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llkl^^ ^ PUBLIC LIBRARY
1922 FORT WAYNE & ALLEN CO.. IND. W
lltll^^ PUBLIC LIBRARY ^
1922 FORT WAYNE & ALLEN CO., IND.
ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 1833 02210 3870
'1& Mf m Jurh
N^o. 6, New^ Series
Henry Collins Browm
I PRAY YOU LET US SATISFY
WITH THE MEMORIALS AND
THE THINGS OF FAME
THAT DO RENOWN THIS CITY"
Henry Collins Brown.
The Chauncey Holt Company
New York City
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FIFTY YEARS ON OLD FORTY-SECOND STREET 1
THE NORTH RIVER 41
The Hudson a Hundred Years Ago 58
Whales and Whalers of the Hudson 61
The Old Beverley Robinson House 66
West Point 70
Along the Shores in the City 71
Old Families on the River 81
THE DOWNTOWN ASSOCIATION 87
William Rhinelander Stewart.
THE NEW LIBERTY POLE ERECTED IN CITY HALL PARK
BY THE SONS OF THE REVOLUTION AND NEW YORK
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 123
ADDRESS OF SENATOR FRANK B. WILLIS OF OHIO 127
FOOTLIGHT FAVORITES FORTY YEARS AGO
A Stroll up Broadway 133
By Daniel J. Brown.
TOURING IN OLD NEW YORK 169
RECOLLECTIONS OF COMMODORE E. C. BENEDICT, EDWIN
AN INTERESTING OLD LETTER ABOUT THE BATTERY, 1840.. 187
AROUND MANHATTAN ISLAND IN A ROWBOAT IN 1872 190
EDGAR ALLAN POE IN NEW YORK CITY— SECOND PAPER 193
Dr. Appleton Morgan.
A MEMORABLE YEAR IN OLD NEW YORK, 1807 211
Mrs. Mary P. Ferris.
JONAS BRONCK'S LIBRARY 229
LADY EMMELINE STUART WORTLEY'S IMPRESSIONS OF
NEW YORK IN 1849 230
OUR CITY HALL 235
SOME OLD TIME PARADES AND FESTIVITIES
THE GREAT COLUMBUS CELEBRATION, 1892 243
School Children's Day 244
The Naval Parade 247
The Military Parade 247
The Night Pageant 248
EVACUATION DAY PARADE, 1883 251
WASHINGTON'S INAUGURAL CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION.
ATLANTIC CABLE CELEBRATION, 1858 260
PARADE IN HONOR OF THE PRINCE OF WALES, 1860 264
METROPOLITAN POLICE PARADE, 1865 264
CONDITION OF THE STREETS IN 1836 266
TRINITY CHURCH AND BURIAL GROUND (See Supplement) 271
Harry A. Chandler.
LIST OF HISTORICAL GRAVES IN TRINITY CHURCHYARD.... 273
ANOTHER LITTLE GIRL IN OLD NEW YORK WRITES A
A MEMOIR OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT 292
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 299
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS 302
LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG SPEECH 313
[ xni ]
List of Rare Old Prints, Engravings and Colored
Lithographs Contained in this Volume.
HUDSON RIVER CANAL BOATS (IN COLOR) Frontispiece
At their docks along West Street.
FORTY-SECOND STREET IN 1876 (FOLDER, IN COLOR) 1
EXTERIOR OF MR. F. W. SCHOONMAKER'S DRUG STORE, 42nd
STREET, 1875 3
FORTY-SECOND STREET LOOKING WEST FROM MADISON
AVENUE ABOUT 1900— WELLINGTON HOTEL 7
FORTY-SECOND STREET AT MADISON AVENUE— HOTEL
FORTY-SECOND STREET AT MADISON AVENUE IS
Buildings occtipying site of present Liggett Building.
FORTY-SECOND STREET AT PARK AVENUE, 1880 19
Showing old depot and railroad cut.
FORTY-SECOND STREET LOOKING WEST FROM PARK AVE-
NUE, 187S ; 23
SITE OF GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL AS IT APPEARED IN
VANDERBILT AVENUE AT 45TH STREET, SHOWING NORTH
END OF THE OLD DEPOT 31
GRAND CENTRAL DEPOT NEARING COMPLETION, 1869 35
INTERIOR OF TRAIN SHED, GRAND CENTRAL DEPOT, 1871.... 39
THE CHRYSTENAH 43
One of the most palatial Hudson River boats of her day.
THE ROCKLAND, HUDSON RIVER FERRY BOAT RUNNING
BETWEEN TARRYTOWN AND NYACK 47
OLD TIME HUDSON RIVER SLOOP (IN COLOR) 49
THE RALEIGH 51
Almost the last of the freight boats plying between New York and
nearby river towns.
GRAND SALOON OF PEOPLES EVENING LINE STEAMER
BETWEEN NEW YORK AND ALBANY, 1878 55
THE ST. JOHN 59
THE DEAN RICHMOND 60
THE DREW AND ST. JOHN PASSING THE HIGHLANDS 63
THE ELYSIAN FIELDS AND RIVER WALK AT HOBOKEN, 1830 64
THE HUDSON RIVER 67
Very rare view of baptismal scene near the White Fort, 1850.
THE PALISADES MOUNTAIN HOUSE (IN COLOR) 71
THE C. VIBBARD , 7i
HAYBOATS AND BARGES OFF THE PALISADES, ABOUT 1«30
IN COLOR) 74
THE RICHARD STOCKTON 75
HUDSON RIVER AT 135TH STREET, ABOUT 1845 77
THE PARADE GROUNDS AT WEST POINT (IN COLOR) 81
From a rare French lithograph by Milbert, about 1825.
THE MARY POWELL 81
THE SYLVAN DELL 83
VIEW FROM ALPINE, SOUTH TO NEW YORK (IN COLOR) 85
From Cliffdale, residence of Mr. George A. Zabriskie.
BROADWAY, SOUTH FROM THE ASTOR HOUSE, ABOUT 1850
(IN COLOR) 87
NASSAU AND LIBERTY STREETS, ABOUT 1820 89
TAPPAN LANDING EASTERN TERMINUS OF THE ERIE RAIL
ROAD, 1837 (IN COLOR) 92
BROAD STREET (CURB MARKET) ON SUNDAY 93
THE BEVERLY ROBINSON HOUSE— ARNOLD'S QUARTERS
WHEN IN COMMAND AT WEST POINT (IN COLOR) 96
BROWN BROTHERS' BUILDING AT WALL AND HANOVER
STREETS, 1865 97
MAIDEN LANE AND FRONT STREET, 1816, THE FLY MARKET 101
ASTOR HOUSE, BROADWAY AT VESEY STREET, 1832 105
[ XVI ]
BROADWAY AND FULTON STREET 109
MADISON AVENUE, LOOKING NORTH FROM 23RD STREET.... 113
NORTH BATTERY, AT THE FOOT OF HUBERT STREET, 1830
(IN COLOR) lis
ABRAHAM DE PEYSTER STATUE, IN BOWLING GREEN PARK 117
CASTLE GARDEN, 1850. (IN COLOR) 121
From rare Bornet view in possession of Downtown Association.
CITY HALL PARK, FLAG DAY, JUNE 14, 1921 122
Dedication of the New Liberty Pol*.
RAISING OF THE FLAG ON NEW LIBERTY POLE, FLAG DAY... 125
FERRY BOAT ON NORTH RIVER, ABOUT 1830 127
TAMMANY SOCIETY IN LIBERTY POLE CELEBRATION
SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI IN LIBERTY POLE CELEBRA-
TION PARADE 128
PRESIDENT JOHN A. WEEKES, OF NEW YORK HISTORICAL
SOCIETY, DELIVERING ADDRESS AT LIBERTY POLE
VIEW OF THE PALISADES OPPOSITE YONKERS (IN COLOR) 133
PROGRAM NEW YORK THEATRE, NOVEMBER 26, 1827 134
"BABY SHOW" ANNOUNCEMENT, BARNUM'S MUSEUM, 1862.. 136
PROGRAM BARNUM'S MUSEUM 138
PROGRAM CHATHAM THEATRE, MAY 11, 1825 140
STURGEON IN HUDSON RIVER (IN COLOR) 141
FAST HORSES ON HARLEM LANE, THE SPEEDWAY OF 1870.... 143
ST. NICHOLAS HOTEL, BROADWAY BETWEEN BROOME AND
SPRING STREETS 146
PEARL AND CHATHAM STREETS, SHOWING OLD SHANTIES.. 151
SLEIGHING ON BROADWAY 155
BROADWAY, NORTH TO GRACE CHURCH, ABOUT 1884 159
THE PALISADES, NEAR ENGLEWOOD LANDING (IN COLOR) 161
CHUCK CONNORS AND GROUP OF HIS FRIENDS 163
[ XVII ]
THE EAST RIVER, 54TH TO 5STH STREETS, SHOWING SHOT
TOWER AND ORIGINAL BREVOORT FARM, 1866 167
SUTTON MANOR, EAST RIVER AND 57TH STREET, SHOW-
ING COUNTRY RESIDENCE OF DAVID PROVOST, 1858 171
PEEKSKILL LANDING ON THE HUDSON, ABOUT 182S (IN
WHALES IN NEW YORK HARBOR, 1679 (IN COLOR) 181
WALL AND BROAD STREETS, ABOUT 1885 185
Site of addition to the New York Stock Exchange.
PAGE FROM A WHALER'S LOG BOOK (IN COLOR) 188
EDGAR ALLAN POE 192
From engraving by John Sartain.
BRONZE TABLET MARKING ORIGINAL SITE OF THE POE
MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB, IN THE STUDIO OF HER HOME IN
THE COLEMAN HOUSE, 1875 213
THE OLD FERRY HOUSE, CEDAR AND GREENWICH STREETS,
G. M. BOURNE'S BOOK AND PRINT SHOP, 359 BROADWAY,
Also first home of the Union Club, 1836.
PARK AVENUE, EAST SIDE S2ND TO 53RD STREET, ABOUT
RESIDENCE OF HENRY BREEVOORT, 24 FIFTH AVENUE 233
WEST BROADWAY AND HUDSON STREET, 1880 239
EVACUATION DAY PARADE PASSING ST. PAUL'S CHURCH,
PARADE CELEBRATING THE LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC
CABLE, 1859 249
SCENE ON THE PORCH OF THE CLUB HOUSE OF THE LARCH-
MONT YACHT CLUB, 1886 253
PORTRAIT OF CYRUS W. FIELD 257
POLICE PARADE IN NEW YORK, 1859 261
MADISON AVENUE AND 26TH STREET, 1854 269
[ xvni ]
OLD TRINITY AND ITS FAMOUS CHURCHYARD (IN COLOR).. 271
(Folding chart with key to location historical graves.)
HOW WASHINGTON HEIGHTS HAS CHANGED IN LESS THAN
AUDUBON PARK, 1S8TH STREET AND RIVERSIDE DRIVE 281
SPEEDWAY AT 1S6TH STREET AND THE HARLEM RIVER 283
BROADWAY AND 148TH STREET, 1900 285
BRIDGE OVER BROADWAY CONNECTING TRINITY CEME-
TERY, 154TH AND 1S5TH STREETS 287
FORT WASHINGTON POINT AND VIEW OF THE PALISADES 289
GENERAL SIMON BOLIVAR STATUE IN CENTRAL PARK 297
EARLY TYPE OF BICYCLE USED IN NEW YORK 315
VIK«' nV TlUE .-VORTO HIIIK OK 1''<»K1T-»K«;0!VII» SXH5RIST FTR051 nfJUJ-lTin TO I.KXII?.-i:T«»X AVKVI'KM IH7<I
Quite recently the De Witt Clinton was again put upon the tracks and
made part of a journey to Chicago under her own steam. She excited much
interest on the way and received everywhere a cordial reception.
of OLD NEW YORK
FIFTY YEARS ON OLD FORTY-SECOND STREET,
Doctor F. W. Schoonmaker, whose drug store is now among the oldest
in the City and the only store on 42nd Street that has survived the changes
since 1871 is still hale and hearty. He is at his business every day and
has probably more personal friends in the neighborhood than any other man
on the street. We asked Dr. Schoonmaker if he wouldn't kindly talk about
the old days for the benefit of the present generation and for the edification
of his old friends. The following article is very much as Dr. Schoonmaker
recalled the old days but some interpolations by Mr. Simeon Ford, Dr.
Virgil P. Gibney, Mr. Chas. Elliott Warren and other neighbors have been
included. — Editor.
IT is very satisfactory and an inspiring thought to
recall that the first important building to be erected
on old Forty-second Street was one devoted to that
noblest of all charities— the relief of pain and suffering
among the children of the poor — the Hospital for the
Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled— which stood for so
many years at the corner of Lexington Avenue. It was
[ 1 ]
then so far out of town as to be regarded as a Country
Hospital. In the Annual report of 1871 we find the fol-
lowing description of its then picturesque location :
The elevation of the edifice commands not only a wide view of the
upper part of the city, but also of regions beyond. On the one hand may be
seen the bright waters of the Sound; on the other, in the distance, lie the
wooded hills of New Jersey. Immediately around on all sides, broad hand-
some avenues stretch away with their long lines of palatial residences, while
the unique and imposing appearance of the structure itself, which is the
'pointed style' of architecture presents a conspicuous way-mark for that part
of the city.
The Institution has progressed under a management
that has always commanded the respect of the public. It
is interesting to trace the families in the personnel of the
Board. For example :
Jonathan Sturges was one of the incorporators and a member of the first
Board. His son, Frederick Sturges, was elected in 1871, became treasurer
in 1875, and president in 1901. His son, Arthur Sturges, served on the
Board for a number of years.
William H. Osborn, a son-in-law of Jonathan Sturges, became a mem-
ber in 1870, and the latter part of his life served as president. His son,
William Church Osborn, and grandson of Jonathan Sturges has for many
years been active as a member, secretary and now president of the Board.
Sons or grandsons of former Managers, all members of the present
board are: William H. Macy, Jr., John N. Stearns, Jr., Adrian Iselin, Jr.,
R. R. Colgate, Frederick Potter, John Morgan Wing, Walter P. Bliss, and
William Church Osborn.
The existence of this Hospital was the reason for the
frequent appearance on this Street of the most eminent
surgeons of the day, including such names as : Valentine
Mott, William H. Van Buren, Willard Parker, John M.
Carnochan, Gurdon Buck, Frank H. Hamilton, Virgil P.
Gibney, Austin Flint, John T. Metcalf, Cornelius R.
Agnew, Edward G. Janeway, William T. Bull, James R.
Wood, H. Marion Sims, Drs. Agnew, Jacobi, Seguin.
Helmuth, McCreery, to say nothing of the eminent
consulting physicians on the present staff.
To Dr. James Knight, a struggling practitioner in the
60's the organization of this Society was largely due. He
was doing what he could in his own home to care for the
poor unfortunates who came under his personal care, but
[ 2 ]
Exterior of Mr. F, W. Schoon-makkr's Drug Store, the first on 42nd
Street. Located at the southwest corner of present
Hotel Commodore, 187S
OF OLD NEW YORK
the necessity for larger facilities soon became a pressing
need. He finally succeeded in securing the support of
Drs. Valentine Mott, Willard Parker, J. M. Carnochan,
James R. Wood, George Opdyke, R. A. Wittans, Wilson
G. Hunt, Robert L. Stewart, Peter Cooper and T. B.
Stillman. A regular institution was then formed in 1863
with the following Board of Managers :
ROBERT B. MINTURN,
JOHN C. GREEN
A. R. WETMORE
WILLIAM A. BOOTH
ROBERT M. HARTLEY
JOSEPH B. COLLINS
JAMES W. BEEKMAN
JOHN DAVID WOLFE
ENOCH L. FANCHER
CHARLES N. TALBOT
J. F. SHEAFE
HENRY S. TERBELL
JOHN W. QUINCY
Its presidents have been John C. Green, 1864 to 1874;
Stewart Brown, 1875 to 1879; Samuel Willets, 1880 to
1883 ; whose son, John T. Willets, has been for a number
of years vice-president and a valuable member of the
Board; William H. Macy, 1884 to 1887; William H. Os-
born, 1888 to 1890; William B. Isham, 1891 to 1901;
Frederick Sturges, 1902 to 1910; William Church Os-
born elected 1911.
All New York now knows the magnitude to which this
hospital has grown. Dr. Virgil P. Gibney, who succeeded
Dr. Knight in 1887 has been connected with the active
work of the institution as surgeon-in-chief for a period
just one year short of half a century.
When the expanding business of the Railroad com-
pelled the acquisition of the Lexington Avenue corner,
the Society removed east of 2nd Avenue and now has a
modern building of the highest type but still on the street
of its origin.
[ 5 ]
Through the kindness of its friends, the Hospital is
also able to provide its little patients with many a delight-
ful sojourn in the country during the heated term, prom-
inent among them being "Robins Nest," Tarrytown, with
accommodations for twenty-two of the children, from
May until December ; the country Home for Convalescent
Babies, at Sea Cliff; the Haxton Cottage at Bath Beach,
maintained by the Children's Aid Society ; the New York
Home for Destitute Crippled Children ; the Playground
Assn. of America; the People's University Extension
Society ; the Crippled Children's Driving Fund Assn. ;
the model country hospital maintained at Sharon, Connect-
icut, built especially for the needs of the children, by
Miss Emily O. Wheeler, and known as "The Bobolinks;"
the annual treats, like the Potter entertainment, pro-
vided by Miss Blanche Potter, in memory of her father,
Mr. Orlando B. Potter, a valued member of our Board;
the McAlpin Day, the 20th of June, on which occasion
there is a treat to all the patients, a ride in the Park,
games on the lawn ; the Witherell Memorial, a day set
apart once a year, for an entertainment, drive in the
Park, and a treat of ice cream, cake and oranges for the
I must mention an amusing experience I had with two
of the young doctors in the Hospital with most of whom
I was intimate. It was during the building of St. Pat-
rick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue. The lower part was
completed and they had fairs almost every night. We
visited the Fair one evening and please rememl)er these
young physicians were only getting $30.00 per month,
board and wash. As we strolled down the aisle, a dear
little girl came up to us selling flowers and asked us to
buy some. Dr. Billy White said "I won't buy any flowers
[ 6 ]
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M S J H
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OF OLD NEW YORK
but I will give you $5.00 for one of your pretty curls."
She came back to us after a time with a pair of scissors
and said : "Mother said you can have one" and Doctor
White had to part with a week's salary.
Altogether, it is a great satisfaction to know that this
old street started its career as a friend of the many friend-
less children in our great city and that it has been able
to do so much for those unable to do for themselves.
I was among the first of the old merchants on 42nd
Street who came here when the original Grand Central
Station was built. That was a famous building in its
day. There was nothing like it in the country and for
years it was the most talked of structure in the United
States. I have lived to see this old time Eighth Wonder
of the world pass away. I have seen its successor pass
away; and if history moves much faster it would not sur-
prise me if I lived to see the present building also disap-
pear and all the commuters wend their way home not
on the 5:15 but in their own machines like so many migrat-
Forty-second Street, when I first opened my modest
drug store in the south west corner of the present Com-
modore Hotel, was a beautiful street. It was very wide
and was lined with beautiful shade trees, most of the way
to 6th Avenue. There were two particularly fine mag-
nolias in the lawn in front of the Hospital for the Rupt-
ured and Crippled. When they bloomed they were a
beautiful sight and the neighbors for blocks around came
to see them. Beyond Lexington Avenue the land was
still unimproved and was surrounded by a white fence.
The old lady who owned the plot lived in a small wooden
house on the corner of 43rd Street. She kept a large
herd of goats and sold goats' milk which was then in great
[ 9 ]
demand. Goats were about the only profitable crop that
could be raised on this soil as can be readily understood
when you look at the picture which shows how this
part of town looked in those days. When the goats
wearied of gamboling on the green they foregathered on
the front steps of the Hospital and chewed their cuds con-
tentedly while some took a nap. Farther down the
street the land terminated in a large overhanging bluff
commanding a splendid view of the East River, with a
gentle hill sloping to the pebbly shore. A row of nice
houses was built here — Prospect Terrace — in one of
which I started housekeeping, and after business hours
with Mr. Zenos Crowden with whom I shared the house,
we all — the neighbors — used to sit in the gardens facing
the river and watch the Harlem boats go by — the Sylvan
Stream, Sylvan Glen, Sylvan Grove and Rosedale. A
little later the great Boston boats added to the interest
of the scene. It was about the time Jim Fiske secured
control of the Fall River Line and no such gorgeousness
was ever before seen in steamer travel as he provided in
Besides being my warm friend, Mr. Zenos Crowden
was also the owner of the Fish department in the Grand
Union Market adjoining my store and frequently took
some of us with him in the very early morning to the
foot of Fulton Market where all the fish came in. We
went in his fish cart but you needn't turn your nose up
at this. All the fish carts and butcher carts had nifty
horses in those days and a brush down the Bowery with a
rival team was a heartening sight ! Zenos had several very
speedy animals and I greatly enjoyed these little side
trips. Refrigerating cars were unknown in those days
and the finny tribe were still swimming around in the
[ 10 ]
S < C
? s _
K o 2
2 ix. H
OF OLD NEW YORK
tanks of the sloops where Mr. Crowden bought his sup-
phes. We generally took breakfast at Billy Hitchcock's,
a tremendously popular place with the all-night workers
of the city. He sold a fine cup of coffee and two crullers
for 3 cents. There was a coin of this denomination in
circulation after the war but it finally gave way to the
nickel. Then Billy made his cups bigger and added an
extra cruller and charged 5 cents.
The crockery in this establishment was unique. I think
it was made of the same stuiT out of which flower pots
were produced. There were no handles on the cups, the
rims bore the honored scars of many a desperate encounter
with the dishwasher and large rough spaces ornamented
the edges of cups, plates and bowls. This provided a
disagreeable impression at first but you soon became
used to it once you became a regular customer. It would
hardly find credence if I were to enumerate the long list
of distinguished men who at one time or other dined at
this modest establishment. It remains a fact, however,
that with the passing of Billy Hitchcock passed also the
fine art of cooking "beef and." I know of a lot of men
who would back up this statement were it not for the
fact that they are bank presidents, railroad magnates and
"Big Business" men generally, some of whose wives might
shy at these early recollections.
Running a drug store in those days was a pleasant
occupation. Everybody knew us and we knew everybody.
It was very much like being a doctor, only we had none
of the doctor's heavy responsibility. Yet we took a lively
interest in all the patients and shared in the doctor's re-
lief when a crisis had been passed and the road to re-
covery made certain.
[ 13 ]
My very first location is now covered, as I have said,
by part of the Hotel Commodore. The great Croton
Market was on one side of my little store, the Grand
Union on the other side. And as it was the custom in
those days to have long racks in front of the Market with
beef, mutton and fowl, displayed hanging from the rack,
it was no uncommon thing for my store to be well hid on
either side and many a time I have gone and asked Mr.
Henry Tyson, a fine friend of mine, to let me have a little
more gangway for the entrance to my store. I would like
to say now that I never have been thrown in with a finer
set of men and the people also that came to Market. Mr.
Joseph Kinch, a relative of Mr. A. T. Stewart, had one of
the stands in the Croton Market, also Mr. Henry Tyson,
who after the Market was taken down, went to Fifth
Avenue and 45th Street and conducted a market near the
Windsor Hotel of which my friends, Mr. W. S. Hawk and
Mr. George Weatherbee were the proprietors ; afterwards
taking over the Hotel Manhattan. Then came part of a
row of "tax payers" — small wooden buildings one story
high. Among" them was J. Abrahams who kept a cigar
store ; the Billy Willis, who sold shirts and gent's fur-
nishings; the Croton IMarket, Frederick Brandies, a
fashionable grocer, famed for his Madeira wines and
high class wet goods. Beyond him was perhaps the most
important store of all — the Grand Union Market. This
place kept the astonishing number of twenty-five clerks.
In those days all New York did its own marketing and it
was nothing unusual to see men like Collis P. Hunting-
ton, Henry Clews, Levi P. Morton, Dr. John W. Draper,
Stephen Tyng, A. T. Stewart, Shepard Knapp, Frank
Work, Robert Bonner and others of that class come to
the Market before going down town to select their own
[ 14 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
supplies. New York was still in the "Age of Innocence"
as Mrs. Wharton says.
Next to the Market, on the Lexington Avenue side,
was a large wall paper house, Warren, Fuller & Lang.
Mr. James Pinchot, the father of Gifford Pinchot, Mr.
Roosevelt's friend, being one of the firm. I was quite
honored to have the formation of their partnership drawn
up in my store and to be a witness to it and thereby
brought into friendship with these men.
The managing physician of the Hospital proved a great
friend to me. When he met me one morning and asked
me what I intended to do, I said I was going to open a
drug store. "That's fine," he said. "I will help you all
I can." And he did. For more than forty years this
friendship with Dr. Virgil P. Gibney continued and I
recall it with pleasantest recollections. In the late
afternoon the young internes practiced target shoot-
ing in the Hospital grounds.
I remember also the great Doctor H. Marion Sims.
He had a patient at the old Grand Union Hotel and sent
over to my little store for a mustard plaster. I had not
at that time been introduced to the mustard leaf, just
being introduced by Seabury, now Seabury and Johnson
so I went out and got an egg and some cloth and with
mustard made him one like mother made for us children.
I took it over to him at the Hotel on a platter and he
said, "Thank you, very much, I will remember you for
this," and he did.
We had in those early days only a few specialists among
our doctors. They were nearly all in general practice. I
can quote Dr. Agnew, Dr. Seguin, Professor Sands, Dr. P.
Callan, Dr. Abraham Jacobi, Dr. Andrew H. Smith, Dr.
William Todd Helmuth whose home, S. E. corner Madison
Avenue and 42nd Street was much to me and my family
physician, Dr. John A. AlcCreery, a wonderful friend of
I must not forget the other side of the Grand Central
Station. On the corner of Vanderbilt Avenue and 42nd
Street, which was J. N. Galway's fine grocery store, a two
story building and over the store were the first of the
overflow offices of the Grand Central Depot. Judge Ash-
bel Green and Mr. Van Arsdale, were the legal advisers.
Mrs. Gibson's candy store was next door to the grocery
store on 42nd Street. And the way into her store, a
little ways from the Street. This store was afterwards
taken over by Mr. William Mendel, in after years, who
today, has many stores in and around the depot.
Mr. George Sands, a brother of Professor Sands, drug
store was in the middle of the block on Vanderbilt
Avenue, opposite the Harlem waiting room. Afterwards
taken over by Mr. James Hetherington, who now has a
corner on 42nd Street. The Charles Grocery Store was
then at the corner of Vanderbilt Avenue and 43rd Street,
and private houses clear around to Dr. Tyng's church. The
building of the subway was a sad trial for all of us as
we pretty nearly lost courage and our business besides.
I remember my friend, Mr. Harry Sanford, who had
charge of the construction work on 42nd Street for Deg-
nan & McLean, calling it a great big celery trench, and
so it was. I well remember the explosion at the face of
the tunnel on Park Avenue, in which General Shaler
lost his life and which played havoc with the Murray
Hill and Grand Union and blew my windows clear out
and nearly me also.
We were so far "up town" that the large wholesale
houses sent their drummers only once a week, or when-
[ 18 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
ever they made their regular trips up through the State.
After stopping at 42nd Street the next was to take the
train for Boston, Albany and all points East and West.
When we had to go down town for anything we left the
store about noon and were rarely back before seven or
eight o'clock. There was no rapid transit in those days
and in very stormy weather in winter the snow made the
trip practically impossible, and the Street cars had six
and eight horses to draw them. I have seen almost a
week go by before normal relations could be resumed with
down town, and in the great blizzard of 1888 we were
without communication of any kind from anywhere for
several days as even the railroads were out of commission.
That blizzard was certainly a most remarkable storm. I
never saw anything like it before or since. For many years
everything dated from before or after the blizzard. Many
lives were lost but perhaps the most conspicuous was that
of Roscoe Conklin. He became confused in Madison
Square and was found wandering helplessly around the
winding paths. An illness resulting from this exposure
brought this brilliant career to an untimely end.
In front of the Grand Central on the Vanderbilt Ave.
side, old New Yorkers will recall that for many years a
vacant lot stood there enclosed in a picket fence. It
covered the entire block. The great Hotel Biltmore now
occupies the same identical place.
For many years that was the private play ground of
beautiful Maud S. the greatest little trotter in my opinion
that ever stood on four feet. She was Wm. H. Vanderbilt's
great pet and he had her brought where he could see her
out of the office windows where he managed the great
railroad. Many a time I have felt the silky nose of this
beautiful mare against my face and it was rightly con-
[ 21 ]
sidered a great honor to be allowed this privilege. I often
wonder if Johnny Bowman, himself a great horse lover,
knows that his great hotel stands on Maud S.' playground?
Building soon began on the vacant lots east of Lexing-
ton Avenue and the goat farm disappeared. On the corner
rose a hotel called the Vanderbilt. It afterwards achieved
great local fame as the headquarters of the redoubtable
John L. Sullivan. Small boys used to haunt this locality
persistently in the hope of catching a glimpse of the fam-
ous slugger. I often wish Miss Anne Morgan could have
seen John L. Only if John L. had lived, there would have
been no Devastated France, because, in the opinion of the
average man in those days, John L. could have licked the
whole German Army with one hand tied behind his back.
What Sullivan would have said could he come back and at-
tend one of those prize fights (?) pulled off by my good
friend Sweeney in the soft carpeted room of the Commo-
dore, staggers the imagination. "Boxing Bout in the Ball
Room ; take the Elevators to the right !" Imagine the
effect of this announcement on John L. ! And when he
saw the mad rush to the tea room, between bouts, for a
drink of Orange Pekoe, the old man would doubtless
have committed murder. Ah ! me.
But I digress.
Events along the old Street were now moving with
amazing rapidity. The immense amount of business
created by the opening of the new depot already began to
make itself manifest. Hotels began springing up in every
direction and soon we had the Allerton, adjoining the
cattle yards at 44th Street and Fifth Avenue; Wellington
at the corner of Madison Avenue, the Meurice and the
Bristol occupying the opposite corners of Fifth Avenue
and the Riggs house on Park Avenue in the middle of a
r 22 1
FORTV-SECOND StREET LOOKING WEST FROM PaRK AvENUE, 1875.
An interesting view of the south side of 42nd Street opposite
THE depot, occupied BY SMALL SHANTIES. PRESENT SITE
OF THE Belmont Hotel, Irving National
OF OLD NEW YORK
row of houses between 41st and 42nd Streets, and the
Westchester, which faced 42nd Street just around the
corner from the avenue. These last two hotels as well
as the entire block, subsequently became the Grand Union,
which for more than a quarter of a century shone with
enviable brilliancy in a city soon to be famed for its re-
markable achievements in the line of Hotel accommoda-
About 1880 additions to the station on 42nd Street
caused the removal of the "tax payers" in which I was
located and I removed to the corner of Park Avenue
where the Belmont now stands and remained there for
the greater part of my life. The old location had been
splendid in its day, and I gave it up with great regret.
Not only did I enjoy the trade of a somewhat prosperous
neighborhood, but many distinguished travellers from the
railroad — from abroad as well as at home — found occasion
to need the services of my establishment. In the course
of time I came to know a great many men prominent in
all walks of life. When I moved to my new store I
found the accommodations were larger and better in
every way and I continued to add to the list of my friends
and to hold the old ones.
The telephone at that time was beginning to be intro-
duced and the Company made strenuous efforts to popu-
larize its use. It was hard work, as a grating, rasping
noise all but drowned the conversation in those days and
sometimes it took an hour to get a message through. My
dear old friend, the late Marshall P. Wilder, used to con-
vulse his audience by his imitation of a telephone con-
versation. He would put an imaginary receiver to his
ear and commence, "Hullo Billy is this" — and then he
would break off into a series of "ar-r-r-rr's" that re-
[ 25 ]
produced exactly the aggravating sound with which most
of us were familiar. Marshall got away with this story
long after the trouble had disappeared. He kept it up
till the Subways were opened when he substituted his now
classic story about how they originally came to be built —
"so that a New Yorker could go to Brooklyn without
being seen." Marshall was very diminutive in appearance
and once when he announced to an out of town com-
mittee where he was to perform that evening that he was
Mr. Wilder, the chairman asked him "Where is your
father?" What a pleasant memory my merry little friend
has left to a lot of us old New Yorkers !
Well, as I was saying, the telephone was here all right
and I was so much impressed with it that I was among
those who decided to give it a show. I was the only one
in the neighborhood to have an all night service and soon
after five, just as today, it was surrounded by a group of
tired business men who wanted to get word to their
wives that they were detained at the ofifice and not to keep
supper for them. It soon began to grow in favor and
every day it seemed to me Theodore Vail would step ofif
the Boston train on his tireless quest for more money for
Population began to build up the neighborhood rapidly
and soon we were surrounded on all sides by handsome
"brown stones." No one ever thought of varying the
type of architecture and long rows of these doleful struc-
tures lined both sides of every street. Churches too, be-
gan to make their appearance, the most prominent of
which was, I think, Dr. Tyng's on the corner of Madison
Avenue. The design of this church was quite bizarre, the
prevailing features being diamond groups of colored
bricks, suggesting nothing so much as a piece of kitchen
• [ 26 ]
"t/3 < 3
S« s S
p^ f s
- u (0
■« i- 2
w ^i 3
« < 2
H « <
OF OLD NEW YORK
oil cloth. It was promptly nicknamed the Church of the
Holy Oil Cloth. St. Bartholomew's moved up from
Lafayette Place to 44th Street. It has recently gone to
the site occupied by F. & M. Schaefer's Brewery. The
Church of the Disciples with a hundred minarets and
towers stood where the Manhattan Athletic Club sub-
sequently erected its building. This was afterward oc-
cupied by the Tiffany Studios. Then there was the Eman-
uel Church ; Dr. Robinson's Presbyterian ; Bishop New-
man's which General Grant attended (called the Circus
Church because all the seats were arranged almost in a
circle,) and the Scotch Church where the Aeolian Hall
now stands, presided over by Dr. Thomas Hastings whose
son's firm, Carrere & Hastings, the famous architects,
built the noble Public Library which stands on the site
of the old Croton Reservoir.
The Reservoir marked the end of the Sunday Church
parade crowd. At noon on Sundays and especially on
Easter, the display of finery was impressive and until one
o'clock the avenue was the scene of as animated a gather-
ing as could be found anwhere in the world. Leaders
of society, mighty men in the world of politics, art and
commerce were recognizable everywhere, and it was a
sight not soon to be forgotten. Glistening equipages filled
the broad Street, the occupants of which were kept busy
acknowledging greetings from the sidewalk. Not an
automobile was in existence, smart looking Victorias being
all the rage.
One day there was a fire in the store next door to mine,
kept by Purcell the famous Caterer. I was greatly dam-
aged by the water which almost swept my store into the
Street. I was for the moment put out of business. Seeing
my plight, Mr. Simeon Ford of the Grand Union Hotel
opposite sent over a cordial message to come over to his
place and they would make room for me, which I did. At
the end of two weeks or more my own damage was re-
paired and the store fit for business again. I thanked
my generous neighbors for their great kindness to me
and asked for my bill. "You don't owe us a cent" re-
plied Mr. Ford ; "Shaw and I were only too glad to help
you out." That's the kind of neighbors we had in those
The Grand Union was a wonderful institution in its
day. It was probably at its best in the early 90's. On
summer evenings they used to set chairs out on the side-
walk and I have counted nearly a hundred at a time.
Guests used to tilt them back, smoke and chat till mid-
About once a week a couple of darkies used to come
around. One whistled and the other accompanied him
on a guitar. The wonderful flute like notes of this old
darky were something I cannot begin to describe. This
little impromptu concert always ended in a burst of ap-
plause and the guests of the hotel filled the hat that was
passed around with shining silver instead of the coppers
that was the usual portion of this itinerant band.
On the 42nd Street side of the hotel were the car barns
of a new line that ran up to Manhattanville and Blooming-
dale Asylum. Harry Kernell a popular comedian of the
day, used to tell how he took this line one day and got
off at the Asylum. Walking through the grounds he
espied one of the inmates trundling a wheelbarrow
along upside down. "I say, my friend," said Kernell,
"you got that thing wrong side up." "No I haven't," he
replied, "the other day I turned it that way and a man
filled it full of bricks."
OF OLD NEW YORK
Another sight which the guests of the Grand Union
enjoyed free of charge, was the pigeons that hned our
side of the avenue directly opposite. Their homes were
in the belfry of Dr. Tyng's Church which provided an
ideal retreat and they had multiplied to an amazing extent.
At noon the cabbies put the feed bag on their horses and
the pigeons gathered to share in the grain that fell from
the bags when the horses tossed their heads up in the air
to get the last morsel. The birds were so intent upon
feeding that you could almost pick them from the ground
and their antics trying to get a place of vantage caused
many an amusing incident.
After the meal the pigeons would roost on the eaves
of the Depot building and enjoy a period of quiet. Some
of them selected the hour hands of the big depot clock
for their siesta with the result that many a passenger lost
his train. There are still a few descendants of this orig-
inal flock living in the eaves of the Hotel Belmont, but
the number is sadly depleted. The taxi and the subway
have made the struggle for existence a serious problem.
The Grand Union grew out of a row of private dwell-
ings that stood on the site before the opening of the depot.
One by one the houses were absorbed, the walls knocked
in and the building annexed. These various additions
introduced a surprisingly numerous lot of stairs in the
most unexpected places in the hotel. You could always
tell a regular boarder by the peculiar way he walked in
the open. Every few steps he would climb an imaginary
flight of stairs or open an imaginary door. When the hotel
was finally torn down, all these old timers were qualified
for parts in "The Yellow Jacket."
But the management ran the place in an orderly busi-
ness like fashion and prospered mightily. Mr. Ford told
[ 33 ]
of his early days one night at a hotel men's dinner. He
"When I first plunged into this business I had a foolish
notion that there should be rules for the conduct of a
hotel, and that guests should be expected to observe them.
In consequence, I made some bad breaks. I remember
once when a nice, benevolent-looking old gentleman had
registered, and was about to go to his room. I stepped up
to him, and with an engaging smile I said : 'My dear
sir, pardon me for addressing you, but from the hayseed
which still lingers lovingly in your whiskers, and the
fertilizer which yet adheres to your cheap though service-
able army brogans, I hazzard the guess that you are an
agriculturist and unaccustomed to the rules to be observed
in one of New York's palatial caravansaries. Permit me,
therefore, to suggest that upon retiring to your sumptu-
ous $1 apartment you refrain from blowing out the gas,
as is the time-honored custom of the residents of the out-
lying districts, but turn the key, thus.' "
"He glared at me. and went his way, and I noticed that
the clerk, who had been standing by, had broken out into
a cold sweat."
" 'Why,' said he, 'that man is a United States Senator
from Kansas ; didn't you notice his whiskers ? He ex-
pected to stop at the Manhattan, but chancing to see one
of their advertisements, observed that the Grand Central
Depot was attached to the house, and he was afraid the
locomotives would break his rest, so he came down to this
sequestered nook so as to be quiet, and now you have
driven him away.' "
" 'It makes no difference to me whether he is a Senator
or not,' I replied; 'I am no believer in class distinctions.
[ 34 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
We cannot afford to give any man a room for $1 and
have him absorb $2 worth of illuminating gas.' "
When the Lincoln Bank (now the Irving) was first
opened General Thomas L. James was a familiar figure
on 42nd Street. James D. Layng of the West Shore,
Col. Van Santvoord, Dr. Seward Webb, his brothers
Walter and Frank, John Carson, S. R. Calloway, J. H.
Newman, Chauncy M. Depew, Ira M. Place, Miles Bron-
son, J. M. Toucey, George H. Daniels, Wm. H. Mendel
and others were also much in evidence. J. N. Galway &
Co., Gibson Candy Store and Hetherington's Drug Store
were near the corner. Dave Hammond and Fred Ham-
mond, who opened the Murray Hill were for a time being
the cynosure of all eyes. Lon Roberts who afterwards
came to the Belmont, opened the Ponce de Leon in St.
Augustine, the first of Flagler's great hotels in Florida.
There were no less than thirteen baths in this hotel as
Carrere, the architect loudly boasted, and it was regarded
as the very last word in hotel luxuriance. They after-
wards put a bath in every room. It was to that hotel
that Cleveland went on his honeymoon and attended a
great reception by W. C. Whitney and others.
The Lincoln National Bank was organized in the upper
floor of a little building on the northwest corner of 42nd
Street and Vanderbilt Avenue, in which building the
West Shore Railroad Company shared occupancy. Since
that time, the Lincoln Bank has become a branch of the
Irving and instead of one bank on the Street, or in the
immediate environment, every financial institution of size,
and almost all of the smaller ones, have their branch of-
fices and some their main offices, immediately at hand.
And the Street has jumped in a very short period of time
from its primitive condition to a Street which bids fair,
[ 2>1 ]
in the near future, to outbid Wall Street and rapidly be-
come the financial center of the world.
It would take a much larger number of pages than the
Manual contains to write an adequate description of old
Forty-second Street. It is easily the heart of the new
world in a sense, as it directly connects with all the cap-
itols of the old World. As a matter of fact, one can
start from the Grand Central, circumnavigate the earth
and wind up where he began should he so elect and travel
in a straight line all the way.
Note. This is the second article in a series of the Great Streets of
New York of which old Bond Street was the first. Others to follow are
Fifth Avenue, Broadway, etc. — Editor.
OF OLD NEW YORK
THE NORTH RIVER
Sometimes Called the Hudson
Henry Collins Brown
[Note by Stuyvesant Fish.]
When the Dutch came here, in 1609, they gave the name of
"Mauritius" to the river flowing into the sea in North Latitude 40,
which had figured on previous Spanish maps as "Rio San Antonio."
To that river the French gave, and perhaps had given before
Hudson arrived here, the name of "Riviere des Montagnes." But the name
by which the river was generally known throughout the Dutch domination,
under their West India Company, was "North River," indicating its general
direction from the mountains to the sea. Among those living on our river
the name "North" prevails very generally to this day, although throughout
the long period of British domination from 1664 to 1776 and later, every
effort was made to substitute English for Dutch names, sometimes effectually
and sometimes ineffectually, as, for instance "Dunderberg," at the south
portal of the Highlands, which the English marked on their maps as
"Thunder Mountain" still retains its Dutch name, while at the north end
of the Highland "Butter Hill" (Boterberg) has become "Storm King."
CHE hillsides of our majestic river, which the gentle
fancy of Washington Irving has clothed with undy-
ing romance, must ever remain to the New Yorker
a region of never ending charm. Aside from its beauty,
the practical value of this superb waterway has had a
tremendous influence on the development of our great
city's commerce and was easily the first in importance of
the various natural advantages which tended to create the
Empire City and an Empire State.
But it is not of the Hudson of legend and story that
I would write nor of its irresistible historic fascination.
They are already part of our country's literature. It is
the more intimate commonplace details which I would
fain recall of a period almost within the memory of men
still living or perhaps just beginning to recede into the
dim and shadowy past.
[ 41 ]
Recollections are still fresh in the minds of many of
my readers of numerous passenger boats plying up and
down the Hudson within the commuting district — the
Sunnysidc, Sleepy Hollozv, Riverdale, Chrystcnah, Sylvan
Glen and others. Nyack, Tarrytown, Irvington, Dobbs
Ferry, Hastings and Yonkers were all connected with
New York by these little flyers which made many trips a
day and were crowded on every trip. One morning, about
1886, the boats were delayed by fog. The railroad, watch-
ing for just such an opportunity, started a local that
touched these points just when the passengers had fully
lost their patience. The result was that the train swept
the docks bare of business that morning and stranger still,
the boats never again regained that lost traffic. It seemed
to mark the closing of a distinct era. And to this day the
8 o'clock train from Tarrytown, stopping at the other
towns a few minutes later, has never been changed. It
remains a poignant reminder of the delightful trips by
water that are no more.
Up to the time of De Witt Clinton's Canal, steamboat
development had progressed but little. First there was
the monopoly exercised by Robert Fulton and Chancellor
Livingston. The State of New York had practically
turned over to them the exclusive rights to steam naviga-
tion on all the adjacent coastal waters besides rivers and
lakes inland. It took the best efforts of Daniel Webster
to destroy this somewhat modest grant and in the mean-
time any attempt to interfere with the patent meant long
and costly litigation. This case — Gibbons vs. Ogden — has
now become the leading reference in all questions of inter-
state commerce and the queer part of it is that in that
suit, the real party who won out for the people against
the monopoly was Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt who
r 42 1
w H o «■
2 2« W
O w t-
Q ^ 2
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« w <
< w ^
W g O
i- i Z
OF OLD NEW YORK
was then running a line of steamboats in opposition to
Fulton and Livingston. The complainant whose name
gives title to the case was one of Vanderbilt's captains.
As a result of this situation the marine boiler languished.
No such progress was made as characterized its develop-
ment in European waters. Explosions were frequent, at-
tended with loss of life. In consequence, sloops with
their aggravating delays were still the most popular
method of travel.
These sloops were peculiar to the river and a Hudson
River sloop meant something entirely different than is
conveyed by the usual meaning of the term. They were
kept scrupulously clean and the freight consisted mainly
of the passengers' baggage and perhaps a few additional
articles to which no objection could be made. At the home
of the late John Bigelow at Maiden on the west bank of
the river, his father built five of the best known boats —
Gideon Lcc, Asa Bigclozu, Edward Bigclozv, The Eric
and The Phoenix. On the day that Lafayette was to
arrive at Robert Livingston's at Clermont across the river
from Maiden, Mr. Bigelow invited all his neighbors
to go with him. And his sloop carried all the bunting
flying at her masthead that Ulster Co. could produce.
Poultney Bigelow, erstwhile bosom friend of the Ex-
Kaiser's, still resides in the ancestral home and the same
old dock from which these sloops were launched is still
part of the homestead.
Although speed could not be claimed as one of its at-
tractions, one must admit, however, that for a honeymoon
trip these sloops were ideal. The captains were very ac-
commodating and the hire of the whole boat was not a
serious financial matter. Stopping at various points along
the river to visit friends and relatives — what could be
[ 45 ]
more enjoyable? Old letters and diaries are still numer-
ous, containing accounts of just such journeys performed
by our dear old great-grandparents. She, with her poke
bonnet, wide flaring skirt and dainty little sun shade. He
with his tall beaver hat. brightly hued waistcoat, blue
swallow tail coat with brass buttons and tightly fitting
trousers strapped over snug fitting hunting boots. Oh !
they made a brave looking couple these two old friends
of ours and it must have been a pretty sight to see them
riding down to the pier in the family coach with old Sam
It is a fine summer's day, and a slight breeze ruffles the
calm waters of the Hudson as the sloop casts off. The
sails fill, and the boat draws gracefully away, leaving
guests and parents waving farewells.
Besides the newly married couple there were only the
crew and some servants on board. They had a journey
of one hundred and fifty miles before them; but in the
joy and pleasure of their sailing trip they were in no hurry
to reach their destination. Stopping at charming spots
which they discovered along the river, they would land
when they pleased, take horses, and ride to different points
in the interior, whence magnificent views were obtainable.
After the long day's rambling and exploring through
wooded country, where they would sometimes come across
the traces of an Indian camp fire, they would return at
dusk to their sloop.
Thus day by day their boat glided silently along, as
there came into view the splendid panorama of the
Palisades, the calm widths of the Tappan Zee, the high-
lands, and the narrows, where deep gorges lie beneath
After passing many interesting points, the young couple
[ 46 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
at length reached the Catskill Mountains. They only felt
one regret as they approached this stage in their journey —
that they were now nearing the end of their trip.
These sloops seldom left New York on the up trip until
a full cargo of freight and passengers was secured. This
caused exasperating postponements and when an enter-
prising captain at last advertised that his sloop would sail
"Every Thursday at ten for Alhany" he was considered
not enterprising but foolhardy. Nevertheless he suc-
ceeded. Yet a succession of calm days or the tides —
"Pear Tree" — "Apple Tree" or "Witch Tide," according
to the moon, would impose a delay of a week or ten days
and with all its imperfections a boiler could do better than
that. So, to lessen the risk from explosion an auxiliary
boat was built, called a barge, which was towed by the
steamer, and it eventually superseded the sloop.
These barges were built with some pretense of elegance
and comfort ; had a nice dining room, comfortable sleep-
ing compartments and permitted the luxury of movement
around the decks. At meal times quite a little ceremony
was observed, the Captain sitting at the head of the table
after the most approved fashion of the modern Atlantic
The improvement of the boiler continued. Greater
safety was secured and speed much accelerated. In time
the barge gave way as a passenger boat, and later was
used for handling hay. In our day, not so long ago, we
knew them as the Pic-nic barges. The Starin people and
the Myers Company rented them for many years to Sun-
day Schools and political parties who sailed up the river
to Alpine Grove, Dudley's Grove and half a dozen others.
They were towed along by saucy tugs and had a row boat
trailing on behind to rescue any unfortunate picknicker
[ 49 ]
who happened to fall overboard, as sometimes occurred.
Fishing of all kinds has now practically disappeared
from the river. It seems but a short time ago when I read
in the papers that steamboat men were going up to
Governor Hughes to protest against the numerous shad
nets which were a serious menace to navigation. Before
the governor could act apparently, the factories, sewers,
etc., got in their deadly work and now there are neither
shads, nets nor fishermen. Yet I frequently rowed out
to the shad nets from my home in Hastings, and for a
quarter secured all I wanted of the finest roe shad that
ever gladdened the eye of the epicure. That was not
over twenty years ago.
The picture of the leaping sturgeon shown on another
page was witnessed by the writer while sailing opposite
Indian Head. That same season another sturgeon was
captured measuring nearly seven feet. Other fish killed
by the paddle wheels of passing steamers were frequently
found mid the rocks beneath our boat house and were
taken ashore and for obvious reasons buried. It is said
these deep sea beauties do not care to chew their water
before they swallow it. So they have forsaken the
It is pathetic to hear old time amateur fishermen speak
of former days on the Hudson. Around Croton Point
every Sunday was a fleet of small boats just like that at
Canarsie. And many a fine catch of perch, white fish and
Lafayettes rewarded the patience of the fisherman.
Further up the river all sorts of boats with all sorts of
occupants would anchor almost anywhere and catch a
mess in a few hours. The water was crystal clear. The
cool breezes from old Dunderberg or Sugar Loaf fanned
the cheek, and the eye never beheld more beautiful scenery
I 50 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
than was spread all around him. No wonder the river fish-
erman is sad. There are now few fish to be caught below
Croton Point. Sludge acid has done its work.
On this interesting subject Mr. Fish contributes the
following observation :
As to the shad fishery, which is the only fishing industry of which I have
any recollection, I doubt whether the sludge acid or manufacturing of any
kind, or the drainage of sewers into the river, has destroyed the fish, and
think the cause is rather to be found in the idiotic experiment made some
thirty or forty years ago in the introduction into the waters of the North
River of German Carp, which lie on the spawning beds formerly used by
the shad and guzzle up the shad spawn. Certainly the river is full of
German Carp of very large size. There is quite as much manufacturing on
the Connecticut River as on the North River, and good shad are caught there
I am glad to see you use the term "Lafayettcs"; are not those fish other-
wise called "Tom-cods"? [Yes — Ed.]
You may be right in saying that there are no longer any fish to be
caught. South of Croton but below West Point, on the west side of
the river a mile or so below Mr. John Bigelow's summer home, "The
Squirrels," lies a point known as Con's Hook, and opposite it a reef which
is^shown on maps made for the British during the Revolutionary War as
"Fishing Rocks," where fishing goes on to this day, as it did in my youth,
for sport, the catch being perch, sea bass, and so called horse mackerel really
the young of the blue fish. This reef lies well out in the middle of the
river and carries but nine feet of water. The Government maintains a
light house on Con's Hook and a buoy on the reef.
Another point of interest that will be recalled by some
of my readers was the old Palisades Mountain House — a
great wooden Summer Hotel that stood on top of the
Palisades at the old Englewood Landing. It was a famous
place in its day and very popular with a good class of New
Yorkers who could not go far from town in summer.
I fortunately came across a portrait of this old Caravan-
sary which is reproduced on another page. It burned
down in the early seventies and was never rebuilt. It
had begun to decline in popularity the same as Rockaway
— another fashionable and popular resort at that time.
The same people who made the Palisades turned their
favors toward Newport and the Jersey Coast and the
Palisades region languished in consequence.
Along these Palisades are now many beautiful private
estates built almost on the edge of the cliffs. Mr. George
[ 53 ]
A. Zabriskie to whom we are indebted for several beauti-
ful paintings reproduced in this issue, and whose ancestors
owned most of the land around here before the Revolution
has his home at Alpine. Mr. John Ringling the circus man
has the old Updike place nearby. Mrs. Francisco Rionda
has "Glen Coin." Mr. Manuel Rionda has "Rio Vista."
All along the Palisades are similar establishments.
Long before the Central came all the way down the river
— it ended for many years at Poughkeepsie — the Erie had
its Eastern terminus at Tappan Landing, now Piermont,
just a little south of Nyack on the western shore. If you
watch closely going up on the train you can still see op-
posite Irvington the long narrow pier jutting out nearly
two miles from the mainland. It is quite easily seen from
the Albany Day boats, and as you are considerably above
the water an excellent view can be obtained of its whole
length. Through the kindness of Mr. Simeon Ford I
have been able to show one of the now very rare views of
this famous terminal as it originally appeared in 1837.
The size of the locomotive and of the cars is rather
modest compared with the huge affairs of today, but you
must remember that this was the very beginning of rail-
roading and the Erie was the most stupendous thing in
this line yet projected. It was nearly four hundred miles
in length and connected New York with Buffalo without
a stop. Quite a few years were to elapse before a serious
competitor to this gigantic undertaking was thought of,
and for the time being it was the eighth wonder of the
world. Connection with New York was by boat which
left the foot of Chambers Street every morning. The old
Erie was rightfully entitled to the affection bestowed upon
it by railroad men. It is one of the few roads around
which linger any sentiment at all, if not the only one.
[ 54 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Before Commodore Vanderbilt bought control of the
Hudson River Road, the somewhat diminutive locomo-
tives were remarkable for the wonderfully smart appear-
ance they presented. All over the outside, ran strips of
brass which shone and glistened in the sun. The men
took great pride in the appearance of their engines and
all this brass work was rubbed and polished every day.
The black paint was never allowed to grow rusty and had
an extra coat of varnish that made it cast a reflection like
a mirror. Oh ! they were joyful sights to see, these little
engines and were the pride of all beholders. When
Vanderbilt took over the road all these gew-gaws were
removed. It took time and money to keep them looking
natty, and nattiness never earned a dividend or added an
ounce of pulling power to an engine, and never would.
So all these furbelows were consigned to the scrap heap
and a dull serviceable sombre black took its place. And
if you look at a N. Y. Central engine today you will see
that this same practical economical color scheme has been
continued ever since.
Along with the brass work went another more or less
ornamental custom — the naming of the engine after a
prominent person or an official of the road. In the fine
new concourse in the present Grand Central Terminal you
will see a replica of their first train and you can read its
name a block away — De Witt Clinton. On the road it-
self, however, you will encounter nothing of this kind —
only numbers. The train as a whole may have a name
in the advertisements — "The Empire State Express,"
"Twentieth Century Limited," etc., etc., but you will
never see this designation on the cars or anywhere except
in the time tables or the newspapers.
[ 57 ]
The Hudson A Hundred Years Ago
One of the deHghts of writing an article Hke this, is
the charm of the old Guide books which are still extant.
Away back in the early part of the last century the Hud-
son River and adjacent territory was the favorite haunt
of the foreign visitor and many were the quaint little
books provided for his delectation.
It was long before railroads, and the routes given are
all by boat to Albany ; thence by Canal to Buffalo and the
West, or to Canada. And the time tal)les, distances, etc.,
are as carefully compiled as are those of the railroads of
But of much greater interest are the little foot notes,
here and there, referring to noted personages so long dead
to the present generation, that it seems as if they had
never lived. Yet in these books they are spoken of as
living near by, and there is a peculiar feeling, difficult
to describe when one reads these notations. For instance
in the Tourist published in 1831 is noted (anent the ac-
count of Major Andre's capture) :
David Williams one of the captors, still survives and resides in
Schoharie, 25 miles distant from Albany. He enjoys good health
and takes great pleasure in recurring to past events and fighting all
his battles over again.
And this under Peekskill Village :
Enoch Crosby the original of Cooper's Harvey Birch in the novel
of The Spy is now living near Peekskill.
And here is another human touch :
The grave of Major Andre was marked by a solitary cypress.
When the British Government moved the body in 1825 it was dis-
covered that the roots of the cypress had lovingly entwined them-
selves around the body of the unfortunate young Englishman. The
tree, it is said, now (1828) serves to embellish the private garden
of George IV.
[ 58 J
OF OLD NEW YORK
Going up the River the points mentioned in these hooks
of interest are:
Red Fort, Fort Gansevoort, The Old State Prison, Hoboken Point
vVeehawken, The Palisades, The Lunatic Asylum (Bloomingdale)i
Harlaem — a small village containing a church, three stores, a black-
smith shop, etc.; Phillipsburg, (now Yonkers) 17 miles from the
cit> contains a church and several houses; Dobbs Ferry — no descrip-
tion beyond "22>1, miles from the city"; Tarrytown — Major Andre
was captured here; Sing Sing — site of new prison to be erected;
Cold Spring — a small village where is located the West Point
The St. John
Here is a curious remark which indicates that speed
was as greatly desired, then as now — passengers evidently
made a flying leap to get off.
Till within two or three years accidents were not uncommon owing
to the continued motion of the boat but by a late law (1828)
Captains and Masters are required to stop their boats whenever
passengers are landed or received by them.
After reaching Albany the Tourist proceeded by Canal
or Stage so this information about the former was im-
The Erie Canal Packet Boats charge 4 cents a mile including
board and lodging and every other expense. These packets are
drawn by three horses having relays every 8, 10, to 12 miles, and
travel (?) every 24 hours. Have accommodations for about 50
passengers, furnish good tables and wholesome rich fare; and have
very attentive, civil and obliging captains and crews. The bustle of
newcomers and departing passengers with all the greetings and
adieus help to diversify the scene and to make most persons seem
to get along quite as fast as was anticipated.
[ 59 ]
The great growth of the towns along the Hudson, since
then, receives added emphasis by contrast with these
early days in which these feeble beginnings are carefully
Newburgh is spoken of as "an incorporated village of
3000 inhabitants" and Poughkeepsie the same, Albany is
praised for its appearance, "but the stranger is too often
reminded of its original settlers by the frequent occurence
of their antique edifices."
The Dean Richmond
What would we not now give to possess some of these
same old Dutch antiques which struck such a jarring note
to the chronicler of 1822 ! Boston contains 4,300, "and
has recently become a city by act of incorporation."
The Chancellor, Richmond and James Kent were the
favorite boats to Albany.
The Fashionable Four (1822) says in describing West
Point "that in the selection of students, preference is given
[ 60 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
to the sons of officers of the Revolution and secondly to
the sons of deceased officers of the War of 1812."
In another of these books the author complains some-
what of the difficulty he meets with, getting adequate in-
formation about the localities he visits, and encounters,
just as we do today, an astounding amount of ignorance,
among the natives, concerning the history and traditions
of the locality he is trying to describe. His language is
in that ponderous and awe-inspiring style, so common in
The amount of information to be found here seldom exceeds the
practical knowledge of the humblest duties of life. If this general
ignorance were to be regretted, still more was to be lamented the
presence of a certain reservedness of manner on the part of the in-
habitants of this region, or of an indisposition to communicate freely
with strangers, but for which, many circumstances and incidents
which would only be traditionary, might have been imparted.
Before bidding adieu to our chronicler of those far ofif
days let us include his closing paragraph and add our
regret to those of his readers that he did find room to
describe the old steamboats to which he refers.
It was the intention of the writer to have introduced a history
of steam navigation on the Hudson, and to gratify the curiosity of
the distant reader, regarding the splendid boats that plough its
waters — to have spoken of the speed of the Swallow, Erie. Champlain,
Robert L. Stevens, Utica and Rochester. Of the elegance and com-
fort of the North America, South America, Isaac Newton, De Witt
Clinton, Albany, and of their efficient and gentlemenly officers.
Whales and Whalers of the Hudson
In this connection the Hon. Frank Hasbrouck has this
to say :
The whaling industry at Poughkeepsie was an exotic plant, fostered here
in the earliest "boom" that our city had, one of the attempts of the early
"boomers" of what is known in the history of Poughkeepsie as the Improve-
ment Party of the 30's.
. [ 61 ]
There were started a Silk Industry, Locomotive Works, Pin Factory,
Carpet Factory and the Whaling Industry, and the country all about was
laid out in building lots, where today are still pasture fields. The boom
"busted," and we never yet have quite gotten over it, although we have had
several others since, and at present are doing very well. There were only
one or two whaling ships fitted out here, and the business was short-lived.
The only survival of it in my time, since 1852, has been the name of a
certain part of the water front of our city, which is still called, by some
of the old residents, the "Whale Dock."
It will come as a surprise to many persons to hear that the Hudson was
once headquarters for many Whaling fleets. Yet such was the case. It had
more ships engaged in this industry than had New York.
At a much earlier date, as we learn from the Journal
of Bankers and Sluyter the Labadist travellers, who
visited this vicinity in 1679, whales were seen almost daily,
sporting themselves in the salt water at the mouth of the
river in the bay. These gentlemen made a sketch of their
visitors which we have reproduced from their manuscript
published by the Long Island Historical Society. We
have redrawn this sketch, including the eagle with a fish
in her talons as large as herself and the boat in the fore-
ground smaller than the fish. It is, however, a contem-
poraneous drawing and of great historic value.
Whales eventually disappeared from the mouth of the
Hudson and the land locked waters of the bay, but in
after years were caught in large numbers oflf Long Island.
My main purpose, however, in recalling these whales is to
direct renewed attention to the large whaling business
existing in the Hudson River in the Thirties and Forties
at Newburgh, Poughkeepsie and Hudson. In both these
latter cities this industry must have reached considerable
proportions, as the record shows that Poughkeepsie had
two companies with a capital of over $300,000 while
Hudson had even more. The latter town was originally
settled by men from Nantucket where whaling was always
an important business. The same old Nantucket names —
Folger, Coffin, Starbuck, etc., reappear frequently in
Hudson River towns today. Our own V. Everitt Macy is
[ 62 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
a descendant of Wm. H. Macy, a renowned whaler of
Nantncket. Une of this Macy's sons founded the old and
well known oil firm of Josiah Macy's Sons. This concern
subsequently entered the Standard Oil Company and laid
the foundation of the present family fortune.
It has been impossible to obtain a genuine picture of
an old Hudson River wdiale ship similar to what can l)e
had at Nantucket, or New Bedford; or of the sailing
ships that traded from Hudson with Smyrna, China and
the Orient in competition with the better known ships of
old Salem. H any of our readers is so fortunate as to
possess one of these "portraits" as they were then called,
the Manual will promise to reproduce them in exact fac-
simile of the original and record them in the pages of this
journal. In 1833 the following whale ships hailed from
Hudson, — America, Henry Astor. Meteor, IWishington,
Alexander Mansfield, Huron, Martha Edward, Beaver and
One of these Poughkeepsie Whalers — the Nezv England,
belonging to the Dutchess Company — has achieved im-
mortality by reason of the fact that she spoke the
Pilgrim of Boston having on board the then unknown
author of Tivo Years Before tlie Mast. Young Dana
writes this picturesque account of the old Poughkeepsie
ship in his diary —
"At twd P. M. we saw a sail on our larlward lieam and at four we made
it out to 1)e a large ship steering our course under single reefer top
sails. . . . He ran down for us and answered our hail as the whale
ship Ne7i' England of Poughkeepsie, one hundred and twenty days from New
York. . . . About half past ten (the next day) their whale boat came
alongside and Capt. Job Terry sprung on board, a man known in every port
and by every vessel in the Pacific Ocean. His boat's crew were a pretty
raw set just out of the bush and as the sailors phrase it "hadn't got the
hayseed out of their hair" . . ."
Besides its whale fisheries, Poughkeepsie, the Hon.
Franklin D. Roosevelt tells me, enjoyed the distinction of
I 65 ]
almost possessing the first U. S. Navy Yard. Mr.
Edmund Piatt, author of the History of Poughkccpsic,
writes me ;
"Two of the first ships built for the American navy
were built there, both frigates, but they ne\c::r got out to
sea. They were taken down not fully rigged or equipped
to help in the defenses of Fort Montgomery in the fall
of 1777 and when the British broke through the chain
stretched across the river they were set on fire to prevent
their falling into enemy hands. A number of smaller
vessels were built there during the Revolutionary War. I
am not sure, however, whether the yard could properly
be called a Navy Yard or not. My recollection is that
the ships were built under contract but of this I cannot
be quite sure at this time."
The Old Beverley Robinson House
One of the things deeply to be regretted is the constant
destruction by fire or otherwise, of historic sites along the
river that can illy be spared. A case in point is the
Beverley Robinson house at Garrison, N. Y. This was
the headquarters of Benedict Arnold when in charge of
West Point and the scene of his treason. A particularly
dramatic incident happened in this old house. Arnold
had married the year before, Peggy Chew of Philadelphia.
The exigencies of war had prevented them seeing each
other for several months, and in the meantime a baby had
been l)orn. He entered the Robinson house, to which his
wife had come and held her in close em1)race for a mo-
ment, when both walked to the cradle where the infant
was sleeping. He was still gazing intently at the innocent
little face when a messenger entered with the fateful news
that an American spy had been captured — Major John
r 66 1
OF OLD NFAV YORK
Andre. Benedict Arnold knew too well the import of this
intelligence and immediately prei)ared to escape. He
pleaded urgent business, kissed his wife and his sleeping
babe and made his way to the river edge where he was
rowed down the river about twelve miles and escaped to
Arnold never again looked upon the face of his wife
The stnry which you make up about Arnold is pretty, liut entirely fal-
lacious. Arnold's separation from Mrs. Arnold was of very brief duration,
as was his service at West Point in the summer of 1780. One of the first
things he did after arriving at the Beverley House himself was to send
his aide, Major Franks, for the wife and child. I think it can be shown
from the date of that child's birth, presumably in Philadelphia, that Arnold
was there at that time. Certain it is that Mrs. Arnold was in the house
for some little time before Arnold's treason was discovered through the
capture of Major Andre. The Vulture did not put off a boat for Arnold
"in answer to his signal," but was lying down the river in the neighborhood
of Stony Point. Arnold was rowed down there by his American bargemen,
a distance of about twelve miles. — Stuyvesant Fish.
The picture of this historic house is one kindly loaned
us by Mr. Stuyvesant Fish, who has written on the back
that it shows the entrance from the north side as it ap-
peared when he was a boy. It was located not far from
the Fish residence in Garrison, and Mr. Fish remarks
that the figure in the left foreground may have been that
of Mr. Henry Brevoort, who in or about 1840 happened
to be occupying the Robinson house. The original of this
engraving is in the Jared Sparks collection, Cornell
Additional indication of our claim that the Hudson
River is about the only section of our country universally
known in Europe, we might cite the beautiful French
lithographs made by Milbert, about 1830, one of which—
the Parade Ground at West Point — we are able to present
through the courtesy of Mr. Grenville Kane. St. Memin
another French artist also made one or two pictures. It
is interesting to recall that in that year Robert E. Lee
[ 69 ]
was one of the cadets, as was also Joseph E. Johnston
and Wm. Magruder — all three to he afterwards prominent
in the great Civil War.
In addition to the charming color effect, we have an
accurate and interesting detailed picture of the exercises
which are a daily feature of West Point life throughout
the summer toward evening. The huildings that we see
today from the river are of comparatively recent construc-
tion. They are admirahly designed for the purpose for
which they are intended and this medieaval treatment of
the hluft" overlooking the Hudson is a triumph of the
architect's skill in achieving a result in complete harmony
with the imposing grandeur of the surrounding country.
The stranger on a visit to the Hudson will naturally
include the United States Military Academy among the
places he most desires to see. And it is doul)tful if a
more enjoyahle short trip from New York is possil)le.
One can leave after early hreakfast and return in time
for dinner. In the meantime he will have enjoyed a day-
light sail through the most picturesque region of the Hud-
son, have seen the entire estahlishment at West Point,
the daily parade of the cadets, a spectacle of the greatest
interest and one of the most enjoyahle events connected
with a trip to New York.
In and around the Academy are many historical asso-
ciations connected with the Revolution. The ruins of
Old Fort Putnam, are in the vicinity as is also Fort Mont-
gomery. The site selected for West Point was originally
on Constitution Island, which lies directly north of West
Point. 1)ut on much lower ground. This defect was im-
f 70 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
mediately recognized and a recommendation to abandon
the island in favor of the high land at West Point was
made to the Continental Congress. This was the iirst
official recommendation (Nov. 23, 1773), to occn])y
West Point as a military garrison, and ultimately out of
it grew the plan to provide a National school for the
training of young officers for the regular army.
West Point and its long line of distinguished gradu-
ates have occupied a large place in America's History.
The record of its famous visitors from all lands include
the names of very mau}^ statesmen, warriors, painters.
authors and publishers, who have achieved the highest
prominence. All of our early American generals, be-
ginning with Washington, have walked upon its historic
ground, and it has been the subject of more articles than
perhaps any other single institution on our continent. It
provides greater interest and novelty for the stranger
than any other attraction in the neighborhood of New
York, and there are many excursions in the vicinity on
both sides of the river, that will more than repay the
time spent on the visit.
The Shores in the City
On the western shore of the river now covered l)y
coal pockets, factories, docks, etc., can still be seen
Castle Point, the home of Col. Stevens, who helped
Ericsson build the Monitor. The surroundings of this old
mansion are a sad sight compared with its former l)eauty.
Just beyond the Castle there existed a magnificent open
forest covering a rich greensward, highly popular with
New Yorkers in the "Age of Innocence." This was the
Elysian Fields. A more delightful spot it would be hard
[ 71 ]
to find. The old trees stretched down to the water's edge,
and a walk along the shore under the cliffs on a moonlight
summer night was a delightful change from the sun-baked
streets of New York. A little above the Fields is the
famous Hamilton-Burr dwelling grounds — a tragedy that
stirred all New York and made of Burr an outcast and
fugitive. What is now Fort Lee Ferry marks the site of
an important fortification, and in the immediate neighbor-
hood is the site of an old Block house, the scene of the un-
successful attack by Gen. Wayne, at Bulls Ferry, against
the British, This affair was celebrated in a series of
verses, entitled, "The Cow Chase," by Major John Andre,
the ill-fated young officer of whom we shall hear more
The Palisades proper now begin here, and the wonder-
ful work by which this great gift of the Creator has been
fortunately saved from the hands of vandals, constitutes
one of the most pleasing chapters of our local history.
We cannot here recite all the difficult steps that ultimately
resulted in the preservation of the Palisades and secured
to New York one of the most wonderful playgrounds the
world will ever see.
This huge task is now being developed under the direc-
tion of the Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate
Park, an organization under the control of the States of
New York and New Jersey. It is the culmination of the
public spirited efforts of a few men who realized the im-
portance of saving the Palisades. Years ago the face of
these remarkable cliff's were in imminent danger of de-
struction at the hands of quarry men. Great gaps were
torn in the sides of the gigantic rocks and it was only a
question of time, ere one of the most wonderful of Na-
ture's gifts to man would become a heap of unsightly
[ 72 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
ruins. Vast damage had already been done and the situ-
ation was critical. At this juncture, a number of promi-
nent men became interested in the matter. Under the
able leadership of the late George W. Perkins definite
steps were taken and the destruction arrested. Mr. Per-
kins passed away last year but he has left an endearing
monument to his memory in the present wonderful park.
In those early days when the success of the project
seemed much in doubt the late J. Pierpont Morgan came
forward with a princely donation and started the plan on
the right track. The two States, New York and New
Jersey then passed some much needed legislation and
presently other men were found ready and willing to
The C. Vibbard
help the good work along, especially the Rockefellers. In
all the huge benefactions bestowed by the Rockefellers,
father and son, none seem to be productive of more good
to the general welfare of the community than their splen-
did donations to this work. Time and again their millions
[ rz ]
have gone to supplement the grants by the State and no
demand seems so far to have been too great. In conse-
quence the pubHc of this city possesses a recreation centre
unique in the history of municipahties. Almost at the
door of the crowded metropolis, wonderful camping lo-
cations are accessible, possessing all the solitude and gran-
deur usually obtainable only at a great distance from
civilization. Underneath the shadow of these lordly heights
are nooks and corners almost inaccessible except by the
recently developed roads. For centuries they have thus
been preserved inviolate. The Adirondacks affords no
more quiet and peaceful solitude than do certain sections
of the Palisades. Campers have discovered the joys of this
sylvan retreat and each year the numbers increase. Hun-
dreds of white tents dot the green shores in summer time.
Bathing, sailing, canoeing and all sorts of water sports are
available. The charge for a tent is merely nominal and
parties of young persons and families live here all through
the summer with supreme indifference to the high cost of
rents and high expenses generally. It is astonishing how
much happiness can be derived by living close to nature
and the privilege is one that can not be over-estimated.
Fine roads for the tramper are everywhere, the further
up you go the wilder becomes the environment ; for a
stretch of several miles one is in the heart of a wilder-
ness. The footpaths are the same that have always ex-
isted, and follow the line of least resistance. They wind
in and out, among leafy shades, and always there is the
fascinating view of the river. When Piermont is reached,
the first break in the wilderness is encountered in this
village and its neighbors, Grand View and Nyack, but it
is restored again at Rockland and continues until we reach
[ 74 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
the climax of all this loveliness, Bear Mountain and Harri-
man Parks, some thirty miles up from where we left the
The Richard Stockton
There are still many interesting" localities to be seen
from the river before the city is passed. Half a dozen
separate and distinct little villages clustered round the
shore of the island in the old days. What we now know
as West Street, was the "Shore road to Greenwich."
West Street continues to 23rd Street and becomes Tenth
Avenue. As if to recall its old days as a "Shore road"
it meanders oiT as all good shore roads do, into the heart
of the city, forsaking the toil and bustle of the water
front to reappear, resplendent in new asphalt and im-
posing architecture as Amsterdam Avenue — again remin-
iscent of Colonial days — and makes a glorious exit in the
sanctity of the classic atmosphere of the great Cathedral
and Columbia University.
During the War of 1812 three forts were constructed in
the lower reaches of West Street, one at the foot of Hu-
bert Street, called the Red Fort or North Imstion; an-
other at the Battery, called Fort Clinton. The latter be-
came in time the celebrated Castle Garden and was for
years the Emigrant Landing Station. It is now the Aqua-
rium. Few buildings are better known in the United
States than is old Castle Garden and few have a more
romantic history. The third was at the foot of Ganse-
voort Street, called the White Fort or Fort Gansevoort.
We print a very interesting old print of the "White Fort"
being used as a place of immersion by the Baptists. It
shows several persons in the water being baptized, while
the congregation lines the shore. It is a very interesting
reminder of old days and is rarely seen.
Just before you come to the great thousand feet Chel-
sea piers built by the city for the accommodation of the
huge Atlantic liners is the site of the old Delamater Iron
Works where John Ericsson built the Monitor. Curi-
ously enough, another inventor, Holland, brought his idea
for an imdersea boat here also, and so the first practical
submarine was launched from the same yard that i)ro-
duced the Ironclad. Both these ideas revolutionized naval
architecture the world over, and our Hudson River gave
birth to the two greatest modern inventions in marine con-
struction, to say nothing of the steamboat itself, which
was, of course, the greatest invention of all. Quite a
record for one little river in old New York.
Soon we pass the foot of Twelfth Street, and what was
formerly the beaches of Greenwich Village — the haven
of refuge for the lower city, in the time of yellow fever.
A limped crystal pelhicid stream flowed through this vil-
[ 76 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
lage — ]\Iinnetta Water — and the soil was of a sandy,
porous nature. Drainage was naturally perfect and this
no doubt was largely the cause of its freedom from the
plagues that periodically devastated the lower part of the
island. The village today, however, is populated largely
by short-haired women and long-haired men who pride
themselves on their general superiority to the average
Beyond 72nd Street, on what is now Riverside Drive,
were many beautiful country estates located in the villages
that formerly dotted the shores of the Hudson — Blooming-
dale. Striker's Bay, Manhattanville, Harsenville. Carmens-
ville, Fort Washington, JeiTries Hook, Tubby Hook and
Inwood. At 155th Street still remains what is left of the
former residence of John J. Audubon, the great naturalist.
His home was referred to as being "12 miles from the
city." Through the kindness of Mrs. Charles E. Sherman,
granddaughter of Cornelius W. Lawrence, Collector of
the Port in 1848 we are able to reproduce a painting
which shows how this neigh1)orhood looked in those days.
The Lawrence house adjoined the Audubon house and our
picture shows how the river appeared at Manhattanville
about 1845. The ruins of Fort Tryon and the redoubts
of the Battle of Harlem are seen just before you come
to the heights of Inwood. The hill at the north end of
the island, sloping to the waters of Spuyten Duyvil creek
is still densely wooded and almost primeval. It is in
striking contrast to the many-storied structures that pierce
the clouds at the opposite end of Manhattan.
It was my good fortune to take a moonlight stroll over
Bear Mountain and it was a delightful experience. I
crossed from one side to the other. The night was cool,
yet the asphalt roads still retained some of the day's heat.
[ 79 ]
This attracted quite a few snakes who stretched their
languid lengths across the path at intervals. They looked
very much like l)roken hranches fallen to the ground.
They were not of the venemous type and their beautiful
markings, I was sorry to think, would cause them to ul-
timately appear on Fifth Avenue, as a vanity bag or a
jewel purse. The antipathy of the average man or boy
toward snakes, which impels him to kill them wherever
encountered, is largely due to ignorance. Lying there in
the moonlight or slowly turning their heads as I passed,
they seemed a most natural part of the surroundings, and
they perform a much needed part in Nature's domestic
economy. There are. of course, plenty of rattlers and
copperheads in Bear Mountain, but they are not often
encountered on the main travelled roads.
Every once in a while I would come upon one of the
motor police. Some of them live in little houses back from
the road and they were unmistakably glad to see another
human. Up there, at the top of the mountain, the people
you meet are not numerous, and the sight of an unexpected
visitor is always a source of pleasure. I don't remember
when my company was so much appreciated as it was by
these guardians of Bear Mountain. \Mien we parted I
was sorry to leave, and looked eagerly forward for the
next meeting. One of these guardians was perched on a
fence leisurely whittling wood, and I talked with him
quite a while. He was loath to let me go. and cordially in-
vited me to tarry the night with him. We kept up a
conversation till I was out of sight.
Woodland sounds in these pine clad hills, in the deep
silence of the night are very fascinating. The hoot of the
owl is ever present. The twittering of an aroused bird, the
chirp of the crickets, the sing-song call of the Katy-dids,
OF OLD NEW YORK
and the pleasant whistling noise of the tree toad ; the occa-
sional bark of a dog, and the crackling of dry leaves, the
breaking of a twig, are strangely clear and appealing in the
silent atmosphere of the night. Foxes and cotton-tails
break cover, ever and anon. The coolness, the clear moun-
tain air and the stillness are all a novelty to the city man.
In the distance stretched the river, a long silvery streak in
the bright moonlight, and bexond the l)end rose the frown-
ing heights of old Dunderl)erg. It was an experience long
to 1)6 remembered and as I clambered aboard the train at
the foot of the mountain, it was hard to realize that I had
left so much natural charm and beautv behind.
The Queen of the Hudson: The Mary Powell
Old Families on the River
A great num1)er of changes have taken place among the
families who were prominent along the river in the 70's,
and those who are there today. A consideral)le numher of
old estates have also been cut up into small house lots ;
and lovers' nests of the approved suburban type have
taken the place of velvety lawns and stately old shade
trees. Riverdale is about the only one retaining its old
time aspect and yet many deplorable changes have taken
place there also. A colored Orphan Asylum has located
just on its north boundary and the southern part has wit-
nessed the advent of the apartment house and the small
private dwellings. The great homes of D. Willis James.
Martin Bates, Robert Colgate, Wm. H. Appleton, Wm. D.
Doyle, Jr., Percy R. Pyne. James W. Creery, S. D. Bal)-
cock, R. L. Franklin and J. F. Spaulding have long since
moved away. Mr. Cleveland H. Dodge, and Mrs. Geo. W.
Perkins and a few others still remain.
Yonkers, perhaps, shows the greatest change of all.
Besides being the home of John Reid, founder of Gold in
America, it is now a city of many important manufac-
turing industries and practically all of the estates between
it and Glenwood, except Colgate's and Trevor's have dis-
appeared. A line of trolley cars now runs to Hastings
through Rowley's Woods, past Spring Hill Grove, Dud-
ley's Grove ; and a new station — Greystone, breaks the
old time stretch between Yonkers and Hastings. The old
Waring homestead, better known as "Greystone." famous
as the residence of Governor Samuel J. Tilden, is now
occupied by another equally famous personage, Mr. Sam-
uel Untermeyer. Wm. Boyce Thompson, prominent in
mining circles and civic betterment lives next to him.
adjoining Rosemount, occupied by Mr. Caleb C. Dula. a
prominent capitalist. The old Lilienthal mansion is no
r 82 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
At Hastings the ruins and chimney of the old Hopper
Sugar Refinery and the clock tower on Dr. Huyler's place
have both long ago disappeared. A huge cable and chem-
ical factory occupies nearly a mile of the beautiful shore
The Sylvan Dell
front which formerly showed such a pleasing prospect
from the river. The Far and Near lawn tennis grounds
have been cut up, David Dudley Field's beautiful estate
has been halved. The old Minturn house still stands and
has been kept practically intact, but the land has been
largely sold. The Villard, Moore and Fraser places are
about the same. "Billy Burke" now has the Kirkham
place. At Dobbs Ferry the same thing applies. The old
Cyrus Field place ; David Dow's mansion with the finest
lawn on the river and the J. D. Mair's residence belong to
the past. At Irvington the same influences have been at
work. A big printing plant faces the river and a huge
green house factory covers the water front. Lewis Du-
Pont Irving, a nephew of Washington Irving, occupies
[ 83 ]
"Sunnyside" and Gen. Coleman DnPont now has the old
Hamilton place "Nevins." The old church in which Irving
served as warden still stands, and sleepy Hollow where he
is buried, shelters also Andrew Carnegie. Cunningham
Castle is now a private school. Kingsland Point is now
an automobile plant. The Aspinwall residence. "Pol-
graves Folly," is now the Gould Place. S. B. Schieffelin,
W'm. E. Dodge, John T. Terry. James H. Banker, Mrs.
Gen. Merritt, Albert Bierstadt, E. S. Jaffray, F. Cottinett.
Jas. Wilde, Jr., and many others are merely memories.
The John D. Rockefeller estate in Pocantico Hills begins
just north of Tarry town and extends almost back to the
Saw I\Iill River. Farther up the river other names are
missed — Samuel B. Duryea, F. W. Seward, Mrs. C. B.
Underbill, H. C. de Rham. N. P. Willis, F. R. River,
Dr. James Lenox Banks, Hayden Holland, and Geo. P.
Morris. Hamilton Fish is represented by Stuyvesant Fish
and Samuel Sloan by his decendant of the same name.
Irving Grinnell lives at New Hamburgh, James Parish.
S. F. B. Morse, J. Pierpont Morgan, Alfred Pell, John
Bigelow, Arthur Pell, Charles Tracy, E. A. Livingston,
John S. Gilbert. D. Huested, E. P. Roe. Albert Palmer,
Wm. H. Clark. Charles Birdsall, Daniel Taft, Peter B.
\"erplank, Thos. Nichols, E. P. Miller are all among the
passed. Of that brilliant group which made Cornwall
one of the literary centres, on the Hudson, the Rev. Dr.
Lyman Abbot alone remains.
At Poughkeepsie the same transformation is appar-
ent ])ut the magnificent road to Hyde Park remains un-
diminished in beauty. The Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt
still holds forth in the old family homestead, but David
Hosack has been gone these many years, so has Henry E.
Coggswell, W. C. Smillie, John P. Garland, J. A.
[ 84 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Stoutenburgh, Walter Langdon, A. P. Rogers, Gen. D.
Butterfield, Win. Dinsmore, Wm. Livingston, Wm. Kelly,
Levi P. Morton, Wm. I\L Goodrich, John T. Hume, John
F. Winslow, Alexander Holland, John Jacob Astor, Mrs.
Kirkpatrick, J. Lawrence Lee, Mrs. Hoyt, Mathew^ Liv-
ingston Edvv^ard Henshaw Jones, William Astor's "Fern-
cliff;" F. H. Delano, John R. Livingston, Wm. B. Astor's
"Rokely;" Mrs. U. L. Marshall, John S. Stevins, Carle-
ton Hunt, Col. Chas. Livingston, J. C. Cruger, Gen. J.
Watts de Peyster, Col. J. L. de Peyster, Johnston Living-
ston, E. A. Livingston, P. W. Rockefeller (no relative to
J. D.) and only recently the well-beloved old naturalist.
All these were magnificent estates and were modelled
largely on the plan of the English Manor House. The
grounds were very extensive and beautifully kept. The
houses would hardly compare in size and beauty with the
Newport "cottage" of today, nor would the style of living
compare with the modern idea — that we must herd to-
gether in droves and be near enough to dine at one house,
dance at another and go to the movies in between. To-
day the old time life for the country gentleman would be
voted too slow — not enough "pep" — and the result is that
many of these erstwhile ideal places are ignored for the
more accessible though less beautiful locations nearer the
Yet the recapitulation of these names, will awaken a
flood of pleasant memories in the hearts of many New
Yorkers, who will recall many a summer holiday spent as a
small boy at some of those places I have mentioned. Some
of that old time atmosphere is still preserved along
the river, but it does not begin much before you get to
the Highlands. Putnam and Dutchess counties are still
the citadels of the dying Knickerhocker, and the legend
and traditions of the old days are part and parcel of exist-
ence in the shadow of Dunderberg and Sugar Loaf moun-
And so as the purple shadows fall upon the placid
waters, as the distant mountain tops fade into the hasten-
ing twilight, we take leave of the wraiths of the Van
Rensselaers, the Van Cortlandts, the Verplancks and all
the other tribes of Stuyvesant's valiant army.
This article will be continued in the next two numbers and published in
book form in 1925 to commemorate the opening of the Erie Canal a hundred
years ago by De Witt Clinton. Pictures and other contributions of material
from old residents along the river will be appreciated. — Editor.
, .•«* .*u w^ )f^- pn i-t: i«^ g w r 'iStMi^iiKVjMXv;,: ^WW'
VALENTiNE'S MANUAL. !922
P.ROADWAY Sou f II FROM THE AsTOR HOUSK ABOL'T 1850. DraWN
M Nature by A. Kollner. Collection of The Down Town Association.
OF OLD NEW YORK
THE DOWN TOWN ASSOCIATION
The Down Town Association has an imi(|ue interest for New
Yorkers on account of its being the first down town chib in the
city. When it was organized in 18b0 there were seven other chibs
more or less active in other parts of the city, but the Down Town
Association has the distinction of being the first in a movement
for club life for the business man right in his own habitat so to
speak — a movement which has expanded to great proportions in
our own day.
Mr. Wm. Rhinelander Stewart has written an interesting ac-
count of the club from its early precarious days to its present
highly prosperous condition and we reproduce here the more
salient parts of the history. A feature which distinguishes the
club and gives it a special interest for New Yorkers is the fine
collection of old prints, engravings and maps of Old New York
and of Americana — most of them of great rarity and all of
them of exceptional interest. The Down Town Association was
the first club to adopt this idea as a feature of club life — an ex-
ample which has been followed by many other prominent organi-
zations since. The early start in this field together with the
liberal policy pursued in this direction has resulted in placing
the club collection far in advance of any ordinary achievement
and has brought it to a point rarely reached by a museum.
CHE recent discovery among the papers of the late
Robert L. Maitland of the long lost first book of
IVIinutes of the Dow^n Town Association contain-
ing entries from December 23rd, 1859, to October 27th.
1862, establishes as truth the almost forgotten story of
the Association's beginnings, and carries back more
than seventeen years the club records from w^hich its
year books have been compiled. These early records
showr among other things a complete organization of
the club preceding that first mentioned in the year
books, and the ownership and occupation of a club
house in 1860.
[ 87 ]
On December 23rd, 1859, in pursuance of a notice
previously sent out. a group of gentlemen in favor of
forming a down town club assembled at the Astor
House in Room 41 ; Robert Gordon acted as Chairman,
and James Couper Lord as Secretary of the meeting.
The first steps towards organization were taken and
on motion of William Allen Butler twenty-seven gen-
tlemen who had previously expressed their desire to
join were elected. The names are given in the minutes
of this meeting; among them are noted Henry M.
Alexander, James M. Brown, Benjamin F. Butler. Wil-
liam Allen Butler. A. H. Gibbs, Robert Gordon, James
Boorman Johnson, J. Couper Lord, Robert L. Mait-
land. Howard Potter, Benjamin D. Stillman, William
H. Tillinghast and Fletcher Westray.
A nominating and a business committee were also appointed
at this meeting, framing of a constitution and a set of by-laws
was ordered and tlie initiation fee fixed at twenty-five dollars
The first general meeting of the club was held at
the Astor House on February 4th, 1860, at which time
the membership was increased to 42. The Executive
Committee was authorized to hire the premises at 42
Cedar Street for the club for three years and an annual
rental not exceeding $1,600. provided a renewal of the
lease or privilege of purchasing at end of the term
at a reasonable rate could be obtained.
Incorporation was advanced at a meeting of the
Executive Committee held April 11th, 1860, when Rob-
ert L. Maitland. Acting Treasurer, was authorized to
pay the expenses of procuring a charter. This was
obtained from the Legislature of the State of New
York by a special act on April 17th, 1860, on which
date Robert L. Maitland. Henry M. Alexander, Robert
[ ^8 ]
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OF OLD NEW YORK
Gordon, James Couper Lord, Robert Lenox Kennedy,
Howard Potter, William Allen Butler, Francis H. Pal-
mer, James Boorman Johnston and George Fuller,
"with such other persons as may be associated with
them," were constituted a body corporate under the
name and style of "The Down Town Association in the
City of New York." The object of the corporation
was stated as follows : "To furnish to persons engaged
in commercial and professional pursuits in the City
of New York facilities for social intercourse and such
accommodations as are required during the intervals
of business while at a distance from their residences ;
also the advancement of literature and art by estab-
lishing and maintaining a library, reading room, and
gallery of art." The ten persons named in the first
section were constituted the Trustees and Managers
until the election of others in their place; and the cor-
poration was authorized to purchase real estate of the
value of not to exceed $300,000.
Action for the purchase of the property 22 Exchange Place as
a home for the chib was ordered at a meeting of the executive
committee April 28th, 1860, and this action was confirmed by the
club on May 4th. Also the act of incorporation was accepted
and the by-laws adopted.
Immediately upon adjourninent the Trustees and
Managers met for the first time at the same place,
and organized by the election for one year of the
following officers: President, Robert Gordon; Vice-
President, Henry M. Alexander ; Treasurer, Robert L.
Maitland ; Secretary, J. Couper Lord. House, finance
and building committees were also appointed. The
number and names of the Trustees are not mentioned
in these early records, which merely state "quorum
present" at meetings. From the appointments to ser-
[ 91 ]
vice on committees it appears, however, that WilHam
Allen Bntler, James Boorman Johnston, Daniel Lord,
F. H. Palmer, Howard Potter and Fletcher Westray
were members of the original Board. On May 18th.
1860, the Trustees and Managers provided for an issue
of ten club bonds of $500 each to raise the $5,000 cash
to be paid on taking title, and authorized the President
and Secretary to accept the deed of 22 Exchang^e Place
for the consideration of $30,000, execute a purchase
money mortgage of $25,000 for five years at seven per
cent., and pay the balance in cash. Title to the prop-
erty was taken from Robert L. Maitland August 1st,
1860. A Secretary's note states that the club house
was opened for business on September 10th, 1860.
without formalities. During the summer and autumn
several Trustees' meetings for the election of new
members were held. On November 12th the Treas-
urer reported a deficiency of about $5,000, upon which
a bond of indemnity to him was signed by all the mem-
bers of the Board.
At a Trustees' meeting held December 12tn an en-
graving after Rosa Bonheur and a picture of Prince
John by Atwood. presented to the club by Mr. Mait-
land, wxre accepted with thanks and the House Com-
mittee directed to have them properly hung. To
Mr. Robert L. Maitland, therefore, belongs the honor-
able distinction of having founded sixty years ago the
important and growing art collection of the club.
At the first annual meeting of the Association May 8th, 1861
the treasurer reported a deficit of $8,243.91 and ways and means
were taken to meet it. These trying financial conditions how-
ever continued until May 28th, 1862, when a meeting was held to
take some radical step. The result was an unanimous vote that
the club go into liquidation. The club house and all its contents
were thereafter sold.
[ 92 ]
The Curb Market on Broad Street, on Sunday. Note the total absence
of life at this otherwise noisy and busy spot during week days
OF OLD NEW YORK
The Charter however survived, lying- dormant for
nearly fifteen years ; where, and why for so long a
time, is now unknown. Perhaps the future may dis-
On May 2nd, 1877, a reorganization was afifected
by the Association, which met on that day at Delmon-
ico's and elected the following Trustees : Benjamin G.
Arnold, James M. Brown, A. H. Gibbs, Robert Gordon,
Morris K. Jesup, Robert Lenox Kennedy, Howard
Potter, H. F. Vail and Fletcher Westray. From this
time the well-kept minute books of the Association
and of the Trustees are available for the continuation
of this history. It is interesting to note that Mr.
Brown, Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Gordon, Mr. Potter and Mr.
Westray were present at the meeting held December
23rd, 1859, to organize the club ; that Mr. Gordon and
Mr. Potter were also incorporators, and that Mr. Gor-
don and Mr. Westray were serving as President and
Vice-President when the club disbanded in 1862.
The new Board of Trustees held meetings in the
office of B. G. Arnold & Company and at the office of
its Secretary, R. D. Perry, 60 Wall Street. Benjamin G.
Arnold, who had been active and influential in effecting
the reorganization of the Association, was elected the
second President July 31st, 1877. On that day a sub-
committee under the chairmanship of Samuel D. Bab-
cock was authorized to rent rooms for the Association
at 50-52 Pine Street at an annual rental of $3,500.
These rooms first occupied in February, 1878, were the
home of the club for more than nine years. On May
1st the membership was 354. Benjamin G. Arnold,
after serving three years, resigned in May, 1880. Mr.
Arnold was a leading coffee merchant and the first
[ 95 ]
President of the Cofifee Exchange, 1882 to 1885. He
remained a member of the chib until his death, Decem-
ber 10th, 1894. Samuel D. Babcock was elected third
President of the Association in succession to Mr.
On December 18th, 1884, the trustees were authorized to enter
into a contract to purchase the lots 60 and 62 Pine street for a
club house and title to the property was taken May 1st, 1885. A
building committee was appointed to attend to all matters relating
to the erection of the new club house.
The following members were appointed to this ser-
vice : Samuel D. Babcock, Chairman ; A. P. Whitehead.
Josiah M. Fiske, George W. Dillaway, D. Willis James,
William Krebs and C. H. Arnold. This Building Com-
mittee reported at a meeting held April 26th, 1886, that
C. C. Haight, a member of the club, had been engaged
as architect for the new building, and that its esti-
mated cost was $152,000, the price paid for land being
$98,000, the total estimated expenditure amounting to
$250,000. In May, 1886, the active membership of the
club was increased to 1,000 in view of the prospective
opening of the new club house. This important event
took place on May 23rd, 1887, and the handsome five-
story club house known as 60 Pine Street has been the
home of the Association since that date. The active
meml)ership then numbered 500. On the opening date
208 new members elected at recent Trustees' meetings
were notified of their election. A report presented to
the Association by J. Lawrence McKeever, Treasurer,
May 23rd, 1888, showed the cost of the land and build-
ing as $279,525.73, and of the house furnishings to date
$27,143.52, a total expenditure of $306,669.25.
Thenceforward the Association prospered and at-
tracted a greater attendance year by year. Samuel D.
Oi f- <-i
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— L .iidiffii
OF OLD NEW YORK
Babcock, third President, under whose leadership the
club house was built, having served continuously by
successive annual elections for twenty years, in May,
1900, declined further re-election. A banker of high
standing. President of the Chamber of Commerce
1875-1882, and one of New York's leading citizens, Mr.
Babcock placed the club under lasting obligation. He
died September 14th, 1902. A. Pennington Whitehead
was elected the fourth President of the Association,
but after serving three years he declined a re-election
and was succeeded by Donald Mackay as fifth Presi-
dent in June, 1903. On January 1st, 1901, the Secre-
tary reported to the Trustees the full membership of
1,000, a non-resident membership of 89, and 348 candi-
dates awaiting election.
The membership of the club was growing rapidly and efforts
were made to increase the accommodations by leasing adjoining
properties. Those additions did not meet the needs of the chib
sufficiently and at a meeting held Feb. 17th, 1910 the trustees
authorized the president to appoint a building committee with
power to erect a new building.
The President designated as such committee, Ed-
mund L. Baylies, George R. Read and Charles S.
Brown. Warren & Wetmore were accordingly ap-
pointed architects, and the cost of the new building
was estimated at $125,000, and of the furniture as
$10,000. Under date June 20th the committee issued
a circular letter to the members of the club recom-
mending revised plans so as to provide a broad, open
entrance hall and other structural changes and im-
provements in the main club house not originally con-
templated at an additional expense of $40,000. The re-
vised plans were approved by the club, and work was
at once begun and so rapidly progressed that the
[ 99 ]
Trustees by letter dated March 16th, 1911, were able
to report the erection of the new addition and the com-
pletion of the alterations to the club building within
nine months after the demolition of the old buildings
began at a total cost, including furniture and fittings,
of $175,556.76. The new building was then occupied.
As enlarged the club house has a front of 74 feet on
Pine Street, 66 feet on Cedar Street, and a depth of
135 and 133 feet on either side. It now provides, be-
sides two large and convenient smoking-rooms, seven
general and six private luncheon rooms in which 640
can be comfortably seated at one time. The cost of
the land purchased in 1885. and of the club house and
extension March 11th. 1911, was $482,225. Before
the expiration of the ground leases on which the addi-
tion stands the Trustees hope to acquire the fee of the
In the death of Donald Mackay, fifth President,
which occurred on February 29th, 1912, the Associa-
tion lost one of its most efficient and faithful officers.
Elected Trustee in May, 1886, Vice-President in 1900,
and President in 1903 he raised a standard of service
second to none in the history of the club.
In May, 1912, he was succeeded by A. Pennington
Whitehead, who had been President 1900-1903.
During the past forty years since the reorganizatit)n
of the Association was efifected, while its membership
has grown and its enlarged club house been erected
and financed, the club w^as fortunate in having the ser-
vices of three Treasurers: ]. Lawrence McKeever,
1879-1902; E Francis Hyde, 1902-1913, and Gherardi
Davis, 1913-1920, for whose able and conservative ad-
[ 100 ]
Q " f/i
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OF OLD NEW YORK
ministrations in these constructive years the club is
Since May, 1886, the regular active membership of
the Association, then fixed at 1,000, has not been in-
creased, and soon thereafter this maximum w^as
reached and a waiting list established. By resolution
of the Trustees adopted in 1903, provision was, how-
ever, made for 50 life members ; 3 were shortly after-
wards elected, and the rapidly lengthening regular
waiting list led to the election of 24 in 1911 and 23 in
1912, thus completing the number. No vacancy having
yet occurred, it would appear that life membership is
equivalent to an insurance. From the reorganization
of the Association in 1878 there have been elected
2,842 active and 288 non-resident members. In recog-
nition of his valuable services as Treasurer 1879-1902,
and Vice-President 1903-1911, J.Lawrence McKeever was
elected Honorary Member May 23d, 1917. Mr. McKeever,
the only member thus distinguished, died August 14th,
1919. During the Great War 98 members were in ac-
tive service, two of whom died for their country.
Awaiting election on the list of candidates are 911
names, nearly enough to constitute another club of the
size of the Down Town Association. The average daily
attendance during the busy months of the year, ex-
cluding Saturdays, is about 750. The largest number
of luncheons served on any day is 843. Included in
this count are guests of members among whom are
usually some ladies who have been welcomed since the
reopening of the club in 1887.
The art collection includes portraits in oil of Presi-
dents Arnold, Babcock, Mackay and Whitehead, which
hang in the entrance hall. To these should be added a
[ 103 ]
portrait of Robert Gordon, the first President. The
main art collection consists of 226 prints, engravings
and maps of Old New York, some of great interest and
rarity. Most of these were acquired by purchase from
appropriations aggregating about $10,000 made at in-
tervals since 1904 by the Trustees and expended by an
Art Committee of three consisting of Edmund L. Bay-
lies, a Trustee. J. Harsen Purdy and Junius S. Mor-
gan. Other acquisitions were made by gifts of mem-
bers, the most important being received in 1916 by be-
quest of Mr. Purdy of his choice collection of 35
prints. They are shown together in one of the third
floor front rooms with an appropriate tablet recording
the bequest. Exceptional advantages for the exhibi-
tion and enjoyment of such a collection are afforded
by the Down Town Association, and the worthy ex-
ample of Mr. Purdy and other donors may be relied
upon still further to enlarge it.
At the head of the list of members stand the names
of eleven elected at the Trustees' meeting held in May.
1878. They are : James A. Benedict. William P. Dixon.
Frances E. Dodge, Allen W. Evarts. J. Montgomery
Hare, Henry Hentz. James N. Jarvie. Edmund Pen-
fold. William E. D. Stokes. George Peabody Wetmore,
and Henry P. Winter. Death has just caused to be
removed from this list a twelfth name, that of A.
Pennington Whitehead, the President of the Associa-
tion who died at Litchfield. Connecticut. August 1st
1920. Elected Trustee in 1886 and by five years the
senior member of the Board. VicePresident 1898-1900.
and President in 1900-1903 and from 1912-1920. a
period of more than eleven years. Mr. Whitehead, a
lawyer of high standing in his profession, was a digni-
[ 104 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
fied and accomplished presiding officer. A gentleman
of the old school, he was courteous and charming and
will be long and gratefully remembered.
The Trustees at their meeting on September 16th,
1920, elected George G. Haven, for twelve years the
efficient Secretary of the club, to be its sixth President.
Henry R. Hoyt as Vice-President, and Origen S. Sey-
mour as Secretary.
Standing first among clubs organized in the city of
New York to provide relaxation during business hours
and a place where luncheon can be served in comfort
to busy men, the Down Town Association, the strug-
gles of its early years left far behind, has now realized
in large measure the expectations of its founders and
seems assured of an untroubled and useful future.
[ 107 ]
of OLD NEW YORK
No. 6 FOR 1922 New Series
ON another page we have recorded the successful
erection of the new Lil)erty Pole in City Hall Park.
Particularly gratifying to us was the splendid co-
operation of the Sons of the Revolution and the New York
Historical Society. Without their aid. spiritually and fi-
nancially, we might not have had so pleasant an incident to
relate. And our friends of the West Coast and of the
East Coast, who kindly supplied the material for the Pole-
are entitled to share in the glory. The readers of the
Manual, whose support of this journal enahled the pub-
lisher to pursue his object to the end. should have at least
honorable mention. It was a fine achievement and every-
body connected with the affair has good reason to be more
than satisfied with the result.
It is quite evident that when John Pintard founded the
New York Historical Society he had no idea that the small
city which he knew and loved so well would, in less than a
century, become one of the greatest cities in the world.
His original conception of his Society seems to have been
planned on National and not local lines. No one at that
time dreamed that New York would some day be big
enough to require an Historical Society all its own.
[ 108 ]
< w n
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OF OLD NEW YORK
The tremendous growth of the country, as a whole,
to say nothing of New York, has already been recog-
nized by the Society. The National idea was long ago
abandoned and the Society has done well to confine its
activities to its home state.
Those of us who are acquainted with the constant,
unselfish and generous service rendered by the present
management of the Historical Society would like to be
of further use in suggesting some changes that might add
to its attractiveness and efficiency.
* * * *
A great many of its friends feel that the time has
come for still further concentration. The great City of
New York is not sufficiently featured or cared for; its
vast riches are neglected or slighted. And if John Pin-
tard were alive today there is small question but that he
would be the first to advocate a change to meet the new
conditions. Steps should also be taken to complete the
The completion of the building would make room
for the Society's really excellent and comprehensive col-
lection of old New York prints. These are of surpassing
rarity, interest and extent. They are carefully stored away
at present and none may view them except after painstak-
ing inquiry and much labor on the part of an attendant.
This gentleman will ultimately emerge with a young vault
in his arms, containing all subjects beginning with "S" or
"J," as the case may be, and place it before you. One
is well repaid for his wait, however, as there is no doubt
regarding the genuine merit of this collection when it is
finally exhumed. But how much better it would be if these
[ 111 ]
entrancing pictures, portraying as they do the Rise, Prog-
ress and Development of the greatest City in the world,
were placed on the wails where the casual visitor or mem-
ber could see them at a glance? The Abl^ott Collection
should be moved to the basement.
When the new wings of the Historical Society's l)uild-
ing are completed there will be ample room for a largely
increased membership. \\'hy would it not be a good idea
for some of the other Societies at present without a home
to join the Historical Society in a body retaining at the
same time their corporate name? There is a formidable
duplication of membership and efforts among patriotic
societies at present which could be eliminated to a large
extent by such a move and much benefit derived by all
•1* T* "I* •!*
The second part of our self-imposed task at City Hall
Park contemplated the removal of the old post office and
the restoration of this site to the Park of which it was
originally a section.
After the erection of the Liberty Pole, public opinion
was quickly responsive to our efforts in this direction.
Liberal space was given by the daily press to a discussion
of the project with the result that a special Joint Postal
Committee was appointed by the Senate and House of
Representatives to investigate our allegations of inef-
ficiency, expensive maintenance and other charges brought
against the old building. The Committee's report was,
if anything, a little worse than our complaints. Never-
theless they recommended the retention of the site and
the erection thereon of an entirely new building.
[ 112 ]
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OF OLD NEW YORK
This recommendation gave us an opening whereby we
were able at once to project the sul^ject into pubHc dis-
cussion in a manner that would not otherwise have been
possible. The result is doubtless familiar to all our
readers by this time. The outspoken approval of all the
newspapers enabled us to secure the backing of practically
the entire city for our idea. When public sentiment is
thoroughly aroused its influence is irresistible. No sensi-
ble government cares to antagonize needlessly any con-
siderable portion of its people and in this case Washing-
ton was no exception.
Nevertheless much credit for the change in the Federal
attitude must be given to that young marvel of common
sense diplomacy, Postmaster-General Will H. Hays. This
gentleman received our approaches in an open-minded
manner and proceeded to discuss the matter from a busi-
ness point of view and in a business-like manner.
By the time these pages reach our readers much water
will have passed under the bridge concerning the old
Post Office. It is now a live issue and the progress of
events is recorded from time to time in the columns of
the daily press. At the present moment of writing the
outlook is encouraging. A final decision, however, can-
not reasonably be hoped for except after long and ar-
duous negotiations, as the situation is badly complicated.
A Citizens' Committee will be formed to work under
the direction of the Joint Committee of the Nezv York
Historical Society, Sons of the Revolution and Valen-
tine's Manual. In a movement of such widespread gen-
eral interest, reaching as it does citizens of New York in
every walk of life, it is desirous that room should be
made for everybody. Organized bodies composed of
residents from almost every state in the Union exist in
[ 115 ]
New York and have their own societies while at the same
time recognizing New York as their home town. As a
matter of fact if only the native horn New Yorker was
interested in this movement it would have scant chance
of success. Fortunately such is not the case and the in-
fluence of the adopted New Yorker is likely to prove a
source of unexpected strength. Congress as a rule is
never very partial to anything New York wants and per-
haps a request from these expatriated citizens on Con-
gressmen from their erstwhile home towns may prove of
Meanwhile we would like all the readers of the Manual
to join the Citizens' Committee. Send us your name and
address and we will enroll you. Old time residents now
living elsewhere are included in this invitation. They
must not forget the old town.
* * * *
Owen Wister, our distinguished Pennsylvania friend,
in a recent article in the American Magazine has much
to say concerning the educational value of such an ac-
quisition as the Liherty Pole from a patriotic standpoint.
Those who know nothing of the past history of the Pole
are immediately moved to inquire about it, and the story
is repeated countless times in the course of a day. And
this very repetition tends to increase public interest in
the story of the struggle for American Independence, and
reaches a generation to whom its teachings are of the
The work of the Liberty Pole is by no means ended.
Already it is finding its place in the daily events of our
city's life. On the Fourth of July, at five o'clock in the
morning, the United Spanish War Veterans raised the
[ 116 ]
Photograph Municipal Art Commission
ABRAHAM DE PEYSTER
Mayor New York City - - 1691 - 1695
Acting Governor - - - - 1701
Erected in Bowling Green Park, facing site of old Fort Amsterdam
OF OLD NEW YORK
Stars and Stripes on the Liberty Pole. And as time
goes on, and especially on Flag Day. these impromptn
services will multiply. At a period not far distant you
will see an instinctive movement to make the Liberty
Pole the rallying point for many patriotic gatherings,
just as it was before the Revolution.
We would also like to see the Sons of the Revolution
and the New York Historical Society continue to broaden
the scope of their services to the public. Perhaps the
writer is less conservative in many respects than his as-
sociates, and feels that a larger measure of public service
is due from the many organizations of this character with
which the city abounds.
There is a sad lack of suitable tablets on many build-
ings and sites marking important historical events, which
could be erected at trifling expense and which would do
much to increase the education and pleasure of our own
people as well as the visitor. Everything about New York
is growing in interest the world over. And there is a
field here of the most promising kind for intelligent de-
* * * *
A very great step in the right direction was taken when
such soul stirring, heart throbbing names as seventh, eighth,
ninth and tenth avenues were changed to Columbus,
Amsterdam, St. Nicholas, Central Park West and West
End Avenue. Avenues A, B, C and D could hardly suffer
by a change to almost anything else. The God-gifted
genius who named our streets in numerical order ought to
be among the first to get one of the bronze memorial
[ 119 ]
tablets we have suggested. In Paris, as Mr. Wister
points out, streets are named after eminent citizens and
quotes significantly that Philadelphia has recently changed
Northeast Boulevard to Roosevelt Boulevard.
Still, the changing of names must not be rashly made.
The recent attempt to call the Bow^ery, Central Broadway,
is a case in point, and Welfare Island in ])]ace of Black-
well is another. Nevertheless, this need not prove an in-
surmountable obstacle. Enough has been cited to show
that some changes are desirable and can be satisfactoril}-
* * * *
In the case of Welfare Island, the New York His-
torical Society entered a protest, but it was the only So-
ciety to take any formal action. It is in matters of this
kind we think, that all the organizations should get to-
gether and act as a single unit. Their combined efforts
would, we believe, accomplish a result which seems im-
possible under present procedure. The fact that finances
are distressingly low in most of these organizations, thus
rendering them practically paralyzed so far as public
effort is concerned, bears out our opinion that co-opera-
tion, combination and elimination would be a good subject
for thoufrhtful consideration.
The temporary association of the Sons of the Revolu-
tion and the Historical Society in the Liberty Pole matter
should suggest further co-operation between these two
bodies. The Historical Society has a splendid building
and a most engaging assembly room. The Sons of the
Revolution own a delightful old Tavern, but hardly ade-
quate for large public functions. The Historical Society's
[ 120 ]
tablets we have suggested. In Paris, as Mr. Wister
points out, streets are named after eminent citizens and
quotes significantly that Philadelphia has recently changed
Northeast Boulevard to Roosevelt Boulevard.
Still, the changing of names must not be rashly made.
The recent attempt to call the Bowery, Central Broadway,
is a case in point, and Welfare Island in place of Black-
well is another. Nevertheless, this need not prove an in-
surmountable obstacle. Enough has been cited to show
that some changes are desirable and can be satisfactorily-
^ ^ ^' ^
In the case of Welfare Island, the New York His-
torical Society entered a protest, but it was the only So-
ciety to take any formal action. It is in matters of this
kind we think, that oil the organizations should get to-
gether and act as a single unit. Their combined efiforts
would, we believe, accomplish a result which seems im-
possible under present procedure. The fact that finances
are distressingly low in most of these organizations, thus
rendering them practically paralyzed so far as public
effort is concerned, bears out our opinion that co-opera-
tion, combination and elimination would be a good subject
for thoutrhtful consideration.
The temporary association of the Sons of the Revolu-
tion and the Historical Society in the Li1)erty Pole matter
should suggest further co-operation between these two
bodies. The Historical .Society has a splendid l)uilding
and a most engaging asseml)ly room. The Sons of the
Revolution own a delightful old Tavern. l)ut hardly ade-
quate for large pulilic functions. The Historical Society's
[ 120 ]
_ .igpji ^^
: ■ 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
finances are always in a melancholy condition and chill
l)enury is good neither for man nor institution. The Sons of
the Revolution have lately observed Washington's Birth-
day in a thoroughly dignified and befitting manner. Car-
negie Hall has been used ; orators like Senators Beveridge
and Willis have made the principal addresses, and most
excellent music has been a feature. They also celebrate
Flag Day in an impressive manner. Why not go further
and join with the Historical Society in a series of talks all
through the \Vinter on. say Eminent Americans —
Alexander Hamilton. Rufus King, John Jay, De Witt
Clinton. Washington Irving. Edgar Allan Poe. etc.? This
winter the Sons co-operate with the Board of Education
in a series of addresses on "The Spirit of '76" to be de-
livered by Senator Willis of Ohio and other speakers of
national renown to the children of the public schools.
Mr. Robert H. Kelby connected with the Historical
Society for nearly half a century and as Librarian during
most of this period was elected Lil^rarian Emeritus last
spring and granted an indefinite vacation. The assistant
Librarian Mr. Alexander J. Wall was elected to fill the
Our best wishes to both.
[ 121 ]
» Wi t» p« •■ r" •■ »■ ■",
a ■) •>' M ■■ •^ >■ ■■■ L.'i
« iir ■•«■!•>■ 1" I-' ■•;
» ^ UK W Ml II* t* k* '"'
OF OLD NEW YORK
THE NEW LIBERTY POLE ERECTED IN
CITY HALL PARK
y^J HE erection of the new Liberty Pole on the exact
V^ \J site in City Hall Park where stood the old Liberty
Pole in 1776, was an event of extraordinary interest
to New Yorkers. This historic event took place on
Flag Day, June 14th, 1921, and seldom in the history of
the City has there been gathered at City Hall a more
brilliant assemblage. Representatives of many historical,
social and educational societies attended the exercises and
the City officials were present to accept this beautiful
emblem of the ideals and purposes of the people of New
York. United States Senator Frank B. Willis of Ohio
made the principal address and Mayor Hylan accepted the
Liberty Pole on behalf of the City. The following para-
graphs give the details of the new Liberty Pole : —
As the original pole was in two sections, the new pole has
been erected in the same manner. Its height is sixty-six feet.
The lower portion about forty feet high, is a Douglas fir from
Oregon, and the top is a pine tree from Maine. An exact re-
production of the old weather vane inscribed with the word
"Liberty" has been placed on top of the pole and the lower
portion is surrounded by iron bands such as originally were
bound around the pole by the Revolutionary "Liberty Boys" to
prevent its easy destruction by British soldiers.
This new Liberty Pole is the sixth that has stood in the City
Hall Square area. The preceding five were erected at intervals
during the ten years between 1766 and 1776. Their destruction
from time to time occasioned some lively riots between the
soldiery and the citizens, the most serious of which led to that
sanguinary skirmish popularly known as .the Battle of Golden
Hill and which many patriotic New Yorkers feel has not re-
ceived the historic importance to which it is entitled, as bemg the
first conflict in which blood was shed, between the opposmg
forces, preceding the Boston Massacre by two months.
[ 123 ]
In the noise and clamor of present day conditions this
beautiful and impressive emblem of the ideals and tra-
ditions of the fathers has a peculiarly fitting jilace in the
life of this now great cosmopolitan commonwealth, and
reminds us that the ideals and purposes of the American
people remain as high in principle and devoted in practice
as they were in the trying days of the Revolution. The
following editorial from the New York World is an
interesting exposition of the significance of the pole.
On the site of the Liberty Pole in City Hall Square, New-
York City, as shown in a survey of 1774, the new pole, made of
timbers brought from Maine and Oregon, will today be dedi-
cated to its office of bearing tlie flag for a community of more
than twice as many people as tlic whole country numbered in
the days of its predecessors.
Of these predecessors there were five, all erected and cut
down in the turbulent days usliering in the Revolution. The
repeal of the Stamp Act was the occasion of the raising of the
first ; the occupation of New York by the British doomed the
fifth. The new staff is in appearance a copy of the early five.
Like them, it is tall and white, erect and clean. Unlike them,
it has a story to tell not merely of freedom lioped for but of
treedom long achieved and newly confirmed.
The thought of the participants to-day will run back not
more to 1774 than to 1918. The Battle of Golden Hill cannot
efface memories of Flanders and the Argonne. The ideals of
freedom have not changed in 155 years. Changing circumstances
have increased the gravity of tl^e burden which the defenders
of the flag must face, but they have Ijrouglit opportunity for
The best men of England in 1776 knew that the colonists
were fighting for political freedom at home as well as here, and
they expressed tliat view with a boldness which our Lusks and
Stevensons would brand as treason ; but against the intrenched
tyranny of the court and the Tory bosses they were almost
powerless. Their descendants are more fortunate in a represen-
tative government which our example aided Britons to win.
They have lately stood side by side with American armies, in a
comradeship which Jefferson foresaw as clearly as his opponents,
for wider freedom in world fellowship.
Long may the Liberty Pole serve, and faithfully may suc-
cessors follow ! They will remind the millions who glance up
as they pass, if leadership does its duty, that the remedy for the
[ 124 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
omissions of liberty is more liberty; that the cure for the
faults of self-government is self-government inspired by loftier
The nevi^ Liberty Pole was erected under the joint direc-
tion of the Sons of the Revokition in the State of New
York and the New York Historical Society the two
organizations defraying all the expenses. Valentine's
Manual, with whom the idea originated gets its reward
in the consciousness of a good work well done.
The day was ideal, the crowd in the Park was estimated
to exceed ten thousand while another hundred thousand
lined Broadway on both sides from the Battery to the
Mayor Hylan broke the ground digging the first spade-
ful of earth. A steel box, containing the official Bulletin
of the New York Historical Society and proceedings of
the Sons of the Revolution, together with the New York
papers of the current date and a copy of the Manual,
were handed to Mr. Robert Olyphant by four year old
Faith Kingsley Brown, daughter of Henry Collins Brown,
and deposited in the corner stone of the flag pole. Miss
Katherine Bayard Montgomery, great granddaughter of
Maj.-Gen. Richard Montgomery, escorted by Mr. George
A. Zabriskie raised the flag on the pole, the guard of
honor being composed of members of the Veteran Corps
President Olyphant then introduced Senator Frank B.
Willis of Ohio, orator of the day, who spoke as follows :
MR. CHAIRMAN, MEMBERS OF THE VARIOUS PATRIOTIC SO
CIETIES HERE REPRESENTED, MY YOUNG FRIENDS OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:
I suspect that most of you were under the impression a moment ago that
these exercises had been concluded, (and indeed, so far as I am concerned,
they may be concluded at any time). I think I realize the exigencies of this
moment and I promise you that I shall not detain you very long.
And yet there come trooping to my mind and memory this moment some
[ 127 ]
(lOVERNOR "Al" Smith, Ex-Ambassador Gerard. Ciias. F. j\IuRrH\,
(!ra.\d Sachem Voorhees in the Tamma.w ranks
IN THE Liberty Pole Parade
Society of the Cincinnati in the parade
OF OLD NEW YORK
historic facts that I want to call afresh to the attention of this audience,
and particularly to the attention of those boys and girls.
This is the replica of the original Liberty Pole that was erected here upon
this very spot in 1766 to commemorate the repeal of the Stamp Act. During
Revolutionary times, four other poles were erected — all of them to be cut
down by enemy hands — and the last one that was erected here before this,
was surrounded (as you see this one is surrounded in part) by bands of iron
in order to deter the effort of those who would seek to hurl it down. That
is why those iron bands are there today — simply to commemorate the his-
toric fact — they are not there to protect that pole against any profane hand
because there is none that dare strike that pole down. It is there forever.
But the thing I want my friends, these boys and girls from the public
schools to remember, is this fact: that while it is not necessary to have
iron bands along that Liberty Pole to protect it now; these children them-
selves — the future citizens of this country — are the iron bands that will
protect that pole and that flag against all comers. (Applause).
Mr. Chairman, this is a scene to stir the heart of the dullest man. This is
New York — the great power pulsating the heart of the world. This is the
center of activities not only of this republic but of the world, and to me it
is significant that by turning aside from their busy lives, the people are
willing to come here to pay afresh their tokens of devotion at this shrine
We marched here from old Fraunce's Tavern. I wonder if you are
thinking of the historical association connected therewith? That was the
spot where in 1783 Washington bade farewell to the officers that had been
associated with him. Fraunce's Tavern down here at Pearl and Broad
Streets is the spot that is sanctified, in a way, by having witnessed the
termination of the great Revolutionary War. And yet, as that great com-
mander and his officers stood together there in the long room with bowed
head and tear dimmed eye, and as they went from that place to their several
sections of the country, they went inspired by the hard purpose to devote
themselves to the building in this country of a new nation.
You know my fellow countrymen, there has to be destructive statesman-
ship as well as constructive statesmanship. The Samuel Adams's, the James
Otis's, the Thomas Jefl^erson's, the Patrick Henry's had done their work of
destroying the old government; but it was not enough to tear out the old
tree of government — to hew it down and destroy it; root and branch — there
had to be planted in its place another tree if this country was to live. And
it was the work of these constructive builders that went out from Fraunce's
Tavern that gave to the nation the constitution and the government under
which we live. There was a new type of leadership. Before, it had been
those that I have named, and now in the meeting that was to be held down
here at Federal Hall on the site of the old sub-treasury, there was a different
type of leadership. In this period it was the genius of Washington and
Madison and Hamilton and Jay that were building in this country the idea
I cannot forget, as I stand on this historic spot, that yonder is the old
tavern down here on Wall Street — the site of the old Federal Hall — where
Washington was inaugurated and where the government of the people began
Then I cannot forget that yonder at the head of Wall Street, in the old
Trinity Church lie buried the earthly remains of a great son of New York —
the man who I think was the greatest constructive genius of his age — I can-
not forget, that here in this city (then only a little city of 20.000 or 25,000
people) it was that this young man lived his life; came to the head of the
bar of his city and state; here it was that the plans for Union, for nationali-
zation were laid.
Out yonder on the grounds of what is now Columbia University (then
King's College) I cannot forget the fact that on a day like this, there had
been a great meeting in the fields — thousands of people were there to hear
[ 129 ]
President John A. Weekes of the New York Historical Society
DELIVERING THE ADDRESS FROM GRAND STAND. PRESIDENT RoBERT
OlVPHANT of THE SoNS OF THE REVOLUTION AT HIS RIGHT
Mayor Hylan breaks
THK Liberty Pole
OF OLD NEW YORK
the discussion of the questions of the oncoming revolution. The leaders
were there. The meeting had lasted all the afternoon. The Livingstons'
were there. Edward Benson was there. General Schuyler was there — the
great men of their times — and out yonder in the outskirts of the crowd was
a little company of college boys from King's College (now Columbia Univer-
sity) and as the meeting was about to break up, one of these boys said to
the fellows with him, "I have been more impressed by what these men have
not dared to say, than I have been by what they have said." Then those
college boys did what any college boys would do. They boosted this boy
on their shoulders and went towards the platform with him. And the great
crowd that was there, stopped to listen, and this boy began to speak, and
the crowd surged up to the platform. And he spoke 10, 20, 30 minutes and
when he finished that speech there was no longer any question what the
attitude of the great New York Colony would be upon the question of
revolution. This young college boy — later to be Secretary of the Treasury —
gathered up New York bodily and put it into the revolution. And over
yonder of the heights that we hearken, a few years later he paid with his
life for the fact that he had stood between this country and treason and
disruption. Such was the contribution of the greatest constructive leader
that this country has seen or that New York has given to the world —
Alexander Hamilton. (Applause).
This great city has had all the time its part in the work of the nation.
Now think a moment; What was it that Washington and Hamilton and
Madison and Jay and Livingstone and the Schuylers's — what was it that
they gave this country? They gave it constitutional government. They gave
it a government dedicated to the proposition that this was a people's govern-
ment, formed by the people for the purpose of doing what ? Why it says,
in the very preamble of the constitution, "We the people of the United
States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure
domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general
welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Now think: What did it matter to have Washington and Hamilton and
Madison establish a government which would form a more perfect Union,
if you and I are going to permit the forces of disintegration to hawk at and
impair this constitution and make it absolutely of no value? What will their
work have accomplished if we of this day are willing, as some seem to
desire, to have this flag replaced by the flag of another color?
I say to you, my fellow countrymen, while this country is broad and
generous and welcomes here men and women from every clime, that there
is room in this republic for but just one flag and that is that flag up there.
To m^, one of the most encouraging things, oh men, is the fact that out
there in the bevy of young folk, the boys and girls that have come from the
homes of foreign born — God bless them so long as they take up our American
ideals and subscribe to our American institutions — they are welcome here —
but I say to you, as one American speaking to other Americans, if those who
come from other climes are unwilling to hang up down here at the threshold
of Ellis Island the ragged raiment of European hate and European caprice
and European ambition, if they are unwilling to put off their old raiment and
be clad in the gold, in the shining panoply of Americanism — if they won't
do that — then by the eternal, we'll shut the door and lock it. (Applause).
No, there can be no divided allegiance in this country. A man in this
country, or a woman in this country, whose allegiance to that flag is by
direct line and not by any circuitous way in this country or anywhere else
on earth, is the only kind of citizen we care to have. (Applause).
And so, I say to you my fellow countrymen, the lesson of this park is not
doing honor to the men who put the first Liberty Pole there — their fame is
secure — but rather, our purpose should be to dedicate ourselves afresh to the
principles of constitutional government — which they loved and defended
during their lives.
[ 131 ]
Let us go away from this place with the new spirit of devotion to Country
Your flag and my flag!
And, oh, how much it holds —
Your land and my land —
Secure within its folds!
Your heart and my heart
Beat quicker at the sight;
Sun-kissed and wind-tossed —
Red and Blue and White.
The one flag — the great flag — the flag
for me and you —
Glorified all else beside — the red and white
The children sang "America" and the Very Reverend
Howard Chandler Robbins, D. D. pronounced the bene-
diction. The meeting was then dismissed.
The base of the Pole still remains to be constructed.
It is proposed to surround the Pole with thirteen conical
blocks of native stone, each block to come from one of the
thirteen original states. Surrounding this inner circle
will be an outer circle containing stones from all the
present states, surmounted with a star. All the blocks
will have the name of the state engraved thereon, the
whole design typifying the present development of our
Nation. One of the principal objects aimed at in the
erection of the Pole is to keep alive the spirit of patriot-
ism in the land. Flag Day with the Pole as the center of
its attraction will grow yearly in importance in our city.
Both the New York Historical Society and the Sons of
the Revolution will look after that.
[ 132 ]
'•Vi'^KTSBt -v -'Svw -?iy.W"»W ,J(...„'W:'H'^.
OF OLD NEW YORK
FOOTLIGHT FAVORITES FORTY YEARS AGO
A Stroll Up Old Broadway
By Daniel J. Brown
'TANDING on the corner of Broadway and Fulton
Street, one fine morning, talking with old Phile,
the Rubber Stamp Man, the conversation turned
on the bridge, which crossed Broadway, at that point
in 1868. So before beginning my stroll, I will take
the liberty to make a few remarks relating thereto.
Broadway and Fulton Street at that period was the
most congested crossing in Old New York, for here
all the old stage lines and trucks of that time met
and in their endeavor to reach the ferries, east and
west and south would lock wheels and remain so for
hours, each refusing to give way to the other. Hav-
ing no traffic regulations at that time, pedestrians
were compelled to go a block north or south to make
a crossing. Detained drivers would regale themselves
and their listeners with some of the vernacular not
particularly soothing to the ear. This state of aflfairs
induced the business men of the neighborhood which
included Knox the Hatter on the north-east corner,
Sandy Spencer, the well-known chop house keeper,
with his motto, "Live and let live" in the Basement :
Dunlap the hatter on the south-west corner and Genin,
another hatter on the south-east, not forgetting our
old friend Barnum on the corner of Ann Street, whose
patrons also found it difficult to reach the moral at-
mosphere of his wonderful Museum to petition the
[ 133 ]
Monday wV^r. 20, 1827,
Willbeperl'orrtKid (for the first tim^ in America,) the Mclo-Drani'; of the
Old Ciirtoncli,. , s.. Mr, De C mp ', Frednick Car'ouch^.Mr. Sterensoo
Sert'eaiu Luuis,i. .., Fisher ; S«'rgeam <«9orge, ..Be^id
Bonin, .....*..*...■.....•.■.. Chauman ; Dennis,. CoUiri^X'iir l^(;
fiiap^rrt, ...Qnin '. Margot... Mrs. Ve,i.'ii
LisetU!» the Sergeaiifs Wife,. . . . .Mrs. Gilfert
IN ACT I.
« 1 AT Miotic song,
** Hurrah, for the White, Red, and Blue,"
Compostid for iite occasion, by a Gentleman of this City, to be
Sung by Mr. KEEN E.
The Evening Euiertdinnients i" ct-nc !udf with
MARIA, ' - - MISS ROCK
It which character sh<' will 'nirodure the following; soncs;
"IMl gang awa wi' Jamie,'' — '^Jonny Pringle," and
"''urrah fo-- the l5or*»^* of Kl ~ "
Early programme of the Bowery Theatre
OF OLD NEW YORK
Common Council, as our city fathers were called at
that time, to erect a bridge across Broadway at that
point which was done and called the "Loew Bridge"
in honor of the gentleman who presided over the
council debates at that period.
But alas the bridge proved to be a boomerang.
Citizens and visitors on reaching the platform of the
bridge soon realized what a splendid view was to be
had up and down Broadway, and enjoyed listening to
the interesting, if not edifying remarks of our old
drivers. They politely refused to move on, so the con-
gestion became greater than ever. The same people
who petitioned for its erection again petitioned for
its removal. It remained up only a short time.
The bridge was a very pretty one, of open iron work
construction, with four stairs, one from each corner,
and I think that this same open work played some
part in the removal, for at this period the ladies' fash-
ions were evoluting from what was known as the
hoop-skirt period to that of the Grecian bend, with
its large bustle and kangaroo walk. The ladies also
wore short skirts, displaying pretty booties, with laces
from which dangled tassels. Apropos of this fashion,
our old friend Tony Pastor composed a song, a few lines
of which I remember as follows :
"They wore tassels on their boots,
It's just the style that suits,
Those naughty girls, with hair in curls
Wore tassels on their boots."
And I remember that the males of that period, my-
self included, used to congregate around those cor-
ners about noon on fine days, to admire those pretty
tassels which so shocked the staid old vestrymen of
[ 135 ]
Erery Day and Erening this Week, commencing Menday, Jane 2nd, 1862
100 BMim BABM
■wOl be on exhibition for prizes, for which npwards of
— — A»P ■
Another Barnum's Museum attraction, 1862
OF OLD NEV/ YORK
St. Pauls, that they were glad to get rid of them, fear-
ing no doubt that the dead ones, in the graveyard,
might arise to take a peep at those pretty tassels.
There is another incident, connected with the bridge
which is worth telling, before bidding it good-by. At
that time there was an actress, "Kate Fisher" of
pleasant memory, playing the character of Mazeppa
in the Old Bowery Theatre, up near Chatham Square.
This related to the escapades of the son of one of the
rulers of the Far East, named "Mazeppa" who spent
his time and money enjoying the Great White Way
and other luxuries of that period, so his father con-
cluded to punish him for his evil way of living.
Procuring a wild Arabian steed he strapped his son,
naked, on the horse and drove him out into the forest.
For obvious reasons this character was always played
by a handsome and well formed lady. I had the pleas-
ure of seeing four of the handsomest actresses of that
period assume the character ; Miss Adah Isaac Men-
ken, the wife of John C. Heenan (our first great
American fighter, called the Benicia Boy), Miss Kate
Fisher the lady of this incident, Mrs. W. G. Jones, a
great Bowery favorite and Miss Bessie Wentworth.
One pleasant afternoon. Miss Fisher donned her
riding habit. For obvious reasons she did not wear
her stage costume, and getting astride her little mare,
"Black Bess," whom she used in the play, she rode
from the theatre through Chatham Street to the
bridge accompanied by an admiring throng. Reach-
ing the bridge she promptly proceeded to mount the
steps at the north-east corner and reaching the plat-
form in safety on the back of her sure-footed little
mare she stopped long enough to admire the scenery
[ 137 ]
r. T. BABiriTBI ItXAIUAGEa U. OBEESrWOOS, Jr UUTB»X2nB3n>HXT
Kwry Day and ,E?eniiig Ihis Week, cwBrnencing Mwday, July 7ih, 1802
»S* POSITIFELiY IVO FKEK L.l!$T. <=S)«^ ^
Admittance to everything 25 Cents | Children nnder 10 years 15 Cents eaeh
Tickets for Parqaet or First Salcon; Seats, in the lectnre Room 15 Cents eztr«
TorChildren (nnder 10 vearsi 10 Cents
Miss Jane Campbell^ the celebrated
ever seen in the form of a woman. She is only
18 YEARS OLD, MEASURES 9 ft. 1], in. ROUND, and
Vv^EIQHS ei8 POUNDS
'i'wo such living inaniniotln of hninaiiiTy have never been seen on the fjce of the globe, and viewed ia
cojitiast with Ihit
m» 'jtp mm: 'wr j^ml jm^ix miry ^sl",
Characteristic example of Barnum's wonders as he advertised them in
OF OLD NEW YORK
and receive the applause of admiring spectators and
descended the steps at the north-west corner without
mishap, returning to the theatre amidst the cheers of
the crowd all along the street.
I will now bid my daring friend and the bridge good-
by and proceed on my stroll up dear old Broadway,
where in memories sweet, I will meet some of the
finest men and women of the stage in Old New York,
with whom I was closely associated as property boy
in various theatres. This gave me an opportunity of
becoming acquainted with all the leading actors and
actresses of the period from Ned Forrest to Tony
Pastor, including our well-known minstrels.
Reaching the corner of Ann Street, I can see in my
mind's eye the facade of that wonderful Museum with
its front ornamented with pictures of all the wonder-
ful and strange curiosities ever dreamed of by man —
Humans, Animal, Reptiles and Piscatorial, gathered
from all parts of the world by that great moral edu-
cator, P. T. Barnum. whose name is still cherished in
the hearts and memories of us Old New Yorkers and
all others who had the pleasure of meeting him. He
had among his patrons people who would not enter
any other place of amusement. As you entered you
would be greeted by the genial smiling Barnum him-
self and you could hear the melodious voice of the
wonderful Professor, explaining his extraordinary
curiosities to an admiring audience, among which
were the renowned Glass Blowers, the Great Russian
Giant, the Nova Scotia Giantess, Miss Anna Swan,
Tom Thumb, Commodore Nut. the Warren Sisters.
Lavina and Fanny. These midget sisters married, one
Tom Thumb and the other Commodore Nut. Barnum
[ 139 ]
The public are rcspectftilly informed^
that this Theatre having undergone considerable
IMPROVEMENTS AND EMBELLISHMENTS,
Is now Open for the Season, under the direction of
Who has Undertaken the Management for a limited period.
2^hc Theatre is Brilliantly
Wednesday Even'g, May 1!, 1825
WUl he presented the Favorite Coinedy of
Sir Philip Blandford Mr. I^obertson,
Sir \bpl Ha" ''7 Her^^'^rt.
Old Theatre Programme of 1825 announcing the first use of gas for ■
lighting the theatres
OF OLD NEW YORK
gave them a grand public wedding on the stage in the
Museum, after which they travelled all over the
world under Barnum's management.
I have no knowledge of these midgets leaving any
descendants. Miss Lavina died only the other day in
a small town near Boston. Her home had diminutive
furniture which was more like a doll house. There we
saw the Living Skeleton, the Bearded Lady and the
Dog-faced Man. A door marked "This way to the
Egress" led to the street and in this way Barnum
managed to empty his house frequently as strangers
wanted to see the Egress. Other wonders were : the
Armless Man, sewing with his feet ; the Wonderful
Five Pound Trout ; the "What Is It" who really was a
Deformed Negro from Thompson Street ; the Wild
Man from Borneo ; Washington's Body Servant ; the
Horse with his tail where his head ought to be (by
reversing his position in the stall). These and many
other marvels, you could see while listening to the
sweet music of the Swiss Bell Ringers. It was a sad
day in July, 1865, when all these wonders went up in
flames and smoke, all fortunately except the humans.
I went down there the next morning and saw the won-
derful White Whale lying on the Street, where it had
been precipitated when the heat broke the glass in its
tank. It lay on the street for several days, as there
was no means at hand to remove so large an object
and it speedily became a great nuisance. It was finally
cut up and taken away piece-meal.
Proceeding along Broadway to a point near Worth
Street and looking east to Chatham Square, you come upon
the site of another old theatre, "The National," now
occupied by one of our oldest furniture houses. This
[ 141 ]
theatre I have no recollection of seeing, but going
into the store one day, one of the clerks took me back
and showed me the old brick wall which formed the
back wall of the old stage. I will relate an incident
connected with this theatre, told me by the gentle-
man with whom I was employed at Wallack's Theatre,
who at its occurence was employed as Treasurer.
One night after the performance he placed the
night's receipts, some eight hundred dollars, in the
inside pocket of his vest and buttoning his undercoat
and overcoat over it he jumped into one of the Old
Red Bird Line Stages passing the door, to take the
money to the manager's home up at Stuyvesant
Square. The Stage being crowded, he with others had
Upon alighting he felt the cold air on his body and
looking for the cause, he found that the two coats and
vest had been cut and the money abstracted by one of
our expert pickpockets. This proves my oft-repeated
assertion that Little Old New York contained the
greatest men in all the lines of endeavor in the world.
Continuing north to a point about Franklin Street
and looking east to the Bowery there was the best
known theatre of Old New York, looking today as it
did when I first saw it in 186L the Old Bowery, then
under the management of Lingard and Fox. It was
here that most of the well-known actors and actresses
of that period made their first bow to a New York
Among the actresses who won their way into the
hearts and memories of the patrons of that old play-
house I recall Charlotte Cushman, as Nancy Sykes in
Oliver Twist, Mrs. G. C. Howard as Topsy in Uncle
[ 142 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Tom's Cabin, Mrs. G. C. Boniface, Adah Isaacs Men-
ken, Mrs. W. G. Jones, Kate Fisher, Bessie Went-
worth. The Benin Sisters, Kate and Susan, and the
Pride of the Bowery, Fanny Herring, with her glass
eye, in her wonderful characters of Jack Sheppard
and Pocahontas, and many other parts of pleasant
I first entered this theatre on Christmas afternoon,
1861, to witness my first performance consisting of
drama and farce, and ending with the Pantomime of
Mother Goose. After paying our shilling we entered
what was known as the Pit, a few steps below the
level of the sidewalk. This part of the house being
reserved for men and boys. Here we could regale
ourselves with such luxuries as pickled pig's feet,
tongues, bolivars, round heart, peanuts, sandwiches
and pies, to be washed down by soda water, sarsa-
parilla, ginger pop.
There were two galleries and boxes for the elite of
the East Side and their friends while the gallery was
reserved for our colored brothers and sisters at the
same price as the pit. Matinees not being in vogue
at this period, we only had afternoon performances
on holidays and special occasions.
It was here I first met the Man Fly and Human Ape
in the person of one Bill Dexerna, whose antics in
climbing the proscenium and boxes, and walking on
the ceiling of the auditorium, head down was equal
to that of the animal and insect he imitated. The
show here lasted about four hours, so you came away
feeling that you had received the worth of your
Directly across the street from the Old Bowery
[ 145 ]
was the German Theatre, called the "Thalia." Here
the elite of our German population enjoyed their plays
and operas in their own language. This theatre being
burned down, the Germans went up to Fourteenth
Street and Irving Place and a new theatre was built
on its site called the Windsor, which was used by
Travelling Companies and variety people for many
Passing along on the west side of the Bowery be-
tween Canal and Hester streets you came upon the
site of another well-known, but short-lived theatre
called the New Bowery. It seems that Lingard and
Fox agreed to disagree and Lingard built the new
theatre in opposition to the old one. Here you could
enjoy tragedy, comedy, melodrama and farce for four
hours such as "The Seven Charmed Bullets," "William
Tell," "The Cataract of the Granges," "Metamora,"
"The Streets of New York," "Lights of London," and
many other plays given by our old friends and travel-
Here we first saw a farce called the "Twenty-
Seventh Street Ghost." The part of the Ghost being
taken by Geo. Brooks, the low comedian which was
very amusing. Here also we had our first Dog Drama,
called the "Dog Detective," given by Geo. T. Willis
and his wonderfully trained dog, which was very in-
teresting. Going back to Broadway, before reaching
Grand Street, there was one of our old Variety Houses
at 444, known as Butler's Varieties. Here I first met
a man known as the Dean of Minstrels, in the person
of dear old Charley White. Here also I first met that
favorite of Old New Yorkers, Johnny Wild, after-
wards well known with Ned Harrigan and Tony Hart.
[ 146 ]
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OF OLD NEW YORK
Farther along Broadway for many years, you would
also meet Master Tommy, the Dwarf, in his song and
dance of "Ham Fat." Also the famous Premiere Dan-
seuse, "Milly Flora," Mary Blake, Eliza Wetherbee
and many others.
Crossing Grand Street we come to 472 Broadway,
known as the home of the old Mechanics and Appren-
tices Library, which also housed New York's favo-
rite minstrel troupe, Bryant's Minstrels, headed by
the three brothers, Dan, Jerry and Neil Bryant ; as-
sisted by such well-known artists as J. K. Emmet ,
Rollin Howard ; the sweet singers Dan Emmet and
Dave Reed ; the great bone artist Epp Horn ; McAn-
drews the watermelon man ; Rice the Colored Prima
Donna ; Little Mac, Luke Schoolcraft, Geo. Christ,
Dan Dougherty, and our old favorite Nelse Seymour.
Who will ever forget Dan Bryant and Dave Reed
in "Shoo Fly," or Nelse Seymour and Dan Bryant in
"Robert Make Hair," with Seymour and Robert and
Bryant as "Hungry Jake." I remember that the song
and walk around of "Shoo Fly" originated from a
habit Nelse Seymour had, while end man, of suddenly
slapping his cheek and catching a fly and opening his
capacious mouth and swallowing it with a broad
smile at the audience only to double up as if in great
agony as if the fly was circulating around in his in-
sides. His neighbor seeing his trouble slapped him
on the back and Nelse opening his mouth, the fly
escaped, while Nelse uttered words, "Shoo Fly, don't
Just before reaching Broome Street, on the west
side, you came to the site of another well-known
theatre called the Broadway. Here the Wallacks,
[ 149 ]
father and son, began their successful career as actors
and managers. Before going up to 13th Street and
Broadway, never having seen them there, I will post-
pone my remarks about them and their well-known
company until I meet them up-town.
It was here I first met that favorite comedian, W. J.
Florence and his wife in his great character of "Bob
Brierly" in the "Ticket of Leave Man." Here, too,
I first met Mr. and Mrs. Barney Williams as the
"Irish Boy and the Yankee Girl." Here, too, I first met
John E. Owens in the "Live Indian." and "Solon
Shingle." It was from Solon Shingle that Denman
Thompson created his great character of "Josh Whit-
comb" in the "Old Homestead," vv^hich brought him
fame and fortune. Here I first met John Brougham
as Sir Lucius O'Trigger and other parts.
Here you met Charlotte Cushman as Nancy Sykes
in "Oliver Twist" and "Lady Isabel," and Martin Erne
in "East Lynne." In its later years it became a va-
riety house, for it was here I first met the smallest
midgets in the business. Commodore Nut and the
Warren Sisters in songs and dances, before they went
to Barnum's Museum.
Proceeding along Broadway midway between
Broome and Spring Streets, on the east side, there was
another famous old playhouse. When I first knew it,
it was known as Woods' Minstrels, then Christy's
Minstrels, then the famous theatre Comique, under
the management of Josh Hart. Here I first met that
famous music hall lightning-change artist, Horace
Lingard, whose songs of "Captain Jinks of the Horse
Marines." "On the Beach at Long Branch." "Walking
Down Broadw^ay," and "The Organ Grinder," assisted
[ 150 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
by a lady who afterwards became his wife, Ahce Dun>
nine. But this house reached its greatest popularity
as the home of these never-to-be-forgotten artists,
Ned Harrigan and Tony Hart, assisted by our old
friend Johnny Wild, he of the rolling eyes and that
ever-ready razor and others in those popular sketches,
"The Squatter Sovereignty" with its popular songs
still being played on organ and phonograph, including
"The Mulligan Guard March," "The Side-walks of
New York," "Annie Rooney," "Paddy Duffy's Cart,"
"The Old Dudeen," "Mary Ann Go Fill the Growler,"
"When Teddy Joins the Gang," and others.
Knowing that I will meet our old friends farther up-
town I will stroll along. Upon reaching Spring Street
and looking east to the Bowery you came upon what
was I think, our first Variety Theatre under the man-
agement of that kind, charitable, good fellow, Tony
Pastor, from whom many a man and woman who
afterwards became famous along Broadway received
their first chance to success and fame. I think it was
here we first had the matinee, as previous to this it
was called Afternoon Performance. It was here he
introduced Souvenir Matinees, giving away to his
patrons such practical presents as hams, bags of flour
and dolls for the children. Knowing that I will meet
our friends again, I will proceed along Broadway.
Reaching a point midway between Spring and Prince
streets, you came upon a granite building known as
the Chinese Assembly Rooms, used by old New
Yorkers as a dancing hall. Here Barnum opened with
what was saved from his Museum down at Ann Street
and started it again, to amuse, instruct and interest
his old patrons with another collection of curiosities,
[ 153 ]
living and dead. Among the new features were the
Siamese Twins, two brothers joined together by a
fleshy tube about two inches in diameter at their
waist-line. They were considered the greatest freak
of nature ever exhibited in public. These wonderful
brothers married sisters and lived for many years, but
it was never known that they left any descendants.
The medical professors wanted to separate them by
tying a ligature in the centre of the tube, but fearing
the results their friends would not permit the operation.
Here also we met the most wonderful lightning
calculator of the age, who could add up long columns
of figures quicker than the eye could follow him. But
here again fiery fate followed our old friend and
he was burned out on one of the coldest nights of
that period. Upon going down to view the remains
of the wreck the next morning the granite front of
the building was coated with ice from the water
thrown by the firemen, making it appear like a coat of
sparkling diamonds, in the morning sunlight.
Knowing that I will meet my old friend again up-town,
I will proceed on my journey. Reaching the middle of the
block between Prince and Houston Streets, I come upon
the site of two of our old playhouses on the west, at 585
Broadway, and — a variety and Minstrel Hall. The
front part of this building was occupied by one of our
well-known photographers, one Fredericks. The en-
trance was through a vestibule containing a portable
stairs, which was lowered during the day for the conven-
ience of the photographer's customers, but was raised to
the ceiling out of sight in the evening to permit the patrons
of the hall to enter. Here Tony Pastor moved from the
Bowery in the sixties, not to forget his old friends, but
[ 154 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
to make new ones along old Broadway where all the
theatres of that period were located. While here he en-
tertained us with our old favorites and some new ones.
It was here we first met the charming young girl on the
flying trapeze in the person of Leona Dare, who, from a
rope stretched from the gallery to the stage, glided on a
ring with a piece of leather in her mouth, attached thereto.
She gave us a startling act, then new to us old New
Here I first met the handsome male impersonator. Miss
Ella Wesner, in her celel)rated character song of "Cham-
pagne Charlie," who hecame a great favorite among the
music halls for many years.
Here you were amused with a very entertaining sketch,
"A Slippery Day." It showed a set of stairs going
up on the outside of a building to a millinery shop ; the
going up was all right, but when you attempted to descend,
the stairs collapsed like a shutter the moment you put
your foot on the first step, causing the visitors to slide
down to the landing ; this being participated in by both
male and female visitors caused a great deal of amuse-
When Tony Pastor moved up-town, this place was taken
by a troupe of minstrels, from the Far West, known as San
Francisco Minstrels, composed of such artists as Birch,
Bernard, Wambold, and Backus, who became very popular.
Birch and Backus were end men, Bernard interlocutor,
while Wambold, the sweet singer entertained us with
some very pretty songs such as, "My Pretty Red Rose,"
"Kitty Wells," "Nelly Gray," and other popular songs of
At this house the Adonis of the Soft Shoe Dancers,
appeared in the person of "Bobby Newcomb," whose songs
[ 157 ]
and dances delighted New Yorkers for many years. His
songs and dances of "Love Among the Roses," and "The
Big Sun Flower," will ever be remembered by those who
heard them, not forgetting that pleasant tittering laugh
which accompanied his performance. Among their com-
pany they had another sweet light tenor singer in the
person of Monroe Dempster, who was a great favorite
with their patrons.
Here I first heard that interesting and amusing Stump
Speaker and Banjo Player, "Ad. Ryman," whose classical
English remarks were equal if not superior to the late
occupant of the White House. And who will ever forget
that wonderful Cavalry Battle, by those fun makers on
their Papier Mache Horses, ending the performance with
a walk around by all the artists? Directly opposite, on
the east side of Broadway, there was another well-known
theatre called Niblo's Garden. Here I first met that
great American tragedian, Edwin Forrest, and his partner,
John McCullough in their portrayal of Shakespeare's
tragedies, such as "Othello," "King Lear," "Macbeth."
"Virginius ;" also "Jack Cade," and the great American
play of "Metamora." Of all the great actors that I have
met, Forrest more fully looked the characters he portrayed.
He looked the real gladiator ; and in every part he used
to play he deserved the title they gave him, as being the
greatest Roman of them all. It was here Forrest played
his last engagement in the fall of 1865. He was then suf-
fering greatly from rheumatism having to be assisted by
an attendant from his dressing room which was on the
stage level, but the moment he saw his audience and heard
their reception he forgot his pains and entered into the
full spirit of the performance.
During this engagement Forrest played only three nights
[ 158 ]
■" ♦'■>~^ it .^ _
Broadway, north to Grace Church, about 1884, when Jake Sharp's
horse cars first appeared on this street. a good view of the
CHURCH WHEN IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE "At THE HEAD OF BrOADWAY"
OF OLD NEW YORK
per week, the remaining three nights being given over to a
new Irish drama, by Dion Boucicault, called "Arrah Na
Pogue" in which the hero of the past, was played by an
Irish actor brought over by Boucicault to play the part
named Glenny, who was not only a good actor but a fine
singer. He it was who first sang that still popular song,
"The Wearing of the Green," in this country. While I
have heard this song sung by many other prominent sing-
ers, I never heard it sung with the same feeling and pathos
given it by Glenny. This actor played the part only a
short time for having a disagreement with the manager he
returned to his own country. Dan Bryant was induced to
wash off his minstrel cork and take Glenny's place, which
he did with great success, singing the songs and adding
some of his famous "Irish Jigs" to the play.
There appeared another English actor in this play,
Harry Beckett, who played the part of the Irish Informer,
Michael Feeney, and he played it so true to life that many
in the audience were ready to go on the stage and murder
It was here that the famous Bateman Sisters, Kate and
Mary, appeared in "Leah the Forsaken." This play was
very affecting and full of sob stuff. But it went big.
It was here also that Lydia Thompson took the town by
storm with her famous blond beauties in her great bur-
lesques of the "Forty Thieves," "Ixion," "Sinbad the
Sailor," with their catchy songs, "Up in a Balloon," "The
New Velocipede" and others. With its great Amazon
March led by the statuesque Pauline Markham and the
famous Majeltons, two brothers and sister in their fa-
mous dance, the Can Can, a new and interesting perform-
ance, greatly appreciated by our male population was
[ 161 ]
The Black Crook and the Famous Can-Can
Here we saw that charming httle American actress,
Maggie Mitchell in her interesting plays of "Fanchon"
and the "Cricket on the Hearth." Here also we saw an-
other charming little actress. Lotta Crabtree, from the
West, in "Lotta," to be followed by Charles Wheatleigh in
his dual character of the "Corsican Brothers" and the
"Duke's Motto," assisted by some of our old Bowery
favorites, G. C. Boniface and wife, John Nuneen and J. B.
Studley. But this theatre reached its greatest fame when
the Kiralfy Brothers produced their great extravaganza,
"The Black Crook," with its unparalleled costumes, scen-
ery and beautiful ladies, which included all the leading art-
ists in dancing, roller skating and marches led by Pauline
Markham ; thus producing one of the greatest galaxy of
beauties ever witnessed on any stage, which was greatly
appreciated not only by our citizens, but by thousands
from adjoining cities and towns. This performance
had a long run, but eventually came to an end like all
things good and bad. It probably provoked more ser-
mons, protests and dissensions than any entertainment
ever given in New York and its memory is still fresh in
the hearts of many Old New Yorkers.
Continuing along Broadway to a place midway between
Houston and Bleecker streets, on the east side, we come
to the site of another well-known old theatre, Laura
Keene's now the Olympic, where I first saw that great
American play called "Our American Cousin." It was in
this play I first met that ever to be remembered genial
actor Ned Sothern in the character of "Lord Dundreary."
He afterwards wrote a play giving it this title, in which
be starred with great success for many years. It was "Our
American Cousin" which Laura Keene and her New York
[ 162 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Company was playing down at Ford's Theatre, in Wash-
ington on that never-to-be-forgotten night in April, 1865,
when our dearly beloved President, Abraham Lincoln, was
killed by that mad actor John Wilkes Booth.
It was here we met another charming actress, Mrs.
John Woods, in her great character of "Pocahontas."
She also produced here "The Streets of New York" with
its great fire scene and ferry boats crossing the East River.
She had in her company such well-known favorites as
J. K. Mortimer, in his well-known character of "Badger
the News Boy," in which he enters the burning home of
the banker and saves the fortune entrusted to him by the
old sea captain for his daughter, which the banker is
trying to defraud her of. Chas. T. Parsloe, as the Boot
Black and Chinaman made a big hit. It was in this play
that we first heard that pretty song, "Beautiful Snow,"
svmg by one of the actresses in the snowstorm scene.
Here you also met H. S. Chanfrau and his wife in his
well-known characters of Kit-Carson, Mose, a New York
Fireman, The Octoroon, Monte Cristo, and the Arkansas
Traveller. Here appeared another well-known actor,
Frank Mayo, in his famous character of Davy Crockett,
the great trap hunter and Indian fighter. It was here
Johnny Wild made his first attempt as a star in "Running
Wild" which proved a failure. Here you met the three
pretty Wossell Sisters. Jennie, Irene and Sophie in their
interesting songs, dances and sketches. But this house
reached its greatest celebrity when it became the home of
"Humpty Dumpty," produced here by those famous pan-
tomimists. G. L. and C. K. Fox. who came over from the
Old Bowery to amuse not only their old patrons but to
gain new friends among the elite of New York with their
wonderful tricks and transformations, introducing new
[ 165 ]
specialties such as bicycle riding, roller skating, velocipede
stunts, acrobats, and dancing by the Majiltons, the Clod-
och Dancers, and others, ending with a beautiful trans-
formation scene. Here G. L. Fox, burlesqued Edwin
Booth in some of his tragedies such as Richelieu and
Hamlet, assisted by a pretty child actress, then about ten
years old. Miss Jenny Yeamans, daughter of our favorite
Mrs. Annie Yeamans.
It was here G. L. Fox ended his career, death resulting
from poisonous matter in the French chalks used in his
make-up, and so ended the career of one who brought more
hearty laughter and tears of joy to his numerous friends
and patrons than any other player on the American stage.
Here also Mr. and Mrs. G. C. Howard gave their great
play of Slavery days, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" they taking
the leading roles of Uncle Tom and Topsy with little
Jennie Yeamans as Eva, G. L. Fox as Marks the Lawyer
and J. B. Studley as the cruel slave driver Simon Legree,
and Mrs. Yeamans as Eliza, whose escape on the ice with
the blood hounds, in pursuit, was very realistic. Here
also you met Mr. Florence and wife in their great play of
the "Ticket of Leave Man."
In the same house I first heard Ned Buntline, the great
temperance orator and writer in one of his Sunday evening
lectures. At a point opposite Bond Street you came to
the site of another well-known old theatre, the W'inter
Garden. This house was famous as the theatre in which
Edwin Booth made his run of one hundred nights in his
great character of "Hamlet." a run unparalleled in those
days, except by that of Lester \\^allack as Eliot Grey in
"Rosedale." Booth retired about this time on account of
the great notoriety occasioned by his brother, and did not
appear in public for some years.
1 166 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
TOURING IN OLD NEW YORK
©HIS description of a tour from lower Broadway to
Kingsbridge and back by way of the old country
roads that existed then has a quaint charm all its
own. It is reproduced from an old book entitled the
"Picture of New York" dated 1807. There were no sight
seemg autos with their garrulous conductors in those days
and every man had to be his own guide. Perhaps the
most interesting thing in the article is the mention of
the points of historic and civic value. Most of those
places or buildings have long ago disappeared, but a
few of them still remain and probably will for many
generations yet to come. Let us hope that the City
Hall at least— that beautiful monument of Old New
York — may be preserved but restored to its pristine
condition by the removal of the Post Office building—
that greatest blot on the topography of the city.
This may be performed by proceeding from one of the livery
stables or genteel boarding houses in the lower part of the city,
by the way of the Episcopal Church of St. Paul's, the Theatre
on the east side of the Park, the Brick Presbyterian Church,
the dispensary, the Masonic Hall of St. John, the New City
Hall, the debtor's prison, and the Public Arsenal, through
Chatham street, one of the principal places for the retail trade
in dry goods, by the Watch-house at the head of Catherine
street to the Bowery road. In passing along this you see near
the two mile stone, Dr. Delacroix's garden called Vauxhall,
where a summer theatre is kept, and where fire works and
other handsome exhibitions are made on gala-days. A little
beyond this is the Sailor's snug harbour, a charitable institu-
tion by Capt. Randall, for the relief of poor and worn out
Beyond this a little way, the new building for the Manhat-
tan Company appears on the right. This is intended to accom-
modate all those who do business with the bank, in case
sickness should cause the inhabitants to quit the lower part of
[ 169 ]
the city. A small distance beyond on the main post road, on
the left is a powder house and on the right appears Rosehill,
the residence of the late General Gates ; at the northern ap-
proach of which are some wooden buildings erected by the
common council for the temporary accommodation of the
poor inhabitants during the endemic distemper of 1804 and
1805. By pursuing the road to the right about a quarter of a
mile you reach Bellcvue, a beautiful spot which has been pur-
chased for the reception of such sick inhabitants as are re-
moved from their dwellings in seasons of a prevailing endemic
fever in the lower and more compact parts of the town. On
the right and by the water side a little to the northward, is
a small cove called Kip's Bay, around which are some hand-
Returning to the main road and proceeding onward you
rise a moderate ascent called Incleberg, on the summit of
which are several beautiful villas. The road for more than a
league is not above one quarter of a mile from the margin
of the East River, and the space between them is improved in
an exquisite style, by the more wealthy inhabitants. The en-
trances to their country seats frequently attract the attention
of the passenger. A little beyond Smith's tavern there is a
road to the ferry at Hellgate.
From the landing on this side you may pass to Hallett's
Cove, within the limits of Newtown on Long Island. In cross-
ing you leave the narrow and rocky spit of land, called Black-
well's Island, a very short distance to the southward ; and
Hellgate with its rocks, whirlpools and currents appears close
to the northward and eastward. An excellent view of this
picturesque and romantic spot may be obtained from the ad-
joining grounds of Mr. Archibald Gracie. His superb house
and garden stand upon the very spot called Hornshook, upon
which a fort erected by the Americans in 1776, stood till about
the year 1794; when the present proprietor caused the remains
of the military works to be levelled at great expense, and
erected on their rocky base his present elegant mansion and ap-
purtenances. The enemy took possession of Long Island be-
fore the Manhattan was surrendered to them. And between a
battery which was erected at Hallett's Cove and the battery
which our people still held at Hornshook there was a tremend-
ous cannonading across the narrow arm of the sea, previous to
the retreat and evacuation of the island by the Americans.
At a convenient time of tide, it is very agreeable to see vessels
pass tlirough tliis place of intricate navigation. It is computed
that during the mild season of the year, between five and six
hundred sail of vessels go through this passage weekly. And
they are not merely coasting craft, but brigs and ships of
large size. A British frigate of fifty guns coming from the
eastward, was carried safe through Hell gate in 1776, to the
[ 170 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
city. This is an excellent place for catching blackfish with
hook and line. Porpoises are often seen sporting among the
foam and eddies. And formerly, lobsters were taken in con-
siderable numbers, in hoop-nets.
Leaving this place, where they are surrounded with elegant
villas, you return to the main road and pursue your ride to
Hacrlcm village. Here you see the river of the same name,
which separates the counties of New York and Westchester.
At this place the two counties are connected by a noble toll-
bridge, erected by legislative permission, by John B. Coles, esq.
In this neighborhood is the race-ground, over which horses are
run, at the period when sports of the turf are in fashion. And
ascending from the plainer flat to the heights of Hacrlcm, you
have an enchanting prospect of the surrounding country.
Between the heights and Kingsbridge, a little to the left of
the road, is the place where Fort Washington stood in 1776.
This piece of ground commanded the Hudson, and Haerlem
rivers, and the pass by land. Here our countrymen made a
stand, after the rest of the American army was withdrawn from
the Manhattan. They were surrounded by their enemies, both
by land and water. They made a brave resistance, and killed
great numbers of the British and German troops who invested
it. But finally they surrendered themselves prisoners of war.
After their capitulation, they were marched to New York, im-
prisoned with so much cruelty, and fed with such scanty and
unwholesome food, that the greater part of them died of malig-
nant fever. So few of them survived, even after their release
by an exchange of prisoners, that many discreet persons be-
lieved, and believe today, that poison was mingled with their
food, by the enemy, before their discharge.
You return from the survey of Fort Washington and Kings-
bridge to the place where the Bloomingdale road appears. You
then take that course to town, and pass by the numerous villas
with which Bloomingdale is adorned.
This brings you back to the main road near Rosehill. Thence
you take the right hand road opening called the Abingdon road,
and pursue your ride to Greenwich. This village is near the
Hudson on the west side of the island. It is the principal re-
treat of the inhabitants, when the city labours under local and
endemic fevers. By a removal two or three miles, they find
themselves safe from harm. In this place the Bank of New
York, and the Branch Bank have buildings ready to receive
their officers and ministers in cases of alarm from distemper.
And many of the citizens have houses and places of business,
to serve turn, while the sickness lasts. And as this always dis-
appears on the occurence of frost, the fugitives all return to
town before the cold becomes severe. At this place too, you
see the great penitentiary house, erected by the commonwealth,
[ 173 1
at a large expense, for the reception of prisoner criminals ;
thence called the State prison. It occupies one of the most
healthy and eligible spots on the island.
Having surveyed this thriving settlement, you may return to
town by the Greenwich road, which will conduct you straiglit
forward by Richmond Hill, St. John's church, the old air fur-
nace, the Bare market, and the Albany bason, to the Battery ;
or you may proceed by the route of the public cemetery, or
Potter's field, to the upper end of Broadway and drive into
town, leaving St. John's church, the new Sugar-house, the New
York Hospital, the College, etc., on the right ; and Bayard's hill,
the Collect, the Manhattan water-works, the County prison for
criminals, the new City Hall, The Park, etc., on the left.
What a change the rapid growth of New York has
brought to the East Side ! We can scarcely imagine
that the large area now occupied by swarming popu-
lations of foreigners, hailing from every qtiarter of the
globe, was once the site of beautiful, quiet country
homes with grotmds sloping down to the clear waters
of the East River. The transformation is astounding
in the extreme ; and when we consider that the entire
distance from the Battery to Kingsbridge, not so long
ago a rural district, is now covered with dwellings and
intersected with busy streets, one realizes that New
York is marching on at a prodigious speed.
[ 174 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Recollections of Commodore E. C. Benedict
©ECAUSE of my intimate association with Edwin
Booth during the later period of his Hfe, for a
large portion of which (at his own request) he
made my house his home, I have been thinking over
a few incidents occuring in our companionship which
may be of some interest.
Mr. Booth located in Greenwich in the early
seventies. I realized that he came for rest and fresh
air and having seen millions of human faces, natur-
ally desired to see no more. So I abstained from
making his acquaintance. Some few friends of mine
called upon him and reported that he and his tal-
ented wife received them all quite hospitably. His
nearest neighbor, named Rose, had been employed
by George Peabody, the Philanthropist, and had retired.
He was hardly a fullblown Rose, being not over five
feet two with his high heels on, but he always wore a
dress suit and plug hat and at once assumed to take
charge of everything within Mr. Booth's fence.
He found Mr. Booth had a well with tanks and pipes,
but without pumping facilities. He told Mr. Booth
that he had a friend named Benedict who had just
bought an Ericsson hot air pumping engine and invited
Mr. Booth to accompany him over to my premises and
see it work. Mr. Booth naturally objected as he was
not acquainted with me. Rose replied : "He is not at
home during the day and his man will show it to us."
Finally Mr. Booth consented to come over and inspect
[ 175 ]
it. On arriving home that day my wife told me she
had had a visit from him. "Did you see him?" I asked.
"No," she rephed, "I did not know he had been here
until he had gone ; he came to see our new pump
work." Fearing he may not have obtained full infor-
mation in regard to it, I took my wife over to call on
him and explain the machinery more fully. He was
exceedingly hospitable and his wife played the piano
and sang some songs. One entitled "Hamlet" I
remember. We invited them to come to dinner.
They accepted and came several times that season.
Mr. Booth was emerging from his financial difficul-
ties and was to appear in October of that year for a
month under Mr. Daly's management. One morning
five or six weeks previous thereto, he started over to
Stamford to get his groceries, having hitched up a colt
and its mother for the drive. The harness broke, the
horses ran away and he was ditched out against a tele-
graph pole, breaking his left arm and two or three
ribs. I called day by day to see what I could do for
him and to try to cheer him up. He felt he could not
keep his engagement with Mr. Daly because his arm
was not set properly. He never was able thereafter to
tie his cravat but he went through with his engage-
ment, which netted him about $30,000. This he asked
me to take care of for him and until his death I took
charge of his finances and was one of his executors.
He narrated to me many interesting events con-
nected with his career, beginning with the fact that
on the 13th day of November, 1833, occurred that
celestial phenomenon, which my parents, frequently
enlarged upon as one of the most wonderful and thrill-
ing sights that ever took place on earth. It was the
[ 176 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
night of a wonderful meteoric shower. During that
night of falHng stars, Edwin Booth — a star of the first
magnitude — was born.
His youth was passed in the obscure httle town of
Belair, Maryland, where he made his first appearance
on the stage as a youth of 12 years. He, with some
other boys formed a negro minstrel club and Mr.
Booth played the banjo, sang a darky song and danced
a clog dance, which he used to do for my children
without corking up. At the age of 13 he became his
father's dresser and traveling companion so he had
not the opportunity of acquiring very much of an edu-
It was exceedingly interesting to have him recount
important scenes in Shakespeare, as well as the litera-
ture that had been written about him. I think he said
there was one book devoted to proving that Shake-
speare was ignorant, placing seashore towns in the
mountains and mountain towns at the seashore, and
an illustration was given of Hamlet's statement to
Polonius that he could be as young as Hamlet "if
like a crab, he could go backwards." Nearly every-
body thinks they only go sideways. One day Mr.
Booth asked a fisherman to row him across the river.
In passing over a shallow place, the boatman stopped
and called his attention to a crab in the act of shed-
ding its shell, a sight which is frequently witnessed by
people who live on the Shrewsbury River. Almost im-
mediately the shell cracked open and the crab shoved
its shell over its head, backing outwards, and appeared
with a fresh new baby's skin ready for an increase in
its growth. Mr. Booth simply remarked: "I guess
Shakespeare saw that and knew what he was talking
[ 177 ]
about." I myself never detected ignorance in Shake-
speare, though I thought he was a little color blind in
his orthography when he spelled my name with a "K."
As previously stated, when, because of his wife's
incurable illness she was placed in a sanitarium (which
grieved him deeply as he was a faithful and true
lover) he asked if he might make my house his home,
saying that he had no other. And so, from time to
time, until he came to New York, he used to drop in
unannounced, gripsack in hand, asking if I had any
cold victuals and a night's lodging for a stranded
actor. We treated him as one of the family and he
acted the part. With his pipe and a book, sometimes
without a coat or vest, and sometimes with Shylock
shoes on his feet (his favorite slippers) ; he would sit
and read to me and my wife as she sewed, or he would
romp about with the children, who always called him
Uncle Edwin. If a stranger, either male or female, ap-
peared he became fairly stage struck.
His fortune increased, and as it did so, he frequently
said to me he would like to do something for those of
his profession which would not be alms giving, and
foolishly consulted me as to how he might do it.
Knowing the needs, he particularized in the following
manner ; "I have known some young actors and many
old ones who are accustomed to meeting in good
weather on Union Sciuare— a sort of curb market for
negotiations between actors and managers and if the
weather was unfavorable, adjourning to some saloon,
or some manager's dusty office."
In August, 1887, I had procured the Steam Yacht
Oneida and I invited Mr. Booth, Lawrence Barrett,
Lawrence Hutton, William Bispham and Thomas
[ 178 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Bailey Aldrich to accompany me on a trip to Labrador.
We had continuously foggy weather. By a singular
coincidence we drifted into Booth's Bay and dropped
anchor. We were near enough to hear the voices on
shore but were unable to see more than a boat's length.
Mr. Booth suffered from a tobacco heart and stomach
and was seldom free from pain. Every friend gave
him a prescription which he felt he should try, so after
we dropped anchor he took from his pocket a pre-
scription which he wanted to get filled and lowering
a gig, we found our way to the quiet little village,
which at that time did not contain more than two or
three stores. The apothecary was located at the cor-
ner. The store had big panes of glass with a frame
work of little bottles of drugs tucked away like mugs
in a little barber shop. The druggist with cap and
gown, came out from another room and Edwin handed
him the prescription. When the druggist retired to the
back room the only noise that was heard was made by
a big blue-bottle fly which bumped against the win-
dow panes. Presently the druggist returned and while
standing behind his counter, Edwin with his back to
the druggist asked in his delightfully deep tones : "Can
you inform me how this town obtained its name?"
The druggist replied : "There is a tradition that a
ship captain by the name of Booth was shipwrecked
here and remained and began the settlement. But I
assure you, sir, he was no relation of that damned
scoundrel who shot Lincoln." Edwin opened wide
one eye, closed the other, screwed his mouth to one
side but made no reply.
On our return to the boat he said, "Now boys, I
have bothered you several times with a statement of
[ 179 ]
my desire to do something for my profession. You
are all here now and we will make a finish of it." So
he repeated what he had said to us separately and Mr.
Bispham was appointed secretary to jot down the
proceedings. Somebody suggested the forming of a
club. The suggestion passed unanimously. "What do
you propose to contribute towards this club?" My
recollection is he said a quarter of a million dollars.
"Who will compose the club?" "Actors and man-
agers." Either Mr. Bispham or I suggested that
neither actors nor managers were apt to be good busi-
ness men. It was suggested having business men be-
long to the club, say : one-third actors, one-third busi-
ness men and one-third managers. "But how can
business men be admitted to such a club?" It was sug-
gested that they could be by becoming patrons of art.
I remember asking if I bought a chromo would it
entitle me to membership and it was agreed that it
"Now, what will this club be called?" We all said
the Booth Club. He immediately and firmly said :
"Not a dollar will be given by me if it is to be called
by my name." Well then the Garrick Club, the Beef-
steak Club and other names were suggested. Finally
Mr. Aldrich who was resting on a transom, rolled over
and said: "Why not call it the Players?" That satis-
fied everybody at once.
On returning from one of our numerous trips Mr.
Booth once told me of a peculair incident which had
occurred to him. While he was on his way to Rich-
mond with his manager (Mr. Ford, I think), to fulfill
an engagement, it was necessary to change cars at
Philadelphia. Just as Mr. Booth reached the plat-
[ 180 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
form, a young man followed him and stepped off of the
car without seeing another which was backing in.
Mr. Booth saw his danger, grabbed him and pulled
him over on the platform, the steps of the car hitting
the young man's heels but not catching him. After
receiving the young man's thanks, Mr. Booth hurried
along and overtook Ford, who said : "Do you know. I
think that was Tod Lincoln you saved from getting
hurt." A few days thereafter, Mr. Booth received a
letter from General Adam Badeau, who was on Gen-
eral Grant's staff, telling him he had a call from Lin-
coln's son who had described the occurence as I have
This accident, which I had never seen referred to in
print, seemed to haunt me a long time after Mr. Booth
told me of it. So many stories have been related of
Booth's painful experiences in connection with the
assassination of Lincoln that it seems only fair that
this should be given wide currency as an antidote.
That Edwin Booth should have been chosen to pre-
serve the life of a member of that family seemed to
me a special and kindly dispensation of Providence.
I have always felt that so singular and withal so re-
markable an occurrence, should not be lost to history.
Many years afterward, I took steps to corroborate the
tale, and it was with the greatest pleasure that I re-
ceived the following letter from Mr. Robt. T. Lincoln
confirming in all essential details the story as told me
by Mr. Booth.
[ 181 ]
1775 N STREET
WASHINGTON, D. C.
February 17, 1918
Dear Commodore Benedict :
Mr. Hastings has sent me the copy of your address on
Founders' Night at the Players' Club and I have read it with
very great interest and pleasure. I have often heard of the
Players' Club and it is very interesting to read of your account
of its origin and the memories of your intimate association
with Mr. Booth. Mr. Hastings tells me that you would like
to have a line from me in regard to the incident you mention
in your address, having heard it from Mr. Booth.
It gives me great pleasure to give you the facts in the case
which I remember very well. They differ in detail only from
your memory of them as told by Mr. Booth, but the difference
is not essential ; the fact is that his service to me was much
greater than is suggested and I was probably saved by him
from a very bad injury if not from something more. The facts
are these :
I being a student at Harvard was on my way to Washington
by way of New York in 1863 or 1864, I can not recall exactly
when it was. On the night of my journey from New York I
with other passengers crossed the ferry and went to the wait-
ing train at midnight in order to get a berth in the sleeping-
car. In those days there were no sleeping-car reservations ;
one bought his ticket directly from the sleeping-car conductor
standing on the platform of his car. The train was in the sta-
tion with the platform of its cars level with the passenger's
platform of the station, just as is the case now in all large sta-
tions, but it was a new thing with us. There was quite a little
crowd attempting to get space and ten or twelve of the crowd
at least formed a queue of which I was one. While waiting I
was pressed against the car on my right side by the bunch of
people at the left and while in this position, the train began to
move slowly. There was a little commotion which resulted
in my being so tightly pressed against the car that its move-
ment screwed me off my feet and they dropped down into the
space between the car and the platform and I was for a few
seconds in a dangerous position from which I could not rescue
myself. I was seized from behind by the collar and a powerful
jerk of the owner of the hand brought me to my feet on the
platform without my having sustained any injury. I turned to
thank my rescuer and in doing so recognized Mr. Booth,
whom I never knew personally, but whom I had often seen on
the stage. The motion of the train had stopped, for it was
only a movement of a few feet and not for a start on its jour-
ney, and the passengers went on with their business of getting
berths and getting upon the train.
[ 182 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
At some time afterwards, it may have been a year or more,
when I was an officer on the staff of General Grant at City
Point, I came to know Colonel Badeau and told him of this in-
cident in one of our conversations there, but did not know until
long afterwards that he had written to Mr. Booth about it. I
never again met Mr. Booth personally, but I have always had
most grateful recollection of his prompt action in my behalf.
Very sincerely yours,
ROBERT T. LINCOLN.
I was many, many times in the company of our
greatest tragedian and otir great comedian together,
and heard them discuss actors and actresses and act-
ing, the benefit of which I felt was all lost on one like
myself outside the profession and I was grieved to
think that the great privilege I had could not have
been enjoyed by young actors. I remember many con-
versations and give you one as an example. The long
runs of Hamlet and Rip Van Winkle were being
discussed. Booth would say to Jefferson : "I do not
see how you can stand it to play Rip Van Winkle so
many times, to do so would get on my nerves." Jef-
ferson would say : "I have to do as you do with
Hamlet. The plan I have followed through so many
performances is that during the afternoon and up to
the time of the performance I try to divest myself of
ever having heard of the play. Then I go to the per-
formance as thotigh every question was absolutely
new to me and my answer must come as if I never
witnessed the scene or heard the questions asked be-
fore." This was particularly interesting to me for I
had seen so many society plays where the actors and
actresses alike would begin to answer questions before
the questions had been fairly asked. They seemed
to be trying to hurry through the performance and
get to the supper after the curtain went down. I
1 183 1
appeal to those who are not actors who recall occa-
sions of the most meritorious performances by promi-
nent actors and actresses and ask if the perform-
ances were not characterized by the apparent unpre-
meditated acting. Take the Music Master and Weber
and Fields for examples. The latter Mr. Jefferson
went to see three times and said it was the best bit of
acting he ever saw.
Of course, I saw Mr. Booth in every character he
appeared in in his later years. Many times while with
him in his dressing room and while perhaps in the
midst of a story, he would be called, and dropping his
pipe, he went out to pick up his cue and I would skip
out to the front. The sudden transition from the chum
in the dressing room to Petruchio or Richelieu or
Hamlet was startling. Who that ever saw him as the
Fool can forget him in what seemed ecstatic agony,
prancing, moaning and giggling in what I may call the
poison scene, or as Richelieu launching the curse of
Rome when he seemed to defy Scripture and add a
cubit to his stature. Yet after all, when asked what
character I preferred to see him in, I always replied —
plain Edwin Booth.
It was the intention of Commodore Benedict to ex-
tend this article to include some further reminiscences
of the great actor and to add his recollections of several
other men whose lives have filled an important place in
the history of our city, but failing health prevented him
from accomplishing his purpose and these recollections
of Edwin Booth with a few changes, are in part from
an address given by him in his 84th year. — Ed.
Old buildings at the corner of Wall and Broad Streets (1885), about
TO BE demolished TO MAKE ROOM FOR THE WiLKES BuiLDING WHICH
in turn has now given place to the magnificent addition to the
New York Stock Exchange
OF OLD NEW YORK
AN INTERESTING OLD LETTER ABOUT
^^::^HIS letter comes from a correspondent in New-
V ~^ burgh — a descendant of Joremus Johnson — whose
family has preserved it as a quaint bit of descriptive
history of the Battery as it vi^as years before the Revo-
lutionary war. Besides the various items referred to
and described by one who saw them, it is interesting
to note the vigor of the language used in excoriating
the plotters who attempted to poison the well used
by General Washington's family. The veneration of
the people for their great leader was remarkable.
New York, Aug. 11, 1840.
Respected Sir :
Your note of Tuesday, I rec'd in which you wish to know
from me whether there was or was not a spring of fresh
water in that part of the Battery then called the Bason &
which I answer, there never was to my knowledge, of which
fact I am positively sure that I am correct. I well remember
when in heavy rains & high tides the Bason would be filled
with water both fresh & salt, with a sluce on Whitehall side
to let it off. At length it was filled up so as to prevent the
tides flowing in at which time the other part of the Battery
was raised all around the Bason, say from 3 to 4 inches to
the Buttonwood trees. I well recollect when there was not
over 9 to 10 inches at the butt. The cause of their being
planted was for shading the reviewing officers as the Bason
was then the place for parades, in the western part of which
a brick barrack for the soldiers was built facing eastward
with an L at one end for the use of the non-commissioned
officers & their families, the foundation of which still re-
mains tho now covered by filling the Battery grounds as they
now are. The Battery at the Southern part was a perfect
quagmire, salt marsh, even as far as the house & grounds
on which John B. Coles built his house, until it came a little
south of Pearl St. & now State St. I well recollect that there
was a small Battery erected at or about where the boat house
Stands, built by the government, & where the Pier No. 1 on
[ 187 ]
the East River starts from, which was demolished when the
Battery & Bason was raised & filled up years before our
Revolutionary War. It was called the water Half moon
Battery. The Materials used in the building of the new wall
facing on the White Hall street was raised a little above the
street. Many of the old inhabitants furnished red stones cut
with the initials of their respective names, all which remained
there until after our Revolutionary War. The Springs were
north of the Battery along where Greenwich street now runs
& enters Marketfield street, but none southward. There were
wells of excellent fresh water on the Battery. The one was
at or very near the large maderia nut tree (which is now
standing or not, I cannot say), a little eastward of where
Greenwich street commences at the Battery Grounds, which
well of water was for the use of the Battery-keeper by the
name of Blundle and a second was situated on the Battery
a little north of where Pearl St. now faces the Battery & I
think perhaps about from 70 to 80 feet from where State St.
now runs, from which the British soldiers stationed at the
lower Barracks (as it was then called) obtained their supplies
of water for their family use. I seem to think that there
were a kind of well & pump on the Battery of which I am
not so sure of. There was two wells & pumps in the old
High Stone Fort, the one for the Governors family use, &
the other for the use of the soldiers & families stationed in
said fort. That for the Gov. family use was at or very near
the Northeast corner of John Hone's house on White Hall
street ; that for the soldiers use was at the southwesterly
point of the fort wall & near their quarters which latter
well was taken down, after peace, with the old High Fort, to
the level of State St. The residue remained & when I built
my Potash Inspection store in the year 1803 I had it cleaned
out & a pump put in. It was excellent water and was gener-
ally used for drinking by Mr. Peter Kemble's family & of
those in the neighborhood.
There was also another pump & well of excellent drink-
ing water which was used for watering the Governor's garden
& stable use which was situated fronting Bridge St. on White
Hall street. There was also a well & pump of excellent fresh
water at the north end of the Bowling Green & facing on
Broadway the same as used by Gen. George Washington &
family when his Headquarters was facing the Bowling Green
& Broadway at the Commencement of Revolutionary War, &
which being used as before stated. An old Hessian rascal,
generally termed Col. Sedgewick who at the time resided in
the city & who was the first general chimney sweep master
ever known here who through the instigation of British
villians & their Golden Fleece & their prototype, the Devil,
inveigled some of our native born citizens of New York, &
[ 188 ]
W CJ <
" tJ ^
OF OLD NEW YORK
also Gen. George Washington's Orderly Sergeant to poison
the water in said well for the sole purpose of distroying that
Heaven-born Michael son, Gen. Washington & family; but
as God is above, the old Devil as well as his satillites in the
foul plot, it was fortunately exploded & those concerned got
wind of it & decamped leaving the Orderly Sergeant to re-
ceive his just reward for his & their base villainies & which
he did by the sacrifice of his own life as all traitors of
right should, even in these days of Freedom & Independence.
Please excuse the length of this with bad writing & spell-
ing as I am somewhat rusty in the way of writing, tho
permit to say that you are mistaken as it respects the spring
in the Basin.
James W. Lents,
old 76 veteran
Jeromus Johnson Esq.
AROUND MANHATTAN ISLAND IN A
ROWBOAT IN 1872
QO SOONER was it broached to take a trip around the
Island than I hailed the idea with enthusiasm. It was not
that I was so eager to pull an oar for eight hours at the
rate of thirty strokes a minute — for I imagined it was
laborious work to row the thirty seven miles which is the distance
around the Island, but rather for the intimate and splendid view
of the sc iiery which is so grand on every side and on the banks
of the glorious Hudson. A few centuries ago Manhattan Island
was bou; ht by Peter Minuet from the Indians for thirty dollars,
and the name Spuyten Duyvil was said to have originated from
the fact that the old Dutch Governor Stuyvesant, wishing to send
a despatch to Westchester County on a stormy night, informed
the courier that he must go at all hazzards, and the courageous
fellow upon arriving at the creek found it to be greatly swollen
and the waters very turbulent. Nothing daunted he sent the
spurs into the flanks of his horse and bravely vowed that he
would ford the creek in spite of the devil and since that time
this little arm of water has held the characteristic and unique
name that we are so familiar with today. Such reminiscences
naturally impelled a desire to know more and when Fred pro-
posed rowing around the Island I responded in the affirmative
and agreed that it would be a sight worth seeing.
Imagine us then on a Sunday morning up early and in good
trim. We ate heartily of our breakfast and repaired to the
boat house of the "Gulick Club." There we found six of its
members ready and after dressing ourselves, topped off with
our white sailor shirts and hats, we stepped into the boat and
were off. It was half past seven when we started. We rounded
the Christopher Street Ferry just below our starting point and
with steady rowing glided swiftly down to the Battery. The
river was calm, ferry boats and pleasure steamers laden with
their precious freight, studded the river, and the Battery seemed
more beautiful with its stone embankments, its refreshing grass
and its superb trees than it did of yore with its clayey banks and
uneven shore. We rounded the Battery and pulled to the Brook-
lyn side where now stands the pier of the first bridge, thence
across to the New York side and up by Blackwell's Island,
stopping at Jones' Wood, where we refreshed ourselves with the
beverage then so popular but now under the ban. Re-embarking
we rowed up East River by Hell Gate to the Harlem River and
under the bridge on the other side, where after a few strokes of
the oars we were brought to the boat house of the Gramercy
Boat Club of Harlem. Here we were hospitably received and
[ 190 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
after a short stay we proceeded on our way up the river and
soon reached High Bridge. The real scenery commenced at this
point and we observed how fine the new park which the city was
laying out would be in years to come and what a joy to the
prospective inhabitants of this beautiful section of the city.
We passed under the farmer's bridge up to the King's Bridge
Hotel, ordered a dinner, took a walk of half a mile and then went
in swimming. Returning we did justice to a good dinner of
porterhouse steak, tomatoes, potatoes and other edibles, after
which we regaled ourselves with a good cigar and at twenty
minutes of one we again embarked and proceeded on our voyage.
Soon after we had the only exciting incident of our journey.
The Harlem River flows by the Hotel, and a short distance above
is the Spuyten Duyvil creek. Not very far from its commence-
ment is King's Bridge which I had supposed was a large and
grand structure but I was surprised to see instead a regular old
country bridge made of stone, under which an arch was formed
to allow a passage for boats. The water, as the tide flows in and
out, rushed through at a tremendous rate and brings to mind
the pictures in books of geography of the rapids of the St. Law-
rence and other famous rivers. The fall of the water I think
was about two feet, the coxwain safely brought the boat through
but on the way we shot hither and thither amongst the waves,
some of them dashing in and over the boat to the intense de-
light of the country youths who stood on the bridge witnessing
our distress. However we got ofif with only a good soaking and
experienced a little of the spice of Spuyten Duyvil.
The high mountain which was now ahead of us we admired
and when told that we had to pass it we felt delighted. We
stopped at a place called Cold Spring where we refreshed our-
selves with some of the pure cold water and then proceeded.
After a slight mishap in running against a railroad bridge we
once more came to our own Hudson. The wind was blowing
and the waves were pretty high and in attempting to row across
to the Jersey side we shipped a lot of water and were made rather
uncomfortable. We gradually neared home, stopping on the way
at Hudson River Park where we refreshed ourselves and then
proceeded down to the boat house wliere we arrived in excellent
spirits and quite puffed up with our little adventure. When we
reached home we did justice to an excellent supper well con-
tented in having seen what few people in those days ever saw.
Here is the log for the trip —
Started 7:30 A.M., Battery and Brooklyn Bridge 8:10, Navy
Yard 8:20, Blackwell's Island 8:40, Jones' Wood 8:50, remained
five minutes ; Gramercy Boat Club, remained 15 minutes ; King's
Bridge Hotel, 10 :40 remained two hours ; started 12 :40, stopped
at Cold Spring ten minutes ; came through Spuyten Duyvil 1 :25 ;
arrived at Hudson River Park, 2:40; left 3:15; stopped at 34th
Street, 15 minutes, and arrived at the boat house at 4:30.
[ 191 J
Edgar Allan Poe. From engraving by John Sartain
OF OLD NEW YORK
EDGAR ALLAN POE IN NEW YORK CITY
Largely from hitherto unprinted memoranda and papers in possession
of the New York Shakespeare Society, Edited by
Dr. Appleton Morgan, President of the Society
CHARLES F. BRIGGS, "Harry Franco" was a
writer for the press of the clay. He conceived
a Journal to be called The Broadway Journal
but unable to manage it he found a publisher in one
John Bisco, elsewhere described as "a shrewd Yankee
from Worcester, Mass., who had been a schoolmaster
in New Jersey." Bisco is entered in the Directory of
1844 as "John Bisco, collector, 29 Av D," and in the
directories of 1846-8 as "collector 249 Second Avenue."
But in the Directory for 1845 he is given as "Pub-
lisher, 135 Nassau Street and The Broadivay Journal
is given in that same Directory as published at that
number. In the directories following 1846, neither
The Broadtvay Journal nor John Bisco as Publisher is
entered at all.
The explanation appears to be that Mr. Briggs find-
ing that he could not without capital swing his Broad-
ivay Journal made it over to Mr. Bisco, and that Mr.
Bisco on finding himself publisher of a literary Journal
realized that he had not an editor, and attracted by
the rising star, sought out the author of The Raven.
At least among the Bisco papers preserved by Mr.
Sidney Fisher, we are shown an agreement, dated
July 14, 1845, in Poe's copper-plate autograph, pro-
viding that John Bisco was "to print and publish The
[ 193 ]
Broadway Journal at his own cost and expense and to
have one half the net profits thereof and that Edgar
A. Poe is to be sole editor and to furnish matter for
the paper from week to week uninterfered with by
any party whatsoever, and to receive for such editor-
ial conduct one half the entire profits over and above
all the reasonable costs and charges of such publica-
This agreement however did not prevent Briggs
from writing letters to Lowell and others complain-
ing of the difficulty he experienced in getting along
with Poe, whom he had "taken in as a sort of charity."
Bisco, nevertheless appears to have dealt with Poe
exclusively, and when approached by Briggs to sell
out to him (Briggs) charged such exorbitant figures
as to preclude the possibility. Though, as we shall
see, he finally sold to Poe for a figure that even nomi-
nally was never paid, except the said fifty dollars which
Horace Greeley was later to turn to such caustic ac-
John Bisco lived until the early sixties and dying
left to Mr. Sidney Fisher a well known real estate
operator of New York City such of *his papers and
account books as covered the period of his dealings
with Poe. And these papers in 1919, Mr. Fisher per-
mitted the New York Shakespeare Society to in-
spect and take copies from to any extent. Among
these papers was a Scrap Book kept by the firm of
Poe and Bisco containing newspaper notices of The
Broadzvay Journal from newspapers widely covering
New England and the South as well as New York
State. Without exception the notices are complimen-
tary, and invariably speak of Poe as a distinguished
[ 194 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
author and poet (certainly evidence of the esteem
in which he was universally held) and of the still
greater achievements expected of him, and presages
of a splendid career for The Broadway Journal under
his control. As to whether Poe was invariably con-
sidered the sole editor thereof there may possibly be
At one time Poe was announced as co-editor with
Briggs and one Henry S. Watson, as to whom Briggs
writes to Lowell, "Mr. Watson's name commands the
support of a good portion of the musical interest in
this city and Boston, and by putting forth his name
as musical editor I can gain his time for a pro rata
dividend on the amount of patronage which he may
obtain. He is the only musical critic in the country
and a thorough good fellow." This letter is dated
March 8th, 1845. But we find letters of about that
date addressed to "Poe & Watson" as proprietors in
which Bisco is not mentioned at all.
The above is very far from being the tale as told by
Harry Franco Briggs. According to him, it was he
who invited Poe to join him. And Poe was induced
to consent and became a sort of assistant editor,
printing pretty much what he saw fit, his old poems
and stories to fill in and sometimes he signed these
with a fresh pseudonym such as "Littleton Barry."
For example, Briggs writes Lowell :
Poe is only my assistant and will in no way interfere with
my own way of doing things. Poe had left The Mirror, Willis
was too Willissy for him, and as it was requisite that I should
have his or some other person's assistance, and as his name
is of some authority I thought it advisable to announce him
as an editor. Unfortunately for him he has mounted a very
ticklish hobby just now — plagiarism — which he is riding to
death, and I think the better way is to let him run down as
[ 195 ]
soon as possible by giving him no check * * * Every
body has gone Raven-mad about his last poem, and his lecture
which W. W. Story went with me to hear has gained him a
dozen or two of waspish enemies who will do more good than
Every reader of Poe biography remembers that his
constant ambition was to own and control his own
mouthpiece. Here probably lies the truth, as nearly
as abstractable today, from the Briggs - Bisco - Poe
management of The Bruadzvay Journal. When Bisco,
apparently ignoring or brushing aside Briggs, offers
to quit claim The Broadway Journal to Poe, the latter
rushes to realize a sufficient sum. Horace Greeley
endorses Poe's note to Bisco for fifty dollars and other
parties evidently helped. But this fifty is all that
Bisco ever got. This endorsement he afterwards
sold to Greeley for $5L50, and Greeley offered it for
half the amount as an autograph of the author of
The Raven to an autograph collector. In November
1845 Poe writes Dr. Chivers that he "had entirely paid"
(by which he meant given notes) for The Broadzvay
Journal except a note for $140.00 which would fall
due on January first, 1846. Possibly the latter was
not inclusive of a note of hand for which Fitz Greene
Halleck gave Poe one hundred dollars in cash, though
Mr. Halleck made no such parade of the loss as did
All that is certain is, that when Poe became sole
proprietor either by handing $150.00 over to Bisco
or otherwise the days of The Broadway Journal were
numbered. It made a sensation while it lasted.
Richard Plenry Stoddard who seldom had a good
word for his fellow scribes, least of all for Poe, says
that that periodical under Poe "was a curious mix-
[ 196 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
ture of bad and now and then good writing; a Satur-
day Review of Billingsgate : savagely critical and
brutally personal, not to say insulting. But it amused
even if it astonished its readers and kept Poe continu-
ally in hot water, but since this made him feared, it prob-
ably did him more good than harm." The Broadzvay
Journal uttered its Swan song January 4th, 1846. In that
issue appears the following :
Unexpected engagements demanding my whole attention and the objects
being fulfilled so far as regards m>self personally for which The Broadway
Journal was established, I now, as editor bid farewell as cordially to foes
EDGAR A. POE.
Mr. Woodberry claims that Mr. T. Dunn English
was the one who managed to get out this absolutely
last appearance of The Broadway Journal which had
already actually given up the ghost. There are other
names — Allen, Holman and so on, who are said to
have officiated either with cash or credit to stand off
the inevitable demise.
Simultaneously with, or soon after, the appearance
of The Raven, Poe, Mrs. Clemm and Virginia forsook
the Amity Street lodgings and took two rear rooms
with board on the third floor of the tenement No.
195 East Broadway (site now occupied by the build-
ing of The Educational Alliance). Up to this time
his city residences. No. 13^/2 Carmine Street, No. 130
Greenwich Street and No. 15 Amity Street, had been in a
comparatively narrow precinct of the west side of
the city. What should have moved him to take so
far a departure to what was then the extreme east
cannot be conjectured unless it may have been con-
sidered a social betterment. For East Broadway and
Henry and adjoining streets were fashionable precincts
[ 197 ]
in those years, though not perhaps as fashionable
as they had been a Httle earher. (A letter of Poe's
to one Thomas W. Fields, dated 195 East Broadway,
August 9th, 1845, making an appointment at that
residence, fixes our date here). Here Lowell called
upon him and failed to impress him. At least he
writes Dr. Chivers long after, "I was very much dis-
appointed in his appearance, he was not half the noble
person I expected to see."
We have seen that previously Poe had caused con-
siderable fluttering among literary dove-cotes by a
series of papers — six in all — contributed to Godey's
Lady's Book of Philadelphia, in which he handled
thirty of his contemporary knights of the pen under
the title "The Literati of New York — Some honest
opinions at Random Respecting their Autorial Merits,
with Occasional Words of Personality." When quite
at liberty to use his pen as he pleased in Willis's Mirror
and in The Broadxvay Journal he returned to re-
capture the sensation which he had already created,
and perpetuated it by adding criticisms of about thirty
nine or forty more mostly names that sound strange
to present ears, but among them Longfellow against
whom he boldly brought a charge of plagiarism, iter-
ating and reiterating it with acid comment until it
was impossible to disregard it.
Among these "Literati" papers was a notable re-
view of Dickens and especially of Barnaby Rudge of
which one or perhaps two instalments had appeared ;
it being in this critique that Poe so accurately and
circumstantially predicted the plot of the story, even
so far as questioning Dicken's art in making so little
(or so much) out of this or that character as to cause
[ 198 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Dickens himself to write him, "Mr. Poe, are you the
Devil?" And it was one of these "Literati" papers
that was to put a bit of real money beyond a daily
wage into Poe's pocket.
A not unvoluminous literary character of the date
was Thomas Dunn Eng-lish, who survives as the
writer of the words of Trilby's song "Ben Bolt".
"Thomas Dunn English" suggested to Poe "Thomas
Done Brown." Hence as a party who wrote under
the pseudonym of "Thomas Dunn English" Poe hand-
led him in this wise :
I place Mr. Brown upon my list of literary people not on
account of his poetry (which I presume he himself is not weak
enough to estimate very highly) but on the score of his having
edited for several months * * * a magazine called The Aristi-
dcan. Mr. Brown has at least that amount of talent which
would enable him to succeed in his father's profession — that of
a ferryman on the Schuylkill. But the fate of The Aristidcan
(Brown had started a periodical of that title in Philadelphia
previously which lived just one year) would serve to indicate to
him that to prosper in any higher walk in life he should apply
himself to study * * * * The editor of The Aristidcan for
example was not the public laughing stock so much on account
of writing "lay" for "lie" ; "went" for "gone" ; "set" for "sit"
etc., or for coupling nouns in the plural with verbs in the sing-
ular — as when he writes
So harmless seems
Azthene, all my earthly dreams — •
as on account of the pertinacity with which he exposed his
lamenting "the typographical blunders which so unluckily creep
into his (my) work" * * * *. In an editorial announcement
upon page 242 of the same number he says, "This and the three
succeeding numbers brings the work up to January, and with
the two numbers previously published makes up a volume or
half year of numbers." But enough! Mr. Brown has for the
motto on his magazine cover the words of Richelieu,
MEN CALL ME CRUEL
I AM not; I am just —
here the two monosyllables "an Ass" should have been ap-
pended, making the motto of The Aristidcan read
MEN CALL me CRUEL
I AM not; I AM JUST AN ASS !
[ 199 ]
They were no doubt omitted through one of those "typographical
blunders which through life have been the bane and antidote
of Mr. Brown." I do not know him personally. About his ap-
pearance there is nothing very remarkable, except that he exists
in a perpetual state of vacillation between mustachio and goatee.
In character a wmdbrutcl !
Sneers like these levelled at a soi-disant editor and
poet were rather hard to bear. And Mr. English,
scorning the pseudonym, retorted as follows in The
Daily Telegraph of June twenty-eighth, 1846.
Mr. Poe says in his article, "I do not personally know Mr.
English (The exact words were 'I do not personally know him,
i.e. Mr. Thomas Dunn Brown')." That he does not know me is
not a matter of wonder. The severe treatment he received at my
hands for brutal and dastardly conduct rendered it necessary for
him, if possible, to forget my existence. Unfortunately I know
him, and by the blessing of God and the assistance of a gray
goose quill my design is to make the public know him also. I
know Mr. Poe by a succession of his acts ; one of which is rather
costly. I hold his acknowledgment for a sum of money which
he obtained of me under false pretenses. As I stand in need of it
at this time I am content that he should forget to know me pro-
vided that he acquits himself of the money he owes me. I ask no
interest, in lieu of which I am willing to credit him with the
sound cuffing I gave him when I last saw him. Another act of
his gave me some knowledge of him. A merchant of this city
had accused him of committing forgery. He consulted me on the
mode of punishing this accuser, and as he was afraid to chal-
lenge him personally I suggested a legal prosecution as his sole
remedy. At his request I obtained a counsellor at law who was
willing as a compliment to me, to conduct his suit without the
customary retaining fee. But though so eager at first to com-
mence proceedings he dropped the matter altogether when the
time came to act thus admitting the truth of the charge.
Personalities such as Poe indulged in, were hard to
endure but were not libelous, however scurrilous.
But to accuse a man of an indictable crime like forgery
was libel pure and simple. Besides, Poe was able to
prove that the "merchant" in question had withdrawn
the charge of forgery and apologised for making it.
So Poe brought suit against English and recovered
two hundred and fifty dollars and costs and his lawyer
[ 200 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
handed him the proceeds, two hundred and twenty-
five dollars. Mr. English's matter, subsequently pro-
nounced libellous, was reprinted by Willis's Mirror and
Poe's attorney also sued that publication and also
recovered two hundred and fifty dollars from it. The
Mirror not interposing any answer but submitting to
a judgment by default.
Poe's lawyer in the English suits was the after-
wards distinguished Judge Enoch L. Fancher as ap-
pears from this letter recently discovered in our
New York, July 17, 1846.
My Dear Mr. Bisco :
You will confer a very great favor on me by stepping in when
you have leisure at the office of E. L. Fancher, Attorney at Law,
a John St. Please mention to him that I requested you to call
in relation to Mr. English. He will also show you my reply to
some attacks lately made upon me by this gentleman.
Mr. John Bisco. POE.
In the same collection where the writer of this paper
discovered the above were several receipts given by
Poe for sums received for literary matter which indi-
cate that he was by no means suffering for temporary
income from such sources between January 14th and
April 16, 1845, whatever may have been his straight-
ened circumstances later.
These last four years of Poe's New York City life
were indeed passed "in the calcium." Pointed out
everywhere as "The man that wrote The Raven" it
became the fashion to invite him to read that poem at
social evenings. Besides the exclusively literary
homes of persons above enumerated, at Dr. Orville
Dewey's, Horace Greeley's, Dr. Francis's, Mrs. E.
Oakes Smith's, Mr. Wyncoop in his Reminiscences
[ 201 ]
(1919) mentions Poe at his father-in-law's, and Poe
speaks of being invited to the residence of a Mr.
James Lawrence, whom he describes as "a mesmerist,
a Swedenborg-ian, a phrenologist, a homeopathist and
what else I am not prepared to say." Poe also now
meets a Mrs. Barhyte whose husband owned certain
trout ponds near Saratoga, an acquaintance leading to
Poe's visits to that watering place on two successive
summers. Of these visits, Woodberry (who, while
not perhaps a malicious biographer, certainly is rigid
in observing the Othellian injunction to "nothing ex-
tenuate") gives some gossip which does not fall into
our concern of "Poe In New York City." But it may
be noted as well here as anywhere that although men-
tion is made of Poe's pallid features, pinched with
want, and threadbare and carefully brushed garments,
his dignified and courteous bearing is never forgotten.
For Edgar Allan Poe came of a family of gentlemen,
was the son and the adopted son of a gentleman and
never permitted himself to forget it.
In these last years he became epris with the idea of
a prose poem dealing with occult and cosmo-scienti-
fic matters — to be called Eureka; or the Cosmogony of
the Universe — and for this his constant vision of The
Stylus supplied a vehicle. As this vision faded he pre-
vailed upon The Society Library, then the largest City
library and the centre of the City's learned element,
(it had been founded by William Alexander, who
under the title of "Lord Stirling" had been a general
of the Revolution, and was then at 348 Broadway, cor-
ner of Leonard Street) to permit him to present his
prose poem as a Lecture. And on the evening of Feb-
ruary third, 1848, some sixty persons paid fifty cents
[ 202 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
apiece to hear the author of The Raven discourse upon
The Cosmogony of The Universe. The Express next
Mr. Poe's lecture on The Cosmogony of the Universe was
beyond all question the most elaborate and profound effort our
citizens ever listened to. Starting from the deity as a comet
from the sun it went careening in its march through infinite
space, approaching more and more the comprehension of man,
until bending its course nearer and nearer it grew brighter and
brighter until it buried itself in the blaze of glory wherein it had
To about this time, if anywhere, must be assig-ned
an alleged residence at Turtle Bay, now the foot of
Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh streets. East River, which
we find described at much length by a Miss Sarah F.
Miller in the paper (given in full below) read at the
Poe Centennial Celebration at Fordham January 9th,
1909. Every attempt to verify this residence having
failed, it is surmised that possibly Mrs. Clemm may
have become acquainted with a family of Miller liv-
ing in that precinct and that she and Virginia may
have spent some time as guests there, possibly there
learning of the Fordham College and proceeding to it
from the Miller domicile. Under such circumstances
Poe may have taken rooms at Ann Street. No. 4
Ann Street was a boarding house kept by a Mrs. Fos-
ter (the Directory for 1845 gives "Edward Foster late
Strawpealer," 4 Ann Street) where some of the "freaks"
from Barnum's Museum just across the way also
boarded. That Poe lived here sans wife or mother-
in-law at one time appears from a letter from one
Charles G. Curtis in possession (1919) of a Mr. G.
George Werner of West Hoboken. Or he may have
sought lodging again in the familiar precinct of
Amity Street, this time at No. 85, from which number
r 203 1
we find two letters of the date, one of them requesting
that letters should be so addressed, spending his week
ends at Turtle Bay meanwhile. The statment of Miss
Sarah F. Miller above alluded to is as follows :
One of the most cherished memories of my childhood is the
recollection of so often having seen Edgar Poe, when I was a
little girl. We lived near the foot of what is the present Forty-
seventh street in a house facing Turtle Bay. Among our nearest
neighbours was a charming family consisting of a Mr. Poe, his
wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Mrs. Clemm. Poor Vir-
ginia Poe was very ill at the time and I never saw her leave the
house. Mr. Poe and Mrs. Clemm would very often call on us.
He would also run over every little while to ask my father to loan
him his boat and then he would enjoy himself pulling at the oars
over to the little island just south of Blackwell's Island for his
afternoon swim. In the midst of this friendship they came and
told us they were going to move to a distant place called Ford-
ham, where they had rented a little cottage, feeling that the pure
country air would do Mrs. Poe a world of good. Very soon they
invited us to luncheon which was very daintily served in the
large room on the first floor. I remember the front door led
directly to this apartment, I recall most clearly their bringing
me a small wooden box to sit on instead of a chair.
When Miss Miller made this extraordinary state-
ment, extraordinary in that it relates an episode in
Poe biography hitherto entirely unsuspected and un-
hinted at in any one of the hundreds of biographies
of Poe with which our public libraries teem, she was
upwards of eighty years old. She had been a resident
of Morrisania (the vicinity nearest to Fordham) for
many years, and was a teacher in the Public Schools
of the City, and the sister-in-law of Rev. Robert Hol-
den, sometime distinguished Rector of Trinity
School New York City. The late William G. Apple-
ton of Dobbs Ferry, son of the Rev. Samuel G.
Appleton, (St. Paul's Church Rectory, Morrisania)
writes : "I knew Miss Miller well in the early sixties.
She was often at our house and often spoke of her
early acquaintance with Poe, but never at any great
[ 204 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
length." On reading it to Mr. Appleton, he expressed
himself as certain that Miss Miller never related in his
hearing the facts she puts into her Fordham state-
Among the reasons for inferring that Miss Miller's
memory might have failed her and her statement is
to be accepted cautiously are the following: Although
known by that name since the days of the Dutch Gov-
ernor Van Twiller, when it was a tobacco plantation,
down to the year 1845-9, "Turtle Bay" remained a
rural precinct and a careful comparison of maps in the
New York Historical Society's collections fail to find
any dwelling houses therein save one or two built for
persons finding occupation there either along shore or
as market gardeners or otherwise. There is on all
these maps noted a large tobacco warehouse of stone
near the water's edge which during the revolution was
used to store powder and munitions of war by the
British, and was once raided by Col. Marinus Willett's
patriots. Moreover to the latest date given there was
no public thoroughfare from Turtle Bay to what was
then the city nor were there any highways except
the Western Post Road skirting the North River and
higher up the Bloomingdale and Kingsbridge and
Boston Post Roads to Westchester County. Altogether it
was the last place that Poe, who earned his daily bread
among the printing and editorial offices of Nassau
Street and lower Broadway, would have sought for a
residence. Never being able to lease more than two
rooms with or without board from week to week, he
could have found nothing within his purse at Turtle
Bay ! Moreover Miss Miller's account suggests a
confusion of memory. Had the Poes been domiciled
[ 205 ]
at Turtle Bay, swept by breezes from Long Island
Sound, Mrs. Clemm would never have spoken of in-
land Fordham's "pure country air" as likely to "do
Virginia a world of good." Such a speech, however,
might well have referred to the stuffy atmosphere of
the East Broadway lodgings. And Miss Miller's re-
membrances of the apartment to which the front door
immediately opened and the sparceness of furniture,
suggest the living-room of the Fordham cottage quite
as we see it today !
Might the facts of which Miss Miller's memory had
become confused after a lapse of fifty years been
something like this : Mrs. Clemm had become ac-
quainted with the Millers who, touched by the sad
face of the delicate Virginia, had invited them both to
an indefinite stay at Turtle Bay while seeking for a
country domicile. That Mrs. Clemm should have
been guided by the worthy Millers to Fordham was
not unlikely, for (as we have seen) a Miss Miller did
afterwards make her residence there, and the Har-
lem Railroad had just been opened that far and there
were undulating pastures and great cornfields, and
along the Kingsbridge road many a small cottage like
the one she ultimately selected for its romantic his-
And Mrs. Clemm found a doll's house in dimensions
at least. A door between two tiny windows gave
upon a narrow porch, above them two still tinier ones
scarcely larger than the portholes of a ship ! Inside,
two rooms, a bit of a "lean-to" for a kitchen, while
the two portholes peered out from a something which
Mrs. Clemm thought might pass on a pinch for one
room more !
r 206 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
The $225.00 paid off all city debts except, the East
Broadway landlady who continued to be unpleasant
and held Poe's mail-matter as long as she could until
some successor lodger sent it to him. And in the
spring of 1846, as he himself put it, "between cherry
blossom and cherry ripe," he took possession of his
own front door. And there began the long story of
poverty far from any city friend or acquaintance who
might, with a dinner or a glass, lighten the daily load
which, had it not been for Mrs. Clemm's neat touch,
would have been not only abject poverty, but abject
squalor. All this the little cottage recalls as now in
repair and fresh paint it stands a stone's throw from
where Mrs. Clemm found it, in Poe Park, Fordham,
When in 1895 the New York Shakespeare Society
rescued the poor little cottage, just as a sub-contrac-
tor on the widening of Kingsbridge Road was about
to reduce it to kindling wood, and opened it to public
inspection there was still standing about ten rods to
the south a carriage shop and blacksmithy, substantially
as in Poe's day. And one of its proprietors, then an
employee, said to this writer: "He (Poe) went by
the shop every morning, for he used to go to the city
very often : and knowing that he was a bright fellow
and from the taste and neatness with which he was
dressed, we came to think that he was making quite
a bit of money in a very few hours."
At the date of Poe's residence in Fordham Arch-
bishop Hughes had just founded St. John's College,
and a Priest, still connected with it said :
Mr. Poe came here very often. He seemed to like to be with
us and about the college. Agreeably and gradually he became a
privileged person among us. He never was other than a true
[ 207 ]
gentleman. His grave, tender face, his simple and unconscious
graciousness, his quick and never failing sympathy, his honest yet
gentle earnestness made him the most lovable of men.
Once settled there, Poe found himself, fourteen long
miles from the offices where he could always earn a
pittance, and there was no Post Office to act as his
messenger. And here for the first time his poverty
became absolute starvation. Of how the neighbours
began to suspect and tried — (repelled by a pride like
Chatterton's) to smuggle in wherewithal to keep alive
the wasting bodies of Virginia and her mother, and
by strategy of Poe himself, the story is better for-
gotten; for it is not a proud one for New Yorkers to
remember. Mrs, Clemm with a case knife digging
for herbs and greens where she could find them in
the roadside turf; alleging that "Eddy" liked them but
confessing by her own sunken features that if he had
no greens there was nothing to eat. How at last they
forced themselves in and found the situation what
they suspected — surely there is nothing more pathetic
in the annals of authorship !
The literature of the world has been written in
garrets and in jails no doubt. The meagre shack we
call Shakespeare's birthplace is painful in its pinched
meanness. But what tale in letters touches this ac-
count given by a Mrs. Gove, a neighbour, of what she
found in this Fordham cottage ?
There was no clothing on the bed, which was only straw, but a
snow white counterpane and sheets. The weather was cold and
the sick lady had the dreadful chills that accompany the hectic
fever of consumption. She lay on the straw bed wrapped in
her husband's military coat (a remnant of his West Point days
of a quarter of a century before) with a large tortoise-shell cat
in her bosom. The wonderful cat seemed conscious of its great
usefulness. The cloak and the cat were the sufferer's only means
of warmth except as her mother held her hand and her husband
[ 208 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
And then in that bitter winter of January, 1847-8,
Virginia died and the kindness of a neighbor (let it
not be forgotten that his name was W. H. Valentine)
caused her poor pinched remains to be piously laid in
his own family vault in the small cemetery — one
craves to call it by the ancient name of "God's Acre"
— near the old Fordham Manor Church. When long
years afterward the Valentine vault was abandoned
Mr. William Fearing Gill, who should be remembered
gratefully for the deed, transferred her remains (keep-
ing them in his own home until arrangements could
be perfected for the reinterment) to rest beside those
of her husband in the Baltimore Church yard.
In this cottage in an upper room — the only upper
room — Poe wrote the most exquisite verses in any
tongue, Annabel Lcc, not after, but as it were in pre-
monition, of poor little Virginia's death. And he read
the poem there to Rosalie Poe, his sister from Balti-
more, who spent a few days at the cottage the year
before her brother's death. Two of Poe's most fam-
ous poems are now accounted for. The third, "The
Bells," we can also fortunately locate.
One of the friends he made at about this time was
a Mrs. Shew who lived at No. 5 East Tenth Street.
And there he spent one night during his Fordham
residence. That evening a chime or peal of bells in
the vicinity disturbed him and he complained. But
Mrs. Shew said to him : "Don't let them disturb you,
why not let them instead inspire you ? Perhaps they
are silver bells." The silver bells caught his ear and
the poem took shape then and there.
But even this is denied. A Judge, A. E. Giles, living
on St. Paul Street, Baltimore, relates (Woodberry)
r 209 1
that a stranger once called upon him on a stormy
night and obtaining admittance, demanded pen and
paper, wrote The Bells and leaving the MS. behind
him disappeared forever. It is added to this tale that
Judge Giles has this clairvoyant manuscript framed to
this day. And the story winds up of course with the
legend "And this apparition was Edgar Allan Poe !"
The details of what followed after Poe's departure
from the poor little Fordham cottage to his end in
Baltimore does not pertain to the story of "Poe in
New York City."
Doubtless Edgar Allan Poe, like other great men,
had his moments of fatigue dress, when not coveting
or anticipating inspection. And portraits of him do
not always as fairly portray him as does Mr. Francis
Gerry Fairfield (no over-partial biographer, either) :
An elegantly moulded and rather athletic gentleman of five
feet six, somewhat slender, lithe as a panther, with blue eyes
that darkened or lightened as passion or fancy was uppermost.
A head that might have been set on the shoulders of an Apollo,
with the exception of his nose, which was abnormally long and
Bronzk Tablet markin
THE ORIGINAL SITE OF THE FORDHAM COTTAGE,
LATER REMOVED TO PoE PaRK
[ 210 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
A MEMORABLE YEAR IN OLD NEW YORK, 1807
Mrs. Mary P. Ferris
CHE total population in 1805 was 75,770, and in
1807 it had increased to 83,500. Of this num-
ber 2,048 were slaves.
Colonel Marinus Willett, the redoubtable Revo-
lutionary patriot, was Mayor, the great-great-grand-
son of Thomas Willet, New York's first Mayor. Col-
onel Willett died at the good old age of ninety years.
The cofiin in which he was buried was made of pieces
of wood collected by himself many years before from
the different revolutionary battlefields. By a written
request, which was found among his effects, he was
clothed in a complete suit of ancient citizen's apparel,
including an old-fashioned three-cornered hat.
Maturin Livingston, whose wife was a daughter
of General Morgan Lewis, was Recorder, and lived
on Liberty Street. On his removal from office he
purchased Ellerslie, a valuable estate near Rhinebeck,
and erected a splendid mansion, which was after-
wards owned by Hon. William Kelly, and later was
the country seat of ex-Governor Levi P. Morton.
William Cutting was Sheriff. The Aldermen were
Peter Mesier, Samuel M. Hopkins, Abraham King,
James Drake, John Bingham, John D. Miller, Jacob
Mott, Thurston Wood, Nicholas Fish. The Assistants
were John Slidell, John W. Mulligan, Simon van
Antwerp, Abraham Bloodgood, Thomas J. Campbell,
Stephen Ludlow, Samuel Forbert, Jasper Ward and
Peter Mesier was one of the notable merchants of
New York whom the revolution had ruined. He and
his family lost fifteen buildings in the disastrous fire
of August, 1778. His daughter married David Lydig,
one of the richest merchants of his day. Mr. Lydig
lived at 35 Beekman Street, and his extensive mills
were at Buttermilk Falls, just below West Point.
David Lydig's only son, Philip, married the eldest
daughter of John Suydam, another old merchant, and
one daughter by this marriage became the wife of
Judge Charles P. Daly and another married Judge
Samuel Miles Hopkins was a man of much dis-
tinction. He was, in 1825, appointed one of the Com-
missioners to build a new prison at Sing Sing.
Colonel Nicholas Fish, who had been Superintend-
ent of the Revenue under Washington in 1794, was
the grandfather of Hamilton and Stuyvesant Fish.
John Slidell, the son of a respectable tallow chand-
ler, whose manufactory was at 50 Broadway, lived
at 60 Broadway. He had travelled extensively in
Europe when he was a young man. and was quite the
Beau Brummel of the day. On his return to New
York he became attentive to Louisa Fairlie, a daugh-
ter of that courtly old citizen, Major James Fairlie,
who lived at 41 Courtlandt Street. Telling her of his
travels, she once asked him, "Did you go to Greece?"
"No; why do you ask?" replied Slidell. "Oh, noth-
ing; only it would have been so very natural that
you should visit Greece to renew early associations."
John W. Mulligan was born in New York while it
was under English rule. As a little boy, he remem-
bered standing on a hill where Grand Street now
\ 212 1
""r i°3 !
OF OLD NEW YORK
crosses Broadway, and seeing the English sentinel
file off on the evacuation of the British. Governor
King was a student in his law office. At one time,
as secretary, he was a member of Baron Steuben's
family and assisted at his entertainments. Baron
Steuben bequeathed him all his library, maps and
charts, and $2,500 to complete it.
Broadway was the favorite promenade, and a walk
from the lower part of the city to Canal Street was a
great feat for pedestrians.
An English writer in 1807 says, "There are thirty-
one benevolent institutions in New York," and calls
attention particularly to the efforts of the ladies to
provide for poor widows and orphans, "which is wor-
thy of imitation in Great Britain." Among these in-
stitutions were the societies of St. George, St. Patrick,
St. Andrew, the New England Society and the Cincin-
A "literary fair" was held every year, alternating
between New York and Philadelphia. This fair was a
social gathering of American publishers, which pro-
moted acquaintance, encouraged the arts of printing
and bookbinding and aided the circulation of books.
High taxes and prices of paper and labor in England
were favorable to authorship and the publication of
books in this country. English works of note were
reprinted and sold for one- fourth the original price.
There were nineteen newspapers in New York, eight
of them dailies, with several monthly and occasional
publications. "Art and literature had hardly an exist-
ence," it was said.
January 24, 1807, "Salmagundi" first appeared in the
form of a little primer, six and a half inches long and
[ 215 ]
three and one-half inches wide. The publishers said
they were all "townsmen good and true," and that the
new paper would contain "the quintessence of modern
The Society Library — the earliest loan library in
America — was on the corner of Nassau and Cedar
streets, and its librarian was John Forbes.
Among the literary folk were the Irvings, who lived
at 17 State Street, facing the Battery; William Dunlap,
Thomas Paine, James K. Paulding, Josiah Ogden Hoff-
man and Philip Hone.
Kent's Hotel, on Broad Street, was a general gath-
ering place for political and other meetings.
There was a Free School on Henry Street, opened a
year before in Bancker (now Madison) Street. The
school of the Dutch church was on Garden Street.
The only iron-rail fence in the whole city was at the
Bowling Green, at the foot of Broadway, put up in 1771
in honor of George HI., and costing iSOO. The first
one put up after this was partly around the Park, in
The Post Office was on the corner of William and
Garden streets (now Exchange Place), in a house
about twenty-seven feet front. The office was in a
room about thirty feet deep, with two windows on
Garden Street, and on William Street a little vestibule
containing about one hundred boxes. Theodorus Bai-
ley was postmaster and lived in the house. There was
but one theatre (built in 1798), the red Pach. Per-
formances were on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays
from the 1st to the 15th of May, and the 1st to the
15th of September.
There were nine insurance companies ; and the Courts
[ 216 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
for the trial of Impeachments and Correction of Er-
rors, the Court of Chancery, the Supreme Court, the
Court of Exchequer, the Court of Oyer and Terminer,
the Mayor's Court, the Court of Common Pleas, the
Court of General Sessions of the Peace, the Court of
Probate, the Court of Surrogates, the United States
District and Circuit Courts.
The leading physicians were Drs. Hosack, Bruce,
Mitchell, Miller, Williamson and Romayne. Dr. Hos-
ack was at the head of his profession. He was instru-
mental in establishing a medical library in the New
York Hospital, in founding the Elgin Botanical Gar-
dens — the Bronx Park of 1807 — in improving the med-
ical police of the city and in the advocacy of strict
quarantine. It was said that De Witt Clinton, David
Hosack and Bishop Hobart were the tripod on which
New York stood. It was Dr. Hosack who caught Ham-
ilton in his arms and heard the gasping words, "Doc-
tor, this is a mortal wound. Take care of that pistol ;
it is undischarged and still cocked. Pendleton knows
I did not mean to fire at him."
It was at a dinner at Albany, at which my grand-
father was present, that the first trouble between
Hamilton and Burr began, and it was about a lady.
Dr. Hosack's special pet, the Elgin Botanical Gar-
dens, occupied the ground between Forty-seventh
and Fifty-first streets and Fifth and Sixth avenues,
and was the wonder of the day. He brought from Lon-
don the first collection of minerals ever introduced
into America, and his house was the resort of learned
men from every part of the world. It afterwards be-
came the property of Columbia University and is the
main source of Columbia's wealth today.
Dr. Samuel Mitchell ministered to mind as well as
body, and when Fulton was defeated encouraged him,
stimulating Livingston to large appropriations.
Dr. Hugh Williamson penned the first notice for
the formation of the Literary and Philosophical So-
ciety. The medical faculty reorganized by the Re-
gents of the University went into effect in 1807, when
Dr. Romayne was appointed President of the College
of Physicians and Surgeons under their authority.
Gordon Baker's Museum was one of the sights of
the town. The New York philosopher was a cele-
brated advertising genius named John Richard Dos-
bough Huggins, who lived at 92 Broadway, and whose
advertisements were the wittiest productions of the
day, and among some of his writers were eminent
Mrs. Toole and Madame Bouchard were the rival
milliners. James Kent. Smith Thompson, Ambrose
Spencer, Nathaniel Pendleton and William Van Ness
were the leading legal lights.
The following is a fair estimate of current prices :
Beef, 63^d. per lb.; mutton. 5d. ; veal, 7d. ; butter,
lOd. ; bread, the loaf of 21^2 lbs., 7d. ; cheese, 7d. ; tur-
keys, 7s. each ; chickens, 20 d. per couple ; oysters, 7d.
per dozen ; flour, 27s. per barrel of 196 lbs. ; brandy, 7s.
6d. per gallon: coffee. Is. 6d. per lb.; green tea, 5s.;
best hyson, 10s. ; coal 70s. per cauldron ; wood, 20s.
per cord; a coat, £1 10s.; waistcoat and pantaloons,
£4 10s.; hat. 54s.; pair of boots, 54s.; washing, 3s. 6d.
per dozen pieces. Prices of lodging at "genteel board-
ing houses," from one guinea and a half to three guin-
eas per week. After the embargo took place the price
[ 220 ]
An early Book and Print Shop in New York, G. M. Bourne,
359 Broadway, 1831. Publisher of many interesting old views
OF the city. This building was also the first home of the
Union Club, 1836
OF OLD NEW YORK
of provisions fell to nearly half the above sums, and
European commodities rose in proportion.
The manufactures of America were yet in an infant
state ; but in New York there were several excellent
cabinetmakers, coachmakers, etc., who not only sup-
plied the country with household furniture and car-
riages, but also exported very largely to the West In-
dies and to foreign possessions on the continent of
America. "Their workmanship would be considered
elegant and modern in London," a visitor said ; and
they had the advantage of procuring mahogany and
other wood at reasonable prices.
An English gentleman, visiting New York in 1807,
says : "The day after our arrival, being the 25th of
November, was the anniversary of the evacuation of
New York by the British troops at the peace of 1783.
The militia, or rather the volunteer corps, assem-
bled from different parts of the city on the Grand
Battery by the waterside, so-called from a fort hav-
ing formerly been built on the spot, though at pres-
ent it is nothing more than a lawn for the recreation
of the inhabitants and for the purpose of military pa-
rade. The troops did not amount to 600, and were
gaudily dressed in a variety of uniforms, each ward in
the city having a different one. Some of them with
helmets appeared better suited to the theatre than
to the field. The general of the militia and his staff
were dressed in the national uniform of blue, with
buff facings. They also wore large gold epaulets and
feathers, which altogether had a very showy appear-
ance. Some gunboats were stationed off the battery
and fired several salutes in honor of the day, and the
troops paraded through the streets leading to the
[ 223 ]
waterside. They went through the forms practised
on taking- possession of the city, maneuvring and fir-
ing feux de joie, etc., as occurred on the evacuation
of New York. One of the corps consisted wholly of
Irishmen, dressed in light green jackets, white panta-
loons and helmets.
"The whole harbour," says the same writer, "was
covered by a bridge of very compact ice in 1780, to
the serious alarm of the British garrison, but the
like has never occurred since. New York is the first
city in the United States for commerce and population,
as it is also the finest and most agreeable for its sit-
uation and buildings. When the intended improve-
ments are completed, it will be a very elegant and
commodious town, and worthy of becoming the cap-
ital of the United States, for it seems that Washing-
ton is by no means calculated for a metropolitan city.
New York has rapidly improved in the last twenty
years, and land which then sold in that city for $50
is now worth $1,500.
"The Broadway and Bowery Roads are the two fin-
est avenues in the city, and nearly of the same width
as Oxford Street in London. Broadway commences
from the Grand Battery, situate at the extreme point
of the town, and divides it into two unequal parts. It
is upward of two miles in length, though the pave-
ment does not extend beyond a mile and a quarter ;
the remainder of the road consists of straggling
houses which are the commencement of new streets
already planned out.
"The Bowery Road commences from Chatham
Street, which branches off from the Broadway to
the right, by the side of the Park. After proceeding
[ 224 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
about a mile and half it joins the Broadway and ter-
minates the plan which is intended to be carried into
effect for the enlargement of the city. Much of the
intermediate space between these large streets and
from thence to the Hudson and East rivers is yet un-
built upon, and consists only of unfinished streets and
Good old customs had not fallen into disuse in 1807.
and New Year's Day was the day of days to the good
There was an old aristocracy which made no pre-
tension, but it existed all the same, and we find there
the names of Clarkson, de Peyster, van Rensselaer.
Schuyler. Stuyvesant. Beekman, Bleecker, Stryker,
Anthony, Cregier, van Home. Laurence. Gouveneur.
van Wyck, van Cortlandt. Provost. Kip. Dyckman.
Verplanck. de Kay, Brevoort, Rutgers, de Forest,
Kent, Jay, Phoenix, Walton, Wetmore, de Lancey,
Bard. Pedleton. Lewis Livingston, Aspinwall, Wool-
sey, Newbold, Ogden, Grinnell, Howland, Sands, Ward,
King, Lorrilard. Gracie, Waddington. Barclay, Mor-
ton, Pintard and a dozen or more of no doubt equal
About Eighth Street stood the country seat of
W^illiam Nielsen. At the corner of Broadway and
Ninth Street was the Sailors' Snug Harbor, a brick
octagon building, given by Captain Robert R. Ran-
dall for old seamen. It had been the residence of
The old Brevoort mansion faced Bowery Road.
The Spingler Farm extended along the west side of
the Bowery Road from Fourteenth to Sixteenth
[ 227 ]
Matthew Clarkson — of whom De Witt Clinton said,
"Whenever a charitable or public institution was about to
be established, Clarkson's presence was considered essen-
tial ; his sanction became a passport to public approba-
tion" — was President of the Bank of New York.
Gilbert Aspinwall, the representative of a family
of princely merchants, lived on the corner of Broad-
way and Broome Street.
Frederick Gebhard was one of the recent comers
to New York, and lived on the corner of Greenwich
and Rector Streets. He had his office on the first
floor and lived upstairs. He was the first importer of
the celebrated Swan gin.
The Bayard mansion stood on Bayard Hill between
Grand Street and Broome. Archibald Gracie's coun-
try seat was at the foot of Eighty-ninth Street, op-
posite Hell Gate. He was spoken of as having "enor-
mous wealth even after he had lost a million dollars."
Mrs. Gracie was a sister of Mr. Rogers, a prominent
merchant and a brother-in-law of President Timothy
Dwight of Yale College. The Beekman country place
was on the East River near Fifty-first Street, and
the Kip mansion on the line of Thirty-fifth Street.
Between the last two houses stood the residence of
Francis Bayard Winthrop, later known as the Cut-
ting homestead. The mansion of Henry A. Coster
was on the East River near Thirtieth Street, and he
also had a handsome residence on Chambers Street.
Among the ladies interested in charitable work
were Mrs. Bethune, the mother of the distinguished
clergyman and author ; Mrs. Josiah Ogden Hoffman,
Mrs. John McVickar, Mrs. Henry Coster, Mrs. James
Fairlie and Mrs. Alexander Hamilton.
[ 228 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
JONAS BRONCK'S LIBRARY
The Earliest in New York State
Mrs. Mary P. Ferris
HE earliest library in this State of which we
have any record belonged to Jonas Bronck, for
whom the Borough of the Bronx was named.
He was one of those worthy but unfortunate Men-
nonites who were driven from their homes in Holland
to Denmark by religious persecution. He was a brave
and enterprising young man and gained rapid promo-
tion in the army of the King of Denmark, who was
very tolerant toward the sect known as Mennonites.
He served as commander in the East Indies until 1638,
when, with others of the persecuted, he set sail for
America, and his name first appears on the records
the following year when he receives a large grant
of land in Westchester County from the Sachems of
His library contained the following volumes :
Two Schatkamers (Treasiir- Calvin's Institutes,
ies), sm. fol. Ballingerus.
Petis a Diani. Schultelus Dominicalies.
Danish Child's Book. Molineri Praxes, 4to.
Veertich Taffereelen Van q^,^^^ gjbj 4^0.
Doots, 1 vol., by bimon j ., > r> 1
Golae^t. Luther s Psalms.
Bible Stories. S'^.^f .^' Y'^'
Danish Calendar. ^^^ Spiegel, fol.
Vievf of the Major Navigation. Danish Cronyk, 4to.
18 old printed books of Danish Danish Law Book, 4to.
and Dutch authors. Luther's Catechism.
17 Ms. books. Tale of Christi, 4to.
Bible, folio. Four Ends of Death.
[ 229 ]
LADY EMMELINE STUART WORTLEY'S IMPRES-
SIONS OF NEW YORK IN 1849
^^v/HE Bay of New York looked beautiful on the morn-
^^ ing of our arrival (May 16th, 1849). It was a
l:)right, warm, splendid morning ; the sun shone
gloriously and the sky reminded me of Italy.
-r ^ ^ ^
One of the first things that struck us on arriving
in the city of New York — the Empress City of the
West — was, of course, Broadway. It is a noble street,
and has a thoroughly bustling, lively, and somewhat
democratic air. New York is certainly handsome, and
yet there is something about it that gives one the
idea of a half-finished city, and this even in Broad-
way itself; for the street was literally littered with all
imaginable rubbish which, we should imagine from
appearances, is usually shot into that celebrated thor-
oughfare ; indeed it seems a sort of preserve for this
species of game. Piles of timber, mounds of bricks,
mountains of packing-cases, pyramids of stones and
stacks of goods were observed on all sides. The
New Yorkers themselves grumble much at the incon-
venience, and their newspapers often contain pathetic
remonstrances with the authorities for allowing such
obstructions to crowed the thoroughfare.
Besides this, it appears from their published com-
plaints that their streets are very much too often torn
vip for sewage purposes, etc., and, in short, that this
tiresome performance is frequently "unnecessarily en-
cored," without their consent, and certainly to their
[ 230 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
manifest inconvenience. They ask if their time is to
be taken up (as their streets are) continually by hav-
ing to stop every two or three steps and sit down on
the next doorstep to take the paving-stones out of
their boots? Cartloads of these same paving-stones
adding to the confusion were to be seen on all sides,
and sometimes felt, as our handsome, heavy, crimson-
velvet-lined, hired vehicle (rather a warm-looking
lining for New York near the beginning of June)
swayed from side to side, and rolled and rattled pon-
We went to the Astor House. ***** What
a glorious sunny day it was ! We had a glimpse of
busy Broadway from our windows. We soon saw
some evidence Of the warmth of a New York summer,
in the profusion of light, cool bonnets furnished with
broad and deeply-hanging curtains, shading and cov-
ering the throat and part of the shoulders — a very
sensible costume for hot weather. The fashion, or the
custom, just now seems to be for all the ladies to wear
large white shawls. I never beheld such a number
of white shawls mustered before. I think the female
part of the population seems all "vouee au blanc." It
had rather too table-clothy an appearance, and from
its frequency the snowy shawl soon became quite tire-
some ; besides, they made one think of "weird w^hite
women," sheeted spectres, and Abd-el-Kader's scour-
ing Arabs in their "burnooses." This is, I dare say,
however, only a temporary fancy ; and probably when
I return to New York they (the shawls, not the wear-
ers thereof) will all have been swept away, like so
many light fleecy clouds, to the four winds of heaven,
New York is certainly altogether the most bust-
ling, cheerful, lifeful, restless city I have seen in the
United States. Nothing and nobody seem to stand
still for half a moment in New York ; the multitudin-
ous omnibuses which drive like insane vehicles from
morning till night appear not to pause to take up their
passengers, or it is so short a pause you hardly have
time to see the stoppage, like the instantaneous flash
of lightning. How on earth the people get in or out
of them I do not know ; the man behind surely must
sometimes shut a person half in and half out and cut
them in two, but neither he nor they have time to
notice such trifles. You see them thrust and shoved
and pushed and crammed through the hasty open door,
as if they were the merest *Mive lumber." Empty or
full, these omnibuses seem never to go slower. I
have seen dozens and dozens of them go by perfectly
empty, but just as much in a hurry, tearing and dash-
ing along, as if full of people too late for the train.
* * * *
The park is pretty, but too small for such a city
as New York. It has a beautiful fountain and is splen-
didly illuminated at night with thousands of lamps.
There are numerous superior shops in Broadway, but
the most preeminently magnificent is "Stewart's." It
is one of the finest structures I ever saw, its front be-
ing composed entirely of white marble. Mr. Stewart
is going to add immensely to this splendid store, and
it will occupy almost as much space as the Pallazzo
Doria at Rome. Crowds of carriages, private and pub-
lic, are to be seen in Broadway, passing and repassing
every moment, filled with ladies beautifully dressed
in the most elaborate Parisian toilets,
[ 232 ]
Original residence of Henry Brevoort, 24 Fifth Avenue. One of the
FIRST houses built THERE, ABOUT 1854. ThE SCENE OF MANY LAVISH
entertainments including THE FIRST MASKED BALL EVER GIVEN IN
THE CITY. Soon to be restored to its original CONDITION BY
THE GRANDDAUGHTER OF Mr. BrEVOORT, MrS. GeORGE F. BaKER, Jr.
OF OLD NEW YORK
OUR CITY HALL
©HE corner stone of the City Hall was laid May 26th,
1803 by Edward Livingston, Mayor of the City.
Eor three years previous the question of building
it had been under consideration, the city officials being in
doubt as to the expediency of undertaking what was con-
sidered at that time a work of great magnitude ; and had
the old City Hall in Wall Street been in fit condition for
the business of the city, no doubt the proposition to build a
new one would have been abandoned or postponed for
years, so that the condition of the old building was the
immediate cause for the erection of a new structure.
However, there were many far sighted and progressive
minds inside and out of the Common Council who real-
ized the propriety and benefit of a large and imposing
building for a city which was fast growing into national
After much deliberation the question of building reached
a practical point and on March 24, 1800, the Common
Council appointed a committee "to consider the expediency
of erecting a new City Hall," to have plans made, to re-
port on a site and to sul)mit an estimate of the cost. This
Committee was also charged with the duty of suggesting
means for the disposal of the old City Hall. The Com-
mittee consisted of Aldermen Coles, Lenox and De la
Montaigne. The more timid members of the Board who
regarded the undertaking as altogether too pretentious
and expensive for the little city as it was then, were a
considerable handicap to the Committee which did not
complete its work for more than two years. Acting on
[ 235 ]
the report of this Committee, October 4, 1802, the Com-
mon Council selected the plan made by John McComb, Jr.
and Joseph G. Mangin jointly, and ordered the treasurer
to pay three hundred and fifty dollars to these gentlemen
for the successful plan. A few days later, October 11,
1802, the Board appropriated twenty-five thousand dol-
lars, appointed a Building Committee and this monumental
work was fairly launched.
For more than ten years the work was under way. It
was obstructed and hindered from time to time by dilat-
ory resolutions of over cautious members of the Common
Council. The first of these was ofifered December 27,
1802, expressing dissatisfaction with the plans as being
too ornate, too expensive and larger than required. In
order to meet these objections another Committee was
appointed February 21, 1803 to consider means of reduc-
ing the cost and of altering the plan so as to conform to
the ideas of these members as to size. This Committee
reported that the length of the building might be lessened
by curtailing the wings, thus meeting the objection to size,
and that by using marble for the front and sides only and
brown stone for the rear the expense of the building
would be reduced. This report did not bring harmony
and was rejected without much consideration.
A new Committee was appointed to consider the ques-
tion as to material, site and cost, and the most practical
thing this Committee did was to select Mr. John McComb.
Jr. as their agent. It is evident however, that Mr.
McComb did not have a fr\ee hand, for the Committee
made a report which did not differ greatly from the pre-
vious one. The report recommended the shortening of the
length and depth of the building and of using brown
[ 236 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
stone. The estimated cost of this plan was $200,000. The
Council confirmed this report March 21, 1803.
The dissatisfaction was not yet allayed and Mr.
McComb, who in the meantime had been appointed Super-
vising Architect by resolution of the Building Committee
at the munificent sum of six dollars for each day he should
be engaged on the work, succeeded in bringing the Council
back to something like the original plan so far as dimen-
sions were concerned. There was no difiference of opinion
as to the site. That seemed to be settled in every one's
mind, for on April 5th, IVIr. McComb noted in his diary
"marked out ground for building." Mr. McComb was
given control of the entire work and his guiding hand
brought order out of chaos and put the work into prac-
The only question which had now to be settled was
the material to be used. Marble and brown stone and
white free stone had their advocates, and the Common
Council on September 3, 1803 took action in favor of
white free stone for the principal fronts, only to be again
changed in the following month. The marble idea would
not down and it may be conjectured that the supervising
architect was the moving force in favor of this material.
The people too were beginning to realize the importance of
making this new City Hall an honor to the city and an
edifice which would rank among the noted public buildings
of the country. The call for marble was therefore hon-
ored and the corporation entered into a contract for this"
material November 14, 1803. The architect's estimate,
as appears in the Committee's final report, showed that
"the difference of expense between marble and brown
stone would not exceed the sum of forty three thousand,
seven hundred and fifty dollars," and this quite negligible
r 237 1
amount in such an important work had given occasion for
grave apprehension and great perturbation of mind on
the part of our early city fathers. Thus it was decided
"that the front and two end views of the New Hall be
built of marble." For the sake of economv the rear of
the building was to be of brown stone.
The ten years that were consumed in building were
years of trial and hardship. The work was interrupted and
suspended frequently from causes over which neither
architect nor workmen had control. The difficulty of get-
ting the marble from Stockbridge to the river in the days
before steam was often insurmountable. Snows blocked
the roads, and the roads themselves presented enough of a
problem without the snow drifts. The work in the city
was impeded also by the elements and workmen were
laid oE for months during the continuance of these storms.
There was also the consideration of epidemics which were
quite frequent at that jDcriod and put an end to all activ-
ities in the line of building, and not the least of all, city
finances which at that early time suffered as we do at
present from an insufficient treasury, or to state it more
accurately from careless and extravagant expenditure.
Although the building of the new City Hall went on
slowly it was being done very thoroughly and from year
to year rose to its present proportions of symmetry and
beauty. Mr. McComb's energy and thoroughness were
evidenced in every step of the work and only the dilatory
actions of the Council prevented the comjiletion of the
edifice many years sooner. On December 1, 1807 the
Building Committee reported an expenditure of $207,000
and the building erected to the second floor. In 1808 the
cry for economy resulted in the reduction of wages and
1 238 1
West BRnAnwAv and Hudson Strket, old location of H. K. and
F. B. Thurber &• Co., THE largest wholesale grocers
IN the country, 1880
OF OLD NEW YORK
this, together with the disinchnation of the Council to
make sufficient appropriation, held the work back.
The outside work was completed in 1810 with the ex-
ception of the roof, which was made temporarily of
shingles waiting the arrival of the copper roof which was
brought from England. The interior was finished so far
as providing a room for the Common Council, the Mayor,
the Clerk and the Comptroller was concerned, but it was
far into the next year — the month of August 1811 — before
the officials of the City bade farewell to their old quarters
in Wall Street and made their official and permanent
residence in this spacious and magnificent new City Hall.
On May 5, 1812 the Common Council by unanimous
action declared "that the building shall be the City Hall
of the City of New York." The entire cost of the build-
ing was about five hundred thousand dollars.
The first celebration held in the new building was the
observance of the Fourth of July, 1811, while yet the
interior was not quite finished, and a month earlier than
the official entrance. This was only a perfunctory and
formal observance of the day. Since then there have been
innumerable celebrations, receptions and other functions
of great public interest, which if compiled would make a
most interesting compendium of events for the Old New
The Cupola of the City Hall was not actually completed
until 1830. The original design which was so much ad-
mired for its classic chasteness provided for a clock in
the front window but this detail was neglected until the
Common Council in 1828 ordered the clock to be put in.
During the intervening years public sentiment had been
veering toward the idea of having four dials instead of
one and the Committee of Arts and Sciences submitted a
[ 241 1
plan to satisfy this desire. Their suggestion was to cut
off the round section on top and to place under it an
octagonal section showing four dials. This plan was
adopted and the change completed in the spring of 1830.
The Common Council also ordered a bell to be placed in
the Cupola but this order was rescinded before the work
had proceeded very far.
The change made in the Cupola detracted from the
classic simplicity of the original design and the wish was
often expressed that the original plan might be restored.
When the Cupola was destroyed by fire in 1858 at the
celebration of the laying of the Atlantic Cable, an op-
portunity was offered to accomplish this desire, but the
beautiful artistic conception of Mr. McComb was set
aside and a replica of the one which was burned erected.
It was not until May 5, 1917, when another fire par-
tially destroyed the Cupola that an opportunity offered
again of restoring the original design. The fire occurred
during the reception of the foreign war commissions.
This time the world of art. as well as the general public,
demanded a return to the classic original, which was in
reality an integral part of the building, and was so perfect
and fitting for that edifice that no substitute could take
its place. The Cupola as it now stands is practically the
one designed by McComb with a few minor changes
hardly observable, so that we have now this noble edifice
as it was conceived and planned by the architect over a
hundred and twenty years ago.
[ 242 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
SOME OLD TIME
PARADES AND FESTIVITIES
HIFTH AVENUE has become a national thorough-
fare and as such has staged some of the greatest
spectacles that have ever been seen. During the war,
parades and processions were of so frequent occurrence
that it seemed to the native New Yorker as if this great
artery of city life had been appropriated almost ex-
clusively for these purposes. These modern specta-
cles, so splendid in their equipment and effect, have
dimmed to some extent the memory of the great pro-
cessions and parades of former days, and it has been
suggested that an account of the more important
parades of long ago would be of interest to many old
New Yorkers who remember the pleasurable excite-
ment of the great celebrations of their own day.
The Great Columbus Celebration,
October lOth, lltli, 12th, 1892
The four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of
America was celebrated with a vim and enthusiasm
surprising even to New Yorkers. For three days
New York was in the streets and kept the city in a
tumult of unprecedented excitement and amusement.
A notable incident of the occasion was the meeting
of the two candidates for the Presidency just on the
eve of the election and in the last days of a hot cam-
paign — President Harrison and Ex-President Cleve-
land, and their meeting was of the heartiest. They
approached each other wreathed in smiles, shook
hands warmly and seemed to enjoy the humor of the
meeting as much as the cheering mass of their ad-
[ 243 ]
miring fellow countrymen. Vice-President Morton
and four well known Governors of States also parti-
cipated in the festivities. Never before was New
York so magnificently decked for a celebration and
never before was a celebration more triumphant and
School Children's Day,
October 10th, 1892
Grand March of the City Schools down Fifth Ave.
from the Columbian Arch, made by Herts — himself
a product of the public school, to the Washington
Arch, designed by Stanford White, led by a line of
mounted policemen, followed by the Grand Marshal
and his staff, also mounted, and then by Mayor Hugh
J. Grant alone and on foot.
Then came the Seventh Regiment band followed by
twenty regiments of boys of the public schools ten
thousand strong. Next a division from Long Island
City, one from Jersey City, and one from the Catholic
Schools and following these a division of private
schools headed by a drum corps of boys with a very
important drum major marching in front.
The College division was headed by six hundred
students from the College of the City of New York,
followed by Columbia College and finally the Art
One of the features of the day was the representa-
tion of school girls, arrayed in white garments with
a touch of bright color here and there. They were
seated on a great stand built in front of the reser-
voir at Fifth Avenue and Forty-Second Street. The
young ladies filled the air with their music, singing
one song after another, and as their clear voices rang
[ 244 ]
Parades in New York. Celebration of Evacuation Day, November 26th,
1883, AS SEEN ON Broadway looking north from Fulton Street,
showing St. Paul's Church, where Washington
worshipped when President, and "cops"
OF OLD NEW YORK
out, the music of the bands ceased and the marchers
themselves changed for the time being from enter-
tainers to entertained.
The Naval Parade, October 11th, 1892
The naval parade of war ships started from the
Narrows, proceeding up the inner bay and then into
the North River as far up as 126th Street. The pro-
gram provided for all other vessels to follow the line
of battleships, but instead of falling into line as in-
tended they moved about at their own discretion and
made a very interesting escort to the great line of
cruisers and men of war moving slowly up the river.
All sorts of craft were out and were festooned with
bunting and flying flags, making a gay and striking
scene for the thousands of people who crowded the
shores of Staten Island and the water front of Brook-
lyn. At the Battery there was a solid mass of human-
ity as far back as it was possible to see, and the win-
dows and roofs of every building where a glimpse of
the parade could be had was filled to its capacity.
As the ships passed Bedloe's Island and Castle Wil-
liam the national salute was fired and the battleships
responded, and as the great parade ended at 126th
Street the foghorns and whistles of countless river
craft burst out and finished a day which will linger in
the memory of many New Yorkers.
Military Parade, October 12th, 1892
Shortly after eleven the vanguard appeared. The
mounted police led the way, followed by the Marshal
Gen. M. T. McMahon accompanied by several army
[ 247 ]
officers and followed by his aides. The West Point
Cadets came next in order, then the men of the regu-
lar army, the marines and artillery making a fine
showing. The sailors from the war ships next came
along and made a splendid appearance, completely
capturing the fancy of the populace. Next came the
State Guards. First the Signal Corps and following
them the Eighth, Ninth, Twelfth, Twenty-Second,
Seventh, Seventy-first and Sixty-ninth Regiments,
the first Battery and the Second Battery, N. G. S.
N. Y. and after these the boys of the Naval Reserve.
The Second Brigade was composed of out of town
regiments, including the Thirteenth, Twenty-Third,
Fourteenth, and Forty-Seventh, the Third Battery and
the Seventh separate company, all of Brooklyn. Next
came the National Guard of Pennsylvania, a contin-
gent from New Jersey, the Gate City Guard of At-
lanta, and four regiments from Connecticut with the
Governor of the State at their head. The Parade
wound up with a stream of officials and civilians in
The Night Pageant
A million and a half is the estimate of the number
of people who viewed the night pageant. A long
procession of floats and equestrians occupying many
hours in passing moved up Broadway and Fifth Ave-
nue and made a display long to be remembered by
those who were fortunate enough to secure a vantage
spot to see it. The procession was a long and gorg-
eous panorama of striking tableaux and held the inter-
est of the populace long into the early hours of the
r 248 1
Parades in New York. Celebration of the laying of the Atlantic
Cable, 1859. Sailors from the "Niagara" on Broadway carrying
a model of their ship
OF OLD NEW YORK
Evacuation Day Parade, November 26th, 1883
The First Centennial Celebration of Evacuation Day
was held on Monday, Nov. 26th, 1883, the actual day
falling on a Sunday. The great military and civic
procession marched down Broadway and was wit-
nessed by hundreds of thousands of people standing
on the line of march and crowding the side streets
as far down as it was possible to see anything. At
every window which came within the plane of vision
could be seen a bevy of laughing and cheering faces
enjoying the fine spectacle. Besides the President of
the United States there were the Governors of seven
of the original Thirteen States and many other nota-
bles. In the procession there were over 20,000 men
and their fine appearance and splendid marching did
credit to both the military and civic authorities.
The other great pageant was the Naval parade on
the waters of the harbor and North and East
Rivers. These two pageants divided the attention of
the multitudes and packed every important street in
the city. From McGowan's Pass to the Battery and
at all the vantage grounds of the North and East
Rivers spectators occupied every foot of space and
witnessed a scene both on land and water never to
be forgotten. Superb bands of music, battalions of
brilliantly uniformed soldiers, companies of veterans,
fire companies, industrial and political associations,
colleges and schools, representative groups of labor
and finance, the civic and federal officials, with the
glorious old battle flags and other time honored relics,
moved and glittered by in seemingly endless proces-
Brooklyn Bridge was crowded with a great gather-
ing of people to view the water procession. From
this point of view the scene that presented itself to
the observer was inexpressibly inspiring and strik-
ing. The waters of the bay and rivers were alive with
vessels of all sorts, and the orderly procession of this
great fleet presented a panorama of picturescjue and
The line of vessels stretching far up the Hudson
and filling the upper bay steamed around the Battery,
up the East River as far as the Navy Yard, then turned
back and headed for Bay Ridge where it dispersed.
In the evening there were great festivities and a
splendid display of fireworks. It was far into the
following morning before New York's gaiety subsided
and the people returned to their homes conscious of
having fittingly commemorated this great historic
Washington Inaugural Centennial Celebration,
April 29tli, 30th, and May 1st, 1889
The Centennial Celel)ration of the Inauguration of
General Washington as first President of the United
States was probably the most magnificent spectacu-
lar event in the history of the city up to that time.
The Celebration lasted three days — April 29th, 30th,
and May 1st — and during the entire period the fes-
tivities were carried on with no abatement of the en-
thusiasm and enjoyment of the occasion.
In commemoration of General Washington's arrival
at Elizabeth, N. J. and for the purpose of reproducing
the events of his progress toward and arrival at New
[ 252 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
York, President Harrison, who was then our chief
magistrate reached the little New Jersey town in the
morning, just as his predecessor General Washington
had done a hundred years before. The little town was
brilliant with decorations and every house was be-
decked with flags and bunting. The streets were
thronged with enthusiastic crowds, and the reception
given the President was so whole-hearted and spon-
taneous that it will surely be talked of until the next
centennial celebration comes around. President Har-
rison was accompanied by his official family and many
of their friends.
The procession to Elizabethport, the point of em-
barkation, marched through the little town along the
same road which Washington took when he went to
embark on the barge that carried him to New York.
At Elizabethport the President and the gentlemen of
his escort, together with the officers of the various
committees, boarded the government steamer Des-
patch. The ladies of the party and the invited guests
were taken on board the steamers IV'iman and Mon-
mouth and these vessels proceeded to New York, with
a swarm of minor craft following in their wake.
At New York the harbor and rivers were crowded
with a collection of all kinds and conditions of steam
vessels and floating craft, from the powerful and dig-
nified man-of-war to the impudent little tug darting-
hither and thither as she cared with reckless impetu-
osity. All the river steamers were crowded with pas-
sengers going to view this unparalleled naval spec-
tacle, and every vessel was radiant with color and
bedecked from stem to stern with flags and bunting.
The harbor was one mass of color and a perfect maze
[ 255 ]
of indescribable magnificence. The United States
ships of war were anchored in a Hne on the upper bay
headed by the Boston on which was Admiral David D.
Porter commanding the fleet.
When the Despatch reached the position assigned
her opposite the foot of Wall Street, the barge ap-
proached and the President and his escort boarded
her. The scene as the President stood in the stern
of the barge with his aides around him was a striking
reproduction of the original event when Washington
sailed over the same course in 1789. The barge was
manned by a crew consisting of twelve retired ship
masters with Captain Ambrose Snow as commander.
Each wore a suit of black broadcloth, a high hat and
a blue badge.
At the landing place the President stepped on a
float covered with purple cloth and proceeded up the
steps to the street. The landing was made at twenty
minutes past one and the President was received by
Governor Hill, Mayor Grant and Hamilton Fish. He
was at once whirled off into the procession to the
Equitable Building where a luncheon was served.
After the repast the President went to the City
Hall and held a public reception, and when this trying
ordeal was over he went to the residence of Vice-
President Morton on Fifth Avenue to rest.
The next day, April 30th, was the actual Centen-
nial of the Inauguration of Washington and the day
began with divine services in the churches and the
ringing of the church bells. Old St. Paul's Chapel
was the center of attraction and here great crowds
congregated. A procession in carriages consisting of
the President, Vice-President, Governor, Mayor, Su-
[ 256 ]
A RARE PORTRAIT OF CyRUS W. FiELD, MADE SHORTLY AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL
LAYING OF THE TIEST ATLANTIC CaBLE, 1859
OF OLD NEW YORK
preme Court Justices and Senators of New York, two
ex-Presidents and the Bishops of New York, Long
Island, Iowa and Tennessee and many other notables
went to the old Church. The President occupied the
pew that Washington used while in New York, and
Governor Hill the one used by Governor Clinton.
Bishop Potter preached the sermon and the choir per-
formed its part with distinction. Services over, the
line of carriages proceeded to Wall Street, Mayor
Grant's carriage being first, the President and Vice-
President and all the other dignitaries following.
Wall and Broad Streets, especially about the Sub-
Treasury building, were packed with people eager to
see and hear all that should take place. The bronze
statue of Washington stood out in all its fine propor-
tions and about it was grouped the notables who were
to take part in the proceedings. The bible on which
Washington took the oath of office, the table on which
it originally rested and the chair Washington used
during part of the ceremony were all brought out for
this great centennial occasion. President Harrison
occupied this chair. Chauncey M. Depew was the
orator. The resplendent military uniforms of the offi-
cers on the platform and the sombre robes and gowns
of the clergy made a contrast that was both striking
and effective. When Rev. Dr. Storrs of Brooklyn
came forward to pronounce the benediction. Presi-
dent Harrison rose and took his place beside him with
his head lowered and his hand resting on the identical
bible that Washington had used. Thus the exercises
In the meantime the great military parade was
under way on Broadway. All the suburbs and the
[ 259 1
country around poured in streams of visitors to view
this great event. The Hne of march was from the
Equitable Building in Broadway to Waverly Place,
into Washington Square and thence up Fifth Avenue
to Central Park. The whole line of march was black
with people and platforms were built on every spot
of ground from which a sight of the parade could be
The great industrial parade, to many people the
most interesting of all, was the third great event of
this historic celebration and occupied the entire day
of May 1st. The route was from Fifty-Ninth Street
down Fifth Avenue and Broadway to Canal Street,
passing the official stand at Madison Square where it
was reviewed by the President and other dignitaries.
General Sherman and his brother Senator John Sher-
man accompanied him.
The floats were wonderful. There were nearly a
hundred of them and such an exhibition of industrial
and commercial activities was never before witnessed.
The Arts and Sciences also were represented and the
tableaux illustrating the achievements made in these
departments of human endeavor were not only of
fascinating interest to the spectators but a wonderful
tribute to the genius of the men and women who con-
ceived and designed them.
Atlantic Cable Celebration, Aug. 17th — Sept. 1st, 1858
The celebration of the laying of the Atlantic cable
was a great event in New York city and lasted for
two weeks. On August 17th, 1858, the illumination
of the City Hall and the splendid display of fireworks
took place. A curious feature of this occasion was
[ 260 ]
An early Police Parade in New York, 1859. "Part of the Force"
ON REVIEW AT the Battery. From a photograph of the period
OF OLD NEW YORK
the lighting up of all the windows of the building
with the added brilliancy of three thousand seven
hundred candles. Bands were playing "Hail, Colum-
bia" and "God Save the Queen" everywhere and con-
tinued all night playing popular and enlivening airs.
The first message flashed across the ocean from
Queen to President was on August 16th, 1858, and
the line was opened for general use Sept. 1st.
Shortly after the great display of fireworks and in
the early hours of the next morning, August 18th, fire
was detected in the tower of the City Hall. With
great rapidity, and notwithstanding the efiforts of the
firemen, the flames climbed up to the top of the
Cupola. It was not until after 3 a. m. that the fire
was subdued, but by this time the Cupola was entirely
destroyed and nothing but the skeleton of the tower
It was not until September 1st that the great civic
and military procession took place and the accounts
of it given at the time pronounce it the noblest fete
ever witnessed in New York. The outstanding feature
of the procession was the crew of the Niagara march-
ing behind a car drawn by six gayly caparisoned horses
carrying a large coil of the Atlantic Telegraph cable.
The streets were gayly decorated and as night wore
on colored lanterns and lights of all kinds were shown.
Broadway had trees then and every one of them was
hung with colored lights, and paper lanterns of all
hues were strung in brilliant lines across the streets.
The houses and windows along the route were fes-
tooned and decorated with all manner of beautiful
designs in light. New York had certainly a sumptu-
ous and delightful celebration.
[ 263 1
Parade in Honor of the Prince of Wales,
October 13tli, 1860
The great parade of firemen was the chief event of
the outdoor demonstration in honor of the Prince.
This took place on the evening of October 13th, 1860.
Nearly five thousand men all in uniform took part in
the procession and the efifect of the countless torches,
lights, transparencies and other kinds of illuminated
devices as they swept down Broadway was fascinat-
ing in the extreme. Immense crowds of people lined
both sides of the route, and the youthful Prince re-
viewed the wonderful display from the balcony of the
Fifth Avenue Hotel with very evident enjoyment and
apparent wonder at a sight which was entirely new to
him and compelled his admiration. The celebration
continued for several days and New York felt satis-
fied that she had given the youth a right royal wel-
Metropolitan Police Parade, November 17tli, 1865
On November 17th, 1865, the police force of the city,
eleven hundred strong, marched up Broadway from
the Battery where they were reviewed by Governor
Fenton, to the City Hall where the Mayors of New
York and Brooklyn viewed the procession. The pro-
cession continued up Broadway through the principal
streets uptown as far as Twenty-sixth street and
back by Fifth Avenue to Fourteenth Street, where
they were dismissed. The men were in excellent con-
dition and created great enthusiasm in the immense
crowds lining the sidewalk by the fine execution of
their manoeuvres and their admirable marching order.
[ 264 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
This grand parade was the finest of its kind ever wit-
nessed in this city and the people were consequently
filled with admiration for the force, and gratified that
they should have such an able body of men to protect
CONDITION OF THE STKEETS IN 1836
From New York Mirror
HOR some dozen years the editorial voice of this
journal has been raised against the neglected state
of our streets, and the unaccountable, inexcusable
nonchalance of the inspector ; yet, during the present
winter, they have been more neglected and impass-
able than ever. This is encouraging. We feel like
a counsellor who, after a six hour's speech, finds the
judge has been asleep. Before the recent Siberian
cold, New-York w^as a realm of mud, its vast floor
inundated with a slimy alluvial deposit, of the con-
sistency of batter, of bean soup, ankle-deep. For
weeks even Broadway was uncrossable, except by
such desperadoes as durst wade through the stag-
nant, universal pool. It reminded us of the Styx, ex-
cept that the convenience of a Charon was looked for
in vain, by the unhappy spectres of pedestrians who
wandered upon its banks. Not a plank was flung out,
not a crossing swept. Mud was "the universe." At
the intersection of Cedar-street and Broadway there
spread a lake, totally unfordable, which remained till
Jack Frost, more merciful than the street-inspector,
spanned its filthy surface with a bridge of ice. By
and by came the snow. But snow or rain, mud or
mire, the inspector snored on with the indiiTerence
of a stoic. In addition to the ordinary inconveni-
ence of discomfort and filth, our lives were now in
peril. Ponderous masses of snow hourly precipitated
themselves from the roofs of houses, in thundering
avalanches enough to startle an Atlas. But what is
[ 266 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
an Atlas to a New-York street-inspector ! In some
of the narrow streets the snow was piled, and there
remained for days, to the heig-ht of eight feet ; and
innumerable accidents, overturns, etc. passed unre-
garded except by the sufferers. No attempt, at least
none with any visible effect, was made to clear away
the masses, the mountains of ice and snow. Clifif-
street was barricaded, and no one could ride up Broad-
way — the pride, the boast of New York — but at the
risk of his bones. Call ye this republicanism ! Call
ye this the happiness of the people ! Is there any
"march of mind" in such a state of affairs ? It may
be that the "schoolmaster is abroad." but the street-
inspector takes especial care to remain at "home."
In the course of our sundry perambulations through
the town, after having gone to the fruitless expense
of india-rubber overshoes and water-proof boots, after
having tried in vain the experiment of a carriage and
nearly broken our valuable neck (valuable to "our-
self" at least) in a rash drive in a sleigh, it has struck
us as a mystery, who is the street-inspector? "Come
forth, thou man "of" (not "blood" but) "mud"! Re-
veal thyself to our wondering gaze. Here be some
three hundred thousand drenched and bruised repub-
licans desirous of thy further acquaintance ! With
what a conscience canst thou lie down at night upon
thy pillow? With what face canst thou issue forth
into this huge sty? With what air dost thou ask
any of friends (thy "constituents," faithless man)
"how" they "do"? We will tell thee how they "do."
They go out "i'the morning" arrayed like gentlemen
and ladies, with burnished boots, decent trousers,
white stockings and wearable frocks. They come
home besplashed, bedrenched and bespattered, wear-
ied with striding over stagnant pools, or toiling
through banks of snow, or terrified at the report of
each loosened mountain that topples down, ever and
anon, upon their shrinking pates. They go forth after
their breakfast, republicans in principle as well as
profession; and they return with newly-developed
ideas of the excellent effects of a despotism, and se-
cret calculators of the worth of the Union. We ap-
peal to the citizens against this inspector, whoever,
wherever, whatever he is, whether, like the seven
scholars of Ephesus, in the reign of Decius, he sleep
a seven year sleep in some enchanted cave ; or wheth-
er, like Nero, he fiddle on the City-hall cupola, while
thousands beneath him are being suffocated in the
mud. Publick cleanliness is allied to publick morals,
and in that light alone demands attention ; and, in
respect to the "reputation" of our country, we do re-
ligiously believe that a walk through our streets, on
a thawing day at this season, would go well nigh to
"disgust" any intelligent foreigner with America and
the Americans. What the impression of a Londoner,
a Swiss, honest Hollander would be, heaven only
knows; but Mrs. Trollope, without any considerable
improbability, would from thenceforward be their
Madison Avenue and 26th Street, a view from the rear windows of
No. 28 East 28th Street, showing residence and stable of
W. L. Cogswell. New occupied by the building of the
Bergh Society. From a wax negative made by Prevost, 1854.
Collection New York Historical Society
133.0 T:i::(.N.ri'!i- .\i^■:l5 jts famous dui'as'i aaYAisu
OF OLD NEW YORK
TRINITY CHURCH AND BURIAL GROUND
Written and Compiled by Harry A. Chandler,
Author of the Forthcoming Historical Encyclopedia
of New York City
XN illustration of this article we have inserted a large
colored supplement containing a map of Trinity
Church and grounds. The map designates the exact
location of all the more prominent graves and is a care-
fully prepared chart of the burial place of those who have
found their last resting place in this old and historic spot.
The work has received the hearty endorsement of Bishop
William T. Manning and the Vestry of Trinity Church,
and also that of Mr. George Crane, Comptroller.
The first mention of this place as a burial ground was
in 1673, according to Mr. I. N. Phelps Stokes, and it was
referred to as the "new burial ground without the gate
of the city." The "gate" was in the centre of Broadway
opposite the north side of Wall Street which marked the
boundary line of the little city. There was no church
on the ground at that time.
The first church building to occupy the present site of
Trinity Church was erected during the years 1696-7. This
building was enlarged in 1735-6. It was this enlarged
building that was almost destroyed by fire in the great
conflagration of 1776.
The second church building to occupy this site was
erected during the years 1788-90 and for over fifty years
the sacred offices of the church were administered here
to a rapidly increasing body of worshippers. In 1839
the building was found inadequate to the needs of the
[ 271 ]
growing parish and was demolished for the purpose of
erecting a larger edifice.
Trinity Church, as we know it now, is the third church
building on this site. It was begun in 1839 but the entire
work was not completed until some years later. The
consecration of the church took place in 1846. It was
the most conspicuous building of its day and was also
the most admired and venerated. Although dwarfed and
partially hidden by the enormous buildings around it now,
it still holds a proud place of eminence in the hearts of
New Yorkers. The memorial chapel to Dr. Morgan Dix
was erected during the years 1912-13.
The compilation of this work and data required a care-
ful searching of the records of Trinity Corporation and a
careful examination of the headstones in the churchyard.
Owing to the fact that all records of burials prior to 1750
were kept in the clerk's office and that they were burned
when the Trinity School in Rector Street was destroyed
by fire, the writer had to confine himself to an unpublished
book showing the epitaphs which were legible in 1897.
By a careful perusal of these epitaphs and an examina-
tion of each stone in the churchyard after the map was
completed, he was able to compile a list of one hundred
and ten historical graves and to locate definitely ninety
Up to the time of the Revolution, according to D. T.
Valentine in 1869, there had been interred in the church-
yard 160,000 bodies. In the great fire of 1776 many
tombstones were demolished and others so flaked by the
excessive heat as to be unreadable. The card index of
all burials since 1777 was scanned most carefully and con-
sultations were held with Mr. Boyd the sexton, Mr. Aigel-
tinger chief clerk and Mr. Foster deputy clerk, whose
[ 272 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
invaluable assistance the writer wishes to acknowledge
here. This record may therefore be relied upon.
Trinity Corporation has a record of 88 tombs in the
churchyard and under the church. About half of these
have never been opened since the fire of 1750 and there
is no list of the persons buried within, but when these
vaults are opened for additional interments or other pur-
poses the sexton makes a careful list of the contents there-
in. Since 1823 when the city passed an ordinance forbid-
ding burials within the city limits, interments have been
permitted only in the old family vaults.
The heavy faced letters at end of each name correspond with location of
tomb as drawn on the map.
List of the
Historical Graves in Trinity Churchyard
Alexander, Maj. Gen. Sir William (Lord Sterling) and son of James,
in whose vault he is buried. Died 1783 — lA
Alexander, James (Earl of Sterling). Buried 1756 — lA
Apthorpe (Family vault ISUl) — 4V
Bayard, William (Vault) — ID
Barclay, Rev. Henry (Rector of Trinity). Died 1764 — 4A
Barclay, Andrew (Vault 1762) — 4A
Bleeker, Anthony L. Died 1790 — 3F
Bleeker, Anthony J. (Grandson of Anthony L.). Died 1884 — 3F
Bleeker, Walter — SF"
Bradford, William (First printer in City, 1693). Died 1752; new slab
placed here by church 1863 — 6C
Bradford, Elizabeth (Wife of the first printer). Died 1731 — 6C
Berryman, Capt. John. Died 1808 — 8B
Branson, Capt. Ware. Died 1821 (Petitt-Branson-Ware vault) — 10
Brewerton, Col. George (Vault 1772) — 4D
Breese, G. Sidney (Ancestor of S. F. Breese Morse) Died 1767 — 9D
Carberry, Capt. Thomas. Died 1819 — 9
Churcher, Richard (Oldest gravestone). Died 1681 — 9A
Churcher, Ann (Buried the day that Gov. Leisler was executed at the
corner of Nassau and Park Row). May 16th, 1691 — 9B
Cannon. Andrew (Commander of British ship Sjitherland). Died 1749 — 9
Cadger, John (Gunner's-mate on the U. S. frigate President). Died 1813 — 9
Clarke, Mrs. George (Wife of Lt. Gov.) Buried 1740 in vault with her
mother and Lady Cornbury — under tower
Clark, John and John Mason. Sepulchre 1811 — IP
Clark, Capt. Samuel. Died 1811 — 8
Clarkson, John (Vault 1811) — 31
Clarkson, Maj. Gen. Matthew. Died 1825 — 31
Clarkson, L. Vault — IR
Cornbury, Lady (Wife of Gov. Edward Hyde, "Lord Cornbury"), Nee
Baroness Clifton. Died 1706 — under tower
[ 273 ]
CouTANT, David (Vault 1818)— lU
Coles, John B. (Merchant, hero during epidemic) — 3M
Cresap, Capt. Michael (Son of Col. Thos Cresap). The accusation of the
responsibility for the murder of Indian Chief Logan's family by
Cresap's men caused him to die of a broken heart in 1775 — 6A
Cruder, Major John, Sr. Died 1744. Buried in vault under Choir Room.
Cruger, Steven Van Rensellear (Controller of Trinity and grandson of
Mayor J. Cruger). In vault under Choir Room. Died 1898.
Crucifix Statue. A memorial to Mrs. \Vm. Astor given by her daughter
Mrs. Orme Wilson — 5E
Daley, Capt. John. Died 1730— IK
Davis, M. L. (Merchant and Aaron Burr's second in his duel with Hamilton).
Died 1818— IQ
Dean, Capt. John. Died 1730—8
De Lancey, Lt. Gov. James (Buried under Choir Room, back of altar). Died
De Peyster, Jr., Col. J. W. (In Watts' tomb). Died in 1873. (Son of the
De Peyster, Maj. Gen. J. Watts. (In Watts' tomb) — IE
De Peyster (Vault 1763)— 6B
Di.x, Rev. Morgan. Died 1908. Buried under altar of Chapel 1912.
Dix, Rev. Morgan. Effigy in the north side of Chapel.
Dix, Mrs. John A. (Mother Morgan Dix, Rector of Trinity and wife of
Gen. John A. Dix.) Buried in J. J. Morgan vault 1884— 3C
Desbrosses, James (Vault 1799) — 3D
Desbrosses, Elias (Vault) — 3
Drummond, Geo. M. (Viscount Fourth). Died 1887 in Ireland. (Vault) — 3E
Du Puy, Sr., John. Died 1854; stone restored 1882— 7A
Du Puy Jr., John (M. D.) Tablet written in Latin on wall in Chapel.
Faneuil, Benjamine (Father of Peter Faneuil of Boston.) Died 1719 — 5A
Firemen's Monument (Erected by Empire Fire Engine Co. No. 42, in mem-
ory of Col. Farnham and others who died at Manasses — ^-lOJ
Ford, Capt. Henry (Commander of British ship Diinmore). Died 1793 — 8C
Fulton, Robert (Builder of the first successful Steamboat.) Buried in R.
C. Livingston's vault 1815 — 3B
Fulton, Robert. Monument — IG
Gaine, Hugh (Publisher of N. Y. Mercury 1752). Died 1807— 4B
Gallatin, Albert (Secretary of Treasury). Died 1849. Buried in his
father-in-law's vault. Commodore James Nicholson) — 3A
Gallatin, Mrs. Albert (Wife of Albert). Died 1849— 3A
Hamersley, Andrew (Vault). 1862 — 3Li
Hamersley, William (Merchant.) Died 1752 — 101
Horsemander, Daniel (Chief Justice of State). Died 1778.
Hamilton, Alexander (Secretary of Treasury) Monument Cryptographical
(written in secret characters). Killed in duel with Burr in 1804 — IH
Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander. (Wife of Alexander). Died 1854 — II
Hamilton, Philip (Son of Alexander). Killed in duel with Geo. Eacker in
Ireland, Sergeant Maj. Peter (Royal Artillery). Died 1770 — 7
Hobart, Bishop H. (Bishop of State and Rector of Trinity). Buried under
walls of Chancel rail, 1830.
Hunt, Obidia (Tavern Keeper). Headstone only in wall north end of
Jeffrey, Capt. Richard — 9
Jamison, David (Royal Chief Justice) ^
Johnson, Rev. Samuel (Rector of Trinity and First President of King s
College (now Columbia.) Died 1789— lOA
Johnson, Mrs. Charity (Wife of Samuel) — lOA
Kearney, Maj. Gen. Philip Watts (Buried in Watt's Tomb 1862 and re-
moved to Arlington, Va., 1912 — IE
Kearney, Mrs. (Mother of General Philip); nee Miss Watts — IE
Lawrence, Capt. James (Author of the immortal words, "Don't give up
the Ship.") Buried in S. W. corner of yard in 1813 and removed to
present location in 1844 when monument was erected; the cannon
around grave were captured in War of 1812 — IT
[ 274 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Lamb, Col. John (Organizer of Liberty Boys). Died 1800.
Leake, Robert —
Leake, John (Son of Robert) —
Leesen, James (Cryptographical letters "Remember death") Died 1791 — lOK
Lewis, Francis (Signer of Declaration of Independence). Died 1803 — •
Lispenard, Leonard (Member of Stamp Act Congress) — under Chancel
Livingston, Robt. C. (Father of Philip). Died 1725— 3B
Livingston, Philip (Signer of Declaration of Independence.) Died 1778
Livingston, Judge Robert R. (Chairman of Committee of Correspondence
and son of Philip.) Died 1813— 3B
Livingston, John R. (Vault) — IB
Ludlow, Gabriel Wm. (Vault — 4
Ludlow, Lt. August C. (U. S. Navy). Died 1813— 3J
Mason, John (In Mason and Clark vault 1811) — IP
Mesier, Peter A. (Alderman 1807-18.) Died 1847— 4B
McCoMB, Maj. Alexander S. (Buried in J. Watts' tomb 1876) — 6E
Mills, A. (British Purser.) Died 1740— lO
McKnight, Dr. Charles (Chief Surgeon of American Army). Died
McKnight, Rev. Charles. Died 1778— lOF
McKnight, Capt. Richard (Son of Rev. Chas.) — lOF
Moore, Bishop Benj. (Second Bishop of N. Y. and President of Columbia
College.) Died 1816— IF
Moore, Charity (Wife of Bishop Moore) — IF
Moore, Capt. Daniel (British Commander killed at sea in 1777). Buried in
John Moore vault. — 3N
Montgomery, Capt. W. S. (Royal Infantry.) Died 1778 — 2A
Morgan John J. (Representative in Congress.) Died 1859 — 3C
Neu, Elias (Stone restored 1846 by widow of Comm. O. H. Perry — 5D
Nannestad, Lare (Danish Consul.) Died 1807 — IL
Nelson, Capt. John. Died 1762 — 8A
Newman, Stephen (Master of British ship Hampshire). Died 1758 —
Nicholson, Commodore James (Under Gallatin monument; his son-in-law).
Died 1804— 3A
Onderdonk's Bishop Wm. T. effigy. (He was Ijuried in Trinity Cemetery in
1861) — in chapel
Oram, James (Publisher) Died 1825 —
Ogilvier, Rev. (Vault) — IJ
Park, Capt. Benj. Died 1807— 5B
Pica, Capt. R. Died 1768— 5C
Peck, Benj. (Vault 1768)— IM
Randall, Capt. Thomas (Vault) — IC
Rea, Capt. Richard. Died 1768 — 5
Richards, Capt. R. Died 1768 — 5
RiVETTE, Capt. Robt. (Master of British brig Robert). Died 1816 — 9C
Rose, Capt. Joseph. Died 1807— 6D
Reade, R. (Vault)— 3K
Reade, Hon. Joseph (Member of Provincial Council in 1764). Died 1771 — ■
Reade, Capt. Wm. Died 1768—6
Scott, Brig. Gen. John Morrin (One of the three famous leaders of the
Liberty Boys.) Died 1784— IOC
Scott, Lewis Allain (Sect, of Commonwealth and son of John Morin
Scott.) Died 1798— lOE
Scott, Sharp John (Commander of British Packet Leicester). Died 1803 — 1
Seidell, John (Alderman 1807-8) Vault 1816— 3H
Soldiers' Monument "erected 1852 in memory of the brave and good men
who died while imprisoned in this city for their devotion to the cause
of American Independence." (There was a movement on foot to extend
Pine Street thru the yard at that time. — lOL,
Swords' Drinking Fountain, memorial to Mrs. Swords given by her son
Henry 1911— lOH
Temple Charlotte (The Heroine of Mr. Rawson's "Tale of Truth). She
died in her home west of the north west corner of Pell and Bowery
(now heart of Chinatown) — lOG
[ 275 ]
ToLLEMACHE, Capt. (Killed in duel 1777 in City Hotel, No. 115 Broadway) — •
TuDER, Capt. Thomas. Died 1770— lOM
Walton, William (Vault) — IIV
Ward, (Jol. John H. — 3C
Watts, Judge John (Recorder in Colonial Days). Died 1836 — IE
Watts, Judge John. Monument erected by his grandson John Watts de
Peyster 1892— 2B
Willett, Brig. Gen. Marinus (Hero of two wars). Died 1830 — 4E
Van Horne, Augustus (Vault 1790)— 1 OB
Van Zandt, Wyant (Alderman 1789-94.) Died 1814— IS
Van Zandt, Wyant (Alderman 1802-6 and son of Wyant.) Died 1831 — IS
Van Zandt, Peter Pra (Alderman 1791-94 and Assemblyman 1777-84 — IS
Vallirine, Capt. Mark. Died 1773— 8D
List of Graves by Blocks
(See also alphabetical list)
J. R. Livingston
Gen. J. W. de Peyster
Gen. Philip Kearney
Mrs. Alexander Hamilton
Capt. John Daly
M. L. Davis
Capt. James Lawrence
Capt. J. Sharp
Capt. W. S. Montgomery
John Watts Monument
Col. John Ward
Albert Gallatin and wife,
Robt. C. Livingston
Mrs. Rev. Morgan Dix
Earl of Dunmore
Gen. M. Clarkson
John Moore, Capt. Dan Moore
Rev. H. Barclay
Col. Geo. Brewerton
Gen Marinus Willetts
Lt. Wm. Ludlow
Capt. Benj. Peck
Capt. R. Pica
Capt. R. Richards
Capt. Michael Cresap
de Peyster Vault
Wm. Bradford and wife
Capt. Joseph Rose
Hon. Joseph Reade
Capt. Wm. Reade
John Du Puy
Serg. Maj. Peter Ireland
Capt. John Nelson
Capt. Isaac Berryman
Capt. Henry Ford
Capt. Mark Vallirine
Capt. Samuel Clark
Capt. John Dean
Capt. Robt. Rivett
S. G. Breese
Capt. Thos. Carberry
OF OLD NEW YORK
Samuel Johnson and wife A
August Van Home B
J. Morin Scott C
Chas. McKnight, M. D. D
Lewis Scott E
Chas. McKnight, D. D. F
Charlotte Temple G
Capt. Ware Branson
Capt. Thos. Tuder
Graves and Tablets Within the Church
Lady Cornbury and Gov. Clarke's
Evangelists' Tablet B
Capt. P. Drayton Tablet C
Rev. Wm. Berrian Tablet D
Bronze Doors by K. Bitter E
Bronze Doors by Chas F. Niehaus F
Bronze Doors by J. Massey
The Pulpit H
The Chancel I
Bishop J. Hobart J
The Altar , K
The Reredos L
Lt. Gov. J. De Lancey M
Mayor John Cruger, Sr. N
Stephen Van Rensellear Cruger
Leonard Lispenard O
Cornerstone of second church P
Obidia Hunt's Headstone
John Du Puy Tablet Q
Bishop Onderdonk Effigy R
Rev. Morgan Dix Eifigy S
Morgan Dix Chapel T
Rev. Morgan Dix buried under
Altar of Chapel U
Graves not Located
Judge Daniel Horsemander
Judge David Jamison
Col. John Lamb
A record found of their burial.
[ 277 ]
IN LESS THAN
MR. H. P. ULICH
OF OLD NEW YORK
Another Little Girl in Old New York
Writes a Letter
Our good friend Mrs. Charles E. Sherman of Lawrence,
L. 1. kindly sends us this copy of a letter written by a little
seven year old girl, Lydia S. Lawrence, youngest daughter
of John L. Lawrence, President of the Croton Aqueduct
Board. It gives a quaint and amusing description of the
great celebration which attended the formal opening of
this great municipal improvement.
We follow this by an equally valuable contribution on
the same subject which gives a succinct history of the
various attempts that preceded the final accomplishment
of the introduction of running water, and a fuller descrip-
tion of the ceremonies attending the event. They are both
valuable contemporary documents, and we were glad to
Thursday October 12 1842.
My Dear Brother
I returned home on Wensday from Mr. Tomlinsons where I
have been boarding four months. Mr. and Mrs. Tomlinson
came with us and spent the night here and went on to Con-
necticat the next morning. We remembered you in our morn-
ing and evening prayers as told us to do while we were at Bell
Port and thought a great deal about you. We are all very busy,
so I thought I would write you a letter because I thought they
would not get ready before the ship sailed. We have a Fountain
in Union Square of the croton water, which plays every morning
and afternoon from half past six to seven. We have also a
Fountain in the City Hall park. I have had my hair cut off,
so I thought I would send you a lock of it. Our garden looks
yet quite well, althoge the flowers are all gone. The quince tree
had more than three hundred quinces on this year, and Mother
has been very hard to work making sweet meats. I am going
to dancing school, Madame Ferrio's, with my three brothers
Charles Thomas and Abraham. Brother Alfred came this morn-
ing to bid us good-bye, for he is going on a journey to the far
west. Uncle Charles has got a very sore eye and is confined to
bed w^ith it. I will not write any more till after the Celebration,
Saturday, October 15, 1842. The Celebration of the Fountain
[ 291 ]
comenced on Friday. We went (in all five of us) Sister Anny,
Thomas, Abraham, Rosanna and myself, all went into Murrays
to the procesion. The soldiers looked very pretty and marched
very fast. They exhibited an ox stuffed with straw and cotton.
They also had a live sheep kissing the little live boy and a live
calf was also exhibited. They had also a car drawn by four
horses with the model steam boat of North America. They also
had the printing press in wich Doctor Franklin worked, a plate
of silver and gold (Alique) which were cake baskets silver spoons
and now I have told you all and must bid you good bye. I re-
main as ever
Your Affectionate sister
Written by Lydia S. Lawrence, youngest daughter of John L. Lawrence,
president of the Croton Aqueduct Board, being aged just seven years: it was
to her brother who had lately gone to Manila in the Philippines.
A Memoir of the Croton Aqueduct
By Chailes King
At a very early day the want of a sufficient supply and a con-
venient distribution of good water, was felt by the citizens of
In 1774 and 1775, before the Declaration of Independence,
considerable expenditures had been made in order to satisfy this
The revolutionary struggle which had even then commenced
and of which the City of New York felt the full effects, appears
to have put an end to this enterprise for furnishing water before
it had made any great progress. Scarcely, however, had peace
returned, with liberty and National Independence achieved than
our citizens again busied themselves about good water.
In April 1785, Samuel Ogden made proposals to the Corpora-
tion for erecting and establishing Water Works to supply the city.
In January 1786, proposals for a like object were presented by
the Hon. R. R. Livingston and John Lawrence, Esq., and were
favorably reported upon by the Committee to which they were
submitted, but, in the end, failed to be carried out. So imperfect
are the records of that day that there is no trace of what the
plans were that were proposed by Messrs. Ogden, Livingston
and Lawrence for the supply of water.
Between the years 1786 and 1816 many other projects were
considered, all of which failed to be put into effect, notwithstand-
ing that during part of the intervening years the growth of the
city was more rapid, and its prosperity and increase in wealth
more obvious than ever before. In 1812 the causes of dissatis-
faction between this country and Great Britain which had been
gathering strength and irritation, having resulted in war, all
r 292 1
OF OLD NEW YORK
local enterprises requiring credit and capital were postponed,
but peace having been concluded at Ghent in December 1814, the
subject of supplying the city with water was again resumed in
1816, and at a meeting of the Common Council in March 1816 —
Jacob Radcliff being Mayor — a Committee was appointed to
consider and report upon the matter.
This movement also had no permanent results, and after years
of fruitless resolutions, enquiry and experiments, and the dis-
carding of numerous other schemes, in March 1829 the plan was
conceived that afterward resulted in the Croton Aqueduct.
The first contracts for work on this Aqueduct were made in
April 1837, and it was so far completed as to permit water to be
let in from the Croton dam on the 22nd of June 1842. On that
date a boat prepared for the purpose called the "Croton Maid",
and capable of carrying four persons, was placed in the Aqueduct,
and was carried down by the current, arriving at Harlem River
almost simultaneously with the first arrival of the water there
on Thursday, June 23rd.
On the following Monday, in the presence of the Mayor and
Common Council, the Governor of the State, William H. Seward
and Lieutenant Governor Bradish, etc., the water was admitted
into the receiving reservoir at Yorkville, while a salute of 38
guns was fired. The "Croton Maid" which arrived soon after-
ward at the reservoir, was hailed by the assembled citizens with
much enthusiasm as she afforded indubitable proof that a navi-
gable river was flowing into the city for the use of its inhabitants.
It was natural that so great an event as the completion of the
Croton Aqueduct should be deemed by the citizens, at whose cost
and through whose constancy it had been constructed, to be
worthy of some public celebration, and the Joint Committee on the
Aqueduct designated the 14th of October, 1842 as the date of the
Invitations were sent to distinguished citizens and representa-
tives of foreign countries. The President of the United States,
John Tyler, wrote as follows :
Washington, Oct. 11th, 1842.
Gentlemen : —
I should be most truly happy to be present at an event so inter-
esting to your city as the celebration proposed for the 14th, and
to which you invited me. Circumstances, however, deny to me the
pleasure of such a visit. I heartily rejoice with the citizens of
New York in the completion of a work so vastly important to
the health and comfort of its inhabitants. It is justly to be
classed among the first works of the age, and is honorable to the
enterprise of the great centre of American trade and commerce.
I tender to you, gentlemen, assurances of my high respect,
[ 293 ]
Regrets were also received from Ex-President John Quincy
Adams, and Ex-President M. Van Buren.
The British-Consul J. Buchanan in his letter of acceptance,
wrote : "Tyrants have left monuments which call forth admir-
ation, but no work of a free people, for magnitude and utility,
equals this great enterprise. Most happy shall I be to assemble
and participate in the general joyful event."
The fourteenth of October arrived, a beautiful day with a
brilliant sun and a breezy atmosphere in harmony with the
occasion and with the joyousness of the multitudes which crowd-
ed into the city from all surrounding regions to witness and
share in the grand jubilee.
At sun-rise one hundred guns were fired, the bells of all the
churches and public places were rung and in less than an hour
the streets were alive with moving masses.
The programme of arrangements provided for the formation at
the Battery of the procession, the line of march to be taken up at
10 A.M. and to move from the Battery up State Street, around
Bowling Green and up Broadway to Union Park (where the
fountains recently constructed were to be opened with the dis-
play of Croton water), around the Park and down the Bowery
to Grand Street, through Grand Street to East Broadway, down
East Broadway and Chatham Street to City Hall Park. It was
a most imposing procession, as well as a splendid military
One division of the Masonic Fraternity carried a Bible with
this inscription :
"On this Sacred Volume,
On the 30th day of April, A. L. 5789
In the City of New York.
Was administered to
The first President of the United States of America
To support the Constitution of the United States
This important ceremony was
Performed by the Most Worshipful Grand Master
of the State of New York,
Robert R. Livingston
Chancellor of the State."
Among the numerous features of the procession there was
exhibited by The Xylographic Society and Printers:
A car drawn by four horses with model of steamboat North
America. On another car was carried the Printing Press that
Benjamin Franklin had worked upon in London, together with
one of the new fashioned ones of the day.
[ 294 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
The Butchers of the Cities of New York and Brooklyn made
one of the best exhibitions of the day. Each butcher was in
costume with his clean white apron, and a large number were
on white horses. A large ox and lamb were upon one platform;
upon another, enclosed as in a yard, was a cow, calf and a
score of sheep, all alive, bleeting and kicking, and seeming
amused and delighted at being the lions of the day, not bearing
a load, but being borne and well fed by the corn and hay which
had been abundantly provided.
The Gold and Silver Arti::ans bore in procession on a platform
a splendid display of Silver Ware and Jewelry and specimens
of pure Gold and Silver in bars. This display was of several
thousand dollars value, and attracted from the admirers of these
articles the attention they richly merited.
At twenty minutes past two, his Honor, the Mayor Robert
H. Morris, and the members of the Common Council, foreign
Consuls, and invited guests, took their stations on the front of
City Hall, which then presented a most animated spectacle, every
nook and niche being crowded with spectators. The troops then
passed in review order before the assembly, and were followed
by the other portions of the procession. By half past four o'clock
the immense cavalcade had filed off and been stationed at con-
venient distances in City Hall Park, whereupon the Grand
Marshal, Gilbert Hopkins, announced to the orator of the day
that the Mayor was ready to hear him. Samuel Stevens, esq.,
President of the Board of Water Commissioners then advanced
to the front of the platform and in an address which was listened
to with the most patient attention, he delivered the custody of
the Croton Water Works to the Water Commissioners of the
Corporation. In concluding his address Mr. Stevens said that it
was a source of great pride and satisfaction to him, as a native
of this great city, to say that he had watched with care and
some anxiety every person who had formed a part of this great
and noble celebration, and that he had not discovered either a
drunkard or a fool from the first to last.
As soon as the cheer had subsided a reply was made by J. L.
Lawrence, esq.. President of the Croton Aqueduct Board.
After receiving for himself and his associates the custody of the
work he closed by saying: "Sensible of the honor conferred by
the constituted authorities of the city, in committing to us the
trust confided to our hands it will be the effort of myself and
colleagues to employ every power given to us, for the protection
and advancement of the great work now in our charge. Long
may that work endure to illustrate the wisdom of its founders —
a monument of the enterprise and perseverance of our people —
and the source of health, safety and happiness for successive
After the singing by the New York Sacred Music Society, of
"The Croton Ode" written for the occasion by Gen. George P.
[ 295 ]
Morris, esq., the Grand Marshal of the day announced that
the ceremonies were at an end, and he proposed that the assem-
blage join him in nine hearty cheers for the City of New York
and perpetuity to the Croton water. The cheers were given with
After the ceremonies of the day were closed, three large tables
were spread in the City Hall, where the Mayor, the Governor,
the members of the Corporation, officers and several hundred
citizens partook of a cold collation, and Croton water and lemon-
ade. All was conducted with order and propriety, but with no
ceremony; no chairs were provided, but a sufficient number of
knives and forks for each to help himself — a well arranged re-
publican repast. In response to the toast : "The Executive of the
State of New York," Governor Wm. H. Seward addressed this
GENERAL SIMON BOLIVAR
Liberator of South America. Presented to the City of New York
BY THE Government of Venezuela. Erected in Central Park,
NEAR West 8oth Street
OF OLD NEW YORK
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE;
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS AND
LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG SPEECH
©HERE are three great documents in American
History which should be readily accessible to
every citizen. They are the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, Washington's Farewell Address and Lincoln's
Speech at Gettysburg.
We have never yet known where to lay our hands
quickly on a single book containing all three. So we have
concluded to put them in the JManual for future handy
Declaration of Independence
When, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary
for one people to dissolve the political bands which have con-
nected them with another, and to assume among the powers
of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws
of Nature and of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to
the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the
causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights,
Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just
powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any
Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute
new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most
likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed,
will dictate that Governments long esablished should not be
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all
experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when
a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably
the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute
Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw oft such
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future se-
curity. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies;
and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter
their former Systems of Government. The history of the
present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated in-
r 299 1
juries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establish-
ment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this,
let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate
and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation
till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he
has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation
of large districts of people, unless those people would relin-
quish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right
inestiinable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public
Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance
with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for op-
posing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to
cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers,
incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large
for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed
to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States;
for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of
Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migra-
tions hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing
his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the
tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither
swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their
He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies
without the Consent of our Legislature.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and
superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws;
giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them by a mock Trial, from punishment for
any Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neigh-
boring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government,
and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an
[ 300 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
example and fit instrument for introducing- the same absolute
rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our inost valuable
Laws, and altering- fundamentally the Forms of our
For suspending- our own Legislatures, and declaring them-
selves invested with power to leg-islate for us in all cases
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of
his Protection and waging- War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravag-ed our Coasts, burnt our
towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign
Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and
tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and
perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ag-es, and
totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow-Citizens taken captive on the
hig-h Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the
executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall them-
selves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the
merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an
undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for
Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions
have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose
character is thus marked by every act which may define a
Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British
brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts
by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction
over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our
emig-ration and settlement here. We have appealed to their
native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them
by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpa-
tions, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and
correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice
and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the
necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as
we hold the rest of mankind. Enemies in War, in Peace
WE THEREFORE, the Representatives of the United States
of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the
Supreme Judg-e of the world for the rectitude of our intentions,
do, in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these
Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United
Colonies are, and of Right ought to be free and independent
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the
British Crown, and that all political connection between them
and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dis-
solved; and that as free and independent States, they have full
Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, estab-
lish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which
independent States may of right do. And for the support of
this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of
Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our
Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.
[ 301 ]
Heyward, Jr., Thoinas
Lee, Richard Henry
Lee, Francis Lightfoot
Lynch, Jr., Thomas
Nelson, Jr., Thomas
Paine, Robert Treat
Washington's Farewell Address
People of the
United States on His Approaching
from the Presidency.)
Friends and Fellow-Citizens:
The period for a new election of a Citizen, to administer the
Executive Government of the United States, being not far dis-
tant, and the time actually arrived, when your thoughts must
be employed in designating the person, who is to be clothed
with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially
as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public
voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have
formed, to decline being considered ainong the number of
those, out of whom a choice is to be made.
I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be as-
sured, that this resolution has not been taken, without a strict
regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation,
which binds a dutiful citizen to his country — and that, in with-
drawing the tender of service which silence in my situation
inight imply, I am influenced by no diininution of zeal for your
future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past
kindness; but am supported by a full conviction that the step is
compatible with both.
The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to
which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform
sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty, and to a defer-
ence for what appeared to be your desire. — I constantly hoped,
that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently
with motives, which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return
to that retirement, from which I had been reluctantly drawn. —
The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last
[ 302 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
election, had even led to the preparation of an address to de-
clare it to you but mature reflection on the then perplexed and
critical posture of our affairs with foreign Nations, and the
unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, im-
pelled me to abandon the idea. —
I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as vi^ell as
internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incom-
patible with the sentiment of duty, or propriety; and am per-
suaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services,
that in the present circumstances of our country, you will not
disapprove nay determination to retire.
The impressions, with which I first undertook the arduous
trust, were explained on the proper occasion. — In the discharge
of this trust, I will only say, that I have, with good intentions,
contributed towards the organization and administration of the
government, the best exertions of which a very fallible judg-
ment was capable. — Not unconscious, in the outset, of the in-
feriority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, per-
haps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the mo-
tives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing
weight of years admonishes me more and more, that the shade
of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. —
Satisfied, that, if any circumstances have given peculiar value
to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation
to believe, that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit
the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.
In looking forward to the moment, which is intended to ter-
minate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit
me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of grati-
tude, which I owe to my beloved country, — for the many honors
it has conferred upon me; still more for the stedfast confidence
with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I
have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment,
by services faithful and persevering, though in useful-
ness unequal to my zeal. — If benefits have resulted to our
country froin these services, let it always be remembered to
your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that
under circumstances in which the Passions agitated in every
direction were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes
dubious, — vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, — in situ-
ations in which not unfrequently want of success has coun-
tenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support
was the essential prop of the efforts and a guarantee of the
plans by which they were effected. — Profoundly penetrated with
this idea, I shall carry it with me to the grave, as a strong
incitement to unceasing vows that Heaven may continue to
you the choicest tokens of its beneficence — that your union and
brotherly affection may be perpetual — that the free constitu-
tion, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly main-
tained — that its administration in every department may be
stamped with wisdom and virtue — that, in fine, the happiness
of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may
be inade complete, by so careful a preservation and so prudent
a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of
recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption
of every nation, which is yet a stranger to it.
Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. — But a solicitude for your
welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehen-
sion of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me on an occa-
sion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation,
and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments;
which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable
observation, and which appear to me all-important to the per-
manency of your felicity as a People. — These will be offered
[ 303 ]
to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the
disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly
have no personal motive to bias his counsels. — Nor can I forget,
as an encouragement to it your indulgent reception of my
sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion.
Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of
your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify
or confirm the attachment.
The unity of government which constitutes you one people,
is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar
in the edifice of your real independence — the support of your
tranquility at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your
prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But
as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from
different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices
employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this
truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against
which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be
most constantly and actively (though often covertly and in-
sidiously) directed — it is of infinite moment that you should
properly estimate the immense value of your national union
to your collective and individual happiness; that you should
cherish a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment to it;
accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the
palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for
its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing what-
ever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event
be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawn-
ing of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country
from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link
together the various parts.
For this you have every inducement of sympathy and in-
terest. Citizens by birth or choice of a common country, that
country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name
of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity,
must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any
appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight
shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners,
habits, and political principles. You have, in a common cause,
fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty
you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts — of
common dangers, sufferings, and successes.
But these considerations, however powerfully they address
themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those
which apply more immediately to your Interest. — Here every
portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for
carefully guarding and preserving the Union of the whole.
The North in an unrestrained intercourse with the South,
protected by the equal Laws of a common government, finds
in the productions of the latter great additional resources of
maritime and commercial enterprise — and precious materials
of manufacturing industry. — The South in the same intercourse,
benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow
and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels
the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation en-
vigorated; — and while it contributes, in different ways, to nour-
ish and increase the general mass of the national navigation,
it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength to
which itself is unequally adapted. — The East, in a like inter-
course with the West, already finds, and in the progressive
improvement of interior communications, by land and water,
will more and more find, a valuable vent for the commodities
which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. — The
[ 304 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and
comfort, — and wliat is perliaps of still greater consequence,
it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable
outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and
the future maritime streng-th of the Atlantic side of the Union,
directed by an indissoluble community of interest, as one
Nation. — Any other tenure by which the West can hold this
essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate
streng-th, or from an apostate and unnatural connexion with
any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.
While then every part of our Country thus feels an imme-
diate and particular interest in Union, all the parts combined
cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts,
greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater
security from eternal danger, a less frequent interruption of
their Peace by foreign Nations; and, what is of inestimable
value! they must derive from Union an exemption from those
broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently af-
flict neighbouring countries, not tied together by the same
government; which their own rivalships alone would be suf-
ficient to produce; but which opposite foreign alliances, attach-
ments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. — Hence
likewise they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown
Military establishments, which under any form of government,
are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as
particularly hostile to Republican Liberty: In this sense it is,
that your Union ought to be considered as a main prop of your
liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you
the preservation of the other.
These considerations speak a persuasive language to every
reflecting and virtuous mind, — and exhibit the continuance of
the Union as a primary object of Patriotic desire. — Is there a
doubt, whether a common government can embrace so large a
sphere? — Let experience solve it. — To listen to mere specula-
tion in such a case were criminal. — We are authorized to hope
that a proper organization of the whole, with the auxiliary
agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will
afford a happy issue to the experiment. 'T is well worth a fair
and full experinjent. With such powerful and obvious mo-
tives to Union, affecting all parts of our country, while experi-
ence shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there
will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those, who
in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. —
In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union,
it occurs as matter of serious concern, that any ground should
have been furnished for characterizing parties by Geographical
discriminations — Northern and Southern — Atlantic and West-
ern; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief,
that there is a real difference of local interests and views.
One of the expedients of Party to acquire influence, within
particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims
of other districts. — You cannot shield yourselves too much
against the jealousies and heart-burnings which spring from
these misrepresentations; — They tend to render alien to each
other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal
affection. — The inhabitants of our Western country have
lately had a useful lesson on this head. — They have seen,
in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous
ratification by the Senate, of the Treaty with Spain, and
in the universal satisfaction at that event, through-
out the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were
the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the K^en-
eral Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their
interests in regard to the Mississippi. — They have been wit-
[ 305 ]
nesses to the formation of two Treaties, that with G. Britain,
and that with Spain, which secure to them every thing they
could desire, in respect to our Foreign Relations, towards con-
firming their prosperity. — Will it not be their wisdom to rely
for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which
they were procured? — Will they not henceforth be deaf to those
advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their
Brethren, and connect them with Aliens? —
To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a Govern-
ment for the whole is indispensable. — No alliances however
strict between the parts can be an adequate substitute. — They
must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions
which all alliances in all times have experienced.— Sensible of
this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay,
by the adoption of a Constitution of Government, better calcu-
lated than your former for an intimate Union, and for the
efficacious management of your common concerns. — This gov-
ernment, the offspring of our own choice uninfluenced and
unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature delibera-
tion, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its
powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within
itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to
your confidence and your support. — Respect for its authority,
compliance with its Laws, acquiescence in its measures, are
duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true Liberty. —
The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to
make and to alter their Constitutions of Government. — But the
Constitution which at any time exists, 'till changed by an ex-
plicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obliga-
tory upon all. — The very idea of the power and the right of the
people to establish Government, presupposes the duty of every
Individual to obey the established Government.
All obstructions to the execution of the Laws, all combina-
tions and associations, under whatever plausible character,
with the real design to direct, controul, counteract, or awe the
regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities,
are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal
tendency. — They serve to organize faction, to give it an arti-
ficial and extraordinary force — to put, in the place of the dele-
gated will of the Nation, the will of a party; — often a small
but artful and enterprizing minority of the community; — and,
according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make
the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and
incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of con-
sistent and wholesome plans digested by common councils,
and modified by mutual interests. — However combinations or
associations of the above description may now and then answer
popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things,
to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and
unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the Power of the
People and to usurp for themselves the reins of Government;
destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them
to unjust dominion. —
Towards the preservation of your Government and the per-
manency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only
that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its
acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care
the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious
the pretexts.- — One method of assault may be to effect, in the
forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the
energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be
directly overthrown. — In all the changes to which you may be
invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary
to fix the true character of Governments, as of other human
[ 306 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
institutions — that experience is the surest standard, by which
to test the real tendency of the existing Constitution of a
Country — that facility in changes upon the credit of mere
hypothesis and opinion exposes to perpetual change, from the
endless variety of hypothesis and opinion: — and remember, es-
pecially, that for the efficient management of your common
interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a Government of
as much vigour as is consistent with the perfect security of
Liberty is indispensable. — Liberty itself will find in such a
Government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted,
its surest Guardian. — It is indeed little else than a name, where
the Government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of
faction, to confine each member of the Society within the limits
prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and
tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property.
I have already intimated to you the danger of Parties in the
State, with particular reference to the founding of them on
Geographical discriminations. — Let me now take a more com-
prehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner
against the baneful effects of the Spirit of Party, generally.
This Spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature,
having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. —
It exists under different shapes in all Governments, more or
less stifled, controuled, or repressed but, in those of the popu-
lar form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their
worst enemy. —
The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharp-
ened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension, which
in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid
enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. — But this leads at
length to a more formal and permanent despotism. — The dis-
orders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds
of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of
an Individual: and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing
faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors,
turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on
the ruins of Public Liberty.
Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind, (which
nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common
and continual mischiefs of the spirit of Party are sufficient to
make it the interest and duty of a wise People to discourage
and restrain it. —
It serves always to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble
the Public administration. — It agitates the community with ill-
founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of
one part against another, foments occasionally riot and in-
surrection. — It opens the doors to foreign influence and cor-
ruption, which find a facilitated access to the Government it-
self through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy
and the will of one country, are subjected to the policy and
will of another.
There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful
checks upon the Administration of the Government, and serve
to keep alive the Spirit of Liberty. — This within certain limits
is probably true — and in Governments of a Monarchical cast,
Patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favour, upon
the spirit of party. — But in those of the popular character, in
Governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged.
— From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always
be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose, — and there
being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be, by force
of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. — A flre not to
be quenched; it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its
[ 307 ]
bursting- into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should con-
It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a
free country should inspire caution in those intrusted with
its administration to confine themselves within their respective
constitutional spheres, avoiding, in the exercise of the powers
of one department, to encroach upon another. The spirit of
encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the de-
partments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of
government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of
power, and proneness to abuse it which predominates in the
human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this
position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise
of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different
depositories, and constituting each the guardian of the public
weal, against invasions by the others, has been evinced by
experiments, ancient and modern; some of thein in our country
and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as neces-
sary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the
distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be, in
any particular, wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in
the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be
no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance,
may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by
which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must
always greatly overbalance, in permanent evil, any partial or
transient benefit which the use can, at any time, yield.
Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political
prosperity. Religion and morality are indispensable supports. —
In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who
should labour to subvert these g-reat Pillars of human happi-
ness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens. —
The mere Politician, equally with the pious man, ought to re-
spect and to cherish them. — A volume could not trace all their
connexions with private and public felicity. — Let it simply be
asked where is the security for property, for reputation, for
life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which
are the instruments of investig-ation in Courts of Justice? And
let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can
be maintained without religion. — Whatever may be conceded
to the infiuence of refined education on minds of peculiar struc-
ture — reason and experience both forbid us to expect, that
national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious prin-
'T is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary
spring of popular government. — The rule indeed extends with
more or less force to every species of Free Government. — Who
that is a sincere friend to it, can look with indifference upon
attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? —
Promote, then, as an object of priinary importance, institu-
tions for the general diffusion of knowledge. — In proportion as
the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it
is essential that public opinion should be enlig-htened.
As a very important source of strength and security, cherish
public credit. — One method of preserving it is to use it as
sparingly as possible: — avoiding occasions of expense by cul-
tivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements
to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater dis-
bursements to repel it — avoiding likewise the accumulation of
debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigor-
ous exertions in time of I'eace to discharge the debts which
unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throw-
ing upon posterity the burthen which we ourselves ought to
bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your Repre-
[ 308 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
sentatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-
operate. — To facilitate to them the performance of their duty,
it is essential that you should practically bear in mind, that
towards the payment of debts there must be Revenue — that to
have Revenue there must be taxes — that no taxes can be de-
vised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant —
that the intrinsic embarrassment inseparable from the selection
of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties)
ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the
conduct of the Government in making it, and for a spirit of ac-
quiescence in the measures for obtaining Revenue which the
public exigencies may at any time dictate.
Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate
peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this
conduct; and can it be that good policy does not equally en-
join it? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no
distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the mag-
nanimous and too novel example of a people always guided
by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that,
in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan
would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be
lost by a steady adherence to it? Can it be that Providence
has not connected the perinanent felicity of a nation with its
virtue? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every
sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered
impossible by its vices?
In the execution of such a plan nothing is inore essential
than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular
nations and passionate attachments for others should be ex-
cluded; and that in place of them just and amicable feelings
towards all should be cultivated. — The Nation, which indulges
towards another an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness,
is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to
its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from
its duty and its interest. — Antipathy in one nation against an-
other disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to
lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and
intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute
occur. — Hence frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed and
bloody contests. — The Nation prompted by ill-will and resent-
ment sometimes impels to War the Government, contrary to
the best calculations of policy. — The Government sometimes
participates in the national propensity, and adopts through
passion what reason would reject; — at other tiines, it makes
the animosity of the Nation subservient to projects of hostility
instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious
motives. — The peace often, sometimes perhaps the Liberty, of
Nations has been the victim. —
So likewise a passionate attachment of one Nation for an-
other produces a variety of evils. — Sympathy for the favourite
nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common inter-
est in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing
into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a
participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, without
adequate inducement or justification: It leads also to conces-
sions to the favourite Nation of privileges denied to others,
which is apt doubly to injure the Nation making the conces-
sions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been
retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to
retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are with-
held; and it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens,
(who devote themselves to the favourite Nation) facility to
betray, or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without
odium, sometimes even with popularity: — gilding with the ap-
[ 309 ]
pearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable
deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good,
the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption or in-
As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such
attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened
and independent Patriot. — How many opportunities do they
afford to tamper with doinestic factions, to practise the arts
of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the
public councils! Such an attachment of a small or ■weak, tow-
ards a great and powerful nation, dooms the former to be the
satellite of the latter.
Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence, I conjure
you to believe me, fellow-citizens, the jealousy of a free people
ought to constantly awake; since history and experience prove
that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of re-
publican government. But that jealousy to be useful, must be
impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence
to be avoided, instead of a defence against it. Excessive par-
tiality for one foreign nation, and excessive dislike of another,
cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side,
and serve to veil, and even second, the arts of influence on
the other. Real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the
favorite, are liable to become suspected and odious, while its
tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the
people, to surrender their interests.
The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign na-
tions, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with
them as little political connection as possible. So far as we
have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with
perfect good faith. Here let us stop.
Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have
none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged
in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially
foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise
in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary
vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and
collisions of her friendships or enmities.
Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to
pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an
efficient government, the period is not far off when we may
defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may-
take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at
any time resolve upon, to be scrupulously respected; when
belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisi-
tions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation;
when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by
justice, shall counsel.
Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why
quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by inter-
weaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle
our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition,
rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice?
'Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with
any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are
now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capabte
of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the
maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that
honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let
those engagements be observed in their genuine sense.' But,
in my opinion, it is tin necessary and Vi^Ould be unwise to extend
[ 310 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Taking- care always to keep ourselves, by suitable establish-
ments, on a respectably defensive posture, we may safely trust
to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.
Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recom-
mended by policy, humanity, and interest. — But even our com-
mercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand: —
neither seeking nor granting exclusive favours or preferences;
— consulting the natural course of things; — diffusing and diver-
sifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing
nothing; — establishing with Powers so disposed — in order to
give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our Merchants,
and to enable the Government to support them — conventional
rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and
mutual opinion will permit; but temporary, and liable to be
from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and cir-
cumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view, that 't is
folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from an-
other, — that it must pay with a portion of its independence for
whatever it may accept under that character — that by such
acceptance, it may place itself in the conditions of having given
equivalents for nominal favours and yet of being reproached
with ingratitude for not giving more. — There can be no greater
error than to expect, or calculate upon real favours from Na-
tion to Nation. — 'T is an illusion which experience must cure,
which a just pride ought to discard.
In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old
and affectionate friend, I dare not hope that they will make
the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will
control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation
from running the course which hitherto has marked the destiny
of nations; but if I may even flatter myself that they may be
productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that
they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party
spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigues, to
guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism, this
hope will be full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare
by which they have been dictated.
How far in the discharge of my official duties, I have been
guided by the principles which have been delineated, the pub-
lic Records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to
You, and to the World. — To myself, the assurance of my own
conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided
In relation to the still subsisting War in Europe, my Procla-
mation of the 22d of April 1793 is the index to my plan. — Sanc-
tioned by your approving voice and by that of Your Repre-
sentatives in both Houses of Congress, the spirit of that
measure has continually governed me: — uninfluenced by any
attempts to deter or divert me from it.
After deliberate examination with the aid of the best lights
I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all
the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was
bound in duty and interest, to take a Neutral position. — Having
taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to
maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. —
The considerations which respect the right to hold this con-
duct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only
observe, that according to my understanding of the matter,
that right, so far from being denied by any of the Belligerent
Powers, has been virtually admitted by all. —
The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, with-
out any thing more, from the obligation which justice and
humanity impose on every Nation, in cases in which it is free
[ 311 ]
to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of Peace and Amity
towards ottier Nations. — -
The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will
best be referred to your own reflections and experience. — With
me, a predominant motive has been to endeavour to gain time
to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions,
and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength
and consistency, which is necessary to give it, humanly speak-
ing, the command of its own fortunes.
Though, in reviewing the incidents of my Administration, I
am unconscious of intentional error — I am nevertheless too
sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have
committed many errors. — Whatever they may be I fervently
beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which
they may tend. — I shall also carry with me the hope that my
country will never cease to view them with indulgence and
that after forty-flve years of my life dedicated to its service,
with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will
be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the man-
sions of rest.
Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and ac-
tuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a
man, who views in it the native soil of himself and his progeni-
tors for several generations; — I anticipate with pleasing expec-
tation that retreat, in which I promise inyself to realize, with-
out allow, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of
my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good Laws under
a free Government, — the ever favourite object of my heart,
and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labours,
United States, ? 1796
19th September, )
[ 312 ]
OF OLD NEW YORK
Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech
Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on
this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated
to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing ■whether
that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can
long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war.
We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final
resting-place of those who here gave their lives that that
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we
should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate — we cannot con-
secrate—we cannot halloAv — this ground. The brave men, living
and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above
our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note,
nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget
what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be
dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought
here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to
be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us- — that
from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that
cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion —
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have
died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new
birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the
people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (An
accurate version of the Gettysburg Address as revised by Mr.
Lincoln and printed in "Autographs of Our Country's Authors,"
Editor's Note —
Abraham Lincoln and Edward Everett spoke at the dedica-
tion of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, November 19,
1863. The place, the occasion, the audience, the associations
were in the highest degree inspiring. Everett was an orator
of deserved renown, with copious and glittering vocabulary,
graceful rhetoric, strong, cultivated mind, elegant scholarship,
a rich flexible voice, and noble presence. His address occupied
two hours in delivery, and was worthy of the speaker and his
theme. At its close Lincoln rose slowly on the platform of
the pavilion. Prom an ancient case he drew a pair of steel-
framed spectacles, with bows clasping upon the temples in
front of the ears, and adjusted them with deliberation. He
took from his breast pocket a few sheets of foolscap, which he
unfolded and held in both hands. From this manuscript, in
low tones, without modulation or emphasis, he read 266 words
and sat down before his surprised, perplexed and disappointed
auditors were aware that he had really begun. It left no im-
pression, so it was said, except mild consternation and a
mortified sense of failure.
None supposed that one of the great orations of the world
had been pronounced in the five minutes ■which Mr. Lincoln
occupied in reading his remarks. But the studied, elaborate,
and formal speech of Everett has been forgotten, while the
few sonorous and solemn sentences of Lincoln will remain so
long as constitutional liberty abides among men. Henceforth,
whoever recalls the Battle of Gettysburg . . . will hear
above the thunder of the reverberating guns, above the exult-
ing shouts of the victors and the despairing, 'that government
of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish
from the earth.'
[ 313 1
Abbott, Rev. Dr. Lyman, 84.
Abbott Collection, 112.
Abingdon Road, 174
Abrahams, J., 14.
Adams, John, 302.
Adams, John Quincy, 294.
Adams, Samuel, 129-302.
Aeolian Hall, 29.
Agnew, Dr. Cornelius R., 2-17.
Aigeltinger, Mr., 272.
Aldrich, Thos. Bailey, 179.
Alexander, Henry M., 88.
Alexander, James, 273-276.
Alexander, Maj. Gen., 273-276.
Alexander, William, 202.
Alpine Grove, 49.
American Magazine, 116
American Telephone & Telegraph
Andre, Major, 58-69
Appleton, Rev. Samuel G., 204
Appleton, Wm. G., 204.
Appleton, Wm. H., 81.
Arnold, Benedict, 66-69.
Arnold Benjamin G., 95.
Arnold, C. H., 96.
Aspinwall, Gilbert, 228.
Astor, John Jacob, 85.
Astor, Henry, 65.
Astor, Mrs. Wm., 274.
Astor, William, 85.
Astor House, 88-105-231.
Atlantic Cable, 249-257-260.
Audubon, John J., 79.
A'uduboni Victor, 77.
Audubon Park, 281.
Babcock, S. D., 81.
Babcock, Samuel D., 95.
Badeau, Gen. Adam, 181.
Bailey, Theodorus, 216.
Baker, Mrs. Geo. F., Jr., 233.
Baker's Museum, 220.
Banker, James H., 84.
Banks, Dr. James Lenox, 84.
Barclay, Andrew, 273-276.
Barclay, Rev. Henry, 273-276.
Barnaby Rudge, 198.
Barnum's Museum, 136-138.
Barnum, P. T., 133-139.
Barrett, Lawrence, 178.
Bartlett, Josiah, 302.
Bateman Sisters, 161.
Bates, Martin, 81.
Battery, The, 294.
Bayard, William, 273-276.
Baylies, Edmund L., 99.
Bear Mountain, 79.
Beckett, Harry, 161.
Bedloe's Island, 247.
Beekman, James W., 5.
The Bells, 210.
Belmont Hotel, 23-33.
Benedict, E. C, 175-182.
Benedict, James A., 104.
Benson, Edward, 131.
Bergh Society, 269.
Berryman, Capt. John, 273-276.
Bierstadt, Albert, 84.
Bigelow, Asa, 45.
Bigelow, Edward, 45.
Bigelow, John, 45-84.
Bigelow, Poultney, 45.
Bill, Nathan D., 210.
Biltmore Hotel, 21.
Bingham, John, 211.
Birch, Harvey, 58.
Birdsall, Charles, 84.
Bisco, John, 193.
Bishop, Nathan, 5.
Bispham William, 178.
Blackwells Island, 170-190.
Blake, Mary, 149.
Bleeker, Anthony, 273-276.
Bleeker, Anthony J., 273-276.
Bleeker, Walter, 273-276.
Bliss, Walter P., 2.
Bloodgood, Abraham, 211.
Bolivar, Gen. Simon, 297.
Bond Street, 166.
Bonheur, Rosa, 92.
Boniface, G. C, 162.
Boniface, Mrs. G. C, 145.
Bonner, Robt., 14.
Booth, Edwin, 166-175-181.
Booth, John Wilkes, 165.
Booth, Wm. A., 5.
Boston Post Road, 151.
Bouchard, Madame, 220.
Boucicault, Dion, 161.
Bourne, G. M., 221.
Bowery Theatre, 137-145.
Bowling Green, 216-294.
Boyd, Wm., 272.
Brady, Judge, 212.
Bradford, Elizabeth, 273-276.
Bradford, William, 273-276.
Bradish, Governor, 293.
Brandies, Frederick, 14.
Branson, Capt. Ware, 273-277.
Braxton, Carter, 302.
Breese, G. Sidney, 272-276.
Brevoort Farm, 167.
Brevoort, Henry, 69-233.
Brewerton, Col. Geo., 273-276.
Brick Presbyterian Church, 170.
Briggs, Charles F., 193.
Briggs, Harry Franco, 195.
Broad Street, 93-185.
Broadway Theatre, 149.
Broadway Journal, The, 193.
Bronck, Jonas, 229.
Bronson, Miles, 37.
Bronx Park, 219.
Broome Street, 147.
Brooklyn Bridge, 252.
Brougham, John, 150.
Brown Bros., 97.
Brown, Charles S., 99.
Brown, Faith, 125.
Brown, Henry Collins, 125.
Brown, James M., 88.
Brown Stewart, S.
Bryant's Minstrels, 149.
Bryant, Dan, 149-161.
Bruce, Dr., 219.
Buck, Gurdon, 2.
Bulls, Ferry, 72.
Bull, William T., 2.
Buntline, Ned, 166.
"Burke, Billy," 83.
Burroughs, John, 85.
Butler, Benjamin F., 88.
Butler, William Allen, 88.
Butter Hill, 41.
Butterfield, Gen. D., 85.
Cadger, John, 273-276.
Callan, Dr. P., 17.
Calloway, S. R., 27.
Campbell, Miss Jane, 138.
Campbell, Thos. J., 211.
Cannon, Andrew, 273-276.
Carberry, Capt. Thomas, 273-276.
Carnegie, Andrew, 84.
Carnegie Hall, 121.
Carnochan, Dr. John M., 2-5.
Carroll, Charles, 302.
Carrere & Hastings, 29.
Carson, John, 27.
Castle Garden, 76.
Castle Point, 71.
Castle, William, 247.
Cedar Street, 217-266.
Centennial Celebration, 252.
Central Park, 143-297.
Chandler, Harry, 271.
Chanfrau, H. S., 165.
Charles Grocery Store, 18.
Chase, Samuel, 302.
Chatham Square, 137.
Chatham Street, 151.
Chatham Theatre, 140.
Chew, Peggy, 66.
Chinese Assembly Rooms, 153.
Chivers, Dr., 197-198.
Christ, Geo., 149.
Christy's Minstrels, 150.
Church of the Disciples, 29.
Church of the Holy Oil Cloth, 29.
Churcher, Ann, 273-276.
Churcher, Richard, 273-276.
Cincinnati Society, 215.
City Hall, 235.
City Hall Park, 112,122-291.
City Hotel, 276.
Clark, Abraham, 302.
Clark, John, 273-276.
Clark, Capt. Samuel, 273-276.
Clark, Wm. H., 84.
Clarke, Mrs. Geo., 273-277.
Clarkson, John, 273-276.
Clarkson, L., 273-276.
Clarkson, Maj. Gen. Matthew,
Clemm, Mrs., 197.
Clews, Henry, 14.
Clifton, Baroness, 273-276.
Clinton, De Witt,
Clymer, George, 302.
Coggswell, Henry E., 84.
Cogswell, W. L., 269.
Colby, Miss, 113.
Cold Spring, 191.
Coleman House, 213.
Coles, John B., 173-187-274-276.
Coles, Alderman, 235.
Colgate, James C, 113.
Colgate, R. R., 2.
Colgate, Robert, 81.
College of the City of N. Y., 244.
Collins, Joseph B., S.
Columbia College, 27-76-129-219-244.
Columbian Arch, 244.
Columbus Celebration, 243.
Comique Theatre, ISO.
Commodore Hotel, 9-14.
Conklin, Roscoe, 21.
Connors, Chuck, 163.
Constitution Island, 70.
Cooper, Peter, 5.
Corell, Philip, 190.
Cornbury, Lady, 273-276.
Cornbury, Lord, 273-276.
Cornell University, 69.
Coster, Mrs. Henry, 228.
Coster, Henry A., 228.
Cottinett, F., 84.
Coutant, David, 274-276.
Crabtree, Lotta, 162.
Crane, Geo., 271.
Creery, James W., 81.
Cresap, Capt. Michael, 274-276.
Cricket on the Hearth, 162.
Crockett, Davy, 165.
Crosby, Enoch, 58.
Croton Aqueduct, 292-293.
Croton Market, 14.
Croton Point, 50.
Croton Reservoir, 29.
Crowden, Zenos, 10.
Cruger, J. C, 85.
Cruger, Major John, 274-277.
Cruger, Stephn Van Rensellear,
Cunningham Castle, 84.
Curb Market, 93.
Curtis, Charles G., 203.
Cushman, Charlotte, 142-150.
Cutting, Wm., 211.
Daly, Judge Charles P., 212.
Daley, Capt. John, 274-276.
Daniels, Geo. H., 37.
Dankers & Sluyter, 62.
Davis, Gherardi, 100.
Davis, M. L., 274, 276.
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 27.
Dean, Capt. John, 274, 276.
Declaration of Independence, 299.
Degnan & McLean, 18.
de Forest, 227.
de Kay, 227.
de Lancey, 227.
deLancey, Lt.-Gov. James, 274-277.
Delameter Iron Works, 76.
De la Montaigne, Alderman, 235.
Dempster, Monroe, 158.
Denin Sisters, 145.
Denny, Thomas, 5.
Depew, Chauncey M., 37-259.
de Peyster, 227.
dePeyster, Ccl. J. L., 85.
de Peyster, Col. J. W., 274-276.
de Peyster, Gen. J. Watts,
85, 274, 276.
de Peyster, John Watts, 276.
deRham, H. C, 84.
Desbrosses, Elias, 274-276.
Desbrosses, James, 274-276.
Dewey, Dr. Orville, 201
Dexerna, Bill, 145.
Dillaway, Geo. W., 96.
Dinsmore, Wm., 85.
Dix, Mrs. John A., 274-276.
Dix, Gen. John A., 274.
Dix, Dr. Morgan, 272.
Dix, Rev. Morgan, 274-277.
Dixon, William P., 104.
Dobbs Ferry, 42.
Dodge, Cleveland H., 81.
Dodge, Frances E., 104.
Dodge, Wm. E., 84.
Doremus, Suydam and Nixon, 89.
Dougherty, Dan, 149.
Downtown Association, 87.
Dows, David, 83.
Doyle, Wm. D., Jr., 81.
Drake, James, 211.
Draper, Dr. John W., 14.
Drew, The, 63.
Drummond, Geo. M., 274-276.
Dudley's Grove, 49.
Dula, Caleb C, 82.
Dundreary, Lord, 162.
Dunine, Alice, 153.
Dunlap, Wm., 216.
Du Pont, Gen. Coleman, 84.
Du Puy, John, Sr., 274.
Du Puy, John, Jr., 274-276.
Duryea, Samuel B., 84.
Duyvil, Spuyten, 190.
Dwight, Timothy, 228.
Eacker, Geo., 274.
East River, 167-171-190.
Edward, Martha, 65.
Eighth Regiment, 248.
Elgin Botanical Garden, 219.
Ellery, Wm., 302.
Elysian Fields, 71.
Emanuel Church, 29.
[ 317 ]
Emmet, Dan, 149.
Emmet, J. K., 149.
Empire Fire Co., 274.
Englewood Landing, 53.
English, T. Dunn, 197.
Equitable Building, 256.
Erie, The, 45.
Erie Canal, 86.
Evacuation Day, 245, 251.
Everett, Edward, 313.
Evarts, Allen W., 104.
Fairfield, Francis oerry, 210.
Fairlie, Major James, 212.
Fairlie, Mrs. James, 228.
Fairlie, Louisa, 212.
Fancher, Enoch L., 5-201.
Faneuil, Benjamine, 274-276.
Faneuil, Peter, 274.
Farnham, Co., 274.
Federal Hall, 129.
Fenton, Governor, 264.
Ferrios, Madame, 291.
Ferry House, 217.
Field, Cyrus W., 83-257.
Fields, David Dudley, 83.
Fields, Thos. W., 198.
Fifth Avenue, 233-243-244.
Fifth Avenue Hotel, 264.
Fireman's Monument, 274-277.
Fish, Hamilton, 84-212, 256.
Fish, Nicholas, 211, 212.
Fish, Stuyvesant, 41, 84, 212.
Fisher, Kate, 137.
Fisher, Sidney, 193.
Fiske, Jim, 10.
Fiske, Josiah M., 96.
Flint, Austin, 2.
Florence, W. J., 150.
Floyd, William, 302.
Forbert, Samuel, 211.
Forbes, John, 216.
Ford, Capt. Henry, 274-276.
Ford, Simeon, 1-29-54.
Ford's Theatre, 165.
Fordham College, 203.
Fordham Manor Church, 209.
Forrest, Ned, 139.
Forrest, Edwin, 158.
Fort Lee Ferry, 72.
Fort Gansevoort, 59.
Fort Washington, 79-173.
Forty-second Street, 1-7-11-23-244.
Forty-seventh Regiment, 248.
Foster, Edward, 203.
Foster, M., 272.
Fourteenth Regiment, 248.
Fox, C. K., 165.
Fox, G. L., 165.
Francis, Dr., 201.
Franklin, Benj., 294-302.
Franklin, R. L., 81.
Fraunces Tavern, 129.
Frey, Albert R., 210.
Front Street, 101.
Fulton, Robert, 42, 274, 276.
Fulton Market, 10.
Fulton Street, 109.
Gaine, Hugh, 274-276.
Gallatin, Albert, 274-276.
Gallatin, Mrs. Albert, 274-277.
Galway, J. N., 18-37.
Gansevoort Market, 67.
Garland, John P., 84.
Garrick Club, 180.
Gebhard, Frederick, 228.
Gerard, J. W., 128.
Gerry, Elbridge, 302.
Gettysburg Speech, 313.
Gibbs, A. H., 88.
Gibney, Dr. Virgil P., 5-17.
Gibson, Mrs., 18.
Gilbert, John S., 84.
Giles, Judge A. E., 209.
Gill, Wm. Fearing, 209.
Godey's Ladys Book, 198.
Goodrich, Wm. M., 85.
Gordon, Robert, 88.
Gove, Mrs., 208.
Grace Church, 159.
Gracie, Archibald, 173-227, 228.
Gramercy Boat Club, 190.
Grand Central Depot,
9, 31, 34, 35, 39, 57.
Grand Street, 294.
Grand Union Hotel, 17, 29.
Grand Union Market, 10.
Grant, General, 29.
Grant, Hugh, J., 244, 256.
Greatorex, Miss, 217.
Greeley, Horace, 194, 201.
Green, Judge Ashbel, 18.
Green, John C., 5.
Greenwich Street, 217.
Greenwich Village, 76.
Grinnell, Irving, 84, 227.
Griswold, Geo., 5.
Gulick Club, 190.
Gwinnett, Button, 302.
Haight, C. C, 96.
„ Hall, Lyman, 302.
I'Jil Halleck, Fitz Greene, 196.
Hallett's Cove, 170.
Hamersley, Andrew, 274, 276.
Hamersley, William, 274-276.
121, 219, 274, 276.
Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander,
228, 274, 276, 277.
Hamilton, Frank H., 2.
Hamilton, Philip, 274, 277.
Hamlet, 166, 176.
Hammond, Dave, 37.
Hammond, Fred., 37.
Hancock, John, 302.
Hanover Street, 97.
Hare, J. Montgomery, 104.
Harlem River, 190, 283.
Harlem Lane, 143.
Harrigan, Ned., 146, 153.
Harrison, President, 243, 255.
Harrison, Benjamin, 302.
Hart, John, 302.
Hart, Josh, 150.
Hart, Tony, 146, 153.
Hartley, Robt. M., S.
Hasbrouck, Frank, 61.
Hastings, Dr. Thomas, 29.
Haven, Geo. G., 107.
Hawk, W. S., 14.
Hays, Will H., 115.
Heenan, John C, 137.
Hellgate, 170, 190.
Helmuth, Dr. Wm. T., 2-17.
Henry, Patrick, 129.
Hentz, Henry, 104.
Herring, Fanny, 145.
Hetherington's Drug Store, 37.
Hetherington, James, 18.
Hewes, Joseph, 302.
Heyward, Thomas, Jr., 302.
Hill, Governor, 256-259.
Hitchcock, Billy, 13.
Hobart, Bishop H., 219-274, 277.
Hoboken Point, 59.
Hoffman, Josiah Ogden, 216-228.
Holden, Rev. Robt., 204.
Holland, Alexander, 85.
Hone, John, 188.
Hone, Philip, 216.
Hooper, William, 302.
Hopkins, Gilbert, 295.
Hopkins, Samuel M., 211, 212.
Hopkins, Stephen, 302.
Hopkinson, Francis, 302.
Hopper Sugar Refinery, 82.
Horn, Epp, 149.
Horsemander, Daniel, 274-277.
Hosack, Dr. David, 84-219.
Hospital, Ruptured and Crippled, 1.
Howard, Mrs. G. C, 142.
Howard, G. C, 166.
Howard, Rollen, 149.
Hoyt, Mrs., 85.
Hoyt, Henry R., 107.
Hudson River, 289.
Hudson River Park, 191.
Hudson Street, 239.
Huested, D., 84.
Hughes, Archbishop, 207.
Hughes, Gov., 50.
Huggins, John R. D., 220.
Hume, John T., 85.
Hunt, Carleton, 85.
Hunt, Obidia, 274-277.
Hunt, Dr. Wilson G., 5.
Huntington, Collis P., 4.
Huntington, Samuel, 302.
Hutton, Lawrence, 178.
Hyde, E. Francis, 100.
Hyde, Gov. Edward, 273.
Hyde Park, 84.
Hylan, Mayor, 123-130.
Indian Head, 50.
Ireland, Sergt.-Maj. Peter, 274-276.
Irving, Lewis Du Pont, 83.
Irving National Bank, 23.
Irving, Washington, 41, 83, 121.
Iselin, Adrian, Jr., 2.
Isham, Wm. B., 5.
Jacobi, Dr. Abraham, 2-17.
Jaffray, E. S., 84.
James, D. Willis, 81-96.
James, General Thos. L., 37.
Jamison, David, 274-276.
Janeway, Edward G., 2.
Jarvie, James N., 104.
Jay, John, 121, 227.
Jefferson, Thos., 129, 183, 302.
Jeffrey, Capt. Richard, 274-276.
Jeffries Hook, 79.
Jesup, Morris K., 95.
Johnson, Mrs. Charity, 274, 276.
Johnson, James Boorman, 88.
Johnson, Joremus, 187.
Johnson, Rev. Samuel, 274, 276.
Johnson, Joseph E., 70.
Jones, Edward Henshaw, 85.
Jones' Wood, 190.
Jones, Mrs. W. G., 137-145.
Jumel Mansion, 283.
Kahn, Otto, 210.
Kane, Grenville, 69.
Kearney, Mai. -Gen. Philip W.,
Kearney, Mrs., 274, 276.
Keene, Laura, 162.
Kelby, Robert H., 121.
Kelby, Wni., 85, 211.
Kemble, Peter, 188.
Kennedy, Robt. Lenox, 91.
Kent's Hotel, 216.
Kent, James, 60, 220, 227.
Kernell, Harry, 30.
Kinch, Joseph, 14.
King, Abraham, 211.
King, Charles, 292.
King, Governor, 215.
King, Rufus, 121.
King's College, 129-274.
Kingsland Point, 84.
Kip, Samuel, 211.
Kips Bay, 170.
Kiraify Brothers, 162.
Kirkpatrick, Mrs., 85.
Knapp, Shepard, 14.
Knight, Dr. James, 2-5.
Krebbs, William, 96.
Lingard, Horace, 150.
Lingard and Fox, 142.
Lispenard, Leonard, 275-277.
Livingston, Chancellor, 42.
Livingston, Col. Chas., 85.
Livingston, Edward, 235.
Livingston, E. A., 84, 85.
Livingston, John R., 275, 276.
Livingston, Johnston, 85.
Livingston, Mathew, 85.
Livingston, Maturin, 211.
Livingston, Philip, 275, 276, 302.
Livingston, Robert C, 275, 276.
Livingston, Robert, 45.
Livingston, Judge Robert R.,
275, 276, 292, 294.
Livingston, Wm., 85.
Loew Bridge, 135.
Long Island Historical Society, 62.
Lord, James Couper, 88.
Ludlow, Lt. August C, 275, 276.
Ludlow, Gabriel Wm., 275, 276.
Ludlow, Stephen, 211.
Lydig, David, 212.
Lydig, Philip, 212.
Lynch, Thos., Jr., 302.
Lyon, Capt. John, 47.
Lamb, Col. John, 275-276.
Lamb, Mrs. Martha J., 213.
Langdon, Walter, 85.
Larchmont Yacht Club, 253.
Lawrence, Cornelius W., 77, 79.
Lawrence, Capt. James, 274-276.
Lawrence, James, 202.
Lawrence, John L., 291, 292.
Lawrence, Lydia S., 291.
Layng, Jas. D., 'il .
Leake, John, 275, 277.
Leake, Robert, 275, 277.
Lee, Annabel, 209.
Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 302.
Lee, Gideon, 45.
Lee, J. Lawrence, 85.
Lee, Richard Henry, 302.
Lee, Robert E., 69.
Leesen, James, 275, 276.
Lenox, Alderman, 235.
Lents, James W., 189.
Lewis, Francis, 275, 277, 302.
Lewis, Gen. Morgan, 211.
108, 112, 116, 122, 123, 124, 130.
Liberty Street, 89.
Liggett Bldg., 15.
Lights of London, 146.
Lincoln, Abraham, 165, 179, 313.
Lincoln, Robt. T., 181.
Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech, 299.
Lincoln National Bank, 37.
Mackay, Donald, 99.
Macy, V. Everitt, 62.
Macy's Sons, Josiah, 65.
Macy, Wm. H., Jr., 2.
Macy, Wm. H., 5-65.
Madison Avenue, 113, 269.
Madison Square, 113.
Magruder, Wm., 70.
Maiden Lane, 101.
Mail and Express, 109.
Mair, J. D., 83.
Maitland, Robert L., 88.
Manhattan Athletic Club, 29.
Manhattan Club, 7-11-14.
Mangin, Joseph G., 236.
Manning, Bishop W. T., 271.
Mansfield, Alexander, 65.
Markham, Pauline, 161.
Marshall, Mrs. M. L., 85.
Mason, John, 273, 275, 276.
Masonic Hall, 170.
Massacre, Boston, 123.
Maud, S., 21.
Mayo, Frank, 165.
McComb, Maj. Alexander, 275, 276.
McComb, John, Jr., 236.
McCreery, Dr. John A., 2-18.
McCullough, John, 158.
McGowan's Pass, 251.
McKean, Thomas, 302.
McKeever, J. Lawrence, 96.
McKnight, Dr. Charles, 275, 276.
McKnight, Rev. Charles, 275, 276.
McKnight, Capt. Richard, 275, 276.
McMahon, Gen. M. T., 247.
McVickar, Mrs. John, 228.
Mechanics and Apprentices Library,
Mendell, Wm., 18-37. [149.
Menken, Adah Isaac, 137.
Merritt, Mrs. Gen., 84.
Mesier, Peter, 211, 275, 276.
Metcalf, John T., 2.
Middleton, Arthur, 302.
Middle Dutch Church, 89.
Milbank, Dunlevy, 15.
Miller, Dr., 219.
Miller, E. P., 84.
Miller, John D., 211.
Miller, Miss Sarah E., 203.
Mills, A., 275, 276.
Minnetta Water, 79.
Minturn, Robt. B., 5.
Minuet, Peter, 190.
Mirror, New York, 266.
Mitchell, Dr. Samuel, 220.
Mitchell, Maggie, 162.
Monroe James, 65.
Montana Apartment, 225.
Montgomery, Capt. W. S., 275, 276.
Montgomery, Fort, 66, 70.
Montgomery, Katharine B., 125.
Montgomery, Maj.-Gen. Richard, 127.
Moore, Bishop Benj., 275, 276.
Moore, Charity, 275, 276.
Moore, Capt. Daniel, 275, 276.
Morgan, Miss Anne, 22.
Morgan, Dr. Appleton, 193, 210.
Morgan, John J., 275, 276.
Morgan J. Pierpont, Ti, 84.
Morgan, Junius S., 104.
Morris, Geo. P., 84, 295.
Morris, Robert, 302.
Morris Robert H., 295.
Morse, S. F. Breese, 84-273.
Mortimer, J. K., 165.
Morton, John, 302.
Morton, Levi P.,
14, 85, 211, 227, 244, 256.
Mott, Jacob, 211.
Mott, Dr. Valentine, 2-5.
Mulligan, John W., 211-212.
Murphy, Chas. F., 128.
Murray Hill, 18.
Nassau Street, 89.
National City Co., 7.
Nannestad, Lare, 275, 276.
Nelson, Capt. John, 275, 276.
Nelson, Thos. Jr., 302.
Neu, Elias, 275, 276.
Newcomb, Bobby, 157.
New England, 65.
New England Society, 215.
New York Historical Society,
108, 115, 120, 130, 205, 213, 269.
New York Hospital, 174, 219.
Newman, J. H., 37.
Newman, Stephen, 275, 277.
New York Theatre, 134.
Niagara, The, 249.
Niblo's Garden, 158.
Nichols, Thos., 84.
Nicholson, Co., James, 274, 275, 276.
Nielsen, William, 227.
Ninth Regiment, 248.
North America, The, 294.
North River, The, 41.
Nuneen, John, 162.
Nutt, Commodore, 138, 139.
Nyack, 42, 47.
Ogden, Samuel, 292.
Ogilvier, Rev., 275, 276.
Olympic Theatre, 162.
Olyphant, Robert, 125, 130.
Onderdonk, Bishop, Wm.T., 275,277.
Opdyke, Dr. George, 5.
Oram, James, 275, 277.
Osborn, Wm. Church, 2-5.
Osborn, Wm. H., 2-5.
Otis, James, 129.
Owens, John E., 150.
Paca, William, 302.
Paine, Robert Treat, 302.
Paine, Thos., 216.
Palmer, Albert, 84.
Palmer, Francis H., 91.
Palisades Interstate Park, 72.
Palisades Mountain House, 53.
Parish, James, 84.
Park, Capt. Benj., 275, 276.
Park Ave., 19, 23, 225.
Parker, Dr. Willard, 2-5.
Parkhurst, Dr. 113.
Parsloe, Chas. T., 165.
Pastor, Tony, 135, 139, 153, 157.
Paulding, James K., 216.
Peabody, George, 175.
Pearl Street, 151, 187.
Peck, Benj., 275, 276.
Pell, Alfred, 84.
Pell, Arthur, 84.
Pell Street, 163.
Pendleton, Nathaniel, 220.
Penfold, Edmund, 104.
Penn, John, 302.
Peoples Evening Line, 55.
Perkins, Mrs. Geo. W., 81.
Perkins, Geo. W., 73.
Perry, R. D., 95.
Phoenix, The, 45.
Pica, Capt. R., 275, 276.
Pinchot, Gifford, 17.
Pinchot, James, 17.
Pintard, John, 108, 111, 227.
Place, Ira M., 37.
Piatt, Edmund, 66.
Poe, Rosalie, 209.
Poe, Edgar Allan,
121, 192, 193, 194, 210.
Poe Park, 207. 210.
Poe, Virginia, 197.
Poelnitz, Baron, 227.
Police Parade, 261, 264.
Potter, Bishop, 259.
Potter, Miss Blanche, 6.
Potter, Frederick, 2.
Potter, Howard, 88.
Potter, Orlando B., 6.
Porter, Admiral David B., 256.
Post Office, 216.
Powell, The Mary, 81.
Prince of Wales, 264.
Prospect Terrace, 10.
Provost, David, 171.
Purdy, J. Harsen, 104.
Putnam," Fort, 70.
Quincy, John W., 5.
Radcliff, Jacob, 293.
Randall, Capt. R. R., 227.
Randall, Capt. Thos., 275-276.
Raven, The, 197-201.
Rea, Capt. Richard, 275-276.
Read, George, 302.
Read, Geo. R., 99.
Reade, Jos., 275-277.
Reade, Capt. Wm., 275-276.
Reade, R., 275-276.
Red Fort, 59.
Reed, Dan, 149.
Reed, Dave, 149.
Reid, John, 81.
Richard, Capt. R., 275-276.
Richmond, The Dean, 60.
Richmond Hill, 174.
Ringling, John, 54.
Rionda, Manuel, 54.
Rionda, Francisco, 54.
River, F. R., 84.
Riverside Drive, 281.
Rivette, Capt. Robt., 275-276.
Robbins, Rev. Howard Chandler, 132.
Roberts, Lon, 37.
Robinson, Beverley, 66.
Robinson, Dr., 29.
Rockefeller, John D., 84.
Rockefeller, P. W., 85.
Rodney, Caesar, 302.
Roe, E. P., 84.
Rogers, A. P., 85.
Romayne, Dr., 219.
Roosevelt, Mr., 17.
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 65-84.
Rose, Capt. Jos., 275-276.
Ross, George, 302.
Rush, Benjamin, 302.
Rutledge, Edward, 302.
Ryman, Ad., 158.
Sailors Snug Harbor, 227.
Sanford, Harry, 18.
Sands, George, 18.
Sands, Prof., 17.
Sartain, John, 192.
Schaefer, F. & M., 29.
Schieffelin, S. B., 84.
Schoolcraft Luke, 149.
Schoonmaker, F. W., 1-3.
Scotch Church, 29.
Scott, John Sharp, 275-276.
Scott, Brig. Gen. John M., 275-276.
Scott, Lewis Allain, 275-276.
Schuyler, Gen., 131.
Seabury & Johnson, 17.
Seguin, Dr., 2-17.
Seventh Regiment, 244-248.
Seventy-First Regiment, 248.
Seward, F. W., 84.
Seward, Gov. Wm. H., 293-296.
Seymour, Nelse, 149.
Seymour, Origen S., 107.
Shakespeare, Society, 193.
Shaler, General, 18.
Sharp, Jake, 159.
Sheafe, J. F., S.
Sherman, Mrs. Chas. E., 77-79-291
Sherman, General, 260.
Sherman, Senator John, 260.
Sherman, Roger, 302.
Shew, Mrs., 209.
Siamese Twins, 154.
Sims, Dr. H. Marion, 2-17.
Sixty-Ninth Regiment, 248.
Sleepy Hollow. 42.
Slidell, John, 211-212-275-276.
Sloan, Saml., 84.
Smillie, W. C, 84.
Smith, "Al", 128.
Smith, Dr. Andrew H., 17.
Smith, Mrs. E. Oakes, 201.
Smith, James, 302.
Smith's Tavern, 170.
Smith, Thompson, 220.
Snow, Capt. Ambrose, 256.
Society Library, 202-216.
Society of the Cincinnati, 128.
Sons of the Revolution, 108-115-120.
Sothern, Ned, 162.
South America, 297.
Soldiers Monument, 275-277.
Sparks, Jared, 69.
Spaulding, J. P., 81.
Speedway, The, 143-283.
Spencer, Ambrose, 220.
Spencer, Sandy, 133.
Spingler Farm, 227.
St. Andrew Society, 215.
St. Bartholomews, 29.
St. George Society, 215.
St. John, The, 59-63.
St. Johns Church, 174.
St. Johns College, 207.
St. Nicholas Avenue, 143.
St. Nicholas Hotel, 147.
St. Patricks Cathedral, 6.
St. Patrick Society, 215.
St. Paul's Chapel, 256.
St. Paul's Church, 170-245.
Standard Oil Co., 65.
State Street, 294.
Stearns, John N., Jr., 2
Sterling, Earl of, 273.
Stirling, Lord, 202-273.
Steuben, Baron, 215.
Stevens, Col., 71.
Stevens, Samuel, 295.
Stevins, John S., 85.
Stewart, A. T., 14.
Stewart, Dr. Robt. L., 5.
Stewart, Wm. Rhinelander, 87.
Stillman, Benjamin D., 88.
Stillman, T. B., 5.
Stock Exchange, 185.
Stockton, The Richard, 74-302.
Stoddard, Richard Henry, 196.
Stokes, I. N. Phelps, 271.
Stckes, W. E. D., 104.
Stone, Thomas, 302.
Storm King, 41.
Storrs, Rev. Dr., 259.
Story, W. W., 196.
Stoutenburgh, J. A., 85.
Streets of New York, The, 146-165.
Striker's Bay, 79.
Studley, J. B., 162-166.
Sturges, Arthur, 2.
Sturges, Frederick, 2-5.
Sturges, Jonathan, 2-5.
Stuyvesant, Gov., 190.
Sullivan, John L., 22.
Sutton Manor, 171.
Suydam, John, 212.
Swan, Miss Anna, 139.
Swords, Henry, 275.
Sykes, Nancy, 142.
Sylvan Dell, The, 82.
Sylvan Glen, The, 10-42.
Sylvan Grove, The, 10.
Sylvan Stream, The, 10.
Taft, Daniel, 84.
Talbot, Chas. N., 5.
Taylor, George, 302.
Temple, Charlotte, 275-277.
Terbell, Henry S., 5.
Terry, Capt. Job, 65.
Terry, John T., 84.
Thalia Theatre, 146.
Thirteenth Regiment, 248.
Thompson, Denman, 150.
Thompson, Lydia, 161.
Thompson, Wm. B., 82.
Thornton, Matthew, 302.
Thumb, Tom, 139.
Thunder Mountain, 41.
Thurber, F. B., 239.
Thurber, H. K., 239.
Tiffany Studios, 29.
Tilden, Gov. Saml. J., 83.
Tillinghast, William N., 88.
Tollemache, Capt., 276-277.
Tomlinson, M., 291.
Toole, Mrs., 220.
Toucey, J. M., il .
Tracy, Charles, 84.
Trinity Cemetery, 287.
Trinity Church, 129-271.
Trinity Corporation, 273.
Trinity School, 272.
Tryon, Fort, 79.
Tubby Hook, 79.
Tudor, Capt. Thomas, 276-277.
Turtle Bay, 203.
Twelfth Regiment, 248.
Twenty-Second Regiment, 248.
Twenty-Third Regiment, 248.
Twist, Oliver, 142.
Tyler, John, 293.
Tyng, Dr. Stephen, 14-18-.33,
Tyson, Henry, 14,
[ Zli ]
Ulich, H. P., 279.
Uncle Tom's Cabin, 166.
Underbill, Mrs. C. B., 84.
Union Club, 221.
Union Square, 271.
United Spanish War Veterans, 116.
Untermeyer, Samuel, 82.
Vail, H. F., 95.
Valentine, D. T., 101-272.
Valentine, W. H., 207.
Vallirine, Capt. Mark, 276-277.
Van Antwerp, Simon, 211.
Van Arsdale, Mr., 18.
Van Buren, M., 294.
Van Buren, Wm. H., 2.
Van Cortlandt, 86-227.
Vanderbilt, Commodore, 35-42-57.
Vanderbilt, Wm. H., 21.
Van Home, 227.
Van Home, Augustus, 276.
Van Ness, William, 220.
Van Rensselaer, 86-227.
Van Santvoord, Col., 37.
Van Twiller, Governor, 205.
Van Wyck, 227.
Van Zandt, Peter Pra., 276.
Van Zandt, Wyant, 276.
Vauxhall, Garden, 170.
Verplank, Peter B., 84.
Vesey Street, 105.
Vibbard, The C, 73.
Voorhees, John A., 125.
Wall, Alexander J., 121.
Wall Street, 97-129-185.
Wallack, Lester, 166.
Wallack's Theatre, 142.
Walton, George, 302.
Walton, William, 276.
Ward, Jasper, 211.
Ward, Col. John H.. 276.
Warren, Chas. Elliott, 1.
Warren Sisters, 139.
Warren & Wetmore, 99.
Warren, Fuller & Lang, 17.
Washington, Bridge, 283.
Washington, Farewell Address,
Washington, Fort, 287.
Washington Heights, 279.
Washington Inaugural, 252.
Watson, Henry S., 195.
Watts, Judge John, 276.
Wayne, Gen., 72.
Weatherbee, Geo., 14.
Webb, Dr. Seward, 37.
Weber & Fields, 184.
Webster, Daniel, 42.
Weekes, Frederic D., 125.
Weekes, John A., 125-130.
Welfare Island, 120.
Wellington, Hotel, 7-11.
Wentworth, Miss Bessie, 137.
Werner, George G., 203.
Wesner, Ella, 157.
West Broadway, 239.
West Point, 69-70.
West Shore, R. R., 37.
Westray, Fletcher, 88.
Wetherbee, Eliza, 149.
Wetmore, A. R., 5.
Wetmore, George Peabody, 104.
Wharton, Mrs., 17.
Wheatleigh, Charles, 162,
Wheeler, Miss Emily O., 6.
White, Charley, 146.
White, Dr., 6.
White, Stanford, 244.
Whitehead, A. P., 96.
Whitney, W. C, 37.
Whipple, Wm., 302.
Wild, Johnny, 146-153.
Wilde, Jas., Tr., 84.
Wilder, Marshall P., 25.
Wilkes Building, 185.
Willett, Col. Marinus, 205-211.
Willett, Brig. Gen. Marinus, 276.
Willet, Thomas, 211.
Willets, John T., 5.
Willets, Samuel, 5.
Williams, David, 58.
Williams, William, 302.
Williamson, Dr. Hugh, 219-220.
Willis, Billy, 14.
Willis, Senator Frank B., 121-123-125.
Willis, George T., 146.
Willis, N. P., 84.
Wilson, James, 302.
Wilson, Mrs. Orme, 274.
Windsor Hotel, 14.
Windsor Theatre, 146.
Wing, John Morgan, 2.
Winslow, John F., 85.
Winter, Henry P., 104.
Winter Garden, 166.
Winthrop, Francis Bayard, 228.
Wister, Owen, 116.
Witherspoon, John, 302.
Wittans, Dr. R. A., 5.
Wolcott, Oliver, 302.
Wolfe, Tohn David, 5.
Wood, Dr. Tames R., 2-5.
Wood, Thurston, 211.
Woodberry, Mr., 197. V
Woods, Mrs. John, 165. ■'■
Woods Minstrels, ISO. ,^ , „ ,, ^^„
WnoI<;ev 227 Yale College, 228.
Woosey ZZ7. Yeamans, Mrs. Annie, 166.
Work, Frank, 14. Yeamans, Miss Jenny, 166.
World, New York, 124. Yellow Jacket, 33.
Worth Street, 141. Yonkers, 42.
Wortley, Lady Emmeline Stuart, 230.
Wossell, Jennie, 165. ^
Wossell, Irene, 165.
Wossell, Sophie, 165. Zabriskie, Geo. A., 54-125.
Wythe, George, 302, Zee Tappan, 46.
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