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1850. Advertising card in colors which created the craze for "chromo
cards'" that raged in New York in the 80s.
Old New -York.
VOLUME in NEW SERIES
Edited By ,
HENRY COLLINS BROWN.
New York 1919.
Valentine's Manual Inc.
Henry Collins Brown.
The Chauncey Holt Comp.^ny
New York City
Mtvtl^nntB nnh Mutinns
at mh ^m 1 0rk
iv tI|iB volume ie afffrtionatelg
PARK ROW PRESENT SITE OF WORLD BUILDING
MEMORIES OF OLD NEW YORK BY MEN STILL LIVING.. 27
RECOLLECTIONS OF OLD SIXTH AVENUE. Walter C. Reid 27
THE BEINHAUER GARDEN FARM, NOW THE SITE OF THE
TWIN VANDERBILT HOUSES ON FIFTH AVENUE.
William S. M. Silber 44
OLD CHELSEA. Robert Hall S3
BEEKMAN STREET, THE OLD PAPER MARKET OF NEW
REMINISCENCES OF THE FIFTH WARD. H. T. Lutz 80
THE CLIPPER SHIPS OF OLD NEW YORK 94
SOME OF THE FAMOUS FLIERS 106
THE CITY GOVERNMENT Ill
MR. HYLAN SUCCEEDS MR. MITCHEL Ill
MAYOR'S OFFICE 112
COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE 112
BOROUGH PRESIDENTS 112
BOARD OF ESTIMATE AND APPORTIONMENT 112
BOARD OF ALDERMEN 113
COMMISSIONERS OF THE SINKING FUND 113
THE CHAMBERLAIN'S OFFICE 113
DEPARTMENT OF TAXES AND ASSESSMENTS 113
BOARD OF EDUCATION 113
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS 113
BOARD OF HEALTH 113
DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING 114
POLICE DEPARTMENT 114
BOARD OF WATER SUPPLY 114
DEPARTMENT OF WATER, GAS AND ELECTRICITY.... 114
ART COMMISSION 114
DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES 114
DEPARTMENT OF CHARITIES 114
THE POSTHUMOUS DIARY OF DIEDRICH KNICKER-
DIEDRICH KNICKERBOCKER MEETS THE MAYOR AND HIS
THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY 131
SOME NOTABLE ACTIVITIES DURING THE PAST YEAR.
EXPLORATION OF HISTORICAL SITES. Reginald
Pelham Bolton 138
THE BOROUGH OF THE BRONX 145
THE PASSING OF THE DELANCEY PINE OF BRONX PARK.
Stephen Wray 146
HISTORY ON BLUE CHINA 172
BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 173
OLD BROOKLYN AND ITS VANISHING ROADS.
John Crawford Brown 173
EARLY DAYS IN NEW YORK 216
JEWS OF OLD NEW YORK. Prof. A. S. Isaacs 216
CHRISTOPHER COLLES AND NEW YORK'S WATER SUP-
PLY. A. J. Wall 225
EASTCHESTER— A HALF FORGOTTEN CAPITAL 236
PACIFISTS IN 1776 242
RANDOM NOTES 243
PACKET AND CLIPPER SHIPS 243
ST. GEORGE'S 244
SHIP YARDS 244
THE PAVEMENTS 244
NEW YORK OF TO-DAY 250
AMERICAN ARTISTS AND THE WAR. A. E. Gallatin 250
THE BRICK PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 263
INDIA HOUSE— NEW YORK'S REMINDER OF OUR ANCIENT
MARITIME SUPREMACY. John Foord 268
A WINTER LONG TO BE REMEMBERED 276
NEW YORK'S WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 282
EARLY HISTORY OF RIVERDALE. Eugene L. Delafield 287
HIGH COST OF LIVING DURING THE WAR OF 1812 289
ISHAM PARK 290
OLD ENGLISH POTTERY DISCOVERED IN EXCAVATING.
W. L. Calver 293
EDUCATIONAL FEATURES, OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY 301
A FEW SALIENT FEATURES OF THE METROPOLITAN MU-
SEUM OF ART 303
NEW YORK CITY'S WAR ACTIVITIES (Chronology) 307
GROWTH AND WORK OF THE MUNICIPAL ART COMMIS-
SION. John Quincy Adams 322
THE MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, HEYE FOUNDA-
JOHN PURROY MITCHEL 339
OLD TIME MARRIAGE AND DEATH NOTICES. A. J. Wall.
N. Y. HISTORICAL SOCIETY 341
THE OLD MAYORS OF NEW YORK 353
NEW YORK AND ITS SCHOOL SYSTEM 354
SOME VALUABLE NEW YORK BUILDINGS 359
NEW YORK'S MEN OF AFFAIRS SERVING THE GOVERN-
PASSING OF THE OLD POST OFFICE 362
LIST OF FOUNDERS 365
List of the Rare Old Prints, Engravings, Photographs
and Colored Lithographs Contained
in this Volume.
A SHIP CARD OF THE "ANDREW JACKSON" A RECORD
MAKER AMONG THE MERCHANT MARINE OF OLD NEW
THE "GREEN" AND CITY HALL, 1840. CHARMING VIEW
OF THE PARK AS IT WAS BEFORE BEING EN-
CROACHED UPON BY THE POST OFFICE BUILDING... 5
THE CLIPPER SHIP "SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS" (IN
COLOR). ONE OF THE FAMOUS FLIERS OF THE
"ROARING FORTIES" 12
bTTOADWAY south FROM HOUSTON STREET, 1860. SHOW-
ING AWNINGS THAT FORMERLY SHADED BROADWAY
MASONIC TEMPLE AND RESIDENCE (1876) OF DAVID
DOWS. SITE OF THE OLD EDEN MUSEE 25
BROADWAY AND 34TH STREET, SHOWING DR. TAYLOR'S
CHURCH, THE OLD BROADWAY TABERNACLE. BE-
FORE THE HOTEL MCALPIN WAS BUILT 31
THE CLIPPER SHIP "YOUNG AMERICA," CELEBRATED
NEW YORK CLIPPER (IN COLOR). ONE OF THE
FAMOUS FLEET OWNED BY A. A. LOW & BRO 38
SITE OF THE TWIN VANDERBILT HOUSES, FIFTH AVE-
NUE, 51ST STREET AND S2ND STREETS, SHOWING THE
BEINHAUER FARM WHICH OCCUPIED THE SITE. A
RARE VIEW OF THIS PART OF FIFTH AVENUE NOW
SHOWN FOR THE FIRST TIME 45
FIFTH AVENUE, NORTH FROM 18TH STREET, 1885. BE-
FORE IT WAS PRE-EMPTED BY THE NOON-DAY CROWD
OF POTASH AND PERLMUTTER 51
BROADWAY AT 14TH STREET, SHOWING THE CORNELIUS
ROOSEVELT HOUSE, 1865. MADE AT THE TIME OF
THE LINCOLN FUNERAL 57
THE CLIPPER SHIP "DREADNOUGHT" (IN COLOR) 64
BROADWAY AND FULTON STREET, 1866. SHOWING THE
GREAT CONFUSION OF TRAFFIC 71
FOOT OF WHITEHALL STREET, 1859, SHOWING THE
TERMINAL OF ALL THE STAGE LINES 77
SHIPPING CARD OF A LEADING CLIPPER LINE 81
BRONZE PANEL ON FREIGHT DEPOT, HUDSON STREET.
MEMORIAL TO COMMODORE VANDERBILT 83
STATUE OF JOAN OF ARC RECENTLY ERECTED. A NO-
TABLE ADDITION TO THE CITY'S ART 90
JAMES DUANE, FIRST MAYOR OF NEW YORK. FROM
THE CITY HALL PAINTING BY TRUMBULL 97
RICHARD VARICK. SECOND MAYOR OF NEW YORK. FROM
THE CITY HALL PAINTING BY TRUMBULL 103
HON. JOHN F. HYLAN, PRESENT MAYOR OF NEW YORK.. 109
THE CLIPPER SHIP "SWEEPSTAKES" (IN COLOR). FROM
A RARE OLD LITHOGRAPH 116
GOV. E. D. MORGAN'S GARDEN, 37TH .STREET AND FIFTH
AVENUE. A TRULY RURAL SPOT IN THE HEART OF
THE CITY UNTIL VERY RECENTLY 123
OLD FIFTH AVENUE STAGES WITH THREE HORSES, 1895.. 129
RARE VIEW OF 14TH STREET, WEST FROM FIFTH AVE-
NUE. 1869. WHEN IT WAS A STREET OF FINE PRIVATE
THE CLIPPER SHIP "OCEAN EXPRESS" (IN COLOR) 142
SITE OF DELANCEY MILLS AND HOMESTEAD IN THE
BRONX. SHOWING THE TOWERING TOP OF THE
DELANCEY PINE 149
THE BRONX RIVER NEAR THE DELANCEY PINE. WHERE
JOSEPH RODMAN DRAKE COMPOSED HIS POEM
PAINTING OF RALPH IZARD AND ALICE DELANCEY.
FROM A PAINTING BY COPLEY IN THE BOSTON MU-
THE CLIPPER SHIP "ANDREW JACKSON," FAMOUS CALI-
FORNIA CLIPPER (IN COLOR). RECORD VOYAGE OF
89 DAYS NEW YORK TO SAN FRANCISCO 168
LAFAYETTE MONUMENT IN BROOKLYN. UNVEILED BY
MARSHALL JOFFRE IN 1917 175
HOME OF WASHINGTON IRVING, 17TH STREET AND IR-
VING PLACE. OPP. WASHINGTON IRVING HIGH
VIEW OF FIFTH AVENUE, NORTH FROM 53RD STREET,
1876. SHOWING ST. THOMAS' CHURCH BEFORE IT
WAS DESTROYED BY FIRE 187
GILBERT STUART'S PAINTING OF WASHINGTON FROM
LIFE. OWNED BY MR. JAMES SPEYER . 194
FIFTH AVENUE AND 40TH STREET IN 1900. NOW THE
SITE OF WOOLWORTH'S FINEST STORE 201
THE OLD WELL ON GOUVERNEUR MORRIS' PLACE, PORT
MORRIS. 1895 207
GEN. GRANT'S HOME IN E. 66TH STREET. WHERE THE
GREAT SOLDIER LIVED BEFORE HE WAS TAKEN TO
MOUNT MACGREGOR 213
THE CLIPPER SHIP "WM. H. MACY," CHINA TEA SHIP (IN
SHIPPING CARD OF THE BLACK BALL LINE 232
SECOND AVENUE, NORTH FROM 1ST STREET, 1880. A
RARE VIEW OF A ONCE FASHIONABLE NEIGHBOR-
PARK AVENUE AND SOTH STREET, 1859. NOW A PART OF
THE GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL 233
THE FAMOUS 300- YEAR OLD TULIP TREE AT INWOOD. A
NATURAL BEAUTY SPOT 239
THE CLIPPER SHIP "BLACK PRINCE" (IN COLOR).
SAILED IN THE CHINA AND CALIFORNIA TRADE 246
THE OLD LORILLARD SNUFF MILL IN THE BRONX 253
WHERE ALEXANDER HAMILTON LIVED ON RIVERSIDE
DRIVE. THE RUDD MANSION 259
RARE VIEW OF THE OLD FIRST BRICK CHURCH, BEEK-
MAN AND NASSAU STREETS. NOW ON FIFTH AVENUE
AND 37TH STREET 265
THE CLIPPER SHIP "FIDELIO" OF THE BLACK BALL
LINE (IN COLOR) 272
CORNER OF BROADWAY AND 13TH STREET, 1865. TYPICAL
EXAMPLE OF OLD FASHIONED HOARDINGS 279
VAN CORTLANDT MANSION, BRONX, 1748. NOW IN CARE
OF THE COLONIAL DAMES 285
OLD ENGLISH PORCELAIN. FOUND IN THE VAULT OF
THE LEWIS MORRIS MANSION 291
THE CLIPPER SHIP "CHAS. H. MARSHALL," NAMED AF-
TER THE OWNER OF THE BLACK BALL LINE TO
LIVERPOOL (IN COLOR) 298
LION PARK CASINO, 8TH AVENUE AND llOTH STREET.
ONCE A POPULAR SUBURBAN RESORT 305
LATTING OBSERVATORY, NORTH SIDE OF 42ND STREET,
OPPOSITE BRYANT PARK. A FAMOUS SIDE SHOW OF
THE CRYSTAL PALACE 311
LOWER BROADWAY, 1900. REPLACING THE CABLE WITH
THE UNDERGROUND TROLLEY 317
THE CLIPPER SHIP "NEW HAMPSHIRE" OF THE STATE
LINE, 1850. (IN COLOR) 324
OLD FIRE TOWER IN MT. MORRIS PARK. A LAST RELIC
OF THE VOLUNTEER FIREMEN DAYS 331
POE COTTAGE AS IT ORIGINALLY STOOD IN KINGS-
BRIDGE ROAD, 1849 337
OLD HARLEM COACH ON FOURTH AVENUE 343
THE CLIPPER SHIP "CHALLENGE." (IN COLOR) 350
(Famous in the California and Chinese Trade, 1853.)
OLD TIME SHIPPING CARD OF SUTTON & CO 354
PARK AVENUE SOUTH FROM 53RD STREET, 1860 357
Now the most fashionable residential section in the downtown
EXTREMELY RARE VIEW OF WALL STREET IN 1860 363
Showing stoops of the old-time residences, still standing, and the
old V. ^rehouse, corner Broad and Wall, now the Morgan comer.
An exceptionally interesting photograph.
Old New York
IN a recent entertaining volume on "American His-
torians of the Middle Period," a most interesting
glimpse is given of the actual physical labor in-
volved in the compilation of a standard historical work
and also some very intimate figures concerning the
monetary reward — or lack of it — enjoyed by the authors.
The account of Bancroft's "History of the United States"
contained one reference which to us was of more than
passing interest. When the first volume of this work was
offered to the public, it was received with comparative
indifference; when the second volume appeared, a few
years later, it seemed to revive interest in the undertaking,
but with the appearance of the third volume, the sales of
the two preceding numbers were greatly accelerated and
the success of the book was fully assured.
With this number of the Manual, we face a similar
crucial period in our own work. The second issue ap-
peared when our country had engaged in a world war of
unparalleled magnitude and the thoughts of our friends
were centered not on old New York, but on the battle
fields of France. The sales of the Manual were, there-
fore, somewhat curtailed. Nevertheless we successfully
weathered the gale and our advance sales for the third
number, to our great delight, assures us that the lack of
interest in our work was merely temporary, and that the
New Yorker is still interested in his city and in the
countless valuable memorabilia which we are collecting.
Time passes so rapidly that in a few years subscribers
to the Manual will be amazed at the amount of valuable
material concerning New York which will be in their
possession. No single volume can adequately show the
extent of the work, but when a dozen issues have been
completed we think our friends will be more than pleased
with the result of the investment. Interest in New York
is growing with every passing day, and after the War it
will be even greater than ever before.
The present management of the Manual does not look
upon it as a private venture ; it is more in the nature of a
public enterprise. We sometimes regret the lack of sup-
port by our Municipal authorities, even in a modified de-
gree. On the other hand, we enjoy a measure of editorial
freedom which must in the end tend to the advantage of
the Manual, as it enables us to select such material as
commends itself to our judgment with no obligation from
The City of New York, always of first importance in
the new world, has within the past year or two suddenly
OF OLD NEW YORK
assumed the leading position among the capitals of both
Europe and America. There is a quickening interest in
all its annals, and in the course of a few years these
volumes should become a veritable storehouse of antiqua-
rian lore concerning its origin and progress. We think
our readers will agree with us that each number so far
has been an improvement upon its predecessor, and that
will ever be the policy under the present management.
We sometimes feel that we deprive ourselves of many
things in this life that are really worth while simply
because they do not pay. The time, labor and expense
involved in obtaining even material for one number of the
Manual is very considerable. It must be always local in
its interest and in spite of the great population, it appeals
to merely a limited number. Its value to posterity, how-
ever, so we are informed by competent authorities, is
incalculable. We had an amusing experience of the truth
of this fact at the Crimmins sale in March, when a copy of
the second number brought $17.00 at auction. In view
of the fact that we were advertising and using every exer-
tion to notify the public that this book was a current
number and could be purchased for $10.00, it was rather
discouraging to find it so little known that it was eagerly
purchased at 70 per cent, over our subscribers' price.
Perhaps our advertising department is at fault; perhaps
some of our readers can tell us how to improve this de-
fect. Not having the opulent city of New York at our
back, as was the case with our distinguished predecessor,
we are naturally circumscribed in our methods of public-
ity. For some time to come we shall be obliged to de-
pend upon the formula prescribed by Governor Stuyve-
sant, whose public proclamations invariably ended with
the solemn injunction that "each one should tell the
That the Manual is slowly making its way into the
affections of the people of New York is evidenced in
many directions. In spite of the war we have frequent
orders from London, Paris and other European points.
The sale outside of New York is confined to no single
state in the Union, but numbers a friend in almost each
one. We are also painfully conscious that our own
efforts do not realize our expectations as yet, but as our
acquaintance expands and our ramifications become
wider, we are confident that many treasures of old Nevf
York will ultimately find their way to the public through
the pages of the Manual. The volume of our correspond-
ence grows daily and in normal times we think the sale
of the Manual would be greatly increased.
We consider ourselves peculiarly fortunate in being
able to present to our readers in this number, through
the courtesy of Mr. Simeon Ford, a splendid colored
supplement showing the afternoon promenade at the Bat-
tery, from the only perfect known copy of this lithograph
published by Thos. Thompson in 1829.
At the time our picture was taken the population of
New York was 129,000 — considerably less than Philadel-
phia, which was still the first city in the Union. Fifteen
years were yet to elapse before running water would be
introduced into the houses, the supply still being obtained
from pumps at the street corners and in the middle of
road ways. Anthracite coal, or as it was called, "sea
coal," was yet unheard of and illuminating gas while
discovered, was not yet in general use. Pigs were still
th€ most important branch of the Street Cleaning.
OF OLD NEW YORK
Department and together it was a strangely different city
from the one of today. The costumes are deHghtfully
quaint and represent quite a radical change from the col-
orful dress of Colonial days. The trousers had finally
been stretched below the knee and caught with a strap on
the instep of the foot. They were skin tight. The coats
and vests still rivaled Jacob's garments in their various
hues and brilliancy. Huge brass buttons shone conspic-
uously and the high stocks of mufiflers served to impart
an imposing appearance to the wearer. The tall and
somewhat ponderous beaver hat was a radical departure
from the three cornered cockade and had not yet assumed
the smartness which it subsequently achieved. In fact
the high hat seemed to have bothered our grandfathers
quite considerably, and relics are still found in our attics
measuring eighteen inches in height, several inches in the
brim and covered with a coat of long beaver. Strange
to relate the dress of the women was still suggestive of
the Colonial dame, although the beginning of hoop skirts
was plainly indicated. The old time poke bonnet, much
ridiculed in our day, was still an effective attribute of the
woman of fashion of 1830. Her shawl was of exquisite
fineness, being largely imported from China and the far
East, and made of the most exquisitely soft materials.
One can imagine the excitement which would be created
in a group of this character by the sudden appearance
among them of a modern woman dressed in the height
of the present fashion.
He ***** *
The structural features of the Battery, as it then ex-
isted and which have long since disappeared also com-
mand our attention. It is quite apparent that there was a
boardwalk built over the shore line which extended from
Pier 1 to South Ferry. At the time this drawing was
made the shore line skirted along what is now Battery
Place, following State Street within fifty feet of the
houses and ended in front of the Eagle Hotel, oppo-
site Hamilton Ferry. What is now the Aquarium was
then Castle Clinton and was a substantial fortification
erected prior to the War of 1812. It was not until 1854
that the land was filled in to conform to the present ap-
pearance of Battery Park. (We printed a picture of the
filling in process in Vol. H — one of the earliest outdoor
photographs of the city known to exist.) When this
filling in was completed. Castle Clinton became part of
the main land. It was formerly reached by a bridge and
stood some two hundred feet from the shore. The pres-
ent sea wall and some slight additions to the land have
been made quite recently, so there has been a very radical
change in the old Battery since the time of this quaint
lithograph. Governor's Island and Castle William to the
left was still seen in their original formation. The pres-
ent aviation field and the numerous additions made to the
island in the last fifty years have more than quadrupled
its original size. The old fort, however, remains as it
was, with the difference, however, that as a fort today it
is of no more use than a band box. Bedloe's Island,
now adorned with the Statue of Liberty, shows as merely
a very small obstruction, one might say, and in no wise
resembles the substantial island of today. To the left
is Ellis Island with a single building upon it, which was
later used as a powder magazine. It seems very much
smaller than our present Emigrant Station, but that also
is due to the additions made to it in the years that have
intervened. A vast amount of dredging work has always
been conducted in the harbor and the deepening of the
OF OLD NEW YORK
Channel has provided abundant material for the addition
to these islands which originally were very small.
But the most interesting feature of all is the animated
marine picture in the Bay itself. The three-masted ship
to the extreme left with the black ball on the sail is one of
the famous Black Ball China tea ships, making harbor
after a voyage from the Orient. The other ships in the
picture are distinguished members of our long lost mer-
chant marine — Red Cross, Swallow Tail and other packet
lines — which made regular sailings to Liverpool and
Australian ports. A notable feature of these ships is
the fact that they are beating their way up the Bay under
their own sail. In those days no tugs or other assistance
was available. The ships came out of the ocean and
made their way to their berths unaided, and with naught
but the skill of the captain to guide them.
The persons shown are supposed to be from the ranks
of the most fashionable society of the day. This section
of New York was easily the most exclusive at the time
and corresponded with our present Fifth Avenue east of
Central Park. There is still no more animated picture
in the world than the view from this selfsame Battery
and it is the delight and admiration of strangers from
everywhere. Apparently we who live in the City do not
appreciate the many attractions of this spot, otherwise
the Battery would be thronged of a summer evening, as
it was in the olden time. This rare lithograph is just one
more reminder of the vast changes which have occurred
in our city in a comparatively brief period. It is a highly
important contribution to the annals of old New York
and too much cannot be said of Mr. Ford's generosity in
placing it at the disposal of our readers. We regret ex-
ceedingly to be unable to give more details of the firm
which published this remarkable picture. Beyond the
fact that the name was Thos. Thompson and that the
sketch was drawn on stone by Thompson himself, we
have no other details. It would be interesting to know
more about this man and his work. If any of our friends
should be in possession of information that would en-
lighten us on this subject, it would afford us pleasure to
place it on record.
We are glad to note that the proposed use of Battery
Park by the Federal Government has been abandoned in
deference to the protest lodged by the Women's Auxiliary
of the American Defense Society. Miss Elisabeth Mar-
bury sent a stirring appeal to the City and Government
on the subject with this splendid result.
Good work ! Now will Miss Marbury please lend her
aid to remove the old post office and restore the City Hall
Park to its original dimensions?
A column of Victory in place of this old building would
be a great improvement. We hope to work on this
project during the coming year and invite suggestions
from our readers.
Another view of extraordinary interest is the pano-
ramic supplement, showing both sides of Broadway from
the Battery to Rector Street. With painstaking care
the artist has pictured every building as it then stood,
exactly as it appeared in 1848. We still see the private
residences which lined State Street and which were
among the very earliest erected under American auspices.
The three houses shown on this block were occupied
respectively by Robt. Lenox, J. B. Coles and Moses
Rogers. Directly facing us is the end of the row of houses
[ 10 ]
Baxtns'x^n of tl|p Bm^ IB 52
Perhaps the most celebrated of all
the California clippers and among the
largest, 2,421 tons. She was com-
manded by Capt. Lauchlan McKay,
brother of Donald McKay the builder.
Some idea of the profits of the Cali-
fornia trade may be gauged from the
receipts of her "first voyage, $84,000.
She returned by way of Honolulu
and hung up the reniarkalile run of
1,478 miles in four daj's or an aver-
age of 378 miles per day. Her best
day's run, March 18th, 1853, was 411
miles and for 11 days she averaged
330 miles steady or 13% knots per
hour. Allowing for difl'erence in lati-
tude and longitude her run of 411
miles was actually 424 miles land
measure. She was a remarkable ship
whose memory still lingers in New
York.— Collection of Mr. M. Williams.
OF OLD NEW YORK
which stood on Battery Place where the Custom
House now is, and which in later days was known as
"Steamship Row." Opposite State Street is a view of
the Bay and old Fort Clinton, now changed into an emi-
grant receiving station, Castle Garden, and known to
probably more men and women than any other building in
the country. Through its portals passed all immigrants
who landed on these shores between 1855 and 1891. It
will thus be seen that our statement, which may surprise
many, that it is the best known building in the United
States has a firm foundation of truth. Not alone have
millions of men and women passed through this building,
but they have described it and spoken of it to their chil-
dren and thus increased its fame throughout not only
New York but all the cities of the West. If corrobora-
tion of this remark is needed, inquire among the post
card men and view makers of New York and also of the
Inquiry Department in our various Historical Societies
and they will all state that the most in demand of all the
buildings in New York City is old Castle Garden.
Beginning at No. 1, west side, each building is shown
in numerical order. On the east side it starts at Beaver
Street with the old Adelphi Hotel and follows the same
arrangement as the other. In many instances the owners
of the buildings paid for their insertion and some tenants
paid for their signs which appeared on the building. We
may therefore conclude that the drawings are absolutely
correct and as a result we have a most extraordinarily
valuable picture of our principal street at the time when
it was just beginning to emerge from a residential thor-
oughfare into the most important commercial artery of
the leading city of the new world.
[ 15 ]
The publishers were apparently among the first lithog-
raphers in the city of New York. They had their shop
at 128 Fulton Street, which appears to have been the
favorite location for this new business, as we find the
imprints of several other lithographers also in this neigh-
borhood — Endicott & Co., N. Currier and several others
whose work appears in the original Manual.
Jones and Newman made a serious attempt to portray
every important street in the City of New York at that
particular time. In addition to the Broadway views,
there is known to be a set depicting William Street,
Maiden Lane and Fulton Street. It is also said that
Broadway was continued north from the Hospital which
was then at Worth Street, clear up to Grace Church.
Whether or not this statement was true cannot now be
determined. These views were originally in pamphlet
form and the size was 8x11 inches. The workmanship
is crude as is shown in our reproduction, which is an
exact facsimile, but was considered good at that time.
They sold at a very modest price — 25c. per copy. Most
of the revenue was apparently obtained from the adver-
tisements, the covers of the pamphlet being filled with the
names of the various merchants whose stores and shops
were shown in the illustrations. On account of their
cheapness, it is quite evident that most of the copies were
not highly prized, as few of them are now in existence.
Their importance today, however, is of the highest, and
a complete set of these little pamphlets, which could have
been purchased for $1.00 in 1848, is now considered cheap
at $600.00. This is only one more illustration of the fact
that historically speaking "the trash of today becomes
the treasure of tomorrow." It is quite impossible to state
the sum of money that would be given today for the con-
OF OLD NEW YORK
tinuation of Broadway; for Wall Street and for other
important streets, such as Pearl Street, then the leading
retail section, which might thus have been preserved to
posterity. We are indebted to the New York Historical
Society for the privilege of presenting these views in the
Manual. We have reproduced them with every fidelity
to size, color and form. There are three additional
pamphlets in the set and these will be duly presented in
succeeding issues of the Manual. Our readers will then
have a complete set of what is conceded to be one of the
most interesting items of old New York views.
Views of Wall Street, such as this one of Broadway
of this period, are extremely rare. Sections of certain
localities, notably at the corner of Broad and Wall, are
occasionally encountered, but an entire prospective from
Broadway to the East River does not apparently exist.
We have, however, closely examined the pencil sketch
drawn by Reinagle about 1825, which adorns the margin
of a view of Wall Street, looking from Broadway. In a
note on this lithograph the artist states that he has "drawn
in the margin each house as it then appeared and every
building (at that time standing), is represented." Upon
close examination, we are glad to state that the artist
is quite correct in his statement. There are, however,
one or two spots which seem to be incorrectly rendered,
but which no doubt could be readily supplied from other
data. We are now at work upon this interesting dis-
covery and in an early number of the Manual we shall
present a redraft of this drawing, which we are sure
will be greatly enjoyed by our readers.
Our third supplement shows a view of New York look-
ing south from Forty-second Street. This admirable
drawing is the work of John W. Hill, evidences of whose
talent are found in several directions, notably in the view
of Broadway looking north from Canal Street, which is
familiar to most of our readers. Mr. Hill, it appears,
came from England, commissioned to make the portraits
of most of our distinguished citizens, but no record of his
portraiture has survived. He found employment, how-
ever, in various enterprises, in which his ability as an
artist was used to good effect. He was also a colorist
of rare skill and his view of New York from Brooklyn
Heights gives abundant evidence of his talent in this
direction. He was an experienced workman in the pro-
duction of aquatints, a process of engraving which is now
obsolete. Many of the color prints of this period were
produced by this method and there is a singular softness
and charm in them which is not obtained by present day
methods. Impressions were taken from a copper plate
which could be printed either in black or in colors at the
artist's discretion. It was evidently a slow and laborious
process, the entire subject having to be painted by the art-
ist in colors directly on the copper. Notwithstanding the
number of colors used in the process, they were all printed
at one impression. This is in striking contrast to our
present methods, which call for the superimposing of one
color over another, the final result being the blending of
all of the other colors in proper register. These aqua-
tints of Hill's have gained much renown and are ex-
tremely valuable, the Broadway view being held at
$400.00 to $500.00, according to condition. Mr. Hill was
also employed in the production of the Hudson River
portfolio of views and is said to have collaborated with
Benson J. Lossing in the many illustrations which em-
bellished his "Field book of the Revolution." He is,
[ 18 ]
Broadway south from Houston Street (18(50). Old St. 'riioniiu
Church in the foreground. Note the awnings, tlie stages
and the trees. Collection of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider.
OF OLD NEW YORK
however, chiefly remembered by the plates depicting New
York; and the example which we have reproduced, by
reason of the extent of the view and the importance of
the territory represented is becoming one of his most
valuable contributions. It was made at the time of the
opening of the Crystal Palace (which was the forerunner
of all the World's Fairs), which was located in Bryant
Park on Sixth Avenue from 40th to 42nd Streets. The
other part of this square extended to Fifth Avenue and
was occupied by the Croton Aqueduct, which at that time
was the eighth wonder of the world, in our eyes.
Directly opposite the Crystal Palace, on the north side
of 42nd Street had been erected a towering structure
named after its designer, Latting's Observatory. It was
the Eififel Tower of its day. Visitors to the Exposition
were wont to ascend this Observatory to the top floor,
thus gaining a comprehensive view of the Metropolis
stretching out from its base. The corner, now occupied
by the Astor Trust Company, was then a vacant lot. It
was valued at about $1,500. On the next block is a
private residence surrounded by a garden of roses, and
on the corner of 40th Street, where Arnold Constable &
Company is, stands the Croton Cottage, the only building
approaching a hotel in the neighborhood. It was possible
to obtain refreshments for man and beast at this hostlery
and also to remain over night if desired. The luxuriant
trees which lined Fifth Avenue in those days are still
plainly seen and in the neighborhood of Thirty-fourth
Street are the first evidences of the approaching city.
There are still a number of the houses with ample yards,
extending half way toward Madison Avenue. Below
Thirty-fourth Street begins the monotonous array of
brown stond fronts, so characteristic of New York.
When the Crystal Palace was first opened, its location
was considered quite far out of town and the Sixth Ave-
nue street car line had to be extended to complete com-
munication. The entire neighborhood from river to
river, as will be seen, was sparsely populated, many of
the most densely populated squares of today being then
open lots. The Harlem Railroad with its wood-burning
locomotives came down Park Avenue on a single track
to Madison Square Garden, where the engine was
dropped and the remainder of the journey to City Hall
was continued by means of horses. The Hudson River
Road had its station at Thirtieth Street and Eleventh
Avenue and likewise continued its journey to its main
depot at Chambers Street and West Broadway by horse
power. By reference to this old drawing and a com-
parison with the many storied structures which now
cover the same section, a striking contrast is presented.
This old drawing of Hill's, therefore is of rare interest,
rendering as it does a contemporaneous birdseye view of
our great city up to its most northern limits as it appeared
sixty years ago. In this connection, it is somewhat pa-
thetic to recall the remark of the architect of the Croton
Reservoir who died in the firm belief that no matter what
else might happen he had left an enduring monument to
his memory, in the Egyptian structure which housed the
city's water supply at the corner of Forty-second Street
and Fifth Avenue, and of which he was the designer.
This great world war has brought many changes, not
the least of which is the revived interest in shipping. In
another chapter we have tried to tell briefly the glory of
New York in the days of the Clipper. These old ships
will be affectionately recalled by many old New Yorkers,
OF OLD NEW YORK
as they were a picturesque feature of this busy port for
nearly a century. As we have said before New York is
fortunate in possessing written records or tangible evi-
dences of many of her most important developments.
The first Dutch settlers, as we know, were scarcely
allowed to draw breath without a specific order from the
State's General, with the result that no city enjoys a more
complete record of its early days. To a very great ex-
tent this is also true of her shipping. It is quite impos-
sible at the present day to reproduce the spirit and the
atmosphere which clustered around these fliers of the
"roaring forties." The affection of a man for a ship may
be likened to the same feeling which he has for a horse.
To this personal liking for those old ships we no doubt
owe the fact that many of the favorites of the day en-
joyed the honor of being lithographed and sold to their
admirers. This honor, however, was reserved only for
the more famous of the group, yet there exist many paint-
ings equally authentic and likewise contemporaneous of
many vessels which never reached the dignity of publica-
tion. It would not be wholly impossible, were it deemed
necessary, to secure an almost complete collectipn of 150
or more clipper ships hailing from the Port of New
It is our great pleasure to commence this collection
with this volume. We have presented twelve of the best
known craft of their day, together with some of the
fancy colored cards which used to be distributed to ship-
pers by Hussey's Post. There are still many men living
in New York who as boys played on their decks
and climbed their masts. It was the golden age of our
maritime commerce and the like of our square rigged
beauties may never be seen again. The renaissance of
our merchant marine is nevertheless a strong probability.
At the close of the war, our Navy will have been aug-
mented to incredible numbers, both in men and ships.
The importance of sea power has never before been
brought home so strikingly as it has in the past year or
two. Small wonder is it, therefore, that our Govern-
ment should be giving serious thought to the development
of her long lost supremacy on the high seas.
Another installment of these famous old ships will fol-
low the first and be continued until the series is com-
pleted. It will embrace practically every well-known ship
sailing from this port up to the outbreak of the Civil War
and the opening of the Suez Canal, which marked the end
of a period forever glorious in the history of American
The Masonic Temple at Sixth Avenue and 23rd Street, 1876. The
Dows residence, the fourth house above, was the
site of the Eden Musee.
CITY OF NEW YORK, SIX YEARS BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR, 1855
Taken ftom the Latting Observatory, 42nd Street opposite the Crystal Palace, Looking South
Dr>wn from N.ture By J. W. Hill in 1855
MEMORIES OF OLD NEW YORK
; : BY MEN STILL LIVING : ;
Recollections of Old Sixth Avenue
Walter C. Reid
"Dear to my heart are the
Scenes of my Childhood"
IT is difficult to realize the wonderful changes in our
great city during the past fifty years until we look
over publications such as this. Without such
corroborative evidence, the stories of the early days that
we "to the manner born" are fond of repeating, are open
to suspicion as it seems hardly possible that such great
changes could occur in so short a period.
In the Manual for 1916 was shown a cottage that stood
at the corner of Broadway and Twenty-ninth Street at
the rear of which in my boyhood days I have picked
sickel pears, and I am not yet sixty. My grandfather
had greenhouses on Thirtieth Street between Broadway
and Fifth Avenue, with adjoining city lots covering a
space 250 x 100, for which at one time he paid only the
taxes as rent.
I was born in a house on Sixth Avenue, and many fond
recollections center around that thoroughfare. That
rapid transit decreed that its beauty should be marred by
the elevated railroad has always been a cause of regret.
The Avenue never developed as fully as it might have
done had it been a direct artery from down town, but
was handicapped almost as much as Seventh Avenue has
been, by entrance from Canal Street and the South by
Varick Street and its extension Carmine Street. Coming
North, as you leave Bleecker Street at Carmine, you enter
Sixth Avenue, and your view is immediately met by the
Sixth Avenue Elevated Road as it turns in from West
Third Street, formerly known as Amity Street. The
old Avenue here is almost as it was fifty years ago.
The firm of J. & R. Lamb had its warerooms for
church furniture a short distance above on the left. There
were the usual sprinkling of grocery stores and butcher
shops with the liquor saloons placed, as now, on prominent
corners. The grocers were usually Germans who also
sold garden truck and at any of them you might buy a
penny pickle if you preferred that to candy. In those
days the grocers sprinkled their floors with sea sand, and
the butchers theirs with saw dust. Why the diflference,
I never knew. The butchers in those days made their
deliveries in two-wheeled carts drawn usually by a fast
horse, which horse in the afternoon was used by the
owner for racing purposes in Harlem Lane. The but-
chers and grocers both displayed half their wares on the
sidewalk, and the fronts of their stores were protected
by tin sheds extending to the edge of the walk.
I was born over a "Dutch" grocery. My father was
in the provision business across the Avenue. I was a
convenient receptacle for spotted bananas, which in those
OF OLD NEW YORK
days were red, not yellow, and occasionally a luscious
orange. My first recollection of a Sixth Avenue horse
car was when, as a little chap in kilts, I dropped one of
said oranges while running across to avoid being run
over, and my dear orange was smashed into pulp. These
first cars were shaped like the old Fifth Avenue busses,
except that they were on car wheels, and were drawn by
one horse. The driver sat on top, and there was no con-
ductor. You passed your fare up through a little hole
to the driver. The fare was six cents.
While we did not live long at this place, nearly all my
life up to my twentieth year I lived on or near Sixth
Avenue. Living as I did above Twenty-third Street, my
recollections of lower Sixth Avenue forty to fifty years
ago are not very clear.
The chief buildings that I recall South of Twenty-third
Street are the old Catholic Church on the Northwest cor-
ner of West Washington Place ; the Greenwich Savings
Bank at the Southwest corner of Waverly Place, a modest
but massive building that made you feel that your money
there deposited was safe ; Jefferson Market at the triangle
made by Sixth Avenue, Greenwich Avenue and West
Tenth Street (the entire triangle was covered by the mar-
ket in those days, with a story above in which Court was
held. This is now taken up largely by the brick court
house) ; at Twelfth Street there was a saloon over the
door of which there was an immense bunch of gold
grapes. This was called "The Grapevine" (the title may
have been suggested by the steps of the departing guests) ;
at Thirteenth Street, just off the Avenue, was old Gram
mar School No. 35, at which Thomas Hunter (later of
the girls' Normal School or Hunter College, as it is called
now) presided; Shepard Knapp, the carped man, had a
store on one corner ; Silsbee's oyster saloon was half way
up the block ; across the Avenue at Fourteenth Street was
the beginning of R. H. Macy & Co., operated by Webster
& Wheeler in three small stores, each 25 x 100, with the
On the Northerly corner across from Macy's, in the
basement, Thorley & Son sold flowers and plants. Thor-
ley Jr., now operates on Fifth Avenue at Forty-sixth
Street. Frankfield had a jewelry store on the North-
The large store with iron front formerly occupied by
Altman & Co. at the corner of Nineteenth Street was not
in existence at that time, the site being covered by two
story buildings with small stores. Altman and his mother
had a small store on the block above between Nineteenth
and Twentieth Streets. A short distance above was
Deshler's bakery, the delight of the boys of West Twenti-
eth Street Public School, where they spent their spare
change at lunch time.
The Episcopal Church at the corner of Twentieth
Street is still there to-day. Several private houses ad-
joined this. It was here I had my first really painful
loss. A dentist residing in one of these removed an
aching tooth and I never forgave him. Wall's bakery was
on the corner of Twenty-first Street, — a bakery in the
days when bakers' mince pie was real mince pie. Diago-
nally opposite was Jackson's grocery, at that time one of
the best uptown.
Stern Brothers occupied a little store just below Twen-
ty-third Street for their dry goods business, and William
Moir had a jewelry store on the corner. Booth's Theatre
was opposite. The Masonic Temple had not yet arrived,
but Roome's Real Estate oflfice and the Excelsior Savings
OF OLD NEW YORK
Bank were already on the site. The Northwest corner
was occupied by Alexander's Shoe Store. The early rec-
ollections of a boy are apt to center around a candy shop
or a bakery, and I have pleasant recollections of a little
candy store on the West side, just above Twenty-third
Street, the name of the proprietor of which I have for-
The bake shop of John Crawford adjoined my father's
place above Twenty- fourth Street. The recollection of
those cream puffs clings to me still. They were so full
that your tongue had to play tag with your teeth to pre-
vent that cream from dripping over the edges. And the
bath buns, filled with raisins and citron and colored a rich
yellow with real eggs, Um ! Um ! I can taste them now.
Next door to my birthplace on the Westerly side of the
Avenue, John C. Devens, who afterwards designed the
Pansy Corset and moved to Broadway and Twenty-eighth
Street, operated a fancy store. Mr. Devens was a brother
of General Devens, for whom the military camp at Ayer,
Mass., is named.
At the Northeast corner of Twenty-fifth Street was a
store occupied by a furniture dealer which subsequently
became a headquarters for the Thomson-Houston Electric
Light Company. This was in the early days of the arc
light, when it was necessary for it to sizz and splutter to
show what an improvement it was over gas illumination.
Just north of this store was Mrs. Hopkins' Pie Bakery.
Her business was serving groceries with pies, and the
wagons used were the first, I think, for carrying pies,
arranged with rows of shelves on each side in cabinets,
with a passageway down the middle. Mrs. Hopkins fur-
nished a very popular pie.
I think the old Racquet Club Building- on the corner of
Twenty-sixth Street has been built more than forty years.
Adjoining this was the tailor shop of John Patterson, a
leading custom tailor of those days.
Paisley's Shoe Store occupied the Northwest corner of
Twenty-seventh Street. This was one of the largest up-
town, at the time. Diagonally opposite, between Twenty-
seventh and Twenty-eighth Streets was and still is the old
Knickerbocker Cottage, an old road house, now very
much shut in.
Next to Paisley's was Doctor Giles' drug store. Doc-
tor Giles manufactured a liniment that had a large sale,
and was advertised on the rocks all around the country.
Between Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Streets was
George Finkenauer's Paint Store. This is where we got
our putty for our putty blowers, and just above, on the
same block, was Davis' Stationery Store, where we bought
our school supplies. Mrs. Davis was the boss. She
never appeared without her bonnet made of wire covered
with brown cloth. It was rumored among the boys that
she had no hair. Anyway, she always wore the bonnet.
On the corner above stood Niess' Bakery, with fresh
Washington pie and ginger bread in chunks at noon time
school recess, pumpkin pie with the tops done brown, cur-
rant pie so full of currants that you just couldn't catch
it all. What boy that went to old School No. 26 in those
days does not remember?
Silsbie's Oyster Saloon was across the way, half way up
the block, and adjoining this was a place that had a very
varied career, and was the start of making the Twentieth
Precinct the tenderloin of New York. It was first a
bathing pavilion, then an aquarium, then was known as
the Argyle and subsequently the Cremorne Gardens, a
OF OLD NEW YORK
rather troublesome dancehall. On the block above, a little
later, Billy Borst startedt+te>.^nmi;^ fiarden, another all
night dancehall. * -' "^ ^ ^^
Captain Steers was Captain of the precinct previous to
the regime of Captain Alexander Williams, and you had
better believe the boys steered clear of his patrolmen,
especially when hooking barrels for bonfires on election
night. It was a common thing to gather in as many as
fifty barrels to send up in smoke.
On the corner of Thirty-second Street was a marble
works. The property was owned by R. A. Witthaus, the
father of the celebrated poison expert who died a short
time ago. This is the property facing Greeley Square.
Mr. Witthaus afterwards sold this property at what he
considered a high figure to the Union Dime Savings
Bank, which erected an imposing building on the site, but
long since abandoned by the bank for the present site at
the corner of Fortieth Street. The Sixth Avenue side of
Greeley Square is now called Broadway as well as the
Easterly side, but I will assume for my purpose that it
was all Sixth Avenue.
On the upper Northeasterly corner of Thirty-second
Street was a two story building used by D. Martin for
storage purposes. This was one of the first storage ware-
houses for household furniture in New York. The build-
ing was afterwards torn down and a brick apartment was
erected. Rogers, Peet & Co. had their first uptown
branch clothing house on this corner.
At the rear of this building were two small English
basement houses. In the window of one was the sign
"Dr. Mary Putnam." We boys then thought it wonder-
ful that a woman should be a doctor. This lady later be-
came Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, the wife of Dr. Abram
[ 35 ]
Jacobi, the celebrated physician, who is still living at
a ripe old age. At this time, Dr. Jacobi himself lived
in Thirty-fourth Street just West of Sixth Avenue. A
little farther down the street on the upperside was a
marble yard operated by the man whom it was claimed
chiseled the Cardiff Giant, which was subsequently dug
up at Cardiff, Missouri, and was supposed to be a petrified
giant of a prehistoric age.
Adjoining the Rogers Peet establishment to the North,
was a building with a hall upstairs. In this Madame
Krause held the first Kindergarten school, I believe, in
Above Thirty-second Street, on the Westerly side, was
Bates' Milk Dairy, afterwards. Decker's. For five cents
you could get a schooner of real milk with the cream on
top, not the blue milk of the present day. Decker was
the original Decker of the Sheffield Farms, Slawson-
Decker milk combine.
A short time after, a few doors above, was erected the
Standard Theatre for William Henderson. This the-
atre opened with the first performance of Gilbert & Sulli-
van's H. M. S. Pinafore, which occupied the boards for
a long time. Minnie Maddern, now Minnie Maddern
Fiske, made her debut here. Harrison Gray Fiske was
the treasurer for Henderson.
I am forgetting the Southwesterly corner of Thirty-
second Street. This was occupied by an unpretentious
saloon, with the customary horse watering trough in front,
but this was the starting point of the old Manhattanville
stage line. In Winter, when snow was on the ground,
four horse sleighs were substituted for stages, and these
were filled every trip, at ten cents per passenger. Their
route was up Broadway to Manhattanville.
[ 56 ]
fuuttg Ammra IB53
One of the most successful clippers
ever built by Wm. H. Webb of New
York. Commanded by Capt. David
Babcock. She made the run from San
Francisco to New York in 92 days.
Her best performance was her record
run from 50° S. in the Atlantic to
50° S. in the Pacific in 6 days. She
rounded Cape Horn over fifty times.
In 1888 she foundered with all hands
while on a voyage from Philadelphia
to a European port.
This was one of the famous fleet
owned by A. A. Low & Bro., perhaps
the leading merchants of New York
in the foreign trade. Among other
famous ships owned by this firm were
the Nat B. Palmer, Houquali, Samuel
Russell, Surprise, Contest and others
The late Seth Low was of this family.
OF OLD NEW YORK
On the West side, between Thirty-third and Thirty-
fourth Streets was L. W. Parker's Restaurant and Hotel,
the Parker House, which was quite a popular resort of
the sports of the neighborhood.
On the lower Easterly corner at Thirty- fourth Street
was a two story building owned by Peter B. Sweeney of
Tammany Ring fame. This was later purchased by D.
H. McAlpin, and is now part of the site of the Hotel
McAlpin. The ground floor was occupied by small stores,
the second story by artists and sculptors. Constant May-
er, Beard Minor and Wilson McDonald had studios here.
At the easterly end of this building was a dancing academy
owned by an Austrian, Hlasko by name, where all the
young bloods of the neighborhood were taught the proper
use of the light fantastic toe. On the upper Easterly
corner was the Broadway Tabernacle of which Dr. Tay-
lor was then pastor.
An interesting place to us boys was a lot on the North-
west corner of Thirty-fifth Street, now Broadway. In
the Summer and Fall this was covered by a tent, said tent
being used by a horse trainer who for a consideration
taught the spectators how to train horses. My father
was very proud when he had taught a pony we owned to
walk on his hind legs, and stand on top of a cask. This
place was as good as a circus to the boys of the neigh-
borhood. This site was afterwards occupied by a cyclo-
rama of the Franco-Prussian War, a combination of wax
works and panorama viewed from a central tower.
Where the Herald building now stands was a two
story brick building. On the ground floor at the Thirty-
fifth Street end, Albro the grocer and the Sixth National
Bank at different times occupied the premises. Further
up Lewis & Conger had a house furnishing store through
to Broadway. They have long since moved further up-
town. The Colwell-Lead Company, later at the corner
of Thirty-ninth Street, occupied the Thirty-sixth Street
end. The second story was occupied by the Seventy-
first Regiment as their Armory.
Across the street, upstairs, was the training quarters
of Professor Judd. Judd was one of the first to take
up the challenge of Edward Pay son Weston for a six
days' walk at Old Madison Square Garden. A few doors
above Thirty-sixth Street was Murray's Bellhanging
Shop. Murray on the West side and Haggerty on the
East side of the town were the first two to invent and
install the combination letter boxes, bell pulls and speaking
tubes in apartment houses. In the apartments the tubes
were fitted with a whistle, and the boys would blow up
the tube, sound the whistle, and then would watch the
front door mysteriously open, pulled by a wire from
upstairs. Many a sneak thief has made good use of this
Hazzard & Massey's Drug Store was for a long time
on the lower Easterly corner of Thirty-ninth Street. This
was then one of the finest drug stores uptown. At the
corner of Fortieth Street, opposite Bryant Park, was the
Hotel Royal, operated by Richard Mears, who had previ-
ously operated a fancy store in the neighborhood of Nine-
teenth Street. A terrible fire destroyed this hotel, with
much loss of life. On the Westerly side, near Forty-
second Street, was Trenor's Lyric Hall, the scene of many
a meeting and dance.
From Forty-third to Forty-fourth Streets, on the East-
erly side, where the Hippodrome now stands, was the
Sixth Avenue Car Barn. At the time, the cars stopped
at the car barn. If you wished to go further, you changed
[ 42 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
cars, and an occasional car was run from the barn to
Fifty-ninth Street, with only a driver. No fares were
collected for this short ride. It was very convenient for
the boys who had been at the park skating all day who
had spent all of their money for bollivers and such, to ride
down for nothing as far as Forty-fifth Street, jump off
the car and walk home the balance of the way. It was
not deemed necessary to heat the cars in those days. You
bedded your feet down in a layer of straw and let it go
at that. I do not recall that there was any more pneumo-
cocci and other bacteria in those days than there are
to-day. Of course, we didn't have so many other kinds
of foreigners either.
I have recently read that the verses :
"Punch, brothers, punch, punch with care,
Punch in the presence of the passenger," etc.
have been ascribed to Mark Twain. But long before we
ever heard of Mark Twain the Sixth Avenue car con-
ductors carried a punch shaped like a large pistol, having
a small gong with two or three strips of different colored
pasteboard pinned to their coats, and as you paid your
fare a hole was punched in the ticket and the gong
sounded. Children under twelve were charged half fare.
J. B. Bidgood was the Superintendent of this line, — a tall
gray man resembhng Brother Jonathan. He knew how
to run a horse car line. His cars were always clean, and
the horses were real horses, well groomed.
Sixth Avenue in these early days above the car bam
did not amount to much. About Fiftieth Street you ar-
rived at shanty town with the squatters' shanties on top
of the rocks, with one or more goats to each shanty. At
Fifty-eighth Street the vacant lots were below the level
of the street, and in winter the entire block through to
Fifth Avenue was flowed over with water and was used
as a skating rink, entrance to which was had on payment
of a small fee.
At Fifty-ninth Street we entered the Park, as now.
The Park was then to us more beautiful than now. Every
Saturday we spent all day there. We had a good time.
"Them was the happy days."
The Beinhauer Garden Farm
Now the Site of the Twin Vanderbilt Houses on
William S. M. Silber
his great grandson
The group of buildings shown in the annexed engrav-
ing represents the homestead of Frederick Beinhauer as it
appeared in 1832 at the time of his decease. The entire
plot owned by him comprised the present two city blocks
on the west side of Fifth Avenue extending to Sixth
Avenue from the north side of 51st Street to the south
side of 53rd Street. Mr. Beinhauer was a successful
garden farmer who was able to create a modest fortune
from this area of land now forming a very prominent part
of one of the most valuable sections of the old City of
Frederick Beinhauer was born in Marburg, Germany,
and arrived in America during the latter part of the 18th
century. He was practically penniless when he reached
this country, but he cast around to see what opportunity
the New World afforded him, and finally decided upon the
OF OLD NEW YORK
production of vegetable food products. For several years
he found employment with the market gardeners of the
fertile lands of Kings County during which time he care-
fully studied the metropolitan market and, with char-
acteristic German thrift, diligently accumulated his sav-
ings for bolder flights.
Mr. Beinhauer finally decided that Manhattan Island
offered better prospects for a market as well as greater
rewards for patient industry and enterprise, besides giv-
ing more direct access to a larger number of consumers.
Shortly after the close of the Revolutionary War a con-
siderable tract of unoccupied land formerly belonging to
the Colony and lying generally between the Boston Post
Road on the east and the Bloomingdale Road on the west
was vested in the City of New York, and was in due
course offered for sale or lease to buyers. This tract was
designated on the maps of that period as "The New York
Common Lands." Mr. Beinhauer secured the lease of
a section of this land and proceeded to devote it to his
chosen occupation. The boundary line of the plot so
occupied began at the southwest corner of the present
Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street, and ran due west several
hundred feet. It then turned diagonally to the south and
ran due west to the Bloomingdale Road, passing over
the road-bed of the present Sixth Avenue. The plot was
irregular in size and. quite wide in certain portions. The
boundary line ended on the east in the middle of the
present Fifth Avenue, and returned from that point in
a diagonal direction to the place of beginning. The plot
thus covered a large portion of the site now occupied by
the Public Library and Bryant Park. It was regarded as
a very valuable concession, but the terms of the lease are
not now available.
While located there Frederick Beinhauer married So-
phia Wilhelmina Christina Zeiss, a daughter of John
William Zeiss, M.D., a prominent physician and surgeon
of that period. Dr. Zeiss lived on the lower east side,
and was a large land owner, and a trustee of the College
of Physicians and Surgeons from 1808 to 1811. His
daughter had been educated in Europe, and was esteemed
a woman of marked talent and ability.
In 1800 Mr. Beinhauer acquired the site on which his
homestead was situated. It was part of the Common
Lands, and was known as Lot No. 66. The plot was lo-
cated on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and 51st
Street, a short distance north of his original location on
Manhattan Island. The purchase price was £430,
equivalent to about $2100.00, and included some of the
buildings shown in the illustration. The sale was made
subject to a curious incumbrance in the form of a quit-
claim reservation that had survived from Colonial times.
This required the payment to the City authorities of an
annual quit-rent "of four bushels of good, merchantable
wheat on the first day of May in each and every year"
under penalty of drastic action at law in the event of non-
compliance. This reservation was finally commuted and
discharged in 1816 by the payment of $133.33.
Additional land was soon required for Mr. Beinhauer's
operations and in 1803 he leased from the City the plot
immediately adjoining his original purchase on the north
and known as Lot No. 67, at the rental of $10.00 per
annum. This lease expired in 1823 and was renewed for
an annual rental of $25.00. The plot as originally laid
out was purchased outright in 1825 for $1500.00.
Ten years subsequent to the date of this lease and
twelve years before its purchase Mr. Beinhauer rounded
[ 48 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
out his holdings on the above plot by the purchase of
about half an acre on the west end which brought the
western boundary up to the present Sixth Avenue line.
It was purchased from Cornelius Harsen who sold it in
1813 to Frederick Beinhauer for $678.23. The southern
plot was allowed to keep its original length and a trace
of the difference in size is still found on the maps.
This last purchase gave Mr. Beinhauer a frontage of
520 feet on Fifth Avenue. The cross streets were not
cut through, but the right of way for them was reserved
to the City and the adjoining owners had the use of the
additional space while the domain rights were not exer-
cised. In Mr. Beinhauer's farm the width of 200 feet in
each plot plus the reserved width of 60 feet each for
51st, 52nd and 53rd Streets, gave him a uniform frontage
on both Fifth and Sixth Avenues of 520 feet. He thus
had an acreage, subject to modification as above, of over
ten acres. The total cost of this compact little garden
farm was slightly over $4400.00. It was held in fee
simple, unencumbered, and had been all purchased by the
proceeds of the sale of garden produce, grown in the
City of New York, and on Fifth Avenue lands, besides.
From this now prominent and centrally located plot the
market wagon made its daily trip to Washington Market
and the "Fly" Market, and sold Manhattan produced
vegetables in competition with the farmers of Long Island
and New Jersey.
Mr. Beinhauer's holdings were bounded on the north
by property owned by Thomas Addis Emmett; the land
of the heirs of the Cozine, Horn, Harsen and Hopper
families bordered on the west, and to the south lay the
plot donated by Dr. Hosack to the Botanic Gardens, now
a Columbia University leasehold.
The Fifth Avenue frontage of the Beinhauer garden
farm between 51st and 52nd Streets is now occupied by
the twin Vanderbilt houses. The dwelling house stood
at a point that was exactly in front of the court that
formerly divided the two buildings, and it remained
standing after all the other farm buildings had been re-
moved, and until the contractors began excavating for
these modern palatial residences. The block fronting
between 52nd and 53rd Streets contains the residences
of William K. Vanderbilt and his son.
St. Patrick's Cathedral is diagonally opposite the old
plot, and the Union Club, the residence of Captain W. B.
Osgood Field and several fine business buildings front it
on the east side of Fifth Avenue. The streets cut
through it are filled with elegant private residences, and
the imposing Church of St. Thomas and part of the resi-
dence of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., are opposite the north-
ern boundary of the plot on 53rd Street.
Mr. Beinhauer and his wife were devout members of
the Lutheran Church. They regularly rode in the old
family gig to and from their homestead to service on Sun-
day in the church of their choice, and stopped at the
homes of their children in turn on the way home for the
noonday meal of the rest day.
Mr. Beinhauer died on August 23rd, 1832, from an
attack of cholera, which was then epidemic in the City,
after an illness of only a few hours. He is buried in
The Greenwood Cemetery. Mrs. Beinhauer died in 1829,
and is buried in the same plot.
Mr. Beinhauer's heirs were his eight surviving daugh-
ters, and several grandchildren, among them the children
of his widowed daughter Susannah Loss. His other chil-
dren were: Catharine Harsen, Elizabeth Loss, Sophia
[ 50 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Silber, Margaret Shrady, Ann Eliza Feitner, Louisa
Metzler and Maria Sakmeister. An only son died in
The estate was settled under the administration of
John Shrady by private sale. The plot that was accumu-
lated at a cost of slightly over $4400.00 was sold for about
$21,000.00, and is now worth more than that many mil-
lions. A large part of the land was bought by Benjamin
Stephens in 1834.
THE VILLAGES OF OLD NEW YORK
Beginning at the north side of Fourteenth Street
directly opposite the boundary of Greenwich village is
the next of the two villages of Old New York, which re-
tains to this day some of its old individuality, though per-
haps in a less degree than its more famous neighbor to
Like Greenwich it too was founded by an English sea-
faring man and like his friend Admiral Warren, Capt.
Clark named his estate after another English village —
Chelsea; and so to these two Englishmen we owe the
perpetuation on Manhattan Island of these well known
towns of the mother country.
The very early history of Chelsea village is not within
the province of the present article. I am to write merely
my own recollections of the place where I was born and
where I spent perhaps the happiest years of my life. If
[ 53 ]
I can recall to absent friends of the old village some pleas-
ant memories of other and now half forgotten days, I
shall feel richly rewarded. For many men of distinction
were born and reared in the Sixteenth Ward but fate has
a curious way of scattering them and they seldom revisit
the scenes of their childhood. When they do they find
that the old houses and the gardens and the trees have
all disappeared and nothing remains to remind them of
the days that are no more.
The village ended at the south side of Twenty-seventh
Street. Seventh Avenue and the North River completed
its boundaries. Mayor A. Oakey Hall lived on Fourteenth
Street close to Ninth Avenue in the hey-dey of his power.
The two lamps that are always placed in front of the
residence of the citizen elected to this high office may still
be seen. No hint of the ruin and disgrace that afterward
engulfed the Tweed ring was present in the days when
Oakey Hall lived in Chelsea.
Some time ago my attention was called to a series of
articles in the Sun on old New York, and being interested
in the subject I made bold to ask the editor if he would
inform me of the author's name. A few days later a tall
and rather poorly clad gentleman entered my office bear-
ing in his hand my letter to the Sun. It was self-explan-
atory of his visit and I spoke warmly in praise of his
work and offered to engage him to complete a series of
similar reminiscences. The conversation drifted from
one thing to another and the longer I talked the more I
was impressed with my new found friend's ability to fur-
nish me with just such manuscript as I wanted. I stum-
bled once or twice in addressing him, as the letter he had
was addressed to the Sun. I thought nothing of his
failure to mention his name, but as he rose to go I pre-
OF OLD NEW YORK
pared to make a note of his name and address. He
paused a moment and a look of sadness came to his face
as he said quietly, "I am Oakey Hall."
The two banks which face each other on the southwest
and the northwest corners of Eighth Avenue and Four-
teenth Street — the New York Savings and the New York
National Banks — once figured in as sensational a robbery
— or near robbery — as ever was recorded. A gang of
professionals hired the house on Eighth Avenue adjoin-
ing the banks. Both were then in the one building — one
in the basement, the other upstairs, one flight. The
Eighth Avenue house had an ell that opened on Four-
teenth Street. The bank was therefore completely sur-
rounded. The Fourteenth Street building was used as
a pool room and a dance hall. The undulating floor was
put in the latter place — a very new idea, the floor sway-
ing gently to the rhythm of the dancers. The pool room
added to the noise. Under cover of the natural noises
and disturbances the burglars had worked for weeks tun-
nelling to the safes of the bank. All the debris coming
from this operation — dirt, brick, mortar, etc., was raised
by a pulley and dumped on the second floor of the Eighth
Avenue building and there was almost enough weight to
sink the floor.
Plans were made to blow open the safes on the night
of the Fourth of July. Arrangements had been made
also to create such a racket on the street with cannons,
pistols and fire crackers that the noise of blowing open
the safes would be drowned. It was a carefully planned
scheme and came very near being successful. The tip-
tap of the drill however had reached the ear of the janitor
and aroused his suspicions. He walked around to the
Twentieth Street Police Station and reported what he
[ 55 1
suspected. A force of men was dispatched, the building
completely surrounded and the entire gang arrested. I
think the leader's name was Gilmore. They all received'
heavy sentences, as they were old offenders. The great
ingenuity they had displayed in carrying out the plan
showed them to be an unusually dangerous gang and the
banking interests saw to it that they got the full penalty
of their crime.
On Ninth Avenue on the west side where the National
Biscuit Company's building now stands there was a fine
old house standing in the middle of what must have been
the remains of an old country estate. It was of consid-
erable size — extending from Ninth Avenue to the river.
There were beautiful large trees on it and a fence all
around. The occupant was said to be feeble-minded and
was always in charge of an attendant. He was said to
belong to a well known family. It is about the earliest
recollection I have and I can only remember that any one
so afflicted appealed to my boyish mind as something
ghostly and I never cared to go very near the place. The
old house seemed to disappear quite suddenly, for I do
not recall any particular circumstance connected with its
On Fifteenth Street between Seventh and Eighth Ave-
nues there was a very well liked Catholic institution
known as the Sisters' Home. It was a prominent build-
ing in those days. It is there yet, but somewhat over-
shadowed by its tall neighbors. But they can never
dwarf what those splendid sisters have done, which after
after all is the important thing. On this same street is a
row of red brick houses with white marble trimmings.
They were all private residence houses in those days.
They were built in the 40's by the Astors and are nice
[ 56 ]
Lincoln's funeral, 1863. Part of the procession at Broadway and
14th Street. The large house on the corner was tlie home of
ex-President Roosevelt's uncle, Cornelius Roosevelt.
Collection of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider.
OF OLD NEW YORK
looking houses today. They are quite different from
what we are accustomed to nowadays, but they still charm
On Sixteenth Street there still remains the old Baptist
Church, Dr. Michael, minister. Its congregation changes
but it always houses a considerable audience. As if to
emphasize the old saying, "the nearer to church the fur-
ther from grace," we might record that the well known
dance hall keeper Billy McGlory lived in the block below.
But that was before he adopted the career which made
him so unfavorably known.
The old Weber piano buildings are still standing on
Seventh Avenue and Seventeenth Street. They were built
long before I was born ; and pianos were made in
them for years and years. I remember that Mr. Weber
was highly spoken of and his piano was considered by
musicians one of the best in the country. We took a
great deal of pride in this reputation and considered the
factory one of the important buildings of New York.
Down from Weber's on Eighth Avenue between
Seventeenth and Nineteenth Streets was the funeral es-
tablishment of Stephen Merritt. He buried General
Grant and that was a very high honor, I always thought.
But then Stephen Merritt was no ordinary undertaker.
He was a regularly ordained preacher and held services
every Sunday for years in the old Methodist Church on
Eighteenth Street. He performed the same service in
the old Jane Street Church as well, and never accepted
a salary from either. He was a large-hearted man.
Many a poor person was buried by him without a cent of
expense. He was greatly beloved in the neighborhood
and I always thought he was one of the finest characters
known to New York. He was known all over the city
and he numbered among his friends most of the people
worth knowing in all walks of life. It was not at all sur-
prising that he was chosen for the final offices for General
On the corner of Nineteenth Street just above Merritt's
was the largest department store then in the city — Owen
Jones. The building covered half the block and relatively
was about as Altman's is today. Ehrich Bros, were also
on Eighth Avenue, but further up. Everybody however
knew Jones' store and for years it was the leading place
of its kind in town.
On Twentieth Street still stands St. Peter's Episcopal
Church, which recently celebrated its 75th birthday. The
records of this old church deserve a chapter by them-
selves, for they contain the marriages, births and deaths
of many of the best known families in the city. It may
no longer rank as one of the fashionable churches, but it
remains one of the oldest and most interesting. It has
served old Chelsea faithfully and well and its present
rector. Dr. Roach, will some day tell us all about it, I
There was one peculiarity about Chelsea which did not
I think exist in any other part of the city. Certain blocks
seemed to be reserved for certain nationalities. Thus
there was Scotch Row for the "ladies from hell" ; London
Row for the blarsted Britisher ; and Yankee Row for the
native Americans who had the hardihood to intrude
themselves among these foreigners. And oh! I forgot
the Irish and the fine little party they had on a certain
12th of July, '71. Vulgar historians refer to it as a
"riot," simply because a few people were killed and
some heads broken. There was quite a bit of excitement
I will admit. I was riding in a street car at the time. I
OF OLD NEW YORK
distinctly remember that we all threw ourselves flat on
the floor to escape the fusillade of sticks, stones and bul-
lets that made things lively for the time being.
It was in July, 1871. The Orangemen of New York city
had arranged to parade on the anniversary of the battle
ol the Boyne. The Governor of New York, fearing
trouble from the Celtic Irish, ordered out several regi-
ments of the National Guard, and these were stationed
up and down Eighth Avenue, as the line of march was
from Twenty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue, down
If my recollection serves me, it was between Twenty-
fourth and Twenty-sixth streets that stones and other
missiles began to rain down upon the paraders, and shots
were fired from the tops of buildings at the Twenty-
fifth Street comer. The Ninth regiment was stationed
in this particular locality under command of Colonel
James Fisk. Some one threw a missile and disabled the
Colonel, and the regiment was then under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Braine and Major Hitchcock.
The Colonel, who was one of the biggest bluffs New
York has ever known, is said to have been merely
scratched by a brick. However he beat a hasty retreat
over a wooden fence nearby and for a long time after-
wards there was a great discussion over the incident.
An order was given to fire after some soldiers had been
hurt. The shots took effect on the buildings opposite
and brought down some snipers on top of the corner
building at Twenty-fifth Street, and also some in the
crowd. There was but one volley fired, and the crowd
dispersed quickly, after which the procession proceeded
without further molestation.
The Grand Opera House in which the Erie offices
were installed, revives some stirring scenes, days of in-
junctions, mandamuses, seizures with court orders and
without them, and battles in the hallways between sher-
iff's deputies and Fisk's and Gould's henchmen, which
gave special interest to the daily papers and were fol-
lowed by the readers as they do the war news of today.
Every morning the public looked first at the Fisk-Erie
headlines to see what the opposing armies had accom-
plished the day and night before, because many of Fisk's
and Gould's smartest moves were executed at night
through injunctions granted overnight by the complaisance
of Judges before whom Fisk always managed to have the
Erie's affairs brought.
Injunctions followed injunctions so rapidly that the_y
were the laughing topic of the town and all sorts of jokes
on them were in order. In the play of "Richelieu" it will
be remembered that the Cardinal boldly faces his enemies,
and Booth was so grand in this, defying them, and sweep-
ing his hand in the air around his frightened ward he tells
them that if they enter the charmed circle he has so drawn
around her he will "hurl at them the curse of Rome."
In the burlesque of the play Fox produced a lump of
"chalk" as big as a watermelon, and handling it with both
hands drew an imaginary ring around the harassed girl,
imaginary, for it made no mark, and then, imitating
Booth's grand style, said, "Step but one foot within yon
charmed circle and I hurl at you an Erie injunction," at
which they all fled so precipitately that they carried away
parts of the scenery in their rush.
But one day the tables were turned on Fisk by the in-
vestigating committee getting an injunction from an up-
State Judge dissolving all previous injunctions and en-
all|? Srrabttowgtit 1853
Perhaps the most famous of all the
clipper ships in the early 50's. Com-
manded by Capt. Samuel Samuels,
still remembered by many New York-
ers and one of the most celebrated
deep sea skippers sailing from this
port. She was originally a Red Cross
Packet Liner and later in the Cali-
fornia trade. Few sliips ever enjoyed
On February 4th, 1859, she logged
313 miles on a single day's run on a
famous voyage from Liverpool to New
York, completed in 13 days 8 hours.
She was finally lost among the
rugged cliffs and roaring breakers of
Cape Horn. Her crew was rescued.
She was a strikingly handsome ship
and for years was the pride of the
She was owned by Governor E. D.
Morgan, Francis B. Cutting, Daniel
Ogden and others.
OF OLD NEW YORK
joining, or "injuncting," them from preventing a full
inspection of the Erie's books, which act they were in-
formed of by telegraph the same afternoon, and that
night, before service of it, they got all the company's
books, loaded them in rowboats and took them over to
Taylor's Hotel in Jersey City, which for a while was the
Erie's offices and headquarters. It is said that Tom
Lynch supplied the wagons in which the books were hasti-
ly packed. The sight of so many books being rushed out
of the building at night and trucked in wild haste down
Twenty-third Street to the river started an alarm which
caused some sheriff's deputies to get to work, and they
set out in a rowboat after the last one, in which was Fisk
himself guarding the most treasured books, probably the
records of stock issues, but when the officers of the law
saw the malefactors' boat pass the center of the Hudson,
thus technically putting them in New Jersey boundaries,
they gave it up.
Many were the fights in the building and around the
corner of Twenty-third Street on Eighth Avenue with
fists, clubs and bludgeons, in addition to the legal struggle
always going on. These scrimmages were managed in
Fisk's interest by his favorite lieutenant, one Tommy
Lynch, a man well known around that section of Eighth
Avenue. He was Johnny on the spot all the time for the
Colonel, and at the shortest possible notice could assemble
a crowd of fighters to do battle for his employers. His
name was as much in every one's mouth as was Fisk's,
and people would hasten to look at the morning paper to
see what Tommy Lynch had done overnight.
For many years after Fisk's death Lynch was a familiar
figure on Eighth Avenue, generally to be seen sunning
himself in front of the Old Homestead, between Twenty-
second and Twenty-third Streets, which was his favorite
place of rendezvous with his men during the years of
active operations on his part in helping to fight Jim Fisk's
It was many years ago that I last saw him, a slender,
medium-sized man, frail rather than robust, but with
snappy black eyes denoting fierceness and determination
even then, although his hair was turning white and he
walked heavily and rheumatically with a cane.
Those certainly were picturesque days, but it is a com-
fort for investors in railroad stocks and bonds that they
are no more.
In this connection my friend, J. B. Curtis, sends me
the following particulars regarding the old Ninth Regi-
After the return of the Ninth Regiment in '65, with
less than 200 of the original number of its members that
enlisted for three years, or the war, a movement was
started to reorganize the regiment and put it back in its
old position as a unit of the N. G. S. N. Y. A number
of the young men of Greenwich Village, among whom
were Thomas C. Dunham, afterward State Senator; John
S. Huyler, the founder of the Huyler Candy Company,
and myself, became interested and helped to reorganize
Company E. Our first captain was Johnny Gaffney,
well known in Greenwich Village, and John S. Huyler
was one of our lieutenants. The first commandant of the
regiment was Colonel Wilcox, a manufacturer of mat-
tresses and bedding in Chatham Square. Charlie Braine
was lieutenant-colonel, and Hitchcock (I forget his first
name) was major. Henry S. Brooks of Brooks Bros.,
clothiers, was adjutant. On the retirement of Colonel
Wilcox, Jim Fisk was made colonel and took command
OF OLD NEW YORK
of the regiment. He was very popular, and the regiment
flourished. He organized a band of 100 pieces, led by
the well-known Bowling, with Levy the famous cornetist,
as one of its members.
I remember when the present site of the Grand Opera
House was occupied by the Knickerbocker stage line as
a stable, and also remember when the first elevated road
was built on Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue. It
was first operated by endless cable, but afterward changed
to steam dummies as motive power. One of the cable
stations was located at Ninth Avenue and Twenty-second
The Old Paper Market of New York
We clip the following item from an afternoon paper
published in our city in 1802:
MELANCHOLY ACCIDENT: COW GORES
CITIZEN IN BEEKMAN STREET
On Thursday afternoon as a man of genteel appearance was
passing along Beekman street, he was attacked by a cow and
notwithstanding his endeavors to avoid her, and the means he
used to beat her off, we are sorry to say that he was so much
injured as to be taken up for dead.
In the early part of the 19th Century Beekman Street
was considered a very aristocratic neighborhood. St.
George's chapel at the corner of Cliff Street was one of
the fashionable churches. It was founded in 1748, the
first of Trinity's chapels. President Washington often
heard the sacred text read and expounded within its
walls. Its old grey flag stones were worn by the feet
of Schuylers, Livingstons, Reades, Van Cliffs, Beekmans,
Van Rensselaers, Cortlandts, Morris' and others. The
late J. P. Morgan was married here and here Washington
Irving was baptized. Admiral Sir Peter Warren and
the Archbishop of Canterbury were among the first
donors for its erection and it preserved its high social
position to the end.
A very interesting story is told about the material of
which part of the church furniture was made. New
York was a great port for sailing vessels in those days
and it so happened that a sea captain whose vessel lost
its masts in a violent storm on a coast where no other
wood than heavy mahogany could be procured came into
port at the time the church was being finished. The top
heavy mahogany masts of the wrecked vessels were re-
placed by a more suitable wood and the captain donated
the mahogany masts to St. George's. This was solid
construction indeed and the pulpit, desk and chancel rail
made from this old mahogany are still in existence and
doing valiant service. They were removed many years
ago and now serve in a like capacity in Christ church
in the little town of Manhasset, Long Island.
The beautiful marble font which adorned this church
had also a romantic history. Originally intended for a
Catholic church in South America it was captured on its
way to its destination on a French ship by the English
during the French and Indian war and brought to this
city. It was a beautiful piece of workmanship made
entirely of white marble. It was supposed to have been
destroyed during the fire of 1814, but some fifty years
later was found in a remote part of the church where it
had evidently been removed during the conflagration. It
was repaired and cleaned and for many years afterward
[ 70 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
was in constant use. It was removed uptown in 1869
where it still exists as one of the most cherished relics
of this historic old edifice.
Among those who lived in Beekman Street near the
church were Mr. C. Schermerhorn at No. 39 ; Mr. James
W. Bleecker at No. 41 ; Mr. Cornelius Bogart at No. 18 ;
Mr. Robert Hayward at No. 20; Mr. David Lydig at No.
63 ; Mr. Robert Ludlow at No. 97 ; Mr. John de Peyster
at No. 22; and Mr. Robert Nesbit, the revolutionary
printer at No. 112. Most of those names are still promi-
nent in New York life.
As business extended steadily northward the old street
experienced the fate of many another erstwhile fashion-
able neighborhood in New York. It became a shabby
genteel boarding house locality, gradually improving how-
ever, from a business point of view, till finally the board-
ing houses gave way to a splendid hotel on the corner of
Nassau Street known as the Clinton house. This hotel
was advertised as a particularly attractive resort facing
the open space of the City Hall Park. At that time the
grounds of the old Brick Church extended from Spruce
Street to Beekman Street and permitted an unobstructed
view to the north across the tree-embowered park. A
picture taken from an old billhead of the hotel gives a
fairly good idea of how this old hostelry looked. It was
managed by the famous Leland Bros., Warren and
Charles, who afterward rose to great celebrity as owners
of the Long Branch hotel. After a while another hotel
appeared opposite the Clinton on the corner of Park
Row — Lovejoy's — which is still remembered by some of
the old Beekman Street contingent although it disappeared
many years ago.
[ n 1
In later years other famous restaurateurs joined the
goodly company of Beekman Street. Billy Hitchcock of
happy memory kept a beanery on the corner of Beekman
Street and Park Row. His "ham and — " was famous
throughout the city and Billy's clientele numbered many
prominent men in politics, law and journalism. Nash
and Crook, who kept a restaurant where the Park Row
building now stands, were also very popular, while
French's hotel, which stood on the present site of the
World building was known the country over. The story
goes that Joseph Pulitzer was once ordered out of this
hotel in the days of his poverty along with other hangers-
on. Pulitzer took a savage delight in tearing down the
old structure to make way for the imposing building with
its classic dome which now bears his honored name.
But perhaps the most celebrated structure on Beekman
Street was the old Shot Tower which stood right back of
No. 66. For over a quarter of a century this building
divided honors with Trinity Church as the most promi-
nent feature in the landscape of New York. During the
Civil War the proprietors made a fortune. Although the
Tower was conspicuous for its great height it lived to
see its cloud piercing achievements completely overshad-
owed by the new Schieren building and others which
were erected on its site. There are still many views of
the Shot Tower in old pictures of the city. Our country
cousins were always taken to this famous Tower as one
of the marvels of the Metropolis.
The Morse building on the corner of Nassau and Beek-
man Streets was in its day the most imposing and gigantic
structure in the neighborhood. Its walls are four feet
thick and it enjoys the distinction of being the first ex-
clusively office building erected in the city. At the time
OF OLD NEW YORK
of the World fire it was the thickness of these walls that
saved the rest of Beekman Street. This was before the
days of skeleton steel construction.
The great changes which rapidly obliterated the last
vestiges of Beekman Street as a social center culminated
about 1868 when old St. George's abandoned the site it
had occupied for over a century and moved uptown.
Paper dealers appeared in greater numbers than ever and
soon it became and remained for half a century, the paper
market of New York. It is still the most important sec-
tion of the city for this industry although the vast extent
of the town has made it desirable for some of the larger
firms to seek quarters in other localities far removed from
this historic spot. But the recent erection of a special
building exclusively for the paper business by Henry
Lindenmeyr & Sons seems destined to check a further
decline of this street as the center of this most important
industry and to restore it to its pristine dignity.
Many well known names appeared among the paper
merchants of Beekman Street from time to time but the
one who brought the most renown to the neighborhood
was undoubtedly Cyrus W. Field. Prior to his connec-
tion with the Atlantic cable Mr. Field conducted a rag
and waste paper business at No. 91 and some of his old
advertisements can still be seen wherein he sets forth the
entire line of his activities which besides rags and waste
paper included old iron, metals and second hand junk
generally. It was certainly a modest beginning for a
career that was not only to bring fame to the scene of his
early activities but also to be a lasting credit to the
sagacity and enterprise of the American merchant. No
matter in what station of life he might begin, Mr. Field's
great success was not infrequently mentioned as a sig-
nificant demonstration of the possibilities of democracy.
A great celebration attended the formal opening of the
Atlantic cable and the whole city gave itself up to rejoic-
ing. A parade was formed bearing parts of the huge
cable which now reached from America to London and
the sailors who did the work marched in the procession
in which all the different interests of the city were rep-
resented. In the evening a great display of fireworks
was made at the City Hall and the city was brilliantly
illuminated. Beekman Street had no small part in the
display being one of the streets that led into the park.
The present post office was not then in existence.
This exploit of Mr, Field's identified the old paper
market with what was undoubtedly the greatest improve-
ment business had ever received up to that moment. To
the day of his death Mr. Field was proud of his connec-
tion with the paper trade and of his old store in Beekman
Street. His firm name remained in Beekman Street till
late in the 60's.
Other firms in Beekman Street who have made an
enviable record for themselves in the annals of old New
York were R. E. Dietz and Herman Behr & Co. R. E.
Dietz is the famous lamp maker whose shop was at No.
66. Mr. Dietz made the first kerosene oil lamp ever de-
signed and the business which he then established has
grown to be the largest of its kind in the country. Her-
man Behr & Co., whose shop was at No. 75 has also be-
come the leader in their line.
Among the most treasured items of old New York are
the lithographs of street scenes in the early 50's and the
quaint little plates which appeared in Valentine's Manual
about the same time. These old records are all we now
Foot of Whitehall Street in 1859. Terminal of tlie old Broadway
stage lines. Robert Fulton lived in the house on the left.
Trinity steeple is seen in the background. Collection
of Mr. Theo. H. Schneider.
OF OLD NEW YORK
have to show what New York looked like in the 50's and
are now very precious and very expensive. Firms whose
names are lettered on the views no doubt purchased their
allotment at a cost not to exceed ten cents per copy.
Many of these views were the product of a Beekman
Street lithographer, William Endicott & Co., one of the
pioneers in this now enormous industry.
Abendroth Bros., a landmark in Beekman Street for
over half a century, have only recently forsaken their
original habitat for an uptown location. In 1851 they were
recorded as Iron Founders. David Graham, one of the
great criminal lawyers of the day had his office at No. 20.
The great watch firm of A. C. Hugeuian was at No. 19.
Numbers 15 and 17, for so many years the home of H.
Lindenmeyr & Brother, was a private residence. The
Mercantile Library was at Nos. 7 and 9 and the offices
of the Independent were at No. 24.
Around the corner on Tryon Row was the depot of
the Harlem and the New Haven Railroads of which Mr.
Robert Schuyler was president. The Hudson River R. R.
had an office in the same building and Mr. James Boorman
was then president.
The city was still largely residential beyond Beekman
Street in 1859. City Hall Place, running from Centre
Street to Pearl Street, was a quiet, attractive neighbor-
hood on the outskirts of what was once the fashionable
section of New York — Pearl Street, Marion Street and
Chatham Square. At No. 18 lived a new arrival in New
York who during the next half century was destined to
play an important part in the paper trade of New York —
Mr. Henry Lindenmeyr. Mr. Lindenmeyr had for his
neighbors in the same trade for many years some old
friends whose names are worth recalling. Besides Cyrus
[ 79 1
W. Field & Co., of whom we have already spoken, there
were Smith Ely who later became Mayor of the city ; J. &
L. Dejonge & Co., who are still in business; the great
house of Vernon Bros., Hand & Ellsworth, Edward A.
Dickinson, Doty & Ad^acFarlane, Campbell Hall, Harris
Bros., H. C. & M. Hurlburt, George J. Kraft, Bulkley
Bros. & Co., Cornell Hayward & Co., W. H. Parsons &
Bro., now the Parsons Trading Co., large exporters of
paper; Seymour & Co., Sage & Livingston and many
Quite a number of the successors of these old firms
are still in business but are now scattered throughout the
city. The recent erection of a building specially designed
for the paper trade indicates that its old time prestige is
REMINISCENCES OF THE FIFTH WARD
Henry Theodore Lutz
While reading Mr. Dunham's article on Bond Street
in the Manual, I happened to glance at the wall and
saw hanging there the key of old St. John's Park. My
mind instantly reverted to my boyhood days and I could
see myself learning to skate on my first little tumed-up
hollow skates, and the other pleasures that I enjoyed in
the old park. I can well remember a little boy trying to
get into the park, before father paid the yearly fee for the
key, and whose head went through between the iron rail-
ing all right, but on seeing the keeper he could not get
his head out again on account of his ears. I can also re-
call the switching I received not only from the keeper
but also from "Daddy."
I roni rhr S ifist i:i
I < r.
C. B. FTTSRF.NDEN,
Consignees in MelbQiirnc,
M«ssis. WILKINSON BKOTHERS & (0
One of tlu' earliest and rarest colored advertising cards sent out
by sliii)l)ers to customers (1840).
OF OLD NEW YORK
I was born in the old two-story and attic building, HI
Hudson Street, June 21, 1859; from there we moved to
Rose Street and in 1861 to 56 Lispenard Street ; here my
earliest memories are still fresh. The house was owned
and the lower part occupied by a French jeweler, Mr.
Victor Marchand. Next door was Moon's stable, where
the express wagons of Harndon's express were kept, and
next to 58 was John Ireland's chop house, occupying 60
and 62. Mr. Ireland's daughter and my sister were great
chums and on one occasion, while playing around the
attic, went into one of the rooms and somehow became
locked in. Not being able to make themselves heard they
crawled out of the dormer window and walked along
the gutter to the next house, to the great consternation of
the few passersby on the street.
Nearer to Church Street at about No. 40 was Oaks'
Hotel. On the southwest corner of Broadway and Canal
Street was the Brandreth House; on the northeast cor-
ner Baldwin's Clothing Store; Arnold, Constable & Co.,
corner Canal and Mercer; Lord & Taylor, corner Grand
and Broadway; Wild's Candy Store, corner Broome and
Broadway; Lockwood's bookstore on Broadway between
Lispenard and Walker; Taylor's Restaurant, corner
Broadway and Franklin; the old German Church in
Walker Street near Broadway.
My earliest recollections are of the Rebellion, and are
vivid, as I was very much interested and had the best op-
portunities to see the soldiers marching down Broadway
and my father always took me with him on walks to see
the sights. Among Other things during the Draft Riots
in 1863 we saw the crowds but did not see the body of the
negro said to have been hanged on a lamp post at the cor-
ner of York Street and West Broadway ; the funeral of
Lincoln from the corner of Lispenard Street and the
burning of Barnum's at Ann and Broadway.
A favorite trip was down to City Hall Park to see the
soldiers and I can recall the gate with its four square
pillars and the fountain at the lower end where the post-
office now stands : the old lady with her ballads hung up
on the railing opposite Murray Street ; the mulberry trees
on the sidewalk near Chambers Street and Barnum's
Museum corner of Ann Street.
How many can recall the six-horse sleighs that were
used instead of the stages in winter? How many can
remember the paving stones with the diagonal groove?
and how many in New York today have any idea that
these same stones, twelve inches square, over which the
gallant Seventh and Sixty-ninth marched and Lincoln's
body passed in 1865 are still in use in the old Fifth
Ward ? Go down some day to the St. John's Freight Sta-
tion and you will find them there used for the sidewalks.
Church Street during the war was lined with wooden
shanties and each was supposedly a cigar store ; at Worth
Street extending down to West Broadway and south to
Duane Street were many wooden houses occupied by
negroes, who later moved to Thompson Street. The old
New York Hospital, fronting on Broadway, was directly
opposite this block, which is now occupied by the building
of H. B. Claflin & Co.
As children we went to a Sunday School corner of
Franklin Street, conducted by a Mr. Austin and for sev-
eral years, on May day, we all marched down Center
Street to the old church on William Street, between Ann
and Fulton Streets, where after service each child was
presented with a bag of fruit, candy, nuts, etc. Mr.
Austin was employed by Bechstein & Co., pork butchers,
OF OLD NEW YORK
on Hudson Street, between Franklin and Leonard Streets
and later became missionary to Alaska.
In 1865 we moved to 131 Hudson Street, a two-story
and attic brick building, next door to an old ramshackle
wooden house, corner Beach Street. Diagonally oppo-
site was the pride of the Fifth Ward — St. John's Park —
the picnic ground of Trinity parish. Many times have I
watched the children playing there with battledore and
shuttlecock, the girls wearing frilled pantalettes and some
of the boys in boots with red label, with a golden eagle
at the top and copper toes.
All around the park were neat brick buildings with
high stoops and all had the same violet panes of glass in
When the Hudson River Railroad took the lease for
ninety-nine years on the park property the best families
moved farther up-town; John Ericsson, the designer of
the Monitor, stayed in Beach Street until his death. His
apparatus, in his rear yard, for generating power from
the sun's rays was a source of great curiosity to the neigh-
bors. When the freight station was dedicated, a great
number of carriages filled all the surrounding streets and
we were all interested in the unveiling of the statue of
old Commodore Vanderbilt and the great bronze pedi-
ment on the Hudson Street side, facing Hubert Street.
This interesting piece of work is still in place and shows
the styles of locomotives and steamships in use at that
Commencing at the lower end of Hudson Street, on
the south side of Chambers Street, was the passenger
station of the H. R. R. R. This was used principally
for immigrants ; at No. 1 Hudson Street was the old two-
story and attic building occupied by Ridley, the candy
[ 85 ]
man; on the southeast corner of Worth Street the freight
station. The American Express Building with their
trademark (a dog reclining on a safe), on a large sign,
corner of Jay Street ; further north on the northeast cor-
ner of North Moore Street, the then celebrated silk retail
store of John Atwill, which was patronized by the wealthy
people even after the neighborhood had fallen from its
aristocratic heights. On the west side, No. 113, blind
Mr. Waters' stationery and news store, Pitman's grocery
on the northwest corner North Moore Street and next
door Odell's (the originator of ice cream soda). Two
blocks north at Hubert Street, turning west, the residen-
tial section ended abruptly and from Collister Street to
the river most of the space was occupied by sugar re-
fineries ; at West Street, then a narrow street, most of the
piers from North Moore Street to Vestry Street were
used by vessels bringing in cane and raw sugar. Every
kind of sailing vessels could be seen and the vicinity
looked as South Street did in later years.
Below this section down to Washington Market im-
mense quantities of watermelons and vegetables arrived
from the South and to the north above Christopher Street
were the oyster barges and sloops.
I regret that I can not recall the date of the great fire
(about 1867), that swept these piers, but I will never
forget how the flames ran up the tarred stays and hal-
yards and how they jumped from one ship to another.
Some fires that I witnessed were very spectacular:
444 Broadway, Barnum's Museum just above Spring
Street, Lent's Circus Fourteenth Street, opposite Irving
Place, and a second fire later at 444 Broadway, where
many firemen were killed and injured — the injured ones
were taken in to Dowd's restaurant just above Howard
OF OLD NEW YORK
Street — and in 1876 the fire corner Grand Street and
Broadway (afterwards Mills and Gibbs Building), just
below the old Mercantile Library Building.
Speaking of fires brings back to me the school in
North Moore Street, that I attended until 1873— dear old
44. Opposite the school was the firehouse of the Met-
ropolitan Fire Department, later H. & L. No. 8, and it
was a great treat for the boys when the various engines
would have competitions to see which could throw a
stream over the Liberty pole in the Franklin Street
My first recollection of old 44 is the infant class in
the West Broadway wing, where an old Frenchman
taught us to spell by the phonetic system — f-a-t; c-a-t;
and I can hear him yet. Later when I reached the high-
est primary grade. Prof. Bristow, who was the singing
instructor, and a Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin selected the bet-
ter singers from various schools and gave a patriotic con-
cert at Steinway's in Fourteenth Street. I can remember
getting a red, white and blue badge for selling a certain
number of tickets and also recall one of the choruses :
Laugh and grow fat is a saying of old;
Whether or not it's the cause of obesity
This I beUeve — in the physical man —
Laughter's demands are a kind of necessity.
' " ' — Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha,
Let the home ring again
Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha,
Care will take wing again
Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha,
Laughter will drive care away.
Looking back on the old happy school days it seems too
bad that we cannot meet our old friends in periodical
gatherings and keep alive old memories. Dear old Dr.
Belden — how many remember him? We all loved him,
even if he did once in awhile take us into his private
room and lay us over his knee and give us a few whacks
with a rattan. No doubt we deserved it. The other
teachers were :
Mr. Conklin Class A
Mr. Hamilton Class B
Mr. Bates Class B, Jr.
(in later years "Baldy" Briggs)
Miss Hopps Class C
Miss Bates Class C, Jr.
Miss Ransom Class D
Miss Albro Class D, Jr.
Miss Held Class E
Miss Rumbel Class F
Mr. Briggs certainly did not have an enviable job, as
the boys looked upon him as a joke, as he would hear
the lessons of any pupil who would come in early and
then for the balance of the day they would play all kinds
of pranks. He was, however, a very able man and well
known as an astronomical mathematician.
I do not meet many of the old schoolmates, but a few
still are in little old New York — Oscar J. Gude, William
Maloy, John Ready, Ben Maxwell, — but many have
crossed the border, among the latest Diamond Jim Brady.
Next door to the school, corner of Franklin Street, was
a little drug store, principally remembered by a sign in
the window advertising some remedy for headache or
neuralgia. I can still see the agonized expression on the
face of a man, on whose head a dozen or more devils were
boring holes and driving spikes and pickaxes. I wonder
what the remedy was.
[ 88 ]
statue of Joan of Arc, Riverside Drive and 93rd Street.
JOAN OF ARC STATUE
The statue of Joan of Arc by Miss A. V. Hyatt has very naturally
become one of the most conspicuous in the city for the time being.
Marshall Joffre visited it May 10th, 1917, and took part in a brief
ceremony. It was also the scene of a great gathering on Bastile
Day, July 14th, 1918, under the auspices of the Joan of Arc statue
committee. The gathering was addressed by M. Jusserand, the
French Ambassador and other notable men.
The statue is a beautiful and inspiring work of art and a fine
example of equestrian statuary. The pedestal is the design of
John J. Van Pelt. Part of the stone of the pedestal was brought
from the prison in Rouen where the brave and pure hearted girl
was confined till her death. Back of the statue in the pavement
is a stone from the Cathedral of Rheims.
The originator of the idea of the statue is Mr. J. Sanford Saltus,
vice-president of the Museum of French Art, by whose untiring
efforts and generosity this fine work of art was accomplished. He
was assisted notably in this country by Dr. Geo. Frederick Kunz
president of the Joan of Arc statue committee, tlie Museum of
French Art in New York, and the American Numismatic Society.
M. and Mme. Frank Edwin Scott of Paris, both well known artists,
were untiring in their efforts to secure pictures and photographs
of statues made in Europe. They also contributed and collected
important contributions to the fund. The statue was unveiled
Dec. 6th, 1915.
OF OLD NEW YORK
One of the interesting happenings in the old Fifth was
the building and testing of the first elevated railroad in
Greenwich Street. This extended up to Houston Street
when the structure was tested. It did not test up to
mark, for the loaded flat car broke through ; luckily no one
was injured. The motive power was an endless cable
running on wheels between the tracks, the cable being pro-
pelled by an engine underground at Franklin Street. On
the corner of Franklin and Washington Streets was the
factory of James Pyle, who manufactured lemon sugar
and later on soaps and pearline.
Before the completion of the Sixth Avenue L we were
compelled to make long trips if we wanted to go skating,
sometimes to the Capitoline grounds in Brooklyn or
to the St. George cricket grounds in Hoboken, near the
Eysian field, or in the Sixth or Eighth Avenue horse cars
to Central Park, or by stage to the open air rink on Madi-
son Avenue just back of where the old Windsor Hotel
was afterward built. In both stages and cars the floors
were covered with straw.
With the widening of Laurens Street and the comple-
tion of the Sixth Avenue L changes took place rapidly
and today most of the old landmarks are gone. Old St.
John's Church still stands, but it is dilapidated and is a
sorry reminder of this once beautiful section.
The corner of Hudson and Canal Streets at the present
time looks very much as it did in 1870 when I stood on
this corner and bared my head as the body of Admiral
Farragut passed by, followed by Gen. U. S. Grant, Ben
Butler and many other war heroes.
[ 93 ]
THE CLIPPER SHIPS OF
: ; OLD NEW YORK : :
©HERE are still many men in New York who can
recall the forest of masts in South Street thirty
and forty years ago. The long bowsprits with
their grotesque figures, that stretched clear across the
street almost to the windows opposite ; the fragrant odor
of tar, Norway pine, spices and what not ; the wheezy
donkey engine, the creaking windlass and the strange
oaths of the stevedores and truckmen — all were charac-
teristic of South Street in the reign of the "Clipper."
One by one these old Champions of the Seas disap-
peared. The "Young America" was last seen lying off
Gibraltar as a coal hulk ; and that superb old greyhound
of the ocean, the "Flying Cloud" suffered a similar ig-
nominious ending. She was not even spared the humilia-
tion of concealing her tragic end from the eyes of her
former envious rivals, but was condemned to end her days
as a New Haven scow towed up the Sound with a load of
brick and concrete behind a stuck up parvenu tug. Ever
and anon as if to emphasize her newly acquired im-
portance, the tug would bury the old-time square-rigged
OF OLD NEW YORK
beauty in a cloud of filthy smoke. Imagine the feelings of
an ex-Cape Horner under such conditions ! There should
have been a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Old
Clippers. Everybody who knows anything about ships,
knows that they have feelings just the same as anybody
Romance has temporarily at least been driven from the
sea, and the Ship of our Dreams is gone. You may
haunt the wharves in these piping times of steam —
Yet never see those proud ones swaying home,
With mainyards backed and bows acream with foam.
As once long since, when all the docks were filled
With that set beauty man has ceased to build.
They mark our passage as a race of men,
Earth will not see such ships again —
Many strange things are happening nowadays how-
ever and perhaps a renaissance of our old time merchant
marine may be among the wonders of the next few
Exactly why a ship is called "she" has never been de-
termined, but any man who has experienced her coquetry
and exasperating deviltry at times is convinced that she is
properly classed with the female of the species. Records
abound of ships built for speed and speed alone, but
which when complete positively refuse to get out of their
own way. And per contra, some third-class common-
place design purposely planned as a slow plodding carrier,
suddenly decides to become a flier; and develops a burst
of speed that astounds the builder and transports the
owner into a seventh heaven. Such things, you say,
ought not to be. One would imagine that with all of our
modern science, long experience and boasted efficiency,
it would no longer be a matter of guess-work to build a
[ 95 ]
ship that would be the peer of any other ship ever built.
Why not ? The faults in one ship are now known and can
be easily corrected in the new one. Simple enough, isn't
Well, that is just what mere men can not do and prob-
ably never will do, — and no one knows why either ; as
Lord Dundreary remarked "it is one of these things no
fellah can find out." It is among the few things beyond
human skill and comprehension. A ship is likewise sen-
sitive in other respects. She is keenly conscious when
she is in the hands of a true sailor. To him she yields
everything. He knows all her varying moods and loves
her for them. He treats her kindly and in his hour of
danger she never fails. Should she, however, be in
charge of a deep sea canaler, she will at once begin to cut
up tantrums. Everything you can think of will happen
to that ship in no time and unless help comes to her speed-
ily, she will have literally thrashed herself to pieces. In
this particular, there is a wonderful similarity between
a Queen of the Seas and a Queen of the Turf. Both are
thoroughbreds and both are high strung to an inordinate
degree and both need skillful and daring drivers.
There are still many records performed by these Old
Clipper Ships that have never been surpassed even by
steam. We except, of course, the five-day trips by mon-
ster liners between New York and Liverpool which were
merely short excursions compared with the run from
New York around Cape Horn to San Francisco, or from
Java Head to New York. We have in mind for example
the run of the Dreadnought from this port to Liverpool
commencing Nov. 20th, 1854. Her log shows 300 miles
on the 24th, 270 on the 30th with three other days over
260 average. Or the Flying Cloud in her famous record
First Mayor of New York, 1784-9. Painted from life by
Trumbull, from the original in the City Hall.
OF OLD NEW YORK
run of 374 miles on her voyage to San Francisco in June,
1851. This splendid showing remained unbeaten even
by steam for many years thereafter and. it would be a
safe wager that no steamer even today could equal this
time on a straight away voyage from New York to her
anchorage in the Golden Gate.
It is quite difificult at this late day to recreate the at-
mosphere which surrounded the departure of a Packet
or a Clipper in those days. A glance at the files of the
New York Mirror of 1839, the fashionable paper of its
day gives us a very clear idea however of the importance
of that event in the life of our city.
"One of the many exciting scenes that transpire in our
busy metropolis ; one of the most interesting and charac-
teristic is of that which occurs on the occasion known
to our citizens as "Packet-Day." It is a day full of bus-
tle and business to the brokers, the banks, the passen-
gers, the friends of the passengers and to all who have
any communications with the "Old World." Taking ad-
vantage of the earliest breeze that may be propitious, the
packet ship spreads her white wings to the wind and drops
down our noble harbor toward the Narrows. At length
she has reached her destination and the steamer, which
is to bear the friends of the passengers who have ac-
companied them thus far back to the city, is puffing and
wheezing along side the packet. After due farewell, the
proud ship, careening to the breeze, bows her white sails
and tapering masts to the wind and speeds away over the
unfathomed deep. Soon she fades and dwindles to a
speck in the distance and the steamer, regardless of wind
or tides, glides back to the city and lands her passengers."
This reference to the return of the steamer "regardless
of wind or tides" is an allusion to the superior power of
the steam driven vessel against the. sail, in those days still
a novelty. The Liverpool Packets of the Collins Line,
the Black Ball, Swallow Tail, Red Cross, Dramatic, and
State Lines made regular sailings to Liverpool and some
years later attained the dignity of a weekly schedule
maintained as the ocean liners do today.
Notwithstanding the successful introduction by Ful-
ton of the steam propelled vessel as early as 1809 the
art seems to have languished till late in the 30s. One
reason for this was doubtless the exclusive right granted
by the Government to Fulton and Livingston whereby
the coastwise waters, lakes and inland rivers were handed
over to these worthies in fee simple so far as steatn nav-
igation was concerned. Daniel Webster took up the
matter on the broad ground of public policy and finally
succeeded in destroying the monopoly. After that prog-
ress began in real earnest.
The departure of a California or China Clipper was
even a more important event than the shorter voyage to
England, and always attracted a great crowd to the Bat-
tery. After she had finished loading at her pier on the
East River it was the custom for her to drop down to
the Battery then to receive her crew, take on some gun-
powder from Ellis Island and finally set sail for her far
Perhaps the greatest attraction for the people who
gathered to see her off — and the fashionable promenade
around the Park at the Battery was always crowded —
was the delight in hearing the sailors sing their sea songs
as the ship made ready. These cheering, rollicking
"chanties" were unlike anything ever heard elsewhere
and in fact were apparently untransplantable. They
could only be rendered in their proper environment amid
OF OLD NEW YORK
the bustle and excitement of Battery Boat men, deliver-
ing belated sailors, the mate sizing up his crew; the hoist-
ing of the sails and the thousand and one things going on
at the same time.
It certainly imparted an air of cheerfulness to the de-
parting ship. It used to be said that a good Chanty man
was worth four men in a watch. This was more than
true for when a crew knocked off chantying it seemed
as if the ship and all hands were dead. And the effect
upon the crew was equally depressing.
Where these songs came from originally, who wrote
them and how they came to be the peculiar property of
the CHpper ship has never been quite satisfactorily ex-
plained. There seems to be no particular sense in the
words though in that respect they are not so different
from the average popular song of our day. But they
are certainly far from rhyme or reason. Captain Clark in
his "Clipper Ship Era" goes into this in splendid detail.
One that was always sung with great gusto ran some-
thing like this :
"In eighteen hundred and forty six
I found myself in a hell of a fix
A working on the railway, the railway, the railway,
Oh ! poor Paddy works on the railway."
"In eighteen hundred and forty seven
When Dan O'Connolly went to Heaven,
He worked upon the railway, the railway, the railway.
Poor Paddy works on the railway, the railway."
There were verses enough to keep the crew busy till
the particular sail in hand was properly set. It might re-
quire the prolongation of the trials of poor Paddy all
through the nineteenth century and well into the next.
He never seemed to do anything or get anywhere except
on the railway. His ultimate fate was evidently a mat-
[ 101 ]
ter of indifference to the salts, as they would promptly
dispose of Paddy and his adventures the moment the
mate sung out "Avast there — Hold it" signifying that the
task was done.
It generally took one or two songs to wake the crew up,
but when they were finally under way the music of their
songs could be heard far up on Beaver Street.
Another chorus that would be sung to the hauling of
the three topsail halliards was :
"Away, way, way, you
We'll kill Paddy Doyle for his boots."
And another which likewise enjoyed the distinction of
interminable length began :
"Then up aloft that yard must go
Whiskey for my Johnny !
Ohl whiskey is the life of man,
Whiskey Johnny !
I thought I heard the old man say,
Whiskey for my Johnny."
And so on. Why this ballad on whisky should be so
popular is another mystery. For strange as it may seem
the crews of American Clipper ships carried no grog
aboard — in contradistinction to almost every other na-
tion — and served only hot coffee to the watch even in
the Antarctic waters of the Cape.
As the whole world is now giving attention to this
"booze" question, it is not inapropos to recall the tem-
perance policy of the old merchant marine. This may
or may not have been a factor in its success. You may
decide for yourself. But it cannot be denied that the
insurance companies, guided no doubt by their experi-
ence with American Clippers, made a standing offer to
any other merchantman of a reduction of 10% provided
coffee was substituted for grog.
[ 102 1
Second Mayor of New York, 1789-1801. Painted from life by
Trumbull, from the original in the City Hall.
. OF OLD NEW YORK
"The ship, however, is tugging at her anchor. The
tide is ebb and the white sails ghsten in the sun. The
anchor is brought to the rail, head sheets begin to draw
and the ship gathers way in the slack water. A scramble
is made by the longshoremen and extra hands for the
trim little Whitehall boats alongside; the crowd on the
Battery shore give three hearty cheers. The ensign is
dipped and the graceful clipper with a smother of foam
at her fire peak is away for the Golden Gate and the
perils of Cape Horn.
"Once clear of the Bay and hull down on the horizon
the voyage was fairly begun. A more beautiful sight
can hardly be imagined than the dawn breaking with
possibly two or three of these magnificent vessels in sight
of each other at once and a mid ocean race as a natural
sequence. The sun bursts through the morning mists
tinging the clouds with gold. Dancing white caps fleck
the dark blue waters of the sparkling sea. The graceful
yachtlike hulls of the racers send a spume of foam
athwart their bows. The tapering masts, white with
clouds of snowy canvass straining at every turn and
buckle. All hands are now on deck. The officers keen
and alert the crew ready and willing to obey the slightest
wish of the captain. The weather door of the galley us-
ually frames the happy grinning woolly head of the
Cook whose presence is absolutely essential to the win-
ning of the race. And as night comes on and one after
another disappears in the lengthening shadows the day
is one long to be remembered." More than one old New
Yorker still living has enjoyed such an experience as a
guest or before the mast in search of health.
Some of the Famous Fliers
Some idea may be had of the speed of these Clippers
when it is remembered that the ordinary cargo ship con-
sumed upon an average about 300 days from New
York and Boston to San Francisco. There is a list of
some hundred and twenty-five voyages made between
1850 and 1860 in which the time is 110 days or less.
The Flying Cloud and the Andrew Jackson both of
whose pictures are shown have each a voyage of
89 days to their credit. For consistency of perfor-
mance, however, the Flying Cloud has the best sustained
record. The former made it in 1851 and again in '54
while it was not until 1860 that the Jackson equalled the
mark. Both of them used these splendid records with
telling effect in their advertising and it gives us gi'eat
pleasure to reproduce elsewhere one of these old sailing
cards issued by the Jackson. Many old firms will recall
these highly ornate affairs. They were very striking
and the very first use made of brilliant colors on purely
commercial cards. Their popularity was great. And a
few years later a craze for lithographed cards set in that
practically created the present vast industry of lithog-
raphy. All sorts of businesses used these attractive col-
ored cards and collecting them became quite a craze.
Their origin, however, was in these early Clipper Cards
as we have just related. A very nice collection has been
presented by Mr. P. A. S. Franklin to the India House
where they may be seen in the Franklin room. Almost
all the old firms are represented — Sutton & Co., Cooley,
Wm. T. Coleman & Co. and others. They are a very inter-
esting relic of Clipper days and used to be delivered by
OF OLD NEW YORK
Hussey's Post by hand. Hussey had a sort of rival to
the postoffice which he built up while the Government
had its hands full with the Civil War. He enjoyed quite
a lucrative trade with the down town merchants who
wanted immediate delivery and at less cost than postal
The Government finally got after him and Webster
told him to quit and save what he had. Hussey was ob-
stinate however and would not take the great expound-
er's advice. As a result the litigation which followed
cost him all his fortune and he died poor.
After the records we have just cited came the run
of the Sword Fish also in '51 of 90 days. Two years
later the Flying Fish did it in 92, the John Gilpin in 93.
In '56 the Siveepstakes in 94. In '51 the Surprise in
96 ; the Romance of the Seas '54 in 96. The Sea Witch
'50 in 97 ; the Contest 97 ; the Witchcraft '54 in 97. The
Antelope '56 in 97. The Flying Dragon '57 in 97 and
the Sierra Nevada '59 in 97.
Two made it in 98 days : the Flying Fish and David
Brown. The Herald of the Morning 99 days.
Capt. Arthur H. Clark, one of the few surviving Cap-
tains of the Clipper Era, has compiled in his well known
book "The Clipper Ship Era" the following table of such
other voyages as came within a 110 day limit — each of
which was a remarkable performance notwithstanding the
fact that it was occasionally bettered by a particularly
favorable run of wind and weather lasting throughout an
entire voyage — which was the exception and not the rule.
[ 107 ]
Clipper Runs New York to San Francisco
N. B. Palmer 106
Sea Witch HO
Northern Light 109
John Bertram 105
Shooting Star 105
White Squall HO
Wild Pigeon 104
Sovereign of the Seas.. 103
Bald Eagle 107
Flying Cloud 105
Flying Dutchman 104
Golden Age 103
Golden Gate 102
Sea Serpent 107
[ 108 ]
Young America 110
Eagle Wing 106
Golden City 105
Herald of the Morning. 106
San Francisco 105
Boston Light 102
Don Quixote 108
Governor Morton 104
Neptune's Car 100
Red Rover 107
David Brown 103
Electric Spark 106
Mary L. Sutton 110
North Wind 110
Wild Hunter 108
Andrew Jackson 100
John Land 104
Dashing Wave 107
Esther May 103
Robin Hood 107
Ocean Telegraph 109
White Swallow 110
Winged Racer IDS
Hon. John F. Hylax
Ninety-eighth Mayor of New York City, 1918-21.
: THE CITY GOVERNMENT :
Mr. Hylan Succeeds Mr. Mitchell as Mayor
IN the old Manuals it was customary to include the
names of all employes on the City's pay roll and
also a brief reference to every activity in which
the City had a direct interest. These included the Public
Schools, Hospitals, Reformatory Buildings, Parks, Fire
and Hose Companies, Docks, Piers and every other pub-
lic or semi-public institution. The early numbers con-
tained the individual names of the High Constables and
all the members of the rattle watch ; the school teachers,
the charwomen, the licensed public victuallers, pedlers and
so on. Some of our friends think we should approximate
this plan in the present Manuals.
All of this information however is published in the
City Record. The pay roll alone contains usually eighty
to ninety thousand names, sometimes rising to the formid-
able total of over one hundred and twenty thousand on
special occasions. Such a task is therefore entirely be-
yond the scope of the present Manual. Even as it is we
cannot do justice to all the Boroughs.
[ 111 ]
The City has grown since Valentine's day. That is a
very mild way in which to speak of this change. Time has
proven, however, that the old Manual is esteemed more for
the quaint old pictures, reminiscent and historical articles
than for the technical details of City management. If
we can succeed in placing before our readers an adequate
idea of old New York from past contemporary records,
we shall have to be content, and leave the details of the
present day to our esteemed contemporary, the City
With the advent of each succeeding administration
there comes a complete change in the personnel of the
offices. We give below the names of the new heads of the
respective departments and the principal officers elected
January 1, 1918. In the first volume of Valentine's
Manual, 1916-17 we gave a synopsis of the City Govern-
ment in all its details and particulars under the Mitchel
John F. Hylan Mayor
Term expires Dec. 31, 1921. Salary $15,000.
Grover A. Whalen Secretary to the Mayor
John F. Sinnott Executive Secretary
Frances W. Rokus Acting Executive Secretary
Charles L. Craig Comptroller
Term expires Dec. 31, 1921. Salary $15,000.
Charles F. Kerrigan Secretary
Frank L. Dowling Manhattan
Edward Riegelmann Brooklyn
Henry Bruckner Bronx
Maurice E. Connolly Queens
Calvin D. Van Name Richmond
BOARD OF ESTIMATE AND APPORTIONMENT
This board consists of the Mayor, Comptroller, President of
the Board of Aldermen, and the five Borough Presidents.
OF OLD NEW YORK
BOARD OF ALDERMEN
Alfred E. Smith President
Robert L. Moran Vice Chairman
Francis P. Kenney Chairman Com. on Finance
Besides these officers there are IZ Aldermen representing the
city — one from each district, elected for two years.
COMMISSIONERS OF THE SINKING FUND
The Mayor, Comptroller, Chamberlain, President of the Board
of Aldermen, and the Chairman of the Finance Committee.
THE CHAMBERLAIN'S OFFICE
Custodian of the public money; appointed by the Mayor.
Alfred J. Johnson Chamberlain
Edward J. Glennon Deputy Chamberlain
DEPARTMENT OF TAXES AND ASSESSMENTS
Jacob A. Cantor President
Jos. F. O'Grady Arthur H. Murphy
James P. Sinnott George H. Payne
Richard H. Williams Lewis M. Swasey
BOARD OF EDUCATION
Arthur S. Somers President
Frank D. Wilsey Vice President
Anning S. Prall Mrs. Ruth F. Russell
George J. Ryan Mrs. Emma L. Murray
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS
William F. Grell, Commis'ner for Manh'n. and R'mond.
John N. Harman Commissioner for Brooklyn
Joseph P. Hennessy Commissioner for Bronx
Albert C. Benninger Commissioner for Queens
BOARD OF HEALTH
Dr. Royal S. Copeland President
Dr. Leland E. Cofer Health Officer of Port
Richard E. Enright Police Commissioner
[ 113 1
DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING
Arnold B. MacStay Commissioner
H. Warren Hubbard, Deputy Commissioner, Manhattan
Machael Laura Deputy Commissioner, Brooklyn
James W. Brown Deputy Commissioner, Bronx
Richard E. Enright Commissioner
John A. Leach First Deputy Commissioner
William J. Lahey Second Deputy Commissioner
John W. Goff Thiird Deputy Commissioner
Fred A. Wallis Fourth Deputy Commissioner
Mrs. Ellen A. O'Grady Fifth Deputy Commissioner
John A. Harris Special Deputy Commissioner
Rodman Wanamaker Special Deputy Commissioner
Allan A. Ryan Special Deputy Commissioner
BOARD OF WATER SUPPLY
John F. Galvin President
Chas. N. Chadwick L. J. O'Reilly
DEPARTMENT OF WATER, GAS AND ELECTRICITY
Nicholas J. Hayes Commissioner
John J. Dietz Deputy Commissioner
Ajlbert H. Libenau Deputy Commissioner, Bronx
C. M. Sheehan Deputy Commissioner, Brooklyn
James C. Butler Deputy Commissioner, Queens
James L. Vail Deputy Commissioner, Richmond
Robert W. De Forest President
A. Augustus Healy Vice President
Jules Guerin Secretary
John Quincy Adams Assistant Secretary
DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES
Murray Hulbert Commissioner
Michael Cosgrove Deputy Commissioner
Henry A. Meyer Deputy Commissioner
DEPARTMENT OF CHARITIES
Bird S. Coler Commissioner
S. A. Nugent First Deputy Commissioner
P. J. Carlin Second Deputy Commissioner
Rev. Dr. S. Buchler Third Deputy Commissioner
[ 114 ]
This beautiful clipper made the
fastest voyage to California in 1856 —
94 days and an abstract from her log
on this trip gives an interesting side-
light of the run in its various stages.
From Sandy Hook to the Equator. . . 18
From the Equator to 50o S 23
From 50° S. Atlantic to 50° S. Pacific 15
From 50° S. to the Equator 17
From the Equator to San Francisco. . 23
No more beautiful sight was ever
seen than the Sweepstakes coming up
the bay all sails set and a big bone
in her teetli. It is well worth remem-
OF OLD NEW YORK
The Posthumous Diary
of Diedrick Knickerbocker
My erstwhile and now classic friend, boniface Seth
Handyside, he of the Independent Columbian Hotel in
Cortlandt Street who caused to be published my "certain
kind of a curious written book" to satisfy him of my be-
holding for board and lodging, little dreamed that he
would render his obscure and impecunious guest one of
the great men of his time. For such I now understand
is the judgment of mankind on my modest effort to set
forth in simple language the origin and progress of the
great city of my birth. Whimsical though it be, yet truth
was ever my hand maiden, and despite its many short
comings, my humble work has been accorded exceeding
high praise, at which my friend Handyside marvelled no
more than I.
I come again amongst you — to record my observations
of the great city which has ever been dominent in my af-
fections and never absent from my thoughts. These
kindly comments will be interspersed, as my good friend
Handyside truly remarked, with philosophical specula-
tions and moral precepts which he claimed did so much
to make my former book so greatly esteemed.
When I was last among you my amiable friend Richard
Varick was the Mayor. We chose him above all other
citizens for his sterling character, his proven ability and
his strict integrity. So high an honor could not be
lightly bestowed nor could it be openly sought. It was
as it should be.
But the old days are passed and new modes and prac-
tices prevail. Methought the Hon. John Purroy Mitchel,
and so the papers told me, was one citizen among a mil-
[ 119 ]
lion. So much praise, so much adulation was this young
man's portion that I was fearful lest the effect should be
evil. But I was assured, and was to discover it soon
myself, that the young man was unaffected by this lavish
flattery. I deemed the city thrice blessed which had a
Mayor whom all so delighted to honor. And it were
folly, quoth I, to dispose of the services of so able and
faithful a public servant.
Nor was I alone in this opinion. With possibly one
or two exceptions, the papers, and especially the one
edited by my old friend Coleman, were a unit in his
favor. Nor among my learned friends was there ought
of dissent. Methought the selection was unanimous and
the casting of the ballots a mere formality. For the mo-
ment I put aside all thought of the mutability of human
affairs and the great uncertainty of the best laid plans of
mice and men.
Far be it from me to do aught but faithfully and truth-
fully portray events as they occurred. Nor shall I pre-
sume to cite other than the documents in the case. Novel
weapons are now in use that were strangers to my days.
The skilful limners — cartoonists I believe they are called
— drew most mirth provoking pictures of our worthy
Mayor participating in what is known in polite so-
ciety as "Tea Dansants" — a function but little under-
stood by the people and too often unthinkingly allied to
conduct of great reprehensibility in their eyes, albeit of
an innocent and harmless nature. And when his Honor
was further described as being translated in to a state of
ecstasy because, forsooth, a certain citizen of great wealth
called him by his christian name, thereby revealing a de-
gree of personal intimacy but little short of criminal —
[ 120 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
the day was lost irretrievably and I retired to my study
in a maze of perplexity.
Rising betimes I bethought me of the fortunate one
among our millions whom the citizens had chosen to pre-
side over them for the coming four years. Mr. Hylan's first
public utterance upholding our President in his War aims
made an immediate appeal to my good sense. Old and
experienced scrivener though I am, yet am I still swayed
by the power of the written thought ; and my knowledge
of the character and attainments of the new Mayor,
gained in most part from the columns of the papers
which did so mightily support his opponent, was far from
being correct. The very preponderance of his vote — ^his
majority being 170,000 over two competitors — was in it-
self highly impressive, and upon further reading of his
biography it speedily became clear that the choice of the
people was no mean citizen. His splendid achievements
in the face of great obstacles are an inspiration to young
men not only in our own great city but everywhere else
in the nation. A letter which he addressed to the people
of our city at Christmas time when the spirit of saving,
aroused by the war, threatened to deprive the children of
their peculiar rights, won for him many well deserved
plaudits and further strengthened him in the esteem of
[ 121 ]
Diedrich Knickerbocker Meets the Mayor
and His Cabinet
'Twas truly a most gracious proceeding on the part of
his Honor Mayor Hylan, to present me to the worthy
gentlemen who were associated with him in the exceeding
great task of governing this mighty city, grown so large
and multitudinous since this humble citizen dwelt within
its bounds. When I reminded his Honor that the last
time I did ascend these stairs to this very council hall,
I was assured with most grave and potent asseverations
that no other building in all this land was of such goodly
proportions and such excellent beauty of design, he did
remark with courtly grace, that it was all very true and
it was yet esteemed an honor to the age that built it. My
old friend McComb would have been deeply touched by
this gracious compliment to his genius, for truly he la-
bored with exceeding great patience and desire, to the
end that this goodly city should possess a public building
worthy of its importance.
But I must not wander away from these excellent gen-
tlemen who are to occupy the seats of the mighty and to
hold up the hands, if I may quote holy writ, of his Honor
in the exceeding difficult tasks of his office. There is the
comptroller Mr. Chas. L. Craig into whose hands the af-
fluent stream of public moneys flows, verily a stream to
make my dim old eyes scintillate as they never before did,
and I am told that mighty sums — hundreds of millions —
pass through his hands to pay for the needs of the city.
Truly miracles will never cease, and certes, the careful
and saving inhabitants of old New York could never have
comprehended such wonderful large sums. 'Tis evident
his Honor has a strong support in this man of finance.
[ 122 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
The office of President of the Board of Aldermen which
is a new office since the days when I intermingled with the
city fathers is occupied by a worthy gentleman, Mr. Al-
fred E. Smith, whose frank manner and prudent conver-
sation well befit him for this high office, and must give the
citizens exceeding great confidence in his ability. And
here I became much confused, for I met other estimable
gentlemen who were addressed as president of this hon-
orable body or of that, and I was greatly put to it to dis-
tinguish these gentlemen in their proper relation, and to
honor them with the titles which duly pertain to their
respective offices. Albeit I inquired diligently, as one
greatly anxious to know the true scope and meaning of
this marvellous expansion of the city government, for
verily it caused me much wonderment. Betimes it was
borne in upon me that the little old New York of my day
had grown to be an exceeding great city, so great indeed
that it behooved the people to divide it into parts for the
better governance thereof. Hence these estimable gen-
tlemen who respectively devote their powers and talents to
this task — the President of the Borough of Manhattan
Mr. Frank L. Dowling ; of the Bronx Mr. Henry Bruck-
ner ; of Brooklyn Mr. Edward Riegelman ; of Queens Mr.
M. E. Connolly; and of Richmond Mr. Calvin D. Van
Name — all most intelligent gentlemen who have com-
mended themselves to the electors by their ability in mat-
ters pertaining to public office, and herein doth the author-
ity of this great city reside, for I see by diligently scru-
tinizing the public press that these various gentlemen I
have named compose what is styled in the popular
phraseology, the Mayor's Cabinet from which doth flow
the power that directs and governs the city.
[ 125 ]
My long absence from the city has put me sadly out
of touch with the new methods and customs that now
prevail. I confess that I thought the comments in the
press pertaining to both candidates during the late cam-
paign were not always couched in language that seemed
to me fitting to the exalted personages whom they dis-
cussed. Most of all was I shocked at the sacrilegious
levity used in discussing that venerable and eminently re-
spectable body of citizens known as the Columbian Order
of the Society of Tammany. I doubted the evidence of
my own eyes. It was positively shocking! Imagine
them talking in such an outrageous fashion of the St.
Nicholas Society! Yet they might just as well. But in
this case public opinion would operate to prevent any re-
flection upon the intelligence and good breeding of the
members of St. Nicholas. I am not able to perceive any
difference between the two organizations in point of
respectability. General Washington and Alexander Ham-
ilton were everywhere considered to be gentleman of
culture and refinement, but so also were DeWitt Clinton
and Chancellor Livingston. They and their friends and
associates made up the membership of St. Nicholas and
Tammany in the days when I was last in New York and
no one ever drew a distinction between their social aims,
though their political aims were admitted to be widely
different, which was of course quite permissible.
I made a note of some of the most particularly offen-
sive remarks, and one that gave me especial pain was to
have the leader of this historic organization referred to as
at one time a bar-keeper in divers sorts of places where
ale, spirits and beer were sold. These were called saloons
but it was surely an error to call him a bar-keeper as he
was more truly a licensed victualler. In my day that sort
[ 126 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
of inferior persons were never consulted on matters of
public import, and I refuse to believe that any such char-
acter can have influence in municipal affairs. I doubt
not that when I have finished my reading I will find that
some envious scribe from Boston or Philadelphia, desiring
to besmirch the fair fame of their chief rival, is re-
sponsible for these libels.
Speaking of liquors suggest the insertion here of an-
other great change which my readers will hardly credit.
Nevertheless, doubting Thomas though I be, yet I cannot
refuse to credit the evidence of my own senses. The
good old custom of drinking is no longer considered cor-
rect usage in polite society. They tell me also that gentle-
men are no longer distinguished by reason of their ability
to punish Port and Madeira as in my day, and that when
dinner is over the gentlemen at once join the ladies, and
are not left alone to finish their libations in peace and
comfort. In fact I have been told that in certain sections
of our country it is altogether against the law to have
liquor in your possession at any time ! I am told that the
Capital City, Washington, is one of these places and that
not even a club or hotel can supply anything stronger than
tea. But perhaps that is an over statement similar to the
one that soldiers may not be sold intoxicants while in uni-
form, yet I make it on very excellent authority. So many
changes have evidently taken place since I was last here
that I am prepared to believe almost anything and I am
greatly surprised thereby.
Other great and striking changes are to be noted in
every direction, and as the citizen a hundred years hence
may be impressed with the contrasts of his day, as I am
with this ; perhaps it may be fitting for me to set down
for his guidance some further changes that I particularly
noted. I cannot begin to record them all. The whole
world seems topsy turvy, but some of these changes I
When I was last in New York most merchants either
lived over their stores or had their residence within easy
walking distance. There were very few of the latter.
There were not many private carriages kept and such as
existed were known and recognized by every one. There
were a few stages running out in the country to Green-
wich, Chelsea and other villages, but most of the travel
was on foot. The city was mostly below Chambers
Street, so that one could walk from about any section to
another in a very short time. Now all this is changed.
They tell me that the railroad operated by electricity and
running entirely underground extends for fifteen miles —
to the Kings Bridge at the very end of the Island, and
that the time consumed in the journey is less than 50
minutes. When I went to the Kings Bridge in my day
it took the greater part of ten hours to make the journey.
The sin of prolixity is ever present in an old man such
as I am. Having recorded another milestone in the His-
tory of old New York I will now subside.
[ 128 ]
: THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL :
: : : : SOCIETY : : : :
Some Notable Activities During the Past Year —
Field Exploration Committee Appointed
The year just closed was marked by unusual activity
in the work of this organization. At the annual meeting
last January steps were taken to bring the Constitution
and By-Laws more into harmony with the practice of sim-
ilar institutions, and the new arrangement seems to work
well. In accordance with the conservative spirit of this
Society these changes need not be considered abso-
lutely permanent until by experience they have been
proved a practical improvement over the former rules.
Many other suggestions were made at the meeting all
in the line of greater efficiency. The establishment of a
Quarterly Bulletin was ordered and provision made for
the re-cataloging and arranging of the Egyptian Collec-
tion. A complete catalogue will soon be issued to the
members, quite a few of whom will learn for the first
time the wide scope and richness of the Society's Egyp-
Of greater general interest, however, was the work
of the Society in collecting for the first time a complete
file of New York's first weekly newspaper — Bradford's
New York Gazette. So scarce had those old papers be-
come that no one organization possessed a file complete.
The Society corresponded with all other organizations
known to have copies of the Gazette needed to com-
plete the file. Some of these old issues were carefully
preserved in Safe Deposit Vaults. Others in special fire
proof cases in carefully guarded sections of public insti-
tutions. All were finally secured and photographed, the
precious originals thereupon being returned to the own-
ers. The New York Society Library and the Mercantile
Library Association and others were among the societies
co-operating in this work and all are entitled to the thanks
of old New Yorkers for thus securing the records of New
York as reflected in its first newspaper.
William Bradford was a man of undoubted importance
in the little village of New York in the year 1725. At
that time our city had a population of about 7000. Nev-
ertheless it rejoiced in its weekly paper very much as do
villages of modern times. But Bradford's Gazette had
this distinction, — it recorded the events of the Baby
Days of a hamlet which was destined to become the lead-
ing city of the world. His paper, with its personal items,
its local gossip, its quaint advertisements, and its news of
the day is naturally therefore of the greatest interest,
and Bradford himself in consequence has also grown in
importance as a pioneer printer and publisher. The
printers of New York make a yearly pilgrimage to his
grave in Trinity churchyard on the anniversary of his
OF OLD NEW YORK
We have asked Mr. Hy. F, De Puy who greatly aided
the Society in this Bradford restoration and an ardent
admirer of this old New York publisher, to prepare for
our readers a paper on the Life and Times of William
Bradford. Mr. De Puy's library of Bradfordiana is
without a rival in this country. His contribution will be of
great value and of great historical interest. It will ap-
pear in our next number.
The appointment by the Executive Committee of the
Society of a group of its members as an exploring or-
ganization, lends the aid and influence of The New York
Historical Society to a form of historical research which
has been heretofore conducted by individuals and the step
will undoubtedly bring results in discoveries within our
own State, that will. add to the service which the Society
is rendering to the cause of historic preservation and
For many years a group of energetic workers, under
the leadership of Mr. W. L. Calver, Mr. Reginald P.
Bolton and Dr. William S. Thomas, have devoted the
spare hours available from duty and livelihood to the
physical search of the soil for relics of aboriginal Colonial
and Revolutionary War remains, chiefly in the upper part
of the Island of Manhattan and the Borough of the
Bronx. In recognition of this devoted service extending
over thirty years, the Society last year unanimously
elected Messrs. Calver and Bolton life members. A similar
honor would have been conferred upon Dr. Thomas but
he was already a member. The successful results of this
work have become of increasing interest and historical
value, and the experience of the party is now to be de-
voted to the continuance and extension of their work
under the auspices of the Society, as its Committee on
The Committee includes the following members of the
Mr. William L. Calver, Chairman
Mr. Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, Vice-Chairman
Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton, Secretary
Mr, Alexander J. Wall, Treasurer
Mr. Charles M. Lefiferts
Dr. William S. Thomas
The Committee was authorized to add to its member-
ship other workers willing to agree to the condition that
objects and facts discovered by the Committee's opera-
tions should be regarded as the property of the Society.
They have thus elected as Associates:
Mr. John Ward Dunsmore
Mr. Charles H. Thurston
Mr. R. T. Webster
Mr. Oscar T. Barck
who have for some time past aided in this line of re-
The Committee plans to continue the active work of the
past and to extend their field of operations to the region
of the Highlands of the Hudson and the counties of
Dutchess, Putnam, and Westchester, covering Indian, Co-
lonial, and Revolutionary sites.
The Committee have in view the enlistment of other
workers in their home localities, who may be added to
its circle and would be in a position, due to their resi-
dence in and familiarity with a certain area, to contribute
effective efforts in local explorations and surveys.
This brief review of the projected operations of the
Committee, it is hoped may not only interest the general
[ 134 ]
Fourteenth Street, west from Fifth Avenue in 18G0, wiien it was
a street of fine private residences. Remarkably rare
and interesting picture .
OF OLD NEW YORK
membership, but may bring about an accession to the
force of explorers from among their circle, who may be
able to aid, not perhaps with the muscular labor of the
field, but by information as to maps, documents, and sites,
and by securing permission to examine them in the in-
terests of our Society.
Our city, it is needless to say is, in the eyes of the
Manual, the most fascinating, interesting and worth
while city in the world. Confessing this prejudice at the
start, our readers will be prepared for our lukewarmness
toward Egyptian and other antiquities which absorb so
important a share of the energy, time and devotion of
On the other hand it must be borne in mind that the
charter of the Society, granted in 1804, did not confine
it to the limited work of one city only. It embraced a
wide area of activities. For more than three-quarters of
a century it was the only institution in the city devoting
its energies to the preservation of the country's historical
interests. The great Metropolitan Museum and the Mu-
seum of Natural History are mere infants compared with
the venerable Historical Society. As a result many ob-
jects which now seem out of place in a Society whose
chief interest is the History of the City of New York,
came into its possession quite naturally. The Egyptian
collection is a case in point. The Abbott collection of
Primates is another. In the opinion of many friends of
the Society these particular items could now very well be
disposed of to make room for other items directly con-
nected with the city.
The unexampled growth of New York — its tremendous
importance and interest from the historical point of view
[ 137 ]
suggests the adoption of a policy more in keeping with
the Society's manifest destiny. If New York were an
ordinary city the question might be viewed differently,
but its immense size and importance together with the
incalculable richness of its historical lore make it a suffi-
ciently large proposition for any one institution. At the
time of the Historical Society's organization there were
fewer people in the whole United States than there are in
the city to-day. The adoption of the Field Exploration
work was a progressive step which pleased the friends of
the Society, and such work as the placing of Markers,
Tablets, etc., in many places throughout the city offers
another field in which the Society could achieve won-
Mr. Bolton, the historian of the exploration work has
kindly given us a short account of the work performed
this year which we are glad to place on record.
Explorations of this nature, while not exactly fatiguing,
cannot be classed wholly in the line of physical repose.
There is quite a little manual labor to be performed but
the fascination of unearthing some long forgotten treas-
ure is a great stimulus. Already the collection of but-
tons, belts, muskets, kitchen utensils and other items is
assuming important proportions and all future objects
thus obtained become the property of the Society.
Exploration of Historical Sites
Reginald Pelham Bolton
This work, of which some description was given in
the last issue of the Manual, has been continued during
the past year by a band of active explorers, who have now
[ 138 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
been formed into a committee of the New York Historical
Society, and have been designated by the Executive Com-
mittee of that Society as its Committee on Field Ex-
The work of exploring sites has somewhat widened in
scope, and has been extended to the region of the High-
lands of the Hudson where the party joined hands with
the Martlaer's Rock Association, and undertook some
investigation of the sites of fortifications on Constitution
Island with a considerable degree of success. The orig-
inal site of Fort Constitution has been located and the
ground covered by the barracks built by the American
forces and destroyed by the British, has been searched
with the result of the discovery of a number of interesting
military buttons showing the presence on the Island of
the Massachusetts and Continental troops, as well as an
occasional British soldier's button.
The search of the Island has resulted in the discovery
of a large number of the remains of the stone huts oc-
cupied by the soldiers, the fireplaces of which are in
some cases still standing.
The party has also turned its attention to the discovery
of camp sites of the American troops in the West Point
region, and has located one of them, built and occupied
by the Connecticut troops, about a mile and a half east of
Garrisons, on the Cat Rock road. This camp has been
explored very carefully, and the sites of some forty huts
have been located, within which have been found many
traces of their occupation, including pewter buttons of
the Connecticut soldiery.
The work of exploring the large military camp on the
Dyckman farm near Broadway and Dyckman Street, has
been carried forward to a point where a survey of the
[ 139 ]
position of these huts has been completed, indicating that
the camp probably included as many as one hundred dug-
out huts, of which upwards of fifty have been actually
located and explored.
The winter season was occupied by the final arrange-
ment of the objects thus recovered from the soil, at
Washington's Headquarters, commonly known as the
Jumel Mansion, in which building the collection of local
military relics is now in complete form, and has been
carefully re-arranged, numbered, and catalogued.
One of the interesting features of discovery in these
explorations has been the pottery and porcelain ware used
by the soldiers and their officers, and cast away after
being fractured. The study and comparison of the speci-
mens of materials have brought out some extremely inter-
esting facts as to the class of manufacture and the locality
of origin of these wares. A number of them have been,
with much patience, restored to a practically complete
form and arranged in suitable cases, so that the interested
visitor may readily study the objects, both in regard to
their character and their design.
(§tmn iExpr?0H 1B55
Another of the California beauties
of the early 50's. She was among the
record-holders of the run from Cape
ist. Koque to 50° S. made along with
the Bald Eagle, Comet, Electric, Hur-
ricane and Raven in 18 days.
She was for many years a familiar
figure in lower South Street around
Pier 9 and was one of the noted clip-
pers during the gold rush to the
Coast. Capt. Cunningham was in
command. — Collection of Mr. M. Wil-
THE BOR OUGH OF THE BRONX
IT seems as if it were only yesterday that the open-
ing of the subway focussed attention upon a hith-
erto unknown country — the woods and fields of
West Farms, Fordham and other sylvan regions now
brought within the city limits. No such rapid develop-
ment has been hitherto recorded even in this land of
lightning-like changes. In the twinkling of an eye, so to
speak, a population almost as great as that of Boston,
went to dwell above the Harlem River and the Borough
of the Bronx came into being with scarcely the formality
We have asked some of our friends to tell us about this
land of Rodman Drake, Fitz-Greene Halleck, the DeLan-
ceys, Hunts, Lydigs, Lorillards, etc., and we think our
readers will enjoy these memories of an older and more
stately period in the romantic country seat days of the
Bronx. Mr. Wray's article begins the series.
[ 145 ]
. VALENTINE'S MANUAL
The Passing of the Delancey Pine of Bronx Park
— History and Romance
On the easterly bank of the Bronx River in Bronx
Park, within a few feet of the Lower Falls and nearly
opposite the present Boat-House, there stands erect, like
a sentinel on post, the mast-like stump of a large tree,
sawed off fully twenty feet above the ground. Huge
among its neighboring trees, near its base it is over four
and a half feet from bark to bark and twelve feet in cir-
cumference ; prone on the ground at its foot lies a large
section of the trunk, stripped of its branches and bark.
This is all that remains of the last of the great forest-trees
that once lined the banks of the Bronx, trees that in their
span of life covered many generations of men ; for this tree
has seen 'beneath its arching boughs the events of the
centuries shape the destiny of men; saw the Indian run-
ner glide past, saw the coming of the white colonist, saw
farmer and miller. Continental soldier and Redcoat Brit-
ish, Washington himself, the brilliantly uniformed officers
of Howe's headquarters staff, the assembly of the aristo-
cratic fox-hunt, the gathering of the wedding-guests, poet
and dull negro-slave, all manners of men, times of peace
and times of terror, for this tree is the Delancey Pine,
celebrated in song and story;
"WHERE gentle Bronx clear-winding flows,
The shadowy banks between,
Where blossomed bell or wilding rose
Adorns the brighest green,
Memorial of the fallen great,
The rich and honored line.
Stands high, in solitary state,
DELANCEY'S ancient pine."
So sang the poet a century ago, for even then it was a
tree with a long history, and beneath its shade stood the
old homestead once the residence of Peter Delancey, son
OF OLD NEW YORK
of Stephen Delancey, the Huguenot, and brother of the
Lieutenant-Governor James Delancey.
Before the coming of the white man, this tree stood
near the fording-place of the Indian tribes whose trail
passed nearby ; down through a gap between rock ledges
dashed the stream in a rapid to the point where the fresh
water mingled with the salt, for then the tide rose and
fell at that point, and the Indians found that at the join-
ing of the waters, there was at all tides a shoal place
suitable for wading the stream. The Indians, on their
way to the summer camps at what was afterwards Hunts
Point, crossed over to the west bank of the stream and
continued southward on a trail following the windings
of the stream, and this stream they named the "Stream of
the High Banks" or "Aquehung" on account of the ledges
near the big pine.
Then came the white men, Jonas Bronk and his friend
Captain Kuyter ; disappointed on their arrival at their
plantations on the Harlem River in the summer of 1639
at finding that their brooks flowed through meadows and
could not readily be dammed for use with the saw-mill
they had brought from Holland, they inquired of some
of their Indians whether there was not some stream in the
vicinity with high banks, and the Indians led them over
their trails to the big-pine and Bronk at once saw that it
was an ideal place for his mill; so shortly afterward;
Bronk and his men arrived by boat, built their log-dam
at the head of tidewater and between the ledges near the
big pine, and soon the mill was set up and in operation,
and the beams and boards were being shipped by every
tide to be used on the Harlem in building the dwellings
and tobacco-barns of Bronk and Kuyter ; the Indian name
of the river was dropped, and it became known among
[ 147 1
the settlers as Bronk's River, which name, spelt "Bronx"
it has retained.
But Bronk's mill was short-lived, for the year 1643
saw the outbreak of the Indian war, and soon a band of
painted and greased warriors leveled the dam and fired
the mill, and so passed Bronk's connection with the
Years passed, and one day a group of stocky white
men. Englishmen, the Town Trustees of the little settle-
ment of Westchester, came over the old trail looking for
a site for their town-mill. The site was satisfactory, and
soon the woods rang with the axes as the settlers cleared
the old trail from Westchester into a rough wood road,
and then built a new dam and a grist-mill and saw-mill,
with a dwelling for the miller on the high bank ; and here,
in 1680, came William Richardson, the town's first miller,
with his family, and his two negro-slaves, Jack and Dick,
his six yokes of oxen, and all his possessions.
William Richardson agreed to live in the wilderness
at the mills that he might always be ready to operate
them; for his compensation, not only did the town give
him the exclusive right to maintain mills on the lower
Bronx, and to cut certain kinds of timber, and to occupy
and use twenty acres of land, but he might from those
who patronized the mills, keep all timber sawed "to the
halves" and all corn ground "to the fourteenth part."
After the death of Richardson in 1693, the mills passed
to two Dutchmen, Evert Byvanck, who had lately married
the wealthy widow, Wyntie Van Exveen, and his brother-
in-law, Johannes Hogelandt; but the latter did not long
remain, for he found that a tide-mill had begun opera-
tions on Westchester Creek and that most of the grind-
ing of the Westchester settlers would naturally go there ;
OF OLD NEW YORK
so he sold his interest to Evert Byvanck, and thereafter
the latter, an elderly man with no children, charmed by
the quietness and sylvan beauty of the place, could be seen
seated on his stoop, calmly smoking his long pipe, as he
watched his negroes at work in the mills below and the
river glide over the dam and past the ford.
In turn, Evert Byvanck died and his widow inherited
the mills, but could not live alone in the woods, so sold
the property to William Provoost, who had married her
daughter, Aegie Van Exveen.
William Provoost at this time, in 1711, was a rising
merchant of New York City, and could not spend his
time attending mills, so he turned them over to Nicholas
Brouwer who came from Kings County; and although
for a few years they passed into the hands of Daniel
Tourneur, they eventually came again to Brouwer, but
probably all the while William Provoost had an interest
in the property.
Provoost became wealthy, one of the leading mer-
chants of New York, and a member of the Council of
the Royal Governor. Finding that he could become no
greater in New York, but that further opportunities of-
fered in the Colony of New Jersey about to become sep-
arated from New York, and desiring to remove to
Hackensack, he seems to have made, about 1731, a sale
of these mills to Stephen Delancey, the Huguenot mer-
chant, then his fellow member in the Council of the
It was during the time of Evert Byvanck that the mills
became more of a neighborhood center, for in 1704 the
Road Commissioners of Westchester not only widened
and improved the road to Westchester and also the old
trail along the west bank of the Bronx to Hunts Point
[ 151 ]
(now West Farms Road), making them roads four rods
wide, but put through a new road over to Kingsbridge
(now 182d Street), thus doing away with the roads that
had heretofore run "according to marked trees"; and
in 1716, another road was laid out to follow the
course of the present Morris Park Avenue and White
Plains Road, in parts, thus opening the way to the Boston
Road at Williamsbridge ; and about the same time (1716)
a new wooden bridge spanned the old fording-place near
The purchase of the mill-property by Delancey, al-
though at first regarded as a business venture, soon
proved to be of vast importance to the fortunes of the
Delancey family, for the possession of these mills con-
tributed largely to placing the family in power over the
Colonial government of New York for the fifty years
preceding the Revolution. The Royal Governor Cosby
had arrived in New York, had acted the tyrant, had been
checked by Chief-Justice Lewis Morris, and had deposed
Morris and, to further humiliate him, placed young James
Delancey, fresh from his law-studies in England, in his
place on the Bench; Morris had retaliated by contesting
an election for member of the Provincial Assembly, and
becoming elected through the votes of his tenants of the
Manor of Morrisania and the free small farmers living
in the Manor of Fordham, the Borough Town of West-
chester, and the Patent of West Farms, over the violent
opposition of the Delancey and Philipse families who con-
trolled the votes of all other sections of the lower West-
chester district. Morris speedily made himself leader of
the Provincial Assembly, which was the only lawful body
with the right to raise money by taxation and say how
it should be spent, and so blocked all efforts of the avari-
OF OLD NEW YORK
cious Governor to handle any of the public funds or
carry out any of his enterprises at public cost.
A way had to be found to defeat Morris at future
elections; and after a deep study of the case, it was de-
cided that some young and popular member of the De-
lancey family should be sent to live at the Mills, one
who could be hail-fellow-well-met with the farmers of
the neighborhood and who could be counted on to form
their acquaintance as they came to the Mills, the gather-
ing place of many each day and a place where mcJst must
come sooner or later, and thus change their vote from
Morris, whom they all knew but did not altogether like,
to a Delancey, who was popular. So Peter Delancey, sec-
ond son of Stephen Delancey the Huguenot, took up his
residence at the Mills, he being then twenty-nine years
of age, a fine, athletic, good-looking man, well calculated
to make a favorable impression on his farmer constitu-
ents ; and at the next election, Lewis Morris was the de-
feated candidate and Peter Delancey became Member of
the Provincial Assembly from Westchester County ; and
thereafter, Morris spent practically all of his remaining
years on his estates in New Jersey ; and Peter Delancey
continued to hold this office until an old man, when he
retired in favor of his son John.
Peter Delancey fell under the charm of the "Mills"
and a few years later, in 1738, he brought there his bride,
Elizabeth Colden, daughter of Dr.' Cadwallader Colden,
later to achieve fame as the Stamp-Act Governor of New
York ; and here they were to spend their lives ; for old
Stephen Delancey, seeing how pleased both were with the
place, left it to them in his Will in 1741. Here they ruled,
he as political ruler of lower Westchester County, widely
known as "Peter-of-the-Mills," Sheriff and County Mem-
ber, and resident representative of the Delancey and
Colden families, than whom there were none of greater
power in the half-century before the passing of the British
rule; she, ruling in social affairs, the supreme lady-of-
quality of the region; and here their twelve children
were born and became in turn powers in the affairs of
their country. Peter loved the quaintness and charm of
the place, and as he made money, bought farm after farm
until his holdings extended along the Bronx from the big
bend south of Tremont Avenue to north of Pelham
Parkway, and from Van-Nest station on the east to
Fordham Square on the west ; and he improved his prop-
erty, putting an arched bridge of stone over the old
fording-place in place of the wooden bridge, building be-
neath the big-pine a homestead for his family, and in-
creasing his mills until he had several grinding the dif-
ferent kinds of grains, for at the time of the French and
Indian war, with armies in the City and up the Hudson
to be supplied, the mills were full of activity and the
slaves had little rest.
Then the children began to reach their majority and
their friends began to assemble under the old pine, with
all sorts of social diversions and activities, and it is of this
period that the unknown poet again writes of the pine-
tree, the fox-hunt, and youthful nature ;
"THERE once at early dawn arrayed
The rural sport to lead,
The gallant master of the glade
Bedecks his eager steed.
And once the lightfoot maiden came,
In loveliness divine,
To sculpture with the dearest name
DELANCEY'S ancient pine."
Then came young and comely Ralph Izard, the wealthy
young planter from South Carolina, who, having just
[ 154 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
completed his studies in Europe, stopped at New York at
his father's request to learn from Lieutenant Governor
James Delancey the practical application to American
colonists of some of the book precepts he had studied ;
but he found more than law-precepts and governmental
practice at New York, for at a garden party which Gov-
ernor Delancey gave at his Bowery country-seat, Ralph
Izard met little Alice Delancey from the "Mills," a mere
child at the time, allowed to attend her first party ; Ralph
Izard thereafter, whenever in New York, and he came
north with tolerable frequency, was sure to spend a por-
tion, in fact much, of his time at the "Mills," and in due
course, when she became twenty, all social New York
arose very early one morning and donned its traveling
clothes to attend the wedding of Ralph Izard and Alice
Delancey at the "Mills" ; and such a procession as there
was up the old Bloomingdale Road and across Kings-
bridge, ladies in old family-coaches with their negroes in
finest livery, each lady masked to preserve her delicate
complexion from the perils of the sun and dust; gentle-
men on their hunters, riding at the coach-wheel or canter-
ing together along the road, body-servants in their chaises,
and the negro-slaves with the carts containing the trunks
filled with the gorgeous silks and satins to be hastily
donned in some West Farms farm house commanded for
the occasion ; it was the social event of that year in New
York, and for years people talked of the procession of
vehicles over a mile in length ; and then came the arrival
at the "Mills," with the grinning slaves, each in a new
suit, waiting to see to the wants of the guests, and then
the wedding-ceremony held on the lawn under the wide-
spreading boughs of the giant pinetree, for the house
would never hold such a company, nor would little St.
[ 157 ]
Peter's church at Westchester, for that would barely
accommodate fifty people anyway, and so the pastor, the
Reverend Dr. Seabury, had consented to perform the
ceremony in the open; and then came the jollity which
lasted till even the strongest were tired; that surely was
a wedding to remember.
But times were to change, and the Izards were in the
hands of the Fates. Who could have then predicted that
the Revolution would have made them the associates
in Paris of Franklin and later, represent at the Court
of an Italian sovereign the newly created Republic of the
United States, or that he should pledge his fortune for
the expenses of building our first naval vessels, become
the honored friend of Washington, the early Senator
from his native state of South Carolina; and who could
have predicted that their portraits, painted by Copley in
Rome, should one day adorn the Boston Museum of Fine
Arts as one of its most cherished possessions.
And now, changes occur at the Mills — Old Peter De-
lancey passed away in 1770, having provided for all of his
children who had reached their majority; and now his
widow, to whom he had willed his possessions with di-
rections to provide for the others, transferred to her sons
Oliver and James the mills and lands along the Bronx, and
both sons brought their brides to reside, one at the old
homestead, the other at the smaller house just across the
road from the mills ; Oliver is a naval officer on one of the
King's ships ; James fills the position of Sheriff of West-
chester County; the other children have scattered over
the colonies or are with their mother at her new home
called "Union Hill," (near Fordham of to-day) ; the Rev-
olution is fast approaching, and trouble is in store for the
family ; Oliver refused to fight his own countrymen, broke
OF OLD NEW YORK
his sword and resigned from the navy ; Stephen, the eld-
est son, occupying a governmental position at Albany,
made himself so obnoxious at a dinner on the King's
Birthday that the Liberty Boys kidnapped him; two sis-
ters were married at a double wedding, Jane Delancey
to her cousin John Watts, and Susannah Delancey to
Thomas Barclay, afterwards to be the British Consul-
General at New York; the brother, John Delancey, had
become the Member of Assembly when his father re-
tired; the brother, Peter Delancey, once Stamp-Officer,
had fallen in a duel in the South; Elizabeth Delancey,
another daughter, died just before the War; and the re-
maining two of the children who once played beneath the
pinetree, Ann and the youngest, Warren, lived at Union
Hill with the mother.
Then came the Revolution, and with the other Tories,
the Delanceys kept quiet until the King's troops should
put an end to the rebels ; August of 1776 came, the battle
of Long Island was fought and the rebels were beaten;
Old Cadwallader Golden, now 88, in his home at Spring
Hill near Flushing, heard the news and it caused a stroke ;
the Delanceys were summoned to his death-bed, but he
lingered for quite a while; and then, when the funeral
was over and the Delanceys sought to return to their
Bronx home, it was only to find that the East River had
been closed by the British, who were about to move their
army in that direction; and so, to most of them, the old
life on the Bronx was of the past, for the widow of Peter
died while still at Flushing, and the homestead was never
again occupied by a Delancey family.
The family were still absent and the slaves were in
charge of the homestead, when messenger after messen-
ger in the Continental uniform spurred past, carrying to
[ 159 1
Headquarters the news that Howe's army was passing
the different points of land along the East River; then
came the squads and afterwards whole companies of
the American troops on their way to hold the Westchester
Causeway against the British advance ; soon other troops
arrived, and the sound of their axes filled the air as they
felled the trees across the roads to render more difficult
passage of artillery and baggage-train; and lastly came
the worried, anxious Washington himself, to see that
all was done and that a second line of resistance was
made along the Bronx in case the British succeeded in
passing the Westchester Creek ; with his staff, he stayed
for a few meals at the old homestead beneath the pine-
tree; and then, the British crossing Pelham Bay, he de-
parted to meet the new dangers in the north ;
A few days more, and the wondering slaves one morn-
ing receive a visit from a squad of British troopers; Sir
William Howe, they say, with the whole British Army,
will be here presently, and while he is conducting the
siege of Fort Washington, intends to make the home-
stead at Delancey's Mills his army headquarters; and
shortly after, with clank of sabre and jingle of spurs;
up rides the General with his staff, for a three weeks stay.
The meadow to the south soon blossoms with tents of the
Headquarters troop, and then arrives all of the army not
actively engaged in the siege, and pitch their camp, thou-
sands of men, the red-coat British on the Mapes Estate,
the Hessians on the Morris Park tract, and the kilted
Highlanders near Westchester Village in which they sieze
St. Peter's Church for their hospital.
The homestead in now gay with brightly-colored uni-
forms as Howe sits at a table beneath the old pine and
receives the reports of his officers as to the progress of
OF OLD NEW YORK
the siege ; and of how many trees, or of how many houses,
can it be said that in the short space of one month they
have sheltered the headquarters of the Commanders of
two hostile armies? But in a few weeks this passes, and
the siege being over, one day General Howe, with his
staff and headquarters troop, pass over the stone bridge
and disappear, and after them, for days pass the thirty
thousand people of the camps, with their artillery and
camp-wains, and disappear towards Kingsbridge in a
great cloud of dust; and for a space, peace again settles
on the homestead.
But not for long, for the Spring of 1777 sees the ar-
rival of the youthful James Delancey, not to bring his
family to again reside at the house, but to turn it into a
barrack for a troop of horse to be recruited from the
young men of the Tory families of the district; "The
Elite of the County" was its first name, officially, but its
friends soon knew it as "Delancey's Horse" and its enemies
as "The Cow-Boys"; and presently, a picket-line was
stretched beneath the pine-tree and it looked down on the
long-line of tethered horses of the troopers.
Now this Headquarters offered a tempting bait for
a raid by the Continentals alert to exterminate, or at
least scatter, these Cow-Boys, and to give timely warning
of such a visit. In the top of the big pine-tree, over a
hundred feet in the air, and so far topping the neighbor-
ing trees that a clear view could be had at a distance
of the roads which converged at the "Mills," a sentry-
box was erected, where a lookout was maintained when-
ever the troop was at home.
But despite the lookout, a determined farmer, whose
cows had been taken by Delancey's men to make British
beef-stew, managed to get his revenge by taking from
[ 163 ]
the meadow on the opposite side of the Bronx, now the
buffalo-range of Bronx Park, the celebrated stallion,
"True Britain," which was the pride of the troops' com-
mander, James Delancey, and getting away so success-
fully during a thunder-shower that the horse was
lost forever to that part of the country, but in New Eng-
land became celebrated as the ancestor of the famous
"Morgan" line of horses, now bred in Vermont by the
United States Government, and destined soon to furnish
to Japan a new stock of horseflesh.
So, to overcome the contingencies of rain, fog and
darkness, a blockhouse of logs was built as an outpost
just across the river ; and one dark winter's night in 1779,
Aaron Burr and his men made some history by a sur-
prise attack, with their short port-hole ladders and their
hand-grenades and fire-balls, and soon the block-house,
lighting up the surrounding scene with its flames, passed
out of existence.
Then, one night, James Delancey, his men killed or
scattered, came back like a hunted animal to find a place
at the old homestead where he could have a few hours
rest; but that night, dark forms assembled near the old
pine, all in the Continental blue and buff, a raiding-party
of General Putnam's ; they search the house, and find
Delancey in his hiding-place, and away he rides, a pris-
oner, to be later exchanged, but only to find that he is
definitely out of the war.
And now, the war is ended, and with its end comes
the close of the career of James Delancey in the Valley
of the Bronx; proscribed by the Legislature of New
York as a traitor, his lands have been confiscated and he
has been ordered into exile; the morning comes when he
must bid good-by to the scenes of his youth ; he wanders
I 164 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
for a last time around the homestead and beneath the
old pine-tree; he walks through the terraces of the flower-
garden nearby and looks down into the sunken road just
beyond where as a boy he rode, guided by an old black
retainer, on his way to the stables ; all the familiar spots
in turn were passed, and then, swinging into the saddle,
he slowly made his way past the mills to the old stone
bridge ; there some of his neighbors, headed by his farmer
friend, Theophilus Hunt, had gathered for a last part-
ing ; he bade all farewell, and with a last long look at the
beautiful scene, the falls, the mills, homestead and pine-
tree, until the tears blinded his eyes, the "Outlaw of the
Bronx" took his way to Nova Scotia.
Years passed, and the brother Oliver was now in charge
of the "Mills," living not at the homestead, but in the
house across the road. He was having poor success with
the mills; for his slaves were now old, and laws had
been passed preventing him buying others ; so he decided
to turn the active management to someone else, and when,
in 1801, James Bathgate, a young Scotch millwright, with
his widowed mother, applied for the place, Oliver Delan-
cey was only too glad to accept his services; so the
widow Bathgate and her son came to live at the home-
stead of the Delanceys ; and the neighboring farmers
again brought their grist to be ground.
But in 1803, David Lydig, the owner of the great mill
at Highland Falls near West Point, whose sloops cruised
the Hudson and brought the farmers' grain to that mill
and took the flour to New York for export, believing that
some day his business would outgrow the mill in the
Highlands, purchased the water-power at West Farms
from Oliver Delancey, and the old mills, for three-quar-
ters of a century known as "Delancey's," now became
"Lydig's Mills," Bathgate continuing as tenant to operate
Lydig had new ideas; he believed it better to bring
grain by sloop to be ground rather than depend entirely
on the neighboring farmers; that the sloops could not
approach the mill because of a dam lower on the stream,
(just below where Tremont Avenue now is) was to him
of no consequence; he bought the land on both sides
of the river at the lower dam, and cut in the eastern
bank of a canal around one end, placing in it a lock;
below, in the bend of the river, he built a wharf, ware-
house, and large grain-elevator, the hoisting machinery
operated by power from the lower dam.
So when the tide was at flood, flat-boats laden with
barrels of flour were poled through the lock to the wharf
and the flour stored in the warehouse until removed by
sloop, and on the return trip, a load of grain from the
elevator carried through the lock Ito the mill ; at the
homestead, Bathgate still lived, while in summer, across
the road, to the house where Oliver Delancey once lived,
David Lydig brought his family to spend the sultry
Once more the scene is shifted; along the road across
the bridge, and past the mill races a graceful girl with
the bloom of the country air in her cheeks, surrounded
by a group of dogs, and behind, more at his leisure, comes
a young man obviously, by his taste in dress, from the
City; the young Diana is Nancy Leggett and her com-
panion, Joseph Rodman Drake, now spending his vaca-
tion at his grandmother's at the "Grange" on Hunts
Point; beneath the old pine-tree they rest awhile; and
many are familiar with the lines which were the result
of that outing :
Attbr^m 3lark00« 1B55
In 1860 she made the run to San
Francisco in 89 days. She was com-
manded by Captain John E. Williams
of Mystic, Conn., where she was built
by Irons & Grinnell. She was owned
by J. H. Brower & Co., of New York.
At the close of her brilliant career —
she had four consecutive passages
averaging 98% days — the splendid
career of the American clipper came
to an end as a result of the Civil War.
Her captain received much attention
for his record run of 89 days, the own-
ers and merchants of both New York
and San Francisco paying him signal
honors and presenting him with a
watch. A picture of the Andrew Jack-
son is used to-day by the Maritime
Exchange on its letter-heads.
OF OLD NEW YORK
"I sat me down upon a green bankside'
Skirting the smooth edge of a gentle river,
Whose waters seemed unwilHngly to glide,
Like parting friends, who linger while they sever."
And may Drake not have had the old pine-tree of the
Delanceys in mind when he wrote the verse
"Yet will I look upon thy face again,
My own romantic Bronx^ and it will be
A face more pleasant than the face of men ;
Thy waves are old companions ; I shall see
A well-remembered face in each old tree,
And hear a voice long loved in thy wild minstrelsy."
The river flows on, winds of many winters whistle
through the tree-boughs and great changes take place;
the old sawmill on the opposite bank of the river becomes
the place where a genius named Skinner sets up a new
machine to make veneers, and thus revolutionize the
woodworking industry of the country; fire takes away
the old flour-mills of the Delanceys. and the old home-
stead; then comes the big brick mill on the west bank,
with its commercial millers, and the site of the former
homestead is left in solitude; and one spring, with the
going of the snows in 1853, the Bronx becomes a raging
torrent tearing out all dams, carrying away trees and
buildings, an uncontrolled tawny monster ; and away with
it went all that the fires had spared, the stone-bridge of the
first peter Delancey, the old overshot-wheel of the mills in
which the little boys of West Farms for generations had
longed to take a ride as it slowly revolved, every vestige
of the old regime, save the terraces of the rose-garden
and the old Delancey pine.
And now, the throng of daily visitors at Bronx Park,
watching the gaily-awninged launch as it takes its load
from the Boat-House, may notice a log on which sits an
[ 171 1
old man, or possibly a mother with her baby playing at
her feet, not knowing that in the old log lying there is
carried out the prophecy made so long ago that soon,
notwithstanding its past glories, unknown, or at least
"In equalizing dust may lie,
Delancey's Ancient Pine."
History on Blue China Plates
By the Editor
An entirely unexplored field for sketches of Old New
York of the rarest and most interesting character is to
be found in the old blue China of early days, specimens
of which can be more or less readily obtained.
"The Opening of the Erie Canal," "Lafayette Landing
at the Battery," "The City Hall," etc., are only a few
subjects that occur to the writer but there are many
more as our readers well know.
Beginning with the next issue, the Manual will com-
mence the reproduction of some of these more important
plates. Our accomplished friend Mr. E. P. Mitchell,
editor of The Sun, is responsible for this happy sugges-
tion and has kindly placed his splendid collection at our
disposal for the purpose. We should be glad to hear
from any other of our readers who have this material
and who would like to cooperate.
: THE BOROUG H OF BROOKLYN :
HLMOST coincident with the founding of New York
began the establishment of Brooklyn. For many
years our sister borough preserved her separate
identity, but is now merged in the greater city.
The old Manual rarely went outside of Manhattan
Island. These new volumes, however, must take cogni-
zance of what now constitutes the modern city of New
York. We cannot of course find space for all to which
Brooklyn is entitled in this publication. At best all we
can do for our sister boroughs at present is to say that
arrangements are under consideration whereby all may be
represented in these pages.
Many of our readers in the City of Churches will recall
the pleasant old county roads described in the following
Old Brooklyn and Its Vanishing Roads
John Crawford Brown
The ancient Greeks had a beautiful way of endowing
all things in nature with a mystic personality which to
them was very real and living. The dawn of day was
personified in an angel of light and this being, rising from
the horizon in the chariot of the sun, spread the be-
neficences of the morning far and wide. If the angel of
the dawn which swept over the little settlement of simple
and primitive folks constituting the village of Flatbush
about the end of the seventeenth century, should revisit
the scenes of those early days, we wonder whether he
would sigh for the quaint old times that have departed, or
rejoice in the bustling, gay and busy life of the Flatbush
of to-day. We wonder indeed if this mysterious visitant
would even recognize the scenes that were familiar to
him then? Of course some of the old landmarks are
still there. The great stretches of flat lands extending to
the ocean, with the remnants of woods that covered them
so abundantly in those far-off days, and the elevations that
varied the topography are still there, and so are the old
roadways that connected the little settlements, and here
and there one of the old homesteads in the midst of new
and marvellous surroundings, but all else has vanished
and the dear old Flatbush of our forefathers is now only
a pleasant and romantic dream of the long ago.
The most permanent possessions of a country are its
roads. We still have the Appian way in Rome, Watling
Street in England, and the famous road around the Bay
of Naples over which the distressed and terror-stricken
inhabitants of Pompeii fled from the wrath of Vesuvius.
And coming down to our own times there is the famous
road between Concord and Lexington and the road along
which Paul Revere galloped to rouse the brave soldiers
of the revolution. These are all famous and permanent
and national, but every country-side has its roads with
their little bits of history and their intimate connection
with the people as they come and go, and although they
OF OLD NEW YORK
may be only the roadways of the humble and obscure and
have no world-wide importance, they are none the less
dear and close to the life of the people who have traversed
them and who regard them with a very intimate and
tender feeling. For have they not passed over these
roads in moments of anxious care or of exuberant joy, in
the stilly hours of the night and in the garish hours of
the day, in tempest and in sunshine, in joy and sorrow
both. And have not these roads borne them in all their
ways and in all their moods even as a very dear friend who
And it is the roads that put the familiar aspect on the
landscape. There may be hills and valleys, woods and
rivulets, all objects of familiarity and endearment, but it
is the roads leading to our dwellings and linking the little
homesteads together that make the landscape familiar
and invest it with that quality which makes us call it our
land — our home. And these old Flatbush roads are still
there — and yet they are not there, for the transforming
hand of man has changed them from old country roads
into the broad avenues and busy streets of our modern
It is recorded in an old history how the traveller on his
way to the ferry was admonished to keep to the left of the
trees blazed for his guidance, and from this fact we can
realize that this road was then only a rough, straggling
trail through the woods. Roads are not built in a day
any more than cities, and this embryo thoroughfare,
known to us now as Flatbush Avenue, went through all
the stages of development before it became the great
artery of city life it is to-day and one of the most im-
portant highways of Greater New York. With a bridge
of magnificent proportions at one end, and the most popu-
[ 177 ]
lar and amusing seaside resort in the world at the other
this modern Highway to the sea may fairly claim a place
among the immortals. But the old path through the
woods has vanished and in its place has appeared this
blazing, throbbing, restless city street.
It was about the middle of the eighteenth century that
this old road began to take shape as a road of some con-
sequence and as being of just a little more importance
than the other roads and by-ways that crossed and re-
crossed the land from one group of habitants to another,
for it was decreed that a highway should be laid out con-
necting the Ferry Settlement with the outlying village of
Flatbush and beyond. Already a highway existed to
Jamaica which followed the general line of Fulton Street
to Flatbush Avenue and thence up Flatbush Avenue to
Atlantic Avenue. At this point the road branched out in
two directions, the one continuing up Atlantic Avenue
in an irregular line corresponding to our present Atlantic
Avenue, cutting through to Fulton Street at certain points
and making many turns and deviations before terminating
at Jamaica. This road was known later as the Brooklyn
and Jamaica Turnpike and is the Jamaica road of to-day.
The other branch was the road to Flatbush. This road
branched ofif at about where now is So. Eliot Place and
Atlantic Avenue. This road was also known as King's
Highway, a name commonly given to roads laid out to
connect different points in the colony. It would be diffi-
cult to trace this road exactly in all its turns and windings
and it is not the purpose of this article to be technical. In
a general way, however, this road was intended to make
the most direct route for such traffic as there was in those
days from New York through Flatbush to the ferry at the
[ 178 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Narrows, and thence to points in Staten Island, New Jer-
sey and further south as far as Philadelphia.
After passing through the village of Flatbush it curved
around to the west making what is still known as Kings
Highway, which in those days continued on to the ferry
at the Narrows. The old highway, however, is entirely
obliterated beyond 21st Avenue and to the antiquarian
presents a curiously interesting but pathetic spectacle as
it disappears into a district of modern streets and dwell-
ing houses. One thing, however, is very pleasing, and
that is that a long stretch of several miles of this ancient
highway is still extant and bids fair to become again a
road of first importance and a fine residential section of
our beautiful borough.
Coming back to Atlantic Avenue where the Flatbush
road branches off, it continued along the present course
of the avenue to the lands now enclosed in Prospect Park,
finding its way by turns and curves through that hilly
section and along what is now the beautiful East Drive,
emerging at a point near where the Willink entrance now
is and where Ocean Avenue begins. From this point to
the old Dutch Reformed Church and probably as far as
the intersection of Foster Avenue the old road was identi-
cal with the present line of Flatbush Avenue. Along this
part of the road, too, most of the settlers had built their
homes, so that even as early as the middle of the eigh-
teenth century there were quite a number of substantial
homes and a considerable group of inhabitants. Here the
old road was known locally as the Main Road, although it
was only an important section of the great highway from
ferry to ferry, and was wider, better defined and in better
condition than any other part.
[ 179 ]
This, too, was the center of whatever social, religious
or political life there was in the village. The old church
which still stands as the central attraction of this busy
street was then the only building of consequence and
within its sacred precincts everything of importance to the
small community took place. On Sundays you could see
the serious but deeply sincere farmers and peasant folks
wending their way from all directions toward the sacred
edifice. They came through the lanes and by-ways and
across the fields in little companies of two's and three's,
while some traversed the Main Road embowered as it was
then in stately trees, making a quaintly interesting picture
of the hallowed Sabbath morning as it was observed and
revered in those days. The old church still stands there
surrounded now as then with the sacred memorials of the
generations who have worshipped in it. But what a
change in the people of to-day, and how those lovely old
country roads have changed. And the good old Dominie
who included everybody in his flock then — I wonder what
he would say if he came to life in Flatbush to-day and
saw the eager crowds hurrying hither and thither bent
on all sorts of objects.
But even in the quiet and seeming peacefulness of those
times there were little comedies and tragedies going on and
perhaps the old Dominie who was in everybody's confi-
dence could unfold many a tale that would stir our hearts
and prove again the truth of the old adage that one touch
of nature makes the whole world kin. And we might
realize that after all the world is not so dififerent now
from what it was then, notwithstanding our lofty sky
scrapers and crowded subways.
Along this road the gay and convivial Colonel Axtel
was often seen, and his home, Melrose Hall — a stately
The house in which Washington Irving lived, 17th Street and
Irving Place, opposite the Washington Irving
OF OLD NEW YORK
mansion for those days — was the scene of many a festive
gathering. It was here the loyalists foregathered in the
days of the revolution and no doubt many a plot was
hatched for the undoing of that great movement. But
what has given Melrose Hall a foremost place in the tradi-
tions of the village is the love story of his wife's niece,
Eliza Shipton. In this complication of the tender pas-
sion and politics there was naturally a turning of every-
thing topsy-turvy, bringing storm as well as sunshine to
the dwellers in Melrose Hall and to the community gen-
erally, for the fair lady dwelt in the halls of loyalty while
the gallant swain was a patriot and revolutionist of the
most strenuous kind. Acquilla Giles was a welcome guest
at Melrose Hall before his revolutionary leanings were
known, and participated in its gay and festive scenes.
It was at one of these he met the fair Miss Shipton and
the acquaintance rapidly developed into true love. She
gave him all she had to give, and all he asked — her heart.
But 'tis said the course of true love never does run smooth
and theirs was unusually tempestuous and stormy. The
Colonel would have none of it and young Giles was ban-
ished from the Hall. But the stars in their courses
worked for the young couple, as the sad fortunes of the
Colonel bore witness. The revolution was successful and
the discomfiture of the Colonel was complete. Melrose
Hall with all its fine lawns and surroundings was confis-
cated. In the meantime Acquilla Giles had risen to the
proud position of Colonel of his regiment and took his
place among the local heroes of the revolution. When
Melrose Hall was sold Col. Giles became its owner and
had the intense pleasure of leading his bride back to the
old home where they had first plighted their troth, and
there they lived happily for many years. Col. Axtel hav-
[ 183 ]
ing lost his all returned to England where he died in 1795.
The Brooklynite who remembers Flatbush Avenue as
it was forty years ago when the old toll gate stretched
across the side path into the road just beyond the Lefferts
house, and who saw the long vista of stately trees stretch-
ing out before him can easily understand how romance
and legend hovered about the quaint old houses that dotted
each side of the road. Most of the old houses have dis-
appeared, but this one, the Lefferts house, perhaps the
oldest of them all, is still standing, and has been in posses-
sion of some member of the Lefferts family since the be-
ginning to the present time. The original house was built
in 1660, but was destroyed by fire and the present house
was erected on the old foundations in 1730 and is intact
to-day. In the hey-day of old Flatbush this beautiful
homestead was a center of social life and one of the most
delightful homes in the village. About it legend has
twined some strange but harmless stories just as it has
about many others, but most of those old houses have dis-
appeared, leaving the legends and stories as a fragrant
memory of the past. The Lefferts house has just been
moved from its original site at Flatbush Avenue and
Maple Street into Prospect Park near the Willink en-
trance where it will be preserved for all time.
If another Washington Irving or Nathaniel Hawthorne
should arise he would find in the folk lore of this delight-
ful old village material enough to spin a series of thrilling
and heart stirring stories that would vie with the romantic
tales of a hundred years ago. Some time a genius will
appear no doubt and weave for us out of this homely ma-
terial tales that will rival the House of the Seven Gables
or even the Heart of Mid-Lothian. Supposing such a
OF OLD NEW YORK
writer should take for his theme the story of Abigail Lef-
ferts and her sweetheart Bateman Lloyd. In the quaint
old Zabriskie homestead at the Cross roads this little melo-
drama of real heart interest was enacted. This, too, was
in the days of the revolution. Bateman Lloyd — a patriot
and lieutenant in the army — was a prisoner of the loyalists
and lodged in Flatbush jail. He was billeted for his
meals at the home of Jacob Lefferts, known as the Za-
briskie homestead, but was allowed the freedom of walk-
ing about the village within certain prescribed limits, and
often met the lovely daughter of his host. Mr. Lefferts
was a Tory and had no sympathy with his boarder, but his
daughter had none of his scruples and regarded the young
officer with the maidenly passion of first love. All the
world loves a lover and a kindly disposed uncle of the
fair Abigail got into the secret somehow. Our little
friend Cupid, too, saw an opportunity of creating a situa-
tion to stir up the quiet circles of the village. 'Twas al-
ways thus with this scheming little fellow and in this
instance the drama moved on to its denouement under
the very nose — if we may say so — of the unsuspecting
father. By a strange accident the young couple met at
the home of the kind-hearted uncle and also by accident
the Dominie stopped in. Of course there could be only
one ending to such a happy combination of events and the
marriage knot was tied. We will not attempt to describe
the storm that was raised in the Lefferts household. Suf-
fice it to say that when calm was restored and forgiveness
extended the loyalist father-in-law found in the young
patriot and revolutionist not only a brave soldier but a
devoted and affectionate son.
In other respects besides the sentimental this old road
commands our interest. When the country settled down
after the revolution a new era began. It was an era born
of the youth of the nation, full of ambition and eagerness
to advance. The little Flatbush community, fired with
this spirit determined to found a school of learning. Eras-
mus Hall Academy was the result. At first it was pro-
jected as a theological seminary but finally became a sec-
ondary school, obtaining its Charter as such in 1787, and
was the first on the list of secondary schools chartered
by the University of the State of New York. It was
built on ground near the Cross roads facing Flatbush Ave-
nue with fine lawns around it, and stands on the same spot
to-day, but is now a part of Erasmus Hall High School,
occupying the quadrangle formed by the handsome build-
ings of that school. The building itself is just as it was
when opened in 1787, and is treasured by the pupils and
faculty as the source of Flatbush's educational eminence
and achievement. Its founder and first principal was Dr.
John Henry Livingston, a man of learning and of fine
character who inspired the people with his own ambitions
and possessed their confidence and support. His influ-
ence has come down to his successors and has given
Erasmus Hall a unique place in educational annals. Dr.
Walter B. Gunnison, the late principal, inherited the devo-
tion to learning and the inspiriting personality which were
characteristic of the founder, and under his guidance
Erasmus Hall High School has grown to its present influ-
ence and importance. The contrast between the old build-
ing in the quadrangle and the substantial and classic
buildings that surround it marks the wonderful growth
and progress of Flatbush, and indeed of our entire coun-
try, from its inception to the present time — a span of only
one hundred and thirty years.
OF OLD NEW YORK
There are many more interesting landmarks along this
old road. There is the old Dutch Reformed Church, also
at the Cross roads, originally built in 1654, which has
housed as worshippers people of Dutch, then English and
now American origin, having witnessed all the changes
from one people to another since the first settlers came
here, and now sees a rather polyglot community settling
around it. The same bell rings out on the sabbath morn-
ing now as hailed the birth of a new nation in 1776.
Amid all its modern surroundings the old church retains
still the delightful flavor of its ancient past. A little
further on there was the Vanderveer homestead which
disappeared only a few years ago and dated back to a
period long before the revolution. It was the owner of
this house, Capt. Cornelius Vanderveer who made such a
heroic fight against the British just before the Battle of
Long Island, and who came pretty near forfeiting his
life for his country when he fell into the hands of the
enemy ; but by a miraculous turn of fortune he was spared
the hanging and was granted a protection on his promise
to fight no more. It was in this house the flag was made
which was raised on the liberty pole in Flatbush when
the British evacuated Long Island.
There are many old Dutch houses scattered about on
either side of the road which date back to pre-revolution-
ary times, and to the early days of last century, but their
history is not recorded in the annals of Flatbush and we
may suppose they were the homes of the obscure and
humble folks of whom a poet has written that they are
unwept, unhonored and unsung. Nevertheless those peo-
ple were the strong basic element of our country without
which our statesmen could not have builded the perma-
nent structure we see to-day. Their little homes, old and
dilapidated, are swept out of the path of progress without
a thought of the unpretentious but noble lives that have
been lived in them.
The old road or highway curved around sharply to the
west as it approached what is now Flatlands Avenue, and
exists to-day from this point under the old appelation of
Kings Highway. It is the same road it was a hundred
and sixty years ago with the improvement of the road
bed, but without any change in its course. It runs for
a short distance almost parallel with Flatlands Avenue
and offers an interesting contrast with that thoroughfare.
The one is a perfectly straight line, absolutely undeviat-
ing in its course — a symbol of the systematic, business-like
and practical age in which we live. The other is entirely
unconventional, sweeping along in graceful curves and
easy convolutions — emblematic of a people who loved
nature and were free from the constraining influences of
all mechanical arts. It appeals to us yet — the old road —
even to us of the practical mind for something within
responds to its careless swing and to the ever changing
and varying outlook it presents. We are glad to be re-
lieved from the measured and undeviating exactness of
our modern streets stretching away out to the horizon and
showing no variableness neither shadow of turning.
A little west of Flatbush Avenue we come upon Kim-
ball's Lane now dignified to Kimball's Road and evidently
to be broadened and straightened a la Flatlands Avenue.
Kimball's Lane in the olden time was the common road
for the farmers of Flatlands and Flatbush to the old
Tide Mill in Gerritsen's basin. This was the focal point
for most of the roads in all this section of the country.
There are still many old houses in this locality, the most
famous being the Lott homestead which was considered in
[ 190 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
its day the finest in that part of Long Island. The pres-
ent house was built in 1800, but the original homestead
dated back to the beginning of the eighteenth century, and
a part of the old house is still intact beside the more re-
cent one. It is an interesting example of what was then
a house of great distinction. There are a few twentieth
century houses already to be seen in this neighborhood,
the advance guard of a great population which it is easy
to predict will soon occupy this beautiful section of our
Going still further west on Kings Highway we come
to Ryder's Lane which was the highway to the Tide Mill
for all the farmers in what is now the southwestern part
of Brooklyn. This is one of those old roads whose origin
is hidden in antiquity. It probably originated in what we
may be allowed to call pre-historic times. It bears the
name of Ryder but was no doubt in existence long before
Mr. Ryder saw the light of day, and it is safe to say
that it was one of those "trodden paths" mentioned in
very old documentary papers. Although the old road
and the farmers' wagons jogging along to the mill have
long ago vanished, Ryder's Lane still lives in a fine auto-
mobile road, swinging around near the old mill into Neck
Road and thence past the grounds of the Coney Island
Jockey Club where the automobile races take place, to
Gravesend and New Utrecht. Just at the curve near the
old mill is the Stillwell house, a century old, but still in
fine condition and beautifully situated. In front of the
house is the old milestone bearing the inscription, "Eight
and three-quarter miles to Brooklyn ferry."
Gerritsen's basin is a beautiful stretch of water from
the sea, reaching away inland for about half a mile. It
runs under the old bridge which the farmers crossed on
[ 191 1
their way to the Tide Mill and which now connects the old
Neck Road with our fine modern avenue known to the
world by the esthetic and inspiring name of U. The Tide
Mill, or Gerritsen's Mill as it is commonly called, the
oldest part of which was built in 1650, is still standing on
the same spot upon which it was originally erected on the
edge of the land, a last remaining relic of the pioneers
who settled about this important water way. At the pres-
ent time it is enclosed in the fine grounds of the Whitney
estate. It is this land, all about Gerritsen's basin — mid-
way between the Jamaica Bay ends of Flatbush and
Nostrand Avenues, extending on both sides of Avenue U,
which has been offered to the city for a park by Frederick
B. Pratt and Alfred T. White both of Brooklyn. The
gift consists of 146 acres of land and includes the beauti-
ful inlet from the ocean. The value of the land is esti-
mated at $280,755, to which is to be added 23 acres yet to
be purchased by the donors. We can hardly imagine a
more desirable site for a park, and when rapid transit
offers its facilities to the people, this part of Brooklyn
which is naturally a beautiful and healthful section will
become one of the most attractive residential districts in
Greater New York. Kings Highway, that old road which
has done service for centuries, will become the great cir-
cuit boulevard of this entire district, regaining once more
the supremacy it possessed in the good old colonial days.
It is strange how some old things last. The old bridge
over Gerritsen's inlet is the same old bridge the farmers
crossed on their way to the busy little mill on the creek,
and the mill itself still stands just as of yore. There is
even an occasional old-time farm wagon to be seen lazily
jolting along, with the farm-hand slowly plodding by its
side all unconscious of the precious passing hours. But
Portrait of Gen. Washington l)y Gilbert Stuart. From the origi-
nal painting owned by Mr. Jame9 Speyer.
From the private collection of Mr. James Speyer, New York
According to Mason's "Lift of Stuart," there were three por-
traits of General \Yashington painted by Gilbert Stuart from life.
The one of which this is a photograph (painted in 1795), showing
the right side of the face. Then the sa-called "Lansdowne por-
trait," painted in 1796, and the picture in the Boston Athenaeum,
both of whicli show the left side of the face. It is from the last
mentioned picture that the many well-known copies of "Stuart's
Washington" are made.
Of the first picture, and its history prior to 1815, little is known
generally. It is not known for whom it was painted, but there
are five known replicas of it. According to an article in "The
Curio" for September, 1887, the original had been in the possession
of a Mr. Michael Little, of Greenwich Street, New York, from
whom, in 1815, Mr. Samuel Betts purchased it when he bought the
house in which it was hanging, together with the other contents
of the building. The picture remained in the Betts family until
1912, when Messrs. Knoedler & Co. secured it from Miss Emily
H. Betts, of Jamaica, L. I., a daughter of Mr. Samuel Betts.
Messrs. Knoedler, in 1913, sold the painting to the present owner,
Mr. James Speyer, of New York, and it now hangs in his Library
at 1058 Fifth Avenue.
Mr. George H. Storey, formerly Curator of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art in New York, in a letter regarding this painting,
dated June 5th, 1912, says:
"After a careful examination of the Betts portrait of George
Washington I have no hesitancy in stating it to be an original
work by Gilbert Stuart. The General is represented standing
with uncovered head and is seen to the knees. He is dressed in
full uniform. The gloved right hand rests upon the hip. The
left arm is extended with the hand resting lightly upon a tele-
scope which is supported by a rock at his side. In the background
are seen lines of tree trunks which have evidently been painted
out to simplify the composition and obtain greater relief for the
figure. The portrait possesses in an eminent degree the quiet
dignity and repose which was so characteristic of George Wash-
ington and which no other painter than Stuart has so adequately
preserved, and represented so well."
In his "Life of Stuart," Mason writes, concerning this picture:
"Regarded merely as a work of art, the head and face are
very fine, and would seem to justify the observation of the
venerable A. B. Durand, who, when he saw (this) the first por-
trait, is said to have expressed himself: "That is a likeness.
It is much superior in character to the Athenaeum portrait, and
should be considered the standard. Both the artist and the
subject would gain by it.' "
OF OLD NEW YORK
most interesting of all is the keeper of the old bridge who
emerges from his rickety shelter just like a figure out of
an old print and gazes at you as you whirl past as if you
were an apparition from another sphere. But the fast
moving current of events will soon sweep all of these
relics away, and if the projected plans are carried out a
splendid new public park will arise in their place, and we
shall see happy little children sailing their play boats in the
waters of the inlet, and hilarious young people cavorting
over what used to be the grain fields and pastures green
of our good old Dutch and English forefathers.
The old bridge leads directly into Neck Road. This
road was the highway for the settlers about Gravesend
Bay and was the main roadway of the village. It has
taken on a new lease of life in our time and bids fair to
regain its old importance as the main thoroughfare of
this part of Brooklyn. It is trimmed off and dressed up
as nicely as its immediate neighbors of the alphabetical
order T and U, but is quite easily distinguished from these
mechanically precise avenues by its hap-hazard windings
and its general go-as-you-please indifference to our pres-
ent day theories of road making. It has gone through
all the evolutions from an Indian path to a Dutch road,
an English road, a Turnpike and lastly a modern city
road, and in each period has held the first place of im-
portance and service, and is now not only historically, but
geographically and soon to be residentially, the King-pin
thoroughfare of all this splendid and growing section of
our great city.
What a beautiful old road it is in any season of the
year, winter or summer. And it is not altogether the
beauty of nature, for the landscape here is peculiarly flat
and monotonous. Nevertheless it is beautiful and the
[ 197 ]
sense of its beauty permeates one unconsciously, and leads
you to wonder why the road has so much charm. A walk
along Avenue T or U creates no such feeling. It seems
as if this old road has been humanized by the generations
who have trod it and it is this mysterious influence that
gives it all its charm. On either side are the old homes
of the settlers with the overhanging roofs, and the quaint
doorways, and the dormer windows with the little panes
of glass, and they have been so long there that the old
road has become a source of perpetual charm and senti-
Near the present end of the road is the house where
lived the gifted and versatile Lady Deborah Moody more
than two and a half centuries ago. At least legend says
so, although some controversialists have it that she lived
in a house further east on Neck Road. We prefer the
legend. It has the hall-mark of truth, and being two and
a half centuries old has a fairly good claim on our
credence. Moreover the old house looks as if it had been
the home of a gentle woman, and even to-day in its old
age presents the outward and visible evidences of refine-
ment and gentility. Lady Moody settled in Gravesend
in 1643 and this house was built in that year, probably
under her own supervision, for she was a woman of
forceful character and great ability. The old road van-
ishes from the earth only a few hundred feet from this
beautiful and historic old house, but let us hope that the
old home will be preserved for generations yet to come
as an essential feature of the old road it has been asso-
ciated with so long. It received as an honored guest
Governor Kiefft; and the rugged Governor Peter Stuy-
vesant came here to take counsel and advice from the
sagacious and resourceful woman who lived in it. It is
[ 198 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
also said that Washington stopped here on one of his
visits to this part of Long Island.
Not far from here — about a half a mile north — is the
historically interesting part of Kings Highway, just as it
reaches what used to be the old village of New Utrecht
but is now a beautiful suburb of Brooklyn. Kings High-
way at the time of the revolution was a well used road
and the stage coaches to and from the south covered it
several times each week. New Utrecht was one of the
chief stations on the route and the first stopping place
after Flatbush. All the travel and business for the south
came by way of Brooklyn ferry and over this road to
the ferry at Fort Hamilton, and in the stirring times of
the revolution it was an important artery for the passage
of troops and supplies. It was in fact as well as in name
the Kings Highway, for British troops and not American
traversed it almost exclusively during the period of the
revolution. The old Van Pelt Manor house which was
used by British officers as a headquarters, during all these
years, still stands facing on Kings Highway, and any
traveller passing that way would be attracted at once by
the distinguished appearance and beautiful surroundings
of this fine old house. This ancient Highway was an
old road long before it was raised to the dignity of a
Kings Highway, and in fact was in the elemental stage
of a path when the early settlers came to make their
homes here. It has grown up with the people, shared
with them in their adventures, seen their encounters with
the hostile forces of both nature and man, taken part
in their triumphs, and now basks in the distinction of be-
ing a beautiful and important suburban thoroughfare.
There are many interesting old houses along the road
— the homes of the settlers ; and their descendents — many
[ 199 ]
of them — are still living in these houses. Near by is the
old Dutch church which was organized as early as 1677.
On the grounds in front of the church is the Liberty
pole, first erected in 1783 when the British evacuated
the town, a unique memorial of the joy of the inhabitants
when they found themselves really independent. Along
the old road came the farmers and settlers on foot, on
horseback and in wagons to take part in the rejoicings —
a very different procession from the Limousines and
Fords which we see dashing along the same road to-day.
Two offshoots from Kings Highway near the old
church were De Bruynes Lane which ran in the general
direction of our present Twentieth Avenue to the bay,
and Courtelyou Lane, a little further west, which also
ran to the bay along the line of our present Sixteenth
Avenue. These were the favorite routes for the New
Utrecht fishermen when they were bent on a day's sport.
And in those days the waters of the bay were pelucid
and clear and the fish less coy and more abundant. Bank-
ers and Sluyter state that the fish were particularly plenti-
ful and that the oysters were frequently a foot long.
This was in 1679. Fish stories were evidently enjoyed
in those days as much as they are in our own. In 1664
Gen. Nichols landed a detachment of British troops at
Gravesend Bay and marched them up to New Utrecht,
presumably by Bennetts Lane, making a peaceful demon-
stration there, and continued British headquarters there
until the end of the war.
Communication between New Utrecht and Flatbush
was conducted chiefly by way of what was then called
the road to Flatbush and which we now know as New
Utrecht Avenue. Another way of reaching Flatbush was
by Kings Highway. The former, however, being the
[ 200 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
more direct and shorter was the one commonly used.
Distances in our day have been annihilated, but in the
days when the traveller had to go on foot, or in such
accommodation as a farmer's wagon, a trip to Flatbush
or Brooklyn was quite a formidable undertaking and
the good-byes were said with as much ceremony as they
would be to-day to a friend setting out for a distant
point. We certainly travel swiftly as compared with
our good old dads but swiftness should not be the only
consideration. When we survey the cars jammed with
their human freight, speeding to and from New Utrecht
to-day, one may be forgiven for the heresy that our
slow-footed forefathers had the best of it in the matter
of transportation at least. They got there just the same !
And they got there in better condition than we do, for
they always arrived with their clothes on and that can-
not always be said of us.
The road to Flatbush as it was known to our revolu-
tionary predecessors has entirely changed. We can im-
agine what it was then with tall trees lining both sides
of the way and cosy little Dutch farm houses enlivening
the landscape here and there. The land almost every-
where was under cultivation and farmers' wagons could
be seen rumbling along the road almost constantly.
When the weather was good the road was delectable, but
in the Spring thaws there were ruts and depressions in
it numerous enough and deep enough to make driving a
strenuous and even dangerous occupation. It was not
until 1852 that an attempt was made to lay out the road
as a public highway. In that year it was decreed that a
road should be laid out from the Dutch Reformed church
at New Utrecht to 38th Street. It connected with Church
Lane at this point and thence to Flatbush. About 20
[ 203 ]
years earlier the road had been extended from the old
church to the bay, so that when the Thirty-eighth Street
section was finished we had the beginning of one of our
most important thoroughfares from New York to the
sea. This road was known as the Brooklyn, Greenwood
and Bath Plank Road until New Utrecht was incor-
porated into the city.
Church Lane or Church Avenue, as we know it, is a
very old road. As early as 1659 it was spoken of as a
highway by the settlers, and no doubt long before they
came it was a path or trail used by the Indians. It is
interesting to note how these roads spring up quite natur-
ally, so to speak, from the soil, and become roads by
virtue of their topographical advantages and the actual
necessities of man. This old road was the highway
through which the farmers of Midwout drove their cattle
to the salt marshes bordering on Jamaica Bay and from
this fact it was known among the farmers as Cow Lane.
It was an important road in the little settlement and con-
nected it with New Lots in one direction and Gowanus
and New Utrecht in the other. Church Avenue is one
of the very old roads that retain their original topograph-
ical disposition. West of Flatbush Avenue its windings
and turnings are just about as they were when the hay
wagons and straggling cattle made their way through it
in the later years of the seventeenth century. And east
of Flatbush the same is true. Any one interested in
roads will see that in this direction Church Avenue is a
long stretch of straight road over the flat lands that ob-
tain here, bearing eloquent testimony to the human in-
stinct of taking the easiest and most direct way to a given
point. It is not until we get nearer to the hilly parts of
the land east and south that we find the turnings and
OF OLD NEW YORK
windings in the road resumed. It finally runs into New
Lots Avenue and merges with the Jamaica Plank Road
Two old roads often referred to in local histories —
Clove Road and Cripplebush Road — have entirely van-
ished from the earth, or to use Count von Luxburg's ex-
pressive phrase "spurlos versenkt." Those two roads
were practically one, being intersected by the road to
Jamaica at Bedford corners. Clove Road ran south in
the general direction of Nostrand Avenue making a wide
curve to the west as it approached our present Malbone
Street and reaching Flatbush Avenue near the old Lef-
ferts house at Maple Street. There is nothing of it left
at all now. The course of Clove Road was very irregu-
lar and probably this accounts for the fact that no part
of it was used in laying out the plan of streets of this
part of Brooklyn.
Cripplebush Road ran in the opposite direction begin-
ning at Bedford corners, and was the main road of the
old settlement of Cripplebush which lay to the north and
east of Bedford. The general course of this old road
was very irregular. It ran almost on the line of Bedford
Avenue as far as Dekalb Avenue, when it made a turn
eastward to Nostrand Avenue following that line to
Myrtle Avenue and from there formed a snake-like course
to Flushing Avenue at its intersection with Broadway.
This part of the old road to Newtown is now Flushing
Avenue and its course is the same as it was of old. It
bore the name of Cripplebush Road only from Bedford
corners to the limits of the old settlement and was in
reality only a section of what was known as the road to
Newtown — one of the old highways which linked the
various settlements together,
I 205 ]
By way of Clove Road and Cripplebush Road com-
munication was carried on between Flatbush and New-
town. This old road to Newtown passed through what
is now one of the most thickly populated districts of
Brooklyn, the nineteenth and sixteenth wards and that
part of the city which is familiarly known as Dutchtown.
At its intersection with Broadway some of the largest
retail establishments and department stores are situated,
and a great population of foreigners of almost every
nationality — including the Bolsheviki — are settled here.
Not so many decades ago it was a quiet country road
and there are those living who can remember the old
toll gate on the way. In those days the revolutionary
flavor still lingered, but now this great section has be-
come a melting pot, and people from every quarter of
the globe are being made over to look like Americans
and let us hope to be Americans of the real kind.
The old town of Newtown is still there but the name
has disappeared and the more fragrant and aristocratic
one of Elmhurst takes its place. Once upon a time this
old town was famous for its splendid apples. The New-
town pippin was known all over the world and was
shipped to every port. Newtown pippins are still grown
and their name will never be changed, and herein lies the
surety that the name and fame of the old town will be
We are apt to think of the first settlers as people who
came to a land entirely primeval and untouched by the
foot of man and that they made their way through un-
inhabited areas until they found a place where they could
settle. But the fact is that long before those new comers
saw the commanding heights of Brooklyn or the long
narrow strip of land between two waters we now call
[ 206 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Manhattan, there were well trodden paths, stretching
from the shores away inland and reaching by the most
convenient way the points of vantage in the hinterland.
How long those paths had been there we do not know,
but we do know they had been trodden by generations of
Indians, and although only foot paths aid in some places
mere trails they were invaluable to the early settlers as
guides to the most suitable lands where they might estab-
lish themselves permanently.
It is quite natural therefore to suppose that the first
comers availed themselves of such help as those immature
roadways offered, and we may conclude that the path up
the hill from the ferry to where Borough Hall now is
was soon a definitely formed road and the first on all
Long Island. In their further settlement of our end of
the Island the settlers made use of those paths and in
time they became the common roads of intercommunica-
tion between the various towns and villages of Colonial
The road of first importance as the settlers increased
seems to have been the road to Jamaica with its branch
to Flatbush. This was just a rough unmade road at
first, in most parts over unsettled lands, for it was not
until the early part of the eighteenth century that the
road was laid out and became a public highway. It be-
came the channel for such traffic as those little settle-
ments had, and linked them all together either directly
or by roads connecting it with them, and grew in im-
portance as the settlers became more numerous and their
activities greater. The entire road from the ferry to
Jamaica follows closely the original course, except at a
few points where the curve of the old road took a wide
sweep. From the ferry to the point of intersection of
[ 209 ]
Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues the course is the same,
but from this point the old road described an irregular
line between what is now Atlantic Avenue and Fulton
Street until it reached Bedford corners, and there it
veered a little to the north and finally made a sweeping
curve beyond MacDonough Street coming back to the
line of Atlantic Avenue near what is now Reid Avenue
and thence along this line to East New York and Jamaica
Avenue. Those widely irregular parts of the old road
have disappeared in the new streets and avenues of this
section of Brooklyn, but the old road re-appears in all its
pristine importance in Jamaica avenue, leading to the in-
teresting suburb of Jamaica, which is now not only a most
attractive residential section but also a rapidly developing
center of railroad activity.
There are still on this road some of the very old houses
of colonial times, but the one which stands out pre-emi-
nently and historically is the King mansion — a fine old
house set in beautiful grounds. This was the home of
Rufus King, one of the first two senators to represent
the state of New York in congress. It was also the resi-
dence of his son John A. King, governor of the state from
1856 to 1858. This house is now public property and
the grounds have been converted into a park, so that this
fine old mansion with its historic associations and its
relics of a period that is dear to us will be preserved from
the iconoclasm of modern times and handed down to
future generations as a heritage well worthy of their
care and reverence. The beautiful houses on Hillcrest
avenue just above are no doubt more comfortable to live
in, but they do not appeal either to the eye or to the
heart as does this fine old mansion of a bye-gone age.
[ 210 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
In ye olden time there was a road intimately connected
with the road to Jamaica as a link between it and the bay
at Canarsie. This old road commenced somewhere near
the road to Newtown, now Flushing avenue, and follow-
ing the general line of the present Reid avenue crossed
the Jamaica road and continued in a southeasterly direc-
tion to New Lots avenue and thence south to the bay.
This was the old Hunterfly road. When it got this name
and why is not known, but the name is not quite so
ancient as the road. It was known to the early settlers
as a hay path and used by them as the way most accessible
to the meadow lands of the bay. Those settlers came
from Bedford, New Lots, Wallabout and parts of
Jamaica, so that this hay path was a much used road and
of great importance to the little communities near it.
But there is not a trace of it left. It has vanished as
have the hay wagons and their owners and even the
meadows where the salt hay was gathered in. And if we
turn from retrospect and peer into the future we can see
those meadows blossoming with homes and the shores
of the bay crowded with the argosies of the world, for
the long arm of business is stretching out and claiming
the entire district for its own.
The junction of Flatbush and Atlantic avenues where
the Long Island Railroad station is situated bids fair to
become the heart of Brooklyn. Here is the entrance and
the exit for the multitudinous towns and villages of Long
Island, and if traffic continues to increase we may be able
to refer to it as that ever changing but difficult to locate
"busiest corner" in the city. Long ago it seems to have
been, too, the focus for travel, for here we find with
others, the old Gowanus road taking its start. There is
nothing of it there now unless we consider the beginning
of Fifth avenue a part of it. But the old road was too
sinuous to identify with that street, as it followed an ir-
regular course between Fifth and Third avenues as far as
the narrows. All along the shore there were little settle-
ments and this old road connected them like links in a
chain from Fort Hamilton to Fulton ferry. It was a well
developed road at the time of the revolution and was used
by the British in their march from Gravesend bay to the
battle fields about Prospect hills.
The old Bushwick road is about the only road that pre-
serves its course today almost as it was originally. It
began at what is now Richardson street and Kingsland
avenue and ran south to the old Bushwick church. From
there its course was almost identical with Bushwick ave-
nue as it is today. It crossed the old Newtown road at
the same point it crosses Flushing avenue now and ran in
a southeasterly line into Jamaica road at the present point
of junction. It is one of the few very old roads that have
survived the destroying hand of time and has taken on
a new lease of life that promises to stretch far into the
future. Today it is a splendid highway, constantly
thronged with all sorts of vehicles from automobiles to
delivery wagons, and is rapidly being built up on both
sides with fine residences. Already it occupies an im-
portant place among the great thoroughfares of the me-
tropolis, and has become somewhat distinguished since
the election of Mayor Hylan, whose residence is at No.
Flushing avenue from Navy street to the intersection
of Broadway runs nearly parallel with the old Wallabout
road and from Washington avenue to Broadway is identi-
cal with it. Beyond that point Flushing avenue is the old
Newtown road as shown above. The Wallabout road
[ 212 ]
Gen. Grant's house, 3 E. 66th Street, where the great soldier
lived for many years.
OF OLD NEW YORK
made a considerable digression from the present straight
line of Flushing avenue to the south between the Navy
yard and Washington avenue, and again a slight bend to
the south near Marcy avenue just before merging with
the Newtown road at Broadway. In laying out new
streets these "kinks" and irregularities in the old roads
were straightened out and the most direct way from
point to point chosen, but in this instance the course of the
old road and the new avenue is almost similar.
EARLY DAYS IN NEW YORK
Jews of Old New York
Prof. A. S. Isaacs, New York University
XN the marvelous growth of our metropolis, in which
all creeds and nationalities are proud to share, as
landslides of immigration reach our shores in
swift succession — now from Ireland, now from Italy, now
from Russia and now Scandinavia, Holland, and the far
East, — the Jews have naturally participated. Conditions
abroad, never the most hopeful, within recent decades
have compelled their exodus to the only country in the
world which assures its people full civil and religious
liberty. Although special efforts have been made to scat-
ter the incoming thousands of all types and classes, partly
by the state and partly by private agencies, the majority
seem to prefer New York and its vicinity, as if there was
safety in numbers as well as an indescribable home at-
mosphere in the local groups and class which meet them.
The old cry "Go West !" is not so generally obeyed as it
should be by the newcomers from distant lands. The
European war, which is serving happily to unify our
OF OLD NEW YORK
country and is giving the death-blow to hyphenated Amer-
icans, with their special centres, jargons, and foreign
predilections, will tend as unmistakably to unify our great
cities and weaken, if not entirely dissolve alien atmosphere
While the earliest Jewish settlement occurred in 1654,
when Peter Stuyvesant and the Dutch West Indies Com-
pany were guiding the destinies of New Amsterdam, —
the immigrants were then less than thirty, earlier arrivals
had been limited to a few individuals, — it was in the
Colonial and pre-Revolutionary period that their growth
was sufficiently marked for the local historian. The con-
ditions under which they were admitted by the Dutch au-
thorities were to engage in no retail trade, to "exercise
in all quietness their religion within their houses," and
to take care of their own poor. Otherwise they were to
enjoy in New Netherlands all the civil and political rights
which they possessed in Amsterdam. It was fortunate
in some respects that their energies were restricted to
foreign and international trade; for this very limitation
broadened their activities and gave a keener edge to their
ambition. As a result, they became rapidly among the
leading importers and exporters in various lines. In
1656, they obtained a site for a cemetery — on New Bow-
ery, near Oliver, whose oldest inscription is dated 1683.
The earliest synagogue or pro-synagogue stood on Mill
Street before 1700, close to ground where a house of
worship was erected in 1729. These were unpretentious
structures, whose builders never thought of the temples
which were to follow, to vie in number and architectural
beauty with the churches of later generations.
Among familiar names in social and mercantile life in
New York before the 18th century were families like the
[ 217 ]
Gomez, Hendricks, Henriques, Hays, Seixas, whose
descendants are still among us. Perhaps the most promi-
nent Jewish personality in pre-Revolutionary days was
Sampson Simson, who died in 1773. He is termed the
elder, to distinguish him from his nephew of the same
name, who was equally famous decades later. His firm
in Stone Street imported beaver coating and other ar-
ticles, and he was the owner of many vessels in the foreign
trade. His standing as merchant is best indicated by the
menu card at the 125th anniversary of the New York
Chamber of Commerce whose frontispiece bore his name
among the eight delegates who secured its charter. Be-
sides serving on many important committees of the Cham-
ber, he was active in local affairs and enjoyed general
esteem. His nephew of the same name (1780-1857) was
a man of ability and standing, with certain picturesque
qualities that were due, perhaps, to his being a wealthy
bachelor with the leisure to adopt hobbies. An Amer-
ican by birth and of the third generation of Americans, he
was the founder of Jews', now Mt. Sinai Hospital, and
active in benevolence. In the early fifties he resided at
208 Thompson Street, in an era when that section of the
city, near Washington Square, with long rows of modest
houses on Fourth, Bleecker and Houston Streets, was a
dignified social centre. He was ready to aid worthy
causes without distinction of creed — churches of all de-
nominations numbered him among their donors. My
brother, the late Judge Isaacs, recalls Mr. Simson's ap-
pearance in a paper before the American Jewish His-
torical Soicety (1902) : "He affected the old fashioned
costume, sometimes wearing knee breeches and buckles.
He was above the average height, very stiff and upright
in his bearing. His hair was white and worn in long
[ 218 ]
HiUtmn % ilarg
One of the early traders and a dis-
tinguished member of the group
which created the era known as the
"Roaring Forties." A staunch trim
looking ship she was as well known
in Liverpool and the Orient as she
was in New York.
Wm. H. Macy the owner was a
member of the Free School Society
from which came our present public
school system. He was a representa-
tive of the high grade type of men
who built and sailed the merchant
ships of Old New York. Mr. V.
Everit Macy is his grandson.
OF OLD NEW YORK
wavy locks. His spectacles were of great size. His
habitual walk was in short, quick steps — and he carried
a silver-headed cane, upon which he would lean when
seated. He was exacting and even tyrannical, would not
endure criticism or contradiction. He wrote a good hand ;
his signature was of the John Hancock style."
The small but influential body of New York Jews be-
fore the Revolution could point to another merchant of
character — Hayman Levy (1721-1789), who carried on
an extensive trade among the Indians and became the
largest fur dealer in the colonies. His place of business
was on Mill Street. On his failure in 1768, as the late
Judge Daly states in his work on "The Settlement of the
Jews in North America" (edited by Max J. Kohler,
1893), due to the general colonial policy pursued by the
English government, which injuriously affected the com-
merce and industries of New York, his assignees were
enabled to discharge the whole of his indebtedness with
interest, owing to the productiveness of his estate and
admirable management of his business. Eight years later
the great fire destroyed all his property, but he continued
nevertheless to carry on business until his death. It is
of interest to note that upon his books are entries of
amounts paid to John Jacob Astor for beating furs at the
rate of one dollar a day. Mr. Levy left for Philadelphia
on the occupancy of New York by the British, returning
in 1784. He had sixteen children, some of whom were
prominent in their day.
Another worthy in the years after the Revolution was
Bernard Hart (1764-1855), a native of England who
came to New York from Canada in 1777. First an in-
surance broker, he developed into the auction and com-
mission business — his firm Lispenard & Hart being noted
[ 223 ]
in commercial circles. In Scovill's "Old Merchants of
New York" (Vol. IL 125) his social influence, business
prestige, and kindliness are described as "towering aloft
among the magnates of the city of the last and present
century." During the yellow fever outbreak of 1795, he
took a leading part in the efforts for relief, sparing him-
self no personal sacrifice. His popularity was shown by
his active participation in club life and his holding the
office of secretary of the board of brokers from its incep-
tion in 1818 to the close of his life. His son, the late
Emanuel B. Hart, was a leader in the Jewish community
as well as prominent in Tammany Hall, for many years.
The Jewish ministers of that era — Gershom Seixas,
M. L. M. Peixotto, J. J. Lyons and Samuel M. Isaacs —
the two last died in 1877 and 1878, and are still held in
loving memory — wielded a happy social influence, al-
though the centre of prominence was gradually changing
from the English and American element to the German
and German-American in the sixties and seventies after
the Civil War. For a time, Mordecai M. Noah, who
settled in New York in 1816 from the South, after a
varied career as editor, playwright, and U. S. Consular
Agent in the Barbary States, became a leading figure in
the Metropolis and contributed much if unintentionally, to
its gayety. Prominent in politics, as sheriflf, surveyor,
and judge, he was a powerful journalist, and a fairly
successful dramatist, such was the versatility of his geni-
us. He died in 1851.
Within present limitations we can only mention briefly
the Hendricks family, whose representatives continue
honored and helpful as their fathers, or the Nathans, Kur-
sheedts, Phillips, Lazarus, and their connections. • With
the Civil War, the German- American element made rapid
OF OLD NEW YORK
strides forward — ^the Bernheimers, Einsteins, Fatmans,
Goldsmiths, Herzogs, Loebs, Lehmans, Lehmaiers, Mays,
Reckendorfers, Schiffs, Straus's, Scholles, Sternbergers,
Walters, Wormsers, being among the best known fami-
lies. Of the earlier generation. Judge Dittenhoefer, now
in his eighty-third year is the sole survivor.
In the publications of the American Jewish Publication
Society, which was organized in 1892, much interesting
and authoritative information is given as to the status of
the Jews of New York in the early periods of its history
down to more recent decades.
and New York's Water Supply
A. J. Wall
Ass't Librarian New York Historical Society
With the advent of the Catskill Aqueduct this year and
the wonderful resources for supplying the great City of
New York with water, the old Croton Water Aqueduct
takes second place in the matter of importance and wel-
fare to this ever growing community. But the memory
and history of that feat, the introduction of croton water
into the City of New York on October 14, 1842, still lives
with old New Yorkers and always will hold an important
place in the annals of our city.
The awakening spirit for the need of a proper water
supply system for the city may be traced to Christopher
Colles, an engineer little known in this day and genera-
tion, but whose record in practical achievement ranks
with the foremost men of his time. He was born in
Ireland about 1738 and died in New York City in 1821.
In 1765 he emigrated to America and in 1773 delivered
a series of lectures in New York on inland lock naviga-
tion. The following year he proposed to erect a reser-
voir for the city and convey water through the streets
in wooden pipes made of pine logs. Up to this time wells
were the only source of water supply and these produced
(with but one exception) water which as early as 1748
Peter Kalm described as "very bad." The exception be-
ing the famous "Tea Water Pump" well situated in a
hollow near the junction of the present Chatham and
Roosevelt Streets, which continued to supply good water
for many years.
On August 1st, 1774 The New York Gazette and
Weekly Mercury published the following :
"Last Thursday sen'night the Corporation of this City
met, and agreed to Mr. Christopher CoUes's proposal for
supplying this city with fresh water, by means of a steam
engine, reservoir, and conduit pipes ; and in order to carry
the said useful and laudable design into immediate execu-
tion, they resolved to issue promissory notes as the work
"According to this design, the water will be conveyed
through every street and lane in this city, with a perpen-
dicular conduit pipe, at every hundred yards, at which
water may be drawn at any time of the day or night and
in case of fire, each conduit pipe will be so contrived as to
communicate with the extinguishing fire-engines, whereby
a speedy and plentiful supply of water may be had in that
On September 5, 1774, the same paper published the
following advertisement :
[ 226 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
"New York Water Works
"Notice is hereby given, that a large quantity of pitch
pine logs will be wanting for the New York water works.
Such persons as are willing to engage to furnish the same,
are desired to send their proposals, in writing, before the
20th of October next, to Christopher Colles, contractor
for said works.
"These logs must be of good pitch pine, straight and
free from large knots of 12 inches diameter, exclusive of
sap, at the small end; and the remaining three- fourths of
9 inches diameter, exclusive of sap, at the small end."
On October 8th, 1774, the city purchased from Augus-
tus and Frederick Van Cortlandt a site on the east side
of Broadway between the present Pearl and White
Streets, and the erection of the reservoir to carry out
Colles' plan, was there carried into effect, but the Revolu-
tionary War and the occupation of the city by the British
prevented the completion of the scheme.
On January 29th, 1788, a petition to the Common Coun-
cil appeared in The New York Packet, praying that houses
might be supplied with water through pipes, viz. :
"The following petition is now handling about this city
in order to take the sense of the inhabitants whether they
would wish the city should be furnished with a plentiful
supply of fresh water, by means of water works and
conduit-pipes, as proposed (and partly executed), before
"To the Hon. the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of
the City of New York in Common Council convened :
The petition of the subscribers, inhabitants of the said
[ 229 ]
"That as the present mode of furnishing this city and
shipping with water, is in many respects subject to many
inconveniences, we do hereby declare our approbation of
a design for supplying the same by means of water works
and conduit-pipes and will (as soon as the same shall
be completed) be satisfied to pay our respective propor-
tion of a tax for the purpose, provided the same does not
exceed twenty-six shillings for each house per annum, at
"May it therefore please your honors to take the prem-
ises into consideration, and to adopt such measures for
effecting the same as you shall judge most expedient, for
the advantage, convenience and safety of the city.
"Supposing 3200 houses in the city, at 26s is £4160
1000 houses rated at 45s per ann 2250
1000 houses rated at 26 1300
1200 houses rated at 10 2d 610
Nothing, however, came from this petition and "tea
water men" continued to carry water around the city in
carts built for the purpose, selling the same at 3d. a hogs-
head of 130 gallons at the pump. The well in which this
pump stood was fed from the Collect Pond and was
about twenty feet deep and four feet in diameter.
From 1789 to 1798 various propositions were made to
thfi city for an adequate water supply all of which held
the Collect Pond for the source of supply.
[ 230 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
On July 2, 1798 Dr. Joseph Browne proposed furnish-
ing the city with water from the Bronx River and with
far-sightedness and good judgment argued his point in
the following language:
"The large stagnating, filthy pond, commonly called
the Collect, which now is, or soon will be, the centre of
the city, has been looked to by some of the people as a
fund from whence an adequate supply might be obtained,
by means of a steam engine, for the purposes already
spoken of. I cannot undertake to say that this source
would at present be incompetent to all the preceding pur-
poses for which a supply of water is wanted; but if the
quantity naturally discharged from this pond be the
whole that is furnished by its springs, then I might say
with propriety, it is infinitely too small for those uses.
But admitting that at present it might be competent, the
time will come, and that very shortly, from the growth
of the city, when this source will most certainly be very
inadequate to the demand. And again, supposing the
pond to contain and furnish enough, it is a consideration
well deserving attention, whether a pond, into which the
filth from many of the streets must, without very great
expense and care, be constantly discharged, and to which
the contents of vaults, etc., will continually drain, is a
desirable source from whence we should like to take water
for drinking, cooking, etc., without taking into account
its noxious qualities, medically considered; although it
may be laid down as a general rule that the health of a
city depends more on its water than on all the rest of
the eatables and drinkables put together."
Dr. Browne's plan met with approval and Mr. William
Weston, an engineer, was engaged by the city to study the
proposed plan. His report favored the tapping of the
[ 231 ]
Bronx River and was adopted by the Common Council
and a bill was prepared and introduced in the Legislature
granting the City of New York the necessary powers for
constructing water works. At this point opposition arose
from such men as Alexander Hamilton and Gulian Ver-
plank, and from Aaron Burr and others who had in mind
the forming of a private company and on April 2, 1799,
the Legislature passed an act for supplying the City of
New York with pure and wholesome water, and incor-
porated the Manhattan Company with a capital stock not
to exceed two million dollars divided in shares of fifty
dollars each, to which the city subscribed for two thousand
shares. The water was to be introduced into the city
within ten years of the passage of the act.
Although the charter of the Manhattan Company gave
them the right "to erect any dams or other works across
or upon any stream or streams of water, river or rivers,
or any other place or places" in order to obtain an ample
supply of water for the city, it did not avail itself of the
privileges granted and only sank a large well twenty-
five feet in diameter at the corner of the present Reade
and Centre Streets and pumped the water into a reservoir
on Chambers Street from which it was distributed through
From this time until the construction of the Croton
Reservoir a period of over thirty years, nothing of per-
manent good was accomplished toward solving the ques-
tion of supplying the city with pure and wholesome water
in abundance and during all these years its need was ever
apparent. In 1819 Robert Macomb was granted the
privilege of bringing water from the Bronx River to a
reservoir on Manhattan Island but nothing came of it.
In 1821 a committee with Mayor Stephen Allen as chair-
[ 232 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
man again considered securing water from the same
source, without result. The next proposition was to con-
struct an open canal from the Housatonic River, and an-
other scheme suggested a canal from the Oblong River
at Sharon, Conn., to New York, a distance of fifty miles.
In 1825 the New York Water Works Company was in-
corporated to carry out the plan of Mr. Canvass White
who was selected in 1822, as engineer to make investiga-
tions concerning the Bronx River supply on which he
had reported favorably. This company dissolved in 1827
as its charter conflicted with those of the Sharon Canal
Company and of the Manhattan Company. In 1827 the
New York Wells Company was incorporated to bore
wells, but soon abandoned the task realizing that sufficient
water could not be obtained from that source. Several
wells were bored by Levi Disbrow who had invented and
patented improved tools for the work, but it was estimated
that two hundred wells would be necessary to obtain a
sufficient supply of water and the expense of operating
pumps for the same ended further consideration of that
In 1829 Alderman Samuel Stevens urged the city to
build a reservoir for fire purposes on high ground on
Thirteenth Street, and to lay an iron pipe line down the
Bowery and Chatham Square and another down Broad-
way to Canal Street. This was actually carried out and
the reservoir constructed on the South side of Thirteenth
Street near the present Fourth Avenue, and it was the
first public reservoir and the beginning of the public water
works of the City of New York. It had a capacity of
233,169 gallons. Twelve inch mains were used with
branches of ten and six inches and by January, 1833,
34,646 feet of pipe had been laid.
[ 235 ]
It was not until 1830 that the Croton River had been
mentioned as a possible source for the city's water supply
and in that year Mr. Francis B. Phelps suggested it in a
memorial, as one of four sources, the others being Rye
Ponds, Passaic River and wells on Manhattan Island.
On November 10, 1832, a joint committee of the Com-
mon Council on Fire and Water engaged DeWitt Clinton
to examine the various sources and routes of water supply
thus far suggested. His conclusions determined upon an
aqueduct from the Croton Valley to the city and on May
2, 1834 the final act for constructing the Croton Aqueduct
was passed. Work was begun in 1837 and completed in
1842 when on October 14th a great civic celebration was
held in honor of the event. The Murray Hill Reservoir
now the site of the New York Public Library was com-
pleted that year and served as the distributing reservoir
for the city. On June 1, 1883 the Legislature passed an
act authorizing the construction of a new aqueduct, reser-
voirs and dams "for the purpose of supplying the City of
New York with an increased supply of pure and whole-
some water." On July 15, 1890 water was turned into the
new aqueduct from Croton Lake to the Central Park
Eastchester — A Half Forgotten Capitol
Eastchester Creek in the early days was very different
from what it is to-day. Then its waters, rising and fall-
ing with the tides of the ocean, were pure and limpid
and on its surface could be seen the shallops of the settlers
floating calmly toward the East River. It was sometimes
dignified by the name of Hutchinson River although only
2L little shallow stream. The country all about was di
I 236 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
beautiful landscape and the little hamlet of Eastchester
nestled amid the low hills and wooded lands forming its
source. Scattered over the plains on either side were
the homes of the settlers and the lands were well under
cultivation. Quite an ideal settlement was gathered here
comprising the descendants of several nationalities all
compounded into 100 per cent. Americans.
The quaint old church of St. Paul's which is still stand-
ing — a relic of a beautiful and romantic past — was the
center of the life and activity of the surrounding country.
History records how this old church, which had minis-
tered to the wants of the people away back in Colonial
times, fell on evil days during the Revolution and was
used by the Hessian troops as a hospital. Disease broke
out among them and many died. Thousands were buried
unceremoniously in what is designated as the sand pit in
the grounds of the church. When the trouble was all
over and the young republic got fairly under way the
church was rehabilitated and stands to-day a beautiful
and enduring monument of Christian faith and service.
The bell, the bible and the prayer book which were used
in Colonial days may still be seen in the church. The
old bell still sounds the call to prayer and the groups of
worshippers still wend their way to the old church just
as of yore.
Perhaps some of our readers will be surprised to know
that the village of Eastchester was the seat of govern-
ment for a brief period during the administration of the
second President. A fearful epidemic fell upon Philadel-
phia and President John Adams with many other officials
took refuge in places far removed from the scourge.
Here in the home of his daughter the wife of Col. William
Stephen Smith the President lived tmtil it was safe to
I 237 ]
return to the capital. In this house many state papers
were written, and those referring to the calling of Con-
gress to meet in New York City were of a specially inter-
esting nature. There is still a house in Eastchester which
goes by the name of the Adams house, but it is only in
part an old house and of the one the President lived in
Eastchester was the latter day home of Anne Hutchin-
son after the stress and storm of her life in Massachusetts
and Rhode Island. For years she had kept these two
neighboring states in a turmoil by her ceaseless zeal in
the propagation of new and peculiar doctrines. But it
availed her little in spreading the new faith. Her struggle
however brought her into a position she did not seek and
did not even know she occupied — that of a torch bearer
in the great movement for liberty of conscience and lib-
erty of speech. The saying that a prophet has honor
except in his own country was exemplified in this in-
stance, for this devoted woman was banished from her
former homes and sought shelter in her later years within
the peaceful borders of Eastchester. Strange is it not
that this quiet and unobtrusive little settlement should
become, even in this indirect way, connected with the
great principle of freedom of speech and conscience, or
"soul liberty" as it was called, which ultimately found its
complete expression in the constitution of the United
States. The house in Eastchester was burned by the
Indians in their raid against the Dutch and the entire fam-
ily, with the exception of one daughter, met their fate
in the flames.
There still remains in Eastchester the old homestead of
Col. Joseph Fay who fought under Washington and was
commended by him for loyalty and devotion to the cause.
[ 238 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
The old house is still occupied, although showing the
marks of time and age, but should be preserved for its
connection with the early history of our country. It was
one of the few houses that constituted the original hamlet
of Eastchester and is the only one remaining. It had its
trials during the revolution, being a tavern for a while,
and being used by the Hessians in connection with their
hospital in St. Paul's just opposite.
The most exciting event which happened in Eastchester
in those early days was the arrival and departure of the
coaches that plied between New York and Boston. At
Guion's Inn on the Boston Post Road where they stopped,
a group of people, eager to hear the news was always
gathered, and for the moment there was bustle and excite-
ment, then all was quiet again until the arrival of the next
coach. Mr. Guion's reputation for good cheer spread
far and wide, and he certainly must have been worthy of
his good repute, for it is related that Washington slept
there one night and referred to his visit afterward in a
letter, saying "I proceeded to Eastchester where I slept
all night in a good bed at Mr. Guion's."
Pacifists in 1776 Refuse to Declare for
The first movement toward the Declaration of Inde-
pendence was set afoot in some of the colonies by com-
piling a list of those who were in favor of this action and
giving the reasons of those who were opposed to it. The
excuses these pacifists of 1776 give, bear a close resem-
blance to what we are accustomed to hear to-day, and let
us hope their influence on the result may be as innocuous :
"Benjamin Herbert, Jr., refuses to sign through religious prin-
"Richard T. Hargrove refuses to sign through religious prin-
"William Wilson, son of John, refuses to sign through re-
"Benjamin Harboard refuses to sign through religious prin-
"Michael Bosed don't sign by reason he signed before.
"Thomas Gilbert don't sign by reason he don't chose.
"Thomas West don't sign by reason it is a mystery to him.
"Philip Cummins don't sign by reason he don't understand
"John Ward don't sign by reason the congress don't sign and
by reason he thinks that if the English gain the day then the
congress and the great people will turn the scale and say the
commonality of people forced them to stand in opposition to
"John Clark don't sign by no reason he can give.
"Ephraim Arnold don't sign for fear it would fetch him into
"Isaac Penrose don't sign for reason he don't choose to fight
for liberty and never will.
"Benj. Fleetwood refuses to sign. He says he will go in a
vessel, will not fight for land.
"Samuel Gallion says if he should sign he may fetch on him-
self that he cannot go through.
"Richard Spencer says he can not write nor read and shall not
sign any paper."
OF OLD NEW YORK
To the Old New Yorker the items given below will
bring back memories of a very different city from the one
we live in to-day, and yet it must be quite apparent that
the spirit which animated the people then was not very
different from that which animates them to-day — a spirit
of striving after progress and improvement. These items
are from an old New York note book of 1858 in the pos-
session of Mr. George H. Sargent of Chicago, made by
Packet and Clipper-Ships
The ships of New York, and especially the clippers,
are objects of interest to the stranger. Splendid vessels
of both kinds are always to be found at our docks, and
may be examined at all times without inconvenience.
Their elegant cabins, vast size and exquisite models, ex-
cite the admiration and wonder of those unused to such
things. Their cabins are often fitted up at a vast expense,
and their whole build and finish render them superior to
any other vessels in the commercial world.
Among the finest of the packets may be mentioned the
American Congress, Star of the West, and Alfred the
Great. The largest and finest clippers are the Challenge,
The Invincible, The Flying Cloud, The White Squall, and
The Queen of the Clippers.
A remarkably neat village of New York county, situ-
ated on the left bank of the Hudson, five miles above the
City Hall. The New York Asylum for the Insane and
the Orphans Asylum are established here. The village
consists chiefly of country-seats. Many persons are
tempted to drive in this direction by the beauty of the
[ 243 ]
road. About two miles from Bloomingdale, on the same
side of the river, is Manhattanville.
On the corner of East Sixteenth Street and Rutherford
Place is St. George's Church (Episcopal), under the pas-
toral charge of Rev. Dr. Tyng. The church itself is very
fine, containing seats for about three thousand persons,
whose view of the preacher is not hindered by the inter-
ference of a single column. The whole interior is there-
fore quite unique, and has been well compared by a
nautical friend to the strong, well timbered frame-work
of a great ship. The eloquent divine who here officiates,
possesses a voice capable of filling the house apparently
The extensive ship yards in the Northeast part of the
city, in the region called Dry Dock, are very interesting
places of resort. Here may be found ships of the largest
class, and steamers of every dimension in progress, and
a vast variety of naval operations, rendering it a scene
of infinite variety and interest. Extensive machine-shops,
for steam engines, will be found here also.
The citizen of New York, weary at length of being
jolted over the old fashioned pavements of cobble-stones
which still maintain possession of most of the streets,
determined to find relief. In 1846, a great improvement
was made by the introduction of what was called, from
the name of its inventor, the Russ pavement ; and which,
thus far, has met all the opposition of heat and cold, sud-
den changes and immense use, without injury.
Mtxtk irtttr^ 1B54
The home of the clipper is originally
said to be Baltimore, and the Ann Mc-
Kin, the first of the new type, hailed
from that port in 1832. She was pur-
chased by Howland and Aspinwall of
New York, who added the Rainbow
of similar design. To the success of
these two ships is credited the begin-
ning of the clipper ship Era, and New
York as the port which created the
The Black Prince is a type of the
clipper ship built in Baltimore at a
later date and sailed in tlie China Tea
and California trade.
From the private collection of Mr.
OF OLD NEW YORK
The plan, however, is very expensive. It requires
large blocks of stone about ten inches in depth, laid diago-
nally with the wheel track, and resting on a substratum
of concrete, which again rests upon a foundation of
granite chips; the whole forming a consolidated mass
eighteen inches thick, so arranged as to afford access to
the gas and water pipes. It has been fairly tested on
Broadway. Another pavement is called, also from the
name of its inventor, the Perrine. The popularity of
this consists in combining a smooth wheel-track with a
rough way for the horses, as may be seen, should there
be any yet remaining, in Broadway, between Franklin and
The cobble-stone portion of the Perrine is to be re-
placed with granite block, laid by Deghue ; an experiment,
the success of which is yet to be achieved.
The cost of the Deghue is $3.85 a yard; that of the
Perrine, about $6.00; while the Russ, costing nearly as
much as both together, is probably the cheapest of the
NEW YORK OF TODAY
American Artists and the War
A. E. Gallatin
XN the olden days, the sphere of action in which the
artist, in times of war, could make use of his tal-
ents was extremely limited ; to-day the situation is
vastly different. As one writer on art matters has said :
"Art never has had a more inspiring opportunity, and
artists are gaining constantly in appreciation of the ser-
vice possible for them to render." Another has written :
"Never since the Middle Ages, when the church taught
its lessons by means of pictures to people who could not
read the written word, has art been called upon to serve
in so many ways."
Leonardo da Vinci is probably the most conspicuous
example of the artist of the Middle Ages who, while his
country was at war, was able to be of service. Leonardo
always considered that he attained a greater excellence
as an engineer than as a painter or a sculptor. His de-
signs for fortifications may be found by searching
through a set of Ravaisson-Mollien's folio volumes en-
OF OLD NEW YORK
titled "Les Manuscripts de Leonard de Vinci" (Paris,
1883). Among these many sketches will be discovered
even a design for an aeroplane. Diirer was another artist
much interested in military matters ; a work by him,
printed in Nuremberg in 1527, contains many engravings
which he drew on the wood, depicting fortifications, can-
non and various military objects. This book, which is of
great interest to the student, was reprinted in Paris in
1535, but has not been reprinted since.
American painters and illustrators, it is gratifying to
know, have come forward with an eagerness to be of
service to the country that has not been excelled by any
other group. The services that they can render are mani-
fold, as I shall endeavor to suggest.
In the first place, many artists are needed for the de-
signing of the innumerable posters required by the gov-
ernment for recruiting purposes, for Liberty Loan, War
Savings Stamp, Red Cross and other drives, for posters
to speed up ship-building, as well as to urge the conser-
vation of food and coal. And it is scarcely an exaggera-
tion to say that every prominent artist in America has
designed at least one poster to be used for patriotic pur-
Last spring a group of illustrators and painters went
to Washington and offered their services gratis to the
government. At that time commercial artists and firms
of lithographers were getting the orders for posters.
At first the efforts of these artists did not meet with much
encouragement, but finally George Creel, chairman of the
Committee on Public Information, became interested,
with the result that he established a Division of Pictorial
Publicity. Charles Dana Gibson is the chairman of this
committee, which has headquarters at 200 Fifth Avenue,
New York, while F. D. Casey, art editor of Collier's
Weekly, is vice-chairman and secretary. Artists wish-
ing to draw posters for the navy should communicate with
the U. S. Navy Publicity Bureau, whose offices are at
318 West 39th Street, New York.
Owing to the efforts of the Division of Pictorial Pub-
licity, our posters, which in the beginning of the war
were most inartistic and made but a small appeal, have
steadily improved. Many of the posters now being is-
sued in this country reach quite a high plane of artistic
excellence, although extremely few bear comparison with
those which have been issued in France and in Italy.
Among the finest posters which have been designed in
this country are the "Feed a Fighter" by Wallace Mor-
gan and Henry Raleigh's "Halt the Hun" : their fine
draughtsmanship reminds one of Steinlen. Excellent
also is Albert Sterner's "Over There" poster for the
navy, Henry Reuterdahl's "Help Your Country" and
W. T. Benda's "Stand Behind the Country's Girlhood,"
which was drawn for the Y. W. C. A. Others worthy
of note have been drawn by Adolph Treidler, C. B. Falls,
Charles Livingston Bull, and Joseph Pennell. Over the
New York Treasury Building, N. C. Wyeth and Henry
Reuterdahl painted a decoration for the Third Liberty
Loan, a canvas measuring ninety by twenty-five feet.
Robert Reid painted a large poster on a Chicago hoard-
ing for the Navy League.
Eight members of the committee of which Mr. Gibson
is chairman were commissioned captains in the Engineers'
Reserve Corps of the army and they are now in France
depicting our activities. Ernest Peixotto, Walter En-
right, W. J. Aylward, Harry Townsend, Wallace Mor-
gan, Walter J. Duncan, Harvey Dunn and Andre Smith
[ 252 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
are the men whom the government has selected to make
what should prove to be an invaluable historical record.
The Camouflage unit of the Corps of Engineers of the
National Army has attracted many artists, and a number
also have taken up naval camouflage, which in these days
of the submarine is an extremely important study. In
making her famous fleet of dummy battleships, England's
naval camoufleurs certainly showed great ingenuity.
Every regiment has its camouflage squad, and already
over five hundred men belonging to this corps are in
France with our armies. I understand that each regi-
ment in each training camp in America has sixteen cam-
oufleurs to train other men. In this unit, are artists, ar-
chitects, sculptors, scene painters, sign painters, house
painters, carpenters, ornamental iron workers, tinsmiths,
plasterers, photographers, stage carpenters and property
men. Their work in general, the War Department in-
forms me, deals with the concealment of gun emplace-
ments, trenches and sheds of military value; the screen-
ing of roads and the manufacture of materials for this
purpose ; the painting of roofs and large areas of canvas
for the covering of ammunition storage and the like ; the
making of various devices and clothing for the conceal-
ment of observers and snipers and occasionally the paint-
ing of a scenic drop or screen.
Abbott Thayer and Louis Fuertes, two painters, as
well as Dr. Chapman, of the American Museum of Nat-
ural History, have studied bird life and protective col-
oration; modern camouflage is based upon their studies
and conclusions. Some familiar examples of nature's
camouflage is the frog, spotted like a tree ; the polar bear,
with his white coat, and the tiger, striped in such a way
as to make him invisible in a bamboo forest.
At present no more enlistments are being made in
the Camouflage corps and no expansion in this service
is contemplated in this country. One of the several
schools of camouflage which have been established is
that at Columbia University, which is directed by the
School of Architecture. In it are taught, under the in-
struction of Lieut. H. Ledyard Towle, N. Y. G., the ele-
ments of military concealment and military training. The
extremely interesting Military Camouflage float in the In-
dependence Day Pageant-Parade held in New York this
year, under the direction of the Mayor's Committee on
National Defense, was constructed by this school. This
parade with its one hundred and nine thousand marchers,
representing forty-two different nationalities, but carry-
ing only the American flag, was the greatest and most
impressive parade ever held in New York. Artists, deco-
rators, sculptors, sign painters and property men co-
operated in making the very beautiful and instructive
floats, about one hundred in number, as well as the deco-
Still another way in which the artist may employ his
talents is the painting of what are known as designation
targets. These are large landscapes depicting typical
French rural scenery and are used in our military schools
to train the embryo artillery officer to locate quickly a
given point in the landscape. The sine quo non is cor-
rect perspective. The prominent features should appear
to be at two hundred, three hundred, and five hundred
yards from the observer. The Art War Relief, whose
offices are at 661 Fifth Avenue, New York, has directed
much of this great work, which is in charge of Mrs.
H. Van Buren Magonigle.
[ 256 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
The cartoonist wields a most powerful weapon. It
can be truly said of him, as of the author, that "the pen
is mightier than the sword." I doubt if any general has
better served the Allied cause than Louis Raemaekers.
His wonderful drawings have penetrated to all the cor-
ners of the world, showing Germany in her true light
as have no other pictures or books. The French gov-
ernment has circulated two million sets of Raemaekers'
cartoons among the army. The drawings of Forain and
Steinlen are valuable documents, besides being works of
art of a high order. It is to such pictures as these that
the historian of the future, overwhelmed with conflicting
material, will turn for guidance. The best history of the
Napoleonic wars are the contemporary broadsides and
no one could ask for a better political and social history
of England than the drawings in Punch.
Nor should one forget to mention a way the artist,
at least in England, has found to use his talents for war
work. At several of the Red Cross sales held in London
blank canvases have been contributed by some of the most
famous portrait painters and the highest bidder is en-
titled to have his or her portrait painted by the artist
contributing the canvas. Last April Sargent contributed
a picture of this character. Early in the war a canvas
contributed by him was bought by the late Sir Hugh
Lane, who perished on board the Lusitania, and on it he
commissioned Sargent to paint one of the now famous
portaits of President Wilson, paying $50,000 for it.
The chance for the sculptor is in the designing of war
medals and memorials. Very recently Congress has au-
thorized a Congressional Medal of Honor, a Dis-
tinguished Service Cross and a Distinguished Service
Medal. These were designed by Captain Andre Smith
and Captain Aymar Embury, 2d, and modelled by Gae-
tano Cecere. Paul Manship has recently modelled three
medals— "Kultur," "French Heroes Fund" and "Red
Cross." An English artist, Captain Derwent Wood, has
constructed masks to cover facial injuries. Professor
Henry Tonks also has worked with the plastic surgeon.
Many architects have found employment in the Bureau
of Industrial Housing and Transportation, of the Depart-
ment of Labor, for problems of industrial housing — and
these towns for ship-builders and munition makers con-
tain churches, schools and hospitals. Others, who have
commissions in the Engineer Corps, have designed port-
able houses for the Red Cross and the army, which have
been sent to France and to England.
I understand that plans have been submitted to the
Committee on Public Information with regard to estab-
lishing in this country a department of exhibitions. The
British government has already created such an organiza-
tion. Last March there was held in New York an official
exhibition of lithographs under the auspices of the British
government. This exhibition reflected Britain's eflforts
and ideals in the great war. The section of the exhibi-
tion showing Britain's efforts contained such titles as
"Making Soldiers/' "Making Sailors," "Making Guns,"
"Building Ships," "Women's Work," "Work on the
Land," and "Tending the Wounded." The section en-
titled "Britain's Ideals" contained such subjects as "The
Triumph of Democracy," "Poland, a Nation," and "The
Re-birth of the Arts." These lithographs, some in black
and white, others in color, were drawn by some of the
most highly gifted of England's artists, including William
Rothenstein, Charles H. Shannon, Muirhead Bone, Ed-
mund Dulac, C. R. W. Nevinson, Charles Ricketts, Wil-
OF OLD NEW YORK
liam Nicholson, Frank Brangwyn, and Augustus John.
During June this exhibition was held at the Brooklyn In-
stitute of Art, and during the first two weeks of August
it was shown at the Print Room of the Jesup Memorial
Library in Bar Harbor, Maine.
For the past two years William Orpen, one of Eng-
land's greatest painters and draughtsmen, has been de-
picting events at the front. These drawings and paint-
ings, which were shown in London recently, have been
presented by the artist to the nation and are destined for
Great Britain's ultimate War Museum.
The French, too, have been fully alive to the great
value of pictorial propaganda. Extremely interesting
were the paintings by Lieutenant Farre of actual engage-
ments in aerial combat, and most valuable as records
because technically accurate, which were exhibited in
New York last winter. These pictures I believe are now
being shown throughout the country under the auspices
of the Aero Club of America. At the Library of Con-
gress last winter were shown the lithographs by Lucien
Jonas entitled "Les Grandes Vertues Frangaises." Such
drawings as these, with those of Frangois Flameng,
Georges Scott, and Charles Huard, all official artists, to-
gether with the drawings which have been published in
L' Illustration, form one of the most valuable histories of
the war. They are comparable in some ways to the etch-
ings of war scenes by Callot and Goya. Certainly they
command much more attention than the studio-painted
works of Meissonier, Detaille and Neuville.
In this country but little has been done so far as re-
gards the holdings of exhibitions of what may be termed
war pictures, if we exclude posters. An excellent move
in this direction was the exhibition of pictures of this
character shown in New York last spring; the artists
represented were Augustus Vincent Tack, John Sloan,
W. Ritschel, Charles S. Chapman, I. Mortimer Block,
H. B. Fuller, Guy Pene du Bois and George Luks. In-
teresting also are the lithographs by Joseph Pennell
showing America's war preparations, which have been
shown at many of the art museums throughout the
At my suggestion, in August, 1918, the Division of
Pictorial Publicity established a department of exhibi-
tions. This was an excellent move, for in the words of
Mr. Duncan Phillips : "More important even than the
issue of pamphlets which the Committee on Public In-
formation is already dispensing, more important than
the war photographs supplied by the Divisions of Films
and Pictures, is the distribution of original drawings,
paintings and prints which minister to the morale of our
As chairman of the Committee on Arts and Decoration of
the Mayor's Committee on National Defense Mr. A. E. Gallatin
supervised the floats and decorations of the Independence Day
Pageant-Parade and established a bureau to direct and advise
artists desiring to apply their talents to war work. He is also
associate chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions of the
Division of Pictorial Publicity.
At the request of the British Government, Mr. Gallatin ar-
ranged an official exhibition of British lithographs reflecting
Britain's Efforts and Ideals in the Great War, at Bar Harbor,
Me., in August. He also plans exhibitions of war pictures by
American artists, designed to acquaint the American public with
the extent of our activities and to strengthen their morale.
The members of the Committee are as follows :
Albert Eugene Gallatin, Chairman
Lloyd Warren, Vice Chairman
Edward P. Gaston, Secretary
OF OLD NEW YORK
Butler, Nicholas Murray Manship, Paul
du Bois, Guy Pene Phillips, Duncan
Glackens, William J. Sedgwick, Henry Renwick
Hastings, Thomas Sherrill, Adj. Gen. Chas. H.
Abbe, Robert Hassam, Childe
Alexander, Charles B. Hoppin, William Warner
Adams, Herbert Huntington, Archer M.
Adams, John Quincy Iselin, Ernest
Bartlett, Paul W. James, Arthur Curtiss
Bertron, S. Reading Knoedler, Roland F.
Burroughs, Bryson Kunz, George F.
Chamber, Robert W. Lawson, Ernest
Clark, WiUiam A Mackay, Clarence H.
Crowninshield, Francis W. Mansfield, Howard
Cutting, R. Fulton Nelson, W. H. de B.
de Forest, Robert W. Scribner, Arthur H.
Gay, Capt. Charles M. Schieffelin, WilHam Jay
Gibson, Charles Dana Sloane, John
Guerin, Jules Stevens, Joseph E.
Tack, Augustus V.
The Brick Presbyterian Church
In 1706 Presbyter ianism in this city had its birth when
a few persons assembled in private houses to worship.
They were mostly Scotch. Their numbers increased until
they were able in 1719 to 'build the first Presbyterian
church in this city. It was erected in Wall Street on the
North side between Broadway and Nassau Street about
where the Astor building now stands. This church may
be regarded as the mother church of the Presbyterian
denomination in New York. The Brick church branched
off from this church and, according to the interesting his-
torical review of Dr. Albert R. Ledoux, consisted of the
more liberal and aggressively American element of the
congregation. The building was erected on Beekman
Street at the corner of Nassau Street in 1767 and became
known as the Brick church in contradistinction to the
Stone church in Wall Street. It was dedicated January
1st, 1768 and from the beginning took a leading position
in the religious life of the city — a position it has held ever
The movement of population up-town and the encroach-
ment of business rendered it necessary to move from the
Beekman Street site to a more suitable location and the
present site at Fifth Avenue and Thirty-seventh Street
was chosen. The building erected there is almost a du-
plicate of the original and in the material of its construc-
tion is the same, preserving its prerogative to the name of
the Brick church. It was dedicated October 1st, 1858.
On January 6th and 10th, 1918, the 150th anniversary
of the dedication of the church was celebrated. On Sun-
day, the 6th, appropriate services were held ; Dr. Henry
van Dyck, who was the minister of the church from 1883
to 1900, and very recently United States minister to
Holland, preached in the morning, and the present min-
ister Dr. William Pierson Merrill in the afternoon. On
the evening of the 10th a special historical service was
held and the church was filled to its capacity.
Robert Fulton Cutting delivered the opening address at
the evening service and made some interesting references
to the changed spirit of the church since it was first organ-
ized. In contrasting the early with the later period Mr.
Cutting very strikingly showed how the leaven of democ-
racy had permeated the religious life of the people and
changed the attitude of the church from the paternalism
of its early years to the fraternal spirit and co-operation
which we find to-day, or to use his own words "instead of
working upon the people working with them."
The First Brick Church, Beekman and Nassau Sts., 1767
OF OLD NEW YORK
Dr. Albert R. Ledoux in an interesting address on the
history of the church in its relation to the nation, showed
how closely our governmental structure corresponds to
that of the Presbyterian church. He also gave an account
of the work of the ministers who have served the church
and of the more prominent members of the congregation ;
and perhaps it will not be without interest to that large
body of Scots who still exert a great influence in the
Presbyterian fold to know that the petitioners for the
first charter described themselves as the "Undersigned
Scots of North Britain."
The churches of those days seem to have had their little
differences just as they have to-day. In this case it proves
the old contention that differences and friction promote
growth and progress, for the Brick Presbyterian church
is surely a fine testimony to its truth. To those who are
connected with this church and in fact to all Presbyte-
rians, Dr. Ledoux's historical address will be not only
interesting and informative, but most valuable as a rec-
ord of one of the most important religious institutions of
Dr. Merrill concluded the celebration in an eloquent
address on the Invisible Brick Church, which is the spirit
of "a broad and generous fellowship of men who differ
widely on details, but are one in loyalty to some great
essential principle." The address was one which hon-
ored the occasion and stamped Dr. Merrill as a preacher
who abundantly sustains the traditional force and elo-
quence of the Brick Presbyterian Church pulpit.
Perhaps the thing that appeals most strongly to the
average layman in a celebration of this kind is not so
much the evidence of power and influence, as shown by
the crowded audiences and the demonstrations of appre-
ciation, but rather the humble and unobtrusive beginnings
of the church and the simple faith of its founders. Dr.
Howard Dufifield in whose opening prayer these words
occur "we thank Thee for the great city in which Thou
hast placed us to solve the problems and perform the
duties of this mortal life" epitomizes not only what the
founders had in mind, but also what their successors have
in great part accomplished.
India House; New York's Reminder of our
Ancient Maritime Supremacy
of the American Asiatic Association
London has had its East India House since the early
seventeenth century. Amsterdam has been the home of
the Dutch East India Company since 1595. Salem,
Mass., still maintains its East India Marine Hall, and
now New York has also its India House. The building
has for three-quarters of a century occupied the block
on the south side of Hanover Square. In other days the
structure looked out upon the collection of tiny brick
buildings that lined Old Slip. Across this vista could
be seen the thicket of spars and masts that marked the
docking place of the clipper ships. But the spars and
masts are gone for the most part, and in their place today
may be found the sooty funnels of the coasters and the
globe-girdling tramp steamers. The little, dormered brick
neighbors of what is now India House have given way
OF OLD NEW YORK
to tall business structures, and the elevated railroad suc-
ceeds in hiding in its shadows what is left of the past.
This structure of seventy odd years ago was once the
home of the Cotton Exchange, and later, when that insti-
tution moved to its new quarters a little way up William
Street, it housed the firm of William R. Grace & Com-
pany. New York's India House is the headquarters of
men who represent the leading foreign trade interests of
the country; a place where these men can gather and
talk over trade conditions, formally or informally as the
case may be. It is the club house of the import and ex-
port merchants of today, and one of the direct results
of the creation of the National Foreign Trade Council
whose executive officers are, indeed, housed within its
To the question of "Why India House?" perhaps the
best answer that can be given is that for centuries, to
men of our race, "India" and the "Indies" stood for all
that was greatest, boldest, most alluring and most prof-
itable in commerce. It was in seeking the western route
to that older and more spacious world the fame of whose
surpassing riches had stirred the imagination of adven-
turers, navigators and traders for long generations be-
fore, that Columbus stumbled on America. To the Eliz-
abethans, the Indies, East and West, were a synonym
for all that was rare and precious, and the names were
constantly at the end of their tongue and pen. It was
not long before any place to which a profitable voyage
could be made came to be known as the Indies, and it
was a natural sequence that they should have also in-
cluded Far Cathay. An atmosphere has been created
in India House of the old days when American ships
were the carriers of the world. Its walls are covered
with pictures of the most famous clipper ships, like the
"Sovereign of the Seas" that covered the distance be-
tween Hongkong and New York in ninety days, and the
gallery is rich in representations of the ocean greyhounds
of the 50s. It has been eloquently said by one of the
expositors of this collection: "You may conjure romance
from these walls, and you may also derive from the
story they tell inspiration for a greater, broader, more
prosperous future for American shipping and American
commerce. They have in Salem the original home of
the romance of the old seafaring life of the United
States. * * * The East India Marine Hall of Salem
is the abode of great memories ; this India House is to
be the home of new achievement."
As a matter of fact, in organizing a club whose domi-
nant idea should be that of seagoing commerce, the found-
ers of India Houses builded better than they knew. They
had a robust faith in the revival of the American Mer-
chant Marine, and it was quickly demonstrated that their
faith was, in sober truth, the substance of things hoped
for, the evidence of things not seen. It must be said
that it was by feeling, rather than by sight, that they
were assured of the coming of the new day. The re-
crudescence of the old spirit of maritime adventure was
felt like a stirring in the blood ; a quickening of the pulse
of enterprise ; a new capacity to respond to the influences
that had gone to the making of a glorious past, and which
had only to reassert themselves to be contributory to a
more glorious future. In India House the scene was set
in preparation for the approaching event ; in India House
was spoken the prologue to the swelling act; from the
great organization domiciled in India House emanated
the wise counsel and sympathetic co-operation which re-
[ 270 ]
Another of the great Black Ball
line's famous fliers. The opening of
the Erie Canal in 1825 gave great im-
petus to the packet ships and several
lines were started to compete with
the Black Ball— the Red Cross, the
Collins, the State, the Swallow Tail,
Blow high, blow low, one of the
Black Ball liners sailed from New
York to Liverpool the first and six-
teenth of every month. These dates
for years were known as "steamer
days" throughout the whole country.
— Collection of Mrs. C. H. Marshall.
OF OLD NEW YORK
moved some serious perils from the coming to life of our
new merchant fleet. And so, when the shipyards of the
United States became resonant with the din of prepara-
tion for a new mercantile marine, the men who had longed
and labored for just such a consummation, were prone
to rub their eyes and wonder if it was not too good to be
Nowhere is it realized more clearly than in India House
that there will be something of the miraculous in the ap-
parition of the myriad hulls of steel and wood bearing
the American flag once more to every port of the seven
seas. For the war period of course their function has
already been prescribed; the demand for their employ-
ment is only too imperative. This first act of our renas-
cent sea-power has been carefully rehearsed, and each
actor knows his part. The second act will open with the
transfer of all this tonnage to the control of private own-
ers, and with its employment in carrying the products
of the United States to the markets of a world at peace.
The vital question is, and this is one to which even the
sages of India House can give no confident answer ; "Will
the impulse that called it into being lose none of its
strength, and will a new generation of owners, captains
and sailors prove equal to the task that for over half a
century another generation of Americans successfully
performed ?" There can be no question that all the exter-
nal conditions favor a magnificent send-ofT in the coming
year of peace for our merchant fleet. It may be hoped
that, profiting by past experience, the Congress and Gov-
ernment of the United States will impose on the business
of owning and operating American ships no needless bur-
dens. The determination to keep the flag on the ocean,
[ 275 ]
even as it was when the Republic was still young, is deep-
seated and pervasive. Let any one who is in danger of
faltering in this faith be sent for his better edification to
breathe the bracing air of India House.
A Winter Long to Be Remembered
The winter of 1917-18 will be remembered as one
of the coldest and most severe ever experienced in this
city. It is in the class with the extraordinarily cold win-
ters we have read about in the annals of the early settle-
ment of the country. We have to go back to tradition
to find its equal, for our official records have nothing to
match it. In snowfall too this winter ranks high among
the bHzzard years. It commenced early and lasted long.
The high winds and low temperature of the early days
of December gave us a foretaste of what was coming and
these conditions continued with increasing severity until
the climax of 13 below zero was reached, marking the
lowest temperature in the coldest winter since the weather
bureau was established forty-seven years ago. This low
record was made just as the year was expiring, December
30, 1917, a date to be remembered.
It is something unusual for the coast cities to experi-
ence such extreme cold, and it should be borne in mind
that zero weather with us, accompanied as it almost in-
variably is with high winds, makes the cold here of quite
a different quality from that of the interior places. The
biting and cutting winds of our zero weather are far more
trying than the still cold which obtains in interior parts of
This winter too was remarkable for the lack of thaws.
The mid-winter breathing space, when the New Yorker
OF OLD NEW YORK
gets a chance to primp up his feathers a little and sort of
loosen out before another hibernation, was entirely cut
out. He was simply snowed under and never got a
chance of coming out like the ground hog to size things
up. Blast after blast swept over the city with cumulative
destructiveness. Railroads were tied up, water ways
were choked with ice, tow boats and barges were caught
in the ice floes and damaged or carried away altogether,
elevateds, subways and street cars were hampered for
want of power and ran irregularly. Our transportation
facilities were all higgledy-piggledy, sometimes running
and sometimes not, very often stopping between points
without any apparent reason, and then crawling along at
a snail's pace toward their goal. And all this without any
heat in the cars, for coal was scarce and in fact could not
be had at any price. The black diamond was certainly a
precious article during the winter of 1917-18 and the New
Yorker who struggled through that remarkable period
will ever have a keen appreciation of the tremendous
value and indispensability of our friend King Coal. Start-
ing out shivering from a coalless home and facing the
wintry blast at the corner while waiting for a car was
enough to try the patience of the most long suffering citi-
zen, but amid all his unprecedented discomfort and suf-
fering the New Yorker was rarely heard to make a com-
plaint. Sometimes he would say complaisantly "these
are war times, you know, and we've just got to stand it."
And it was true, for the weather and the war together
made a large draught on his patience and endurance. It
was the most trying winter the New Yorker has ever gone
through — and the most memorable.
On February 5th, just at a time when the government
was making herculean efforts to ship food and other sup-
plies to our men in France and to the Allies, another and
fiercer blast swept over the country rendering transporta-
tion of all kinds almost impossible. The temperature this
time fell to seven degrees below zero and the wind raged
at the rate of 50 miles an hour. Freight trains were im-
peded by the piles of snow and railroad cuttings were so
full that even snow ploughs stuck in them. Switches were
frozen, freight depots and terminals were congested, ships
were tied up in the harbor for want of coal and every-
thing was in a tangle. The splendid courage and en-
durance of our workingmen and the fine genius of the
management ultimately conquered all difficulties, as these
same qualities will ultimately overcome the enemies in
Heatless Days and the Coal Famine
The coal famine was one that came very close to us
all. There was scarcely a family that did not suffer and
many, both rich and poor, were obliged to use one or two
rooms of their home as living apartments which could be
kept moderately warm by the use of oil stoves. Of
course oil was scarce too and had to be used with care.
Coal dealers had a constant stream of people trying to
buy even a little portion of the precious mineral, and any
day one could hear entreaties for the babies and the old
and sick. These of course were cared for first. Oc-
casionally some coal yard would offer what little they
could obtain to the poor in small quantities, and a long
line would form to get 50 or 100 pounds and carry it
home in boys' sleds or baby carriages or in bags. Per-
haps the most memorable thing of all was the visit of the
policeman to examine your stock of coal and see if you
could spare any for those who needed it most. The re-
[ 278 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
suit was to show that the famine had reached almost .
This condition was largely the result of underproduc-
tion to which was added an unprecedented ice jam in the
North River stopping delivery from the mines completely.
This seemed the acme of discomfort and suffering, but
as if to show that we could endure still further misery
the Government suddenly ordered the cessation of all
business activities requiring the use of coal. Office build-
ings, theatres, public institutions and to a very great ex-
tent apartment houses and homes were compelled to exist
without heat. These Heatless Days will long be remem-
bered. Nothing in modern experience had ever happened
like it before and the discomfort experienced by New
Yorkers was something better imagined than described.
After a few cruel Heatless Days the Government added
the last straw by compelling a general shut down of all
activities for a period of ten days. With Heatless and
Workless Days the town shivered and suffered. And it
was astonishing to see with what philosophy and public
spirit this privation was endured. A great volume of
protest was expected but to the credit of New York be
it said that the Government's request was complied with
almost without a murmur.
Added to the heatless and workless days came light-
less nights. The great White Way became a yawning
black chasm. Streets like Fifth Avenue which fairly
blazed with brightness and good cheer by reason of their
myriad electric lights, suddenly became bleak, desolate
and forbidding. The change was a great shock. For
awhile it almost seemed as if we were doomed to live
[ 281 ]
It seemed as if the limit of inconvenience had now been
reached when the Government suddenly decided to ask
certain additional sacrifices, this time in the direction of
another creature comfort — eating.
Not only were we asked to eat less but to abstain
entirely frorh just those things we liked best — nice hot
Parker house rolls, fat juicy steaks, etc., etc.
Nevertheless all these requests were lived up to and
if any one thinks the fighting line never reached New
York, he surely didn't know New York during the winter
of our first year in the great World War.
The reward of this self denial came in the middle of
the present summer when the first great offensive of the
Allies proved successful. But for this sacrifice by all
the people of our country it is now clear that we could
never have prepared the way for the great blow which
fell on the Boche in July.
New York's Water Supply System
The value of the city's entire water works system is $367,000,000
— this includes the Catskills, Croton and Brooklyn water-
The water revenue is approximately $13,455,000.
The Catskill Aqueduct
The Esopus water-shed in the Catskill Mountains is 257 square
miles in area.
The waters of the Esopus water-shed are collected, in the Asho-
The Ashokan Reservoir has a capacity of 128,000 million gallons.
The water of Ashokan is sent by gravity to the five boroughs of
The Catskill Aqueduct is 92 miles in length from the Ashokan
Reservoir to the northern city limits.
The tunnel of the aqueduct at Storm King Mountain is 1,114
feet below sea level.
The aqueduct is known as the City Tunnel from the city limits
through Bronx and Manhattan.
The City Tunnel is 200 to 750 feet below the street surface.
The City Tunnel runs under the East River to Brooklyn.
[ 282 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
There are two terminal shafts of the City Tunnel in Brooklyn.
Steel and iron conduits carry the Catskill water from the ter-
minal shafts in Brooklyn to Queens and Richmond boroughs.
The terminal of the Catskill water system is Silver Lake Reser-
voir, Staten Island.
The Catskill Aqueduct from Ashokan Reservoir to Silver Lake
is 120 miles in length.
The water takes three days to pass through the Aqueduct from
Ashokan to Silver Lake.
The water flows through the Aqueduct at the rate of 1^4 miles
The Kensico Reservoir has a capacity of 29,000 million gallons.
The Kensico Reservoir holds enough water to supply the city
for two months.
Hill View Reservoir in Yonkers holds 900 million gallons.
Hill View Reservoir regulates the flow of water as between the
Aqueduct where it is steady and the city mains where it
varies greatly from hour to hour.
Hill View Reservoir has an elevation of 295 feet and determines
the "head" of the Catskill supply.
The "head" of the Catskill supply is 2j4 times greater than the
The Catskill Aqueduct is circular or horse-shoe on sections with
a maximum height of 17j^ feet.
Its capacity is 500 million gallons daily at the lowest.
There are nineteen waterway shafts to deliver water in Man-
hattan and Bronx.
The Catskill Aqueduct is three times as long as the Panama
Canal, and twice as long as the most famous Roman Aque-
Its construction covered a period of ten years — from June 20,
1907 until January, 1917.
The total length of water mains in Greater New York is 2,955
The mains vary from 4 to 66 inches in diameter.
The mains are controlled by 66,300 gates.
There are 45,100 fire hydrants.
The mains are estimated to last 100 years — they are made of
The cost of laying 8 in. mains is about $6,000 a mile.
Seventeen repair companies, with 675 men employees are re-
quired to keep the mains in condition.
Greater New York consumes 600 million gallons of water daily
— over 100 gallons for each person.
The water-sheds are all patrolled by a uniformed force.
All water is treated with chlorine to destroy bacteria.
Two laboratories are constantly examining samples of the water
taken at eight separate points.
Pumping stations are maintained at 179th Street and Harlem
River and at 98th Street and Columbus Avenue.
In 1880 a private company — the Manhattan Company — sunk a
well at Reade and Centre Streets, and pumped the water into
a reservoir on Chambers Street. The water was distributed
through wooden mains to a part of the community. The
amount supplied was 700,000 gallons a day.
The initial step for public water works was taken in 1830.
The first reservoir was constructed at 13th Street and Broadway
Brooklyn's public water supply system began in 1859.
The Croton Aqueduct was opened in 1842.
The second, or new Croton Aqueduct was opened in 1893.
The first, or old has a capacity of 90 millions of gallons daily.
The second, or new has a capacity of 300 millions of gallons daily.
The water-shed has an area of 375 square miles.
It yields an average of 400 million gallons daily.
Its waters are collected through ten reservoirs, the largest being
The total capacity of these ten reservoirs is 104,400 million gal-
The two Croton (old and new) Aqueducts have a capacity of 390
million gallons daily.
The length of each to the city limits is 24 miles.
The old Croton Aqueduct crosses the Harlem at High Bridge.
The new Croton Aqueduct passes under the Harlem at 180th
Street, 300 feet below the surface of the river.
The Central Park Reservoirs have an elevation of 119 feet.
Wells of a depth of 30 to 100 feet yielded IZ millions of gallons
daily in Brooklyn in 1916.
There are still 400,000 people in Brooklyn dependent on private
water companies. They consume 40 million gallons daily.
The Flatbush Water Works Company and the Blythebourne
Water Company supply these people.
In Queens the Citizens' Water Supply Company and the Urban
Water Company furnish water for the second ward and the
Jamaica Water Supply Company and the Woodhaven Water
Supply Company for the fourth ward and the Queens County
Water Company for the fifth ward.
These companies in time will be embraced in the city's great
There are 49,200 fire hydrants in Greater New York — 4,100 on
the high pressure service.
One high pressure hydrant equals five fire-engines.
The pressure is great enough to reach the top of a 40-story
The length of the high pressure mains in Manhattan is 128 miles
— in Brooklyn 44J/2 miles.
A pressure of 125 pounds per square inch can be maintained, and
may be increased to 300 pounds when necessary.
[ 284 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Early History of Riverdale
Eugene L. Delafield
The first historical mention that we have of the River-
dale section of the city is by Henry Hudson, who speaks
in his diary of the Indians from the heights of Nipinichsen
coming out in their canoes to attack the "Half Moon."
The title history begins with the purchase from the In-
dians by Dr. Adrian Van der Donck, of all that vast tract
bounded approximately, by the Croton River, the Bronx
River, the Harlem River and the Hudson River, and con-
firmed to him by a patent by Governor Kieft in 1645.
After Van der Donck's death, his widow married Hugh
O'Neale, and he and Alias Doughty her brother, divided
the property by an east and west line and transferred the
lower half to William Betts and George Tippett, and the
northerly portion to Thomas Delaval, Frederick Philips
and Thomas Lewis. This latter portion formed part of
the Philipse Patent and Manor of Philipsburgh. This
east and west line the southerly boundary of the manor,
ran from a point on the Albany Post Road, opposite the
parade grounds of Van Cortlandt Park to a point on the
Hudson River some 300 feet south of the Dogwood
brook. The line is even now, in many places well de-
fined, as it was marked by a stone wall of immense
boulders that must have required two yoke of oxen to
move. The property on both sides of this line was again
brought under one ownership by William Hadley by deed
from James Van Cortlandt and by purchase from the
Commissioners of Forfeiture of the Philipse Manor after
the Revolution; the title to most of the property in the
Riverdale section goes back to this William Hadley.
[ 287 ]
When the blue pigeon — now but a memory in the sport-
ing world — were flying, a certain rich man who lived in
New York City would make the long journey (for of
.course there were no motor cars or subways in those
days) out to this enchanting grove and spend a few days
with his friends in a small lodge. He loved that high
ridge carpeted with moss, ground pine and partridge ber-
ries, painted with wild pinks, trilliums and violets, with
its views of the silver flowing Hudson between white
birch trunks or beneath dark pine boughs and obtained
the possession of it, determining to hold its beauty in-
violate — for all time. The city has now burrowed and
pushed its way up to the outer edge of this wild retreat,
but cannot penetrate within ; its dust and noise, its rush
and confusion are held at bay by the will of that man who
insisted upon reserving it as a sanctuary for man as well
as birds, trees and flowers.
Few people know that within the limits of New York
City is a grove lovely as it was before man first discov-
ered it, where dogwoods and every native plant and tree
grow luxuriously in their own chosen way, untrained by
This man's descendants have set aside this grove as a
retreat for men who love the silence, who love to sleep
within the sound of rustling leaves yet who must spend
their days in the thick of Broadway and Wall Street
Ehiring the Revolution this section of the city saw its
share of fighting, for both the Americans and the British
had their forts at Tippett's Hill and on Valentine Hill,
to the easterly, but the central part of Riverdale was a
ground more for the activity of the so-called cow-boys
who found refuge among the trees, hills and rocks of the
[ 288 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
district. Possibly the best known action was when the
Stockbridge Indians after their defeat by Emery's Eng-
Hsh chasseurs, hid themselves on the steep hillsides where
the cavalry could not follow them. Although there was
no well known action of this time, relics of those days
are still quite frequently found, such as small cannon
ball, rifle bullets and a few Indian skeletons besides many
Indian arrow heads, ax heads, etc.
High Cost of
Living During the War of 1812
The following excerpts are from a letter written Oc-
tober 25th, 1813, by a member of the Brick Church to her
sister, and were read by Dr. Albert R. Ledoux in his
address at the 150th Anniversary celebration reviewing
the history of the church, January 10, 1918:
"My Dear Sister :
"The times are very hard. Money almost an impossi-
bility. The necessaries of life are very high. Brown
sugar $25.00 per cwt.. Hyson tea, 17 shillings per lb.
. , . We are obliged to use beans steeped in hot mo-
lasses. Many people are living upon black butter-pears,
apples and quinces stewed together."
* * *
"It is high time that this cruel war was at an end . . .
Many have been made widows and orphans through the
cruel realities of this war. Provisions dear, the neces-
saries of life so high that the poverty in the city is great;
so I think that the money had better be distributed among
them than wasted on tallow, sperm, and candlesticks" ( for
the illuminations in honor of Perry's victories),
[ 289 ]
Isham Park is one of the most beautiful of all the lesser
sized parks of the city and occupies an unparalleled site
on the Hudson, a region noted for its rare beauty and
magnificent views, and it is doubtful if a more desirable
acquisition by the city could have been made. It com-
mands a splendid view across Spuyten Duyvil and up
along the river. The Palisades opposite are also in full
view. On the east the valley of the Harlem stretches
out with University Heights beyond and Fort George
Hill. The park is the gift of Mrs. Julia Isham Taylor
and was presented to the city in 1911, to be called Isham
Park in memory of her father William B. Isham, who
purchased the property in 1864 and used it as a place of
residence till his death in 1909. It is situated west of
Broadway on the crest of the hill between Isham Street
and 214th Street. About a year after Mrs. Taylor pre-
sented the land to the city Miss Flora E. Isham, an-
other daughter of William B. Isham, in order to preserve
the view of Inwood Hill and of the Palisades, purchased
several acres of land contiguous and presented it to the
city as an addition to the park. And now this beautiful
little park is complete and compact in itself and is a real
joy to many New Yorkers who have found its shaded
walks and splendid prospects a constant and continuing
It is still the hope of New Yorkers that the city will
take possession of that superbly beautiful piece of land
known as Inwood Hill comprising about 150 acres of fine
wooded land, and make of it a park for the nature loving
New Yorker. It not only retains most of its original
wooded character which makes it peculiarly attractive for
[ 290 ]
Pottery found in pit at the site of the Van Oi)lienis house, 176th
Street and Ft. Washington Avenue, 1913. Ecstored hv INIr.
R. P. Bolton. Collection of INIr. W. L. Calver.*^
Porcelain found in the vault of the original Lewis Morris mansion,
near Willis Avenue, 1912. Restored hv JMr. R. P.
Bolton. Collection of Mr. W. L. Culver.
OF OLD NEW YORK
a public park, but it also possesses historical interest as
the site of the Cock Hill Fort during the revolution
and shelters interesting archaeological remains of the
aboriginal inhabitants. It is the most commanding hill
on Manhattan Island and would supplement and enhance
the value of beautiful Isham Park.
Old English Pottery
W. L. Calver
The interesting subject of ceramics has many phases.
The study and collection of old chinawares cover a wide
range of periods and materials, but there is an additional
interest to be gained by the association of some particular
class of manufacture or special ware, with a locality such
as New York. Such materials are usually sought in
homes where they may have been preserved, or in stores
where a business is made of their purchase and sale. The
objects gain in value as their associations or record are
more definite, and the assurance of their genuine char-
acter becomes more decided. But complete as that may
be, they are no more valuable than some less perfect ob-
ject, the possession of which can be traced with positive-
ness to some period, that may thus decide its antique
The discovery of such objects in excavations on ancient
sites, whether complete or capable of partial restoration,
lends peculiar value to them. Thus the unearthing of
numerous fragments of wares among the military debris
found in the barrack and camp sites of the War of Inde-
pendence, indicated that the precision with which the
period of their use was thus determined, would make
[ 293 1
them of special value, if enough could be secured to af-
ford the means of comparison with other objects of
A systematic preservation of all scraps, so located, was
therefore followed in explorations made in such places,
and the results have been both successful and instructive.
The wares used, fractured and cast away by the officers
and soldiery of the American, British, and Hessian troops
are found to represent a variety of those utilized in house-
holds of the Colonial period. Some of them were evi-
dently abstracted by the soldiers from abandoned, homes,
being too fragile and expensive for regular camp service,
for which much of the dainty ware was indeed wholly
unsuited. The treasures of the housewives of many a
Colonial residence and farm homestead are doubtless rep-
resented by these fragmentary remains, and could tell
a tale of the raid of Westchester County, or the neglected
homes of the village of Harlem, and abandoned residences
of New York.
A gradual accumulation of materials afforded an educa-
tion in the nature of the wares and designs, and also
sharpened the eyesight, and added to the interest of the
explorers, so that more attention was devoted to pursuit
of the whole of the parts of broken vessels, with the
result that not a few have been secured whole, or nearly
The wares found on these military sites have been
supplemented by a number of objects and fragments
found on the sites of dismantled dwellings on the Heights,
the Bronx, and elsewhere. The age of these materials is
also definable, by the known history of the dwelling, the
date of its original occupation and abandonment.
OF OLD NEW YORK
Sometimes such an old site will yield from its garden
plot, its rubbish hole, or even its cess pits, a variety of
pottery and chinawares, extending over a long period of
time. In the case of the Oblienis farmhouse, built in
1703-4, and burnt during the War of Independence, the
wares discovered, buried around the old site, are limited
in their one-time use to the period of about seventy years
of Colonial life, and gain greatly in definiteness by that
Another farm building having a parallel history, was
that of the Kortright family at Sherman Avenue and
Arden Street, also destroyed in the early years of the
war. Its occupants were poor, and therefore, the broken
household- ware is found to be of much humbler char-
acter than that of their neighbors.
The site of the Lewis Morris Mansion, near Willis
Avenue, Bronx, afforded wares of much more expensive
character, and as they had been cast into a cess-pit, some
of them were remarkably preserved. They included
choice porcelains, china and wedgwood basaltic ware, of
character and period later than the Revolution, as the
occupation of the house continued into the nineteenth
In this way the history of a dwelling-place is associated
with and confirmed by the ceramic materials of its occu-
pancy, and the waste and broken vessels assume an in-
terest and acquire a definite antiquity.
The pleasure and interest of china collection is en-
hanced by the circumstances of discovery in such out-of-
the-way places as a soldiers' dug-out, a camp kitchen-
midden, or an ancient well or waste pit. The fractured
ware may not have the intrinsic value of a complete
piece, but it has a history all its own, and in a restored
[ 295 ]
state is equally as valuable as a demonstration of form,
color and material. To the joy of possession is added
the pleasure of restoration, often involving much patience
and labor, but resulting in an artistic production that be-
speaks the interest of the observer and the collector. It
is observable that such restored objects are very attractive
of the attention of visitors in the museums in which they
have been placed. The evidence thus given of the value
placed upon the fragments appeals to the imagination in
a way that a complete object would fail to do.
The wares found around camp sites and old dwellings
of the Colonial period, comprise :
(1) Hard paste white porcelain of Chinese or Japanese manu-
facture and decoration.
(2) Dutch and English Delft-ware, in soft paste pottery,
over-glazed and decorated to imitate the Chinese porce-
(3) Stoneware, glazed with lead, Flemish, German and Eng-
lish, and some of pater period, glazed with salt.
(4) Slip-decorated pottery, English and American, including
(5) Opaque red and black hard paste pottery, unglazed and
(6) Salt-glaze ware, of white and cream clays, including
"scratched blue" decorations.
(7) "Tortoise-shell" earthenware, or decorated pottery.
Agate-ware or marbled clays.
(8) Cream-ware, of clay with flint admixture, also "Cauli-
flower" ware, colored by stains of green and yellow.
Most of the foregoing are English manufactures or
processes, and all of them antedated the development of
modern porcelain ware.
The latest form of ceramic art, at the time of the War
of Independence, was the cream-ware, which Astbury's
invention of the use of flint as a binder, rendered pos-
[ 296 ]
Qlljarl^s % HaraljaU 1B45
One of the later day ships of the
famous Black Ball line, the pioneer of
all packet ships to Liverpool. Estab-
lished in 1816 by Benjamin Marshall,
this line grew in number and im-
portance of ships till its Black Ball on
the foresails was known the world
over. The first ships were only of
300 or 400 tons register but became
larger as trade increased.
For years the Black Ball line main-
tained its supremacy in the packet
trade and its ships were found in all
the ports of the civilized world. It
was perhaps the best known line sail-
ing from New York. — Collection of
Mrs. C. H. Marshall.
OF OLD NEW YORK
Study of these processes, and of the products of old
time potters, as represented by the examples discovered
in our city, is now made possible by the accumulation and
comparison of specimens, the result of the past ten years
of exploration, in the Jumel Mansion, the Dyckman
house, and the Lorillard Mansion collections, formed by
of the American Museum of Natural History
One of the institutions of New York which is becom-
ing daily a more popular resort for the New Yorker is
the American Museum of Natural History. Visitors to
the city flock to this most interesting place in ever-increas-
ing numbers, which shows that its fame has spread abroad
and that its wonderful collection of rare and interesting
objects has a value and influence extending far beyond
the city itself. While many people go there simply to
spend an hour or two pleasantly, they never come away
without feeling that the time has been well spent.
Could anyone, for instance, view the exhibit which illus-
trates the habits and habitats of every species and variety
of birds without feeling a broadening of his mental hori-
zon which is well worth his while to acquire? Or is
there any child or young person who would not be per-
fectly fascinated to see these beautiful denizens of the
air, just as they are in real life with their brood of little
ones about them, and their carefully built and guarded
little homes just as they appear far up in the tree tops,
or snugly tucked away in rocky crevasses, or hidden in
the tall thick grasses of the field? There is also the
[ 301 ]
realistic representation of Indian life which has a special
and peculiar interest. Here is the tent or adobe house
with the totem pole in front, and the chief sitting at the
entrance on a rude bench smoking his famous pipe of
peace. His wife with her papoose strapped to her back
is lumbering toward the hut with a load of some kind,
gathered from the field, and the youngsters just like chil-
dren everywhere romping and jumping about the door.
A section of the Museum that attracts the curious on
the one hand and the studious on the other, is the collec-
tion of manlike animals of which there are specimens
of every kind. Some of them are so much like ourselves
that it gives one good cause to think, or wonder, or laugh
according to his humor. How often we have seen old
men in the country leaning on their sticks and looking up,
just like one of those anthropoids in the case. Is the use
of the stick any proof of our lineage from these mar-
vellously human looking animals? The great collection
of woods and minerals have an interest and an educational
value for everyone. But perhaps a department which
appeals to our wonder and imagination more than these
is the marvellous specimens of animal life of pre-historic
ages, which have been built up by the wonderful genius
of man from fossil remains found in various parts of the
world. It is something to be able to look at these huge
animals, which lived perhaps a million years ago, as for
instance the Dinosaur, even though they are only made up
by the art of man. The Museum is managed by a body
of public-spirited men who are alive to every means of
increasing its usefulness. Architecturally it is one of the
fine buildings of New York.
[ 302 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
A Few Salient Features of
the Metropolitan Museum of Art
When one views the magnificent buildings of this great
institution and considers their extent as well as their
architectural beauty and significance, together with the
priceless collection of objects within, one is amazed to
learn that only forty-seven years ago the institution was
organized and the first officers elected. There was no
building, not even a site, no collections as a nucleus, only
a small body of officers with the clearly defined purpose of
creating a museum of art and the will to accomplish it.
How well the purpose was conceived and carried to its
present point of development is attested by the size and
beauty of the buildings as we see them to-day. There
are no great buildings in our city more artistically de-
signed and none that add more to the architectural en-
chancement of New York.
But it is of course the interior which makes the Mu-
seum of priceless value to the people and a tour through
the various departments is a liberal education. The col-
lection of sculptures includes examples of ancient and
modern art, and where it has been possible replicas of the
most famous works have been procured. Paintings of
the modern schools fill several rooms, whole collections
having been bequeathed to the Museum by collectors.
Many examples of the most famous French painters are
to be seen in the Wolfe collection. And the recent gift
of Mr. Altman contains some of the most famous paint-
ings of the Dutch and Flemish schools. The old masters
are also represented.
It is perhaps the section containing reproductions of
ancient architecture which attracts the greatest number
[ 303 ]
of people. Those are made in quite a large size, some
of the models being almost like little houses. These are
intensely interesting and have the rather pleasing effect
of transporting you back to the days of ancient Greece,
when the youths and maidens used to loiter in the beauti-
ful gardens of their homes and listen to the recitals of
Homer's tales or the story of the brave deeds of Theseus.
Here you can see the Parthenon and other edifices as they
were in the hey-day of their glory. There are also rep-
licas of many famous buildings still extant. The room
of antiquities and the collection of Egyptian relics are
greatly interesting, revealing many phases of life in the
long long ago. The site of the Museum was excellently
chosen, facing Fifth Avenue and within the Park, where
no other structures can interpose to destroy the view.
The city is proud of this institution. Its work is of the
highest practical value, and the officers are deservedly
held in high esteem.
[ 304 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
New York City's War Activities
'ARLY in the morning of April 6th, 1917—3:12
A. M. — the Senate of the United States passed
the resolution that a state of war existed between
the United States and the Imperial German Government.
The House of Representatives took similar action as soon
as the resolution was received from the Senate. This
ioint resolution was signed by the President at 1 :11 P. M.
The same afternoon the President issued the proclama-
tion to the American people announcing the existence of
a state of war. The Secretary of the Navy signed the
order to mobilize the navy and the Secretary of War
conferred with the House Military Committee in regard
to army plans. Thus we formally entered Armageddon.
Our declaration of war was made on Good Friday —
the most sacred and solemn day in Christian chronology
— a coincidence which many good people think augurs
well for our cause. Far-seeing statesmen believe that it
is the most momentous event in the history of the United
States and marks the beginning of a new time for the
entire world. The task we have undertaken in conjunc-
tion with our brave Allies is not alone the defeat of the
Central Powers, but also the liberation of many nation-
alities and the creation of several new and independent
States. This is to be done without any aggrandizement to
ourselves. We shall pay the price in lives and treasure
without reimbursement in any form. This is a new prin-
ciple in international relations, and indicates that the fu-
ture place of the United States may be that of molder
and director of world politics and policies. The poets'
dream that some time the world would be controlled by
peaceful influences and love of right and justice is coming
[ 307 ]
near of realization, and we who live in this wonderful
though sorrowing age may see the first gleams t>f this
beneficent and all-pervading power through the inter-
mediary of our own country.
President Wilson is the incarnation of this spirit and
is recognized all over the world as such. He has formu-
lated and expressed in most clear and forceful phrases
what was in the heart of the American people and for
which they have willingly pledged their all.
We are putting in chronological form the events and
activities of New York City in its relation to the great
World War, as a record not only for our present readers
but also for those who are to come. We begin from
April 6th, 1917 — the date of the declaration of war:
April 7 — 27 German ships were seized in the harbor of New York
— 91 in all in the country.
April 7 — 19 German spies were arrested.
April 20 — The great "Wake Up, America I" parade on Fifth Ave-
nue took place ; 60,000 people paraded — men, women, and
April 21 — Announcement was made that Great Britain's War
Commission had arrived, but at what port is not named.
April 24 — The French War Commission was announced as hav-
ing arrived in America.
May 5 — The Home Defense League, 8,500 strong, paraded down
Fifth Avenue, preceded by the Honor Regiment of the
Police Department. Sixteen regiments took part. They were
reviewed by the Mayor and officers of the Army.
May 9 — Marshall Joflfre, M. Rene Viviana, and the other members
of the French War Commission arrived from Washington at
the Battery, Pier A, accompanied by Mr. Joseph H. Choate
and the committee appointed by the Maj-or to welcome them.
They proceeded by Battery Place and Broadway to the City
Hall, where Mayor Mitchell received them in the Governor's
Room, assisted by General Wood, General Bell and Admiral
Usher and the civilian members of the Mayor's committee.
On leaving the City Hall, they proceeded up Broadway and
Fifth Avenue through cheering crowds to the residence of
Mr. Henry Qay Frick at Fifth Avenue and Seventieth
[ 308 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
May 10 — Henry P. Davison, of the firm of J. P. Morgan &
Co., was appointed chairman of the Red Cross War Council
by President Wilson.
Presentation was made of a golden miniature of the Statue
of Liberty to Marshall Joffre in the North Meadow of Cen-
tral Park, 60,000 people participating.
The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on
Marshall Joffre, M. Viviana, Lord Cunliff and by proxy on
Mr. A. J. Balfour by President Nicholas Murray Butler at
Marshall Joffre visited Brooklyn and unveiled the statue
of Lafayette in Prospect Park. He lunched with the Mer-
chants' Association. He visited Grant's Tomb and placed a
wreath upon it, and then attended a brief ceremony at the
Jeanne d'Arc statue.
In the evening the "Joffre Cheque" was presented to the
Marshall at the Metropolitan Opera House. The cheque was
for $100,000, to be used for the Commission of Relief in
Belgium and the Society for Relief of French War Orphans.
Marshall Joffre and AL Viviana received cordial greetings of
their own people at the reception in the Public Library, just
previous to the Metropolitan Opera House event.
May 11 — Right Hon. Arthur J. Balfour and the other members
of the British War Commission arrived from Washington at
the Battery, Pier A, and proceeded up Broadway, which was
lined on both sides with enthusiastic, cheering crowds, to the
City Hall. Troops E and F, First Cavalry, and a number of
mounted policemen escorted them. Mayor Mitchell received
them at the head of the steps and escorted them to the
Aldermanic Chamber, where Mr. Balfour took his place in
the centre of the dais. The Mayor made an eloquent speech
of welcome from the floor, and Mr. Balfour replied in
words which convinced his hearers of the warm feelingsof
friendship he had for this country and his deep appreciation
of the enthusiastic reception the Commission had received.
Mr. Choate, head of the welcoming committee, then led the
party to the waiting automobiles, which proceeded through
great crowds of enthusiastic spectators, waving flags and
cheering as they passed, up Center Street to Broadway and
Fifth Avenue to the residence of Mr. Vincent Astor at Fifth
Avenue and Sixty-fifth Street.
In the evening a great banquet was given by the Mayor's
committee at the Waldorf-Astoria to the French and British
War Commissions. Mayor Mitchell spoke for America, Mr.
Balfour for Great Britain, M. Viviana for France, and Mr.
Joseph H. Choate for the citizenry of New York. Ex-Presi-
dwit Roosevelt and ex-President Taft were present.
May 12— Mr. A. J. Balfour addressed the Chamber of Commerce
in the Assembly Room of the Chamber at noon, and spoke of
[ 309 ]
the dream of his life, which had now been realized, that the 5
two "English-speaking, freedom-loving branches of the hu-
man race" might be drawn closer together and past differ-
ences seen in their true proportions. The guests included the
members of the British Commission, Mayor Mitchell, Mr.
Joseph H. Choate, Military and Naval officers, and a host of
representative New Yorkers, crowding the Assembly Room
to its capacity. Mr. E. H. Outerbridge, president of the
May 13 — Mr. A. J. Balfour visited Col. E. M. House and after-
ward motored to Oyster Bay to see Colonel Roosevelt.
May 14 — Joseph H. Choate, head of the Mayor's committee to
welcome the War Commissions, died suddenly at the age of
May 15 — Elihu Root was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary
of the United States on special mission.
May 21 — Captain Franz von Rintelen was convicted of conspir-
acy in the Federal District Court.
May 22 — Mayor Mitchell named the War Draft Boards — a Cen-
tral Board of Control and five subordinate boards, one for
June 1 — The first arrests for violation of the Selective Draft Act
were made. Five men were arrested.
June 4 — First Liberty Loan campaign commenced, to last one
week; $2,000,000,000 to be raised; New York's quota, $600,-
June S — Registration day for all males born between the 6th day
of June, 1886, and the 5th day of June, 1896, citizens and
June 11 — State Military Census began. Every man and woman
between the ages of 16 and 50 were registered.
Cleveland H. Dodge contributed $1,000,000 to the Red
June 18— Red Cross Fund campaign for $100,000,000 began ; New
York's quota, $40,000,000.
June 21 — The Italian War Commission arrived from Washington
at the Battery, Pier A. headed by the Prince of Udine. The
Commission was received by >ficholas Murray Butler and
Lloyd C. Griscom, former Ambassador to Italy, and the other
members of the Mayor's Committee. They proceeded by
way of Battery Place and Broadway to the City Hall, where
they were received by the Mayor and Senator Marconi.
June 22— The Merchants' Association entertained the Italian War
Commission at luncheon. Many prominent business men
In the evening a dinner was given at the Waldorf-Astoria
by the Mayor. Nearly a thousand representative citizens
Whtra tliey are now prep;
Opposite the Crystal Palace^
E. GREENFIELD & CO.
Would gi^e notice to the public that thoy liave fitted up tire
second floor of the
AS A LADIES'
Ic6 CiGam & RBfreshment
; Wie-s a.iJ gentlei
BREAKFAST, DINNER AND TEA,
Kw\ ixW th« variuua kinds of refreshmentd of Uie best tlie market aflorda.
Private Parties served oa the shortest notice.
N. B. — 'this it the largest and beat ventilated Saloon in the city."ei-
tending from 42d to 43d fltreets, 200 feet in depth.
ENTRANCE ON 42d STREET.
E. GREENFIELD & CO.
Vfrii Vorli: July 121*. 1853.
cr, Ooilwin it Cc. Printers Tribune BurHrnji 1 3pniM StreiH, Nw^^Yajt
Latting Observatory, north side of 42nd Street, opposite Crystal
Palace, 1855. Interesting old hand bill of the period.
The bird's-eye view of New York by Hill, shown in
our supplement, was made from this tower.
OF OLD NEW YORK
June 23 — Announcement was made that New York City sub-
scribed the total of $1,186,788,400 for the First Liberty Loan,
being $586,788,400 over her quota. The total for the coun-
try was $3,035,226,850, being $1,035,226,850 oversubscribed.
June 27 — The Red Cross Campaign closed with the full amount
subscribed— $100,000,000, New York's quota being well over-
July 3 — New York City's registration in the State Miliary Census
reached the total of 3,100,000 persons, not including New
Yorkers who were out of the city. These were estimated at
July 4^The most serious celebration of Independence Day in
half a century. No exultation or festivity was shown. Meet-
ings were held in all parts of the city, making appeal to the
patriotic sentiments of the people. Mayor Mitchell ad-
dressed a large assemblage at the City Hall.
July 5 — A test mobilization of the Home Defense League was
made. Of Class A, comprising 16,000 men, 8,258 reported
ready for duty in four hours. Qass B, numbering 5,000,
comprising special organizations of employees of large mer-
cantile concerns ; and another class of 4,000 assigned to cleri-
cal work on account of physical disabilities were later. The
League numbers 25,000 members.
July 6 — The city welcomed Russia's War Commission, headed by
Ambassador Boris A. Bakhmetieff. The Commission was
entertained at dinner at the Ritz-Carlton. Mayor Mitchell
July 7 — A great meeting was held at the Madison Square Garden
to honor the Russian Mission ; 12,000 persons were present.
July 9 — The Socialist Party gave evidence of disruption. The
Phelps-Stokes' resigned, following the example of John
Spargo and other leading members.
July 14 — Orders for the mobilization of the entire National
Guard of New York were received by Gen. John F. O'Ryan.
July 16 — The Canadian Highlanders, 200 strong, arrived and re-
ceived an enthusiastic welcome.
July 24 — The Local Exemption Boards, numbering 189, began
July 25 — The Independent War Relief Organizations announced
their willingness to become auxiliaries of the American Red
July 27 — Sixty Dutch ships were refused export licenses by the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, most of them
in the port of New York.
July 30 — The first men to appear for examination as to fitness
for service in the First National Army reported at Board 145,
which met in the main building of the College of the City of
Aug. 7 — Number of persons in the city between 16 and 50 years
of age registered in the State Military Census was 3,277,366.
Number of male citizens between 18 and 45 years of age
eligible for service in the State Militia was 798,005. Alien
males between 16 and 50 was 443,545.
Aug. 11 — Board of Appeals for drafted men met in the Federal
Building and organized for work.
Aug. 14 — The Twenty-third Infantry, formerly the 23rd N. G.
S. N. Y., of Brooklyn, pitched their tents in Van Cortlandt
Park preparatory to going to Camp Wadsworth, Spartan-
burg, S. C.
Aug. 15 — Elihu Root and his colleagues of the Special Mission to
Russia were welcomed home by the city.
Aug. 20— The 165th Infantry Regiment, formerly the "Fighting
Sixty-ninth," N. G. S. N. Y., started for Camp Mills, Mineola.
Aug. 21 — The Belgian Commission, headed by Baron Moncheur,
was received in the Aldermanic Chamber by Mayor Mitchell
and the chairman of the Committee of Welcome, Mr. Fred-
eric R. Coudert.
Aug. 23 — Baron Moncheur and members of the Belgian Mission
reviewed the 7th Regiment on South Field, Central Park.
Aug. 28 — President Wilson's reply to the Pope was published.
Aug. 30 — Great parade of New York troops. The 27th Division
of the United States Army, comprising 25,000 men, marched
down Fifth Avenue from 110th Street to Washington Square.
About 2,000,000 people crowded the sidewalks to bid them
Sept. 1 — The city's army quota of 38,572 men was filled.
Sept. 4 — National Army Day. Great parade of drafted men,
about 20,000, marched down Fifth Avenue. In Brooklyn
about 8,000 marched.
Sept. 6— Lafayette Day. Exercises were held at Lafayette Monu-
ment, Union Square.
Sept. 7 — Soap box rioters were sent to prison.
Sept. 10 — New York's first contingent for the National Army
left for Camp Upton.
Sept. 11 — The 7th Regiment paraded down Fifth Avenue on their
way to Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S. C.
Sept. 27 — The Imperial Japanese Commission arrived and were
enthusiastically welcomed. Viscount Ishii headed the Com-
mission. Two troops of Squadron A escorted the Commis-
sion from the Battery to the City Hall, where they were
received by the Mayor.
Oct. 1— The Second Liberty Loan campaign opened. Soon after
midnight church bells were rung in all parts of the city.
The bonds salesmen marched from Wall Street to the City
Hall, where a great assemblage was gathered. Mayor
Mitchell, Allen B. Forbes and Mortimer L. Schiff made
OF OLD NEW YORK
Oct. 4 — A great parade of the Red Cross War Nurses on Fifth
Avenue. The most picturesque spectacle seen in New York
during these war times. The paraders were all dressed in
white, while occasional units wore the Red Cross navy blue
coats with red lining. The War Council headed the proces-
sion, with the chairman, H. P. Davison, leading. Fifth Ave-
nue was ablaze with red crosses, and banners fluttered every-
where. The flags of the Allies were conspicuous all along
Oct. 24 — The President proclaimed this day as Liberty Day, but
on account of the weather it was postponed to the 25th.
About 20,000 persons marched up Fifth Avenue from Wash-
ington Square with flags and banners and various devices,
many of them having strikingly clever and interesting mottos.
Almost all trades were represented. The big British tank
Britannia caterpillared all the way up to the Sheep Meadow
in Central Park to the great amusement of the onlookers.
The Liberty Loan Committee, comprising many business men
of the city, among them Benjamin Strong, governor of the
Federal Reserve Bank, J. P. Morgan, Jacob Schifif and other
well-known men, marched in the procession.
Oct. 27 — The Second Liberty Loan campaign ended with the
city's quota of $900,000,000 greatly oversubscribed. The en-
tire amount for the country, namely, $3,000,000,000, was also
well oversubscribed. There were several large single sub-
scriptions, the greatest being that of J. P. Morgan & Co. for
Nov. 1 — The new War Taxes became effective for the first time.
Nov. 3 — A statue to commemorate the victory of the Marne, to
be presented to France, was decided upon by a committee of
representative citizens, Thomas W. Lamont, chairman. Fred-
eric MacMonnies was commissioned to do the work.
Nov. 8 — Complete figures for the Second Liberty Loan were an-
nounced as follows : The city subscribed $1,550,453,450 as
against its quota of $900,000,000. Total for the country,
$4,617,532,300, or $1,617,532,300 oversubscribed. Number of
persons subscribing, 9,500,000.
Nov. 8 — The Hamburg-American Line Building, 45 Broadway,
Nov. 9 — Broadway lights were ordered to be out hereafter by
11 P. M.
Nov. 13 — Work on the Cathedral of St. John the Divine was
stopped until the end of the war.
Nov. 20 — The city's subscriptions to the Y. M. C. A. War Fund
of $35,000,000 was $10,518,592. Total for the country, $49,-
209,411. Amount asked, $35,000,000.
Nov. 24 — Orders to place New York's piers under military guard
Nov. 27 — Thanksgiving Day. Citizens welcomed men from the
Army and Navy to their homes for Thanksgiving dinner.
They were also feted in clubs, hotels, and restaurants. The
entertaining of these men was general and most generous in
every quarter of the city.
Nov. 28— Enemy insurance companies were prohibited from doing
Dec. 3 — ^Jewish War Relief Fund campaign for $5,000,000 opened.
Dec. 5 — City papers published President Wilson's address to
Congress calling for war with Austria.
Dec. 7 — President Wilson signed the Resolution passed by Con-
gress declaring that a state of war existed between the
United States and Austria-Hungary.
Dec. 10— First news received of the capture of Jerusalem by the
Dec. 14 — Coal shortage becomes acute.
Dec. 15 — New draft rules go into effect.
Dec. 16 — The Red Cross campaign for 500,000 new members
Dec. 30 — Coldest day on record — 13 below zero. All war activi-
ties hampered and shipping suspended.
Jan. 1 — The Bush Terminal Buildings in Brooklyn were requisi-
tioned by the Government.
Jan. 3 — Seventy-five schools were closed for lack of coal.
Jan. 4 — War activities absorb labor so that railroads have to
eliminate parlor cars.
Jan. 6 — Passenger trains were cut one-fifth.
Jan. 7 — Liberty Week was declared by labor organizations.
Jan. 12 — Railroad traffic was completely tied up everywhere by a
great blizzard and extreme cold, and all war activities were
Jan. 14 — Crippled railroad service and coal shortage compelled
the Director General of Railroads to issue orders for the
movement of food and coal to New York City to avert a
Jan. 16 — The Fuel Administrator ordered the suspension of all
businesses consuming coal for one week. Also that no fuel
should be used on Mondays from Jan. 21st till March 25th —
otherwise heatless Mondays.
Jan. 21 — Only food and drug stores were open — no heat or light.
Jan. 23 — Ships which were unable to sail on account of want of
coal were supplied with sufficient to send them on their way
Jan. 22 — Not a theater or place of amusement was opened and
Broadway was dark.
[ 316 1
Broadway below Trinity Church. Replacing of the old cable with
the underground trolley. (1900.)
OF OLD NEW YORK
Jan. 26 — All one-cent newspapers were advanced to two cents.
Feb. 1 — Regional Director of Railroads Smith reported that
"coal is still frozen in cars and heavy drift ice prevents
Feb. 2 — Fifteen hundred soldiers' wives applied for work at the
U. S. Employment Service office.
Feb. 4 — The Merchants' Association asked the War Department
for troops to guard ship construction plants.
Feb. 5 — Parade of the 308th Infantry on Fifth Avenue.
Feb. 16 — The Food Board appointed committees to promote the
City Garden Movement for the increase of food.
Feb. 2(>— The reorganization of the Home Defense League into
regiments to assist the police was begun.
Feb. 22 — Great parade of the city's Selective Draft soldiers on
Fifth Avenue took place; 10,000 men were in the procession.
The capture of Jericho by the British created great interest.
March 1 — The Archbishop of York arrived in response to the
invitation of the War Commission of the Protestant Episco-
pal Church, seconded by Ambassador Page.
March 9 — Fifty-seven restaurant men were punished for violat-
ing meatless days.
March 11 — Plans were made for another Red Cross Fund of
$100,000,000 at a meeting in the library of J. P. Morgan, 33
East Thirty-sixth Street.
March 12 — The First Regular Naval Reserves from Pelham Bay
marched down Fifth Avenue.
March 18 — All Dutch vessels in New York harbor were comman-
March 26 — The Catholic War Fund drive for the Knights of
Columbus ended with over $4,000,000 contributed.
March 27 — The German Club was seized by the government.
March 28— $20,000 was raised at the Strand Theater by Miss
Anne Morgan for the Committee on Rebuilding Devastated
March 29 — All preparations were completed for floating the
Third Liberty Loan.
March 31 — Easter Sunday. The church throngs on Fifth Ave-
nue were marked by simplicity in dress, and every third or
fourth man was in uniform.
April 6 — The Third Liberty Loan opened. New York City's
quota, $667,125,300; New York Federal Reserve District,
April 6— The anniversary of the declaration of war. The Presi-
dent made his famous "force to the utmost" speech at Balti-
April 11 — The Director General of Railroads took control of all
coastwise steamship lines.
April 16 — Charles M. Schwab was placed in full control of ship-
April 20 — First parade of the new State National Guard on
Fifth Avenue, Gen. George R. Dyer, Commander.
April 26 — Great "Win the War" parade on Fifth Avenue. Fifty
mayors were in the procession besides Naval Reserves, Po-
lice Divisions, Wall Street bankers, representative business
men, employees of all industries and a great representation
of the mothers of soldiers.
April 30 — The "Blue Devils" of France — every one a wearer of
the French War Cross — arrived and were received at the
May 6— The Salvation Army opened a campaign for $250,000 for
May 7 — President Wilson issued a proclamation appealing on be-
half of the Red Cross Fund for $100,000,000, and fixing the
week of May 20th as Red Cross Week. New York City's
May 15 — First airplane mail service in the world was inaugurated
between New York and Washington.
May 18 — Red Cross Parade — the most dramatic spectacle ever
witnessed in the city. President Wilson unexpectedly headed
the procession and created immense enthusiasm. John D.
Rockefeller, Jr., headed the bankers and brokers' division.
May 18 — President Wilson made a stirring appeal for general
support for the Red Cross War Fund at the Metropolitan
Opera House. A great audience was inside the building and
an enormous concourse of people kept moving about on the
outside trying to get in.
May 23 — The final figures for the Third Liberty Loan were given
out. New York City subscribed $773,641,850 — oversubscribed
$106,516,300. New York Federal Reserve District, $1,114,930,-
700— oversubscribed $214,930,700.
June 3 — The Herbert L. Pratt was sunk by a submarine.
The American Red Cross Mercy Fund totaled $166,439,291.
The city's quota was oversubscribed $8,455,764, totalling
June 4 — The port of New York was closed to shipping by order
of the government on account of submarines.
June 14 — Flag Day was celebrated by local parades and meetings
in school buildings. The Sons of the Revolution met on the
steps of the Sub-Treasury Building and sang "The Star-
Spangled Banner." A great throng of bankers and brokers
took part and Wall Street was crowded.
June 15 — The city's Income Tax was estimated to net $700,-
June 21 — President Wilson proclaimed the day as National War
Savings Day. New York's quota, $100,000,000. The whole
country, $2,000,000,000. Noon-day rallies were held at the
Public Lilarary Building, Fifth Avenue.
[ 320 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
June 27 — Italian Festa was held on the terrace of the Public
Library for the benefit of blinded soldiers.
June 29— New York City troops — the 77th Division, trained by
Maj.-Gen. J. Franklin Bell and commanded by Maj.-Gen.
Evan Johnston took over a sector of the front in France —
the first of the National Army to have this honor.
The War Savings Stamp campaign ended with New York's
quota of 2,000,000 regular weekly purchasers registered, as-
suring the United States Treasury $1,000,000 weekly to the
end of the year.
July 4 — Independence Day was celebrated by a great parade of
over 100,000 persons, comprising 42 nationalities. The city
was gay with flags and bunting, and the streets thronged with
enthusiastic crowds. The bells of old St. Paul's in London
rang out simultaneously with those of old St. Paul's in New
York. Seven countries officially named July 4 as a national
festival for all time. President Wilson's speech at the Tomb
of Washington was published in the afternoon and eagerly
read by the people.
July 5 — Lieut. Commander Bruce R. Ware, who fired the first
shot of the war, April 19, 1917, was presented a bronze medal
at the Yale Club by the American Defence Society.
July 6 — ^John Purroy Mitchell, former mayor of the city, was
killed by falling from his airplane at Gerstner's Field, Lake
Charles, La. He was a major in the service of the United
July 8 — Dr. Edward A. Rumely, publisher of the Evening Mail,
July 11 — The military funeral of former Mayor Mitchell took
place. The cortege made its slow progress from the City
Hall to St. Patrick's Cathedral, while flowers were dropped
from airplanes all along the way. The body was taken to
Woodlawn and buried with military honors.
July 14 — Bastile Day was celebrated by a great meeting at Madi-
son Square Garden, attended by representative men, and at
the Statue of Joan of Arc, where the committee, headed by
J. Sanford Saltus and George F. Kunz and a great concourse
of people were addressed by the French Ambassador.
July 14 — Lieut. Quentin Roosevelt was killed in action in an
July 28 — The old 69th (now the 165th Infantry) were the first
to cross the Ourcq River in the pursuit of the Germans in
their precipitate retreat from the Marne.
Aug. 3 — A number of brigadier generals were ordered back from
France for the purpose of instructing new units of the U. S.
Army. Among them was Brig.-Gen. Cornelius Vanderbilt.
Aug. 4 — Remembrance Day — anniversary of Great Britain's en-
trance into the war. It was generally observed by all na-
Aug. 7 — Quentin Roosevelt's grave was found at the edge of a
wood near Chamery, east of Fere-en-Tardenois. On a
wooden cross at the head of the grave is this inscription:
"Lieutenant Quentin Roosevelt, Buried by the Germans."
Long lists of the heroes fallen in the Second Battle of the
Marne were published, including New York and Brooklyn
The day was the hottest in the history of the city — 102
degrees in the shade.
Growth and Work of the Municipal Art
John Quincy Adams
When the Art Commission was established by the first
Greater New York Charter it was practically a new de-
parture in municipal government in the United States.
Although Connecticut had organized a State Capitol Com-
mission, Boston had made provision for an Art Com-
mission in 1890, and Baltimore in 1895, these last two
were only in the experimental stage, not yet having been
accepted as integral parts of the city government. Con-
sequently, there was no data by which to judge of the
effect and efficiency of such a body. True, there were
the examples of nearly all large European cities which
had departments to pass on the artistic quality of designs
of monuments and buildings. For years they had con-
sidered such a department as a necessary branch of gov-
ernment and upon the recommendation largely of Mr.
John M. Carrere the present Commission was established.
During the first four years the Art Commission had
very little regular work.
While to-day its work is esteemed not only in our own
city but highly appreciated throughout the country, in its
early years it was regarded with distrust. The general
I 322 ]
N^m i|ampBl|tr? 1B45
One of the early Liverpool packets,
contemporaneous with the Black Ball
and other lines (1830-50). A beauti-
ful ship and for a long time one of
the noted square rigged beauties of
South Street. She belonged to a line
whose ships were all named after the
Afterwards in the California and
Australian trade. Her sister ship, the
Louisiana, commanded by Capt. Icha-
bod Sherman, is well remembered.
OF OLD NEW YORK
public supposed it to be composed of men with their
heads in the clouds, far removed from practical affairs.
The press usually referred to it in a gay and light-hearted
manner as "The Beauty Commission." A prominent
city officer recently said, in speaking of the value of its
work and of the position it now holds: "Why, in the
beginning the Art Commission was looked upon as a
joke." Being an innovation in municipal government,
without precedents, supposedly composed of impractical
dilettante, it was naturally expected to set up ideal and
impossible standards and to be exacting on unimportant
details. The small number of matters which came be-
fore it during these years was not sufficient evidence to
change preconceived notions as to its character. Al-
though the Commission had but little work, was without
any clerical staff, and had only peripatetic meeting places,
nevertheless it cheerfully accepted its full responsibilities
and conscientiously performed the duties imposed upon it
by the City Charter. This charter, in constituting the
Commission, provided that when a structure is under the
special jurisdiction of a commissioner or a department of
the City, such commissioner or head of department shall
be a member of the Art Commission during the consider-
ation of the designs.
This provision was an important factor in establishing
confidence in the Commission among City officers. Be-
ginning in 1902, when it was settled in offices in the City
Hall, and the Mayor began to request it to pass on the de-
signs for many public structures, opportunities were con-
tinually offered for heads of departments to attend the
meetings of the Commission, and they availed themselves
of these occasions in constantly increasing numbers.
These meetings together soon made it plain to City officers
[ 327 ]
that the Art Commission was not an obstructionist. It
was evident that it did not expect nor attempt to secure
masterpieces and that its requirements were not based
solely on ideal and artistic qualities, but that it always
took into account the practical questions involved. More-
over, it was soon seen that what the Commission did ac-
complish was to prevent the erection of the ugly and un-
suitable, and in each case to secure the best possible struc-
ture under the circumstances. Even when their designs
were disapproved, they perceived that it was not an arbi-
trary and perfunctory judgment, but that good reasons
were given for the adverse decision. Moreover, it was
a pleasant surprise for them to find that for utilitarian
structures the simple, dignified and well-proportioned
buildings desired by the Commission not only were more
attractive, but cost less than they would have if built ac-
cording to the more ornate designs at first proposed. Con-
sequently, the aim of the City officers responsible for the
buildings and of the Art Commission was the same,
which was to get the best possible for the funds avail-
able. In all of this work heads of departments soon
learned that they could always depend upon a cordial
spirit of cooperation from the Commission. Perhaps the
best testimonial to the discretion and wisdom shown in
the exercise of its powers was an amendment to the
Charter, which went into effect on January 1, 1902, ex-
tending the jurisdiction of the Commission to the de-
signs of all structures which were to cost one million
dollars or more. Additional evidence of the growing con-
fidence in the value of the Art Commission's work was
shown by the Mayor, who requested the Commission to
pass upon the designs of no less than 36 structures during
the year 1902.
[ 328 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
While the Commission passed upon only 5 matters in
1901, in 1902 the number rose to 64, so that in the fifth
year the number of matters was nearly three times as
many as had been submitted during the first four years,
the aggregate of which was only twenty-three.
During the year 1903 the Commission passed upon 117
matters submitted to it — nearly double the number of the
previous year. The number of submissions continued to
An amendment to the Charter, which went into effect
in July, 1907, extended the mandatory jurisdiction of the
Art Commission to the designs and locations of all struc-
tures, public or private, which were to be built over or
upon land belonging to the City, except that in case of
any such structure which shall hereafter be erected or
contracted for at a total expense not exceeding $250,000
the approval of said Commission shall not be required,
if the Mayor or Board of Aldermen shall request said
Commission not to act.* This was in no sense an aca-
demic innovation, as it merely embodied a common prac-
tice into law. For it has become an established custom
for the Mayor to request the Art Commission to pass
upon the designs for nearly all public structures.
The number of submissions does not tell the whole
story of the growth of the Commission's work. Experi-
ence led to many improvements in procedure, which were
all in the direction of greater thoroughness and a more
cordial cooperation with the various City departments.
For more than 100 years there had gradually been
assembled in the public buildings, on the streets, and in
the parks many works of art, consisting of portraits, mural
* Only one such request has ever been made.
[ 329 ]
decorations, monuments, statues, fountains and tablets.
In all, there were about 400 of these. Important as this
collection had been, no attempt had ever been made to
keep or prepare an authentic record of them. Portraits
were acquired by the City by purchase or gift and hung
in public offices ; statues and monuments were dedicated,
but records of such acquisitions were only to be found
scattered through the public documents of the past 120
Lists of the portraits and monuments in the City's col-
lection had appeared from time to time as a page or two
in some guide or manual. In recent years similar lists of
the sculpture had been given in some of the almanacs
issued by newspapers.
When this investigation was begun very little was
known concerning the one hundred and seventy-five por-
traits, and nothing was known concerning the monuments,
except the information contained in the inscriptions, and
these in many cases were lacking. In order to establish
the time and method of acquisition, the year painted, and
name of the artist, a thorough search was made through
the proceedings of the Common Councils of New York
and Brooklyn, which was corroborated and supplemented
by an examination of the books in the office of the Comp-
troller. To procure the biographical data concerning the
subjects and artists, every available source of information
was made use of, such as descendants, wills, and letters of
administration, newspaper files, genealogies, and biograph-
ical dictionaries almost without number. As much time
was devoted to the investigation as could be spared from
the regular work of the Commission, so that this catalogue
is the culmination of several years work. The catalogue
for the Borough of Manhattan was published in 1904,
[ 330 ]
An old Fire Tower in Mt. Morris Park. One of the last relics
of Volunteer Firemen days.
OF OLD NEW YORK
and a similar list for the Borough of Brooklyn was pub-
lished in 1905.
In the year 1902 the Commission began also to as-
semble a reference library, primarily for the use of its
members, but also for the use of the public. Naturally,
this library is limited in the scope of the subjects, dealing
mostly with art, artists, architecture, sculpture, city plan-
ning and history of New York City. It now consists of
about 1,000 volumes.
The Commission also has collected and has on file in
its office one thousand photographs of views, in American
and foreign cities, dealing chiefly with civic improvement.
In 1913 the Commission engaged an expert to photo-
graph fifty Colonial buildings still standing in the vari-
ous boroughs of New York City. These photographs are
on file in the Art Commission library and have been fre-
quently consulted by architects and others.
This brief account of the development of the Art Com-
mission would not be complete without a paragraph on its
effect on the Art Commission movement. Its success has
influenced many other cities to establish similar depart-
ments, many of them using the New York City Charter
provision as a model, and often copying its language ver-
batim. Members of legislatures and public-spirited citi-
zens, in advocating a bill for this purpose, have pointed to
the achievements of the New York Art Commission as
one of their chief arguments. After a new commission
has been established, it has used our experience in meth-
ods of procedure as a guide for conducting its business.
As may be readily surmised, the Art Commission's office
has been a bureau of information for cities desiring to
exercise control over public art and architecture. In or-
der to further assist such cities, in May, 1913, upon the
[ 333 ]
invitation of the Art Commission of the City of New
York, members of nine city, two state, one national art
commission and delegates from seven cities met for a
conference in New York. Before the close of this meet-
ing a representative committee was appointed to draft
model laws for cities of different classes and also for
States. This report was printed by the New York Art
Commission and has been in great demand.
The Museum of the American Indian — Hey^
This recently established museum has become one of
the most important institutions of research in American
ethnology and archaeology on the continent, and is of par-
ticular interest to the people of the Latin- American repub-
Hcs because its interests and activities are confined ex-
clusively to the aborigines of the two Americas. The
Museum had its inception about fifteen years ago, when
its founder, Mr. George G. Heye, of New York City,
first reaHzed the importance of gathering objects illus-
trating every phase of the life of the American Indian.
It was not until 1916, however, that the Museum was
definitely organized under a board of trustees, with Mr.
Heye as chairman and director. About this time a gift
of land by Mr. Archer M. Huntington, founder of the
Hispanic Society, made possible the erection of a build-
ing which forms one of the harmonious and beautiful
group of structures occupied in addition by the Hispanic
Society, the American Geographical Society, and the
American Numismatic Society, besides a Spanish church.
The collections in this Museum, notwithstanding the
brief period of its existence, number nearly a million ob-
OF OLD NEW YORK
jects illustrative of the arts, customs, religions, and cere-
monies of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas from
the Arctic shores to Patagonia. Many of the objects
have been gathered from obscure and unexpected places,
including Europe, where they have been sent many
years ago; others have been collected from the Indians
themselves after many difficulties, for Indians are usually
averse to parting with sacred objects that seem to form
a part of their very lives. The advent of civilization
throughout the North American continent long ago re-
sulted in the replacement of many aboriginal artifacts
with objects of trade, and in numerous instances wars
with the Indian tribes in former times caused the de-
struction of thousands of specimens that can never be
The Museum realizes the importance of its task of
gathering the material illustrative of the life of one of
the great races of man before it is too late. Not alone
have its endeavors been directed toward the preservation
of the comparatively modern things, for these relate only
a part of the story of the Indian ; but it has done much
toward archaeological research in North America, Central
America, South America and the West Indies. Com-
mencing in 1904, expeditions were sent to Porto Rico,
Mexico, Panama, and Costa Rica, and two years later the
first systematic scientific work of the Museum was initi-
ated in South America by Professor Marshall H. Saville,
of Columbia University, New York, the object of which
was an exhaustive survey of a portion of the Andean and
coast regions beginning with the southernmost limits of
Ecuador and extending northward to the Isthmus of
Panama, and ultimately to include the northern and north-
eastern portion of the continent as well as the West
[ 335 ]
Indies. Altogether, six expeditions have been sent to
the Ecuadorian and Colombian fields, the expedition of
1910 being assisted by Seiior Dr. Manuel Gamio, now
inspector of Ancient Monuments in Mexico. While
these archaeological researches were being conducted, eth-
nological investigations were not neglected, for in IPOS-
OP Dr. S. A. Barrett was commissioned to study the
habits, customs, and language of the Cayapa Indians, an
Ecuadorian coast tribe which still retains its aboriginal
traits in marked degree. Some of the results of Pro-
fessor Saville's investigations are embodied in two illus-
trated quarto volumes of "Contributions," and the ethno-
logical material gathered by Dr. Barrett is ready for
While archaeological researches were in progress in
northwestern South America, similar investigations were
conducted in Venezuela and the West Indies, almost every
island inhabited in early times being visited for the pur-
pose of locating and mapping sites of occupancy, and of
gathering collections. Excavations of equal, if not of
greater, importance have been conducted also in many
parts of the United States, as well as in Central America,
notably in British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, and
Costa Rica, so that the collections in the Museum are
already adequately representative of numerous American
aboriginal culture areas. Notably among the collections
from Costa Rica is one of several thousand specimens of
ancient earthenware vessels presented by Mr. Minor C.
Keith. In its work in Central America, as well as in Ven-
ezuela, the Museum has had the fortunate cooperation of
the president of those republics.
In addition to the researches in Ecuador, Colombia,
and Venezuela, archaeological work has been done also
[ 336 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
in Peru and Chile, but thus far this has been of limited
extent. As time goes on, however, it is expected that
the Museum will extend its operations in these as well as
in other fields of scientific promise in South America, in
order that its collections may illustrate every distinctive
Indian culture throughout the Western Hemisphere.
John Purroy Mitchell
Death on the field of honor came to our young ex-
Mayor a few short months after leaving his high office
as Chief Magistrate of New York. The following partial
account of his funeral is taken from the New York Sun:
Perhaps it were worth dying to gain in death such
honor as New York paid yesterday to the body of John
Purroy Mitchell, for his was probably the greatest funeral
ever given to an American citizen.
Nothing is or ever can be so impressive as the perfect
silence of a great mass of human beings, for it is an ex-
pression which sounds higher than the rolling of drums
or the crying of bugles. In Fifth Avenue, a little after
10 o'clock, on the morning of Thursday, July 11th,
when the black-draped gun caisson, drawn by eight black-
draped horses and bearing the coffin so significantly out-
lined by the folds of the Stars and Stripes, rolled slowly
and heavily between the masses banked from curb to wall
and extending for half a block back into the side streets,
there was silence extraordinary. Not even the figure of
men nationally or even internationally distinguished could
divert the reverence of these people. Once, far down-
town, when Colonel Theodore Roosevelt passed among
the honorary pallbearers, something like a cheer and a
stir of handclapping was heard, but it needed not the
[ 339 ]
Colonel's reproving glance to silence the thoughtless ones.
They were thrust back into their crowd, submerged by
This bearing, this attitude, was obvious to the most
casual observer from the hour that City Hall Park began
to fill with those having the opportunity to view the de-
parture of Major Mitchell's body from the City Hall and
the ceremonies attendant thereupon.
It was 1 :30 when the funeral party grouped about the
grave and the eight soldier pallbearers lifted the heavy
casket and bore it to the edge.
The Rev. Father Terence S. Shealy, Father J. H. Smith
of St. Francis Xavier's, and Father Thomas White sprin-
kled holy water over the casket, the flag and the dead
Major's service cap were removed, the Catholic burial
service was intoned by the priests, and at 1 :47 the body
was lowered into the grave.
Mrs. John Purroy Mitchell, supported by the Rev. John
Mitchel Page, and Mrs. James Mitchell, the mother, on
the arm of Justice George V. Mullan, stood near the head
of the grave, other relatives and friends behind them and
at their side.
As the last Latin phrase was sounded by the officiating
priest a detail of seventeen soldiers from Company B,
Twenty-second Infantry, commanded by Lieut. W. T.
French, who had been standing at attention, responded
with automatic precision to the quiet commands of their
[ 340 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
The volley rang out, disturbing the echoes of the Bronx
River Valley, and then came a second and a third volley.
"Unload. Attention !" was the next command, and
Bugler James O. Painter, of Company B, Twenty-second
Infantry, walked to the edge of the flower-covered grave.
Two airplanes had been circling over the gathering, and
as Painter sounded "Taps" the burial service for John
Purroy Mitchell came to an end.
Old Time Marriage and Death Notices
Compiled by A. J. Wall
Assistant Librarian of The New York Historical Society
The following list of the marriage and death notices
which appeared in The Weekly Museum from January
6th to May 5th, 1798 inclusive, is a continuation from
page 314 of the previous Manual. They were copied from
the file in The New York Historical Society which is
complete covering this period :
1798 — Saturday, January 6. Dunlap James and Mrs. Mauricia Rodman,
widow of the late John Rodman of Flushing, L. I., both of this city,
married some time since.
1798 — Saturday, January 6. Jacob Rozeo and Lucy Homes, both of Staten
Island, married at Staten Island.
1798 — Saturday, January 6. John Beatty and Betsey Lake, married at
1798 — Saturday, January 6. Justice Hall, of this city, and Lydia Orcutt,
of Boston, married .
1798 — Saturday, January 6. Eden Haydock, merchant of this city, and
Margaret Shotwell, daughter of John Shotwell, merchant, of Bridge-
ton, N. J., married Thursday the 28th.
1798 — Saturday, January 6. William Thomson and Jane Warner, both
of this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 6. David Lyons, of Fairfield, and Hanah War-
sin, of Stamford, married Sunday last.
179g — Saturday, January 13. Rear Admiral Murray, formerly commander
of the British squadron on the Halifax Station. Died lately in
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Benjamin Holmes, died Monday, the Ist,
inst., in this city.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Mary Henshaw, late of this city. Died
Friday last week, at her house in New Rochelle, in her 48th year.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Jane Houseal, wife of Michael Houseal,
Captain in his Britannic Majesty's service, died on Saturday last
at Bedford, L, I., in the 24th year of her age.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Mrs. Van Pelt, died on Sunday last in
her 70th year. This is the unfortunate lady who was run over in
Vesey Street, on the 24th ult. through the carelessness of M. Gerard's
179g — Saturday, January 13. Solomon Hewett and Patty Eams, married
at Norwich, Conn., after a short, and, it is expected, agreeable,
courtship of 22 years.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Captain Thompson Baxter, of Quincy, aged
66 years, and Ann Whitman, of Bridgewater, aged 37, married at
Bridgewater on the 16th. After a long and tedious courtship of 28
years, which they both have borne with uncommon Christian forti-
1798 — Saturday, January 13. John Cruger, son of Henry Cruger, and
Patty Ramsay, daughter of John Ramsay, of this city, married Sat-
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Col. Samuel Green, editor of Connecticut
Gazette, and Sally Pool, daughter of Thomas Pool, of this city,
married Thursday, the 4th, at New London.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Jesse Hunt and Lydia Hallett, both of this
city, married Monday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Peter Townsend and Alice Cornell, both
of this city, married Wednesday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 13. Capt. John King, of England, and Mary
Doughty, daughter of Charles Doughty of Flushing, married Thurs-
day last at the Friends' Meeting House, Flushing.
1798 — Saturday, January 20. John Young, author of several pieces against
the Christian Religion," died Sunday, December 17th, at Concord,
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Benjamin Townsend. Died in the city of
Hartford, aged 62.
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Thomas H. Smith and Margaret Master-
ton, both of this city, married Sunday, the 7th.
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Amasa Jackson, of this city, and Mary
Phelps, daughter of Hon. Oliver Phelps, married Wednesday, the
10th, at Suffield, Conn.
1798 — Saturday, Januarv 20. Francis Titus and Ruth Crooker, daughter
of William Crooker, both of Wheatly, L. I., married Friday, the
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Nicholas Brower, of Fishkill, and Ruth
Prince, of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Henry Jager and Jane Van Gelder, both of
this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday. January 20. Nicholas Schweighauser, merchant, of this
city, and Madame Dumyrat, late of Bourdeaux, married Monday
1798 — Saturday, January 20. Eliakim Raymond and Pamela Ketchom,
both of this city, married Wednesday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Hanjoost, an Indian warrior, died at Al-
bany, Sunday, the 14th. This Chief distinguished himself as a
volunteer, under General Gansevoort, during the siege of Fort Stan-
1798 — Saturday. January 27. Mrs. Lucetta Graham, wife of Dr. C. Gra-
ham of this city, died on Monday, the 15th, at Newark.
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Hon. Lewis Morris, Major General of the
Southern Division of the State, died Monday last at his seat at
Morrissania in his 72d year. Interred in the family vault at Mor-
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Capt. Henry King and Polly Jerry, both of
Oyster Ponds, L. I., married Sunday, the 14th, at the Oyster Ponds.
1798 — Saturday, January 27. David L. Haight and Ann Kip, both of
this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Uriah Swain, of Nantucket, and Maky
Haswell, of this city, married Saturday last.
OF OLD NEW YORK
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Capt. Oliver Smith, of the schooner Eglan-
tine, and Patty Uanmer, of Wethersfield, Conn., married Wednesday
1798 — Saturday, January 27. William Robertson, Esq., of Canada, and
Miss Brookes, daughter of the late Captain Brookes, in the British
service, married Thursday.
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Smith Van De Water and Nancy Sharp,
daughter of Jacob Sharp, both of that place, married Thursday last
1798 — Saturday, January 27. Jacob Duryee and Fanny Sutphen, both of
Bushwick, married Thursday last at Bushwick.
1798 — Saturday, February 3. G. O. Lansing and Catlina Schermerhorn,
both of Schodack, married Saturday, the 20th.
1798 — Saturday, February 3. Robert Bulliod, printer, and Jane Kip, both
of this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 3. William Minaugh and Maria Radan, both
of this city, married Wednesday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Julia Wadsworth Knox, second daughter
to General Knox. Died at Boston in her 14th year.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Miss Meriam Combes, died Sunday, the
28th, aged 23 years 6 months.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Elsie Dunscomb, an old and respect-
able inhabitant, died on Monday, the 29th.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Abraham Ogden, Attorney for the United
States for the district of New Jersey, died Thursday, the 1st, in his
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Jane Ustick, died Thursday, the 1st,
aged 65 years.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. John Leary, Jr., died Monday, the 12th, at
his house, near the five-mile stone in the 7th Ward of this city.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Nicholas Bayard, died Saturday last m the
63rd year of his age.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Capt. Thomas Roach, wine merchant, died
Saturday last, aged 67 years.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Lewis A. Scott, Secretary of State, died
1798 — Saturday, March 24. George Garland, died Monday, aged 63 years.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Obadiah Brown, merchant, of Providence, and
Dorcas Hadwen, married at the Friends Meeting-House in Newport.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Ebenezer Briggs and Polly Hunt, both of
this city, married some time since.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Barlow Rowe, of Canaan, and Abigail Ben-
nett, of Stockbridge, Mass., married Thursday, the 15th.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Dr. Zeiss and Mrs. M'Gill, both of this city,
married Thursday, the 22d.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Richard Ward and Deborah Briggs, of West-
chester, married Tuesday, the 6th, at Westchester.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Daniel Hull and Deborah Brown, both of
Mendham, N. J., married Thursday, the 8th, at Mendham, N. J.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Capt. John Gray and Mary Chapman, mar-
ried Sunday, the 11th, at Boston.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Richard Slack, of this city, and Catharine
Conway, of Woodbridge, married Thursday, the 15th.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. William Smith, of Rhode Island, and Ann
Kennedy, of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Dr. Ebenezer Graham and Mrs. Graham, of
Greenwich, Conn., married Sunday, at West-Chester.
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Eldad Porter and Urana Abanather, both of
this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 31. Mrs. Charles M'Carty, died Friday, the 23d.
1798 — Saturday, March 31. Capt. John Stakes, died Saturday, a brave
and gallant officer in the late American Army.
1798 — Saturday, March 31. James H. Hurtin, merchant, and Cornelia
Paine, both of this city, married Saturday last.
[ 345 ]
1798 — Saturday, March 31. William Richardson and Miss Bardin,
daughter of Edward Bardin, of Beaver Hill, married Saturday last
at Beaver Pond.
1798 — Saturday, March 31. John Matheson and Mrs. Catharine Gray,
married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 31. Robert Stew^art and Abigail Crane, both of
this city, married last evening.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Josiah Frost and Abby Jones, both of Orange,
N. J., married Sunday, the 2Sth.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Capt. Ebenezer Tuttle, of Mount Pleasant, and
Mrs. Wbrts, widow of John Wurts, married Tuesday, the 27th.
1798 — Saturday April 7. James Grieg and Maria Margaret Catharine
Heaford, both of this city, married Tuesday, the 27th.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Noah Beach, of Hanover, and Elizabeth
LiNDSLY, of Orange, married Tuesday, the 27th, at Newark.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. David Bowers, of North Farms, and Comfort
Sayres, of Orange, married Tuesday, the 27th.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Hon. Peter Brown, of this city, and Perthenea
Dusenbury, married Tuesday, the 27th, at Harrisontown.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abraham Purdy and Rebecca Cronk, married
Thursday, the 29th, at Mount Pleasant.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. VVaterhouse, of Colchester, and Mrs. Lois
Woodbridge, of Lyme, married Thursday, the 29th, at Lyme.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. James Campbell and Rebecca Crane, both of
Newark, N. J., married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abraham Duryee and Abigail Glean, both of
this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. John Raper and Catharine Fink, both of this
city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. George Minuse and Maria Craig, both of this
city, married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. Daniel D. Waters and Abigail Allen, both
of this city, married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Dr. William Hamersley, of this city, and Eliz-
abeth Depuyster, of Jamaica, l^. L, married Wednesday last.
1798 — Saturday, April 7. Abel Clarkson, of Woodbridge, and Sally
Langstaff, married at Piscataway, N. J.
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Rev. John Clarke, D.D., died at Boston, Mon-
day, the 2d. Minister of the First Congregational Church.
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Mrs. Benjamin Gatfield, died Monday last in
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Mrs. Jane Mott, died Wednesday, at Brooklyn.
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Joshua Smith, Jr., and Deborah Smith, both
of Smithtown, L. I., married Wednesday, the 4th.
1798 — Saturday, April 14. Don Carlos Martinez D'Yrujo and Maria
Theresa Sarah M'Kean, daughter of Hon. Thomas M'Kean, married
Tuesday last at Philadelphia in the Domicil of the Minister of Por-
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Peter Sharpe, of Brooklyn, and Christina
NosTRAND, daughter of the late John Nostrand, of Cripple Bush,
married Thursday, the 12th, at Cripple Bush.
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Ephriam T. Silver, merchant, and Eliza
Rogers, both of Allentown, N. J., married Thursday, the 12th inst.
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Mrs. Ann Sands, wife of Capt. Philip Sands, of
this city, died Sunday last, in her 21st year.
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Maria Robinson, daughter of Colonel Robinson,
died Tuesday last at Shawangunk, Ulster County.
1798 — Saturday, April 21. Josiah Furman, died Thursday last, aged 43.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Commodore H. Mowat, died Saturday, the 14th.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Capt. Elisha Durfee, died Monday, the 16th,
at Freetown, Mass., aged 77 years and 5 months.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mrs. Cornelia Dennis, died Wednesday, the
18th, at New-Brunswick, N. J., aged 31 years, wife of John Dennis,
merchant, of that place.
OF OLD NEW YORK
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mrs. Mary Peckwell, died Sunday last in this
city, aged 67.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Richard M. Malcom, of this city, and Ann
Henry, of Princeton, married Saturday, the 14th, at Princeton.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Mr. Paterson, of this city, and Louisa De
Hart, of Ehzabethtown, married Wednesday, the 18th.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Charles Stewart and Maria Davis, both of
this city, married Wednesday, the 18th.
1798 — Saturday, April 28. Jacob Simonton and Ann Harrison, both of
this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, May 5. John Robertson, of this city, and Eliza Haugh-
TON, married at Falmouth (Jam.) on March 18th.
1798 — Saturday, Mav 5. Garret B. Van Nest, of Redhood, and Sarah
Tappen, daughter of the late Peter Tappen, of Poughkeepsie, mar-
ried Wednesday, the 18th, at Poughkeepsie.
1798 — Saturday, May S. George Shimeall and Ann Fleeming, both of
this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, May 5. James Davison and Ann Cox, daughter of
Nicholas Cox, all of this city, married Monday last.
1798 — Saturday, May 5. John H. Remsen and Maria Brinckerhoff,
both of this city, married Wednesday.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Mrs. Braine, mother of Capt. H. Braine,
of the ship Fanny of this port, died Sunday, in an advanced age.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Madame Dessources, consort of Col. Des-
sources, of St Domingo, died Monday last, aged 26 years.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Thomas Fairfax and Louisa Washington,
married at Fairfield.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Jacob Hays and Catharine Conry, both of
this city, married Sunday, the 14th.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Israel Horsefield, of North Hempstead,
and Deborah Tovv^nsend, daughter of the Hon. Richard Townsend,
of Cedar Swamp, married Wednesday, the 24th, at Long Island.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Joshua Cock, merchant, of this city, and
Mary Ann Townsend, daughter of Henry Townsend, of New Corn-
wall, married Monday, the 29th, at New Cornwall.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. John Morrison and Ruth Borrel, both of
this city, married Thursday, the 1st.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Thomas M'Carty and Polly Peltrow, both
of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James C. Wilkinson and Patience Barns,
both of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James I. Margarum and Rebecca Thomp-
son, both of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. Peter Strong and Jane Falling, both of
this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 10. James Fereshe and Deborah Mead, both
of this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. John Darley, of this city, died at Boston.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Mrs. Joseph Backhouse, died lately near
Ribton Hall, Cumberland, England, aged 86.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. John Ackerman and Elizabeth Peluse,
both of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Edward Meeks, Jr., and Hetty Gomez,
both of this city, married Saturday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. William Sands, formerly of Boston, and
Margaret Garrison, of this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. Robert Barnes and Nancy Willis, both of
this city, married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 17. William Ferguson and Elizabeth Oliver,
both of this city, married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. William Frederick; died in the City of
Berlin, the capital of Prussia, His Royal Highness , King of
Prussia and Elector of Brandenburgh, aged 53 years.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. G. Hunter, merchant, died at Alexandria,
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Mrs. Rachel M'Laughlin, consort of
Edward M'Laughlin and daughter of the Rev. Amzi Lewis, died
Sunday, the Uth, at N. Stanford, Conn., aged 19 years.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Mrs. Mary Fox, consort of John Fox, col-
lector of the Sixth Ward of this city, aged 34 years, died Thursday
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Francis De Pau and Sylvia De Grasse,
daughter of the late Count de Grasse, married at Charleston, S. C,
on Tuesday, the 23d.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. William Isaacs, of this city, and Polly
Riley, of Goshen, Conn., married at Goshen, Conn.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Col. Theodorus Baily and Rebecca Tal-
MADGE, daughter of Col. James Talmadge, of this city, married at
Poughkeepsie, Thursday, the 15th.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Dr. John Nelson, of New Brunswick,
N. J., and Abigail Bleeker, daughter of Anthony L. Bleeker, of
this city, married Monday last.
1798 — Saturday, February 24. Daniel Tompkins, of Westchester County,
and Hannah Minthorne, daughter of Mangle Minthorne, of this
city, married Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Capt. Jonathan Malthie, commander of the
Revenue Cutter of that District, died at Fairfield, Conn.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. John Patterson, of Lansingburgh, formerly an
officer in the British Army, died at Philadelphia in the 57th year.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mary Arden, eldest daughter of James Arden,
merchant, died Wednesday, the 21st, in this city.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Charlotte B. Childs, wife of John
Childs, printer, died Friday, the 23d, in her 19th year.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Mary Watson, wife of Samuel Watson,
merchant, died Tuesday last, aged 17 years.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Mrs. Hannah Shelmerdine, wife of John
Shelmerdine, hatter, died Tuesday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 3 (contradicted March 10). Benjamin Bates
Smith and Sally Van Zandt, daughter of Peter P. Van Zandt, all
of this city, married Sunday, the 18th.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Samuel Pennington and Sally Hays, youngest
daughter of Major Samuel Hays, of Newark, married Sunday, the
18th, at Newark [N. J.].
1798 — Saturday, March 3. John Buel, printer, of this city, and Catharine
Carpenter, of Brooklyn, L. I., married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Ebenezer Doughty and Rachel French, both
of this city, married Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 3. Samuel Corp and Ann Cramond, both of this
city, married Monday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. John Wilks, died in the City of London,
aged 71 years.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Mrs. Jane Nichols, consort of Walter Nichols,
died Thursday, the 1st, in this city, in the 50th year of her age.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Mrs. Maria Scriba, wife of George Scriba,
of this city, died Sunday last.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Amos Munson and Hannah Humbert, both
of this city, married Tuesday, the 27th.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Isaac Dodd and Mrs. Jane Smith, both of
Bloomfield, N. J., married Thursday, the 1st.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. John Haydock, Jr., and Mary Wright, both
of Bridgetown, N. J., married Thursday 1st.
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Samuel Gedney, merchant, and Nelly Peters,
daughter of Harry Peters, merchant, of this city, married Saturday
1798 — Saturday, March 10. Thomas Ten Eyck, of this city, and Mar-
garet De Peyster, daughter of Nicholas De Peyster, married Tues-
day last at Bloomingdale.
1798 — Saturday, March 17. Merritt Brown, of this city, and Hannah
Pine, of Kingstreet, Conn., married Sunday, the 4th, at Kingstreet,
[ 348 ]
'^ r s-
®I|f (Etialbttg? 1851
A famous China Tea ship owned by
N. L. & G. Griswold, built by Webb,
N. Y. Commanded by Capt. Water-
man, another of the famous sailors
and a man of remarkable ability. She
later engaged in the California trade
and made her voyages around 108
Capt. Waterman was one of the
most remarkable captains of his day.
He retired and founded the town of
Fairfield in California where he died
The Challenge was a beautiful ship
and enjoyed a great reputation and
brought much profit to hv-r owners.
OF OLD NEW YORK
1798 — Saturday, March 17. Dr. Nicholas S. Bayard and Ann Livingston
Bayard, daughter of Nicholas Bayard, all of this city, married Sat-
1798 — Saturday, March 24. Philip Van Rensselaer, died Saturday, the
3rd inst., at his seat at Cherry Hill, near Albany.
The Old Mayors of New York
With this issue we begin the pubHcation of all the
Mayors of our city, taken from the portraits now in the
City Hall, beginning in 1784 with Duane, Varick, Living-
ston and Clinton, This does not include the Dutch or
Colonial periods, which will be considered at a later
time. The full list of American Mayors is as follows :
James Duane 1784-1789
Richard Varick 1789-1801
Edward Livingston 1801-1803
De Witt Clinton 1803-1807
Marinus Willett 1807-1808
De Witt Clinton 1808-1810
Jacob Radcliff 1810-1811
De Witt Clinton 1811-1815
John Ferguson 1815
Jacob Radcliff 1815-1818
Cadwallader D. Golden. 1818-1821
Stephen Allen 1821-1824
William Paulding 1825-1826
Philip Hone 1826-1827
William Paulding 1827-1829
Walter Bowne 1829-1833
Gideon Lee 1833-1834
Cornelius W. Lawrence. 1834-1837
Aaron Clark 1837-1839
Isaac L. Varian 1839-1841
Robert H. Morris 1841-1844
James Harper 1844-1845
Wm. F. Havemeyer. ..1845-1846
Andrew H. Mickle 1846-1847
William V. Brady 1847-1848
Wm. F. Havemeyer 1848-1849
Caleb S. WoodhuU 1849-1851
Ambrose C. Kingsland. 1851-1853
Jacob A. Westervelt... 1853-1855
Fernando Wood 1855-1858
Daniel F. Tiemann 1858-1860
Fernando Wood 1860-1862
George Opdyke 1862-1864
C. Godfrey Gunther. ..1864-1866
John T. Hoffman 1866-1868
T. Coman (act'g Mayor) 1868
A. Oakey Hall 1869-1872
Wm. F. Havemeyer 1873-1874
S. B. H. Vance (Acting) 1874
William H. Wickham. .1875-1876
Smith Ely 1877-1878
Edward Cooper 1879-1880
William R. Grace 1881-1882
Franklin Edson 1883-1884
William R. Grace 1885-1886
Abram S. Hewitt 1887-1888
Hugh J. Grant 1889-1892
Thomas F. Gilroy 1893-1894
William L. Strong 1895-1897
Robert A. Van Wyck. .1898-1901
Seth Low 1902-1903
George B. McClellan. . .1904-1909
William J. Gaynor 1910-1913
Ardolph L. Kline 1913
John Purroy Mitchel. . .1914-1917
John F. Hylan 1918-
Before the Revolution the Mayor was appointed by the Governor
of the Province; and from 1784 to 1820 by the Appointing Board of
the State of New York, of which the Governor was the chief mem-
ber. From 1820 to the amendment of the Charter, in 1830, the
Mayor was appointed by the Common Council. In 1898 the term of
the first Mayor of Greater New York (Van Wyck) began.
[ 353 ]
New York and Its School System
With the advent of Mayor Hylan, New York's educa-
tional system underwent a radical change. The old board
of education, consisting of 46 members, ceased to exist
and the small board of 7 took its place. Public opinion
was not preponderatingly for the change, but on the
whole the best thought in the educational world was in
favor of the smaller board. The large board was cum-
bersome and unwieldy and could not accomplish its work
without much waste of time and a great deal of friction.
It is expected of the small board that it will be able to
go at its object with much more directness and accom-
plish results more speedily. It is said that in a multitude
of counsellors there is wisdom, but the public seem to be
willing to take chances on that proposition for the sake
of getting practical and businesslike action without so
much circumlocution as we have had heretofore. Never-
theless, the people of New York appreciate what the old
board has done. It existed during a period of recon-
struction when the affairs of the schools were naturally
in a confused condition and it was no easy matter to fit
in and function all the parts. The task was irksome and
difficult, and the members of the board deserve the grati-
tude of the people for the splendid determination and
ability with which they applied themselves to the work
and for the results accomplished. These will all look
bigger and better in the years to come, and the founda-
tional work done will no doubt bear a superstructure of
surpassing usefulness and beauty. And now that we are
approaching a more settled and quiescent condition, the
small board should be able to manage the affairs of the
schools with efficiency, and with less of the friction which
existed before. The members have been selected for
[ 354 ]
WELLS & EMANUEL'S
FOR SAN rRANCISCO
Clipper of Friday, December 31«t,
r-.., ^7 TastBiver. -r-i ^iU
i^'T :v:<- Will k' '\KU
HI 1>:J tiayn^
WELLS & EWANUEL, 96 Wall Street.
Ne»i.iu >v t'.i , rr.i.u
1851. Old time advertising card used by shipping firms in the 50s.
OF OLD NEW YORK
their special fitness for and experience in educational
affairs. Mr. Arthur Somers, the president of the board,
had a long and valuable experience in the old board, and
was esteemed for his constructive work and his earnest
devotion to the schools. Mr. F. D. Wilsey was also a
member of the old board all through its stormy career,
and was known as one of the most industrious and val-
uable members. The others are new. All have settled
down to their duties with an earnestness and enthusiasm
which promises well for the system.
Coincident with the passing of the board was the re-
tirement of City Superintendent Dr. William H. Max-
well, whose serious and continued illness compelled him
to seek relief from the heavy duties of his position. With
much regret the board accepted his resignation and made
him superintendent emeritus at a salary of $10,000 per
annum. He was superintendent during the entire period
of the large board and furnished much of the propelling
power and directing force which enabled it to accomplish
He is said to have ruled it with an iron hand, and it
would appear that there must have been some truth in
this claim, for the press frequently reported remarks by
members to the effect that the superintendent was the
creature of the board and not its master, and occasionally
a member was reported as objecting to being merely a
rubber stamp. One irreverent critic represented him as
being the walls, floor and ceiling of the entire outfit, and
these sidelights unquestionably reveal Dr. Maxwell as a
very masterful man. Perhaps it was good for us that
he was this sort of a man and that he rode rough-shod
over less able and slower men, for the system at this
formative period needed something of the autocratic
spirit to speed it up and keep it right. Perhaps this au-
[ 355 ]
tocratic spirit was also the cause of much of the friction
which existed in all departments, reaching even to the
ranks of the teachers. The continual wrangling in the
courts and the contradictory decisions rendered helped
to make confusion worse confounded. The public
looked on with displeasure. Dr. Maxwell might have
been gentler for his own good, but he was inflexible and
severe, and his dictum, like the laws of the Medes and
Persians, never altered. His weak spot was his literal-
ness and exactness in interpreting rules. If in his ex-
amination a candidate could not quote the exact words of
an author, or if he did not give the exact month and year
of an event, the steam roller went over him without pity.
No allowance was made or credit given for good work
actually done, and it is easy to see that this was an evil
which never should have been allowed to exist. In the
later years of the board, however, this state of affairs was
corrected, but only after a strenuous fight and by the
insistent demand of the people. Oh, uprightness how
many wrongs have been committed in thy name !
Theodore Roosevelt once referred to Dr. Maxwell as
our great superintendent, and the people have heartily
indorsed this description of him. Notwithstanding a
few faults and failings, he was the best man to be found
anywhere for the position, and this is best attested by his
reelection from term to term for about 20 years. His
inexorableness was an inheritance no doubt from his
stubborn ancestors who held the fort through so many
centuries of Scottish history, but it would have been of
greater service to the system had it been tempered with a
broader and more generous judgment. We can forget
his faults — his achievements place him among the great
teachers of the country.
[ 356 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
Some Valuable New York Buildings
Equitable Building $25,000,000
Mutual Life 9,500,000
New York Life 4,000,000
Bankers Trust Company 5,800,000
Hanover National Bank 4,000,000
American Surety Company 2,425,000
United Bank Building 2,375,000
American Exchange National Bank 1,800,000
Guarantee Trust Company 3,000,000
National Bank of Commerce 2,500,000
United States Realty and Improvement Company 6,000,000
Western Union Telegraph Company 6,500,000
City Investing Company 6,625,000
Singer Building 7,000,000
New York Telephone Company 5,060,000
Havemeyer Building 1,875,000
Broadway Building Company 2,650,000
Woodbridge Building 1,850,000
"Washington Building 2,000,000
Bowling Green 3,250,000
American Express Company 3,800,000
Adams Express Company 6,500,000
Empire Building 4,100,000
Carroll Building 2,250,000
Standard Oil 3,200,000
Lower Broadway Realty Company 3,300,000
Columbia Trust Company 3,000,000
Manhattan Life 3,700,000
Stock Exchange 5,200,000
Commercial Cable Building 2,650,000
Produce Exchange 3,750,000
Morgan Building 5,100,000
Trust Company of America 2,325,000
American Mutual Insurance Company 2,850,000
National City Bank 5,500.000
Bank of Manhattan 2,700,000
Mechanics and Metals National Bank 2,800,000
United States Express Company 2,700,000
New York Telephone 2,700,000
Western Electric 1,770,000
Metropolitan Opera House 3,375,000
Macy's Department Store 6,900,000
Johnson Building 3,300,000
MiUs Hotel No. 3 1,235,000
Saks and Company 3,070,000
Gimbel Brothers Department Store 6,630,000
Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal 14,830,000
Printing Craft Building 2,700,000
National Cloak and Suit Company 2,300,000
Knickerbocker Hotel 3,700,000
Long Acre Building 2,375,000
Fitzgerald Building 2,100,000
Claridge Hotel 2,270,000
New York Theatre 2,550,000
Putnam Building 2,560,000
Astor Hotel 3,875,000
Strand Theatre 2,360,000
The Belnord Realty Company 3,500,000
John J. Astor 2,400,000
W. W. Astor 1.090,000
Rogers Peet Company 2,800,000
Hecksher Building 2,100,000
The ^olian Company 2,275,000
Stern Brothers 6,000,000
Harvard Club 1,250,000
Plaza Hotel 8,100,000
Biltmore Hotel 8,700,000
Belmont Hotel 4,450.000
Manhattan Hotel 3,750,000
St. Regis Hotel 2,700,000
Gotham Hotel 2,700,000
Oceanic Investing Company 2,625,000
Postal Life Building 2,275,000
Andrew Carnegie 2,425,000
Slectric Light and Power Company 5,910,000
OF OLD NEW YORK
New York's Men of AfiFairs Serving the
It would be difficult to recall the time when so many
New York men of wealth and of affairs have contributed
so largely of their services to the Federal Government
without money and without price.
It has been one of the most inspiring features of the
War and will remove forever the old time prejudice that
because a man is rich he has no common obligations with
his fellow men.
They have given freely and without thought of sacri-
fice. Immense business interests have been set aside ; and
out of their large experience the general government has
derived much benefit.
Active service in the ranks and in the front line
trenches has been the portion of many. While the tre-
mendous activities of the Red Cross and Y. M. C. A.
have far exceeded anything heretofore thought of in the
organization of these Societies.
We have attempted to collect a more careful analysis
of this great work but the time is not yet here. When
the War is won, we hope to place the record before our
readers. Till then it must wait but the collecting of
material will go on.
Passing of the Old Post Office
To-day the General Post Office loses its long-enjoyed
distinction and becomes a sub-station of the newer gen-
eral office back of the Pennsylvania Station. The fact is
primarily of interest as showing the gradual concentra-
tion of postal facilities at the city's great railroad ter-
minals. But it also reflects the drift of business "up-
As time goes in modern Manhattan, the old Post Office
is one of the borough's venerable structures. Opened in
1875, it is thus older than Brooklyn Bridge, itself a land-
mark, and in the latter part of its near half-century of
existence it had become antiquated and inadequate.
As a sub-station and as a Federal Court House it
doubtless has a further usefulness. But when will New
York lose its old Post Office altogether? Having lost its
prestige, its eventual physical passing would cause no dis-
satisfaction if that meant the return of the site to the city
and the restoration of City Hall Park to its original pro-
portions. The ugly old structure could well be spared for
a bit more of green turf in Broadway.
Wall Street, 1860. One of the earliest pliotograiilis of this famous
Street, showing private residence stoops and the Morgan
corner at Broad Street. Collection of Mr.
T. H. Schneider.
: THE FOUNDERS OF :
: VALENTINE'S MANUAL ;
OUR effort to revive this historical pubhcation would
have been unavailing but for the prompt support
we received from many old New Yorkers. In
years to come the City will look back with gratitude to
those who have been as necessary to this revival as we
ourselves. Below we print the list as far as we have been
able to secure it. Some names are necessarily omitted as
books were bought through dealers and we have not been
able to obtain them. We shall be glad to add any omis-
sions as rapidly as they are supplied.
The policy of the management is to make the Manual
worthy of the great city whose annals it seeks to
record. It should be conducted more as a public, than a
private enterprise. As its revenues increase, the proceeds
should be used to make the work more notable with each
succeeding year. There is no reason why the Manual
should not stand out unique — as the one particular pub-
lication in the whole world devoted to a city, and of such
antiquarian excellence as to command the respect and
affection of bibliophiles the world over.
[ 365 ]
After the war, New York will stand out in many re-
spects as the greatest city in the world ; interest in its
marvellous past already great, will become immeasurably
greater. Among our foreign readers we already number
Mr. Balfour and Lord Northcliffe in England with quite
a contingent in France. No attempt has yet been made
to reach the great libraries of Europe where we think it
will ultimately find a warm welcome.
Comparatively few copies of the three volumes so far
published have been printed and the available volumes
still remaining are being rapidly called for by readers
wishing to complete their sets. Notwithstanding the
premium price brought at the Crimmins' sale we will
supply the back volumes at the published subscription
price while they last.
We thank our friends whose names follow, for their
valuable cooperation :
Mrs. Chas. H. Marshall Mrs.
Mrs. Frank Sullivan Smith Mrs.
Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee Mrs.
Mrs. Andrew Carnegie Mrs.
Mrs. W. Pierson Hamilton Mrs.
Mrs. John Hays Hammond Mrs.
Mrs. Helen Lispenard Alexandre Mrs.
Mrs. E. H. Harriman Mrs.
Mrs. Vincent Astor Mrs.
Mrs. George F. Baker, Jr. Mrs.
Mrs. H. Fairfield Osborn Mrs.
Mrs. J. Francis Clark Mrs.
Mrs. John A. Hance Mrs.
Mrs. V. EvERiT Macy Mrs.
Mrs. Willard Church Mrs.
Mrs. Bernard Wakefield Mrs.
Mrs. Joseph Palmer Knapp Mrs.
Mrs. Mary G. Quimby Mrs.
Mrs. G. E. Titcomb Mrs.
Mrs. J. T. Thompson Mrs.
Mrs. E. G. Stoddard Mrs.
Mrs. Ella T. Manny Mrs.
Mrs. Emory McClintock Mrs.
Mrs. W. R. Grace Mrs.
Mrs. Thomas Denny Mrs.
Mrs. I. V. Brokaw Mrs.
Mrs. George T. Bliss Mrs.
Mrs. Burke Roche Mrs.
Mrs. John J. Chapman Mrs.
George W. Chauncey
William H. Crocker
George H. Gould
William A. Jamison
Ida C. Jones
John Wallace Riddle
J. W. Sherwood
L. Bayard Smith
E. H. Van Incen
Robert A. Van Wyck
Edward Motley Weld
Robert E. Westcott
W. F. Whitehouse
Frank S. Witherbee
William H. Young
Chas. Lane Poor
Austen G. Fox
A. F. D'Oench
Elizabeth C. T. Miller
Nellie Secor Manning
Charles S. Guthrie
J. Q. A. Ward
George W. Perkins
OF OLD NEW YORK
Mrs. Clarence M. Hyde
Mrs. Claudia Q. Murphy
Mrs. D. Cady Eaton
Mrs. Edward King
Mrs. Samuel G. Kreeger
Mrs. Carl F. Boker
Mrs. M. E. Dwight
Mrs. Leopold Rossbach
Mrs. J. Henry Watson
Mrs. Stephen O. Lockwood
Mrs. Henry O. Bartol
Mrs. a. Murray Young
Mrs. John R. Livermore
Mrs. R. J. Collier
Mrs. Chas. D. Dickey
Dr. Annie S. Daniel
Mrs. Olin J. Stephens
Mrs. F. a. Constable
Mrs. R. T. Baker
Mrs. Ellwood Harlow
Harriet Tileston Bryce
Emily S. Jackson
Alice M. Davison
Anna M. Bogert
S. M. Sturges
Mr. Wm. K. Vanderbilt, Sr.
Mr. Frederick Potter
Mr. John J. Pierrepont
Mr. Albert Eugene Gallatin
Mr. Thomas F. Ryan
Dr. Samuel W. Lambert
Mr. Gustavus T. Kirby
Mr. Edward C. Cammann
Mr. Ogden Codman
Mr. Benjamin De F. Curtiss
Mr. Thomas W. Churchill
Mr. a. W. Evarts
Mr. a. V. H. Stuyvesant
Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson
Mr. Henry R. Towne
Mr. James Lenox Banks
Mr. Edmund L. Baylies
Dr. Richard T. Bang
Mr. H. H. Cammann
Mr. Julian T. Davies
Mr. M. Friedsam
Hon. Franklin Murphy
Mr. Edmund Penfold
Mr. Frederic A. Juilliard
Mr. Samuel Robert
Mr. O. J. GuDE
Mr. Robert N. Bolton
Mr. James Byrne
. George L. Rives
Philip J. Mosenthal
John I. D. Bristol
M. L. Morgenthau
William Leverich Brower
Wm. Rhinelander Stewart
F. Grand d'Hauteville
. Leonard A. Giegerich
Edward W. C. Arnold
I. N. Phelps Stokes
. Peter Townsend Barlow
F. Ambrose Clark
F. Kingsbury Curtis
George Beekman Sheppard
Howard I. Dohrman
Allen M. Thomas
. Victor J. Dowling
John W. Edmonds
Lawrence B. Elliman
John N. Golding
F. K. Gaston
Wm. F. Gable
F. W. Hunter
E. Francis Hyde
Smith Ely Jelliffe
E. L. Knoedler
W. RuLOFF Kip
Richard B. Kelly
Alfred E. Marling
George A. McIlroy
C. DE R. Moore
Henry Chapman Needham
C. J. Obermayer
William H. Page
Orton G. Orr
William Schall, Jr.
George G. Schaefer
E. H. H. Simons
Thos. T. Sherman
Henry N. Tifft
John M. Woolsey
J. B. Wohlfarth
A. P. Williams
A. S. Frissell
J. D. Crimmins
I. V. McGlone
James Stewart Cushman
T. E. Conklin
Maurice J. Strauss
Robert H. Koehler
H. W. Johnson
F. G. Randall
J. Midaugh Main
Mr. Edwin S. Marston
Mr. Herbert Carleton Wright
Mr. John C. Tomlinson
Mr. T. L. Leeming
Mr. Haley Fiske
Mr. G. Owen Winston
Mr. Charles M. Van Kleeck
Mr. Charles A. Brodek
Mr. Louis T. Haggin
Mr. Grenville Kane
Mr. Henry Walters
Mr. Edwin D. Worcester
Mr. Edgar L. Marston
Mr. Andrew J. Onderdonk
Mr. Edward Sandford Pegram
Mr. James W. Cromwell
Mr. H. D. Babcock
Mr. Stevenson Taylor
Mr. S. S. Dunham
Mr. W. D. Bruns
Mr. a. G. Mills
Mr. Powhatan Bolling
Mr. Henry Fletcher
Hon. Alphonso T. Clearwater
Mr. Frederic de Peyster Foster
Mr. John A. Eckert
Mr. Herbert Groesbeck
Mr. M. W. Dominick
Mr. William M. Lybrand
Mr. Charles L. Case
Mr. Robert J. F. Schwarzenbach
Mr. Maturin L. Delafield
Hon. Frederick Bingham House
Mr. Gerald R. Brown
Mr. W. M. V. Hoffman
Mr. Edward Lauterbach
Mr. Francis S. Bangs
Mr. S. V. Steiner
Mr. John D. Ross, LL.D.
Mr. Bartlett Arkell
Mr. James E. Adams
Mr. Adrian V. S. Lambert
Mr. George S. Schermerhorn
Mr. a. Hatfield, Jr.
Mr. Thomas L. Johnson
Major S. Wood McClave
Mr. Chas. a. Bryan
Mr. Herman L. R. Edgar
Mr. Frederic B. Thomason
Mr. Edward Hungerford
Mr. E. a. Cruikshank
Mr. Henry C. Swords
Mr. Henry R. Hoyt
Dr. Charles Gordon Heyd
Mr. William F. Hammond
Mr. Lucius K. Wilmerding
Mr. August Zinsser, Jr.
Mr. Samuel M. Schafer
Dr. Emil Mayer
Mr. Walter Scott
Mr. Charles Martin Camp
Mr. Gordon Knox Bell
Mr. Frank H. Platt
Capt. Albert H. Van Deusen
Mr. Charles H. Tenney
Mr. Roland R. Conklin
Mr. John List Crawford
Mr. Charles A. Sherman
Mr. H. B. Thayer
Mr. Walter L. Suydam
Mr. Henry R. Taylor
Mr. Benjamin Tuska
Mr. Job Reamer
Mr. Emory McClintock
Mr. Samuel L. Munson
Mr. Wm. G. Low
Mr. Charles Elliot Warren
Mr. Henry O. Havemeyer
Mr. Gustave Lindenmeyr
Mr. George B. Woodward
Dr. Thomas H. Willard
Mr. William B. Dudley
Mr. S. a. Goldschmidt
Dr. Ira Otis Tracy
Mr. Henry Wyckoff Belknap
Mr. R. Burn ham Moffat
Mr. W. D. Tracy
Mr. Philip H. Waddell Smith
Mr. William Ross
Mr. Edward L. Burrill
Mr. J. Sanford Saltus
Mr. Louis J. de Milhau
Dr. Samuel Treat Armstrong
Mr. Richard T. Davies
Mr. Paul M. Herzog
Dr. Roderick Terry
Dr. Wm. A. Valentine
Mr. James Hillhouse
Mr. Daniel B. Fearing
Mr. Theodore F. Whitmarsh
Mr. Benson B. Sloan
Mr. Arthur W. Butler
Mr. E. Ward Olney
Mr. R. D. Benson
Mr. Otis H. Cutler
Mr. Poultney Bigelow 4
Dr. George F. Kunz
Mr. Samuel C. Van Dusen
Mr. Elliott Smith
Mr. James W. Ellsworth
Mr. J. Clarence Davies
Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Mr. Robinson Locke
Mr. William B. Davenport
Mr. Charles A. Ditmas
Mr. Hubert M. Schott
Mr. T. H. Lamprecht
Mr. William M. Benjamin
Mr. Thomas S. Van Volkenburgh
Mr. Richard H. Ewart
Dr. Charles L. Weiher
Mr. Henry F. Taylor
Mr. William G. De Witt
Mr. Alphonse A. Pehrson
Mr. Harry K. Pryer
Mr. Charles Mallory
Mr. T. G. Butler, Jr.
Mr. James H. Manning
[ 368 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Mr. F. Lindenmeyr
Hon. M. H. Hirschbero
Mr. William E. Curiis
Mr. Byron GoLusMiXH
Mr. Edward B. Camp
Mr. Albert Crane
Mr. John R. Stanton
Mr. Paul D. Cravat h
Mr. Tracy Dows
Mr. James C. Colgate
Mr. John F. O'Rourke
Mr. George F. Baker, Jr.
Mr. Henry Brevoort Kane
Mr. Marselis C. Parsons
Mr. Clarence W. Barron
Mr. Noel Bleecker Fox
Mr. John Christopher O'Conor
Mr. William D. Breaker
Mr. Anson W. Burchard
Mr. George W. Chauncey
Mr. Oswald G. Villard
Mr. John V. Irwin
Mr. Robert S. Crocker
Mr. John C. Jay, Jr.
Mr. Charles M. Burtis
Mr. Thomas C. Kurtz
Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman
Mr. George Crawford Clark
Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip
Mr. William J. Curtis
Mr. John A. Garver
Hon. Francis K. Pendleton
Mr. John W. Simpson
Mr. Moses Taylor Pyne
Mr. R. Fulton Cutting
Mr. Joseph P. Grace
Mr. E. W. Winter
Mr. E. W. Harden
Mr. J. Louis Schaefer
Mr. F. Dwight
Mr. W. W. Carman
Mr. Charles Edison
Mr. Anderson T. Herd
Mr. Lowell M. Palmer, Jr.
Mr. Morton F. Plant
Major Willard D. Straight
Mr. W. Parsons Todd
Mr. Percy R. Pyne, 2nd
Capt. Robert Goelet
Mr. Henry S. Pritchett
Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick
Mr. Marshall C. Lefferts
Mr. James Hazen Hyde
Mr. R. Lawrence Smith
Dr. W. Seward Webb
Mr. E. W. Sheldon
Mr. Howard Van Sinderen
Mr. Samuel Woolverton
Mr. William Sloane
Mr. W. H. Childs
Mr. William B. Osgood Field
Mr. Archer M. Huntington
Mr. Henry C. Frick
Mr. Mortimer L. Schiff
Mr. F. a. Delano
Robert M. Thompson
. Gen. Cornelius Vanderbilt
Frank K. Sturgis
Nicholas F. Palmer
Gates W. McGarragh
John F. Harris
E. D. Morgan
C. F. QUINCY
W. J. M. Donovan
Daniel E. Pomeroy
Harris Ely Adriance
Samuel P. Avery, Jr.
J. P. Morgan
H. E. Huntington
Robert W. Chambers
Theodore N. Vail
William H. Porter
Arthur Cutiss James
Ford V. Huntington
Charles H. Sabin
Nicholas F. Brady
Henry M. Taft
Frank C. Deering
. J. H. Cohen
G. V. N. Baldwin
Richard T. Lingley
R. E. Deyo
E. C. Farlow
David C. Thomas
L. C. Harper
William S. Ludlow
W. H. Mayer
Arthur J. Morris
J. L. Robertson
H. S. Robertson
Frank R. Chambers
F. W. Woolworth
Frank A. Alpin
Cyril H. Burdett
Barron G. Collier
J. M. Delaney
Walter Leon Hess
William F. Kenny
E. L. Wenrick
A. H. Hopping
Harry S. Black
Samuel T. Hubbard
Henry G. Leach
C. S. JUELL
Harry S. Guggenheim
Mr. William R. Peters
Mr. H. DeB. Parsons
Mr. H. R. Winthrop
Mr. Frederick VanWyck
Mr. James T. MacNamara
Mr. John C. Travis
Mr. L. O. Koven
Mr. Algernon Sydney Schafer
Mr. Everett P. Wheeler
Mr. Richard Young
Dr. a. Vander Veer
Mr. Robert F. Herrick
Mr. George B. Harris
Mr. Edward Bement
Mr. Theodore H. Schneider
Mr. George Woolsey
Mr. Hiram Barney
Mr. Frederick D. Underwood
Mr. Charles H. Thieriot
Mr. H. H. Hewitt
Mr. Hals Holden
Mr. Maxwell D. Howell
Mr. L. W. Lawrence
Mr. Dickson Q. Brown
Mr. S. B. Closson
Mr. Laurence Maguire
Mr. T. G. Condon
Mr. W. M. Riglander
Mr. John A. Stewart, 3rd
Mr. Henry S. Harper
Mr. E. p. Ripley
Mr. Henry E. Hess
Mr. James H. Manning
Mr. Robert W. Bernard
Mr. E. J. Marston
Mr. Phoenix Ingraham
Mr. John M. Marchmont
Mr. Francis Newton
Mr. Joseph Osler
Mr. Walter C. Reid
Mr. William Bruce Brown
Mr. C. E. Herman
Dr. A. R. Ledoux
Mr. Edward C. Gude
Mr. a. G. Oakley
Mr. William J. Boyd
Mr. Samuel Riker, Jr.
Mr. J. Radford English
Mr. a. p. Clapp
Mr. Gustav Heubach
Mr. B. R. Ruggles
Mr. Karl Filers
Mr. Thomas Higgins
Mr. Sydney W. Fish
Mr. George Vaughn
Mr. Herman Goldman
Mr. Charles S. Hirsch
Mr. Henry W. Showers
Mr. G. R. Crossley
Mr. Henry N. Brinsmade
Mr. E. E. Olcott
Mr. John B. Dennis
Mr. Joseph Paterno
Mr. Howard D. Randolph
Mr. Walter W. Schell
Mr. W. B. Crisp
Mr. Joseph L. Lillienthal
Mr. Lincoln Cromwell
Mr. a. Montant
Mr. William J. Plant
Mr. F. I. Liveright
Mr. Sidney Thursby
Mr. a. E. Thorne
Lieut. Edward P. Chrystie
Sergt. Hunter VanB. Berg
Mr. Guy Stevens
Mr. Arthur F. Rees
Mr. William F. Peters
Mr. William W. Weitling
Mr. C. E. Peck
Mr. Andrew Arthur Benton
Mr. p. G. Gossler
Mr. Charles L. Harris
Mr. Howard C. Smith
Mr. F. D. Soper
Mr. Edmund E. Wise
Mr. Oscar Scherer
Mr. Edmund J. Levine
Mr. Charles G. Smith
Mr. Walter C. Hubbel
Mr. R. a. Spring
Mr. S. Davis Warfield
Mr. E. C. Lufkin
Mr. Charles N. Green
Mr. S. H. Wakeman
Mr. Henry Lockhart, Jr.
Mr. John H. Lynch
Mr. John Irving Romer
Mr. William H. Incersoll
Mr. Hopper Striker Mott
Mr. William S. Eddy
Mr. Robert E. Livingstone
Mr. Charles H. Werner
Mr. B. Marston Smith
Mr. Louis Marshall
Mr. Alfred H. Wagg
Mr. Sherman Day
Hon. M. H. Hirschberg
Dr. Richard Jordan
Mr. Howard H. Williams
Mr. Carl Messerschmitt
Mr. David Williams
Mr. Charles G. Witherspoon
Dr. Matthew B. Dubois
Mr. a. a. Watson
Mr. Arnold Schlaet
Mr. Edwin A. Strong
Mr. Lewis H. Lapham
Mr. George H. Sargent
Mr. Willard Scudder
Mr. Frank Depew
Mr. Henry Root Stern
Mr. Ramon V. Williams
Dr. William A. Valentine
Mr. William H. Dudley
Mr. John Ross Delafield
Mr. Richard Delafield
Mr. F. S. Hastings
Mr. W. Willis Reese
Mr. W. J. Riker
[ 370 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York Historical Society
New York Society Library
American Geographical Society
Am. Scenic & Hist. Preservation
Colonial Dames of America
Chamber of Commerce
N. Y. Public Library
Long Island Historical Society
Pratt Institute •
queensboro' public library
Newark Public Library
YoNKERS Public Library
Adriance Memorial Library,
Vassar College Library
U. S. Military Academy, West
Mass. Historical Society
Worcester Public Library
New Bedford Public Library
New London Public Library
Hartford Public Library
Dyer Library, Saco, Me.
Detroit Public Library
Grosvenor Library, Buffalo
Chicago Public Library
Empire State Society, Chicago
Louisville Public Library
Of the last volume of the original Manuals, issued
in 1866, so great was the demand and so renowned was
the publication that the Common Council of the City-
ordered an edition of ten thousand copies to be printed
and voted the editor Mr. Valentine the sum of $3,500
extra compensation for his services.
With so brilliant a record in the past we have a task
of no mean proportions to equal it in the present.
[ 371 ]
Abanather, Urana, 345.
Abbe, Dr. Robert, 263.
Abbott Collection of Primates,
Abendroth Bros., 79.
Ackerman, John, 347.
Adams, John Quincy, 263.
Adams, Herbert, 263.
Adams House, 238.
Adams, President John, 237.
Adelphi Hotel, 15.
Albany Post Road, 287.
Albro Miss, 88.
Albro the Grocer, 41.
Aldermen, Board of, 113.
Alexander, Charles B., 263.
Alexander's Shoe Store, 33.
Alfred The Great, 243.
Allen, Abigail, 346.
Allen, Mayor Stephen, 232.
Altman Collection, 303.
Altman & Co., 30, 60.
American Commerce, 270.
American Congress, 243.
American Defense Society (Wo-
men's Auxiliary), 10.
American Express, 86.
American Georgaphic Soc'y, 334.
American Jewish Hist. Soc'y,
American Mayors of New York,
American Merchant Marine, 270.
American Numismatic Soc'y, 334.
American Shipping, 270.
American War Artists, 262.
American War Lithographs, 262.
Andrew Jackson, 106.
Aquarium, The, 8.
Archbishop of Canterbury, 70.
Arden, Mary, 348.
Argyle, The, 33.
Arnold Constable & Co., 21, 81.
Art Commission, N. Y. City, 114,
Arts & Decorations, Committee,
Art War Relief, 256.
Ashokan Reservoir, 282.
Aster, John Jacob, 223.
Astor Trust Company, 21.
Astor, Vincent, 309.
Atlantic Cable, 75, 76.
Atwill, John, 86.
Axtel, Col., 180.
Aylward, W. J., 252.
Backhouse, Mrs. Joseph, 347.
Baily, Col. Theodorus, 348.
Bakhmetieff, Boris A., 310.
Baldwin's Clothing Store, 81.
Balfour, Right Hon. A. J., 308,
Bancroft's History of the United
Barck, Oscar T., 134.
Barclay, Thomas, 159.
Bardin, Miss, 346.
Barnes, Robert, 347.
Barns, Patience, 347.
Barnum's Museum, Spring St.,
Barrett, Dr. S. A., 336.
Bartlett, Paul W., 263.
Bastile Day, 321.
Bates, Mr., 88.
Bates' Milk Dairy, 36.
Bates, Miss, 88.
Bathgate, James, 165, 166.
Battery, The, 7, 8, 9.
Baxter, Capt. Thompson, 342.
Bayard, Nicholas, 345.
Beach, Noah, 346.
Beatty, John, 341.
Bechstein & Co., 81.
Bedford, 205, 211.
Bedford Corners, 205.
Bedloe's Island, 8.
Beekman Family, 70.
Behr, Herman & Co., 75.
Beinhauer, Frederick, 44, 48, 49.
Belden, Dr., 88.
Belgian War Commission, 314.
Bell, Maj.-Gen. J. Franklin, 321.
Benda, W. T., 252.
Benjamin, Mr. and Mrs., 87.
Bennett, Abigail, 345.
Bennett's Lane, 200.
Bernheimer Family, 225.
Bertron, S. Reading, 263.
Betts, William, 287.
Bidgood, J. B., 42.
Billy Hitchcock, 74.
Billy McGlory, 59.
Black Ball Line, 9, 100.
Bleecker, James W., 78.
Bleeker, Abigail, 348.
Block, I. Mortimer, 262.
Bloomingdale Road, 47, 157, 243,
"Blue Devils," 320.
Blythebourne Water Co., 284.
Board of Aldermen, 113.
Board of Education, 113.
[ 373 ]
Board of Estimate and Appor-
Board of Health, 113.
Board of Water Supply, 114.
Bogart, Cornelius, 73.
Bolton, Reginald P., 133, 134.
Bone, Muirhead, 258.
Boorman, James, 79.
Booth, Edwin, 62.
Booth's Theatre, 30.
Borough Presidents, 112.
Borrel, Ruth, 347.
Boston Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston Post Road, 47, 152, 241.
Botanic Gardens, 49.
Bowers, David, 346.
Bradford, William, 132.
Braine, Mrs., 347.
Braine, Lieut. -Col. Charles, 61,
Brandreth House, 81.
Brangrwyn, Frank, 261.
Brick Presbyterian Church, 73,
Briggs, Mr., 88.
Briggs, Deborah, 345.
Briggs, Ebenezer, 345.
BrinckerhofC, Maria, 347.
Bristow, Prof., 87.
Britain's War Commission, 308.
British War Artists, 258.
British War Lithographs, 258.
Broadway, 17, 18.
Broadway Tabernacle, 41.
Bronk, Jonas, 147.
Bronk's River, 148.
Brookes, Miss, 345.
Brooklyn, Greenwood & Bath
Plank Road, 204.
Brooklyn Ins. Arts & Sciences,
Brooklyn & Jamaica Turnpike,
Brooklyn Heights, 18.
Brooklyn Water Sheds, 282.
Brooks, Adjutant Henry S., 68.
Brouwer, Nicholas, 151.
Brower, Nicholas, 342.
Brown, Deborah, 345.
Brown, Merritt, 348.
Brown, Obadiah, 345.
Brown, Hon. Peter, 346.
Browne, Dr. Joseph, 231.
Brueckner, Hon. Henry, 125
Bryant Park, 21,47.
Buel, John, 348.
Bulliod, Robert, 345.
Buildings, New York's Valuable,
Bulkley Bros. & Co., 80.
Bull, Chas. Livingston, 252
Bureau of Industrial Housing,
Burning of Barnum's, 81.
Burr, Aaron, 164, 232.
Bushwick Church, 212.
Bushwick Road, 212.
Butler, Ben, 93.
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 263,
Byvanck, Evert, 148, 151.
Calver, W. F., 133, 134.
Camouflage Unit, 255.
Campbell, James, 346.
Capitoline Grounds, 93.
Cardiff Giant. 36.
Carpenter, Catherine, 348.
Carrere, John M., 322.
Casey, F. D., "Collier's Weekly,"
Castle, Clinton, 8, 15.
Castle Garden, 15.
Castle, William, 8.
Cat Rock Road, 139.
Catskill Aqueduct, 282.
Cayapa Indians, 336.
Cecere, Gaetano, 258.
Central Park Reservoir, 236.
Ceramic Art, 296.
Chamber of Commerce, 218, 309.
Chamberlain's Office, 113.
Chapman, Dr., 255.
Chapman, Chas. S., 262.
Chapman, Mary, 345.
Charities, Dept. of, 114.
Chelsea Village, 53.
Childs, Mrs. Charlotte B., 348.
Christ Church, Manhasset, 70.
Choate, Joseph H., 308, 310.
Church Avenue, 204.
Church Lane, 203.
Citizens' Water Supply Co., 284.
"City Hall," 172.
City Hall Park, 10.
City Officials, 112.
City Superintendent of Schools,
City Tunnel, 282.
Claflin, H. B. & Co., 81.
Clark, Capt. Arthur H., 53, 100,
Clark, William A., 263.
Clarke, Rev. John, D. D., 346.
Clarkson, Abel, 346.
Clinton, DeWitt, 126, 236.
Clinton House, 73.
Clipper Ship Era, 100, 107.
Clipper Ship Records, 108.
Clove Road, 205, 206.
Coal Famine, 278.
OF OLD NEW YORK
Cock Hill Fort, 293.
Cock, Joshua, 347.
Colden, Dr. Cadwallader, 153,
Colden, Elizabeth, 153.
Coldest Winter, 276.
Coleman, Wm. T. & Co., 106,
Coles, J. B., 10.
Collect Pond, 230.
Colles, Christopher, 225, 226, 229.
Collins' Line, 100.
Columbian Hotel, 119.
Columbia University, 49.
Colwell-Lead Co., 42.
Combes, Miss Meriam, 345.
Commissioners of Sinking Fund,
Committee on Pub. Information,
Comptroller's Office, 112.
Coney Island Jockey Club, 191.
Conklin, Mr., 88.
Congressional Medal of Honor,
Connolly, Hon. M. E., 125.
Conry, Catherine, 347.
Constitution Island, 139.
Consular Agent, Barbary States,
Conway, Catherine, 345.
Cooley & Co., 106.
Cornell, Alice, 342.
Cornell, Hayward & Co., 80.
Cosby, Royal Governor, 152.
Cotton Exchange, 268.
Cortlandt Family, 70.
Council of the Royal Governor,
Courtelyou Lane, 200.
Cow Boys, The, 163.
Cow Lane, 204.
Cox, Ann, 347.
Cozine Family, 49.
Craig, Charles L., 122.
Craig, Maria, 346.
Cramond, Ann, 348.
Crane, Abigail, 346.
Crane, Rebecca, 346.
Crawford, John, 33.
Creel, George, 251.
Cremorne Gardens, 33.
Crimmins Sale, 3.
Cripplebush Road, 205, 206.
Cronk, Rebecca, 346.
Crocker, Ruth, 342.
Cross Roads, Flatbush, 186.
Croton Aqueduct, 21, 284, 236.
Croton Cottage, 21.
Croton Lake, 236.
Croton Reservoir, 22, 232.
Croton Valley, 236.
Crowninshield, Francis W., 263.
Cruger, John, 342.
Crystal Palace, 21, 22.
Cunliff, Lord, 309.
Curtis, J. B., 68.
Currier, N., 16.
Custom House, 15.
Cutting, Robert Fulton, 263, 264.
Cyclorama, The, 41.
Daly, Judge, 223.
Bankers & Sluyter, 200.
Darley, John, 347.
David Brown, 107.
Davis, Maria, 347.
Davis' Stationery Store, 33.
Davison, H. P., 309.
Davison, James, 347.
De Bruynes Lane, 200.
De Forest, Robert W., 263.
Deghue Pavement, 249.
De Grasse, Sylvia, 348.
De Hart, Louisa, 347.
DeJonge, J. & L. & Co., 80,
Delancey, Alice, 157.
Delancey, Elizabeth, 159.
Delancey Horse, 163.
Delancey, James, Lieut. Gover-
Delancey, James, 152, 158, 163,
Delancey, Jane, 159.
Delancey, John, 159.
Delancey's Mills, 160.
-Delancey, Oliver, 158, 165, 166.
Delancey, Peter, 146, 153, 158,
Delancey, Stephen, 147, 151, 153.
Delancey, Susannah, 159.
Delaval, Thomas, 287.
Dennis, Mrs. Cornelia, 346.
Dept. of Charities, 114.
Department of Docks & Ferries,
Department of Labor, 258.
Dept. of Parks, 113.
Dept. of Street Cleaning, 114.
Dept. of Water, Gas & Elec-
De Pau, Francis, 348.
De Peyster, John, 73.
De Peyster, Margaret, 348.
De Puy, Henry F., 133.
Depuyster, Elizabeth, 346.
Deshler's Bakery, 30.
Dessources, Madame, 347.
Devens, John C, 33.
Devens, Gen., 33.
Diamond Jim Brady, 88.
Dickinson, Edward A., 80.
Dietz. R. E., 75.
Disbrow, Levi, 235.
Distinguished Service Cross, 257.
Distinguished Service Medal, 257.
Dittenhofer, Judge, 225.
Division of Films & Pictures,
Division of Pictorial Publicity,
Dock's & Ferries, Dept. of, 114.
Dogwood Brook, 287.
Dopp, Isaac, 348.
Doty & MacFarlane, 80.
Doughty, Alias, 287.
Doughty, Ebenezer, 348.
Doughty, Mary, 342.
Dowd's Restaurant, 86.
Dowling, Hon. Frank L., 125.
Dowling, Leader, 69.
Draft Riots, 81.
Drake, Joseph Rodman, 145, 166.
Dramatic Line, 100.
Dry Dock, 244.
Duffield, Dr. Howard, 268.
Dulac, Edmund, 258.
Dumyrat, Madame, 342.
Duncan, Walter J., 252.
Dunham, S. S., 80.
Dunham, Thomas C, 68.
Dunn, Harvey, 252.
Dunscomb, Mrs. Elsie, 345.
Dunsmore, John Ward, 134.
Dtirer, arti.st, 251.
Durfee, Capt. Elisha, 346.
Duryee, Abraham, 346.
Duryee, Jacob, 345.
Dusenbury, Perthenea, 346.
Dutch East India Company, 268.
Dutch Reformed Church, New
Dutch Reformed Church, Flat-
bush, 179, 189.
Dutch Road, 197.
Dutch West Indies Company,
Dyckman Farm, 139.
Dyckman House, 301.
Dyer, Gen. Geo. R., 320.
D'Yrujo Don Carlos Martinez,
Eagle Hotel, 8.
Ealling, Jane, 347.
Earns, Patty, 342.
East Drive, Prospect Park, 179.
East India Marine Hall, Salem,
Eastchester, 238, 241.
Eastchester Creek, 236.
Education, Board of, 113.
Egyptian Collection, N. Y. Hist.
Ehrich Bros., 60.
Eiffle Tower, 21.
Einstein Family, 225.
Elite of the County, 163.
Ellis Island, 8.
Ely, Mayor Smith, 80.
Elysian Fields, 93.
Embury, Capt. Aymer, 2nd, 258.
Emery's English Chasseurs, 288.
Emigrant Station, 8.
Emmett, Thomas Addis, 49.
Empire Garden, 35.
Endicott & Co., 16.
Endicott, William & Co., 79.
Engineers' Reserve Corps, 252.
English Road, 197.
Enright, Walter, 252.
Erasmus Hall Academy, 186.
Erasmus Hall High School, 186.
Ericsson, John, 85.
Esopus Water Shed, 282.
Excelsior Savings Bank, 30.
Fairfax, Thomas, 347.
Falls, C. B., 252.
Farragut, Admiral, 93.
Fatman Family, 225.
Fay, Col. Joseph, 238.
"Feed A Fighter," by Wallace
Feitner, Ann Eliza, 53.
Kereshe, James, 347.
Ferguson, William, 347.
Ferry Settlement, 178.
Field, Cyrus W., 75, 76, 80.
Field, Capt. Wm. B. Osgood, 50.
Field Exploration, 138, 139.
Fifth Avenue, Brooklyn, 212.
P^'ink, Catherine, 346.
Finkenauer, Paint Store, 33.
Fire Dept. H. & L. No. 8, 87.
Fisk, Col. James, 61, 68.
Kiske, Harrison Gray, 36.
Fi.ske, Minnie Madern, 36.
Flameng, Francois, 261.
Flatbush Roads, 177.
Flatbush Water Works, 284.
Fleeming, Ann, 347.
Flushing Avenue, 212.
Fly Market, 49.
Flying Cloud, 94, 96, 106, 243.
Flying Dragon, 107.
Flying Fish, 107.
Foord, John, 268.
Ford, Simeon, 4, 9.
Fort Constitution, 139.
Fort George Hill, 290.
Fort Hamilton, 212.
Fort Washington, 160.
Fox, the comedian, 62.
Fox, Mrs. Mary, 348.
Frankfield's Jewelry Store, 30.
Franklin. P. A. S., 106.
Frederick, William, 347.
OF OLD NEW YORK
French's Hotel, 74.
French, Rachel, 348.
French, Lieut. W. T., 340.
French War Artists, 261.
French War Commission, 308.
French War Lithographs, 261.
Frick, Henry Clay, 308.
Frost, Josiah, 346.
Fuller, H. B., 262.
Fulton Ferry, 212.
Furman, Josiah, 346.
Gaffney, Capt. John, 68.
Gallatin, A. B., 262.
Gamio, Dr. Manuel, 336.
Garland, George, 345.
Garrison, Margaret, 347.
Gaston, E. P., 262.
Gatfleld, Mrs. Benjamin, 346.
Gedney, Samuel, 348.
Gerritsen's Basin, 191.
Gibson, Charles Dana, 251, 263.
Gilbert & Sullivan's H. M. S.
Giles, Dr., 33.
Giles, Aquilla, 183.
Glackens, William J., 263.
Glean, Abigail, 346.
Goldsmith Family, 225.
Gomez Family, 218.
Gomez, Hetty, 347.
Governor's Island, 8.
Gowanus Road, 211.
Grace Church, 16.
Grace, William R. & Co., 268.
Graham, Mrs., 345.
Graham, David, 79.
Graham, Dr. Ebenezer, 345.
Graham, Mrs. Lucetta. 342.
Grammar School No. 35, 29.
Grand Opera House, 62, 69.
"Grange," Hunts Point, 166.
Grant, Gen. U. S., 59, 60, 93.
Grapevine, The, 28.
Gravesend, 191, 199.
Gray, Mrs. Catherine, 346.
Gray, Capt. John, 345.
Great Dock Fire of 1867, 86.
Green, Col. Samuel, 342.
Greenwich Savings Bank, 28.
Greenwood Cemetery, The, 50.
Greig, James, 346.
Gude, Oscar J., 88.
Guion's Inn, 241.
Gunnison, Dr. Walter B., 186.
Hadley, William, 287.
Hadwen, Dorcas, 345.
Haggerty's Bellhanging Shop, 42.
Haight, David L., 342.
Hall, Campbell, 80.
Hall, Justice, 341.
Han, Mayor A. Oakey, 54, 55.
Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 145.
Hallett, Lydia, 342.
"Halt the Hun," by Henry Ra-
Hamersley, Dr. William, 346.
Hamilton, Mr., 88.
Hamilton, Alex, 126, 232.
Hamilton Ferry, 8.
Hand & Ellsworth, 80.
Hanmer, Patty, 345.
Harndon's Express, 81.
Harlem Railroad, 22.
Harris Bros., 80.
Harrison, Ann, 347.
Harsen, Catherine, 50.
Harsen Family, 49.
Hart, Bernard, 223.
Hart, Emanuel B., 224.
Hassam, Childe, 263.
Hastings, Thomas, 263.
Haswell, Mary, 342.
Haughton, Eliza, 347.
Haydock, John, Jr., 348.
Hays Family, 218.
Hays, Jacob, 347.
Hays, Sally, 348.
Hay ward, Robert, 73.
Hazzard & Massey, 42.
Heaford, Maria Margaret Cath-
Health, Board of, 113.
Heatless Days, 278, 281.
Held, Miss, 88.
"Help Your Country," by Henry
Henderson, William, 36.
Hendricks Family, 218.
Henriques Family, 218.
Henry, Ann, 347.
Henshaw, Mrs. Mary, 341.
Herald of the Morning, 107.
Herzog Family, 225.
Hessians, The, 160.
Houseal, Mrs. Jane, 341.
Hewett, Solomon, 342.
Heye, George G., 334.
High Pressure Mains, 284.
Highlands of the Hudson, 139.
Highlanders, The Kilted, 160.
Hill, John W., 18.
Hillcrest Avenue, Jamaica, 210.
Hill View Reservoir, 283.
Hispanic Society, 334.
Hitchcock, Major, 61, 68.
Hoffman, Samuel Verplanck, 134.
Hogelandt, Johannes, 148.
Holmes, Benjamin, 341.
[ 377 ]
Holmes, Lucy, 341.
Home Defence League Parade,
Hopkins', Mrs., Bakery, 33.
Hopper Family, 49.
Hoppin, William Warner, 263.
Hopps, Miss, 88.
Horn Family, 49.
Horsefield, Israel, 347.
Hosack, Dr., 49.
Hotel McAlpin, 41.
Housatonic River, 235.
Howe, Sir William, 160, 163.
Huard, Chas., 261.
Hugeuian, A. C, 79. "•
Hull, Daniel, 345.
Humbert, Hannah, 348.
Hunt, Jesse, 342.
Hunt, Polly, 345.
Hunt, Theophilus, 164.
Hunts Family, 145.
Hunts Point, 151.
Hunter College. 28.
Hunter, G., 347.
Hunter, Thomas, 28.
Hunterfly Road, 211.
Huntington, Archer M., 334.
Hurlburt, H. C. & M.. 80.
Hurtin, James H., 345.
Hussey's Post, 23, 107.
Hutchinson, Anne, 238.
Hutchinson River, 236.
Huyler, Jonh S., 68.
Hylan, Mayor J. F., Ill, 121, 122,
Independence Day Pageant, 256.
Independent, The, 79.
India House, 106, 268, 270, 275.
Indian Life, 302.
Indian Path, 197.
Indian Raids, Eastchester, 238.
Indies, East and West, 268.
Inwood Hill, 290.
Ireland, John, 81.
Isaacs, Judge, 218.
Isaacs, Samuel M., 224.
Isaacs, William, 348.
Iselin, Ernest, 263.
Isham, Flora E., 290.
Isham, William B., 290.
Ishii, Viscount, 310.
Italian War Commission, 310.
Izard, Ralph, 154.
Jackson, Amasa, 342.
Jackson's Grocery, 30.
Jacobi, Dr. Abram, 35.
Jager, Henry, 342.
Jamaica Bay, 204.
Jamaica Plank Road, 205.
Jamaica Water Supply Co., 284.
James, Arthur Curtiss, 263.
James, Dunlap, 341.
Japanese War Commission, 314.
Jefferson Market, 28.
Jerry, Polly, 342.
Jessup Memorial Library, Bar
Jews' Hospital, 218.
Joffre, Marshall, 308, 309.
John, Augustus, 261.
John Gilpin, 107.
Johnston, Maj.-Gen. Evan, 321.
Jonas, Lucien, 261.
Jones, Abby, 346.
Jones, Owen, 60.
Jones & Newman, 16.
Judd, Prof., 42.
Jumel Mansion, 140, 301.
Kalm, Peter, 226.
Keith, Minor C, 336.
Kennedy, Ann, 345.
Kensico Reservoir, 283.
Ketchum, Pamela, 342.
Kiefft, Gov., 198.
Kimball's Road, 190.
King, Capt. Henry, 342.
King, Gov. John A., 210.
King, Rufus, 210.
King, Capt. John, 342.
King Mansion, 210.
Kings Bridge, 128.
Kings Highway, 178, 179, 190, 199.
Kip, Ann, 342.
Kip, Jane, 345.
Knapp, Shepard, 28.
Knickerbocker Cottage, 33.
Knickerbocker Stage Line, 69.
Knoedler, Roland F.. 263.
Knox, Julia Wadworth, 345.
Kohler, M. J., 223.
Kortright Family, 295.
Kraft, Geo. J., 80.
Krause's, Mme., Kindergarten
Kunz, Geo. F., 263.
Kursheedt Family, 224.
Kuyter, Capt., 147.
"Lafayette Landing at the Bat-
Lake, Betsy, 341.
Lamb, J. & R., 28.
Lane, Sir Hugh, 257.
Langstafif, Sally, 346.
[ 378 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
Lansing, G. O., 345.
Latting's Observatory, 21.
Lawson, Ernest, 263.
Lazarus Family, 224.
Leary, John, Jr., 345.
Ledoux, Dr. Albert R., 263, 267,
Lefferts, Abigail. 185.
LefEerts, Chas. M., 134.
Lefferts House, 184.
Lefferts, Jacob, 185.
Leggett, Nancy, 166.
Lehmaier Family, 225.
Lehman Family, 225.
Leland Bros., 73.
Lenox, Robert, 10.
Lent's Circus, 86.
Leonardo Da Vinci, 250, 251.
Levy, the Cornetist, 69.
Levy, Hayman, 223.
Lewis & Conger, 41.
Lewis Morris Mansion, 295.
Lewis, Thomas, 287.
Liberty Boys, 159.
Liberty Day, 315.
Liberty Loan Drive, 251.
Liberty Pole, 87.
Liberty Pole, New Utrecht, 200.
Lightless Nights, 281.
Lincoln's Funeral, 81.
Lindsly, Elizabeth, 346.
Lindenmeyr, Henry, 79.
Lindenmeyr, H., & Bro., 79.
Lindenmeyr, Henry, & Sons, 75.
Lispenard & Hart, 223.
List of Clipper Ships, 108.
Livingston, Chancelor, 126.
Livingston Family, 70.
Livingston, Dr. John Henry, 186.
Lloyd, Bateman, 185.
Lockwood's Book Store, 81.
Loeb Family, 225.
London Row, 60.
Long Island R. R. Station, 211.
Lord & Taylor, 81.
Lorillard Mansion, 301.
Loss, Elizabeth, 50.
Loss, Susannah, 50.
Lossing, Benson J., 18.
Lott Homestead, 190.
Lovejoy's Hotel, 73.
Ludlow, Robert, 73.
Luks, George, 262.
Lydig, David, 73, 165, 166.
Lydig's Mills, 166.
Lynch, Tom, 67.
Lyons, David, 341.
Lyons, J. J., 224.
Mackay, Clarence H., 263.
Macomb, Robert, 232.
Macy, R. H., & Co., 30.
McAlpin, D. H., 41.
M'Carty, Thomas, 347.
M'Carty, Mrs. Charles, 345.
McDonald, Wilson, 41.
M'Gill, Mrs., 345.
M'Laughlin, Mrs. Rachel, 348.
M'Kean, Maria Theresa Sarah,
Maddern, Minnie, 36.
Madison Sq. Garden, 22.
Magonigle, Mrs. H. Van Buren,
Malcom, Richard M., 347.
Maloy, William, 88.
Malthie, Capt. Jonathan, 347.
Manhattan Company, 232, 235,
Manhattanville Stage Line, 36.
Manor of Fordham, 152.
Manor of Morrisania, 152.
Manor of Philipsburgh, 287.
Mansfield, Howard, 263.
Manship, Paul, 258, 263.
Mapes Estate, 160.
Marbury, Miss Elisabeth, 10.
Marchand, Victor, 81.
Margarum, James I., 347.
Martlaer's Rock Ass'n, 139.
Masonic Temple, 30.
Masterson, Margaret, 342.
Matheson, John, 346.
Maxwell, Ben., 88.
Maxwell, Dr. William H., 355.
May Family, 225.
Mayer, Constant, 41.
Mayor's Com. on Nat. Defense,
Mayor's Office, 112.
Mayors of the City, 1784 to 1918,
Mead, Deborah, 347.
Mears, Richard, 42.
Meeks, Edward, Jr., 347.
Melrose Hall, 180, 183.
Mercantile Library, 79, 87, 132.
Merchants' Association, 310, 319.
Merrill, Dr. William Pierson,
Merrltt, Stephen, 59.
Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Metzler, Louisa, 53.
Michael, Dr., 59.
Military Camouflage Float, 256.
Mill Street, 217, 223.
Mills & Gibbs, 87.
[ 379 ]
Minaugh. William, 345.
Minor, Beard, 41.
Minthorne, Hannah, 348.
Minuse, Georg-e, 346.
Mitchell, ex- Mayor John Pur-
roy. 111, 119, 321, 339, 341.
Mitchell, E. P., 172.
Mitchell, Mrs. James, 340.
Mitchell, Mrs. John Purroy, 340.
Moir, William, 30.
Moncheur, Baron, 310.
Moody, Lady Deborah, 198.
Moon's Stable, 81.
"Morgan Horses," 164.
Morgan, Wallace, 252.
Morgan, J. P., 70.
Morris, Lewis, Chief Justice, 152,
Morris Family, 70.
Morrison, John, 347.
Morse Building, 74.
Mott, Mrs. Jane, 346.
Mt. Sinai Hospital, 218.
Mowat, Commodore H., 346.
Mullan, Justice George V., 340.
Munson, Amos, 348.
Murray, Rear Admiral. 341.
Murray's Bellhanging Shop. 42.
Murray Hill Re-servoir, 236.
Museum of Natural History, 137.
Nash & Crook Restaurant, 74.
Nathan Family, 224.
National Biscuit Co., 56.
National Foreign Trade Council,
Neck Road, 191, 192.
NeLson, Dr. John. 348.
Nelson, W. H. deB., 263.
Nesbit. Robert, 73.
Nevenson, C. R. W., 258.
New Amsterdam, 217.
New Bowery, 217.
New Haven R. R., 79.
New Lots, 204, 211.
Newtown, 205, 206.
Newtown Pippin, 206.
Newtown Road, 205, 211. 215.
New Utrecht, 191, 199, 204.
New Utrecht Avenue, 200.
N. T. Asylum, 243.
N. Y. C. & H. R. R., 22, 79.
New York Common Lands, 47.
New York Gazette. 132.
"New York Gazette & Weekly
New York Historical Society, 17,
New York Mirror, 99.
New York National Bank, 55.
New Netherlands, 217.
New York Public Library, 236.
New York Savings Bank, 55.
New York Society Library, 132.
New York Water Works Com-
New York Wells Company, 235.
Nichols, Gen., 200.
Nichols, Mrs. Jane, 348.
Nicholson, William, 261.
Niess's Bakery, 33.
Ninth Regiment, 68.
Nipinichsen Heights, 287.
Noah, Mordecai M., 224.
Nostrand, Christina, 346.
Oak's Hotel, 81.
Oblienis Farmhouse, 295.
Oblong River, 235.
Odell's Cream Soda, 86.
Ogden, Abraham, 345.
Old Homestead, The, 67.
"Old Merchants of New York"
Oliver, Elizabeth, 347.
O'Neale, Hugh, 287.
"Opening of the Erie Canal,"
Orcutt, Lydia, 341.
Orphans' Asylum, 243.
"Outlaw of The Bronx," 165.
"Over There," by Albert Ster-
Pacifists of 1776, 242.
Packet and Clipper Ships, 243.
Page, Rev. John Mitchell, 340.
Paine, Cornelia, 345.
Paisley's Shoe Store, 33.
Parade of Drafted Men, 314.
Parade of New York Troops, 314.
Parade of Red Cross Nurses, 315.
Parker House, 41.
Parks, Dept. of, 113.
Parsons Trading Co., 80.
Parsons, W. H. & Bro., 80.
Passaic River, 236.
Patent of West Farms, 152.
Paterson, Mr., 347.
Patterson, John, 348.
Peckwell, Mrs. Mary, 347.
Peixotto, Ernest, 252.
Peixotto, M. L. M., 224.
Pelham Bay, 160.
Peltrow, Pollv, 347.
Peluse. Elizabeth, 347.
Pene du Bois, Guy, 262, 263.
Pennell, Joseph, 252, 262.
Pennington, Samuel, 348.
Perrine Pavement, 249.
[ 380 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Peters, Nelly, 348.
Petition for Water Supply, 229.
Phelps, Francis B., 236.
Phelps, Mary, 342.
Philips, Fredeiick, 287.
Philipse Family, 152.
Philipse Patent, 287.
Phillips, Duncan, 262, 263.
Phillips Family, 224. ^ '
Pine, Hannah, 348.
Police Department, 114.
Pool, Sally, 342.
Porter, Eldad, 345.
Poster Artists, 252, 253.
Pottery, Colonial, 296.
Pratt, Frederick B., 192.
President Wilson, 257, 307, 308,
310, 314, 315, 316, 320.
Prince, Ruth, 342.
Prospect Hills, 212.
Provincial Assembly, 152, 153.
Provoost, William, 151.
Public School No. 44, 87.
Public Library, 47 .
Pulitzer, Joseph, 74.
Pumping Stations, 283.
Purdy, Abraham, 346.
Putnam, Dr. Mary, 35.
Putnam, Gen., 164.
Pyle, James, 93.
Queen of The Clippers, 243.
Queens County Water Co., 284.
Radan, Maria, 345.
Raemaekers, Louis, 257.
Raleigh, Henry, 252.
Ramsay, Patty, 342.
Ransom, Miss, 88.
Raper, John, 346.
Raymond, Eliakim, 342.
Reade Family, 70.
Ready, John, 88.
Reckendorfer Family, 225.
Record Voyages of Clipper Ships,
Red Cross Drive, 251.
Red Cross Line, 9, 100.
Reid, Robert, 252.
Remsen, John H., 347.
Reservoir at Thirteenth St., 235,
Reuterdahl, Henry, 252.
Revaisson-Mollien Volumes, 250.
Richardson, William, 148, 346.
Ricketts, Chas., 258.
Ridley's Candy Store, 85.
Riegelman, Hon. Edward, 125.
Rilev, Polly, 348.
Ritschel, W., 262.
Roach, Dr., 60.
Roach, Capt., Thomas, 345.
Road Commissioners of West-
Road to Newtown, 205, 211, 215.
Robertson, John, 347.
Robertson, William, 345.
Robinson, Maiia, 346.
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 50, 320.
Rodman, John, 341.
Rodman, Mrs. Mauricia, 341.
Rogers, Eliza, 346.
Rogers, Moses, 10.
Rogers Peet & Co., 35.
Romance of the Seas, 107.
Roome's Real Estate, 30.
Roosevelt, Col. Theodore, 309,
Roosevelt, Lieut. Quentin, 321,
Root, Elihu, 310.
Rothenstein, William, 258.
Rowe, Barlow, 345.
Rozeo, Jacob, 341.
Rumbel, Miss, 88.
Russ Pavement, 244, 249.
Russia's War Commission, 313.
Ryder's Lane, 191.
Rye Ponds, 236.
Sage & Livingston, 80.
St. George's Church, 69, 75, 244.
St. George's Cricket Grounds, 93.
St. John's Church, 93.
St. John's Freight Station, 81.
St. John's Park, 80, 85.
St. Nicholas Society, 126.
St. Patrick's Cathedral, 50.
St. Paul's Church, Eastchester,
St. Peter's Church, Westchester,
St. Peter's Epis. Church, 60.
St. Thomas' Church, 50.
Sakmeister, Maria, 53.
Saltus, J. Sanford, 321.
Samuel, Corp., 348.
Sands, Mrs. Ann, 346.
Sands, William, 347.
Sargent, the Painter, 257.
Saville, Prof., Marshall H., 335.
Sayres, Comfort, 346.
Schermerhorn, C., 73.
Schermerhorn, Catlina, 345.
Schieffelin, William Jay, 263.
Schieren Building, 74.
Schiff Familv, 225.
Scholle Family, 225.
Schuyler Family, 70.
Schuyler, Robert, 79.
Schweighauser, Nicholas, 342.
Scotch Row, 60.
Scots of North Britain, 267.
[ 381 ]
Scott, George, 261.
Scott, Lewis A., 345.
Sciiba, Mrs. Maria. 348.
Scribner, Arthur H., 263.
Sea Witch, 107.
Seabury, Rev. Dr., 158.
Sedgwick, Henry Renwick, 263.
Seixas Family, 218.
Seixas, Gershom, 224.
"Settlement of the Jews in
North America," 223.
Seventy-first Reg., 42.
Seymour & Co., 80.
Shannon, Chas. H., 258.
Sharon Canal Company, 235.
Sharp, Nancy, 345.
Sharpe, Peter, 346.
Sheffield Farms Co., 36.
Shelme'dine, Mrs. Hannah, 348.
Sherrill, Adj. Gen. Chas. H. 263.
Shimeall, George, 347.
Ship Yards, 244.
Shipton, Eliza, 183.
Shot Tower, 74.
Shotv.-ell, John, 341.
Shotwell, Margaret, 341.
Shrady, John, 53.
Shrady. Margaret, 53.
Sierra Nevada, 107.
Silbee's Saloon, 30.
Si'ber. Sophia, 53.
Silver, Ephraim T., 346.
Silver Lake, 283.
Simonton, Jacob, 347.
Simson, Sampson, 218.
Sisters' Home, 56.
Sixth Nat. Bank. 41.
Slack, Richard, 345.
Slawson-Decker Milk Co., 36.
Sloan, John, 262.
Sloane, John, 2C3.
SmUh, Capt. AndrS, 252, 257.
Smith. Benjamin Bates, 348.
Smith, Deborah, 346.
Smith, Mrs. Jane, 348.
Smith, Joshua. Jr., 346.
Smith, Capt. Oliver, 345.
Smith. TTiomas H., 342.
Smith, William, 345.
Smith, Col. William Stephen,
Somers, Arthur, 355.
Sovereign of the Seas, 268.
Spring Hill, Flushing, 159.
Spuyten Duyvil, 290.
Stakes. Capt. John, 345.
"Stand Behind the Country's
Girlhood." poster, 252.
Standard Theatre, 36.
State Line. 100.
State Military Census, 314.
Star of the West, 243.
Statue of Liberty, 8.
Steamship Row. 15.
Steers, Capt., 35.
Stephens, Benjamin, 53.
Stern Bros., SO.
Sternberger Family, 225.
Sterner, Albert, 252.
Stevens, Alderman Samuel, 235.
Stevens, Jos. E., 263.
Stewart, Charles, 347.
Stewart, Robert, 346.
Stockbridge Indians, 289.
Stone Church, Wall St., 264.
Straus Family, 225.
Stream of the High Banks, 147.
Street Cleaning Depart. 4, 114.
Strong, Peter, 347.
Stuyvesant, Gov. Peter, 3, 198,
Sutphen, Fanny, 345.
Suez Canal, 24.
Sutton & Co., 106.
Swain, Uriah, 342.
Swallow Tail Line, 9, 100.
Sweeney, Peter B., 41.
Sword Fish, 107.
Synagogue, Earliest, 217.
Tack, Aug. Vincent, 262.
Taft, ex-president, 309.
Talmadge, Rebecca, 348.
Tammany Hall, 224.
Tammany, Society of, 126.
Tappen, Sarah, 347.
Taxes and Assessments, Dept.
Taylor, Rev. Dr., 41.
Tavlor, Mrs. Julia Isham. 290.
Taylor's Hotel, 67.
Taylor's Restaurant, 81.
Tea Water Pump, 226.
Ten Eyck, Thomas, 348.
"The New York Packet," 229
Third Avenue, Brooklyn. 212.
Thomas, Dr. William S., 133, 134.
Thompson, Thomas, 4, 10.
Thompson, Rebecca, 347.
Thomson -Houston Elec. Lt. Co.,
Thomson, William, 341.
Thorley & Son, 30.
Thurston. Charles H., 134.
Tide Mill, Gerritsen's Basin,
190, 191, 192.
Tippett's Hill. 288.
Tippett. George, 287.
Titus. Francis, 342.
Tompkins, Daniel, 348.
Tourneur, Daniel, 151.
Towle, Lieut. H. Ledyard, 256.
Townsend, Benjamin. 342.
Townsend, Harry, 252.
Townsend. Henry, 347.
Townsend, Peter, 342.
OF OLD NEW YORK
Townsend, Hon. Richard, 347.
Treidler, Adolph, 252.
Trenor's Lyric Hall, 42.
Trinity Church, 74.
Trodden Paths, 191.
Troops E. and F., 309.
•^True Britain," 164.
Tryon Row, 79.
Tutle, Capt. Ebenezer, 845.
Tyng, Rev. Dr., 244.
Union Club, 50.
Union Dime Savings Bank, 33.
U. S. Navy Publicity Bureau,
University Heights, 290.
Urban Water Co., 284.
Ustick, Mrs. Jane, 345.
Valentine Hill, 288.
Valuable Nevsr York Buildings,
Van Cliff Family, 70.
Van Cortlandt, Frederick, 229.
Van Cortlandt, James, 287.
Vanderbilt, Commodore, 85.
Vanderbilt Houses, The Twin,
Vanderbilt, William K., 50.
Van Der Donck, Dr. Adrian, 287.
Van Dyck, Dr. Henry, 264.
Vanderveer, Capt. Cornelius, 189.
Van De Water, Smith, 345.
Van Exveen, Wyntie, 148.
Van Gelder, Jane, 342.
Van Name, Hon. Calvin D., 125.
Van Nest, Garret B., 347.
Van Pelt Manor, 199.
Van Pelt, Mrs., 342.
Van Rensselaer Family, 70.
Van Zandt, Sally, 348.
Varick, Richard, 119.
Vernon & Bros., 80.
Verplank, Gulian, 232.
Viviana, Rene, 308.
Wake-up America Parade, 308.
Wall, Alexander J., 134.
Wall's Bakery, 30.
Wall St., 17.
Wallabout Road, 212.
Walter Family, 225.
War Activities, N. Y. Ci»ty, 307.
War Savings Stamp Drive, 251.
Ward, Richard, 345.
Ware, Lieut. Com. Bruce R., 321.
Warner, Jane, 341.
Warren, Admiral, 53.
Warren, Lloyd, 262.
Warren, Sir Peter, 70.
Warsin, Hanah, 341.
Washington, George, 69, 126, 160,
Washington, Louisa, 347.
Washington Market, 49.
Water, Gas & Electricity, Dept.,
Water Supply, Board of, 114.
Water Mains, 283.
Water's Stationery Store, 86.
Waters, Dr. Daniel D., 346.
Waterhouse, Dr., 346.
Watson, Mrs. Mary, 348.
Watts, John, 159.
Weber's Piano B'l'g., 59.
Webster, Daniel, 100.
Webster, R. T., 134.
Webster & Wheeler, 30.
West 20th St. Public School, 30.
Westchester Causeway, 160.
Westchester Creek, 148, 160.
Weston, Edward Payson, 42.
White, Alfred T., 192.
White, Canvass, 235.
White Squall, 243.
Whitman, Ann, 342.
Whitnev Estate, 192.
Wilcox, Col., 68.
Wild's Candy Store, 81.
Wilks, John, 348.
Wilkinson, James C, 347.
Williams, Capt. Alexander, 35.
Willlnk Entrance, Prospect Pk.,
Willis, Nancy, 347.
Wilsev, F. D., 355.
Wilson, President, 257, 308, 314.
315, 316. 320.
Windsor Hotel, 93.
Witthaus, R. A., 35.
Wolfe Collection, 303.
Woodbridge, Mrs. Lois, 346.
Woodhaven Water Supply Co.,
Workless Days. 281.
Wormser Family, 225.
Wright, Mary. 348.
Wurts, Mrs., 346.
Wyeth, N. C, 252.
Yale Club, 321.
Yankee Row, 60.
Young America, 94.
Young, John, 342.
Zabriskie Homestead, 185.
Zeiss, Dr., 345.
Zeiss, John William, M. D., 48.
Zeiss, Wilhelmina Christina, 4i
[ 383 ]
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