wyck) began. 

[ 353 ] 

New York and Its School System 

With the advent of Mayor Hylan, New York's educa- 
tional system underwent a radical change. The old board 
of education, consisting of 46 members, ceased to exist 
and the small board of 7 took its place. Public opinion 
was not preponderatingly for the change, but on the 
whole the best thought in the educational world was in 
favor of the smaller board. The large board was cum- 
bersome and unwieldy and could not accomplish its work 
without much waste of time and a great deal of friction. 
It is expected of the small board that it will be able to 
go at its object with much more directness and accom- 
plish results more speedily. It is said that in a multitude 
of counsellors there is wisdom, but the public seem to be 
willing to take chances on that proposition for the sake 
of getting practical and businesslike action without so 
much circumlocution as we have had heretofore. Never- 
theless, the people of New York appreciate what the old 
board has done. It existed during a period of recon- 
struction when the affairs of the schools were naturally 
in a confused condition and it was no easy matter to fit 
in and function all the parts. The task was irksome and 
difficult, and the members of the board deserve the grati- 
tude of the people for the splendid determination and 
ability with which they applied themselves to the work 
and for the results accomplished. These will all look 
bigger and better in the years to come, and the founda- 
tional work done will no doubt bear a superstructure of 
surpassing usefulness and beauty. And now that we are 
approaching a more settled and quiescent condition, the 
small board should be able to manage the affairs of the 
schools with efficiency, and with less of the friction which 
existed before. The members have been selected for 

[ 354 ] 



Clipper of Friday, December 31«t, 



r-.., ^7 TastBiver. -r-i ^iU 

i^'T :v:<- Will k' '\KU 

HI 1>:J tiayn^ 

•!,tirrlv nn- 

WELLS & EWANUEL, 96 Wall Street. 

Ne»i.iu >v t'.i , rr.i.u 

1851. Old time advertising card used by shipping firms in the 50s. 


their special fitness for and experience in educational 
affairs. Mr. Arthur Somers, the president of the board, 
had a long and valuable experience in the old board, and 
was esteemed for his constructive work and his earnest 
devotion to the schools. Mr. F. D. Wilsey was also a 
member of the old board all through its stormy career, 
and was known as one of the most industrious and val- 
uable members. The others are new. All have settled 
down to their duties with an earnestness and enthusiasm 
which promises well for the system. 

Coincident with the passing of the board was the re- 
tirement of City Superintendent Dr. William H. Max- 
well, whose serious and continued illness compelled him 
to seek relief from the heavy duties of his position. With 
much regret the board accepted his resignation and made 
him superintendent emeritus at a salary of $10,000 per 
annum. He was superintendent during the entire period 
of the large board and furnished much of the propelling 
power and directing force which enabled it to accomplish 

He is said to have ruled it with an iron hand, and it 
would appear that there must have been some truth in 
this claim, for the press frequently reported remarks by 
members to the effect that the superintendent was the 
creature of the board and not its master, and occasionally 
a member was reported as objecting to being merely a 
rubber stamp. One irreverent critic represented him as 
being the walls, floor and ceiling of the entire outfit, and 
these sidelights unquestionably reveal Dr. Maxwell as a 
very masterful man. Perhaps it was good for us that 
he was this sort of a man and that he rode rough-shod 
over less able and slower men, for the system at this 
formative period needed something of the autocratic 
spirit to speed it up and keep it right. Perhaps this au- 

[ 355 ] 


tocratic spirit was also the cause of much of the friction 
which existed in all departments, reaching even to the 
ranks of the teachers. The continual wrangling in the 
courts and the contradictory decisions rendered helped 
to make confusion worse confounded. The public 
looked on with displeasure. Dr. Maxwell might have 
been gentler for his own good, but he was inflexible and 
severe, and his dictum, like the laws of the Medes and 
Persians, never altered. His weak spot was his literal- 
ness and exactness in interpreting rules. If in his ex- 
amination a candidate could not quote the exact words of 
an author, or if he did not give the exact month and year 
of an event, the steam roller went over him without pity. 
No allowance was made or credit given for good work 
actually done, and it is easy to see that this was an evil 
which never should have been allowed to exist. In the 
later years of the board, however, this state of affairs was 
corrected, but only after a strenuous fight and by the 
insistent demand of the people. Oh, uprightness how 
many wrongs have been committed in thy name ! 

Theodore Roosevelt once referred to Dr. Maxwell as 
our great superintendent, and the people have heartily 
indorsed this description of him. Notwithstanding a 
few faults and failings, he was the best man to be found 
anywhere for the position, and this is best attested by his 
reelection from term to term for about 20 years. His 
inexorableness was an inheritance no doubt from his 
stubborn ancestors who held the fort through so many 
centuries of Scottish history, but it would have been of 
greater service to the system had it been tempered with a 
broader and more generous judgment. We can forget 
his faults — his achievements place him among the great 
teachers of the country. 

[ 356 1 


Some Valuable New York Buildings 


Name Valuation 

Equitable Building $25,000,000 

Mutual Life 9,500,000 

Woolworth 9,500,000 

New York Life 4,000,000 

Bankers Trust Company 5,800,000 

Hanover National Bank 4,000,000 

American Surety Company 2,425,000 

United Bank Building 2,375,000 

American Exchange National Bank 1,800,000 

Guarantee Trust Company 3,000,000 

National Bank of Commerce 2,500,000 

United States Realty and Improvement Company 6,000,000 

Western Union Telegraph Company 6,500,000 

City Investing Company 6,625,000 

Singer Building 7,000,000 

New York Telephone Company 5,060,000 

Havemeyer Building 1,875,000 

Broadway Building Company 2,650,000 

Woodbridge Building 1,850,000 

"Washington Building 2,000,000 

Bowling Green 3,250,000 

American Express Company 3,800,000 

Adams Express Company 6,500,000 

Empire Building 4,100,000 

Carroll Building 2,250,000 

Standard Oil 3,200,000 

Lower Broadway Realty Company 3,300,000 

Columbia Trust Company 3,000,000 

Manhattan Life 3,700,000 

Stock Exchange 5,200,000 

Commercial Cable Building 2,650,000 

Produce Exchange 3,750,000 

Mills 4,150,000 

Morgan Building 5,100,000 

Trust Company of America 2,325,000 

American Mutual Insurance Company 2,850,000 

National City Bank 5,500.000 

Bank of Manhattan 2,700,000 

Mechanics and Metals National Bank 2,800,000 

United States Express Company 2,700,000 

New York Telephone 2,700,000 

Butterick 1,300,000 

Western Electric 1,770,000 

Havemeyer 1,080,000 

Metropolitan Opera House 3,375,000 



Macy's Department Store 6,900,000 

Johnson Building 3,300,000 

Herald 2,500,000 

MiUs Hotel No. 3 1,235,000 

Saks and Company 3,070,000 

Gimbel Brothers Department Store 6,630,000 

Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal 14,830,000 

Printing Craft Building 2,700,000 

National Cloak and Suit Company 2,300,000 

Knickerbocker Hotel 3,700,000 

Long Acre Building 2,375,000 

Fitzgerald Building 2,100,000 

Claridge Hotel 2,270,000 

New York Theatre 2,550,000 

Putnam Building 2,560,000 

Astor Hotel 3,875,000 

Strand Theatre 2,360,000 

The Belnord Realty Company 3,500,000 

John J. Astor 2,400,000 

W. W. Astor 1.090,000 

Rogers Peet Company 2,800,000 

Hecksher Building 2,100,000 

The ^olian Company 2,275,000 

Stern Brothers 6,000,000 

Harvard Club 1,250,000 

Hippodrome 2,250,000 

Plaza Hotel 8,100,000 

Biltmore Hotel 8,700,000 

Belmont Hotel 4,450.000 

Manhattan Hotel 3,750,000 

St. Regis Hotel 2,700,000 

Gotham Hotel 2,700,000 

Oceanic Investing Company 2,625,000 

Postal Life Building 2,275,000 

Andrew Carnegie 2,425,000 

Slectric Light and Power Company 5,910,000 



New York's Men of AfiFairs Serving the 

It would be difficult to recall the time when so many 
New York men of wealth and of affairs have contributed 
so largely of their services to the Federal Government 
without money and without price. 

It has been one of the most inspiring features of the 
War and will remove forever the old time prejudice that 
because a man is rich he has no common obligations with 
his fellow men. 

They have given freely and without thought of sacri- 
fice. Immense business interests have been set aside ; and 
out of their large experience the general government has 
derived much benefit. 

Active service in the ranks and in the front line 
trenches has been the portion of many. While the tre- 
mendous activities of the Red Cross and Y. M. C. A. 
have far exceeded anything heretofore thought of in the 
organization of these Societies. 

We have attempted to collect a more careful analysis 
of this great work but the time is not yet here. When 
the War is won, we hope to place the record before our 
readers. Till then it must wait but the collecting of 
material will go on. 

[361 ] 


Passing of the Old Post Office 

To-day the General Post Office loses its long-enjoyed 
distinction and becomes a sub-station of the newer gen- 
eral office back of the Pennsylvania Station. The fact is 
primarily of interest as showing the gradual concentra- 
tion of postal facilities at the city's great railroad ter- 
minals. But it also reflects the drift of business "up- 

As time goes in modern Manhattan, the old Post Office 
is one of the borough's venerable structures. Opened in 
1875, it is thus older than Brooklyn Bridge, itself a land- 
mark, and in the latter part of its near half-century of 
existence it had become antiquated and inadequate. 

As a sub-station and as a Federal Court House it 
doubtless has a further usefulness. But when will New 
York lose its old Post Office altogether? Having lost its 
prestige, its eventual physical passing would cause no dis- 
satisfaction if that meant the return of the site to the city 
and the restoration of City Hall Park to its original pro- 
portions. The ugly old structure could well be spared for 
a bit more of green turf in Broadway. 


Wall Street, 1860. One of the earliest pliotograiilis of this famous 

Street, showing private residence stoops and the Morgan 

corner at Broad Street. Collection of Mr. 

T. H. Schneider. 


OUR effort to revive this historical pubhcation would 
have been unavailing but for the prompt support 
we received from many old New Yorkers. In 
years to come the City will look back with gratitude to 
those who have been as necessary to this revival as we 
ourselves. Below we print the list as far as we have been 
able to secure it. Some names are necessarily omitted as 
books were bought through dealers and we have not been 
able to obtain them. We shall be glad to add any omis- 
sions as rapidly as they are supplied. 

The policy of the management is to make the Manual 
worthy of the great city whose annals it seeks to 
record. It should be conducted more as a public, than a 
private enterprise. As its revenues increase, the proceeds 
should be used to make the work more notable with each 
succeeding year. There is no reason why the Manual 
should not stand out unique — as the one particular pub- 
lication in the whole world devoted to a city, and of such 
antiquarian excellence as to command the respect and 
affection of bibliophiles the world over. 

[ 365 ] 


After the war, New York will stand out in many re- 
spects as the greatest city in the world ; interest in its 
marvellous past already great, will become immeasurably 
greater. Among our foreign readers we already number 
Mr. Balfour and Lord Northcliffe in England with quite 
a contingent in France. No attempt has yet been made 
to reach the great libraries of Europe where we think it 
will ultimately find a warm welcome. 

Comparatively few copies of the three volumes so far 
published have been printed and the available volumes 
still remaining are being rapidly called for by readers 
wishing to complete their sets. Notwithstanding the 
premium price brought at the Crimmins' sale we will 
supply the back volumes at the published subscription 
price while they last. 

We thank our friends whose names follow, for their 
valuable cooperation : 

Mrs. Chas. H. Marshall Mrs. 

Mrs. Frank Sullivan Smith Mrs. 

Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee Mrs. 

Mrs. Andrew Carnegie Mrs. 

Mrs. W. Pierson Hamilton Mrs. 

Mrs. John Hays Hammond Mrs. 
Mrs. Helen Lispenard Alexandre Mrs. 

Mrs. E. H. Harriman Mrs. 

Mrs. Vincent Astor Mrs. 

Mrs. George F. Baker, Jr. Mrs. 

Mrs. H. Fairfield Osborn Mrs. 

Mrs. J. Francis Clark Mrs. 

Mrs. John A. Hance Mrs. 

Mrs. V. EvERiT Macy Mrs. 

Mrs. Willard Church Mrs. 

Mrs. Bernard Wakefield Mrs. 

Mrs. Joseph Palmer Knapp Mrs. 

Mrs. Mary G. Quimby Mrs. 

Mrs. G. E. Titcomb Mrs. 

Mrs. J. T. Thompson Mrs. 

Mrs. E. G. Stoddard Mrs. 

Mrs. Ella T. Manny Mrs. 

Mrs. Emory McClintock Mrs. 

Mrs. W. R. Grace Mrs. 

Mrs. Thomas Denny Mrs. 

Mrs. I. V. Brokaw Mrs. 

Mrs. George T. Bliss Mrs. 

Mrs. Burke Roche Mrs. 

Mrs. John J. Chapman Mrs. 

George W. Chauncey 
William H. Crocker 
T. Ewart 
Francis Gardiner 
George H. Gould 
William A. Jamison 
Ida C. Jones 
John Markle 
Theodore Peters 
John Wallace Riddle 
J. W. Sherwood 
L. Bayard Smith 
E. H. Van Incen 
Robert A. Van Wyck 
Edward Motley Weld 
Robert E. Westcott 
W. F. Whitehouse 
Frank S. Witherbee 
William H. Young 
Chas. Lane Poor 
Austen G. Fox 
A. F. D'Oench 
Victor Guinsburg 
Elizabeth C. T. Miller 
Nellie Secor Manning 
Charles S. Guthrie 
J. Q. A. Ward 
George W. Perkins 
Marshall Field 



Mrs. Clarence M. Hyde 
Mrs. Claudia Q. Murphy 
Mrs. D. Cady Eaton 
Mrs. Edward King 
Mrs. Samuel G. Kreeger 
Mrs. Carl F. Boker 
Mrs. M. E. Dwight 
Mrs. Leopold Rossbach 
Mrs. J. Henry Watson 
Mrs. Stephen O. Lockwood 
Mrs. Henry O. Bartol 
Mrs. a. Murray Young 
Mrs. John R. Livermore 
Mrs. R. J. Collier 
Mrs. Chas. D. Dickey 
Dr. Annie S. Daniel 
Mrs. Olin J. Stephens 
Mrs. F. a. Constable 
Mrs. R. T. Baker 
Mrs. Ellwood Harlow 


M. Parsons 

Harriet Tileston Bryce 
Frances Baxter 
Grace Scoville 
Caroline Willis 
Emily S. Jackson 
Cornelia Prime 
Alice M. Davison 
Anna M. Bogert 
Elisabeth Marbury 
S. M. Sturges 
Alice Thevin 

Mr. Wm. K. Vanderbilt, Sr. 

Mr. Frederick Potter 

Mr. John J. Pierrepont 

Mr. Albert Eugene Gallatin 

Mr. Thomas F. Ryan 

Dr. Samuel W. Lambert 

Mr. Gustavus T. Kirby 

Mr. Edward C. Cammann 

Mr. Ogden Codman 

Mr. Benjamin De F. Curtiss 

Mr. Thomas W. Churchill 

Mr. a. W. Evarts 

Mr. a. V. H. Stuyvesant 

Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson 

Mr. Henry R. Towne 

Mr. James Lenox Banks 

Mr. Edmund L. Baylies 

Dr. Richard T. Bang 

Mr. H. H. Cammann 

Mr. Julian T. Davies 

Mr. M. Friedsam 

Hon. Franklin Murphy 

Mr. Edmund Penfold 

Mr. Frederic A. Juilliard 

Mr. Samuel Robert 

Mr. O. J. GuDE 

Mr. Robert N. Bolton 

Mr. James Byrne 

































































. George L. Rives 

Simeon Ford 

Edwin Gould 

Philip J. Mosenthal 

John I. D. Bristol 

M. L. Morgenthau 

William Leverich Brower 

Percy Bullard 

Albert Buchman 

Wm. Rhinelander Stewart 

F. Grand d'Hauteville 

. Leonard A. Giegerich 

Edward W. C. Arnold 

I. N. Phelps Stokes 

Samuel Sloan 

. Peter Townsend Barlow 

F. Ambrose Clark 

Edwin Baldwin 

F. Kingsbury Curtis 

Phillips Phoenix 

George Beekman Sheppard 

Howard I. Dohrman 

Allen M. Thomas 

. Victor J. Dowling 

John W. Edmonds 

Lawrence B. Elliman 

Louis Ferguson 

John N. Golding 

F. K. Gaston 

Wm. F. Gable 

F. W. Hunter 

E. Francis Hyde 

Alfred Jaretzki 

Smith Ely Jelliffe 

E. L. Knoedler 

W. RuLOFF Kip 

Richard B. Kelly 

Alfred E. Marling 

George A. McIlroy 

C. DE R. Moore 

Henry Chapman Needham 

C. J. Obermayer 

William H. Page 

Orton G. Orr 

Mark Rafalsky 

William Schall, Jr. 

George G. Schaefer 

E. H. H. Simons 
Thos. T. Sherman 
Henry N. Tifft 
John M. Woolsey 
J. B. Wohlfarth 
A. P. Williams 
A. S. Frissell 

J. D. Crimmins 
Arthur Swann 
I. V. McGlone 
James Stewart Cushman 
T. E. Conklin 
Maurice J. Strauss 
Robert H. Koehler 
H. W. Johnson 

F. G. Randall 

J. Midaugh Main 



Mr. Edwin S. Marston 

Mr. Herbert Carleton Wright 

Mr. John C. Tomlinson 

Mr. T. L. Leeming 

Mr. Haley Fiske 

Mr. G. Owen Winston 

Mr. Charles M. Van Kleeck 

Mr. Charles A. Brodek 

Mr. Louis T. Haggin 

Mr. Grenville Kane 

Mr. Henry Walters 

Mr. Edwin D. Worcester 

Mr. Edgar L. Marston 

Mr. Andrew J. Onderdonk 

Mr. Edward Sandford Pegram 

Mr. James W. Cromwell 

Mr. H. D. Babcock 

Mr. Stevenson Taylor 

Mr. S. S. Dunham 

Mr. W. D. Bruns 

Mr. a. G. Mills 

Mr. Powhatan Bolling 

Mr. Henry Fletcher 

Hon. Alphonso T. Clearwater 

Mr. Frederic de Peyster Foster 

Mr. John A. Eckert 

Mr. Herbert Groesbeck 

Mr. M. W. Dominick 

Mr. William M. Lybrand 

Mr. Charles L. Case 

Mr. Robert J. F. Schwarzenbach 

Mr. Maturin L. Delafield 

Hon. Frederick Bingham House 

Mr. Gerald R. Brown 

Mr. W. M. V. Hoffman 

Mr. Edward Lauterbach 

Mr. Francis S. Bangs 

Mr. S. V. Steiner 

Mr. John D. Ross, LL.D. 

Mr. Bartlett Arkell 

Mr. James E. Adams 

Mr. Adrian V. S. Lambert 

Mr. George S. Schermerhorn 

Mr. a. Hatfield, Jr. 

Mr. Thomas L. Johnson 

Major S. Wood McClave 

Mr. Chas. a. Bryan 

Mr. Herman L. R. Edgar 

Mr. Frederic B. Thomason 

Mr. Edward Hungerford 

Mr. E. a. Cruikshank 

Mr. Henry C. Swords 

Mr. Henry R. Hoyt 

Dr. Charles Gordon Heyd 

Mr. William F. Hammond 

Mr. Lucius K. Wilmerding 

Mr. August Zinsser, Jr. 

Mr. Samuel M. Schafer 

Dr. Emil Mayer 

Mr. Walter Scott 

Mr. Charles Martin Camp 

Mr. Gordon Knox Bell 

Mr. Frank H. Platt 

Capt. Albert H. Van Deusen 

Mr. Charles H. Tenney 

Mr. Roland R. Conklin 

Mr. John List Crawford 

Mr. Charles A. Sherman 

Mr. H. B. Thayer 

Mr. Walter L. Suydam 

Mr. Henry R. Taylor 

Mr. Benjamin Tuska 

Mr. Job Reamer 

Mr. Emory McClintock 

Mr. Samuel L. Munson 

Mr. Wm. G. Low 

Mr. Charles Elliot Warren 

Mr. Henry O. Havemeyer 

Mr. Gustave Lindenmeyr 

Mr. George B. Woodward 

Dr. Thomas H. Willard 

Mr. William B. Dudley 

Mr. S. a. Goldschmidt 

Dr. Ira Otis Tracy 

Mr. Henry Wyckoff Belknap 

Mr. R. Burn ham Moffat 

Mr. W. D. Tracy 

Mr. Philip H. Waddell Smith 

Mr. William Ross 

Mr. Edward L. Burrill 

Mr. J. Sanford Saltus 

Mr. Louis J. de Milhau 

Dr. Samuel Treat Armstrong 

Mr. Richard T. Davies 

Mr. Paul M. Herzog 

Dr. Roderick Terry 

Dr. Wm. A. Valentine 

Mr. James Hillhouse 

Mr. Daniel B. Fearing 

Mr. Theodore F. Whitmarsh 

Mr. Benson B. Sloan 

Mr. Arthur W. Butler 

Mr. E. Ward Olney 

Mr. R. D. Benson 

Mr. Otis H. Cutler 

Mr. Poultney Bigelow 4 

Dr. George F. Kunz 

Mr. Samuel C. Van Dusen 

Mr. Elliott Smith 

Mr. James W. Ellsworth 

Mr. J. Clarence Davies 

Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt 

Mr. Robinson Locke 

Mr. William B. Davenport 

Mr. Charles A. Ditmas 

Mr. Hubert M. Schott 

Mr. T. H. Lamprecht 

Mr. William M. Benjamin 

Mr. Thomas S. Van Volkenburgh 

Mr. Richard H. Ewart 

Dr. Charles L. Weiher 

Mr. Henry F. Taylor 

Mr. William G. De Witt 

Mr. Alphonse A. Pehrson 

Mr. Harry K. Pryer 

Mr. Charles Mallory 

Mr. T. G. Butler, Jr. 

Mr. James H. Manning 

[ 368 ] 


Mr. F. Lindenmeyr 

Hon. M. H. Hirschbero 

Mr. William E. Curiis 

Mr. Byron GoLusMiXH 

Mr. Edward B. Camp 

Mr. Albert Crane 

Mr. John R. Stanton 

Mr. Paul D. Cravat h 

Mr. Tracy Dows 

Mr. James C. Colgate 

Mr. John F. O'Rourke 

Mr. George F. Baker, Jr. 

Mr. Henry Brevoort Kane 

Mr. Marselis C. Parsons 

Mr. Clarence W. Barron 

Mr. Noel Bleecker Fox 

Mr. John Christopher O'Conor 

Mr. William D. Breaker 

Mr. Anson W. Burchard 

Mr. George W. Chauncey 

Mr. Oswald G. Villard 

Mr. John V. Irwin 

Mr. Robert S. Crocker 

Mr. John C. Jay, Jr. 

Mr. Charles M. Burtis 

Mr. Thomas C. Kurtz 

Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman 

Mr. George Crawford Clark 

Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip 

Mr. William J. Curtis 

Mr. John A. Garver 

Hon. Francis K. Pendleton 

Mr. John W. Simpson 

Mr. Moses Taylor Pyne 

Mr. R. Fulton Cutting 

Mr. Joseph P. Grace 

Mr. E. W. Winter 

Mr. E. W. Harden 

Mr. J. Louis Schaefer 

Mr. F. Dwight 

Mr. W. W. Carman 

Mr. Charles Edison 

Mr. Anderson T. Herd 

Mr. Lowell M. Palmer, Jr. 

Mr. Morton F. Plant 

Major Willard D. Straight 

Mr. W. Parsons Todd 

Mr. Percy R. Pyne, 2nd 

Capt. Robert Goelet 

Mr. Henry S. Pritchett 

Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick 

Mr. Marshall C. Lefferts 

Mr. James Hazen Hyde 

Mr. R. Lawrence Smith 

Dr. W. Seward Webb 

Mr. E. W. Sheldon 

Mr. Howard Van Sinderen 

Mr. Samuel Woolverton 

Mr. William Sloane 

Mr. W. H. Childs 

Mr. William B. Osgood Field 

Mr. Archer M. Huntington 

Mr. Henry C. Frick 

Mr. Mortimer L. Schiff 

Mr. F. a. Delano 


































































[369 ] 

Robert M. Thompson 
. Gen. Cornelius Vanderbilt 
Frank K. Sturgis 
Nicholas F. Palmer 
Gates W. McGarragh 
John F. Harris 
E. D. Morgan 


Percy Rockefeller 
James Maclean 
W. J. M. Donovan 
Daniel E. Pomeroy 
Harris Ely Adriance 
Samuel P. Avery, Jr. 
J. P. Morgan 
H. E. Huntington 
Robert W. Chambers 
James Speyer 
Theodore N. Vail 
William H. Porter 
Arthur Cutiss James 
Ford V. Huntington 
Charles H. Sabin 
Nicholas F. Brady 
Henry M. Taft 
Frank C. Deering 
Robert Barbour 
Frank Lord 
. J. H. Cohen 
Paul Tuckerman 
Harry Hall 
G. V. N. Baldwin 
Richard T. Lingley 
R. E. Deyo 

E. C. Farlow 
David C. Thomas 
Edmund Eckart 
L. C. Harper 
William S. Ludlow 
W. H. Mayer 
Arthur J. Morris 
J. L. Robertson 
H. S. Robertson 
Crawford Livingston 
Frank R. Chambers 

F. W. Woolworth 
Frank A. Alpin 
Cyril H. Burdett 
Barron G. Collier 
J. M. Delaney 
o. coolican 
Walter Leon Hess 
Edward Drake 
William F. Kenny 
Eugene Kimball 
E. L. Wenrick 
Edmund Dwight 
George Gravenhorst 
A. H. Hopping 
Harry S. Black 
Samuel T. Hubbard 
Henry G. Leach 


Harry S. Guggenheim 
Fuller Potter 


Mr. William R. Peters 

Mr. H. DeB. Parsons 

Mr. H. R. Winthrop 

Mr. Frederick VanWyck 

Mr. James T. MacNamara 

Mr. John C. Travis 

Mr. L. O. Koven 

Mr. Algernon Sydney Schafer 

Mr. Everett P. Wheeler 

Mr. Richard Young 

Dr. a. Vander Veer 

Mr. Robert F. Herrick 

Mr. George B. Harris 

Mr. Edward Bement 

Mr. Theodore H. Schneider 

Mr. George Woolsey 

Mr. Hiram Barney 

Mr. Frederick D. Underwood 

Mr. Charles H. Thieriot 

Mr. H. H. Hewitt 

Mr. Hals Holden 

Mr. Maxwell D. Howell 

Mr. L. W. Lawrence 

Mr. Dickson Q. Brown 

Mr. S. B. Closson 

Mr. Laurence Maguire 

Mr. T. G. Condon 

Mr. W. M. Riglander 

Mr. John A. Stewart, 3rd 

Mr. Henry S. Harper 

Mr. E. p. Ripley 

Mr. Henry E. Hess 

Mr. James H. Manning 

Mr. Robert W. Bernard 

Mr. E. J. Marston 

Mr. Phoenix Ingraham 

Mr. John M. Marchmont 

Mr. Francis Newton 

Mr. Joseph Osler 

Mr. Walter C. Reid 

Mr. William Bruce Brown 

Mr. C. E. Herman 

Dr. A. R. Ledoux 

Mr. Edward C. Gude 

Mr. a. G. Oakley 

Mr. William J. Boyd 

Mr. Samuel Riker, Jr. 

Mr. J. Radford English 

Mr. a. p. Clapp 

Mr. Gustav Heubach 

Mr. B. R. Ruggles 

Mr. Karl Filers 

Mr. Thomas Higgins 

Mr. Sydney W. Fish 

Mr. George Vaughn 

Mr. Herman Goldman 

Mr. Charles S. Hirsch 

Mr. Henry W. Showers 

Mr. G. R. Crossley 

Mr. Henry N. Brinsmade 

Mr. E. E. Olcott 

Mr. John B. Dennis 

Mr. Joseph Paterno 

Mr. Howard D. Randolph 

Mr. Walter W. Schell 

Mr. W. B. Crisp 

Mr. Joseph L. Lillienthal 

Mr. Lincoln Cromwell 

Mr. a. Montant 

Mr. William J. Plant 

Mr. F. I. Liveright 

Mr. Sidney Thursby 

Mr. a. E. Thorne 

Lieut. Edward P. Chrystie 

Sergt. Hunter VanB. Berg 

Mr. Guy Stevens 

Mr. Arthur F. Rees 

Mr. William F. Peters 

Mr. William W. Weitling 

Mr. C. E. Peck 

Mr. Andrew Arthur Benton 

Mr. p. G. Gossler 

Mr. Charles L. Harris 

Mr. Howard C. Smith 

Mr. F. D. Soper 

Mr. Edmund E. Wise 

Mr. Oscar Scherer 

Mr. Edmund J. Levine 

Mr. Charles G. Smith 

Mr. Walter C. Hubbel 

Mr. R. a. Spring 

Mr. S. Davis Warfield 

Mr. E. C. Lufkin 

Mr. Charles N. Green 

Mr. S. H. Wakeman 

Mr. Henry Lockhart, Jr. 

Mr. John H. Lynch 

Mr. John Irving Romer 

Mr. William H. Incersoll 

Mr. Hopper Striker Mott 

Mr. William S. Eddy 

Mr. Robert E. Livingstone 

Mr. Charles H. Werner 

Mr. B. Marston Smith 

Mr. Louis Marshall 

Mr. Alfred H. Wagg 

Mr. Sherman Day 

Hon. M. H. Hirschberg 

Dr. Richard Jordan 

Mr. Howard H. Williams 

Mr. Carl Messerschmitt 

Mr. David Williams 

Mr. Charles G. Witherspoon 

Dr. Matthew B. Dubois 

Mr. a. a. Watson 

Mr. Arnold Schlaet 

Mr. Edwin A. Strong 

Mr. Lewis H. Lapham 

Mr. George H. Sargent 

Mr. Willard Scudder 

Mr. Frank Depew 

Mr. Henry Root Stern 

Mr. Ramon V. Williams 

Dr. William A. Valentine 

Mr. William H. Dudley 

Mr. John Ross Delafield 

Mr. Richard Delafield 

Mr. F. S. Hastings 

Mr. W. Willis Reese 

Mr. W. J. Riker 

[ 370 ] 



Metropolitan Museum of Art 
New York Historical Society 
New York Society Library 
Mercantile Library 
American Geographical Society 
Am. Scenic & Hist. Preservation 

Colonial Dames of America 
Chamber of Commerce 
N. Y. Public Library 
Long Island Historical Society 
Pratt Institute • 
queensboro' public library 
Newark Public Library 
YoNKERS Public Library 
Adriance Memorial Library, 


Vassar College Library 

U. S. Military Academy, West 

Boston Atheneum 
Mass. Historical Society 
Worcester Public Library 
New Bedford Public Library 
New London Public Library 
Hartford Public Library 
Bowdoin College 
Dyer Library, Saco, Me. 
Detroit Public Library 
Grosvenor Library, Buffalo 
Chicago Public Library 
Empire State Society, Chicago 
Louisville Public Library 

Of the last volume of the original Manuals, issued 
in 1866, so great was the demand and so renowned was 
the publication that the Common Council of the City- 
ordered an edition of ten thousand copies to be printed 
and voted the editor Mr. Valentine the sum of $3,500 
extra compensation for his services. 

With so brilliant a record in the past we have a task 
of no mean proportions to equal it in the present. 

[ 371 ] 


Abanather, Urana, 345. 

Abbe, Dr. Robert, 263. 

Abbott Collection of Primates, 

Abendroth Bros., 79. 

Ackerman, John, 347. 

Adams, John Quincy, 263. 

Adams, Herbert, 263. 

Adams House, 238. 

Adams, President John, 237. 

Adelphi Hotel, 15. 

Albany Post Road, 287. 

Albro Miss, 88. 

Albro the Grocer, 41. 

Aldermen, Board of, 113. 

Alexander, Charles B., 263. 

Alexander's Shoe Store, 33. 

Alfred The Great, 243. 

Allen, Abigail, 346. 

Allen, Mayor Stephen, 232. 

Altman Collection, 303. 

Altman & Co., 30, 60. 

American Commerce, 270. 

American Congress, 243. 

American Defense Society (Wo- 
men's Auxiliary), 10. 

American Express, 86. 

American Georgaphic Soc'y, 334. 

American Jewish Hist. Soc'y, 

American Mayors of New York, 

American Merchant Marine, 270. 

American Numismatic Soc'y, 334. 

American Shipping, 270. 

American War Artists, 262. 

American War Lithographs, 262. 

Amsterdam, 217. 

Andrew Jackson, 106. 

Antelope, 107. 

Aquarium, The, 8. 

Archbishop of Canterbury, 70. 

Arden, Mary, 348. 

Argyle, The, 33. 

Arnold Constable & Co., 21, 81. 

Art Commission, N. Y. City, 114, 

Arts & Decorations, Committee, 

Art War Relief, 256. 

Ashokan Reservoir, 282. 

Aster, John Jacob, 223. 

Astor Trust Company, 21. 

Astor, Vincent, 309. 

Atlantic Cable, 75, 76. 

Atwill, John, 86. 

Axtel, Col., 180. 

Aylward, W. J., 252. 


Backhouse, Mrs. Joseph, 347. 
Baily, Col. Theodorus, 348. 
Bakhmetieff, Boris A., 310. 
Baldwin's Clothing Store, 81. 
Balfour, Right Hon. A. J., 308, 

309, 310. 
Bancroft's History of the United 

States, 1. 
Barck, Oscar T., 134. 
Barclay, Thomas, 159. 
Bardin, Miss, 346. 
Barnes, Robert, 347. 
Barns, Patience, 347. 
Barnum's Museum, Spring St., 

Barrett, Dr. S. A., 336. 
Bartlett, Paul W., 263. 
Bastile Day, 321. 
Bates, Mr., 88. 
Bates' Milk Dairy, 36. 
Bates, Miss, 88. 
Bathgate, James, 165, 166. 
Battery, The, 7, 8, 9. 
Baxter, Capt. Thompson, 342. 
Bayard, Nicholas, 345. 
Beach, Noah, 346. 
Beatty, John, 341. 
Bechstein & Co., 81. 
Bedford, 205, 211. 
Bedford Corners, 205. 
Bedloe's Island, 8. 
Beekman Family, 70. 
Behr, Herman & Co., 75. 
Beinhauer, Frederick, 44, 48, 49. 
Belden, Dr., 88. 

Belgian War Commission, 314. 
Bell, Maj.-Gen. J. Franklin, 321. 
Benda, W. T., 252. 
Benjamin, Mr. and Mrs., 87. 
Bennett, Abigail, 345. 
Bennett's Lane, 200. 
Bernheimer Family, 225. 
Bertron, S. Reading, 263. 
Betts, William, 287. 
Bidgood, J. B., 42. 
Billy Hitchcock, 74. 
Billy McGlory, 59. 
Black Ball Line, 9, 100. 
Bleecker, James W., 78. 
Bleeker, Abigail, 348. 
Block, I. Mortimer, 262. 
Bloomingdale Road, 47, 157, 243, 

"Blue Devils," 320. 
Blythebourne Water Co., 284. 
Board of Aldermen, 113. 
Board of Education, 113. 

[ 373 ] 


Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment, 112. 
Board of Health, 113. 
Board of Water Supply, 114. 
Bogart, Cornelius, 73. 
Bolton, Reginald P., 133, 134. 
Bone, Muirhead, 258. 
Boorman, James, 79. 
Booth, Edwin, 62. 
Booth's Theatre, 30. 
Borough Presidents, 112. 
Borrel, Ruth, 347. 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 

Boston Post Road, 47, 152, 241. 
Botanic Gardens, 49. 
Bowers, David, 346. 
Bradford, William, 132. 
Braine, Mrs., 347. 
Braine, Lieut. -Col. Charles, 61, 

Brandreth House, 81. 
Brangrwyn, Frank, 261. 
Brick Presbyterian Church, 73, 

263, 267. 
Briggs, Mr., 88. 
Briggs, Deborah, 345. 
Briggs, Ebenezer, 345. 
BrinckerhofC, Maria, 347. 
Bristow, Prof., 87. 
Britain's War Commission, 308. 
British War Artists, 258. 
British War Lithographs, 258. 
Broadway, 17, 18. 
Broadway Tabernacle, 41. 
Bronk, Jonas, 147. 
Bronk's River, 148. 
Brookes, Miss, 345. 
Brooklyn, Greenwood & Bath 

Plank Road, 204. 
Brooklyn Ins. Arts & Sciences, 

Brooklyn & Jamaica Turnpike, 

Brooklyn Heights, 18. 
Brooklyn Water Sheds, 282. 
Brooks, Adjutant Henry S., 68. 
Brouwer, Nicholas, 151. 
Brower, Nicholas, 342. 
Brown, Deborah, 345. 
Brown, Merritt, 348. 
Brown, Obadiah, 345. 
Brown, Hon. Peter, 346. 
Browne, Dr. Joseph, 231. 
Brueckner, Hon. Henry, 125 
Bryant Park, 21,47. 
Buel, John, 348. 
Bulliod, Robert, 345. 
Buildings, New York's Valuable, 

Bulkley Bros. & Co., 80. 
Bull, Chas. Livingston, 252 
Bureau of Industrial Housing, 

Burning of Barnum's, 81. 

Burr, Aaron, 164, 232. 

Bushwick Church, 212. 

Bushwick Road, 212. 

Butler, Ben, 93. 

Butler, Nicholas Murray, 263, 

Byvanck, Evert, 148, 151. 

Callot, 261. 

Calver, W. F., 133, 134. 

Camouflage Unit, 255. 

Campbell, James, 346. 

Canarsie, 211. 

Capitoline Grounds, 93. 

Cardiff Giant. 36. 

Carpenter, Catherine, 348. 

Carrere, John M., 322. 

Casey, F. D., "Collier's Weekly," 

Castle, Clinton, 8, 15. 
Castle Garden, 15. 
Castle, William, 8. 
Cat Rock Road, 139. 
Catskill Aqueduct, 282. 
Cayapa Indians, 336. 
Cecere, Gaetano, 258. 
Central Park Reservoir, 236. 
Ceramic Art, 296. 
Challenge, 243. 

Chamber of Commerce, 218, 309. 
Chamberlain's Office, 113. 
Chanties, 100. 
Chapman, Dr., 255. 
Chapman, Chas. S., 262. 
Chapman, Mary, 345. 
Charities, Dept. of, 114. 
Chelsea Village, 53. 
Childs, Mrs. Charlotte B., 348. 
Christ Church, Manhasset, 70. 
Choate, Joseph H., 308, 310. 
Chronology, 308. 
Church Avenue, 204. 
Church Lane, 203. 
Citizens' Water Supply Co., 284. 
"City Hall," 172. 
City Hall Park, 10. 
City Officials, 112. 
City Superintendent of Schools, 

City Tunnel, 282. 
Claflin, H. B. & Co., 81. 
Clark, Capt. Arthur H., 53, 100, 

Clark, William A., 263. 
Clarke, Rev. John, D. D., 346. 
Clarkson, Abel, 346. 
Clinton, DeWitt, 126, 236. 
Clinton House, 73. 
Clipper Ship Era, 100, 107. 
Clipper Ship Records, 108. 
Clove Road, 205, 206. 
Coal Famine, 278. 

[ 374] 


Cock Hill Fort, 293. 

Cock, Joshua, 347. 

Colden, Dr. Cadwallader, 153, 

Colden, Elizabeth, 153. 
Coldest Winter, 276. 
Coleman, Wm. T. & Co., 106, 
Coles, J. B., 10. 
Collect Pond, 230. 
Colles, Christopher, 225, 226, 229. 
Collins' Line, 100. 
Columbian Hotel, 119. 
Columbia University, 49. 
Colwell-Lead Co., 42. 
Combes, Miss Meriam, 345. 
Commissioners of Sinking Fund, 

Committee on Pub. Information, 

Comptroller's Office, 112. 
Coney Island Jockey Club, 191. 
Conklin, Mr., 88. 
Congressional Medal of Honor, 

Connolly, Hon. M. E., 125. 
Conry, Catherine, 347. 
Constitution Island, 139. 
Consular Agent, Barbary States, 

Conway, Catherine, 345. 
Cooley & Co., 106. 
Cornell, Alice, 342. 
Cornell, Hayward & Co., 80. 
Cosby, Royal Governor, 152. 
Cotton Exchange, 268. 
Cortlandt Family, 70. 
Council of the Royal Governor, 

Courtelyou Lane, 200. 
Cow Boys, The, 163. 
Cow Lane, 204. 
Cox, Ann, 347. 
Cozine Family, 49. 
Craig, Charles L., 122. 
Craig, Maria, 346. 
Cramond, Ann, 348. 
Crane, Abigail, 346. 
Crane, Rebecca, 346. 
Crawford, John, 33. 
Creel, George, 251. 
Cremorne Gardens, 33. 
Crimmins Sale, 3. 
Cripplebush Road, 205, 206. 
Cronk, Rebecca, 346. 
Crocker, Ruth, 342. 
Cross Roads, Flatbush, 186. 
Croton Aqueduct, 21, 284, 236. 
Croton Cottage, 21. 
Croton Lake, 236. 
Croton Reservoir, 22, 232. 
Croton Valley, 236. 
Crowninshield, Francis W., 263. 
Cruger, John, 342. 
Crystal Palace, 21, 22. 
Cunliff, Lord, 309. 

Curtis, J. B., 68. 

Currier, N., 16. 

Custom House, 15. 

Cutting, Robert Fulton, 263, 264. 

Cyclorama, The, 41. 

Daly, Judge, 223. 

Bankers & Sluyter, 200. 

Darley, John, 347. 

David Brown, 107. 

Davis, Maria, 347. 

Davis' Stationery Store, 33. 

Davison, H. P., 309. 

Davison, James, 347. 

De Bruynes Lane, 200. 

De Forest, Robert W., 263. 

Deghue Pavement, 249. 

De Grasse, Sylvia, 348. 

De Hart, Louisa, 347. 

DeJonge, J. & L. & Co., 80, 

Delanceys, 145. 

Delancey, Alice, 157. 

Delancey, Elizabeth, 159. 

Delancey Horse, 163. 

Delancey, James, Lieut. Gover- 
nor, 157. 

Delancey, James, 152, 158, 163, 

Delancey, Jane, 159. 

Delancey, John, 159. 

Delancey's Mills, 160. 

-Delancey, Oliver, 158, 165, 166. 

Delancey, Peter, 146, 153, 158, 

Delancey, Stephen, 147, 151, 153. 

Delancey, Susannah, 159. 

Delaval, Thomas, 287. 

Dennis, Mrs. Cornelia, 346. 

Dept. of Charities, 114. 

Department of Docks & Ferries, 

Department of Labor, 258. 

Dept. of Parks, 113. 

Dept. of Street Cleaning, 114. 

Dept. of Water, Gas & Elec- 
tricity, 114. 

De Pau, Francis, 348. 

De Peyster, John, 73. 

De Peyster, Margaret, 348. 

De Puy, Henry F., 133. 

Depuyster, Elizabeth, 346. 

Deshler's Bakery, 30. 

Dessources, Madame, 347. 

Detaille, 261. 

Devens, John C, 33. 

Devens, Gen., 33. 

Diamond Jim Brady, 88. 

Dickinson, Edward A., 80. 

Dietz. R. E., 75. 

Disbrow, Levi, 235. 

Distinguished Service Cross, 257. 

Distinguished Service Medal, 257. 

[ 375] 


Dittenhofer, Judge, 225. 
Division of Films & Pictures, 

Division of Pictorial Publicity, 

251 252. 
Dock's & Ferries, Dept. of, 114. 
Dogwood Brook, 287. 
Dopp, Isaac, 348. 
Doty & MacFarlane, 80. 
Doughty, Alias, 287. 
Doughty, Ebenezer, 348. 
Doughty, Mary, 342. 
Dowd's Restaurant, 86. 
Dowling, Hon. Frank L., 125. 
Dowling, Leader, 69. 
Draft Riots, 81. 

Drake, Joseph Rodman, 145, 166. 
Dramatic Line, 100. 
Dreadnought, 96. 
Dry Dock, 244. 
Duffield, Dr. Howard, 268. 
Dulac, Edmund, 258. 
Dumyrat, Madame, 342. 
Duncan, Walter J., 252. 
Dunham, S. S., 80. 
Dunham, Thomas C, 68. 
Dunn, Harvey, 252. 
Dunscomb, Mrs. Elsie, 345. 
Dunsmore, John Ward, 134. 
Dtirer,, 251. 
Durfee, Capt. Elisha, 346. 
Duryee, Abraham, 346. 
Duryee, Jacob, 345. 
Dusenbury, Perthenea, 346. 
Dutch East India Company, 268. 
Dutch Reformed Church, New 

Utrecht, 203. 
Dutch Reformed Church, Flat- 

bush, 179, 189. 
Dutch Road, 197. 
Dutch West Indies Company, 


Dyckman Farm, 139. 
Dyckman House, 301. 
Dyer, Gen. Geo. R., 320. 
D'Yrujo Don Carlos Martinez, 

Eagle Hotel, 8. 

Ealling, Jane, 347. 

Earns, Patty, 342. 

East Drive, Prospect Park, 179. 

East India Marine Hall, Salem, 

268, 270. 
Eastchester, 238, 241. 
Eastchester Creek, 236. 
Education, Board of, 113. 
Egyptian Collection, N. Y. Hist. 

Soc'y, 137. 
Ehrich Bros., 60. 
Eiffle Tower, 21. 
Einstein Family, 225. 

Elite of the County, 163. 
Ellis Island, 8. 
Elmhurst, 206. 
Ely, Mayor Smith, 80. 
Elysian Fields, 93. 
Embury, Capt. Aymer, 2nd, 258. 
Emery's English Chasseurs, 288. 
Emigrant Station, 8. 
Emmett, Thomas Addis, 49. 
Empire Garden, 35. 
Endicott & Co., 16. 
Endicott, William & Co., 79. 
Engineers' Reserve Corps, 252. 
English Road, 197. 
Enright, Walter, 252. 
Erasmus Hall Academy, 186. 
Erasmus Hall High School, 186. 
Ericsson, John, 85. 
Esopus Water Shed, 282. 
Excelsior Savings Bank, 30. 

Fairfax, Thomas, 347. 

Falls, C. B., 252. 

Farragut, Admiral, 93. 

Fatman Family, 225. 

Fay, Col. Joseph, 238. 

"Feed A Fighter," by Wallace 

Morgan, 252. 
Feitner, Ann Eliza, 53. 
Kereshe, James, 347. 
Ferguson, William, 347. 
Ferry Settlement, 178. 
Field, Cyrus W., 75, 76, 80. 
Field, Capt. Wm. B. Osgood, 50. 
Field Exploration, 138, 139. 
Fifth Avenue, Brooklyn, 212. 
P^'ink, Catherine, 346. 
Finkenauer, Paint Store, 33. 
Fire Dept. H. & L. No. 8, 87. 
Fisk, Col. James, 61, 68. 
Kiske, Harrison Gray, 36. 
Fi.ske, Minnie Madern, 36. 
Flameng, Francois, 261. 
Flatbush Roads, 177. 
Flatbush Water Works, 284. 
Fleeming, Ann, 347. 
Flushing Avenue, 212. 
Fly Market, 49. 
Flying Cloud, 94, 96, 106, 243. 
Flying Dragon, 107. 
Flying Fish, 107. 
Foord, John, 268. 
Ford, Simeon, 4, 9. 
Fort Constitution, 139. 
Fort George Hill, 290. 
Fort Hamilton, 212. 
Fort Washington, 160. 
Fox, the comedian, 62. 
Fox, Mrs. Mary, 348. 
Frankfield's Jewelry Store, 30. 
Franklin. P. A. S., 106. 
Frederick, William, 347. 

[376 ] 


French's Hotel, 74. 
French, Rachel, 348. 
French, Lieut. W. T., 340. 
French War Artists, 261. 
French War Commission, 308. 
French War Lithographs, 261. 
Frick, Henry Clay, 308. 
Frost, Josiah, 346. 
Fuller, H. B., 262. 
Fulton Ferry, 212. 
Furman, Josiah, 346. 

Gaffney, Capt. John, 68. 
Gallatin, A. B., 262. 
Gamio, Dr. Manuel, 336. 
Garland, George, 345. 
Garrison, Margaret, 347. 
Gaston, E. P., 262. 
Gatfleld, Mrs. Benjamin, 346. 
Gedney, Samuel, 348. 
Gerritsen's Basin, 191. 
Gibson, Charles Dana, 251, 263. 
Gilbert & Sullivan's H. M. S. 

Pinafore, 36. 
Giles, Dr., 33. 
Giles, Aquilla, 183. 
Glackens, William J., 263. 
Glean, Abigail, 346. 
Goldsmith Family, 225. 
Gomez Family, 218. 
Gomez, Hetty, 347. 
Governor's Island, 8. 
Gowanus, 204. 
Gowanus Road, 211. 
Goya, 261. 
Grace Church, 16. 
Grace, William R. & Co., 268. 
Graham, Mrs., 345. 
Graham, David, 79. 
Graham, Dr. Ebenezer, 345. 
Graham, Mrs. Lucetta. 342. 
Grammar School No. 35, 29. 
Grand Opera House, 62, 69. 
"Grange," Hunts Point, 166. 
Grant, Gen. U. S., 59, 60, 93. 
Grapevine, The, 28. 
Gravesend, 191, 199. 
Gray, Mrs. Catherine, 346. 
Gray, Capt. John, 345. 
Great Dock Fire of 1867, 86. 
Green, Col. Samuel, 342. 
Greenwich Savings Bank, 28. 
Greenwood Cemetery, The, 50. 
Greig, James, 346. 
Gude, Oscar J., 88. 
Guion's Inn, 241. 
Gunnison, Dr. Walter B., 186. 


Hadley, William, 287. 
Hadwen, Dorcas, 345. 

Haggerty's Bellhanging Shop, 42. 
Haight, David L., 342. 
Hall, Campbell, 80. 
Hall, Justice, 341. 
Han, Mayor A. Oakey, 54, 55. 
Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 145. 
Hallett, Lydia, 342. 
"Halt the Hun," by Henry Ra- 
leigh, 252. 
Hamersley, Dr. William, 346. 
Hamilton, Mr., 88. 
Hamilton, Alex, 126, 232. 
Hamilton Ferry, 8. 
Hand & Ellsworth, 80. 
Hanjoost, 342. 
Hanmer, Patty, 345. 
Harndon's Express, 81. 
Harlem Railroad, 22. 
Harris Bros., 80. 
Harrison, Ann, 347. 
Harsen, Catherine, 50. 
Harsen Family, 49. 
Hart, Bernard, 223. 
Hart, Emanuel B., 224. 
Hassam, Childe, 263. 
Hastings, Thomas, 263. 
Haswell, Mary, 342. 
Haughton, Eliza, 347. 
Haydock, John, Jr., 348. 
Hays Family, 218. 
Hays, Jacob, 347. 
Hays, Sally, 348. 
Hay ward, Robert, 73. 
Hazzard & Massey, 42. 

Heaford, Maria Margaret Cath- 
erine, 346. 

Health, Board of, 113. 

Heatless Days, 278, 281. 

Held, Miss, 88. 

"Help Your Country," by Henry 
Reuterdahl. 252. 

Henderson, William, 36. 

Hendricks Family, 218. 

Henriques Family, 218. 

Henry, Ann, 347. 

Henshaw, Mrs. Mary, 341. 

Herald of the Morning, 107. 

Herzog Family, 225. 

Hessians, The, 160. 

Houseal, Mrs. Jane, 341. 

Hewett, Solomon, 342. 

Heye, George G., 334. 

High Pressure Mains, 284. 

Highlands of the Hudson, 139. 

Highlanders, The Kilted, 160. 

Hill, John W., 18. 

Hillcrest Avenue, Jamaica, 210. 

Hill View Reservoir, 283. 

Hippodrome, 42. 

Hispanic Society, 334. 

Hitchcock, Major, 61, 68. 

Hlasko 41. 

Hoffman, Samuel Verplanck, 134. 

Hogelandt, Johannes, 148. 

Holmes, Benjamin, 341. 

[ 377 ] 


Holmes, Lucy, 341. 

Home Defence League Parade, 

Hopkins', Mrs., Bakery, 33. 
Hopper Family, 49. 
Hoppin, William Warner, 263. 
Hopps, Miss, 88. 
Horn Family, 49. 
Horsefield, Israel, 347. 
Hosack, Dr., 49. 
Hotel McAlpin, 41. 
Housatonic River, 235. 
Howe, Sir William, 160, 163. 
Huard, Chas., 261. 
Hugeuian, A. C, 79. "• 

Hull, Daniel, 345. 
Humbert, Hannah, 348. 
Hunt, Jesse, 342. 
Hunt, Polly, 345. 
Hunt, Theophilus, 164. 
Hunts Family, 145. 
Hunts Point, 151. 
Hunter College. 28. 
Hunter, G., 347. 
Hunter, Thomas, 28. 
Hunterfly Road, 211. 
Huntington, Archer M., 334. 
Hurlburt, H. C. & M.. 80. 
Hurtin, James H., 345. 
Hussey's Post, 23, 107. 
Hutchinson, Anne, 238. 
Hutchinson River, 236. 
Huyler, Jonh S., 68. 
Hylan, Mayor J. F., Ill, 121, 122, 

212, 354. 


Independence Day Pageant, 256. 

Independent, The, 79. 

India House, 106, 268, 270, 275. 

Indian Life, 302. 

Indian Path, 197. 

Indian Raids, Eastchester, 238. 

Indies, East and West, 268. 

Invincible, 243. 

Inwood Hill, 290. 

Ireland, John, 81. 

Isaacs, Judge, 218. 

Isaacs, Samuel M., 224. 

Isaacs, William, 348. 

Iselin, Ernest, 263. 

Isham, Flora E., 290. 

Isham, William B., 290. 

Ishii, Viscount, 310. 

Italian War Commission, 310. 

Izard, Ralph, 154. 

Jackson, Amasa, 342. 
Jackson's Grocery, 30. 
Jacobi, Dr. Abram, 35. 

Jager, Henry, 342. 

Jamaica Bay, 204. 

Jamaica Plank Road, 205. 

Jamaica Water Supply Co., 284. 

James, Arthur Curtiss, 263. 

James, Dunlap, 341. 

Japanese War Commission, 314. 

Jefferson Market, 28. 

Jerry, Polly, 342. 

Jessup Memorial Library, Bar 

Harbor, 261. 
Jews' Hospital, 218. 
Joffre, Marshall, 308, 309. 
John, Augustus, 261. 
John Gilpin, 107. 
Johnston, Maj.-Gen. Evan, 321. 
Jonas, Lucien, 261. 
Jones, Abby, 346. 
Jones, Owen, 60. 
Jones & Newman, 16. 
Judd, Prof., 42. 
Jumel Mansion, 140, 301. 

Kalm, Peter, 226. 

Keith, Minor C, 336. 

Kennedy, Ann, 345. 

Kensico Reservoir, 283. 

Ketchum, Pamela, 342. 

Kiefft, Gov., 198. 

Kimball's Road, 190. 

King, Capt. Henry, 342. 

King, Gov. John A., 210. 

King, Rufus, 210. 

King, Capt. John, 342. 

King Mansion, 210. 

Kings Bridge, 128. 

Kings Highway, 178, 179, 190, 199. 

Kip, Ann, 342. 

Kip, Jane, 345. 

Knapp, Shepard, 28. 

Knickerbocker Cottage, 33. 

Knickerbocker Stage Line, 69. 

Knoedler, Roland F.. 263. 

Knox, Julia Wadworth, 345. 

Kohler, M. J., 223. 

Kortright Family, 295. 

Kraft, Geo. J., 80. 

Krause's, Mme., Kindergarten 

School, 36. 
Kunz, Geo. F., 263. 
Kursheedt Family, 224. 
Kuyter, Capt., 147. 

"Lafayette Landing at the Bat- 
tery," 172. 
Lake, Betsy, 341. 
Lamb, J. & R., 28. 
Lane, Sir Hugh, 257. 
Langstafif, Sally, 346. 

[ 378 1 


Lansing, G. O., 345. 

Latting's Observatory, 21. 

Lawson, Ernest, 263. 

Lazarus Family, 224. 

Leary, John, Jr., 345. 

Ledoux, Dr. Albert R., 263, 267, 

Lefferts, Abigail. 185. 
LefEerts, Chas. M., 134. 
Lefferts House, 184. 
Lefferts, Jacob, 185. 
Leggett, Nancy, 166. 
Lehmaier Family, 225. 
Lehman Family, 225. 
Leland Bros., 73. 
Lenox, Robert, 10. 
Lent's Circus, 86. 
Leonardo Da Vinci, 250, 251. 
Levy, the Cornetist, 69. 
Levy, Hayman, 223. 
Lewis & Conger, 41. 
Lewis Morris Mansion, 295. 
Lewis, Thomas, 287. 
Liberty Boys, 159. 
Liberty Day, 315. 
Liberty Loan Drive, 251. 
Liberty Pole, 87. 
Liberty Pole, New Utrecht, 200. 
Lightless Nights, 281. 
Lincoln's Funeral, 81. 
Lindsly, Elizabeth, 346. 
Lindenmeyr, Henry, 79. 
Lindenmeyr, H., & Bro., 79. 
Lindenmeyr, Henry, & Sons, 75. 
Lispenard & Hart, 223. 
List of Clipper Ships, 108. 
Livingston, Chancelor, 126. 
Livingston Family, 70. 
Livingston, Dr. John Henry, 186. 
Lloyd, Bateman, 185. 
Lockwood's Book Store, 81. 
Loeb Family, 225. 
London Row, 60. 
Long Island R. R. Station, 211. 
Lord & Taylor, 81. 
Lorillards, 145. 
Lorillard Mansion, 301. 
Loss, Elizabeth, 50. 
Loss, Susannah, 50. 
Lossing, Benson J., 18. 
Lott Homestead, 190. 
Lovejoy's Hotel, 73. 
Ludlow, Robert, 73. 
Luks, George, 262. 
Lydigs, 145. 

Lydig, David, 73, 165, 166. 
Lydig's Mills, 166. 
Lynch, Tom, 67. 
Lyons, David, 341. 
Lyons, J. J., 224. 


Mackay, Clarence H., 263. 
Macomb, Robert, 232. 
Macy, R. H., & Co., 30. 
McAlpin, D. H., 41. 
M'Carty, Thomas, 347. 
M'Carty, Mrs. Charles, 345. 
McDonald, Wilson, 41. 
M'Gill, Mrs., 345. 
M'Laughlin, Mrs. Rachel, 348. 
M'Kean, Maria Theresa Sarah, 

Maddern, Minnie, 36. 
Madison Sq. Garden, 22. 
Magonigle, Mrs. H. Van Buren, 

Malcom, Richard M., 347. 
Maloy, William, 88. 
Malthie, Capt. Jonathan, 347. 
Manhattan Company, 232, 235, 

Manhattanville, 244. 
Manhattanville Stage Line, 36. 
Manor of Fordham, 152. 
Manor of Morrisania, 152. 
Manor of Philipsburgh, 287. 
Mansfield, Howard, 263. 
Manship, Paul, 258, 263. 
Mapes Estate, 160. 
Marbury, Miss Elisabeth, 10. 
Marchand, Victor, 81. 
Margarum, James I., 347. 
Martlaer's Rock Ass'n, 139. 
Masonic Temple, 30. 
Masterson, Margaret, 342. 
Matheson, John, 346. 
Maxwell, Ben., 88. 
Maxwell, Dr. William H., 355. 
May Family, 225. 
Mayer, Constant, 41. 
Mayor's Com. on Nat. Defense, 

Mayor's Office, 112. 
Mayors of the City, 1784 to 1918, 

Mead, Deborah, 347. 
Mears, Richard, 42. 
Meeks, Edward, Jr., 347. 
Meissonier, 261. 
Melrose Hall, 180, 183. 
Mercantile Library, 79, 87, 132. 
Merchants' Association, 310, 319. 
Merrill, Dr. William Pierson, 

Merrltt, Stephen, 59. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 

Metzler, Louisa, 53. 
Michael, Dr., 59. 
Mldwout, 204. 

Military Camouflage Float, 256. 
Mill Street, 217, 223. 
Mills & Gibbs, 87. 

[ 379 ] 


Minaugh. William, 345. 
Minor, Beard, 41. 
Minthorne, Hannah, 348. 
Minuse, Georg-e, 346. 
Mitchell, ex- Mayor John Pur- 

roy. 111, 119, 321, 339, 341. 
Mitchell, E. P., 172. 
Mitchell, Mrs. James, 340. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John Purroy, 340. 
Moir, William, 30. 
Moncheur, Baron, 310. 
Monitor, 85. 

Moody, Lady Deborah, 198. 
Moon's Stable, 81. 
"Morgan Horses," 164. 
Morgan, Wallace, 252. 
Morgan, J. P., 70. 
Morris, Lewis, Chief Justice, 152, 

153. 342. 
Morris Family, 70. 
Morrison, John, 347. 
Morse Building, 74. 
Mott, Mrs. Jane, 346. 
Mt. Sinai Hospital, 218. 
Mowat, Commodore H., 346. 
Mullan, Justice George V., 340. 
Munson, Amos, 348. 
Murray, Rear Admiral. 341. 
Murray's Bellhanging Shop. 42. 
Murray Hill Re-servoir, 236. 
Museum of Natural History, 137. 


Nash & Crook Restaurant, 74. 
Nathan Family, 224. 
National Biscuit Co., 56. 
National Foreign Trade Council, 

Neck Road, 191, 192. 
NeLson, Dr. John. 348. 
Nelson, W. H. deB., 263. 
Nesbit. Robert, 73. 
Neuville, 261. 
Nevenson, C. R. W., 258. 
New Amsterdam, 217. 
New Bowery, 217. 
New Haven R. R., 79. 
New Lots, 204, 211. 
Newtown, 205, 206. 
Newtown Pippin, 206. 
Newtown Road, 205, 211. 215. 
New Utrecht, 191, 199, 204. 
New Utrecht Avenue, 200. 
N. T. Asylum, 243. 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R., 22, 79. 
New York Common Lands, 47. 
New York Gazette. 132. 
"New York Gazette & Weekly 

Mercury," 226. 
New York Historical Society, 17, 

New York Mirror, 99. 
New York National Bank, 55. 
New Netherlands, 217. 

New York Public Library, 236. 
New York Savings Bank, 55. 
New York Society Library, 132. 
New York Water Works Com- 
pany, 235. 
New York Wells Company, 235. 
Nichols, Gen., 200. 
Nichols, Mrs. Jane, 348. 
Nicholson, William, 261. 
Niess's Bakery, 33. 
Ninth Regiment, 68. 
Nipinichsen Heights, 287. 
Noah, Mordecai M., 224. 
Nostrand, Christina, 346. 


Oak's Hotel, 81. 

Oblienis Farmhouse, 295. 

Oblong River, 235. 

Odell's Cream Soda, 86. 

Ogden, Abraham, 345. 

Old Homestead, The, 67. 

"Old Merchants of New York" 
(Scoville), 224. 

Oliver, Elizabeth, 347. 

O'Neale, Hugh, 287. 

"Opening of the Erie Canal," 

Orcutt, Lydia, 341. 

Orphans' Asylum, 243. 

"Outlaw of The Bronx," 165. 

"Over There," by Albert Ster- 
ner, 252. 

Pacifists of 1776, 242. 

Packet and Clipper Ships, 243. 

Page, Rev. John Mitchell, 340. 

Paine, Cornelia, 345. 

Paisley's Shoe Store, 33. 

Palisades, 290. 

Parade of Drafted Men, 314. 

Parade of New York Troops, 314. 

Parade of Red Cross Nurses, 315. 

Parker House, 41. 

Parks, Dept. of, 113. 

Parsons Trading Co., 80. 

Parsons, W. H. & Bro., 80. 

Passaic River, 236. 

Patent of West Farms, 152. 

Paterson, Mr., 347. 

Patterson, John, 348. 

Pavements, 244. 

Peckwell, Mrs. Mary, 347. 

Peixotto, Ernest, 252. 

Peixotto, M. L. M., 224. 

Pelham Bay, 160. 

Peltrow, Pollv, 347. 

Peluse. Elizabeth, 347. 

Pene du Bois, Guy, 262, 263. 

Pennell, Joseph, 252, 262. 

Pennington, Samuel, 348. 

Perrine Pavement, 249. 

[ 380 ] 


Peter-of-the-Mills, 153. 

Peters, Nelly, 348. 

Petition for Water Supply, 229. 

Phelps, Francis B., 236. 

Phelps, Mary, 342. 

Philips, Fredeiick, 287. 

Philipse Family, 152. 

Philipse Patent, 287. 

Phillips, Duncan, 262, 263. 

Phillips Family, 224. ^ ' 

Pine, Hannah, 348. 

Police Department, 114. 

Pool, Sally, 342. 

Porter, Eldad, 345. 

Poster Artists, 252, 253. 

Pottery, Colonial, 296. 

Pratt, Frederick B., 192. 

President Wilson, 257, 307, 308, 

310, 314, 315, 316, 320. 
Prince, Ruth, 342. 
Prospect Hills, 212. 
Provincial Assembly, 152, 153. 
Provoost, William, 151. 
Public School No. 44, 87. 
Public Library, 47 . 
Pulitzer, Joseph, 74. 
Pumping Stations, 283. 
Purdy, Abraham, 346. 
Putnam, Dr. Mary, 35. 
Putnam, Gen., 164. 
Pyle, James, 93. 

Queen of The Clippers, 243. 
Queens County Water Co., 284. 


Radan, Maria, 345. 
Raemaekers, Louis, 257. 
Raleigh, Henry, 252. 
Ramsay, Patty, 342. 
Ransom, Miss, 88. 
Raper, John, 346. 
Raymond, Eliakim, 342. 
Reade Family, 70. 
Ready, John, 88. 
Reckendorfer Family, 225. 
Record Voyages of Clipper Ships, 

Red Cross Drive, 251. 
Red Cross Line, 9, 100. 
Reid, Robert, 252. 
Reinagle, 17. 
Remsen, John H., 347. 
Reservoir at Thirteenth St., 235, 

Reuterdahl, Henry, 252. 
Revaisson-Mollien Volumes, 250. 
Richardson, William, 148, 346. 
Ricketts, Chas., 258. 
Ridley's Candy Store, 85. 
Riegelman, Hon. Edward, 125. 
Rilev, Polly, 348. 
Ritschel, W., 262. 

Roach, Dr., 60. 
Roach, Capt., Thomas, 345. 
Road Commissioners of West- 
chester, 151. 
Road to Newtown, 205, 211, 215. 
Robertson, John, 347. 
Robertson, William, 345. 
Robinson, Maiia, 346. 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 50, 320. 
Rodman, John, 341. 
Rodman, Mrs. Mauricia, 341. 
Rogers, Eliza, 346. 
Rogers, Moses, 10. 
Rogers Peet & Co., 35. 
Romance of the Seas, 107. 
Roome's Real Estate, 30. 
Roosevelt, Col. Theodore, 309, 

339, 356. 
Roosevelt, Lieut. Quentin, 321, 

Root, Elihu, 310. 
Rothenstein, William, 258. 
Rowe, Barlow, 345. 
Rozeo, Jacob, 341. 
Rumbel, Miss, 88. 
Russ Pavement, 244, 249. 
Russia's War Commission, 313. 
Ryder's Lane, 191. 
Rye Ponds, 236. 

Sage & Livingston, 80. 

St. George's Church, 69, 75, 244. 

St. George's Cricket Grounds, 93. 

St. John's Church, 93. 

St. John's Freight Station, 81. 

St. John's Park, 80, 85. 

St. Nicholas Society, 126. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, 50. 

St. Paul's Church, Eastchester, 

237, 241. 
St. Peter's Church, Westchester, 

158, 160. 
St. Peter's Epis. Church, 60. 
St. Thomas' Church, 50. 
Sakmeister, Maria, 53. 
Saltus, J. Sanford, 321. 
Samuel, Corp., 348. 
Sands, Mrs. Ann, 346. 
Sands, William, 347. 
Sargent, the Painter, 257. 
Saville, Prof., Marshall H., 335. 
Sayres, Comfort, 346. 
Schermerhorn, C., 73. 
Schermerhorn, Catlina, 345. 
Schieffelin, William Jay, 263. 
Schieren Building, 74. 
Schiff Familv, 225. 
Scholle Family, 225. 
Schuyler Family, 70. 
Schuyler, Robert, 79. 
Schweighauser, Nicholas, 342. 
Scotch Row, 60. 
Scots of North Britain, 267. 

[ 381 ] 


Scott, George, 261. 
Scott, Lewis A., 345. 
Sciiba, Mrs. Maria. 348. 
Scribner, Arthur H., 263. 
Sea Witch, 107. 
Seabury, Rev. Dr., 158. 
Sedgwick, Henry Renwick, 263. 
Seixas Family, 218. 
Seixas, Gershom, 224. 
"Settlement of the Jews in 

North America," 223. 
Seventy-first Reg., 42. 
Seymour & Co., 80. 
Shannon, Chas. H., 258. 
Sharon Canal Company, 235. 
Sharp, Nancy, 345. 
Sharpe, Peter, 346. 
Sheffield Farms Co., 36. 
Shelme'dine, Mrs. Hannah, 348. 
Sherrill, Adj. Gen. Chas. H. 263. 
Shimeall, George, 347. 
Ship Yards, 244. 
Shipton, Eliza, 183. 
Shot Tower, 74. 
Shotv.-ell, John, 341. 
Shotwell, Margaret, 341. 
Shrady, John, 53. 
Shrady. Margaret, 53. 
Sierra Nevada, 107. 
Silbee's Saloon, 30. 
Si'ber. Sophia, 53. 
Silver, Ephraim T., 346. 
Silver Lake, 283. 
Simonton, Jacob, 347. 
Simson, Sampson, 218. 
Sisters' Home, 56. 
Sixth Nat. Bank. 41. 
Slack, Richard, 345. 
Slawson-Decker Milk Co., 36. 
Sloan, John, 262. 
Sloane, John, 2C3. 
SmUh, Capt. AndrS, 252, 257. 
Smith. Benjamin Bates, 348. 
Smith, Deborah, 346. 
Smith, Mrs. Jane, 348. 
Smith, Joshua. Jr., 346. 
Smith, Capt. Oliver, 345. 
Smith. TTiomas H., 342. 
Smith, William, 345. 
Smith, Col. William Stephen, 

Somers, Arthur, 355. 
Sovereign of the Seas, 268. 
Spring Hill, Flushing, 159. 
Spuyten Duyvil, 290. 
Stakes. Capt. John, 345. 
"Stand Behind the Country's 

Girlhood." poster, 252. 
Standard Theatre, 36. 
State Line. 100. 
State Military Census, 314. 
Star of the West, 243. 
Statue of Liberty, 8. 
Steamship Row. 15. 
Steers, Capt., 35. 

Stephens, Benjamin, 53. 

Stern Bros., SO. 

Sternberger Family, 225. 

Sterner, Albert, 252. 

Stevens, Alderman Samuel, 235. 

Stevens, Jos. E., 263. 

Stewart, Charles, 347. 

Stewart, Robert, 346. 

Stockbridge Indians, 289. 

Stone Church, Wall St., 264. 

Straus Family, 225. 

Stream of the High Banks, 147. 

Street Cleaning Depart. 4, 114. 

Strong, Peter, 347. 

Stuyvesant, Gov. Peter, 3, 198, 

Sutphen, Fanny, 345. 
Suez Canal, 24. 
Surprise, 107. 
Sutton & Co., 106. 
Swain, Uriah, 342. 
Swallow Tail Line, 9, 100. 
Sweeney, Peter B., 41. 
Sweepstakes, 107. 
Sword Fish, 107. 
Synagogue, Earliest, 217. 

Tack, Aug. Vincent, 262. 
Taft, ex-president, 309. 
Talmadge, Rebecca, 348. 
Tammany Hall, 224. 
Tammany, Society of, 126. 
Tappen, Sarah, 347. 
Taxes and Assessments, Dept. 

of. 113. 
Taylor, Rev. Dr., 41. 
Tavlor, Mrs. Julia Isham. 290. 
Taylor's Hotel, 67. 
Taylor's Restaurant, 81. 
Tea Water Pump, 226. 
Ten Eyck, Thomas, 348. 
"The New York Packet," 229 
Third Avenue, Brooklyn. 212. 
Thomas, Dr. William S., 133, 134. 
Thompson, Thomas, 4, 10. 
Thompson, Rebecca, 347. 
Thomson -Houston Elec. Lt. Co., 

Thomson, William, 341. 
Thorley & Son, 30. 
Thurston. Charles H., 134. 
Tide Mill, Gerritsen's Basin, 

190, 191, 192. 
Tippett's Hill. 288. 
Tippett. George, 287. 
Titus. Francis, 342. 
Tompkins, Daniel, 348. 
Tourneur, Daniel, 151. 
Towle, Lieut. H. Ledyard, 256. 
Townsend, Benjamin. 342. 
Townsend, Harry, 252. 
Townsend. Henry, 347. 
Townsend, Peter, 342. 

[ 382 


Townsend, Hon. Richard, 347. 
Treidler, Adolph, 252. 
Trenor's Lyric Hall, 42. 
Trinity Church, 74. 
Trodden Paths, 191. 
Troops E. and F., 309. 
•^True Britain," 164. 
Tryon Row, 79. 
Turnpike, 197. 
Tutle, Capt. Ebenezer, 845. 
Tyng, Rev. Dr., 244. 


Union Club, 50. 

Union Dime Savings Bank, 33. 

U. S. Navy Publicity Bureau, 

University Heights, 290. 
Urban Water Co., 284. 
Ustick, Mrs. Jane, 345. 

Valentine Hill, 288. 

Valuable Nevsr York Buildings, 

Van Cliff Family, 70. 
Van Cortlandt, Frederick, 229. 
Van Cortlandt, James, 287. 
Vanderbilt, Commodore, 85. 
Vanderbilt Houses, The Twin, 

Vanderbilt, William K., 50. 
Van Der Donck, Dr. Adrian, 287. 
Van Dyck, Dr. Henry, 264. 
Vanderveer, Capt. Cornelius, 189. 
Van De Water, Smith, 345. 
Van Exveen, Wyntie, 148. 
Van Gelder, Jane, 342. 
Van Name, Hon. Calvin D., 125. 
Van Nest, Garret B., 347. 
Van Pelt Manor, 199. 
Van Pelt, Mrs., 342. 
Van Rensselaer Family, 70. 
Van Zandt, Sally, 348. 
Varick, Richard, 119. 
Vernon & Bros., 80. 
Verplank, Gulian, 232. 
Viviana, Rene, 308. 


Wake-up America Parade, 308. 

Wall, Alexander J., 134. 

Wall's Bakery, 30. 

Wall St., 17. 

Wallabout Road, 212. 

Wallabout. 211. 

Walter Family, 225. 

War Activities, N. Y. Ci»ty, 307. 

War Savings Stamp Drive, 251. 

Ward, Richard, 345. 

Ware, Lieut. Com. Bruce R., 321. 

Warner, Jane, 341. 

Warren, Admiral, 53. 

Warren, Lloyd, 262. 
Warren, Sir Peter, 70. 
Warsin, Hanah, 341. 
Washington, George, 69, 126, 160, 

238, 241. 
Washington, Louisa, 347. 
Washington Market, 49. 
Water, Gas & Electricity, Dept., 

Water Supply, Board of, 114. 
Water Mains, 283. 
Water's Stationery Store, 86. 
Waters, Dr. Daniel D., 346. 
Waterhouse, Dr., 346. 
Watson, Mrs. Mary, 348. 
Watts, John, 159. 
Weber's Piano B'l'g., 59. 
Webster, Daniel, 100. 
Webster, R. T., 134. 
Webster & Wheeler, 30. 
West 20th St. Public School, 30. 
Westchester Causeway, 160. 
Westchester Creek, 148, 160. 
Weston, Edward Payson, 42. 
White, Alfred T., 192. 
White, Canvass, 235. 
White Squall, 243. 
Whitman, Ann, 342. 
Whitnev Estate, 192. 
Wilcox, Col., 68. 
Wild's Candy Store, 81. 
Wilks, John, 348. 
Wilkinson, James C, 347. 
Williams, Capt. Alexander, 35. 
Willlnk Entrance, Prospect Pk., 

Willis, Nancy, 347. 
Wilsev, F. D., 355. 
Wilson, President, 257, 308, 314. 

315, 316. 320. 
Windsor Hotel, 93. 
Witthaus, R. A., 35. 
Wolfe Collection, 303. 
Woodbridge, Mrs. Lois, 346. 
Woodhaven Water Supply Co., 

Workless Days. 281. 
Wormser Family, 225. 
Wright, Mary. 348. 
Wurts, Mrs., 346. 
Wyeth, N. C, 252. 

Yale Club, 321. 
Yankee Row, 60. 
Young America, 94. 
Young, John, 342. 

Zabriskie Homestead, 185. 
Zeiss, Dr., 345. 

Zeiss, John William, M. D., 48. 
Zeiss, Wilhelmina Christina, 4i 

[ 383 ] 


--^.- i-:.