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N^o. 6, New^ Series 

Edited By 

Henry Collins Browm 






Copyright, 1921 


Henry Collins Brown. 

Press of 

The Chauncey Holt Company 

New York City 




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The Hudson a Hundred Years Ago 58 

Whales and Whalers of the Hudson 61 

The Old Beverley Robinson House 66 

West Point 70 

Along the Shores in the City 71 

Old Families on the River 81 


William Rhinelander Stewart. 





A Stroll up Broadway 133 

By Daniel J. Brown. 



BOOTH 175 




Philip Corel!. 


Dr. Appleton Morgan. 


Mrs. Mary P. Ferris. 



NEW YORK IN 1849 230 




School Children's Day 244 

The Naval Parade 247 

The Military Parade 247 

The Night Pageant 248 



1889 252 






Harry A. Chandler. 









INDEX 317 

[ xni ] 


List of Rare Old Prints, Engravings and Colored 
Lithographs Contained in this Volume. 


At their docks along West Street. 



STREET, 1875 3 






Buildings occtipying site of present Liggett Building. 


Showing old depot and railroad cut. 

NUE, 187S ; 23 


1849 27 






One of the most palatial Hudson River boats of her day. 





Almost the last of the freight boats plying between New York and 
nearby river towns. 









Very rare view of baptismal scene near the White Fort, 1850. 







By Awdubon. 


From a rare French lithograph by Milbert, about 1825. 




From Cliffdale, residence of Mr. George A. Zabriskie. 


(IN COLOR) 87 



ROAD, 1837 (IN COLOR) 92 





STREETS, 1865 97 



[ XVI ] 




(IN COLOR) lis 



From rare Bornet view in possession of Downtown Association. 


Dedication of the New Liberty Pol*. 





















[ XVII ] 





COLOR) 177 



Site of addition to the New York Stock Exchange. 



From engraving by John Sartain. 






1875 217 


1831 221 

Also first home of the Union Club, 1836. 


1870 225 




1883 245 


CABLE, 1859 249 

MONT YACHT CLUB, 1886 253 




[ xvni ] 


(Folding chart with key to location historical graves.) 











Quite recently the De Witt Clinton was again put upon the tracks and 
made part of a journey to Chicago under her own steam. She excited much 
interest on the way and received everywhere a cordial reception. 


No. 6 

FOR 1922 

New Series 


Doctor F. W. Schoonmaker, whose drug store is now among the oldest 
in the City and the only store on 42nd Street that has survived the changes 
since 1871 is still hale and hearty. He is at his business every day and 
has probably more personal friends in the neighborhood than any other man 
on the street. We asked Dr. Schoonmaker if he wouldn't kindly talk about 
the old days for the benefit of the present generation and for the edification 
of his old friends. The following article is very much as Dr. Schoonmaker 
recalled the old days but some interpolations by Mr. Simeon Ford, Dr. 
Virgil P. Gibney, Mr. Chas. Elliott Warren and other neighbors have been 
included. — Editor. 

IT is very satisfactory and an inspiring thought to 
recall that the first important building to be erected 
on old Forty-second Street was one devoted to that 
noblest of all charities— the relief of pain and suffering 
among the children of the poor — the Hospital for the 
Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled— which stood for so 
many years at the corner of Lexington Avenue. It was 

[ 1 ] 


then so far out of town as to be regarded as a Country 
Hospital. In the Annual report of 1871 we find the fol- 
lowing description of its then picturesque location : 

The elevation of the edifice commands not only a wide view of the 
upper part of the city, but also of regions beyond. On the one hand may be 
seen the bright waters of the Sound; on the other, in the distance, lie the 
wooded hills of New Jersey. Immediately around on all sides, broad hand- 
some avenues stretch away with their long lines of palatial residences, while 
the unique and imposing appearance of the structure itself, which is the 
'pointed style' of architecture presents a conspicuous way-mark for that part 
of the city. 

The Institution has progressed under a management 
that has always commanded the respect of the public. It 
is interesting to trace the families in the personnel of the 
Board. For example : 

Jonathan Sturges was one of the incorporators and a member of the first 
Board. His son, Frederick Sturges, was elected in 1871, became treasurer 
in 1875, and president in 1901. His son, Arthur Sturges, served on the 
Board for a number of years. 

William H. Osborn, a son-in-law of Jonathan Sturges, became a mem- 
ber in 1870, and the latter part of his life served as president. His son, 
William Church Osborn, and grandson of Jonathan Sturges has for many 
years been active as a member, secretary and now president of the Board. 
Sons or grandsons of former Managers, all members of the present 
board are: William H. Macy, Jr., John N. Stearns, Jr., Adrian Iselin, Jr., 
R. R. Colgate, Frederick Potter, John Morgan Wing, Walter P. Bliss, and 
William Church Osborn. 

The existence of this Hospital was the reason for the 
frequent appearance on this Street of the most eminent 
surgeons of the day, including such names as : Valentine 
Mott, William H. Van Buren, Willard Parker, John M. 
Carnochan, Gurdon Buck, Frank H. Hamilton, Virgil P. 
Gibney, Austin Flint, John T. Metcalf, Cornelius R. 
Agnew, Edward G. Janeway, William T. Bull, James R. 
Wood, H. Marion Sims, Drs. Agnew, Jacobi, Seguin. 
Helmuth, McCreery, to say nothing of the eminent 
consulting physicians on the present staff. 

To Dr. James Knight, a struggling practitioner in the 
60's the organization of this Society was largely due. He 
was doing what he could in his own home to care for the 
poor unfortunates who came under his personal care, but 

[ 2 ] 

Exterior of Mr. F, W. Schoon-makkr's Drug Store, the first on 42nd 

Street. Located at the southwest corner of present 

Hotel Commodore, 187S 


the necessity for larger facilities soon became a pressing 
need. He finally succeeded in securing the support of 
Drs. Valentine Mott, Willard Parker, J. M. Carnochan, 
James R. Wood, George Opdyke, R. A. Wittans, Wilson 
G. Hunt, Robert L. Stewart, Peter Cooper and T. B. 
Stillman. A regular institution was then formed in 1863 
with the following Board of Managers : 




Its presidents have been John C. Green, 1864 to 1874; 
Stewart Brown, 1875 to 1879; Samuel Willets, 1880 to 
1883 ; whose son, John T. Willets, has been for a number 
of years vice-president and a valuable member of the 
Board; William H. Macy, 1884 to 1887; William H. Os- 
born, 1888 to 1890; William B. Isham, 1891 to 1901; 
Frederick Sturges, 1902 to 1910; William Church Os- 
born elected 1911. 

All New York now knows the magnitude to which this 
hospital has grown. Dr. Virgil P. Gibney, who succeeded 
Dr. Knight in 1887 has been connected with the active 
work of the institution as surgeon-in-chief for a period 
just one year short of half a century. 

When the expanding business of the Railroad com- 
pelled the acquisition of the Lexington Avenue corner, 
the Society removed east of 2nd Avenue and now has a 
modern building of the highest type but still on the street 
of its origin. 

[ 5 ] 


Through the kindness of its friends, the Hospital is 
also able to provide its little patients with many a delight- 
ful sojourn in the country during the heated term, prom- 
inent among them being "Robins Nest," Tarrytown, with 
accommodations for twenty-two of the children, from 
May until December ; the country Home for Convalescent 
Babies, at Sea Cliff; the Haxton Cottage at Bath Beach, 
maintained by the Children's Aid Society ; the New York 
Home for Destitute Crippled Children ; the Playground 
Assn. of America; the People's University Extension 
Society ; the Crippled Children's Driving Fund Assn. ; 
the model country hospital maintained at Sharon, Connect- 
icut, built especially for the needs of the children, by 
Miss Emily O. Wheeler, and known as "The Bobolinks;" 
the annual treats, like the Potter entertainment, pro- 
vided by Miss Blanche Potter, in memory of her father, 
Mr. Orlando B. Potter, a valued member of our Board; 
the McAlpin Day, the 20th of June, on which occasion 
there is a treat to all the patients, a ride in the Park, 
games on the lawn ; the Witherell Memorial, a day set 
apart once a year, for an entertainment, drive in the 
Park, and a treat of ice cream, cake and oranges for the 

I must mention an amusing experience I had with two 
of the young doctors in the Hospital with most of whom 
I was intimate. It was during the building of St. Pat- 
rick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue. The lower part was 
completed and they had fairs almost every night. We 
visited the Fair one evening and please rememl)er these 
young physicians were only getting $30.00 per month, 
board and wash. As we strolled down the aisle, a dear 
little girl came up to us selling flowers and asked us to 
buy some. Dr. Billy White said "I won't buy any flowers 

[ 6 ] 


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but I will give you $5.00 for one of your pretty curls." 
She came back to us after a time with a pair of scissors 
and said : "Mother said you can have one" and Doctor 
White had to part with a week's salary. 

Altogether, it is a great satisfaction to know that this 
old street started its career as a friend of the many friend- 
less children in our great city and that it has been able 
to do so much for those unable to do for themselves. 

I was among the first of the old merchants on 42nd 
Street who came here when the original Grand Central 
Station was built. That was a famous building in its 
day. There was nothing like it in the country and for 
years it was the most talked of structure in the United 
States. I have lived to see this old time Eighth Wonder 
of the world pass away. I have seen its successor pass 
away; and if history moves much faster it would not sur- 
prise me if I lived to see the present building also disap- 
pear and all the commuters wend their way home not 
on the 5:15 but in their own machines like so many migrat- 
ing birds. 

Forty-second Street, when I first opened my modest 
drug store in the south west corner of the present Com- 
modore Hotel, was a beautiful street. It was very wide 
and was lined with beautiful shade trees, most of the way 
to 6th Avenue. There were two particularly fine mag- 
nolias in the lawn in front of the Hospital for the Rupt- 
ured and Crippled. When they bloomed they were a 
beautiful sight and the neighbors for blocks around came 
to see them. Beyond Lexington Avenue the land was 
still unimproved and was surrounded by a white fence. 
The old lady who owned the plot lived in a small wooden 
house on the corner of 43rd Street. She kept a large 
herd of goats and sold goats' milk which was then in great 

[ 9 ] 


demand. Goats were about the only profitable crop that 
could be raised on this soil as can be readily understood 
when you look at the picture which shows how this 
part of town looked in those days. When the goats 
wearied of gamboling on the green they foregathered on 
the front steps of the Hospital and chewed their cuds con- 
tentedly while some took a nap. Farther down the 
street the land terminated in a large overhanging bluff 
commanding a splendid view of the East River, with a 
gentle hill sloping to the pebbly shore. A row of nice 
houses was built here — Prospect Terrace — in one of 
which I started housekeeping, and after business hours 
with Mr. Zenos Crowden with whom I shared the house, 
we all — the neighbors — used to sit in the gardens facing 
the river and watch the Harlem boats go by — the Sylvan 
Stream, Sylvan Glen, Sylvan Grove and Rosedale. A 
little later the great Boston boats added to the interest 
of the scene. It was about the time Jim Fiske secured 
control of the Fall River Line and no such gorgeousness 
was ever before seen in steamer travel as he provided in 
the "Bristol." 

Besides being my warm friend, Mr. Zenos Crowden 
was also the owner of the Fish department in the Grand 
Union Market adjoining my store and frequently took 
some of us with him in the very early morning to the 
foot of Fulton Market where all the fish came in. We 
went in his fish cart but you needn't turn your nose up 
at this. All the fish carts and butcher carts had nifty 
horses in those days and a brush down the Bowery with a 
rival team was a heartening sight ! Zenos had several very 
speedy animals and I greatly enjoyed these little side 
trips. Refrigerating cars were unknown in those days 
and the finny tribe were still swimming around in the 

[ 10 ] 

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tanks of the sloops where Mr. Crowden bought his sup- 
phes. We generally took breakfast at Billy Hitchcock's, 
a tremendously popular place with the all-night workers 
of the city. He sold a fine cup of coffee and two crullers 
for 3 cents. There was a coin of this denomination in 
circulation after the war but it finally gave way to the 
nickel. Then Billy made his cups bigger and added an 
extra cruller and charged 5 cents. 

The crockery in this establishment was unique. I think 
it was made of the same stuiT out of which flower pots 
were produced. There were no handles on the cups, the 
rims bore the honored scars of many a desperate encounter 
with the dishwasher and large rough spaces ornamented 
the edges of cups, plates and bowls. This provided a 
disagreeable impression at first but you soon became 
used to it once you became a regular customer. It would 
hardly find credence if I were to enumerate the long list 
of distinguished men who at one time or other dined at 
this modest establishment. It remains a fact, however, 
that with the passing of Billy Hitchcock passed also the 
fine art of cooking "beef and." I know of a lot of men 
who would back up this statement were it not for the 
fact that they are bank presidents, railroad magnates and 
"Big Business" men generally, some of whose wives might 
shy at these early recollections. 

Running a drug store in those days was a pleasant 
occupation. Everybody knew us and we knew everybody. 
It was very much like being a doctor, only we had none 
of the doctor's heavy responsibility. Yet we took a lively 
interest in all the patients and shared in the doctor's re- 
lief when a crisis had been passed and the road to re- 
covery made certain. 

[ 13 ] 


My very first location is now covered, as I have said, 
by part of the Hotel Commodore. The great Croton 
Market was on one side of my little store, the Grand 
Union on the other side. And as it was the custom in 
those days to have long racks in front of the Market with 
beef, mutton and fowl, displayed hanging from the rack, 
it was no uncommon thing for my store to be well hid on 
either side and many a time I have gone and asked Mr. 
Henry Tyson, a fine friend of mine, to let me have a little 
more gangway for the entrance to my store. I would like 
to say now that I never have been thrown in with a finer 
set of men and the people also that came to Market. Mr. 
Joseph Kinch, a relative of Mr. A. T. Stewart, had one of 
the stands in the Croton Market, also Mr. Henry Tyson, 
who after the Market was taken down, went to Fifth 
Avenue and 45th Street and conducted a market near the 
Windsor Hotel of which my friends, Mr. W. S. Hawk and 
Mr. George Weatherbee were the proprietors ; afterwards 
taking over the Hotel Manhattan. Then came part of a 
row of "tax payers" — small wooden buildings one story 
high. Among" them was J. Abrahams who kept a cigar 
store ; the Billy Willis, who sold shirts and gent's fur- 
nishings; the Croton IMarket, Frederick Brandies, a 
fashionable grocer, famed for his Madeira wines and 
high class wet goods. Beyond him was perhaps the most 
important store of all — the Grand Union Market. This 
place kept the astonishing number of twenty-five clerks. 
In those days all New York did its own marketing and it 
was nothing unusual to see men like Collis P. Hunting- 
ton, Henry Clews, Levi P. Morton, Dr. John W. Draper, 
Stephen Tyng, A. T. Stewart, Shepard Knapp, Frank 
Work, Robert Bonner and others of that class come to 
the Market before going down town to select their own 

[ 14 ] 


supplies. New York was still in the "Age of Innocence" 
as Mrs. Wharton says. 

Next to the Market, on the Lexington Avenue side, 
was a large wall paper house, Warren, Fuller & Lang. 
Mr. James Pinchot, the father of Gifford Pinchot, Mr. 
Roosevelt's friend, being one of the firm. I was quite 
honored to have the formation of their partnership drawn 
up in my store and to be a witness to it and thereby 
brought into friendship with these men. 

The managing physician of the Hospital proved a great 
friend to me. When he met me one morning and asked 
me what I intended to do, I said I was going to open a 
drug store. "That's fine," he said. "I will help you all 
I can." And he did. For more than forty years this 
friendship with Dr. Virgil P. Gibney continued and I 
recall it with pleasantest recollections. In the late 
afternoon the young internes practiced target shoot- 
ing in the Hospital grounds. 

I remember also the great Doctor H. Marion Sims. 
He had a patient at the old Grand Union Hotel and sent 
over to my little store for a mustard plaster. I had not 
at that time been introduced to the mustard leaf, just 
being introduced by Seabury, now Seabury and Johnson 
so I went out and got an egg and some cloth and with 
mustard made him one like mother made for us children. 
I took it over to him at the Hotel on a platter and he 
said, "Thank you, very much, I will remember you for 
this," and he did. 

We had in those early days only a few specialists among 
our doctors. They were nearly all in general practice. I 
can quote Dr. Agnew, Dr. Seguin, Professor Sands, Dr. P. 
Callan, Dr. Abraham Jacobi, Dr. Andrew H. Smith, Dr. 
William Todd Helmuth whose home, S. E. corner Madison 

[ 17] 


Avenue and 42nd Street was much to me and my family 
physician, Dr. John A. AlcCreery, a wonderful friend of 

I must not forget the other side of the Grand Central 
Station. On the corner of Vanderbilt Avenue and 42nd 
Street, which was J. N. Galway's fine grocery store, a two 
story building and over the store were the first of the 
overflow offices of the Grand Central Depot. Judge Ash- 
bel Green and Mr. Van Arsdale, were the legal advisers. 

Mrs. Gibson's candy store was next door to the grocery 
store on 42nd Street. And the way into her store, a 
little ways from the Street. This store was afterwards 
taken over by Mr. William Mendel, in after years, who 
today, has many stores in and around the depot. 

Mr. George Sands, a brother of Professor Sands, drug 
store was in the middle of the block on Vanderbilt 
Avenue, opposite the Harlem waiting room. Afterwards 
taken over by Mr. James Hetherington, who now has a 
corner on 42nd Street. The Charles Grocery Store was 
then at the corner of Vanderbilt Avenue and 43rd Street, 
and private houses clear around to Dr. Tyng's church. The 
building of the subway was a sad trial for all of us as 
we pretty nearly lost courage and our business besides. 
I remember my friend, Mr. Harry Sanford, who had 
charge of the construction work on 42nd Street for Deg- 
nan & McLean, calling it a great big celery trench, and 
so it was. I well remember the explosion at the face of 
the tunnel on Park Avenue, in which General Shaler 
lost his life and which played havoc with the Murray 
Hill and Grand Union and blew my windows clear out 
and nearly me also. 

We were so far "up town" that the large wholesale 
houses sent their drummers only once a week, or when- 

[ 18 ] 

O Q 
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ever they made their regular trips up through the State. 
After stopping at 42nd Street the next was to take the 
train for Boston, Albany and all points East and West. 
When we had to go down town for anything we left the 
store about noon and were rarely back before seven or 
eight o'clock. There was no rapid transit in those days 
and in very stormy weather in winter the snow made the 
trip practically impossible, and the Street cars had six 
and eight horses to draw them. I have seen almost a 
week go by before normal relations could be resumed with 
down town, and in the great blizzard of 1888 we were 
without communication of any kind from anywhere for 
several days as even the railroads were out of commission. 
That blizzard was certainly a most remarkable storm. I 
never saw anything like it before or since. For many years 
everything dated from before or after the blizzard. Many 
lives were lost but perhaps the most conspicuous was that 
of Roscoe Conklin. He became confused in Madison 
Square and was found wandering helplessly around the 
winding paths. An illness resulting from this exposure 
brought this brilliant career to an untimely end. 

In front of the Grand Central on the Vanderbilt Ave. 
side, old New Yorkers will recall that for many years a 
vacant lot stood there enclosed in a picket fence. It 
covered the entire block. The great Hotel Biltmore now 
occupies the same identical place. 

For many years that was the private play ground of 
beautiful Maud S. the greatest little trotter in my opinion 
that ever stood on four feet. She was Wm. H. Vanderbilt's 
great pet and he had her brought where he could see her 
out of the office windows where he managed the great 
railroad. Many a time I have felt the silky nose of this 
beautiful mare against my face and it was rightly con- 

[ 21 ] 


sidered a great honor to be allowed this privilege. I often 
wonder if Johnny Bowman, himself a great horse lover, 
knows that his great hotel stands on Maud S.' playground? 

Building soon began on the vacant lots east of Lexing- 
ton Avenue and the goat farm disappeared. On the corner 
rose a hotel called the Vanderbilt. It afterwards achieved 
great local fame as the headquarters of the redoubtable 
John L. Sullivan. Small boys used to haunt this locality 
persistently in the hope of catching a glimpse of the fam- 
ous slugger. I often wish Miss Anne Morgan could have 
seen John L. Only if John L. had lived, there would have 
been no Devastated France, because, in the opinion of the 
average man in those days, John L. could have licked the 
whole German Army with one hand tied behind his back. 
What Sullivan would have said could he come back and at- 
tend one of those prize fights (?) pulled off by my good 
friend Sweeney in the soft carpeted room of the Commo- 
dore, staggers the imagination. "Boxing Bout in the Ball 
Room ; take the Elevators to the right !" Imagine the 
effect of this announcement on John L. ! And when he 
saw the mad rush to the tea room, between bouts, for a 
drink of Orange Pekoe, the old man would doubtless 
have committed murder. Ah ! me. 

But I digress. 

Events along the old Street were now moving with 
amazing rapidity. The immense amount of business 
created by the opening of the new depot already began to 
make itself manifest. Hotels began springing up in every 
direction and soon we had the Allerton, adjoining the 
cattle yards at 44th Street and Fifth Avenue; Wellington 
at the corner of Madison Avenue, the Meurice and the 
Bristol occupying the opposite corners of Fifth Avenue 
and the Riggs house on Park Avenue in the middle of a 

r 22 1 


An interesting view of the south side of 42nd Street opposite 


OF THE Belmont Hotel, Irving National 
Bank, etc. 


row of houses between 41st and 42nd Streets, and the 
Westchester, which faced 42nd Street just around the 
corner from the avenue. These last two hotels as well 
as the entire block, subsequently became the Grand Union, 
which for more than a quarter of a century shone with 
enviable brilliancy in a city soon to be famed for its re- 
markable achievements in the line of Hotel accommoda- 

About 1880 additions to the station on 42nd Street 
caused the removal of the "tax payers" in which I was 
located and I removed to the corner of Park Avenue 
where the Belmont now stands and remained there for 
the greater part of my life. The old location had been 
splendid in its day, and I gave it up with great regret. 
Not only did I enjoy the trade of a somewhat prosperous 
neighborhood, but many distinguished travellers from the 
railroad — from abroad as well as at home — found occasion 
to need the services of my establishment. In the course 
of time I came to know a great many men prominent in 
all walks of life. When I moved to my new store I 
found the accommodations were larger and better in 
every way and I continued to add to the list of my friends 
and to hold the old ones. 

The telephone at that time was beginning to be intro- 
duced and the Company made strenuous efforts to popu- 
larize its use. It was hard work, as a grating, rasping 
noise all but drowned the conversation in those days and 
sometimes it took an hour to get a message through. My 
dear old friend, the late Marshall P. Wilder, used to con- 
vulse his audience by his imitation of a telephone con- 
versation. He would put an imaginary receiver to his 
ear and commence, "Hullo Billy is this" — and then he 
would break off into a series of "ar-r-r-rr's" that re- 

[ 25 ] 


produced exactly the aggravating sound with which most 
of us were familiar. Marshall got away with this story 
long after the trouble had disappeared. He kept it up 
till the Subways were opened when he substituted his now 
classic story about how they originally came to be built — 
"so that a New Yorker could go to Brooklyn without 
being seen." Marshall was very diminutive in appearance 
and once when he announced to an out of town com- 
mittee where he was to perform that evening that he was 
Mr. Wilder, the chairman asked him "Where is your 
father?" What a pleasant memory my merry little friend 
has left to a lot of us old New Yorkers ! 

Well, as I was saying, the telephone was here all right 
and I was so much impressed with it that I was among 
those who decided to give it a show. I was the only one 
in the neighborhood to have an all night service and soon 
after five, just as today, it was surrounded by a group of 
tired business men who wanted to get word to their 
wives that they were detained at the ofifice and not to keep 
supper for them. It soon began to grow in favor and 
every day it seemed to me Theodore Vail would step ofif 
the Boston train on his tireless quest for more money for 
its development. 

Population began to build up the neighborhood rapidly 
and soon we were surrounded on all sides by handsome 
"brown stones." No one ever thought of varying the 
type of architecture and long rows of these doleful struc- 
tures lined both sides of every street. Churches too, be- 
gan to make their appearance, the most prominent of 
which was, I think, Dr. Tyng's on the corner of Madison 
Avenue. The design of this church was quite bizarre, the 
prevailing features being diamond groups of colored 
bricks, suggesting nothing so much as a piece of kitchen 

• [ 26 ] 

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oil cloth. It was promptly nicknamed the Church of the 
Holy Oil Cloth. St. Bartholomew's moved up from 
Lafayette Place to 44th Street. It has recently gone to 
the site occupied by F. & M. Schaefer's Brewery. The 
Church of the Disciples with a hundred minarets and 
towers stood where the Manhattan Athletic Club sub- 
sequently erected its building. This was afterward oc- 
cupied by the Tiffany Studios. Then there was the Eman- 
uel Church ; Dr. Robinson's Presbyterian ; Bishop New- 
man's which General Grant attended (called the Circus 
Church because all the seats were arranged almost in a 
circle,) and the Scotch Church where the Aeolian Hall 
now stands, presided over by Dr. Thomas Hastings whose 
son's firm, Carrere & Hastings, the famous architects, 
built the noble Public Library which stands on the site 
of the old Croton Reservoir. 

The Reservoir marked the end of the Sunday Church 
parade crowd. At noon on Sundays and especially on 
Easter, the display of finery was impressive and until one 
o'clock the avenue was the scene of as animated a gather- 
ing as could be found anwhere in the world. Leaders 
of society, mighty men in the world of politics, art and 
commerce were recognizable everywhere, and it was a 
sight not soon to be forgotten. Glistening equipages filled 
the broad Street, the occupants of which were kept busy 
acknowledging greetings from the sidewalk. Not an 
automobile was in existence, smart looking Victorias being 
all the rage. 

One day there was a fire in the store next door to mine, 
kept by Purcell the famous Caterer. I was greatly dam- 
aged by the water which almost swept my store into the 
Street. I was for the moment put out of business. Seeing 
my plight, Mr. Simeon Ford of the Grand Union Hotel 

[29 ] 


opposite sent over a cordial message to come over to his 
place and they would make room for me, which I did. At 
the end of two weeks or more my own damage was re- 
paired and the store fit for business again. I thanked 
my generous neighbors for their great kindness to me 
and asked for my bill. "You don't owe us a cent" re- 
plied Mr. Ford ; "Shaw and I were only too glad to help 
you out." That's the kind of neighbors we had in those 

The Grand Union was a wonderful institution in its 
day. It was probably at its best in the early 90's. On 
summer evenings they used to set chairs out on the side- 
walk and I have counted nearly a hundred at a time. 
Guests used to tilt them back, smoke and chat till mid- 

About once a week a couple of darkies used to come 
around. One whistled and the other accompanied him 
on a guitar. The wonderful flute like notes of this old 
darky were something I cannot begin to describe. This 
little impromptu concert always ended in a burst of ap- 
plause and the guests of the hotel filled the hat that was 
passed around with shining silver instead of the coppers 
that was the usual portion of this itinerant band. 

On the 42nd Street side of the hotel were the car barns 
of a new line that ran up to Manhattanville and Blooming- 
dale Asylum. Harry Kernell a popular comedian of the 
day, used to tell how he took this line one day and got 
off at the Asylum. Walking through the grounds he 
espied one of the inmates trundling a wheelbarrow 
along upside down. "I say, my friend," said Kernell, 
"you got that thing wrong side up." "No I haven't," he 
replied, "the other day I turned it that way and a man 
filled it full of bricks." 



Another sight which the guests of the Grand Union 
enjoyed free of charge, was the pigeons that hned our 
side of the avenue directly opposite. Their homes were 
in the belfry of Dr. Tyng's Church which provided an 
ideal retreat and they had multiplied to an amazing extent. 
At noon the cabbies put the feed bag on their horses and 
the pigeons gathered to share in the grain that fell from 
the bags when the horses tossed their heads up in the air 
to get the last morsel. The birds were so intent upon 
feeding that you could almost pick them from the ground 
and their antics trying to get a place of vantage caused 
many an amusing incident. 

After the meal the pigeons would roost on the eaves 
of the Depot building and enjoy a period of quiet. Some 
of them selected the hour hands of the big depot clock 
for their siesta with the result that many a passenger lost 
his train. There are still a few descendants of this orig- 
inal flock living in the eaves of the Hotel Belmont, but 
the number is sadly depleted. The taxi and the subway 
have made the struggle for existence a serious problem. 

The Grand Union grew out of a row of private dwell- 
ings that stood on the site before the opening of the depot. 
One by one the houses were absorbed, the walls knocked 
in and the building annexed. These various additions 
introduced a surprisingly numerous lot of stairs in the 
most unexpected places in the hotel. You could always 
tell a regular boarder by the peculiar way he walked in 
the open. Every few steps he would climb an imaginary 
flight of stairs or open an imaginary door. When the hotel 
was finally torn down, all these old timers were qualified 
for parts in "The Yellow Jacket." 

But the management ran the place in an orderly busi- 
ness like fashion and prospered mightily. Mr. Ford told 

[ 33 ] 


of his early days one night at a hotel men's dinner. He 

"When I first plunged into this business I had a foolish 
notion that there should be rules for the conduct of a 
hotel, and that guests should be expected to observe them. 
In consequence, I made some bad breaks. I remember 
once when a nice, benevolent-looking old gentleman had 
registered, and was about to go to his room. I stepped up 
to him, and with an engaging smile I said : 'My dear 
sir, pardon me for addressing you, but from the hayseed 
which still lingers lovingly in your whiskers, and the 
fertilizer which yet adheres to your cheap though service- 
able army brogans, I hazzard the guess that you are an 
agriculturist and unaccustomed to the rules to be observed 
in one of New York's palatial caravansaries. Permit me, 
therefore, to suggest that upon retiring to your sumptu- 
ous $1 apartment you refrain from blowing out the gas, 
as is the time-honored custom of the residents of the out- 
lying districts, but turn the key, thus.' " 

"He glared at me. and went his way, and I noticed that 
the clerk, who had been standing by, had broken out into 
a cold sweat." 

" 'Why,' said he, 'that man is a United States Senator 
from Kansas ; didn't you notice his whiskers ? He ex- 
pected to stop at the Manhattan, but chancing to see one 
of their advertisements, observed that the Grand Central 
Depot was attached to the house, and he was afraid the 
locomotives would break his rest, so he came down to this 
sequestered nook so as to be quiet, and now you have 
driven him away.' " 

" 'It makes no difference to me whether he is a Senator 
or not,' I replied; 'I am no believer in class distinctions. 

[ 34 ] 




We cannot afford to give any man a room for $1 and 
have him absorb $2 worth of illuminating gas.' " 

When the Lincoln Bank (now the Irving) was first 
opened General Thomas L. James was a familiar figure 
on 42nd Street. James D. Layng of the West Shore, 
Col. Van Santvoord, Dr. Seward Webb, his brothers 
Walter and Frank, John Carson, S. R. Calloway, J. H. 
Newman, Chauncy M. Depew, Ira M. Place, Miles Bron- 
son, J. M. Toucey, George H. Daniels, Wm. H. Mendel 
and others were also much in evidence. J. N. Galway & 
Co., Gibson Candy Store and Hetherington's Drug Store 
were near the corner. Dave Hammond and Fred Ham- 
mond, who opened the Murray Hill were for a time being 
the cynosure of all eyes. Lon Roberts who afterwards 
came to the Belmont, opened the Ponce de Leon in St. 
Augustine, the first of Flagler's great hotels in Florida. 
There were no less than thirteen baths in this hotel as 
Carrere, the architect loudly boasted, and it was regarded 
as the very last word in hotel luxuriance. They after- 
wards put a bath in every room. It was to that hotel 
that Cleveland went on his honeymoon and attended a 
great reception by W. C. Whitney and others. 

The Lincoln National Bank was organized in the upper 
floor of a little building on the northwest corner of 42nd 
Street and Vanderbilt Avenue, in which building the 
West Shore Railroad Company shared occupancy. Since 
that time, the Lincoln Bank has become a branch of the 
Irving and instead of one bank on the Street, or in the 
immediate environment, every financial institution of size, 
and almost all of the smaller ones, have their branch of- 
fices and some their main offices, immediately at hand. 
And the Street has jumped in a very short period of time 
from its primitive condition to a Street which bids fair, 

[ 2>1 ] 


in the near future, to outbid Wall Street and rapidly be- 
come the financial center of the world. 

It would take a much larger number of pages than the 
Manual contains to write an adequate description of old 
Forty-second Street. It is easily the heart of the new 
world in a sense, as it directly connects with all the cap- 
itols of the old World. As a matter of fact, one can 
start from the Grand Central, circumnavigate the earth 
and wind up where he began should he so elect and travel 
in a straight line all the way. 

Note. This is the second article in a series of the Great Streets of 
New York of which old Bond Street was the first. Others to follow are 
Fifth Avenue, Broadway, etc. — Editor. 

38 J 


Sometimes Called the Hudson 

Henry Collins Brown 

[Note by Stuyvesant Fish.] 

When the Dutch came here, in 1609, they gave the name of 
"Mauritius" to the river flowing into the sea in North Latitude 40, 
which had figured on previous Spanish maps as "Rio San Antonio." 
To that river the French gave, and perhaps had given before 
Hudson arrived here, the name of "Riviere des Montagnes." But the name 
by which the river was generally known throughout the Dutch domination, 
under their West India Company, was "North River," indicating its general 
direction from the mountains to the sea. Among those living on our river 
the name "North" prevails very generally to this day, although throughout 
the long period of British domination from 1664 to 1776 and later, every 
effort was made to substitute English for Dutch names, sometimes effectually 
and sometimes ineffectually, as, for instance "Dunderberg," at the south 
portal of the Highlands, which the English marked on their maps as 
"Thunder Mountain" still retains its Dutch name, while at the north end 
of the Highland "Butter Hill" (Boterberg) has become "Storm King." 

CHE hillsides of our majestic river, which the gentle 
fancy of Washington Irving has clothed with undy- 
ing romance, must ever remain to the New Yorker 
a region of never ending charm. Aside from its beauty, 
the practical value of this superb waterway has had a 
tremendous influence on the development of our great 
city's commerce and was easily the first in importance of 
the various natural advantages which tended to create the 
Empire City and an Empire State. 

But it is not of the Hudson of legend and story that 
I would write nor of its irresistible historic fascination. 
They are already part of our country's literature. It is 
the more intimate commonplace details which I would 
fain recall of a period almost within the memory of men 
still living or perhaps just beginning to recede into the 
dim and shadowy past. 

[ 41 ] 


Recollections are still fresh in the minds of many of 
my readers of numerous passenger boats plying up and 
down the Hudson within the commuting district — the 
Sunnysidc, Sleepy Hollozv, Riverdale, Chrystcnah, Sylvan 
Glen and others. Nyack, Tarrytown, Irvington, Dobbs 
Ferry, Hastings and Yonkers were all connected with 
New York by these little flyers which made many trips a 
day and were crowded on every trip. One morning, about 
1886, the boats were delayed by fog. The railroad, watch- 
ing for just such an opportunity, started a local that 
touched these points just when the passengers had fully 
lost their patience. The result was that the train swept 
the docks bare of business that morning and stranger still, 
the boats never again regained that lost traffic. It seemed 
to mark the closing of a distinct era. And to this day the 
8 o'clock train from Tarrytown, stopping at the other 
towns a few minutes later, has never been changed. It 
remains a poignant reminder of the delightful trips by 
water that are no more. 

Up to the time of De Witt Clinton's Canal, steamboat 
development had progressed but little. First there was 
the monopoly exercised by Robert Fulton and Chancellor 
Livingston. The State of New York had practically 
turned over to them the exclusive rights to steam naviga- 
tion on all the adjacent coastal waters besides rivers and 
lakes inland. It took the best efforts of Daniel Webster 
to destroy this somewhat modest grant and in the mean- 
time any attempt to interfere with the patent meant long 
and costly litigation. This case — Gibbons vs. Ogden — has 
now become the leading reference in all questions of inter- 
state commerce and the queer part of it is that in that 
suit, the real party who won out for the people against 
the monopoly was Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt who 

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was then running a line of steamboats in opposition to 
Fulton and Livingston. The complainant whose name 
gives title to the case was one of Vanderbilt's captains. 
As a result of this situation the marine boiler languished. 
No such progress was made as characterized its develop- 
ment in European waters. Explosions were frequent, at- 
tended with loss of life. In consequence, sloops with 
their aggravating delays were still the most popular 
method of travel. 

These sloops were peculiar to the river and a Hudson 
River sloop meant something entirely different than is 
conveyed by the usual meaning of the term. They were 
kept scrupulously clean and the freight consisted mainly 
of the passengers' baggage and perhaps a few additional 
articles to which no objection could be made. At the home 
of the late John Bigelow at Maiden on the west bank of 
the river, his father built five of the best known boats — 
Gideon Lcc, Asa Bigclozu, Edward Bigclozv, The Eric 
and The Phoenix. On the day that Lafayette was to 
arrive at Robert Livingston's at Clermont across the river 
from Maiden, Mr. Bigelow invited all his neighbors 
to go with him. And his sloop carried all the bunting 
flying at her masthead that Ulster Co. could produce. 
Poultney Bigelow, erstwhile bosom friend of the Ex- 
Kaiser's, still resides in the ancestral home and the same 
old dock from which these sloops were launched is still 
part of the homestead. 

Although speed could not be claimed as one of its at- 
tractions, one must admit, however, that for a honeymoon 
trip these sloops were ideal. The captains were very ac- 
commodating and the hire of the whole boat was not a 
serious financial matter. Stopping at various points along 
the river to visit friends and relatives — what could be 

[ 45 ] 


more enjoyable? Old letters and diaries are still numer- 
ous, containing accounts of just such journeys performed 
by our dear old great-grandparents. She, with her poke 
bonnet, wide flaring skirt and dainty little sun shade. He 
with his tall beaver hat. brightly hued waistcoat, blue 
swallow tail coat with brass buttons and tightly fitting 
trousers strapped over snug fitting hunting boots. Oh ! 
they made a brave looking couple these two old friends 
of ours and it must have been a pretty sight to see them 
riding down to the pier in the family coach with old Sam 
as postilion. 

It is a fine summer's day, and a slight breeze ruffles the 
calm waters of the Hudson as the sloop casts off. The 
sails fill, and the boat draws gracefully away, leaving 
guests and parents waving farewells. 

Besides the newly married couple there were only the 
crew and some servants on board. They had a journey 
of one hundred and fifty miles before them; but in the 
joy and pleasure of their sailing trip they were in no hurry 
to reach their destination. Stopping at charming spots 
which they discovered along the river, they would land 
when they pleased, take horses, and ride to different points 
in the interior, whence magnificent views were obtainable. 
After the long day's rambling and exploring through 
wooded country, where they would sometimes come across 
the traces of an Indian camp fire, they would return at 
dusk to their sloop. 

Thus day by day their boat glided silently along, as 
there came into view the splendid panorama of the 
Palisades, the calm widths of the Tappan Zee, the high- 
lands, and the narrows, where deep gorges lie beneath 
lofty hills. 

After passing many interesting points, the young couple 

[ 46 ] 


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at length reached the Catskill Mountains. They only felt 
one regret as they approached this stage in their journey — 
that they were now nearing the end of their trip. 

These sloops seldom left New York on the up trip until 
a full cargo of freight and passengers was secured. This 
caused exasperating postponements and when an enter- 
prising captain at last advertised that his sloop would sail 
"Every Thursday at ten for Alhany" he was considered 
not enterprising but foolhardy. Nevertheless he suc- 
ceeded. Yet a succession of calm days or the tides — 
"Pear Tree" — "Apple Tree" or "Witch Tide," according 
to the moon, would impose a delay of a week or ten days 
and with all its imperfections a boiler could do better than 
that. So, to lessen the risk from explosion an auxiliary 
boat was built, called a barge, which was towed by the 
steamer, and it eventually superseded the sloop. 

These barges were built with some pretense of elegance 
and comfort ; had a nice dining room, comfortable sleep- 
ing compartments and permitted the luxury of movement 
around the decks. At meal times quite a little ceremony 
was observed, the Captain sitting at the head of the table 
after the most approved fashion of the modern Atlantic 

The improvement of the boiler continued. Greater 
safety was secured and speed much accelerated. In time 
the barge gave way as a passenger boat, and later was 
used for handling hay. In our day, not so long ago, we 
knew them as the Pic-nic barges. The Starin people and 
the Myers Company rented them for many years to Sun- 
day Schools and political parties who sailed up the river 
to Alpine Grove, Dudley's Grove and half a dozen others. 
They were towed along by saucy tugs and had a row boat 
trailing on behind to rescue any unfortunate picknicker 

[ 49 ] 


who happened to fall overboard, as sometimes occurred. 

Fishing of all kinds has now practically disappeared 
from the river. It seems but a short time ago when I read 
in the papers that steamboat men were going up to 
Governor Hughes to protest against the numerous shad 
nets which were a serious menace to navigation. Before 
the governor could act apparently, the factories, sewers, 
etc., got in their deadly work and now there are neither 
shads, nets nor fishermen. Yet I frequently rowed out 
to the shad nets from my home in Hastings, and for a 
quarter secured all I wanted of the finest roe shad that 
ever gladdened the eye of the epicure. That was not 
over twenty years ago. 

The picture of the leaping sturgeon shown on another 
page was witnessed by the writer while sailing opposite 
Indian Head. That same season another sturgeon was 
captured measuring nearly seven feet. Other fish killed 
by the paddle wheels of passing steamers were frequently 
found mid the rocks beneath our boat house and were 
taken ashore and for obvious reasons buried. It is said 
these deep sea beauties do not care to chew their water 
before they swallow it. So they have forsaken the 
Hudson forever. 

It is pathetic to hear old time amateur fishermen speak 
of former days on the Hudson. Around Croton Point 
every Sunday was a fleet of small boats just like that at 
Canarsie. And many a fine catch of perch, white fish and 
Lafayettes rewarded the patience of the fisherman. 
Further up the river all sorts of boats with all sorts of 
occupants would anchor almost anywhere and catch a 
mess in a few hours. The water was crystal clear. The 
cool breezes from old Dunderberg or Sugar Loaf fanned 
the cheek, and the eye never beheld more beautiful scenery 

I 50 1 


than was spread all around him. No wonder the river fish- 
erman is sad. There are now few fish to be caught below 
Croton Point. Sludge acid has done its work. 

On this interesting subject Mr. Fish contributes the 
following observation : 

As to the shad fishery, which is the only fishing industry of which I have 
any recollection, I doubt whether the sludge acid or manufacturing of any 
kind, or the drainage of sewers into the river, has destroyed the fish, and 
think the cause is rather to be found in the idiotic experiment made some 
thirty or forty years ago in the introduction into the waters of the North 
River of German Carp, which lie on the spawning beds formerly used by 
the shad and guzzle up the shad spawn. Certainly the river is full of 
German Carp of very large size. There is quite as much manufacturing on 
the Connecticut River as on the North River, and good shad are caught there 

I am glad to see you use the term "Lafayettcs"; are not those fish other- 
wise called "Tom-cods"? [Yes — Ed.] 

You may be right in saying that there are no longer any fish to be 
caught. South of Croton but below West Point, on the west side of 
the river a mile or so below Mr. John Bigelow's summer home, "The 
Squirrels," lies a point known as Con's Hook, and opposite it a reef which 
is^shown on maps made for the British during the Revolutionary War as 
"Fishing Rocks," where fishing goes on to this day, as it did in my youth, 
for sport, the catch being perch, sea bass, and so called horse mackerel really 
the young of the blue fish. This reef lies well out in the middle of the 
river and carries but nine feet of water. The Government maintains a 
light house on Con's Hook and a buoy on the reef. 

Another point of interest that will be recalled by some 
of my readers was the old Palisades Mountain House — a 
great wooden Summer Hotel that stood on top of the 
Palisades at the old Englewood Landing. It was a famous 
place in its day and very popular with a good class of New 
Yorkers who could not go far from town in summer. 
I fortunately came across a portrait of this old Caravan- 
sary which is reproduced on another page. It burned 
down in the early seventies and was never rebuilt. It 
had begun to decline in popularity the same as Rockaway 
— another fashionable and popular resort at that time. 
The same people who made the Palisades turned their 
favors toward Newport and the Jersey Coast and the 
Palisades region languished in consequence. 

Along these Palisades are now many beautiful private 
estates built almost on the edge of the cliffs. Mr. George 

[ 53 ] 


A. Zabriskie to whom we are indebted for several beauti- 
ful paintings reproduced in this issue, and whose ancestors 
owned most of the land around here before the Revolution 
has his home at Alpine. Mr. John Ringling the circus man 
has the old Updike place nearby. Mrs. Francisco Rionda 
has "Glen Coin." Mr. Manuel Rionda has "Rio Vista." 
All along the Palisades are similar establishments. 

Long before the Central came all the way down the river 
— it ended for many years at Poughkeepsie — the Erie had 
its Eastern terminus at Tappan Landing, now Piermont, 
just a little south of Nyack on the western shore. If you 
watch closely going up on the train you can still see op- 
posite Irvington the long narrow pier jutting out nearly 
two miles from the mainland. It is quite easily seen from 
the Albany Day boats, and as you are considerably above 
the water an excellent view can be obtained of its whole 
length. Through the kindness of Mr. Simeon Ford I 
have been able to show one of the now very rare views of 
this famous terminal as it originally appeared in 1837. 
The size of the locomotive and of the cars is rather 
modest compared with the huge affairs of today, but you 
must remember that this was the very beginning of rail- 
roading and the Erie was the most stupendous thing in 
this line yet projected. It was nearly four hundred miles 
in length and connected New York with Buffalo without 
a stop. Quite a few years were to elapse before a serious 
competitor to this gigantic undertaking was thought of, 
and for the time being it was the eighth wonder of the 
world. Connection with New York was by boat which 
left the foot of Chambers Street every morning. The old 
Erie was rightfully entitled to the affection bestowed upon 
it by railroad men. It is one of the few roads around 
which linger any sentiment at all, if not the only one. 

[ 54 ] 


Before Commodore Vanderbilt bought control of the 
Hudson River Road, the somewhat diminutive locomo- 
tives were remarkable for the wonderfully smart appear- 
ance they presented. All over the outside, ran strips of 
brass which shone and glistened in the sun. The men 
took great pride in the appearance of their engines and 
all this brass work was rubbed and polished every day. 
The black paint was never allowed to grow rusty and had 
an extra coat of varnish that made it cast a reflection like 
a mirror. Oh ! they were joyful sights to see, these little 
engines and were the pride of all beholders. When 
Vanderbilt took over the road all these gew-gaws were 
removed. It took time and money to keep them looking 
natty, and nattiness never earned a dividend or added an 
ounce of pulling power to an engine, and never would. 
So all these furbelows were consigned to the scrap heap 
and a dull serviceable sombre black took its place. And 
if you look at a N. Y. Central engine today you will see 
that this same practical economical color scheme has been 
continued ever since. 

Along with the brass work went another more or less 
ornamental custom — the naming of the engine after a 
prominent person or an official of the road. In the fine 
new concourse in the present Grand Central Terminal you 
will see a replica of their first train and you can read its 
name a block away — De Witt Clinton. On the road it- 
self, however, you will encounter nothing of this kind — 
only numbers. The train as a whole may have a name 
in the advertisements — "The Empire State Express," 
"Twentieth Century Limited," etc., etc., but you will 
never see this designation on the cars or anywhere except 
in the time tables or the newspapers. 

[ 57 ] 

The Hudson A Hundred Years Ago 

One of the deHghts of writing an article Hke this, is 
the charm of the old Guide books which are still extant. 
Away back in the early part of the last century the Hud- 
son River and adjacent territory was the favorite haunt 
of the foreign visitor and many were the quaint little 
books provided for his delectation. 

It was long before railroads, and the routes given are 
all by boat to Albany ; thence by Canal to Buffalo and the 
West, or to Canada. And the time tal)les, distances, etc., 
are as carefully compiled as are those of the railroads of 

But of much greater interest are the little foot notes, 
here and there, referring to noted personages so long dead 
to the present generation, that it seems as if they had 
never lived. Yet in these books they are spoken of as 
living near by, and there is a peculiar feeling, difficult 
to describe when one reads these notations. For instance 
in the Tourist published in 1831 is noted (anent the ac- 
count of Major Andre's capture) : 

David Williams one of the captors, still survives and resides in 
Schoharie, 25 miles distant from Albany. He enjoys good health 
and takes great pleasure in recurring to past events and fighting all 
his battles over again. 

And this under Peekskill Village : 

Enoch Crosby the original of Cooper's Harvey Birch in the novel 
of The Spy is now living near Peekskill. 

And here is another human touch : 

The grave of Major Andre was marked by a solitary cypress. 
When the British Government moved the body in 1825 it was dis- 
covered that the roots of the cypress had lovingly entwined them- 
selves around the body of the unfortunate young Englishman. The 
tree, it is said, now (1828) serves to embellish the private garden 
of George IV. 

[ 58 J 


Going up the River the points mentioned in these hooks 
of interest are: 

Red Fort, Fort Gansevoort, The Old State Prison, Hoboken Point 
vVeehawken, The Palisades, The Lunatic Asylum (Bloomingdale)i 
Harlaem — a small village containing a church, three stores, a black- 
smith shop, etc.; Phillipsburg, (now Yonkers) 17 miles from the 
cit> contains a church and several houses; Dobbs Ferry — no descrip- 
tion beyond "22>1, miles from the city"; Tarrytown — Major Andre 
was captured here; Sing Sing — site of new prison to be erected; 
Cold Spring — a small village where is located the West Point 

The St. John 

Here is a curious remark which indicates that speed 
was as greatly desired, then as now — passengers evidently 
made a flying leap to get off. 

Till within two or three years accidents were not uncommon owing 
to the continued motion of the boat but by a late law (1828) 
Captains and Masters are required to stop their boats whenever 
passengers are landed or received by them. 

After reaching Albany the Tourist proceeded by Canal 
or Stage so this information about the former was im- 

The Erie Canal Packet Boats charge 4 cents a mile including 
board and lodging and every other expense. These packets are 
drawn by three horses having relays every 8, 10, to 12 miles, and 
travel (?) every 24 hours. Have accommodations for about 50 
passengers, furnish good tables and wholesome rich fare; and have 
very attentive, civil and obliging captains and crews. The bustle of 
newcomers and departing passengers with all the greetings and 
adieus help to diversify the scene and to make most persons seem 
to get along quite as fast as was anticipated. 

[ 59 ] 


The great growth of the towns along the Hudson, since 
then, receives added emphasis by contrast with these 
early days in which these feeble beginnings are carefully 

Newburgh is spoken of as "an incorporated village of 
3000 inhabitants" and Poughkeepsie the same, Albany is 
praised for its appearance, "but the stranger is too often 
reminded of its original settlers by the frequent occurence 
of their antique edifices." 

The Dean Richmond 

What would we not now give to possess some of these 
same old Dutch antiques which struck such a jarring note 
to the chronicler of 1822 ! Boston contains 4,300, "and 
has recently become a city by act of incorporation." 

The Chancellor, Richmond and James Kent were the 
favorite boats to Albany. 

The Fashionable Four (1822) says in describing West 
Point "that in the selection of students, preference is given 

[ 60 ] 


to the sons of officers of the Revolution and secondly to 
the sons of deceased officers of the War of 1812." 

In another of these books the author complains some- 
what of the difficulty he meets with, getting adequate in- 
formation about the localities he visits, and encounters, 
just as we do today, an astounding amount of ignorance, 
among the natives, concerning the history and traditions 
of the locality he is trying to describe. His language is 
in that ponderous and awe-inspiring style, so common in 
those days. 

The amount of information to be found here seldom exceeds the 
practical knowledge of the humblest duties of life. If this general 
ignorance were to be regretted, still more was to be lamented the 
presence of a certain reservedness of manner on the part of the in- 
habitants of this region, or of an indisposition to communicate freely 
with strangers, but for which, many circumstances and incidents 
which would only be traditionary, might have been imparted. 

Before bidding adieu to our chronicler of those far ofif 
days let us include his closing paragraph and add our 
regret to those of his readers that he did find room to 
describe the old steamboats to which he refers. 

It was the intention of the writer to have introduced a history 
of steam navigation on the Hudson, and to gratify the curiosity of 
the distant reader, regarding the splendid boats that plough its 
waters — to have spoken of the speed of the Swallow, Erie. Champlain, 
Robert L. Stevens, Utica and Rochester. Of the elegance and com- 
fort of the North America, South America, Isaac Newton, De Witt 
Clinton, Albany, and of their efficient and gentlemenly officers. 

Whales and Whalers of the Hudson 

In this connection the Hon. Frank Hasbrouck has this 
to say : 

The whaling industry at Poughkeepsie was an exotic plant, fostered here 
in the earliest "boom" that our city had, one of the attempts of the early 
"boomers" of what is known in the history of Poughkeepsie as the Improve- 
ment Party of the 30's. 

. [ 61 ] 


There were started a Silk Industry, Locomotive Works, Pin Factory, 
Carpet Factory and the Whaling Industry, and the country all about was 
laid out in building lots, where today are still pasture fields. The boom 
"busted," and we never yet have quite gotten over it, although we have had 
several others since, and at present are doing very well. There were only 
one or two whaling ships fitted out here, and the business was short-lived. 

The only survival of it in my time, since 1852, has been the name of a 
certain part of the water front of our city, which is still called, by some 
of the old residents, the "Whale Dock." 

It will come as a surprise to many persons to hear that the Hudson was 
once headquarters for many Whaling fleets. Yet such was the case. It had 
more ships engaged in this industry than had New York. 

At a much earlier date, as we learn from the Journal 
of Bankers and Sluyter the Labadist travellers, who 
visited this vicinity in 1679, whales were seen almost daily, 
sporting themselves in the salt water at the mouth of the 
river in the bay. These gentlemen made a sketch of their 
visitors which we have reproduced from their manuscript 
published by the Long Island Historical Society. We 
have redrawn this sketch, including the eagle with a fish 
in her talons as large as herself and the boat in the fore- 
ground smaller than the fish. It is, however, a contem- 
poraneous drawing and of great historic value. 

Whales eventually disappeared from the mouth of the 
Hudson and the land locked waters of the bay, but in 
after years were caught in large numbers oflf Long Island. 
My main purpose, however, in recalling these whales is to 
direct renewed attention to the large whaling business 
existing in the Hudson River in the Thirties and Forties 
at Newburgh, Poughkeepsie and Hudson. In both these 
latter cities this industry must have reached considerable 
proportions, as the record shows that Poughkeepsie had 
two companies with a capital of over $300,000 while 
Hudson had even more. The latter town was originally 
settled by men from Nantucket where whaling was always 
an important business. The same old Nantucket names — 
Folger, Coffin, Starbuck, etc., reappear frequently in 
Hudson River towns today. Our own V. Everitt Macy is 

[ 62 ] 


a descendant of Wm. H. Macy, a renowned whaler of 
Nantncket. Une of this Macy's sons founded the old and 
well known oil firm of Josiah Macy's Sons. This concern 
subsequently entered the Standard Oil Company and laid 
the foundation of the present family fortune. 

It has been impossible to obtain a genuine picture of 
an old Hudson River wdiale ship similar to what can l)e 
had at Nantucket, or New Bedford; or of the sailing 
ships that traded from Hudson with Smyrna, China and 
the Orient in competition with the better known ships of 
old Salem. H any of our readers is so fortunate as to 
possess one of these "portraits" as they were then called, 
the Manual will promise to reproduce them in exact fac- 
simile of the original and record them in the pages of this 
journal. In 1833 the following whale ships hailed from 
Hudson, — America, Henry Astor. Meteor, IWishington, 
Alexander Mansfield, Huron, Martha Edward, Beaver and 
James Monroe. 

One of these Poughkeepsie Whalers — the Nezv England, 
belonging to the Dutchess Company — has achieved im- 
mortality by reason of the fact that she spoke the 
Pilgrim of Boston having on board the then unknown 
author of Tivo Years Before tlie Mast. Young Dana 
writes this picturesque account of the old Poughkeepsie 
ship in his diary — 

"At twd P. M. we saw a sail on our larlward lieam and at four we made 
it out to 1)e a large ship steering our course under single reefer top 
sails. . . . He ran down for us and answered our hail as the whale 
ship Ne7i' England of Poughkeepsie, one hundred and twenty days from New 
York. . . . About half past ten (the next day) their whale boat came 
alongside and Capt. Job Terry sprung on board, a man known in every port 
and by every vessel in the Pacific Ocean. His boat's crew were a pretty 
raw set just out of the bush and as the sailors phrase it "hadn't got the 
hayseed out of their hair" . . ." 

Besides its whale fisheries, Poughkeepsie, the Hon. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt tells me, enjoyed the distinction of 

I 65 ] 


almost possessing the first U. S. Navy Yard. Mr. 
Edmund Piatt, author of the History of Poughkccpsic, 
writes me ; 

"Two of the first ships built for the American navy 
were built there, both frigates, but they ne\c::r got out to 
sea. They were taken down not fully rigged or equipped 
to help in the defenses of Fort Montgomery in the fall 
of 1777 and when the British broke through the chain 
stretched across the river they were set on fire to prevent 
their falling into enemy hands. A number of smaller 
vessels were built there during the Revolutionary War. I 
am not sure, however, whether the yard could properly 
be called a Navy Yard or not. My recollection is that 
the ships were built under contract but of this I cannot 
be quite sure at this time." 

The Old Beverley Robinson House 

One of the things deeply to be regretted is the constant 
destruction by fire or otherwise, of historic sites along the 
river that can illy be spared. A case in point is the 
Beverley Robinson house at Garrison, N. Y. This was 
the headquarters of Benedict Arnold when in charge of 
West Point and the scene of his treason. A particularly 
dramatic incident happened in this old house. Arnold 
had married the year before, Peggy Chew of Philadelphia. 
The exigencies of war had prevented them seeing each 
other for several months, and in the meantime a baby had 
been l)orn. He entered the Robinson house, to which his 
wife had come and held her in close em1)race for a mo- 
ment, when both walked to the cradle where the infant 
was sleeping. He was still gazing intently at the innocent 
little face when a messenger entered with the fateful news 
that an American spy had been captured — Major John 

r 66 1 

K O 



H O 

!^ S 

« a! 


(A H 



0< O 


Andre. Benedict Arnold knew too well the import of this 
intelligence and immediately prei)ared to escape. He 
pleaded urgent business, kissed his wife and his sleeping 
babe and made his way to the river edge where he was 
rowed down the river about twelve miles and escaped to 
the Vulture. 

Arnold never again looked upon the face of his wife 
or child. 

The stnry which you make up about Arnold is pretty, liut entirely fal- 
lacious. Arnold's separation from Mrs. Arnold was of very brief duration, 
as was his service at West Point in the summer of 1780. One of the first 
things he did after arriving at the Beverley House himself was to send 
his aide, Major Franks, for the wife and child. I think it can be shown 
from the date of that child's birth, presumably in Philadelphia, that Arnold 
was there at that time. Certain it is that Mrs. Arnold was in the house 
for some little time before Arnold's treason was discovered through the 
capture of Major Andre. The Vulture did not put off a boat for Arnold 
"in answer to his signal," but was lying down the river in the neighborhood 
of Stony Point. Arnold was rowed down there by his American bargemen, 
a distance of about twelve miles. — Stuyvesant Fish. 

The picture of this historic house is one kindly loaned 
us by Mr. Stuyvesant Fish, who has written on the back 
that it shows the entrance from the north side as it ap- 
peared when he was a boy. It was located not far from 
the Fish residence in Garrison, and Mr. Fish remarks 
that the figure in the left foreground may have been that 
of Mr. Henry Brevoort, who in or about 1840 happened 
to be occupying the Robinson house. The original of this 
engraving is in the Jared Sparks collection, Cornell 

Additional indication of our claim that the Hudson 
River is about the only section of our country universally 
known in Europe, we might cite the beautiful French 
lithographs made by Milbert, about 1830, one of which— 
the Parade Ground at West Point — we are able to present 
through the courtesy of Mr. Grenville Kane. St. Memin 
another French artist also made one or two pictures. It 
is interesting to recall that in that year Robert E. Lee 

[ 69 ] 


was one of the cadets, as was also Joseph E. Johnston 
and Wm. Magruder — all three to he afterwards prominent 
in the great Civil War. 

In addition to the charming color effect, we have an 
accurate and interesting detailed picture of the exercises 
which are a daily feature of West Point life throughout 
the summer toward evening. The huildings that we see 
today from the river are of comparatively recent construc- 
tion. They are admirahly designed for the purpose for 
which they are intended and this medieaval treatment of 
the hluft" overlooking the Hudson is a triumph of the 
architect's skill in achieving a result in complete harmony 
with the imposing grandeur of the surrounding country. 

West Point 

The stranger on a visit to the Hudson will naturally 
include the United States Military Academy among the 
places he most desires to see. And it is doul)tful if a 
more enjoyahle short trip from New York is possil)le. 
One can leave after early hreakfast and return in time 
for dinner. In the meantime he will have enjoyed a day- 
light sail through the most picturesque region of the Hud- 
son, have seen the entire estahlishment at West Point, 
the daily parade of the cadets, a spectacle of the greatest 
interest and one of the most enjoyahle events connected 
with a trip to New York. 

In and around the Academy are many historical asso- 
ciations connected with the Revolution. The ruins of 
Old Fort Putnam, are in the vicinity as is also Fort Mont- 
gomery. The site selected for West Point was originally 
on Constitution Island, which lies directly north of West 
Point. 1)ut on much lower ground. This defect was im- 

f 70 1 


mediately recognized and a recommendation to abandon 
the island in favor of the high land at West Point was 
made to the Continental Congress. This was the iirst 
official recommendation (Nov. 23, 1773), to occn])y 
West Point as a military garrison, and ultimately out of 
it grew the plan to provide a National school for the 
training of young officers for the regular army. 

West Point and its long line of distinguished gradu- 
ates have occupied a large place in America's History. 
The record of its famous visitors from all lands include 
the names of very mau}^ statesmen, warriors, painters. 
authors and publishers, who have achieved the highest 
prominence. All of our early American generals, be- 
ginning with Washington, have walked upon its historic 
ground, and it has been the subject of more articles than 
perhaps any other single institution on our continent. It 
provides greater interest and novelty for the stranger 
than any other attraction in the neighborhood of New 
York, and there are many excursions in the vicinity on 
both sides of the river, that will more than repay the 
time spent on the visit. 

The Shores in the City 

On the western shore of the river now covered l)y 
coal pockets, factories, docks, etc., can still be seen 
Castle Point, the home of Col. Stevens, who helped 
Ericsson build the Monitor. The surroundings of this old 
mansion are a sad sight compared with its former l)eauty. 
Just beyond the Castle there existed a magnificent open 
forest covering a rich greensward, highly popular with 
New Yorkers in the "Age of Innocence." This was the 
Elysian Fields. A more delightful spot it would be hard 

[ 71 ] 


to find. The old trees stretched down to the water's edge, 
and a walk along the shore under the cliffs on a moonlight 
summer night was a delightful change from the sun-baked 
streets of New York. A little above the Fields is the 
famous Hamilton-Burr dwelling grounds — a tragedy that 
stirred all New York and made of Burr an outcast and 
fugitive. What is now Fort Lee Ferry marks the site of 
an important fortification, and in the immediate neighbor- 
hood is the site of an old Block house, the scene of the un- 
successful attack by Gen. Wayne, at Bulls Ferry, against 
the British, This affair was celebrated in a series of 
verses, entitled, "The Cow Chase," by Major John Andre, 
the ill-fated young officer of whom we shall hear more 

The Palisades proper now begin here, and the wonder- 
ful work by which this great gift of the Creator has been 
fortunately saved from the hands of vandals, constitutes 
one of the most pleasing chapters of our local history. 
We cannot here recite all the difficult steps that ultimately 
resulted in the preservation of the Palisades and secured 
to New York one of the most wonderful playgrounds the 
world will ever see. 

This huge task is now being developed under the direc- 
tion of the Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate 
Park, an organization under the control of the States of 
New York and New Jersey. It is the culmination of the 
public spirited efforts of a few men who realized the im- 
portance of saving the Palisades. Years ago the face of 
these remarkable cliff's were in imminent danger of de- 
struction at the hands of quarry men. Great gaps were 
torn in the sides of the gigantic rocks and it was only a 
question of time, ere one of the most wonderful of Na- 
ture's gifts to man would become a heap of unsightly 

[ 72 ] 


ruins. Vast damage had already been done and the situ- 
ation was critical. At this juncture, a number of promi- 
nent men became interested in the matter. Under the 
able leadership of the late George W. Perkins definite 
steps were taken and the destruction arrested. Mr. Per- 
kins passed away last year but he has left an endearing 
monument to his memory in the present wonderful park. 

In those early days when the success of the project 
seemed much in doubt the late J. Pierpont Morgan came 
forward with a princely donation and started the plan on 
the right track. The two States, New York and New 
Jersey then passed some much needed legislation and 
presently other men were found ready and willing to 

The C. Vibbard 

help the good work along, especially the Rockefellers. In 
all the huge benefactions bestowed by the Rockefellers, 
father and son, none seem to be productive of more good 
to the general welfare of the community than their splen- 
did donations to this work. Time and again their millions 

[ rz ] 


have gone to supplement the grants by the State and no 
demand seems so far to have been too great. In conse- 
quence the pubHc of this city possesses a recreation centre 
unique in the history of municipahties. Almost at the 
door of the crowded metropolis, wonderful camping lo- 
cations are accessible, possessing all the solitude and gran- 
deur usually obtainable only at a great distance from 
civilization. Underneath the shadow of these lordly heights 
are nooks and corners almost inaccessible except by the 
recently developed roads. For centuries they have thus 
been preserved inviolate. The Adirondacks affords no 
more quiet and peaceful solitude than do certain sections 
of the Palisades. Campers have discovered the joys of this 
sylvan retreat and each year the numbers increase. Hun- 
dreds of white tents dot the green shores in summer time. 
Bathing, sailing, canoeing and all sorts of water sports are 
available. The charge for a tent is merely nominal and 
parties of young persons and families live here all through 
the summer with supreme indifference to the high cost of 
rents and high expenses generally. It is astonishing how 
much happiness can be derived by living close to nature 
and the privilege is one that can not be over-estimated. 

Fine roads for the tramper are everywhere, the further 
up you go the wilder becomes the environment ; for a 
stretch of several miles one is in the heart of a wilder- 
ness. The footpaths are the same that have always ex- 
isted, and follow the line of least resistance. They wind 
in and out, among leafy shades, and always there is the 
fascinating view of the river. When Piermont is reached, 
the first break in the wilderness is encountered in this 
village and its neighbors, Grand View and Nyack, but it 
is restored again at Rockland and continues until we reach 

[ 74 ] 


the climax of all this loveliness, Bear Mountain and Harri- 
man Parks, some thirty miles up from where we left the 

The Richard Stockton 

There are still many interesting" localities to be seen 
from the river before the city is passed. Half a dozen 
separate and distinct little villages clustered round the 
shore of the island in the old days. What we now know 
as West Street, was the "Shore road to Greenwich." 
West Street continues to 23rd Street and becomes Tenth 
Avenue. As if to recall its old days as a "Shore road" 
it meanders oiT as all good shore roads do, into the heart 
of the city, forsaking the toil and bustle of the water 
front to reappear, resplendent in new asphalt and im- 
posing architecture as Amsterdam Avenue — again remin- 
iscent of Colonial days — and makes a glorious exit in the 
sanctity of the classic atmosphere of the great Cathedral 
and Columbia University. 

[75 1 


During the War of 1812 three forts were constructed in 
the lower reaches of West Street, one at the foot of Hu- 
bert Street, called the Red Fort or North Imstion; an- 
other at the Battery, called Fort Clinton. The latter be- 
came in time the celebrated Castle Garden and was for 
years the Emigrant Landing Station. It is now the Aqua- 
rium. Few buildings are better known in the United 
States than is old Castle Garden and few have a more 
romantic history. The third was at the foot of Ganse- 
voort Street, called the White Fort or Fort Gansevoort. 
We print a very interesting old print of the "White Fort" 
being used as a place of immersion by the Baptists. It 
shows several persons in the water being baptized, while 
the congregation lines the shore. It is a very interesting 
reminder of old days and is rarely seen. 

Just before you come to the great thousand feet Chel- 
sea piers built by the city for the accommodation of the 
huge Atlantic liners is the site of the old Delamater Iron 
Works where John Ericsson built the Monitor. Curi- 
ously enough, another inventor, Holland, brought his idea 
for an imdersea boat here also, and so the first practical 
submarine was launched from the same yard that i)ro- 
duced the Ironclad. Both these ideas revolutionized naval 
architecture the world over, and our Hudson River gave 
birth to the two greatest modern inventions in marine con- 
struction, to say nothing of the steamboat itself, which 
was, of course, the greatest invention of all. Quite a 
record for one little river in old New York. 

Soon we pass the foot of Twelfth Street, and what was 
formerly the beaches of Greenwich Village — the haven 
of refuge for the lower city, in the time of yellow fever. 
A limped crystal pelhicid stream flowed through this vil- 

[ 76 ] 



lage — ]\Iinnetta Water — and the soil was of a sandy, 
porous nature. Drainage was naturally perfect and this 
no doubt was largely the cause of its freedom from the 
plagues that periodically devastated the lower part of the 
island. The village today, however, is populated largely 
by short-haired women and long-haired men who pride 
themselves on their general superiority to the average 

Beyond 72nd Street, on what is now Riverside Drive, 
were many beautiful country estates located in the villages 
that formerly dotted the shores of the Hudson — Blooming- 
dale. Striker's Bay, Manhattanville, Harsenville. Carmens- 
ville, Fort Washington, JeiTries Hook, Tubby Hook and 
Inwood. At 155th Street still remains what is left of the 
former residence of John J. Audubon, the great naturalist. 
His home was referred to as being "12 miles from the 
city." Through the kindness of Mrs. Charles E. Sherman, 
granddaughter of Cornelius W. Lawrence, Collector of 
the Port in 1848 we are able to reproduce a painting 
which shows how this neigh1)orhood looked in those days. 
The Lawrence house adjoined the Audubon house and our 
picture shows how the river appeared at Manhattanville 
about 1845. The ruins of Fort Tryon and the redoubts 
of the Battle of Harlem are seen just before you come 
to the heights of Inwood. The hill at the north end of 
the island, sloping to the waters of Spuyten Duyvil creek 
is still densely wooded and almost primeval. It is in 
striking contrast to the many-storied structures that pierce 
the clouds at the opposite end of Manhattan. 

It was my good fortune to take a moonlight stroll over 
Bear Mountain and it was a delightful experience. I 
crossed from one side to the other. The night was cool, 
yet the asphalt roads still retained some of the day's heat. 

[ 79 ] 


This attracted quite a few snakes who stretched their 
languid lengths across the path at intervals. They looked 
very much like l)roken hranches fallen to the ground. 
They were not of the venemous type and their beautiful 
markings, I was sorry to think, would cause them to ul- 
timately appear on Fifth Avenue, as a vanity bag or a 
jewel purse. The antipathy of the average man or boy 
toward snakes, which impels him to kill them wherever 
encountered, is largely due to ignorance. Lying there in 
the moonlight or slowly turning their heads as I passed, 
they seemed a most natural part of the surroundings, and 
they perform a much needed part in Nature's domestic 
economy. There are. of course, plenty of rattlers and 
copperheads in Bear Mountain, but they are not often 
encountered on the main travelled roads. 

Every once in a while I would come upon one of the 
motor police. Some of them live in little houses back from 
the road and they were unmistakably glad to see another 
human. Up there, at the top of the mountain, the people 
you meet are not numerous, and the sight of an unexpected 
visitor is always a source of pleasure. I don't remember 
when my company was so much appreciated as it was by 
these guardians of Bear Mountain. \Mien we parted I 
was sorry to leave, and looked eagerly forward for the 
next meeting. One of these guardians was perched on a 
fence leisurely whittling wood, and I talked with him 
quite a while. He was loath to let me go. and cordially in- 
vited me to tarry the night with him. We kept up a 
conversation till I was out of sight. 

Woodland sounds in these pine clad hills, in the deep 
silence of the night are very fascinating. The hoot of the 
owl is ever present. The twittering of an aroused bird, the 
chirp of the crickets, the sing-song call of the Katy-dids, 

[ 80] 


and the pleasant whistling noise of the tree toad ; the occa- 
sional bark of a dog, and the crackling of dry leaves, the 
breaking of a twig, are strangely clear and appealing in the 
silent atmosphere of the night. Foxes and cotton-tails 
break cover, ever and anon. The coolness, the clear moun- 
tain air and the stillness are all a novelty to the city man. 
In the distance stretched the river, a long silvery streak in 
the bright moonlight, and bexond the l)end rose the frown- 
ing heights of old Dunderl)erg. It was an experience long 
to 1)6 remembered and as I clambered aboard the train at 
the foot of the mountain, it was hard to realize that I had 
left so much natural charm and beautv behind. 

The Queen of the Hudson: The Mary Powell 

Old Families on the River 

A great num1)er of changes have taken place among the 
families who were prominent along the river in the 70's, 

[81 ] 


and those who are there today. A consideral)le numher of 
old estates have also been cut up into small house lots ; 
and lovers' nests of the approved suburban type have 
taken the place of velvety lawns and stately old shade 
trees. Riverdale is about the only one retaining its old 
time aspect and yet many deplorable changes have taken 
place there also. A colored Orphan Asylum has located 
just on its north boundary and the southern part has wit- 
nessed the advent of the apartment house and the small 
private dwellings. The great homes of D. Willis James. 
Martin Bates, Robert Colgate, Wm. H. Appleton, Wm. D. 
Doyle, Jr., Percy R. Pyne. James W. Creery, S. D. Bal)- 
cock, R. L. Franklin and J. F. Spaulding have long since 
moved away. Mr. Cleveland H. Dodge, and Mrs. Geo. W. 
Perkins and a few others still remain. 

Yonkers, perhaps, shows the greatest change of all. 
Besides being the home of John Reid, founder of Gold in 
America, it is now a city of many important manufac- 
turing industries and practically all of the estates between 
it and Glenwood, except Colgate's and Trevor's have dis- 
appeared. A line of trolley cars now runs to Hastings 
through Rowley's Woods, past Spring Hill Grove, Dud- 
ley's Grove ; and a new station — Greystone, breaks the 
old time stretch between Yonkers and Hastings. The old 
Waring homestead, better known as "Greystone." famous 
as the residence of Governor Samuel J. Tilden, is now 
occupied by another equally famous personage, Mr. Sam- 
uel Untermeyer. Wm. Boyce Thompson, prominent in 
mining circles and civic betterment lives next to him. 
adjoining Rosemount, occupied by Mr. Caleb C. Dula. a 
prominent capitalist. The old Lilienthal mansion is no 
longer prominent. 

r 82 1 


At Hastings the ruins and chimney of the old Hopper 
Sugar Refinery and the clock tower on Dr. Huyler's place 
have both long ago disappeared. A huge cable and chem- 
ical factory occupies nearly a mile of the beautiful shore 

The Sylvan Dell 

front which formerly showed such a pleasing prospect 
from the river. The Far and Near lawn tennis grounds 
have been cut up, David Dudley Field's beautiful estate 
has been halved. The old Minturn house still stands and 
has been kept practically intact, but the land has been 
largely sold. The Villard, Moore and Fraser places are 
about the same. "Billy Burke" now has the Kirkham 
place. At Dobbs Ferry the same thing applies. The old 
Cyrus Field place ; David Dow's mansion with the finest 
lawn on the river and the J. D. Mair's residence belong to 
the past. At Irvington the same influences have been at 
work. A big printing plant faces the river and a huge 
green house factory covers the water front. Lewis Du- 
Pont Irving, a nephew of Washington Irving, occupies 

[ 83 ] 


"Sunnyside" and Gen. Coleman DnPont now has the old 
Hamilton place "Nevins." The old church in which Irving 
served as warden still stands, and sleepy Hollow where he 
is buried, shelters also Andrew Carnegie. Cunningham 
Castle is now a private school. Kingsland Point is now 
an automobile plant. The Aspinwall residence. "Pol- 
graves Folly," is now the Gould Place. S. B. Schieffelin, 
W'm. E. Dodge, John T. Terry. James H. Banker, Mrs. 
Gen. Merritt, Albert Bierstadt, E. S. Jaffray, F. Cottinett. 
Jas. Wilde, Jr., and many others are merely memories. 

The John D. Rockefeller estate in Pocantico Hills begins 
just north of Tarry town and extends almost back to the 
Saw I\Iill River. Farther up the river other names are 
missed — Samuel B. Duryea, F. W. Seward, Mrs. C. B. 
Underbill, H. C. de Rham. N. P. Willis, F. R. River, 
Dr. James Lenox Banks, Hayden Holland, and Geo. P. 
Morris. Hamilton Fish is represented by Stuyvesant Fish 
and Samuel Sloan by his decendant of the same name. 
Irving Grinnell lives at New Hamburgh, James Parish. 
S. F. B. Morse, J. Pierpont Morgan, Alfred Pell, John 
Bigelow, Arthur Pell, Charles Tracy, E. A. Livingston, 
John S. Gilbert. D. Huested, E. P. Roe. Albert Palmer, 
Wm. H. Clark. Charles Birdsall, Daniel Taft, Peter B. 
\"erplank, Thos. Nichols, E. P. Miller are all among the 
passed. Of that brilliant group which made Cornwall 
one of the literary centres, on the Hudson, the Rev. Dr. 
Lyman Abbot alone remains. 

At Poughkeepsie the same transformation is appar- 
ent ])ut the magnificent road to Hyde Park remains un- 
diminished in beauty. The Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt 
still holds forth in the old family homestead, but David 
Hosack has been gone these many years, so has Henry E. 
Coggswell, W. C. Smillie, John P. Garland, J. A. 

[ 84 ] 


Stoutenburgh, Walter Langdon, A. P. Rogers, Gen. D. 
Butterfield, Win. Dinsmore, Wm. Livingston, Wm. Kelly, 
Levi P. Morton, Wm. I\L Goodrich, John T. Hume, John 
F. Winslow, Alexander Holland, John Jacob Astor, Mrs. 
Kirkpatrick, J. Lawrence Lee, Mrs. Hoyt, Mathew^ Liv- 
ingston Edvv^ard Henshaw Jones, William Astor's "Fern- 
cliff;" F. H. Delano, John R. Livingston, Wm. B. Astor's 
"Rokely;" Mrs. U. L. Marshall, John S. Stevins, Carle- 
ton Hunt, Col. Chas. Livingston, J. C. Cruger, Gen. J. 
Watts de Peyster, Col. J. L. de Peyster, Johnston Living- 
ston, E. A. Livingston, P. W. Rockefeller (no relative to 
J. D.) and only recently the well-beloved old naturalist. 
John Burroughs. 

All these were magnificent estates and were modelled 
largely on the plan of the English Manor House. The 
grounds were very extensive and beautifully kept. The 
houses would hardly compare in size and beauty with the 
Newport "cottage" of today, nor would the style of living 
compare with the modern idea — that we must herd to- 
gether in droves and be near enough to dine at one house, 
dance at another and go to the movies in between. To- 
day the old time life for the country gentleman would be 
voted too slow — not enough "pep" — and the result is that 
many of these erstwhile ideal places are ignored for the 
more accessible though less beautiful locations nearer the 
great city. 

Yet the recapitulation of these names, will awaken a 
flood of pleasant memories in the hearts of many New 
Yorkers, who will recall many a summer holiday spent as a 
small boy at some of those places I have mentioned. Some 
of that old time atmosphere is still preserved along 
the river, but it does not begin much before you get to 
the Highlands. Putnam and Dutchess counties are still 

[85 ] 


the citadels of the dying Knickerhocker, and the legend 
and traditions of the old days are part and parcel of exist- 
ence in the shadow of Dunderberg and Sugar Loaf moun- 

And so as the purple shadows fall upon the placid 
waters, as the distant mountain tops fade into the hasten- 
ing twilight, we take leave of the wraiths of the Van 
Rensselaers, the Van Cortlandts, the Verplancks and all 
the other tribes of Stuyvesant's valiant army. 

This article will be continued in the next two numbers and published in 
book form in 1925 to commemorate the opening of the Erie Canal a hundred 
years ago by De Witt Clinton. Pictures and other contributions of material 
from old residents along the river will be appreciated. — Editor. 

[ 86 


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M Nature by A. Kollner. Collection of The Down Town Association. 



The Down Town Association has an imi(|ue interest for New 
Yorkers on account of its being the first down town chib in the 
city. When it was organized in 18b0 there were seven other chibs 
more or less active in other parts of the city, but the Down Town 
Association has the distinction of being the first in a movement 
for club life for the business man right in his own habitat so to 
speak — a movement which has expanded to great proportions in 
our own day. 

Mr. Wm. Rhinelander Stewart has written an interesting ac- 
count of the club from its early precarious days to its present 
highly prosperous condition and we reproduce here the more 
salient parts of the history. A feature which distinguishes the 
club and gives it a special interest for New Yorkers is the fine 
collection of old prints, engravings and maps of Old New York 
and of Americana — most of them of great rarity and all of 
them of exceptional interest. The Down Town Association was 
the first club to adopt this idea as a feature of club life — an ex- 
ample which has been followed by many other prominent organi- 
zations since. The early start in this field together with the 
liberal policy pursued in this direction has resulted in placing 
the club collection far in advance of any ordinary achievement 
and has brought it to a point rarely reached by a museum. 

CHE recent discovery among the papers of the late 
Robert L. Maitland of the long lost first book of 
IVIinutes of the Dow^n Town Association contain- 
ing entries from December 23rd, 1859, to October 27th. 
1862, establishes as truth the almost forgotten story of 
the Association's beginnings, and carries back more 
than seventeen years the club records from w^hich its 
year books have been compiled. These early records 
showr among other things a complete organization of 
the club preceding that first mentioned in the year 
books, and the ownership and occupation of a club 
house in 1860. 

[ 87 ] 


On December 23rd, 1859, in pursuance of a notice 
previously sent out. a group of gentlemen in favor of 
forming a down town club assembled at the Astor 
House in Room 41 ; Robert Gordon acted as Chairman, 
and James Couper Lord as Secretary of the meeting. 
The first steps towards organization were taken and 
on motion of William Allen Butler twenty-seven gen- 
tlemen who had previously expressed their desire to 
join were elected. The names are given in the minutes 
of this meeting; among them are noted Henry M. 
Alexander, James M. Brown, Benjamin F. Butler. Wil- 
liam Allen Butler. A. H. Gibbs, Robert Gordon, James 
Boorman Johnson, J. Couper Lord, Robert L. Mait- 
land. Howard Potter, Benjamin D. Stillman, William 
H. Tillinghast and Fletcher Westray. 

A nominating and a business committee were also appointed 
at this meeting, framing of a constitution and a set of by-laws 
was ordered and tlie initiation fee fixed at twenty-five dollars 

The first general meeting of the club was held at 
the Astor House on February 4th, 1860, at which time 
the membership was increased to 42. The Executive 
Committee was authorized to hire the premises at 42 
Cedar Street for the club for three years and an annual 
rental not exceeding $1,600. provided a renewal of the 
lease or privilege of purchasing at end of the term 
at a reasonable rate could be obtained. 

Incorporation was advanced at a meeting of the 
Executive Committee held April 11th, 1860, when Rob- 
ert L. Maitland. Acting Treasurer, was authorized to 
pay the expenses of procuring a charter. This was 
obtained from the Legislature of the State of New 
York by a special act on April 17th, 1860, on which 
date Robert L. Maitland. Henry M. Alexander, Robert 

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Gordon, James Couper Lord, Robert Lenox Kennedy, 
Howard Potter, William Allen Butler, Francis H. Pal- 
mer, James Boorman Johnston and George Fuller, 
"with such other persons as may be associated with 
them," were constituted a body corporate under the 
name and style of "The Down Town Association in the 
City of New York." The object of the corporation 
was stated as follows : "To furnish to persons engaged 
in commercial and professional pursuits in the City 
of New York facilities for social intercourse and such 
accommodations as are required during the intervals 
of business while at a distance from their residences ; 
also the advancement of literature and art by estab- 
lishing and maintaining a library, reading room, and 
gallery of art." The ten persons named in the first 
section were constituted the Trustees and Managers 
until the election of others in their place; and the cor- 
poration was authorized to purchase real estate of the 
value of not to exceed $300,000. 

Action for the purchase of the property 22 Exchange Place as 
a home for the chib was ordered at a meeting of the executive 
committee April 28th, 1860, and this action was confirmed by the 
club on May 4th. Also the act of incorporation was accepted 
and the by-laws adopted. 

Immediately upon adjourninent the Trustees and 
Managers met for the first time at the same place, 
and organized by the election for one year of the 
following officers: President, Robert Gordon; Vice- 
President, Henry M. Alexander ; Treasurer, Robert L. 
Maitland ; Secretary, J. Couper Lord. House, finance 
and building committees were also appointed. The 
number and names of the Trustees are not mentioned 
in these early records, which merely state "quorum 
present" at meetings. From the appointments to ser- 

[ 91 ] 


vice on committees it appears, however, that WilHam 
Allen Bntler, James Boorman Johnston, Daniel Lord, 
F. H. Palmer, Howard Potter and Fletcher Westray 
were members of the original Board. On May 18th. 
1860, the Trustees and Managers provided for an issue 
of ten club bonds of $500 each to raise the $5,000 cash 
to be paid on taking title, and authorized the President 
and Secretary to accept the deed of 22 Exchang^e Place 
for the consideration of $30,000, execute a purchase 
money mortgage of $25,000 for five years at seven per 
cent., and pay the balance in cash. Title to the prop- 
erty was taken from Robert L. Maitland August 1st, 
1860. A Secretary's note states that the club house 
was opened for business on September 10th, 1860. 
without formalities. During the summer and autumn 
several Trustees' meetings for the election of new 
members were held. On November 12th the Treas- 
urer reported a deficiency of about $5,000, upon which 
a bond of indemnity to him was signed by all the mem- 
bers of the Board. 

At a Trustees' meeting held December 12tn an en- 
graving after Rosa Bonheur and a picture of Prince 
John by Atwood. presented to the club by Mr. Mait- 
land, wxre accepted with thanks and the House Com- 
mittee directed to have them properly hung. To 
Mr. Robert L. Maitland, therefore, belongs the honor- 
able distinction of having founded sixty years ago the 
important and growing art collection of the club. 

At the first annual meeting of the Association May 8th, 1861 
the treasurer reported a deficit of $8,243.91 and ways and means 
were taken to meet it. These trying financial conditions how- 
ever continued until May 28th, 1862, when a meeting was held to 
take some radical step. The result was an unanimous vote that 
the club go into liquidation. The club house and all its contents 
were thereafter sold. 

[ 92 ] 

The Curb Market on Broad Street, on Sunday. Note the total absence 
of life at this otherwise noisy and busy spot during week days 


The Charter however survived, lying- dormant for 
nearly fifteen years ; where, and why for so long a 
time, is now unknown. Perhaps the future may dis- 

On May 2nd, 1877, a reorganization was afifected 
by the Association, which met on that day at Delmon- 
ico's and elected the following Trustees : Benjamin G. 
Arnold, James M. Brown, A. H. Gibbs, Robert Gordon, 
Morris K. Jesup, Robert Lenox Kennedy, Howard 
Potter, H. F. Vail and Fletcher Westray. From this 
time the well-kept minute books of the Association 
and of the Trustees are available for the continuation 
of this history. It is interesting to note that Mr. 
Brown, Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Gordon, Mr. Potter and Mr. 
Westray were present at the meeting held December 
23rd, 1859, to organize the club ; that Mr. Gordon and 
Mr. Potter were also incorporators, and that Mr. Gor- 
don and Mr. Westray were serving as President and 
Vice-President when the club disbanded in 1862. 

The new Board of Trustees held meetings in the 
office of B. G. Arnold & Company and at the office of 
its Secretary, R. D. Perry, 60 Wall Street. Benjamin G. 
Arnold, who had been active and influential in effecting 
the reorganization of the Association, was elected the 
second President July 31st, 1877. On that day a sub- 
committee under the chairmanship of Samuel D. Bab- 
cock was authorized to rent rooms for the Association 
at 50-52 Pine Street at an annual rental of $3,500. 
These rooms first occupied in February, 1878, were the 
home of the club for more than nine years. On May 
1st the membership was 354. Benjamin G. Arnold, 
after serving three years, resigned in May, 1880. Mr. 
Arnold was a leading coffee merchant and the first 

[ 95 ] 


President of the Cofifee Exchange, 1882 to 1885. He 
remained a member of the chib until his death, Decem- 
ber 10th, 1894. Samuel D. Babcock was elected third 
President of the Association in succession to Mr. 

On December 18th, 1884, the trustees were authorized to enter 
into a contract to purchase the lots 60 and 62 Pine street for a 
club house and title to the property was taken May 1st, 1885. A 
building committee was appointed to attend to all matters relating 
to the erection of the new club house. 

The following members were appointed to this ser- 
vice : Samuel D. Babcock, Chairman ; A. P. Whitehead. 
Josiah M. Fiske, George W. Dillaway, D. Willis James, 
William Krebs and C. H. Arnold. This Building Com- 
mittee reported at a meeting held April 26th, 1886, that 
C. C. Haight, a member of the club, had been engaged 
as architect for the new building, and that its esti- 
mated cost was $152,000, the price paid for land being 
$98,000, the total estimated expenditure amounting to 
$250,000. In May, 1886, the active membership of the 
club was increased to 1,000 in view of the prospective 
opening of the new club house. This important event 
took place on May 23rd, 1887, and the handsome five- 
story club house known as 60 Pine Street has been the 
home of the Association since that date. The active 
meml)ership then numbered 500. On the opening date 
208 new members elected at recent Trustees' meetings 
were notified of their election. A report presented to 
the Association by J. Lawrence McKeever, Treasurer, 
May 23rd, 1888, showed the cost of the land and build- 
ing as $279,525.73, and of the house furnishings to date 
$27,143.52, a total expenditure of $306,669.25. 

Thenceforward the Association prospered and at- 
tracted a greater attendance year by year. Samuel D. 



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Babcock, third President, under whose leadership the 
club house was built, having served continuously by 
successive annual elections for twenty years, in May, 
1900, declined further re-election. A banker of high 
standing. President of the Chamber of Commerce 
1875-1882, and one of New York's leading citizens, Mr. 
Babcock placed the club under lasting obligation. He 
died September 14th, 1902. A. Pennington Whitehead 
was elected the fourth President of the Association, 
but after serving three years he declined a re-election 
and was succeeded by Donald Mackay as fifth Presi- 
dent in June, 1903. On January 1st, 1901, the Secre- 
tary reported to the Trustees the full membership of 
1,000, a non-resident membership of 89, and 348 candi- 
dates awaiting election. 

The membership of the club was growing rapidly and efforts 
were made to increase the accommodations by leasing adjoining 
properties. Those additions did not meet the needs of the chib 
sufficiently and at a meeting held Feb. 17th, 1910 the trustees 
authorized the president to appoint a building committee with 
power to erect a new building. 

The President designated as such committee, Ed- 
mund L. Baylies, George R. Read and Charles S. 
Brown. Warren & Wetmore were accordingly ap- 
pointed architects, and the cost of the new building 
was estimated at $125,000, and of the furniture as 
$10,000. Under date June 20th the committee issued 
a circular letter to the members of the club recom- 
mending revised plans so as to provide a broad, open 
entrance hall and other structural changes and im- 
provements in the main club house not originally con- 
templated at an additional expense of $40,000. The re- 
vised plans were approved by the club, and work was 
at once begun and so rapidly progressed that the 

[ 99 ] 


Trustees by letter dated March 16th, 1911, were able 
to report the erection of the new addition and the com- 
pletion of the alterations to the club building within 
nine months after the demolition of the old buildings 
began at a total cost, including furniture and fittings, 
of $175,556.76. The new building was then occupied. 
As enlarged the club house has a front of 74 feet on 
Pine Street, 66 feet on Cedar Street, and a depth of 
135 and 133 feet on either side. It now provides, be- 
sides two large and convenient smoking-rooms, seven 
general and six private luncheon rooms in which 640 
can be comfortably seated at one time. The cost of 
the land purchased in 1885. and of the club house and 
extension March 11th. 1911, was $482,225. Before 
the expiration of the ground leases on which the addi- 
tion stands the Trustees hope to acquire the fee of the 

In the death of Donald Mackay, fifth President, 
which occurred on February 29th, 1912, the Associa- 
tion lost one of its most efficient and faithful officers. 
Elected Trustee in May, 1886, Vice-President in 1900, 
and President in 1903 he raised a standard of service 
second to none in the history of the club. 

In May, 1912, he was succeeded by A. Pennington 
Whitehead, who had been President 1900-1903. 

During the past forty years since the reorganizatit)n 
of the Association was efifected, while its membership 
has grown and its enlarged club house been erected 
and financed, the club w^as fortunate in having the ser- 
vices of three Treasurers: ]. Lawrence McKeever, 
1879-1902; E Francis Hyde, 1902-1913, and Gherardi 
Davis, 1913-1920, for whose able and conservative ad- 

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ministrations in these constructive years the club is 
greatly indebted. 

Since May, 1886, the regular active membership of 
the Association, then fixed at 1,000, has not been in- 
creased, and soon thereafter this maximum w^as 
reached and a waiting list established. By resolution 
of the Trustees adopted in 1903, provision was, how- 
ever, made for 50 life members ; 3 were shortly after- 
wards elected, and the rapidly lengthening regular 
waiting list led to the election of 24 in 1911 and 23 in 
1912, thus completing the number. No vacancy having 
yet occurred, it would appear that life membership is 
equivalent to an insurance. From the reorganization 
of the Association in 1878 there have been elected 
2,842 active and 288 non-resident members. In recog- 
nition of his valuable services as Treasurer 1879-1902, 
and Vice-President 1903-1911, J.Lawrence McKeever was 
elected Honorary Member May 23d, 1917. Mr. McKeever, 
the only member thus distinguished, died August 14th, 
1919. During the Great War 98 members were in ac- 
tive service, two of whom died for their country. 
Awaiting election on the list of candidates are 911 
names, nearly enough to constitute another club of the 
size of the Down Town Association. The average daily 
attendance during the busy months of the year, ex- 
cluding Saturdays, is about 750. The largest number 
of luncheons served on any day is 843. Included in 
this count are guests of members among whom are 
usually some ladies who have been welcomed since the 
reopening of the club in 1887. 

The art collection includes portraits in oil of Presi- 
dents Arnold, Babcock, Mackay and Whitehead, which 
hang in the entrance hall. To these should be added a 

[ 103 ] 


portrait of Robert Gordon, the first President. The 
main art collection consists of 226 prints, engravings 
and maps of Old New York, some of great interest and 
rarity. Most of these were acquired by purchase from 
appropriations aggregating about $10,000 made at in- 
tervals since 1904 by the Trustees and expended by an 
Art Committee of three consisting of Edmund L. Bay- 
lies, a Trustee. J. Harsen Purdy and Junius S. Mor- 
gan. Other acquisitions were made by gifts of mem- 
bers, the most important being received in 1916 by be- 
quest of Mr. Purdy of his choice collection of 35 
prints. They are shown together in one of the third 
floor front rooms with an appropriate tablet recording 
the bequest. Exceptional advantages for the exhibi- 
tion and enjoyment of such a collection are afforded 
by the Down Town Association, and the worthy ex- 
ample of Mr. Purdy and other donors may be relied 
upon still further to enlarge it. 

At the head of the list of members stand the names 
of eleven elected at the Trustees' meeting held in May. 
1878. They are : James A. Benedict. William P. Dixon. 
Frances E. Dodge, Allen W. Evarts. J. Montgomery 
Hare, Henry Hentz. James N. Jarvie. Edmund Pen- 
fold. William E. D. Stokes. George Peabody Wetmore, 
and Henry P. Winter. Death has just caused to be 
removed from this list a twelfth name, that of A. 
Pennington Whitehead, the President of the Associa- 
tion who died at Litchfield. Connecticut. August 1st 
1920. Elected Trustee in 1886 and by five years the 
senior member of the Board. VicePresident 1898-1900. 
and President in 1900-1903 and from 1912-1920. a 
period of more than eleven years. Mr. Whitehead, a 
lawyer of high standing in his profession, was a digni- 

[ 104 ] 


fied and accomplished presiding officer. A gentleman 
of the old school, he was courteous and charming and 
will be long and gratefully remembered. 

The Trustees at their meeting on September 16th, 
1920, elected George G. Haven, for twelve years the 
efficient Secretary of the club, to be its sixth President. 
Henry R. Hoyt as Vice-President, and Origen S. Sey- 
mour as Secretary. 

Standing first among clubs organized in the city of 
New York to provide relaxation during business hours 
and a place where luncheon can be served in comfort 
to busy men, the Down Town Association, the strug- 
gles of its early years left far behind, has now realized 
in large measure the expectations of its founders and 
seems assured of an untroubled and useful future. 

[ 107 ] 


No. 6 FOR 1922 New Series 


ON another page we have recorded the successful 
erection of the new Lil)erty Pole in City Hall Park. 
Particularly gratifying to us was the splendid co- 
operation of the Sons of the Revolution and the New York 
Historical Society. Without their aid. spiritually and fi- 
nancially, we might not have had so pleasant an incident to 
relate. And our friends of the West Coast and of the 
East Coast, who kindly supplied the material for the Pole- 
are entitled to share in the glory. The readers of the 
Manual, whose support of this journal enahled the pub- 
lisher to pursue his object to the end. should have at least 
honorable mention. It was a fine achievement and every- 
body connected with the affair has good reason to be more 
than satisfied with the result. 

It is quite evident that when John Pintard founded the 
New York Historical Society he had no idea that the small 
city which he knew and loved so well would, in less than a 
century, become one of the greatest cities in the world. 
His original conception of his Society seems to have been 
planned on National and not local lines. No one at that 
time dreamed that New York would some day be big 
enough to require an Historical Society all its own. 

[ 108 ] 

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The tremendous growth of the country, as a whole, 
to say nothing of New York, has already been recog- 
nized by the Society. The National idea was long ago 
abandoned and the Society has done well to confine its 
activities to its home state. 

Those of us who are acquainted with the constant, 
unselfish and generous service rendered by the present 
management of the Historical Society would like to be 
of further use in suggesting some changes that might add 
to its attractiveness and efficiency. 

* * * * 

A great many of its friends feel that the time has 
come for still further concentration. The great City of 
New York is not sufficiently featured or cared for; its 
vast riches are neglected or slighted. And if John Pin- 
tard were alive today there is small question but that he 
would be the first to advocate a change to meet the new 
conditions. Steps should also be taken to complete the 

The completion of the building would make room 
for the Society's really excellent and comprehensive col- 
lection of old New York prints. These are of surpassing 
rarity, interest and extent. They are carefully stored away 
at present and none may view them except after painstak- 
ing inquiry and much labor on the part of an attendant. 
This gentleman will ultimately emerge with a young vault 
in his arms, containing all subjects beginning with "S" or 
"J," as the case may be, and place it before you. One 
is well repaid for his wait, however, as there is no doubt 
regarding the genuine merit of this collection when it is 
finally exhumed. But how much better it would be if these 

[ 111 ] 


entrancing pictures, portraying as they do the Rise, Prog- 
ress and Development of the greatest City in the world, 
were placed on the wails where the casual visitor or mem- 
ber could see them at a glance? The Abl^ott Collection 
should be moved to the basement. 

When the new wings of the Historical Society's l)uild- 
ing are completed there will be ample room for a largely 
increased membership. \\'hy would it not be a good idea 
for some of the other Societies at present without a home 
to join the Historical Society in a body retaining at the 
same time their corporate name? There is a formidable 
duplication of membership and efforts among patriotic 
societies at present which could be eliminated to a large 
extent by such a move and much benefit derived by all 

•1* T* "I* •!* 

The second part of our self-imposed task at City Hall 
Park contemplated the removal of the old post office and 
the restoration of this site to the Park of which it was 
originally a section. 

After the erection of the Liberty Pole, public opinion 
was quickly responsive to our efforts in this direction. 
Liberal space was given by the daily press to a discussion 
of the project with the result that a special Joint Postal 
Committee was appointed by the Senate and House of 
Representatives to investigate our allegations of inef- 
ficiency, expensive maintenance and other charges brought 
against the old building. The Committee's report was, 
if anything, a little worse than our complaints. Never- 
theless they recommended the retention of the site and 
the erection thereon of an entirely new building. 

[ 112 ] 

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This recommendation gave us an opening whereby we 
were able at once to project the sul^ject into pubHc dis- 
cussion in a manner that would not otherwise have been 
possible. The result is doubtless familiar to all our 
readers by this time. The outspoken approval of all the 
newspapers enabled us to secure the backing of practically 
the entire city for our idea. When public sentiment is 
thoroughly aroused its influence is irresistible. No sensi- 
ble government cares to antagonize needlessly any con- 
siderable portion of its people and in this case Washing- 
ton was no exception. 

Nevertheless much credit for the change in the Federal 
attitude must be given to that young marvel of common 
sense diplomacy, Postmaster-General Will H. Hays. This 
gentleman received our approaches in an open-minded 
manner and proceeded to discuss the matter from a busi- 
ness point of view and in a business-like manner. 

By the time these pages reach our readers much water 
will have passed under the bridge concerning the old 
Post Office. It is now a live issue and the progress of 
events is recorded from time to time in the columns of 
the daily press. At the present moment of writing the 
outlook is encouraging. A final decision, however, can- 
not reasonably be hoped for except after long and ar- 
duous negotiations, as the situation is badly complicated. 

A Citizens' Committee will be formed to work under 
the direction of the Joint Committee of the Nezv York 
Historical Society, Sons of the Revolution and Valen- 
tine's Manual. In a movement of such widespread gen- 
eral interest, reaching as it does citizens of New York in 
every walk of life, it is desirous that room should be 
made for everybody. Organized bodies composed of 
residents from almost every state in the Union exist in 

[ 115 ] 


New York and have their own societies while at the same 
time recognizing New York as their home town. As a 
matter of fact if only the native horn New Yorker was 
interested in this movement it would have scant chance 
of success. Fortunately such is not the case and the in- 
fluence of the adopted New Yorker is likely to prove a 
source of unexpected strength. Congress as a rule is 
never very partial to anything New York wants and per- 
haps a request from these expatriated citizens on Con- 
gressmen from their erstwhile home towns may prove of 
vital importance. 

Meanwhile we would like all the readers of the Manual 
to join the Citizens' Committee. Send us your name and 
address and we will enroll you. Old time residents now 
living elsewhere are included in this invitation. They 
must not forget the old town. 

* * * * 

Owen Wister, our distinguished Pennsylvania friend, 
in a recent article in the American Magazine has much 
to say concerning the educational value of such an ac- 
quisition as the Liherty Pole from a patriotic standpoint. 
Those who know nothing of the past history of the Pole 
are immediately moved to inquire about it, and the story 
is repeated countless times in the course of a day. And 
this very repetition tends to increase public interest in 
the story of the struggle for American Independence, and 
reaches a generation to whom its teachings are of the 
greatest value 

The work of the Liberty Pole is by no means ended. 
Already it is finding its place in the daily events of our 
city's life. On the Fourth of July, at five o'clock in the 
morning, the United Spanish War Veterans raised the 

[ 116 ] 

Photograph Municipal Art Commission 

Mayor New York City - - 1691 - 1695 
Acting Governor - - - - 1701 

Erected in Bowling Green Park, facing site of old Fort Amsterdam 


Stars and Stripes on the Liberty Pole. And as time 
goes on, and especially on Flag Day. these impromptn 
services will multiply. At a period not far distant you 
will see an instinctive movement to make the Liberty 
Pole the rallying point for many patriotic gatherings, 
just as it was before the Revolution. 

We would also like to see the Sons of the Revolution 
and the New York Historical Society continue to broaden 
the scope of their services to the public. Perhaps the 
writer is less conservative in many respects than his as- 
sociates, and feels that a larger measure of public service 
is due from the many organizations of this character with 
which the city abounds. 

There is a sad lack of suitable tablets on many build- 
ings and sites marking important historical events, which 
could be erected at trifling expense and which would do 
much to increase the education and pleasure of our own 
people as well as the visitor. Everything about New York 
is growing in interest the world over. And there is a 
field here of the most promising kind for intelligent de- 

* * * * 

A very great step in the right direction was taken when 
such soul stirring, heart throbbing names as seventh, eighth, 
ninth and tenth avenues were changed to Columbus, 
Amsterdam, St. Nicholas, Central Park West and West 
End Avenue. Avenues A, B, C and D could hardly suffer 
by a change to almost anything else. The God-gifted 
genius who named our streets in numerical order ought to 
be among the first to get one of the bronze memorial 

[ 119 ] 


tablets we have suggested. In Paris, as Mr. Wister 
points out, streets are named after eminent citizens and 
quotes significantly that Philadelphia has recently changed 
Northeast Boulevard to Roosevelt Boulevard. 

Still, the changing of names must not be rashly made. 
The recent attempt to call the Bow^ery, Central Broadway, 
is a case in point, and Welfare Island in ])]ace of Black- 
well is another. Nevertheless, this need not prove an in- 
surmountable obstacle. Enough has been cited to show 
that some changes are desirable and can be satisfactoril}- 


* * * * 

In the case of Welfare Island, the New York His- 
torical Society entered a protest, but it was the only So- 
ciety to take any formal action. It is in matters of this 
kind we think, that all the organizations should get to- 
gether and act as a single unit. Their combined efforts 
would, we believe, accomplish a result which seems im- 
possible under present procedure. The fact that finances 
are distressingly low in most of these organizations, thus 
rendering them practically paralyzed so far as public 
effort is concerned, bears out our opinion that co-opera- 
tion, combination and elimination would be a good subject 
for thoufrhtful consideration. 

The temporary association of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion and the Historical Society in the Liberty Pole matter 
should suggest further co-operation between these two 
bodies. The Historical Society has a splendid building 
and a most engaging assembly room. The Sons of the 
Revolution own a delightful old Tavern, but hardly ade- 
quate for large public functions. The Historical Society's 

[ 120 ] 


tablets we have suggested. In Paris, as Mr. Wister 
points out, streets are named after eminent citizens and 
quotes significantly that Philadelphia has recently changed 
Northeast Boulevard to Roosevelt Boulevard. 

Still, the changing of names must not be rashly made. 
The recent attempt to call the Bowery, Central Broadway, 
is a case in point, and Welfare Island in place of Black- 
well is another. Nevertheless, this need not prove an in- 
surmountable obstacle. Enough has been cited to show 
that some changes are desirable and can be satisfactorily- 

^ ^ ^' ^ 

In the case of Welfare Island, the New York His- 
torical Society entered a protest, but it was the only So- 
ciety to take any formal action. It is in matters of this 
kind we think, that oil the organizations should get to- 
gether and act as a single unit. Their combined efiforts 
would, we believe, accomplish a result which seems im- 
possible under present procedure. The fact that finances 
are distressingly low in most of these organizations, thus 
rendering them practically paralyzed so far as public 
effort is concerned, bears out our opinion that co-opera- 
tion, combination and elimination would be a good subject 
for thoutrhtful consideration. 

The temporary association of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion and the Historical Society in the Li1)erty Pole matter 
should suggest further co-operation between these two 
bodies. The Historical .Society has a splendid l)uilding 
and a most engaging asseml)ly room. The Sons of the 
Revolution own a delightful old Tavern. l)ut hardly ade- 
quate for large pulilic functions. The Historical Society's 

[ 120 ] 

_ .igpji ^^ 


■M \ 


1 rf^'- 

: ■ 1 



. i 



finances are always in a melancholy condition and chill 
l)enury is good neither for man nor institution. The Sons of 
the Revolution have lately observed Washington's Birth- 
day in a thoroughly dignified and befitting manner. Car- 
negie Hall has been used ; orators like Senators Beveridge 
and Willis have made the principal addresses, and most 
excellent music has been a feature. They also celebrate 
Flag Day in an impressive manner. Why not go further 
and join with the Historical Society in a series of talks all 
through the \Vinter on. say Eminent Americans — 
Alexander Hamilton. Rufus King, John Jay, De Witt 
Clinton. Washington Irving. Edgar Allan Poe. etc.? This 
winter the Sons co-operate with the Board of Education 
in a series of addresses on "The Spirit of '76" to be de- 
livered by Senator Willis of Ohio and other speakers of 
national renown to the children of the public schools. 

Mr. Robert H. Kelby connected with the Historical 
Society for nearly half a century and as Librarian during 
most of this period was elected Lil^rarian Emeritus last 
spring and granted an indefinite vacation. The assistant 
Librarian Mr. Alexander J. Wall was elected to fill the 

Our best wishes to both. 

[ 121 ] 

» Wi t» p« •■ r" •■ »■ ■", 

a ■) •>' M ■■ •^ >■ ■■■ L.'i 
« iir ■•«■!•>■ 1" I-' ■•; 

» ^ UK W Ml II* t* k* '"' 



y^J HE erection of the new Liberty Pole on the exact 
V^ \J site in City Hall Park where stood the old Liberty 
Pole in 1776, was an event of extraordinary interest 
to New Yorkers. This historic event took place on 
Flag Day, June 14th, 1921, and seldom in the history of 
the City has there been gathered at City Hall a more 
brilliant assemblage. Representatives of many historical, 
social and educational societies attended the exercises and 
the City officials were present to accept this beautiful 
emblem of the ideals and purposes of the people of New 
York. United States Senator Frank B. Willis of Ohio 
made the principal address and Mayor Hylan accepted the 
Liberty Pole on behalf of the City. The following para- 
graphs give the details of the new Liberty Pole : — 

As the original pole was in two sections, the new pole has 
been erected in the same manner. Its height is sixty-six feet. 
The lower portion about forty feet high, is a Douglas fir from 
Oregon, and the top is a pine tree from Maine. An exact re- 
production of the old weather vane inscribed with the word 
"Liberty" has been placed on top of the pole and the lower 
portion is surrounded by iron bands such as originally were 
bound around the pole by the Revolutionary "Liberty Boys" to 
prevent its easy destruction by British soldiers. 

This new Liberty Pole is the sixth that has stood in the City 
Hall Square area. The preceding five were erected at intervals 
during the ten years between 1766 and 1776. Their destruction 
from time to time occasioned some lively riots between the 
soldiery and the citizens, the most serious of which led to that 
sanguinary skirmish popularly known as .the Battle of Golden 
Hill and which many patriotic New Yorkers feel has not re- 
ceived the historic importance to which it is entitled, as bemg the 
first conflict in which blood was shed, between the opposmg 
forces, preceding the Boston Massacre by two months. 

[ 123 ] 


In the noise and clamor of present day conditions this 
beautiful and impressive emblem of the ideals and tra- 
ditions of the fathers has a peculiarly fitting jilace in the 
life of this now great cosmopolitan commonwealth, and 
reminds us that the ideals and purposes of the American 
people remain as high in principle and devoted in practice 
as they were in the trying days of the Revolution. The 
following editorial from the New York World is an 
interesting exposition of the significance of the pole. 

On the site of the Liberty Pole in City Hall Square, New- 
York City, as shown in a survey of 1774, the new pole, made of 
timbers brought from Maine and Oregon, will today be dedi- 
cated to its office of bearing tlie flag for a community of more 
than twice as many people as tlic whole country numbered in 
the days of its predecessors. 

Of these predecessors there were five, all erected and cut 
down in the turbulent days usliering in the Revolution. The 
repeal of the Stamp Act was the occasion of the raising of the 
first ; the occupation of New York by the British doomed the 
fifth. The new staff is in appearance a copy of the early five. 
Like them, it is tall and white, erect and clean. Unlike them, 
it has a story to tell not merely of freedom lioped for but of 
treedom long achieved and newly confirmed. 

The thought of the participants to-day will run back not 
more to 1774 than to 1918. The Battle of Golden Hill cannot 
efface memories of Flanders and the Argonne. The ideals of 
freedom have not changed in 155 years. Changing circumstances 
have increased the gravity of tl^e burden which the defenders 
of the flag must face, but they have Ijrouglit opportunity for 
wider co-operation. 

The best men of England in 1776 knew that the colonists 
were fighting for political freedom at home as well as here, and 
they expressed tliat view with a boldness which our Lusks and 
Stevensons would brand as treason ; but against the intrenched 
tyranny of the court and the Tory bosses they were almost 
powerless. Their descendants are more fortunate in a represen- 
tative government which our example aided Britons to win. 
They have lately stood side by side with American armies, in a 
comradeship which Jefferson foresaw as clearly as his opponents, 
for wider freedom in world fellowship. 

Long may the Liberty Pole serve, and faithfully may suc- 
cessors follow ! They will remind the millions who glance up 
as they pass, if leadership does its duty, that the remedy for the 

[ 124 1 


omissions of liberty is more liberty; that the cure for the 
faults of self-government is self-government inspired by loftier 

The nevi^ Liberty Pole was erected under the joint direc- 
tion of the Sons of the Revokition in the State of New 
York and the New York Historical Society the two 
organizations defraying all the expenses. Valentine's 
Manual, with whom the idea originated gets its reward 
in the consciousness of a good work well done. 

The day was ideal, the crowd in the Park was estimated 
to exceed ten thousand while another hundred thousand 
lined Broadway on both sides from the Battery to the 

Mayor Hylan broke the ground digging the first spade- 
ful of earth. A steel box, containing the official Bulletin 
of the New York Historical Society and proceedings of 
the Sons of the Revolution, together with the New York 
papers of the current date and a copy of the Manual, 
were handed to Mr. Robert Olyphant by four year old 
Faith Kingsley Brown, daughter of Henry Collins Brown, 
and deposited in the corner stone of the flag pole. Miss 
Katherine Bayard Montgomery, great granddaughter of 
Maj.-Gen. Richard Montgomery, escorted by Mr. George 
A. Zabriskie raised the flag on the pole, the guard of 
honor being composed of members of the Veteran Corps 
of Artillery. 

President Olyphant then introduced Senator Frank B. 
Willis of Ohio, orator of the day, who spoke as follows : 


I suspect that most of you were under the impression a moment ago that 
these exercises had been concluded, (and indeed, so far as I am concerned, 
they may be concluded at any time). I think I realize the exigencies of this 
moment and I promise you that I shall not detain you very long. 

And yet there come trooping to my mind and memory this moment some 

[ 127 ] 


(lOVERNOR "Al" Smith, Ex-Ambassador Gerard. Ciias. F. j\IuRrH\, 

(!ra.\d Sachem Voorhees in the Tamma.w ranks 

IN THE Liberty Pole Parade 

Society of the Cincinnati in the parade 


historic facts that I want to call afresh to the attention of this audience, 
and particularly to the attention of those boys and girls. 

This is the replica of the original Liberty Pole that was erected here upon 
this very spot in 1766 to commemorate the repeal of the Stamp Act. During 
Revolutionary times, four other poles were erected — all of them to be cut 
down by enemy hands — and the last one that was erected here before this, 
was surrounded (as you see this one is surrounded in part) by bands of iron 
in order to deter the effort of those who would seek to hurl it down. That 
is why those iron bands are there today — simply to commemorate the his- 
toric fact — they are not there to protect that pole against any profane hand 
because there is none that dare strike that pole down. It is there forever. 

But the thing I want my friends, these boys and girls from the public 
schools to remember, is this fact: that while it is not necessary to have 
iron bands along that Liberty Pole to protect it now; these children them- 
selves — the future citizens of this country — are the iron bands that will 
protect that pole and that flag against all comers. (Applause). 

Mr. Chairman, this is a scene to stir the heart of the dullest man. This is 
New York — the great power pulsating the heart of the world. This is the 
center of activities not only of this republic but of the world, and to me it 
is significant that by turning aside from their busy lives, the people are 
willing to come here to pay afresh their tokens of devotion at this shrine 
of liberty. 

We marched here from old Fraunce's Tavern. I wonder if you are 
thinking of the historical association connected therewith? That was the 
spot where in 1783 Washington bade farewell to the officers that had been 
associated with him. Fraunce's Tavern down here at Pearl and Broad 
Streets is the spot that is sanctified, in a way, by having witnessed the 
termination of the great Revolutionary War. And yet, as that great com- 
mander and his officers stood together there in the long room with bowed 
head and tear dimmed eye, and as they went from that place to their several 
sections of the country, they went inspired by the hard purpose to devote 
themselves to the building in this country of a new nation. 

You know my fellow countrymen, there has to be destructive statesman- 
ship as well as constructive statesmanship. The Samuel Adams's, the James 
Otis's, the Thomas Jefl^erson's, the Patrick Henry's had done their work of 
destroying the old government; but it was not enough to tear out the old 
tree of government — to hew it down and destroy it; root and branch — there 
had to be planted in its place another tree if this country was to live. And 
it was the work of these constructive builders that went out from Fraunce's 
Tavern that gave to the nation the constitution and the government under 
which we live. There was a new type of leadership. Before, it had been 
those that I have named, and now in the meeting that was to be held down 
here at Federal Hall on the site of the old sub-treasury, there was a different 
type of leadership. In this period it was the genius of Washington and 
Madison and Hamilton and Jay that were building in this country the idea 
of nationality. 

I cannot forget, as I stand on this historic spot, that yonder is the old 
tavern down here on Wall Street — the site of the old Federal Hall — where 
Washington was inaugurated and where the government of the people began 
to function. 

Then I cannot forget that yonder at the head of Wall Street, in the old 
Trinity Church lie buried the earthly remains of a great son of New York — 
the man who I think was the greatest constructive genius of his age — I can- 
not forget, that here in this city (then only a little city of 20.000 or 25,000 
people) it was that this young man lived his life; came to the head of the 
bar of his city and state; here it was that the plans for Union, for nationali- 
zation were laid. 

Out yonder on the grounds of what is now Columbia University (then 
King's College) I cannot forget the fact that on a day like this, there had 
been a great meeting in the fields — thousands of people were there to hear 

[ 129 ] 


President John A. Weekes of the New York Historical Society 


Mayor Hylan breaks 

THK Liberty Pole 


the discussion of the questions of the oncoming revolution. The leaders 
were there. The meeting had lasted all the afternoon. The Livingstons' 
were there. Edward Benson was there. General Schuyler was there — the 
great men of their times — and out yonder in the outskirts of the crowd was 
a little company of college boys from King's College (now Columbia Univer- 
sity) and as the meeting was about to break up, one of these boys said to 
the fellows with him, "I have been more impressed by what these men have 
not dared to say, than I have been by what they have said." Then those 
college boys did what any college boys would do. They boosted this boy 
on their shoulders and went towards the platform with him. And the great 
crowd that was there, stopped to listen, and this boy began to speak, and 
the crowd surged up to the platform. And he spoke 10, 20, 30 minutes and 
when he finished that speech there was no longer any question what the 
attitude of the great New York Colony would be upon the question of 
revolution. This young college boy — later to be Secretary of the Treasury — 
gathered up New York bodily and put it into the revolution. And over 
yonder of the heights that we hearken, a few years later he paid with his 
life for the fact that he had stood between this country and treason and 
disruption. Such was the contribution of the greatest constructive leader 
that this country has seen or that New York has given to the world — 
Alexander Hamilton. (Applause). 

This great city has had all the time its part in the work of the nation. 
Now think a moment; What was it that Washington and Hamilton and 
Madison and Jay and Livingstone and the Schuylers's — what was it that 
they gave this country? They gave it constitutional government. They gave 
it a government dedicated to the proposition that this was a people's govern- 
ment, formed by the people for the purpose of doing what ? Why it says, 
in the very preamble of the constitution, "We the people of the United 
States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general 
welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, 
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." 
Now think: What did it matter to have Washington and Hamilton and 
Madison establish a government which would form a more perfect Union, 
if you and I are going to permit the forces of disintegration to hawk at and 
impair this constitution and make it absolutely of no value? What will their 
work have accomplished if we of this day are willing, as some seem to 
desire, to have this flag replaced by the flag of another color? 

I say to you, my fellow countrymen, while this country is broad and 
generous and welcomes here men and women from every clime, that there 
is room in this republic for but just one flag and that is that flag up there. 

To m^, one of the most encouraging things, oh men, is the fact that out 
there in the bevy of young folk, the boys and girls that have come from the 
homes of foreign born — God bless them so long as they take up our American 
ideals and subscribe to our American institutions — they are welcome here — 
but I say to you, as one American speaking to other Americans, if those who 
come from other climes are unwilling to hang up down here at the threshold 
of Ellis Island the ragged raiment of European hate and European caprice 
and European ambition, if they are unwilling to put off their old raiment and 
be clad in the gold, in the shining panoply of Americanism — if they won't 
do that — then by the eternal, we'll shut the door and lock it. (Applause). 

No, there can be no divided allegiance in this country. A man in this 
country, or a woman in this country, whose allegiance to that flag is by 
direct line and not by any circuitous way in this country or anywhere else 
on earth, is the only kind of citizen we care to have. (Applause). 

And so, I say to you my fellow countrymen, the lesson of this park is not 
doing honor to the men who put the first Liberty Pole there — their fame is 
secure — but rather, our purpose should be to dedicate ourselves afresh to the 
principles of constitutional government — which they loved and defended 
during their lives. 

[ 131 ] 


Let us go away from this place with the new spirit of devotion to Country 
and Flag. 

Your flag and my flag! 

And, oh, how much it holds — 
Your land and my land — 

Secure within its folds! 
Your heart and my heart 

Beat quicker at the sight; 
Sun-kissed and wind-tossed — 
Red and Blue and White. 
The one flag — the great flag — the flag 

for me and you — 
Glorified all else beside — the red and white 
and blue! 

The children sang "America" and the Very Reverend 
Howard Chandler Robbins, D. D. pronounced the bene- 
diction. The meeting was then dismissed. 

The base of the Pole still remains to be constructed. 
It is proposed to surround the Pole with thirteen conical 
blocks of native stone, each block to come from one of the 
thirteen original states. Surrounding this inner circle 
will be an outer circle containing stones from all the 
present states, surmounted with a star. All the blocks 
will have the name of the state engraved thereon, the 
whole design typifying the present development of our 
Nation. One of the principal objects aimed at in the 
erection of the Pole is to keep alive the spirit of patriot- 
ism in the land. Flag Day with the Pole as the center of 
its attraction will grow yearly in importance in our city. 
Both the New York Historical Society and the Sons of 
the Revolution will look after that. 

[ 132 ] 

'•Vi'^KTSBt -v -'Svw -?iy.W"»W ,J(...„'W:'H'^. 

'9<.««M»i«i.^jrjk . 

2 > 

2 < 



A Stroll Up Old Broadway 

By Daniel J. Brown 

'TANDING on the corner of Broadway and Fulton 
Street, one fine morning, talking with old Phile, 
the Rubber Stamp Man, the conversation turned 
on the bridge, which crossed Broadway, at that point 
in 1868. So before beginning my stroll, I will take 
the liberty to make a few remarks relating thereto. 
Broadway and Fulton Street at that period was the 
most congested crossing in Old New York, for here 
all the old stage lines and trucks of that time met 
and in their endeavor to reach the ferries, east and 
west and south would lock wheels and remain so for 
hours, each refusing to give way to the other. Hav- 
ing no traffic regulations at that time, pedestrians 
were compelled to go a block north or south to make 
a crossing. Detained drivers would regale themselves 
and their listeners with some of the vernacular not 
particularly soothing to the ear. This state of aflfairs 
induced the business men of the neighborhood which 
included Knox the Hatter on the north-east corner, 
Sandy Spencer, the well-known chop house keeper, 
with his motto, "Live and let live" in the Basement : 
Dunlap the hatter on the south-west corner and Genin, 
another hatter on the south-east, not forgetting our 
old friend Barnum on the corner of Ann Street, whose 
patrons also found it difficult to reach the moral at- 
mosphere of his wonderful Museum to petition the 

[ 133 ] 





Monday wV^r. 20, 1827, 

Willbeperl'orrtKid (for the first tim^ in America,) the Mclo-Drani'; of the 



Old Ciirtoncli,. , s.. Mr, De C mp ', Frednick Car'ouch^.Mr. Sterensoo 

Sert'eaiu Luuis,i. .., Fisher ; S«'rgeam <«9orge, ..Be^id 

Bonin, .....*..*...■.....•.■.. Chauman ; Dennis,. CoUiri^X'iir l^(; 

fiiap^rrt, ...Qnin '. Margot... Mrs. Ve,i.'ii 

LisetU!» the Sergeaiifs Wife,. . . . .Mrs. Gilfert 


•1 QuadrUle. 

After which'-. 

« 1 AT Miotic song, 

** Hurrah, for the White, Red, and Blue," 

Compostid for iite occasion, by a Gentleman of this City, to be 

Sung by Mr. KEEN E. 

The Evening Euiertdinnients i" ct-nc !udf with 



It which character sh<' will 'nirodure the following; soncs; 

"IMl gang awa wi' Jamie,'' — '^Jonny Pringle," and 

"''urrah fo-- the l5or*»^* of Kl ~ " 

Early programme of the Bowery Theatre 


Common Council, as our city fathers were called at 
that time, to erect a bridge across Broadway at that 
point which was done and called the "Loew Bridge" 
in honor of the gentleman who presided over the 
council debates at that period. 

But alas the bridge proved to be a boomerang. 
Citizens and visitors on reaching the platform of the 
bridge soon realized what a splendid view was to be 
had up and down Broadway, and enjoyed listening to 
the interesting, if not edifying remarks of our old 
drivers. They politely refused to move on, so the con- 
gestion became greater than ever. The same people 
who petitioned for its erection again petitioned for 
its removal. It remained up only a short time. 

The bridge was a very pretty one, of open iron work 
construction, with four stairs, one from each corner, 
and I think that this same open work played some 
part in the removal, for at this period the ladies' fash- 
ions were evoluting from what was known as the 
hoop-skirt period to that of the Grecian bend, with 
its large bustle and kangaroo walk. The ladies also 
wore short skirts, displaying pretty booties, with laces 
from which dangled tassels. Apropos of this fashion, 
our old friend Tony Pastor composed a song, a few lines 
of which I remember as follows : 

"They wore tassels on their boots, 
It's just the style that suits, 
Those naughty girls, with hair in curls 
Wore tassels on their boots." 

And I remember that the males of that period, my- 
self included, used to congregate around those cor- 
ners about noon on fine days, to admire those pretty 
tassels which so shocked the staid old vestrymen of 

[ 135 ] 


BABimiH's mimm 

Erery Day and Erening this Week, commencing Menday, Jane 2nd, 1862 



100 BMim BABM 

■wOl be on exhibition for prizes, for which npwards of 

Casbiirillbe Distributed 



— — A»P ■ 
Another Barnum's Museum attraction, 1862 


St. Pauls, that they were glad to get rid of them, fear- 
ing no doubt that the dead ones, in the graveyard, 
might arise to take a peep at those pretty tassels. 

There is another incident, connected with the bridge 
which is worth telling, before bidding it good-by. At 
that time there was an actress, "Kate Fisher" of 
pleasant memory, playing the character of Mazeppa 
in the Old Bowery Theatre, up near Chatham Square. 
This related to the escapades of the son of one of the 
rulers of the Far East, named "Mazeppa" who spent 
his time and money enjoying the Great White Way 
and other luxuries of that period, so his father con- 
cluded to punish him for his evil way of living. 

Procuring a wild Arabian steed he strapped his son, 
naked, on the horse and drove him out into the forest. 
For obvious reasons this character was always played 
by a handsome and well formed lady. I had the pleas- 
ure of seeing four of the handsomest actresses of that 
period assume the character ; Miss Adah Isaac Men- 
ken, the wife of John C. Heenan (our first great 
American fighter, called the Benicia Boy), Miss Kate 
Fisher the lady of this incident, Mrs. W. G. Jones, a 
great Bowery favorite and Miss Bessie Wentworth. 

One pleasant afternoon. Miss Fisher donned her 
riding habit. For obvious reasons she did not wear 
her stage costume, and getting astride her little mare, 
"Black Bess," whom she used in the play, she rode 
from the theatre through Chatham Street to the 
bridge accompanied by an admiring throng. Reach- 
ing the bridge she promptly proceeded to mount the 
steps at the north-east corner and reaching the plat- 
form in safety on the back of her sure-footed little 
mare she stopped long enough to admire the scenery 

[ 137 ] 


BARMii's mmm 


Kwry Day and ,E?eniiig Ihis Week, cwBrnencing Mwday, July 7ih, 1802 

»S* POSITIFELiY IVO FKEK L.l!$T. <=S)«^ ^ 

Admittance to everything 25 Cents | Children nnder 10 years 15 Cents eaeh 

Tickets for Parqaet or First Salcon; Seats, in the lectnre Room 15 Cents eztr« 

TorChildren (nnder 10 vearsi 10 Cents 


Miss Jane Campbell^ the celebrated 

ever seen in the form of a woman. She is only 

18 YEARS OLD, MEASURES 9 ft. 1], in. ROUND, and 


'i'wo such living inaniniotln of hninaiiiTy have never been seen on the fjce of the globe, and viewed ia 

cojitiast with Ihit 

m» 'jtp mm: 'wr j^ml jm^ix miry ^sl", 



Characteristic example of Barnum's wonders as he advertised them in 



and receive the applause of admiring spectators and 
descended the steps at the north-west corner without 
mishap, returning to the theatre amidst the cheers of 
the crowd all along the street. 

I will now bid my daring friend and the bridge good- 
by and proceed on my stroll up dear old Broadway, 
where in memories sweet, I will meet some of the 
finest men and women of the stage in Old New York, 
with whom I was closely associated as property boy 
in various theatres. This gave me an opportunity of 
becoming acquainted with all the leading actors and 
actresses of the period from Ned Forrest to Tony 
Pastor, including our well-known minstrels. 

Reaching the corner of Ann Street, I can see in my 
mind's eye the facade of that wonderful Museum with 
its front ornamented with pictures of all the wonder- 
ful and strange curiosities ever dreamed of by man — 
Humans, Animal, Reptiles and Piscatorial, gathered 
from all parts of the world by that great moral edu- 
cator, P. T. Barnum. whose name is still cherished in 
the hearts and memories of us Old New Yorkers and 
all others who had the pleasure of meeting him. He 
had among his patrons people who would not enter 
any other place of amusement. As you entered you 
would be greeted by the genial smiling Barnum him- 
self and you could hear the melodious voice of the 
wonderful Professor, explaining his extraordinary 
curiosities to an admiring audience, among which 
were the renowned Glass Blowers, the Great Russian 
Giant, the Nova Scotia Giantess, Miss Anna Swan, 
Tom Thumb, Commodore Nut. the Warren Sisters. 
Lavina and Fanny. These midget sisters married, one 
Tom Thumb and the other Commodore Nut. Barnum 

[ 139 ] 


Chatham Theatre. 

The public are rcspectftilly informed^ 
that this Theatre having undergone considerable 


Is now Open for the Season, under the direction of 


Who has Undertaken the Management for a limited period. 

2^hc Theatre is Brilliantly 


Wednesday Even'g, May 1!, 1825 

WUl he presented the Favorite Coinedy of 


The Plough 

Sir Philip Blandford Mr. I^obertson, 

Sir \bpl Ha" ''7 Her^^'^rt. 

Old Theatre Programme of 1825 announcing the first use of gas for ■ 
lighting the theatres 










gave them a grand public wedding on the stage in the 
Museum, after which they travelled all over the 
world under Barnum's management. 

I have no knowledge of these midgets leaving any 
descendants. Miss Lavina died only the other day in 
a small town near Boston. Her home had diminutive 
furniture which was more like a doll house. There we 
saw the Living Skeleton, the Bearded Lady and the 
Dog-faced Man. A door marked "This way to the 
Egress" led to the street and in this way Barnum 
managed to empty his house frequently as strangers 
wanted to see the Egress. Other wonders were : the 
Armless Man, sewing with his feet ; the Wonderful 
Five Pound Trout ; the "What Is It" who really was a 
Deformed Negro from Thompson Street ; the Wild 
Man from Borneo ; Washington's Body Servant ; the 
Horse with his tail where his head ought to be (by 
reversing his position in the stall). These and many 
other marvels, you could see while listening to the 
sweet music of the Swiss Bell Ringers. It was a sad 
day in July, 1865, when all these wonders went up in 
flames and smoke, all fortunately except the humans. 
I went down there the next morning and saw the won- 
derful White Whale lying on the Street, where it had 
been precipitated when the heat broke the glass in its 
tank. It lay on the street for several days, as there 
was no means at hand to remove so large an object 
and it speedily became a great nuisance. It was finally 
cut up and taken away piece-meal. 

Proceeding along Broadway to a point near Worth 
Street and looking east to Chatham Square, you come upon 
the site of another old theatre, "The National," now 
occupied by one of our oldest furniture houses. This 

[ 141 ] 


theatre I have no recollection of seeing, but going 
into the store one day, one of the clerks took me back 
and showed me the old brick wall which formed the 
back wall of the old stage. I will relate an incident 
connected with this theatre, told me by the gentle- 
man with whom I was employed at Wallack's Theatre, 
who at its occurence was employed as Treasurer. 

One night after the performance he placed the 
night's receipts, some eight hundred dollars, in the 
inside pocket of his vest and buttoning his undercoat 
and overcoat over it he jumped into one of the Old 
Red Bird Line Stages passing the door, to take the 
money to the manager's home up at Stuyvesant 
Square. The Stage being crowded, he with others had 
to stand. 

Upon alighting he felt the cold air on his body and 
looking for the cause, he found that the two coats and 
vest had been cut and the money abstracted by one of 
our expert pickpockets. This proves my oft-repeated 
assertion that Little Old New York contained the 
greatest men in all the lines of endeavor in the world. 

Continuing north to a point about Franklin Street 
and looking east to the Bowery there was the best 
known theatre of Old New York, looking today as it 
did when I first saw it in 186L the Old Bowery, then 
under the management of Lingard and Fox. It was 
here that most of the well-known actors and actresses 
of that period made their first bow to a New York 

Among the actresses who won their way into the 
hearts and memories of the patrons of that old play- 
house I recall Charlotte Cushman, as Nancy Sykes in 
Oliver Twist, Mrs. G. C. Howard as Topsy in Uncle 

[ 142 ] 


Tom's Cabin, Mrs. G. C. Boniface, Adah Isaacs Men- 
ken, Mrs. W. G. Jones, Kate Fisher, Bessie Went- 
worth. The Benin Sisters, Kate and Susan, and the 
Pride of the Bowery, Fanny Herring, with her glass 
eye, in her wonderful characters of Jack Sheppard 
and Pocahontas, and many other parts of pleasant 

I first entered this theatre on Christmas afternoon, 
1861, to witness my first performance consisting of 
drama and farce, and ending with the Pantomime of 
Mother Goose. After paying our shilling we entered 
what was known as the Pit, a few steps below the 
level of the sidewalk. This part of the house being 
reserved for men and boys. Here we could regale 
ourselves with such luxuries as pickled pig's feet, 
tongues, bolivars, round heart, peanuts, sandwiches 
and pies, to be washed down by soda water, sarsa- 
parilla, ginger pop. 

There were two galleries and boxes for the elite of 
the East Side and their friends while the gallery was 
reserved for our colored brothers and sisters at the 
same price as the pit. Matinees not being in vogue 
at this period, we only had afternoon performances 
on holidays and special occasions. 

It was here I first met the Man Fly and Human Ape 
in the person of one Bill Dexerna, whose antics in 
climbing the proscenium and boxes, and walking on 
the ceiling of the auditorium, head down was equal 
to that of the animal and insect he imitated. The 
show here lasted about four hours, so you came away 
feeling that you had received the worth of your 

Directly across the street from the Old Bowery 

[ 145 ] 


was the German Theatre, called the "Thalia." Here 
the elite of our German population enjoyed their plays 
and operas in their own language. This theatre being 
burned down, the Germans went up to Fourteenth 
Street and Irving Place and a new theatre was built 
on its site called the Windsor, which was used by 
Travelling Companies and variety people for many 

Passing along on the west side of the Bowery be- 
tween Canal and Hester streets you came upon the 
site of another well-known, but short-lived theatre 
called the New Bowery. It seems that Lingard and 
Fox agreed to disagree and Lingard built the new 
theatre in opposition to the old one. Here you could 
enjoy tragedy, comedy, melodrama and farce for four 
hours such as "The Seven Charmed Bullets," "William 
Tell," "The Cataract of the Granges," "Metamora," 
"The Streets of New York," "Lights of London," and 
many other plays given by our old friends and travel- 
ling stars. 

Here we first saw a farce called the "Twenty- 
Seventh Street Ghost." The part of the Ghost being 
taken by Geo. Brooks, the low comedian which was 
very amusing. Here also we had our first Dog Drama, 
called the "Dog Detective," given by Geo. T. Willis 
and his wonderfully trained dog, which was very in- 
teresting. Going back to Broadway, before reaching 
Grand Street, there was one of our old Variety Houses 
at 444, known as Butler's Varieties. Here I first met 
a man known as the Dean of Minstrels, in the person 
of dear old Charley White. Here also I first met that 
favorite of Old New Yorkers, Johnny Wild, after- 
wards well known with Ned Harrigan and Tony Hart. 

[ 146 ] 

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Farther along Broadway for many years, you would 
also meet Master Tommy, the Dwarf, in his song and 
dance of "Ham Fat." Also the famous Premiere Dan- 
seuse, "Milly Flora," Mary Blake, Eliza Wetherbee 
and many others. 

Crossing Grand Street we come to 472 Broadway, 
known as the home of the old Mechanics and Appren- 
tices Library, which also housed New York's favo- 
rite minstrel troupe, Bryant's Minstrels, headed by 
the three brothers, Dan, Jerry and Neil Bryant ; as- 
sisted by such well-known artists as J. K. Emmet , 
Rollin Howard ; the sweet singers Dan Emmet and 
Dave Reed ; the great bone artist Epp Horn ; McAn- 
drews the watermelon man ; Rice the Colored Prima 
Donna ; Little Mac, Luke Schoolcraft, Geo. Christ, 
Dan Dougherty, and our old favorite Nelse Seymour. 

Who will ever forget Dan Bryant and Dave Reed 
in "Shoo Fly," or Nelse Seymour and Dan Bryant in 
"Robert Make Hair," with Seymour and Robert and 
Bryant as "Hungry Jake." I remember that the song 
and walk around of "Shoo Fly" originated from a 
habit Nelse Seymour had, while end man, of suddenly 
slapping his cheek and catching a fly and opening his 
capacious mouth and swallowing it with a broad 
smile at the audience only to double up as if in great 
agony as if the fly was circulating around in his in- 
sides. His neighbor seeing his trouble slapped him 
on the back and Nelse opening his mouth, the fly 
escaped, while Nelse uttered words, "Shoo Fly, don't 
bother me." 

Just before reaching Broome Street, on the west 
side, you came to the site of another well-known 
theatre called the Broadway. Here the Wallacks, 

[ 149 ] 


father and son, began their successful career as actors 
and managers. Before going up to 13th Street and 
Broadway, never having seen them there, I will post- 
pone my remarks about them and their well-known 
company until I meet them up-town. 

It was here I first met that favorite comedian, W. J. 
Florence and his wife in his great character of "Bob 
Brierly" in the "Ticket of Leave Man." Here, too, 
I first met Mr. and Mrs. Barney Williams as the 
"Irish Boy and the Yankee Girl." Here, too, I first met 
John E. Owens in the "Live Indian." and "Solon 
Shingle." It was from Solon Shingle that Denman 
Thompson created his great character of "Josh Whit- 
comb" in the "Old Homestead," vv^hich brought him 
fame and fortune. Here I first met John Brougham 
as Sir Lucius O'Trigger and other parts. 

Here you met Charlotte Cushman as Nancy Sykes 
in "Oliver Twist" and "Lady Isabel," and Martin Erne 
in "East Lynne." In its later years it became a va- 
riety house, for it was here I first met the smallest 
midgets in the business. Commodore Nut and the 
Warren Sisters in songs and dances, before they went 
to Barnum's Museum. 

Proceeding along Broadway midway between 
Broome and Spring Streets, on the east side, there was 
another famous old playhouse. When I first knew it, 
it was known as Woods' Minstrels, then Christy's 
Minstrels, then the famous theatre Comique, under 
the management of Josh Hart. Here I first met that 
famous music hall lightning-change artist, Horace 
Lingard, whose songs of "Captain Jinks of the Horse 
Marines." "On the Beach at Long Branch." "Walking 
Down Broadw^ay," and "The Organ Grinder," assisted 

[ 150 ] 


by a lady who afterwards became his wife, Ahce Dun> 
nine. But this house reached its greatest popularity 
as the home of these never-to-be-forgotten artists, 
Ned Harrigan and Tony Hart, assisted by our old 
friend Johnny Wild, he of the rolling eyes and that 
ever-ready razor and others in those popular sketches, 
"The Squatter Sovereignty" with its popular songs 
still being played on organ and phonograph, including 
"The Mulligan Guard March," "The Side-walks of 
New York," "Annie Rooney," "Paddy Duffy's Cart," 
"The Old Dudeen," "Mary Ann Go Fill the Growler," 
"When Teddy Joins the Gang," and others. 

Knowing that I will meet our old friends farther up- 
town I will stroll along. Upon reaching Spring Street 
and looking east to the Bowery you came upon what 
was I think, our first Variety Theatre under the man- 
agement of that kind, charitable, good fellow, Tony 
Pastor, from whom many a man and woman who 
afterwards became famous along Broadway received 
their first chance to success and fame. I think it was 
here we first had the matinee, as previous to this it 
was called Afternoon Performance. It was here he 
introduced Souvenir Matinees, giving away to his 
patrons such practical presents as hams, bags of flour 
and dolls for the children. Knowing that I will meet 
our friends again, I will proceed along Broadway. 
Reaching a point midway between Spring and Prince 
streets, you came upon a granite building known as 
the Chinese Assembly Rooms, used by old New 
Yorkers as a dancing hall. Here Barnum opened with 
what was saved from his Museum down at Ann Street 
and started it again, to amuse, instruct and interest 
his old patrons with another collection of curiosities, 

[ 153 ] 


living and dead. Among the new features were the 
Siamese Twins, two brothers joined together by a 
fleshy tube about two inches in diameter at their 
waist-line. They were considered the greatest freak 
of nature ever exhibited in public. These wonderful 
brothers married sisters and lived for many years, but 
it was never known that they left any descendants. 
The medical professors wanted to separate them by 
tying a ligature in the centre of the tube, but fearing 
the results their friends would not permit the operation. 

Here also we met the most wonderful lightning 
calculator of the age, who could add up long columns 
of figures quicker than the eye could follow him. But 
here again fiery fate followed our old friend and 
he was burned out on one of the coldest nights of 
that period. Upon going down to view the remains 
of the wreck the next morning the granite front of 
the building was coated with ice from the water 
thrown by the firemen, making it appear like a coat of 
sparkling diamonds, in the morning sunlight. 

Knowing that I will meet my old friend again up-town, 
I will proceed on my journey. Reaching the middle of the 
block between Prince and Houston Streets, I come upon 
the site of two of our old playhouses on the west, at 585 
Broadway, and — a variety and Minstrel Hall. The 
front part of this building was occupied by one of our 
well-known photographers, one Fredericks. The en- 
trance was through a vestibule containing a portable 
stairs, which was lowered during the day for the conven- 
ience of the photographer's customers, but was raised to 
the ceiling out of sight in the evening to permit the patrons 
of the hall to enter. Here Tony Pastor moved from the 
Bowery in the sixties, not to forget his old friends, but 

[ 154 1 


to make new ones along old Broadway where all the 
theatres of that period were located. While here he en- 
tertained us with our old favorites and some new ones. 
It was here we first met the charming young girl on the 
flying trapeze in the person of Leona Dare, who, from a 
rope stretched from the gallery to the stage, glided on a 
ring with a piece of leather in her mouth, attached thereto. 
She gave us a startling act, then new to us old New 

Here I first met the handsome male impersonator. Miss 
Ella Wesner, in her celel)rated character song of "Cham- 
pagne Charlie," who hecame a great favorite among the 
music halls for many years. 

Here you were amused with a very entertaining sketch, 
"A Slippery Day." It showed a set of stairs going 
up on the outside of a building to a millinery shop ; the 
going up was all right, but when you attempted to descend, 
the stairs collapsed like a shutter the moment you put 
your foot on the first step, causing the visitors to slide 
down to the landing ; this being participated in by both 
male and female visitors caused a great deal of amuse- 

When Tony Pastor moved up-town, this place was taken 
by a troupe of minstrels, from the Far West, known as San 
Francisco Minstrels, composed of such artists as Birch, 
Bernard, Wambold, and Backus, who became very popular. 
Birch and Backus were end men, Bernard interlocutor, 
while Wambold, the sweet singer entertained us with 
some very pretty songs such as, "My Pretty Red Rose," 
"Kitty Wells," "Nelly Gray," and other popular songs of 
that day. 

At this house the Adonis of the Soft Shoe Dancers, 
appeared in the person of "Bobby Newcomb," whose songs 

[ 157 ] 


and dances delighted New Yorkers for many years. His 
songs and dances of "Love Among the Roses," and "The 
Big Sun Flower," will ever be remembered by those who 
heard them, not forgetting that pleasant tittering laugh 
which accompanied his performance. Among their com- 
pany they had another sweet light tenor singer in the 
person of Monroe Dempster, who was a great favorite 
with their patrons. 

Here I first heard that interesting and amusing Stump 
Speaker and Banjo Player, "Ad. Ryman," whose classical 
English remarks were equal if not superior to the late 
occupant of the White House. And who will ever forget 
that wonderful Cavalry Battle, by those fun makers on 
their Papier Mache Horses, ending the performance with 
a walk around by all the artists? Directly opposite, on 
the east side of Broadway, there was another well-known 
theatre called Niblo's Garden. Here I first met that 
great American tragedian, Edwin Forrest, and his partner, 
John McCullough in their portrayal of Shakespeare's 
tragedies, such as "Othello," "King Lear," "Macbeth." 
"Virginius ;" also "Jack Cade," and the great American 
play of "Metamora." Of all the great actors that I have 
met, Forrest more fully looked the characters he portrayed. 
He looked the real gladiator ; and in every part he used 
to play he deserved the title they gave him, as being the 
greatest Roman of them all. It was here Forrest played 
his last engagement in the fall of 1865. He was then suf- 
fering greatly from rheumatism having to be assisted by 
an attendant from his dressing room which was on the 
stage level, but the moment he saw his audience and heard 
their reception he forgot his pains and entered into the 
full spirit of the performance. 

During this engagement Forrest played only three nights 

[ 158 ] 

■" ♦'■>~^ it .^ _ 

.^... A'^ 

Broadway, north to Grace Church, about 1884, when Jake Sharp's 
horse cars first appeared on this street. a good view of the 




per week, the remaining three nights being given over to a 
new Irish drama, by Dion Boucicault, called "Arrah Na 
Pogue" in which the hero of the past, was played by an 
Irish actor brought over by Boucicault to play the part 
named Glenny, who was not only a good actor but a fine 
singer. He it was who first sang that still popular song, 
"The Wearing of the Green," in this country. While I 
have heard this song sung by many other prominent sing- 
ers, I never heard it sung with the same feeling and pathos 
given it by Glenny. This actor played the part only a 
short time for having a disagreement with the manager he 
returned to his own country. Dan Bryant was induced to 
wash off his minstrel cork and take Glenny's place, which 
he did with great success, singing the songs and adding 
some of his famous "Irish Jigs" to the play. 

There appeared another English actor in this play, 
Harry Beckett, who played the part of the Irish Informer, 
Michael Feeney, and he played it so true to life that many 
in the audience were ready to go on the stage and murder 

It was here that the famous Bateman Sisters, Kate and 
Mary, appeared in "Leah the Forsaken." This play was 
very affecting and full of sob stuff. But it went big. 

It was here also that Lydia Thompson took the town by 
storm with her famous blond beauties in her great bur- 
lesques of the "Forty Thieves," "Ixion," "Sinbad the 
Sailor," with their catchy songs, "Up in a Balloon," "The 
New Velocipede" and others. With its great Amazon 
March led by the statuesque Pauline Markham and the 
famous Majeltons, two brothers and sister in their fa- 
mous dance, the Can Can, a new and interesting perform- 
ance, greatly appreciated by our male population was 

[ 161 ] 


The Black Crook and the Famous Can-Can 

Here we saw that charming httle American actress, 
Maggie Mitchell in her interesting plays of "Fanchon" 
and the "Cricket on the Hearth." Here also we saw an- 
other charming little actress. Lotta Crabtree, from the 
West, in "Lotta," to be followed by Charles Wheatleigh in 
his dual character of the "Corsican Brothers" and the 
"Duke's Motto," assisted by some of our old Bowery 
favorites, G. C. Boniface and wife, John Nuneen and J. B. 
Studley. But this theatre reached its greatest fame when 
the Kiralfy Brothers produced their great extravaganza, 
"The Black Crook," with its unparalleled costumes, scen- 
ery and beautiful ladies, which included all the leading art- 
ists in dancing, roller skating and marches led by Pauline 
Markham ; thus producing one of the greatest galaxy of 
beauties ever witnessed on any stage, which was greatly 
appreciated not only by our citizens, but by thousands 
from adjoining cities and towns. This performance 
had a long run, but eventually came to an end like all 
things good and bad. It probably provoked more ser- 
mons, protests and dissensions than any entertainment 
ever given in New York and its memory is still fresh in 
the hearts of many Old New Yorkers. 

Continuing along Broadway to a place midway between 
Houston and Bleecker streets, on the east side, we come 
to the site of another well-known old theatre, Laura 
Keene's now the Olympic, where I first saw that great 
American play called "Our American Cousin." It was in 
this play I first met that ever to be remembered genial 
actor Ned Sothern in the character of "Lord Dundreary." 
He afterwards wrote a play giving it this title, in which 
be starred with great success for many years. It was "Our 
American Cousin" which Laura Keene and her New York 

[ 162 ] 


Company was playing down at Ford's Theatre, in Wash- 
ington on that never-to-be-forgotten night in April, 1865, 
when our dearly beloved President, Abraham Lincoln, was 
killed by that mad actor John Wilkes Booth. 

It was here we met another charming actress, Mrs. 
John Woods, in her great character of "Pocahontas." 
She also produced here "The Streets of New York" with 
its great fire scene and ferry boats crossing the East River. 
She had in her company such well-known favorites as 
J. K. Mortimer, in his well-known character of "Badger 
the News Boy," in which he enters the burning home of 
the banker and saves the fortune entrusted to him by the 
old sea captain for his daughter, which the banker is 
trying to defraud her of. Chas. T. Parsloe, as the Boot 
Black and Chinaman made a big hit. It was in this play 
that we first heard that pretty song, "Beautiful Snow," 
svmg by one of the actresses in the snowstorm scene. 

Here you also met H. S. Chanfrau and his wife in his 
well-known characters of Kit-Carson, Mose, a New York 
Fireman, The Octoroon, Monte Cristo, and the Arkansas 
Traveller. Here appeared another well-known actor, 
Frank Mayo, in his famous character of Davy Crockett, 
the great trap hunter and Indian fighter. It was here 
Johnny Wild made his first attempt as a star in "Running 
Wild" which proved a failure. Here you met the three 
pretty Wossell Sisters. Jennie, Irene and Sophie in their 
interesting songs, dances and sketches. But this house 
reached its greatest celebrity when it became the home of 
"Humpty Dumpty," produced here by those famous pan- 
tomimists. G. L. and C. K. Fox. who came over from the 
Old Bowery to amuse not only their old patrons but to 
gain new friends among the elite of New York with their 
wonderful tricks and transformations, introducing new 

[ 165 ] 


specialties such as bicycle riding, roller skating, velocipede 
stunts, acrobats, and dancing by the Majiltons, the Clod- 
och Dancers, and others, ending with a beautiful trans- 
formation scene. Here G. L. Fox, burlesqued Edwin 
Booth in some of his tragedies such as Richelieu and 
Hamlet, assisted by a pretty child actress, then about ten 
years old. Miss Jenny Yeamans, daughter of our favorite 
Mrs. Annie Yeamans. 

It was here G. L. Fox ended his career, death resulting 
from poisonous matter in the French chalks used in his 
make-up, and so ended the career of one who brought more 
hearty laughter and tears of joy to his numerous friends 
and patrons than any other player on the American stage. 

Here also Mr. and Mrs. G. C. Howard gave their great 
play of Slavery days, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" they taking 
the leading roles of Uncle Tom and Topsy with little 
Jennie Yeamans as Eva, G. L. Fox as Marks the Lawyer 
and J. B. Studley as the cruel slave driver Simon Legree, 
and Mrs. Yeamans as Eliza, whose escape on the ice with 
the blood hounds, in pursuit, was very realistic. Here 
also you met Mr. Florence and wife in their great play of 
the "Ticket of Leave Man." 

In the same house I first heard Ned Buntline, the great 
temperance orator and writer in one of his Sunday evening 
lectures. At a point opposite Bond Street you came to 
the site of another well-known old theatre, the W'inter 
Garden. This house was famous as the theatre in which 
Edwin Booth made his run of one hundred nights in his 
great character of "Hamlet." a run unparalleled in those 
days, except by that of Lester \\^allack as Eliot Grey in 
"Rosedale." Booth retired about this time on account of 
the great notoriety occasioned by his brother, and did not 
appear in public for some years. 

1 166 ] 

a Id 


H O 

a M 



©HIS description of a tour from lower Broadway to 
Kingsbridge and back by way of the old country 
roads that existed then has a quaint charm all its 
own. It is reproduced from an old book entitled the 
"Picture of New York" dated 1807. There were no sight 
seemg autos with their garrulous conductors in those days 
and every man had to be his own guide. Perhaps the 
most interesting thing in the article is the mention of 
the points of historic and civic value. Most of those 
places or buildings have long ago disappeared, but a 
few of them still remain and probably will for many 
generations yet to come. Let us hope that the City 
Hall at least— that beautiful monument of Old New 
York — may be preserved but restored to its pristine 
condition by the removal of the Post Office building— 
that greatest blot on the topography of the city. 

This may be performed by proceeding from one of the livery 
stables or genteel boarding houses in the lower part of the city, 
by the way of the Episcopal Church of St. Paul's, the Theatre 
on the east side of the Park, the Brick Presbyterian Church, 
the dispensary, the Masonic Hall of St. John, the New City 
Hall, the debtor's prison, and the Public Arsenal, through 
Chatham street, one of the principal places for the retail trade 
in dry goods, by the Watch-house at the head of Catherine 
street to the Bowery road. In passing along this you see near 
the two mile stone, Dr. Delacroix's garden called Vauxhall, 
where a summer theatre is kept, and where fire works and 
other handsome exhibitions are made on gala-days. A little 
beyond this is the Sailor's snug harbour, a charitable institu- 
tion by Capt. Randall, for the relief of poor and worn out 

Beyond this a little way, the new building for the Manhat- 
tan Company appears on the right. This is intended to accom- 
modate all those who do business with the bank, in case 
sickness should cause the inhabitants to quit the lower part of 

[ 169 ] 


the city. A small distance beyond on the main post road, on 
the left is a powder house and on the right appears Rosehill, 
the residence of the late General Gates ; at the northern ap- 
proach of which are some wooden buildings erected by the 
common council for the temporary accommodation of the 
poor inhabitants during the endemic distemper of 1804 and 
1805. By pursuing the road to the right about a quarter of a 
mile you reach Bellcvue, a beautiful spot which has been pur- 
chased for the reception of such sick inhabitants as are re- 
moved from their dwellings in seasons of a prevailing endemic 
fever in the lower and more compact parts of the town. On 
the right and by the water side a little to the northward, is 
a small cove called Kip's Bay, around which are some hand- 
some buildings. 

Returning to the main road and proceeding onward you 
rise a moderate ascent called Incleberg, on the summit of 
which are several beautiful villas. The road for more than a 
league is not above one quarter of a mile from the margin 
of the East River, and the space between them is improved in 
an exquisite style, by the more wealthy inhabitants. The en- 
trances to their country seats frequently attract the attention 
of the passenger. A little beyond Smith's tavern there is a 
road to the ferry at Hellgate. 

From the landing on this side you may pass to Hallett's 
Cove, within the limits of Newtown on Long Island. In cross- 
ing you leave the narrow and rocky spit of land, called Black- 
well's Island, a very short distance to the southward ; and 
Hellgate with its rocks, whirlpools and currents appears close 
to the northward and eastward. An excellent view of this 
picturesque and romantic spot may be obtained from the ad- 
joining grounds of Mr. Archibald Gracie. His superb house 
and garden stand upon the very spot called Hornshook, upon 
which a fort erected by the Americans in 1776, stood till about 
the year 1794; when the present proprietor caused the remains 
of the military works to be levelled at great expense, and 
erected on their rocky base his present elegant mansion and ap- 
purtenances. The enemy took possession of Long Island be- 
fore the Manhattan was surrendered to them. And between a 
battery which was erected at Hallett's Cove and the battery 
which our people still held at Hornshook there was a tremend- 
ous cannonading across the narrow arm of the sea, previous to 
the retreat and evacuation of the island by the Americans. 

At a convenient time of tide, it is very agreeable to see vessels 
pass tlirough tliis place of intricate navigation. It is computed 
that during the mild season of the year, between five and six 
hundred sail of vessels go through this passage weekly. And 
they are not merely coasting craft, but brigs and ships of 
large size. A British frigate of fifty guns coming from the 
eastward, was carried safe through Hell gate in 1776, to the 

[ 170 ] 


city. This is an excellent place for catching blackfish with 
hook and line. Porpoises are often seen sporting among the 
foam and eddies. And formerly, lobsters were taken in con- 
siderable numbers, in hoop-nets. 

Leaving this place, where they are surrounded with elegant 
villas, you return to the main road and pursue your ride to 
Hacrlcm village. Here you see the river of the same name, 
which separates the counties of New York and Westchester. 
At this place the two counties are connected by a noble toll- 
bridge, erected by legislative permission, by John B. Coles, esq. 
In this neighborhood is the race-ground, over which horses are 
run, at the period when sports of the turf are in fashion. And 
ascending from the plainer flat to the heights of Hacrlcm, you 
have an enchanting prospect of the surrounding country. 

Between the heights and Kingsbridge, a little to the left of 
the road, is the place where Fort Washington stood in 1776. 
This piece of ground commanded the Hudson, and Haerlem 
rivers, and the pass by land. Here our countrymen made a 
stand, after the rest of the American army was withdrawn from 
the Manhattan. They were surrounded by their enemies, both 
by land and water. They made a brave resistance, and killed 
great numbers of the British and German troops who invested 
it. But finally they surrendered themselves prisoners of war. 
After their capitulation, they were marched to New York, im- 
prisoned with so much cruelty, and fed with such scanty and 
unwholesome food, that the greater part of them died of malig- 
nant fever. So few of them survived, even after their release 
by an exchange of prisoners, that many discreet persons be- 
lieved, and believe today, that poison was mingled with their 
food, by the enemy, before their discharge. 

You return from the survey of Fort Washington and Kings- 
bridge to the place where the Bloomingdale road appears. You 
then take that course to town, and pass by the numerous villas 
with which Bloomingdale is adorned. 

This brings you back to the main road near Rosehill. Thence 
you take the right hand road opening called the Abingdon road, 
and pursue your ride to Greenwich. This village is near the 
Hudson on the west side of the island. It is the principal re- 
treat of the inhabitants, when the city labours under local and 
endemic fevers. By a removal two or three miles, they find 
themselves safe from harm. In this place the Bank of New 
York, and the Branch Bank have buildings ready to receive 
their officers and ministers in cases of alarm from distemper. 
And many of the citizens have houses and places of business, 
to serve turn, while the sickness lasts. And as this always dis- 
appears on the occurence of frost, the fugitives all return to 
town before the cold becomes severe. At this place too, you 
see the great penitentiary house, erected by the commonwealth, 

[ 173 1 


at a large expense, for the reception of prisoner criminals ; 
thence called the State prison. It occupies one of the most 
healthy and eligible spots on the island. 

Having surveyed this thriving settlement, you may return to 
town by the Greenwich road, which will conduct you straiglit 
forward by Richmond Hill, St. John's church, the old air fur- 
nace, the Bare market, and the Albany bason, to the Battery ; 
or you may proceed by the route of the public cemetery, or 
Potter's field, to the upper end of Broadway and drive into 
town, leaving St. John's church, the new Sugar-house, the New 
York Hospital, the College, etc., on the right ; and Bayard's hill, 
the Collect, the Manhattan water-works, the County prison for 
criminals, the new City Hall, The Park, etc., on the left. 

What a change the rapid growth of New York has 
brought to the East Side ! We can scarcely imagine 
that the large area now occupied by swarming popu- 
lations of foreigners, hailing from every qtiarter of the 
globe, was once the site of beautiful, quiet country 
homes with grotmds sloping down to the clear waters 
of the East River. The transformation is astounding 
in the extreme ; and when we consider that the entire 
distance from the Battery to Kingsbridge, not so long 
ago a rural district, is now covered with dwellings and 
intersected with busy streets, one realizes that New 
York is marching on at a prodigious speed. 

[ 174 ] 



Recollections of Commodore E. C. Benedict 

©ECAUSE of my intimate association with Edwin 
Booth during the later period of his Hfe, for a 
large portion of which (at his own request) he 
made my house his home, I have been thinking over 
a few incidents occuring in our companionship which 
may be of some interest. 

Mr. Booth located in Greenwich in the early 
seventies. I realized that he came for rest and fresh 
air and having seen millions of human faces, natur- 
ally desired to see no more. So I abstained from 
making his acquaintance. Some few friends of mine 
called upon him and reported that he and his tal- 
ented wife received them all quite hospitably. His 
nearest neighbor, named Rose, had been employed 
by George Peabody, the Philanthropist, and had retired. 
He was hardly a fullblown Rose, being not over five 
feet two with his high heels on, but he always wore a 
dress suit and plug hat and at once assumed to take 
charge of everything within Mr. Booth's fence. 

He found Mr. Booth had a well with tanks and pipes, 
but without pumping facilities. He told Mr. Booth 
that he had a friend named Benedict who had just 
bought an Ericsson hot air pumping engine and invited 
Mr. Booth to accompany him over to my premises and 
see it work. Mr. Booth naturally objected as he was 
not acquainted with me. Rose replied : "He is not at 
home during the day and his man will show it to us." 
Finally Mr. Booth consented to come over and inspect 

[ 175 ] 


it. On arriving home that day my wife told me she 
had had a visit from him. "Did you see him?" I asked. 
"No," she rephed, "I did not know he had been here 
until he had gone ; he came to see our new pump 
work." Fearing he may not have obtained full infor- 
mation in regard to it, I took my wife over to call on 
him and explain the machinery more fully. He was 
exceedingly hospitable and his wife played the piano 
and sang some songs. One entitled "Hamlet" I 
remember. We invited them to come to dinner. 
They accepted and came several times that season. 

Mr. Booth was emerging from his financial difficul- 
ties and was to appear in October of that year for a 
month under Mr. Daly's management. One morning 
five or six weeks previous thereto, he started over to 
Stamford to get his groceries, having hitched up a colt 
and its mother for the drive. The harness broke, the 
horses ran away and he was ditched out against a tele- 
graph pole, breaking his left arm and two or three 
ribs. I called day by day to see what I could do for 
him and to try to cheer him up. He felt he could not 
keep his engagement with Mr. Daly because his arm 
was not set properly. He never was able thereafter to 
tie his cravat but he went through with his engage- 
ment, which netted him about $30,000. This he asked 
me to take care of for him and until his death I took 
charge of his finances and was one of his executors. 

He narrated to me many interesting events con- 
nected with his career, beginning with the fact that 
on the 13th day of November, 1833, occurred that 
celestial phenomenon, which my parents, frequently 
enlarged upon as one of the most wonderful and thrill- 
ing sights that ever took place on earth. It was the 

[ 176 ] 


night of a wonderful meteoric shower. During that 
night of falHng stars, Edwin Booth — a star of the first 
magnitude — was born. 

His youth was passed in the obscure httle town of 
Belair, Maryland, where he made his first appearance 
on the stage as a youth of 12 years. He, with some 
other boys formed a negro minstrel club and Mr. 
Booth played the banjo, sang a darky song and danced 
a clog dance, which he used to do for my children 
without corking up. At the age of 13 he became his 
father's dresser and traveling companion so he had 
not the opportunity of acquiring very much of an edu- 

It was exceedingly interesting to have him recount 
important scenes in Shakespeare, as well as the litera- 
ture that had been written about him. I think he said 
there was one book devoted to proving that Shake- 
speare was ignorant, placing seashore towns in the 
mountains and mountain towns at the seashore, and 
an illustration was given of Hamlet's statement to 
Polonius that he could be as young as Hamlet "if 
like a crab, he could go backwards." Nearly every- 
body thinks they only go sideways. One day Mr. 
Booth asked a fisherman to row him across the river. 
In passing over a shallow place, the boatman stopped 
and called his attention to a crab in the act of shed- 
ding its shell, a sight which is frequently witnessed by 
people who live on the Shrewsbury River. Almost im- 
mediately the shell cracked open and the crab shoved 
its shell over its head, backing outwards, and appeared 
with a fresh new baby's skin ready for an increase in 
its growth. Mr. Booth simply remarked: "I guess 
Shakespeare saw that and knew what he was talking 

[ 177 ] 


about." I myself never detected ignorance in Shake- 
speare, though I thought he was a little color blind in 
his orthography when he spelled my name with a "K." 

As previously stated, when, because of his wife's 
incurable illness she was placed in a sanitarium (which 
grieved him deeply as he was a faithful and true 
lover) he asked if he might make my house his home, 
saying that he had no other. And so, from time to 
time, until he came to New York, he used to drop in 
unannounced, gripsack in hand, asking if I had any 
cold victuals and a night's lodging for a stranded 
actor. We treated him as one of the family and he 
acted the part. With his pipe and a book, sometimes 
without a coat or vest, and sometimes with Shylock 
shoes on his feet (his favorite slippers) ; he would sit 
and read to me and my wife as she sewed, or he would 
romp about with the children, who always called him 
Uncle Edwin. If a stranger, either male or female, ap- 
peared he became fairly stage struck. 

His fortune increased, and as it did so, he frequently 
said to me he would like to do something for those of 
his profession which would not be alms giving, and 
foolishly consulted me as to how he might do it. 
Knowing the needs, he particularized in the following 
manner ; "I have known some young actors and many 
old ones who are accustomed to meeting in good 
weather on Union Sciuare— a sort of curb market for 
negotiations between actors and managers and if the 
weather was unfavorable, adjourning to some saloon, 
or some manager's dusty office." 

In August, 1887, I had procured the Steam Yacht 
Oneida and I invited Mr. Booth, Lawrence Barrett, 
Lawrence Hutton, William Bispham and Thomas 

[ 178 ] 


Bailey Aldrich to accompany me on a trip to Labrador. 
We had continuously foggy weather. By a singular 
coincidence we drifted into Booth's Bay and dropped 
anchor. We were near enough to hear the voices on 
shore but were unable to see more than a boat's length. 
Mr. Booth suffered from a tobacco heart and stomach 
and was seldom free from pain. Every friend gave 
him a prescription which he felt he should try, so after 
we dropped anchor he took from his pocket a pre- 
scription which he wanted to get filled and lowering 
a gig, we found our way to the quiet little village, 
which at that time did not contain more than two or 
three stores. The apothecary was located at the cor- 
ner. The store had big panes of glass with a frame 
work of little bottles of drugs tucked away like mugs 
in a little barber shop. The druggist with cap and 
gown, came out from another room and Edwin handed 
him the prescription. When the druggist retired to the 
back room the only noise that was heard was made by 
a big blue-bottle fly which bumped against the win- 
dow panes. Presently the druggist returned and while 
standing behind his counter, Edwin with his back to 
the druggist asked in his delightfully deep tones : "Can 
you inform me how this town obtained its name?" 
The druggist replied : "There is a tradition that a 
ship captain by the name of Booth was shipwrecked 
here and remained and began the settlement. But I 
assure you, sir, he was no relation of that damned 
scoundrel who shot Lincoln." Edwin opened wide 
one eye, closed the other, screwed his mouth to one 
side but made no reply. 

On our return to the boat he said, "Now boys, I 
have bothered you several times with a statement of 

[ 179 ] 


my desire to do something for my profession. You 
are all here now and we will make a finish of it." So 
he repeated what he had said to us separately and Mr. 
Bispham was appointed secretary to jot down the 
proceedings. Somebody suggested the forming of a 
club. The suggestion passed unanimously. "What do 
you propose to contribute towards this club?" My 
recollection is he said a quarter of a million dollars. 
"Who will compose the club?" "Actors and man- 
agers." Either Mr. Bispham or I suggested that 
neither actors nor managers were apt to be good busi- 
ness men. It was suggested having business men be- 
long to the club, say : one-third actors, one-third busi- 
ness men and one-third managers. "But how can 
business men be admitted to such a club?" It was sug- 
gested that they could be by becoming patrons of art. 
I remember asking if I bought a chromo would it 
entitle me to membership and it was agreed that it 

"Now, what will this club be called?" We all said 
the Booth Club. He immediately and firmly said : 
"Not a dollar will be given by me if it is to be called 
by my name." Well then the Garrick Club, the Beef- 
steak Club and other names were suggested. Finally 
Mr. Aldrich who was resting on a transom, rolled over 
and said: "Why not call it the Players?" That satis- 
fied everybody at once. 

On returning from one of our numerous trips Mr. 
Booth once told me of a peculair incident which had 
occurred to him. While he was on his way to Rich- 
mond with his manager (Mr. Ford, I think), to fulfill 
an engagement, it was necessary to change cars at 
Philadelphia. Just as Mr. Booth reached the plat- 

[ 180 ] 





p hi 

Z t 

■3 ^ 


form, a young man followed him and stepped off of the 
car without seeing another which was backing in. 
Mr. Booth saw his danger, grabbed him and pulled 
him over on the platform, the steps of the car hitting 
the young man's heels but not catching him. After 
receiving the young man's thanks, Mr. Booth hurried 
along and overtook Ford, who said : "Do you know. I 
think that was Tod Lincoln you saved from getting 
hurt." A few days thereafter, Mr. Booth received a 
letter from General Adam Badeau, who was on Gen- 
eral Grant's staff, telling him he had a call from Lin- 
coln's son who had described the occurence as I have 
narrated it. 

This accident, which I had never seen referred to in 
print, seemed to haunt me a long time after Mr. Booth 
told me of it. So many stories have been related of 
Booth's painful experiences in connection with the 
assassination of Lincoln that it seems only fair that 
this should be given wide currency as an antidote. 
That Edwin Booth should have been chosen to pre- 
serve the life of a member of that family seemed to 
me a special and kindly dispensation of Providence. 
I have always felt that so singular and withal so re- 
markable an occurrence, should not be lost to history. 
Many years afterward, I took steps to corroborate the 
tale, and it was with the greatest pleasure that I re- 
ceived the following letter from Mr. Robt. T. Lincoln 
confirming in all essential details the story as told me 
by Mr. Booth. 

[ 181 ] 


1775 N STREET 

February 17, 1918 
Dear Commodore Benedict : 

Mr. Hastings has sent me the copy of your address on 
Founders' Night at the Players' Club and I have read it with 
very great interest and pleasure. I have often heard of the 
Players' Club and it is very interesting to read of your account 
of its origin and the memories of your intimate association 
with Mr. Booth. Mr. Hastings tells me that you would like 
to have a line from me in regard to the incident you mention 
in your address, having heard it from Mr. Booth. 

It gives me great pleasure to give you the facts in the case 
which I remember very well. They differ in detail only from 
your memory of them as told by Mr. Booth, but the difference 
is not essential ; the fact is that his service to me was much 
greater than is suggested and I was probably saved by him 
from a very bad injury if not from something more. The facts 
are these : 

I being a student at Harvard was on my way to Washington 
by way of New York in 1863 or 1864, I can not recall exactly 
when it was. On the night of my journey from New York I 
with other passengers crossed the ferry and went to the wait- 
ing train at midnight in order to get a berth in the sleeping- 
car. In those days there were no sleeping-car reservations ; 
one bought his ticket directly from the sleeping-car conductor 
standing on the platform of his car. The train was in the sta- 
tion with the platform of its cars level with the passenger's 
platform of the station, just as is the case now in all large sta- 
tions, but it was a new thing with us. There was quite a little 
crowd attempting to get space and ten or twelve of the crowd 
at least formed a queue of which I was one. While waiting I 
was pressed against the car on my right side by the bunch of 
people at the left and while in this position, the train began to 
move slowly. There was a little commotion which resulted 
in my being so tightly pressed against the car that its move- 
ment screwed me off my feet and they dropped down into the 
space between the car and the platform and I was for a few 
seconds in a dangerous position from which I could not rescue 
myself. I was seized from behind by the collar and a powerful 
jerk of the owner of the hand brought me to my feet on the 
platform without my having sustained any injury. I turned to 
thank my rescuer and in doing so recognized Mr. Booth, 
whom I never knew personally, but whom I had often seen on 
the stage. The motion of the train had stopped, for it was 
only a movement of a few feet and not for a start on its jour- 
ney, and the passengers went on with their business of getting 
berths and getting upon the train. 

[ 182 ] 


At some time afterwards, it may have been a year or more, 
when I was an officer on the staff of General Grant at City 
Point, I came to know Colonel Badeau and told him of this in- 
cident in one of our conversations there, but did not know until 
long afterwards that he had written to Mr. Booth about it. I 
never again met Mr. Booth personally, but I have always had 
most grateful recollection of his prompt action in my behalf. 

Believe me. 

Very sincerely yours, 


I was many, many times in the company of our 
greatest tragedian and otir great comedian together, 
and heard them discuss actors and actresses and act- 
ing, the benefit of which I felt was all lost on one like 
myself outside the profession and I was grieved to 
think that the great privilege I had could not have 
been enjoyed by young actors. I remember many con- 
versations and give you one as an example. The long 
runs of Hamlet and Rip Van Winkle were being 
discussed. Booth would say to Jefferson : "I do not 
see how you can stand it to play Rip Van Winkle so 
many times, to do so would get on my nerves." Jef- 
ferson would say : "I have to do as you do with 
Hamlet. The plan I have followed through so many 
performances is that during the afternoon and up to 
the time of the performance I try to divest myself of 
ever having heard of the play. Then I go to the per- 
formance as thotigh every question was absolutely 
new to me and my answer must come as if I never 
witnessed the scene or heard the questions asked be- 
fore." This was particularly interesting to me for I 
had seen so many society plays where the actors and 
actresses alike would begin to answer questions before 
the questions had been fairly asked. They seemed 
to be trying to hurry through the performance and 
get to the supper after the curtain went down. I 

1 183 1 


appeal to those who are not actors who recall occa- 
sions of the most meritorious performances by promi- 
nent actors and actresses and ask if the perform- 
ances were not characterized by the apparent unpre- 
meditated acting. Take the Music Master and Weber 
and Fields for examples. The latter Mr. Jefferson 
went to see three times and said it was the best bit of 
acting he ever saw. 

Of course, I saw Mr. Booth in every character he 
appeared in in his later years. Many times while with 
him in his dressing room and while perhaps in the 
midst of a story, he would be called, and dropping his 
pipe, he went out to pick up his cue and I would skip 
out to the front. The sudden transition from the chum 
in the dressing room to Petruchio or Richelieu or 
Hamlet was startling. Who that ever saw him as the 
Fool can forget him in what seemed ecstatic agony, 
prancing, moaning and giggling in what I may call the 
poison scene, or as Richelieu launching the curse of 
Rome when he seemed to defy Scripture and add a 
cubit to his stature. Yet after all, when asked what 
character I preferred to see him in, I always replied — 
plain Edwin Booth. 

It was the intention of Commodore Benedict to ex- 
tend this article to include some further reminiscences 
of the great actor and to add his recollections of several 
other men whose lives have filled an important place in 
the history of our city, but failing health prevented him 
from accomplishing his purpose and these recollections 
of Edwin Booth with a few changes, are in part from 
an address given by him in his 84th year. — Ed. 

[ 184 


Old buildings at the corner of Wall and Broad Streets (1885), about 


in turn has now given place to the magnificent addition to the 
New York Stock Exchange 



^^::^HIS letter comes from a correspondent in New- 
V ~^ burgh — a descendant of Joremus Johnson — whose 
family has preserved it as a quaint bit of descriptive 
history of the Battery as it vi^as years before the Revo- 
lutionary war. Besides the various items referred to 
and described by one who saw them, it is interesting 
to note the vigor of the language used in excoriating 
the plotters who attempted to poison the well used 
by General Washington's family. The veneration of 
the people for their great leader was remarkable. 

New York, Aug. 11, 1840. 
Respected Sir : 

Your note of Tuesday, I rec'd in which you wish to know 
from me whether there was or was not a spring of fresh 
water in that part of the Battery then called the Bason & 
which I answer, there never was to my knowledge, of which 
fact I am positively sure that I am correct. I well remember 
when in heavy rains & high tides the Bason would be filled 
with water both fresh & salt, with a sluce on Whitehall side 
to let it off. At length it was filled up so as to prevent the 
tides flowing in at which time the other part of the Battery 
was raised all around the Bason, say from 3 to 4 inches to 
the Buttonwood trees. I well recollect when there was not 
over 9 to 10 inches at the butt. The cause of their being 
planted was for shading the reviewing officers as the Bason 
was then the place for parades, in the western part of which 
a brick barrack for the soldiers was built facing eastward 
with an L at one end for the use of the non-commissioned 
officers & their families, the foundation of which still re- 
mains tho now covered by filling the Battery grounds as they 
now are. The Battery at the Southern part was a perfect 
quagmire, salt marsh, even as far as the house & grounds 
on which John B. Coles built his house, until it came a little 
south of Pearl St. & now State St. I well recollect that there 
was a small Battery erected at or about where the boat house 
Stands, built by the government, & where the Pier No. 1 on 

[ 187 ] 


the East River starts from, which was demolished when the 
Battery & Bason was raised & filled up years before our 
Revolutionary War. It was called the water Half moon 
Battery. The Materials used in the building of the new wall 
facing on the White Hall street was raised a little above the 
street. Many of the old inhabitants furnished red stones cut 
with the initials of their respective names, all which remained 
there until after our Revolutionary War. The Springs were 
north of the Battery along where Greenwich street now runs 
& enters Marketfield street, but none southward. There were 
wells of excellent fresh water on the Battery. The one was 
at or very near the large maderia nut tree (which is now 
standing or not, I cannot say), a little eastward of where 
Greenwich street commences at the Battery Grounds, which 
well of water was for the use of the Battery-keeper by the 
name of Blundle and a second was situated on the Battery 
a little north of where Pearl St. now faces the Battery & I 
think perhaps about from 70 to 80 feet from where State St. 
now runs, from which the British soldiers stationed at the 
lower Barracks (as it was then called) obtained their supplies 
of water for their family use. I seem to think that there 
were a kind of well & pump on the Battery of which I am 
not so sure of. There was two wells & pumps in the old 
High Stone Fort, the one for the Governors family use, & 
the other for the use of the soldiers & families stationed in 
said fort. That for the Gov. family use was at or very near 
the Northeast corner of John Hone's house on White Hall 
street ; that for the soldiers use was at the southwesterly 
point of the fort wall & near their quarters which latter 
well was taken down, after peace, with the old High Fort, to 
the level of State St. The residue remained & when I built 
my Potash Inspection store in the year 1803 I had it cleaned 
out & a pump put in. It was excellent water and was gener- 
ally used for drinking by Mr. Peter Kemble's family & of 
those in the neighborhood. 

There was also another pump & well of excellent drink- 
ing water which was used for watering the Governor's garden 
& stable use which was situated fronting Bridge St. on White 
Hall street. There was also a well & pump of excellent fresh 
water at the north end of the Bowling Green & facing on 
Broadway the same as used by Gen. George Washington & 
family when his Headquarters was facing the Bowling Green 
& Broadway at the Commencement of Revolutionary War, & 
which being used as before stated. An old Hessian rascal, 
generally termed Col. Sedgewick who at the time resided in 
the city & who was the first general chimney sweep master 
ever known here who through the instigation of British 
villians & their Golden Fleece & their prototype, the Devil, 
inveigled some of our native born citizens of New York, & 

[ 188 ] 





s 5 

5 2 

W CJ < 


" tJ ^ 

J" a 


also Gen. George Washington's Orderly Sergeant to poison 
the water in said well for the sole purpose of distroying that 
Heaven-born Michael son, Gen. Washington & family; but 
as God is above, the old Devil as well as his satillites in the 
foul plot, it was fortunately exploded & those concerned got 
wind of it & decamped leaving the Orderly Sergeant to re- 
ceive his just reward for his & their base villainies & which 
he did by the sacrifice of his own life as all traitors of 
right should, even in these days of Freedom & Independence. 
Please excuse the length of this with bad writing & spell- 
ing as I am somewhat rusty in the way of writing, tho 
permit to say that you are mistaken as it respects the spring 
in the Basin. 

Yours respectfully 

James W. Lents, 
old 76 veteran 
Jeromus Johnson Esq. 

[ 189 



Philip Corell 

QO SOONER was it broached to take a trip around the 
Island than I hailed the idea with enthusiasm. It was not 
that I was so eager to pull an oar for eight hours at the 
rate of thirty strokes a minute — for I imagined it was 
laborious work to row the thirty seven miles which is the distance 
around the Island, but rather for the intimate and splendid view 
of the sc iiery which is so grand on every side and on the banks 
of the glorious Hudson. A few centuries ago Manhattan Island 
was bou; ht by Peter Minuet from the Indians for thirty dollars, 
and the name Spuyten Duyvil was said to have originated from 
the fact that the old Dutch Governor Stuyvesant, wishing to send 
a despatch to Westchester County on a stormy night, informed 
the courier that he must go at all hazzards, and the courageous 
fellow upon arriving at the creek found it to be greatly swollen 
and the waters very turbulent. Nothing daunted he sent the 
spurs into the flanks of his horse and bravely vowed that he 
would ford the creek in spite of the devil and since that time 
this little arm of water has held the characteristic and unique 
name that we are so familiar with today. Such reminiscences 
naturally impelled a desire to know more and when Fred pro- 
posed rowing around the Island I responded in the affirmative 
and agreed that it would be a sight worth seeing. 

Imagine us then on a Sunday morning up early and in good 
trim. We ate heartily of our breakfast and repaired to the 
boat house of the "Gulick Club." There we found six of its 
members ready and after dressing ourselves, topped off with 
our white sailor shirts and hats, we stepped into the boat and 
were off. It was half past seven when we started. We rounded 
the Christopher Street Ferry just below our starting point and 
with steady rowing glided swiftly down to the Battery. The 
river was calm, ferry boats and pleasure steamers laden with 
their precious freight, studded the river, and the Battery seemed 
more beautiful with its stone embankments, its refreshing grass 
and its superb trees than it did of yore with its clayey banks and 
uneven shore. We rounded the Battery and pulled to the Brook- 
lyn side where now stands the pier of the first bridge, thence 
across to the New York side and up by Blackwell's Island, 
stopping at Jones' Wood, where we refreshed ourselves with the 
beverage then so popular but now under the ban. Re-embarking 
we rowed up East River by Hell Gate to the Harlem River and 
under the bridge on the other side, where after a few strokes of 
the oars we were brought to the boat house of the Gramercy 
Boat Club of Harlem. Here we were hospitably received and 

[ 190 ] 


after a short stay we proceeded on our way up the river and 
soon reached High Bridge. The real scenery commenced at this 
point and we observed how fine the new park which the city was 
laying out would be in years to come and what a joy to the 
prospective inhabitants of this beautiful section of the city. 
We passed under the farmer's bridge up to the King's Bridge 
Hotel, ordered a dinner, took a walk of half a mile and then went 
in swimming. Returning we did justice to a good dinner of 
porterhouse steak, tomatoes, potatoes and other edibles, after 
which we regaled ourselves with a good cigar and at twenty 
minutes of one we again embarked and proceeded on our voyage. 

Soon after we had the only exciting incident of our journey. 
The Harlem River flows by the Hotel, and a short distance above 
is the Spuyten Duyvil creek. Not very far from its commence- 
ment is King's Bridge which I had supposed was a large and 
grand structure but I was surprised to see instead a regular old 
country bridge made of stone, under which an arch was formed 
to allow a passage for boats. The water, as the tide flows in and 
out, rushed through at a tremendous rate and brings to mind 
the pictures in books of geography of the rapids of the St. Law- 
rence and other famous rivers. The fall of the water I think 
was about two feet, the coxwain safely brought the boat through 
but on the way we shot hither and thither amongst the waves, 
some of them dashing in and over the boat to the intense de- 
light of the country youths who stood on the bridge witnessing 
our distress. However we got ofif with only a good soaking and 
experienced a little of the spice of Spuyten Duyvil. 

The high mountain which was now ahead of us we admired 
and when told that we had to pass it we felt delighted. We 
stopped at a place called Cold Spring where we refreshed our- 
selves with some of the pure cold water and then proceeded. 
After a slight mishap in running against a railroad bridge we 
once more came to our own Hudson. The wind was blowing 
and the waves were pretty high and in attempting to row across 
to the Jersey side we shipped a lot of water and were made rather 
uncomfortable. We gradually neared home, stopping on the way 
at Hudson River Park where we refreshed ourselves and then 
proceeded down to the boat house wliere we arrived in excellent 
spirits and quite puffed up with our little adventure. When we 
reached home we did justice to an excellent supper well con- 
tented in having seen what few people in those days ever saw. 

Here is the log for the trip — 

Started 7:30 A.M., Battery and Brooklyn Bridge 8:10, Navy 
Yard 8:20, Blackwell's Island 8:40, Jones' Wood 8:50, remained 
five minutes ; Gramercy Boat Club, remained 15 minutes ; King's 
Bridge Hotel, 10 :40 remained two hours ; started 12 :40, stopped 
at Cold Spring ten minutes ; came through Spuyten Duyvil 1 :25 ; 
arrived at Hudson River Park, 2:40; left 3:15; stopped at 34th 
Street, 15 minutes, and arrived at the boat house at 4:30. 

[ 191 J 

Edgar Allan Poe. From engraving by John Sartain 



Largely from hitherto unprinted memoranda and papers in possession 

of the New York Shakespeare Society, Edited by 

Dr. Appleton Morgan, President of the Society 

Second Paper 

CHARLES F. BRIGGS, "Harry Franco" was a 
writer for the press of the clay. He conceived 
a Journal to be called The Broadway Journal 
but unable to manage it he found a publisher in one 
John Bisco, elsewhere described as "a shrewd Yankee 
from Worcester, Mass., who had been a schoolmaster 
in New Jersey." Bisco is entered in the Directory of 
1844 as "John Bisco, collector, 29 Av D," and in the 
directories of 1846-8 as "collector 249 Second Avenue." 
But in the Directory for 1845 he is given as "Pub- 
lisher, 135 Nassau Street and The Broadivay Journal 
is given in that same Directory as published at that 
number. In the directories following 1846, neither 
The Broadtvay Journal nor John Bisco as Publisher is 
entered at all. 

The explanation appears to be that Mr. Briggs find- 
ing that he could not without capital swing his Broad- 
ivay Journal made it over to Mr. Bisco, and that Mr. 
Bisco on finding himself publisher of a literary Journal 
realized that he had not an editor, and attracted by 
the rising star, sought out the author of The Raven. 
At least among the Bisco papers preserved by Mr. 
Sidney Fisher, we are shown an agreement, dated 
July 14, 1845, in Poe's copper-plate autograph, pro- 
viding that John Bisco was "to print and publish The 

[ 193 ] 


Broadway Journal at his own cost and expense and to 
have one half the net profits thereof and that Edgar 
A. Poe is to be sole editor and to furnish matter for 
the paper from week to week uninterfered with by 
any party whatsoever, and to receive for such editor- 
ial conduct one half the entire profits over and above 
all the reasonable costs and charges of such publica- 

This agreement however did not prevent Briggs 
from writing letters to Lowell and others complain- 
ing of the difficulty he experienced in getting along 
with Poe, whom he had "taken in as a sort of charity." 
Bisco, nevertheless appears to have dealt with Poe 
exclusively, and when approached by Briggs to sell 
out to him (Briggs) charged such exorbitant figures 
as to preclude the possibility. Though, as we shall 
see, he finally sold to Poe for a figure that even nomi- 
nally was never paid, except the said fifty dollars which 
Horace Greeley was later to turn to such caustic ac- 

John Bisco lived until the early sixties and dying 
left to Mr. Sidney Fisher a well known real estate 
operator of New York City such of *his papers and 
account books as covered the period of his dealings 
with Poe. And these papers in 1919, Mr. Fisher per- 
mitted the New York Shakespeare Society to in- 
spect and take copies from to any extent. Among 
these papers was a Scrap Book kept by the firm of 
Poe and Bisco containing newspaper notices of The 
Broadzvay Journal from newspapers widely covering 
New England and the South as well as New York 
State. Without exception the notices are complimen- 
tary, and invariably speak of Poe as a distinguished 

[ 194 ] 


author and poet (certainly evidence of the esteem 
in which he was universally held) and of the still 
greater achievements expected of him, and presages 
of a splendid career for The Broadway Journal under 
his control. As to whether Poe was invariably con- 
sidered the sole editor thereof there may possibly be 
some mystification. 

At one time Poe was announced as co-editor with 
Briggs and one Henry S. Watson, as to whom Briggs 
writes to Lowell, "Mr. Watson's name commands the 
support of a good portion of the musical interest in 
this city and Boston, and by putting forth his name 
as musical editor I can gain his time for a pro rata 
dividend on the amount of patronage which he may 
obtain. He is the only musical critic in the country 
and a thorough good fellow." This letter is dated 
March 8th, 1845. But we find letters of about that 
date addressed to "Poe & Watson" as proprietors in 
which Bisco is not mentioned at all. 

The above is very far from being the tale as told by 
Harry Franco Briggs. According to him, it was he 
who invited Poe to join him. And Poe was induced 
to consent and became a sort of assistant editor, 
printing pretty much what he saw fit, his old poems 
and stories to fill in and sometimes he signed these 
with a fresh pseudonym such as "Littleton Barry." 
For example, Briggs writes Lowell : 

Poe is only my assistant and will in no way interfere with 
my own way of doing things. Poe had left The Mirror, Willis 
was too Willissy for him, and as it was requisite that I should 
have his or some other person's assistance, and as his name 
is of some authority I thought it advisable to announce him 
as an editor. Unfortunately for him he has mounted a very 
ticklish hobby just now — plagiarism — which he is riding to 
death, and I think the better way is to let him run down as 

[ 195 ] 


soon as possible by giving him no check * * * Every 
body has gone Raven-mad about his last poem, and his lecture 
which W. W. Story went with me to hear has gained him a 
dozen or two of waspish enemies who will do more good than 

Every reader of Poe biography remembers that his 
constant ambition was to own and control his own 
mouthpiece. Here probably lies the truth, as nearly 
as abstractable today, from the Briggs - Bisco - Poe 
management of The Bruadzvay Journal. When Bisco, 
apparently ignoring or brushing aside Briggs, offers 
to quit claim The Broadway Journal to Poe, the latter 
rushes to realize a sufficient sum. Horace Greeley 
endorses Poe's note to Bisco for fifty dollars and other 
parties evidently helped. But this fifty is all that 
Bisco ever got. This endorsement he afterwards 
sold to Greeley for $5L50, and Greeley offered it for 
half the amount as an autograph of the author of 
The Raven to an autograph collector. In November 
1845 Poe writes Dr. Chivers that he "had entirely paid" 
(by which he meant given notes) for The Broadzvay 
Journal except a note for $140.00 which would fall 
due on January first, 1846. Possibly the latter was 
not inclusive of a note of hand for which Fitz Greene 
Halleck gave Poe one hundred dollars in cash, though 
Mr. Halleck made no such parade of the loss as did 

All that is certain is, that when Poe became sole 
proprietor either by handing $150.00 over to Bisco 
or otherwise the days of The Broadway Journal were 
numbered. It made a sensation while it lasted. 

Richard Plenry Stoddard who seldom had a good 
word for his fellow scribes, least of all for Poe, says 
that that periodical under Poe "was a curious mix- 

[ 196 ] 


ture of bad and now and then good writing; a Satur- 
day Review of Billingsgate : savagely critical and 
brutally personal, not to say insulting. But it amused 
even if it astonished its readers and kept Poe continu- 
ally in hot water, but since this made him feared, it prob- 
ably did him more good than harm." The Broadzvay 
Journal uttered its Swan song January 4th, 1846. In that 
issue appears the following : 

Unexpected engagements demanding my whole attention and the objects 
being fulfilled so far as regards m>self personally for which The Broadway 
Journal was established, I now, as editor bid farewell as cordially to foes 
as friends. 


Mr. Woodberry claims that Mr. T. Dunn English 
was the one who managed to get out this absolutely 
last appearance of The Broadway Journal which had 
already actually given up the ghost. There are other 
names — Allen, Holman and so on, who are said to 
have officiated either with cash or credit to stand off 
the inevitable demise. 

Simultaneously with, or soon after, the appearance 
of The Raven, Poe, Mrs. Clemm and Virginia forsook 
the Amity Street lodgings and took two rear rooms 
with board on the third floor of the tenement No. 
195 East Broadway (site now occupied by the build- 
ing of The Educational Alliance). Up to this time 
his city residences. No. 13^/2 Carmine Street, No. 130 
Greenwich Street and No. 15 Amity Street, had been in a 
comparatively narrow precinct of the west side of 
the city. What should have moved him to take so 
far a departure to what was then the extreme east 
cannot be conjectured unless it may have been con- 
sidered a social betterment. For East Broadway and 
Henry and adjoining streets were fashionable precincts 

[ 197 ] 


in those years, though not perhaps as fashionable 
as they had been a Httle earher. (A letter of Poe's 
to one Thomas W. Fields, dated 195 East Broadway, 
August 9th, 1845, making an appointment at that 
residence, fixes our date here). Here Lowell called 
upon him and failed to impress him. At least he 
writes Dr. Chivers long after, "I was very much dis- 
appointed in his appearance, he was not half the noble 
person I expected to see." 

We have seen that previously Poe had caused con- 
siderable fluttering among literary dove-cotes by a 
series of papers — six in all — contributed to Godey's 
Lady's Book of Philadelphia, in which he handled 
thirty of his contemporary knights of the pen under 
the title "The Literati of New York — Some honest 
opinions at Random Respecting their Autorial Merits, 
with Occasional Words of Personality." When quite 
at liberty to use his pen as he pleased in Willis's Mirror 
and in The Broadxvay Journal he returned to re- 
capture the sensation which he had already created, 
and perpetuated it by adding criticisms of about thirty 
nine or forty more mostly names that sound strange 
to present ears, but among them Longfellow against 
whom he boldly brought a charge of plagiarism, iter- 
ating and reiterating it with acid comment until it 
was impossible to disregard it. 

Among these "Literati" papers was a notable re- 
view of Dickens and especially of Barnaby Rudge of 
which one or perhaps two instalments had appeared ; 
it being in this critique that Poe so accurately and 
circumstantially predicted the plot of the story, even 
so far as questioning Dicken's art in making so little 
(or so much) out of this or that character as to cause 

[ 198 ] 


Dickens himself to write him, "Mr. Poe, are you the 
Devil?" And it was one of these "Literati" papers 
that was to put a bit of real money beyond a daily 
wage into Poe's pocket. 

A not unvoluminous literary character of the date 
was Thomas Dunn Eng-lish, who survives as the 
writer of the words of Trilby's song "Ben Bolt". 
"Thomas Dunn English" suggested to Poe "Thomas 
Done Brown." Hence as a party who wrote under 
the pseudonym of "Thomas Dunn English" Poe hand- 
led him in this wise : 

I place Mr. Brown upon my list of literary people not on 
account of his poetry (which I presume he himself is not weak 
enough to estimate very highly) but on the score of his having 
edited for several months * * * a magazine called The Aristi- 
dcan. Mr. Brown has at least that amount of talent which 
would enable him to succeed in his father's profession — that of 
a ferryman on the Schuylkill. But the fate of The Aristidcan 
(Brown had started a periodical of that title in Philadelphia 
previously which lived just one year) would serve to indicate to 
him that to prosper in any higher walk in life he should apply 
himself to study * * * * The editor of The Aristidcan for 
example was not the public laughing stock so much on account 
of writing "lay" for "lie" ; "went" for "gone" ; "set" for "sit" 
etc., or for coupling nouns in the plural with verbs in the sing- 
ular — as when he writes 

So harmless seems 
Azthene, all my earthly dreams — • 

as on account of the pertinacity with which he exposed his 
lamenting "the typographical blunders which so unluckily creep 
into his (my) work" * * * *. In an editorial announcement 
upon page 242 of the same number he says, "This and the three 
succeeding numbers brings the work up to January, and with 
the two numbers previously published makes up a volume or 
half year of numbers." But enough! Mr. Brown has for the 
motto on his magazine cover the words of Richelieu, 


I AM not; I am just — 
here the two monosyllables "an Ass" should have been ap- 
pended, making the motto of The Aristidcan read 



[ 199 ] 


They were no doubt omitted through one of those "typographical 
blunders which through life have been the bane and antidote 
of Mr. Brown." I do not know him personally. About his ap- 
pearance there is nothing very remarkable, except that he exists 
in a perpetual state of vacillation between mustachio and goatee. 
In character a wmdbrutcl ! 

Sneers like these levelled at a soi-disant editor and 
poet were rather hard to bear. And Mr. English, 
scorning the pseudonym, retorted as follows in The 
Daily Telegraph of June twenty-eighth, 1846. 

Mr. Poe says in his article, "I do not personally know Mr. 
English (The exact words were 'I do not personally know him, 
i.e. Mr. Thomas Dunn Brown')." That he does not know me is 
not a matter of wonder. The severe treatment he received at my 
hands for brutal and dastardly conduct rendered it necessary for 
him, if possible, to forget my existence. Unfortunately I know 
him, and by the blessing of God and the assistance of a gray 
goose quill my design is to make the public know him also. I 
know Mr. Poe by a succession of his acts ; one of which is rather 
costly. I hold his acknowledgment for a sum of money which 
he obtained of me under false pretenses. As I stand in need of it 
at this time I am content that he should forget to know me pro- 
vided that he acquits himself of the money he owes me. I ask no 
interest, in lieu of which I am willing to credit him with the 
sound cuffing I gave him when I last saw him. Another act of 
his gave me some knowledge of him. A merchant of this city 
had accused him of committing forgery. He consulted me on the 
mode of punishing this accuser, and as he was afraid to chal- 
lenge him personally I suggested a legal prosecution as his sole 
remedy. At his request I obtained a counsellor at law who was 
willing as a compliment to me, to conduct his suit without the 
customary retaining fee. But though so eager at first to com- 
mence proceedings he dropped the matter altogether when the 
time came to act thus admitting the truth of the charge. 

Personalities such as Poe indulged in, were hard to 
endure but were not libelous, however scurrilous. 
But to accuse a man of an indictable crime like forgery 
was libel pure and simple. Besides, Poe was able to 
prove that the "merchant" in question had withdrawn 
the charge of forgery and apologised for making it. 
So Poe brought suit against English and recovered 
two hundred and fifty dollars and costs and his lawyer 

[ 200 ] 


handed him the proceeds, two hundred and twenty- 
five dollars. Mr. English's matter, subsequently pro- 
nounced libellous, was reprinted by Willis's Mirror and 
Poe's attorney also sued that publication and also 
recovered two hundred and fifty dollars from it. The 
Mirror not interposing any answer but submitting to 
a judgment by default. 

Poe's lawyer in the English suits was the after- 
wards distinguished Judge Enoch L. Fancher as ap- 
pears from this letter recently discovered in our 
Fisher's collection. 

New York, July 17, 1846. 
My Dear Mr. Bisco : 

You will confer a very great favor on me by stepping in when 
you have leisure at the office of E. L. Fancher, Attorney at Law, 
a John St. Please mention to him that I requested you to call 
in relation to Mr. English. He will also show you my reply to 
some attacks lately made upon me by this gentleman. 

Cordially yours 
Mr. John Bisco. POE. 

In the same collection where the writer of this paper 
discovered the above were several receipts given by 
Poe for sums received for literary matter which indi- 
cate that he was by no means suffering for temporary 
income from such sources between January 14th and 
April 16, 1845, whatever may have been his straight- 
ened circumstances later. 

These last four years of Poe's New York City life 
were indeed passed "in the calcium." Pointed out 
everywhere as "The man that wrote The Raven" it 
became the fashion to invite him to read that poem at 
social evenings. Besides the exclusively literary 
homes of persons above enumerated, at Dr. Orville 
Dewey's, Horace Greeley's, Dr. Francis's, Mrs. E. 
Oakes Smith's, Mr. Wyncoop in his Reminiscences 

[ 201 ] 


(1919) mentions Poe at his father-in-law's, and Poe 
speaks of being invited to the residence of a Mr. 
James Lawrence, whom he describes as "a mesmerist, 
a Swedenborg-ian, a phrenologist, a homeopathist and 
what else I am not prepared to say." Poe also now 
meets a Mrs. Barhyte whose husband owned certain 
trout ponds near Saratoga, an acquaintance leading to 
Poe's visits to that watering place on two successive 
summers. Of these visits, Woodberry (who, while 
not perhaps a malicious biographer, certainly is rigid 
in observing the Othellian injunction to "nothing ex- 
tenuate") gives some gossip which does not fall into 
our concern of "Poe In New York City." But it may 
be noted as well here as anywhere that although men- 
tion is made of Poe's pallid features, pinched with 
want, and threadbare and carefully brushed garments, 
his dignified and courteous bearing is never forgotten. 
For Edgar Allan Poe came of a family of gentlemen, 
was the son and the adopted son of a gentleman and 
never permitted himself to forget it. 

In these last years he became epris with the idea of 
a prose poem dealing with occult and cosmo-scienti- 
fic matters — to be called Eureka; or the Cosmogony of 
the Universe — and for this his constant vision of The 
Stylus supplied a vehicle. As this vision faded he pre- 
vailed upon The Society Library, then the largest City 
library and the centre of the City's learned element, 
(it had been founded by William Alexander, who 
under the title of "Lord Stirling" had been a general 
of the Revolution, and was then at 348 Broadway, cor- 
ner of Leonard Street) to permit him to present his 
prose poem as a Lecture. And on the evening of Feb- 
ruary third, 1848, some sixty persons paid fifty cents 

[ 202 1 


apiece to hear the author of The Raven discourse upon 
The Cosmogony of The Universe. The Express next 
morning says, 

Mr. Poe's lecture on The Cosmogony of the Universe was 
beyond all question the most elaborate and profound effort our 
citizens ever listened to. Starting from the deity as a comet 
from the sun it went careening in its march through infinite 
space, approaching more and more the comprehension of man, 
until bending its course nearer and nearer it grew brighter and 
brighter until it buried itself in the blaze of glory wherein it had 
its birth. 

To about this time, if anywhere, must be assig-ned 
an alleged residence at Turtle Bay, now the foot of 
Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh streets. East River, which 
we find described at much length by a Miss Sarah F. 
Miller in the paper (given in full below) read at the 
Poe Centennial Celebration at Fordham January 9th, 
1909. Every attempt to verify this residence having 
failed, it is surmised that possibly Mrs. Clemm may 
have become acquainted with a family of Miller liv- 
ing in that precinct and that she and Virginia may 
have spent some time as guests there, possibly there 
learning of the Fordham College and proceeding to it 
from the Miller domicile. Under such circumstances 
Poe may have taken rooms at Ann Street. No. 4 
Ann Street was a boarding house kept by a Mrs. Fos- 
ter (the Directory for 1845 gives "Edward Foster late 
Strawpealer," 4 Ann Street) where some of the "freaks" 
from Barnum's Museum just across the way also 
boarded. That Poe lived here sans wife or mother- 
in-law at one time appears from a letter from one 
Charles G. Curtis in possession (1919) of a Mr. G. 
George Werner of West Hoboken. Or he may have 
sought lodging again in the familiar precinct of 
Amity Street, this time at No. 85, from which number 

r 203 1 


we find two letters of the date, one of them requesting 

that letters should be so addressed, spending his week 

ends at Turtle Bay meanwhile. The statment of Miss 

Sarah F. Miller above alluded to is as follows : 

One of the most cherished memories of my childhood is the 
recollection of so often having seen Edgar Poe, when I was a 
little girl. We lived near the foot of what is the present Forty- 
seventh street in a house facing Turtle Bay. Among our nearest 
neighbours was a charming family consisting of a Mr. Poe, his 
wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Mrs. Clemm. Poor Vir- 
ginia Poe was very ill at the time and I never saw her leave the 
house. Mr. Poe and Mrs. Clemm would very often call on us. 
He would also run over every little while to ask my father to loan 
him his boat and then he would enjoy himself pulling at the oars 
over to the little island just south of Blackwell's Island for his 
afternoon swim. In the midst of this friendship they came and 
told us they were going to move to a distant place called Ford- 
ham, where they had rented a little cottage, feeling that the pure 
country air would do Mrs. Poe a world of good. Very soon they 
invited us to luncheon which was very daintily served in the 
large room on the first floor. I remember the front door led 
directly to this apartment, I recall most clearly their bringing 
me a small wooden box to sit on instead of a chair. 

When Miss Miller made this extraordinary state- 
ment, extraordinary in that it relates an episode in 
Poe biography hitherto entirely unsuspected and un- 
hinted at in any one of the hundreds of biographies 
of Poe with which our public libraries teem, she was 
upwards of eighty years old. She had been a resident 
of Morrisania (the vicinity nearest to Fordham) for 
many years, and was a teacher in the Public Schools 
of the City, and the sister-in-law of Rev. Robert Hol- 
den, sometime distinguished Rector of Trinity 
School New York City. The late William G. Apple- 
ton of Dobbs Ferry, son of the Rev. Samuel G. 
Appleton, (St. Paul's Church Rectory, Morrisania) 
writes : "I knew Miss Miller well in the early sixties. 
She was often at our house and often spoke of her 
early acquaintance with Poe, but never at any great 

[ 204 ] 


length." On reading it to Mr. Appleton, he expressed 
himself as certain that Miss Miller never related in his 
hearing the facts she puts into her Fordham state- 

Among the reasons for inferring that Miss Miller's 
memory might have failed her and her statement is 
to be accepted cautiously are the following: Although 
known by that name since the days of the Dutch Gov- 
ernor Van Twiller, when it was a tobacco plantation, 
down to the year 1845-9, "Turtle Bay" remained a 
rural precinct and a careful comparison of maps in the 
New York Historical Society's collections fail to find 
any dwelling houses therein save one or two built for 
persons finding occupation there either along shore or 
as market gardeners or otherwise. There is on all 
these maps noted a large tobacco warehouse of stone 
near the water's edge which during the revolution was 
used to store powder and munitions of war by the 
British, and was once raided by Col. Marinus Willett's 
patriots. Moreover to the latest date given there was 
no public thoroughfare from Turtle Bay to what was 
then the city nor were there any highways except 
the Western Post Road skirting the North River and 
higher up the Bloomingdale and Kingsbridge and 
Boston Post Roads to Westchester County. Altogether it 
was the last place that Poe, who earned his daily bread 
among the printing and editorial offices of Nassau 
Street and lower Broadway, would have sought for a 
residence. Never being able to lease more than two 
rooms with or without board from week to week, he 
could have found nothing within his purse at Turtle 
Bay ! Moreover Miss Miller's account suggests a 
confusion of memory. Had the Poes been domiciled 

[ 205 ] 


at Turtle Bay, swept by breezes from Long Island 
Sound, Mrs. Clemm would never have spoken of in- 
land Fordham's "pure country air" as likely to "do 
Virginia a world of good." Such a speech, however, 
might well have referred to the stuffy atmosphere of 
the East Broadway lodgings. And Miss Miller's re- 
membrances of the apartment to which the front door 
immediately opened and the sparceness of furniture, 
suggest the living-room of the Fordham cottage quite 
as we see it today ! 

Might the facts of which Miss Miller's memory had 
become confused after a lapse of fifty years been 
something like this : Mrs. Clemm had become ac- 
quainted with the Millers who, touched by the sad 
face of the delicate Virginia, had invited them both to 
an indefinite stay at Turtle Bay while seeking for a 
country domicile. That Mrs. Clemm should have 
been guided by the worthy Millers to Fordham was 
not unlikely, for (as we have seen) a Miss Miller did 
afterwards make her residence there, and the Har- 
lem Railroad had just been opened that far and there 
were undulating pastures and great cornfields, and 
along the Kingsbridge road many a small cottage like 
the one she ultimately selected for its romantic his- 

And Mrs. Clemm found a doll's house in dimensions 
at least. A door between two tiny windows gave 
upon a narrow porch, above them two still tinier ones 
scarcely larger than the portholes of a ship ! Inside, 
two rooms, a bit of a "lean-to" for a kitchen, while 
the two portholes peered out from a something which 
Mrs. Clemm thought might pass on a pinch for one 
room more ! 

r 206 1 



The $225.00 paid off all city debts except, the East 
Broadway landlady who continued to be unpleasant 
and held Poe's mail-matter as long as she could until 
some successor lodger sent it to him. And in the 
spring of 1846, as he himself put it, "between cherry 
blossom and cherry ripe," he took possession of his 
own front door. And there began the long story of 
poverty far from any city friend or acquaintance who 
might, with a dinner or a glass, lighten the daily load 
which, had it not been for Mrs. Clemm's neat touch, 
would have been not only abject poverty, but abject 
squalor. All this the little cottage recalls as now in 
repair and fresh paint it stands a stone's throw from 
where Mrs. Clemm found it, in Poe Park, Fordham, 

When in 1895 the New York Shakespeare Society 
rescued the poor little cottage, just as a sub-contrac- 
tor on the widening of Kingsbridge Road was about 
to reduce it to kindling wood, and opened it to public 
inspection there was still standing about ten rods to 
the south a carriage shop and blacksmithy, substantially 
as in Poe's day. And one of its proprietors, then an 
employee, said to this writer: "He (Poe) went by 
the shop every morning, for he used to go to the city 
very often : and knowing that he was a bright fellow 
and from the taste and neatness with which he was 
dressed, we came to think that he was making quite 
a bit of money in a very few hours." 

At the date of Poe's residence in Fordham Arch- 
bishop Hughes had just founded St. John's College, 
and a Priest, still connected with it said : 

Mr. Poe came here very often. He seemed to like to be with 
us and about the college. Agreeably and gradually he became a 
privileged person among us. He never was other than a true 

[ 207 ] 


gentleman. His grave, tender face, his simple and unconscious 
graciousness, his quick and never failing sympathy, his honest yet 
gentle earnestness made him the most lovable of men. 

Once settled there, Poe found himself, fourteen long 
miles from the offices where he could always earn a 
pittance, and there was no Post Office to act as his 
messenger. And here for the first time his poverty 
became absolute starvation. Of how the neighbours 
began to suspect and tried — (repelled by a pride like 
Chatterton's) to smuggle in wherewithal to keep alive 
the wasting bodies of Virginia and her mother, and 
by strategy of Poe himself, the story is better for- 
gotten; for it is not a proud one for New Yorkers to 
remember. Mrs, Clemm with a case knife digging 
for herbs and greens where she could find them in 
the roadside turf; alleging that "Eddy" liked them but 
confessing by her own sunken features that if he had 
no greens there was nothing to eat. How at last they 
forced themselves in and found the situation what 
they suspected — surely there is nothing more pathetic 
in the annals of authorship ! 

The literature of the world has been written in 
garrets and in jails no doubt. The meagre shack we 
call Shakespeare's birthplace is painful in its pinched 
meanness. But what tale in letters touches this ac- 
count given by a Mrs. Gove, a neighbour, of what she 
found in this Fordham cottage ? 

There was no clothing on the bed, which was only straw, but a 
snow white counterpane and sheets. The weather was cold and 
the sick lady had the dreadful chills that accompany the hectic 
fever of consumption. She lay on the straw bed wrapped in 
her husband's military coat (a remnant of his West Point days 
of a quarter of a century before) with a large tortoise-shell cat 
in her bosom. The wonderful cat seemed conscious of its great 
usefulness. The cloak and the cat were the sufferer's only means 
of warmth except as her mother held her hand and her husband 
her feet. 

[ 208 ] 


And then in that bitter winter of January, 1847-8, 
Virginia died and the kindness of a neighbor (let it 
not be forgotten that his name was W. H. Valentine) 
caused her poor pinched remains to be piously laid in 
his own family vault in the small cemetery — one 
craves to call it by the ancient name of "God's Acre" 
— near the old Fordham Manor Church. When long 
years afterward the Valentine vault was abandoned 
Mr. William Fearing Gill, who should be remembered 
gratefully for the deed, transferred her remains (keep- 
ing them in his own home until arrangements could 
be perfected for the reinterment) to rest beside those 
of her husband in the Baltimore Church yard. 

In this cottage in an upper room — the only upper 
room — Poe wrote the most exquisite verses in any 
tongue, Annabel Lcc, not after, but as it were in pre- 
monition, of poor little Virginia's death. And he read 
the poem there to Rosalie Poe, his sister from Balti- 
more, who spent a few days at the cottage the year 
before her brother's death. Two of Poe's most fam- 
ous poems are now accounted for. The third, "The 
Bells," we can also fortunately locate. 

One of the friends he made at about this time was 
a Mrs. Shew who lived at No. 5 East Tenth Street. 
And there he spent one night during his Fordham 
residence. That evening a chime or peal of bells in 
the vicinity disturbed him and he complained. But 
Mrs. Shew said to him : "Don't let them disturb you, 
why not let them instead inspire you ? Perhaps they 
are silver bells." The silver bells caught his ear and 
the poem took shape then and there. 

But even this is denied. A Judge, A. E. Giles, living 
on St. Paul Street, Baltimore, relates (Woodberry) 

r 209 1 


that a stranger once called upon him on a stormy 
night and obtaining admittance, demanded pen and 
paper, wrote The Bells and leaving the MS. behind 
him disappeared forever. It is added to this tale that 
Judge Giles has this clairvoyant manuscript framed to 
this day. And the story winds up of course with the 
legend "And this apparition was Edgar Allan Poe !" 

The details of what followed after Poe's departure 
from the poor little Fordham cottage to his end in 
Baltimore does not pertain to the story of "Poe in 
New York City." 

Doubtless Edgar Allan Poe, like other great men, 

had his moments of fatigue dress, when not coveting 

or anticipating inspection. And portraits of him do 

not always as fairly portray him as does Mr. Francis 

Gerry Fairfield (no over-partial biographer, either) : 

An elegantly moulded and rather athletic gentleman of five 
feet six, somewhat slender, lithe as a panther, with blue eyes 
that darkened or lightened as passion or fancy was uppermost. 
A head that might have been set on the shoulders of an Apollo, 
with the exception of his nose, which was abnormally long and 

Bronzk Tablet markin 


[ 210 ] 



Mrs. Mary P. Ferris 

CHE total population in 1805 was 75,770, and in 
1807 it had increased to 83,500. Of this num- 
ber 2,048 were slaves. 

Colonel Marinus Willett, the redoubtable Revo- 
lutionary patriot, was Mayor, the great-great-grand- 
son of Thomas Willet, New York's first Mayor. Col- 
onel Willett died at the good old age of ninety years. 
The cofiin in which he was buried was made of pieces 
of wood collected by himself many years before from 
the different revolutionary battlefields. By a written 
request, which was found among his effects, he was 
clothed in a complete suit of ancient citizen's apparel, 
including an old-fashioned three-cornered hat. 

Maturin Livingston, whose wife was a daughter 
of General Morgan Lewis, was Recorder, and lived 
on Liberty Street. On his removal from office he 
purchased Ellerslie, a valuable estate near Rhinebeck, 
and erected a splendid mansion, which was after- 
wards owned by Hon. William Kelly, and later was 
the country seat of ex-Governor Levi P. Morton. 

William Cutting was Sheriff. The Aldermen were 
Peter Mesier, Samuel M. Hopkins, Abraham King, 
James Drake, John Bingham, John D. Miller, Jacob 
Mott, Thurston Wood, Nicholas Fish. The Assistants 
were John Slidell, John W. Mulligan, Simon van 
Antwerp, Abraham Bloodgood, Thomas J. Campbell, 
Stephen Ludlow, Samuel Forbert, Jasper Ward and 
Samuel Kip. 

[211 ] 


Peter Mesier was one of the notable merchants of 
New York whom the revolution had ruined. He and 
his family lost fifteen buildings in the disastrous fire 
of August, 1778. His daughter married David Lydig, 
one of the richest merchants of his day. Mr. Lydig 
lived at 35 Beekman Street, and his extensive mills 
were at Buttermilk Falls, just below West Point. 
David Lydig's only son, Philip, married the eldest 
daughter of John Suydam, another old merchant, and 
one daughter by this marriage became the wife of 
Judge Charles P. Daly and another married Judge 

Samuel Miles Hopkins was a man of much dis- 
tinction. He was, in 1825, appointed one of the Com- 
missioners to build a new prison at Sing Sing. 

Colonel Nicholas Fish, who had been Superintend- 
ent of the Revenue under Washington in 1794, was 
the grandfather of Hamilton and Stuyvesant Fish. 

John Slidell, the son of a respectable tallow chand- 
ler, whose manufactory was at 50 Broadway, lived 
at 60 Broadway. He had travelled extensively in 
Europe when he was a young man. and was quite the 
Beau Brummel of the day. On his return to New 
York he became attentive to Louisa Fairlie, a daugh- 
ter of that courtly old citizen, Major James Fairlie, 
who lived at 41 Courtlandt Street. Telling her of his 
travels, she once asked him, "Did you go to Greece?" 
"No; why do you ask?" replied Slidell. "Oh, noth- 
ing; only it would have been so very natural that 
you should visit Greece to renew early associations." 

John W. Mulligan was born in New York while it 
was under English rule. As a little boy, he remem- 
bered standing on a hill where Grand Street now 

\ 212 1 

Q m 

""r i°3 ! 

K o 


a. o 

hJ c 


crosses Broadway, and seeing the English sentinel 
file off on the evacuation of the British. Governor 
King was a student in his law office. At one time, 
as secretary, he was a member of Baron Steuben's 
family and assisted at his entertainments. Baron 
Steuben bequeathed him all his library, maps and 
charts, and $2,500 to complete it. 

Broadway was the favorite promenade, and a walk 
from the lower part of the city to Canal Street was a 
great feat for pedestrians. 

An English writer in 1807 says, "There are thirty- 
one benevolent institutions in New York," and calls 
attention particularly to the efforts of the ladies to 
provide for poor widows and orphans, "which is wor- 
thy of imitation in Great Britain." Among these in- 
stitutions were the societies of St. George, St. Patrick, 
St. Andrew, the New England Society and the Cincin- 

A "literary fair" was held every year, alternating 
between New York and Philadelphia. This fair was a 
social gathering of American publishers, which pro- 
moted acquaintance, encouraged the arts of printing 
and bookbinding and aided the circulation of books. 
High taxes and prices of paper and labor in England 
were favorable to authorship and the publication of 
books in this country. English works of note were 
reprinted and sold for one- fourth the original price. 

There were nineteen newspapers in New York, eight 
of them dailies, with several monthly and occasional 
publications. "Art and literature had hardly an exist- 
ence," it was said. 

January 24, 1807, "Salmagundi" first appeared in the 
form of a little primer, six and a half inches long and 

[ 215 ] 


three and one-half inches wide. The publishers said 
they were all "townsmen good and true," and that the 
new paper would contain "the quintessence of modern 

The Society Library — the earliest loan library in 
America — was on the corner of Nassau and Cedar 
streets, and its librarian was John Forbes. 

Among the literary folk were the Irvings, who lived 
at 17 State Street, facing the Battery; William Dunlap, 
Thomas Paine, James K. Paulding, Josiah Ogden Hoff- 
man and Philip Hone. 

Kent's Hotel, on Broad Street, was a general gath- 
ering place for political and other meetings. 

There was a Free School on Henry Street, opened a 
year before in Bancker (now Madison) Street. The 
school of the Dutch church was on Garden Street. 

The only iron-rail fence in the whole city was at the 
Bowling Green, at the foot of Broadway, put up in 1771 
in honor of George HI., and costing iSOO. The first 
one put up after this was partly around the Park, in 

The Post Office was on the corner of William and 
Garden streets (now Exchange Place), in a house 
about twenty-seven feet front. The office was in a 
room about thirty feet deep, with two windows on 
Garden Street, and on William Street a little vestibule 
containing about one hundred boxes. Theodorus Bai- 
ley was postmaster and lived in the house. There was 
but one theatre (built in 1798), the red Pach. Per- 
formances were on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays 
from the 1st to the 15th of May, and the 1st to the 
15th of September. 

There were nine insurance companies ; and the Courts 
[ 216 ] 



for the trial of Impeachments and Correction of Er- 
rors, the Court of Chancery, the Supreme Court, the 
Court of Exchequer, the Court of Oyer and Terminer, 
the Mayor's Court, the Court of Common Pleas, the 
Court of General Sessions of the Peace, the Court of 
Probate, the Court of Surrogates, the United States 
District and Circuit Courts. 

The leading physicians were Drs. Hosack, Bruce, 
Mitchell, Miller, Williamson and Romayne. Dr. Hos- 
ack was at the head of his profession. He was instru- 
mental in establishing a medical library in the New 
York Hospital, in founding the Elgin Botanical Gar- 
dens — the Bronx Park of 1807 — in improving the med- 
ical police of the city and in the advocacy of strict 
quarantine. It was said that De Witt Clinton, David 
Hosack and Bishop Hobart were the tripod on which 
New York stood. It was Dr. Hosack who caught Ham- 
ilton in his arms and heard the gasping words, "Doc- 
tor, this is a mortal wound. Take care of that pistol ; 
it is undischarged and still cocked. Pendleton knows 
I did not mean to fire at him." 

It was at a dinner at Albany, at which my grand- 
father was present, that the first trouble between 
Hamilton and Burr began, and it was about a lady. 

Dr. Hosack's special pet, the Elgin Botanical Gar- 
dens, occupied the ground between Forty-seventh 
and Fifty-first streets and Fifth and Sixth avenues, 
and was the wonder of the day. He brought from Lon- 
don the first collection of minerals ever introduced 
into America, and his house was the resort of learned 
men from every part of the world. It afterwards be- 
came the property of Columbia University and is the 
main source of Columbia's wealth today. 

[219 ] 


Dr. Samuel Mitchell ministered to mind as well as 
body, and when Fulton was defeated encouraged him, 
stimulating Livingston to large appropriations. 

Dr. Hugh Williamson penned the first notice for 
the formation of the Literary and Philosophical So- 
ciety. The medical faculty reorganized by the Re- 
gents of the University went into effect in 1807, when 
Dr. Romayne was appointed President of the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons under their authority. 

Gordon Baker's Museum was one of the sights of 
the town. The New York philosopher was a cele- 
brated advertising genius named John Richard Dos- 
bough Huggins, who lived at 92 Broadway, and whose 
advertisements were the wittiest productions of the 
day, and among some of his writers were eminent 

Mrs. Toole and Madame Bouchard were the rival 
milliners. James Kent. Smith Thompson, Ambrose 
Spencer, Nathaniel Pendleton and William Van Ness 
were the leading legal lights. 

The following is a fair estimate of current prices : 
Beef, 63^d. per lb.; mutton. 5d. ; veal, 7d. ; butter, 
lOd. ; bread, the loaf of 21^2 lbs., 7d. ; cheese, 7d. ; tur- 
keys, 7s. each ; chickens, 20 d. per couple ; oysters, 7d. 
per dozen ; flour, 27s. per barrel of 196 lbs. ; brandy, 7s. 
6d. per gallon: coffee. Is. 6d. per lb.; green tea, 5s.; 
best hyson, 10s. ; coal 70s. per cauldron ; wood, 20s. 
per cord; a coat, £1 10s.; waistcoat and pantaloons, 
£4 10s.; hat. 54s.; pair of boots, 54s.; washing, 3s. 6d. 
per dozen pieces. Prices of lodging at "genteel board- 
ing houses," from one guinea and a half to three guin- 
eas per week. After the embargo took place the price 

[ 220 ] 

An early Book and Print Shop in New York, G. M. Bourne, 

359 Broadway, 1831. Publisher of many interesting old views 

OF the city. This building was also the first home of the 

Union Club, 1836 


of provisions fell to nearly half the above sums, and 
European commodities rose in proportion. 

The manufactures of America were yet in an infant 
state ; but in New York there were several excellent 
cabinetmakers, coachmakers, etc., who not only sup- 
plied the country with household furniture and car- 
riages, but also exported very largely to the West In- 
dies and to foreign possessions on the continent of 
America. "Their workmanship would be considered 
elegant and modern in London," a visitor said ; and 
they had the advantage of procuring mahogany and 
other wood at reasonable prices. 

An English gentleman, visiting New York in 1807, 
says : "The day after our arrival, being the 25th of 
November, was the anniversary of the evacuation of 
New York by the British troops at the peace of 1783. 
The militia, or rather the volunteer corps, assem- 
bled from different parts of the city on the Grand 
Battery by the waterside, so-called from a fort hav- 
ing formerly been built on the spot, though at pres- 
ent it is nothing more than a lawn for the recreation 
of the inhabitants and for the purpose of military pa- 
rade. The troops did not amount to 600, and were 
gaudily dressed in a variety of uniforms, each ward in 
the city having a different one. Some of them with 
helmets appeared better suited to the theatre than 
to the field. The general of the militia and his staff 
were dressed in the national uniform of blue, with 
buff facings. They also wore large gold epaulets and 
feathers, which altogether had a very showy appear- 
ance. Some gunboats were stationed off the battery 
and fired several salutes in honor of the day, and the 
troops paraded through the streets leading to the 

[ 223 ] 


waterside. They went through the forms practised 
on taking- possession of the city, maneuvring and fir- 
ing feux de joie, etc., as occurred on the evacuation 
of New York. One of the corps consisted wholly of 
Irishmen, dressed in light green jackets, white panta- 
loons and helmets. 

"The whole harbour," says the same writer, "was 
covered by a bridge of very compact ice in 1780, to 
the serious alarm of the British garrison, but the 
like has never occurred since. New York is the first 
city in the United States for commerce and population, 
as it is also the finest and most agreeable for its sit- 
uation and buildings. When the intended improve- 
ments are completed, it will be a very elegant and 
commodious town, and worthy of becoming the cap- 
ital of the United States, for it seems that Washing- 
ton is by no means calculated for a metropolitan city. 
New York has rapidly improved in the last twenty 
years, and land which then sold in that city for $50 
is now worth $1,500. 

"The Broadway and Bowery Roads are the two fin- 
est avenues in the city, and nearly of the same width 
as Oxford Street in London. Broadway commences 
from the Grand Battery, situate at the extreme point 
of the town, and divides it into two unequal parts. It 
is upward of two miles in length, though the pave- 
ment does not extend beyond a mile and a quarter ; 
the remainder of the road consists of straggling 
houses which are the commencement of new streets 
already planned out. 

"The Bowery Road commences from Chatham 
Street, which branches off from the Broadway to 
the right, by the side of the Park. After proceeding 

[ 224 ] 

< w 

w o 

P3 S 



about a mile and half it joins the Broadway and ter- 
minates the plan which is intended to be carried into 
effect for the enlargement of the city. Much of the 
intermediate space between these large streets and 
from thence to the Hudson and East rivers is yet un- 
built upon, and consists only of unfinished streets and 
detached buildings." 

Good old customs had not fallen into disuse in 1807. 
and New Year's Day was the day of days to the good 

There was an old aristocracy which made no pre- 
tension, but it existed all the same, and we find there 
the names of Clarkson, de Peyster, van Rensselaer. 
Schuyler. Stuyvesant. Beekman, Bleecker, Stryker, 
Anthony, Cregier, van Home. Laurence. Gouveneur. 
van Wyck, van Cortlandt. Provost. Kip. Dyckman. 
Verplanck. de Kay, Brevoort, Rutgers, de Forest, 
Kent, Jay, Phoenix, Walton, Wetmore, de Lancey, 
Bard. Pedleton. Lewis Livingston, Aspinwall, Wool- 
sey, Newbold, Ogden, Grinnell, Howland, Sands, Ward, 
King, Lorrilard. Gracie, Waddington. Barclay, Mor- 
ton, Pintard and a dozen or more of no doubt equal 

About Eighth Street stood the country seat of 
W^illiam Nielsen. At the corner of Broadway and 
Ninth Street was the Sailors' Snug Harbor, a brick 
octagon building, given by Captain Robert R. Ran- 
dall for old seamen. It had been the residence of 
Baron Poelnitz. 

The old Brevoort mansion faced Bowery Road. 
The Spingler Farm extended along the west side of 
the Bowery Road from Fourteenth to Sixteenth 

[ 227 ] 


Matthew Clarkson — of whom De Witt Clinton said, 
"Whenever a charitable or public institution was about to 
be established, Clarkson's presence was considered essen- 
tial ; his sanction became a passport to public approba- 
tion" — was President of the Bank of New York. 

Gilbert Aspinwall, the representative of a family 
of princely merchants, lived on the corner of Broad- 
way and Broome Street. 

Frederick Gebhard was one of the recent comers 
to New York, and lived on the corner of Greenwich 
and Rector Streets. He had his office on the first 
floor and lived upstairs. He was the first importer of 
the celebrated Swan gin. 

The Bayard mansion stood on Bayard Hill between 
Grand Street and Broome. Archibald Gracie's coun- 
try seat was at the foot of Eighty-ninth Street, op- 
posite Hell Gate. He was spoken of as having "enor- 
mous wealth even after he had lost a million dollars." 
Mrs. Gracie was a sister of Mr. Rogers, a prominent 
merchant and a brother-in-law of President Timothy 
Dwight of Yale College. The Beekman country place 
was on the East River near Fifty-first Street, and 
the Kip mansion on the line of Thirty-fifth Street. 
Between the last two houses stood the residence of 
Francis Bayard Winthrop, later known as the Cut- 
ting homestead. The mansion of Henry A. Coster 
was on the East River near Thirtieth Street, and he 
also had a handsome residence on Chambers Street. 

Among the ladies interested in charitable work 
were Mrs. Bethune, the mother of the distinguished 
clergyman and author ; Mrs. Josiah Ogden Hoffman, 
Mrs. John McVickar, Mrs. Henry Coster, Mrs. James 
Fairlie and Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. 

[ 228 ] 




The Earliest in New York State 

Mrs. Mary P. Ferris 

HE earliest library in this State of which we 
have any record belonged to Jonas Bronck, for 
whom the Borough of the Bronx was named. 

He was one of those worthy but unfortunate Men- 
nonites who were driven from their homes in Holland 
to Denmark by religious persecution. He was a brave 
and enterprising young man and gained rapid promo- 
tion in the army of the King of Denmark, who was 
very tolerant toward the sect known as Mennonites. 
He served as commander in the East Indies until 1638, 
when, with others of the persecuted, he set sail for 
America, and his name first appears on the records 
the following year when he receives a large grant 
of land in Westchester County from the Sachems of 

His library contained the following volumes : 

Two Schatkamers (Treasiir- Calvin's Institutes, 

ies), sm. fol. Ballingerus. 

Petis a Diani. Schultelus Dominicalies. 

Danish Child's Book. Molineri Praxes, 4to. 

Veertich Taffereelen Van q^,^^^ gjbj 4^0. 

Doots, 1 vol., by bimon j ., > r> 1 

Golae^t. Luther s Psalms. 

Bible Stories. S'^.^f .^' Y'^' 

Danish Calendar. ^^^ Spiegel, fol. 
Vievf of the Major Navigation. Danish Cronyk, 4to. 

18 old printed books of Danish Danish Law Book, 4to. 

and Dutch authors. Luther's Catechism. 

17 Ms. books. Tale of Christi, 4to. 

Bible, folio. Four Ends of Death. 

[ 229 ] 



^^v/HE Bay of New York looked beautiful on the morn- 
^^ ing of our arrival (May 16th, 1849). It was a 
l:)right, warm, splendid morning ; the sun shone 
gloriously and the sky reminded me of Italy. 

-r ^ ^ ^ 

One of the first things that struck us on arriving 
in the city of New York — the Empress City of the 
West — was, of course, Broadway. It is a noble street, 
and has a thoroughly bustling, lively, and somewhat 
democratic air. New York is certainly handsome, and 
yet there is something about it that gives one the 
idea of a half-finished city, and this even in Broad- 
way itself; for the street was literally littered with all 
imaginable rubbish which, we should imagine from 
appearances, is usually shot into that celebrated thor- 
oughfare ; indeed it seems a sort of preserve for this 
species of game. Piles of timber, mounds of bricks, 
mountains of packing-cases, pyramids of stones and 
stacks of goods were observed on all sides. The 
New Yorkers themselves grumble much at the incon- 
venience, and their newspapers often contain pathetic 
remonstrances with the authorities for allowing such 
obstructions to crowed the thoroughfare. 

Besides this, it appears from their published com- 
plaints that their streets are very much too often torn 
vip for sewage purposes, etc., and, in short, that this 
tiresome performance is frequently "unnecessarily en- 
cored," without their consent, and certainly to their 

[ 230 ] 


manifest inconvenience. They ask if their time is to 
be taken up (as their streets are) continually by hav- 
ing to stop every two or three steps and sit down on 
the next doorstep to take the paving-stones out of 
their boots? Cartloads of these same paving-stones 
adding to the confusion were to be seen on all sides, 
and sometimes felt, as our handsome, heavy, crimson- 
velvet-lined, hired vehicle (rather a warm-looking 
lining for New York near the beginning of June) 
swayed from side to side, and rolled and rattled pon- 
derously along. 

We went to the Astor House. ***** What 
a glorious sunny day it was ! We had a glimpse of 
busy Broadway from our windows. We soon saw 
some evidence Of the warmth of a New York summer, 
in the profusion of light, cool bonnets furnished with 
broad and deeply-hanging curtains, shading and cov- 
ering the throat and part of the shoulders — a very 
sensible costume for hot weather. The fashion, or the 
custom, just now seems to be for all the ladies to wear 
large white shawls. I never beheld such a number 
of white shawls mustered before. I think the female 
part of the population seems all "vouee au blanc." It 
had rather too table-clothy an appearance, and from 
its frequency the snowy shawl soon became quite tire- 
some ; besides, they made one think of "weird w^hite 
women," sheeted spectres, and Abd-el-Kader's scour- 
ing Arabs in their "burnooses." This is, I dare say, 
however, only a temporary fancy ; and probably when 
I return to New York they (the shawls, not the wear- 
ers thereof) will all have been swept away, like so 
many light fleecy clouds, to the four winds of heaven, 

[231 ] 


New York is certainly altogether the most bust- 
ling, cheerful, lifeful, restless city I have seen in the 
United States. Nothing and nobody seem to stand 
still for half a moment in New York ; the multitudin- 
ous omnibuses which drive like insane vehicles from 
morning till night appear not to pause to take up their 
passengers, or it is so short a pause you hardly have 
time to see the stoppage, like the instantaneous flash 
of lightning. How on earth the people get in or out 
of them I do not know ; the man behind surely must 
sometimes shut a person half in and half out and cut 
them in two, but neither he nor they have time to 
notice such trifles. You see them thrust and shoved 
and pushed and crammed through the hasty open door, 
as if they were the merest *Mive lumber." Empty or 
full, these omnibuses seem never to go slower. I 
have seen dozens and dozens of them go by perfectly 
empty, but just as much in a hurry, tearing and dash- 
ing along, as if full of people too late for the train. 
* * * * 

The park is pretty, but too small for such a city 
as New York. It has a beautiful fountain and is splen- 
didly illuminated at night with thousands of lamps. 
There are numerous superior shops in Broadway, but 
the most preeminently magnificent is "Stewart's." It 
is one of the finest structures I ever saw, its front be- 
ing composed entirely of white marble. Mr. Stewart 
is going to add immensely to this splendid store, and 
it will occupy almost as much space as the Pallazzo 
Doria at Rome. Crowds of carriages, private and pub- 
lic, are to be seen in Broadway, passing and repassing 
every moment, filled with ladies beautifully dressed 
in the most elaborate Parisian toilets, 

[ 232 ] 

Original residence of Henry Brevoort, 24 Fifth Avenue. One of the 


entertainments including THE FIRST MASKED BALL EVER GIVEN IN 

THE CITY. Soon to be restored to its original CONDITION BY 




©HE corner stone of the City Hall was laid May 26th, 
1803 by Edward Livingston, Mayor of the City. 
Eor three years previous the question of building 
it had been under consideration, the city officials being in 
doubt as to the expediency of undertaking what was con- 
sidered at that time a work of great magnitude ; and had 
the old City Hall in Wall Street been in fit condition for 
the business of the city, no doubt the proposition to build a 
new one would have been abandoned or postponed for 
years, so that the condition of the old building was the 
immediate cause for the erection of a new structure. 
However, there were many far sighted and progressive 
minds inside and out of the Common Council who real- 
ized the propriety and benefit of a large and imposing 
building for a city which was fast growing into national 

After much deliberation the question of building reached 
a practical point and on March 24, 1800, the Common 
Council appointed a committee "to consider the expediency 
of erecting a new City Hall," to have plans made, to re- 
port on a site and to sul)mit an estimate of the cost. This 
Committee was also charged with the duty of suggesting 
means for the disposal of the old City Hall. The Com- 
mittee consisted of Aldermen Coles, Lenox and De la 
Montaigne. The more timid members of the Board who 
regarded the undertaking as altogether too pretentious 
and expensive for the little city as it was then, were a 
considerable handicap to the Committee which did not 
complete its work for more than two years. Acting on 

[ 235 ] 


the report of this Committee, October 4, 1802, the Com- 
mon Council selected the plan made by John McComb, Jr. 
and Joseph G. Mangin jointly, and ordered the treasurer 
to pay three hundred and fifty dollars to these gentlemen 
for the successful plan. A few days later, October 11, 
1802, the Board appropriated twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars, appointed a Building Committee and this monumental 
work was fairly launched. 

For more than ten years the work was under way. It 
was obstructed and hindered from time to time by dilat- 
ory resolutions of over cautious members of the Common 
Council. The first of these was ofifered December 27, 
1802, expressing dissatisfaction with the plans as being 
too ornate, too expensive and larger than required. In 
order to meet these objections another Committee was 
appointed February 21, 1803 to consider means of reduc- 
ing the cost and of altering the plan so as to conform to 
the ideas of these members as to size. This Committee 
reported that the length of the building might be lessened 
by curtailing the wings, thus meeting the objection to size, 
and that by using marble for the front and sides only and 
brown stone for the rear the expense of the building 
would be reduced. This report did not bring harmony 
and was rejected without much consideration. 

A new Committee was appointed to consider the ques- 
tion as to material, site and cost, and the most practical 
thing this Committee did was to select Mr. John McComb. 
Jr. as their agent. It is evident however, that Mr. 
McComb did not have a fr\ee hand, for the Committee 
made a report which did not differ greatly from the pre- 
vious one. The report recommended the shortening of the 
length and depth of the building and of using brown 

[ 236 ] 


stone. The estimated cost of this plan was $200,000. The 
Council confirmed this report March 21, 1803. 

The dissatisfaction was not yet allayed and Mr. 
McComb, who in the meantime had been appointed Super- 
vising Architect by resolution of the Building Committee 
at the munificent sum of six dollars for each day he should 
be engaged on the work, succeeded in bringing the Council 
back to something like the original plan so far as dimen- 
sions were concerned. There was no difiference of opinion 
as to the site. That seemed to be settled in every one's 
mind, for on April 5th, IVIr. McComb noted in his diary 
"marked out ground for building." Mr. McComb was 
given control of the entire work and his guiding hand 
brought order out of chaos and put the work into prac- 
tical shape. 

The only question which had now to be settled was 
the material to be used. Marble and brown stone and 
white free stone had their advocates, and the Common 
Council on September 3, 1803 took action in favor of 
white free stone for the principal fronts, only to be again 
changed in the following month. The marble idea would 
not down and it may be conjectured that the supervising 
architect was the moving force in favor of this material. 
The people too were beginning to realize the importance of 
making this new City Hall an honor to the city and an 
edifice which would rank among the noted public buildings 
of the country. The call for marble was therefore hon- 
ored and the corporation entered into a contract for this" 
material November 14, 1803. The architect's estimate, 
as appears in the Committee's final report, showed that 
"the difference of expense between marble and brown 
stone would not exceed the sum of forty three thousand, 
seven hundred and fifty dollars," and this quite negligible 

r 237 1 


amount in such an important work had given occasion for 
grave apprehension and great perturbation of mind on 
the part of our early city fathers. Thus it was decided 
"that the front and two end views of the New Hall be 
built of marble." For the sake of economv the rear of 
the building was to be of brown stone. 

The ten years that were consumed in building were 
years of trial and hardship. The work was interrupted and 
suspended frequently from causes over which neither 
architect nor workmen had control. The difficulty of get- 
ting the marble from Stockbridge to the river in the days 
before steam was often insurmountable. Snows blocked 
the roads, and the roads themselves presented enough of a 
problem without the snow drifts. The work in the city 
was impeded also by the elements and workmen were 
laid oE for months during the continuance of these storms. 
There was also the consideration of epidemics which were 
quite frequent at that jDcriod and put an end to all activ- 
ities in the line of building, and not the least of all, city 
finances which at that early time suffered as we do at 
present from an insufficient treasury, or to state it more 
accurately from careless and extravagant expenditure. 

Although the building of the new City Hall went on 
slowly it was being done very thoroughly and from year 
to year rose to its present proportions of symmetry and 
beauty. Mr. McComb's energy and thoroughness were 
evidenced in every step of the work and only the dilatory 
actions of the Council prevented the comjiletion of the 
edifice many years sooner. On December 1, 1807 the 
Building Committee reported an expenditure of $207,000 
and the building erected to the second floor. In 1808 the 
cry for economy resulted in the reduction of wages and 

1 238 1 

West BRnAnwAv and Hudson Strket, old location of H. K. and 

F. B. Thurber &• Co., THE largest wholesale grocers 

IN the country, 1880 


this, together with the disinchnation of the Council to 
make sufficient appropriation, held the work back. 

The outside work was completed in 1810 with the ex- 
ception of the roof, which was made temporarily of 
shingles waiting the arrival of the copper roof which was 
brought from England. The interior was finished so far 
as providing a room for the Common Council, the Mayor, 
the Clerk and the Comptroller was concerned, but it was 
far into the next year — the month of August 1811 — before 
the officials of the City bade farewell to their old quarters 
in Wall Street and made their official and permanent 
residence in this spacious and magnificent new City Hall. 
On May 5, 1812 the Common Council by unanimous 
action declared "that the building shall be the City Hall 
of the City of New York." The entire cost of the build- 
ing was about five hundred thousand dollars. 

The first celebration held in the new building was the 
observance of the Fourth of July, 1811, while yet the 
interior was not quite finished, and a month earlier than 
the official entrance. This was only a perfunctory and 
formal observance of the day. Since then there have been 
innumerable celebrations, receptions and other functions 
of great public interest, which if compiled would make a 
most interesting compendium of events for the Old New 

The Cupola of the City Hall was not actually completed 
until 1830. The original design which was so much ad- 
mired for its classic chasteness provided for a clock in 
the front window but this detail was neglected until the 
Common Council in 1828 ordered the clock to be put in. 
During the intervening years public sentiment had been 
veering toward the idea of having four dials instead of 
one and the Committee of Arts and Sciences submitted a 

[ 241 1 


plan to satisfy this desire. Their suggestion was to cut 
off the round section on top and to place under it an 
octagonal section showing four dials. This plan was 
adopted and the change completed in the spring of 1830. 
The Common Council also ordered a bell to be placed in 
the Cupola but this order was rescinded before the work 
had proceeded very far. 

The change made in the Cupola detracted from the 
classic simplicity of the original design and the wish was 
often expressed that the original plan might be restored. 
When the Cupola was destroyed by fire in 1858 at the 
celebration of the laying of the Atlantic Cable, an op- 
portunity was offered to accomplish this desire, but the 
beautiful artistic conception of Mr. McComb was set 
aside and a replica of the one which was burned erected. 

It was not until May 5, 1917, when another fire par- 
tially destroyed the Cupola that an opportunity offered 
again of restoring the original design. The fire occurred 
during the reception of the foreign war commissions. 
This time the world of art. as well as the general public, 
demanded a return to the classic original, which was in 
reality an integral part of the building, and was so perfect 
and fitting for that edifice that no substitute could take 
its place. The Cupola as it now stands is practically the 
one designed by McComb with a few minor changes 
hardly observable, so that we have now this noble edifice 
as it was conceived and planned by the architect over a 
hundred and twenty years ago. 

[ 242 ] 



HIFTH AVENUE has become a national thorough- 
fare and as such has staged some of the greatest 
spectacles that have ever been seen. During the war, 
parades and processions were of so frequent occurrence 
that it seemed to the native New Yorker as if this great 
artery of city life had been appropriated almost ex- 
clusively for these purposes. These modern specta- 
cles, so splendid in their equipment and effect, have 
dimmed to some extent the memory of the great pro- 
cessions and parades of former days, and it has been 
suggested that an account of the more important 
parades of long ago would be of interest to many old 
New Yorkers who remember the pleasurable excite- 
ment of the great celebrations of their own day. 

The Great Columbus Celebration, 
October lOth, lltli, 12th, 1892 

The four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of 
America was celebrated with a vim and enthusiasm 
surprising even to New Yorkers. For three days 
New York was in the streets and kept the city in a 
tumult of unprecedented excitement and amusement. 

A notable incident of the occasion was the meeting 
of the two candidates for the Presidency just on the 
eve of the election and in the last days of a hot cam- 
paign — President Harrison and Ex-President Cleve- 
land, and their meeting was of the heartiest. They 
approached each other wreathed in smiles, shook 
hands warmly and seemed to enjoy the humor of the 
meeting as much as the cheering mass of their ad- 

[ 243 ] 


miring fellow countrymen. Vice-President Morton 
and four well known Governors of States also parti- 
cipated in the festivities. Never before was New 
York so magnificently decked for a celebration and 
never before was a celebration more triumphant and 

School Children's Day, 
October 10th, 1892 

Grand March of the City Schools down Fifth Ave. 
from the Columbian Arch, made by Herts — himself 
a product of the public school, to the Washington 
Arch, designed by Stanford White, led by a line of 
mounted policemen, followed by the Grand Marshal 
and his staff, also mounted, and then by Mayor Hugh 
J. Grant alone and on foot. 

Then came the Seventh Regiment band followed by 
twenty regiments of boys of the public schools ten 
thousand strong. Next a division from Long Island 
City, one from Jersey City, and one from the Catholic 
Schools and following these a division of private 
schools headed by a drum corps of boys with a very 
important drum major marching in front. 

The College division was headed by six hundred 
students from the College of the City of New York, 
followed by Columbia College and finally the Art 
Students' League. 

One of the features of the day was the representa- 
tion of school girls, arrayed in white garments with 
a touch of bright color here and there. They were 
seated on a great stand built in front of the reser- 
voir at Fifth Avenue and Forty-Second Street. The 
young ladies filled the air with their music, singing 
one song after another, and as their clear voices rang 

[ 244 ] 

Parades in New York. Celebration of Evacuation Day, November 26th, 

1883, AS SEEN ON Broadway looking north from Fulton Street, 

showing St. Paul's Church, where Washington 

worshipped when President, and "cops" 

mauling citizens 


out, the music of the bands ceased and the marchers 
themselves changed for the time being from enter- 
tainers to entertained. 

The Naval Parade, October 11th, 1892 

The naval parade of war ships started from the 
Narrows, proceeding up the inner bay and then into 
the North River as far up as 126th Street. The pro- 
gram provided for all other vessels to follow the line 
of battleships, but instead of falling into line as in- 
tended they moved about at their own discretion and 
made a very interesting escort to the great line of 
cruisers and men of war moving slowly up the river. 
All sorts of craft were out and were festooned with 
bunting and flying flags, making a gay and striking 
scene for the thousands of people who crowded the 
shores of Staten Island and the water front of Brook- 
lyn. At the Battery there was a solid mass of human- 
ity as far back as it was possible to see, and the win- 
dows and roofs of every building where a glimpse of 
the parade could be had was filled to its capacity. 

As the ships passed Bedloe's Island and Castle Wil- 
liam the national salute was fired and the battleships 
responded, and as the great parade ended at 126th 
Street the foghorns and whistles of countless river 
craft burst out and finished a day which will linger in 
the memory of many New Yorkers. 

Military Parade, October 12th, 1892 

Shortly after eleven the vanguard appeared. The 
mounted police led the way, followed by the Marshal 
Gen. M. T. McMahon accompanied by several army 

[ 247 ] 


officers and followed by his aides. The West Point 
Cadets came next in order, then the men of the regu- 
lar army, the marines and artillery making a fine 
showing. The sailors from the war ships next came 
along and made a splendid appearance, completely 
capturing the fancy of the populace. Next came the 
State Guards. First the Signal Corps and following 
them the Eighth, Ninth, Twelfth, Twenty-Second, 
Seventh, Seventy-first and Sixty-ninth Regiments, 
the first Battery and the Second Battery, N. G. S. 
N. Y. and after these the boys of the Naval Reserve. 

The Second Brigade was composed of out of town 
regiments, including the Thirteenth, Twenty-Third, 
Fourteenth, and Forty-Seventh, the Third Battery and 
the Seventh separate company, all of Brooklyn. Next 
came the National Guard of Pennsylvania, a contin- 
gent from New Jersey, the Gate City Guard of At- 
lanta, and four regiments from Connecticut with the 
Governor of the State at their head. The Parade 
wound up with a stream of officials and civilians in 

The Night Pageant 

A million and a half is the estimate of the number 
of people who viewed the night pageant. A long 
procession of floats and equestrians occupying many 
hours in passing moved up Broadway and Fifth Ave- 
nue and made a display long to be remembered by 
those who were fortunate enough to secure a vantage 
spot to see it. The procession was a long and gorg- 
eous panorama of striking tableaux and held the inter- 
est of the populace long into the early hours of the 

r 248 1 

/•'W .". 


Parades in New York. Celebration of the laying of the Atlantic 

Cable, 1859. Sailors from the "Niagara" on Broadway carrying 

a model of their ship 


Evacuation Day Parade, November 26th, 1883 

The First Centennial Celebration of Evacuation Day 
was held on Monday, Nov. 26th, 1883, the actual day 
falling on a Sunday. The great military and civic 
procession marched down Broadway and was wit- 
nessed by hundreds of thousands of people standing 
on the line of march and crowding the side streets 
as far down as it was possible to see anything. At 
every window which came within the plane of vision 
could be seen a bevy of laughing and cheering faces 
enjoying the fine spectacle. Besides the President of 
the United States there were the Governors of seven 
of the original Thirteen States and many other nota- 
bles. In the procession there were over 20,000 men 
and their fine appearance and splendid marching did 
credit to both the military and civic authorities. 

The other great pageant was the Naval parade on 
the waters of the harbor and North and East 
Rivers. These two pageants divided the attention of 
the multitudes and packed every important street in 
the city. From McGowan's Pass to the Battery and 
at all the vantage grounds of the North and East 
Rivers spectators occupied every foot of space and 
witnessed a scene both on land and water never to 
be forgotten. Superb bands of music, battalions of 
brilliantly uniformed soldiers, companies of veterans, 
fire companies, industrial and political associations, 
colleges and schools, representative groups of labor 
and finance, the civic and federal officials, with the 
glorious old battle flags and other time honored relics, 
moved and glittered by in seemingly endless proces- 

[251 ] 


Brooklyn Bridge was crowded with a great gather- 
ing of people to view the water procession. From 
this point of view the scene that presented itself to 
the observer was inexpressibly inspiring and strik- 
ing. The waters of the bay and rivers were alive with 
vessels of all sorts, and the orderly procession of this 
great fleet presented a panorama of picturescjue and 
fascinating interest. 

The line of vessels stretching far up the Hudson 
and filling the upper bay steamed around the Battery, 
up the East River as far as the Navy Yard, then turned 
back and headed for Bay Ridge where it dispersed. 
In the evening there were great festivities and a 
splendid display of fireworks. It was far into the 
following morning before New York's gaiety subsided 
and the people returned to their homes conscious of 
having fittingly commemorated this great historic 

Washington Inaugural Centennial Celebration, 
April 29tli, 30th, and May 1st, 1889 

The Centennial Celel)ration of the Inauguration of 
General Washington as first President of the United 
States was probably the most magnificent spectacu- 
lar event in the history of the city up to that time. 
The Celebration lasted three days — April 29th, 30th, 
and May 1st — and during the entire period the fes- 
tivities were carried on with no abatement of the en- 
thusiasm and enjoyment of the occasion. 

In commemoration of General Washington's arrival 
at Elizabeth, N. J. and for the purpose of reproducing 
the events of his progress toward and arrival at New 

[ 252 ] 


York, President Harrison, who was then our chief 
magistrate reached the little New Jersey town in the 
morning, just as his predecessor General Washington 
had done a hundred years before. The little town was 
brilliant with decorations and every house was be- 
decked with flags and bunting. The streets were 
thronged with enthusiastic crowds, and the reception 
given the President was so whole-hearted and spon- 
taneous that it will surely be talked of until the next 
centennial celebration comes around. President Har- 
rison was accompanied by his official family and many 
of their friends. 

The procession to Elizabethport, the point of em- 
barkation, marched through the little town along the 
same road which Washington took when he went to 
embark on the barge that carried him to New York. 
At Elizabethport the President and the gentlemen of 
his escort, together with the officers of the various 
committees, boarded the government steamer Des- 
patch. The ladies of the party and the invited guests 
were taken on board the steamers IV'iman and Mon- 
mouth and these vessels proceeded to New York, with 
a swarm of minor craft following in their wake. 

At New York the harbor and rivers were crowded 
with a collection of all kinds and conditions of steam 
vessels and floating craft, from the powerful and dig- 
nified man-of-war to the impudent little tug darting- 
hither and thither as she cared with reckless impetu- 
osity. All the river steamers were crowded with pas- 
sengers going to view this unparalleled naval spec- 
tacle, and every vessel was radiant with color and 
bedecked from stem to stern with flags and bunting. 
The harbor was one mass of color and a perfect maze 

[ 255 ] 


of indescribable magnificence. The United States 
ships of war were anchored in a Hne on the upper bay 
headed by the Boston on which was Admiral David D. 
Porter commanding the fleet. 

When the Despatch reached the position assigned 
her opposite the foot of Wall Street, the barge ap- 
proached and the President and his escort boarded 
her. The scene as the President stood in the stern 
of the barge with his aides around him was a striking 
reproduction of the original event when Washington 
sailed over the same course in 1789. The barge was 
manned by a crew consisting of twelve retired ship 
masters with Captain Ambrose Snow as commander. 
Each wore a suit of black broadcloth, a high hat and 
a blue badge. 

At the landing place the President stepped on a 
float covered with purple cloth and proceeded up the 
steps to the street. The landing was made at twenty 
minutes past one and the President was received by 
Governor Hill, Mayor Grant and Hamilton Fish. He 
was at once whirled off into the procession to the 
Equitable Building where a luncheon was served. 

After the repast the President went to the City 
Hall and held a public reception, and when this trying 
ordeal was over he went to the residence of Vice- 
President Morton on Fifth Avenue to rest. 

The next day, April 30th, was the actual Centen- 
nial of the Inauguration of Washington and the day 
began with divine services in the churches and the 
ringing of the church bells. Old St. Paul's Chapel 
was the center of attraction and here great crowds 
congregated. A procession in carriages consisting of 
the President, Vice-President, Governor, Mayor, Su- 

[ 256 ] 



preme Court Justices and Senators of New York, two 
ex-Presidents and the Bishops of New York, Long 
Island, Iowa and Tennessee and many other notables 
went to the old Church. The President occupied the 
pew that Washington used while in New York, and 
Governor Hill the one used by Governor Clinton. 
Bishop Potter preached the sermon and the choir per- 
formed its part with distinction. Services over, the 
line of carriages proceeded to Wall Street, Mayor 
Grant's carriage being first, the President and Vice- 
President and all the other dignitaries following. 

Wall and Broad Streets, especially about the Sub- 
Treasury building, were packed with people eager to 
see and hear all that should take place. The bronze 
statue of Washington stood out in all its fine propor- 
tions and about it was grouped the notables who were 
to take part in the proceedings. The bible on which 
Washington took the oath of office, the table on which 
it originally rested and the chair Washington used 
during part of the ceremony were all brought out for 
this great centennial occasion. President Harrison 
occupied this chair. Chauncey M. Depew was the 
orator. The resplendent military uniforms of the offi- 
cers on the platform and the sombre robes and gowns 
of the clergy made a contrast that was both striking 
and effective. When Rev. Dr. Storrs of Brooklyn 
came forward to pronounce the benediction. Presi- 
dent Harrison rose and took his place beside him with 
his head lowered and his hand resting on the identical 
bible that Washington had used. Thus the exercises 
ended here. 

In the meantime the great military parade was 
under way on Broadway. All the suburbs and the 

[ 259 1 


country around poured in streams of visitors to view 
this great event. The Hne of march was from the 
Equitable Building in Broadway to Waverly Place, 
into Washington Square and thence up Fifth Avenue 
to Central Park. The whole line of march was black 
with people and platforms were built on every spot 
of ground from which a sight of the parade could be 

The great industrial parade, to many people the 
most interesting of all, was the third great event of 
this historic celebration and occupied the entire day 
of May 1st. The route was from Fifty-Ninth Street 
down Fifth Avenue and Broadway to Canal Street, 
passing the official stand at Madison Square where it 
was reviewed by the President and other dignitaries. 
General Sherman and his brother Senator John Sher- 
man accompanied him. 

The floats were wonderful. There were nearly a 
hundred of them and such an exhibition of industrial 
and commercial activities was never before witnessed. 
The Arts and Sciences also were represented and the 
tableaux illustrating the achievements made in these 
departments of human endeavor were not only of 
fascinating interest to the spectators but a wonderful 
tribute to the genius of the men and women who con- 
ceived and designed them. 

Atlantic Cable Celebration, Aug. 17th — Sept. 1st, 1858 

The celebration of the laying of the Atlantic cable 
was a great event in New York city and lasted for 
two weeks. On August 17th, 1858, the illumination 
of the City Hall and the splendid display of fireworks 
took place. A curious feature of this occasion was 

[ 260 ] 

An early Police Parade in New York, 1859. "Part of the Force" 
ON REVIEW AT the Battery. From a photograph of the period 


the lighting up of all the windows of the building 
with the added brilliancy of three thousand seven 
hundred candles. Bands were playing "Hail, Colum- 
bia" and "God Save the Queen" everywhere and con- 
tinued all night playing popular and enlivening airs. 
The first message flashed across the ocean from 
Queen to President was on August 16th, 1858, and 
the line was opened for general use Sept. 1st. 

Shortly after the great display of fireworks and in 
the early hours of the next morning, August 18th, fire 
was detected in the tower of the City Hall. With 
great rapidity, and notwithstanding the efiforts of the 
firemen, the flames climbed up to the top of the 
Cupola. It was not until after 3 a. m. that the fire 
was subdued, but by this time the Cupola was entirely 
destroyed and nothing but the skeleton of the tower 
was left. 

It was not until September 1st that the great civic 
and military procession took place and the accounts 
of it given at the time pronounce it the noblest fete 
ever witnessed in New York. The outstanding feature 
of the procession was the crew of the Niagara march- 
ing behind a car drawn by six gayly caparisoned horses 
carrying a large coil of the Atlantic Telegraph cable. 
The streets were gayly decorated and as night wore 
on colored lanterns and lights of all kinds were shown. 
Broadway had trees then and every one of them was 
hung with colored lights, and paper lanterns of all 
hues were strung in brilliant lines across the streets. 
The houses and windows along the route were fes- 
tooned and decorated with all manner of beautiful 
designs in light. New York had certainly a sumptu- 
ous and delightful celebration. 

[ 263 1 


Parade in Honor of the Prince of Wales, 
October 13tli, 1860 

The great parade of firemen was the chief event of 
the outdoor demonstration in honor of the Prince. 
This took place on the evening of October 13th, 1860. 
Nearly five thousand men all in uniform took part in 
the procession and the efifect of the countless torches, 
lights, transparencies and other kinds of illuminated 
devices as they swept down Broadway was fascinat- 
ing in the extreme. Immense crowds of people lined 
both sides of the route, and the youthful Prince re- 
viewed the wonderful display from the balcony of the 
Fifth Avenue Hotel with very evident enjoyment and 
apparent wonder at a sight which was entirely new to 
him and compelled his admiration. The celebration 
continued for several days and New York felt satis- 
fied that she had given the youth a right royal wel- 

Metropolitan Police Parade, November 17tli, 1865 

On November 17th, 1865, the police force of the city, 
eleven hundred strong, marched up Broadway from 
the Battery where they were reviewed by Governor 
Fenton, to the City Hall where the Mayors of New 
York and Brooklyn viewed the procession. The pro- 
cession continued up Broadway through the principal 
streets uptown as far as Twenty-sixth street and 
back by Fifth Avenue to Fourteenth Street, where 
they were dismissed. The men were in excellent con- 
dition and created great enthusiasm in the immense 
crowds lining the sidewalk by the fine execution of 
their manoeuvres and their admirable marching order. 

[ 264 ] 


This grand parade was the finest of its kind ever wit- 
nessed in this city and the people were consequently 
filled with admiration for the force, and gratified that 
they should have such an able body of men to protect 
the city. 

[ 265 



From New York Mirror 

HOR some dozen years the editorial voice of this 
journal has been raised against the neglected state 
of our streets, and the unaccountable, inexcusable 
nonchalance of the inspector ; yet, during the present 
winter, they have been more neglected and impass- 
able than ever. This is encouraging. We feel like 
a counsellor who, after a six hour's speech, finds the 
judge has been asleep. Before the recent Siberian 
cold, New-York w^as a realm of mud, its vast floor 
inundated with a slimy alluvial deposit, of the con- 
sistency of batter, of bean soup, ankle-deep. For 
weeks even Broadway was uncrossable, except by 
such desperadoes as durst wade through the stag- 
nant, universal pool. It reminded us of the Styx, ex- 
cept that the convenience of a Charon was looked for 
in vain, by the unhappy spectres of pedestrians who 
wandered upon its banks. Not a plank was flung out, 
not a crossing swept. Mud was "the universe." At 
the intersection of Cedar-street and Broadway there 
spread a lake, totally unfordable, which remained till 
Jack Frost, more merciful than the street-inspector, 
spanned its filthy surface with a bridge of ice. By 
and by came the snow. But snow or rain, mud or 
mire, the inspector snored on with the indiiTerence 
of a stoic. In addition to the ordinary inconveni- 
ence of discomfort and filth, our lives were now in 
peril. Ponderous masses of snow hourly precipitated 
themselves from the roofs of houses, in thundering 
avalanches enough to startle an Atlas. But what is 

[ 266 ] 


an Atlas to a New-York street-inspector ! In some 
of the narrow streets the snow was piled, and there 
remained for days, to the heig-ht of eight feet ; and 
innumerable accidents, overturns, etc. passed unre- 
garded except by the sufferers. No attempt, at least 
none with any visible effect, was made to clear away 
the masses, the mountains of ice and snow. Clifif- 
street was barricaded, and no one could ride up Broad- 
way — the pride, the boast of New York — but at the 
risk of his bones. Call ye this republicanism ! Call 
ye this the happiness of the people ! Is there any 
"march of mind" in such a state of affairs ? It may 
be that the "schoolmaster is abroad." but the street- 
inspector takes especial care to remain at "home." 
In the course of our sundry perambulations through 
the town, after having gone to the fruitless expense 
of india-rubber overshoes and water-proof boots, after 
having tried in vain the experiment of a carriage and 
nearly broken our valuable neck (valuable to "our- 
self" at least) in a rash drive in a sleigh, it has struck 
us as a mystery, who is the street-inspector? "Come 
forth, thou man "of" (not "blood" but) "mud"! Re- 
veal thyself to our wondering gaze. Here be some 
three hundred thousand drenched and bruised repub- 
licans desirous of thy further acquaintance ! With 
what a conscience canst thou lie down at night upon 
thy pillow? With what face canst thou issue forth 
into this huge sty? With what air dost thou ask 
any of friends (thy "constituents," faithless man) 
"how" they "do"? We will tell thee how they "do." 
They go out "i'the morning" arrayed like gentlemen 
and ladies, with burnished boots, decent trousers, 
white stockings and wearable frocks. They come 

[267 ] 


home besplashed, bedrenched and bespattered, wear- 
ied with striding over stagnant pools, or toiling 
through banks of snow, or terrified at the report of 
each loosened mountain that topples down, ever and 
anon, upon their shrinking pates. They go forth after 
their breakfast, republicans in principle as well as 
profession; and they return with newly-developed 
ideas of the excellent effects of a despotism, and se- 
cret calculators of the worth of the Union. We ap- 
peal to the citizens against this inspector, whoever, 
wherever, whatever he is, whether, like the seven 
scholars of Ephesus, in the reign of Decius, he sleep 
a seven year sleep in some enchanted cave ; or wheth- 
er, like Nero, he fiddle on the City-hall cupola, while 
thousands beneath him are being suffocated in the 
mud. Publick cleanliness is allied to publick morals, 
and in that light alone demands attention ; and, in 
respect to the "reputation" of our country, we do re- 
ligiously believe that a walk through our streets, on 
a thawing day at this season, would go well nigh to 
"disgust" any intelligent foreigner with America and 
the Americans. What the impression of a Londoner, 
a Swiss, honest Hollander would be, heaven only 
knows; but Mrs. Trollope, without any considerable 
improbability, would from thenceforward be their 
"vade mecum." 

[ 268 

Madison Avenue and 26th Street, a view from the rear windows of 

No. 28 East 28th Street, showing residence and stable of 

W. L. Cogswell. New occupied by the building of the 

Bergh Society. From a wax negative made by Prevost, 1854. 

Collection New York Historical Society 

133.0 T:i::(.N.ri'!i- .\i^■:l5 jts famous dui'as'i aaYAisu 



Written and Compiled by Harry A. Chandler, 

Author of the Forthcoming Historical Encyclopedia 

of New York City 

XN illustration of this article we have inserted a large 
colored supplement containing a map of Trinity 
Church and grounds. The map designates the exact 
location of all the more prominent graves and is a care- 
fully prepared chart of the burial place of those who have 
found their last resting place in this old and historic spot. 
The work has received the hearty endorsement of Bishop 
William T. Manning and the Vestry of Trinity Church, 
and also that of Mr. George Crane, Comptroller. 

The first mention of this place as a burial ground was 
in 1673, according to Mr. I. N. Phelps Stokes, and it was 
referred to as the "new burial ground without the gate 
of the city." The "gate" was in the centre of Broadway 
opposite the north side of Wall Street which marked the 
boundary line of the little city. There was no church 
on the ground at that time. 

The first church building to occupy the present site of 
Trinity Church was erected during the years 1696-7. This 
building was enlarged in 1735-6. It was this enlarged 
building that was almost destroyed by fire in the great 
conflagration of 1776. 

The second church building to occupy this site was 
erected during the years 1788-90 and for over fifty years 
the sacred offices of the church were administered here 
to a rapidly increasing body of worshippers. In 1839 
the building was found inadequate to the needs of the 

[ 271 ] 


growing parish and was demolished for the purpose of 
erecting a larger edifice. 

Trinity Church, as we know it now, is the third church 
building on this site. It was begun in 1839 but the entire 
work was not completed until some years later. The 
consecration of the church took place in 1846. It was 
the most conspicuous building of its day and was also 
the most admired and venerated. Although dwarfed and 
partially hidden by the enormous buildings around it now, 
it still holds a proud place of eminence in the hearts of 
New Yorkers. The memorial chapel to Dr. Morgan Dix 
was erected during the years 1912-13. 

The compilation of this work and data required a care- 
ful searching of the records of Trinity Corporation and a 
careful examination of the headstones in the churchyard. 
Owing to the fact that all records of burials prior to 1750 
were kept in the clerk's office and that they were burned 
when the Trinity School in Rector Street was destroyed 
by fire, the writer had to confine himself to an unpublished 
book showing the epitaphs which were legible in 1897. 
By a careful perusal of these epitaphs and an examina- 
tion of each stone in the churchyard after the map was 
completed, he was able to compile a list of one hundred 
and ten historical graves and to locate definitely ninety 
of them. 

Up to the time of the Revolution, according to D. T. 
Valentine in 1869, there had been interred in the church- 
yard 160,000 bodies. In the great fire of 1776 many 
tombstones were demolished and others so flaked by the 
excessive heat as to be unreadable. The card index of 
all burials since 1777 was scanned most carefully and con- 
sultations were held with Mr. Boyd the sexton, Mr. Aigel- 
tinger chief clerk and Mr. Foster deputy clerk, whose 

[ 272 ] 


invaluable assistance the writer wishes to acknowledge 
here. This record may therefore be relied upon. 

Trinity Corporation has a record of 88 tombs in the 
churchyard and under the church. About half of these 
have never been opened since the fire of 1750 and there 
is no list of the persons buried within, but when these 
vaults are opened for additional interments or other pur- 
poses the sexton makes a careful list of the contents there- 
in. Since 1823 when the city passed an ordinance forbid- 
ding burials within the city limits, interments have been 
permitted only in the old family vaults. 

The heavy faced letters at end of each name correspond with location of 
tomb as drawn on the map. 

List of the 
Historical Graves in Trinity Churchyard 

Alexander, Maj. Gen. Sir William (Lord Sterling) and son of James, 

in whose vault he is buried. Died 1783 — lA 
Alexander, James (Earl of Sterling). Buried 1756 — lA 
Apthorpe (Family vault ISUl) — 4V 
Bayard, William (Vault) — ID 

Barclay, Rev. Henry (Rector of Trinity). Died 1764 — 4A 
Barclay, Andrew (Vault 1762) — 4A 
Bleeker, Anthony L. Died 1790 — 3F 

Bleeker, Anthony J. (Grandson of Anthony L.). Died 1884 — 3F 
Bleeker, Walter — SF" 
Bradford, William (First printer in City, 1693). Died 1752; new slab 

placed here by church 1863 — 6C 
Bradford, Elizabeth (Wife of the first printer). Died 1731 — 6C 
Berryman, Capt. John. Died 1808 — 8B 

Branson, Capt. Ware. Died 1821 (Petitt-Branson-Ware vault) — 10 
Brewerton, Col. George (Vault 1772) — 4D 

Breese, G. Sidney (Ancestor of S. F. Breese Morse) Died 1767 — 9D 
Carberry, Capt. Thomas. Died 1819 — 9 
Churcher, Richard (Oldest gravestone). Died 1681 — 9A 
Churcher, Ann (Buried the day that Gov. Leisler was executed at the 

corner of Nassau and Park Row). May 16th, 1691 — 9B 
Cannon. Andrew (Commander of British ship Sjitherland). Died 1749 — 9 
Cadger, John (Gunner's-mate on the U. S. frigate President). Died 1813 — 9 
Clarke, Mrs. George (Wife of Lt. Gov.) Buried 1740 in vault with her 

mother and Lady Cornbury — under tower 
Clark, John and John Mason. Sepulchre 1811 — IP 
Clark, Capt. Samuel. Died 1811 — 8 
Clarkson, John (Vault 1811) — 31 
Clarkson, Maj. Gen. Matthew. Died 1825 — 31 
Clarkson, L. Vault — IR 
Cornbury, Lady (Wife of Gov. Edward Hyde, "Lord Cornbury"), Nee 

Baroness Clifton. Died 1706 — under tower 

[ 273 ] 


CouTANT, David (Vault 1818)— lU 

Coles, John B. (Merchant, hero during epidemic) — 3M 
Cresap, Capt. Michael (Son of Col. Thos Cresap). The accusation of the 
responsibility for the murder of Indian Chief Logan's family by 
Cresap's men caused him to die of a broken heart in 1775 — 6A 
Cruder, Major John, Sr. Died 1744. Buried in vault under Choir Room. 
Cruger, Steven Van Rensellear (Controller of Trinity and grandson of 

Mayor J. Cruger). In vault under Choir Room. Died 1898. 
Crucifix Statue. A memorial to Mrs. \Vm. Astor given by her daughter 

Mrs. Orme Wilson — 5E 
Daley, Capt. John. Died 1730— IK 
Davis, M. L. (Merchant and Aaron Burr's second in his duel with Hamilton). 

Died 1818— IQ 
Dean, Capt. John. Died 1730—8 
De Lancey, Lt. Gov. James (Buried under Choir Room, back of altar). Died 

De Peyster, Jr., Col. J. W. (In Watts' tomb). Died in 1873. (Son of the 

General)— IE 
De Peyster, Maj. Gen. J. Watts. (In Watts' tomb) — IE 
De Peyster (Vault 1763)— 6B 

Di.x, Rev. Morgan. Died 1908. Buried under altar of Chapel 1912. 
Dix, Rev. Morgan. Effigy in the north side of Chapel. 
Dix, Mrs. John A. (Mother Morgan Dix, Rector of Trinity and wife of 

Gen. John A. Dix.) Buried in J. J. Morgan vault 1884— 3C 
Desbrosses, James (Vault 1799) — 3D 
Desbrosses, Elias (Vault) — 3 

Drummond, Geo. M. (Viscount Fourth). Died 1887 in Ireland. (Vault) — 3E 
Du Puy, Sr., John. Died 1854; stone restored 1882— 7A 
Du Puy Jr., John (M. D.) Tablet written in Latin on wall in Chapel. 
Faneuil, Benjamine (Father of Peter Faneuil of Boston.) Died 1719 — 5A 
Firemen's Monument (Erected by Empire Fire Engine Co. No. 42, in mem- 
ory of Col. Farnham and others who died at Manasses — ^-lOJ 
Ford, Capt. Henry (Commander of British ship Diinmore). Died 1793 — 8C 
Fulton, Robert (Builder of the first successful Steamboat.) Buried in R. 

C. Livingston's vault 1815 — 3B 
Fulton, Robert. Monument — IG 

Gaine, Hugh (Publisher of N. Y. Mercury 1752). Died 1807— 4B 
Gallatin, Albert (Secretary of Treasury). Died 1849. Buried in his 

father-in-law's vault. Commodore James Nicholson) — 3A 
Gallatin, Mrs. Albert (Wife of Albert). Died 1849— 3A 
Hamersley, Andrew (Vault). 1862 — 3Li 
Hamersley, William (Merchant.) Died 1752 — 101 
Horsemander, Daniel (Chief Justice of State). Died 1778. 
Hamilton, Alexander (Secretary of Treasury) Monument Cryptographical 
(written in secret characters). Killed in duel with Burr in 1804 — IH 
Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander. (Wife of Alexander). Died 1854 — II 
Hamilton, Philip (Son of Alexander). Killed in duel with Geo. Eacker in 

Ireland, Sergeant Maj. Peter (Royal Artillery). Died 1770 — 7 
Hobart, Bishop H. (Bishop of State and Rector of Trinity). Buried under 

walls of Chancel rail, 1830. 
Hunt, Obidia (Tavern Keeper). Headstone only in wall north end of 

Chancel rail. 
Jeffrey, Capt. Richard — 9 

Jamison, David (Royal Chief Justice) ^ 

Johnson, Rev. Samuel (Rector of Trinity and First President of King s 

College (now Columbia.) Died 1789— lOA 
Johnson, Mrs. Charity (Wife of Samuel) — lOA 

Kearney, Maj. Gen. Philip Watts (Buried in Watt's Tomb 1862 and re- 
moved to Arlington, Va., 1912 — IE 
Kearney, Mrs. (Mother of General Philip); nee Miss Watts — IE 
Lawrence, Capt. James (Author of the immortal words, "Don't give up 
the Ship.") Buried in S. W. corner of yard in 1813 and removed to 
present location in 1844 when monument was erected; the cannon 
around grave were captured in War of 1812 — IT 

[ 274 ] 


Lamb, Col. John (Organizer of Liberty Boys). Died 1800. 

Leake, Robert — 

Leake, John (Son of Robert) — 

Leesen, James (Cryptographical letters "Remember death") Died 1791 — lOK 

Lewis, Francis (Signer of Declaration of Independence). Died 1803 — • 

Lispenard, Leonard (Member of Stamp Act Congress) — under Chancel 

Livingston, Robt. C. (Father of Philip). Died 1725— 3B 

Livingston, Philip (Signer of Declaration of Independence.) Died 1778 

— 3B 
Livingston, Judge Robert R. (Chairman of Committee of Correspondence 

and son of Philip.) Died 1813— 3B 
Livingston, John R. (Vault) — IB 
Ludlow, Gabriel Wm. (Vault — 4 

Ludlow, Lt. August C. (U. S. Navy). Died 1813— 3J 
Mason, John (In Mason and Clark vault 1811) — IP 
Mesier, Peter A. (Alderman 1807-18.) Died 1847— 4B 
McCoMB, Maj. Alexander S. (Buried in J. Watts' tomb 1876) — 6E 
Mills, A. (British Purser.) Died 1740— lO 
McKnight, Dr. Charles (Chief Surgeon of American Army). Died 

1791— lOD 
McKnight, Rev. Charles. Died 1778— lOF 
McKnight, Capt. Richard (Son of Rev. Chas.) — lOF 
Moore, Bishop Benj. (Second Bishop of N. Y. and President of Columbia 

College.) Died 1816— IF 
Moore, Charity (Wife of Bishop Moore) — IF 
Moore, Capt. Daniel (British Commander killed at sea in 1777). Buried in 

John Moore vault. — 3N 
Montgomery, Capt. W. S. (Royal Infantry.) Died 1778 — 2A 
Morgan John J. (Representative in Congress.) Died 1859 — 3C 
Neu, Elias (Stone restored 1846 by widow of Comm. O. H. Perry — 5D 
Nannestad, Lare (Danish Consul.) Died 1807 — IL 
Nelson, Capt. John. Died 1762 — 8A 

Newman, Stephen (Master of British ship Hampshire). Died 1758 — 
Nicholson, Commodore James (Under Gallatin monument; his son-in-law). 

Died 1804— 3A 
Onderdonk's Bishop Wm. T. effigy. (He was Ijuried in Trinity Cemetery in 

1861) — in chapel 
Oram, James (Publisher) Died 1825 — 
Ogilvier, Rev. (Vault) — IJ 
Park, Capt. Benj. Died 1807— 5B 
Pica, Capt. R. Died 1768— 5C 
Peck, Benj. (Vault 1768)— IM 
Randall, Capt. Thomas (Vault) — IC 
Rea, Capt. Richard. Died 1768 — 5 
Richards, Capt. R. Died 1768 — 5 

RiVETTE, Capt. Robt. (Master of British brig Robert). Died 1816 — 9C 
Rose, Capt. Joseph. Died 1807— 6D 
Reade, R. (Vault)— 3K 

Reade, Hon. Joseph (Member of Provincial Council in 1764). Died 1771 — ■ 
Reade, Capt. Wm. Died 1768—6 
Scott, Brig. Gen. John Morrin (One of the three famous leaders of the 

Liberty Boys.) Died 1784— IOC 
Scott, Lewis Allain (Sect, of Commonwealth and son of John Morin 

Scott.) Died 1798— lOE 
Scott, Sharp John (Commander of British Packet Leicester). Died 1803 — 1 
Seidell, John (Alderman 1807-8) Vault 1816— 3H 
Soldiers' Monument "erected 1852 in memory of the brave and good men 

who died while imprisoned in this city for their devotion to the cause 

of American Independence." (There was a movement on foot to extend 

Pine Street thru the yard at that time. — lOL, 
Swords' Drinking Fountain, memorial to Mrs. Swords given by her son 

Henry 1911— lOH 
Temple Charlotte (The Heroine of Mr. Rawson's "Tale of Truth). She 

died in her home west of the north west corner of Pell and Bowery 

(now heart of Chinatown) — lOG 

[ 275 ] 


ToLLEMACHE, Capt. (Killed in duel 1777 in City Hotel, No. 115 Broadway) — • 

TuDER, Capt. Thomas. Died 1770— lOM 

Walton, William (Vault) — IIV 

Ward, (Jol. John H. — 3C 

Watts, Judge John (Recorder in Colonial Days). Died 1836 — IE 

Watts, Judge John. Monument erected by his grandson John Watts de 

Peyster 1892— 2B 
Willett, Brig. Gen. Marinus (Hero of two wars). Died 1830 — 4E 
Van Horne, Augustus (Vault 1790)— 1 OB 
Van Zandt, Wyant (Alderman 1789-94.) Died 1814— IS 

Van Zandt, Wyant (Alderman 1802-6 and son of Wyant.) Died 1831 — IS 
Van Zandt, Peter Pra (Alderman 1791-94 and Assemblyman 1777-84 — IS 
Vallirine, Capt. Mark. Died 1773— 8D 

List of Graves by Blocks 
(See also alphabetical list) 

Block 1. 


J. R. Livingston 

Capt. Randall 

Wm. Bayard 

John Watts 

Major McComb 

Gen. J. W. de Peyster 

Gen. Philip Kearney 

Bishop Moore 

Fulton Monument 

Alexander Hamilton 

Mrs. Alexander Hamilton 

Rev. Ogilvier 

Capt. John Daly 

Lare Nannestad 

Benj. Peck 

Wm. Walton 

A. Mills 

John Mason 

John Clark 

M. L. Davis 

L. Clarkson 

Van Zandt 

Capt. James Lawrence 

Capt. J. Sharp 

Block 2. 
Capt. W. S. Montgomery 
John Watts Monument 
Col. John Ward 

Block 3. 
Albert Gallatin and wife, 

J. Nicholson 
Robt. C. Livingston 
Walter Livingston 
Robert Fulton 
John Morgan 
Mrs. Rev. Morgan Dix 
J. Desbrosses 
Earl of Dunmore 
J. Slidell 
Gen. M. Clarkson 
Dan Ludlow 
R. Reade 

Andrew Hamersley 

John Coles 

John Moore, Capt. Dan Moore 

Block 4. 
Rev. H. Barclay 
Hugh Gaines 
Peter Mesier 

Col. Geo. Brewerton 
Gen Marinus Willetts 
Lt. Wm. Ludlow 

Block 5. 
Benj. Faneuil 
Capt. Benj. Peck 
Capt. R. Pica 
FAins Neu 
Crucifix Statue 
Capt. R. Richards 

Block G. 
Capt. Michael Cresap 
de Peyster Vault 
Wm. Bradford and wife 
Capt. Joseph Rose 
Hon. Joseph Reade 
Capt. Wm. Reade 

Block 7. 
John Du Puy 
Serg. Maj. Peter Ireland 

Block 8. 
Capt. John Nelson 
Capt. Isaac Berryman 
Capt. Henry Ford 
Capt. Mark Vallirine 
Capt. Samuel Clark 
Capt. John Dean 

Block 9. 
Richard Churcher 
Ann Churcher 
Capt. Robt. Rivett 
S. G. Breese 
Capt. Thos. Carberry 
Andrew Cannon 

[276 ] 


Block 10. 

Samuel Johnson and wife A 

August Van Home B 

J. Morin Scott C 

Chas. McKnight, M. D. D 

Lewis Scott E 

Chas. McKnight, D. D. F 

Charlotte Temple G 

Swords' Fountain 
Wm. Hamersley 
Firemen's Monument 
James Leeson 
Soldiers' Monument 
Capt. Ware Branson 

Block 11. 
Capt. Thos. Tuder 

Graves and Tablets Within the Church 

Lady Cornbury and Gov. Clarke's 

wife A 

Evangelists' Tablet B 

Capt. P. Drayton Tablet C 

Rev. Wm. Berrian Tablet D 

Bronze Doors by K. Bitter E 
Bronze Doors by Chas F. Niehaus F 
Bronze Doors by J. Massey 

Rhinds G 

The Pulpit H 

The Chancel I 

Bishop J. Hobart J 

The Altar , K 

The Reredos L 

Lt. Gov. J. De Lancey M 

Mayor John Cruger, Sr. N 
Stephen Van Rensellear Cruger 

Leonard Lispenard O 

Cornerstone of second church P 
Obidia Hunt's Headstone 

John Du Puy Tablet Q 

Bishop Onderdonk Effigy R 

Rev. Morgan Dix Eifigy S 

Morgan Dix Chapel T 
Rev. Morgan Dix buried under 

Altar of Chapel U 

Graves not Located 

Judge Daniel Horsemander 
Judge David Jamison 
Francis Lewis 
Philip Hamilton 
Capt. ToUemache 

Robt. Leake 
John Leake 
James Oram 
Col. John Lamb 

A record found of their burial. 

[ 277 ] 





Photographs by 

<- /nHt^^ti^: 


Another Little Girl in Old New York 
Writes a Letter 

Our good friend Mrs. Charles E. Sherman of Lawrence, 
L. 1. kindly sends us this copy of a letter written by a little 
seven year old girl, Lydia S. Lawrence, youngest daughter 
of John L. Lawrence, President of the Croton Aqueduct 
Board. It gives a quaint and amusing description of the 
great celebration which attended the formal opening of 
this great municipal improvement. 

We follow this by an equally valuable contribution on 
the same subject which gives a succinct history of the 
various attempts that preceded the final accomplishment 
of the introduction of running water, and a fuller descrip- 
tion of the ceremonies attending the event. They are both 
valuable contemporary documents, and we were glad to 
get them, 

Thursday October 12 1842. 
My Dear Brother 

I returned home on Wensday from Mr. Tomlinsons where I 
have been boarding four months. Mr. and Mrs. Tomlinson 
came with us and spent the night here and went on to Con- 
necticat the next morning. We remembered you in our morn- 
ing and evening prayers as told us to do while we were at Bell 
Port and thought a great deal about you. We are all very busy, 
so I thought I would write you a letter because I thought they 
would not get ready before the ship sailed. We have a Fountain 
in Union Square of the croton water, which plays every morning 
and afternoon from half past six to seven. We have also a 
Fountain in the City Hall park. I have had my hair cut off, 
so I thought I would send you a lock of it. Our garden looks 
yet quite well, althoge the flowers are all gone. The quince tree 
had more than three hundred quinces on this year, and Mother 
has been very hard to work making sweet meats. I am going 
to dancing school, Madame Ferrio's, with my three brothers 
Charles Thomas and Abraham. Brother Alfred came this morn- 
ing to bid us good-bye, for he is going on a journey to the far 
west. Uncle Charles has got a very sore eye and is confined to 
bed w^ith it. I will not write any more till after the Celebration, 
Saturday, October 15, 1842. The Celebration of the Fountain 

[ 291 ] 


comenced on Friday. We went (in all five of us) Sister Anny, 
Thomas, Abraham, Rosanna and myself, all went into Murrays 
to the procesion. The soldiers looked very pretty and marched 
very fast. They exhibited an ox stuffed with straw and cotton. 
They also had a live sheep kissing the little live boy and a live 
calf was also exhibited. They had also a car drawn by four 
horses with the model steam boat of North America. They also 
had the printing press in wich Doctor Franklin worked, a plate 
of silver and gold (Alique) which were cake baskets silver spoons 
and now I have told you all and must bid you good bye. I re- 
main as ever 

Your Affectionate sister 


Written by Lydia S. Lawrence, youngest daughter of John L. Lawrence, 
president of the Croton Aqueduct Board, being aged just seven years: it was 
to her brother who had lately gone to Manila in the Philippines. 

A Memoir of the Croton Aqueduct 

By Chailes King 

At a very early day the want of a sufficient supply and a con- 
venient distribution of good water, was felt by the citizens of 
New York. 

In 1774 and 1775, before the Declaration of Independence, 
considerable expenditures had been made in order to satisfy this 

The revolutionary struggle which had even then commenced 
and of which the City of New York felt the full effects, appears 
to have put an end to this enterprise for furnishing water before 
it had made any great progress. Scarcely, however, had peace 
returned, with liberty and National Independence achieved than 
our citizens again busied themselves about good water. 

In April 1785, Samuel Ogden made proposals to the Corpora- 
tion for erecting and establishing Water Works to supply the city. 

In January 1786, proposals for a like object were presented by 
the Hon. R. R. Livingston and John Lawrence, Esq., and were 
favorably reported upon by the Committee to which they were 
submitted, but, in the end, failed to be carried out. So imperfect 
are the records of that day that there is no trace of what the 
plans were that were proposed by Messrs. Ogden, Livingston 
and Lawrence for the supply of water. 

Between the years 1786 and 1816 many other projects were 
considered, all of which failed to be put into effect, notwithstand- 
ing that during part of the intervening years the growth of the 
city was more rapid, and its prosperity and increase in wealth 
more obvious than ever before. In 1812 the causes of dissatis- 
faction between this country and Great Britain which had been 
gathering strength and irritation, having resulted in war, all 

r 292 1 


local enterprises requiring credit and capital were postponed, 
but peace having been concluded at Ghent in December 1814, the 
subject of supplying the city with water was again resumed in 
1816, and at a meeting of the Common Council in March 1816 — 
Jacob Radcliff being Mayor — a Committee was appointed to 
consider and report upon the matter. 

This movement also had no permanent results, and after years 
of fruitless resolutions, enquiry and experiments, and the dis- 
carding of numerous other schemes, in March 1829 the plan was 
conceived that afterward resulted in the Croton Aqueduct. 

The first contracts for work on this Aqueduct were made in 
April 1837, and it was so far completed as to permit water to be 
let in from the Croton dam on the 22nd of June 1842. On that 
date a boat prepared for the purpose called the "Croton Maid", 
and capable of carrying four persons, was placed in the Aqueduct, 
and was carried down by the current, arriving at Harlem River 
almost simultaneously with the first arrival of the water there 
on Thursday, June 23rd. 

On the following Monday, in the presence of the Mayor and 
Common Council, the Governor of the State, William H. Seward 
and Lieutenant Governor Bradish, etc., the water was admitted 
into the receiving reservoir at Yorkville, while a salute of 38 
guns was fired. The "Croton Maid" which arrived soon after- 
ward at the reservoir, was hailed by the assembled citizens with 
much enthusiasm as she afforded indubitable proof that a navi- 
gable river was flowing into the city for the use of its inhabitants. 

It was natural that so great an event as the completion of the 
Croton Aqueduct should be deemed by the citizens, at whose cost 
and through whose constancy it had been constructed, to be 
worthy of some public celebration, and the Joint Committee on the 
Aqueduct designated the 14th of October, 1842 as the date of the 

Invitations were sent to distinguished citizens and representa- 
tives of foreign countries. The President of the United States, 
John Tyler, wrote as follows : 

Washington, Oct. 11th, 1842. 
Gentlemen : — 

I should be most truly happy to be present at an event so inter- 
esting to your city as the celebration proposed for the 14th, and 
to which you invited me. Circumstances, however, deny to me the 
pleasure of such a visit. I heartily rejoice with the citizens of 
New York in the completion of a work so vastly important to 
the health and comfort of its inhabitants. It is justly to be 
classed among the first works of the age, and is honorable to the 
enterprise of the great centre of American trade and commerce. 

I tender to you, gentlemen, assurances of my high respect, 

John Tyler, 
[ 293 ] 


Regrets were also received from Ex-President John Quincy 
Adams, and Ex-President M. Van Buren. 

The British-Consul J. Buchanan in his letter of acceptance, 
wrote : "Tyrants have left monuments which call forth admir- 
ation, but no work of a free people, for magnitude and utility, 
equals this great enterprise. Most happy shall I be to assemble 
and participate in the general joyful event." 

The fourteenth of October arrived, a beautiful day with a 
brilliant sun and a breezy atmosphere in harmony with the 
occasion and with the joyousness of the multitudes which crowd- 
ed into the city from all surrounding regions to witness and 
share in the grand jubilee. 

At sun-rise one hundred guns were fired, the bells of all the 
churches and public places were rung and in less than an hour 
the streets were alive with moving masses. 

The programme of arrangements provided for the formation at 
the Battery of the procession, the line of march to be taken up at 
10 A.M. and to move from the Battery up State Street, around 
Bowling Green and up Broadway to Union Park (where the 
fountains recently constructed were to be opened with the dis- 
play of Croton water), around the Park and down the Bowery 
to Grand Street, through Grand Street to East Broadway, down 
East Broadway and Chatham Street to City Hall Park. It was 
a most imposing procession, as well as a splendid military 

One division of the Masonic Fraternity carried a Bible with 
this inscription : 

"On this Sacred Volume, 

On the 30th day of April, A. L. 5789 

In the City of New York. 

Was administered to 

George Washington, 

The first President of the United States of America 

The Oath 

To support the Constitution of the United States 

This important ceremony was 

Performed by the Most Worshipful Grand Master 

of the State of New York, 

The Honorable 

Robert R. Livingston 

Chancellor of the State." 

Among the numerous features of the procession there was 
exhibited by The Xylographic Society and Printers: 

A car drawn by four horses with model of steamboat North 
America. On another car was carried the Printing Press that 
Benjamin Franklin had worked upon in London, together with 
one of the new fashioned ones of the day. 

[ 294 ] 


The Butchers of the Cities of New York and Brooklyn made 
one of the best exhibitions of the day. Each butcher was in 
costume with his clean white apron, and a large number were 
on white horses. A large ox and lamb were upon one platform; 
upon another, enclosed as in a yard, was a cow, calf and a 
score of sheep, all alive, bleeting and kicking, and seeming 
amused and delighted at being the lions of the day, not bearing 
a load, but being borne and well fed by the corn and hay which 
had been abundantly provided. 

The Gold and Silver Arti::ans bore in procession on a platform 
a splendid display of Silver Ware and Jewelry and specimens 
of pure Gold and Silver in bars. This display was of several 
thousand dollars value, and attracted from the admirers of these 
articles the attention they richly merited. 

At twenty minutes past two, his Honor, the Mayor Robert 
H. Morris, and the members of the Common Council, foreign 
Consuls, and invited guests, took their stations on the front of 
City Hall, which then presented a most animated spectacle, every 
nook and niche being crowded with spectators. The troops then 
passed in review order before the assembly, and were followed 
by the other portions of the procession. By half past four o'clock 
the immense cavalcade had filed off and been stationed at con- 
venient distances in City Hall Park, whereupon the Grand 
Marshal, Gilbert Hopkins, announced to the orator of the day 
that the Mayor was ready to hear him. Samuel Stevens, esq., 
President of the Board of Water Commissioners then advanced 
to the front of the platform and in an address which was listened 
to with the most patient attention, he delivered the custody of 
the Croton Water Works to the Water Commissioners of the 
Corporation. In concluding his address Mr. Stevens said that it 
was a source of great pride and satisfaction to him, as a native 
of this great city, to say that he had watched with care and 
some anxiety every person who had formed a part of this great 
and noble celebration, and that he had not discovered either a 
drunkard or a fool from the first to last. 

As soon as the cheer had subsided a reply was made by J. L. 
Lawrence, esq.. President of the Croton Aqueduct Board. 
After receiving for himself and his associates the custody of the 
work he closed by saying: "Sensible of the honor conferred by 
the constituted authorities of the city, in committing to us the 
trust confided to our hands it will be the effort of myself and 
colleagues to employ every power given to us, for the protection 
and advancement of the great work now in our charge. Long 
may that work endure to illustrate the wisdom of its founders — 
a monument of the enterprise and perseverance of our people — 
and the source of health, safety and happiness for successive 

After the singing by the New York Sacred Music Society, of 
"The Croton Ode" written for the occasion by Gen. George P. 

[ 295 ] 


Morris, esq., the Grand Marshal of the day announced that 
the ceremonies were at an end, and he proposed that the assem- 
blage join him in nine hearty cheers for the City of New York 
and perpetuity to the Croton water. The cheers were given with 
great heartiness. 

After the ceremonies of the day were closed, three large tables 
were spread in the City Hall, where the Mayor, the Governor, 
the members of the Corporation, officers and several hundred 
citizens partook of a cold collation, and Croton water and lemon- 
ade. All was conducted with order and propriety, but with no 
ceremony; no chairs were provided, but a sufficient number of 
knives and forks for each to help himself — a well arranged re- 
publican repast. In response to the toast : "The Executive of the 
State of New York," Governor Wm. H. Seward addressed this 

[ 296 


Liberator of South America. Presented to the City of New York 

BY THE Government of Venezuela. Erected in Central Park, 

NEAR West 8oth Street 





©HERE are three great documents in American 
History which should be readily accessible to 
every citizen. They are the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Washington's Farewell Address and Lincoln's 
Speech at Gettysburg. 

We have never yet known where to lay our hands 
quickly on a single book containing all three. So we have 
concluded to put them in the JManual for future handy 

Declaration of Independence 

When, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary 
for one people to dissolve the political bands which have con- 
nected them with another, and to assume among the powers 
of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws 
of Nature and of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to 
the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the 
causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are 
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty 
and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, 
Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just 
powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any 
Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is 
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute 
new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and 
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most 
likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, 
will dictate that Governments long esablished should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all 
experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to 
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by 
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when 
a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably 
the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute 
Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw oft such 
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future se- 
curity. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; 
and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter 
their former Systems of Government. The history of the 
present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated in- 

r 299 1 


juries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establish- 
ment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, 
let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate 
and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation 
till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he 
has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation 
of large districts of people, unless those people would relin- 
quish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right 
inestiinable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, 
uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public 
Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance 
with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for op- 
posing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to 
cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, 
incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large 
for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed 
to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; 
for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of 
Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migra- 
tions hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations 
of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing 
his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the 
tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither 
swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their 

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies 
without the Consent of our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and 
superior to the Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; 
giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: 
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 
For protecting them by a mock Trial, from punishment for 
any Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of 
these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neigh- 
boring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, 
and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an 

[ 300 ] 


example and fit instrument for introducing- the same absolute 
rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our inost valuable 
Laws, and altering- fundamentally the Forms of our 

For suspending- our own Legislatures, and declaring them- 
selves invested with power to leg-islate for us in all cases 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of 
his Protection and waging- War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravag-ed our Coasts, burnt our 
towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign 
Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and 
tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and 
perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ag-es, and 
totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens taken captive on the 
hig-h Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the 
executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall them- 
selves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has 
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the 
merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an 
undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for 
Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions 
have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose 
character is thus marked by every act which may define a 
Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British 
brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts 
by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction 
over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our 
emig-ration and settlement here. We have appealed to their 
native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them 
by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpa- 
tions, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and 
correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice 
and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the 
necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as 
we hold the rest of mankind. Enemies in War, in Peace 

WE THEREFORE, the Representatives of the United States 
of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the 
Supreme Judg-e of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, 
do, in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these 
Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United 
Colonies are, and of Right ought to be free and independent 
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the 
British Crown, and that all political connection between them 
and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dis- 
solved; and that as free and independent States, they have full 
Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, estab- 
lish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which 
independent States may of right do. And for the support of 
this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our 
Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

[ 301 ] 



Adams, John 
Adams, Samuel 
Bartlett, Josiah 
Braxton, Carter 
Carroll, Charles 
Chase, Samuel 
Clark, Abraham 
Clymer, George 
EUery, William 
Floyd, William 
Franklin, Benjamin 
Gerry, Elbridge 
Gwinnett, Button 
Hall, Lyman 
Hancock, John 
Harrison, Benjamin 
Hart, John 
Hewes, Joseph 
Heyward, Jr., Thoinas 
Hooper, William 
Hopkins, Stephen 
Hopkinson, Francis 
Huntington, Samuel 
Jefferson, Thomas 
Lee, Richard Henry 
Lee, Francis Lightfoot 
Lewis, Francis 
Livingston, Philip 

Lynch, Jr., Thomas 
McKean, Thomas 
Middleton, Arthur 
Morris, Lewis 
Morris, Robert 
Morton, John 
Nelson, Jr., Thomas 
Paca, William 
Paine, Robert Treat 
Penn, John 
Read, George 
Rodney, Caesar 
Ross, George 
Rush, Benjamin 
Rutledge, Edward 
Sherman, Roger 
Sinith, James 
Stockton, Richard 
Stone, Thomas 
Taylor, George 
Thornton, Matthew 
Walton, George 
Whipple, "William 
Williams, William 
Wilson, James 
Witherspoon, John 
Wolcott, Oliver 
Wythe, George 

Washington's Farewell Address 

(To the 

People of the 

United States on His Approaching 
from the Presidency.) 

Friends and Fellow-Citizens: 

The period for a new election of a Citizen, to administer the 
Executive Government of the United States, being not far dis- 
tant, and the time actually arrived, when your thoughts must 
be employed in designating the person, who is to be clothed 
with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially 
as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public 
voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have 
formed, to decline being considered ainong the number of 
those, out of whom a choice is to be made. 

I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be as- 
sured, that this resolution has not been taken, without a strict 
regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation, 
which binds a dutiful citizen to his country — and that, in with- 
drawing the tender of service which silence in my situation 
inight imply, I am influenced by no diininution of zeal for your 
future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past 
kindness; but am supported by a full conviction that the step is 
compatible with both. 

The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to 
which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform 
sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty, and to a defer- 
ence for what appeared to be your desire. — I constantly hoped, 
that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently 
with motives, which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return 
to that retirement, from which I had been reluctantly drawn. — 
The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last 

[ 302 ] 


election, had even led to the preparation of an address to de- 
clare it to you but mature reflection on the then perplexed and 
critical posture of our affairs with foreign Nations, and the 
unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, im- 
pelled me to abandon the idea. — 

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as vi^ell as 
internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incom- 
patible with the sentiment of duty, or propriety; and am per- 
suaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, 
that in the present circumstances of our country, you will not 
disapprove nay determination to retire. 

The impressions, with which I first undertook the arduous 
trust, were explained on the proper occasion. — In the discharge 
of this trust, I will only say, that I have, with good intentions, 
contributed towards the organization and administration of the 
government, the best exertions of which a very fallible judg- 
ment was capable. — Not unconscious, in the outset, of the in- 
feriority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, per- 
haps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the mo- 
tives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing 
weight of years admonishes me more and more, that the shade 
of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. — 
Satisfied, that, if any circumstances have given peculiar value 
to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation 
to believe, that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit 
the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. 

In looking forward to the moment, which is intended to ter- 
minate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit 
me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of grati- 
tude, which I owe to my beloved country, — for the many honors 
it has conferred upon me; still more for the stedfast confidence 
with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I 
have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, 
by services faithful and persevering, though in useful- 
ness unequal to my zeal. — If benefits have resulted to our 
country froin these services, let it always be remembered to 
your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that 
under circumstances in which the Passions agitated in every 
direction were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes 
dubious, — vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, — in situ- 
ations in which not unfrequently want of success has coun- 
tenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support 
was the essential prop of the efforts and a guarantee of the 
plans by which they were effected. — Profoundly penetrated with 
this idea, I shall carry it with me to the grave, as a strong 
incitement to unceasing vows that Heaven may continue to 
you the choicest tokens of its beneficence — that your union and 
brotherly affection may be perpetual — that the free constitu- 
tion, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly main- 
tained — that its administration in every department may be 
stamped with wisdom and virtue — that, in fine, the happiness 
of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may 
be inade complete, by so careful a preservation and so prudent 
a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of 
recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption 
of every nation, which is yet a stranger to it. 

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. — But a solicitude for your 
welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehen- 
sion of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me on an occa- 
sion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, 
and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments; 
which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable 
observation, and which appear to me all-important to the per- 
manency of your felicity as a People. — These will be offered 

[ 303 ] 


to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the 
disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly 
have no personal motive to bias his counsels. — Nor can I forget, 
as an encouragement to it your indulgent reception of my 
sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. 

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of 
your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify 
or confirm the attachment. 

The unity of government which constitutes you one people, 
is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar 
in the edifice of your real independence — the support of your 
tranquility at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your 
prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But 
as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from 
different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices 
employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this 
truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against 
which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be 
most constantly and actively (though often covertly and in- 
sidiously) directed — it is of infinite moment that you should 
properly estimate the immense value of your national union 
to your collective and individual happiness; that you should 
cherish a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment to it; 
accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the 
palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for 
its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing what- 
ever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event 
be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawn- 
ing of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country 
from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link 
together the various parts. 

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and in- 
terest. Citizens by birth or choice of a common country, that 
country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name 
of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, 
must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any 
appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight 
shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, 
habits, and political principles. You have, in a common cause, 
fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty 
you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts — of 
common dangers, sufferings, and successes. 

But these considerations, however powerfully they address 
themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those 
which apply more immediately to your Interest. — Here every 
portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for 
carefully guarding and preserving the Union of the whole. 

The North in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, 
protected by the equal Laws of a common government, finds 
in the productions of the latter great additional resources of 
maritime and commercial enterprise — and precious materials 
of manufacturing industry. — The South in the same intercourse, 
benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow 
and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels 
the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation en- 
vigorated; — and while it contributes, in different ways, to nour- 
ish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, 
it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength to 
which itself is unequally adapted. — The East, in a like inter- 
course with the West, already finds, and in the progressive 
improvement of interior communications, by land and water, 
will more and more find, a valuable vent for the commodities 
which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. — The 

[ 304 ] 


West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and 
comfort, — and wliat is perliaps of still greater consequence, 
it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable 
outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and 
the future maritime streng-th of the Atlantic side of the Union, 
directed by an indissoluble community of interest, as one 
Nation. — Any other tenure by which the West can hold this 
essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate 
streng-th, or from an apostate and unnatural connexion with 
any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. 

While then every part of our Country thus feels an imme- 
diate and particular interest in Union, all the parts combined 
cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts, 
greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater 
security from eternal danger, a less frequent interruption of 
their Peace by foreign Nations; and, what is of inestimable 
value! they must derive from Union an exemption from those 
broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently af- 
flict neighbouring countries, not tied together by the same 
government; which their own rivalships alone would be suf- 
ficient to produce; but which opposite foreign alliances, attach- 
ments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. — Hence 
likewise they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown 
Military establishments, which under any form of government, 
are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as 
particularly hostile to Republican Liberty: In this sense it is, 
that your Union ought to be considered as a main prop of your 
liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you 
the preservation of the other. 

These considerations speak a persuasive language to every 
reflecting and virtuous mind, — and exhibit the continuance of 
the Union as a primary object of Patriotic desire. — Is there a 
doubt, whether a common government can embrace so large a 
sphere? — Let experience solve it. — To listen to mere specula- 
tion in such a case were criminal. — We are authorized to hope 
that a proper organization of the whole, with the auxiliary 
agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will 
afford a happy issue to the experiment. 'T is well worth a fair 
and full experinjent. With such powerful and obvious mo- 
tives to Union, affecting all parts of our country, while experi- 
ence shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there 
will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those, who 
in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. — 

In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, 
it occurs as matter of serious concern, that any ground should 
have been furnished for characterizing parties by Geographical 
discriminations — Northern and Southern — Atlantic and West- 
ern; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief, 
that there is a real difference of local interests and views. 
One of the expedients of Party to acquire influence, within 
particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims 
of other districts. — You cannot shield yourselves too much 
against the jealousies and heart-burnings which spring from 
these misrepresentations; — They tend to render alien to each 
other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal 
affection. — The inhabitants of our Western country have 
lately had a useful lesson on this head. — They have seen, 
in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous 
ratification by the Senate, of the Treaty with Spain, and 
in the universal satisfaction at that event, through- 
out the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were 
the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the K^en- 
eral Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their 
interests in regard to the Mississippi. — They have been wit- 

[ 305 ] 


nesses to the formation of two Treaties, that with G. Britain, 
and that with Spain, which secure to them every thing they 
could desire, in respect to our Foreign Relations, towards con- 
firming their prosperity. — Will it not be their wisdom to rely 
for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which 
they were procured? — Will they not henceforth be deaf to those 
advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their 
Brethren, and connect them with Aliens? — 

To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a Govern- 
ment for the whole is indispensable. — No alliances however 
strict between the parts can be an adequate substitute. — They 
must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions 
which all alliances in all times have experienced.— Sensible of 
this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, 
by the adoption of a Constitution of Government, better calcu- 
lated than your former for an intimate Union, and for the 
efficacious management of your common concerns. — This gov- 
ernment, the offspring of our own choice uninfluenced and 
unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature delibera- 
tion, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its 
powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within 
itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to 
your confidence and your support. — Respect for its authority, 
compliance with its Laws, acquiescence in its measures, are 
duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true Liberty. — 
The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to 
make and to alter their Constitutions of Government. — But the 
Constitution which at any time exists, 'till changed by an ex- 
plicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obliga- 
tory upon all. — The very idea of the power and the right of the 
people to establish Government, presupposes the duty of every 
Individual to obey the established Government. 

All obstructions to the execution of the Laws, all combina- 
tions and associations, under whatever plausible character, 
with the real design to direct, controul, counteract, or awe the 
regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, 
are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal 
tendency. — They serve to organize faction, to give it an arti- 
ficial and extraordinary force — to put, in the place of the dele- 
gated will of the Nation, the will of a party; — often a small 
but artful and enterprizing minority of the community; — and, 
according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make 
the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and 
incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of con- 
sistent and wholesome plans digested by common councils, 
and modified by mutual interests. — However combinations or 
associations of the above description may now and then answer 
popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, 
to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and 
unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the Power of the 
People and to usurp for themselves the reins of Government; 
destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them 
to unjust dominion. — 

Towards the preservation of your Government and the per- 
manency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only 
that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its 
acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care 
the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious 
the pretexts.- — One method of assault may be to effect, in the 
forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the 
energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be 
directly overthrown. — In all the changes to which you may be 
invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary 
to fix the true character of Governments, as of other human 

[ 306 ] 


institutions — that experience is the surest standard, by which 
to test the real tendency of the existing Constitution of a 
Country — that facility in changes upon the credit of mere 
hypothesis and opinion exposes to perpetual change, from the 
endless variety of hypothesis and opinion: — and remember, es- 
pecially, that for the efficient management of your common 
interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a Government of 
as much vigour as is consistent with the perfect security of 
Liberty is indispensable. — Liberty itself will find in such a 
Government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, 
its surest Guardian. — It is indeed little else than a name, where 
the Government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of 
faction, to confine each member of the Society within the limits 
prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and 
tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property. 

I have already intimated to you the danger of Parties in the 
State, with particular reference to the founding of them on 
Geographical discriminations. — Let me now take a more com- 
prehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner 
against the baneful effects of the Spirit of Party, generally. 

This Spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, 
having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. — 
It exists under different shapes in all Governments, more or 
less stifled, controuled, or repressed but, in those of the popu- 
lar form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their 
worst enemy. — 

The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharp- 
ened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension, which 
in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid 
enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. — But this leads at 
length to a more formal and permanent despotism. — The dis- 
orders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds 
of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of 
an Individual: and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing 
faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, 
turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on 
the ruins of Public Liberty. 

Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind, (which 
nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common 
and continual mischiefs of the spirit of Party are sufficient to 
make it the interest and duty of a wise People to discourage 
and restrain it. — 

It serves always to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble 
the Public administration. — It agitates the community with ill- 
founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of 
one part against another, foments occasionally riot and in- 
surrection. — It opens the doors to foreign influence and cor- 
ruption, which find a facilitated access to the Government it- 
self through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy 
and the will of one country, are subjected to the policy and 
will of another. 

There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful 
checks upon the Administration of the Government, and serve 
to keep alive the Spirit of Liberty. — This within certain limits 
is probably true — and in Governments of a Monarchical cast, 
Patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favour, upon 
the spirit of party. — But in those of the popular character, in 
Governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. 
— From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always 
be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose, — and there 
being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be, by force 
of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. — A flre not to 
be quenched; it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its 

[ 307 ] 


bursting- into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should con- 
sume. — 

It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a 
free country should inspire caution in those intrusted with 
its administration to confine themselves within their respective 
constitutional spheres, avoiding, in the exercise of the powers 
of one department, to encroach upon another. The spirit of 
encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the de- 
partments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of 
government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of 
power, and proneness to abuse it which predominates in the 
human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this 
position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise 
of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different 
depositories, and constituting each the guardian of the public 
weal, against invasions by the others, has been evinced by 
experiments, ancient and modern; some of thein in our country 
and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as neces- 
sary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the 
distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be, in 
any particular, wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in 
the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be 
no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, 
may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by 
which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must 
always greatly overbalance, in permanent evil, any partial or 
transient benefit which the use can, at any time, yield. 

Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political 
prosperity. Religion and morality are indispensable supports. — 
In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who 
should labour to subvert these g-reat Pillars of human happi- 
ness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens. — 
The mere Politician, equally with the pious man, ought to re- 
spect and to cherish them. — A volume could not trace all their 
connexions with private and public felicity. — Let it simply be 
asked where is the security for property, for reputation, for 
life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which 
are the instruments of investig-ation in Courts of Justice? And 
let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can 
be maintained without religion. — Whatever may be conceded 
to the infiuence of refined education on minds of peculiar struc- 
ture — reason and experience both forbid us to expect, that 
national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious prin- 

'T is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary 
spring of popular government. — The rule indeed extends with 
more or less force to every species of Free Government. — Who 
that is a sincere friend to it, can look with indifference upon 
attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? — 

Promote, then, as an object of priinary importance, institu- 
tions for the general diffusion of knowledge. — In proportion as 
the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it 
is essential that public opinion should be enlig-htened. 

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish 
public credit. — One method of preserving it is to use it as 
sparingly as possible: — avoiding occasions of expense by cul- 
tivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements 
to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater dis- 
bursements to repel it — avoiding likewise the accumulation of 
debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigor- 
ous exertions in time of I'eace to discharge the debts which 
unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throw- 
ing upon posterity the burthen which we ourselves ought to 
bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your Repre- 

[ 308 ] 


sentatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co- 
operate. — To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, 
it is essential that you should practically bear in mind, that 
towards the payment of debts there must be Revenue — that to 
have Revenue there must be taxes — that no taxes can be de- 
vised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant — 
that the intrinsic embarrassment inseparable from the selection 
of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties) 
ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the 
conduct of the Government in making it, and for a spirit of ac- 
quiescence in the measures for obtaining Revenue which the 
public exigencies may at any time dictate. 

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate 
peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this 
conduct; and can it be that good policy does not equally en- 
join it? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no 
distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the mag- 
nanimous and too novel example of a people always guided 
by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, 
in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan 
would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be 
lost by a steady adherence to it? Can it be that Providence 
has not connected the perinanent felicity of a nation with its 
virtue? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every 
sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered 
impossible by its vices? 

In the execution of such a plan nothing is inore essential 
than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular 
nations and passionate attachments for others should be ex- 
cluded; and that in place of them just and amicable feelings 
towards all should be cultivated. — The Nation, which indulges 
towards another an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness, 
is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to 
its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from 
its duty and its interest. — Antipathy in one nation against an- 
other disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to 
lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and 
intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute 
occur. — Hence frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed and 
bloody contests. — The Nation prompted by ill-will and resent- 
ment sometimes impels to War the Government, contrary to 
the best calculations of policy. — The Government sometimes 
participates in the national propensity, and adopts through 
passion what reason would reject; — at other tiines, it makes 
the animosity of the Nation subservient to projects of hostility 
instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious 
motives. — The peace often, sometimes perhaps the Liberty, of 
Nations has been the victim. — 

So likewise a passionate attachment of one Nation for an- 
other produces a variety of evils. — Sympathy for the favourite 
nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common inter- 
est in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing 
into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a 
participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, without 
adequate inducement or justification: It leads also to conces- 
sions to the favourite Nation of privileges denied to others, 
which is apt doubly to injure the Nation making the conces- 
sions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been 
retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to 
retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are with- 
held; and it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens, 
(who devote themselves to the favourite Nation) facility to 
betray, or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without 
odium, sometimes even with popularity: — gilding with the ap- 

[ 309 ] 


pearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable 
deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, 
the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption or in- 
fatuation. — 

As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such 
attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened 
and independent Patriot. — How many opportunities do they 
afford to tamper with doinestic factions, to practise the arts 
of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the 
public councils! Such an attachment of a small or ■weak, tow- 
ards a great and powerful nation, dooms the former to be the 
satellite of the latter. 

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence, I conjure 
you to believe me, fellow-citizens, the jealousy of a free people 
ought to constantly awake; since history and experience prove 
that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of re- 
publican government. But that jealousy to be useful, must be 
impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence 
to be avoided, instead of a defence against it. Excessive par- 
tiality for one foreign nation, and excessive dislike of another, 
cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, 
and serve to veil, and even second, the arts of influence on 
the other. Real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the 
favorite, are liable to become suspected and odious, while its 
tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the 
people, to surrender their interests. 

The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign na- 
tions, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with 
them as little political connection as possible. So far as we 
have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with 
perfect good faith. Here let us stop. 

Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have 
none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged 
in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially 
foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise 
in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary 
vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and 
collisions of her friendships or enmities. 

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to 
pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an 
efficient government, the period is not far off when we may 
defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may- 
take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at 
any time resolve upon, to be scrupulously respected; when 
belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisi- 
tions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; 
when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by 
justice, shall counsel. 

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why 
quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by inter- 
weaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle 
our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, 
rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice? 

'Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with 
any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are 
now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capabte 
of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the 
maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that 
honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let 
those engagements be observed in their genuine sense.' But, 
in my opinion, it is tin necessary and Vi^Ould be unwise to extend 
them. — 

[ 310 ] 


Taking- care always to keep ourselves, by suitable establish- 
ments, on a respectably defensive posture, we may safely trust 
to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. 

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recom- 
mended by policy, humanity, and interest. — But even our com- 
mercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand: — 
neither seeking nor granting exclusive favours or preferences; 
— consulting the natural course of things; — diffusing and diver- 
sifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing 
nothing; — establishing with Powers so disposed — in order to 
give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our Merchants, 
and to enable the Government to support them — conventional 
rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and 
mutual opinion will permit; but temporary, and liable to be 
from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and cir- 
cumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view, that 't is 
folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from an- 
other, — that it must pay with a portion of its independence for 
whatever it may accept under that character — that by such 
acceptance, it may place itself in the conditions of having given 
equivalents for nominal favours and yet of being reproached 
with ingratitude for not giving more. — There can be no greater 
error than to expect, or calculate upon real favours from Na- 
tion to Nation. — 'T is an illusion which experience must cure, 
which a just pride ought to discard. 

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old 
and affectionate friend, I dare not hope that they will make 
the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will 
control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation 
from running the course which hitherto has marked the destiny 
of nations; but if I may even flatter myself that they may be 
productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that 
they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party 
spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigues, to 
guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism, this 
hope will be full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare 
by which they have been dictated. 

How far in the discharge of my official duties, I have been 
guided by the principles which have been delineated, the pub- 
lic Records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to 
You, and to the World. — To myself, the assurance of my own 
conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided 
by them. 

In relation to the still subsisting War in Europe, my Procla- 
mation of the 22d of April 1793 is the index to my plan. — Sanc- 
tioned by your approving voice and by that of Your Repre- 
sentatives in both Houses of Congress, the spirit of that 
measure has continually governed me: — uninfluenced by any 
attempts to deter or divert me from it. 

After deliberate examination with the aid of the best lights 
I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all 
the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was 
bound in duty and interest, to take a Neutral position. — Having 
taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to 
maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. — 

The considerations which respect the right to hold this con- 
duct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only 
observe, that according to my understanding of the matter, 
that right, so far from being denied by any of the Belligerent 
Powers, has been virtually admitted by all. — 

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, with- 
out any thing more, from the obligation which justice and 
humanity impose on every Nation, in cases in which it is free 

[ 311 ] 


to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of Peace and Amity 
towards ottier Nations. — - 

The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will 
best be referred to your own reflections and experience. — With 
me, a predominant motive has been to endeavour to gain time 
to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, 
and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength 
and consistency, which is necessary to give it, humanly speak- 
ing, the command of its own fortunes. 

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my Administration, I 
am unconscious of intentional error — I am nevertheless too 
sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have 
committed many errors. — Whatever they may be I fervently 
beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which 
they may tend. — I shall also carry with me the hope that my 
country will never cease to view them with indulgence and 
that after forty-flve years of my life dedicated to its service, 
with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will 
be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the man- 
sions of rest. 

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and ac- 
tuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a 
man, who views in it the native soil of himself and his progeni- 
tors for several generations; — I anticipate with pleasing expec- 
tation that retreat, in which I promise inyself to realize, with- 
out allow, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of 
my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good Laws under 
a free Government, — the ever favourite object of my heart, 
and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labours, 
and dangers. 


United States, ? 1796 
19th September, ) 

[ 312 ] 

Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech 

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on 
this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated 
to the proposition that all men are created equal. 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing ■whether 
that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can 
long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. 
We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final 
resting-place of those who here gave their lives that that 
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we 
should do this. 

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate — we cannot con- 
secrate—we cannot halloAv — this ground. The brave men, living 
and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above 
our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, 
nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget 
what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be 
dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought 
here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to 
be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us- — that 
from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that 
cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — 
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have 
died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new 
birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the 
people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (An 
accurate version of the Gettysburg Address as revised by Mr. 
Lincoln and printed in "Autographs of Our Country's Authors," 
Balti., 1864.) 

Editor's Note — 

Abraham Lincoln and Edward Everett spoke at the dedica- 
tion of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, November 19, 
1863. The place, the occasion, the audience, the associations 
were in the highest degree inspiring. Everett was an orator 
of deserved renown, with copious and glittering vocabulary, 
graceful rhetoric, strong, cultivated mind, elegant scholarship, 
a rich flexible voice, and noble presence. His address occupied 
two hours in delivery, and was worthy of the speaker and his 
theme. At its close Lincoln rose slowly on the platform of 
the pavilion. Prom an ancient case he drew a pair of steel- 
framed spectacles, with bows clasping upon the temples in 
front of the ears, and adjusted them with deliberation. He 
took from his breast pocket a few sheets of foolscap, which he 
unfolded and held in both hands. From this manuscript, in 
low tones, without modulation or emphasis, he read 266 words 
and sat down before his surprised, perplexed and disappointed 
auditors were aware that he had really begun. It left no im- 
pression, so it was said, except mild consternation and a 
mortified sense of failure. 

None supposed that one of the great orations of the world 
had been pronounced in the five minutes ■which Mr. Lincoln 
occupied in reading his remarks. But the studied, elaborate, 
and formal speech of Everett has been forgotten, while the 
few sonorous and solemn sentences of Lincoln will remain so 
long as constitutional liberty abides among men. Henceforth, 
whoever recalls the Battle of Gettysburg . . . will hear 
above the thunder of the reverberating guns, above the exult- 
ing shouts of the victors and the despairing, 'that government 
of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish 
from the earth.' 

[ 313 1 

z < 

? a. 

U Q 
1 = 


Abbott, Rev. Dr. Lyman, 84. 

Abbott Collection, 112. 

Abingdon Road, 174 

Abrahams, J., 14. 

Adams, John, 302. 

Adams, John Quincy, 294. 

Adams, Samuel, 129-302. 

Aeolian Hall, 29. 

Agnew, Dr. Cornelius R., 2-17. 

Aigeltinger, Mr., 272. 

Aldrich, Thos. Bailey, 179. 

Alexander, Henry M., 88. 

Alexander, James, 273-276. 

Alexander, Maj. Gen., 273-276. 

Alexander, William, 202. 

Allen, 197. 

Allerton, 22. 

Alpine, 54. 

Alpine Grove, 49. 

America, 65 

American Magazine, 116 

American Telephone & Telegraph 

Co., 109 

Andre, Major, 58-69 
Anthony, 227. 

Appleton, Rev. Samuel G., 204 
Appleton, Wm. G., 204. 
Appleton, Wm. H., 81. 
Apthorpe, 273-276. 
Arnold, Benedict, 66-69. 
Arnold Benjamin G., 95. 
Arnold, C. H., 96. 
Aspinwall, Gilbert, 228. 
Aspinwall, 84-227. 
Astor, John Jacob, 85. 
Astor, Henry, 65. 
Astor, Mrs. Wm., 274. 
Astor, William, 85. 
Astor House, 88-105-231. 
Atlantic Cable, 249-257-260. 
Audubon, John J., 79. 
A'uduboni Victor, 77. 
Audubon Park, 281. 


Babcock, S. D., 81. 
Babcock, Samuel D., 95. 
Backus, 157. 
Badeau, Gen. Adam, 181. 

Bailey, Theodorus, 216. 

Baker, Mrs. Geo. F., Jr., 233. 

Baker's Museum, 220. 

Banker, James H., 84. 

Banks, Dr. James Lenox, 84. 

Barclay, 227. 

Barclay, Andrew, 273-276. 

Barclay, Rev. Henry, 273-276. 

Bard, 227. 

Barnaby Rudge, 198. 

Barnum's Museum, 136-138. 

Barnum, P. T., 133-139. 

Barrett, Lawrence, 178. 

Bartlett, Josiah, 302. 

Bateman Sisters, 161. 

Bates, Martin, 81. 

Battery, The, 294. 

Bayard, 228. 

Bayard, William, 273-276. 

Baylies, Edmund L., 99. 

Bear Mountain, 79. 

Beaver, 65. 

Beckett, Harry, 161. 

Bedloe's Island, 247. 

Beekman, 227. 

Beekman, James W., 5. 

The Bells, 210. 

Belmont Hotel, 23-33. 

Benedict, E. C, 175-182. 

Benedict, James A., 104. 

Benson, Edward, 131. 

Bergh Society, 269. 

Bernard, 157. 

Berryman, Capt. John, 273-276. 

Bethune, 228. 

Beveridge, 121. 

Bierstadt, Albert, 84. 

Bigelow, Asa, 45. 

Bigelow, Edward, 45. 

Bigelow, John, 45-84. 

Bigelow, Poultney, 45. 

Bill, Nathan D., 210. 

Biltmore Hotel, 21. 

Bingham, John, 211. 

Birch, Harvey, 58. 

Birch, 157. 

Birdsall, Charles, 84. 

Bisco, John, 193. 

Bishop, Nathan, 5. 

Bispham William, 178. 

Blackwells Island, 170-190. 

Blake, Mary, 149. 

Bleecker, 227. 

Bleeker, Anthony, 273-276. 

[ 315 

Bleeker, Anthony J., 273-276. 
Bleeker, Walter, 273-276. 
Bliss, Walter P., 2. 
Bloodgood, Abraham, 211. 
Bloomingdale, 79-174. 
Bolivar, Gen. Simon, 297. 
Bond Street, 166. 
Bonheur, Rosa, 92. 
Boniface, G. C, 162. 
Boniface, Mrs. G. C, 145. 
Bonner, Robt., 14. 
Booth, Edwin, 166-175-181. 
Booth, John Wilkes, 165. 
Booth, Wm. A., 5. 
Boston Post Road, 151. 
Boterberg, 41. 
Bouchard, Madame, 220. 
Boucicault, Dion, 161. 
Bourne, G. M., 221. 
Bowery, 163-294. 
Bowery Theatre, 137-145. 
Bowling Green, 216-294. 
Boyd, Wm., 272. 
Brady, Judge, 212. 
Bradford, Elizabeth, 273-276. 
Bradford, William, 273-276. 
Bradish, Governor, 293. 
Brandies, Frederick, 14. 
Branson, Capt. Ware, 273-277. 
Braxton, Carter, 302. 
Breese, G. Sidney, 272-276. 
Brevoort, 227. 
Brevoort Farm, 167. 
Brevoort, Henry, 69-233. 
Brewerton, Col. Geo., 273-276. 
Brick Presbyterian Church, 170. 
Briggs, Charles F., 193. 
Briggs, Harry Franco, 195. 
Bristol, 22. 
Broad Street, 93-185. 

Broadway Theatre, 149. 
Broadway Journal, The, 193. 
Bronck, Jonas, 229. 
Bronson, Miles, 37. 
Bronx Park, 219. 
Broome Street, 147. 
Brooklyn Bridge, 252. 
Brougham, John, 150. 
Brown Bros., 97. 
Brown, Charles S., 99. 
Brown, Faith, 125. 
Brown, Henry Collins, 125. 
Brown, James M., 88. 
Brown Stewart, S. 
Bryant's Minstrels, 149. 
Bryant, Dan, 149-161. 
Bruce, Dr., 219. 
Buck, Gurdon, 2. 
Bulls, Ferry, 72. 
Bull, William T., 2. 
Buntline, Ned, 166. 
"Burke, Billy," 83. 
Burr, 72. 

Burroughs, John, 85. 
Butler, Benjamin F., 88. 
Butler, William Allen, 88. 

Butter Hill, 41. 
Butterfield, Gen. D., 85. 

Cadger, John, 273-276. 

Callan, Dr. P., 17. 

Calloway, S. R., 27. 

Campbell, Miss Jane, 138. 

Campbell, Thos. J., 211. 

Cannon, Andrew, 273-276. 

Carberry, Capt. Thomas, 273-276. 

Carmensville, 79. 

Carnegie, Andrew, 84. 

Carnegie Hall, 121. 

Carnochan, Dr. John M., 2-5. 

Carroll, Charles, 302. 

Carrere & Hastings, 29. 

Carson, John, 27. 

Castle Garden, 76. 

Castle Point, 71. 

Castle, William, 247. 

Cedar Street, 217-266. 

Centennial Celebration, 252. 

Central Park, 143-297. 

Chancellor, 60. 

Chandler, Harry, 271. 

Chanfrau, H. S., 165. 

Charles Grocery Store, 18. 

Chase, Samuel, 302. 

Chatham Square, 137. 

Chatham Street, 151. 

Chatham Theatre, 140. 

Chew, Peggy, 66. 

Chinese Assembly Rooms, 153. 

Chivers, Dr., 197-198. 

Christ, Geo., 149. 

Christy's Minstrels, 150. 

Chrystenah, 42. 

Church of the Disciples, 29. 

Church of the Holy Oil Cloth, 29. 

Churcher, Ann, 273-276. 

Churcher, Richard, 273-276. 

Cincinnati Society, 215. 

City Hall, 235. 

City Hall Park, 112,122-291. 

City Hotel, 276. 

Clark, Abraham, 302. 

Clark, John, 273-276. 

Clark, Capt. Samuel, 273-276. 

Clark, Wm. H., 84. 

Clarke, Mrs. Geo., 273-277. 

Clarkson, 227. 

Clarkson, John, 273-276. 

Clarkson, L., 273-276. 

Clarkson, Maj. Gen. Matthew, 

Clemm, Mrs., 197. 
Clermont, 45. 
Cleveland, 243. 
Clews, Henry, 14. 
Clifton, Baroness, 273-276. 
Clinton, De Witt, 

Clymer, George, 302. 
Coffin, 62. 

[ 316 

Coggswell, Henry E., 84. 

Cogswell, W. L., 269. 

Colby, Miss, 113. 

Cold Spring, 191. 

Coleman House, 213. 

Coles, John B., 173-187-274-276. 

Coles, Alderman, 235. 

Colgate, James C, 113. 

Colgate, R. R., 2. 

Colgate, Robert, 81. 

College of the City of N. Y., 244. 

Collins, Joseph B., S. 

Columbia College, 27-76-129-219-244. 

Columbian Arch, 244. 

Columbus Celebration, 243. 

Comique Theatre, ISO. 

Commodore Hotel, 9-14. 

Conklin, Roscoe, 21. 

Connors, Chuck, 163. 

Constitution Island, 70. 

Cooper, Peter, 5. 

Corell, Philip, 190. 

Cornbury, Lady, 273-276. 

Cornbury, Lord, 273-276. 

Cornell University, 69. 

Coster, Mrs. Henry, 228. 

Coster, Henry A., 228. 

Cottinett, F., 84. 

Coutant, David, 274-276. 

Crabtree, Lotta, 162. 

Crane, Geo., 271. 

Creery, James W., 81. 

Cregier, 227. 

Cresap, Capt. Michael, 274-276. 

Cricket on the Hearth, 162. 

Crockett, Davy, 165. 

Crosby, Enoch, 58. 

Croton Aqueduct, 292-293. 

Croton Market, 14. 

Croton Point, 50. 

Croton Reservoir, 29. 

Crowden, Zenos, 10. 

Cruger, J. C, 85. 

Cruger, Major John, 274-277. 

Cruger, Stephn Van Rensellear, 

Cunningham Castle, 84. 
Curb Market, 93. 
Curtis, Charles G., 203. 
Cushman, Charlotte, 142-150. 
Cutting, 228. 
Cutting, Wm., 211. 


Daly, Judge Charles P., 212. 
Daley, Capt. John, 274-276. 
Daniels, Geo. H., 37. 
Dankers & Sluyter, 62. 
Davis, Gherardi, 100. 
Davis, M. L., 274, 276. 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 27. 
Dean, Capt. John, 274, 276. 
Declaration of Independence, 299. 
Degnan & McLean, 18. 
de Forest, 227. 

de Kay, 227. 

de Lancey, 227. 

deLancey, Lt.-Gov. James, 274-277. 

Delameter Iron Works, 76. 

De la Montaigne, Alderman, 235. 

Delmonicos, 95. 

Dempster, Monroe, 158. 

Denin Sisters, 145. 

Denny, Thomas, 5. 

Depew, Chauncey M., 37-259. 

de Peyster, 227. 

dePeyster, Ccl. J. L., 85. 

de Peyster, Col. J. W., 274-276. 

de Peyster, Gen. J. Watts, 

85, 274, 276. 
de Peyster, John Watts, 276. 
deRham, H. C, 84. 
Desbrosses, Elias, 274-276. 
Desbrosses, James, 274-276. 
Despatch, 255. 
Dewey, Dr. Orville, 201 
Dexerna, Bill, 145. 
Dillaway, Geo. W., 96. 
Dinsmore, Wm., 85. 
Dix, Mrs. John A., 274-276. 
Dix, Gen. John A., 274. 
Dix, Dr. Morgan, 272. 
Dix, Rev. Morgan, 274-277. 
Dixon, William P., 104. 
Dobbs Ferry, 42. 
Dodge, Cleveland H., 81. 
Dodge, Frances E., 104. 
Dodge, Wm. E., 84. 
Doremus, Suydam and Nixon, 89. 
Dougherty, Dan, 149. 
Downtown Association, 87. 
Dows, David, 83. 
Doyle, Wm. D., Jr., 81. 
Drake, James, 211. 
Draper, Dr. John W., 14. 
Drew, The, 63. 
Drummond, Geo. M., 274-276. 
Dudley's Grove, 49. 
Dula, Caleb C, 82. 
Dunderberg, 41. 
Dundreary, Lord, 162. 
Dunine, Alice, 153. 
Dunlap, 133. 
Dunlap, Wm., 216. 
Du Pont, Gen. Coleman, 84. 
Du Puy, John, Sr., 274. 
Du Puy, John, Jr., 274-276. 
Duryea, Samuel B., 84. 
Duyvil, Spuyten, 190. 
Dwight, Timothy, 228. 
Dyckman, 227. 


Eacker, Geo., 274. 
East River, 167-171-190. 
Edward, Martha, 65. 
Eighth Regiment, 248. 
Elgin Botanical Garden, 219. 
Ellery, Wm., 302. 
Elysian Fields, 71. 
Emanuel Church, 29. 

[ 317 ] 

Emmet, Dan, 149. 
Emmet, J. K., 149. 
Empire Fire Co., 274. 
Englewood Landing, 53. 
English, T. Dunn, 197. 
Equitable Building, 256. 
Ericsson, 71. 
Erie, The, 45. 
Erie Canal, 86. 
Evacuation Day, 245, 251. 
Everett, Edward, 313. 
Evarts, Allen W., 104. 

Fairfield, Francis oerry, 210. 

Fairlie, Major James, 212. 

Fairlie, Mrs. James, 228. 

Fairlie, Louisa, 212. 

Fancher, Enoch L., 5-201. 

Fanchon, 162. 

Faneuil, Benjamine, 274-276. 

Faneuil, Peter, 274. 

Farnham, Co., 274. 

Federal Hall, 129. 

Fenton, Governor, 264. 

Ferrios, Madame, 291. 

Ferry House, 217. 

Field, Cyrus W., 83-257. 

Fields, David Dudley, 83. 

Fields, Thos. W., 198. 

Fifth Avenue, 233-243-244. 

Fifth Avenue Hotel, 264. 

Fireman's Monument, 274-277. 

Fish, Hamilton, 84-212, 256. 

Fish, Nicholas, 211, 212. 

Fish, Stuyvesant, 41, 84, 212. 

Fisher, Kate, 137. 

Fisher, Sidney, 193. 

Fiske, Jim, 10. 

Fiske, Josiah M., 96. 

Flint, Austin, 2. 

Florence, W. J., 150. 

Floyd, William, 302. 

Folger, 62. 

Forbert, Samuel, 211. 

Forbes, John, 216. 

Ford, Capt. Henry, 274-276. 

Ford, Simeon, 1-29-54. 

Ford's Theatre, 165. 

Fordham College, 203. 

Fordham Manor Church, 209. 

Forrest, Ned, 139. 

Forrest, Edwin, 158. 

Fort Lee Ferry, 72. 

Fort Gansevoort, 59. 

Fort Washington, 79-173. 

Forty-second Street, 1-7-11-23-244. 

Forty-seventh Regiment, 248. 

Foster, Edward, 203. 

Foster, M., 272. 

Fourteenth Regiment, 248. 

Fox, C. K., 165. 

Fox, G. L., 165. 

Francis, Dr., 201. 

Franklin, Benj., 294-302. 

Franklin, R. L., 81. 

Fraser, 83. 

Fraunces Tavern, 129. 

Fredericks, 154. 

Frey, Albert R., 210. 

Front Street, 101. 

Fulton, Robert, 42, 274, 276. 

Fulton Market, 10. 

Fulton Street, 109. 


Gaine, Hugh, 274-276. 

Gallatin, Albert, 274-276. 

Gallatin, Mrs. Albert, 274-277. 

Galway, J. N., 18-37. 

Gansevoort Market, 67. 

Garland, John P., 84. 

Garrick Club, 180. 

Gebhard, Frederick, 228. 

Genin, 133. 

Gerard, J. W., 128. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 302. 

Gettysburg, 313. 

Gettysburg Speech, 313. 

Gibbs, A. H., 88. 

Gibney, Dr. Virgil P., 5-17. 

Gibson, Mrs., 18. 

Gilbert, John S., 84. 

Giles, Judge A. E., 209. 

Gill, Wm. Fearing, 209. 

Glenwood, 82. 

Godey's Ladys Book, 198. 

Goodrich, Wm. M., 85. 

Gordon, Robert, 88. 

Gove, Mrs., 208. 

Gouverneur, 227. 

Grace Church, 159. 

Gracie, Archibald, 173-227, 228. 

Gramercy Boat Club, 190. 

Grand Central Depot, 

9, 31, 34, 35, 39, 57. 
Grand Street, 294. 
Grand Union Hotel, 17, 29. 
Grand Union Market, 10. 
Grant, General, 29. 
Grant, Hugh, J., 244, 256. 
Greatorex, Miss, 217. 
Greeley, Horace, 194, 201. 
Green, Judge Ashbel, 18. 
Green, John C., 5. 
Greenwich Street, 217. 
Greenwich Village, 76. 
Greystone, 82. 
Grinnell, Irving, 84, 227. 
Griswold, Geo., 5. 
Gulick Club, 190. 
Gwinnett, Button, 302. 



Haight, C. C, 96. 
„ Hall, Lyman, 302. 
I'Jil Halleck, Fitz Greene, 196. 

[ 318 

Hallett's Cove, 170. 
Hamersley, Andrew, 274, 276. 
Hamersley, William, 274-276. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 

121, 219, 274, 276. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander, 

228, 274, 276, 277. 
Hamilton, Frank H., 2. 
Hamilton, Philip, 274, 277. 
Hamlet, 166, 176. 
Hammond, Dave, 37. 
Hammond, Fred., 37. 
Hancock, John, 302. 
Hanover Street, 97. 
Hare, J. Montgomery, 104. 
Harlem River, 190, 283. 
Harlem Lane, 143. 
Harrigan, Ned., 146, 153. 
Harrison, President, 243, 255. 
Harrison, Benjamin, 302. 
Harsenville, 79. 
Hart, John, 302. 
Hart, Josh, 150. 
Hart, Tony, 146, 153. 
Hartley, Robt. M., S. 
Hasbrouck, Frank, 61. 
Hastings, 42. 

Hastings, Dr. Thomas, 29. 
Haven, Geo. G., 107. 
Hawk, W. S., 14. 
Hays, Will H., 115. 
Heenan, John C, 137. 
Hellgate, 170, 190. 
Helmuth, Dr. Wm. T., 2-17. 
Henry, Patrick, 129. 
Hentz, Henry, 104. 
Herring, Fanny, 145. 
Hetherington's Drug Store, 37. 
Hetherington, James, 18. 
Hewes, Joseph, 302. 
Heyward, Thomas, Jr., 302. 
Highbridge, 191-283. 
Hill, Governor, 256-259. 
Hitchcock, Billy, 13. 
Hobart, Bishop H., 219-274, 277. 
Hoboken Point, 59. 
Hoffman, Josiah Ogden, 216-228. 
Holden, Rev. Robt., 204. 
Holland, Alexander, 85. 
Holman, 197. 
Hone, John, 188. 
Hone, Philip, 216. 
Hooper, William, 302. 
Hopkins, Gilbert, 295. 
Hopkins, Samuel M., 211, 212. 
Hopkins, Stephen, 302. 
Hopkinson, Francis, 302. 
Hopper Sugar Refinery, 82. 
Horn, Epp, 149. 
Horsemander, Daniel, 274-277. 
Hosack, Dr. David, 84-219. 
Hospital, Ruptured and Crippled, 1. 
Howland, 227. 
Howard, Mrs. G. C, 142. 
Howard, G. C, 166. 
Howard, Rollen, 149. 
Hoyt, Mrs., 85. 
Hoyt, Henry R., 107. 

Hudson River, 289. 
Hudson River Park, 191. 
Hudson Street, 239. 
Huested, D., 84. 
Hughes, Archbishop, 207. 
Hughes, Gov., 50. 
Huggins, John R. D., 220. 
Hume, John T., 85. 
Hunt, Carleton, 85. 
Hunt, Obidia, 274-277. 
Hunt, Dr. Wilson G., 5. 
Huntington, Collis P., 4. 
Huntington, Samuel, 302. 
Huron, 65. 

Hutton, Lawrence, 178. 
Hyde, E. Francis, 100. 
Hyde, Gov. Edward, 273. 
Hyde Park, 84. 
Hylan, Mayor, 123-130. 


Indian Head, 50. 

Inwood, 79. 

Ireland, Sergt.-Maj. Peter, 274-276. 

Ironclad, 76. 

Irvington, 42. 

Irving, Lewis Du Pont, 83. 

Irving National Bank, 23. 

Irving, Washington, 41, 83, 121. 

Iselin, Adrian, Jr., 2. 

Isham, Wm. B., 5. 

Jacobi, Dr. Abraham, 2-17. 

Jaffray, E. S., 84. 

James, D. Willis, 81-96. 

James, General Thos. L., 37. 

Jamison, David, 274-276. 

Janeway, Edward G., 2. 

Jarvie, James N., 104. 

Jay, John, 121, 227. 

Jefferson, Thos., 129, 183, 302. 

Jeffrey, Capt. Richard, 274-276. 

Jeffries Hook, 79. 

Jesup, Morris K., 95. 

Johnson, Mrs. Charity, 274, 276. 

Johnson, James Boorman, 88. 

Johnson, Joremus, 187. 

Johnson, Rev. Samuel, 274, 276. 

Johnson, Joseph E., 70. 

Jones, Edward Henshaw, 85. 

Jones' Wood, 190. 

Jones, Mrs. W. G., 137-145. 

Jumel Mansion, 283. 


Kahn, Otto, 210. 

Kane, Grenville, 69. 

Kearney, Mai. -Gen. Philip W., 

Kearney, Mrs., 274, 276. 

[319 ] 

Keene, Laura, 162. 

Kelby, Robert H., 121. 

Kelby, Wni., 85, 211. 

Kemble, Peter, 188. 

Kennedy, Robt. Lenox, 91. 

Kent's Hotel, 216. 

Kent, James, 60, 220, 227. 

Kernell, Harry, 30. 

Kinch, Joseph, 14. 

King, Abraham, 211. 

King, Charles, 292. 

King, Governor, 215. 

King, Rufus, 121. 

King, 227. 

Kingsbridge, 173. 

King's College, 129-274. 

Kingsland Point, 84. 

Kip, 227. 

Kip, Samuel, 211. 

Kips Bay, 170. 

Kirkham, 83. 

Kiraify Brothers, 162. 

Kirkpatrick, Mrs., 85. 

Knapp, Shepard, 14. 

Knight, Dr. James, 2-5. 

Knox, 133. 

Krebbs, William, 96. 

Lingard, Horace, 150. 
Lingard and Fox, 142. 
Lispenard, Leonard, 275-277. 
Livingston, 227. 
Livingston, Chancellor, 42. 
Livingston, Col. Chas., 85. 
Livingston, Edward, 235. 
Livingston, E. A., 84, 85. 
Livingston, John R., 275, 276. 
Livingston, Johnston, 85. 
Livingston, Mathew, 85. 
Livingston, Maturin, 211. 
Livingston, Philip, 275, 276, 302. 
Livingston, Robert C, 275, 276. 
Livingston, Robert, 45. 
Livingston, Judge Robert R., 

275, 276, 292, 294. 
Livingston, Wm., 85. 
Loew Bridge, 135. 
Long Island Historical Society, 62. 
Lord, James Couper, 88. 
Lorrilard, 227. 

Ludlow, Lt. August C, 275, 276. 
Ludlow, Gabriel Wm., 275, 276. 
Ludlow, Stephen, 211. 
Lydig, David, 212. 
Lydig, Philip, 212. 
Lynch, Thos., Jr., 302. 
Lyon, Capt. John, 47. 

Lafayette, 45. 

Lamb, Col. John, 275-276. 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J., 213. 

Langdon, Walter, 85. 

Larchmont Yacht Club, 253. 

Laurence, 227. 

Lawrence, Cornelius W., 77, 79. 

Lawrence, Capt. James, 274-276. 

Lawrence, James, 202. 

Lawrence, John L., 291, 292. 

Lawrence, Lydia S., 291. 

Layng, Jas. D., 'il . 

Leake, John, 275, 277. 

Leake, Robert, 275, 277. 

Lee, Annabel, 209. 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 302. 

Lee, Gideon, 45. 

Lee, J. Lawrence, 85. 

Lee, Richard Henry, 302. 

Lee, Robert E., 69. 

Leesen, James, 275, 276. 

Lenox, Alderman, 235. 

Lents, James W., 189. 

Lewis, 227. 

Lewis, Francis, 275, 277, 302. 

Lewis, Gen. Morgan, 211. 

Liberty Pole, 

108, 112, 116, 122, 123, 124, 130. 
Liberty Street, 89. 
Liggett Bldg., 15. 
Lights of London, 146. 
Lilienthal, 82. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 165, 179, 313. 
Lincoln, Robt. T., 181. 
Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech, 299. 
Lincoln National Bank, 37. 


Mackay, Donald, 99. 

Macy, V. Everitt, 62. 

Macy's Sons, Josiah, 65. 

Macy, Wm. H., Jr., 2. 

Macy, Wm. H., 5-65. 

Madison Avenue, 113, 269. 

Madison Square, 113. 

Magruder, Wm., 70. 

Maiden Lane, 101. 

Mail and Express, 109. 

Mair, J. D., 83. 

Maitland, Robert L., 88. 

Manhattan Athletic Club, 29. 

Manhattan Club, 7-11-14. 

Manhattanville, 77-79. 

Mangin, Joseph G., 236. 

Manning, Bishop W. T., 271. 

Mansfield, Alexander, 65. 

Markham, Pauline, 161. 

Marshall, Mrs. M. L., 85. 

Mason, John, 273, 275, 276. 

Masonic Hall, 170. 

Massacre, Boston, 123. 

Maud, S., 21. 

Mauritius, 41. 

Mayo, Frank, 165. 

Mazeppa, 137. 

McComb, Maj. Alexander, 275, 276. 

McComb, John, Jr., 236. 

McCreery, Dr. John A., 2-18. 

McCullough, John, 158. 

McGowan's Pass, 251. 

McKean, Thomas, 302. 

McKeever, J. Lawrence, 96. 

[ 320 

McKnight, Dr. Charles, 275, 276. 

McKnight, Rev. Charles, 275, 276. 

McKnight, Capt. Richard, 275, 276. 

McMahon, Gen. M. T., 247. 

McVickar, Mrs. John, 228. 

Mechanics and Apprentices Library, 

Mendell, Wm., 18-37. [149. 

Menken, Adah Isaac, 137. 

Merritt, Mrs. Gen., 84. 

Mesier, Peter, 211, 275, 276. 

Metamora, 146. 

Metcalf, John T., 2. 

Meteor, 65. 

Maurice, 22. 

Middleton, Arthur, 302. 

Middle Dutch Church, 89. 

Milbank, Dunlevy, 15. 

Milbert, 69. 

Miller, Dr., 219. 

Miller, E. P., 84. 

Miller, John D., 211. 

Miller, Miss Sarah E., 203. 

Mills, A., 275, 276. 

Minnetta Water, 79. 

Minturn, 83. 

Minturn, Robt. B., 5. 

Minuet, Peter, 190. 

Mirror, New York, 266. 

Mitchell, Dr. Samuel, 220. 

Mitchell, Maggie, 162. 

Monitor, 71. 

Monmouth, 255. 

Monroe James, 65. 

Montana Apartment, 225. 

Montgomery, Capt. W. S., 275, 276. 

Montgomery, Fort, 66, 70. 

Montgomery, Katharine B., 125. 

Montgomery, Maj.-Gen. Richard, 127. 

Moore, 83. 

Moore, Bishop Benj., 275, 276. 

Moore, Charity, 275, 276. 

Moore, Capt. Daniel, 275, 276. 

Morgan, Miss Anne, 22. 

Morgan, Dr. Appleton, 193, 210. 

Morgan, John J., 275, 276. 

Morgan J. Pierpont, Ti, 84. 

Morgan, Junius S., 104. 

Morris, Geo. P., 84, 295. 

Morris, Robert, 302. 

Morris Robert H., 295. 

Morse, S. F. Breese, 84-273. 

Mortimer, J. K., 165. 

Morton, John, 302. 

Morton, Levi P., 

14, 85, 211, 227, 244, 256. 
Mott, Jacob, 211. 
Mott, Dr. Valentine, 2-5. 
Mulligan, John W., 211-212. 
Murphy, Chas. F., 128. 
Murray Hill, 18. 


Nassau Street, 89. 
National City Co., 7. 
Nannestad, Lare, 275, 276. 

Nelson, Capt. John, 275, 276. 

Nelson, Thos. Jr., 302. 

Neu, Elias, 275, 276. 

Nevins, 84. 

Newbold, 227. 

Newburgh, 59. 

Newcomb, Bobby, 157. 

Newton, 170. 

New England, 65. 

New England Society, 215. 

New York Historical Society, 

108, 115, 120, 130, 205, 213, 269. 
New York Hospital, 174, 219. 
Newman, J. H., 37. 
Newman, Stephen, 275, 277. 
New York Theatre, 134. 
Niagara, The, 249. 
Niblo's Garden, 158. 
Nichols, Thos., 84. 

Nicholson, Co., James, 274, 275, 276. 
Nielsen, William, 227. 
Ninth Regiment, 248. 
North America, The, 294. 
North River, The, 41. 
Nuneen, John, 162. 
Nutt, Commodore, 138, 139. 
Nyack, 42, 47. 


Ogden, 227. 

Ogden, Samuel, 292. 

Ogilvier, Rev., 275, 276. 

Olympic Theatre, 162. 

Olyphant, Robert, 125, 130. 

Onderdonk, Bishop, Wm.T., 275,277. 

Oneida, 178. 

Opdyke, Dr. George, 5. 

Oram, James, 275, 277. 

Osborn, Wm. Church, 2-5. 

Osborn, Wm. H., 2-5. 

Otis, James, 129. 

Owens, John E., 150. 

Paca, William, 302. 

Paine, Robert Treat, 302. 

Paine, Thos., 216. 

Palmer, Albert, 84. 

Palmer, Francis H., 91. 

Palisades, 289. 

Palisades Interstate Park, 72. 

Palisades Mountain House, 53. 

Parish, James, 84. 

Park, Capt. Benj., 275, 276. 

Park Ave., 19, 23, 225. 

Parker, Dr. Willard, 2-5. 

Parkhurst, Dr. 113. 

Parsloe, Chas. T., 165. 

Pastor, Tony, 135, 139, 153, 157. 

Paulding, James K., 216. 

Peabody, George, 175. 

Pearl Street, 151, 187. 

Peck, Benj., 275, 276. 


Peddleton, 22^ 

Pell, Alfred, 84. 

Pell, Arthur, 84. 

Pell Street, 163. 

Pendleton, Nathaniel, 220. 

Penfold, Edmund, 104. 

Penn, John, 302. 

Peoples Evening Line, 55. 

Perkins, Mrs. Geo. W., 81. 

Perkins, Geo. W., 73. 

Perry, R. D., 95. 

Phoenix, The, 45. 

Phoenix, 227. 

Pica, Capt. R., 275, 276. 

Piermont, 54. 

Pinchot, Gifford, 17. 

Pinchot, James, 17. 

Pintard, John, 108, 111, 227. 

Place, Ira M., 37. 

Piatt, Edmund, 66. 

Players, 180. 

Poe, Rosalie, 209. 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 

121, 192, 193, 194, 210. 
Poe Park, 207. 210. 
Poe, Virginia, 197. 
Poelnitz, Baron, 227. 
Police Parade, 261, 264. 
Potter, Bishop, 259. 
Potter, Miss Blanche, 6. 
Potter, Frederick, 2. 
Potter, Howard, 88. 
Potter, Orlando B., 6. 
Porter, Admiral David B., 256. 
Post Office, 216. 
Powell, The Mary, 81. 
Prince of Wales, 264. 
Prospect Terrace, 10. 
Provost, 227. 
Provost, David, 171. 
Purcell, 29. 

Purdy, J. Harsen, 104. 
Putnam," Fort, 70. 


Quincy, John W., 5. 


Radcliff, Jacob, 293. 

Raleigh, 51. 

Ranachque, 229. 

Randall, Capt. R. R., 227. 

Randall, Capt. Thos., 275-276. 

Raven, The, 197-201. 

Rea, Capt. Richard, 275-276. 

Read, George, 302. 

Read, Geo. R., 99. 

Reade, Jos., 275-277. 

Reade, Capt. Wm., 275-276. 

Reade, R., 275-276. 

Red Fort, 59. 

Reed, Dan, 149. 

Reed, Dave, 149. 

Reid, John, 81. 

Richard, Capt. R., 275-276. 

Richmond, The Dean, 60. 

Richmond, 60. 

Richmond Hill, 174. 

Riggs, 22. 

Ringling, John, 54. 

Rionda, Manuel, 54. 

Rionda, Francisco, 54. 

River, F. R., 84. 

Riverdale, 42. 

Riverside Drive, 281. 

Rivette, Capt. Robt., 275-276. 

Robbins, Rev. Howard Chandler, 132. 

Roberts, Lon, 37. 

Robinson, Beverley, 66. 

Robinson, Dr., 29. 

Rockefeller, 73. 

Rockefeller, John D., 84. 

Rockefeller, P. W., 85. 

Rockland, 47. 

Rodney, Caesar, 302. 

Roe, E. P., 84. 

Rogers, A. P., 85. 

Romayne, Dr., 219. 

Roosevelt, Mr., 17. 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 65-84. 

Rose, Capt. Jos., 275-276. 

Rosedale, 10. 

Rosehill, 174. 

Ross, George, 302. 

Rush, Benjamin, 302. 

Rutgers, 227. 

Rutledge, Edward, 302. 

Ryman, Ad., 158. 

Sailors Snug Harbor, 227. 

Salmagundi, 215. 

Sanford, Harry, 18. 

Sands, 227. 

Sands, George, 18. 

Sands, Prof., 17. 

Sartain, John, 192. 

Schaefer, F. & M., 29. 

Schieffelin, S. B., 84. 

Schoolcraft Luke, 149. 

Schoonmaker, F. W., 1-3. 

Scotch Church, 29. 

Scott, John Sharp, 275-276. 

Scott, Brig. Gen. John M., 275-276. 

Scott, Lewis Allain, 275-276. 

Schuyler, 227. 

Schuyler, Gen., 131. 

Seabury & Johnson, 17. 

Seguin, Dr., 2-17. 

Seventh Regiment, 244-248. 

Seventy-First Regiment, 248. 

Seward, F. W., 84. 

Seward, Gov. Wm. H., 293-296. 

Seymour, Nelse, 149. 

Seymour, Origen S., 107. 

Shakespeare, Society, 193. 

Shaler, General, 18. 

Sharp, Jake, 159. 


Sheafe, J. F., S. 

Sherman, Mrs. Chas. E., 77-79-291 

Sherman, General, 260. 

Sherman, Senator John, 260. 

Sherman, Roger, 302. 

Shew, Mrs., 209. 

Siamese Twins, 154. 

Sims, Dr. H. Marion, 2-17. 

Sixty-Ninth Regiment, 248. 

Sleepy Hollow. 42. 

Slidell, John, 211-212-275-276. 

Sloan, Saml., 84. 

Smillie, W. C, 84. 

Smith, "Al", 128. 

Smith, Dr. Andrew H., 17. 

Smith, Mrs. E. Oakes, 201. 

Smith, James, 302. 

Smith's Tavern, 170. 

Smith, Thompson, 220. 

Snow, Capt. Ambrose, 256. 

Society Library, 202-216. 

Society of the Cincinnati, 128. 

Sons of the Revolution, 108-115-120. 

Sothern, Ned, 162. 

South America, 297. 

Soldiers Monument, 275-277. 

Sparks, Jared, 69. 

Spaulding, J. P., 81. 

Speedway, The, 143-283. 

Spencer, Ambrose, 220. 

Spencer, Sandy, 133. 

Spingler Farm, 227. 

St. Andrew Society, 215. 

St. Bartholomews, 29. 

St. George Society, 215. 

St. John, The, 59-63. 

St. Johns Church, 174. 

St. Johns College, 207. 

St. Nicholas Avenue, 143. 

St. Nicholas Hotel, 147. 

St. Patricks Cathedral, 6. 

St. Patrick Society, 215. 

St. Paul's Chapel, 256. 

St. Paul's Church, 170-245. 

Standard Oil Co., 65. 

Starbuck, 62. 

State Street, 294. 

Stearns, John N., Jr., 2 

Steinway, 225. 

Sterling, Earl of, 273. 

Stirling, Lord, 202-273. 

Steuben, Baron, 215. 

Stevens, Col., 71. 

Stevens, Samuel, 295. 

Stevins, John S., 85. 

Stewarts, 232. 

Stewart, A. T., 14. 

Stewart, Dr. Robt. L., 5. 

Stewart, Wm. Rhinelander, 87. 

Stillman, Benjamin D., 88. 

Stillman, T. B., 5. 

Stock Exchange, 185. 

Stockton, The Richard, 74-302. 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 196. 

Stokes, I. N. Phelps, 271. 

Stckes, W. E. D., 104. 

Stone, Thomas, 302. 

Storm King, 41. 

Storrs, Rev. Dr., 259. 

Story, W. W., 196. 

Stoutenburgh, J. A., 85. 

Streets of New York, The, 146-165. 

Striker's Bay, 79. 

Stryker. 227. 

Studley, J. B., 162-166. 

Sturges, Arthur, 2. 

Sturges, Frederick, 2-5. 

Sturges, Jonathan, 2-5. 

Stuyvesant, Gov., 190. 

Stuyvesant, 86-227. 

Sullivan, John L., 22. 

Sunnyside, 42-84. 

Sutton Manor, 171. 

Suydam, John, 212. 

Swan, Miss Anna, 139. 

Swords, Henry, 275. 

Sykes, Nancy, 142. 

Sylvan Dell, The, 82. 

Sylvan Glen, The, 10-42. 

Sylvan Grove, The, 10. 

Sylvan Stream, The, 10. 

Taft, Daniel, 84. 
Talbot, Chas. N., 5. 
Tarrytown, 42-47. 
Taylor, George, 302. 
Temple, Charlotte, 275-277. 
Terbell, Henry S., 5. 
Terry, Capt. Job, 65. 
Terry, John T., 84. 
Thalia Theatre, 146. 
Thirteenth Regiment, 248. 
Thompson, Denman, 150. 
Thompson, Lydia, 161. 
Thompson, Wm. B., 82. 
Thornton, Matthew, 302. 
Thumb, Tom, 139. 
Thunder Mountain, 41. 
Thurber, F. B., 239. 
Thurber, H. K., 239. 
Tiffany Studios, 29. 
Tilden, Gov. Saml. J., 83. 
Tillinghast, William N., 88. 
Tollemache, Capt., 276-277. 
Tomlinson, M., 291. 
Toole, Mrs., 220. 
Toucey, J. M., il . 
Tracy, Charles, 84. 
Trinity Cemetery, 287. 
Trinity Church, 129-271. 
Trinity Corporation, 273. 
Trinity School, 272. 
Tryon, Fort, 79. 
Tubby Hook, 79. 
Tudor, Capt. Thomas, 276-277. 
Turtle Bay, 203. 
Twelfth Regiment, 248. 
Twenty-Second Regiment, 248. 
Twenty-Third Regiment, 248. 
Twist, Oliver, 142. 
Tyler, John, 293. 
Tyng, Dr. Stephen, 14-18-.33, 
Tyson, Henry, 14, 

[ Zli ] 


Ulich, H. P., 279. 

Uncle Tom's Cabin, 166. 

Underbill, Mrs. C. B., 84. 

Union Club, 221. 

Union Square, 271. 

United Spanish War Veterans, 116. 

Untermeyer, Samuel, 82. 

Vail, H. F., 95. 

Valentine, D. T., 101-272. 

Valentine, W. H., 207. 

Vallirine, Capt. Mark, 276-277. 

Van Antwerp, Simon, 211. 

Van Arsdale, Mr., 18. 

Van Buren, M., 294. 

Van Buren, Wm. H., 2. 

Van Cortlandt, 86-227. 

Vanderbilt, Commodore, 35-42-57. 

Vanderbilt, Wm. H., 21. 

Van Home, 227. 

Van Home, Augustus, 276. 

Van Ness, William, 220. 

Van Rensselaer, 86-227. 

Van Santvoord, Col., 37. 

Van Twiller, Governor, 205. 

Van Wyck, 227. 

Van Zandt, Peter Pra., 276. 

Van Zandt, Wyant, 276. 

Vauxhall, Garden, 170. 

Venezuela, 297. 

Verplanck, 86-227. 

Verplank, Peter B., 84. 

Vesey Street, 105. 

Vibbard, The C, 73. 

Villard, 83. 

Voorhees, John A., 125. 


Waddington, 227. 
Wall, Alexander J., 121. 
Wall Street, 97-129-185. 
Wallack, Lester, 166. 
Wallack's Theatre, 142. 
Walton, 227. 
Walton, George, 302. 
Walton, William, 276. 
Wambold, 157. 
Ward, 227. 
Ward, Jasper, 211. 
Ward, Col. John H.. 276. 
Warren, Chas. Elliott, 1. 
Warren Sisters, 139. 
Warren & Wetmore, 99. 
Warren, Fuller & Lang, 17. 
Waring, 82. 
Washington, Geo., 

Washington, Bridge, 283. 
Washington, Farewell Address, 


Washington, Fort, 287. 

Washington Heights, 279. 

Washington Inaugural, 252. 

Watson, Henry S., 195. 

Watts, Judge John, 276. 

Wayne, Gen., 72. 

Weatherbee, Geo., 14. 

Webb, Dr. Seward, 37. 

Weber & Fields, 184. 

Webster, Daniel, 42. 

Weekes, Frederic D., 125. 

Weekes, John A., 125-130. 

Welfare Island, 120. 

Wellington, Hotel, 7-11. 

Wellington, 22. 

Wentworth, Miss Bessie, 137. 

Werner, George G., 203. 

Wesner, Ella, 157. 

West Broadway, 239. 

Westchester, 25. 

West Point, 69-70. 

West Shore, R. R., 37. 

Westray, Fletcher, 88. 

Wetherbee, Eliza, 149. 

Wetmore, 227. 

Wetmore, A. R., 5. 

Wetmore, George Peabody, 104. 

Wharton, Mrs., 17. 

Wheatleigh, Charles, 162, 

Wheeler, Miss Emily O., 6. 

White, Charley, 146. 

White, Dr., 6. 

White, Stanford, 244. 

Whitehead, A. P., 96. 

Whitney, W. C, 37. 

Whipple, Wm., 302. 

Wild, Johnny, 146-153. 

Wilde, Jas., Tr., 84. 

Wilder, Marshall P., 25. 

Wilkes Building, 185. 

Willett, Col. Marinus, 205-211. 

Willett, Brig. Gen. Marinus, 276. 

Willet, Thomas, 211. 

Willets, John T., 5. 

Willets, Samuel, 5. 

Williams, David, 58. 

Williams, William, 302. 

Williamson, Dr. Hugh, 219-220. 

Willis, Billy, 14. 

Willis, Senator Frank B., 121-123-125. 

Willis, George T., 146. 

Willis, N. P., 84. 

Wilson, James, 302. 

Wilson, Mrs. Orme, 274. 

Wiman, 255. 

Windsor Hotel, 14. 

Windsor Theatre, 146. 

Wing, John Morgan, 2. 

Winslow, John F., 85. 

Winter, Henry P., 104. 

Winter Garden, 166. 

Winthrop, Francis Bayard, 228. 

Wister, Owen, 116. 

Witherspoon, John, 302. 

Wittans, Dr. R. A., 5. 

Wolcott, Oliver, 302. 

Wolfe, Tohn David, 5. 

Wood, Dr. Tames R., 2-5. 

Wood, Thurston, 211. 

[ 324 

Woodberry, Mr., 197. V 

Woods, Mrs. John, 165. ■'■ 

Woods Minstrels, ISO. ,^ , „ ,, ^^„ 

WnoI<;ev 227 Yale College, 228. 

Woosey ZZ7. Yeamans, Mrs. Annie, 166. 

Work, Frank, 14. Yeamans, Miss Jenny, 166. 

World, New York, 124. Yellow Jacket, 33. 

Worth Street, 141. Yonkers, 42. 

Wortley, Lady Emmeline Stuart, 230. 

Wossell, Jennie, 165. ^ 

Wossell, Irene, 165. 

Wossell, Sophie, 165. Zabriskie, Geo. A., 54-125. 

Wythe, George, 302, Zee Tappan, 46. 

[ 325 ]